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Discuss one ethical dilemma as it relates to family caregiving and aging.

When working in a field, especially, as social worker, from time to time, individuals face different challenges. These challenges are part of work, and most of the times, agencies’ code, which is usually very comprehensive, guides the individuals, when they have to take such difficult decisions. The code is devised, after studying numerous such cases, where individuals had to take hard decisions. Therefore, in case of difficulty, it is indispensible to visit code. However, there are certain occasions, when code conflicts with the possible remedy and it becomes enormously difficult for individual to take decision.

The competing duties could baffle an individual and in this confusion, that individual may take a decision, which may reduce the ability, of individual, of taking a better decision.

In such situation, an individual has many options, and one the most valid option, is to consult with colleague and superiors. This helps a person to understand situation easily and provide various options to him.

Ethical dilemmas force the individual to take decisions. It is a situation, where decision is enforced upon individual and of the party, either agency or patient, would face the consequence of decision. Therefore, it is an established perceptive, in social-work realm, that never go alone, in such situations; consult peers and trusted colleagues. The primary responsibility, of an individual is to protect the interests, of client, agency and his own.

The number of perceptions increase options and refine the thinking process, by making it more systematic. However, it is the responsibility, of an individual to take a decision, which could reduce or mitigate the consequences, of particular decision.

  1. Describe how cultural differences can play a role in family caregiving (beliefs, levels of support, and physical and emotional outcomes among caregivers of different ethnic backgrounds). 

It is apparent from studies that culture strongly affect and shape behavior and attitude, of individuals. A person takes his values and morals from society, and his notions and percepts are shaped by culture. Therefore, we see that people from different parts of the world, belonging to different cultures, depict different behavior and attitude, in different situations.

It is not just culture, but also various factors, which contribute to build a certain character and this character distinguishes from other characters, based on its response, preferences and choices.

Caregivers, which profess different religion and belong to different cultures, would react to a situation, in a very different way. Their attitude, towards a person, who needs care, would vary, as their personal belief and cultural reality varies.

People, who are more devoted to religion and have spiritual outlook on life would be more responsive to a situation, where a family member needs medical or other such attention.

This is because individuals consider such opportunity a salvation and a mean to come close to God. Therefore, they are not merely moved by emotions, but it is also religious obligation for them to help these individuals. Therefore, when we study such cases, it becomes apparent to us that most of family-caregivers are also religiously motivated.

In some cultures, there exists a strong family structure, which makes an individual obligatory to family responsibilities. These individuals are bound by family tradition and values, which make subtly compel them to provide care to individuals, who need such care.  Therefore, it can be concluded that different ethnic backgrounds, cultures and religious beliefs do affect the attitude and behavior, of individual, towards a particular person.

  • What is the role of spirituality and/or religion in the lives of many family caregivers?

The studies reveal the religious people are more devoted such obligations than other individuals. This is because religious people consider helping others their religious and moral obligation. Actually, their moral obligations are defined by their moral obligations are intertwined with their religious obligations and they act for the blessing, of Almighty. This is also to be understood that religious people consider such challenges a mean to acquire salvation.  For instance, an individual, who is spiritual or religious, will be more dedicated or devoted to an individual, who require, care, as that person is being consider a mean to fulfill religious and spiritual obligations.

From the study it not hard to deduce that religious people, who are guided and driven by their religious theology, act more devotedly and care about an individual, who needs help, more than those, who are not much religious and not bounded by such spiritual and moral code. 

4) Briefly discuss the challenges of care transitions for both family caregivers and care recipients.

It is difficult for family member, to devout completely to a cause, which is difficult as such. This is because, neither a family caregiver has expertise, not apposite knowledge to apply in difficult situations. Therefore, because of such poor knowledge, and because of such lack of understanding the challenges compound and the transaction cost increases, for both caregiver and care recipient.

Because of the emotional and biological connection, with care recipient, the caregiver, if a family caregiver, is not in position to take critical decisions. Therefore, the ability, to take more precise and better decisions, reduces significantly and it negatively effects both the caregiver and care recipient.

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CAFÉ D. POWND

Restatement of the case

In this case, the assessment manager of the CAFÉ D POWND observed and analyzed the problems facing the management of the Cambridge student hall cafeteria. He noted that CAFÉ management and staff was taking exceedingly long to serve the students, which resulted in students having to wait for too long to their liking. While waiting for his friend, Jason Mah, resident manager and a student at the University noticed this growing problem, concluded that  that it has become chaotic for students especially duringpeak hours between 5 to 6:30 pm to get served on time.  Having witnessed such acrimonious situation and he decided to make the management aware of this problem and planned to present a report to the senior management explaining the problems facing the CAFE. In addition, to overcome this inefficiency, and to solve this problem, Jason decided to present some recommendation to the management.

In addition, he observed the 35 students at the CAFÉ and collected their entrance arrival times, service times and categorized them in to three categories: Cashier, Precooked and Interactive, and then analyzed the data. He concluded from observing the behavior of the students that , if CAFÉ management did not take early initiative to solve this issue and odes not tackle the problem on urgent basis, there is a probability and risk that in the near future, students might order deliveries from nearby local restaurants or start using other cafeterias.In addition, the only Cashier working of the two is too slow and there are untrained people working as a cashier who take 30 seconds to read the price on the bill. Besides, most of the people visit line and it has one serving point not working, which makes it worse.

Besides, he also noted that there was only one managing supervisor for both Nottingham and Cambridge student halls. Though, both RA and ARM meet twice a week to discuss issues facing the students but so far have yet to deal with this problem. However, crucially, he concluded that, 25% of the students coming to cafeteria who only eat non-conventional food had made the problem as they only entered the CAFÉ to eat non-conventional food. Also, overall, CAFÉ had become overloaded with students and there was an apparent confusion which was evident between lines and students. Very often, students had to switch the line realizing after spending considerable time that they were in the long queue.

Problem Statement

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Syria and Effects of Terrorism in Middle East

Syria and Effects of Terrorism in Middle East

BRUNNERMEIER, M., MALMBERG, H., & JAMES, H. (2015). Development zones for Syrian refugees. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://www.todayszaman.com/op-ed_development-zones-for-syrian-refugees_406400.html?

The article is about the conditions of refuges in Syria in the result of civil war as Europe has a noteworthy obligation to help casualties of war and brutality, and mindful lawmakers perceive that it is uncaring to bar access to individuals escaping for their lives. For good and functional reasons, the EU can’t assemble a present day form of the Iron Curtain around its border. But then it is additionally clear that both regulatory and political issues – not slightest a populist reaction against the fresh introductions – limit the EU’s ability to assimilate extensive quantities of transients in a brief timeframe. Managing the inundation will require tending to the reasons that affect a large number of individuals to escape their nations. Keeping in mind those reasons incorporate political weights – especially the overwhelming common wars in Syria and Iraq – the outcast streams likewise mirror the failure of the Middle East to deliver the pay development that is lifting Asia, Latin America and vast parts of Sub-Saharan Africa out of neediness (BRUNNERMEIER, MALMBERG, & JAMES, 2015).

CİVAN, A. (2015). Syrian refugees and the economy. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://www.todayszaman.com/columnist/abdulkadi-r-ci-van/syrian-refugees-and-the-economy_406419.html?

The article is about the relationship between Syrian refugees and the economy and the author states that I trust that grasping Syrians vagrants is a moral prerequisite as well as useful for the economies of Turkey and in addition Europe. Then again, letting Syrians work in Turkey and opening an uncommon safe zone in Gaziantep is insufficient. We ought to likewise permit them to work in European urban areas and open comparable safe zones like the European cities(CİVAN, 2015).

ekurd. (2015). Iraqi PM Abadi says Islamic State smuggles oil through Turkey. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://ekurd.net/iraq-islamic-state-oil-via-turkey-2015-12-08?

The article raises an important point related with the ISIS’ activities in Iraq and Syria and its reliance on oil trade in the result. Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi said on Monday that the vast majority of the oil created in Islamic State-held domain in Iraq and Syria was being snuck through Turkey. Turkey has over and again firmly denied any state inclusion in sneaking oil from Islamic State-controlled parts of Syria or Iraq and says it has gained ground in fighting fuel carrying systems that have worked on its outskirts for quite a long time (ekurd, 2015).

Faulconbridge, G. (2015). Militants in Syria attract 31,000 foreign fighters – ex-UK spy chief. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://www.trust.org/item/20151208132510-uev4i/?

The article is about the foreign fighters’ arrival on the soils of Syria. Syria has turned into the pre-prominent worldwide hatchery for another era of activists after Islamist assembles dramatically increased the enlistment of remote warriors to as much as 31,000 in the course of recent months, as indicated by a previous British spy boss. In the disarray of Syria’s affable war, the larger part of outside contenders wind up in activist gatherings like Islamic State, which utilizes an amazing translation of Islam to legitimize assaults on its adversaries and force profoundly severe principle in substantial swathes of Syria and neighboring Iraq that it has caught (Faulconbridge, 2015).

rawstory. (2015). US-led coalition ‘assessing’ reports that air strikes killed 26 civilians in Syria. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://www.rawstory.com/2015/12/us-led-coalition-assessing-reports-that-air-strikes-killed-26-civilians-in-syria/?

The article highlights the casualties of civilians in Syria as the US-drove coalition battling the Islamic State gathering said Tuesday it was “evaluating the validity” of reports its strikes killed no less than 26 regular citizens in a Syrian town on Monday. Each time we get data about the likelihood of a regular citizen loss episode, we generally do a believability appraisal on that data. On the off chance that the data is observed to be believable, we’ll direct an examination, and we’ll discharge the consequences of that examination. So we’re in that stage now, we’re surveying the validity of the charge, and if there is motivation to trust that the assertion is solid, then we’ll direct an examination (rawstory, 2015).

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Current predictors used in the selection system for Casting Operators:

Casting Operators are currently selected using an application review and an unstructured interview.  (Please refer to Part 1 for detailed descriptions of each of these predictors).

Suppose that you are asked to conduct a criterion-related validity study to see how valid the unstructured interview is in predicting Job Performance/Work Quality, as well as the other criteria of Safety, Absenteeism and Turnover.  Note:  IDI will need to continue the application review to make sure that applicants meet minimum qualifications for the job.

As we discussed in class, you first need to establish reliability of a predictor before examining validity.  Assume that you calculate the reliability of the unstructured interview. Your results are below:

  Test-Retest Internal Consistency Inter-rater
Unstructured Interview n/a n/a 55%

Next, you conduct a criterion-related validity study to see the extent to which the unstructured interview predicts the outcomes important to the organization.  The organization, as mentioned previously, has limited criterion data. But you are able to use data on quality and performance from archival records, as well as the number of recordable cases (OSHA logs), absenteeism, and turnover data.  Using these criteria, you find the following validity coefficients:

  Job Performance/Work Quality Safety (Number of Recordable Cases) Absenteeism Turnover
Unstructured Interview rxy=.07, p=.45 rxy=-.15, p=<.05 rxy=-.11, p=.37 rxy=-.20, p<.05

New predictors to be considered for Casting Operator selection: 

IDI Mobile is interested in improving employee selection and is considering the use of new predictors.  Some of these predictors (general personality test, numerical ability test, verbal ability test, physical ability test) are available through third parties (consultants).  The consultants are able to generalize the validity of these predictors to the IDI Casting Operator job.  Other predictors (conscientiousness personality test, job knowledge test) have already been tested in the IDI company. IDI also created a work sample test for Casting Operator and needs to determine the validity of the work sample in predicting criteria. 

The table below shows the validity evidence for the general personality test, numerical ability test, verbal ability test, and physical ability test from XYZ Consulting firm.  These validity coefficients can be generalized to the IDI job; the manufacturing jobs on which these estimates are based are substantially similar to the Casting Operator job at IDI.  Please assume that reliability for these predictors meets or exceeds suggested levels. 

  Job Performance/Work Quality Safety (Number of Recordable Cases) Absenteeism Turnover
General Personality Test rxy=25, p<.05 rxy=-.38, p<.01 rxy=-.22, p<.05 rxy=-.18, p<.05
Numerical Ability Test rxy=.41, p<.01 rxy=-.11, p=.21 rxy=-.11, p=.37 rxy=-.13, p=.20
Verbal Ability Test rxy=.32, p<.05 rxy=-.19, p<.05 rxy=-.01, p=.37 rxy=-.06, p<.07
Physical Ability Test rxy=.29, p<.01 rxy=-.08, p<.10 rxy=-.19, p<.05 rxy=-.21, p<.01

The next table demonstrates the validity evidence for the conscientiousness personality test and the job knowledge test.  These tests were developed by the corporate IDI Human Resources department with the assistance of external consultants.  Their validity coefficients were obtained through the use of a concurrent criterion-related validation study conducted over time with operators within IDI (multiple facilities).  Please assume that reliability for these predictors meets or exceeds suggested levels. 

  Job Performance/Work Quality Safety (Number of Recordable Cases) Absenteeism Turnover
Conscientiousness Personality Test rxy=.34, p<.01 rxy=-.33, p<.01 rxy=-.30, p<.05 rxy=-.31, p<.05
Job Knowledge Test rxy=.40, p<.01 rxy=-.15, p<.05 rxy=-.18, p<.05 rxy=-.17, p<.10

As previously mentioned, IDI created a work sample. Data have been collected over time from current operators across IDI facilities.  Please see the Excel spreadsheet “Casting Work Sample Validation Study Data” to see the data collected during this concurrent criterion-related validation study.  We need to examine if the work sample has adequate reliability and validity to be used as a selection tool for selecting future Casting Operators.   

Part 2 Project Questions (25 points)

Please answer each question by number.  Use complete sentences and show all work.  Be sure to fully support/justify your responses.  I encourage you to use outside sources for this project; however, you must cite these outside sources using MLA, APA, or other accepted style. Please note that all work must be completed independently; do not work on this case together.

  1. Discuss whether the reliability estimate for the current predictor  – the unstructured interview – meets minimum acceptable requirements (see page 1) and describe in layperson’s terms what the reliability estimate is suggesting. 
  • Discuss which outcomes the unstructured interview predicts based on statistical significance.  For the statistically significant outcomes, discuss whether the results are practically significant (how strong are the relationships).
  • Calculate the test-retest reliability of the work sample (using data from “Casting Work Sample Validation Study Data”) and indicate whether or not it meets the appropriate level of reliability for use as a selection tool. 
  • Calculate the validity coefficients for the work sample (at time 1) and each of the criteria and note your results in the table below.  I have indicated whether or not the validity coefficient is statistically significant; for those that are statistically significant, discuss which are practically significant. Note:  No employees left the organization during the validation period; therefore, turnover statistics cannot be determined.
  Job Performance/ Work Quality Safety (Number of Recordable Cases) Absenteeism Turnover
Revised Work Sample rxy= _____, p<.01 rxy= _____, p=.31 rxy= _____, p=.06 N/A
  • Review the job description and the reliability and validity information above.  Assume, due to budget constraints, that you can choose only 3 predictors for selecting Casting Operators.  Which 3 will you choose and why?  Note:  You may consider the original predictor (unstructured interview) as well as the proposed predictors (general personality test, numerical ability test, verbal ability test, physical ability test, conscientiousness personality test, job knowledge test, work sample), but please assume that the application review will be continued; do not consider the application review as one of the 3 predictors you choose. Also, you may assume that the predictors are not substantially correlated with each other. 
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Assignment On Sustainable Business: CSR is moving from Optional to Mandatory

Sustainable Future Business: CSR is moving from Optional to Mandatory

Introduction

In the modern scenario of Business we can see that the advance technology has completely transformed the business practices. In this regards the consumer buying behavior has also changed at great extent. There are more options available for the consumers as compare to the past, therefore the factors involved in the decision making process has also been changed.

In the past, usually the buying decisions were made on the base of the quality and price of the product, however, with the advent of globalization and other technologies, the process of manufacturing become fast, to manage a business has become comparatively easy and companies could make better analysis about the risk associated with the business. In this regards, the competition has become intense and the consumer has more option to consider before making their buying decision (Seo, 2013).

Rob Stated that in the modern world, “The CSR has been moving from Optional to Mandatory” (Rob Asghar, 2015).

In this situation, it is ultimately important for the all the businesses to seriously consider the consumer demands as a major factor to increase business progress. In this aspect, the most popular and most concerning strategy that has been using in modern business practice to differentiate a company from others, is that the companies has been tending towards their Corporate Social Responsibilities and companies are considering this factor as a major part of business (Abbas Ali & Al-Aali, 2015).

Purpose of Writing

Considering this fact, the following writing attempt is to create an understanding about the Corporate Social Responsibility as a competitive advantage in the modern business world. It is propose to emphasize the companies to use the CSR in the business practice for the sustainable business growth.

What is CSR?

Before moving towards the core purpose, it is important to understand the concept of CSR. Corporate social Responsibility or CSR is based on the activities of an organization towards its stakeholders by addressing the ethical and moral responsibilities of the organization towards the employees, towards the customers, towards the society and towards the environment (Lewis, 2014).

Accordingly, Michael Hopkins describes the CSR as it is concern to the treatment of stakeholders by a business organization in an ethically responsible manner. Further he explained that ethically responsibility means to treat the stakeholder by following the international norms. In this concern he also justifies the importance of the CSR practice by a company and said that it is process to achieve sustainable business growth alongside the sustainable development of the societies (MHC, 2011).

Considering the Social Corporate Responsibilities, Carroll defined that the Social Corporate Responsibilities are divided into four categories (MHC, 2011).

Philanthropic responsibilities:  It means to be a good corporate citizen.

Ethical Responsibilities: It means to be ethical and consider the obligations and in all the business strategies consider that what is right and what is wrong.

Legal Responsibilities: It does means to obey the laws as it is society’s codification of right and wrong.

Economic Responsibility: It does means to be profitable for the company, for the society and for the country as well (GAC, 2015).

MNC’s penalized by sick CSR practices In this regards, if we look at some of the multinational organizations have to face serious crises as they violated the ethical responsibilities while working in other countries. Such as Wal-Mart had been targeted by the h

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Assignment on Case Study: Redevelopment of Manassas City

Kinds of Dense Development

The City of Manassas Park requires to attract new businesses and to encourage the existing businesses in order to expand its operations. Therefore, it has issue the Request for Information (RFT) for ideas from companies and to solicit input, consultants and individuals with expertise in development for small to medium societies and economic planning. The redevelopment has the opportunity to become a model city which provides new opportunities for the business and economic corridor. The current roads and the infrastructure are not so much feasible that caters to pass through traffic. The plan is the complete and comprehensive strategy for growth and redevelopment of the corridor. This also needs for the operational efficiency and safety. This also includes all modes of the transportation in order to create the economic development in Manassas Park City.

The kind of dense development for the City Park is the Urban density. This is very definite measurement for the development of the cities and the population of an urbanized area that also includes the non-urban land uses. This land also uses comprise of regional open space, water-bodies and agriculture. There are number of the methods of measuring the density or urban areas like floor area ratio, population density gross density, Net density, Residential density and employment density.

Street Connectivity and Promoting

The new streets are proposed that will create in such a manner that these will provide the pedestrian-scale blocks. These will create where appropriate and feasible as a parallel street network. New tree-lined streets will provide for the pedestrian equally for automobile and bicycle. The civic buildings are to be situated at prominent locations. In addition, the trail system also includes the new trails to complete this system. Parking for the vehicles is hidden at centers of blocks and rear of lots. This also includes the in structured parking where appropriate.

The purpose of the street connectivity and promoting is to enhance the infrastructure of the roads and streets for the flow of the transportation in the city. Moreover, the purpose is to eliminate any kind of the bottle neck that will make any potential hurdle in flow of the transportation. The purpose of the redevelopment of the city is to make it a perfect city and to overcome the issues and problems in previous designs and development.

Means of Transportation other than car

The transportation is very necessary for the development of economic areas. The development plan for this area is mixed-use development in order to serve the as the City’s downtown. Therefore, the town planner has to focus on the infrastructure of the transportation other than car. There is need to add new rails in the rail system to make it more effective and efficient.

New plan is requires for the railway to link with those areas that were not included in the transportation system. There is need to give way to the primary commuter routes of Prince William Parkway, Route 28 and Liberia Avenue. This route will help to pass about 15,000 vehicles per day within the City Center District.

Improve Walkability

For the improvement of the Walkability the parallel pedestrian network along with street is need to develop. For this purpose the City Center district encompasses the City’s VRE stations, from the commuter rail parking lot bypasses and vehicular traffic so that each type of the transportation can easily move to their path or the line or lane including the pedestrian and bicycle. The clear route and walk ways is necessary to keep the traffic in flow.

With increase in the improvement of the streets and railways there will sudden increase in the transportation. Moreover, this is the economic potential area therefore, the ratio of business also increases that leads to increase in number of vehicles in city and increase in the traffic. Improve street system and the highway system will help to control the traffic and flow of the traffic. By doing so, people do not have to face any kind of difficulty.

Stromwater Management

This is the most important thing to manage the water from the storm. For this purpose the sanitation system and sewerage system needs to reconstruct. Through the analysis, this can be determined that sanitation system needs reconstruction or it can be feasible with repointing services. In addition, the streets also build and make the flow of the water to the sewerage pipes. Therefore, this will help for the management of city to handle the storm water. If there will the proper water management then this will save the city and street from the destruction especially the metal structure will save from these changing.

Implement Recommendations

For this purpose, there is needed to make a proper plan for the redevelopment because some of the areas are more crowded. For the future, the ground utility lines should buried allowing the street trees to fully nature and avoiding the unnecessary tree trimming for utility lines. The reason is that it will provide the fresh and neat atmosphere for the population of the area. Some of the people do not want to travel on car or rail between near places. They prefer to use bicycle. This means that bicycle ways also requires making or constructing for them. The improvement to City of Manassas requires the multi-model development so that the construction will free from defects and errors.

Role of the Private Property Owners This is the ethical obligation of the private property owners that they should corporate with state or the local management in order to redevelop the city. This is also beneficial for them because they can get more business opportunities. Moreover, this redevelopment is in favor and for welfare development of the people so that they should corporate and give their property against money to state so that the n

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Assignment On Multi-Topics Questions

E-Mail Marketing

This is the new era of advertising, which is a mix of different technologies and system evaluations with only purpose to boast culture of mixed approach. The Approach is best for advertising and it showed that how much it is beneficial for other businesses.

The purpose of email marketing is ethical and legal approach to get consumer consent without any resistance. The E-mail marketing is best because subscribers can get what is best updated version of same thing is available in market (Pitre, 2015).

Database Creation

The database creation is only way that can consider what is best for getting maximum customer. Email marketing is only reliable when company or marketing aspect is best in compiling data from different sources. The data compilation is only source in which client of email marketing get what is best for purposeful work, ideally. The email lists have only way and manage what is best for getting know how about activities (Pitre, 2015).  

Competitiveness of market

Email marketing is entirely depends upon database and show that how it is responsive in giving for different growing aspect that is now a day need of competitive market. Concurrence with competitive markets and business orientations is possible with implicit impact of market. The email marketing is basic source of learning and knowledge (Pitre, 2015).

Kinds and frequency of emails

With the passage of time, now email marketing is being allowed with different aspect and available at different paradigms. There are many kinds of email marketing right now. Those kinds that considered email marketing as only key source of information.

Email marketing is best to give essence in development and show that how this can adopt without losing brand image. There is criticism in marketing aspect that considered that email marketing should not be abundant that user like to avoid them. Email once a month is sufficient for development of brand image rather than losing image. E-mail marketing is one of the major tool to communicate the potential benefits of services and deliver new offerings of services. This will increase potentiality of customer loyalty.

Costing

The costing of email marketing highly depends upon outsource services. The more the price means more assurance of customer to get email and read them. Price is different with different services and each service need to be creative and unique as compare to other service.

Service costs are best one that can allow that how much it is related with range of database. The rate of difference can expect in such way that if service is once a day then charges would be different.

Benefits

There are several benefits while selecting a service and most important benefit is actually getting real statistics about ultima

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Questions/Answers About Organizational Leadership Management

Question 1: Is it wise for managers to evaluate a candidate’s postings on social networking sites such as Facebook as grounds for rejection before even interviewing a promising candidate? Why or Why not? What might be some ethical and legal issues managers should consider? Why?

Answer:

We cannot ignore the importance of the Social networking sites but in case if manager wants to use it as a source make an image of a candidate and then made it a base to reject a person even before interview, has so may ethical issues.

First of all this should be consider that there are many fake accounts of facebook that put question on the authenticity of the facebook and the information available on its platform. Moreover, because of some privacy and some social threats, usually people do not give proper information on the faceboook and other social media sites that raise questions on the validity of the information provided by the user on his social media account at facebook or twitter.

Moreover, through face book, the situational and behavioral analysis cannot be made about the candidate and his abilities. Therefore, it seems an unethical act to reject a candidate merely on the base of evaluating or analyzing his personality through his/her facebook profile.

On the other hand, it is the ethical responsibility of the HR staff to provide equal chance to the candidate to prove his skills and his ability through interview because interview helps the management to analyze a candidate thoroughly by considering through the Structural interview based by asking relevant questions to evaluate the knowledge of a candidate about the specific vacancy. The Biographical and Behavioral Interview helps the company to understand and evaluate the behavior of the candidate in real time and evaluate his personality traits regarding a specific vacancy.

Moreover, the situational interview also helps the management to understand the professional skills of a candidate in real time according to the situation that reflects the ability of a candidate regarding a specific job and assist the HR staff to make a precise decision.

Controversially if HR just focus on the Facebook to analyze the ability and skills of a candidate, then it seems impossible to make right analyses of a candidate for a specific job because through facebook you cannot organize a candidate’s situational based analysis, behavioral analysis and his professional skills.

Question 2: Do you think leadership is more important or less important in today’s flatter, team-based organizations? Why? Are some leadership styles better suited to such organizations as opposed to traditional hierarchical organizations? Explain.

Answer:

There is great difference in between the management and leadership as it is said by the Peter Drucker, “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.” It shows that a manager direct the team members whereas a leader guides and shows ways to go a task to the team member.

In team based organization leadership has great importance. It is because, if there will be no leader, then complicacies will take place especially regarding the decision making process and to show the way to do the work in collaboration.

Therefore, some leadership styles those are effective to lead a team-based organization such as coaching leaders help to develop skills in the people for the future that helps the team members to utilize their abilities into progressive ways and improve their skills within time.

Likewise, the transactional leader is fit for the team-based organizations as he focuses on the management. In the process of management, he manages the resources by setting his focus on the organizational goals and put all his energy and motivates his team members to achieve the goals of the organization.

 Transformation leadership is important for the team base- organization because it clarify the tasks for each and every team member that reduces the conflicting issue in team-based tasks. Through this aspect, he defines the job responsibilities of each member of the team and encourages them to work as a family.

 A transformational leader improves the productivity of a team-based tasks by the mean of improving the skills of the team member through sharing knowledge and skills in between the collaboration of senior and junior employee’s.

A transformational leader always gives great concern to his team members and appreciated their performances  through the performance based rewards system that fives motivation to the employees and increase their productivity and loyalty as well, Moreover a transformational leader is tolerant with the time member and has fair mind.

Question 3: Gallup’s 2011 survey shows that highly educated workers are significantly less likely to be engaged than are those with a high school diploma or less. What might be some reasons for this lower level of engagement among more educated employees? Why?  (Chapter 12)

Answer

If we compare the engagement of highly educated workers as compare to the Diploma holders or high school workers, we can see that workers with lower education are more engaged in their work according to the Gallup research about the work engagement of employees in highly educated and low educated employees. However, it seems that in America most of the people believe that certification and degree are more important for a successful life but on the other hand, it does not make sure the work engagement.

It is found that the students who have received high education, have to spend more on their academic career and likewise they gain more knowledge about the specific field. On the other hand, it is common practice that academic knowledge can set a foundation but it does not give any practical experience. In this regards, after completing the education in university or colleges, the highly educated students have more expectations from their job whereas the reality is that most of the organizations and professions too concern with the experience rather than the just having knowledge.  Th

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How can African countries attract Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) inflows? What is the process and effect in terms of risk/reward evaluation by MNE’s in terms of utilizing the SMP for targeted opportunities in specific LDC’s in Africa

Abstract

The research work focuses on Africa; how economic landscapes are changing in different African countries. Relevant and valid evidence has been gathered and analyzed/sorted to understand economic and political scenarios, prevailing in different countries, of Africa. In addition, factors, which affect Foreign Direct, have been identified and scrutinized. Important question, How Africa can increase FDI inflows?, has also been discussed in this paper. In the last part of the paper, PESTLE Analysis has been used to study Africa, as an economic opportunity, for MNEs. Through different economic analysis, the conclusion has been drawn, which clearly suggests that Africa is unique economic opportunity, which can also be used as export base, for Multinational Companies.

Introduction

The modern corporate system has stems out from Industrial Revolution, which not only altered economic model, but also it altered social and political systems as well. The change was not just qualitative, but also quantifiable. The diversification of production, new production processes and altered production volume have birth to market system, which was based on demand and supply mechanisms.

The early economic models or pure capitalist models were actually closed economic models, which did not only discourage government intervention, but also trade and foreign investment. This was because classical economists believed that trade and foreign investment was detrimental for an economy, as it reduced the benefits of optimal allocation of resources. This idea remained prevalent for considerable time, as it is evident from trade data and history of Foreign Direct Investment. However, there were companies or corporations, which undermined this economic concept, even these economic notions were considered sacred, and invested in foreign economies. However, the scope and the size of investment were very small, which makes it almost negligible.

The classical economic concepts were strongly challenged by Great Depression, of 1930s, which forced the alteration, in classical capitalist model. The economic crisis did not only introduce Fiscal instrument, in to an economy, but also it had encouraged trade and to certain extent, Foreign Direct Investment (Elizabeth, 2006).

The study of data or evidence, pertaining to Foreign Direct Investment, makes it evident that Foreign Direct Investment increased or swelled, as the means of commutation enhanced. Another factor, which contributed the growth of FDI, was information. As the information system improved, the size, of Foreign Investment, increased dramatically. This was because companies and corporations had a better information or data, which they could analyze to understand a particular market or economy. The increased information provided a holistic picture, which allowed companies and corporations to form better strategies and tactical corporate plans the ensured swelled revenues, for profit-seeking firms.

It must be recognized that for any corporation, it is intricate to penetrate and establish corporate, in a foreign market and economy. However, this process, of penetration in foreign market and economy, has been made easy by the symmetric of information. Therefore, companies, organizations and firms have enhanced their organizational structure to indentify and exploit corporate opportunities, presented by global corporate and economic system (Mankiw, 2012).

Foreign Direct Investment and Emerging Economies

Before addressing the research question, it is imperative to understand Foreign Direct Investment, its reasons and its objectives. This is because, without a clear comprehension of this subject or topic, it would be hard to address the research question.

The matured economies or developed economies are actually highly competitive and segmented economies. This is because corporate institutions and infrastructure has developed. There is a symmetric of information and because number of buyers and sellers, organizations or firms are at breakeven. This is evident from the study, developed economies and corporate systems, that markets, of developed economies, are imperfectly competitive. This means that companies can easily enter and exist and because of the symmetric of information, they are not able to generate high profits. Therefore, large corporations, which have capital/faineance and technology, seek other markets and economies, which are less competitive and more lucrative (Africa Ranking, 2014). As discussed earlier, because of the increased information, companies or firms are in better position to take strategic decisions, regrinding investing in other economies. Therefore, when economies become highly fragmented and c

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Assignment on Assessment of sustainability of Coca Cola Inc Threat and VIRO analysis

Assessing sustainability of competitive advantage of Coca Cola Inc: Threat and VIRO analysis

PEST Analysis:

Operations of Coca cola are affected through the changes in laws and regulations.             This is due to the changes in accounting standards and taxation requirements. Due to Government restrictions in USA, the company relocates capital across borders. The consumers despite of little high prices prefer to purchase coca cola product at once. This gives customers satisfaction especially when prices are high then the company will promote as beneficial alternate. The customers show more concern related to nutrition. They focus on their life expectancy. Through increase demand of healthier risks, non-alcoholic beverage sector is affected. The company focuses on efficient packaging and design of bottles due to the customers’ demands and technological improvement preferences.

Various Strengths of Coca Cola Inc provide the basis for its competitive advantage. Brand equity, company valuation, largest market share, global presence, affective marketing strategies as well as customer loyalty and distribution network across the world are major strength areas. These areas of strengths enable the company to attain and sustain its competitive advantage in terms of largest market share and brand in beverages. 

            Currently Coca Cola’s market share is 79.2 billion dollars (Bhasin, 2015). However, threats and weaknesses could cripple sustainable competitive advantage of the company. Major threats include sourcing of raw material. Water sourcing is becoming difficult due to scarcity and environmental challenges. Moreover, indirect competitors are also posing major threats. These competitors are Pepsi, Starbucks and other regional and local brands.

            However, these threats to sustainable competitive advantage can be mitigated or eliminated by focusing on opportunities and strengths. Major Opportunities include diversification in food and health sector, development of Nations, supply chain improvements; packaged drinking water for people and marketing of selling products that sells least. These are important steps for the company that needed to be considered.  

VIRO analysis:

            VIRO analysis is also an important technique for evaluating threat analysis for Coca Cola Inc to assess its sustainability of competitive advantage. VIRO analysis provides information about value of the products, its rarity, limitability and organization. These are important aspects of sustainable competitive advantage for Coca Cola to dominate its position in beverage market across the globe. Currently the value of the Coca Cola is high and the firm is in position to exploit its opportunities to neutralize threat from external environment in the form of resource or capability. Currently the company has high value. Similarly, rarity is low.

            Resources for beverage products are not centered in the hands of few. Competitors are in position to utilize water, sugar, carbonated water and other materials in the industry. Imitation position of the company is strong and copy righted formulas for beverages provide protection to the company. Moreover, organization of Coca Cola is strong enough to organize, be ready, and being able to utilize its resources and capabilities to generate competitive advantages and sustain it over a longer period. Therefore, after conducting PEST and VIRO analysis, it can be concluded that competitive advantage of the firm is strong and currently in sustainable position. However, care full consideration is required in future to retain this condition.

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Malaria incidence in the Saudi Arabia Second draft

Research Methodology

The methodology is considered one of the integral parts of research. Justifications, as well as methods, are proposed in the research methodology. The current study evaluates the occurrence of malaria incidence in SaudiArabia.  This section is comprised of major elements, which include a type of research, data collections methods, sample size, data analysis techniques and research participants. The inclusion of such elements increased the authenticity and credibility of research under investigation.

The research design is important in research methodology. A descriptive correlation study will be used for studying the increasing malaria cases(Odongo-Aginya, Ssegwanyi, Kategere, & Vuzi, 2005)Citation & Reference added in the city of Makah on the 3 phases. In the first phase, I would(personal pronouns changed)collect the information before the season of Hajj on the different malaria incidents. In the second phase, we have to collect the information about the malaria incidents from the month of October to November. In addition, in the third phase, we have to collect the data about the five months after the Hajj to complete the measuring cycle of malaria. Research questions for the study were-

  • How to measure the malaria incidence in Saudi Arabia during the hajj season
  • What are the causes for such an epidemic the malaria cases or incidences in Saudi Arabia

Population and sample

In the first phase of the study, the researchers make (past tense changed with present tense) a plan with the public medical hospitals of Makah to create a collaboration, in which, after obtaining approval from the Institution Review Board, they were required to serve the pilgrims with medical necessities. The target population of this research includes pilgrims in the city of Makah was included in this research.

The purpose of this research was to identify the reasons in spread of malaria disease during Hajj and other ritualsamong the pilgrims. Therefore, all the pilgrims were the target population for this research. According to the estimations, only about 2 -3% of Hajjes were observed, treated or admitted in the medical centers of Makah for malaria related problemsin the last year. During the year of 2005,malaria incidence cases in Kingdom were125out of 519 cases that were confirmed. The sample size for this study will be about 12902 individuals per phase for getting the satisfactory results.(Snow, et al., 2013)

The sampling criteria in order to identify the target population or participantshavefollowing features:Reworded

1-Age from 15-49

2-Male or Female

3-Read or speak Arabic or English only

Study Design

 The research design is interpretative. The study design emphasis on the interpretation of the malaria casesin Saudi Arabia.(reworded)This approach helps to investigate malaria incidence that affected human body severely.  In this way, health risk challenges have to be investigated based on individual responses of the participants. The research mainly focused on malaria patientsas well as identification methods to prevent this epidemic during hajj season in Kingdom.(rephrased)There are two approaches followed in thiscurrent research involves deductive and inductive approach.(Reworded)The current study employs the deductive approach to investigate the problem of malaria incidence due to the Holy rituals performed throughout the year in Makkah and Medina where the infection could spread by the patients for patient came from different countries. (Appropriation made)

A hypothesized relationship is developed between malaria’s defects and effects in the communities in Saudi Arabia.The current study is explorative, in which in-depth analysis is considered regarding malaria parasites. Qualitative research is followed where qualitative data is taken for the purpose of research. Personal observation, were taken intointerpretation of evaluating the malaria diseases information, is obtained after completion of Hajj in Saudi Arabia.(Rephrased)

Data sources

This study helps to determine the pattern of malaria incidents in Makah after, during and before the Hajj. The 12902 participants (sample Size)were selected for the observation, treatment or admission to the public medical centers of Makah for identifying the malaria cases.  In addition to this, patients of malaria were studied by doctors and surgeonsin the following medical centers: the King Faisal Hospital, King Abdul Aziz Hospital, Dr. Bakhsh Hospital and Mohammad Saleh BasharaHil Hospital. Hospitals, medical institutions, health care centers and government medical offices are also considered for the research participants (scidev.net, 2015). These are the major medical centers in Makah where research is conducted. Advanced questions are created to get responses of individuals in terms of identifying as well as adopting measures to prevent malaria in pilgr

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Assignment on Pink and Seidman

Pink and Seidman: Question 10

Driving forces:

Deriving forces are the forces that influenced on an organization because of outside or external factors. These external factors trigger the change of an organizational strategy. Some dri8ving forces are specific and unique to a meticulous situation of the industry. Driving forces can be:

Change in the growth rate of the company at long run, increasing the globalization of the company, innovation in the design of products or in any system, technology changes, entry of new firms, market innovation, changes in efficiency and costs, risks of any type etc.

Link between strategy and driving forces:

The analysis o driving forces of an industry is very important for making strategy.  The external factors that affect on the organization play a key role in changes the company’s situation in next two to three years. When a company form a strategy it should considered the external factors, it will help to make effective strategy. A direct link exists between driving forces and companies’ strategy.

As the seidman, advocates the new culture and want to bring innovation in the organization it should considered the driving forces. When an industry introduces a new system or culture, some employees resist against this new culture and they do not the new culture and innovation. Therefore, before implementing the new culture company must give the training to the employees, analyze the external factors, and then make the strategy.

The effect of value innovation on Pink:       

Value innovation is more dramatic, less frequent than the market evolution. It is a case when a firm redefines its value of products through a breakthrough strategy or breakthrough technology such as; mobile phone is a value innovation’s example. Seidman wants to advocate the technology changes in the organization, wants to implement the new culture with innovation. It is an example value innovation.

Demographic shifts:

In the job market and industries, the quality and quantity are the strong driving forces. Now the productivity is not a goal of the organization. Developed, developing and even underdeveloped countries are now focusing on the quality. In an industry, people with different demographics works together, it is necessary that industry treat them equally. To maintain a stable organizational culture play an important o gain competitive advantage.

Globalization:

Due to the globalization, all the economy of the world will gather at a single point. Globalization is a strong driving force that has deep affect on the organization. If a company changes its internal culture, according to the changes in external environment then company will be able to earn high.  For example, provide the training facilities to the employees about the new technologies; provide good compensation to the employees to motivate them. Pink can gain the competitive advantage from the value creating products that never be matched with the products of competitors. Plan the strategy by analyze the external factors because external factors must influenced on the growth and environment of the organization. For example, company should upda

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AFFECTS OF BULYING ON STUDENTS & PREVENTION METHODS

Thesis Statement

Due to negative effects the bullying in schools has been affecting the students with numerous consequences like physical ailments and difficulty in speaking, increased drug usages, etc.

Bullying is defined as acts of intimidation, aggression, coercion against victim, social power and other factors that differentiated social power. Bullying means intention to harm someone deliberately not accidentally. The violence is increasing in schools that creates unsafely environment of school. Bully prevention in positive support has been recognized in managing bullying in school. The growing concern of bullying behavior is increasing in US schools. Bullying prevention in positive behavior support, i.e. BP-PBS recognized teachers to consolidate social rewards to manage bullying in school.

This is one of the most violated issues in US schools.  According to a national survey   about 30%of students has involved in bullying either as victim or as a perpetrator. Bullying in school is one of the heated issues in the school setting. The current research aims to identify and measure the adverse effects of bullying on school students. The research indicates the field-testing, experimental validation, development and building bullying in school prevention techniques to reduce such violence in schools.  (ROSS & HORNER, 2009)

 The bullying in school directed negative impact on the school behaviors. The current research investigates the issues on the school specifically bullying and derives solution of the problem.  The wide range of verbal, physical and social behaviors really intended to harm.

 The imbalance power of between victim and perpetrator are the major elements in the bullying at school. These elements are difficult to measure and observe at different school levels. The issue of bullying at school required operational identification for the casual variable to control such issue effectively.  The research participants include educators professional and parents to control such bullying. The peer attention is one of the most causing affect in building bullying.

 There are certain consequences for the victims and bullies like in the shape of increased drug usages,lack of self-confidences, etc. The negative future outcomes have been reveals by the bullies and victims.  The research reported that bullies go through with adolescence.  This creates a lot of risk for severe problems like drug abuse, use of alcohol, dropping out of school and delinquency happen towards bullying.  Both victims and bullies find more depressed than the student who are not involved in the harming deliberately. 

The problems as if depression is linked with bullying, on the other hand victimization leads to academic issues as well as self defeating behaviors recognized towards bullying in school.   The victims of bullying are at great risk with no emotional support. The victims of such bullying involved great consequences like issues in academic learning, absenteeism, loss of friends and loneliness. If the students are performing low in the school, they are dropping out immediately with the addressing problem of bullying in school.

Another study implicates the affects of bullying at school, which affects the mental health of students badly. The measurement of bullying in school has certain determinants like substance abuse and risk of mental health. The result of research indicates that risk to mental health is too much high with the effects of bullying impact.

Domestic violence, inter parental violence and symptoms of emotional distress are effects of bullying in schools. Poor school behavior, alcohol abuse, drug usage and posttraumatic stress are the witness that indicates high affect of bullying at school.  Peer victimization significantly linked with the high levels of risk towards mental health.  Direct victimization of bullying has significant impact on the mental health and mental distress. (Rivers, Noret, Poteat, & Ashurst, 2009)

 The bullying and victimization preventions in school recognized at multilevel examination. The study integrates the major assessment of examining relationships between peer victimization and school climate. The examination of previous study shows implement strategies for the prevention of bullying in school. Certain techniques and policies must be implemented to reduce such issues promptly.

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How can African countries attract Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) inflows

The research work focuses on Africa; how economic landscapes are changing in different African countries. Relevant and valid evidence has been gathered and analyzed/sorted to understand economic and political scenarios, prevailing in different countries, of Africa. In addition, factors, which affect Foreign Direct, have been identified and scrutinized. Important question, How Africa can increase FDI inflows?, has also been discussed in this paper. In the last part of the paper, PESTLE Analysis has been used to study Africa, as an economic opportunity, for MNEs. Through different economic analysis, the conclusion has been drawn, which clearly suggests that Africa is unique economic opportunity, which can also be used as export base, for Multinational Companies.

Introduction

The modern corporate system has stems out from Industrial Revolution, which not only altered economic model, but also it altered social and political systems as well. The change was not just qualitative, but also quantifiable. The diversification of production, new production processes and altered production volume have birth to market system, which was based on demand and supply mechanisms.

The early economic models or pure capitalist models were actually closed economic models, which did not only discourage government intervention, but also trade and foreign investment. This was because classical economists believed that trade and foreign investment was detrimental for an economy, as it reduced the benefits of optimal allocation of resources. This idea remained prevalent for considerable time, as it is evident from trade data and history of Foreign Direct Investment. However, there were companies or corporations, which undermined this economic concept, even these economic notions were considered sacred, and invested in foreign economies. However, the scope and the size of investment were very small, which makes it almost negligible.

The classical economic concepts were strongly challenged by Great Depression, of 1930s, which forced the alteration, in classical capitalist model. The economic crisis did not only introduce Fiscal instrument, in to an economy, but also it had encouraged trade and to certain extent, Foreign Direct Investment.

The study of data or evidence, pertaining to Foreign Direct Investment, makes it evident that Foreign Direct Investment increased or swelled, as the means of commutation enhanced. Another factor, which contributed the growth of FDI, was information. As the information system improved, the size, of Foreign Investment, increased dramatically. This was because companies and corporations had a better information or data, which they could analyze to understand a particular market or economy. The increased information provided a holistic picture, which allowed companies and corporations to form better strategies and tactical corporate plans the ensured swelled revenues, for profit-seeking firms.

It must be recognized that for any corporation, it is intricate to penetrate and establish corporate, in a foreign market and economy. However, this process, of penetration in foreign market and economy, has been made easy by the symmetric of information. Therefore, companies, organizations and firms have enhanced their organizational structure to indentify and exploit corporate opportunities, presented by global corporate and economic system.

Foreign Direct Investment and Emerging Economies

Before addressing the research question, it is imperative to understand Foreign Direct Investment, its reasons and its objectives. This is because, without a clear comprehension of this subject or topic, it would be hard to address the research question.

The matured economies or developed economies are actually highly competitive and segmented economies. This is because corporate institutions and infrastructure has developed. There is a symmetric of information and because number of buyers and sellers, organizations or firms are at breakeven. This is evident from the study, developed economies and corporate systems, that markets, of developed economies, are imperfectly competitive. This means that companies can easily enter and exist and because of the symmetric of information, they are not able to generate high profits. Therefore, large corporations, which have capital/faineance and technology, seek other markets and economies, which are less competitive and more lucrative.

As discussed earlier, because of the increased information, companies or firms are in better position to take strategic decisions, regrinding investing in other economies. Therefore, when economies become highly fragmented and competitive, companies start to explore new economic and corporate opportunities, in new economic and corporate realms.

Foreign Direct Investment is also a need for growing, developing or emerging economies for various reasons. The research, on growing economies, makes it very apparent that emerging economies require technology and corporate expertise, of established corporates, to facilitate their economic development or evolution. The example is of China, which used multi-nationals or controlled capitalism to realize short-term and long-term economic goals. The process of introducing capitalism and allowing multinationals to invest in a Chinese economy, improved the industrial infrastructure. In addition, the focus on Light Industry, instead of Heavy Industry, benefited economy more. It is to be understood that multi-national firms, organizations or companies, mostly invest in light industry, rather than heavy industry. The other example is of India, which is attracting Foreign Direct Investment, so that it could increase the pace of its economic development.

Factors that influence Investment

There are various factors, which directly or indirectly, influence Foreign Direct Investment. These factors are significant in attracting Foreign Direct Investment and multi-nationals, which are strategizing to penetrate new economies and markets, give heed to these factors and forge their strategy, after thoroughly studying these factors.

In contemporary corporate realm, no perfect conducive environment exists, for investment. Different economies offer different corporate settings or environment and there is trade-off between different corporate options. Consequently, multinationals have to do better homework, as trade-off between them is evident and information is enormous, which compels the foreign companies or multi-nationals to better study challenges and economic opportunities.

Structure of Market and Economy

Before studying other variables or factors, which directly or indirectly influence Foreign Direct Investment, an expansionary corporate that intends to invest in foreign market or economy, first study the market structure. The study of market structure is important as it provides the relevant and valid information, regarding size of economy, demand, supply, symmetry of information and competition. All this evidence is highly significant, as a corporate stra

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The Effect of Top Management Support and Internal Control of the Accounting Information Systems Quality and Its Implications on the Accounting Information

Article: The Effect of Top Management Support and Internal Control of the Accounting Information Systems Quality and Its Implications on the Accounting Information Quality

Summary:

            In this article, the author is trying to describe that what roles are played by the quality of accounting information system and top management of the organization in achieving the top quality in accounting information technology. It is well known fact that top management’s role is very important in quality improvement process especially when organizations seek to develop. Internal control to achieve quality accounting information system is one of the most important things. In broad terms, information is very important strategic tool and resource for the company to take strategic decisions, especially accounting information is very reliable one, which can help organizations to make decisions for gaining competitive and strategic advantages. Information systems are used by managers and important stakeholders to manage process like strategy, decisions and change in the organizations. So, the author is relying on some empirical data in this article to see the influence of internal control, top management, and quality information system of accounting on quality of accounting information.

            In this article, the study used the analysis path method, in which forty seven participants from Indonesia’s Baitulmal Wattamwil were used through survey information. All these participants were using accounting information system. Then literature is reviewed by the author to analyze what already has been developed in earlier research studies regarding core issues like support of top management, accounting information system, accounting information quality, and internal control. Then a theoretical framework was used by the study which describes the process that internal control and support of top management has its influence to develop a quality accounting information system, and these three factors in this theoretical framework leads to the quality of accounting information. Survey is the basic research methodology used in this study. After discussing all variables in the study, the author concludes that study showed a significant influence on the internal control along with top management support to develop a quality information system.

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Assignment on Article Summary: Integration of Ethical Values into Activity-Based Budgeting

Article: Integration of Ethical Values into Activity-Based Budgeting

Summary:

            In this article, the author states that ethics and code of ethics in the business processes are one of the most discussed areas in the business community. People do talk about these concepts to be applied in every business, but when it comes to practical integration of these concepts, the results are quite different from the described theoretical principles. This article is looking to find some gaps which are present between the principles of ethics and their practical integration into business process, especially to develop activity based budgeting. In this article, the author has discussed few points in this area of concern to help out organizations to develop framework based on ethics, distinctive course of actions, preferring different positive values and then incusing those values for activity based budgeting.

The question is that every organization has its own code of ethics, then why still organizations have failed to integrate these ethical codes into practical work. So, research studies are trying to find out the reasons and their best solutions to resolve the issue. Literature review in this article describes that human behaviors are being studies for a long period of time. Moral and ethical values have been incorporated in the societies and same happened for the business societies as well. The author describes that most important thing is ethical decision making to integrate those ethical values into the organizations. To bridge the gap between ethical principles and their practical implementation, two approaches can be used. One is creating corporate culture with ethical framework and the second is to introduce an effective ethical policy.

            The author have examined the both approaches to see that which areas have been studies in the research and which areas need more explanation to define things in detail. To develop a corporate culture of ethics, one has to identify that what are good and what are bad values. After identifying those ethics and values, then a preference order should be given to each for achieving consistent ethical values. Once these steps are done, the here comes the process to integrate those ethical values into activity based budgeting. In this article, an Italian company’s case study is also included to see that how activity based budgeting process happens. After analyzing each step, the author has concluded that five stages for important to consider for activity based budgeting in business organizations.

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Assignment on Article Summary: Fit Gap Analysis – The Role of Business Process Reference Models

Article: Fit Gap Analysis – The Role of Business Process Reference Models

Summary:

            In this article, the authors describe that enterprise resource planning system is used by the companies to achieve different goals like staying competitive, make improvement, finding solutions for business processes, and changing standard business strategies so that business operations can be performed effectively. ERP system uses different business practices which can be elaborated by the reference models. The role of these reference models is to formalize and then recommend those practices which are accepted by certain business domains. ERP system provides so many advantages like their solutions for different processes include sales, finance, procurement etc. all these processes can be well understood and practiced with the help of reference business models. One important thing to consider while implementing any ERP system is that organizations needs are well integrated with the ERP model. During this process, a fit and gaps analysis is developed, which is very essential. This model helps to identify that which things fit well into organization ERP system and what are the gas to be filled.

            In this article, the authors have examined various aspects of business reference models like what methods can be used & applied in an ERP system, and what fit-gap analysis is obtained from the exercise. In this article, ERP system, its reference models are described in detail to understand the concepts. Once all reference models are explained in details, then it had been reviewed that what methods are possible to use these reference models in ERP system. During selection of appropriate models, first step is the construction, where reference model methods are developed, and then second step is application of those constructed reference model methods. Once all these steps are completed, then here comes the process of fit-gap analysis. In this step, the theory of task technology fit is used to understand the concepts involved between technology and processes. After calculating a fit gap analysis, now the time comes to review that which capabilities ERP system has, and what are the actual business needs. In last part of the article, the authors have described the process comparison approach. Company’s supply chain process is also included in the model. The authors have included that this paper contributes in two ways, first in fit gap analysis presentation with business processes, and second is comparison approach between reference model of ERP system and supply chain.

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Assignment on Article Summary: Coming Up Short on Nonfinancial Performance Measurement

Article: Coming Up Short on Nonfinancial Performance Measurement

Summary:

            In this article, the authors are putting light on the importance of non financial measures gaps along with financial accounting gaps. They are stating a view point that companies need to analyze the situations in non financial measures to ensure good financial performance. If they will not consider these non financial measures, then they cannot achieve desired results. It is evident that the importance of non financial measures is crucial for companies, then why companies ignore this. The authors believe that companies do not consider it important because they actually don’t analyze the situation in a good manner, and lose the opportunity to gain financial benefits. There is a close relationship between financial outcomes and non financial activities. The most non financial activities are employees’ satisfaction and customers’ loyalty. But companies make a mistake by developing a general model of relationship between financial outcomes and non financial drivers. The list of this general model can be long, which cannot be easily verified during the business process.

            The authors have mentioned a very good example of fast food chain to understand that what relationship is between financial performance and non financial measures. They state that if a fast food chain is looking to gain a position in the industry as leading performer in stock price and best generator of the cash flow, then a model is needed to achieve their success. This model will elaborate that non financial measures are linked to these company’s goals. The relationship model is described as if employee satisfaction has to be achieved, select better employees, then these employees will help to achieve satisfaction of customer which will result in better purchasing, growth, retention and desired cash flow. The authors believe that when companies set wrong target for their performance, then they miss the opportunity to gain better financial performance. Their recommendation is to develop a correct model, and then gather required data for this model. In next step, this data should be turned into useful information so that the process of refining the model is continued. After doing all the steps, now it’s time to take appropriate actions according to acquired findings. Then last process is to evaluate the outcomes gained from the actions performed.

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Assignment on Response: Metacognition (Student’s Session Thursday Evening)

Metacognition

The video contains the tutorial about the session on Thursday evening for students. Overall the presentation was good enough to understand the lecture and learning from this video or the presentation. This is not hard for me to explain that this presentation is near about my expectation. The only thing that I feel is feeling of the live lecture rather than the recorded one. The reason is that person will more attentively listen to the presenter or the instructor. On the other hand, the recording also helps a student to hear it and watch it again and again for further assistance on some specific topic.

From the presentation, I took many of the information that useful for me in understanding of the whole presentation. For example, way presenter elaborates the introduction and purpose of the study with examples. The setup for the presentation was good. There was silence so that everyone can hear the presenter on the topic. The visual and graphical aid helps the presenter to deliver its point and makes the presentation more effective in this regard. Therefore, witeh the help of the images, graphs and videos, this is easy for the audience to keep whole of the presentation in mind. Especially to understand the important points in the presentation, audience keep these in mind with the help of the visual aid by the presenter. On the other hand, the way of the presenting information, body language and hand gestures makes the presentation more effective. The overall presentation was good. The reason is that it is fulfilling the purpose of the presentation significantly for those students who were not present there. This is presentation is also very effective and helpful in order to understand the meanings and purposes of the topic. I am confident that if anyone can ask questions or help on

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Assignment On Part II: Islamic Civilization: Short ID Term

  1. Five pillars of Islam

Five pillars of Islam also known as five pillars of religion. These five pillars are basically five acts which are considered mandatory for all the followers.  These pillars are the basic guideline of a Muslim life as well as a symbol of commitment to faith.  Pillars of Islam include Shahadah (testimony of faith), Salah (prayer s five times a day), Sawm (fasting the whole month of Ramadan), Zakat (almsgiving) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Makah once in live who can afford). These five pillars are internalized personally as the spiritual exercise as well as the act of dedication and commitment.

  • Caliphate

After the death of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) Muslims form the religious-political state which is known as caliphate.  The caliphate is commanded by a caliph successor) who used to be selected by the Shura (community consultation) and pondered as a leader of the entire Muslim community.  The caliphate was ended in 1093 on the establishment of Turkish Republic. In the recent pas t Isis also claimed that they are so called leader Abu Bake al Baghdadi as their caliph and Iraq and Syria as their caliphate. Caliphate is used to be governed according to the sharia law but what ISIS is doing is absolutely against the teaching of Islam.

  • Historiography

Historiography is a writing and study that is based on the history and derived from the historical events. It is completely based on the critical examination and evaluation of the sources including the selection of authentic and precise information along with the fusion of details into an account that will stand the evaluation of the methods. In Islamic Civilization, the Historiography gives the basic foundations which were started in 7th century with the reform of the Prophet Mohammad’s life. In the present days, Islam, Historiography play major role in the spread of Islam. Quran and Hadith are two most important sources of Islamic Historiography.

  • Hadith

In Islamic civilization Hadith is the second most important source of Islamic fundaments after the Quran. Hadith are the collection of traditional accounts and saying of the Prophet Mohammad based on the real life accounts that are known as (the Sunna). The Hadith travel through the most authentic sources therefore, after Quran Hadith is considered as a major source of authentic information and guidance for Muslims. It helps the Muslims to get guidance about various aspects of life by considering the saying and actions of Prophet Mohammad.

  • Mohammad Al-Khawarizmi

Mohammad Al-Khawarizmi was an intelligent Persian man during the Abbasid Caliphate who had great skills and knowledge about Mathematics, geography and Astronomy, thus he is known as a one of most famous scholar in the House of Wisdom. He introduced the concept of Decimal positional number system and he was the person who first introduced the systematic quadratic equations and linear equations. He is also considering as the inventor of Algebra. He work a lot about the geography, Astrology and Astronomy.

  • Pax Mongolica

Pax Monglica is a term of Hitoriography which was established following the phrase PAx Romana. Pax Romana gives information about the stabilizing impact of the Mogol Empire on the culture, social and on the economic life of the people of Eurasian region which was captured and conquered by Mongols in 13th and 14th century. This term is associated with the communication effectiveness and the administrative efforts which were made to the re-establishment of Peace in the region after the Mogols’ conquests.

  • Shah Isma’il Safavi

Shah Isma’il Safavi was also known as Ismail I was a Persian man, the ruler of Iran and the founder of Safavid Dynasty that remained until 1736. In 1500 he started his campaign in Iran when he led the Safaviyya, known as the twelve Shia militant religious orders. In 1509, he unified Iran on the base of these Twelve Shia militant. He succeeds to establish the most powerful empire in Iran therefore, the Safavid Dynasty is known as one of the greatest Iranian Empires. Iamail played vital role in the spread of the Twelver Islam as he converted the Persian region from the Sunni to Shia.

  • Wahhabism

Wahabism was a historical movement in Islam that spread a religious movement as a mission of Wahabbi. Wahhabism are known as ultraconservative or orthodox and fundamentalist, reform movemtn with a claim to restore the

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Project on Occupational health and safety Stress – work or lifestyle causations, Argue pro and con re W.S.I.B. benefits for stress

Occupational health and safety

Stress – work or lifestyle causations. Argue pro and con re W.S.I.B. benefits for stress

Executive summary

 The paper clearly demonstrates the major implications of occupational health and safety in much organization. In addition to this the paper describes the role of stress towards work safety insurance board for the reduction in stress. The main accountabilities in WSIB contains on controlling cost, managing involuntary clients and administratively effectiveness in performing interest of employers and workers in the organizations. According to research that is conducted in Canada reveals that, 65% of Ontario workforce is covered under WSIB.  There are certain disadvantages of work safety insurance board that includes Long working processing of paper time has taken during the implications of work safety insurance board. This long waiting working hours has leaves injured or sick worker bad experience. Job stress and loss insights are the main outcomes at organizations due to lack of health care implications.

Introduction

Occupational health and safety is one of the most important parts in the workplace to accommodate health and safety towards employee’s performance characteristics.  The major aim of occupational health and safety is to improve workers health and safety by elimination of occupational disease and accidents. This leads to betterment of working life as well as creation of comfortable and safe working environment leads to higher productivity of employees.

 Employees are the intellectual capital of organization that leads to higher performance characteristics. Therefore organizations need to focus on occupational health and safety to improve the working life standards of employees. Boosting employee morals as well as reduction cost and improvement in productivity are the potential benefits that urge the competitive advantages for the organization who sustain in occupational health and safety interventions.

WSIB implications

Work safety insurance board that takes necessary steps towards beneficial for the occupational health and safety.   The main accountabilities in WSIB include controlling cost, managing involuntary clients and administratively efficiency in performing interest of employers and workers in the organizations. The prevention and compensation work operated as professional assembly line that combines with the roles and responsibilities of WSIB to manage the health and safety at the workplace.

 Potential benefits

 The major presumptions of WSIB are managing health and safety issues in the organization, because their perception those employees are the core part of organization.  Exemptions in rules and regulations as well as special premium arrangements are lack in small business that leads to distorted labor relations in the organizations. On the other WSIB initialized institutional orientation and repositioning the small businesses are the major benefits to improve health and safety benefits and reduce employees stress at workplace.  (Stock, Ostry, & Labrèche, 2010)

The main aim of work safety insurance board is to identify claims for injuries that outcomes of health care and time off work.   According to research that is conducted in Canada reveals that, 65% of Ontario workforce is covered under WSIB.  Information regarding health care and wage replacement specifically linked with the jury and consequences of injury also examined under the WSIB. (Stock, Ostry, & Labrèche, 2010)

Figure 1: Dynamic process of creation of safety capital (Nuñez & Villanueva, 2011)

Drawbacks in WSIB

 Long working processing of paper time has taken during the implications of work safety insurance board. This long working hours leaves injured or sick worker without payment because they have to wait.  The employees are feeling pressures to return the work as early as possible. The other disadvantages of   WSIB is rejected and ignoring some injuries and offering the other clinical opinions. These are the major drawbacks that create challenges for the employees in assessment of occupational health and safety.

Work stress and job loss prospect

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Assignment on Plan to Attend the conference: Healthcare in Age of Disruption

Plan to attend the conference

This conference is about the Healthcare in the Age of Disruption. This is important conference that needs to be attending because the speaker Rodney Reider leads the Saint Alphonsus Health System. The health care system has vision to transform the delivery of health care and for the trusted health partner for life. This also helps the communities to thrive and grow the health system in the country. In order to attend the conference, this is necessary to have the basic knowledge about the healthcare in the age of disruption. There is also need to bring some notebook or camera in order to record the conference because this can be use in future for some assistance. This is an ethical obligation of the people in community to make aware each other about the importance of the health in life. Therefore, they will attract to these conferences. The conference is about more than one hour and there is in-depth talk about the importance of health and effects of the health on children. Moreover, the leadership of the speaker focuses toward achieving safety, assuring programs quality and services to meet the needs of the community and improving access to health care services. These are all kinds of the conferences and workshops that create awareness among people and students to give attention to other things. The healthcare is the basic and fundamental thing. No one can go to the hospitals therefore, this is necessary to take care of your health. If talk about this video, there are number of things that are describes by the speaker. The use of the technology is very important for finding more solutions to increase life expectancy of the people. For a successful conference, there is need to gather the information and data about topic. Moreover, the preparation to communicate and deliver the knowledge is also necessary because this made the speaker to answers the questions of the listeners or the audience. The attention and good listening skills are mandatory for the audience in order to get benefited from

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Assignment on: Victimization and Services

Victimization

To understand this issues, valid and relevant data, has been used. The gathering of data had a systematic process and only valid evidence or information, has been gather for this purpose. Most of the data, information or evidence has been extracted from the reported crimes and for that FBI and such other agencies have been contacted. The evidence, which they these institutions have provided, helped the organization to classify different cases or types of victimization. In addition, the evidence or data has also helped us understand that in what sort of scenarios, which type of people, are more likely to become a victim of violent or non-violent crime. The data or evidence clearly suggests that people, who know other person, are likely to victimize that person. There is possibility that a person can become victim, of crime, by stranger; however, it is probability that a person would become victim of violent or non-violent crime, by a person, who he/she knows.

The program, to assist or facilitate victims of crime, has been further developed, to ensure that apposite services are provided to those, who have been victimized. In some cases, those who have not reported their victimization or crime against them could also look be looking for such services. In such special cases, a certain process has to be adopted, as without method, no ends can be met. The core is aim is to provide these services to as many people, who are victimized, as we could.

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Assignment Defined retirement plan for Devon Energy and General Motors

Defined retirement plans of Devon Energy Corporation and General Motors

In this project, two American companies Devon Energy (DE) and General Motors (GM) are compared based on their retirement plans and benefits provided to their employees. Before, indulging into explanation brief business summary of both the chosen companies is presented to highlight the nature of their respective businesses.

Business Summary of Devon Energy Corporation and General Motors

Devon Energy is an energy firm which engages in development, exploration and production of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids (NGLSs) in United States and Canada. Company has primary interest in properties located in number of locations such as Permian Basin, Eagle Ford, and Anadarko Basin etc.  Company is currently operating 19000 wells and has started midstream services including transmission, fractionation and processing of crude oil, natural gas and NGLS. It is located in Oklahomacity and was founded in 1971(YahooFinance, 2015). On the other hand, General Motors designs is building and selling cars trucks and automobile parts cross the world. It has number of business segments such as GM financial segment, GM Europe, GM North America and GM international operations. Its primary vehicles are Chevrolet, GMC, Opel, Buick, Cadillac and Vauxhall. IT also offers financing services through its subsidiary GM financial company. The head quarter of GM is located in Detroit Michigan and company was founded in 1897.

Defined Retirement benefit Analysis

 After studying the financial statements (FS) of both the companies, pension plan is compared.  DE has been using both qualified and non-qualified retirement plans.

Qualified Benefits

DE’s qualified plans gives retirement profit for definite Canadian and US employees who meet the specific age criteria and service requirement. DE base the benefit plans on compensation and years of service and are financed from assets held in the plans trusts. Similarly, GM also provides the qualified benefit pensions. According to GM annual reports, qualified plan contributes not less than the minimum required by the applicable regulations and law.  In addition, it pays the pay directly where applicable. GM has statedits defined pension plans for its hourly employees both working in Canada and US, who were hired before 2007 provide the negotiated amount for the each year of service  and other supplementary benefits for employees who are going to retire before their 30 years  of nominal service. In addition, GM has ceased the accrual of defined benefits of its salaried employees in FY12 in both America and Canada.  Non-Qualified benefit

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Microsoft Opens the Gates: Patent, Piracy, and Political Challenges in China

Microsoft Opens the Gates: Patent, Piracy, and Political Challenges in China

  1. In China Microsoft has to face different challenges on business, patents, and governmental level as the challenges faced by Microsoft include Chinese pressure to disclose the technology which is competitive advantage of the company, discrimination based on the procurement policies, number of lawsuits by different local organizations, and others. These challenges seem to increase in the future because Chinese government’s protectionist policies are unique and aggressively followed. Although, these protectionist measures probably tend to decrease gradually into the future because there might be win-win situation for the company and China. It is because Microsoft has plenty of opportunities to share with China so far as software expertises are concerned.
  2. Microsoft is aware of the Chinese political policies which are aimed at transferring the knowledge and expertise to the local companies as well. Therefore, Microsoft aims to transfer expertise at local level as it gives special importance to make the relations better with government at national and local level. For example, it opened IT training center in Wuxi which is aligned with the development initiatives for the city by the government. One of the other initiatives of Microsoft includes investment of $280 million for development of research and development center in Beijing. These transfer of knowledge and expertise at local level is very assisting for China because software industry and industrial growth is on increasing trend in China and Microsoft’s help in this regard is very prospective.
  3. Lower levels of government are vital in dealing for Microsoft in the context of its business prospects in the country. In fact, at national level the government is concerned with technology transfer and protectionist policies while challenges and opportunities presented to Microsoft at lower level are different. Regional and local governments within China have their unique interests which become very important for the corporation especially in the cities and regions where national government is taking serious steps for development. Although, Chinese government make policies at national level but the importance of local governments is very important because they have instrumental role in local procurement, operations, and other strategies.
  4. Microsoft has high stakes in the country because it is one of the biggest global players in the software category and so far as technology and software companies are concerned the risk management options for all companies re same. For example, Google faced unique challenges in China and it has to abandon some functions and features but Microsoft did not do that and aggressively made efforts to abide by and adapt itself according to the rules and regulations of the Chinese environment. Risk management options for Microsoft are wide because it has plenty of options to deliver to the local players in software industry and the challenges posed by the Chinese government are not danger because China is the fastest growing software market and Microsoft is working good in China as compared to other companies because it has wide options so far as the risk management options are concerned.
  5. Microsoft has taken many initiatives which are unique in China from global operations because it has heavy stakes in the fastest growing software market of China. Transferring the expertise and knowledge to local companies might become serious in future because the issue of piracy and theft of competitive advantage is major challenge for the company in China. However, risk management initiatives adopted by China include nurturing partnerships at local level, in-depth relations with China and Chinese corporations, and strategically Microsoft-oriented software center in China so that in future the software trends become oriented with Microsoft software expertise. The transfer of knowledge should be done in rational manner because China is renowned for its piracy and it makes the software by copying them. Thus, Microsoft should deliver local specific knowledge only otherwise transfer of competitive advantage might negatively affect the company into the future.

Not relevant to Google, Microsoft tends to follow the rules and regulations according to local adaptations and Microsoft does not show any indications to change its operations regarding to censorship at internet levels. Google’s challenge on the censorship of internet might put the corporation on challenging conditions as Microsoft might need to ensure censorship as well. For Microsoft, censorship is easier than Google’s decision for it because Google is a search engin

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What is the problem that your organization will address? Describe the context of the Problem?

ABC is the organization that manufacture clothes or shoes, it is the well-organized organization but this organization also have faces some of the challenges, because in this competitive age it is essential for the organization to do something different for competing them. There are many of the other strong brands in this industry that can create problems for the organization. Therefore, company has to make the different or the innovative strategies.

 Although this brand image have the strong position in the minds of people but in this competitive organization have to address all the problems that can create problems for the organization, with this it also essential for attracting the more customers and making them loyal with the organization.

For the success of the organization or for increasing the profit of the organization has to identify the needs of the customers then they have to manufacture products according to their needs. Customers are important assets of any of the organization therefore; they have to give the preference than all other things. In this competitive age thing will also help the organization to make the customers loyal. This organization is running successfully but it is essential to give priority to the customers. (Murphy, 2014)

How will your organization address, manage, or solve the problem?

ABC organization can address this problem by getting the feedbacks of the customers, because customer’s feedback will help them to identify that what are the needs or demands of the customers. After the identification of the demands and needs of the customers, it will be easy for the organization to satisfy them. After addressing the problem, organization can manage this problem, for getting the feedback they have the use the different resources. Then they have to manufacture according to the desires of the customers, this thing will also help the organization to increase their satisfaction level. When the satisfaction level of the customers will increase then more customers will attract towards them, in this way this organization can solve the problem.

This thing will also help the organization in this competitive age to exist or to compete their competitors. In this way, it becomes easy for the organization to expand their business in more countries and to attract the customers to satisfy their needs. (hyken.com/customer-experience-2, 2013)

How is your solution different from what’s already out there?  You need to compare it to  at  least  four  (4)  alternative  organizations also trying  to  address the problem.

In this competitive age, this solution will prove very profitable for the organization, because customers use the different products because they want to look different from others. Therefore, this strategy will help to identify the desires, and then it becomes easy for the organization to satisfy their c customers. Different organizations are using the different strategies for the identification of customer’s demands, because customers are the main or the important asset without the customers organizations are nothing.

ABC organization use emails, facebook or some of the other resources for getting the feedback of the customers. There are many of the other organizations that are addressing this same problem although they are producing the different products like Apple Inc, they are manufacturing the mobile phones according to the desires of the customers.  Wal-Mart, Amazon, and Samsung are the other examples of the organizations that are addressing the same problem and are giving the priority to their customers because they know that without the customers they are noting. Now most of the firms have the focus on their customers, because it is the important way for any of the organization to increase the profit or to attract the more customers. However, these all organizations have the different strategies s for addressing the desires of the customers. Their focus is to know that what are the customers wants and what are the ways that can help in the satisfaction of the customers.

What organizational form (e.g.  Non-profit, foundation, government, NGO, for-profit, partnership organization, hybrid, etc.) Is the best for your organization and why?

Non-profit organization and hybrid organization is I think best forms for our organization. If ABC organization will use their surplus for the future to achieve their mission or goals, in this way it become easy for the organization to expand their business on the international level. When ABC organization will move in more countries, then the profit ratio of the organization will increase.

Non-profit organizational form will help the organization. Although in this, form of the organization, this firm has to face some of the challenges, but in this way, it become easy for the organization to expand their business on the global level or to compete their competitors. When all the shareholders of the ABC organization will work for the common goals then they will do the efforts for the success of the organization with the help of the innovative or the new ideas that is why I think k that it is the best form for ABC organization.

 With this, I think that hybrid is also good way for the organization to get success. Because when this organization will use mix elements, actions logics, value systems and the different sectors of the society like the private sector, public sector or the voluntary sector, in this form, ABC organization have to face some of the tensions. (www.law.cornell.edu, 2000)

These tensions can be the positive or the negative performance related, economics governance and the cultural related affects for the organization. When ABC organization will use the mixes elements, then it become less costly for the organization. They have to bear fewer expenses on the production of the goods or the services. That is the reason that these two forms are best for the development of the ABC organization. Who  will  benefit  from  yo