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Bus Service for Disables (BSD) Public Transportation for Disability People In Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Re: Business proposal plan on public transportation for disable people in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Attached is a document of the business proposal plan for public transportation for disable people in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The plan describes detailed description of the initiative, proposed organizational structure, the actual market analysis, proposed marketing plan, financial/ resource requirement plan, financial feasibility proposed requirement plan, financial feasibility analysis including latest method of financial projection, implementation/ proposed operating plan, key performance measures and summary of strengths and weaknesses of the proposed business plan. There is also evaluation of risk in the business and at the last alternative sources of funding to start the business.

I wish that you would review the proposed plan for coming meeting with me. My recommendation is to start the business immediately because there is huge gap in target market and we should exploit the opportunity as soon as possible.

Contents

Executive Summary. 1

Description of the Initiatives. 2

Organizational Structure. 3

Market Analysis. 5

Marketing Plan. 6

Financial/ Resource Requirement Plan: 7

Financial Feasibility Analysis. 9

Assumptions Table I: 9

Depreciation Table II. 10

Cash Flow Analysis Table III. 11

Implementation operating plan: 14

Key Performance Measures: 15

Summary of Strengths and Weaknesses and Risks. 16

An alternative source of funding: 16

Strong Case: 17

References. 18

Executive Summary    

This project is designed for the disable people residing in the city of Jeddah by the government of Saudi Arabia. This concept is devised by the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA) in Jeddah in the best interest of the people. This project is initiated after the data generated by the independent authority working closely with the transport authority of  Jeddah and conclusive remarks were passed which suggested that a separate facility for Disabale and old was needed to help the aging population in Jeddah.

 It was suggested that disable commuters travelling in other paid bus services have been facing discrimintion and number of complians had increased over the time. This project will be finaced totally by the government. Government can provide the bulk of funds but  government will secure some funds through loans from a local bank. It is epected that this project will cost about 1.8 million Britsh pounds and out of this governmnet of KSA will secure loans of 0.9 million Britsh pounds and rest will be cash funding form government (Peck, 2010).

 The detailed financial anlaysis of the project is conducted and cash flow annlysis and financial statements are constructed to anlayze the  targeted demand with the provision of service (Peng, GLOBAL, 2015). Based on analysis , it was concluded that this project will cost a hefty sum in terms of depreciation and the capital costs it can also be confirmed that the all the proportional changes and the specific trends focus on the point of reducing debt and increasing equity as summed by the five year analysis and government will have to finance the project for life. The revenues figure is an imagunary figure, and shows the total sales which could have generated, if the‘Bus Service for Disables’ (BSD) had been charging for services.

 In addition,  government must have enough resources to fund this project in case of any uneven economic situations or recessionary phases. Because, recessionary phases wipe out the funds and liquidity and such project scould be in danger, so, separate pool of investment is desired, if this project is to be initiated.

Description of the Initiatives

This project is a unique concept device for the disable people residing in the city of Jeddah by the government of Saudi Arabia. This concept is devised by the General Arabian Investment Authority (SAGIA) in Jeddah in the best interest of the people. This is the part of the renewed efforts by the Kingdom to facilitate the lives of it ordinary citizens (ARAB NEWS, 2016). This new development is the initiative has been identified as a royal decree to all the government ministries to use the government endowment to provide incentives to the locals in Saudi Arabia (Planet, et al., 2012).

This is good to serve people, which are disable and cannot contribute in economy success. The most important thing is to try different initiatives to let those disable people to contribute in economy success according to their credibility and potential. This initiative by the Saudi Government is a good initiative to increase role of these disable people and provide a plat form for them to grow and gain success for a long run.

For Instance, this new program can let all people to have effective and lucrative transportation facilities. There is a need of special service for these disable citizens, which has been considered by Saudi Government to provide benefits.  This is necessary for a society to contain different institutes, which can provide benefits to disable people. This is a good initiative to eliminate a society, which hushes up the voice of weak. The purpose is to guide these people towards right path with immense motivation through government assistance.

Since, there have been no adequate systems existing for disable and elderly people in the city therefore this is a welcome move, which will contribute largely towards improving the transportation facilities for the disable people in the city. This project is a testimony of the commitment from the government to improve the welfare of the society and provision of the best first world conditions for its citizens (Al-Jadid, 2013).

This is a new project and currently it is in the pipeline and General Arabian Investment Authority had the meetings with the local transport authority and the contractor who would be building the separate track for the bus service (Gradus, 2012). This concept is unique because it is free and secondly, it will be extended to all the possible bus routes in the city. So, all the citizens residing in the city are expected to get benefit from this new project (Caltenco, Hedvall, & Larsson, 2014). 

Organizational Structure

This new development ‘Bus Service for Disables’ (BSD) will be working under the General Arabian Investment Authority (SAGIA) and will have to report it. But, overall, it will be working autonomously and will have a director of operations (DG) who will head the project. Defining the structure of any start-up is of paramount importance and various roles and duties are documeneted for th company from the beginning (Hull, 2013).  This organization will have folllowing structure:

Figure 1: Self Art

The top level: Managing Director- The job is to develop strategies

The secondary level is Deputy Manager Operations for all kinds of operations being done within organization. The whole dealing of employees is being made under the manager operations effectively. The second level aspect is Deputy Manager Finance with proper aspect through managing investors to support operations in organization.

This is necessary to have a good structure of newly developed bust services for disable people in Saudi Arabia. This is vital for the government to consider effective management with different professionals. The most important thing is to develop this organization with a strong structure and culture, which can bring a real change in society. The change should be seen in this society and these initiatives will be justified in future.

It was believed that carefully crafted structure will ensure that project remain transparent and is fully audited every quarter by the independent body selected by the General Arabian Investment Authority (SAGIA). This will be expected to gravitate the management towards the clearly defined ideas and  direction for the project and BSD will have total 60 buses and there will be bus service running from 6 A.M to 12 P.M. and there will be 250 employees working under this project.

This is a fact that a good structure of any organization will lead all stakeholders towards success. For Instance, the bus services for disabled people in the Saudi Arabia is a good initiative, but needs to be pertinent with its strategy, which is to build diable people to contribute to economic success and improve living standard. It will be based on its organizational structure, as it can carry all stakeholders with same strategies and goals.

The deputy manager, operations are expected to formulate the operational activities and will work closely with finance manager to ensure that project works smoothly. Finance managers have a great track record as he headed many projects prior to this as finance managers. DG has working experience on similar projects in Qatar and Dubai Metro. Deputy Operation Manager worked as a deputy manhngers in Chandigarh metro India, and has extensive experience of running such projects.

Market Analysis

This service will not have any other competeitors, since it is a free service, therefore, unless the company decides to not use all the possibel routes, it can fcae decline in number of users as it wont be possible for comuters to first pay through once bus and reach BSD netowrk and use it. BSD is expected to be highly successful as there have been data generated related to number of disable commuters travelling in other paid bus services every day and have been facing discrimintion and number if complians have increased over the time. This data was generated by the independent authority working closely with the transport authority of  Jeddah and conclusibve remarks were passed which suggested that a separate facility forDisabale and old was needed to help the aging population in Jeddah (Caltenco, Hedvall, & Larsson, 2014).

Therefore, based on this information it is expected that service will be highly beneficial for the needy and it is needed in the city. In addition, as number of  foreign tourist all vsisit the city and number  of them are usually in very old age, therefore, it is believed that commuters numbers will definitly will be high and  will help them in commuting across the city.This servie is free, so there will be no charge for the disables and old people. People over 60 will be considered old and all they have to do is to show the card to the bus driver to prove their age to use the service. In short, government will be responsible for all the expenditure and funds will be allocated to the suthorities for capital expenditure, salaries and other maintenance services (Gradus, 2012).

Marketing Plan

 It is expected that Jeddah tarnsport authority will comnduct extensive publicity for the project. Since, Suadi governmment has been facing acute problem to balance their books after the continuous decline in the oil prices which have forced the government to cuts the spending and apply the auterity measures. Since, the government runs a welfare states and after announcing the enormous budget cuts, governmnet has faced great crtiticim. Therefore, it is expected that government will run extensive media compaign to tell the Suadi public regarding this new project for the disables in Jeddah to promote its soft image (Loyn, 2011).

Marketing Mix

Product/services

In a marketing plan, this is an imporant aspect. the service for diable people in Saudi SArabia is to provide quality and effective transportation for doable people. This is a key services along with different cards, to be issued to deserved people. This is to mention that quality is not to be compromised regarding this service to depict change for a long run. The service is to be initiated to serve people and avioid frustration from socoiety, which has to be justigfied. It will be elaborated in marketing plan, as it is a key aspect to consider for the management.

Price

As mentioned, this service is regarding disable people in the Saudi Arabia. This is planned by marketing management that the management with come up with penetration pricing staegy for customers. This is true that these people are not able to deal with high rates of transpiration in a county. The purpose will be justified with effective and efficient procingb with low cost services.

Place                                                                                                                   

The placement has significance in this project, as the management has a plan to expand in all cities of this country to serve disable people. Obviously, the disable people can be seen everywhere and the purpose is to provide services with any trouble.

Promotion

The advertising will come into the life when the management will look forward to consider different traditional and social media channels. The purpose is to attract the customers and let them know that the governet is cvaring for them. the promotion iwill include free services on different national events ie well. This will be a perfect combination of traditional and modern media chanels to atttract aand convinec diable people to aqquire these services.

There will be separate allocation for the adverstising for the project:

Electronic Media campaign: Goevernment will show the short ads on local Jeddah TV for advertising.

Newspaper Ads: Ads will be given in the newspapers to make awareness among the public regarding routes and facilites provided onbaord.

In addition, the diasble people residing in the city will be informed regarding the bus service to inform them about this service.As this is a free bus service, therefore, agenda is not to take market share but to get credit for this free service started for the disable services.

Financial/ Resource Requirement Plan:

            Depending on the business proposal and feasibility study conducted, a new business can find number of sources to finance its business operations. Bus services come under the service industry category and there are three different types of capital, which are required, form managing its operations.

Fixed Capital: The BSD must have adequate funding to buy the fixed capital such as building, Buses, Maintenance center and Bus Depot.

Working Capital:BSD will also require a working capital to manage its operations and must possess enough liquid funds to balance its budget and annual planning.

Funds generated through multiple sources could be categorized into two main forms:

Equity

Equity capital can be generated by issuing shares. It totally depends on the investors that how much he trusts the venture and risks associated with and provides equity capital based on risk analysis. Equity holder has right to owner ship of the business. Some sources of equity funding are:

  • Personal Savings
  • Partners
  • Family and Friends (F&F’s)
  • Venture capital companies
  • Public stock sale
  • Corporations

Debt

Debt is another source of funding which requires the borrower to repay the funds with interest. By securing the debt, business creates a liability that has to pay being considered expensive as compared to equity financing. Some of the sources of debt capital are:

  • Trade Credit
  • Commercial banks
  • Equipment Suppliers
  • Saving and loan associations
  • Commercial finance companies

Based on the requirements and risk associated with the business and availability of the finds from different sources, a business can secure loan from any of these sources. The lender must be satisfied with the viability of business plan to grant funding (Loyn, 2011).

However, for this project all the money is generated from government. Therefore, it is government’s discretion that from which resource, it wants to fund the project. It is assumed here that government is allocating major chunk of the investment form its own resources and rest of the funds are generated from a bank as loan (Peck, 2010).

Financial Feasibility Analysis

This section reflects the financial feasibility of the project. For this purpose, some assumptions are taken into considerations that are given below:

Assumptions Table I:

Assumptions
   
Depreciation Straight-Line method is used  
  salvage values for building and equipment is 750000 and 650000 respectively  
   
  Useful life for building is 20 years  
  Useful life for Buses is 15years  
Cost of capital 12%  
Interest  on loan 0.02  Only interest will be paid in first 5 years, After years, 2% of the principal amount will start getting repaid
 
Total Bank loan $900,000.00  
Interest payment $18,000.00 per month  
Yearly payment 240000  
Inflation rate 2%        

Depreciation Table II

Depreciation          
Buses and Equipment -$ 2,000,000.00  $        12,500.00  $        12,500.00  $        12,500.00  $        12,500.00
Building & Depot -$     100,000.00  $        23,333.33  $        23,333.33  $        23,333.33  $        23,333.33
Total    $        35,833.33  $        35,833.33  $        35,833.33  $        35,833.33
Net PPE    $  1,764,166.67  $  1,728,333.33  $  1,692,500.00  $  1,656,666.67

Cash Flow Analysis Table III

Bus Service for Disables (BSD) Cashflow Analysis
  Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Buses and Equipment -$  1,000,000.00  
Building & Depot -$     800,000.00  
Revenues  $  1,200,000.00  $  1,500,000.00  $  1,600,000.00  $  1,650,000.00 1,680,000.00
Less:  
Bus Auto Serves -$     520,000.00 -$     550,000.00 -$     580,000.00 -$     610,000.00 -640000
Gas Cost -$        30,000.00 -$        35,000.00 -$        40,000.00 -$        45,000.00 -50000
Supplies -$     500,000.00 -$     550,000.00 -$     600,000.00 -$     650,000.00 -700,000.00
License Fees -$        15,000.00 -$        16,000.00 -$        17,000.00 -$        18,000.00 -19000
Total -$  1,065,000.00 -$  1,151,000.00 -$  1,237,000.00 -$  1,323,000.00 -1409000
Depreciation  
Cost (Building)  $        12,500.00  $        12,500.00  $        12,500.00  $        12,500.00 12500
Equipment  $        23,333.33  $        23,333.33  $        23,333.33  $        23,333.33 23333.33333
Add back:  $        35,833.33  $        35,833.33  $        35,833.33  $        35,833.33 35833.33333
Net Income  $      170,833.33  $      384,833.33  $      398,833.33  $      362,833.33 306,833.33
Plus: Building Salvage Value 750,000.00
Plus: Equipment Salvage value         650,000.00
 Cash Flow’s -$  1,800,000.00  $      170,833.33  $      384,833.33  $      398,833.33  $      362,833.33  $  306,833.33
Interest payment on bank loan -$     240,000.00 -$     240,000.00 -$     240,000.00 -$     240,000.00 -$ 240,000.00
Net CF’s -$  1,800,000.00 -$        69,166.67  $      144,833.33  $      158,833.33  $      122,833.33  $    66,833.33
NPV ($1,354,692.36)  
IRR 73%  
Payback period 1.6 Years
  Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Current ratio 8.65 8.26 8.36 8.65 8.75
Return on Equity 0.09 0.22 0.23 0.21 0.76
Return on Assets 0.04 0.1 0.1 0.09 0.08
Cash ratio -0.34028 0.551389 0.609722 0.459722 6.059722

            Based on the detailed anlaysis conducted the revenue shown is basically  will be the ticket issued but not money will be received but it will be helpful in generting the total revenue as BSD is determined to know the total cost paid by the BSD in financing the service (Walker & Butler, 2010).

Implementation operating plan:

            Once, the initial plan is crafted, it will require a road map to implement the plan devised. For this purpose, a committte wil be formed which will be headed by the General Arabian Investment Authority (SAGIA) officer reviewing the proposal (ARAB NEWS, 2016). He will first appoint the key people on the important posts such as

  • Director operations
  • Deputy director operations
  • Finance Manager
  • Procurement Manger
  • Service Quality Assurance Manager

This process will require at least a month. First, advertisment will be published for these key posts, interviewes will be conducted and final hiring will take place atleast a month or so. Once, key posts are sorted, drivers for buses will be hired. This process wil take minimum 2-3 months in completeion because it is a lengthy process for recruting the right people to drive disable people and their assistant who will assist in loading and unloading of the passengers However, meanwhile, the procurment manager will consult the different companies across the world forbuying 60 buses. This will constitute key negotiations, because this process deals with the capital spending in this project (Peng, Global Strategy, 2013).

In addition, the the place for building the Bus depo will be selected and new building will be buil, which will require minimum of 6 months time duration. Finally and most importantly,  the work related with the making a sperate lanes for buses in areas where they are missing will take atleast a year. So, most of the proceess will be completed with in a year (Walker & Butler, 2010).

Key Performance Measures:

It has been seen in the past that no doubt that it takes a lot of effort to start a project and successfully complete it and impement it but what is more important in this aspect is themeasurment of its success factors and ensuring that expected quality is not only maintained but also enahnced. This requires that adequate systems are created which are good enough tomaintain the quality of service. Therefore, to ensure quality, a Quality Assurnace department  will be established and some parameters will be designed to check the quality of the bus service. This will include

  • The feedbacks from disables passengers,
  •  A reviewal through cameras installed in buses.
  • The timings of busses will be monitored
  •  Punctuality of driver
  • Conditions of the buses will be monitored to ensure that disable people get the best facilities possible.

In case of any deviations form usual procedures, a corrective actions will be adviced and new proposals will be given to avoid any such issues in the future.In case, if BSD lacks in this department, it will miff the disable people and will kill the objective of the bus service, therefore, it is crucial that key performance measure procedure are followed and quality servie officers work colsely with the bus drivers and assistanst to improve the services in BSD.

Summary of Strengths and Weaknesses and Risks

            This project is designed to facilate the elderly and disable people of Jeddah, though, the project is supported the government but the source of funding from governmnet are the funding from governmnet endownments and debt issued form bank. This is the biggest negativity of the program because it is dependent on debt and debt must be paid back and ultimate payer of debt is government itself because government is not funding entirly with cash from its own pocket. So, the biggets concern is:

  • What if oil prices go further down and government struggles to balance its budgets, it will put extra pressure on governmnet to deal with its finances and pay debt on loan every month.
  • Secondly, if governmnet fails to diversify its investments and cannot create enough alternate sources to fund its operations, it will struggle to cope with the payment of the project. It will have to pay salaries and all administative and other expenses of running thi sproject and it could be a heft sum.

An alternative source of funding:

       Therefore, there must be a complete agreement on provision of funds even in case of the any macroeconomic problem to deal with issues, so, there should be a sperate pool of funds which can help the government in financing its operations. Otherwise, this projet will fail to continue in long term. In addition, government could decide that there is a specific investment abroad or specific source from which the expenses for this project are paid from.

Consideration of Implementation, Operations, Marketing and Financial Issues:

at lowest level whenever business have pre thinking about managing business with only available resources only. The available resources as well best one is determining business needs and The first things that should be enough for making a successful business plan is about the way of managing the responsibilities. The consideration towards implementation of business plan means there should be proper ways of implementation and it is possible through allocating responsibilities with best way.

 The proper organized way of operation within organization is best one to successful implementation of business plan activities. The production process should have relevant hires and suppliers should have proper way fo selection. The proper consideration about the marketing aspect is to evaulate functsions that show either business plan would be beneficial for strategic advanatge marketplace or not. The marketing aspect should be supportive towards day to day operations as well. Thee financial issues would be costs in proper way.

Strong Case:

Finally, the business would be successful if business harness afore said plan in detail. One can say that it is not possible to be a market leader from one day but it is inability to do not develop in 100 days. The organization consider as successful whenever it created a new things in timeline to access in best way. The approach of business is realistic one because it can assure through specific way while dealing with specific function related to organization. The strong case would develop when there is no communication gap between different departments to ensure accountability.

References

Al-Jadid, M. S. (2013). Disability in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J, 34(5), 453-460.

ARAB NEWS. (2016). SAGIA introduces new licensing program for innovators. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.arabnews.com/corporate-news/news/913431

Caltenco, H., Hedvall, P.-O., & Larsson, A. (2014). Universal Design 2014: Three Days of Creativity and Diversity: Proceedings of the International Conference on Universal Design, UD 2014 Lund, Sweden, June 16-18, 2014. IOS Press.

Gradus, Y. (2012). Desert Development: Man and Technology in Sparselands. Springer Science & Business Media.

Hull, P. (2013, February 6). Retrieved November 06, 2015, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/patrickhull/2013/02/06/why-defining-a-corporate-structure-for-startups-matters/

Loyn, D. (2011). Frontline: Reporting from the World’s Deadliest Places. Summersdale Publishers LTD .

Peck, M. C. (2010). The A to Z of the Gulf Arab States. Scarecrow Press.

Peng, M. W. (2015). GLOBAL. Cengage Learning.

Peng, M. W. (2013). Global Strategy. Cengage Learning.

Planet, L., Ham, A., Butler, S., O’Neill, Z., Pozzan, O., Robinson, D., et al. (2012). Lonely Planet Middle East. Lonely Planet.

Saptco.com.sa. (2016). VIP Service. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from https://www.saptco.com.sa/Buses/vip.aspx?lang=en-US

Walker, J., & Butler, S. (2010). Oman, UAE & Arabian Peninsula. Lonely Planet.

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Family structure of the United States

  1. How do the 1950s represent an anomaly in family structure of the United States ? It may be helpful to describe the trends of the period s before and after the 1950s in order to illustrate the contrast.

The variations of racial ethnic and note of class associated with the portrait of American marriage. A half-century ago poor as well as non-poor children are same towards the family structure, where most of the children lived with the twp parent families. On the other hand, single parent families are increasing among the poor and non-poor families. The differences in family structure specifically associated with the demonstrations of social class pronounced more than fifty year ago.  The representation of anomaly in family structure provides the detailed illustrations of contacts in essential and adequate away.  Before 1950, the relative age of median is high and their family structure based on the typical marriages, after 1950, the anomaly adult’s marriage earlier, where the Media age of marriage goes to climb. (Sawhill, 2013)

2- Describe the life-style of working-class Americans in both the early and later stages of marriage. Discuss the forces acting behind these patterns.

The formation of differences in family not only concerned with the family values, but also concerned with the upward mobility in the society. Such upward mobility in the society indicates the equal values of opportunity for the children. Towards the breakdown of traditional family, the working class of American reveals the major consolidations of their life styles of all races. Such trends are overwhelming the threatening to US, which is more than the class, based society.   The well educated middle and upper class parents forming the two parent families with the working class of single mother.   The striking families between black American at the earliest stage in the history, on the other hand the working class Americans demonstrates cultural versus structural explanations of poverty.  (Sawhill, 2013)

3- List the ingredients of social ritual and explain how love can be analyzed as a ritual. What is the result if an element is missing?

               Bodily co-presence, shared mood and mutual focus of attention arte the main ingredients of the interaction of rituals.   The rituals are the set of activities specifically involve the objects, words and gestures that are performed in the sequestered art place. The tradition of community is link with the social rituals with the community of religious.  If an element is missing that provides to demolish the social rituals of the society that are unable to meet their traditional essentially.   The processes are outcomes are the main ingredients towards the rituals.  Certain activities are arranged for attention in the one participant at one time.  While the mutual focus of attention link with the social musical ways.  The establishment of shared mood indicates the interaction ritual with the formations of emotional transformers for the demonstrations of negative emotions into positive ones in essential and adequate manner. (Edwards, 2016)

 References:

  Edwards, J. (2016). Oxford Handbook of Music Therapy. Oxford University Press.

Sawhill, I. V. (2013). Family Structure: The Growing Importance of Class. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.brookings.edu/research/articles/2013/01/family-structure-class-sawhill

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Health Issues

Name

Instructor

Subject

Date

Health Issues

            This is good easy, as it covers all information about heath issue in this world. This is necessary for any students to have a good command on his topic and navigate different resources to derive valuable information. Regarding heath issue, this is also important to find modern causes of different diseases. This is good to identify different heath issues in a society. I think this can be a flaw in this study for me, as value regarding modern disease identification has not been justified (Astho.org).

            This is good to mention that the basic solution of different health issues is exercise and balanced diet. However, this is a fact that there are immense diseases, which a proper need diagnose. This is effective to include a real time example in study is well to know the facts, bodies conditions and diagnose procedures. For Instance, this study tells us that cancer is called tumor at its first stage in a human body and should be treated on time to avoid possible death (Cha).  

            Now, the world is globalised and we can have immense information regarding cancer treatments. For Instance, in developed countries, there is modern machinery to diagnose cancer, and late treatment has been introduced fort patients. This is interesting to include example of patients but proper and updated information is necessary for reader to further understanding (Gupta).

            This is important to guide people to stay fir and take care of their heath. However, this is vital to state in this paper that how people can take care of their health in presence of modern diseases (Nathe). For Instance, obesity in children is due to junk foods in this modern era. The best possible treatment and care of health can be justified through avoidance of junk food than doing exercise on regular basis (REDDY).

Work Cited

Astho.org. Public Health Issues to Watch in 2015. 3 March 2015. 2 May 2016 <http://www.astho.org/StatePublicHealth/Public-Health-Issues-to-Watch-in-2015/3-3-15/>.

Cha, Ariana Eunjung. Top health issues you need to pay attention to in 2016. 31 December 2015. 2 May 2016 <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2015/12/31/top-health-issues-you-need-to-pay-attention-to-in-2016/>.

Gupta, Sanjay. America’s 9 biggest health issues. 5 January 2015. 2 May 2016 <http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/02/opinion/gupta-health-challenges-2015/>.

Nathe, Margarite. Top 10 Global Health Issues to Watch in 2015. 23 January 2015. 2 May 2016 <http://www.intrahealth.org/blog/top-10-global-health-issues-watch-2015#.VybXd_l97cs>.

REDDY, SUMATHI. Year in Review: Top 10 Health Issues of 2015. 29 December 2015. 2 May 2016 <http://www.wsj.com/articles/year-in-review-top-10-health-issues-of-2015-1451341107>.

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Peer Interview

Interview #2:                                      Peer Interview                                   45 points

Everyone’s voyage has been different, though we’ve all landed up here in the same location; getting to know the different histories behind who we are brings us closer together, and can help us learn from each other.  Through a random drawing, you will be paired up with a classmate to interview, who will then interview you in turn. Discuss their adjustment to higher education, to Cedar Crest College, to their intended major, any other majors they pursued or contemplated.  What study strategies do they find most useful, and why? What strategies have they found to be ineffective, and why? Discuss the obstacles that they encountered in college so far, and the techniques they used to overcome those obstacles.  How have their individual experiences benefited them? What are some goals they have set for themselves and in what positive ways are they working to achieve them?  Report on the specific techniques you used to facilitate a respectful interview, as well as the similarities and differences of their experience to your own experience.  Be prepared to discuss this interview in class via round table discussion.  

  1. Their adjustment to higher education

My question was:

What was your previous background towards higher education and other educational programs?

  • Their adjustment to Cedar Crest College

My question was:

What adjustment was made towards cedar crest college and learning outcomes?

  • Their intended major

My question was:

What was your intended major in the educational field to obtain desired aim and objectives in the life?

  • Any other majors they pursued or thought about, or are thinking about

My question was:

What other major subjects that you put though in thinking could be achieved in the gaining required credit hours?

  • Questions to find out  about any of the obstacles that they encountered so far in college

My question was:

What are the main challenges that are faced during the course learning and how it could be encountered in the college?

  • What techniques they used to overcome those obstacles, what has worked?

My question was:

What kind of parameters needs to recognize to confront obstacles?

  • How have their experiences in life benefited them in college?

My question was:

In what extent would feelings leads to achieve desired benefits from experience of life?

  • What are some goals they have set for themselves (long term, short term, educational, personal, it’s up to each of you how much you want to share)?

My question(s) was/were:

What are short term goals of life?

 What are short term goals of life?

What would you feel the desired educational personal agenda helpful in life?

  • What positive ways are they working to achieve them?

My question(s) was/were:

What behaviors and positive attitudes provide the indication for the success of life?

After conducting the brief interview itself: 

  1. Report on techniques you used to facilitate a respectful interview (listing and relating to SPECIFIC examples from chapter 5 in the textbook)

Structured as well as unstructured interviews techniques utilized for obtaining respectful interview.

  • Research previous history
  • Be prepared
  • Show enthusiasm
  • Provide specific examples
  • Follow up
  1. And report on similarities and difference of their experience to your own experience.  

The similarities reports and difference provides the in-depth experiences for the interview execution.   The similarities would be placed in terms of experiences and goals of life to indicate the goals would be recognized in the formation of high performance in their careers.

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Social media audit and content analysis Commercial website

Social media audit and content analysis

            Te social media audit is an important tool to evaluate what us working across social media channels. For instance, a commercial website can undertake a social media audit to inspect the traffic of the clients on the social media and the visiting pattern of the clients. This information is quite important in order to assess the success of the website. In the present paper, the social media content analysis was performed to analyze the success of the commercial website that is engaged in the online selling of the clothes for both the men and women. The client asked to evaluate the customer traffic on the website and the inquiry that is most valued to the consumers.

Search term: “New arrival”

            The search term used in the social media audit was new arrival. It means that the customers are looking for the new inventory in the apparel warehouse. The customer was also keen to observe that how many customers searched for that inquiry form the last six weeks. Moreover, he was also interested that whether the searching trend was increased or decreased over time. This is the time for seasonal peak and the customers are looking for the arrival of the new entry in the ware house for the clothing. The audit reveals that the customer’s tendency to search the term “new arrival” is significant at the first week.

             The tendency tends to increase over time and decreases over time. This implies that the when customer do not find any new item in the inventory they loose interest to search for the new items in the inventory of the websites. Therefore, this information is an important source if the understanding that the online inventory must possess the latest and up-to-date designs and the outfits for the customers. Negligence in that regard could be harmful for the business and the profitability. 

Figure 1: Number of search terms used by the customer on the website during the time period of last six weeks.

                 There is also other important messages and information that can also be identified. Foe instance, the role of the feedback is very important. For instance, the message sent and received, new subscribers and news customers are also important sources of information that is needed in order to evaluate the business. This information is also included in the social media audit. Once, the client ha such information, he/she has clear idea that what is going in the business. Moreover, what the customer is thinking about the business and how the business can be improved in that regard. Therefore, customer can then adopt strategies with the help of that information to improve the condition of the business in a positive direction. This direction could be fruitful and positive in that regard. The details are given in the table 1.

Particulars Numbers
Incoming messages 1080
Outgoing messages 566
New subscribers 345
New customers 234

Table 1: Social media audit information

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“The development of a fully integrated marketing information system (MIS) to effectively achieve a state of equilibrium”

Introduction

Discussing the marketing we come to know that marketing is the operation in which we actually attract the customers and try to retain them as well. If we look around us we come to know that all over the world every company is doing marketing. The marketing department is one of the most important things in here and it needs to be taken care of. The information kept in the marketing is very important and useful in every aspect as well.

            Here we come to know that there are many management concepts that need to be discussed in here. If we look into the detail, then we come to know that when the earth evaluates at that time and after that people come to know that there are some products which everyone wants. Brien and Stafford in their work has shown the imporatnce of MIS tool in mrekting research and have empahsized that this tool can asist the firms in exploting new dimensions of drowth and properity. Using MIS brought the time when someone from them made the products so what they did is what need in the market was and they just sell that (Marshall, 1996).

After that, there comes a concept for the customization, in which the customers demanded the products in the way they want. However, right now the thing, which needs to be focused, is that the marketing concept came and in here the manufacturer itself need to market the product, tell people about the importance or the benefits and in this way attracts the customer so that the sales could be increased of the company and they could progress (Brien and Stafford, 2010).   

Gray, Peltier and Schibrowsky have also focused on the importance of marketing systems in the current age while Layton has discussed how marketing systems can play a role in order to improve the systems. Malhotra, Marshall, Meek, Miller, Sinha, Wiid, Diggines, Zwick and Dholakia all have emphasized on how marketing information systems can infleunce the ffeciy of any any frim and the way it collects data from the merkt for further analysis. However, in this paper, I will go to discuss the marketing information systems that what are they and what was the reason and it was introduced by the time. However, the state of equilibrium needs to be achieved as well by marketing. In the following paragraphs, the details of the MIS as how equilibrium is achieved have been discussed in detail (Sinha, 2016).

Marketing Concept

Here we will come to know that the marketing concept is one of the most important things, which needs to be seen in here. If we look into the topic then there are the couple of confusions that needs to be discussed before. Looking at the MIS, it stands for marketing information system this needs to be understood. However, it needs to be looked that actually it is the person or anything, which helps in the analysis or the presenting of the marketing data at any platform in the world. The important thing to focus in here is that the MIS actually are the tools that are helpful for the marketers in the marketing or collecting the data so that it could be saved and in near future that can be used in the market (Miller, 2011).

The marketing concept in here, we come to know that marketing is so important and to increase the efficiency of the decision makers or the management the MIS is used in here. The marketing concepts and theories have become the large part of today’s world.  In the new world, it is the fact that no one could become successful in any kind of business without an effective marketing and marketing plans.  According to Philip Kotler, he has described as the people, equipment, tools that are helpful in the effective decision making by managing, storing or analyzing the data effectively together. However if there would be good decisions in accordance with the MIS, the equilibrium will be automatically be achieved in here (Gray, Peltier and Schibrowsky, 2012).

Pros & Cons of MIS tool

Looking at the Nature and pros& cons of MIS tool, we come to know that there are many advantages and on the same time, there are disadvantages as well. Looking at a couple of MIS tools we come to know that online database is one of the examples. Further, the WebPages, ERP, EDI, Big data and others are good examples of the Marketing information system. There are some of the inconsistencies can also be seen in here, on the other hand, there are advantages as well. The tool could be very fast as compared to the human brain. On the other hand, it is the fact that online marketing and marketing through the online structure and market is quite effective in the modern world (Sinha, 2016).

Another thing, which can be seen, is that the storage problem is over in this case and it is an important thing as well. The accuracy of the data is also an advantage of the MIS. However, there are the couple of disadvantages of MIS which can be It can be seen that the electronic device could be inconsistency as it is the machine and the technical fault can occur at any time. The response rate could be low at their also which needs to be fixed as well (Layton, 2007).

State of equilibrium

Now looking at the state of equilibrium we come to know that there needs to be a fair thing in between the cost of the market and the quantity. The price- quality, the cost- quantity and other equilibriums need to be checked in this context so that the equilibrium could be achieved. However, it can be seen that the MIS is a tool, which actually helps the marketers in achieving the equilibrium so that they could grow, and they could expand as well. As better decisions could be made in this regard, therefore, there would be no problems at all at any point of time. However, it can be seen that the MIS is a good tool and it can be used by the internal and the externally. On the other hand, the Marketing concepts have made things easier for all the tools and technologies of the MIS. Looking at it, we come to know that the internal factors actually include the internal departments of the company that is including in the company. However, there is a very useful application of MIS overall (Wiid and Diggines, 2010).

Discussion

Here we can see that the marketing concepts have been discussed in the above paragraphs that how marketing actually came into existence and we can also see that what was the need and want of the marketers in the passage as well. However, it can be seen that only marketing concepts cannot do anything. They need the MIS tools so that the proper management could be seen in here. The MIS tools are quite effective in any region and section of the marketing and marketing field (Zwick and Dholakia, 2008).   

The MIS tools actually help humans so that the data could be stored, managed and analyzed in a good way so that the decisions for the businesses could be taken in a well and organized manner. Therefore, we can say that when marketing and the MIS are linked it moves towards the state of equilibrium that is achieved and the success is guaranteed. Here we can also see that with the help of marketing and MIS both, the decisions are made better, a better analysis could be seen and the ultimate goal, which is to achieve success, is achieved (Meek and Meek, 2012).

Conclusion

If we conclude the discussion, we come to know that the importance of marketing concepts has been discussed. The correspondence with the marketing concepts that have been discussed in the essay and the MIS can be looked that both are important for the success of the state of equilibrium. Here we have seen that how the marketing concepts have started and got to a stage where a manufacturer needs to attract a person so that product could be sold. However, it can be seen that MIS tools are the important things that are included in the market. Without them, there was not a concept that equilibrium could be` achieved.

However, it can be seen that MIS is working all over the globe in the good companies and the reason is seen that the success is the vision, the state of equilibrium will be achieved only if the best of all will be in business. We can see that in the body Discussion have been given and it is stated in the detail that how the marketing concept and the MIS are important for the company. We can see that with the emergence of both the state of equilibrium can be achieved easily. This is the reason we can say that MIS is one of the most important tools in the marketing if any company wants to achieve the height of success. To further emphasize the information discussed in this paper the works of Gray, Peltier, Schibrowsky, Layton Malhotra, Marshall, Meek, Miller, Sinha, Wiid, Diggines, Zwick and Dholakia have been taken and they all are aligned with the same ideology that marekting system have a major role to play and in there works have dicussed various aspects with which it can asist any frm in any market.

Concluding all the discussing given here, I would like to say that in my opinion, the marketing concepts are the base points which needs to be considered at all times. Nevertheless, the MIS is the tool, which is used by the companies for the ease of success. Further, combining both we can say that the state of equilibrium is achieved and the heights of success are reached. The statement is hence proved that “the development of a fully integrated marketing information system (MIS) to effectively achieve a state of equilibrium”.

(Words Count: 1,377)

Work Cited

Brien, R.H. and Stafford, J.E. (2010) Readings in marketing information systems: a new era in marketing research, University of Michigan: Houghton Mifflin.

Gray, D.M., Peltier, J.W. and Schibrowsky, J.A. (2012) ‘The Journal of Marketing Education : Past, Present, and Future’, Journal of Marketing Education, vol. 34, no. 3, December, pp. 217-237.

Layton, R.A. (2007) ‘Marketing Systems—A Core Macromarketing Concept’, Journal of Macromarketing, vol. 27, no. 3, September, pp. 227-242.

Malhotra, N.K. (2008) Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, 5th edition, Pearson Education India.

Marshall, K.P. (1996) Marketing Information Systems: Creating Competitive Advantage in the Information Age, illustrated edition, Pennsylvania State University: Boyd & Fraser.

Meek, H. and Meek, R. (2012) Strategic Marketing Management, Routledge.

Miller, J. (2011) Marketing Information System, unabridged edition, GRIN Verlag.

Sinha, G. (2016) ‘Responding to Complexity: Microfinance MIS Service Providers as Complex Adaptive Systems’, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies, vol. 1, no. 2, July, pp. 163-180.

Wiid, J. and Diggines, C. (2010) Marketing Research, Juta and Company.

Zwick, D. and Dholakia, N. (2008) ‘Infotransformation of Markets: Introduction to the Special Issue on Marketing and Information Technology’, Journal of Macromarketing, vol. 28, no. 4, December, pp. 318-325.

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which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon

  1. Which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon? methane *propyne nonane methyl 2. The general name for hydrocarbons with at least one triple covalent bond is __. alkenes alkyls alkanes *alkynes 3. What is the name of the
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  2. Which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon? methane *propyne nonane methyl 2. The general name for hydrocarbons with at least one triple covalent bond is __. alkenes alkyls alkanes *alkynes 3. What is the name of the smallest

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kim
a gaseous hydrocarbon reacts completely with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. given the following data, determine (delta)HoF for hydrocarbon: (delta)Horxn=-2044.5kj/mol hydrocarbon (delta)HoF CO2= -393.5kj/mol (delta)HoF H2O = -242kj/mol

asked by chemistry on April 20, 2008
chemistry
combustion analysis of a hydrocarbon produced: 33.01 g CO2 and 13.51 g H2O Calculate the empirical formula of the Hydrocarbon. I got CH5 but that doesn’t seem right? how do i do this problem?

asked by ALISON on September 11, 2011
CHEM
What is the major product from an elimination reaction starting with 2-bromo-1-methylcyclohexane? would it be: a) 1-methyl-1-cyclohexene b) a cyclohexane/ene with a double bond off of one C – basically the cyclohexane shape with =CH2 off of it (I don’t

asked by k on March 12, 2008
Organic Chemistry
“Cabbage leaves are coated with a hydrocarbon of molecular formula C29H60. What purpose might this hydrocarbon coating serve?” This is a question from a textbook. Anything helps!!

asked by ryancon on February 14, 2019
chemistry
an unknown alcohol reacts with sodium salt but further tests show the compound to be an aliphatic hydrocarbon. what structural unit is probably present in the hydrocarbon?

asked by jen on March 24, 2018
chem 1411
A combustion analysis of a 0.00134g sample (CxHy) of a hydrocarbon yields 0.00375g of CO2 and 0.00164g of H2O. What is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon?

asked by JACI WINLOW on October 18, 2016

chemistry
an unknown alcohol reacts with sodium salt but further tests show the compound to be an aliphatic hydrocarbon. what structural unit is probably present in the hydrocarbon?

asked by jen on March 31, 2018
Chemistry
Methyl linoleate is one of the common components of biodiesel. As an alternative fuel, Methyl linoleate reacts completely with oxygen (O2) to make carbon dioxide and water. Balance the chemical equation. How many kilograms of oxygen are required to react

asked by Shell on May 19, 2011
chemistry
Outline the following synthesis: a) 2 – methyl propene -> 2-methyl-2-propanol. b) 3 –ethylpentene -> carbon dioxide, water and 2-ethylbutanoic acid. c) 2 methyl-2-pentene -> 2-chloro-2-methylpetane and 3-chloro-2-methylpentane d) 1-ethylcyclohexene ->

asked by aiman on August 15, 2015
science
Methane is a natural gas, petrol is a liquid and wax is a solid. So explain the difference in phases or states of the molecules/compounds by reffering to the IMF

asked by Anonymous on February 27, 2011
Chemistry
10cm^3 of aa hydrocarbon was completely combusted in 200cm^3 of O2. It was found that there was 20cm^3 of O2 remaining and the volume of CO2 produced was 120cm^3. Determine the formula of the hydrocarbon.

asked by Nadya on May 5, 2013
Chemistry
10cm^3 of aa hydrocarbon was completely combusted in 200cm^3 of O2. It was found that there was 20cm^3 of O2 remaining and the volume of CO2 produced was 120cm^3. Determine the formula of the hydrocarbon.

asked by Nadya on May 5, 2013
Chemistry
Methane is formed in landfills by the action of certain bacteria on buried organic matter. If a sample of methane collected from a landfill has a volume of 500. mL at 744. torr and 22. °C, how many grams of methane are in the sample?

asked by Marisa on November 22, 2010
chemistry
Methane is formed in landfills by the action of certain bacteria on buried organic matter. If a sample of methane collected from a landfill has a volume of 100. mL at 754 torr and 21.2 °C, how many grams of methane are in the sample?

asked by Anonymous on November 5, 2013
Chemistry
Methane is formed in landfills by the action of certain bacteria on buried organic matter. If a sample of methane collected from a landfill has a volume of 200. mL at 741 torr and 27.2 °C, how many grams of methane are in the sample?

asked by Luke on July 8, 2014
Chemistry
As I read it, the question provides you with a word description of the production of diesel fuel, gasoline, lighter gases such as ethane and propane, as well as some of the refinery operations such as cracking. Your job is to take this word description and

asked by DrBob222 on April 30, 2007

chemistry
Consider a sample of a hydrocarbon (a compound consisting of only carbon and hydrogen) at 0.959 atm and 298 K. Upon combusting the entire sample in oxygen, you collect a mixture of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at 0.755 atm and 375 K. This mixture

asked by Jaxx on February 27, 2015
Chemistry HELP
Complete combustion of 3.30 g of a hydrocarbon produced 10.2 g of CO2 and 4.68 g of H2O. What is the empirical formula for the hydrocarbon? I did the calculation and the ratio comes out to C: 1 H: 2.24 So I thought the answer is CH2 but apparently its

asked by Alz on February 9, 2014
chemistry
a 47.7L sample of a gaseous hydrocarbon, measured at 1.00atm and 25degreesC is burned in excess oxygen, liberating 4.33X10^3 kJ of heat at a constant pressure. what is the identity of the hydrocarbon?

asked by Ellie on June 21, 2010
chemistry
Compare the three types of bonds based on valence electrons. Explain why S-H bond lengths are longer than O-H bond lengths. Which element has a greater bond energy, oxygen or nitrogen and why. Determine if the following compounds are likely to have ionic

asked by mido on December 13, 2010
chemistry
In a methane fuel cell, the chemical energy of the methane is converted into electrical energy instead of heat that would flow during the combustion of methane. Using the half-reactions and reduction potentials given below a) Write a net equation for the

asked by Vt on August 3, 2011
chemistry
In a methane fuel cell, the chemical energy of the methane is converted into electrical energy instead of heat that would flow during the combustion of methane. Using the half-reactions and reduction potentials given below a) Write a net equation for the

asked by Vt on August 3, 2011
Chemistry – Liquid Methane?
“The planets Uranus and Neptune are so far from the Sun that temperatures are low enough for atmospheric methane, CH4, to condense and form clouds. How is it possible for methane, a nonpolar substance, to exist in this liquid state?” I want to say it’s

asked by Sarah on December 12, 2017
Chemistry
Using the technique of the previous problem ΔE was found to be -2,000.00 kJ/mol of an unknown liquid hydrocarbon at 298 K. In another experiment it was determined that for each mole of hydrocarbon, 4 moles of oxygen gas are consumed and 6 moles of CO2 gas

asked by John Handra on March 31, 2015
Chemistry
Complete combustion of 7.70 g of a hydrocarbon produced 23.7 g of CO2 and 10.9 of H2O. What is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon? I first calculated the moles of both the carbon dioxide and the water, but I have no idea where to go from there. Any

asked by Student on January 27, 2011
gr. 12 chem
what is nonane and decane used for and why is this appropriate for each use?

asked by shelly on February 23, 2010

Science/chemistry
Could you please check these answers I don’t understand #4 could you give me a link or you can try to help me. Thanks: 1. Identify what all organic compounds have in common, and list the four principal classes of organic compounds. Answer: Cabohydrates,

asked by Gabby on February 15, 2009
Physics
Suppose a distant world with surface gravity of 7.12 m/s2 has an atmospheric pressure of 7.48 104 Pa at the surface. (a) What force is exerted by the atmosphere on a disk-shaped region 2.00 m in radius at the surface of a methane ocean?________N (b) What

asked by Amelia on November 7, 2012
PHYSICS PLEASE HELP
Suppose a distant world with surface gravity of 7.12 m/s2 has an atmospheric pressure of 7.48 104 Pa at the surface. (a) What force is exerted by the atmosphere on a disk-shaped region 2.00 m in radius at the surface of a methane ocean?____________N (b)

asked by AMY on November 8, 2012
chemistry
A sample of methane gas, CH4, was collected over water at 25.0ºC and 800 torr. The volume of the wet gas is 4.36 L. What will be the volume of the dry methane at standard pressure? Voldry methane=_______L

asked by Anonymous on April 10, 2011
chemistry
A ten gallon methane tank contains 1.243 mol of methane at 74°F. Express the volume of tank in liters, the amount of methane in the tank in grams, and the tempature of the tank in kelvin.

asked by Kalyn on February 10, 2011
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if you change the indicator of standardization Hcl with Na2co3 methyl red methyl orange titration corset not why?

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Organic Chemistry
How do I draw the condensed formula for: 1. 2-methyl-2-pentene 2. 5-methyl-1-hexene 3. 2,2,4,5-tetramethylhexane 4. propanoic acid 5. 2-pentyne

asked by Cinnamon on September 30, 2007
Chemistry
What volume of “wet” methane would have to be collected at 20.0 oC and 760.0 torr to be sure the sample contained 2.00 x 102 ml of dry methane at the same temperature and pressure ? My Work: All I have so far is that I use P1V1=P2V2 but I don’t know

asked by Joe on September 7, 2015
chemistry 12
If the pH of a solution is 3.5, what colour will be shown by each of the following indicators in the solution? a)Methyl Violet b) methyl red c) Methyl orange d) phenolphthalein My answers: a) Yellow to Blue b) Red to Yellow c) Red to Yellow d) close to a

asked by Sarah on October 13, 2011
chemistry
Combustion analysis of a hydrocarbon produced 33.01 g {\rm CO}_2 and 27.04 g {\rm H}_2{\rm O}. Calculate the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon. Express your answer as a chemical formula.

asked by david on March 17, 2014

Environmental Issues
My science teacher says that cattle flatulence is destroying the ozone layer. If this is true, what can we do to regulate the flatulence output of cattle in order to preserve the ozone? http://www.guardian.co.uk/climatechange/story/0,12374,905360,00.html

asked by Joey on May 10, 2007
chemistry
Calculate the volume of natural gas (methane) required to bring 2.6 L of water to a boil. Assume the initial temperature of the water is 21 C, and the methane is at 1 bar and 25 C. Assume that methane is an ideal gas, the specific heat capacity of water to

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Chemistry
Calculate the volume of natural gas (methane) required to bring 3.9 L of water to a boil. Assume the initial temperature of the water is 39 C, and the methane is at 1 bar and 25 C. Assume that methane is an ideal gas, the specific heat capacity of water to

asked by LaurenB on December 2, 2011
chemistry
what are some examples of covalent bonds and what are some examples of ionic bonds? Electrons are shared in covalent bonds. Electrons are exchanged in ionic bonds. Typical ionic compounds are NaCl, MgCl2, LiI, etc. Typical covalent compounds are CH4,

asked by Leeann on January 29, 2007
AP Chemistry
a 5.15g sample of a hydrocarbon is burned in oxygen, producing 15.6g of carbon dioxide and 8.45g of water. Assuming an excess of oxygen, what is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon?

asked by Ariday on September 13, 2011

Categories
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what does the notation rr mean to geneticists?

Hi, can someone check my answers asap!!? i am on a deadline!!

  1. What doe the notation TT mean to geneticists? (1 point)
    two dominant alleles
    heterozygous alleles
    at least one dominant allele
    one dominant and one recessive allele
  2. An organisms genotype is (1 point)
    its physical appearance
    its combanation of alleles
    the mutations it inherits
    the crossing over that occurs during meiosis
  3. An organisms phenotype is (1 point)
    its physical appearance
    its combanation of alleles
    the mutations it inherits
    the crossing over that occurs during meiosis
  4. What occurs during meiosis that does not occur during mitosis? (1 point)
    chromosomes are passed to offspring
    a cell divides in half
    the chromosomes number is divided in half
    two sex cells combine
  5. What is the probability of two tall pea plants, heterozygous for the tall allele, producing a short pea plant?
    (1 point)
    75%
    50%
    25%
    0%
  6. A plant with dark-purple flowers and a plant with white flowers are crossed. All of the offspring have lavender flowers. The alleles for the flower color in this plant are (1 point)
    both dominant
    both recessive
    codominant
    incompletetely dominant
  7. A plant with dark-red flowers and a plant with white flowers are crossed. All of the offspring have dark red flowers wit white spots. The alleles for the flower color in this plant are (1 point)
    both dominant
    both recessive
    codominant
    incompletetely dominant
  8. Scientists believe that cancer occurs when (1 point)
    cells stop dividing
    DNA is damaged and cells grow out of control
    body cells begin going through meiosis
    cells cannot replicate their DNA
  9. The order of the bases along a gene determines (1 point)
    the structure of a carbohydrate
    the structure of a protein
    how DNA is passed down to offspring
    how chromosomes are arranged in the nucleus
  10. What does messenger RNA do during protein synthesis? (1 point)
    copies the coded message from the DNA and carries it into the cytoplasm
    copies the coded message from the DNA and carries it into the nucleus
    carries amino acids and adds them to the growing protein
    copies the coded message from the protein and carries it into the nucleus
  11. What is a change in the sequence of DNA base pairs called? (1 point)
    an allele
    a mutation
    mitosis
    meiosis
  12. A trait is controlled by multiple genes is called (1 point)
    polygenic
    incompletely dominant
    codominant
    Mendalian
  13. In asexual reproduction, the offspring are (1 point)
    not capable of dividing
    formed by the fusing of sex cells
    genetically identical to their parent
    produced by meiosis

My Answers:
A
B
A
C
A
D
C
B
B
A
B
A
C

help asap!!!

7 0 2,107
asked by TTR+S<3
Jan 16, 2014
nevermind, i got everything right but number 5, it was 25%

1 2
posted by TTR+S<3
Jan 16, 2014
thanks

1 0
posted by kksuderdijq
Oct 28, 2014
thank you do much!!

1 0
posted by Help PLEASE
Jan 27, 2015
Everything is correct except number 5… it is 25%!! I just took the test.

1 0
posted by …..
Apr 23, 2015

We go to the same school

1 0
posted by Mee
Oct 30, 2015
hey thx guyz tis really helped me out:)

1 0
posted by joey
Apr 27, 2016
A
B
A
C
C
D
C
B
B
A
B
A
C

100% gaureenteed

11 0
posted by Yuno Gasai
May 24, 2016
Yuno gasai is 100% good luck students

2 1
posted by Helping you
Oct 13, 2016
100% correct

2 0
posted by Yoyo
Oct 15, 2016

its
a
b
a
c
c
d
c
b
b
a
b
a
c

2 0
posted by alex
Oct 19, 2016
thx so much for the help I got a 100%

0 0
posted by Lucy
Dec 1, 2016
yes, Yuno Gasai is 100 percent correct. I just took the quiz.

1 0
posted by sabbie.pinkie
Dec 6, 2016
thank you alex and yuno gasia i got a 100%

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Dec 21, 2016
This it one 100% for CCA, ON MY LIFE, you will get 100%.
A
B
A
C
C
D
C
B
B
A
B
A
C
Hope this helps!!!!!
100%

4 0
posted by Anonymous
May 12, 2017

r u like TT

0 1
posted by taehyung
Jun 4, 2017
wut

0 1
posted by bts
Jun 4, 2017
thanks 100%

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 23, 2017
Thanks 100%

1 0
posted by Isaac
Dec 1, 2017
10000000000% thnks

1 0
posted by blah
Feb 7, 2018

Hgify97t68a7ivdgsjhfidugskdbhjzfsgvyjhx j,vsioowgivsklsfisvdkbwguhi9qfwYESusioedufieofuhvjcn cjcbhsdhhidhbdsidjbdjjvbidjhuishccdchisk cgdusidcj

0 1
posted by Did you realize you can have up to 100 characters in your name? Well, now you know and I’ve used it.
Feb 12, 2018
YOU BETTER LOVE KPOP OR I’LL PULL YOUR HEART OUT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

0 1
posted by YOOOO I LOVE KPOP TAEHYUNG IS BAE
Mar 27, 2018
I’m like TT!! I love Twice!

0 2
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May 7, 2018
Thanks person who created this question! You are a risk-taker!(Good thing)

0 0
posted by Helper
May 17, 2018
I have not took it yet but I hope I get it right and I am taking it tomarrow.

0 0
posted by Nun ya Business
Oct 15, 2018

thank you even though it was a FREAKING PRCTICE AND WONT EFFECT MY GRADE I STILL GOT A 100 I WANNA THANK YOU.

0 0
posted by conexus student
Oct 25, 2018
I think its easier to see with the Q’s numbers are on it. 100%:

  1. A
  2. B
  3. A
  4. C
  5. C
  6. D
  7. C
  8. B
  9. B
  10. A
  11. B
  12. A
  13. C 0 0
    posted by HERE U GO
    Oct 28, 2018
    I wanted to check my answers 0 0
    posted by Student
    Oct 29, 2018
    Lol, I’m hoping ur all right cuz ima turn it in right now and I’m a connexus student. 0 0
    posted by Who knows
    Nov 19, 2018
    OMG YASS I GOT 100%!! THANK YOU ALL WHO GAVE THE ANSWERS 0 0
    posted by Who knows
    Nov 19, 2018
Categories
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drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 1/41

Homework 5 Geologic Time Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, February 28, 2016

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Interactive Animation: Relative Geologic Dating

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

Which of the following statements about relative and absolute age dating is most accurate?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

What is the principle of original horizontality?

ANSWER:

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order and can provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating provides information about absolute ages but does not place rocks and events in chronological order.

Relative age dating places rocks and events in chronological order but does not provide information about absolute age.

Relative age dating does not provide information about absolute ages, nor does it place rocks and events in chronological order.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 2/41

Correct

Part C

What is the principle of superposition? 

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

What is the principle of cross­cutting relationships?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

Five layers of rock are cut by two faults. Both faults cut through all five layers of rock. Fault A breaks through to the surface, whereas fault B does not. Which of the following statements about faults A and B is most accurate?

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when deposited.

Sedimentary rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Metamorphic rocks are close to horizontal when eroded.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers in the middle of a sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers higher in the sequence are older.

Within a sequence of rock layers formed at Earth’s surface, rock layers lower in the sequence are older.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form at roughly the same time as the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form before the rocks that they cut through.

Geologic features that cut through rocks must form after the rocks that they cut through.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 3/41

ANSWER:

Correct

Part F

Which principle of relative age dating is important for determining the relative age of igneous rock that has intruded into overlying rock?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part G

A fault (F) breaks three layers of sedimentary rock (S). An igneous intrusion (I1) has broken through the bottommost layer of rock. A second igneous intrusion (I2) has moved up the fault and pooled on top of the uppermost layer of rock. Which event would be considered the youngest?

ANSWER:

Correct

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are older than the five layers of rock.

Faults A and B are about the same age, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

Fault A is younger than fault B, and both are younger than the five layers of rock.

the principle of original horizontality

the principle of cross­cutting relationships

the principle of intrusive relationships

the principle of superposition

Faulting of rock along F is the youngest event. We know this because all three layers of sedimentary rock have been broken.

The intrusion of I2 is the youngest event. We can know this because I2 sits on top of all other rocks.

Deposition of the three sedimentary layers, S, is the youngest event. We know this because the fault underlies the igneous rocks.

The intrusion of I1 or I2 is the youngest event. Without more information, we cannot know which igneous rock is youngest.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 4/41

SmartFigure: Relative Dating

Launch the SmartFigure Video

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

A sandstone contains inclusions of metamorphic rock. An igneous dike cuts both the sandstone and inclusions. List the rocks from youngest to oldest.

Hint 1.

Use your knowledge regarding the principles of cross­cutting relationships and dating by inclusions to answer this question.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

metamorphic rock, igneous dike, sandstone

igneous dike, sandstone, metamorphic rock

metamorphic rock, sandstone, igneous dike

sandstone, metamorphic rock, igneous dike

igneous dike, metamorphic rock, sandstone

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 5/41

If a sequence of sedimentary units is cut by a fault, what does the principle of cross­cutting relationships tell a geologist?

Hint 1.

Recall what the principle cross­cutting relationships states and how it is used for relative age dating.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

Which of the following describes the principle of original horizontality?

Hint 1.

The video showed a sequence of folded sedimentary rocks. What had to occur to form this feature?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

The sedimentary units on the left side of the fault are the same as those on the right side.

All of the sedimentary units must have been deposited and lithified before being cut by the fault.

The fault is older than the sedimentary sequence.

Sedimentary layers are laid down horizontally.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

Inclusions within a sedimentary rock are older than the sedimentary rock itself.

Folded sedimentary layers were originally laid down flat and later deformed.

A fault or dike that cut a sedimentary sequence is younger than the sedimentary rocks it breaks through.

Undeformed sedimentary layers present on one side of a river­cut canyon are the same as those on the opposite side.

The oldest sedimentary unit is located at the base of the sequence, while the youngest is at the top.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 6/41

An undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks is exposed in a large river canyon. Which two principles would be demonstrated by the rocks?

Hint 1.

Think back to the five principles you learned about in the video. Which two would be the most applicable to an undeformed rock sequence that has been eroded by a large stream?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

An igneous dike cuts through limestone, but not through the overlying sandstone. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

Hint 1.

Think about how the principles of superposition and cross­cutting relationships are used for this question.

ANSWER:

Correct

principles of lateral continuity and inclusions

principles of superposition and lateral continuity

principles of cross­cutting relationships and superposition

principles of superposition and dating by inclusions

principles of lateral continuity and cross­cutting relationships

First, the sandstone was laid down, next the limestone was deposited, and finally was cut by the igneous dike.

The limestone and sandstone were deposited and then cut by the igneous dike.

First, the limestone was laid down, then intruded by the igneous dike, and lastly the sandstone was deposited.

The igneous dike represents the oldest rock, while the sedimentary rocks are relatively younger.

First, the limestone was laid down, folded and cut by an igneous dike, and finally the sandstone was deposited.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 7/41

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Geologic Time Scale

Geologists have divided the whole of history into units of increasing magnitude. This is called the geologic time scale. The entire time scale was originally based on relative dating, since radiometric dating was not available at the time. Absolute dating techniques determine a numerical age of strata given in number of years. Relative dating techniques, on the other hand, determine the age of a stratum relative to other strata (i.e., if it is younger or older), without providing any numerical data. Geologists have been able to determine the relative ages of rocks and any fossils they contain to reconstruct a history that reveals the evolution of Earth’s continents and living organisms using four laws of stratigraphy:

1. Law of Superposition: Younger strata are deposited on top of older strata. 2. Law of Original Horizontality: Strata are deposited horizontally. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition. 3. Law of Lateral Continuity: Layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions. As a result, rocks that are otherwise similar, but are now separated by a valley or other erosional feature, can be assumed to be originally continuous.

4. Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships: Magma intrudes and crystallizes (forming features such as faults and dikes). These features are younger than the strata they cut through.

The geologic time scale subdivides the 4.6­billion­year history of Earth into several units, outlining the time frames of several events of the geologic past. See below for the geologic time scale chart.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 8/41

Part A ­ Laws of stratigraphy

In the figure below, a series of geologic events, A­J, shows the configuration of rocks as seen from a road. Some strata have been tilted, and a volcanic dike has intruded some

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 9/41

of the rocks. Use the laws of stratigraphy to rank these strata.

Rank the strata from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. The Law of Cross­Cutting Relationships

The volcanic dike (H) must be older than any strata it does not cut through and younger than any strata it does cut through, because the strata it cuts through must have been there before the intrusion of magma.

Hint 2. The Law of Original Horizontality

Pretend the tilted strata are horizontal. That is, “D” is above “A,” “C” is above “A,” and so on. The Law of Original Horizontality states that strata are deposited horizontally in their original states. Tilted strata had been tilted by some geologic event after the time of deposition, but still retain their relative order.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 10/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Notice that the tilted strata are immediately overlain by horizontal strata. This can only occur if erosion has partially removed the tilted strata so they all terminate at the same depth.

Part B ­ The geologic time scale and unconformities

Gaps in the rock record are called unconformities. Unconformities are caused by periods of erosion that have occurred between periods of deposition, which have erased a portion of the rock record. There are three types of unconformities: (1) angular unconformities occur when tilted strata are overlain by horizontal strata—Click here to see an angular unconformity; (2) disconformities occur when strata are separated by an erosional surface—Click here to see a disconformity); (3) nonconformities occur when strata overlay igneous or metamorphic rocks that are resistant to erosion—Click here to see a nonconformity.

Now use the figure below, which has labeled each of the rock strata/layers from Part A with their respective geologic time periods, to fill in the gaps in the following sentences.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 11/41

Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer.

Hint 1. How to determine the missing time period

Identify the youngest and oldest strata in the diagram, and use the geologic time scale provided above to find all of the geologic periods between these ages.

Hint 2. The types of unconformities

The volcanic dike terminating abruptly at a stratigraphic boundary would indicate that erosion has occurred.

Hint 3. The age of unconformities

An unconformity must be at least the age of the strata overlying it and can be as old as the strata below it.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 12/41

Correct

The tilting of the Triassic rocks could have occurred in the Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous periods. This amounts to an uncertainty of at least 55 million years.

Interactive Animation: Angular Uncomformities, Noncomformities, and Discomformities

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Help

1. The Quaternary and Tertiary rocks are separated by this type of unconformity: 

a disconformity .

2. Due to an unconformity, the  Jurassic  period is missing from the rock record.

3. The Triassic rocks must have been most likely tilted during or after the  Triassic  period

4. The dike dates at least to the  Quarternary  period.

5. The Triassic and Cretaceous rocks are separated by this type of unconformity: 

an angular unconformity .

Reset

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 13/41

Part A

Which image is an example of an angular unconformity?

SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR ANSWER SELECTIONS.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 14/41

Correct

Part B

In the images below, which contains a disconformity?

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 15/41

Correct

Part C

What does the term unconformity mean?

Hint 1.

un = NOT; conform = go along with

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 16/41

Correct

Part D

In the following rock sequence, how much erosion might have occurred between rock layer A and rock layer B?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

What characteristic most directly DISTINGUISHES an angular unconformity from a nonconformity?

Hint 1.

The word angular is the key hint.

ANSWER:

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of deposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of deposition

a missing rock layer in a sequence that represents a period of erosion or nondeposition

an extra rock layer that represents a period of erosion

at least 10,000 years

none or only a very small amount (Time does not equate to erosion.)

more time than it took to deposit rock layer B

at least 1 million years

more time than it took to deposit rock layer A

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 17/41

Correct

Part F

Which list best describes the events that would lead to the layering of sedimentary rocks in this diagram?

ANSWER:

Correct

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events – Relative Dating

The ordering of events in geological history has long been a difficult task, but once simple principles were determined observation and logic could be used to determine the order of events. With these principles, one cannot calculate the exact number of years ago an event occurred, but instead the sequence of events can be determined. This is referred to as relative dating. The principles are as follows:

1. The law of superposition: In sedimentary rocks, the rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. 2. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers.

Angular unconformities represent missing time, whereas nonconformities do not.

Conformities represent missing rock layers.

Nonconformities separate parallel rock layers of the same rock type.

Nonconformities separate two different rock types, whereas angular unconformities form only between strata of the same rock type.

Angular unconformities separate rock layers along nonparallel surfaces.

deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition

erosion, deformation, erosion, deformation, erosion

deposition, deformation, deposition, deformation, deposition

erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion, deposition, erosion

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 18/41

3. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

4. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.)

Part A ­ Basic Principles for Relative Geologic Dating

Below is a geologic structure that illustrates the various principles of relative dating. You will identify the basic principles used in relative geologic dating by dragging labels to their corresponding targets in the image below.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

Hint 1. Inclusions in sedimentary rock layers

According to the principle of inclusions, the layer of rock that has inclusions from another rock layer must be younger.

Hint 2. A dike cutting through sedimentary rock layers

The rock layers that the dike cut through must have been there first. This is the principle of cross­cutting relationships.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 19/41

Correct

As you can see from above, using the logic of these principles when observing sedimentary rock, we can determine a sequence of events.

Now that we have investigated the principles of relative dating, we can use these principles to determine how to read the sequence of geologic events in a location.

Part B ­ Ordering of Geologic Events

The principles of relative dating can be used to understand the order of geologic events. A geologic event can be anything: the deposition of horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, the faulting or folding of rock layers, the tilting of rock layers, the erosion (or wearing away) of rock, the intrusion of volcanic rock within existing rock layers, and so on. Refer to these relative dating principles:

1. Inclusions: Any rock fragments included within another rock must be older than the rock in which they are included. (For example, if eroded fragments of one rock

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 20/41

layer become part of another sedimentary rock layer, the rock with the included fragments must be younger than the fragments themselves.) 2. The principle of cross­cutting relationships: Any rock or feature, cutting through another rock or feature, must be younger than the material through which it cuts. (For example, with faults, igneous intrusions such as dikes, or fractures, the first rock must be there for these secondary features to cut through.)

3. Angular Unconformity: It consists of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat­lying strata. An angular unconformity indicates that during the pause in deposition, a period of deformation (folding or tilting) and erosion occurred.

4. Tilting or deformation could occur to an otherwise horizontally layered sedimentary rocks. Most layers of sediment are deposited in a nearly horizontal position. Thus, when we see rock layers that are folded or tilted, we can assume that they must have been moved into that position by crustal disturbances after their deposition. In such an instance, the tilted structure will be younger than the orginal horizontal layers.

Order the five images below along the timeline based on the sequence of geologic events. To find the oldest, look for the image that shows the least geologic changes. To find the youngest, look for the picture that has the most geologic changes.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

Hint 1. Inclusions from rock layers above and below

In the picture where the gray layer first appears, the layer must be younger than the layers above and below because it has inclusions of both layers of rock within it according to the principle of inclusions. Therefore, this event must have happened after the picture without the gray layer. This can occur when igneous rock intrudes between layers of sedimentary rock and incorporates pieces of the rock layers above and below into the cooling magma.

Hint 2. The oldest and the youngest geologic features/events

The oldest geologic feature should have the least geologic changes and the youngest should have all features from the previous events.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 21/41

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

As you can see, you can apply the logic of the principles of relative dating to successfully sequence the order of geologic events in a scene. The principles allow you to tell the geologic story of a landscape.

Lab Activity 8.2.1 ­ Relative Dating

Now that you have practiced ordering geologic events that occurred within a scene or outcrop, you will relate the five geologic laws to this process. First, apply geologic laws to an outcrop in the order that they are invoked by events within said outcrop. Then examine a second scene, where you will identify the geologic laws that explain the relative orders of pairs of events.

Part A ­ Applying Geologic Laws in Order

Please rank from first to last the geologic laws that are used to determine the relative order of the four events that are labeled (but not ordered) in the drawing of the outcrop below.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 22/41

Please rank the geologic laws used for the history of this outcrop from first to last.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part B ­ Supporting an Outcrop’s History with Geologic Laws

For each rectangle associated with a pair of geologic structures or events, please identify the name of the geologic law that determines which of the two events within the pair

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 23/41

occurred first.

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 24/41

Gigapan: Virtual Fieldwork—Relative Dating and Unconformities

Geologists can determine the geologic history of an area by describing rock outcrops and analyzing the layers of rock. Today you will be a geologist visiting a rock outcrop virtually. You will be able to zoom in and out of the Gigapan image to explore the outcrop and determine the relative ages of rock layers and the geologic history of the area by applying your knowledge of the principles of geology and unconformities.

The principles of geology that you will use in this example are:

The law of superposition: A sedimentary rock bed on the bottom must be older than the rock bed on the top. The principle of original horizontality: Sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as flat­lying, horizontal layers. The principle of lateral continuity: Sedimentary layers, when formed, extended horizontally in all directions.

You will also use your knowledge of unconformities, features created when deposition stopped, uplifting and erosion occurred, and, after a period of time, sedimentation began anew above the eroded layer. There are three main types of unconformities:  

A nonconformity is found where igneous or metamorphic rocks have eroded and then sedimentary rock layers are deposited above. A disconformity is a break between parallel sedimentary rock layers above and below. Disconformities represent times when sediments were not deposited or were eroded. An angular unconformity is found where sedimentary layers were tilted and eroded and younger and more flat­laying sedimentary layers were deposited above.  

In this exercise, you will use Gigapan technology to:

become familiar with interpreting rock outcrops, understand the sequence of events that occurred as these rocks formed and changed over time, and identify the location of an unconformity in this outcrop and provide evidence for its type.

Gigapan technology mosaics thousands of photos together into a single image, allowing you to zoom in and see the tiniest of details. Imagine zooming in on a grain of sand on a photo of a beach!

Instructions for all Parts:

1. Launch the Gigapan image http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421 2. You can zoom into the image to take a close look at the angular unconformity.

Instructions for Part A:

1. Scroll down and click on the  Google Earth link   on the Gigapan site to launch the Gigapan image  in Google Earth. 2. Close the photo by clicking on Exit Photo to see your field site location in Google Earth. 3. Zoom in or out to determine your location. Also, on the upper right side, your will find the north arrow. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North. This will ensure that the alignment of your field site is directly facing you in an east­west direction.

4. You can reopen the Gigapan image by clicking on Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas on the left pane of Google Earth. 5. Do not close Google Earth.

Part A ­ Locating your field site

As a geologist, you always want to first locate your field site on a map. It helps other geologists to locate the field site for future studies and helps you look for relationships with data from other nearby field sites. Now, determine where you are (your field site) in the world. Choose the map that best locates your field site.http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/10030/gigapans/129421

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 25/41

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Instructions for Part B:

1. Go back to the Gigapan image for the Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully. Make note of any features that would show up on a map (e.g., roads, trees, etc.). 3. Now switch back to Google Earth and zoom in or out to determine how the outcrop is oriented (runs north to south, runs northeast to southwest, etc.) compared to where you are standing and viewing the outcrop. If “N” is not aligned with “North” move it to North.

Part B ­ The orientation of the outcrop

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 26/41

Rock units tell us about Earth’s past, so if we find evidence of geologic processes that have directional components (direction of plate movement, folds and faults, mineral foliation, wind and water currents, etc.), we need to be able to accurately reconstruct those directions. Also, in terms of the scientific method, it helps other geologists to be able to recreate the field investigation step­by­step to confirm or refute any previous findings.

Imagine visiting this outcrop, standing at the location where the Gigapan image was taken, and observing the natural and built features around you. Choose the most accurate representation of the outcrop’s orientation and your vantage point (where you are standing in relation to the outcrop). The representations below depict you and the outcrop as viewed from above. Similar to how you identified the location of this outcrop in the previous part, use Google Earth at a multiple zoom levels. The yellow dot is the point where the Gigapan image was taken.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 27/41

Instructions for Parts C and D:

1. Exit Google Earth and go back to the Gigapan image for Angular Unconformity, west of El Paso, Texas. 2. Examine the outcrop carefully, and make note of the orientation of the layers of sedimentation in this image. Are all of the rock layers running in the same direction? Does the formation contain layers running at different angles?

3. Recall that angular unconformities refer to the junction between sedimentary rocks at an angle and rocks that are more horizontal and represent a time when the rocks were uplifted and eroded. Can you see the evidence of uplift and erosion in the image?

Part C ­ Analysis of an outcrop sketch

Where you see layers of sedimentary rock at an angle in contact with rocks that are horizontal, they are separated by a surface called an angular unconformity. This erosion surface represents a time when rocks were eroded before new layers of rock were formed. This can also occur during a pause in deposition, when a period of deformation (such as folding or tilting) has occurred.

Choose the sketch that best represents the rock outcrop.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 28/41

Part D ­ Making observations I

Simple yet thoughtful observation exposes the history of an outcrop. The sedimentary rocks in the Gigapan image were formed as sediment accumulated as layers that stacked atop older layers. As layers became lower in the stack sequence and covered by newer layers, they became rocks.

If this area had been under water, the shells of organisms would have become limestone, a rock that can’t be identified visually but can be identified using field­based tests. Underwater movement of sediment may also create mixes of fine and coarse grains. This sediment becomes conglomerate, a rock clearly identifiable given its combined

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 29/41

coarse and fine grains. Over time, some layers would have become exposed as the water retreated and the rock layers above them were eroded. Additionally, some layers would have been tilted by tectonic forces.

Classify the observations according to the rock that they describe, or choose “Not enough information to tell.”

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part E ­ Making observations II

Choose the location of the unconformity.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 30/41

Part F ­ Making observations III

Now that you have identified the unconformity in this outcrop, can you explain why it is an angular unconformity? Review the statements below, and indicate which are correct.

Select all that apply.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 31/41

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Part G ­ Drawing conclusions from the timing of events

Review the outcrop again. Order the specific locations identified in the outcrop by their age. Note where the arrow, square, and circles are located.

Rank the areas identified in the cross section from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

It is an angular unconformity because layers of sedimentary rock are above and below the unconformity and the layers above and below are not parallel.

It is an angular unconformity because it is at an angle to the ground surface instead of parallel.

The tilting of the layers of rock occurred before erosion of the unconformity surface.

It is an angular unconformity because the layers of sedimentary rock above and below the unconformity are at the same angle.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 32/41

Part H ­ Forming a conclusion: Determining the geologic history of an area from an outcrop

Geologists collect observations from field sites and then summarize their interpretations. It’s your turn to take everything you learned while exploring the rocks in this formation near El Paso, Texas, into a coherent story. Arrange the following geologic events in the order that they occurred.

Rank from oldest to youngest.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 33/41

Interactive Animation: Radioactive Decay

When you have finished, answer the questions.

Part A

What happens during radioactive decay?

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 34/41

ANSWER:

Part B

What is the scientific definition of half­life?

ANSWER:

Part C

Two containers hold the same radioactive isotope. Container A contains 1000 atoms, and container B contains 500 atoms. Which of the following statements about containers A and B is true?

ANSWER:

Part D

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many total atoms will be in the container after 3 months?

ANSWER:

Daughter isotopes turn into energy.

Parent isotopes turn into energy.

Energy turns into daughter isotopes.

Parent isotopes turn into daughter isotopes.

Daughter isotopes turn into parent isotopes.

the number of parent isotopes that will be lost during a single radioactive decay event

the number of daughter isotopes that will be gained during a single radioactive decay event

the amount of time over which the number of daughter isotopes increases by half

the amount of time over which the number of parent isotopes decreases by half

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is the same as the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container B is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container A.

The rate of decay of atoms in container A is greater than the rate of decay of atoms in container B.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 35/41

Part E

A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half­life of 1.5 months. How many atoms of the radioactive isotope will be in the container after 3 months?

ANSWER:

Part F

A rock sample contains 75 atoms of a parent isotope and 25 atoms of a daughter isotope. The half­life of the parent isotope is 100 years. How old is this rock?

ANSWER:

GeoTutor: Constructing an Order of Sequence of Geologic Events ­ Dating with Radioactivity ­ 2

You probably have read or seen stories about archeological findings that include organic remains of a 1000­year­old mummy or an ancient weapon made from stone, which is an inorganic material. Geologists and paleontologists calculate the age of these organic (contain carbon) and inorganic (do not contain carbon) materials by radiometric dating using the isotopes C­14 and U­235, respectively.

1. C­14 dating: This process is often known as radiocarbon dating. It is used to determine both historical and recent events of archeological artifacts of biological origin such as bone, cloth, wood, and plant fibers.

2. U­235 dating: This is used to determine the age of inorganic substances such as ancient rocks and minerals.

100 atoms

50 atoms

33 atoms

25 atoms

25 atoms

33 atoms

50 atoms

100 atoms

25 years old

50 years old

75 years old

100 years old

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 36/41

Part A ­ Calculating the Age of a Fossil Based on the Number of Half­lives Elapsed

Each isotope has a unique half­life. The half­life of an isotope is the time taken for half of the starting quantity to decay (with a ratio of 1:1). After two half­lives, there will be one­ fourth of the original parent sample and three­quarters would have decayed to the daughter product (with a ratio of 1:3). After three half­lives, the ratio becomes 1:7, and so forth.

The graph, for instance, shows that assuming the half­life of a sample is 4 months, then in 4 months, there will be 0.5 gram of the parent element and 0.5 gram of the daughter element will be produced. In month 8 (which is two­half­lives), there will be only 0.25 gram of parent element left and 0.75 gram of daughter element; that is, one­fourth of the parent sample (in red) is left, and in month 12, there is only one­eighth of the parent element.

You attend a geology lab where you are asked to estimate the age of a fossil. The ratio of parent to daughter elements in the fossil sample is 1:7. You know that fossils are the remains of living organisms, which have some amount of C­14 isotope. The C­14 isotope, which has a half­life of 5730 years, begins to decay as the organism dies.

What would be your estimation of the fossil’s age?

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

22,920

5730

2865

11,460

40,110

17,190

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 37/41

Part B ­ Radiometric Dating of Organic and Inorganic materials

John is assisting a geologist who has traveled across the world and collected a few samples. He asks John to classify the samples that can be dated using carbon­14 and uranium­235 (or U­235). All organic materials contain carbon and are dated using C­14; inorganic materials are dated using any radioactive element, such as uranium, rubidium, potassium, and thorium, except carbon. Now, help John group the samples.

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. Each item may be used only once.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Reading Quiz Question 2

Part A

Which geological principle states that even if most sedimentary rock layers are presently folded, they were deformed after deposition?

You did not open hints for this part.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 38/41

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 1 Multiple Choice

Part A

An unconformity is a buried ________.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 2 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity?

ANSWER:

principle of original horizontality

law of superposition

principle of cross­cutting relationships

principle of unconformities

principle of inclusions

surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below

surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata below

fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks below

fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata below

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 39/41

Chapter 18 Problem 6 Multiple Choice

Part A

By applying the law of superposition ________ dates can be determined.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 9 Multiple Choice

Part A

Sandstone strata and a mass of granite are observed to be in contact. Which of the following statements is correct geologically?

ANSWER:

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity, and bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity.

Horizontal lava flows lie below the unconformity, and horizontal, sedimentary strata lie above.

It is the discordant boundary between older strata and an intrusive body of granite.

Tilted strata lie below the unconformity with loose, unconsolidated soil above.

conventional

radiometric

relative

both relative and radiometric

The sandstone is younger if the granite contains sandstone inclusions.

The granite is older if the sandstone contains pebbles of the granite.

The granite is older if it contains inclusions of sandstone.

The sandstone is younger if it shows evidence of contact metamorphism.

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 40/41

Chapter 18 Problem 28 True/False

Part A

A disconformity is an erosional unconformity with parallel beds or strata above and below.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 12 Multiple Choice

Part A

A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because ________.

ANSWER:

Chapter 18 Problem 51 Short Answer

Part A

The remains or traces of prehistoric life are called ________.

ANSWER:

True

False

worms have been rare during the geologic past

worms have no hard parts

worms contain no carbon­14

all of these

2/26/2016 Homework 5 Geologic Time

https://session.masteringgeology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1211587 41/41

Chapter 18 Problem 16 Multiple Choice

Part A

Which of the following is not a very long­lived, radioactive isotope?

ANSWER:

Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 47.1%. You received 7.06 out of a possible total of 15 points, plus 0 points of extra credit.

C­14

K­40

U­238

Rb­87

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on the loan worksheet in cell c9

Office 2013 – myitlab:grader – Instructions Exploring Series Vol. 2

Specialized Functions

Project Description: In the following project, you will use Excel to perform calculations regarding rental properties. You will create a basic search, utilize database functions, and create an amortization table

Instructions: For the purpose of grading the project you are required to perform the following tasks: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Download and open the file named exploring_e07_grader_h1.xlsx, and then save the file as e07c2Apartment_LastFirst, replacing LastFirst with your name. 0 2 Insert functions in the Pet Deposit column of the Summary worksheet to calculate the required pet deposit for each unit. If the unit has two or more bedrooms and was remodeled after 2008 the deposit is $125, if not it is $75. 10 3 Enter nested functions in the Recommendation column to indicate Need to remodel if the apartment is unoccupied and was last remodeled before 2005. For all other apartments, display No change. 10 4 Type 101 in cell B2. 4 5 Insert a nested lookup function in cell E2 that will look up the rental price in column D using the apartment number referenced in cell B2. 10 6 Click the Database worksheet and enter conditions in the Criteria Range for unoccupied two- and three-bedroom apartments that need to be remodeled. 10 7 Perform an advanced filter based on the criteria range. Filter the existing database in place. 10 8 In cell C7, enter a DCOUNTA function to calculate the number of apartments to remodel. 6 9 In cell C8, enter a database function to calculate the total lost rent for the month. 2 10 Enter a database function to calculate the year of the oldest remodel in cell C9. 2 11 Click the Loan worksheet and enter 3/20/2015 in cell B7. 2 12 Insert a formula in cell E2 to calculate the loan amount based on the loan parameters in the input area. 2 13 Insert a formula in cell E3 to calculate the total number of periods. 2 14 Insert a formula in cell E4 to calculate the periodic monthly rate. 2 15 Insert a function in cell E5 to calculate the monthly payment. Ensure that the function returns a positive value. 2 16 In cell E6, insert a function to calculate the total interest paid on the loan. Ensure that the function returns a positive value. 2 17 Complete the loan amortization table for the first five payments only. In cell A11, enter 1. In cell B11, create a relative reference to cell B7 and in cell C11, create a relative reference to cell E2. Use the DATE function to complete the Payment Date column and financial functions for the Interest Paid and Principal Payment columns. In cell F11, enter =C11-E11. In cell C12, create a relative reference to cell F11. Note: Be sure to only complete the table through row 15. 18 18 Create a footer with the sheet name code in the center, and the file name code on the right side of each worksheet. 6 19 Save the file making sure the worksheets are in the following order: Summary, Database, and Loan. Close Excel. Submit the file as directed. 0 Total Points 100

Updated: 08/03/2013 1 E_CH07_EXPV2_H1_Instructions.docx

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PRINTED BY: apcampbell@email.phoenix.edu. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

1 Mass Communication, Culture, and Media Literacy

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Learning Objectives Mass communication, mass media, and the culture that shapes us (and that we shape) are inseparable. After studying this chapter, you should be able to

Our experiences of the world are increasingly mass mediated. © Sean Gallup/Getty Images

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PRINTED BY: apcampbell@email.phoenix.edu. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher’s prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.

YOUR SMARTPHONE’S RADIO ALARM SINGS YOU AWAKE. It’s Sam Smith, the last few bars of “Stay With Me.” The laughing deejay shouts at you that it’s 7:41 and you’d better get going. But before you do, he adds, listen to a few words from your friends at Best Buy electronics, home of fast, friendly, courteous service—“Buyer be happy!”

In the living room, you find your roommate has left the television on. You stop for a moment and listen: The economy is showing stronger signs of rebounding, brightening the employment picture for new college grads; several states are considering providing free high-speed Internet to all students to improve their access to the digital world; democratic chaos continues to sweep across the Middle East; and you deserve a break today at McDonald’s. As you head toward the bathroom, your bare feet slip on some magazines littering the floor—Wired, Rolling Stone, People. You need to talk to your roommate about picking up!

After showering, you quickly pull on your Levi’s, lace up your Nike cross-trainers, and throw on an Under Armour jacket. No time for breakfast; you grab a Nature Valley granola bar and your tablet and head for the bus stop. As the bus rolls up, you can’t help but notice the giant ad on its side: Transformers: Turning Toys Into Gold. Rejecting that as a movie choice for the weekend, you sit down next to a teenager listening to music on his headphones and playing a video game. You bury yourself in your favorite news app on your tablet, scanning the lead stories and the local news and then checking out Doonesbury and Dilbert.

Hopping off the bus at the campus stop, you run into Chris from your computer lab. You walk to class together, talking about last night’s Family Guy episode. It’s not yet 9:00, and already you’re involved in mass communication.

In this chapter we define communication, interpersonal communication, mass communication, media, and culture and explore the relationships among them and how they define us and our world. We investigate how communication works, how it changes when technology is introduced into the process, and how differing views of communication and mass communication can lead to different interpretations of their power. We also discuss the opportunities mass communication and culture offer us and the responsibilities that come with those opportunities. Always crucial, these issues are of particular importance now, when we find ourselves in a period of remarkable development in new communication technologies. This discussion inevitably leads to an examination of media literacy, its importance, and its practice.

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What Is Mass Communication? “Does a fish know it’s wet?” influential cultural and media critic Marshall McLuhan would often ask. The answer, he would say, is “No.” The fish’s existence is so dominated by water that only when water is absent is the fish aware of its condition.

So it is with people and mass media. The media so fully saturate our everyday lives that we are often unconscious of their presence, not to mention their influence. Media inform us, entertain us, delight us, annoy us. They move our emotions, challenge our intellects, insult our intelligence. Media often reduce us to mere commodities for sale to the highest bidder. Media help define us; they shape our realities.

A fundamental theme of this book is that media do none of this alone. They do it with us as well as to us through mass communication, and they do it as a central—many critics and scholars say the central—cultural force in our society.

Communication Defined In its simplest form, communication is the transmission of a message from a source to a receiver. For nearly 70 years now, this view of communication has been identified with the writing of political scientist Harold Lasswell (1948). He said that a convenient way to describe communication is to answer these questions:

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Expressed in terms of the basic elements of the communication process, communication occurs when

Straightforward enough, but what if the source is a professor who insists on speaking in a technical language far beyond the receiving students’ level of skill? Obviously, communication does not occur. Unlike mere message-sending, communication requires the response of others. Therefore, there must be a sharing (or correspondence) of meaning for communication to take place.

A second problem with this simple model is that it suggests that the receiver passively accepts the source’s message. However, if our imaginary students do not comprehend the professor’s words, they respond with “Huh?” or look confused or yawn. This response, or feedback, is also a message. The receivers (the students) now become a source, sending their own message to the source (the offending professor), who is now a receiver. Hence, communication is a reciprocal and ongoing process with all involved parties more or less engaged in creating shared meaning. Communication, then, is better defined as the process of creating shared meaning.

Communication researcher Wilbur Schramm, using ideas originally developed by psychologist Charles E. Osgood, developed a graphic way to represent the reciprocal nature of communication (Figure 1). This depiction of interpersonal communication— communication between two or a few people—shows that there is no clearly identifiable source or receiver. Rather, because communication is an ongoing and reciprocal process, all the participants, or “interpreters,” are working to create meaning by encoding and decoding messages. A message is first encoded, that is, transformed into an understandable sign and symbol system. Speaking is encoding, as are writing, printing, and filming a television program. Once received, the message is decoded; that is, the signs and symbols are interpreted. Decoding occurs through listening, reading, or watching that television show.

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Through which channel?

To whom? With what effect?https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-feedbackhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/chapter01/chapter01.xhtml#figure0101https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-interpersonal-communicationhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-encodinghttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-decoding

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Figure 1 Osgood and Schramm’s Model of Communication. Source: From The Process and Effects of Mass Communication by Wilbur Lang Schramm, 1954. Reprinted by permission of Mary Schramm Coberly.

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The Osgood–Schramm model demonstrates the ongoing and reciprocal nature of the communication process. There is, therefore, no source, no receiver, and no feedback. The reason is that, as communication is happening, both interpreters are simultaneously source and receiver. There is no feedback because all messages are presumed to be in reciprocation of other messages. Even when your friend starts a conversation with you, for example, it can be argued that it was your look of interest and willingness that communicated to her that she should speak. In this example, it is improper to label either you or your friend as the source—Who really initiated this chat?—and, therefore, it is impossible to identify who is providing feedback to whom.

Not every model can show all aspects of a process as complex as communication. Missing from this representation is noise—anything that interferes with successful communication. Noise is more than screeching or loud music when you are trying to work online. Biases that lead to incorrect decoding, for example, are noise, as is a page torn out of a magazine story you want to read.

Encoded messages are carried by a medium, that is, the means of sending information. Sound waves are the medium that carries our voice to friends across the table; the telephone is the medium that carries our voice to friends across town. When the medium is a technology that carries messages to a large number of people—as newspapers carry the printed word and radio conveys the sound of music and news—we call it a mass medium (the plural of medium is media). The mass media we use regularly include radio, television, books, magazines, newspapers, movies, sound recordings, cell phones, and computer networks. Each medium is the basis of a giant industry, but other related and supporting industries also serve them and us —advertising and public relations, for example. In our culture we use the words media and mass media interchangeably to refer to the communication industries themselves. We say, “The media entertain” or “The mass media are too conservative (or too liberal).”

Mass Communication Defined We speak, too, of mass communication. Mass communication is the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences. Schramm recast his and Osgood’s general model of communication to help us visualize the particular aspects of the mass communication process (Figure 2). This model and the original Osgood—Schramm model have much in common—interpreters, encoding, decoding, and messages—but it is their differences that are most significant for our understanding of how mass communication differs from other forms of communication. For example, whereas the original model includes “message,” the mass communication model offers “many identical messages.” In addition, the mass communication model specifies “feedback,” whereas the interpersonal communication model does not. When two or a few people communicate face-to-face, the participants can immediately and clearly recognize the feedback residing in the reciprocal messages (our boring professor can see and hear the students’ disenchantment as they listen to the lecture). Things are not nearly as simple in mass communication.https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-noisehttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-medium-pl-mediahttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-mass-mediumhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-mass-communicationhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/chapter01/chapter01.xhtml#figure0102

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In Schramm’s mass communication model, feedback is represented by a dotted line labeled delayed inferential feedback. This feedback is indirect rather than direct. Television executives, for example, must wait a day, at the very minimum, and sometimes a week or a month, to discover the ratings for new programs. Even then, the ratings measure only how many sets are tuned in, not whether people liked or disliked the programs. As a result, these executives can only infer what they must do to improve programming; hence the term inferential feedback. Mass communicators are also subject to additional feedback, usually in the form of criticism in other media, such as a television critic writing a column in a newspaper.

The differences between the individual elements of interpersonal and mass communication change the very nature of the communication process. How those alterations influence

Figure 2 Schramm’s Model of Mass Communication. Source: From The Process and Effects of Mass Communication by Wilbur Lang Schramm, 1954. Reprinted by permission of Mary Schramm Coberly.https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-inferential-feedback

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the message itself and how the likelihood of successfully sharing meaning varies are shown in Figure 3. For example, the immediacy and directness of feedback in interpersonal communication free communicators to gamble, to experiment with different approaches. Their knowledge of one another enables them to tailor their messages as narrowly as they wish. As a result, interpersonal communication is often personally relevant and possibly even adventurous and challenging. In contrast, the distance between participants in the mass communication process, imposed by the technology, creates a sort of “communication conservatism.” Feedback comes too late to enable corrections or alterations in communication that fails. The sheer number of people in many mass communication audiences makes personalization and specificity difficult. As a result, mass communication tends to be more constrained, less free. This does not mean, however, that it is less potent than interpersonal communication in shaping our understanding of ourselves and our world.https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/chapter01/chapter01.xhtml#figure0103

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Figure 3 Elements of Interpersonal Communication and Mass Communication Compared.

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Media theorist James W. Carey (1975) recognized this and offered a cultural definition of communication that has had a profound impact on the way communication scientists and others have viewed the relationship between communication and culture. Carey wrote, “Communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed” (p. 10).

Carey’s (1989) definition asserts that communication and reality are linked. Communication is a process embedded in our everyday lives that informs the way we perceive, understand, and construct our view of reality and the world. Communication is the foundation of our culture. Its truest purpose is to maintain ever-evolving, “fragile” cultures; communication is that “sacred ceremony that draws persons together in fellowship and commonality” (p. 43).

What Is Culture?

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Culture is the learned behavior of members of a given social group. Many writers and thinkers have offered interesting expansions of this definition. Here are four examples, all from anthropologists. These definitions highlight not only what culture is but also what culture does:

Culture is the learned, socially acquired traditions and lifestyles of the members of a society, including their patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. (Harris, 1983, p. 5)https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-culture

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Culture lends significance to human experience by selecting from and organizing it. It refers broadly to the forms through which people make sense of their lives, rather than more narrowly to the opera or art of museums. (Rosaldo, 1989, p. 26)

Culture is the medium evolved by humans to survive. Nothing is free from cultural influences. It is the keystone in civilization’s arch and is the medium through which all of life’s events must flow. We are culture. (Hall, 1976, p. 14)

Culture is an historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbolic forms by means of which [people] communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life. (Geertz, as cited in Taylor, 1991, p. 91)

Culture as Socially Constructed Shared Meaning Virtually all definitions of culture recognize that culture is learned. Recall the opening vignette. Even if this scenario does not exactly match your early mornings, you probably recognize its elements. Moreover, all of us are familiar with most, if not every, cultural reference in it. Family Guy, Rolling Stone, McDonald’s, Under Armour, Dilbert—all are points of reference, things that have some meaning for all of us. How did this come to be?

Creation and maintenance of a more or less common culture occurs through communication, including mass communication. When we talk to our friends; when a parent raises a child; when religious leaders instruct their followers; when teachers teach; when grandparents pass on recipes; when politicians campaign; when media professionals produce content that we read, listen to, or watch, meaning is being shared and culture is being constructed and maintained.

Functions and Effects of Culture Culture serves a purpose. It helps us categorize and classify our experiences; it helps define us, our world, and our place in it. In doing so, culture can have a number of sometimes conflicting effects.

LIMITING AND LIBERATING EFFECTS OF CULTURE A culture’s learned traditions and values can be seen as patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. Culture limits our options and provides useful guidelines for behavior. For example, when conversing, you do not consciously consider, “Now, how far away should I stand? Am I too close?” You simply stand where you stand. After a hearty meal with a friend’s family, you do not engage in mental self-debate, “Should I burp? Yes! No! Arghhhh….” Culture provides information that helps us make meaningful distinctions about right and wrong, appropriate and inappropriate, good and bad, attractive and unattractive, and so on. How does it do this?

Obviously, through communication. Through a lifetime of communication, we have learned just what our culture expects of us. The two examples given here are positive results of culture’s limiting effects. But culture’s limiting effects can be negative, such as when we are unwilling or unable to move past patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting or when we

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entrust our “learning” to teachers whose interests are selfish, narrow, or otherwise not consistent with our own.

U.S. culture, for example, values thinness and beauty in women. How many women endure weeks of unhealthy diets and succumb to potentially dangerous surgical procedures in search of a body that for most is physically unattainable? How many women are judged by the men and other women around them for not conforming to our culture’s standards of thinness and beauty? Why are 40% to 60% of girls aged 6 to 12 concerned about their weight or about becoming too fat? Why do 42% of girls in first, second, and third grade want to be thinner, and why are 81% of 10-year-olds—girls and boys—afraid of being fat? Why do 57% of adolescent girls go on crash diets, fasts, or engage in self-induced vomiting (National Eating Disorders Association, 2015)? Why did the number of hospitalizations for eating disorders among children under the age of 12 spike 119% between 1999 and 2006, and why do almost 1.3 million adolescent girls in the United States have anorexia (Pai & Schryver, 2015)?

Now consider how this situation may have come about. Our mothers did not bounce us on their knees when we were babies, telling us that thin was good and fat was bad. Think back, though, to the stories you were told and the television shows and movies you watched

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growing up. The heroines (or, more often, the beautiful love interests of the heroes) were invariably tall, beautiful, and thin. The bad guys were usually mean and fat. From Disney’s depictions of Snow White, Cinderella, Belle, Tinker Bell, and Pocahontas to the impossible dimensions of most video-game and comic-book heroines, the message is embedded in the conscious (and unconscious) mind of every girl and boy: You can’t be too thin or too beautiful! Or as one 10-year-old girl explained to Courtney Martin (2007), author of Perfect Girls, Starving Daughters, “It is better to be pretty, which means thin and mean, than to be ugly, which means fat and nice. That’s just how it is.” And it does not help that these messages are reinforced in much advertising, for example Abercrombie & Fitch Kids’ promotions for its Ashley bikinis with padded “push up triangle” tops for girls as young as 8 years old (Williams, 2011).

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These images have meaning for all of us, meaning that is socially constructed through communication in our culture. How many can you recognize? What specific meaning or meanings does each have for you? How did you develop each meaning? How closely do you think your meanings match those of your friends? Of your parents? What value is there—if any—in having shared meaning for these things in our everyday lives? (clockwise from top left) © Fox/Photofest; © McGraw-Hill Education/John Flournoy, photographer; © Gavin Rodgers/Alamy; © Joe Drivas/Getty Images

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This message and millions of others come to us primarily through the media, and although the people who produce these media images are not necessarily selfish or mean, their motives are undeniably financial. Their contribution to our culture’s repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting is most certainly not primary among their concerns when preparing their communication.

Culture need not only limit. That media representations of female beauty often meet with debate and disagreement points up the fact that culture can be liberating as well. This is so because cultural values can be contested.

Especially in a pluralistic, democratic society such as ours, the dominant culture (or mai nstream culture)—the one that seems to hold sway with the majority of people—is often openly challenged. People do meet, find attractive, like, and even love people who do not fit the standard image of beauty. In addition, media sometimes present images that suggest different ideals of beauty and success. Actresses Sofia Vergara, Kat Dennings, and Christina Hendricks; singers, actresses Beyoncé and Jennifer Lopez; and supermodel Kate Upton all represent alternatives to our culture’s idealized standards of beauty, and all have undeniable appeal (and power) on the big and small screens. Liberation from the limitations imposed by culture resides in our ability and willingness to learn and use new patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting; to challenge existing patterns; and to create our own.

DEFINING, DIFFERENTIATING, DIVIDING, AND UNITING EFFECTS OF CULTURE Have you ever made the mistake of calling a dolphin, porpoise, or even a whale a fish? Maybe you have heard others do it. This error occurs because when we think of fish, we think “lives in the water” and “swims.” Fish are defined by their “aquatic culture.” Because water-residing, swimming dolphins and porpoises share that culture, we sometimes forget that they are mammals, not fish.

We, too, are defined by our culture. We are citizens of the United States; we are Americans. If we travel to other countries, we will hear ourselves labeled “American,” and this label will conjure up stereotypes and expectations in the minds of those who use and hear it. The stereotype, whatever it may be, will probably fit us only incompletely, or perhaps hardly at all— perhaps we are dolphins in a sea full of fish. Nevertheless, being American defines us in innumerable important ways, both to others (more obviously) and to ourselves (less obviously).https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-dominant-culture-mainstream-culture

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What is our culture’s definition of beauty? Adolescence researchers argue that media offer young girls few examples of healthy beauty (Daniels, 2009). They point to the fact that female sports and athletes are woefully underrepresented in American media, appearing in only 1.6% of network television sports coverage (down from 5.6% in 2004; Kelly, 2010). Pictured here is California teen Abby Sunderland, who at 16 years old almost finished an around-the-world sail that would have made her the youngest person ever to complete a nonstop solo circumnavigation. Training from the time she was 13, she was thwarted by a dismasting in an Indian Ocean gale. Have you heard of her? Also pictured is Anna Kournikova, a Russian athlete. This famous tennis player has never won a singles tournament but has been named one of People’s 50 most beautiful, was voted “hottest female athlete” on ESPN, placed first in FHM’s 100 Sexiest Women in the World, and was named one of the “100 hottest women of all time” by Men’s Health. Have you heard of her? Which woman has attracted more attention from our culture? Why? (left) © Richard Hartog/AP Photo; (right) © Jeremy Bembaron/Sygma/Corbis

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Within this large, national culture, however, there are many smaller, bounded cultures (o r co-cultures). For example, we speak comfortably of Italian neighborhoods, fraternity row, the South, and the suburbs. Because of our cultural understanding of these categories, each expression communicates something about our expectations of these places. We think we can predict with a good deal of certainty the types of restaurants and shops we will find in the Italian neighborhood, even the kind of music we will hear escaping from open windows. We can predict the kinds of clothes and cars we will see on fraternity row, the likely behavior of shop

Culture can be contested. The makers of Dove soap challenge the culture’s narrow image of beauty with its “Real Women Have Curves” campaign, placing images like this on billboards and bus stops across the country, running it in national magazines, and making it the focus of its TV commercials. In 2015, the editors of Advertising Age magazine awarded Dove’s Campaign for Real Beauty its prize as the Number 1 ad campaign of the 21st century for being “brave, bold, insightful, transparent, and authentic.” Not only was it successful, they noted, in advocating that women themselves are in control of their own definitions of beauty, but sales of Dove’s products increased from $2.5 to $4 billion over the span of the campaign (“Top Ad,” 2015, p. 16). © Ruby Washington/The New York Times/Reduxhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-bounded-cultures-co-cultures

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clerks in the South, and the political orientation of the suburb’s residents. Moreover, the people within these cultures usually identify themselves as members of those bounded cultures. An individual may say, for example, “I am Italian American” or “I’m from the South.” These smaller cultures unite groups of people and enable them to see themselves as different from other groups around them. Thus culture also serves to differentiate us from others.

In the United States, we generally consider this a good thing. We pride ourselves on our pluralism, on our diversity, and on the richness of the cultural heritages represented within our borders. We enjoy moving from one bounded culture to another or from a bounded culture to the dominant national culture and back again.

Problems arise, however, when differentiation leads to division. All Americans are traumatized by horrific events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and 2013’s Boston Marathon bombing, but those tragedies are compounded for the millions of Muslim Americans whose patriotism is challenged simply because they belong to a particular bounded culture. Not only does the number of cases of violence against Muslims in America remain high, but the Department of Homeland Security reports that Muslim American terrorism continues to be “a miniscule threat to public safety” and cooperation from the Muslim American community has been essential in its efforts to investigate domestic threats (Shane, 2012); still we continue to see examples of overt discrimination. For example, in the wake of a serious increase in hateful online and public commentary following the release of its 2015 film American Sniper, movie studio Warner Bros. felt compelled to issue a statement declaring that it “denounces any violent, anti-Muslim rhetoric, including that which has been attributed to viewers of American Sniper. Hate and bigotry have no place in the important dialogue that this picture has generated about the veteran experience”(Mandell, 2015). For Muslim Americans, their religion, skin color, and maybe even their clothing “communicate” disloyalty to the United States to many other Americans. Just as culture is constructed and maintained through communication, it is also communication (or miscommunication) that turns differentiation into division.

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Pretty Little Liars, Grey’s Anatomy, and The Vampire Diaries—these three television programs are aimed at

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different audiences, yet in each the characters share certain traits that mark them as attractive. Must people in real life look like these performers to be considered attractive? Successful? Good? The people shown are all slender, tall, and young. Yes, they are just make-believe television characters, but the producers of the shows on which they appear chose these people—as opposed to others—for a reason. What do you think it was? How well do you measure up to the cultural standard of beauty and attractiveness represented here? Do you ever wish that you could be just a bit more like these people? Why or why not? (top) © ABC Family/Photofest; (bottom left) © Photos 12/Alamy; (bottom right) © AF archive/Alamy

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Yet, U.S. citizens of all colors, ethnicities, genders and gender preferences, nationalities, places of birth, economic strata, and intelligences often get along; in fact, we can communicate, can prosper, can respect one another’s differences. Culture can divide us, but culture also unites us. Our culture represents our collective experience. We converse easily with strangers because we share the same culture. We speak the same language, automatically understand how far apart to stand, appropriately use titles or first or last names, know how much to say, and know how much to leave unsaid. Through communication with people in our culture, we internalize cultural norms and values—those things that bind our many diverse bounded cultures into a functioning, cohesive society.

DEFINING CULTURE From this discussion of culture comes the definition of culture on which the remainder of this book is based:

Culture is the world made meaningful; it is socially constructed and maintained through communication. It limits as well as liberates us; it differentiates as well as unites us. It defines our realities and thereby shapes the ways we think, feel, and act.

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What is it about Muslim Americans that “communicates disloyalty” to the United States? © lm Otero/AP Photo

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Mass Communication and Culture Because culture can limit and divide or liberate and unite, it offers us infinite opportunities to use communication for good—if we choose to do so. James Carey (1975) wrote,

Because we have looked at each new advance in communication technology as opportunities for politics and economics, we have devoted them, almost exclusively, to government and trade. We have rarely seen them as opportunities to expand [our] powers to learn and exchange ideas and experience. (pp. 20–21)

Who are “we” in this quote? We are everyone involved in creating and maintaining the culture that defines us. We are the people involved in mass media industries and the people who compose their audiences. Together we allow mass communication not only to occur but also to contribute to the creation and maintenance of culture.

Everyone involved has an obligation to participate responsibly. For people working in the media industries, this means professionally and ethically creating and transmitting content. For audience members, it means behaving as critical and thoughtful consumers of that content. Two ways to understand our opportunities and our responsibilities in the mass communication process are to view the mass media as our cultural storytellers and to conceptualize mass communication as a cultural forum.

Mass Media as Cultural Storytellers A culture’s values and beliefs reside in the stories it tells. Who are the good guys? Who are the bad guys? How many of your childhood heroines were chubby? How many good guys dressed

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in black? How many heroines lived happily ever after without marrying Prince Charming? Probably not very many. Our stories help define our realities, shaping the ways we think, feel, and act. “Stories are sites of observations about self and society,” explains media theorist Hanno Hardt (2007). “These fictional accounts are the constitutive material signs of a shared conversation” (p. 476). Therefore, the “storytellers” have a responsibility to tell their stories in as professional and ethical a way as possible.

At the same time, we, the audience for these stories, also have opportunities and responsibilities. We use these stories not only to be entertained but to learn about the world around us, to understand the values, the way things work, and how the pieces fit together. We have a responsibility to question the tellers and their stories, to interpret the stories in ways

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consistent with larger or more important cultural values and truths, to be thoughtful, to reflect on the stories’ meanings and what they say about us and our culture. To do less is to miss an opportunity to construct our own meaning and, thereby, culture.

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In 2013, Procter & Gamble introduced its new floor steamer, the Swiffer, using an ad campaign based on the iconic World War II symbol of female empowerment, Rosie, and her shout of female strength, “We can do it!,” even Tweeting “We can do it! Because cleaning kitchens is women’s work.” Angered by the use of a symbol of female workplace success to sell cleaning products and the sexism inherent in claiming that cleaning kitchens is for women only, people immediately took up the cause and in a cultural conversation on social media, blogs, and traditional media, rejected Procter & Gamble’s simplistic telling of gender in today’s America. New Rosie went into immediate retirement.

Mass Communication as Cultural Forum Imagine a giant courtroom in which we discuss and debate our culture—what it is, and what we want it to be. What do we think about welfare? Single motherhood? Labor unions? Nursing homes? What is the meaning of “successful,” “good,” “loyal,” “moral,” “honest,” “beautiful,” “patriotic”? We have cultural definitions or understandings of all these things and more. Where do they come from? How do they develop, take shape, and mature?

Mass communication has become a primary forum for the debate about our culture. Logically, then, the most powerful voices in the forum have the most power to shape our definitions and understandings. Where should that power reside—with the media industries or with their audiences? If you answer “media industries,” you will want members of these industries to act professionally and ethically. If you answer “audiences,” you will want individual audience members to be thoughtful and critical of the media messages they consume. The forum is only as good, fair, and honest as those who participate in it.

The iconic Rosie. When Procter & Gamble wanted to advertise its dust mop, the Swiffer, it could have chosen from among an infinite number of characters to tell its story. It chose a female hero from World War II, Rosie the Riveter, who, with millions of other American women, helped win the war by taking on jobs long reserved for men. People complained. “We hear you,” answered Procter & Gamble. National Archives and Records Administration

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Scope and Nature of Mass Media No matter how we choose to view the process of mass communication, it is impossible to deny that an enormous portion of our lives is spent interacting with mass media. On a typical Sunday night, about 40 million people in the United States will tune in to a prime-time television show. Television viewing is at an all-time high and accounts for more than half of all the leisure-time activity of Americans 15 years old and over (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). Counting traditional television and online and mobile viewing, Americans spend 159 hours watching video of some sort every month (Seth & Morgan, 2014). Ninety-seven percent of all U. S. homes have at least one set, and 42 million connect their TVs directly to the Internet (Walsh, 2014). Seventy percent admit to binge viewing, watching three or more episodes of a series in one sitting (Verini, 2014). And on Facebook alone folks watch 3 billion videos a day (Lunden, 2015). We listen to more than four hours of music every day (Stutz, 2014), and we spend more than $10 billion a year at the movies, buying just under 1.3 billion tickets (“Domestic Movie,” 2015). If Facebook were its own country, its 1.4 billion monthly active users would make it the largest in the world. Facebook alone accounts for 6% of all the time the world’s Internet users spend online (Smith, 2015). Fifty-nine percent of Americans regularly play video games, and over half of all U. S. homes have a game console, averaging two per home (Entertainment Software Association, 2014).

Three billion people across the globe are connected to the Internet, 35% of the planet’s population and a 566% increase since 2000. Eighty-eight percent of North Americans use the Internet, a 39% increase since 2000 (“Internet users,” 2015). Annual global Internethttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-binge-viewing

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traffic will pass the zettabyte (that’s 1,000 exabytes, which is 1 billion gigabytes) threshold by the end of 2016, and will reach 1.6 zettabytes per year by 2018. Worldwide Internet traffic has increased fivefold over the past five years, and will increase threefold over the next five years. Traffic on the Internet in 2018 will be 64 times greater than it was in 2005. By 2018 nearly a million minutes of video content will cross the Internet every second, and it would take you more than 5 million years to watch all the video that will travel the Net each month (Cisco Systems, 2014). You can see Americans’ media preferences in Figur e 4 and how those preferences have changed over the last several years.

Despite the pervasiveness of mass media in our lives, many of us are dissatisfied with or critical of the media industries’ performance and much of the content provided. For example,

Figure 4 Average Number of Minutes per Day a Typical Adult Spends with Selected Media, 2008 vs. 2014. Source: eMarketer, 2014. Photo Source: © Jim Wehtje/Getty Images RFhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/chapter01/chapter01.xhtml#figure0104

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only 17% of adults feel that entertainment media provide “very good” or “excellent” value (Smith, 2011). People’s evaluations of the news media have become more negative over the last decade. Only 38% of the public holds a positive view of the publishing industry (down 9% from 2011); only 32% think highly of the public relations industry (down 6%); and only 39% have positive views of radio and television (down 3%; Newport, 2011). Their trust in each of the three major news sources—television, newspapers, and the Internet—has fallen to its lowest level since 1994, continuing a “decades-long decline in the share of Americans saying they have ‘a great deal’ or ‘quite a lot’ of confidence” in their media (Dugan, 2014). Their faith in the “media’s ability to report the news fully, accurately, and fairly” has also returned to an historic low of 40% of all Americans (McCarthy, 2014).

Our ambivalence—we criticize, yet we consume—comes in part from our uncertainties about the relationships among the elements of mass communication. What is the role of technology? What is the role of money? And what is our role in the mass communication process?

The Role of Technology To some thinkers, it is machines and their development that drive economic and cultural change. This idea is referred to as technological determinism. Certainly there can be no doubt that movable type contributed to the Protestant Reformation and the decline of the Catholic Church’s power in Europe or that television changed the way members of American families interact. Those who believe in technological determinism would argue that these changes in the cultural landscape were the inevitable result of new technology.https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-technological-determinism

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But others see technology as more neutral and claim that the way people use technology is what gives it significance. This perspective accepts technology as one of many factors that shape economic and cultural change; technology’s influence is ultimately determined by how much power it is given by the people and cultures that use it.

This disagreement about the power of technology is at the heart of the controversy surrounding the new communication technologies. Are we more or less powerless in the wake of advances such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and instant global audio and visual communication? If we are at the mercy of technology, the culture that surrounds us will not be of our making, and the best we can hope to do is make our way reasonably well in a world outside our control. But if these technologies are indeed neutral and their power resides in how we choose to use them, we can utilize them responsibly and thoughtfully to construct and maintain whatever kind of culture we want. As film director and technophile Steven Spielberg explained, “Technology can be our best friend, and technology can also be the biggest party pooper of our lives. It interrupts our own story, interrupts our ability to have a thought or daydream, to imagine something wonderful because we’re too busy bridging the walk from the cafeteria back to the office on the cell phone” (quoted in Kennedy, 2002, p. 109). Or, as Dr. Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) said in Spielberg’s 1997 The Lost World: Jurassic Park, “Oooh! Ahhh! That’s how it always starts. Then later there’s running and screaming.”

Technology does have an impact on communication. At the very least it changes the basic elements of communication (see Figure 3). What technology does not do is relieve us of our obligation to use mass communication responsibly and wisely.

The Role of Money Money, too, alters communication. It shifts the balance of power; it tends to make audiences products rather than consumers.

The first newspapers were financially supported by their readers; the money they paid for the paper covered its production and distribution. But in the 1830s a new form of newspaper financing emerged. Publishers began selling their papers for a penny—much less than it cost to produce and distribute them. Because so many more papers were sold at this bargain price, publishers could “sell” advertising space based on their readership. What they were actually selling to advertisers was not space on the page—it was readers. How much they could charge advertisers was directly related to how much product (how many readers) they could produce for them.

This new type of publication changed the nature of mass communication. The goal of the process was no longer for audience and media to create meaning together. Rather, it was to sell those readers to a third participant—advertisers.

Some observers think this was a devastatingly bad development, not only in the history of mass communication but in the history of democracy. It robbed people of their voice, or at least made the voices of the advertisers more powerful. Others think it was a huge advance for both mass communication and democracy because it vastly expanded the media, broadening and deepening communication. Models showing these two different ways of viewing masshttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/chapter01/chapter01.xhtml#figure0103

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communication are presented in the box “Audience as Consumer or Audience as Produc t?” Which model makes more sense to you? Which do you think is more accurate? ABC journalist Ted Koppel told the Washington Post, “[Television] is an industry. It’s a business. We exist to make money. We exist to put commercials on the air. The programming that is put on between those commercials is simply the bait we put in the mousetrap” (in “Soundbites,” 2005, p. 2). Do you think Koppel is unnecessarily cynical or is he correct in his analysis of television?

The goals of media professionals will be questioned repeatedly throughout this book. For now, keep in mind that ours is a capitalist economic system and that media industries are businesses. Movie producers must sell tickets, book publishers must sell books, and even public broadcasting has bills to pay.

This does not mean, however, that the media are or must be slaves to profit. Our task is to understand the constraints placed on these industries by their economics and then demand that, within those limits, they perform ethically and responsibly. We can do this only by being thoughtful, critical consumers of the media.

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CULTURAL FORUM Audience as Consumer or Audience as Product?

People base their judgments of media performance and content on the way they see themselves fitting into the economics of the media industry. Businesses operate to serve their consumers and make a profit. The consumer comes first, then, but who is the consumer in our mass media system? This is a much-debated issue among media practitioners and media critics. Consider the following models.

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PRODUCER PRODUCT

Basic U.S. Business Model

A manufacturer . . . produces a product . . .

Basic U.S. Business Model for Cereal: Rice Krispies as Product, Public as Consumer

Kellogg’s . . . produces Rice Krispies . . .

Basic U.S. Business Model for Television (A): Audience as Product, Advertisers as Consumer

NBC . . . produces audiences (using its programming) . .

Basic U.S. Business Model for Television (B): Programming as Product, Audience as Consumer

NBC . . . produces (or distributes) programming . . .

The first three models assume that the consumer buys the product; that is, the consumer is the one with the money and therefore the one who must be satisfied. The last model makes a different assumption. It sees the audience, even though it does not buy anything, as sufficiently important to NBC’s profit- making ability to force NBC to consider its interests above others’ (even those of advertisers). Which model do you think best represents the economics of U.S. mass media?

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Mass Communication, Culture, and Media Literacy Culture and communication are inseparable, and mass communication, as we’ve seen, is a particularly powerful, pervasive, and complex form of communication. Our level of skill in the mass communication process is therefore of utmost importance. This skill is not necessarily a simple one to master (it is much more than booting up the computer, turning on the television set, or flipping the pages of your favorite magazine). But it is, indeed, a learnable skill, one that can be practiced. This skill is media literacy—the ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and use any form of mediated communication. But let’s start with the first mass medium, books, and the technology that enabled their spread, the printing press.

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As it is impossible to overstate the importance of writing, so too is it impossible to overstate the significance of Johannes Gutenberg’s development of movable metal type. Historian S. H. Steinberg (1959) wrote in Five Hundred Years of Printing:

Neither political, constitutional, ecclesiastical, and economic, nor sociological, philosophical, and literary movements can be fully understood without taking into account the influence the printing press has exerted upon them. (p. 11)

Marshall McLuhan expressed his admiration for Gutenberg’s innovation by calling his 1962 book The Gutenberg Galaxy. In it he argued that the advent of print is the key to our modern consciousness, because although literacy—the ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and use written symbols—had existed since the development of the first alphabets more than 5,000 years ago, it was reserved for very few, the elites. Gutenberg’s invention was world- changing because it opened literacy to all; that is, it allowed mass communication.

THE PRINTING PRESS Printing and the printing press existed long before Gutenberg perfected his process in or around 1446. The Chinese were using wooden block presses as early as 600 C.E. and had movable clay type by 1000 C.E. A simple movable metal type was even in use in Korea in the 13th century. Gutenberg’s printing press was a significant leap forward, however, for two important reasons.

Gutenberg was a goldsmith and a metallurgist. He hit on the idea of using metal type crafted from lead molds in place of type made from wood or clay. This was an important advance. Not only was movable metal type durable enough to print page after page, but letters could be arranged and rearranged to make any message possible. And Gutenberg was able to produce virtually identical copies.

In addition, Gutenberg’s advance over Korean metal mold printing was one of scope. The Korean press was used to produce books for a very small, royal readership. Gutenberg saw his invention as a way to produce many books for profit. He was, however, a poor businessman. He stressed quality over quantity, in part because of his reverence for the book he was printing, the Bible. He used the highest-quality paper and ink and turned out far fewer volumes than he otherwise could have.

Other printers, however, quickly saw the true economic potential of Gutenberg’s invention. The first Gutenberg Bible appeared in 1456. By the end of that century, 44 years later, printing operations existed in 12 European countries, and the continent was flooded with 20 million volumes of 7,000 titles in 35,000 different editions (Drucker, 1999).

THE IMPACT OF PRINT Although Gutenberg developed his printing press with a limited use in mind, printing Bibles, the cultural effects of mass printing have been profound.

Handwritten or hand-copied materials were expensive to produce, and the cost of an education, in time and money, had made reading an expensive luxury. However, with the spread of printing, written communication was available to a much larger portion of the population, and the need for literacy among the lower and middle classes grew. The ability to read became less of a luxury and more of a necessity; eventually literacy spread, as didhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-literacy

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education. Soldiers at the front needed to be able to read the emperor’s orders. Butchers needed to understand the king’s shopping list. So the demand for literacy expanded, and more (and more types of) people learned to read.

Tradespeople, soldiers, clergy, bakers, and musicians all now had business at the printer’s shop. They talked. They learned of things, both in conversation and by reading printed material. As more people learned to read, new ideas germinated and spread and cross- pollination of ideas occurred.

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This page from a Gutenberg Bible shows the exquisite care the printer used in creating his works. The artwork in the margins is handpainted, but the text is mechanically printed. © North Wind Picture Archives/Alamy

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More material from various sources was published, and people were freer to read what they wanted when they wanted. Dominant authorities—the Crown and the Church—were now less able to control communication and, therefore, the people. New ideas about the world appeared; new understandings of the existing world flourished.

In addition, duplication permitted standardization and preservation. Myth and superstition began to make way for standard, verifiable bodies of knowledge. History, economics, physics, and chemistry all became part of the culture’s intellectual life. Literate cultures were now on the road to modernization.

Printed materials were the first mass-produced product, speeding the development and entrenchment of capitalism. We live today in a world built on these changes. Use of the printing press helped fuel the establishment and growth of a large middle class. No longer were societies composed of rulers and subjects; printing sped the rise of democracy. No longer were power and wealth functions of birth; power and wealth could now be created by the industrious. No

Johannes Gutenberg takes the first proof from his printing press. © North Wind Picture Archives

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longer was political discourse limited to accepting the dictates of Crown and Church; printing had given ordinary people a powerful voice.

Tech writer Kevin Kelly connected printing directly to freedom and the rule of law:

When technology shifts, it bends the culture. Once, long ago, culture revolved around the spoken word. The oral skills of memorization, recitation, and rhetoric instilled in societies a reverence for the past, the ambiguous, the ornate, and the subjective. Then, about 500 years ago, orality was overthrown by technology. Gutenberg’s invention of metallic moveable type elevated writing into a central position in the culture. By means of cheap and perfect copies, text became the engine of change and the foundation of stability. From printing came journalism, science and the mathematics of libraries and law. (2008, p. 48)

The Industrial Revolution By the mid-18th century, printing and its libraries of science and mathematics had become one of the engines driving the Industrial Revolution. Print was responsible for building and disseminating bodies of knowledge, leading to scientific and technological developments and the refinement of new machines. In addition, industrialization reduced the time necessary to complete work, and this created something heretofore unknown to most working people— leisure time.

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Industrialization had another effect as well. As workers left their sunrise-to- sunset jobs in agriculture, the crafts, and trades to work in the newly industrialized factories, not only did they have more leisure time but they had more money to spend on their leisure. Farmers, fishermen, and tile makers had to put their profits back into their jobs. But factory workers took their money home; it was spendable. Combine leisure time and expendable cash with the spread of literacy and the result is a large and growing audience for printed information and entertainment. By the mid-19th century a mass audience and the means to reach it existed.

Media Literacy

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Television influences our culture in innumerable ways. One of its effects, according to many people, is that it has encouraged violence in our society. For example, American television viewers overwhelmingly say there is too much violence on television. Yet, almost without exception, the local television news program that has the largest proportion of violence in its nightly newscast is the ratings leader. “If it bleeds, it leads” has become the motto for much of local television news. It leads because people watch.

So, although many of us are quick to condemn improper media performance or to identify and lament its harmful effects, we rarely question our own role in the mass communication process. We overlook it because we participate in mass communication naturally, almost without conscious effort. We possess high-level interpretive and comprehension skills that make even the most sophisticated television show, movie, or magazine story understandable and enjoyable. We are able, through a lifetime of interaction with the media, to read media texts.

Media literacy is a skill we take for granted, but like all skills, it can be improved. And if we consider how important the mass media are in creating and maintaining the culture that helps define us and our lives, it is a skill that must be improved.

Hunter College media professor Stuart Ewen (2000) emphasized this point in comparing media literacy with traditional literacy. “Historically,” he wrote, “links between literacy and democracy are inseparable from the notion of an informed populace, conversant with the issues that touch upon their lives, enabled with tools that allow them to participate actively in public deliberation and social change…. Literacy was about crossing the lines that had historically separated men of ideas from ordinary people, about the enfranchisement of those who had been excluded from the compensations of citizenship” (p. 448). To Ewen, and others committed to media literacy, media literacy represents no less than the means to full participation in the culture.

Elements of Media Literacy Media scholar Art Silverblatt (2008) identifies seven fundamental elements of media literacy. To these we will add an eighth. Media literacy includes these characteristics:

1. A critical thinking skill enabling audience members to develop independent judgments about media content. Thinking critically about the content we consume is the very essence of media literacy. Why do we watch what we watch, read what we read, listen to what we listen to? If we cannot answer these questions, we have taken no responsibility for ourselves or our choices. As such, we have taken no responsibility for the outcome of those choices.

2. An understanding of the process of mass communication. If we know the components of the mass communication process and how they relate to one another, we can form expectations of how they can serve us. How do the

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various media industries operate? What are their obligations to us? What are the obligations of the audience? How do different media limit or enhance messages? Which forms of feedback are most effective, and why?

3. An awareness of the impact of media on the individual and society. Writing and the printing press helped change the world and the people in it. Mass media do the same. If we ignore the impact of media on our lives, we run the risk of being caught up and carried along by that change rather than controlling or leading it.

4. Strategies for analyzing and discussing media messages. To consume media messages thoughtfully, we need a foundation on which to base thought and reflection. If we make

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meaning, we must possess the tools with which to make it (for example, understanding the intent and impact of film and video conventions, such as camera angles and lighting, or the strategy behind the placement of photos on a newspaper page). Otherwise, meaning is made for us; the interpretation of media content will then rest with its creator, not with us.

5. An understanding of media content as a text that provides insight into our culture and our lives. How do we know a culture and its people, attitudes, values, concerns, and myths? We know them through communication. For modern cultures like ours, media messages increasingly dominate that communication, shaping our understanding of and insight into our culture.

6. The ability to enjoy, understand, and appreciate media content. Media literacy does not mean living the life of a grump, liking nothing in the media, or always being suspicious of harmful effects and cultural degradation. We take high school and college classes to enhance our understanding and appreciation of novels; we can do the same for media texts.

Learning to enjoy, understand, and appreciate media content includes the ability to use multiple points of access—to approach media content from a variety of directions and derive from it many levels of meaning. Thus, we control meaning making for our own enjoyment or appreciation. For example, we can enjoy any one of the hit movies from the Hunger Games trilogy as an action-laden adventure full of explosions, danger, and romance, the perfect holiday blockbuster. But as movie buffs we might see it as a David-and-Goliath, underdog-takes-on-the-powerful-villain tale. Or we might read it as an analogy for what’s happening in America’s contemporary economy of growing income inequality and harshness of life for those near the bottom. Maybe it’s a history lesson disguised as dystopian fiction, reminding us that our country was born of revolution against those who would rule us. Or maybe it’s just a cool way to spend a Saturday night, entertained by the same folks who so delighted us with other special-effects extravaganzas, like Constantine, I Am Legend, and Alexander.https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-multiple-points-of-access

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In fact, television programs such as The Middle, The Daily Show, The Simpsons, Game of Thrones, and Family Guy are specifically constructed to take advantage of the media literacy skills of sophisticated viewers while providing entertaining fare for less skilled consumers. The same is true for films such as Birdman, Interstellar, Lucy, The Grand Budapest Hotel, and Blue Jasmine, magazines such as Alarm, and the best of jazz, rap, and rock. The Middle and The Daily Show are produced as television comedies, designed to make people laugh. But they are also intentionally produced to provide more sophisticated, media-literate viewers with opportunities to make personally interesting or relevant meaning. Anyone can laugh while watching these programs, but some people can empathize with the daily travails of a working-class family (The Middle), or they can examine the failings and foibles of contemporary journalism (Daily Show).

7. Development of effective and responsible production skills. Traditional literacy assumes that people who can read can also write. Media literacy also makes this assumption. Our definition of literacy (of either type) calls not only for effective and efficient comprehension of content but for its effective and efficient use. Therefore, media-literate individuals should develop production skills that enable them to create useful media messages. If you have ever tried to make a narrative home video—one that tells a story—you know that producing content is much more difficult than consuming it. Even producing a voicemail message that is not embarrassing is a daunting task for many people.

This element of media literacy may seem relatively unimportant at first glance. After all, if you choose a career in media production, you will get training in school and on the job. If you choose another calling, you may never be in the position of having to produce content. But most professions now employ some form of media to disseminate information: for use in training, to enhance presentations, or to keep in contact with clients and customers. The Internet in particular requires effective production skills of its users—at home, school, and work—because online receivers can and do easily become online creators.

8. An understanding of the ethical and moral obligations of media practitioners. To make informed judgments about the performance of the

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media, we also must be aware of the competing pressures on practitioners as they do their jobs. We must understand the media’s official and unofficial rules of operation. In other words, we must know, respectively, their legal and ethical obligations. Return, for a moment, to the question of televised violence. It is legal for a station to air graphic violence. But is it ethical? If it is unethical, what power, if any, do we have to demand its removal from our screens? Dilemmas such as this are discussed at length in the chapter on media freedom, regulation, and ethics.

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Media Literacy Skills

Family Guy is a cartoon about a typical suburban family. It has all the things you would expect from a television situation comedy—an inept dad, a precocious daughter, a slacker son, a loving wife, and zany situations. Yet it also offers an intellectual, philosopher dog and an evil-genius, scheming baby. Why do you think the producers have gone to the trouble to populate this show with the usual trappings of a sitcom but then add other, bizarre elements? And what’s going on in The Hunger Games? Is it another special-effects, explosion-laden, action-adventure holiday blockbuster? A classic David-and-Goliath movie? An historical allegory? A commentary on growing financial inequality in America? Or maybe it’s just a cool way to spend a Saturday night, entertained by a celebrity-packed action movie. (top) © 20th Century Fox/Courtesy Everett Collection; (bottom) © Photos 12/Alamy

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Consuming media content is simple. Push a button and you have images on a television or music on a radio. Come up with enough cash and you can see a movie or buy a magazine. Media-literate consumption, however, requires a number of specific skills:

1. The ability and willingness to make an effort to understand content, to pay attention, and to filter out noise. As we saw earlier, anything that interferes with successful communication is called noise, and much of the noise in the mass communication process results from our own consumption behavior. When we watch television, often we are also doing other things, such as eating, reading, or chatting on the phone. We drive while we listen to the radio. Obviously, the quality of our meaning making is related to the effort we give it.

2. An understanding of and respect for the power of media messages. The mass media have been around for more than a century and a half. Just about everybody can enjoy them. Their content is either free or relatively inexpensive. Much of the content is banal and a bit silly, so it is easy to dismiss media content as beneath serious consideration or too simple to have any influence.

We also disregard media’s power through the third-person effect—the common attitude that others are influenced by media messages but that we are not. That is, we are media literate enough to understand the influence of mass communication on the attitudes, behaviors, and values of others but not self-aware or honest enough to see its influence on our lives.

3. The ability to distinguish emotional from reasoned reactions when responding to content and to act accordingly. Media content is often designed to touch us at the emotional level. We enjoy losing ourselves in a good song or in a well-crafted movie or television show; this is among our great pleasures. But because we react emotionally to these messages does not mean they don’t have serious meanings and implications for our lives. Television pictures, for example, are intentionally shot and broadcast forhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-third-person-effect

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their emotional impact. Reacting emotionally is appropriate and proper. But then what? What do these pictures tell us about the larger issue at hand? We can use our feelings as a point of departure for meaning making. We can ask, “Why does this content make me feel this way?”

4. Development of heightened expectations of media content. We all use media to tune out, waste a little time, and provide background noise. When we decide to watch television, we are more likely to turn on the set and flip channels until we find something passable than we are to read the listings to find a specific program to view. When we search for online video, we often settle for the “10 most shared today.” When we expect little from the content before us, we tend to give meaning making little effort and attention.

5. A knowledge of genre conventions and the ability to recognize when they are being mixed. The term genre refers to the categories of expression within the different media, such as “evening news,” “documentary,” “horror movie,” or “entertainment magazine.” Each genre is characterized by certain distinctive, standardized style elements—the conventions of that genre. The conventions of the evening news, for example, include a short, upbeat introductory theme and one or two good-looking people sitting at a large, curved desk. When we hear and see these style elements, we expect the evening news. We can tell a documentary film from an entertainment movie by its more serious tone and the number of talking heads. We know by their appearance—the use of color, the types of images, and the amount of text on the cover—which magazines offer serious reading and which provide entertainment.

Knowledge of these conventions is important because they cue or direct our meaning making. For example, we know to accept the details in a documentary film about the sinking of the Titanic as more credible than those found in a Hollywood movie about that disaster.

This skill is also important for another reason. Sometimes, in an effort to maximize audiences (and therefore profits) or for creative reasons, media content makers mix genre conventions. Is Clint Eastwood’s American Sniperhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-genrehttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-conventions

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fact or fiction? Is Meredith Vieira a journalist, a talk show host, or a showperson? Extra! and E! News look increasingly like

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Let’s consider two versions of the same movie scene. In the first, a man is driving a car. Cut to a woman lying tied up on a railroad track. What is the relationship between the man and the woman? Where is he going? With no more information than these two shots, you know automatically that he cares for her and is on his way to save her. Now, here is the second

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CNN’s reporting and the CBS Evening News. Reading media texts becomes more difficult as formats are co-opted.

6. The ability to think critically about media messages, no matter how credible their sources. It is crucial that media be credible in a democracy in which the people govern because the media are central to the governing process. This is why the news media are sometimes referred to as the fourth branch of government, complementing the executive, judicial, and legislative branches. This does not mean, however, that we should believe everything they report. But it is often difficult to arrive at the proper balance between wanting to believe and accepting what we see and hear unquestioningly, especially when frequently we are willing to suspend disbelief and are encouraged by the media themselves to see their content as real and credible.

Consider the New York Times motto “All the News That’s Fit to Print” and the title of ABC’s “Eyewitness News.” If it is all there, it must all be real, and who is more credible than an eyewitness? But if we examine these media, we would learn that the Times in actuality prints all the news that fits (in its pages) and that “Eyewitness News” is a very narrowly selective eyewitness.

7. A knowledge of the internal language of various media and the ability to understand its effects, no matter how complex. Just as each media genre has its own distinctive style and conventions, each medium also has its own specific internal language. This language is expressed in production values —the choice of lighting, editing, special effects, music, camera angle, location on the page, and size and placement of headlines. To be able to read a media text, you must understand its language. We learn the grammar of this language automatically from childhood—for example, we know that when the television image goes “all woosielike,” the character is dreaming.https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-production-values

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version. The man is driving the car. Fade to black. Fade back up to the woman on the tracks. Now what is the relationship between the man and the woman? Where is he going? It is less clear that these two people even have anything to do with each other. We construct completely different meanings from exactly the same two pictures because the punctuation (the quick cut/fade) differs.

Media texts tend to be more complicated than these two scenes. The better we can handle their grammar, the more we can understand and appreciate texts. The more we understand texts, the more we can be equal partners with media professionals in meaning making.

This television show offers all the conventions we’d expect from the news—background digital graphics, an anchor behind his desk, a well-known interviewee. But it also contains conventions we’d expect from a comedy program—a satirist as host and an unruly, loud audience. Why does Last Week Tonight with John Oliver mix the conventions of these two very different genres? Does your knowledge of those conventions add to your enjoyment of this hit program? © Eric Liebowitz/HBO/Courtesy Everett Collection

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MEDIA LITERACY CHALLENGE Recognizing Cultural Values

Media-literate people develop an understanding of media content as a text that provides insight into our culture and our lives, and they have an awareness of the impact of media on the individual and society. So, challenge your own media literacy skills. You can do this exercise with a parent or another person older than you, or you can speculate after using the Internet to view movies and television shows from 20 years ago. Compare your childhood heroes and heroines with those of someone older. What differences are there between the generations in what you consider heroic qualities? What are some similarities and differences between the heroic qualities you and people from an earlier generation identify? Are the good qualities of your personal heroes something you can find in today’s movies or TV? Perhaps your hero is even a TV character. Either way, where on TV or in film can you find the qualities you consider heroic? Which cultural values, attitudes, and beliefs, if any, do you think have influenced how heroes and heroines have changed throughout the last few decades? How have the media helped establish the values you identify as important qualities in people?

Resources for Review and Discussion

REVIEW POINTS: TYING CONTENT TO LEARNING OUTCOMES

Define communication, mass communication, mass media, and culture.

□ Communication is the process of creating shared meaning.

□ Mass communication is the process of creating shared meaning between the

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mass media and their audiences.

□ Mass media is the plural of mass medium, a technology that carries messages to a large number of people.

□ Culture is the world made meaningful. It resides all around us; it is socially constructed and maintained through communication. It limits as well as liberates us; it differentiates as well as unites us. It defines our realities and shapes the ways we think, feel, and act.

Describe the relationships among communication, mass communication, culture, and those who live in the culture.

□ Mass media are our culture’s dominant storytellers and the forum in which we debate cultural meaning.

Evaluate the impact of technology and economics on those relationships.

□ Technological determinism argues that technology is the predominant agent of social and cultural change. But it is not technology that drives culture; it is how people use technology.

□ With technology, money, too, shapes mass communication. Audiences can be either the consumer or the product in our mass media system.

List the components of media literacy.

□ Media literacy, the ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and use any form of mediated communication, consists of several components:

Critical thinking skills enabling the development of independent judgments about media content

An understanding of the process of mass communication

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An awareness of the impact of the media on individuals and society

Strategies for analyzing and discussing media messages

An awareness of media content as a “text” providing insight into contemporary culture

A cultivation of enhanced enjoyment, understanding, and appreciation of media content

The development of effective and responsible production skills

The development of an understanding of the ethical and moral obligations of media practitioners

Identify key skills required for developing media literacy.

□ Media skills include

The ability and willingness to make an effort to understand content, to pay attention, and to filter out noise

An understanding of and respect for the power of media messages

The ability to distinguish emotional from reasoned reactions when responding to content and to act accordingly

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KEY TERMS communication, 3 feedback, 4 interpersonal communication, 4 encoding, 4 decoding, 4 noise, 5 medium (pl. media), 5 mass medium, 5 mass communication, 5 inferential feedback, 5 cultural definition of communication, 6 culture, 6 dominant culture (mainstream culture), 10 bounded culture (co-culture), 11 binge viewing, 14 technological determinism, 15 media literacy, 17 literacy, 18 multiple points of access, 21

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The development of heightened expectations of media content

A knowledge of genre conventions and the recognition of their mixing

The ability to think critically about media messages

A knowledge of the internal language of various media and the ability to understand its effectshttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-communicationhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-feedbackhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-interpersonal-communicationhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-encodinghttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-decodinghttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-noisehttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-medium-pl-mediahttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-mass-mediumhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-mass-communicationhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-inferential-feedbackhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-cultural-definition-of-communicationhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-culturehttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-dominant-culture-mainstream-culturehttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-bounded-cultures-co-cultureshttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-binge-viewinghttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-technological-determinismhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-media-literacyhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-literacyhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-multiple-points-of-access

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third-person effect, 23 genre, 23 conventions, 23 production values, 24

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW

QUESTIONS FOR CRITICAL THINKING AND DISCUSSION

1. What is culture? How does culture define people?

2. What is communication? What is mass communication?

3. What are encoding and decoding? How do they differ when technology enters the communication process?

4. What does it mean to say that communication is a reciprocal process?

5. What is James Carey’s cultural definition of communication? How does it differ from other definitions of that process?

6. What do we mean by mass media as cultural storyteller?

7. What do we mean by mass communication as cultural forum?

8. What is media literacy? What are its components?

9. What are some specific media literacy skills?

10. What is the difference between genres and production conventions? What do these have to do with media literacy?

To maximize your study time, check out CONNECT to access the SmartBook study module for this chapter, watch videos, and explore other resources.

1. Who were your childhood heroes and heroines? Why did you choose them? What cultural lessons did you learn from them?

2. The arrival of the printing press dramatically changed history. Traditionalhttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-third-person-effecthttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-genrehttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-conventionshttps://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/1260406946/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary.xhtml#key-production-values

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REFERENCES

seats of power lost influence, science flourished, and the seeds were planted for capitalism and the growth of a middle class. What effects will the Internet have on our future? Will its impact be less than, equal to, or greater than the impact wrought by the printing press? Defend your answer.

3. How media literate do you think you are? What about those around you— your parents, for example, or your best friend? What are your weaknesses as a media-literate person?

1. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014, June 18). American time use survey summary. Online: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/atus.nr0.htm

2. Carey, J. W. (1975). A cultural approach to communication. Communication, 2, 1-22.

3. Carey, J. W. (1989). Communication as culture. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

4. Cisco Systems. (2014, June 2014). The zettabyte era: Trends and analysis. Cis co.com. Online: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral /service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/VNI_Hyperconnec tivity_WP.html

5. “Domestic movie theatrical market summary 1995 to 2015.” (2015, February 5). The Numbers. Online: http://www.the-numbers.com/market/

6. Drucker, P. E. (1999, October). Beyond the information revolution. Atlantic Monthly, pp. 47-57.

7. Dugan, A. (2014, June 19). Americans’ confidence in news media remains low. Gallup.com. Online: http://www.gallup.com/poll/171740/ameri cans-confidence-news-media-remains-low.aspx

8. eMarketer. (2014, December 29). Time spent using media. Advertising Age Marketing Fact Pack 2015, p. 17.http://www.bls.gov/news.release/atus.nr0.htmhttp://cisco.com/http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/VNI_Hyperconnectivity_WP.htmlhttp://www.the-numbers.com/market/http://gallup.com/http://www.gallup.com/poll/171740/americans-confidence-news-media-remains-low.aspx

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watch hotel rawanda

Analyze the movie: After watching the movie, you will write a 4-6 page review, consisting of:

a) intro paragraph noting the relevance of the movie to the course

b) one page description/summary of the contents of the film

-How was the story presented?
——-i.e. flashbacks, sequential, from a particular character’s point of view, etc.

-What was the intention of the film and/or filmmaker?
——-Was this intention fulfilled or met?

-Did the way the movie was produced and presented affect the content?

-Were there specific scenes or occurrences, which stood out as being essential to the development of the story and/or to your understanding of it?

-Major substantive points of the movie?

-Any secondary points made?

-Any ‘unintentional’ results of the movie?

c) 0.5-1 page in which you discuss how popular culture themes were constructed in the movie use at least 3 examples

d) 1-2 pages in which you use at least 4 sociological/pop cultural concepts covered in this course to analyze the movie (cite class materials as you do so)

e) Analyze which issues emerged as the strongest…as the weakest?

f) Briefly compare the popular culture themes in the movie you watched for this assignment to another movie you have previously seen that had similar themes.

The paper should be typed, double-spaced, 12-point font, 1” margins.  

Please be sure to use sources and format citations in the APA citation format (including the movie). 

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to warm up for a match, a tennis player hits the 58.0 g ball vertically with her racket.

To warm up for a match, a tennis player hits the 56.0 g ball vertically with her racket.

If the ball is stationary just before it is hit and goes 5.40 m high, what impulse did she impart to it?

0 0 270
asked by zack
Nov 24, 2017
(1/2) m v^2 = m g h
so
v = sqrt(2 g h)
impulse = m v = m sqrt(2 g h)
= 0.056 sqrt (29.815.40)

0 0
posted by Damon
Nov 24, 2017

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for mn3+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.

For Mn3 , write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.
66,957 results
Chemistry
For Mn3+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.

asked by Ari on February 12, 2011
Chemistry
Determine whether each cation is acidic or pH neutral. For those cations that are acidic, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid. A) Sr+2 B) Mn+3 C) C5H5NH+ D) Li+

asked by L.Bianchessi on February 27, 2012
Chemistry
Determine whether each cation is acidic or pH neutral. For those cations that are acidic, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid. A) Sr+2 B) Mn+3 C) C5H5NH+ D) Li+

asked by L.Bianchessi on February 27, 2012
Chemistry
Determine whether each cation is acidic or pH neutral. For those cations that are acidic, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid. A) Sr+2 B) Mn+3 C) C5H5NH+ D) Li+

asked by L.Bianchessi on February 27, 2012
Chemistry
For C2H5NH3+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid. Why is my answer wrong? CH2H5NH3^+(aq) + H2O(l) —> CH2H5NH2(aq) + H3O+(aq)

asked by Alex on November 6, 2018

Chemistry
My teacher uses the online homework ARIS and the question is write the balanced equation of Mn3(PO4)2: i have enter the answer Mn3(PO4)2 (s) =3Mn^2+(aq) + 2(PO4)^3-(aq)

asked by Taylor on December 8, 2010
Chemistry
Write the balanced equation and solubility product expression for the solubility equilibrium of Mn3(PO4)2: i thought the answer was Mn3(PO4)2 (s) = Mn^2+(aq) + (PO4)2 ^3- (aq) but that’s not right. then for the Ksp expression i thought it was [Mn^2+]

asked by Jake on November 30, 2010
Chemistry
Write the balanced equation and solubility product expression for the solubility equilibrium of Mn3(PO4)2: i thought the answer was Mn3(PO4)2 (s) = Mn^2+(aq) + (PO4)2 ^3- (aq) but that’s not right. then for the Ksp expression i thought it was [Mn^2+]

asked by Jake on December 1, 2010
Chemistry

  1. what solution can you add to each of the following cation mixtures to precipitate one cation while keeping the other cation in sloution? write complete and net ionic equations for thr precipitation reactons that occur. a) sr+2 (aq) anf Hg+2 (aq) b) ca+2

asked by Alexandria on April 28, 2011
chemistry
Consider the ionization constants hypochlorous acid (HOCl) : Ka = 3.5 × 10−8; ammonia (NH3) : Kb = 1.8×10−5. A solution of ammonium hypochlorite (NH4OCl) is 1. acidic, because the cation hydrolyzes to a greater extent than the anion. 2. basic,

asked by vivian on May 13, 2011
AP Chemistry
Consider the ionization constants cyanic acid (HOCN) : Ka= 3.5×10−4; ammonia (NH3): Kb= 1.8×10−5. A solution of ammonium cyanate (NH4OCN) is 1. acidic, because the cation and the anion hydrolyze to the same extent. 2. acidic, because the anion

asked by Gabriella on January 24, 2014
Chemistry
What is the solubility equilibrium for Mn3(PO4)2? Isn’t it this.. Mn3(PO4)2 (s) –> 3Mn^+2 (aq) + 2PO4^-3 (aq) but i keep getting it wrong. suggestions?

asked by Savannah S. on December 5, 2010
chemistry
In the reaction CaO(s) + SO2(g) —> CaSO3(s) (Hint: try drawing the Lewis structures of SO2 and SO32-) a. ) Ca2+ acts as a Lewis base, and SO32- acts as a Lewis acid. b. ) SO32- acts as a Lewis base, and SO2 acts as a Lewis acid. c. ) O2- acts as a Lewis

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2008
chemistry
In the reaction CaO(s) + SO2(g) —> CaSO3(s) (Hint: try drawing the Lewis structures of SO2 and SO32-) a. ) Ca2+ acts as a Lewis base, and SO32- acts as a Lewis acid. b. ) SO32- acts as a Lewis base, and SO2 acts as a Lewis acid. c. ) O2- acts as a Lewis

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2008
chemistry
Thanks for your help. I have a problem to solve et don’t know how to do part of it. We have a solution of XNO3 (X = monovalent cation We add a solution of K2SO4. We obtain an insoluble sulfate which precipitate and KNO3 The precipitate = 3.900 g The

asked by Ele on April 27, 2016

chemistry
Write the balanced equation and solubility product expression for the solubility equillibrium of Mn3(PO4)2: Ksp expression?

asked by Karly on November 29, 2010
Chem
Separate the following balanced chemical equation into its total ionic equation. AgNO3​(aq)+NaCl(aq) –> NaNO3​(aq)+AgCl(s) (List the ions in order of the above equation.) Write the net ionic equation for the reaction above. (Make sure the cation is

asked by Emma on October 16, 2017
Chemistry
A buffer is made by dissolving H3PO4 and NaH2PO4 in water. 1. Write an equation that shows how this buffer neutralizes added acid. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer. 2. Write an equation that shows how

asked by Mernyshia on October 16, 2015
chemistry
I need an equation for the neutralization of lemon juice (citric acid) with baking soda (sodium hydrogen or sodium bicarbonate) that shows a proton transfer to form carbonic acid and a salt..And an equation for the decomposition of carbonic acid to water

asked by Norma on August 4, 2010
Honors Chemistry
I need someone to check these questions. I know its a lot of questions. 2NH3 + Ag+ Ag(NH3)2+ a. What is the Lewis acid in this equation? [Ag+] b. What is the Lewis base in this equation? [NH3] Given H2SO4 is sulfuric acid, HNO3 is nitric acid, and H3PO4 is

asked by Elizabeth on May 7, 2012
Chemistry
The pH of a weak monoprotic acid, HA, is 4.55. It took 39.22 ml of 0.2334 M NaOH to titrate 25.00 ml of the acid. a. Write an equation for the above reaction. b. Calculate the molarity of the weak acid c. Write the equilibrium equation. Construct a table

asked by Cassie on April 9, 2011
Chemistry
I am so overwhelmed. can somebody please help me? Consider a solution that is 0.022 M in Fe^2+ and 0.014 in Mg^2+ A) if K2CO3 is to selectively precipitate one of the cations while leaving the other cation in solution, which cation will precipitate first?

asked by Jennifer on April 1, 2013
chemistry
Write the relevant chemical equations that will allow you to separate the following cations : 1-Hg subscript 2 2-Cation 2+, 2-Pb2+, 2-NH subscript 4 cation + 5- MN2+, and Fe3+

asked by Anonymous on March 6, 2011
chemistry
One isotope of a metallic element has mass number 59 and 31 neutrons in the nucleus. The cation derived from the isotope has 26 electrons. Write the symbol for this cation.

asked by Alex on February 9, 2011
chemistry
hello, I can’t seem to solve this question. i tried to look up someone else who may have asked this question. I found this girl named Sara,but her answer didn’t really help me much because it did not answer the question. What is the pH when enough 0.10 M

asked by THOMAS on July 12, 2010

college
A solid is known to be either BaCO3 or CaCO3. It is dissolved in 6 M acetic acid. A pale yellow precipitate forms when K2CrO4 solution is added. The subsequent flame test with that precipitate shows an orange-red color. Which cation is present? Briefly

asked by Anonymous on March 22, 2013
Chemistry
write unbalanced oxidation and reduction reactions for the following processes: Mn³⁺(aq) → MnO₂(s) + Mn²⁺(aq)

asked by Anon on February 5, 2018
chemistry
hello, I can’t seem to solve this question. i tried to look up someone else who may have asked this question. I found this girl named Sara,but her answer didn’t really help me much because it did not answer the question. What is the pH when enough 0.10 M

asked by THOMAS on July 12, 2010
chemistry
A buffer is made by dissolving H3PO4 and NaH2PO4 in water. a. write an equation that shows how this buffer neutralizes a small amount of acids. b. write an equation that shows how this buffer neutr?

asked by marcy on November 11, 2011
TO: DrBob222 science

  1. Write the chemical formula for each of the following acids: a.) hydrocyanic acid b.) oxalic acid c.) chlorous acid d.) nitric acid 2. Write the acid name or chemical formula for each of the following: a.) HBr b.) sulfurous acid c.) HClO4 D.) phosphoric

asked by Anonymous on March 20, 2014
chemistry
A buffer is made by dissolving HC2H3O2 and NaC2H3O2 in water. Write an equation that shows how this buffer neutralizes added acid. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in the answer.

asked by amanda on December 3, 2012
Chemistry
Why is the equivalence point of a weak acid-strong base titration above 7.0? How can the data reflect this? The titration of a weak acid with a srong base produces a salt of the two. The anion is hydrolyzed in water solution but the cation is not. A^- +

asked by Anonymous on April 23, 2007
proofread chemistry
write the formulas for the following compounds Sodium chlorate i put NaCl Lead (II) phosphate i put Pb2P For Magnesium hydrogen carbonate i had no clue! then it stats state the number of electrons lost or gained in forming each of these Ions. I didn’t

asked by John on March 8, 2008
chem. re+asap!
I got the rest, I just need help on the last one. My first post is down on this page. 6th one:I don’t know how to write the equation. It would be acid over base but which is the acid and which is the base? My answer: I got the Ka to be 2.7×10^-1. The

asked by hey. on June 19, 2006
Chemistry
Can the mercury cation (Hg2+) oxidize silver metal to aqueous silver cation? If so, would the reaction equation be as follows: 2 Ag(s) + Hg2+(aq) —> Hg(l) + 2 Ag+(aq) Thank you!

asked by Rainbow on April 7, 2014

Chem 1
Write a chemical equation that shows how acid rain H2SO3 was produced from SO2 gas and water in a zip sealed bag? My chem. teacher never explained how to do this and I have several other questions on this type of subject. If you could help me out it would

asked by Jess on April 9, 2013
chemistry 1 help please!
Write a chemical equation that shows how acid rain H2SO3 was produced from SO2 gas and water in a zip sealed bag? My chem. teacher never explained how to do this and I have several other questions on this type of subject. If you could help me out it would

asked by Jess on April 9, 2013
chem: Drbob222
Hi I have a follow up to a question that was answered previously. New question: So when the HPO4(2-) reacts with the NaOH, will the equation be this?: HPO4^(2-) + NaOH –> H2O + NaPO4(2-) But how do I write the equation for the H2PO4^- and HCl? H2PO4^- +

asked by jean on January 30, 2012
CHEMISTRY
a) Write the formula for each component in a buffer solution of acetic acid and its’ salt. b) The Ka, for hypochlorous acid, HClO, is 7.2 x l0^–4 at 25°C. What is pKa? Write the equation for the reaction to which Ka applies.

asked by jess on October 26, 2015
net ionics for lab
an experiment was conducted by measuring the change in temperature of solutions after mixing them together. After figuring out the KJ/mol, write a net ionic equation for each mixture 1) hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide (net ionic equation?) 2) nitric

asked by Rose Bud on February 17, 2012
Chemistry
I need help with getting started: 1.The crystal structure of an ionic compound consists of alternating cations and anions lying next to each other in three dimensions. If the cation radius is 55.1% of the anion radius and the distance between the cation

asked by Kate on November 8, 2008
titrations
I have to find the correct acid-base indicator to use for the following titrations (methyl orange with end point @ pH 4, bromthymol blue with end point @ pH 7, or phenopthanlein with end point @ pH 9). I have several problems given to me, but first I’m

asked by Taylor on May 5, 2007
Chemistry
Butyric acid (HC4H7O2) is a weak acid with the stench of rancid butter 1.) write the equation for the dissociation of HC4H7O2 in water 2.)the pH of .5 M HC4H7O2 is 2.56 calculate Ka of butyric acid 3.) Write the equation for the hydrolysis of C4H7O2- 4.)

asked by Ashley on July 30, 2013
Chemistry
Please help !!!! The acid impurity in your unknown was benzoic acid. a) Write an equation for the reaction that occurs during the NaOH extraction. b) Write an equation for the reaction that occurs after the addition of HCL. Thanks.

asked by Amanda on February 8, 2010
Chem
Write the equation for dissocation of acetic acid in water: My Answer: CH2COOH + H2O H3O+ + CH3COO- Equation for hydrolysis of acetate anion in water: My Answer: CH3COO- + H2O CH3COOH + OH- Now, using the above formulas, I have to show how a buffer works

asked by Marisol on March 21, 2007

chemistry
I want to know if someone could let me know if I have written my balanced equations correct for the following questions. Write a balanced equation for the reaction of zinc with sulfuric acid. Zn + H2SO4 >>> Zn(S04) +H2 Write a balanced equation for the

asked by jazz on April 21, 2014
Chemistry
Help needed for writing up a balance chemical equation for an acid/base titration: for an extended experimental experiment we tested the total acid content of orange juice, then had to write the balanced chemical equation for the experiment to do further

asked by Lauren on November 3, 2007
Chemistry
I need help with getting started: 1.The crystal structure of an ionic compound consists of alternating cations and anions lying next to each other in three dimensions. If the cation radius is 55.1% of the anion radius and the distance between the cation

asked by Cathy on November 8, 2008
chemistry
write the formula of each acid and identify each as a diprotic, a triprotic, or a monoprotic acid sulfuric acid,perchloric acid,phosphoric acid,hydrofluoric acid,acetic acid

asked by courtney on May 14, 2011
Chemistry
If the pH of a solution is 6, what are the hydrogen- and hydroxide-ion concentrations? The PH of a 0.1 M MCl (M+ is an unknown cation) was found to be 4.7. Write the net ionic equation for the hydrolysis of M+ and its corresponding equilibrium expression

asked by Jefferson on February 19, 2013
science
the oxide formed when selenium burns in air dissolves in water to give a solution of selenious acid,H2SeO3.the solution conducts electricity and turns blue litmus paper identify the positively charged ion present in an aqueous solution of the acid and then

asked by hanny dunny on February 2, 2007
geometry
The measure of the angles in a parallelogram total 360. Write and solve a system of equations to determine the values of x and y. The parallelogram shows x and 5.5y. The triangle shows x and y. I have the first equation at 180= x + 5.5y. What would be

asked by Jack on December 16, 2013
algebra
Can someone PLEASE explain how to do this to me? Thank you so much! Ten gallons of a 30% acid mixture is obtained by mixing a 50% solution (X) with 20% solution (Y). Write an equation for the 10 gallon mixture. What is the acid concentration, in gallons,

asked by Holly on October 28, 2010
Chemistry!!!
Consider a solution that is 0.022 M in Fe2+ and 0.014 M in Mg+2. A). If potassium carbonate is used to selectively precipitate one of the cations while leaving the other on solution, which cation will precipitate first? What minimum concentration of K2CO3

asked by ALISON on March 21, 2012
Chemistry
I am having a bit of difficulty getting the net equation and the net ionic equation and the net ionic equation. I think I have the balance equation right. Thanks in advance for any help. For the acid base neutralization reaction of carbonic acid,

asked by Amanda on March 4, 2010

chemistry 12
For the acid-base neutralization reaction of Carbonic acid, H2CO3(aq) and lithium hydroxide, LiOH(aq), write the blanced: a)complete equation b) Ionic equation c) Net ionic equation. ———————– i got a) H2CO3(aq) + 2LiOH(aq) = 2H2O(l)

asked by Robyn on October 4, 2011
chemistry
Write the balanced net ionic equation for the following reaction and determine the conjugate acid-base pairs. HNO3(aq)+Li2CO3(aq)LiNo3(aq)+LiHCO3(aq) Which component in the net ionic equation is the acid, the base, the conjugate base, and the conjugate

asked by kim on April 29, 2015
chemistry
Malic acid is a weak diprotic organic acid with K1 = 4.0x 10-4 and K2 = 9.0 x 10-6. (a) Letting the symbol H2A represent malic acid, write the chemical equations that represent K1 and K2 . Write the chemical equation that represents K] xK2 . (b)

asked by pinky on December 15, 2014
Chemistry
Formic acid, HCO2H, is a weak acid. Write a net ionic equation for the reaction of formic acid and aqueous potassium hydroxide.

asked by Caitlin on October 14, 2009
Chemistry
In lab, we were finding the distribution coefficient for propanoic acid and ethyl acetate. As well as propanoic acid and toluene. How would you write the chemical equation for the reaction of propanoic acid and ethyl acetate? I know it produces water in

asked by Lilian on September 24, 2014
chemistry
write the equation of the neutralization of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and write the net ionic equation for the reaction

asked by Doss on October 25, 2011
Chemistry
How do i write the equation betwen ethanoic acid CH3COOH and urea (NH2)2CO? I think they form carbondioxide and an ammonium salt, but how do i write the actual equation?

asked by Hallie on March 21, 2010
chem help
i just don’t know where to begin/how a) Write a balanced chemical equation for: potassium carbonate + magnesium chloride b) Write a balanced chemical equation for: sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate c) Write a balanced chemical equation for: sodium sulfate

asked by thad on January 15, 2013
Chemistry
Why does losing two electrons to form a +2 Cation cause the greatest shrinkage in atomic radius of the following? People are telling me that’s the answer but I don’t understand. a. Gaining one electron to form a 1+ cation b. Losing two electrons to form a

asked by Mary on April 26, 2010
AP CHEMISTRY
Phosphoric acid is triprotic acid (three ionizable hydrogens). The values of its stepwise ionization constants are Ka1= 7.5E-5, Ka2= 6.2E-8, and Ka3= 4.2E-13 1) Write the chemical equation for the first ionization reaction of phosphoric acid with water

asked by NIKITA on February 15, 2012

math
Write an equation that shows the relationship between the quanities. The total cost of a certain plumber is a flat rate of $35 plus $9.50/hr How would I write the equation between the quanities? Thank you

asked by jess on January 13, 2010
chemistry
1) to the nearest gram, what is the molar mass of Al2O3? 2)Br+H3O->HBr+H2O when this reaction is reversed what substance acts as an acid? what substance acts as a base ?

asked by lolo on August 22, 2011
college chem
Two questions where I have to write a balanced net ionic equation. 1. Write a balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of sodium chromate and silver nitrate are mixed 2. Write a balanced net ionic equaion reaction for

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chemistry
write the balanced half equation in acid medium when ethanol gets converted into acetic acid and compute eq.wt.of thanol qb

asked by neeraj on May 16, 2014
chemistry
Write a net ionic equation to show that ascorbic acid, H2C6H6O6, behaves as an acid in water. Consider only its first ionization

asked by Seep on December 4, 2011
chemistry
Write balanced equations and solubility product expressions for the solubility equlibria of the following compounds: a. CuBr b. ZnC2O4 c. Ag2CrO4 d. Hg2Cl2 e. AuCl3 f. Mn3(po4)2 can you give me some examples using the compounds given?

asked by Jin on July 19, 2010
chemistry
In acidic solution MnO4- oxidizes H3AsO3, a weak acid, to H3AsO4, a weak acid, and is reduced to Mn2+. Write the balanced net ionic equation for this reaction. How many H+ are there in the balanced equation

asked by faith on October 9, 2010
Chem
In acidic solution MnO4- oxidizes H3AsO3, a weak acid, to H3AsO4, a weak acid, and is reduced to Mn2+. Write the balanced net ionic equation for this reaction. How many H+ are there in the balanced equation? Question 8 answers

asked by EJ on February 22, 2011
chemistry
A solution contains 0.20 M Cl- and 0.20 M SO4^2-. a) identify a cation that could be added to the solution to give a precipitate with only one of these anions. MY answer: Cu+ b) write the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction in part a) MY

asked by Anonymous on December 11, 2014
chemistry
Write a net ionic equation for the reaction of the aqueous species ammonia and hydrofluoric acid. I don’t think mine is coming out right- I don’t know how NH3 reacts with other species, because I end up getting hydrogen as both an anion and a cation in the

asked by Christine on April 29, 2007

Chemistry
I have to fill in the missing values in this invisible chart The cation is Sn+2, the Anion is SiO3^-2. I think the compound is SnSiO3, and the name is silicite. Is this right? The cation is Al3+, the anion is S^-2. I guessed the compound was Al2S3, and the

asked by Karine on March 9, 2009
Chemistry 12

  1. According to Arrhenius, which of the following groups contain: i)only acids ii)only bases a. NaOH, H2CO3, KCl b. MgCl2, H2SO4, HCl c. HNO3, HCl, H3PO4 d. Mg(OH)2, AgBr, HF e. KOH, NH4OH, Ba(OH)2 10. Enough water is added to 100 g of sodium hydroxide in

asked by Kavitha on May 22, 2011
Chemistry
Nitric acid is a component of acid rain that forms when gaseous nitrogen dioxide pollutant reacts with gaseous oxygen and liquid water to form aqueous nitric acid. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. Express your answer as a chemical

asked by Lisa on October 15, 2010
chemisty
Sulfuric acid reacts with hydrogen iodide to produce sulfur dioxide, iodine and water. a) write total ionic equation b)write net ionic equation

asked by help! on April 22, 2010
chemistry
Sulfuric acid reacts with hydrogen iodide to produce sulfur dioxide, iodine and water. a) write total ionic equation b)write net ionic equation

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Social Studies
How did colonists feel about the Navigation Acts? A. Colonists resented the Navigation Acts because the acts limited their trade with nations other than England. B. Colonists generally like the Navigation Acts, because the acts gave them greater access to

asked by Anonymous on October 2, 2014
chemistry
There are four main methods of making salts: Acid + Metal, Acid + insoluble base, Acid + alkali and solution of salt A + solution of salt B. a. a student wanted to make some sodium sulfate. i. which method would be best to use? ii. why? iii. which

asked by Chloe on April 6, 2008
chemistry
what is the reaction equation when maleic anhydride is combines with granular zinc and HCl propose structures for the products you would obtain by treating fumaric acid, cinnamic acid, and butynedioic acid with zinc and HCl. write balanced equations for

asked by anon on October 30, 2010
Chemistry
Determine whether each anion is basic or neutral. For those that are basic, wrote an equation that shows how an anion acts as a base. (A) C7H5O2 ^- (B) I^- (C) NO3^- (D) F^-

asked by L.Bianchessi on February 27, 2012
chemistry
Write the balanced net ionic equation for the following reaction and determine the conjugate acid-base pairs. HNO3(aq)+Li2CO3(aq)LiNo3(aq)+LiHCO3(aq) Which component in the net ionic equation is the acid, the base, the conjugate base, and the conjugate

asked by kim on April 29, 2015

Chemistry
Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO32–.

asked by Darrin on January 27, 2013
Chemistry Equation
1) Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. 2)Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO3^(2-).

asked by Mizuhara on October 13, 2014
Chemistry
Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO32–.

asked by Jessica on January 27, 2013
Chemistry (PLZ HELP)
Hydrazine, N2H4(aq), is used in the preparation of polymers, pharmaceuticals and rocket fuel. Hydrazine has alkaline properties similar to ammonia and will act as a weak base. Given that a 100 mL sample of 0.10 mol/L hydrazine solution has a pH of 10.55 at

asked by Emily on May 23, 2018
Chemistry
Hydrazine, N2H4(aq), is used in the preparation of polymers, pharmaceuticals and rocket fuel. Hydrazine has alkaline properties similar to ammonia and will act as a weak base. Given that a 100 mL sample of 0.10 mol/L hydrazine solution has a pH of 10.55 at

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Chemistry URGENT/DR BOB
Can someone may sure that I balanced the following groups of equations correctly. Write an equation to show how acetic acid reacts with water to produce ions in solution. C2H4O2 + H2O >>>>>>> H3O + C2H3O Write an equation for the neutralization of HCl and

asked by jazz on April 23, 2014
Chemistry
I am using 85% ACS grade phosphoric acid. I need to make a 21% phosphoric acid solution with a total volume of 250ml. I have been told that 37ml of the 85% ACS grade phosphoric acid plus 188ml of Deionized water will create the 21% phosphoric acid solution

asked by Melissa on December 9, 2016
chem-acid-base titrations
Acetic acid (HC2H3O2) is an important component of vinegar. A 10.00mL sample of vinegar is titrated with .5052 M NaOH, and 16.88 mL are required to neutralize the acetic acid that is present. a.write a balanced equation for this neutralization reaction

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chemistry
Write and balance the equation for the reaction between nitric acid and potassium iodide. The products are potassium nitrate, iodine, nitrogen monoxide, and water. 2HNO3 + KI = KNO3 + I + 2NO + H2O (Did I write the equation correctly?)

asked by Kat on April 14, 2016
CHEMISTRY
If 15g of Sodium Hydroxide are treated with sulphuric acid to produce sodium sulphate, how many grams of sulphuric acid are required. write the balance equation for this reaction and calculate the quantity of sulphuric acid.

asked by Anonymous on April 4, 2011

Chemistry
Write the equation for the equilibrium that exists when nitrous acid and sodium acetate are placed in solution together (do not include spectator ions). Using published values for the Ka of nitrous acid and of acetic acid, determine the numerical value of

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Water Chemistry
What is cation exchange? How is the best way to plot surface water or groundwater data to see if you have cation exchange? Can you recommend references to learn more about this? Thank you

asked by Mary on May 26, 2008
Chemistry
Solid sodium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid to give sodium chloride,carbon dioxide and water. When writing the ionic equation, do I need to write Na2CO3(s)or do I write CO32-(aq) on the left hand side of the equation?

asked by candy on April 7, 2009
chem 2
indictae the reactant that is a bronsted lowry acid. HCN(aq) +H2O (l)—> H3O+(aq)=CN-(aq) HCN CN- H20 H30 i think it is HCN the weak acid substance which acts as a proton (H+) donor and CN the weak base? You are right. The HCN donates the proton (to H2O)

asked by jane on April 30, 2007
Chemistry
How to solve this: One isotope of a metallic element has mass # of 65 and 35 neutrons in nucleus. The cation derived from the isotope has 28 electrons. Write the symbol for this cation. Would the symbol be Cu? because Atomic # = protons = electrons and

asked by Amy~ on August 24, 2010

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which of the following describes loyalists

Okay so i have the answers but i would like to know if i have them right. may someone tell me which ones are right and wrong ?

Which of the following describes Loyalists? (1 point)
A. They decided to fight against the British.
B. They supported British taxation.
C. They thought Patriots were too radical.
D. They wanted to return to Britain.

  1. According to the Declaration of Independence, where does a government’s power come from? (1 point)
    A. the Creator
    B. the consent of the governed
    C. the self-evident rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
    D. the right of the people to institute a new government
  2. As a result of the Revolution, women in America (1 point)
    A. were granted the right to sign a contract.
    B. earned the right to own property.
    C. gained respect.
    D. suffered abuse.
  3. In what way did the American Revolution affect other countries? (1 point)
    A. The practice of slavery spread throughout Europe.
    B. Foreign governments attempted to punish Patriot leaders.
    C. Countries tried to avoid the devastation of war.
    D. Other republican groups fought to overthrow aristocratic governments.
  4. Which political theory defines the different responsibilities for each branch of government? (1 point)
    A. popular sovereignty
    B. Limited government
    C. separation of powers
    D. Federalism
  5. Which of the following describes Federalism? (1 point)
    A. State governments dominate a weak national legislature.
    B. State and national governments share power.
    C. A strong executive directs national policy for dependent states.
    D. A strong national legislature gives equal voice to all citizens.
  6. Why did Northern industrialists favor protective tariffs? (1 point)
    A. Tariffs raised the cost of European goods so that more people would buy American goods.
    B. Labor unions demanded tariffs because they raised factory workers’ wages.
    C. Investors used money from tariffs to reduce production costs.
    D. Higher prices meant that companies earned higher profits.
  7. Which of the following drew a line north of which any new states would be free states and south of which any new states would be slave states? (1 point)
    A. Missouri Compromise
    B. Marbury v. Madison
    C. American System
    D. Monroe Doctrine
  8. In which direction would the people in this illustration have likely been traveling? (1 point)
    A. north to south
    B. south to north
    C. east to west
    D. west to east
  9. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 angered Northerners because (1 point)
    A. it prioritized states’ rights over the rights of the federal government.
    B. it contradicted the Missouri Compromise.
    C. it contradicted the Wilmot Proviso.
    D. it increased federal intervention in the affairs of independent states.
  10. The term “Bleeding Kansas” can be attributed to (1 point)
    A. the competition between farmers trying to settle the land.
    B. the blistering speech of Charles Sumner on the Senate floor.
    C. the competition of opposing political groups.
    D. Preston Brooks’s attack on Ft. Sumner.
  11. Why did South Carolina secede from the Union? (1 point)
    A. Lincoln stated that he wanted to support slavery.
    B. The North no longer wanted it in the Union.
    C. The Crittenden Compromise failed.
    D. They believed that Lincoln was hostile to slavery.
  12. What happened to the South’s economy during the Civil War? (1 point)
    A. It improved.
    B. It remained stable.
    C. It deteriorated.
    D. It declined and then grew.
  13. Vicksburg is located on which major river? (1 point)
    A. Hudson
    B. Susquehanna
    C. Mississippi
    D. Colorado
  14. Some abolitionists criticized Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation because (1 point)
    A. they knew it did not specifically free all enslaved people.
    B. they wanted it sent to European countries.
    C. they wanted it to give enslaved people full rights of citizenship.
    D. they wanted it to bring an end to the Civil War.
  15. Why was a plan for Reconstruction of the South needed? (1 point)
    A. The Lincoln administration did not want to readmit the Confederate states to the Union.
    B. Many new citizens had joined the nation during the war.
    C. The Constitution provided no guidance on secession or readmission of states.
    D. The Southern economy had grown, and Northern states wanted to share the prosperity.
  16. The Republican Party became strong in the South, in part because (1 point)
    A. millions of Southern African American men became voters.
    B. the party did not require a loyalty oath in order to vote.
    C. many white Southerners attended the state constitutional conventions.
    D. all of the former Confederate states had met the requirements to rejoin the Union.

my answers are: B,B,B,D,c,d,a,a,a,c,a,c,c,a,b,a.

0 0 649
asked by day
Oct 17, 2012
you missed 1,3,6,9,10,11,12,14,15,16,17

The correct answers are C,C,B,B,C,D,A,C,A 100%

0 0
posted by SafariaBell
Oct 18, 2013
are those correct?

1 0
posted by ron
Sep 8, 2014
Why did slavery continue after the Revolution?

0 0
posted by Katie
Sep 22, 2014
In which state was the Battle of Trenton fought?

0 0
posted by kk
Jan 28, 2015

C,B,C,D,C,B,A,A,B,C,D,A,C,C,A this is for 1-15

0 0
posted by Tanya
Sep 2, 2015
Real answers:
C,B,C,D,C,B,A,A,B,D,C,D,C,C,A,C
100% correct I garentee!!!! Tanya is wrong!

0 0
posted by Evangeline
Sep 12, 2016
thanks evangeline!

0 0
posted by o
Sep 13, 2016
you da best Evangeline!!!!!!!

0 0
posted by nice guy
Sep 29, 2017
100%?

0 0
posted by is evengeline right
Oct 2, 2017

Thanks!

0 0
posted by Amanda
Oct 5, 2017
Evangeline is indeed right!

0 0
posted by big potato
Nov 27, 2017
Thank you Evangeline, all were correct

0 0
posted by Personification Personified
Sep 7, 2018
THANK YOU EVANGELINE!!

0 0
posted by lil skies<3
Oct 3, 2018

Categories
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jiskha math

math
4,686 results
Self-Taught Mathematicians
Those of us who love math certainly know two basic facts about Mr. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: (1) He and Newton (our calculus guy) did not get along AND (2) Mr. Leibniz was a self-taught mathematician My question is for all tutors here who love math. What

asked by Guido on February 22, 2008
Math…For All Math Tutors
I would like to know how many of the people answering math questions here are current math teachers, were math teachers at one time, are current tutors working for a tutoring company or simply love math. What’s your story? I would love to hear from all

asked by Guido on February 15, 2008
What Makes A Good Math Teacher?
I think a good math teacher is someone who can explain math topics at the level of students. A good math teacher is someone who does not try to impress students with his or her math skills (college math professors are famous for boasting). In your opinion,

asked by Guido on February 22, 2008
English
Revise the following sentences to create parallel constructions. (Question) Some students hate math; some students dislike math, and math is liked by other students. (my answer) Some students hate math, some dislike math, and some like math. every way I

asked by Rita on June 30, 2010
English
I’m worried about my math. 1. Why don’t you buy a math self- teaching book and solve math problems a lot. 2. Why don’t you buy a math self-study book and solve math problems a lot. 3. Why don’t you go to a math academy and study math more? 4. Why don’t ask

asked by rfvv on March 4, 2016

LNU math
math In a class of 50 students it was found 21 are taking English 14 are taking Math 28 are taking History 7 are taking Math and English 10 are taking Math and History 11 are taking History and English 3 are taking all three courses 1.)Make a Venn Diagram

asked by generose on July 13, 2015
To Michael
Here’s the question you posted in response to another student. “Ms.Sue do you mind if i ask were you a math teacher or are you just a genius at math and why do you do this help online do you get any benefit for doing this?” I taught a couple of sections of

asked by Ms. Sue on November 4, 2011
poetry
I need to recite this poem in front of the class and i have to add at least three more lines to it. does anyone have any suggestions? Math is the thick red book, Sitting there, waiting for you to open it, Just waiting for your sigh. Math is working two

asked by Anonymous on April 23, 2008
English Grammar
A: What time is your math/Math class? B: At eleven forty-five. Do we have to use ‘math’ or ‘Math’? And is it a common noun or a proper noun?

asked by John on April 18, 2008
math 098
I made 3 f’s on my tests in math 098, do you think i need to withdraw and take math 090 instead. this is my first semester and i really want to do my best please help. math 098 is algebra math 090 is basic for college. the score were equations–52,distance

asked by %%%Rena%%% on July 6, 2012
Tips Plz
Can you plz tell me some studying tips for math. How can i study math? is not like the other subject that i can just read through and memorize it. Math is hard to study because i know know how to study math when i have a upcoming test. Plz give me tips on

asked by Laura ♥ on December 16, 2014
Math
All of my life I have gotten a C average in math. I have been trying to set a goal to make above a C in math. I don’t know why I have trouble with math. Can someone help me?

asked by Aquion on August 18, 2011
math
all i can say is math stinx dont mess with math. without math, a lot of things wouldn’t exist right now…

asked by Anonymous on October 9, 2006
How to get quick responses to your math questions
Math is a wide subject, ranging from K to 11, college and university. Then there is algebra, trigonometry, geometry, arithmetic, calculus, number theory, … etc. Not all teachers answer all math questions (many do). If you would give a little more detail

asked by MathMate on May 25, 2013
English
Thank you for yoiur help. 1. Emily in in math class. 2. Emily is in a math class. 3. Emily is in a math classroom. ================ #1 mean that Emily is learning math from a math teacher. Am I right? #2 and #3 are the same, aren’t they? #1 and #2 are not

asked by rfvv on March 23, 2016

statistics
At a certain college, 15% of the students receieved an A in their required math cousre, 10% receieved an A in their required chemistry course, and 5% receieved an A in both. A student is selected at random. a.) What is the probability that he received an A

asked by Sharon on October 4, 2009
Probability
At a certain university, 30% of the students major in math. Of the students majoring in math, 60% are males. Of all the students at the university, 70% are males. a) What is the probability that a student selected at random in the university is male and

asked by Cari on October 27, 2006
English
Choose the sentence that is written in active voice. A. The math problems were given to the students. B. The students were taking a math test. C. The math test was given by the instructor. D. The math test grades were given to the students. B

asked by Angela on June 24, 2014
statistics
a math class has 50 students , of these 22 students are math majors and 18 students are male. Of the math majors 16 are female. Find the probability that a randomly selected student is male or a math major . my answer 22/50 and 18/50 = 396/50= 7.29

asked by brittaney on March 3, 2016
math
What is temperature when you do math. In seventh grade math is hard and I don’t understand what my teachers tell me they say that it is easy but i don’t think it is i need a lot of help during math it used to be my favorite subject but now its not

asked by Maria on November 30, 2015
College
What happens if I don’t do well on the accuplacer test? I suck at math. If I score low on math will they give me a remedial/low level math course?

asked by CommunityCollegeGirl on May 29, 2018
3rd grade Math
Actual question on homework.”EXPLAIN HOW YOU CAN BREAK APART ARRAYS WHEN YOU MULTIPLY BY 3.” (there is no array on the paper to use) I don’t like this new math, what was wrong with the old math I learned, I am Accounting /Finance supervisor, but don’t

asked by Jennfer on January 21, 2010
math
Resource allocation podunk institute of technology’s math deaprtment offers two cources: finite math and applied calculus.each section of finite math has 60 studnets, and each section of applied calculus has 50. The department is allowed to offer a total

asked by Swayne on November 29, 2013
math
I just do not understand how to figure this out. Find the number of subsets of the given set. {math, English, history, science, art} Would I do something like this: 1. {} 2. Math 3. English 4. history 5. science 6. art 7. Math and English 8. math and

asked by Bart on April 14, 2010
Micro- Econ
You have an hour between your economics and math classes. What is the opportunity cost of that time if you use it to complete your math homework instead of your economics homework? the economics homework you could have completed the math homework you chose

asked by Angela on June 10, 2018

MATH
In a fraternity with 38 members , 18 take math, 5 take both math and literature and 8 take neither math or literature. how many take literature but not math? I came up with 16 is that correct or am i lost ?

asked by WINSTON on November 24, 2014
Math & English
When do we use a capital for the word math? When do we use Math vs math? Example: Own works well in math class or Own works well in Math class? Owen contributes positively in Math through regular participation? VS. Owen contributes positively in math

asked by Jayson on April 17, 2018
Math
Is IB Math Studies the same as Pre-Calculus? I heard that IB Math Studies is for students who have a low background in math. Is that right?

asked by Anonymous on August 20, 2013
Comm/215
Q: Some students hate math, some students dislike math, and math is liked by other students. Parallel Construction A: Some students hate math, some dislike math, and some like math. Is this correct?

asked by David on June 17, 2010
Math
here is the question: Freida must take a 4-hour exam containing 200 questions, 50 of which are math. Twice as much time should be allowed for each math ques as for each other type of question. What is the total # of minutes she should allow for the math

asked by Sophia on November 12, 2009
statistics
Research reports a correlation of +0.8 between math achievement and math aptitude it also reports a correlation of -0.8 between math achievement and a math anxiety. Which interpretations is most c?orrect

asked by Gee on September 5, 2012
English
Which class are you in? 1. I’m in class 1-2. (I am a member of Calss 1-2. In the classroom, there are 30 students.) 2. I’m in math class. (I’m listening to the math teacher. It’s time for studying math.) ==================== What is the answer to the

asked by rfvv on March 22, 2016
COMM/215
I would like to know if i have used properly structured sentences for the following: 49. To succeed in the new economy, workers will have to learn throughout their careers adapt to changing circumstances, and self-motivate when needed. 50. Some students

asked by Frank on January 31, 2015
Probability
4.3. In a certain college town, 27.5 percent of the students failed Mathematics (Math), 19.8 percent failed Biology (Bio), and 11 percent failed both Math and Bio. A student is selected at random. Let A represent the event of failing Math, so that A’ is

asked by Carla Lopez on September 2, 2012
English
Posted by rfvv on Tuesday, March 22, 2016 at 11:55pm. Which class are you in? 1. I’m in class 1-2. (I am a member of Calss 1-2. In the classroom, there are 30 students.) 2. I’m in math class. (I’m listening to the math teacher. It’s time for studying

asked by rfvv on March 23, 2016

Math
A fertilizer covers 5/8 square foot in 1/4 hour. i don’t understand how to work out this math problem. By the way i’m in 6th grade but technically doing advanced math so i’m doing 7th grade math. I don’t know how to do this

asked by niki on September 21, 2016
English

  1. He can not solve the math problem. 2. He cannot solve the math problem. 3. He can’t solve the math problem. 4. He could not solve the math problem. 5. He couldnot solve the math problem. 6. He couldn’t solve the math problem. (Are they all grammatical?

asked by rfvv on July 16, 2013
math
This table shows the numbers of students in different classes that are in the math club. Students in math club Boys / Girls Mrs.Smith 3 / 4 Ms.Jones 4 / 6 Mr.Brown 3 / 4 a. What fraction of the students in the math club are boys from Mrs. Smith’s class?

asked by Anonymous on January 6, 2015
English

  1. He got 90 points on the math test. 2. He got 90 on the math test. 3. He got 90 points in the math test. 4. He obtained 90 points on the math test. 5. He received 90 points on the math test. ————————————————– #1 and #2 is

asked by rfvv on December 7, 2018
statistics
At a certain college, 15% of the students received an A in their required math course, 10% received an A in their required Chemistry course, 5% received an A in both. A student is selected at random. a.) What is the probability tha he receieved an A in

asked by Sharon on October 2, 2009
Research and Statistics
I want to ensure I’ve done this problem correctly. Thanks! 3. In one elementary school, 200 students are tested on the subject of Math and English. The table below shows the mean and standard deviation for each subject. Mean SD Math 67 9.58 English 78

asked by Lauren on January 31, 2011
statistics
At a certain college, 15% of the students received an A in their required math course, 10% receieved an A in their required chemistry course, and 5% received an A in both. A student is selected at random. a.) What is the probability that he received an A

asked by Sharon on October 3, 2009
English
At school, he learns 10 subjects such as math, science, social studies, computers, ethics, etc. He is in math class now. He has a cell phone. He is sitting at the back. One of his friends calls him and asked “Which class are you in?” What is the answer to

asked by rfvv on March 23, 2016
English

  1. the math and arts which we make with discussion club 2. the math and arts which we make by discussion club 3. the math and arts with discussion club 4. the math and arts discussion club [Which names are suitable (and grammatical) for a club name? In

asked by rfvv on May 31, 2018
statistics
The box plot below summarize the distributions of SAT verbal and math scores among students at an upstate New York high school. 300 400 500 600 700 800 data Whic of the following statements is false? 1. The range of the math scores equals the range of the

asked by Gee on September 18, 2012

math
for every 20 math books a school buys, they they get 7 aditional books for free. The school needs 297 math books. What is the total number of math books the school must buy in order to receive 297 math books in all?

asked by ali on February 8, 2012
University studies
According to the Center for Mathematics Excellence, which of the following is a math myth? A. Knowing the rules and how to use them is the most important part of math. B. Even people who are highly skilled in mathematics and science find these subjects to

asked by lil Bee on November 3, 2011
Stats
About 10% of the population of a large country is math phobic. If two people are randomly selected what is the probability both are math phobic? And hat is the probability that at least one is math phobic? Any way to do this on stat crunch?

asked by Michelle on October 11, 2015
algebra
Lincoln High School has 98 teachers. Of the 42 female teachers 8 teach math. One-seventh of all teachers teach math. What is the probability that a teacher is a women or teaches math?

asked by Derek Bisignano on March 10, 2009
English

  1. learning subjects: English, math, science, etc. 2. subjects to learn:English, math, science, etc. 3. studying subject:English, math, science, etc. 4. subjects learning:English, math, science, etc. 5. taking subjects:English, math, science, etc.

asked by rfvv on March 11, 2018
Math
I need help with my math homework.I searched for homework help forums and I found the Jiskha Website on the Google Website so this is my first time.I am new. Math Homework: What is the value of number 3 in 2,539? What is the value of number 9 in 4,879 What

asked by Tanisha on December 26, 2006
math, algebra
what are some challenges about working with rational expressions? Math is a language. Getting it precisely right is a lot easier than describing it in a vague statement in English such as you ask. Is there a chance you can change teachers? If so, I

asked by jas20 on March 6, 2007
Math
How to write a math story that includes 4 examples… Possible math topics include: introduction to functions investigating quadratics quadratics highs & lows exponential functions fiancial applications of exponential function acute triangle trigonometry

asked by Tarkan on January 13, 2011
math
What kind of math classes must you take to become a Biologist? What kind of math classes must you take to become a Geneticist? I’m not a biologist, but I do know a little about math. I know there’s a specialty in math called bio-stastics. I think that

asked by Ande on September 10, 2006
English

  1. I got a C- on the math test. Reading: C – : C minus (right?) 2. The math problems are difficult to solve. 3. The math questions are difficult to solve. —— Are both OK?

asked by rfvv on June 21, 2014

algebra
From 2009 to 2014 the percent of students placing into Math 101 has increased from 13% to 25%. Meanwhile, the percent of students placing into Math 222 has dropped from 25% to 7% If both placements change at a linear rate, what will the percentage be when

asked by megan on June 26, 2015
Math
On average it takes Miguel 45 minutes to compete his math assignments and 30 minutes to complete his science assignments. If he had 24 math assignments this grading period , what was his total minutes spent on math ?

asked by AnnaChavez on August 27, 2015
math,help
what are the challenges of working with rational expressions i’ve searched in my math book and online i can’t seem to find that answer. Can somoene help me out .. Since this is not my area of expertise, I searched Google under the key words “math rational

asked by jas20 on March 7, 2007
statistics
Lilly collects data on a sample of 40 high school students to evaluate whether the proportion of female high school students who take advanced math courses in high school varies depending upon whether they have been raised primarily by their father or by

asked by Anonymous on September 21, 2012
statistics
Lilly collects data on a sample of 40 high school students to evaluate whether the proportion of female high school students who take advanced math courses in high school varies depending upon whether they have been raised primarily by their father or by

asked by LWatson on September 21, 2012
MATH
MAKE R the subject of the formulaq…….. I =(mne) devide by (mR+nr)………..Its N2 math can u help? It’s not at all clear to me what your question is, what does this mean? “MAKE R the subject of the formulaq……..” In this part, are we to take

asked by MICHELLE on September 26, 2006
English

  1. It is great fun to draw cartoons. 2. It is complicated to study math. 3. It is dangerous to ride a bike on the street. 4. it is useful to study math. 5. It is good to play the guitar. 6. It is amusing to play the guitar. 7. It is difficult to study

asked by rfvv on July 2, 2010
Math
Can somebody help me out here. I want to know why I am good with math problems but I don’t get word problems until it is made out of a equation. The reason is that you have learned math as procedures and facts…math as a form of thinking, or analysis,

asked by Miss Strawberry on August 29, 2005
algebra 2
Lincoln High School has 98 teachers. Of the 42 female teachers, 8 teach math. One seventh of all of the teachers teach math. What is the probability that a teacher is a man or does not teach math?

asked by kirstyn on January 3, 2012
math
what are your feelings about math, rate your math anxiety, and describe what coping mechanisms might be helpful to you and your I like math. What matters is what YOUR feelings amd “coping mechanisms” are.

asked by carmen on March 4, 2007

Tutor
Hi, I am a student a Michigan’s connections academy and I need a tutor to help me out with some types of math, science, social studies. And a few others some stuff I don’t understand and all of my teachers don’t explain very good except for my math

asked by Black Bandit on February 22, 2018
Math 6th grade
Does any one know a really good websites for 6th grade math ? I’m behind in math and need to catch up or else I’ll be really super dum . I need HELP PLEASE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

asked by Emily on December 2, 2008
math
i really have trouble with math and the algerba really gets me mixed up can u give me some tips for math so i can undrestand plese

asked by salassia on April 1, 2011
math
forgot my math book at school, i need the questions saxon math grage 6 lesson 14

asked by kolbi on September 13, 2010
Algebra
Find the 20th term of the following sequence. -6, -4, -2, 0, … 32 44 46 I did the math but I don’t know if it’s correct, I’m not very good in math.

asked by isaac clarke on October 16, 2014
MATH OMG HELP PLEEESE
Sarsh is currently at 83.7% in math. She has just finished a worksheet that is out of 30. She got 30/30 which is full marks. What percent is she at now in math? I HAVE NO IDEA!!!!!!

asked by WINNIE on November 28, 2012
Math- Algebra 1
Im doing extra credit since my math test didn’t go so well but im stuck on a question (Wish i had my math book). Please help. Q: 3.8y – 4.7 + 3.8y + 17.5

asked by Shilo on November 23, 2010
Reiny+Damon
Can you reply to my last math+log post =) thanks. I’m going to be having alot of math questions today.

asked by Chopsticks on February 23, 2009
arithmetic
Well I am really bad at math mostly multiplication and division.When I start to think that i am getting math my teacher teachs something new what do i do.

asked by DeAna on September 26, 2008
Math
A math book is .78 centimeters thick. What is the width of 21 math books on a shelf?

asked by TJ on October 14, 2010

Math
Whats a consisnent. like suppose 2,3,6,9,8 Can someone help please? Can someone help please: What are conssitent numbers in math? i need help on my math its algebra

asked by Paris on December 5, 2006
Math :):):):):):):):):):):):):)
Sarsh is currently at 83.7% in math. She has just finished a worksheet that is out of 30. She got 30/30 which is full marks. What percent is she at now in math?

asked by Winnie on November 27, 2012
statistics
Lilly collects data on a sample of 40 high school students to evaluate whether the proportion of female high school students who take advanced math courses in high school varies depending upon whether they have been raised primarily by their father or by

asked by Anonymous on September 22, 2012
8th grade
im in advanced math so i do 8th grade math and i don’t understand how too gragh the fractions in equations like y=2/3x+1

asked by jazmine on November 29, 2009
math
Hi my son has a very hard time with math.I’m his mom and I’m not good at math.so I’m hoping that I can get help here cause I can’t afford a tutor.please help him

asked by azionte on August 29, 2013
math
the width of a math textbook is 0.75 inches. How many math textbooks can be placed standing up on a shelf that is 18inches wide

asked by arunodroe sneha on February 14, 2017
computer software
i need to submit math homework on my computer they said to use math software program if we have one i do not any ideas what i can do thanks I have microsoft office ect

asked by jameasen on January 14, 2008
math
What strategies can you use to help students cope with math anxiety? How can you make math class interesting and fun as well as relevant?

asked by sally on October 21, 2008
math
I have to take up math 100 for college can you give me tips on what to study?Im taking up nursing and i was told i need alot of math..

asked by renak on February 9, 2012
math
I Need Help On My Math Evaluates: Okay So I Have This Quiz Im Taking And Its Telling Me ” Evaluate 3-1/3 to the power of 4″ I Am A Little Rusty On My Math So Can Someone Please Help! 🙂 Thanks.. Adrienne Deleon

asked by Adrienne on March 22, 2011

English

  1. Boys are better at math than girls. 2. He is the best at math of all the students in his class. (Are both grammatical?)

asked by rfvv on September 17, 2016
Algebra
“What might you have if you don’t feel well?” That’s a math riddle actually… The letters are E,G,O,S,O,N,V,L. It has A LOT to do with math actually!

asked by Chantrice on November 2, 2009
math
Will you help me with my math homework? what level of math? Please repost with the specific problems, so we can help. Thanks for asking.

asked by morgan on February 21, 2007
Math Course
I was thinking about math courses for next year, and I do not know what I’m going to take. What is the differences between Alg 3 and Advanced math? And also, and does Trig involve? And I’m too scared of calculus to take it.

asked by Chopsticks on February 27, 2009
Car Design
What other subject area is used with art for a career in car design? Language Arts history math health I think math

asked by Anonymous on December 15, 2014
math 3rd grade
what is an arrary ? look for the answer in the back of your math book…there may be a glossary An array is a table of numbers. can you help me with my math homework on internet

asked by angel on May 1, 2007
MATH
I get really confused with math . I am great with all of the other subjects . In fact I get all B’s except for Math , I get 1’s !!! I really need help with it . I ask for help but whenever people help me and put it in the most simplest way possible .. I

asked by Kaylyn on September 1, 2011
Derrick
John kept track of all his math and reading test scores throughout the year as shown in the table below. Test 1:90math 80reading Test 2:75math 90reading Test 3:80math 70reading Test 4:90math 75reading Test 5:95math 90reading What is the difference between

asked by running.from.myself on March 19, 2012
Math Please Check!!
Please check my answer to see if I got it right. Thanks. Braden has 1 hour of math homework to do. He spends 2/5 of this time complaining about how much he hates math, 1/3 of the total time looking for his calculator. How much time does Braden actually

asked by Justin on November 26, 2012
Math
Please check my answer to see if I got it right. Braden has 1 hour of math homework to do. He spends 2/5 of this time complaining about how much he hates math, 1/3 of the total time looking for his calculator. How much time does Braden actually work on his

asked by Justin on November 26, 2012

answer a question
Why has no one answered my two math questions i put on here. Please look again UNDER your postings because I see answers there! Ashley, Be sure to look above this post. I reposted them so the math teachers might find them more easily. =)

asked by Ashley on January 19, 2007
for ms.sue please answer
In 5 min, Peter completed 2 math problems. Yvonne says he did 3/5 of a problem each minute. Is she correct? Explain. Sorry I really didn’t get my math homework.

asked by consquela on March 5, 2012
computers
I was wondering if someone could please help me for homework I need to submit math answers using Microsoft Equation Editor, Math type or similar software what if I don’t have any of them what can I use I am not sure if I have any of them Not sure thanks

asked by Remi on March 12, 2008
math mental math help
i need to use mental math and the distributive property to simplify: can you pls check if this correct? a) 19(-6) i got: -114 or do i do like this: 10(-6)=-60 9(-6) =-54 -60 + -54= -114 b) 102* $21 i got: $2142 or do i do mental math like this: 100*21 =

asked by marko on September 10, 2012
math help
i need to use mental math and the distributive property to simplify: can you pls check if this correct? a) 19(-6) i got: -114 or do i do like this: 10(-6)=-60 9(-6) =-54 -60 + -54= -114 b) 102* $21 i got: $2142 or do i do mental math like this: 100*21 =

asked by marko on September 10, 2012

Categories
custom dissertation writing dissertation help phd dissertation writing services write my assignment

how much work w is done by each horse in a time t?

Two workhorses tow a barge along a straight canal. Each horse exerts a constant force of magnitude F, and the tow ropes make an angle θ with the direction of motion of the horses and the barge. (Figure 1) Each horse is traveling at a constant speed v.

How much work W is done by each horse in a time t?
Express the work in terms of the quantities given in the problem introduction.

How much power P does each horse provide?
Express your answer in terms of the quantities given in the problem introduction.

0 0 976
asked by HELP
Oct 24, 2013
A = Theta.
W = (F*cosA) * V*t.

P = (F*cosA) * V

1 1
posted by Henry
Oct 26, 2013
12

0 1
posted by bob
Aug 12, 2015
W = (Fcos(theta))*vt

0 0
posted by Khai Lim
Oct 22, 2016

Categories
Assignment Help cheap dissertation writing services dissertation help write my assignment

the cinematographer works with what other professional to plan

The cinematographer works with what other professional to plan how each scene will be filmed and lit?

1 0 2,973
asked by No clue
Feb 11, 2019
The cinematographer works with the director. So B would be your answer.

2 0
posted by XxgraceeeXx
Feb 11, 2019
answers are:
1)B
2)D
3)C
4)C

54 0
posted by hehe
Feb 22, 2019
Hehe answers are correct i got 100% !!!! Thank you so much your awsome.

4 0
posted by PIZZAAA
Feb 22, 2019
thxs hehe

4 0
posted by Barry aka the flash
Feb 25, 2019

Why thank you “hehe” I give you a free ticket to go to the DIMMADOME home of Doug Dimmadone owner of the DIMMADOME loved by the citizens of DIMMAVILLE!

3 1
posted by Doug Dimmadone
Feb 26, 2019
Thank you😁

0 0
posted by Cynthia
Feb 26, 2019
IT WRONG I DID IT AND I GOT 2/4

0 3
posted by Geoffrey Coleman
Mar 5, 2019
edit:oh wait nvm i just acc press the last two b

0 2
posted by Geoffrey Coleman
Mar 5, 2019
B
D
C
C
Is correct
Don’t miss click

2 0
posted by Deadshot
Mar 7, 2019

yeeter skeeter
B
D
C
C

lol still correct in 2019

1 0
posted by 2019
Mar 21, 2019
oh it was made in 2019 XD

0 0
posted by 2019
Mar 21, 2019
THX

1 0
posted by HEHE is right
Mar 25, 2019
Thx HEHE

0 0
posted by Katie
Mar 26, 2019
1-B
2-D
3-C
4-C
Listen if you’re going to cheat cheat write .2019 answers

0 0
posted by -_- life
Mar 28, 2019

*right

0 0
posted by -_- life
Mar 28, 2019
It’s B

0 0
posted by Ih8love
Apr 1, 2019
still correct. (i know it was made in 2019 just wanted to say it was…)

0 0
posted by Anon
today at 2:19am

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Assignment Help coursework help dissertation help

which of the following choices is a strategy that could help with time management

  1. Which of the following choices is a strategy that could help with time management?

A. Spending most of the day on leisure activities.
B. Doing homework in every spare moment.
C. Cutting back on sleep.
D. Creating a list of tasks to be completed daily.*

  1. What is a planner?

A. A schedule for completing homework.
B. A calendar with room to write detailed schedule of the day’s activities.*
C. An option in Microsoft® PowerPoint.
D. A journal log.

  1. Tony finds he has trouble finishing homework on time. So he wrote down how long he spent doing different activities every day to see where he could find more time. The following choices are time estimates from the list he made. Which area might he consider changing to address this problem?

A. Math homework- 1 hour.
B. Lunch- 30 minutes.
C. Playing video games- 3 hours 30 minutes.*
D. English homework- 45 minutes.

12 0 3,811
asked by Chris
Apr 16, 2014
Got ’em all right 😉

5 0
posted by Chris
Apr 16, 2014
Thank you Chris!!

0 0
posted by Yeeet
Dec 16, 2014
Just took this and got 100% Thanks!

0 0
posted by Yairah
Jan 14, 2015
A, b, d,

0 17
posted by Anonymous
Sep 29, 2015

Anonymous is wrong

3 0
posted by Matthew
Nov 9, 2015
Chris your answers are correct!
1.D
2.B
3.C

32 0
posted by MissAybrianna
Dec 2, 2015
the answers are D,B,C i got 100%

12 1
posted by smart one : )
Jan 2, 2016
Yeah it is D,B,C

12 0
posted by Lulu
Jan 7, 2016
Right D,B,C

9 0
posted by Girl Power
Apr 10, 2016

Yep D B C is r is right for connexus! ^^ tysm!!

3 0
posted by Fox Girl
Oct 26, 2016
Thx for your help guys thanks so much

2 0
posted by Lonner
Dec 15, 2016
D
B
C
Enjoy your 100%

5 0
posted by THanks
Jan 9, 2017
1.) D
2.) B
3.) C

100% CORRECT!! 😀

THANKS EVERYONE!!

4 0
posted by heyimbee
Jan 19, 2017
1)D
2)B
3)C

Thanks everyone 🙂

4 0
posted by LEgit_VIPer
Jan 25, 2017

Correct thanks

0 0
posted by Hey ms.Sue I need help
Feb 5, 2017
d
b
c
100%

3 0
posted by alyssa
Feb 10, 2017
right ^

0 0
posted by anon
Oct 30, 2017
D.b.c 100 percent….thanks

2 0
posted by Dl
Oct 30, 2017
Can someone help me out with Lesson 1: Organization and Time Management ed tech 6 unit 5: study skills test. I am not trying to cheat, i just need help figuring out what went wrong. I am from ACA. -Warrior Cat Lover

0 0
posted by Warrior Cat Lover
Apr 13, 2018

  1. D
  2. B
  3. C 2 0
    posted by Hal
    Dec 9, 2018
    The correct answers are
  4. D
  5. B
  6. C
    100% 2 0
    posted by Melanin
    Dec 18, 2018
    Ok question…… why does everyone repeat the answers? It’s kinda annoying. I’m not trying to be rude but I’m just saying it’s annoying. 2 0
    posted by Kit-Kat_Gamer
    Feb 17, 2019
    happens all the time. dont feel special. 1 0
    posted by mewmew
    Feb 26, 2019
    WE GO AGANE BOIS 0 0
    posted by xQc
    Mar 3, 2019

Dec 100%

0 0
posted by Big booty judy
Mar 19, 2019
dbc

0 0
posted by
Mar 20, 2019
D, B, and C is still correct in April 2019 😀 just notifying anyone out there taking the test

0 0
posted by ahoeforym04
Apr 10, 2019

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eighteen students in a class play baseball

Eighteen students in a class play baseball. Seventeen students in the class play basketball. Thirty students in the class plau either or both sports.

Select the Venn diagram that shows the number of students who play basketball and baseball.

A.The first diagram shows
the first circle intersects into the second circle. The left side is labeled Baseball and the numbers are 13. The middle doesn’t have a name and the number is 3. The right side says Basketball and the number is 12.

B. The second diagram shows
The circle intersects also. The left side is labeled Baseball and the number is 13. The middle isn’t labeled the number is 6. The right says basketball and the number is 11.

C. The third diagram is 2 circles that intersect. The left side is labeled Baseball and the number is 14. The middle isn’t labeled and the number is 4. The right side is Basketball and the number is 12

D. The left side is Baseball and the number is 12 the middle is 4 and right side is basketball and the number is 11.
Is the answer B?
Thank you
I really really don’t understand this and I have looked through all my papers and am still confused.

0 0 1,905
asked by Callie
Mar 2, 2015
The answer is A I just did this 🙂

1 0
posted by anonymous
Mar 2, 2015
1.A
2.B
3.C
4.B

5 4
posted by The_Awesome1
Feb 7, 2017
A
B
C
B

6 4
posted by Les
Mar 2, 2017
A
B
B
B

12 4
posted by pedro
Mar 2, 2017

A
B
B
B
Pedro is right

8 4
posted by Anonymous
Mar 6, 2017
Pedro is right

5 3
posted by CherriesAreGood
Mar 6, 2017
i just took it and got 100%!!!! it’s A,B,B,B

5 3
posted by anonymous
Mar 7, 2017
THE ANSWERS ARE
1:A
2:B
3:C
4:B
ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE 100% RIGHT I NEVER POST THE WRONG ANSWERS

5 9
posted by Anonymous
Mar 8, 2017
just took it Anonymous is correct 4/4

3 6
posted by TRUMP
Mar 8, 2017

A
B
B
B

18 0
posted by Bruh
Mar 10, 2017
abbb

9 0
posted by guwop
Mar 13, 2017
Answers are

1.A
2.B
3.C
4.B

3 9
posted by Anonymous
Mar 14, 2017
Answers are

1.A
2.B
3.C
4.B
I GOT 100%

3 11
posted by Anonymous
Mar 14, 2017
THE ANSWER IS

  1. A
  2. B
  3. B
  4. B 9 1
    posted by STFU
    Mar 14, 2017

abb

0 2
posted by Anonymous
Mar 15, 2017

  1. A
  2. B
  3. B
  4. B 10 2
    posted by Anonymous 🙂
    Mar 20, 2017
    A
    B
    B
    B 7 2
    posted by Anonymous
    Mar 23, 2017
    ABBB is correct although it seems like it doesn’t. I made a mistake and did ABCB. ABBB is correct although you only get one wrong if you do ABCB. 2 2
    posted by I hate Connexus Academy
    Mar 27, 2017
    its abbb just took the test 2 2
    posted by Anonymous
    Apr 7, 2017

It is abbb 100% correct

2 2
posted by Someone
May 2, 2017
If you are in connections academy then the correct answers are “ABBB” 100% trustworthy.

2 2
posted by Ms.Smart
May 3, 2017
it really is abbb for connexus

2 2
posted by Harper
Feb 1, 2018
yup A B B B r the answers tried A B C B got 3/4

2 2
posted by Anonymous
Feb 2, 2018
Yeah it’s ABBB, I came here to check my answers and my answers were ABCB so glad I came but these questions were confusing as hell.

2 0
posted by Dat Guy
Feb 2, 2018

A
B
B
B
If you want the correct answers here they are.

4 2
posted by Toxic ammonia blood
Feb 7, 2018
The REAL answers are

A
B
B
B

I got 3/4 for trusting the liars. But YOU can get a 100% if you go for ABBB

GOD LOVES YOU!!!

4 2
posted by Valerie
Feb 8, 2018
A
B
B
B

Is correct!

3 2
posted by LittleNoot
Feb 8, 2018
It’s ABBB

3 2
posted by Tisky
Feb 12, 2018
A
B
B
B

Is correct just took the test.

2 2
posted by No Lies
Feb 14, 2018

ITS ABCB YOU IDIOTS SITTIN ACTING LIKE FOOLS

2 2
posted by !@#$%^&
Feb 14, 2018

  1. A
  2. B
  3. B
  4. B

THESE ARE 100 PERCENT CORRECT

2 2
posted by THE TRUTH
Feb 15, 2018
1) A
2) B
3) B
4) B

2 2
posted by Hello
Feb 20, 2018
OK ITS

A
B
C
B
THESE ARE RIGHT I GOT 100% WITH THESE ANSWERS THEY ARE CORRECT!!!!!!!

2 1
posted by silly_willy
Feb 21, 2018
why yall lien its a b b b its not that hard to post the right answers

1 2
posted by blue
Feb 21, 2018

the correct answers is

A. (13)5(12)
B. 18
C. 9
B. 16

3 0
posted by R.I.P
Feb 26, 2018
🙁

1 0
posted by ??
Feb 26, 2018
Abbb I did abcb and it was wrong!!

1 0
posted by Someone
Mar 6, 2018
A
B
C
B
These are the correct answers I just took the quiz and got 100%

3 1
posted by No name
Mar 7, 2018
It’s
A
B
B
B

1 3
posted by Yayyy
Mar 13, 2018

GUYS THE THIRD QUESTION IS DIFFERENT FOR SOME OF YOU THATS WHAT CONNEXUS DOES SO PEOPLE DONT CHEAT JUST CHILL

2 0
posted by Grace
Mar 13, 2018
He’ we go’w with tha pro’blms

0 0
posted by wot a’ ya do’in M8?!
Mar 19, 2018
ABCB just took it I guess it depends on your test

0 1
posted by Love
Mar 22, 2018
abcb for venn diagrams lesson 3 unit3 for conexus so stop posting

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 3, 2018
The answers are
A
B
B
B

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 30, 2018

Its abcb.. just took it and missed one due to the abbb wrong answers given. I dont get people trying to make others fail.. u expect help but want others to fail. Its not funny.

1 1
posted by Wish/ CA mom
Feb 25, 2019
its absolutely abbb i just got a 75 with abcb , yall annoying to post the wrong answers dawg

0 0
posted by joycelyn
Feb 27, 2019
yea it a b b b for lesson 3 unit 3 quick check

0 0
posted by Ms Sue
Mar 1, 2019
ABCB

0 1
posted by The one who always got the answers
Mar 25, 2019
OMG! I listened to anonymous and I got 3/4 the answers are A B C B !!! 100% correct believe me people!

0 0
posted by CraCra
Apr 1, 2019

2019 update
A
B
B
B
Is correct

1 0
posted by helper
Apr 13, 2019

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what is δhrxn∘ for the following chemical reaction? co2(g)+2koh(s)→h2o(g)+k2co3(s)

What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following chemical reaction?

CO2(g) + 2KOH(s) –> H2O(g) + K2CO3 (s)

Express your answers numerically in kJ.

0 0 401
asked by Sarah
Sep 23, 2008
Please note that we don’t do students’ homework for them. Our tutors try to give you the information to help you complete your assignment on your own. If there’s not a tutor with this specialty online right now, be sure to go back into your textbook or use a good search engine. http://hanlib.sou.edu/searchtools/

Once YOU have come up with attempted answers to YOUR questions, please re-post and let us know what you think. Then someone here will be happy to comment on your thinking.

=)

0 0
👩‍🏫
Writeacher
Sep 23, 2008
You need to look these values up, individually, in a set of tables. Then
delta H rxn = delta H products – delta H reactants.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Sep 23, 2008
-148.9

1 0
posted by yuritzy
Nov 24, 2008

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what can be inferred by the passage of the black codes

1.What can be inferred by the passage of the Black Codes
A.Many Southerners were willing to allow African-Americans equally
B.Many white Southerners wanted African Americans to remain as slaves
C.Many white Southerners wanted African Americans to receive equal education
D.Southerns lawmakers wanted to separate but equal the rights

  1. Which of the following groups support radical reconstruction
    A.Business people interested in rebuilding
    B.Newly freed African-Americans
    C.Rich white landowners
    D.ScalaWags
  2. After the passage of 13 14 and 15 amendments why did African Americans continue to experience political oppression.
    A. The amendments we’re not intended to exclusively solve African-American problems
    B. Southerners little leatrice trated and Tack Jim Crow laws
    C. Many African Americans did not trust that the Amendments would be upheld
    D. Poor Communications kept African Americans from learning about their rights
  3. Which of the following is a major example of Abraham Lincoln’s policy of Ling see towards the defeat South
    A. President Lincoln will nuses to have a federal government assume responsibility of confederate government debts
    B. President Lincoln choice to have Southerners as his vice president in the 18 64 election
    C. President Lincoln’s decision that Southerners state governments could recognize after 10% of the voters took a loyalty oath in the Union
    D. President Lincoln’s decision to extend the Emancipation Proclamtion to include all states
  4. Arrange the following legalist in that was passed after the Civil War and proper chronological order.
    A. I.,II.,III.,IV
    B. I.,II.,IV.,III
    C. II.,I.,III.,IV
    D. III.,IV.,II.,I.
    Why was President Lincoln unable to persuade Congress to accept his redstruction plan
    A. President Lincoln’s Plan did not follow Northerners to vote on the registration Act
    B. Congress believe that Freedoms Bureau should be responsible for reconstruction
    C. Congress believed President Lincoln’s Plan was too difficult for the South
    D. President Lincoln was assassinated before he was able to persuade Congress
  5. What did President Johnson believed reconstruction should accomplish.
    A. That rich white Southerners landowners would not return to power
    B. That the South would return to its pre-war system without slavery
    C. That politics and civil rights of Freedom would be granted
    D. That the South would remain as conquered Nation
  6. According to the ruling in the Plessy versus freguson case why was segregation acceptable
    A. Segeregation with legal because African Americans were not citizens
    B. Segregegation was legal as long as the finances for Black and Whites Segregation
    C. Segregation was acceptable in private facilities only
    D. Segregation who’s acceptable won a state-by-state basic 1 1 2,681
    asked by Ash
    Feb 7, 2018
    I’ll be glad to check your answers. 0 2
    👩‍🏫
    Ms. Sue
    Feb 7, 2018
    I need answer please if I don’t pass this my grade will a an F 3 0
    posted by Ash
    Feb 7, 2018
    Maybe next time you’ll study so that you actually learn something. 2 30
    👩‍🏫
    Ms. Sue
    Feb 7, 2018
    Omg I’m on the same thing and I need help on the first question lol 0 0
    posted by Ineedanswers
    Feb 9, 2018

What’s 3, the only one I don’t know.

0 1
posted by ok
Feb 9, 2018
Yall are !@#$%^&hhhesss for not sharing ur answers so i’ll do the favor

1.B
2.A,B,&D
3.B
4.C
5.C
6.D
7.A
8.B
9.Essay

41 1
posted by bestanswers
Feb 12, 2018
Thank bestanswers! i hate it when people say they’ll check the answers then never do!

2 0
posted by Giggles
Feb 12, 2018
i swear none of yall share yall answer

1 0
posted by gfutf bjfvyghvhg
Feb 13, 2018
he is right

2 0
posted by gfutf bjfvyghvhg
Feb 13, 2018

YOU ARE THE BEST “BESTANSWERS”

1 0
posted by Ash
Feb 13, 2018
THANK YOU bestanswers! you are truly a saint.

1 0
posted by blueblue
Mar 9, 2018
We teachers are not accepting cheating anymore. We will be 1pting out perfect scores and finding cheaters! Do not use this site or you will flunk the class that is a promise.

0 21
posted by Teacher
Apr 4, 2018
I think “Teachers” can spell a little better than you can Mrs. “Teacher”

10 1
posted by This one here on another level
Apr 9, 2018
Thank dude

1 0
posted by thanks best answers!!
Apr 13, 2018

Stop using this site!

1 21
posted by Mrs. Garner
Jan 31, 2019
those teachers can stop commenting on here

3 0
posted by student
Mar 11, 2019
8 is B

0 0
posted by Fayth
Mar 22, 2019
Contrary to popular belief, Ms. Sue, some kids do study and still need help with tests. Speaking from experience, as I have stayed up for hours upon hours trying to take in chapters upon chapters of dumb history I’ll never need to know!

Ash, if you did study and you still cannot understand, may I suggest a tutor? Ms. Sue is a very discouraging person, and she is a terrible teacher from what I can tell. If you ever do need help with something, do not be afraid to ask someone who will actually help you.

And Ms. Sue. You absolutely suck. Your attitude towards students is cruel, and discouraging. You seem to lack empathy, and apathy. Ash simply needed help to find the answers, and you as a teacher have failed to do that. For someone who is most likely very much older than us all, you have the mentality, Mannerisms, and politeness of a child. Do us all a favor and grow the heck up. Because, despite your advantage of so many more years on this planet than us, you have failed to do so.

6 0
posted by Bug Boy
Apr 12, 2019
You said it Bug Boy

1 0
posted by Unknown
Apr 12, 2019

Bug Boy went off of that thot bruh

5 0
posted by Yikes
Apr 17, 2019
Thanks so much guys. I never can understand history and I study a lot but I still make bad grades. So thanks Bug Boy for standing up for us kids. And thank you Best Answer for helping.

1 0
posted by ThisIsIt
Apr 17, 2019
ms sue a thot

1 0
posted by lmao
Apr 18, 2019

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determine the energy change associated with the transition from n=2 to n=5 in the hydrogen atom.

Calculate the energy change associated with the transition of an electron from the n=2 shell to the n=5 shell in a Bohr hydrogen atom.

0 0 562
asked by Daniel
Nov 18, 2012
dE= -Rh((1/nfinal^2)-(1/ninitial^2))
Rh is a constant = 2.178E^-18

0 1
posted by Matthew
Nov 18, 2012
4.6 × 10-19 J

1 0
posted by sebas
Apr 2, 2016

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find the sum of the interior angles of a nonagon


  1. Find the sum of the interior angles of a nonagon. (1 point)

140°
1,620°
1,260°
1,450°


  1. Find the measure of each interior angle of a polygon with 12 sides. (1 point)

1,800°
150°
180°
145°


  1. Four of the angles of a pentagon measure 85°, 110°, 135°, and 95°. Find the measure of the missing angle. (1 point)

115°
95°
135°
85°

My answers:

  1. 1,260°
  2. 150°
  3. 115° 1 0 2,386
    asked by Delilah
    Feb 5, 2013
    All are right. 1 0
    👩‍🏫
    Ms. Sue
    Feb 5, 2013
    2.
    Find the sum of the interior angles of a nonagon. (1 point)

140°
1,620°
1,260°
1,450°

When you walk all the way around a figure with straight sides clockwise you turn 360 degrees. Ech of your right turns is 180 – interior angle there

in this case 9 * right turn angle = 360
right turn angle = 40
so each interior angle is 180 – 40 = 140
9* 140 = 1260

4.
Same deal for the next one
360/ 12 = 30
180 – 30 = 150 = interior angle

5.
each exterior angle = 180 – angle
180 – 85 = 95
180 – 110 = 70
180 – 135 = 45
180 – 45 = 85
then we have (180-x)
95+70+45+85 +180 – x = 360
475 – x = 360
x = 115

1 1
posted by Damon
Feb 5, 2013
Those answer are all correct, good job.

0 0
posted by Ms. Smart
Feb 10, 2017
Connexus answers

  1. B
  2. C
  3. A
  4. B
  5. A
  6. C
  7. D
  8. C
  9. B
  10. D
  11. C
  12. You have to do that one yourself it’s a writen answer. 8 1
    posted by Allison
    Feb 3, 2019

Thank you Allison

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posted by UnaLoca
Feb 4, 2019
Nice job Allison! Those answers are 100%

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posted by MarineCat6
Feb 12, 2019

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in what ways were the early state constitutions similar to the us constitution

In what ways were the early state constitutions similar to the U.S. Constitution?
22,808 results
American Government
In what ways were the early state constitutions similar to the U.S. Constitution?

asked by Elise Bedford on April 17, 2017
Civics
Which of the following is true about most state constitutions? A.Delegated powers are thoroughly described in most state constitutions. *** B. Most state constitutions are longer than the U.S. Constitution. C.The Constitution describes the federal

asked by jeje on January 20, 2015
civics
which of the following is true about most state constitutions A. Delegated powers are thoroughly described in most state constitutions** B. most state constitutions are longer than the U.S. constitutions C. the constitution describes the federal government

asked by Ali on January 13, 2016
criminal law
1 Constitutional law The law as expressed in the U.S. Constitution and the various state constitutions. The U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land. State constitutions are supreme within state borders to the extent that they do not violate the

asked by Mary on October 28, 2009
English
1 Constitutional law The law as expressed in the U.S. Constitution and the various state constitutions. The U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land. State constitutions are supreme within state borders to the extent that they do not violate the

asked by Mary on October 28, 2009

U.S. History
Compare and contrast the initial formation of two states—Virginia and Pennsylvania—by evaluating and listing the similarities and differences of the first state constitution for each state. •Identify the date of each constitution and consider the

asked by John on March 22, 2010
US History
Compare and contrast the initial formation of two states—Virginia and Pennsylvania—by evaluating and listing the similarities and differences of the first state constitution for each state. Identify the date of each constitution and consider the events

asked by Chris on August 18, 2010
History again
I just need to check if I am right. Thank you. All of the following influenced the Framers in developing the Constitution EXCEPT a. State constitutions b. John Locke’s “Two Treatises of Government” c. Virginia’s royal charter d. British tradition I am

asked by Pat on January 20, 2007
Civics

  1. One main difference between the United States Constitution and state constitutions is that state constitutions A. are much longer. B. don’t provide for a legislature. C. can’t be amended. D. don’t have bills of rights. ? Can’t find it.

asked by Sarah on March 29, 2015
Civics

  1. One main difference between the United States Constitution and state constitutions is that state constitutions A. are much longer. B. don’t provide for a legislature. C. can’t be amended. D. don’t have bills of rights. So your saying it’s D?

asked by Sarah on March 29, 2015
Histroy
Find one difference between the Arizona state constitution and the US Constitution. Explain why you think this difference occurred. One difference that I found between my state constitution (AZ) and the U.S. Constitution is the issue of voting. Things that

asked by acndee on April 3, 2017
More History Check
1.)Which of the following statements is true? =a)Although they differed in form, all State constitutions embodied the same basic ideals. b)Most of the early State constitutions gave great power to the executive branch. c)Some State constitutions were

asked by Unknown on June 25, 2010
socialstudies

  1. Which is an example of checks and balances? The constitution contains a bill of rights that details the basic rights of the state’s citizens. The constitution clearly outlines voting requirements and the qualifications for holding public office. The

asked by boPy on February 14, 2016
social studies 8th

  1. Which is an example of checks and balances? (1 point) The constitution contains a bill of rights that details the basic rights of the state’s citizens. The constitution clearly outlines voting requirements and the qualifications for holding public

asked by XenaGonzalez on March 11, 2015
History
1 which statement best describes why constitutions are needed? A Constitutions are needed so that governments don’t get carried away with taxes B Constitutions are needed because all of the laws have to be written down somewhere C Constitutions are needed

asked by Lafayette on February 9, 2019

georgia history
1 which statement best describes why constitutions are needed? A Constitutions are needed so that governments don’t get carried away with taxes B Constitutions are needed because all of the laws have to be written down somewhere. C Constitutions are needed

asked by jonh reynold on February 13, 2019
SS
Which statement best describes why constitutions are needed. A) Constitutions are needed so that governments don’t get carried away with taxes. B) Constitutions are needed because all the laws have to be written down somewhere. C) Constitutions are

asked by TLSK on February 8, 2019
Social Studies Check Answers
Anyone mind checking these 2 quiz answers please? Which statement best explains why nation-states write constitutions? A: Constitutions give citizens unlimited powers. B: Constitutions establish nation-states. C: Constitutions allow governments to elect

asked by Natalie on December 11, 2016
Civics
The Constitution gives sovereignty only to the _.? A.State legislatures B.national government C.president of the United States D.State constitutions ….i need help, none of them are right?

asked by Sierra on February 14, 2012
Civics

  1. “We, the people of the State of Florida, being grateful to Almighty God for our constitutional liberty, in order to secure its benefits, perfect out government, ensure domestic tranquillity, maintain public order, and guarantee equal civil and political

asked by Baxie on November 12, 2014
History
How does most state constitutions differ from the US Constitution?

asked by Jane on January 27, 2012
History Mid=Term
One of us asked this question yesterday, and we are still not sure whether we were given the correct answer. All of the following influenced the Framers in developing the Constitution EXCEPT a. State constitutions. b. John Locke’s “Two Treatises of

asked by Many Students on January 22, 2007
S.s

  1. Which is an example of checks and balances? (1 point) The constitution contains a bill of rights that details the basic rights of the state’s citizens. The constitution clearly outlines voting requirements and the qualifications for holding public

asked by Unknown on February 21, 2017
Government
Please help me with government 1. The 10th amendment to the Constitution reads as follows: ” The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”

asked by M on December 24, 2016
Social Studies
Which statement best explains why nation-states write constitutions? Constitutions give citizens unlimited powers Constitutions establish nation-states Constitutions allow governments to elect leaders Constitutions help keep government fair Is the answer

asked by Julian on September 28, 2015

GOVERNMENT HELP
The powers of Congress are affected by all of the following EXCEPT what the a. Constitution expressly says Congress may do b. Constitution says only the Sttes may do. c. States’ constitutions say Congress may do d. Constitution is silent about. I believe

asked by Suzi on February 26, 2007
Social Studies
What were the Articles of Confederation? A. a document created by the Continental Congress that served as a governmental plan for the nation as a whole B. a document created after the states had written their constitutions that included the powers and

asked by Kalie on November 21, 2016
Government
could someone check my answers please? for the first one I chose C and the second one I choose A Which power of state legislatures is being described in this excerpt from the textbook? In short, that extraordinarily broad authority is the power to

asked by Extrapeppermint on November 30, 2017
American History
I need help finding the powers and services of local and state governments States have constitutions that enumerate their powers (I’m not sure about services!). http://www.constitution.org/cons/usstcons.htm More local governments can be counties or cities

asked by Cole on November 12, 2006
History
How was the South Carolina constitution of 1868 different from previous state constitutions? A-Woman lost their right to own property. B-Representation was based on population alone. C-Counties and districts were organized into parishes. D-Education became

asked by ? on February 26, 2016
American Government
“No person who may hereafter fight a duel, assist in the same as second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, shall hold any office in the State, for a period of ten years….” -Arkansas state constitution, Article 19, Section 2 Why

asked by Elise Bedford on April 17, 2017
American Government
Read the excerpt from the state constitution of Arkansas, which was adopted in 1874. No person who may hereafter fight a duel, assist in the same as second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, shall hold any office in the state, for a

asked by Mac on April 4, 2018
U.S. Government
“No person who may hereafter fight a duel, assist in the same as second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, shall hold any office in the State, for a period of ten years….” -Arkansas state constitution, Article 19, Section 2 Why

asked by Spencer on April 25, 2017
Social Studies
One of the issues facing the early nation was how to interpret the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton said that the Constitution gave Congress the power “to make all laws necessary and proper.” Which statement best describes Hamilton’s views on how the

asked by justise on December 16, 2016
social studies

  1. Which activity does Louisiana lieutenant governor perform on a day to day basis ? a) appointing committee chairs b) serving as president of the Senate c) participating in meeting with governor d) acting as governor when the governor is unable to serve

asked by victoria on February 20, 2014

english
I have to write a five paragraph essay comparing the US constitution and the Haudenosaunee Great Law of Peace(the iroqouis constitution) does anyone know where I can find a copy of the iroqouis constitution or know of any similarities of the two

asked by cbarnett on October 16, 2006
history
Which of the following are elements of President Johnson’s Reconstruction plan? (Select all that apply.) It authorized military to enroll black voters and begin the constitution-making process. It required new state constitutions to meet conditions

asked by michael on December 12, 2018
American Gov
Under Article V of the U.S. Constitution there are two ways to propose an amendment to the Constitution: by a two-thirds (2/3) vote of both houses of Congress, or by a national convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds (2/3) of the state

asked by Jason on September 23, 2011
Social Studies
the first state constitutions adopted after independence? A.Placed most authority with the State governors B. provided for lengthy terms for elective offices C. placed most authority with the State legislatures D. extended voting rights to all adult state

asked by MM on March 27, 2012
pol science
Locate indiana state’s constitution and examine the major elements and articles of the constitution. Review its contents and functions. Search for information about the judicial, educational, and social service systems offered in indiana state and the

asked by jamie on March 23, 2012
History
Which of the following is not a way that constitutions grant governments power? A)They explain the purpose of the government. B)They set up the structure of the government. C)They identify from which states federal government leaders will come. D)They name

asked by Mike on November 16, 2015
Constituion: Check? Thanks
After 1788, states had no control over a.local government and education. b.the chartering of corporations. c.the development and administration of civil and criminal law. d.issuing legal currency. c? In Congress’s first session after the ratification of

asked by foreveryoung_9914 on April 30, 2014
Texas history
To what was the 1836 constitution of Texas similar? A.Mexican Constitution of 1824 B. Turtle bayou Resolutions C. Texas declaration of independence D. United States Constitution

asked by Anonymous on October 26, 2018
Texas history
To what was the 1836 constitution of Texas similar? A.Mexican Constitution of 1824 B. Turtle bayou Resolutions C. Texas declaration of independence D. United States Constitution

asked by Anonymous on October 26, 2018
History
To what was the 1836 Constitution of Texas similar? A. Mexican Constitution of 1824 B. Turtle Bayou Resolutions C. Texas Declaration of Independence D. United States Constitution My answer is C

asked by Wednesday_my_dudes on November 2, 2018

History
Which of the following best describes the Framers’ intentions concerning the relationship between state and federal courts? A.Federal courts were to be the primary courts under the Constitution, hearing all important cases, i.e., felony criminal

asked by question2 on July 17, 2015
Texas History
Can someone on connexus help me with this test? 1.What was a big difference between the Texas constitution of 1836 and the Texas Constitution of 1845? A.The constitution of 1845 did not have a separation of powers like that of the constitution of 1836.

asked by Carmen on May 8, 2017
social civics
the articles of conferdation were (a-) a halfway constitution (b) an early attempt at cooperation amoung four new england settlements (c) amendments to the constitution

asked by Linda on April 6, 2009
English
Book: Nickel and Dimed Ehrenreich is somewhat surprised that low-wage workers in Minnesota aren’t treated better than low-wage workers in other states because A. Minnesota has a low unemployment rate B. it is a relatively liberal state and tries more

asked by Matt on January 17, 2019
us history
can someone check my answers, 1. How was South Carolina constitution of 1868 different from previous state constitutions? -B Representation was based on population alone. 2. How did Republicans control of South Carolina affect the state? -C. The

asked by help mom on March 2, 2016
Social studies
How was the South Carolina constitution of 1868 different from previous state constitutions? A) women lost their right to own property B) representation was based on population alone.* C) counties and distracts were organized Into parishes. D)

asked by Help please on March 1, 2016
American Government
“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” According to the 10th amendment which powers to the state have? (2 answers) a. The powers

asked by RoxJen on April 10, 2017
History
If someone says that Pilgrims didn’t do much for us, what should we say to them? A. Tuxedos were invented because of those black and white outfits the Pilgrims wore. B.That Mayflower Compact they made was the first constitution ever written in North

asked by Jake on December 10, 2008
civics/ minnesota state goverment
how many state constitutions has MN had?

asked by lenny on May 17, 2008
World History (Ms. Sue)
How are a constitutional monarchy and a republic similar? How do they differ? A: A constitutional monarchy and a republic are similar as they have constitutions. However, these two differ because a constitutional monarchy controls head of state, while a

asked by Victoria on October 20, 2014

history
How did state constitutions contribute ot the growth of democracy between 1800 and 1840? Since this is not my area of expertise, I searched Google under the key words “‘state consitution’ 1800” to get these possible sources:

asked by emmy on October 8, 2006
Texas State History/Social Studies
compare the constitution of 1824 with the us constitution in terms of individual rights, religion, power of the president, and the right to posses firearms. This is an essay question. I can’t find any similar questions to this on here. Can someone help

asked by random! on October 29, 2018
Help SS!
In what ways were Federalists and Democratic Republicans similar? Both believed in promoting trade. Both had plans for a national bank. Both were strong supporters of the free market. Both were strong supporters of the Constitution. **??

asked by Stampy on November 12, 2016
American Government

  1. Which of the following describes a major difference between legislators at the federal and state levels? (1 point) Many state legislators are appointed rather than elected. Many state legislators do not live in the districts they represent. Many state

asked by Lord Please Help me on November 29, 2017
7th Grade Civics Help Please
I have a few questions with a multiple choice answers that I do not understand. Can someone please explain it to me more clearly than my lesson is doing? Any answer that I think I know I will surely put asterisk by. 1. Article IV, Section 2 of the U.S.

asked by MusicLover14 on December 20, 2015
America Government
Do you think our country’s history would be different if the Articles of Confederation had remained as our constitution? Yes, I do think our country’s history would be different if the Articles had remained as our constitution. Being that this government

asked by Anonymous on January 24, 2017
political science
Congress must pass what law after a state constitution has been approved by the people or that state in order for a state to be added

asked by brandon on October 31, 2007
English
Read the question from “A Defense of the Constitution of the United States” by John Adams. Are there no robberies, burglaries, murders, adulteries, thefts, nor cheats? This is John Adams’s response to the assertion that “the people never think of

asked by Quinn on December 14, 2018
Honors World History
The U.S. had two constitutions/government after the revolution,the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. How many has France had by the end of the section? Which country do you think was more stable after their revolutions,France or the United

asked by Samiboo on January 12, 2014
history
Despite the provisions in the Constitution for an executive similar to what Hamilton supported in this passage, what provisions did the Constitution make for misuse of the president’s powers?

asked by maria on January 6, 2019

Texas History
How are the Texas constitution and US Constitution similar?

asked by Please help on December 26, 2018
History
1.)Under the Articles of Confederation, _. a)coordination among the States was difficult *b)Congress held both legislative and executive authority c)the national government could not force the States to obey its laws d)All of these answers are correct.

asked by matt on June 26, 2010
government
what are the four common features found in the state constitutions of the thirteen colonies?

asked by misty on January 29, 2008
Texas History
Check my answers? Which of the following shows the influence of the U.S. Constitution on the Texas Constitution? A. the executive branch has the most power B. existence of a bill of rights ** C. provisions promoting legislative over judicial power D.

asked by |-/ on May 1, 2018
world studies
Does the goverment have the right over education? Where in the constitution is education mentioned? Education was not inclued in the US constitution. Therefore, education was left to individual states. Thats what I though….Im doing an essay and that was

asked by Rebecca on April 22, 2007
Texas State History/Social Studies
Compare the Constitution of 1824 with the U.S. Constitution in terms of individual rights, religion, power of the president, and the right to possess firearms. From what I have found, the Constitution of 1824 does not mention anything about the right to

asked by ILTHSM_ on October 30, 2018
criminal justice
Options Menu: Forum Topic: Interpreting the U.S. Constitution Consider the following scenario: The Supreme Court interprets the U.S. Constitution. Thomas Jefferson once argued against the doctrine of judicial review. He believed in the principles of

asked by Lisa on March 25, 2012
Social Studies
I got 3 last questions to ask. 1. Nation state a and nation state b share a border. the two nation-states are arguing over immigration policies regarding the border. what are two ways that the nation-sates could resolve their dispute? 2. How might citizens

asked by Jess on March 24, 2016
social studies
What are some similarities between the government created by Louisiana’s constitutions and by the U.S. Constitution? Choose all that apply. (a) a parliament (b) an executive branch (c) a legislative branch (d) a judicial branch

asked by victoria on January 23, 2014
social studdies
Which event within a state will most likely require the involvement of the federal government A.A corporation is created B.The state constitution is amended C.A boundary with a nearby state is disputed D. The rules for obtaining a drivers licence change

asked by cam on October 19, 2016

SOCIAL STUDIES
Q: How can the Constitution be amended? My answer: The Constitution comes along with an amendment that may be introduced by congress. The way that an amendment could be proposed is if there are two-thirds votes from each house of representatives. The

asked by cAt.ExE HaS sTopPeD wORkInG on September 13, 2018
Social Studies
Which event within a state will most likely require the involvement of the federal government? (PLEASE REVIEW IF IM RIGHT) 1.A corporation is created 2.The state constitution is amended*** 3.A boundary with a nearby state is disputed 4.The rules for

asked by PLEASE HELP ASAP on September 30, 2016
Civics
Which quotation(s) from the united states constitution provides for a federal; system of federal government? Statement I:- “The … Manner of Elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed (will be decided by ) each state Legislatures; but

asked by jeje on January 18, 2015
American Goverment
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was NOT _. the location the 1787 Constitutional Convention. the city where the Declaration of Independence was signed the childhood home of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams an important city in colonial America 22. For the

asked by Miranda on August 24, 2013
Social Studies
In which way are the governments of Saudi Arabia and Oman most similar? Their rulers are related. They both have absolute monarchies.*** They have newly written constitutions. Their structures descend from Ottoman caliphs.

asked by Please Check Answer on February 20, 2015
SOCIAL STUDIES
In which way are the governments of Saudi Arabia and Oman most similar? 1) the rulers are related 2) they both have absolute monarchies 3) they have newly written constitutions 4) their structures descend from OTTOMAN caliphs I think 4 thanks !

asked by Jaden on February 15, 2017
history
Excerpt from Douglas’s speech: “I believe that the Union can only be preserved by maintaining inviolate the Constitution of the United States as our fathers have made it. That Constitution guarantees to the people of every State the right to have slavery

asked by Help ASAP on May 24, 2016
U.S. Constitution
Which statement best describes how states derive powers from the U.S. Constitution? 1. The Constitution does not mention anything about state powers. 2. The Constitution only grants states the power to levy taxes and regulate commerce. 3. The Constiution

asked by Kyle on January 19, 2007
american history
ok im doing a crossword puzzle on the constitution info…i’m doing 11th grade history and i just need 2 answers left… the 1sr is , powers of both the state and federal governments (but the third letter is s) ..2nd is and anti federalist (during the

asked by gaby on October 5, 2008
social studies
In what ways did each of the following contribute to the growth of democracy between 1800 and 1840? a. State constitution b. Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge decision c. Changes in political party procedures d. actions taken by Jackson himself

asked by s on November 15, 2006

U.S. GOVERNMENT
1) The debate over ratifying the US Constitution was won by the Anti-Federalists. 2) The US government is based upon the force theory of state. 3) The evolutionary theory of states asserts that early nations developed out of the family structure,

asked by Booker Perry on June 11, 2012
American Government
Describe the problems that surfaced under the Articles of Confederation (8-10 problems we discussed in class) soon after the Revolutionary War. Use these problems and give a brief overview of Article I, II, III, IV, V, VI and the Bill of Rights of the U.S.

asked by Mike on October 21, 2009
History/American Government
Find one difference between the Arizona state constitution and the US Constitution. Explain why you think this difference occurred.

asked by bean on March 28, 2017
Social Studies

  1. which statement best interprets daniel Webster’s position on the nullification crisis as it related to the constitution a. he believed that the constitution said that only the president has the authority to nullify federal laws b. he believed that the

asked by alex on December 12, 2018
12th grade AP Politics
What are some of the illegal ways to add amendments to the Constitution? Why are these ways prefered rather than the legal methods? Please help…I found the legal ways but don’t know the illegal one. I have searched google but they don’t have any answer.

asked by Anonymous on November 30, 2009
history
what does the Constitution guarantees to the people of every State the right to have slavery or not have it…each State being left free to decide for itself. mean

asked by MS.SUE HELP PLEASE on June 10, 2014
World History (Ms. Sue)
Consider the influence of the U.S. Constitution on political systems in the contemporary world. A: The U.S Constitution has greatly influenced political systems in the contemporary world. Thus, the principles laid out in the U.S. Constitution have played a

asked by Victoria on October 6, 2014
history
from the movie THE PEOPLE SPEAK. -How is that document compared with the Constitution in thE film? -What are some of the ways slaves resisted their status as “property”? What were some of the risks of their actions? -What were some of the ways Native

asked by mady on January 30, 2013
US Gov
The reason a statement specific to state powers was not part of the original U.S. Constitution was that: a. New York delegates refused to allow discussion on the matter. b. it was assumed to be obvious. c. it was deleted under the Virginia Plan. d. no such

asked by Brooke on October 5, 2011
american government
The Constitution was ratified by: a)the people b)the state legislatures c)state conventions d)the Continental Congress IS C OR D CORRECT ANSWER?THANK YOU:))))

asked by vedrana on June 24, 2010

history
According to the Constitution, the _ government(s) has most of the power to regulate elections. national local interstate state state?

asked by shelly on December 8, 2011
Government
The anti-federalist were against ratification of the constitution mostly because? A. they were anarchists B. their experiences under British rule C. they felt the states should have less power D. they were against proportional representation I think well A

asked by MM on March 29, 2012
Government
Why does the Constitution all the Federal Government to levy taxes? Please don’t post under multiple names. It’s not necessary. http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.articlei.html#section8 Be sure to read Article I, Section 8, of the US

asked by Jack on May 29, 2007
government
the federalist papers were written to what? win support for the constitution in new york expose the lack of civil liberties protected in the constitution urge ratification of the constitution in virginia condemn the constitution for the absence of any

asked by tom on May 11, 2011
History
I’m having trouble answering these questions. Can someone help without being mean? Please help! Much appreciated! Excerpt from Douglas’s speech: “I believe that the Union can only be preserved by maintaining inviolate the Constitution of the United

asked by Oscar on March 22, 2015