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# Introduction

Discussing the marketing we come to know that marketing is the operation in which we actually attract the customers and try to retain them as well. If we look around us we come to know that all over the world every company is doing marketing. The marketing department is one of the most important things in here and it needs to be taken care of. The information kept in the marketing is very important and useful in every aspect as well.

Here we come to know that there are many management concepts that need to be discussed in here. If we look into the detail, then we come to know that when the earth evaluates at that time and after that people come to know that there are some products which everyone wants. Brien and Stafford in their work has shown the imporatnce of MIS tool in mrekting research and have empahsized that this tool can asist the firms in exploting new dimensions of drowth and properity. Using MIS brought the time when someone from them made the products so what they did is what need in the market was and they just sell that (Marshall, 1996).

After that, there comes a concept for the customization, in which the customers demanded the products in the way they want. However, right now the thing, which needs to be focused, is that the marketing concept came and in here the manufacturer itself need to market the product, tell people about the importance or the benefits and in this way attracts the customer so that the sales could be increased of the company and they could progress (Brien and Stafford, 2010).

Gray, Peltier and Schibrowsky have also focused on the importance of marketing systems in the current age while Layton has discussed how marketing systems can play a role in order to improve the systems. Malhotra, Marshall, Meek, Miller, Sinha, Wiid, Diggines, Zwick and Dholakia all have emphasized on how marketing information systems can infleunce the ffeciy of any any frim and the way it collects data from the merkt for further analysis. However, in this paper, I will go to discuss the marketing information systems that what are they and what was the reason and it was introduced by the time. However, the state of equilibrium needs to be achieved as well by marketing. In the following paragraphs, the details of the MIS as how equilibrium is achieved have been discussed in detail (Sinha, 2016).

## Marketing Concept

Here we will come to know that the marketing concept is one of the most important things, which needs to be seen in here. If we look into the topic then there are the couple of confusions that needs to be discussed before. Looking at the MIS, it stands for marketing information system this needs to be understood. However, it needs to be looked that actually it is the person or anything, which helps in the analysis or the presenting of the marketing data at any platform in the world. The important thing to focus in here is that the MIS actually are the tools that are helpful for the marketers in the marketing or collecting the data so that it could be saved and in near future that can be used in the market (Miller, 2011).

The marketing concept in here, we come to know that marketing is so important and to increase the efficiency of the decision makers or the management the MIS is used in here. The marketing concepts and theories have become the large part of today’s world.  In the new world, it is the fact that no one could become successful in any kind of business without an effective marketing and marketing plans.  According to Philip Kotler, he has described as the people, equipment, tools that are helpful in the effective decision making by managing, storing or analyzing the data effectively together. However if there would be good decisions in accordance with the MIS, the equilibrium will be automatically be achieved in here (Gray, Peltier and Schibrowsky, 2012).

## Pros & Cons of MIS tool

Looking at the Nature and pros& cons of MIS tool, we come to know that there are many advantages and on the same time, there are disadvantages as well. Looking at a couple of MIS tools we come to know that online database is one of the examples. Further, the WebPages, ERP, EDI, Big data and others are good examples of the Marketing information system. There are some of the inconsistencies can also be seen in here, on the other hand, there are advantages as well. The tool could be very fast as compared to the human brain. On the other hand, it is the fact that online marketing and marketing through the online structure and market is quite effective in the modern world (Sinha, 2016).

Another thing, which can be seen, is that the storage problem is over in this case and it is an important thing as well. The accuracy of the data is also an advantage of the MIS. However, there are the couple of disadvantages of MIS which can be It can be seen that the electronic device could be inconsistency as it is the machine and the technical fault can occur at any time. The response rate could be low at their also which needs to be fixed as well (Layton, 2007).

## State of equilibrium

Now looking at the state of equilibrium we come to know that there needs to be a fair thing in between the cost of the market and the quantity. The price- quality, the cost- quantity and other equilibriums need to be checked in this context so that the equilibrium could be achieved. However, it can be seen that the MIS is a tool, which actually helps the marketers in achieving the equilibrium so that they could grow, and they could expand as well. As better decisions could be made in this regard, therefore, there would be no problems at all at any point of time. However, it can be seen that the MIS is a good tool and it can be used by the internal and the externally. On the other hand, the Marketing concepts have made things easier for all the tools and technologies of the MIS. Looking at it, we come to know that the internal factors actually include the internal departments of the company that is including in the company. However, there is a very useful application of MIS overall (Wiid and Diggines, 2010).

## Discussion

Here we can see that the marketing concepts have been discussed in the above paragraphs that how marketing actually came into existence and we can also see that what was the need and want of the marketers in the passage as well. However, it can be seen that only marketing concepts cannot do anything. They need the MIS tools so that the proper management could be seen in here. The MIS tools are quite effective in any region and section of the marketing and marketing field (Zwick and Dholakia, 2008).

The MIS tools actually help humans so that the data could be stored, managed and analyzed in a good way so that the decisions for the businesses could be taken in a well and organized manner. Therefore, we can say that when marketing and the MIS are linked it moves towards the state of equilibrium that is achieved and the success is guaranteed. Here we can also see that with the help of marketing and MIS both, the decisions are made better, a better analysis could be seen and the ultimate goal, which is to achieve success, is achieved (Meek and Meek, 2012).

# Conclusion

If we conclude the discussion, we come to know that the importance of marketing concepts has been discussed. The correspondence with the marketing concepts that have been discussed in the essay and the MIS can be looked that both are important for the success of the state of equilibrium. Here we have seen that how the marketing concepts have started and got to a stage where a manufacturer needs to attract a person so that product could be sold. However, it can be seen that MIS tools are the important things that are included in the market. Without them, there was not a concept that equilibrium could be` achieved.

However, it can be seen that MIS is working all over the globe in the good companies and the reason is seen that the success is the vision, the state of equilibrium will be achieved only if the best of all will be in business. We can see that in the body Discussion have been given and it is stated in the detail that how the marketing concept and the MIS are important for the company. We can see that with the emergence of both the state of equilibrium can be achieved easily. This is the reason we can say that MIS is one of the most important tools in the marketing if any company wants to achieve the height of success. To further emphasize the information discussed in this paper the works of Gray, Peltier, Schibrowsky, Layton Malhotra, Marshall, Meek, Miller, Sinha, Wiid, Diggines, Zwick and Dholakia have been taken and they all are aligned with the same ideology that marekting system have a major role to play and in there works have dicussed various aspects with which it can asist any frm in any market.

Concluding all the discussing given here, I would like to say that in my opinion, the marketing concepts are the base points which needs to be considered at all times. Nevertheless, the MIS is the tool, which is used by the companies for the ease of success. Further, combining both we can say that the state of equilibrium is achieved and the heights of success are reached. The statement is hence proved that “the development of a fully integrated marketing information system (MIS) to effectively achieve a state of equilibrium”.

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# Work Cited

Brien, R.H. and Stafford, J.E. (2010) Readings in marketing information systems: a new era in marketing research, University of Michigan: Houghton Mifflin.

Gray, D.M., Peltier, J.W. and Schibrowsky, J.A. (2012) ‘The Journal of Marketing Education : Past, Present, and Future’, Journal of Marketing Education, vol. 34, no. 3, December, pp. 217-237.

Layton, R.A. (2007) ‘Marketing Systems—A Core Macromarketing Concept’, Journal of Macromarketing, vol. 27, no. 3, September, pp. 227-242.

Malhotra, N.K. (2008) Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, 5th edition, Pearson Education India.

Marshall, K.P. (1996) Marketing Information Systems: Creating Competitive Advantage in the Information Age, illustrated edition, Pennsylvania State University: Boyd & Fraser.

Meek, H. and Meek, R. (2012) Strategic Marketing Management, Routledge.

Miller, J. (2011) Marketing Information System, unabridged edition, GRIN Verlag.

Sinha, G. (2016) ‘Responding to Complexity: Microfinance MIS Service Providers as Complex Adaptive Systems’, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies, vol. 1, no. 2, July, pp. 163-180.

Wiid, J. and Diggines, C. (2010) Marketing Research, Juta and Company.

Zwick, D. and Dholakia, N. (2008) ‘Infotransformation of Markets: Introduction to the Special Issue on Marketing and Information Technology’, Journal of Macromarketing, vol. 28, no. 4, December, pp. 318-325.

Categories

## what does the notation rr mean to geneticists?

Hi, can someone check my answers asap!!? i am on a deadline!!

1. What doe the notation TT mean to geneticists? (1 point)
two dominant alleles
heterozygous alleles
at least one dominant allele
one dominant and one recessive allele
2. An organisms genotype is (1 point)
its physical appearance
its combanation of alleles
the mutations it inherits
the crossing over that occurs during meiosis
3. An organisms phenotype is (1 point)
its physical appearance
its combanation of alleles
the mutations it inherits
the crossing over that occurs during meiosis
4. What occurs during meiosis that does not occur during mitosis? (1 point)
chromosomes are passed to offspring
a cell divides in half
the chromosomes number is divided in half
two sex cells combine
5. What is the probability of two tall pea plants, heterozygous for the tall allele, producing a short pea plant?
(1 point)
75%
50%
25%
0%
6. A plant with dark-purple flowers and a plant with white flowers are crossed. All of the offspring have lavender flowers. The alleles for the flower color in this plant are (1 point)
both dominant
both recessive
codominant
incompletetely dominant
7. A plant with dark-red flowers and a plant with white flowers are crossed. All of the offspring have dark red flowers wit white spots. The alleles for the flower color in this plant are (1 point)
both dominant
both recessive
codominant
incompletetely dominant
8. Scientists believe that cancer occurs when (1 point)
cells stop dividing
DNA is damaged and cells grow out of control
body cells begin going through meiosis
cells cannot replicate their DNA
9. The order of the bases along a gene determines (1 point)
the structure of a carbohydrate
the structure of a protein
how DNA is passed down to offspring
how chromosomes are arranged in the nucleus
10. What does messenger RNA do during protein synthesis? (1 point)
copies the coded message from the DNA and carries it into the cytoplasm
copies the coded message from the DNA and carries it into the nucleus
carries amino acids and adds them to the growing protein
copies the coded message from the protein and carries it into the nucleus
11. What is a change in the sequence of DNA base pairs called? (1 point)
an allele
a mutation
mitosis
meiosis
12. A trait is controlled by multiple genes is called (1 point)
polygenic
incompletely dominant
codominant
Mendalian
13. In asexual reproduction, the offspring are (1 point)
not capable of dividing
formed by the fusing of sex cells
genetically identical to their parent
produced by meiosis

A
B
A
C
A
D
C
B
B
A
B
A
C

help asap!!!

7 0 2,107
Jan 16, 2014
nevermind, i got everything right but number 5, it was 25%

1 2
posted by TTR+S<3
Jan 16, 2014
thanks

1 0
posted by kksuderdijq
Oct 28, 2014
thank you do much!!

1 0
Jan 27, 2015
Everything is correct except number 5… it is 25%!! I just took the test.

1 0
posted by …..
Apr 23, 2015

We go to the same school

1 0
posted by Mee
Oct 30, 2015
hey thx guyz tis really helped me out:)

1 0
posted by joey
Apr 27, 2016
A
B
A
C
C
D
C
B
B
A
B
A
C

100% gaureenteed

11 0
posted by Yuno Gasai
May 24, 2016
Yuno gasai is 100% good luck students

2 1
posted by Helping you
Oct 13, 2016
100% correct

2 0
posted by Yoyo
Oct 15, 2016

its
a
b
a
c
c
d
c
b
b
a
b
a
c

2 0
posted by alex
Oct 19, 2016
thx so much for the help I got a 100%

0 0
posted by Lucy
Dec 1, 2016
yes, Yuno Gasai is 100 percent correct. I just took the quiz.

1 0
posted by sabbie.pinkie
Dec 6, 2016
thank you alex and yuno gasia i got a 100%

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Dec 21, 2016
This it one 100% for CCA, ON MY LIFE, you will get 100%.
A
B
A
C
C
D
C
B
B
A
B
A
C
Hope this helps!!!!!
100%

4 0
posted by Anonymous
May 12, 2017

r u like TT

0 1
posted by taehyung
Jun 4, 2017
wut

0 1
posted by bts
Jun 4, 2017
thanks 100%

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 23, 2017
Thanks 100%

1 0
posted by Isaac
Dec 1, 2017
10000000000% thnks

1 0
posted by blah
Feb 7, 2018

Hgify97t68a7ivdgsjhfidugskdbhjzfsgvyjhx j,vsioowgivsklsfisvdkbwguhi9qfwYESusioedufieofuhvjcn cjcbhsdhhidhbdsidjbdjjvbidjhuishccdchisk cgdusidcj

0 1
posted by Did you realize you can have up to 100 characters in your name? Well, now you know and I’ve used it.
Feb 12, 2018
YOU BETTER LOVE KPOP OR I’LL PULL YOUR HEART OUT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

0 1
posted by YOOOO I LOVE KPOP TAEHYUNG IS BAE
Mar 27, 2018
I’m like TT!! I love Twice!

0 2
posted by Hannah
May 7, 2018
Thanks person who created this question! You are a risk-taker!(Good thing)

0 0
posted by Helper
May 17, 2018
I have not took it yet but I hope I get it right and I am taking it tomarrow.

0 0
Oct 15, 2018

thank you even though it was a FREAKING PRCTICE AND WONT EFFECT MY GRADE I STILL GOT A 100 I WANNA THANK YOU.

0 0
posted by conexus student
Oct 25, 2018
I think its easier to see with the Q’s numbers are on it. 100%:

1. A
2. B
3. A
4. C
5. C
6. D
7. C
8. B
9. B
10. A
11. B
12. A
13. C 0 0
posted by HERE U GO
Oct 28, 2018
I wanted to check my answers 0 0
posted by Student
Oct 29, 2018
Lol, I’m hoping ur all right cuz ima turn it in right now and I’m a connexus student. 0 0
posted by Who knows
Nov 19, 2018
OMG YASS I GOT 100%!! THANK YOU ALL WHO GAVE THE ANSWERS 0 0
posted by Who knows
Nov 19, 2018
Categories

## on the loan worksheet in cell c9

Office 2013 – myitlab:grader – Instructions Exploring Series Vol. 2

Specialized Functions

Project Description: In the following project, you will use Excel to perform calculations regarding rental properties. You will create a basic search, utilize database functions, and create an amortization table

Instructions: For the purpose of grading the project you are required to perform the following tasks: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Download and open the file named exploring_e07_grader_h1.xlsx, and then save the file as e07c2Apartment_LastFirst, replacing LastFirst with your name. 0 2 Insert functions in the Pet Deposit column of the Summary worksheet to calculate the required pet deposit for each unit. If the unit has two or more bedrooms and was remodeled after 2008 the deposit is $125, if not it is$75. 10 3 Enter nested functions in the Recommendation column to indicate Need to remodel if the apartment is unoccupied and was last remodeled before 2005. For all other apartments, display No change. 10 4 Type 101 in cell B2. 4 5 Insert a nested lookup function in cell E2 that will look up the rental price in column D using the apartment number referenced in cell B2. 10 6 Click the Database worksheet and enter conditions in the Criteria Range for unoccupied two- and three-bedroom apartments that need to be remodeled. 10 7 Perform an advanced filter based on the criteria range. Filter the existing database in place. 10 8 In cell C7, enter a DCOUNTA function to calculate the number of apartments to remodel. 6 9 In cell C8, enter a database function to calculate the total lost rent for the month. 2 10 Enter a database function to calculate the year of the oldest remodel in cell C9. 2 11 Click the Loan worksheet and enter 3/20/2015 in cell B7. 2 12 Insert a formula in cell E2 to calculate the loan amount based on the loan parameters in the input area. 2 13 Insert a formula in cell E3 to calculate the total number of periods. 2 14 Insert a formula in cell E4 to calculate the periodic monthly rate. 2 15 Insert a function in cell E5 to calculate the monthly payment. Ensure that the function returns a positive value. 2 16 In cell E6, insert a function to calculate the total interest paid on the loan. Ensure that the function returns a positive value. 2 17 Complete the loan amortization table for the first five payments only. In cell A11, enter 1. In cell B11, create a relative reference to cell B7 and in cell C11, create a relative reference to cell E2. Use the DATE function to complete the Payment Date column and financial functions for the Interest Paid and Principal Payment columns. In cell F11, enter =C11-E11. In cell C12, create a relative reference to cell F11. Note: Be sure to only complete the table through row 15. 18 18 Create a footer with the sheet name code in the center, and the file name code on the right side of each worksheet. 6 19 Save the file making sure the worksheets are in the following order: Summary, Database, and Loan. Close Excel. Submit the file as directed. 0 Total Points 100

Updated: 08/03/2013 1 E_CH07_EXPV2_H1_Instructions.docx

Categories

## according to vaillant, __________ is a major preoccupation of midlife.

H AFTER ^ ri • •ID Conflict and

Peacema ki If you want peace, work for justice.”

—Pop.e.P.9ul.Vl.

What creates conflict?

How can peace be achieved?

Postscript: The conflict between individual and communal rights

There is a speech that has been spoken in many languages by the leaders of many countries. It goes like this; “The intentions of our country are entirely peaceful. Yet, we are also aware that other

^nations, with their new weapons, threaten us. Thus we must defend

iourselves against attack. By so doing, we shall protect our way of

jlife and preserve the peace” (Richardson, I960}. Almost every nation

^claims concern only for peace but, mistrusting other nations, arms

itself in self-defense. The result is a world that has been spending

$5 billion per day on arms and armies while hundreds of millions die of malnutrition and untreated disease (SIPRI, 2011). The elements of such conflict (a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals) are similar at many levels: conflict between nations in an arms race, between religious factions disputing points of doctrine, between corporate executives and workers disputing salaries, and between bickering spouses. People in conflict perceive that one side s gain is the other’s loss: • “We want peace and security.” “So do we, but you threaten us.” • “I’d like the music off.” “I’d like it on.” • “We want more pay.” “We can’t afford it.” A relationship or an organization without conflict is probably apa- hetic. Conflict signifies involvement, commitment, and caring. If conflict 482 Part Three Social Relations As civil rights leaders know, creatively managed con­ flicts can have constructive outcomes. conflict A perceived incompatibility of actions or goals. peace A condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships. is understood and recognized, it can end oppression and stimulate renewed and improved human relations. Harmony occurs when justice and mutual respect prevail but also when “everyone knows their place” in an unjust world (Dixon & others, 2010). Without conflict, people seldom face and resolve their problems. Genuine peace is more than the sup­ pression of open conflict, more than a fragile, superficial calm. Peace is the outcome of a creatively managed con­ flict. Peace is the parties reconciling their perceived differences and reaching genuine accord. “We got our increased pay. You got your increased profit. Now each of us is helping the other achieve the organization’s goals.” Peace, says peace researcher Royce Anderson (2004), “is a condition in which individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or nations experi­ ence low levels of violence and engage in mutually harmonious relationships.” In this chapter we explore conflict and peacemaking by asking what factors create or exacerbate conflict, and what factors contribute to peace: • What social situations feed conflict? • How do misperceptions fuel conflict? • Does contact with the other side reduce conflict? • When do cooperation, communication, and mediation enable reconciliation? WHAT CREATES CONFLICT?__________ I Explain what feeds conflict. Social-psychological studies have identified several ingredients of conflict. What’s striking (and what simplifies our task) is that these ingredients are common to all levels of social conflict, whether international, intergroup, or interpersonal. Social Dilemmas Several of the problems that most threaten our human future—nuclear arms, cli­ mate change, overpopulation, natural-resource depletion—arise as various parties pursue their self-interests, ironically, to their collective detriment. One individual may think, “It would cost me a lot to buy expensive greenhouse emission controls. Besides, the greenhouse gases I personally generate are trivial.” Many others reason 483Conflict and Peacemaking similarly, and the result is a warming climate, melting ice cover, rising seas, and more extreme weather. In some societies, parents benefit by having many children who can assist with the family tasks and provide security in their old age. But when most families have many children generation after generation, the result is the collective devastation of overpopulation. Choices that are individually rewarding become collectively pun­ ishing. We therefore have a dilemma: How can we reconcile individual self-interest with communal well-being? To isolate and study that dilemma, social psychologists have used laboratory games that expose the heart of many real social conflicts. “Social psychologists who study conflict are in much the same position as the astronomers,” noted conflict researcher Morton Deutsch (1999). “We cannot conduct true experiments with large-scale social events. But we can identify the conceptual similarities between the large scale and the small, as the astronomers have between the planets and Newton’s apple. That is why the games people play as subjects in our laboratory may advance our understanding of war, peace, and social justice.” Let’s consider two laboratory games that are each an example of a social trap: the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons. THE PRISONER’S DILEMMA This dilemma derives from an anecdote concerning two suspects being questioned separately by the district attorney (DA) (Rapoport, 1960). The DA knows they are jointly guilty but has only enough evidence to convict them of a lesser offense. So the DA creates an incentive for each one to confess privately: • If Prisoner A confesses and Prisoner B doesn’t, the DA will grant immunity to A and will use A’s confession to convict B of a maximum offense (and vice versa if B confesses and A doesn’t). », • If both confess, each will receive a moderate sentence. F • If neither prisoner confesses, each will be convicted of a lesser crime and i receive a light sentence. The matrix of Figure 13.1 summarizes the choices. If you were a prisoner faced with such a dilemma, with no chance to talk to the other prisoner, would you confess? Prisoner A Confesses Doesn’t confess Confesses Doesn’t confess 10 years Chapter 13 social trap A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing its self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Examples include the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons. FIGURE:: 13.1 The Classic Prisoner’s Dilemma In each box, the number above the diagonal is prisoner A’s outcome. Thus, if both prisoners confess, both get five years. If neither confesses, each gets a year. If one confesses, that prisoner is set free in exchange for evidence used to convict the other of a crime bringing a 10-year sentence. If you were one of the prisoners, unable to communicate with your fellow prisoner, would you confess? 484 Part Three Social Relations FIGURE:: 13.2 Laboratory Version of the Prisoner’s Dilemma The numbers represent some reward, such as money. In each box, the number above the diagonal lines is the outcome for person A. Unlike the classic Pris­ oner’s Dilemma (a one-shot deci­ sion), most laboratory versions involve repeated plays. Response 1 (defect) Person A iponse 1 Respo (defect) (coopera-^ 12 Response 2 (cooperate) 12 -6 Many people say they would confess to be granted immunity, even though mutual nonconfession elicits lighter sentences than mutual confession. Perhaps this is because (as shown in the Figure 13.1 matrix) no matter what the other prisoner decides, each is better off confessing than being convicted individually. If the other also confesses, the sentence is moderate rather than severe. If the other does not confess, one goes free. University students have faced variations of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, with the choices being to defect or to cooperate, and the outcomes not being prison terms but chips, money, or course points. As Figure 13.2 illustrates, on any given decision, a person is better off defecting (because such behavior exploits the other’s cooperation or protects against the other’s exploitation). However—and here’s the rub—by not cooperating, both parties end up far worse off than if they had trusted each other and thus had gained a joint profit. This dilemma often traps each one in a maddening predicament in which both realize they could mutually profit. But unable to commu­ nicate, and mistrusting each other, they often become “locked in” to not cooperating. Outside the university, examples abound: seemingly intractable and costly conflicts between Israelis and Palestinians over borders, U.S. Republicans and Democrats over taxation and deficits, and professional athletes and team owners over pay. Punishing another’s lack of cooperation might seem like a smart strategy, but in the laboratory it can have counterproductive effects (Dreber & others, 2008). Punish­ ment typically triggers retaliation, which means that those who punish tend to esca­ late conflict, worsening their outcomes, while nice guys finish first. What punishers see as a defensive reaction, recipients see as an aggressive escalation (Anderson & others, 2008). When hitting back, they may hit harder while seeing themselves as merely returning tit for tat. In one experiment, London volunteers used a mechanical device to press back on another’s finger after receiving pressure on their own. While seeking to reciprocate with the same degree of pressure, they typically responded with 40 percent more force. Thus, touches soon escalated to hard presses, much like a child saying “I just touched him, and then he hit me!” (Shergill & others, 2003). THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS Many social dilemmas involve more than two parties. Climate change stems from deforestation and from the carbon dioxide emitted by vehicles, furnaces, and coal-fired power plants. Each gas-guzzling SUV contributes infinitesimally to the problem, and Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 485 harm each does is diffused over many people. To model such social predicaments, researchers have developed laboratory dilemmas that involve multiple people. A metaphor for the insidious nature of social dilemmas is what ecologist Garrett Hardin (1968) called the Tragedy of the Commons. He derived the name from the centrally located grassy pasture in old English towns. In today’s world the “commons” can be air, water, fish, cookies, or any shared and limited resource. If all use the resource in moderation, it may replenish itself as rapidly as it’s harvested. The grass will grow, the fish will reproduce, and the cookie jar will be restocked. If not, there occurs a tragedy of the commons. Imagine 100 farmers surrounding a commons capable of sustaining 100 cows. When each grazes one cow, the common feeding ground is optimally used. But then a farmer reasons, “If I put a second cow in the pasture. I’ll double my output, minus the mere 1 percent overgrazing” and adds a second cow. So does each of the other farmers. The inevi­ table result? The Tragedy of the Commons—a mud field and famished cows. Likewise, environmental pollution is the sum of many minor pollutions, each of which benefits the individual polluters much more than they could benefit them­ selves (and the environment) if they stopped polluting. We litter public places— dorm lounges, parks, zoos—while keeping our personal spaces clean. We deplete our natural resources because the immediate personal benefits of, for instance, taking a long, hot shower outweigh the seemingly inconsequential costs. Whalers knew others would exploit the whales if they didn’t, and that taking a few whales would hardly diminish the species. Therein lies the tragedy. Everybody’s business (conservation) becomes nobody’s business. Is such individualism imiquely American? Kaori Sato (1987) gave students in a more collective culture, Japan, opportunities to harvest—for actual money trees from a simulated forest. The students shared equally the costs of planting the for­ est. The result was like those in Western cultures. More than half the trees were harvested before they had grown to the most profitable size. Sato’s forest reminds me of our home’s cookie jar, which was restocked once a week. What we should have done was conserve cookies so that each day we could each enjoy two or three. But lacking regulation and fearing that other family mem­ bers would soon deplete the resource, what we actually did was maximize our individual cookie consumption by downing one after the other. The result; Within 24 hours the cookie glut would often end, the jar sitting empty for the rest of the week. When resources are not partitioned, people often consume more than they real­ ize (Herlocker & others, 1997). As a bowl of mashed potatoes is passed around a table of 10, the first few diners are more likely to scoop out a disproportionate share than when a platter of 10 chicken drumsticks is passed. The Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons games have several similar features. THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR First, both games tempt people to explain their ozon behavior situationally (“I had to protect myself against exploitation by my opponent”) and to explain their part­ ners’ behavior dispositionally (“she was greedy,” “he was untrustworthy ). Most never realize that their counterparts are viewing them with the same fundamental attribution error (Gifford & Hine, 1997; Hine & Gifford, 1996). People with self- inflating, self-focused narcissistic tendencies are especially unlikely to empathize with others’ perspectives (Campbell & others, 2005). EVOLVING MOTIVES Second, motives often change. At first, people are eager to make some easy money, then to minimize their losses, and finally to save face and avoid defeat (Brockner & others, 1982; Teger, 1980). These shifting motives are strikingly similar to the shifting motives during the buildup of the 1960s Vietnam War. At first. President Johnson’s speeches expressed concern for democracy, freedom, and justice. As the conflict escalated, his Tragedy of the Commons The “commons” is any shared resource, including air, water, energy sources, and food supplies. The tragedy occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse—the tragedy—of the commons. 486 Part Three Social Relations non-zero>sum games Games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose (also called mixed-motive situations). “LIKE THE OLD BUFFALO HUNTERS, FISHERMEN HAVE A PERSONAL INCEN­ TIVE TO MAKE AS MUCH AS THEY CAN THIS YEAR, EVEN IF THEY’RE DESTROYING THEIR OWN PROFESSION IN THE PROCESS.” —JOHN TIERNEY, “WHERE THE TUNA ROAM,” 2006 Small is cooperative. On the Isle of Muck, off Scotland’s west coast, Constable Lawrence MacEwan has had an easy time policing the island’s residents, recently numbering 33. Over his 40 years on the job, there was never a crime (5cotf/s/j Life, 2001). In 2010, a row between two friends who had been drinking at a wedding became the first recorded crime in 50 years, but the next morning, they shook hands and all was well (Cameron, 2010). concern became protecHng America’s honor and avoiding the national humiliaH^^ of losmg a war. A similar shift occurred during the war in Iraq, which was initiall^ proposed as a response to Iraq’s supposed weapons of mass destruction. ^ OUTCOMES NEED NOT SUM TO ZERO Third, most real-life conflicts, like the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of thp Commons, are non-zero-sum games. The two sides’ profits and losses need not add up to zero. Both can win; both can lose. Each game pits the immediate interests of indi ^duals agamst the well-being of the group. Each is a diaboUcal social trap that shows how, even when each individual behaves “rationally,” harm can result. No maUcious person planned for the earth’s atmosphere to be warmed by a carbon dioxide blanket Not all self-serving behavior leads to collective doom. In a plentiful commons—as in the world of the eighteenth-century capitalist economist Adam Smith (1776, p 18)— mdividu^ who seek to maximize their own profit may also give the commuidty wl^t It needs: It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner,” he observed, “but from their regard to their own interest.” RESOLVING SOCIAL DILEMMAS Faced with social traps, how can we induce people to cooperate for their mutual betterment? Research with the laboratory dilemmas reveals several ways (Gifford & Hine, 1997). ^ REGULATION If taxes were entirely voluntary, how many would pay their full share? Modern societies do not depend on charity to pay for schools, parks, and social and military security. We also develop rules to safeguard our common good. Fishing and hunting have long been regulated by local seasons and limits; at the ^obal level, an International Whaling Commission sets an agreed-upon “harvest” that enables whales to regenerate. Likewise, where fishing industries, such as the Alaskan halibut fishery, have implemented “catch shares”—guaranteeing each fisher a percentage of each year’s allowable catch—competition and overfishing have been greatly reduced (Costello & others, 2008). In everyday life, however, regulation has costs—costs of administering and enforcing the regulations, costs of diminished personal freedom. A volatile political question thus arises: At what point does a regulation’s cost exceed its benefits? SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL There is another way to resolve social dilemmas; Make the group small. In a small commons, each person feels more responsible and effec­ tive (Kerr 1989). As a group grows larger, people become more likely to think, “I couldn t have made a difference anyway”—a common excuse for noncooperation (Kerr &Kaufman-Gilliland, 1997). 487Conflict and Peacemaking In small groups, people also feel more identified with a group’s success. Resi­ dential stability also strengthens communal identity and procommunity behavior (Oishi & others, 2007). In small groups—in contrast to large ones—individuals are less likely to take more than their equal share of available resources (Allison & others, 1992). On the Pacific Northwest island where I grew up, our small neighborhood shared a com­ munal water supply. On hot summer days when the reservoir ran low, a light came on, signaling our 15 families to conserve. Recognizing our responsibility to one another, and feeling that our conservation really mattered, each of us conserved. Never did the reservoir run dry. In a much larger commons—say, a city—voluntary conservation is less success­ ful. Because the harm one does diffuses across many others, each individual can rationalize away personal accountability. Some political theorists and social psy­ chologists therefore argue that, where feasible, the commons should be divided into smaller territories (Edney, 1980). In his 1902 Mutual Aid, the Russian revolu­ tionary Pyotr Kropotkin set down a vision of small communities rather than central government making consensus decisions for the benefit of all (Gould, 1988). Evolutionary psychologist Robin Dunbar (1992, 2010) notes that hunter-gatherer societies often travel together as groups of 30 to 35 people, that tribal villages and clans often have averaged about 150 people—enough to afford mutual support and protection but not more people than one can monitor. He suspects it’s not a coinci­ dence that the average number of Facebook friends—about 125—echoes the size of our ancestral tribal villages, which reflect the number of people with whom we can have meaningful, supportive relationships. This seemingly natural group size is also, he believes, the optimum size for business organizations, religious congrega­ tions, and military fighting units. COMMUNICATION To resolve a social dilemma, people must communicate. In the laboratory as in real life, group communication sometimes degenerates into threats and name-calling (Deutsch & Krauss, 1960). More often, communication enables cooperation (Bornstein & others, 1988,1989). Discussing the dilemma forges a group identity, which enhances concern for everyone’s welfare. It devises group norms and expectations and pressures members to follow them. Especially when people are face-to-face, it enables them to commit themselves to cooperation (Bouas & Komorita, 1996; Drolet & Morris, 2000; Kerr & others, 1994,1997; Pruitt, 1998). A clever experiment by Robyn Dawes (1980, 1994) illustrates the importance of communication. Imagine that an experimenter offered you and six strangers a choice: You can each have$6, or you can donate your $6 to the others. If you give away your money, the experimenter will double your gift. No one will be told whether you chose to give or keep your$6. Thus, if all seven give, everyone pockets $12. If you alone keep your$6 and all the others give theirs, you pocket $18. If you give and the others keep, you pocket nothing. In this experiment, cooperation is mutually advantageous, but it requires risk. Dawes found that, without discussion, about 30 percent of people gave. With discussion, in which they could establish trust and cooperation, about 80 percent gave. Open, clear, forthright communication between two parties reduces mistrust. Without communication, those who expect others not to cooperate will usually refuse to cooperate themselves (Messe & Sivacek, 1979; Pruitt & Kimmel, 1977). One who mistrusts is almost sure to be uncooperative (to protect against exploita­ tion). Noncooperation, in turn, feeds further mistrust (“VS^at else could I do? It’s a dog-eat-dog world”). In experiments, communication reduces mistrust, enabling people to reach agreements that lead to their common betterment. CHANGING THE PAYOFFS Laboratory cooperation rises when experimenters change the payoff matrix to reward cooperation and punish exploitation (Balliet & others, 2011). Changing payoffs also helps resolve actual dilemmas. In some cit­ ies, freeways clog and skies collect smog because people prefer the convenience Chapter 13 “FOR THAT WHICH IS COMMON TO THE GREATEST NUMBER HAS THE LEAST CARE BESTOWED UPON IT.” -ARISTOTLE “MY OWN BELIEF IS THAT RUSSIAN AND CHINESE BEHAVIOR IS AS MUCH INFLUENCED BY SUSPICION OF OUR INTENTIONS AS OURS IS BY SUSPICION OF THEIRS. THIS WOULD MEAN THAT WE HAVE GREAT INFLUENCE ON THEIR BEHAVIOR-THAT, BY TREATING THEM AS HOSTILE, WE ASSURE THEIR HOSTILITY.” -U.S. SENATOR J. WILLIAM FULBRIGHT(1971) 488 Part Three Social Relations To change behavior, many cities have changed the payoff matrix. Fast carpool-only lanes increase the benefits of carpooling and the costs of driving alone. “NEVER IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN CONFLICT WAS SO MUCH OWED BY SO MANY TO SO FEW.” —SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL, HOUSE OF COMMONS, AUGUST 20,1940 of driving themselves directly to work. Each knows that one more car does not add noticeably to the congestion and pollution. To alter the personal cost-benefit calculations many cities now give carpoolers incentives, such as desig­ nated freeway lanes or reduced tolls. APPEALING TO ALTRUISTIC NORMS In Chapter 12 we saw how increasing bystanders’ feelings of responsibility for others boosts altruism. Will appeals to altruistic motives similarly prompt people to act for the common good? The evidence is mixed. On the one hand, just knowing the dire consequences of noncooperation has little effect. In labo­ ratory games, people realize that their self-serving choices are mutually destructive, yet they continue to make them. Out­ side the laboratory, warnings of doom and appeals to con­ serve have brought little response. Shortly after taking office in 1976, President Carter declared that America’s response to the energy crisis should be “the moral equivalent of war” and urged conservation. The following summer, Americans consumed more gasoline than ever before. At the beginning of this new century, people knew that global warming was under way—and were buying gas-slurping SUVs in record numbers. As we have seen many times in this book, attitudes sometimes fail to influence behavior. Knowing what is good does not necessarily lead to doing what is good. Still, most people do adhere to norms of social responsibil­ ity, reciprocity, equity, and keeping one’s commitments (Kerr, 1992). The problem is how to tap such feelings. One way is through the influence of a charismatic leader who inspires others to cooperate (De Cremer, 2002). Another way is by defining situations in ways that invoke cooperative norms. In one experiment, only a third of participants cooperated in a simulation labeled the “Wall Street Game.” Two-thirds did so when the same social dilemma was labeled the “Community Game” (Liberman & others, 2004). Communication can also activate altruistic norms. When permitted to communi­ cate, participants in laboratory games frequently appeal to the social-responsibility norm: “If you defect on the rest of us, you’re going to have to live with it for the rest of your life” (Dawes & others, 1977). So researcher Robyn Dawes (1980) and his associates gave participants a short sermon about group benefits, exploitation, and ethics. Then the participants played a dilemma game. The sermon worked: People chose to forgo immediate personal gain for the common good. (Recall, too, from Chapter 12, the disproportionate volunteerism and charitable contributions by people who regularly hear religious sermons.) Could such appeals work in large-scale dilemmas? In the 1960s struggle for civil rights, many marchers willingly agreed, for the sake of the larger group, to suffer harassment, beatings, and jail. In wartime, people make great personal sacrifices for the good of their group. As Winston Churchill said of the Battle of Britain, the actions of the Royal Air Force pilots were genuinely altruistic: A great many people owed a great deal to those who flew into battle knowing there was a high probability—70 per­ cent for those on a standard tour of duty—that they would not return (Levinson, 1950). To summarize, we can minimize destructive entrapment in social dilemmas by establishing rules that regulate self-serving behavior, by keeping groups small by enabling people to communicate, by changing payoffs to make cooperation more rewarding, and by invoking compelling altruistic norms. Competition Hostilities often arise when groups compete for scarce jobs, housing, or resources. When interests clash, conflict erupts—a phenomenon Chapter 9 identified as realistic group conflict. As one Algerian immigrant to France explained after Muslim youth rioted in 489Conflict and Peacemaking f Prpnch cities in the autumn of 2005, “There is no exit, no factories, no jobs for ■dozens of French c (c^inVmo 2005) ”We are the 99 percent EconomiclU- ^ Tilted te chirpy wTll s“^t prlstors in 2011: expressing their fjustice is overdue declared the Wail b P ^pleasure With 1 percent of invading his Turkish province in 1919. : Theystartedkiliingpeoplerightand^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and then I became mterested wLtevL science or specialization was ‘ After studying the social roots of savagery, Sherif introduced camp m “Parate buse^ an p ^^,5 Oklahoma’s Robb« s Cav^ State Park^to^^^^ in various activities-preparing ifying the good feeling, a ^ ^ the conflict. Near the first Grouo identity thus established, the stage u n m ” wVi#»n the groups (baseball games, ° ^ ^ tMs was win-lose competition. Theforth), both groups responded enthusiastically. 1 Ills V* spoils (medals, knives) would all go to the , ,,ene from boys marooned on an island. In Sh • • ^ it escalated to din- Chapter 13 Little-known fact: How did Sherif unobtrusively observe the boys without inhibiting their behavior? He became the camp maintenance man (Williams, 2002). Competition kindles conflict. Here, in Sherif’s Robber’s Cave experiment, one group of boys raids the bunkhouse of another. 490 Part Three “DO UNTO OTHERS 20% BETTER THAN YOU WOULD EXPECTTHEMTODO UNTO YOU, TO CORRECT FOR SUBJECTIVE ERROR.” —LINUS PAULING (1962) Social Relations after hearing tolerance-advocating messages, ingroup discussion often exacerh i dislike of the conflicting group (Paluck, 2010). All of this occurred without anv ? tural, physical, or economic differences between the two groups, and withal,”*’ who were their communiHes’ “cream of the crop.” Sherif noted that, had we the camp at that point, we would have concluded these “were wicked dishirh a Md vicious bunches of youngsters” (1966, p. 85). Actually, their evil behavior ‘ tnggered by an evil situation. Competition breeds such conflict, later research has shown, especially when i.i p^ple perceive that resources such as money, jobs, or power are limited and avaU- able on a zero-sum basis (others’ gain is one’s loss), and (b) a distinct outeroun stands out as a potential competitor (Esses & others, 2005). Thus, those who see immigrants as competing for their own jobs will tend to express negative attitudes toward immigrants and immigration. ^ Fortunately, as we will see, Sherif not only made strangers into enemies; he then also made the enemies into friends. Perceived Injustice “That’s i^air!” “What a ripoff!” “We deserve better!” Such comments typify conflicts bred by perceived injustice. But what is “justice”? According to some social-psychological theorists, people perceive justice as equity—the distribution of rewards in proportion to individuals’ contributions (Walster & others, 1978). If you and I have a relationship (employer-employee, teacher-student, husband-wife colleague-colleague), it is equitable if My outcomes _ Your outcomes My inputs Your inputs If you contribute more and benefit less than I do, you will feel exploited and irri- tated; I may feel exploitative and guilty. Chances are, though, that you will be more sensitive to the inequity than I will be (Greenberg, 1986; Messick & Sentis, 1979). We may agree with the equity principle’s definition of justice yet disagree on whetiier our relationship is equitable. If two people are colleagues, what will each consider a relevant input? The older person may favor basing pay on seniority, the other on current productivity. Given such a disagreement, whose definition is likely to prevail. Those with social power usually convince themselves and others that they deserve what they’re getting (Mikula, 1984). This has been called a “golden” rule: Whoever has the gold makes the rules. Critics argue that equity is not the only conceivable definition of justice. (Pause a moment: Can you imagine any other?) Edward Sampson (1975) argued that equity Uieonsts wrongly assume that the economic principles that guide Western, capital­ ist nations are umversal. Some noncapitalist cultures define justice not as equity but as equality or even fulfillment of need: “From each according to his abilities, to each accordmg to his needs” (Karl Marx). Compared with individualistic Americans, people socialized under the influence of collectivist cultures, such as China and ^dia, defme justice more as equality or need fulfillment (Hui & others, 1991 • Leung & Bond, 1984; Murphy-Berman others, 1984). On what basis should rewards be distributed? Merit? Equality? Need^ Some com­ bination of those? Political philosopher John Rawls (1971) invited us to consider a tuture m which our own place on the economic ladder is unknown. Which stan­ dard of justice would we prefer? Misperception Recall that conflict is a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals. Many conflicts contain but a small core of truly incompatible goals; the bigger problem is the misper­ ceptions of the other’s motives and goals. Hie Eagles and the Rattlers did indeed Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 491 have some genuinely incompatible aims. But their perceptions subjectively magni­ fied their differences (Figure 13.3). In earlier chapters we considered the seeds of such misperception: T • The self-serving bias leads individu- S’ als and groups to accept credit for I ’ their good deeds and shirk respon- sibility for bad deeds, r • A tendency to sc//-j«stf/y inclines 1^ people to deny the wrong of their I evil acts. (“You call that hitting? I hardly touched him!”) [■ • Thanks to the fundamental attribution error, each side sees the other’s hostility j as reflecting an evil disposition. \. • One then filters the information and interprets it to fit one’s preconceptions. \ • Groups frequently polarize these self-serving, self-justifying, biasing ?: tendencies. ‘ • One symptom of groupthink is the tendency to perceive one’s own group as ! r moral and strong, and the opposition as evil and weak. Acts of terrorism that S in most people’s eyes are despicable brutality are seen by others as “holy war.” [‘ • Indeed, the mere fact of being in a group triggers an ingroup bias. i • Negative stereotypes of the outgroup, once formed, are often resistant to con­ tradictory evidence. So it should not surprise us, though it should sober us, to discover that people in conflict—people everywhere—form distorted images of one another. Wherever in the world you live, was it not true that when your country was last at war it clothed itself in moral virtue? that it prepared for war by demonizing the enemy? that most of its people accepted their government’s case for war and rallied ’round its flag? Show social psychologists Ervin Staub and Daniel Bar-Tal (2003) a group in intrac­ table conflict and they will show you a group that • sees its own goals as supremely important. • takes pride in “us” and devalues “them.” • believes itself victimized. ■ • elevates patriotism, solidarity, and loyalty to their group s needs. • celebrates self-sacrifice and suppresses criticism. Although one side to a conflict may indeed be acting with greater moral vutue, the point is that enemy images are fairly predictable. Even the types of mispercep­ tion are intriguingly predictable. MIRROR-IMAGE PERCEPTIONS To a striking degree, the misperceptions of those in conflict are mutual. People in conflict attribute similar virtues to themselves and vices to the other. When the American psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner (1961) visited the Soviet Union in 1960 and conversed with many ordinary citizens in Russian, he was astonished to hear them saying the same things about America that Americans were saying about Russia. The Russians said that the U.S. government was militarily aggressive; that it exploited and deluded the American people; that in diplomacy, it was not to be trusted. “Slowly and painfully, it forced itself upon one that the Russians’ distorted picture of us was curiously similar to our view of them—a mirror image. Analyses of American and Russian perceptions by psychologists (Tobin & Eagles, 1992; White, 1984) and political scientists (Jervis, 1985) revealed that mirror-image FIGURE:: 13.3 Many conflicts contain a core of truly incompatible goals surrounded by a larger exterior of misperceptions. “AGGRESSION BREEDS PATRIOTISM, AND PATRIOTISM CURBS DISSENT.” —MAUREEN DOWD, 2003 492 Part Three Social Relations Self-confirming, mirror-image perceptions are a hallmark of intense conflict. mirror-image perceptions Reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict: for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive. perceptions persisted into the 1980s. The same action (patrolling the other’s coast with sellmg arms to smaller nations) seemed more hostile when they did it When two sides have clashing perceptions, at least one of the two is misperceiving the other. And when such misperceptions exist, noted Bronfenbrenner, “It is a psy­ chological phenomenon without parallel in the gravity of its consequences … for if IS characteristic of such images that they are self-confirming.” If A expects B to be hostile may treat B m such a way that B fulfills A’s expectations, thus beginning a vicious circle (Kennedy & Pronin, 2008). Morton Deutsch (1986) explained: You hear the false rumor that a friend is saying nasty things about you; you snub him; he then badmouths you, confirming your expectation. Similarly, if the policymakers of East and West believe that war is likely and either attempts to increase its military security vis-a-vis the other, the other’s response will justify the initial move. Negative mirror-image perceptions have been an obstacle to peace in many places: ^ ^ Both sides of the Arab-Israeli conflict insisted that “we” are motivated by our need to protect our security and our territory, whereas “they” want to obliter­ ate us and gobble up our land. “We” are the indigenous people here, “they” are the mvaders. “We” are the victims; “they” are the aggressors” (Bar-Tal, 2004; ^^^dsWeit, 1979; Kelman, 2007). Given such intense mistrust, negotiation is • At Northern Ireland’s University of Ulster, Catholic and Protestant students viewed videos of a Protestant attack at a Catholic funeral and a Catholic attack at a Protestant funeral (Hunter & others, 1991). Most students attrib­ uted the other side’s attack to “bloodthirsty” motives but its own side’s attack to retaliation or self-defense. • Terrorism is in the eye of the beholder. In the Middle East, a public opinion survey found 98 percent of Palestinians agreeing that the killing of 29 Pales­ tinians by an assault-rifle-bearing Israeli at a mosque constituted terrorism, and 82 percent disagreed that the killing of 21 Israeli youths by a Palestinian suicide-bombmg constituted terrorism (Kmglanski & Fishman, 2006) Israelis likewise have responded to violence with intensified perceptions of Palestinian evil intent (Bar-Tal, 2004). OULU Lonriicts, iiuies 1 luup z^imoarao (^uu4a), engage “a two-categ^iy of good people, like US, and of bad people, like THEM.” “In fact,” n4e Danit ahneman and Jonathan Renshon (200^, all the biases uncovered in 40 years of psv chological research are conducive to war. They “incline national leaders to exaggerat Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 493 the evil intentions of adversaries, to misjudge how adversaries perceive them, to he overly sanguine when hostilities start, and overly reluctant to make necessary con­ cessions in negotiations.” Opposing sides in a conflict tend to exaggerate their differences. On issues such as immigration and affirmative action, proponents aren’t as liberal and opponents aren’t as conservative as their adversaries suppose (Sherman & others, 2003). Opposing sides also tend to have a “bias blind spot,” notes Cynthia McPherson Frantz (2006). They see their own understandings as not biased by their liking or disliking for others; but those who disagree with them seem unfair and biased. John Chambers, Robert Baron, and Mary Inman (2006) confirmed misperceptions on issues related to abortion and politics. Partisans perceived exaggerated differ­ ences from their adversaries (who actually agreed with them more often than they supposed). From exaggerated perceptions of the other’s position arise culture wars. Ralph White (1996,1998) reports that the Serbs started the war in Bosnia partly out of an exaggerated fear of the relatively secularized Bosnian Muslims, whose beliefs they wrongly associated with Middle Eastern Islamic fundamentalism and fanati­ cal terrorism. Resolving conflict involves abandoning such exaggerated perceptions and coming to understand the other’s mind. But that isn’t easy, notes Robert Wright (2003): “Putting yourself in the shoes of people who do things you find abhorrent may be the hardest moral exercise there is.” Destructive mirror-image perceptions also operate in conflicts between small groups and between individuals. As we saw in the dilemma games, both parties may say, “We want to cooperate. But their refusal to cooperate forces us to react defen­ sively.” When Kermeth Thomas and Louis Pondy (1977) asked executives to describe a significant recent conflict, only 12 percent felt the other party was cooperative; 74 percent perceived themselves as cooperative. The typical executive explained that he or she had “suggested,” “informed,” and “recommended,” whereas the antagonist had “demanded,” “disagreed with everything I said,” and “refused.” Group conflicts are often fueled by an illusion that the enemy’s top leaders are evil but their people, though controlled and manipulated, are pro-us. This evil-leader- good people perception characterized Americans’ and Russians’ views of each other during the Cold War. The United States entered the Vietnam War believing that in areas dominated by the Communist Vietcong “terrorists,” many of the people were allies-in-waiting. As suppressed information later revealed, those beliefs were mere wishful thinking. In 2003 the United States began the Iraq War presuming the exis­ tence of “a vast underground network that would rise in support of coalition forces to assist security and law enforcement” (Phillips, 2003). Alas, the network didn’t materialize, and the resulting postwar security vacuum enabled looting, sabotage, persistent attacks on American forces, and increasing attacks from an insurgency determined to drive Western interests from the country. “THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ARE GOOD, BUT THE LEADERS ARE BAD.” -BAGHDAD GROCER ADUL GESAN AFTER 1998 AMERICAN BOMBING OF IRAQ SIMPLISTIC THINKING When tension rises—as happens during an international crisis—rational thinking becomes more difficult (Janis, 1989). Views of the enemy become more simplistic and stereotyped, and seat-of-the-pants judgments become more likely. Even the mere expectation of conflict can serve to freeze thinking and impede creative prob­ lem solving (Camevale & Probst, 1998). Social psychologist Philip Tetlock (1988) observed inflexible thinking when he analyzed the complexity of Russian and American rhetoric since 1945. During the Berlin blockade, the Korean War, and the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, political statements became simplified into stark, good-versus-bad terms. At other times—notably after Mikhail Gorbachev became the Soviet general secretary (Figure 13.4)—political statements acknowledged that each country’s motives are complex. Researchers have also analyzed political rhetoric preceding the outset of major wars, surprise military attacks. Middle Eastern conflicts, and revolu­ tions (Conway & others, 2001). In nearly every case, attacking leaders displayed 494 Part Three Social Relations FIGURE:: 13.4 Complexity of Official U.S. and Soviet Policy Statements, 1977-1986 Source:?rom Tetlock, 1988. Mean integrative complexity (complexity = not simplistic) Year increasingly simplistic we-are-good/they-are-bad thinking immediately prior to new” u IT”””‘typically preceded wh^n P r optimism was cLirmed when President Reagan in 1988 traveled to Moscow to sign the American Russian mtermediate-range nuclear force (INF) treaty, and then Gorbachev visited research CLOSE-UP Misperception and War Most research that I report in this book offers numeri­ cal data drawn from observations of people’s behav­ ior, cognitions, and attitudes as exhibited in laboratory experiments or in surveys. But there are other ways to do research. Some social psychologists, especially in Europe, analyze natural human discourse; they study written texts or spoken conversation to glimpse how people interpret and construct the events of their lives (Edwards & Potter, 2005). Others have analyzed human behavior in historical contexts, as did Irving Janis (1972) in exploring groupthink in historical fiascoes and Philip Tetlock (2005) in exploring the judgment failures of supposed political experts. In what was arguably social psychology’s longest career, Ralph K. White, legendary for his late 1930s studies of democratic versus autocratic leadership (with pioneering social psychologists Kurt Lewin and Ronald Lippitt), published in 2004—at age 97—a capstone article summarizing his earlier analyses (1968, 1984, 1986) of how misperceptions feed war. In reviewing 10 wars from the past century, White reported that each was marked by at least one of three mispercep­ tions: underestimating the strength of one’s enemy, ratJona//z/ng one’s own motives and behavior, and, especially, demonizing the enemy. Underestimating one’s adversary, he observed, embold- |: ened Hitler to attack Russia, Japan to attack the United i States, and the United States to enter the Korean and | Vietnam wars. And rationalization of one’s own actions and I demonization of the adversary are the hallmark of war. In f the early twenty-first century as the United States and Iraq i talked of war, each said the other was “evil.” To George I W Bush, Saddam Hussein was a “murderous tyrant” and a “madman” who threatened the civilized world with weap- ■ ons of mass destruction. To Iraq’s government, the Bush government was a “gang of evil” (Preston, 2002). | The truth need not lie midway between such clash- I ing perceptions. Yet “valid perception is an antidote to hate,” concluded White as he reflected on his lifetime ‘ as a peace psychologist. Empathy-accurately perceiv- ; ing the other’s thoughts and feelings—is “one of the most important factors for preventing war. .. . Empathy can help two or more nations avoid the dangers of misperception that lead to the wars most would prefer not to fight.” Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 495 I New York and told the United Nations that he would remove 500,000 Soviet troops ^ fixim Eastern Europe: ^ I would like to believe that our hopes will be matched by our joint effort to put an end I to an era of wars, confrontation and regional conflicts, to aggressions against nature, to I the terror of hunger and poverty as well as to political terrorism. This is our common goal and we can only reach it together. SHIFTING PERCEPTIONS If misperceptions accompany conflict, they should appear and disappear as con­ flicts wax and wane. And they do, with startling regularity. The same processes that create the enemy’s image can reverse that image when the enemy becomes an ally. Thus, the “bloodthirsty, cruel, treacherous, buck-toothed little Japs” of World War II soon became—in North American minds (Gallup, 1972) and in the media— our “intelligent, hard-working, self-disciplined, resourceful allies.” The Germans, who after two world wars were hated, then admired, and then again hated, were once again admired—apparently no longer plagued by what earlier was presumed to be cruelty in their national character. So long as Iraq was attacking unpopular Iran, even while using chemical weapons to massacre its own Kurds, many nations supported it. Our enemy’s enemy is our friend. When Iraq ended its war with Iran and invaded oil-rich Kuwait, Iraq’s behavior suddenly became “barbaric.” Images of our enemies change with amazing ease. The extent of misperceptions during conflict provides a chilling reminder that people need not be insane or abnormally malicious to form distorted images of their antagonists. When we experience conflict with another nation, another group, or simply a roommate or a parent, we readily misperceive our own motives as good and the other’s as evil. And just as readily, our antagonists form a mirror-image perception of us. So, with antagonists trapped in a social dilemma, competing for scarce resources, or perceiving injustice, the conflict continues until something enables both parties to peel away their misperceptions and work at reconciling their actual differences. Good advice, then, is this: When in conflict, do not assume that the other fails to share your values and morality. Rather, compare perceptions, assuming that the other is likely perceiving the situation differently. SUMMING UP: What Creates Conflict? • Whenever two or more people, groups, or nations interact, their perceived needs and goals may con­ flict. Many social dilemmas arise as people pursue individual self-interest to their collective detriment. Two laboratory games, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons, exemplify such dilemmas. In real life we can avoid such traps by establishing rules that regulate self-serving behav­ ior; by keeping social groups small so people feel responsibility for one another; by enabling com­ munication, thus reducing mistrust; by changing payoffs to make cooperation more rewarding; and by invoking altruistic norms. • When people compete for scarce resources, human relations often sink into prejudice and hostility. In his famous experiments, Muzafer Sherif found that win-lose competition quickly made strangers into enemies, triggering outright warfare even among normally upstanding boys. • Conflicts also arise when people feel unjustly treated. According to equity theory, people define justice as the distribution of rewards in proportion to one’s contributions. Conflicts occur when people disagree on the extent of their contributions and thus on the equity of their outcomes. • Conflicts frequently contain a small core of truly incompatible goals, surrounded by a thick layer of misperceptions of the adversary’s motives and goals. Often, conflicting parties have mirror-image perceptions. When both sides believe “We are peace- loving—they are hostile,” each may treat the other in ways that provoke confirmation of its expecta­ tions. International conflicts are sometimes also fed by an evil leader-good people illusion. 496 Part Three Social Relations “WE KNOW MORE ABOUT WAR THAN WE DO ABOUT PEACE—MORE ABOUT KILLING THAN WE KNOW ABOUT LIVING.” -GENERAL OMAR BRADLEY, 1893-1981, FORMER U.S. ARMY CHIEF OF STAFF HOW CAN PEACE BE ACHIEVED? Explain the processes that enable the achievement of peace. Although toxic forces can breed destructive conflict, we can harness other forces to bring conflict to a constructive resolution. What are these ingredients of peace and harmony? We have seen how conflicts are ignited by social traps, competition, perceived injustices, and misperceptions. Although the picture is grim, it is not hopeless. Sometimes closed fists become open arms as hostilities evolve into friendship. Social psychologists have focused on four strategies for helping enemies become comrades. We can remember these as the four Cs of peacemaking: contact, coopera­ tion, communication, and conciliation. Contact Might putting two conflicting individuals or groups into close contact enable them to know and like each other? Perhaps not: In Chapter 3, we saw how negative expectations can bias judgments and create self-fulfilling prophecies. When ten­ sions run high, contact may fuel a fight. But we also saw, in Chapter 11, that proximity—and the accompanying interac­ tion, anticipation of interaction, and mere exposure—boosts liking. In Chapter 4, we noted how blatant racial prejudice declined following desegregation, showing that attitudes follow behavior. If this social-psychological principle now seems obvi­ ous, remember: That’s how things usually seem after you know them. To the U.S. Supreme Court in 1896, the idea that desegregated behavior might reduce preju­ dicial attitudes was anything but obvious. What seemed obvious at the time was “that legislation is powerless to eradicate racial instincts” (Plessy v. Ferguson). DOES CONTACT PREDICT ATTITUDES? In general, contact predicts tolerance. In a painstakingly complete analysis, Linda Tropp and Thomas Pettigrew (2005a; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2008, 2011) assembled data from 516 studies of 250,555 people in 38 nations. In 94 percent of studies, increased contact predicted decreased prejudice. This is especially so for majority group attitudes toward minorities (Gibson & Claassen, 2010; Tropp & Pettigrew, 2005b). Newer studies confirm the correlation between contact and positive attitudes: • The more interracial contact South African Blacks and Whites have, the less prejudice they feel, and the more sympathetic their policy attitudes are to those of the other group (Dixon & others, 2007; Tredoux & Finchilescu, 2010). • The more friendly contact Blacks and Whites have with one another, the bet­ ter their attitudes toward one another—and toward other outgroups, such as Hispanics (Tausch & others, 2010). • The more contact straight people have with gays and lesbians, the more accepting they become (Smith & others, 2009). • The more contact Dutch adolescents have with Muslims, the more accepting of Muslims they are (Gonzalez & others, 2008). • Even vicarious indirect contact, via story reading or imagination, or through a friend’s having an outgroup friend, tends to reduce prejudice (Cameron & Rutland, 2006; Crisp & others, 2011; Turner & others, 2007a, 2007b, 2008, 2010). This indirect contact effect, also called “the extended-contact effect,” can spread more positive attitudes through a peer group (Christ & others, 2010). In the United States, segregation and expressed prejudice have diminished together since the 1960s. But was interracial contact the cause of these improved attitudes? Were those who actually experienced desegregation affected by it? Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 497 DOES DESEGREGATION IMPROVE RACIAL ATTITUDES? School desegregation has produced measurable benefits, such as leading more Blacks to attend and succeed in college (Stephan, 1988). Does desegregation of schools, neighborhoods, and workplaces also produce favorable social results? The evidence is mixed. On the one hand, many studies conducted during and shortly after desegrega­ tion found Whites’ attitudes toward Blacks improving markedly. Whether the peo­ ple were department store clerks and customers, merchant marines, government workers, police officers, neighbors, or students, racial contact led to diminished prejudice (Amir, 1969; Pettigrew, 1969). For example, near the end of World War II, the U.S. Army partially desegregated some of its rifle companies (Stouffer & others, 1949). When asked their opinions of such desegregation, 11 percent of the White soldiers in segregated companies approved. Of those in desegregated companies, 60 percent approved. They exhibited “system justification”—the human tendency to approve the way things are. When Morton Deutsch and Mary Collins (1951) took advantage of a made to-order natural experiment, they observed similar results. In accord with state law. New York City desegregated its public housing units; it assigned families to apartments without regard to race. In a similar development across the river in Newark, New Jersey, Blacks and Whites were assigned to separate buildings. When surveyed. White women in the desegregated development were far more likely to favor interracial housing and to say their attitudes toward Blacks had improved. Exaggerated stereotypes had wilted in the face of reality. As one woman put it, “I’ve really come to like it. 1 see they’re just as human as we are.” Such findings influenced the Supreme Court’s 1954 decision to desegregate schools and helped fuel the 1960s civil rights movement (Pettigrew, 1986,2004). Yet initial studies of the effects of school desegregation were less encouraging. After reviewing all the available studies, Walter Stephan (1986) concluded that racial atti­ tudes had been little affected by desegregation. For Blacks, the noticeable effect of desegregated schooling was less on attitudes than on their increased likelihood of attending integrated (or predominantly White) colleges, living in integrated neigh­ borhoods, and working in integrated settings. Thus, we can see that sometimes desegregation improves racial attitudes, and sometimes—especially when there is anxiety or perceived threat (Pettigrew, 2004)—it doesn’t. Such disagreements excite the scientist’s detective spirit. What explains the difference? So far, we’ve been lumping all kinds of desegregation together. Actual desegregation occurs in many ways and under vastly different conditions. WHEN DOES DESEGREGATION IMPROVE RACIAL ATTITUDES? Given that “mere exposure” can produce liking (Chapter 11), might exposure to other-race faces produce increased liking for other-race strangers? Indeed yes, Leslie Zebrowitz and her colleagues (2008) discovered, when exposing White par­ ticipants to Asian and Black faces. Might the frequency of interracial contact also be a factor? Indeed it seems to be. Researchers have gone into dozens of desegre­ gated schools and observed with whom children of a given race eat, talk, and loiter. Race influences contact. Whites disproportionately associate with Whites, Blacks with Blacks (Schofield, 1982, 1986). In one study of Dartmouth University e-mail exchanges. Black students, though only 7 percent of students, sent 44 percent of their e-mails to other Black students (Sacerdote & Marmaros, 2005). The same self-imposed segregation was evident in a South African desegregated beach, as John Dixon and Kevin Durrheim (2003) discovered when they recorded the location of Black, White, and Indian beachgoers one midsummer (Decem­ ber 30th) afternoon (Figure 13.5). Desegregated neighborhoods, cafeterias, and 498 Part Three Social Relations FIGURE :: 13.5 Desegregation Needn’t Mean Contact After this Scottburgh, South Africa, beach became “open” and desegregated in the new South Africa, Blacks (represented by red dots), Whites (blue dots), and Indians (yellow dots) tended to cluster with their own race. Source: From Dixon & Durrheim, 2003. restaurants, too, may fail to produce integrated interactions (Clack & others, 2005; Dixon & others, 2005a, 2005b). “Why are all the Black kids sitting together?” people may wonder (a question that could as easily be asked of the White kids). One natu­ ralistic study observed 119 class sessions of 26 University of Cape Town tutorial groups, which averaged 6 Black and 10 White students per group (Alexander & Tredoux, 2010). On average, the researchers calculated, 71 percent of Black students would have needed to change seats to achieve a fully integrated seating pattern. In one study that tracked the attitudes of more than 1,600 European students, over time, contact did serve to reduce prejudice. But prejudice also minimized con­ tact (Binder & others, 2009). Anxiety as well as prejudice helps explain why par­ ticipants in interracial relationships (when students are paired as roommates or as partners in an experiment) may engage in less intimate self-disclosure than those in same-race relationships (Johnson & others, 2009; Trail & others, 2009). Efforts to facilitate contact sometimes help, but sometimes fall flat. “We had one day when some of the Protestant schools came over,” explained one Catholic youngster after a Northern Ireland school exchange (Cairns & Hewstone, 2002). “It was supposed to be like … mixing, but there was very little mixing. It wasn’t because we didn’t want to; it was just really awkward.” The lack of mixing stems partly from “pluralistic ignorance.” Many Whites and Blacks say they would like more contact but misperceive that the other does not reciprocate their feelings. (See “Research Close-Up; Relationships That Might Have Been.”) FRIENDSHIP The encouraging older studies of store clerks, soldiers, and hous­ ing project neighbors involved considerable interracial contact, more than enough to reduce the anxiety that marks initial intergroup contact. Other studies show similar benefits when they involve prolonged, personal contact—between Black and White prison inmates, between Black and White girls in an interracial sum­ mer camp, between Black and White university roommates, and between Black, Colored, and White South Africans (Clore & others, 1978; Foley, 1976; Holtman & others, 2005; Van Laar & others, 2005). Among American students who have Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 499 research CLOSE UP Relationships That Might Have Been Perhaps you can recall a time when you really would have liked to reach out to someone. Maybe it was someone to whom you felt attracted. But doubting that your feel­ ings were reciprocated, you didn’t risk rebuff. Or maybe it was someone of another race whom you wanted to welcome to the open seat at your dining hall or library table. But you worried that the person might be wary of sitting with you. It’s likely that on some such occasions the other person actually reciprocated your wish to con­ nect but assumed that your distance signified indiffer­ ence or even prejudice. Alas, thanks to what Chapter 8 called “pluralistic ignorance”—shared false impressions of another’s feelings—you passed like ships in the night. Studies by University of Manitoba psychologist Jacquie Vorauer (2001,2005; Vorauer& Sakamoto, 2006) illuminate this phenomenon. In their new relationships, people often overestimate the transparency of their feelings, Vorauer reports. Presuming that their feelings are leaking out, they experience the “illusion of transparency (Chapter 2). Thus, they may assume that their body language conveys their romantic interest, when actually the intended recipi­ ent never gets the message. If the other person shares the positive feelings, and is similarly overestimating his or her own transparency, then the possibility of a relationship is quenched. The same phenomenon, Vorauer reports, often occurs with low-prejudice people who would love more friend­ ships with those outside their racial or social group. If Whites presume that Blacks think them prejudiced, and I if Blacks presume that Whites stereotype them, both will I feel anxious about making the first move. Such anxiety is i “a central factor” in South Africa’s “continuing informal I segregation,” reports Gillian Finchilescu (2CX)5). Seeking to I replicate and extend Vorauer’s work, Nicole Shelton and [ Jennifer Richeson (2005; Richeson & Shelton, 2012) under­ took a coordinated series of surveys and behavioral tests. In their first study. University of Massachusetts White students viewed themselves as having more-than-average interest in cross-racial contacts and friendships, and they perceived White students in general as more eager for such than were Black students. Black students had mirror- image views—seeing themselves as more eager for such than were White students. “I want to have friendships across racial lines,” thought the typical student. But those in the other racial group don’t share my desire.” Would this pluralistic ignorance generalize to a spe­ cific setting? To find out, Shelton and Richeson’s second study asked White Princeton students to imagine how they would react upon entering their dining hall and ……………….. noticing several Black (or White) “students who live near you sitting together.” How interested would you be in joining them? And how likely is it that one of them would beckon you to join them? Again, Whites believed that they more than those of the other race would be inter­ ested in the contact. And how do people explain failures to make interra­ cial contact? In their third study, Shelton and Richeson invited Princeton White and Black students to contem­ plate a dining hall situation in which they notice a table with familiar-looking students of the other race, but nei­ ther they nor the seated students reach out to the other. The study participants, regardless of race, attributed their own inaction in such a situation primarily to fear of rejection, and more often attributed the seated students’ inaction to lack of interest. In a fourth study at Dartmouth University, Shelton and Richeson replicated this study with different instructions but similar results. Would this pluralistic ignorance phenomenon extend to other real-life settings, and to contact with a single other person? In Study 5, Shelton and Richeson invited Princeton students, both Black and White, to a study of “friendship formation.” After participants had filled out some background information, the experimenter took their picture, attached it to background information, ostensibly took it to the room of a supposed fellow participant, and then returned with the other person’s sheet and photo- showing a person of the same sex but the other race. The participants were then asked, “To what extent are you con­ cerned about being accepted by the other participant?” and “How likely is it that the other person won’t want you as a friend?” Regardless of their race, the participants guessed that they, more than the other-race fellow participant, were interested in friendship but worried about rejection. Do these social misperceptions constrain actual inter­ racial contact? In a sixth study, Shelton and Richeson confirmed that White Princeton students who were most prone to pluralistic ignorance—to presuming that they feared interracial rejection more than did Black students—were also the most likely to experience dimin­ ishing cross-racial contacts in the ensuing seven weeks. Vorauer, Shelton, and Richeson are not contend­ ing that misperceptions alone impede romances and cross-racial friendships. But misperceptions do restrain people from risking an overture. Understanding this phenomenon—recognizing that others’ coolness may actually reflect motives and feelings similar to our own- may help us reach out to others, and sometimes to trans­ form potential friendships into real ones. 500 Part Three Social Relations THE inside STORY ‘ : /t’ Nicole Shelton and Jennifer Richeson on Cross-Racial Friendships During the initial stages of our collaboration, we spent time simply listening to each other talk about the stress associated with being assistant professors. We noticed that both White and ethnic minority students in our classes often indicated that they genuinely wanted to interact with people outside of their ethnic group but were afraid that they would not be accepted. However, they did not think people of other ethnic groups had the same fears; they assumed that members of other groups simply did not want to connect. This sounded very much like Dale Miller’s work on pluralistic ignorance. Over the course of a few weeks, we designed a series of studies to explore plu­ ralistic ignorance in the context of interracial interactions. Since the publication of our article, we have had researchers tell us that we should use our work in new student orientation sessions in order to reduce students’ fears about reaching across racial lines. We are delighted that when we present this work in our courses, students of all racial backgrounds tell us that it indeed has opened their eyes about making the first move to develop inter­ racial friendships. Nicole Shelton Princeton University Jennifer Richeson Northwestern University Studied in Germany or in Britain, the more their contact with host country people, the more positive their attitudes (Stangor & others, 1996). Exchange students’ hosts also are changed by the experience; they become more likely to see things from the other visitor culture’s perspective (Vollhardt, 2010). In experiments, contact with someone of another race who acts positively (warm and relaxed) makes their race less salient—less likely to be noted and commented on than when their behavior is distant and tense (Paolini & others, 2010). Those who form friendships with outgroup members develop more positive attitudes toward the outgroup (Page-Gould & others, 2010; Pettigrew &: Tropp, 2000). It’s not just head knowledge of other people that matters; it’s also the emotional ties that form with intimate friendships and interracial roommate pairings that serve to reduce anxiety and increase empathy (Barlow & others, 2009; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2000, 2011; Shook & Fazio, 2008). For initially intolerant people, the anxiety-reducing effect of contact is especially strong (Hodson, 2011). The diminishing anxiety that accompanies friendly outgroup interactions is a biological event: It is measurable as decreased stress hormone reactivity in cross­ ethnic contexts (Page-Gould & others, 2008). “Group salience” (visibility) also helps bridge divides between people. If you forever think of that friend solely as an individual, your affective ties may not generalize to other members of the friend’s group (Miller, 2002). Ideally, then, we should form trusting friendships across group lines but also recognize that the friend represents those in another group—with whom we turn out to have much in common (Brown & others, 2007). We are especially likely to befriend dissimilar people when their outgroup iden­ tity is initially minimized. If our liking for our new friends is then to generalize to others, their group identity must at some point become salient. So, to reduce preju­ dice and conflict, we had best initially minimize group diversity, then acknowledge it, then transcend it. Surveys of nearly 4,000 Europeans reveal that friendship is a key to success­ ful contact: If you have a minority group friend, you become much more likely to express sympathy and support for the friend’s group, and even somewhat more 501Conflict and Peacemaking support for immigration by that group. It’s true of West Geimans attitudes toward TurL, French people’s attitudes toward Asians and North Africans Netherland ers’ attitudes toward Surinamers and Turks, British attitudes toward West Indians and Asians, and Northern Ireland Protestants’ and Catholics’ attitudes toward eac other (Brown & others, 1999; Hamberger & Hewstone, 1997; Paolmi & others, 2004, Pettigrew, 1997). EOUAL-STATUS CONTACT The social psychologists who advocated desegre­ gation never claimed that all contact would improve attitudes. They expected poor results when contacts were competitive, unsupported by (Pettigrew, 1988; Stephan, 1987). Before 1954 many prejudiced Whites had frequent contacts with Blacks—as shoeshine men and domestic workers As we saw m C ap- ter 9, such unequal contacts breed attitudes that merely justify inequality. So it’s important that the contact be equal-status contact, like that between the store clerks, the soldiers, the neighbors, the prisoners, and the suiter In colleges and universities, informal interactions enabled by classroom ethn diversity pay divideirds for all students, report University of ^ntem7 Patricia Gurin and colleagues from national collegiate surveys (2002). Such inte tions tend to be intellectually growth-promoting and to difference. Such findings informed a U.S. Supreme Court 2003 decision that rac diversity is a compelling interest of higher education and may be a criterion m admissions. Although equal-status contact can help, it is sometimes not enough. It didn help when Muzafer Sherif stopped the Eagles versus Rattlers compehtion and bro g the groups together for noncompetitive activities, such as watchmg movies, sho tag off fimwoAs, arrd eating. By that time, their hostility -s so strong that mere contact only provided opportunities for taunts and attacks. When an Eagle was dumped b/a Rattler, his fellow Eagles urged him to “brush off the dta.” Desegre- gating the two groups hardly promoted their social integration.^ Sven entrenched host4 what can a peacemaker do? Think back to the suc­ cessful and the unsuccessful desegregation efforts. The army s racial companies didn’t just bring Blacks and Whites into equal-status contact, it ma them interdependent. Together, they were fighting a common enemy, stri g Dofs^thars^glest a second factor that predicts whether the effect of desegre­ gation will be favorable? Does competitive contact divide and cooperative contac Lte? Consider what happens to people who together face a ^ ment. In conflicts at all levels, from couples to rival teams to nations, shared thre and common goals breed unity. COMMON EXTERNAL THREATS BUILD COHESIVENESS Together with others, have you ever been caught in a blizzard, punished by a teacher, or persecuted and ridiculed because of your social, racial or rd’g’ou® ‘^en­ tity? If so, you may recall feeling close to those with whom you shared *6 Predica- mLt Perhaps previous social barriers were dropped as you helped one anothe dig out of the sLw or struggled to cope with your common more extreme crises, such as a bombing, also often repor a spirit of cooperation and solidarity rather than all-for-themselves pamc (Drury & others, 2009). Such friendliness is common among those who experience a shared tteeatjolm Lanzetta (1955) observed this when he put four-man groups of naval ROTC cadets to work on problem-solving tasks and then began informmg them that their answers were wrong, their productivity mexcusably ow, g pid. Other groups did not receive this harassment. Lanzetta observed that the gro p Chapter 13 equal-status contact Contact on an equal basis. Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those of equal status. Thus, to reduce prejudice, interracial contact should idealy be between persons equal in status. “I COULDN’T HELP BUT SAY TO [MR. GORBACHEV), JUST THINK HOW EASY HIS TASK AND MINE MIGHT BE IN THESE MEETINGS THAT WE HELD IF SUDDENLY THERE WAS A THREAT TO THIS WORLD FROM SOME OTHER SPECIES FROM ANOTHER PLANET. [WE’D] FIND OUT ONCE AND FOR ALL THAT WE REALLY ARE ALL HUMAN BEINGS HERE ON THIS EARTH TOGETHER.” —RONALD REAGAN, DECEMBERS 1985, SPEECH 502 Part Three Social Relations H’lV sfreiken! Shared predicaments trigger cooperation, as these Walmart workers on strike in Germany demonstrate. members under duress became friendlier to one another more cooperative, less argumentative, less competitive Thev were in it together. And the result was a cohesive spirit. ^ Having a common enemy unified the groups of competing boys m Sherif’s camping experiments—and in many subs^ quent experiments (Dion, 1979). Just being reminded of an out­ group (say, a rival school) heightens people’s responsiveness to their own group (Wilder & Shapiro, 1984). When keenly conscious of who “they” are, we also know who “we” are. ^ When facing a well-defined external threat during war­ time, we-feeling soars. The membership of civic organizations mushrooms (Putnam, 2000). Shared threats also produce a pditical ‘rally ’round the flag” effect (Lambert & others, 2010) After 9/11, “old racial antagonisms… dissolved,” reported the New YorkTimes (Sengupta, 2001). “I just thought of myself as Black, said 18-year-old Louis Johnson, reflecting on life before 9/11. “But now I feel like Tm an American, more than A 4.U £n /XT ^ divorce rates dropped in the aftemath of 9/11 (Hansel & others, 2011). One sampling of conversation 0^9/11, and aiiother of New York Mayor Giuliani’s press conferences before and after 9/11 found a doubled rate of the word “we” (Liehr & others, 2004; Pennebaker & Lay, 2002). ratings reflected this threat-bred spirit of oresTdent P^’^^ident of 9/10 had become the halted L hfs t ^ 1 hate us.” Thereaf- (Hgure 13 6)^* gradually declined but then jumped again as the war in Iraq began FIGURE :: 13.6 External Threats Breed Internal Unity As the ups and downs of President George Bush’s approval ratings illustrate, national conflicts mold public attitudes (Gallup, 2006). 503Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 Even just imagining or fearing the extinction of one’s group often serves to strengthen ingroup solidarity (Wohl & others, 2010). Leaders may therefore create a threatening external enemy as a technique for building group cohesiveness. George Orwell’s novel 1984 illustrates the tactic: The leader of the protagonist nation uses border conflicts with the other two major powers to lessen internal strife. From time to time the enemy shifts, but there is always an enemy. Indeed, the nation seems to need an enemy. For the world, for a nation, for a group, having a common enemy is powerfully unifying. Thus, we can expect that Protestant-Cafiiolic religious differ­ ences that feel great in Northern Ireland or South America will feel more negligible to those living under Islamic regimes. Likewise, Sunni and Shia Islamic differences that feel great in Iraq will not seem so great to Muslims in countries where both must cope with anti-Muslim attitudes. Might the world likewise find unity if facing a common enemy? On September 21, 1987, President Ronald Reagan observed, “In our obsession with antagonisms of the moment, we often forget how much unites all the members of humanity. Per­ haps we need some outside, universal threat to recognize this common bond.” Two decades later, A1 Gore (2007) agreed, suggesting that, with the specter of climate change, “We—all of us—now face a universal threat. Though it is not from outside this world, it is nevertheless cosmic in scale.” “THERE’S AN ENEMY OUT THERE.” -GEORGE W. BUSH, 2005 focus ON Why Do We Care Who Wins? Why, for sports fans everywhere, does it matter who wins? Why does it matter to Bostonians whether two dozen mul­ timillionaire temporary Red Sox employees, most born in other states or countries, win the World Series? During the annual NCAA basketball “March Madness,” why do per­ fectly normal adults become insanely supportive of their team, and depressed when it loses? And why for that ulti­ mate sporting event. World Cup Football, do soccer fans worldwide dream of their country victorious? Theory and evidence indicate that the roots of rivalry run deep. There’s something primal at work when the crowd erupts as the two rivals take the floor for a basketball game. There’s something tribal at work during the ensuing two hours of passion, all in response to the ups and downs ■I of a mere orange leather sphere. Our ancestors, living in a world where neighboring tribes occasionally raided and pillaged one another’s camps, knew that there was safety in solidarity. (Those who didn’t band together left fewer descendants.) Whether hunting, defending, or attacking, more hands were better than two. Dividing the world into “us” and “them” entails significant costs, such as racism and war, but also provides the benefits of communal soli­ darity. To identify us and them, our ancestors—not so far removed from today’s rabid fans—dressed or painted themselves in group-specific costumes and colors. Sports and warfare, notes evolutionary psychologist Benjamin Winegard (2010), are mostly done by males associated with geographical areas and wearing group-identifying uniforms. Both use war-relevant skills (running, tackling, throwing). And both offer rewards to the victors. As social animals, we live in groups, cheer on our groups, kill for our groups, die for our groups. We also define ourselves by our groups. Our self-concept—our sense of who we are—consists not only of our personal attributes and attitudes but also of our social identity. Our social identities—our knowing who “we” are—strengthens self-concept and pride, especially when perceiving that “we” are superior. Lacking a positive individual identity, many youths find pride, power, and identity in gangs. Many patriots define themselves by their national identities. The group definition of who we are also implies who we are not. Many social-psychological experiments reveal that being formed into groups—even arbitrary groups—promotes ingroup bias. Cluster people into groups defined by nothing more than their birth date or even the last digit of their driver’s license and they’ll feel a certain kinship with their number mates, and will show them favoritism. So strong is our group consciousness that “we” seem better than “they” even when “we” and “they” are defined randomly. As post-9/11 America illustrates, group solidarity soars when people face a common enemy. As Muzafer Sherif’s Robber’s Camp experiment vividly demon­ strated, competition creates enemies. Fueled by com­ petition and unleashed by the anonymity of a crowd, passions can culminate in sport’s worst moments—fans taunting opponents, screaming at umpires, even pelting referees with beer bottles. Group identification soars further with success. Fans find self-respect by their personal achievements but (cont/nued) 504 Part Three Social Relations also, in at least small measure, by their association with the victorious athletes when their team wins. Queried after a big football victory, university students commonly report that “we won” (Cialdini & others, 1976). As we noted in Chapter 9, they bask in reflected glory. Asked the outcome after a defeat, students more often dis­ tance themselves from the team by saying, “They lost.” Ironically, we often reserve our most intense passions for rivals most similar to us. Freud long ago recognized that animosities formed around small differences: “Of two neighbouring towns, each is the other’s most jealous rival; every little canton looks down upon the others with contempt. Closely related races keep one another at arm’s length; the South German cannot endure the North German, the Englishman casts every kind of aspersion upon the Scot, the Spaniard despises the Portuguese.” As an occasional resident of Scotland, I’ve witnessed many examples of the Xenophobe’s Guide to the Scots observation—that Scots divide non-Scots “into two main groups: (1) The English; (2) The Rest.” As rabid Chicago Cubs fans are happy if either the Cubs win or the White Sox lose, so ardent New Zealand soccer fans root for New Zealand and whoever is playing Australia (Halberstadt & others, 2006). Rabid fans of Scottish soccer likewise rejoice in either a Scotland victory or an England defeat. “Phew! They Lost,” rejoiced one Scottish tabloid front­ page headline after England’s 1996 Euro Cup defeat—by Germany, no less. To a sports fan, few things are so sweet as an archrival’s misfortune. Both a rival’s failure and a favored team’s success activate pleasure-associated brain areas (Cikara & others, 2011). Numerical minorities, such as the Scots in Britain, are especially conscious of their social identities. The 5 million Scots are more conscious of their national iden­ tity vis-a-vis the neighboring 51 million English than vice versa. Likewise, the 4 million New Zealanders are more conscious of their identity vis-a-vis the 23 million Australians, and they are more likely to root for Australia’s sports opponents (Halberstadt & others, 2006). Group identity feeds, and is fed by, competition. superordinate goal A shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort: a goal that overrides people’s differences from one another. SUPERORDINATE GOALS FOSTER COOPERATION Closely related to the unifying power of an external threat is the unifying power of superordinate goals, goals that unite all in a group and require cooperative effort. To promote harmony among his warring campers, Sherif introduced such goals. He created a problem with the camp water supply, necessitating both groups’ cooperation to restore the water. Given an opportunity to rent a movie, one expen­ sive enough to require the joint resources of the two groups, they again cooperated. When a truck “broke down” on a camp excursion, a staff member casually left the tug-of-war rope nearby, prompting one boy to suggest that they all pull the truck to get it started. When it started, a backslapping celebration ensued over their victori­ ous “tug-of-war against the truck.” After working together to achieve such superordinate goals, the boys ate together and enjoyed themselves around a campfire. Friendships sprouted across group lines. Hostilities plummeted (Figure 13.7). On the last day, the boys decided to travel home together on one bus. During the trip they no longer sat by groups. As the bus approached Oklahoma City and home, they, as one, spontaneously sang “Oklahoma” and then bade their friends farewell. With isolation and competition, Sherif made strangers into bitter enemies. With superordinate goals, he made enemies into friends. Are Sherif’s experiments mere child’s play? Or can pulling together to achieve superordinate goals be similarly beneficial with adults in conflict? Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1979) wondered. So in a series of two-week experiments involving more than 1,000 executives in 150 different groups, they re-created the essential features of the situation experienced by the Rattlers and the Eagles. Each group first Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 505 Ratings of outgroup, percent totally unfavorable FIGURE :: 13.7 After competition, the Eagles and the Rattlers rated each other unfavorably. After they worked cooperatively to achieve superordinate goals, hostility dropped sharply. 5ou/‘ce:Data from Sherif, 1966, p.84. engaged in activities by itself, then competed with another group, and then cooper­ ated with the other group in working toward jointly chosen superordinate goals. Their results provided “unequivocal evidence that adult reactions parallel those of Sherif’s younger subjects.” Extending those findings, John Dovidio, Samuel Gaertner, and their collaborators (2005, 2009) report that working cooperatively has especially favorable effects under conditions that lead people to define a new, inclusive group that dissolves their for­ mer subgroups. Old feelings of bias against another group diminish when members of the two groups sit alternately around a table (rather than on opposite sides), give their new group a single name, and then work together under conditions that fos­ ter a good mood. “Us” and “them” become “we.” To combat Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II, the United States and the former USSR, along with other nations, formed one united group named the Allies. So long as the superordinate goal of defeating a common enemy lasted, so did supportive U.S. attitudes toward the Russians. Economic interdependence through international trade also motivates peace. “Where goods cross frontiers, armies won’t,” notes Michael Shermer (2006). With so much of China’s economy now interwoven with Western economies, their economic interdependence diminishes the likelihood of war between China and the West. The cooperative efforts by the Rattlers and the Eagles ended in success. Would the same harmony have emerged if the water had remained off, the movie unaffordable, the truck still stalled? Likely not. In experiments with Univer­ sity of Virginia students, Stephen Worchel and his associ­ ates (1977, 1978, 1980) confirmed that successful cooperation between two groups boosts their attraction for each other. If previously conflicting groups fail in a cooperative effort, how­ ever, and if conditions allow them to attribute their failure to each other, the conflict may worsen. Sherif’s groups were already feeling hostile to each other. Thus, failure to raise sufficient funds for the movie might have been attributed to one group’s “stinginess” and “selfishness.” That would have exacerbated rather than alleviated their conflict. Unity is fed Promoting “common ingroup identity.” The banning of gang colors and the common European practice of school uniforms—an increasing trend in the United States, as 506 Part Three Interracial cooperation—on athletic teams, in class projects and extracurricular activities—melts differences and improves racial attitudes. White teen athletes who play cooperative team sports (such as basketball) with Black teammates express more liking and support for Blacks than do their counter­ parts involved in individual sports (such as wrestling) (Brown & others, 2003). Social Relations COOPERATIVE LEARNING IMPROVES RACIAL ATTITUDES So far we have noted the modest social benefits of desegregation if unaccompanied by the emotional bonds of friendship and by equal-status relationships. And we have noted the dramatic social benefits of successful, cooperative contacts between members of rival groups. Several research teams therefore wondered: Without compromising academic achievement, could we promote interracial friendships by replacing competitive learning situations with cooperative ones? Given the diver­ sity of their methods—all involving students on integrated study teams, sometimes m competition with other teams—the results are striking and heartening. Are students who participate in existing cooperative activities, such as interracial athletic teams and class projects, less prejudiced? In one experiment. White youth on two- to three-week Outward Bound expeditions (involving intimate contact and cooperation) expressed improved attitudes toward Blacks a month after the expedi­ tion if they had been randomly assigned to an interracial expedition group (Green & Wong, 2008). Robert Slavin and Nancy Madden (1979) analyzed survey data from 2,400 stu­ dents in 71 American high schools and found similarly encouraging results. Those of different races who play and work together are more likely to report having friends of another race and to express positive racial attitudes. Charles Green and his colleagues (1988) confirmed this in a study of 3,200 Florida middle-school stu­ dents. Compared with students at traditional, competitive schools, those at schools with interracial ‘Teaming teams” had more positive racial attitudes. From such correlational findings, can we conclude that cooperative interracial activity improves racial attitudes? The way to find out is to experiment. Randomly designate some students, but not others, to work together in racially mixed groups. Slavin (1985; Slavin & others, 2003, 2009) and his colleagues divided classes into interracial teams, each composed of four or five students from all achievement lev­ els. Team members sat together, studied a variety of subjects together, and at the end of each week competed with the other teams in a class tournament. All members contributed to their team’s score by doing well, sometimes by competing with other students whose recent achievements were similar to their own, sometimes by com­ peting with their own previous scores. Everyone had a chance to succeed. More­ over, team members were motivated to help one another prepare for the weekly tournament by drilling each other on fractions, spelling, or historical events— whatever was the next event. Rather than isolating students from one another, team competition brought them into closer contact and drew out mutual support. Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 507 Cooperation and peace. Researchers have identified more than 40 peaceful societies—societies v/here people live with no, or virtually no, recorded instances of violence. An analysis of 25 of these societies, including the Amish shown here, reveals that most base their worldviews on cooperation rather than competition (Bonta,1997). Another research team, led by Elliot Aronson (2004; Aronson & Gonzalez, 1988), elicited similar group cooperation with a “jigsaw” technique. In experiments in Texas and California elementary schools, the researchers assigned children to racially and academically diverse 6-member groups. The subject was then divided into six parts, with each student becoming the expert on his or her part. In a unit on Chile, one student might be the expert on Chile’s history, another on its geography, another on its culture. First, the various “historians,” “geographers,” and so forth got together to master their material. Then they returned to the home groups to teach it to their classmates. Each group member held, so to speak, a piece of the jigsaw. Self-confident students therefore had to listen to and learn from reticent stu­ dents who, in turn, soon realized they had something important to offer their peers. Other research teams—led by David Johnson and Roger Johnson (1987, 2003, 2004, 2010) at the University of Miimesota, Elizabeth Cohen (1980) at Stanford Univer­ sity, Shlomo Sharan and Yael Sharan (1976,1994) at Tel Aviv University, and Stuart Cook (1985) at the University of Colorado—devised additional methods for cooper­ ative learning. Studies (148 of them across eleven countries) show that adolescents, too, have more positive peer relationships and may even achieve more when work­ ing cooperatively rather than competitively (Roseth & others, 2008). What can we conclude from all this research? With cooperative learning, students learn not only the material but other lessons. Cooperative learning, said Slavin and Cooper (1999), promotes “the academic achievement of all students while simulta­ neously improving intergroup relahons.” Aronson reported that “children in the interdependent, jigsaw classrooms grow to like each other better, develop a greater liking for school, and develop greater self-esteem than children in traditional classrooms” (1980, p. 232). Cross-racial friendships also begin to blossom. The exam scores of minority students improve (perhaps because academic achievement is now peer supported). After the experiments are over, many teachers continue using cooperative learning (D. W. Johnson & others, 1981; Slavin, 1990). “It is clear,” wrote race-relations expert John McConahay (1981), that cooperative learning “is the most effective practice for improving race relations in desegregated schools that we know of to date.” Should we have “known it all along”? At the time of the 1954 Supreme Court decision, Gordon Allport spoke for many social psychologists in predicting that “Prejudice… may be reduced by equal status contact between majority and minority “THIS WAS TRULY AN EXCITING EVENT. MY STUDENTS AND I HAD FOUND A WAY TO MAKE DESEGREGATION WORK THE WAY IT WAS INTENDED TO WORK!” -ELLIOT ARONSON, “DRIFTING MY OWN WAY.” 2003 508 Part Three Social Relations groups in the pursuit of common goals” (1954, p. 281). Cooperative learning experi­ ments confirmed Allport’s insight, making Robert Slavin and his colleagues (1985, 2003) optimistic: “Thirty years after Allport laid out the basic principles operational­ ized in cooperative learning methods, we finally have practical, proven methods for implementing contact theory in the desegregated classroom…. Research on coopera­ tive learning is one of the greatest success stories in the history of educational research.” focus ON Branch Rickey, Jackie Robinson, and the integration of Baseball On April 10, 1947, a nineteen-word announcement forever changed the face of baseball and put social-psychological principles to the test: “The Brooklyn Dodgers today pur­ chased the contract of Jackie Roosevelt Robinson from the Montreal Royals, He will report immediately.” Five days later, Robinson became the first African American since 1887 to play major league baseball. In the fall, Dodger fans realized their dreams of going to the World Series. Robinson, after enduring racial taunts, beanballs, and spikes, was voted Sporting News rookie of the year, and in a poll finished second to Bing Crosby as the most popular man in America, Baseball’s racial barrier was forever broken. Motivated by both his Methodist morality and a drive for baseball success. Major League baseball executive Branch Rickey had been planning the move for some time, report social psychologists Anthony Pratkanis and Marlene Turner (1994a, 1994b). Three years earlier, Rickey had been asked by the sociologist-chair of the Mayor’s Committee on Unity to desegregate his team. His response was to ask for time (so the hiring would not be attributed to pressure) and for advice on how best to do it. In 1945 Rickey was the only owner voting against keeping Blacks out of baseball. In 1947 he made his move using these principles identified by Pratkanis and Turner: • Create a perception that change is inevitable. Leave little possibility that protest or resistance can turn back the clock. The team’s radio announcer. Red Barber, a traditional southerner, recalled that in 1945 Rickey took him to lunch and explained very slowly and strongly that his scouts were searching for “the first black player I can put on the white Dodgers. I don’t know who he is or where he is, but, he is coming.” An angered Barber at first intended to quit, but in time decided to accept the inevitable and keep the world’s “best sports announcing job.” Rickey was equally matter-of-fact with the players in 1947, offering to trade any player who didn’t want to play with Robinson. • Establish equal-status contact with a superordinate goal. One sociologist explained to Rickey that when relationships focus on an overarching goal, such as winning the pennant, “the people involved would adjust appropriately.” One of the players who had been initially opposed later helped Robinson with his hitting, explaining, “When you’re on a team, you got to pull together to win.” • Puncture the norm of prejudice. Rickey led the way, but others helped. Team leader, shortstop Pee Wee Reese, a southerner, set a pattern of sitting and eat­ ing with Robinson. One day in Cincinnati, as the crowd was hurling slurs—”get the nigger off the field”—Reese left his shortstop position, walked over to Robinson at first base, smiled and spoke to him, and then—with a hushed crowd watching—put his arm around Robinson’s shoulder. • Cut short the spiral of violence by practicing nonvio­ lence. Rickey, wanting “a ballplayer with guts enough not to fight back,” role-played for Robinson the kind of insults and dirty play he would experience and gained Robinson’s commitment not to return vio­ lence with violence. When Robinson was taunted and spiked, he left the responses to his teammates. Team cohesion was thereby increased. Robinson and Bob Feller later became the first play­ ers in baseball history elected to the Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. As he received the award, Robinson asked three persons to stand beside him: his mother, his wife, and his friend Branch Rickey. Jackie Robinson and Branch Rickey 509Conflict and Peacemaking To sum up, cooperative, equal-status contacts exert a positive influence on boy campers, industrial executives, college students, and schoolchildren. Does the prin­ ciple extend to all levels of human relations? Are families imified by pulling together to farm the land, restore an old house, or sail a sloop? Are communal identities forged by bam raisings, group singing, or cheering on the football team? Is inter­ national understanding bred by international collaboration in science and space, by joint efforts to feed the world and conserve resources, by friendly personal contacts between people of different nations? Indications are that the answer to all of those questions is yes (Brewer & Miller, 1988; Desforges & others, 1991,1997; Deutsch, 1985, 1994). Thus, an important challenge facing our divided world is to identify and agree on our superordinate goals and to structure cooperative efforts to achieve them. GROUP AND SUPERORDINATE IDENTITIES In everyday life, we often reconcile multiple identities (Gaertner & others, 2000, 2001). We acknowledge our subgroup identity (as parent or child) and then tran­ scend it (sensing our superordinate identity as a family). Pride in our ethnic heri­ tage can complement our larger communal or national identity. Being mindful of our muUipk social identities that we partially share with anyone else enables social cohesion (Brewer & Pierce, 2005; Crisp & Hewstone, 1999,2000). “I am many things, some of which you are, too.” But in ethnically diverse cultures, how do people balance their ethnic identities with their national identities? They may have a “bicultural” or “omnicultural” identity, one that identifies with both the larger culture and one’s own ethnic and religious culture (Moghaddam, 2009,2010; Phinney, 1990). “In many ways, I am like everyone around me, but I also affirm my own cultural heritage.” Thus, ethnically conscious Asians liv­ ing in England may also feel strongly British (Hutnik, 1985). French Canadians who identify with their ethnic roots may or may not also feel strongly Canadian (Driedger, 1975). Hispanic Americans who retain a strong sense of their “Cubanness” (or of their Mexican or Puerto Rican heritage) may feel strongly American (Roger & others, 1991). As W. E. B. DuBois (1903, p. 17) explained in The Souls of Black Folk, “The American Negro [longs]… to be both a Negro and an American.” Over time, identification with a new culture often grows. Former East and West Germans come to see themselves as “German” (Kessler & Mummendey, 2001). The children of Chinese immigrants to Australia and the United States feel their Chinese identity somewhat less keenly, and their new national identity more strongly, than do immigrants who were bom in China (Rosenthal & Feldman, 1992). Often, however, the grandchildren of immigrants feel more comfortable iden­ tifying with their ethnicity (Triandis, 1994). Researchers have wondered whether pride in one’s group competes with iden­ tification with the larger culture. As we noted in Chapter 9, we evaluate ourselves partly in terms of our social identities. Seeing our own group (our school, our employer, our family, our race, our nation) as good helps us feel good about our­ selves. A positive ethnic identity can therefore contribute to positive self-esteem. So can a positive mainstream culture identity. “Marginal” people, who have nei­ ther a strong ethnic nor a strong mainstream cultural identity (Table 13.1), often have low self-esteem. Bicultural people, who affirm both identities, typically TABLE :: 13.1 Ethnic and Cultural Identity Identification with Ethnic Group Identification with Majority Group Strong Weak Strong Weak Bicultural Assimilated Chapter 13 “MOST OF US HAVE OVERLAPPING IDENTITIES WHICH UNITE US WITH VERY DIFFERENT GROUPS. WE CAN LOVE WHAT WE ARE, WITHOUT HATING WHAT—AND WHO-WE ARE NOT. WE CAN THRIVE IN OUR OWN TRADITION, EVEN AS WE LEARN FROM OTHERS, AND COME TO RESPECT THEIR TEACHINGS.” —KOFI ANNAN, NOBEL PEACE PRIZE LECTURE, 2001 510 Part Three Social Relations A difficult balancing act. These ethnically conscious French Canadians— supporting Bill 101 “live French in Quebec”—may or may not also feel strongly Canadian. As countries become more ethnically diverse, people debate how we can build societies that are both plural and unified. bargaining Seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties. mediation An attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions. arbitration Resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement. have a strongly positive self-concept (Phinney, 1990; see also Sam & Berry, 2010). Often, they alternate between their two cultures, adapting their language and behavior to whichever group they are with (LaFromboise & others, 1993). Debate continues over the ideals of multiculturalism (celebrating differ­ ences) versus assimilation (meshing one’s values and habits with the prevail­ ing culture). On one side are those who believe, as the Department of Canadian Heritage (2006) has declared, that “mul­ ticulturalism ensures that all citizens can keep their identities, can take pride in their ancestry and have a sense of belonging. Acceptance gives Canadians a feeling of security and self-confidence, making them open to and accepting of diverse cultures.” On the other side are those who concur with Britain’s Com­ mission for Racial Equality chair, Trevor Phillips (2004), in worrying that mul­ ticulturalism separates people. Experi­ ments by Jacquie Vorauer and Stacey Sasaki (2011) showed that in threatening situations, highlighting multicultural dif­ ferences enhanced hostility. Focusing on differences prompted people to attend and attach meaning to outgroup members’ threatening behaviors. An alternative com­ mon values view inspired the Rwandan government to declare “there is no eth­ nicity here. We are all Rwandan.” In the aftermath of Rwanda’s ethnic bloodbath, government documents and government-controlled radio and newspapers have ceased mentioning Hutu and Tutsi (Lacey, 2004). In the space between multiculturalism and assimilation lies “diversity within unity,” an omnicultural perspective advocated by cultural psychologist Fathali Moghaddam (2009, 2010) and by sociologist Amitai Etzioni and others (2005): “It presumes that all members of a given society will fully respect and adhere to those basic values and institutions that are considered part of the basic shared framework of the society. At the same time, every group in society is free to maintain its distinct subculture—those policies, habits, and institutions that do not conflict with the shared core.” By forging unifying ideals, immigrant countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia have avoided ethnic wars. In these countries, Irish and Italians, Swedes and Scots, Asians and Africans seldom kill in defense of their eth­ nic identities. Nevertheless, even the immigrant nations struggle between separa­ tion and wholeness, between people’s pride in their distinct heritage and unity as one nation, between acknowledging the reality of diversity and questing for shared values. The ideal of diversity within unity forms the United States motto: E pluribus unum. Out of many, one. Communication Conflicting parties have other ways to resolve their differences. When husband and wife, or labor and management, or nation X and nation Y disagree, they can bargain with each other directly. They can ask a third party to mediate by making suggestions and facilitating their negotiations. Or they can arbitrate by submitting their disagreement to someone who will study the issues and impose a settlement. 511Conflict and Peacemaking BARGAINING If vou want to buy or sell a new car, are you better off adopting a tough bargain- mg stance-opening with an extreme offer so that splitting the difference wdl yield a favorable result? Or are you better off beginnmg with a sincere good- Experiments suggest no simple answer. On the one hand, those who demand more will often get more. Robert Cialdini, Leonard Bickman, and John Cacioppo (1979) provide a typical result: In a control condition, they approached various Chevrolet dealers and asked the price of a new Monte Carlo sports coupe with designated options. In an experimental condition, they approached other dealers and first struck a tougher bargaining stance, asking for and rejecting a price on a different car (“I need a lower price than that. That’s a lot”). When they theri asked the price of the Monte Carlo, exactly as in the control condition, they received offers that averaged some$200 lower. ^

Tough bargaining may lower the other party’s expectations, makmg the other side willing to settle for less (Yukl, 1974). But toughness can sometimes back- fire Many a conflict is not over a pie of fixed size but over a pie that shrinks if the conflict continues. A time delay is often a lose-lose scenario. When a strike is pro­ longed, both labor and management lose. Being tough is another potential lo^-lose scenario. If the other party responds with an equally tough stance, both may be locked into positions from which neither can back down without losing face. In the weeks before the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the first President Bush threatened, m the full glare of pubUcity, to “kick Saddam’s ass.” Saddam Hussein, no less macho, threatened to make “infidel” Americans “swim in their own blood.” After such belligerent state­ ments, it was difficult for each side to evade war and save face.

MEDIATION A third-party mediator may offer suggestions that enable conflicting parties to make concessions and still save face (Pruitt, 1998). If my concession can be attrib­ uted to a mediator, who is gaining an equal concession from my antagonist, neither of us will be viewed as weakly caving in. TURNING WIN-LOSE INTO WIN-WIN Mediators also help resolve conflicts by facilitating constructive communication. Their first task is to help the parties rethink the conflict and gain information about the others’ interests. Typically, peo­ ple on both sides have a competitive “win-lose” orientation: They are successful if their opponent is unhappy with the result, and unsuccessful if theu opponent is pleased (Thompson & others, 1995). The mediator aims to replace this win-lose orientation with a cooperative “win-win” orientation, by prodding both sides to set aside their conflicting demands and instead to think about needs, interests, and goals. In experiments, Leigh Thompson (1990a, 1990b) found that, with experience, negotiators become better able to make mutually beneficial trade-offs and thus to achieve win-win resolutions.

A classic story of such a resolution concerns the two sisters who quarreled over an orange (Follett, 1940). Finally they compromised and split the orange in halt, whereupon one sister squeezed her half for juice while the other used the peel on her half to make a cake. If the sisters had each explained why they wanted the orange, they very likely would have agreed to share it, giving one sister all t^e Juice and the other all the peel. This is an example of an integrative agreement (Pruitt & Lewis, 1975,1977). Compared with compromises, in which each party sacrifices something important, integrative agreements are more enduring, because they are mutually rewarding, they also lead to better ongoing relationships (Pruitt, 1986).

UNRAVELING MISPERCEPTIONS WITH CONTROLLED COMMUNICA­ TIONS Communication often helps reduce self-fulfilling misperceptions. Per­ haps you can recall experiences similar to that of this college student:

Chapter 13

integrative agreements Win-win agreements that reconcile both parties’ interests to their mutual benefit.

512 Part Three Social Relations

Often, after a prolonged period of little communication, I perceive Martha’s silence as a sign of her dislike for me. She, in turn, thinks that my quietness is a result of my being mad at her. My silence induces her silence, which makes me even more silent… until this snowballing effect is broken by some occurrence that makes it necessary for us to interact. And the communication then unravels all the misinterpretations we had made about one another.

The outcome of such conflicts often depends on how people communicate their feelings to one another. Roger Knudson and his colleagues (1980) invited married couples to come to the University of Illinois psychology laboratory and relive, through role playing, one of their past conflicts. Before, during, and after their conversation {which often generated as much emotion as the actual previ­ ous conflict), the couples were observed closely and questioned. Couples who evaded the issue—by failing to make their positions clear or failing to acknowledge their spouse’s position—left with the illusion that they were more in harmony and agreement than they really were. Often, they came to believe they now agreed more when actually they agreed less. In contrast, those who engaged the issue—by mak­ ing their positions clear and by taking one another’s views into account—achieved more actual agreement and gained more accurate information about one anoth­ er s perceptions. That helps explain why couples who communicate their concerns directly and openly are usually happily married (Crush & Glidden, 1987).

Such findings have triggered programs that train couples and children how to manage conflicts constructively (Horowitz and Boardman, 1994). If managed con­ structively, conflict provides opportunities for reconciliation and more genuine harmony. Psychologists Ian Gotlib and Catherine Colby (1988) offer advice on how to avoid destructive quarrels and how to have good quarrels (Table 13.2). Chil­ dren, for example, learn that conflict is normal, that people can learn to get along with those who are different, that most disputes can be resolved with two winners, and that nonviolent communication strategies are an alternative to a world of bul­ lies and victims. This “violence prevention curriculum … is not about passivity,” noted Deborah Prothrow-Stith (1991, p. 183). “It is about using anger not to hurt oneself or one’s peers, but to change the world.”

David Johnson and Roger Johnson (1995, 2000, 2003) put first-grade through ninth-grade children through about a dozen hours of conflict resolution training in six schools, with very heartening results. Before the training, most students

TABLE 13.2 How Couples Can Fight Constructively

Do Not Do

1* * * evade die argument, give the silent treatm^t, walk out on it • use your intimate knowledge of the other

person to hit below the belt and humiliate

•T’ * bring in unrelated issues^

• feign agreement while harboring resentment

^ * |eiU the other party how she or he is feeling

• attack indirectly by criticizing someone or something the other person values

I * undermine the other by intensifying his or j; her insecurity or threatening disaster

• clearly define the issue and repeat the other’s arguments in your own words

• divulge your positive and negative feelings

• clarify where you agree and disagree and what matters most to each of you

‘ ask questions that help the oflier find words to express the concern

’ wait for spontaneous explosions to subside, without retaliating

offer positive suggestions for mut|i^f §

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 513

Communication facilitators work to breakdown barriers, as in this diversity training exercise for teenagers.

were involved in daily conflicts—put-downs and teasing, playground turn-takmg conflicts, conflicts over possessions-conflicts that nearly always also resulted m a winner and a loser. After training, the children more often found win-win solutions, better mediated friends’ conflicts, and retained and applied their new skills in and out of school throughout the school year. When implemented with a whole student body, the result is a more peaceful student community and increased academic

Co^mct researchers report that a key factor is trust (Noor & others, 2008; Ross & Ward 1995). If you believe the other person is well intentioned, you are more likely to divulge your needs and concerns. Lacking trust, you may fear that bemg open will give the other party information that might be used against you. Even sim­ ple behaviors can enhance trust. In experiments, negotiators who were instructed to mimic the others’ mannerisms, as naturally empathic people in close relation­ ships often do, elicited more trust and greater discovery of compatible mterests and mutually satisfying deals (Maddux & others, 2008).

When the two parties mistrust each other and communicate unproductively, a third-party mediator—a marriage counselor, a labor mediator, a diplomat—sometimes helps. Often the mediator is some­ one trusted by both sides. In the 1980s it took an Algerian Muslim to mediate the conflict between Iran and Iraq, and the pope to resolve a geographical dispute between Argentina and Chile (Carnevale & Choi, 2000).

After coaxing the conflicting parties to rethink their perceived win-lose conflict, the mediator often has each party identify and rank its goals. When goals are compatible, the ranking procedure makes it easier for each to concede on less-important goals so that both achieve their chief goals (Erickson & others, 1974; Schulz & Pruitt, 1978). South Africa achieved internal peace when Black and White South Africans

“[THERE IS] A PSYCHOLOGI­

CAL BARRIER BETWEEN US,

A BARRIER OF SUSPICION,

A BARRIER OF REJECTION;

A BARRIER OF FEAR, OF

DECEPTION, A BARRIER OF

HALLUCINATION..,

—EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT

ISRAELI KNESSET, 1977

Trust, like other social behaviors, is also a biological phenomenon. Social neuroscientists have found that individuals with lowered levels of serotonin, the brain neurotransmitter, become more likely to see a low offer in a laboratory game as unfair, and to reject it (Crockett & others, 2008). Infusions of the hormone oxytocin have something of an opposite effect, increasing people’s trust of strangers in laboratory games (Zak, 2008).

514 Part Three Social Relations

with majority rule and safeguarding the security, welfare, and rights of Whites (Kelman, 1998).

When labor and management both believe that management’s goal of higher productivity and profit is compatible with labor’s goal of better wages and working conditions, they can begin to work for an integrative win-win solution. If workers will forgo benefits that are moderately beneficial to them but very costly to man­ agement (perhaps company-provided dental care), and if management will forgo moderately valuable arrangements that workers very much resent (perhaps inflex­ ibility of working hours), both sides may gain (Ross & Ward, 1995). Rather than seeing itself as making a concession, each side can see the negotiation as an effort to exchange bargaining chips for things more valued.

When the parties then convene to communicate directly, they are usually not set loose in the hope that, eyeball-to-eyeball, the conflict will resolve itself. In the midst of a threatening, stressful conflict, emotions often disrupt the ability to understand the other party’s point of view. Although happiness and gratitude can increase trust, anger decreases it (Dunn & Schweitzer, 2005). Communication may thus become most difficult just when it is most needed (Tetlock, 1985).

The mediator will often structure the encounter to help each party understand and feel understood by the other. The mediator may ask the conflicting parties to restrict their arguments to statements of fact, including statements of how they feel and how they respond when the other acts in a given way: “I enjoy music. But when you play it loud, I find it hard to concentrate. That makes me crabby.” Also, the mediator may ask people to reverse roles and argue the other’s position or to imagine and explain what the other person is experiencing. The mediator may have them restate one another’s positions before replying with their own: “It annoys you when I play my music and you’re trying to study.”

Experiments show that taking the other’s perspective and inducing empathy decreases stereotyping and increases cooperation (Batson & Moran, 1999; Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000; Todd & others, 2011). It helps to humanize rather than demonize the other. Older people often find that easier to do, by having the wisdom to appreci­ ate multiple perspectives and the limits of knowledge (Grossmann & others, 2010). Sometimes our elders are older, wiser, and better able to navigate social conflicts.

Neutral third parties may also suggest mutually agreeable proposals that would be dismissed—”reactively devalued”—if offered by either side. Constance StiUinger and her colleagues (1991) found that a nuclear disarmament proposal that Americans dismissed when attributed to the former Soviet Union seemed more acceptable when attributed to a neutral third party. Likewise, people will often reactively devalue a concession offered by an adversary (“they must not value it”); the same concession may seem more than a token gesture when suggested by a third party.

These peacemaking principles—based partly on laboratory experiments, partly on practical experience—have helped mediate both interna­ tional and industrial conflicts (Blake & Mouton, 1962, 1979; Fisher, 1994; Wehr, 1979). One small team of Arab and Jewish Americans, led by social psychologist Herbert Kelman (1997, 2007, 2008), has conducted workshops bringing together influential Arabs and Israelis. Kelman and col­ leagues counter misperceptions and have partici­ pants seek creative solutions for their common good. Isolated, the participants are free to speak

Building trust, enabling communication. When President Obama and his political antagonist, House Republican leader John Boehner, played golf, they were each attempting to enhance their relationship and enhance their ability to communicate.

515Conflict and Peacemaking

directly to their adversaries without fear that their constituents are second-guessing what tLy are saying. The result? Those from both sides typically come to under­ stand the^ther’s perspective and how the other side responds to their own group s

actions.

arbitration Some conflicts are so intractable, the underlying interests so divergent, that a mutu- X satisfactory resolution is unattainable. Conflicting claims to Jerusalem as the capital of an dependent Palestine versus a secure Israel have, so far, proven inhactable. In a divorce dispute over custody of a child, both parents canno enjoy fuU custody. In those and many other cases (disputes over tenants repair bills, aft ktes’ wages, and national territories), a third-party mediator may-or may not

M not the parties may turn to arbitration by having the mediator or another tod

party impose a settlement. Disputants usually prefer to Lt arbitration so that they retain control over the outcome. Neil “ others (1987) observed this preference in an experiment involving disputants com ing to a dispute settlement center. When people knew they would face an a^’^ted settlement if mediation failed, they tried harder to resolve the problem, exhibited less hostility, and thus were more likely to reach agreement.

In cases where differences seem large and irreconcilable, the prospect of arbitra­ tion may cause the disputants to freeze their positions, hopmg to gam an adv^- tage when the arbitrator chooses a compromise. To combat that tendency, so difputes, such as those involving salaries of individual baseball with “final-offer arbitration,” in which the third party chooses one of the two final offers. Final-offer arbitration motivates each party to make a reasonab e _

Typically, however, the final offer is not as reasonable as it would be if each parw free of self-serving bias, saw its own proposal through others eyes. Negoha- hon researchers report that most disputants are made stubborn by optimistic ove confidTce” (KahnLan & Tversky, 1995). Successful mediation is hmdered when as often happens, both parties believe they have a two-thirds chance of wmnmg final-offer arbitration (Bazerman, 1986,1990).

Conciliation Sometimes tension and suspicion run so high that even communication, let a one resolution, becomes all but impossible. Each party may threaten, coerce, or retaliate against the other. Unfortunately, such acts tend to be reciprocated, escalahng the cLflict So, would a strategy of appeasing the other party by being unconditionally cooperative produce a satisfying result? Often not. In laboratory games, ‘hose wto are 100 percent cooperative often are exploited. Politically, a one-sided pacifis

usually out of the question.

^cklpsychologlstCharles Osgood (1962,1980) advocated a third alternative one that is concmLry yet strong enough to discourage exploitoon. C^good called it grad ated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduchon.” He mcknamed it GRIT a laW that suggests the determination it requires. GRIT aims to reverse the conflict spiral by triggering reciprocal de-escalation. To do so, it draws upon social-psychological concepts such as the norm of reciprocity and the attribution of motives.

GRH requires one side to initiate a few small de-escalatory actions, after aniioim^ ing a concilltory intent. The initiator states its desire to reduce conciliatory act before making it, and invites the adversary to reciprocate Such announcements create a framework that helps the adversary correctly interpret what otherwise might be seen as weak or tricky actions. They also brmg pubhc pressure to bear on the adversary to follow the reciprocity norm.

Categories

## choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel so far

The giver Choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel so far?
17,095 results
The giver
The giver Choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel so far? A. Memories are important to life B. War should be avoided at all costs C. Friends and family are precious D. Teenagers are curious by nature Is it a?

asked by English on May 19, 2015
English

1. Are there any themes that run through more than one of the memoirs in this unit? If so, what are they? List at least two themes that appear in more than one of the memoirs you read, and explain the similarities you noticed in how the author explored

asked by My name on September 14, 2015
L.A. The Giver!
Which of the following passages from the novel support the idea that the Giver is a heroic character? A. I do know that I sat here numb with horror. Wretched with helpessness. B. “Be quiet Jonas,” The Giver commanded in a strange voice. “Watch/” C. The

asked by ASAP!!! HEEEEEEELP on May 6, 2016
The Giver
Which statement provides the best summary of chapter 15? A. Jonas finds the giver in pain and offers to help. B. Jonas experiences tiny pinpricks of snow that touch his body and melt on his tounge. C. The Giver explains to Jonas why the pain and the

asked by Anonymous on May 22, 2015
L A/The Giver
The Giver and Jonas come up with a plan that would allow Jonas to escape. What does the Giver’s refusal to accompany Jonas tell you about the Giver’s character? 1: While the Giver does not like the rules of his community, he feels he must stay to help the

asked by Marylyn on May 20, 2015

english
write a short story based on the themes shakesphere explored in macbeth.do i have to write the themes of macbeth and explain them or the assignment is something else.i think i have to explain the themes

asked by paul jones on November 2, 2008
LA
What are some Themes in Chapter 15-17 The Giver?

asked by angela on May 5, 2017
English
The book for this is The Giver. Please check my answers. Which of the following passages from the novel support the idea that the Giver is a heroic character? A. I do know that I sat here numb with horror. Wretched with helplessness. B. “Be quiet Jonas,”

asked by Twenty One Pilots fan on May 9, 2016
English – Essay Writing
I’ve just read the book ‘To Kill a Mockingbird and I have to write an essay on the question “Explain how the themes of prejudice and tolerance are explored in the novel” I’ve started on my essay, but it’s been a long time since I’ve written one. I’ve made

asked by TP on March 25, 2008

1. To plan your time for a research project, it is best to (1 point) divide the time spent on each step evenly. keep your deadlines flexible. start at the beginning and plan from there.* work backward. 2. Which of the following is not a guideline for

asked by Anonymous on March 15, 2017
English Analysis
Reading The Stranger by the lovely Albert Camus. Just need help understanding this question: -After I listed some themes I explored, my teacher asks: “Given the themes you listed, are any conventions questioned based on the treatment of a given theme?

asked by Albert on October 9, 2012
English
Archetypes frequently appear in literature with – a- contradictory themes b- general themes c- universal themes d- specific themes my answer is D

asked by Steve on August 3, 2015
L.A
which of the following words best describes the cultural context of there community in the novel. the giver

asked by mac and may on May 13, 2016
themes
this is another question for “lord of the flies” i need theme statements for themes. i came up with this for one of them. theme statement: responsibility is necessary for survival. i’m having a hard time coming up with others however i did come up with

asked by Anonymous on September 5, 2006
language arts
The giver Choose the statement that best explains the meaning of the following passage: But now, with twelve coming so soon, and the volunteer hours ending, it didn’t seem to meter. The freedom to choose where to spend those hours always seemed a wonderful

asked by lisa on May 5, 2016

Language arts
The giver Choose the statement that best explains the meaning of the following passage: But now, with twelve coming so soon, and the volunteer hours ending, it didn’t seem to meter. The freedom to choose where to spend those hours always seemed a wonderful

asked by Help on May 15, 2015
Archetypes
Archetypes frequently appear in literature with Contradictory themes General themes Universal themes(My answer) Specific themes Can someone check to see if my answer is correct? Thanks.

asked by AlexanderDennis on September 2, 2014
english
In the book Giver — the committee of elders consulted the giver for what?

asked by steve on April 22, 2014
sociology
Existential psychology has four basic themes. Define the themes. How are those themes different from humanistic theory themes of positive psychology and suffering of existentialism?

Human Behavior
Existential psychology has four basic themes. Define the themes. How are those themes different from humanistic theory themes of positive psychology and suffering of existentialism?

asked by james on December 20, 2015
LA
In the Giver, why was the Giver bitter about the COuncil of Elders

asked by Reina A. on November 29, 2010
English
We are supposed to give a presentation of a certain author, we are supposed to talk about customary themes; but even though I have look it up I can’t understand what it is, can you guys tell me? Thanks in Advance (Broken Link Removed) This site has a good

asked by Claudia on April 23, 2007
English
Choose a film, as most of you already did, and focus on one theme that resides throughout the film. If you feel ambitious, then you can choose several themes to discuss in your paper; however, make sure you connect the themes to each other (if I signed off

asked by Yasmine on October 25, 2015
Biology 100
Choose one theory spontaneous generation theory or cell theory. Select one statement that corresponds to the theory you want to refute or suppot. I choose cell theory and the one statement that I choose is all living things are made up of cells. Provide

asked by Rayna on November 10, 2009
science
A student makes the following statement: Chocolate- covered donuts are 10 times better than plain, glazed donuts. Which of the following correctly describes the student’s statement? a-The student’s statement is a quantitative observation. b-The

asked by Anonymous on September 14, 2013

English writing
Please ASAP can someone give me an introductory paragraph on the Truman show and the giver with the title and author and the thesis statement ? Please just an idea I need help

asked by Jessica on December 13, 2012
English
Read the statement below and choose the word which best describes the writer’s tone. I cannot stand the noisy, destructive woodpeckers anymore! This weekend, we will put down a repellant. defeated angry unhappy disgusted B?

asked by Bri on November 18, 2017
English
Read the statement below and choose the word which best describes the writer’s tone. Please do eat the last piece of pizza. I haven’t had any yet, but you should definitely have a third piece. sincere gloomy sarcastic humorous A?

asked by Bri on November 17, 2017
Literature
Can someone tell me if my statement below is correct? I have to write a paper on The Lottery comparing and constrasting the theme and style. I am not sure if my themes and styles are correct or if I have them mixed up. I have trouble with picking out the

asked by Tim on June 22, 2009
Language arts
List some important ideas that the Giver includes. Why did you choose those ideas? I have no idea what this question means. Thank you for your help

asked by Shawn on May 16, 2018
Math
1: Classify the quadrilateral using the name that best describes it I tried posting it but it didn’t work 2: which statement is a true statement 3: which statement is a true statement 4: Which property is not a characteristic of a polygon 5: Which figure

L A
The Giver At the beginning of the novel, Jonas describes himself as apprehensive. Why is he apprehensive? 1:An unknown plane is flying overhead 2:The Ceremony of Twelves is coming soon. 3: A loudspeaker orders everyone inside. I pick # 1…is this correct?

asked by Marylyn on May 18, 2015
L.A Ms. Sue? or anybody?

1. Which of the following aspects of the setting is evidence that the giver is an example of science fiction A. Jonas rides a bike to school every day B. jonas’s father works in a daycare center C. a loudspeaker makes announcements to the community. D.

asked by anonymous on May 11, 2015
English
ead the statement, and choose the word that best describes the writer’s tone. Please do eat the last piece of pizza. I haven’t had any yet, but you should definitely have a third piece. sarcastic sincere humorous gloomy Would this be sincere?

asked by Caitlyn on November 9, 2018
english
what are motifs? Motifs are like repeated images or themes that run through a story. http://www.answers.com/motif In order to get a good idea about them, here are some analyses of motifs and themes in a couple of well known works:

asked by kanisha on December 10, 2006

language arts
1: list some important ideas that the giver includes. why did you choose those ideas? 2: tell how using a reading role helped you understand the book. support your response with at least 2 pieces of evidence from the novel

asked by yeet on May 1, 2018
Read the following passage from the novel. A sergeant yelled at Johnny as he started to limp past them, but when he explained in a piteous whine that his foot had been squashed by a blow from a soldier’s musket and all he wanted was to get home to his

asked by Princess Princess on December 18, 2014
Engish Literature
Chapter Seven explores the role of symbols in conveying literary themes. Themes are abundant in literaryworks (though they are at some times more obvious than at others). Select one short story from the reading assignments (from either Week One or Week

asked by Anonymous on January 23, 2013
English 12
In your understanding is this thesis statement clear enough? What other improvements would you make? The topic is “Theme of Overcoming struggle in the course text” Many themes are presented in: Hamlet, Death of a Salesmen, Life of Pi, the Road, and the

asked by Andy on January 23, 2011
social studies
how were the explorations of francisco pizarro and hernando cortes similar? how were they differnt discribe the lands the french explored in the new world you ahve read about countries that explored and claimed lands in the americans what changes occurred

asked by garrick on November 23, 2009
American History
During the 1820 and 1830 a distinct American culture began to emerge. What philosophies, artists and artists works contributed to this culture? What were the unique American themes explored within these works? Help I don’t know where t begin to answer this

asked by Brenda on May 2, 2013
English
In the novel The Lord of the Flies, how do the many themes connect? So far the themes I have discovered have to do with society being built on ethics, fear or fear of the unknown, the loss of innocence, the capability of evil in human nature, and the

asked by Kailyn on October 1, 2012
political theory
I don’t have an assignment due, but I’m having trouble understanding the themes that are in the Persian Letters by Montesquieu. Has anyone read them? I’m in college. I’m having trouble understanding the Harem sequence, and these themes: lack of self

asked by bayley on March 3, 2015
grammar check
which is a compound subject? 1) my sister and i saw a dinosaur at the museum. 2) marco polo lived in italy and explored places in china.i choose number 1. identif the complete predicate. thomas edison invented the light bulb, among other things. d)invented

asked by alley on June 14, 2009
Geography

1. The statement, “Paraguay is one of two landlocked South American nations” describes what type of region? a.cultural b.economic c.physical d.political 2. The statement, “Farmers in this area benefit from a long growing season” describes what type of

asked by Courtney on September 9, 2010

Grammar and Composition
here’s an assignment that i have to do: Phone Book Character Select a name from the phonebook that makes an impression on you. Examples: Angelic J. Pureheart What kind of impressions might the name Angelic J. Pureheart give you? Would she be a member of

asked by y912f on November 3, 2009
english 2
i need to write an essay on TO KILL MOCKINGBIRD, and the topic is; “Discuss three themes of the novel. in addition to the more obvious themes of prejudice and injustice that the author develops, other possible themes include: growing up, superstition,

asked by km on April 19, 2011
check geo
What are the most abundant resources in this region? A)soil and coal B)minerals and soil C)water and soil D)minerals and water my choose is b most europeans who came to africa south of sahara between 1400s and 1700s? A)avoided the african interior

asked by henry on September 10, 2009
Thesis statement
How do I write a thesis statement about why I choose Medical Billing and Coding as a career. I have read what a thesis statement is, but my writing is terrible and I just can’t get the understanding of what to include in my thesis statement

asked by Fannie on February 18, 2010
Enlish lit
How do the styles and themes of “Theme for English B” and “Ballad of Birmingham” compare? I read both, but I don’t understand how that could compare in themes of styles. They have both different themes and styles!

asked by AnonJ on May 23, 2014
English
How do the styles and themes of “Theme for English B” and “Ballad of Birmingham” compare? I read both, but I don’t understand how that could compare in themes of styles. They have both different themes and styles! x2

asked by Janon on May 23, 2014
Math
For each of the following questions, choose the correct answer. Which statement best describes inductive reasoning? A- It uses previously proven or accepted properties to reach a conclusion. B- It uses observation of patterns and past events to reach a

asked by Skye on October 5, 2014
English
Which verb tense is used in “has explored” in the following sentence? I am pretty sure he has explored that option. past perfect future present perfect present Would this be present?

asked by Caitlyn on December 10, 2018
Lit
I have to write a short story based on the themes Shakespeare explored in Macbeth. I have what I want to write about but I need help turning it into a short story. I don’t need any links about short stories please, I know how to look up how to write short

asked by Anonymous on August 19, 2008
English
I am writing two paragraphs about two themes but I can’t think of two conclusion sentences. The themes are friendship and sacrifice. Help please? Thanks

asked by Emma on September 16, 2012

Language Arts

1. One would expect people living in utopian society to be A. wealthy B. difficult C. idealistic D. impossible* 2. Which statement best describes a utopian community? A. People band together to share resources and duties equally.* B. Resources are

asked by Dude that smells on May 3, 2017
English
I am writing my essays and I wrote them but i not know how to start the beginnings of them. this on movie smoke signals. i am writing on themes, but i cant start intro like “in the film .. because someone else be doing that for movie review, so i not know

Language arts

1. One would expect people living in a utopian society to be A. wealthy B. difficult C. idealistic D. impossible 2. Which statement best describes a utopian community? A. People band together to share resources and duties equally. B. Resources are

sociology
How do these themes about male roles appear in the television and movies watch? What messages do these themes provide for men and women about masculinity and femininity?

asked by paula on July 27, 2009
sociology
How do the themes about male roles appear in the television and movies that we watch? What messages do these themes provide for men and women about masculinity and femininity?

asked by paula on July 27, 2009
sociology
How do these themes about male roles appear in the television and movies watch? What messages do these themes provide for men and women about masculinity and femininity?

asked by joe on July 21, 2009
sociology
How do these themes about male roles appear in the television and movies watch? What messages do these themes provide for men and women about masculinity and femininity?

asked by tiffany on July 21, 2009
English
1.) Choose the term that best describes the underlined phrase Gripping the rail,*** “Lindsey stepped onto the ice”. *** A.) independent clause B.) adjective clause C.) adverb clause D.) noun clause A 2.) Choose the term that best describes the underlined

History
Examine the three themes of the renaissance (humanism. the critical spirit and empiricism). In what ways are these themes reflected in the development of american society between 1660 and 1750?

asked by Megan on September 23, 2012
S.S
1.Witch statement BEST describes yokohama? 2.Which describes a difference between life in Japan and life in the United States? 3.Which innovation would BEST address a challenge facing modern Japan?

asked by Mclovin on March 24, 2015

Grammar and Composition
‘here’s an assignment that i have to do: Phone Book Character Select a name from the phonebook that makes an impression on you. Examples: Angelic J. Pureheart What kind of impressions might the name Angelic J. Pureheart give you? Would she be a member of

asked by y912f on November 3, 2009
Language Arts
Five themes of geography as they relate to A Light in the Forest. I haven’t read this book, but you might check on the themes section in here: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/lightforest/ =)

asked by Ryan on January 15, 2007
English
Read the statement below and choose the word which best describes the writer’s tone. Elie Wiesel was born in Sighet, a Romanian town located in the Carpathian Mountains. He was the third of four children and the only son born to his parents. disbelieving

asked by Bri on November 17, 2017
Science
which of the following describes scientific inquiry?(1 point) A.a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen in experiment. B.facts,figtures,and other evidence gathered through observation. (C).the diverse ways in which scientists study the

asked by chris on August 27, 2014
Science
which of the following describes scientific inquiry?(1 point) A.a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen in experiment. B.facts,figtures,and other evidence gathered through observation. (C).the diverse ways in which scientists study the

asked by chris on August 27, 2014
math
Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Find the probability. The table describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers. |Non|Light|Heavy|Total Men| 311| 82 | 74 |467 Women| 329| 68 | 60 |457 Total|

asked by Sarah on September 2, 2010
MGT asap
Select one of the following statements from p.221 of Supervision: Key Link to Productivity (8th ed.). Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Explain your reasons. 1. “The supervisor’s primary objective should be to avoid making mistakes in

asked by troyer0269 on November 13, 2008
English
I need help with this question. I just don’t understand what it’s asking me. Could someone tell me how I should start it, please? Thank you! Writers often communicate their themes by building clues into the story. Choose one story from Collection 4 and

asked by Olivia on January 18, 2012
Psychology

1. Behavioral therapy began with ___. (1 point) Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner John Watson* Erik Erikson Read the statement. Choose the correct answer. 2. Watson is most (in)famous for performing experiments on __. (1 point) A baby* a

asked by Anonymous on May 23, 2018
Identify the words that correctly complete the following sentence. If none of the choices are correct, choose “none of the above.” In a sentence with a compound verb, each verb (Points : 1) may have a different subject must have the same subject may not

asked by Jenny on August 27, 2013

critical thinking
Categorize each fallacy statement by copying fallacy type from the list below into the Fallacy Type ext box adjacent the fallacy statement. Provide an explanation as to why you think it is that fallacy type in the Why it is this fallacy type text box

asked by ava on February 6, 2010
literary
Which is the least common way for modern writers to convey their themes? a. through explicit statement b. through development of a central conflict c. through the values and motivations of the characters d. through the thoughts of the characters

asked by Jon on October 31, 2012
Song of Myself+English
Has anyone read Song of Myself by Walt Whitman?? I can’t find any themes for it. So hard to understand. Would slavery be a theme? I need atleast 4 themes associated with Song of Myself.

asked by Chopsticks on February 19, 2009
Social Studies
Which statement best summarizes direct democracy? A)Voters have the right to propose and respond to laws through the voting process. B)Voters have the right to choose whether to vote. C)Voters have the right to choose for whom to vote. D)Voters have the

asked by Mike on December 10, 2015
English
I don’t know what rhetorical devices these themes fall under. I know all these are themes but the themes are harder to figure out . 1. The value of dreams can be both a positive and be both a positive and negative influence. 2. It is important for men and

asked by Notafanofschool on March 8, 2015
english
cud anyone describe in brief or tell a site that describe the theme of “abroad at a ship’s helm” and “the moon is distant from the sea” please. im not sure if i understood the themes of both the poems. after understanding it i might be able to tell if both

asked by bindiya farswani on December 2, 2009
CRt 205
CRT-205 Week 5 Fallacy Matrix Categorizing Fallacies • Categorize each fallacy statement by copying fallacy type from the list below into the Fallacy Type text box adjacent the fallacy statement. • Provide an explanation as to why you think it is that

asked by angelee on December 5, 2009
geography
What are the 5 themes of geography for los angeles, california? do you have any sites to suggest to find the 5 themes of geography

asked by thalia on May 31, 2014
Core World History
I Choose two themes that would be appropriate for thematic time lines of important events from prehistory to A.D. 1600. The rise and fall of empires all over the world, and scientific discoveries and inventions, what are 5 events for each them that I’ve

asked by Lenae on October 7, 2016
Good Thesis Statement?
Is this a good thesis statement? John Keats’ odes and letters advance the Romantic literary movement through use of three common themes: living life to the fullest, overcoming hardships, and placing passion over reason.

asked by Norah on February 24, 2011

english
what themes do old man the sea and macbeth have in commmon? tragedy? You can look each one up at www.sparknotes.com/lit and read the “themes, symbols … ” section in each and see what you find. Let us know if you have questions once you have looked up and

asked by james on June 19, 2007
English
what is a good thesis statement that I can form out of this prompt for A Raisin In The Sun choose one of the following characters. identify and analyze the character’s primary internal conflict and external conflict and how each is resolved . I choose

asked by Notafanofschool on March 11, 2015
algebra 3
what statement best describes the function f(x)=2x^3+2x^2-x?

asked by kevin on May 6, 2010
SOCIAL STDIES HELP!

1. Which of the following best describes the economy of the 1920s in the United States? (1 point) It was a period of economic hardship. It was a wartime economy. It was a boom time, or a period of great economic growth.**** It was a period that did not see

asked by XenaGonzalez on April 23, 2015
Statement 1 – Illegal immigrants who have resided in the United States for years should qualify for alternative paths to citizenship. Statement 2 – Diversity in backgrounds and experience creates a society that teaches tolerance and respect. Statement

asked by Anon on May 18, 2017
math
Lara wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement One: If two lines intersect, then they intersect at exactly one point Statement Two: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the length of

geometry
Lara wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement One: If two lines intersect, then they intersect at exactly one point Statement Two: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the length of

asked by Sam on September 25, 2011
History
Which statement is true about Portuguese exploration? A) The exploration ended after the death of Prince Henry in 1480. B) The Portuguese were attacked and defeated by Muslim traders on the East African coast. C) The Portuguese explored the

asked by mic on December 27, 2016
Georgia’s Government
Which statement BEST describes why constitutions are needed?

asked by Soccer Mom on February 5, 2019
Science
Which statement best describes the composition of magma?

asked by James on February 17, 2014

Social Issues
Which statement best describes the militia theory?

asked by Dakota on February 18, 2016
english
which statement describes a type of plagiarism.

asked by Britteny on January 5, 2012
geometry
Which statement best describes deductive reasoning?

asked by jarrod on October 13, 2015
social studies
Which statement best describes the Louisiana Purchase?

asked by Sam on February 14, 2019
Math
check my work 22 km=m A=2.2 13 oz =_g A= Choose the most reasonable measure of weight. A calculator A=0.5 kg Complete the following statement. 540 s = __ min A= 9min Complete the following statement. 12 ft = __ in. A=144 in.

asked by Terry B on April 6, 2008

Categories

## which line models the data points better and why

1. Which line models the data points better and why?

blue, because the data points are all close to the line

red, because it goes through one of the points

i think that is A

0 1 3,773
Mar 22, 2013
I agree.

1 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Mar 22, 2013
thx

0 0
posted by batman
Mar 22, 2013
yw

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Mar 22, 2013
These are the right answer I promise.

1.B
2.C
3.B
4.C
5.C
6.A

1. The trend of the scatter plot is increasing, because the scatter plot is going higher. 63 3
posted by Roman
Mar 9, 2017

Roman is right! 100%

4 0
posted by 1
Mar 13, 2017
Roman is right. trust roman answers if your doing lesson 8 modeling data with lines

3 1
posted by CCA
Mar 23, 2017
Roman is so right i got a 6 out of 6

3 1
posted by jackie
Mar 29, 2017
number 7 is incorrect it would be A ( the population is decreasing over time)

3 3
posted by linda
Mar 31, 2017
roman is correct for 7th grade connexus i got %100

1 1
posted by marx
Mar 31, 2017

Thanks so much

0 1
posted by Jessica
Apr 26, 2017
Thank you so much, Roman!

0 0
posted by Bonnie Key
May 22, 2017
1)B
2)C
3)B
4)C
5)C
6)A
7)A
8)The trend of the scatter plot is increasing, because the scatter plot is going higher.
100% garunteed

16 1
posted by ::::
Feb 6, 2018
As of 2018, there are only 7 questions and all of Roman’s answers are correct including #7. Thank you!

0 1
posted by fellow peer
Feb 15, 2018
@Roman is correct. Just make sure to write the description for the last question on your own. & use your own words.

3 0
posted by LittleNoot
Feb 16, 2018

thank you roman

0 0
posted by Taylor
Feb 16, 2018
roman is right math check answers is wrong

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 19, 2018
:::: Is correct just took the quiz for the 8 questions!

2 0
posted by VKOOKIE IS REAL
Mar 5, 2018
Hes right bc i had 8 questions

0 0
posted by ::: is right for meee !!! Connexus
Mar 23, 2018
Roman is correct. For me, I only had 7 questions.
1) B
2) C
3) B
4) C
5) C
6) A
7) The trend is a positive trend. You know this because the line goes up from left to right. (That’s what my answer was and my teacher gave me all points of credit)

4 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 12, 2018

I only have 5 questions

0 0
posted by Susanna
Apr 24, 2018
Same Susanna

0 0
posted by Smfh
May 3, 2018
I have 6 questions, one of them is a writing one

0 0
posted by PearsonConnexus
May 10, 2018
@:::: is correct I got a 100%!! thx

0 0
posted by Shay
Feb 25, 2019

1. B
2. C
3. B
4. C
5. C
6. A
7. Trend is positive..scatter plot going higher left to right. 1 0
posted by Hal
Mar 2, 2019

As of 3/7/2019 ::: is correct for 8th grade Lesson 8: Modeling Data with Lines. They may change up the answers (because they suck and only do it with math) so don’t be mad at me when that time comes. Goodluck guys.

3 1
posted by KpopIsAwful
Mar 7, 2019
AS OF 3/26/19 THE ANSWERS ARE:
B C B C C A AND I AM STILL WAITING FOR THE 7TH TO BE GRADED. FOR CONNEXUS STUDENTS. BE HAPPY!

0 0
posted by Ruthie
Mar 26, 2019
Roman is indeed 100% correct!

0 0
posted by $mirmofficee Apr 3, 2019 Categories ## for what value of r would the potential difference across each of the bulbs be 2.4 v ? Two bulbs are connected in parallel across a source of emf EMF = 10.0V with a negligible internal resistance. One bulb has a resistance of 3.0 Omega , and the other is 2.5 Omega . A resistor R is connected in the circuit in series with the two bulbs. What value of R should be chosen in order to supply each bulb with a voltage of 2.4 V ?For what value of R would the potential difference across each of the bulbs be 2.4 V ? 0 0 588 asked by sarah Aug 23, 2012 The series resistor R should be chosen so as to have a voltage drop of 7.6V(10-2.4)across it. The currents in the two bulbs: i1=2.4/3.0 = 0.8A i2=2.4/2.5 = 0.96A Total current in the circuit = i1+i2 = 1.76A R = 7.6V/1.76A = 4.3 Ohms 1 0 posted by Ajayb Aug 23, 2012 How do i solve this part: What is the current through each individual bulb? Let I1 be the current through the bulb of resistance 3.0 Omega and I2 the current through the bulb of resistance 2.5 Omega? 0 0 posted by sarah Aug 23, 2012 The current through each bulb is the voltage across it divided by its resistance. In this case the bulbs are in parallel and voltage across them is 2.4V. 0 0 posted by Ajayb Aug 25, 2012 Categories ## agno3 + nacl AgNO3 + NaCl → AgCl + NaNO3 . How many grams of NaCl would be required to react with 446 mL of 0.211 M AgNO3 solution? Answer in units of grams 0 0 228 asked by Zoey Feb 21, 2014 2.5 mol Zn and 8.75 mol HCl react according to the equation Zn + 2 HCl −→ ZnCl2 + H2 . Calculate the amount in moles of ZnCl2 formed. Answer in units of mol 0 0 posted by Zoey Feb 21, 2014 mols AgNO3 = M x L = ? Using the coefficients in the balanced equation, convert mols AgNO3 to mols NaCl. Now convert mols NaCl to grams. g = mols x molar mass. 0 0 posted by DrBob222 Feb 21, 2014 Your second problem is a limiting reagent (LR) problem. You know it is a LR problem because amounts are given for BOTH reactants. You do these just like simple stoichhiometry problem BUT do it for EACH reagent then take the smaller amount formed as the product formed. Convert mols Zn to mols ZnCl2. 2.5 mol Zn will give you 2.5 mol ZnCl2 (1:1 ratio in the equation) if you had HCl in excess. Do the same for HCl. 8.75 mols HCl will form 1/2(8.75) = 4.375 mols ZnCl2 if you had Zn in excess. The smaller number is 2.5; therefore, 2.5 mols Zn will be formed, Zn is the limiting reagent, and HCl will be in excess which means some of it will react and there will be some left over. Then convert 2.5 mol Zn to grams. g = mols x molar mass. 0 0 posted by DrBob222 Feb 21, 2014 Categories ## how is the supreme court equal to the other branches of government 1. how is the supreme court equal to the other branches of government? a. it has the same powers as the legislative branch and executive branch. b. it enforces the laws along with the president*** c. it creates laws like the legislative branch d. it interprets the laws and has the final say in federal law. 1. which of the following is an example of the supreme court using the power of judicial review? a. deciding the constitutionality of a law. b. hearing an appellate case c. asking questions during oral arguments d. appointing federal judges*** 1. when chief justice John Marshall wrote “A law repugnant to the constitution is void”in the case Marbury V. Madison,what was he claiming? a. the framers should have taken more care designing the legislative branch. b. laws unsupported by the constitution are automatically unlawful c. the supreme court will take over lawmaking duties should it be necessary d. the supreme court has the right to declare laws of congress unconstitutional 0 0 357 asked by Alice Keign Dec 12, 2016 My Answers: 1. b 2. d 3. d 0 1 posted by Alice Keign Dec 12, 2016 4. b – no 5. d – no 6. d – no 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Dec 12, 2016 Alright, I did more research and changed my answers to: 7. a 8. b 9. b 0 0 posted by Alice Keign Dec 12, 2016 10. a – no 11. b – no 12. b – yes You’ve used up your two guesses. Please do not post these questions again. 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Dec 12, 2016 b for 3 was wrong. This is not the first time I’ve experienced false tutoring from you, Ms. Sue 🙁 0 0 posted by Alice Keign Dec 12, 2016 I’m sorry. I won’t try to help you again. 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Dec 12, 2016 Btw — that answer is an opinion. I don’t know how your text author interprets that quote. 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Dec 12, 2016 D A D 100% you’re welcome 0 0 posted by Whocares Jan 16, 2017 @WHOCARES is correct, thanks 0 0 posted by HotChick16 Mar 6, 2017 lol dad 0 0 posted by Colin Mar 9, 2017 Ms sue , you really can be foul when it comes to helping kids. You should be based around helping kids. Not tell them their wrong and not say why? You’re a horrible tutor. I suggest you find other ways to help kids and not be so scrappy with people. Horrible attitude, ms. 0 0 posted by Tacopaco Oct 4, 2017 D A D is correct 0 0 posted by Fucc y’all Nov 27, 2017 Supreme Court’s Protections/The Judicial Branch: 1. relative rights 2. freedoms that protect people from government 3. to restrict the power of the national and state governments Supreme Court on Religious Freedom: 1. financial aid for student lunches in parochial schools / financial aid for vision testing in parochial schools 1. The prison had failed to show its policy was the least restrictive means of furthering its compelling interest 3. attending church Good luck! 0 0 posted by Ms. Honey Oct 13, 2018 @whocares and fucc you too are right. The answers for The Supreme Court and Other Courts is DAD 0 0 posted by Ms. Honey Oct 13, 2018 Categories ## which is the degree measure of an angle whose tangent is 5.67 Which is the degree measure of an angle whose tangent is 5.67? Round the answer to the nearest whole number. 0 0 309 asked by Mike May 19, 2014 Tan A = 5.67 A = 80 Degrees. 0 0 posted by Henry May 21, 2014 Thank you Henry!! 0 0 posted by Bri May 11, 2018 NP =) 0 0 posted by Henry May 16, 2018 Categories ## (a) how much negative charge is on each oxygen of the carbonate ion? Consider the resonance structures for the carbonate ion. O–C-O(-) l O(-) (-)O-C–O l O(-) (-)O-C-O(-) l l O How much negative charge is on each oxygen of the carbonate ion? 4,397 results Organic Chemistry Consider the resonance structures for the carbonate ion. O–C-O(-) l O(-) (-)O-C–O l O(-) (-)O-C-O(-) l l O How much negative charge is on each oxygen of the carbonate ion? A)0, B) -.33, C)-.50, D) -.67, E)-1.00, F)-1.33, G)-1.50, H)-1.67, I)-2.00 What is asked by Jess on September 15, 2014 Chemistry Consider the resonance structures for the carbonate ion. O–C-O(-) l O(-) (-)O-C–O l O(-) (-)O-C-O(-) l l O How much negative charge is on each oxygen of the carbonate ion? A)0, B) -.33, C)-.50, D) -.67, E)-1.00, F)-1.33, G)-1.50, H)-1.67, I)-2.00 What is asked by arcos15 on July 2, 2012 Chem for the dimethylthiocarbamate ion [OSCN(CH3)2]-. Add bonds and electron lone pairs in order to give the important resonance structures of this ion, including any formal charges where necessary. Select the resonance structure likely to provide the best asked by Saki on September 5, 2016 Chemistry Which statement about resonance structures is TRUE: 1) There can never be more than two resonance structures for any molecule. 2) Only ionic compounds use resonance structures 3) The real structure of a molecule is an average or hybrid of the resonance asked by Michelle on July 19, 2013 Chemistry Draw the Lewis structures for BrO3- and ClO4- and indicate their correct number of additional resonance structures. I’m a little confused about this. For example, I’ve got the correct original form of BrO3- down. Where all 3 O atoms are single bonded to asked by Raj on September 28, 2008 SCIENCE 1. WHAT IS resonance 2. whAT to frequncy of a sound when a car approaches How is resonance used? One kind of resonance is chemical resonance in which several structures can be drawn to represent a compound an the “real” structure is a hybrid of all of the asked by TAYLOR on December 13, 2006 organic chemistry I need help understanding how to differentiate between isomers and resonance structures in skeletal structures. Specifically, here is an image to a problem with the answers: i.imgur. com /mz3URSa.jpg (remove spaces) The left most structure is the reference asked by Bill on October 19, 2013 Organic chemistry Write contributing (important) resonance structures for each of the following compounds and predict their relative C=O vibrational frequencies based on the importance of the contributing resonance structures. List in them order from highest to lowest asked by Jane on February 17, 2009 Resonance structures I won’t try to draw one here but take for example, CH3CH2COO-. This has two resonance structures but they look the same to me. The CH2-C single bond can rotate and it looks like you can just flip the COO- section and it looks like the same structure. Maybe asked by Sheryl on September 30, 2006 chemistry Draw the dominant Lewis structure for NO2+. Note, that this ion is isoelectronic with CO2. How many double bonds does this resonance structures have? asked by john on November 4, 2014 chem draw the lewis structure for NO2- including any valid resonance structures. which of the following statements are true? a. the nitrite ion contains 2 N-O bonds that are equivalent to 1 1/2 bonds. b. the nitrite ion contains 2 N=O double bonds c. the asked by natash on May 1, 2008 AP Chem use simple structure and bonding models to account for each of the following: A. the bond length between the two carbon atoms is shorter in C2h4 then in c2h6. B.the bond lengths in SO3 are all identical and are shorter than a sufur oxygen single bond. C. asked by Justyna on January 9, 2007 AP Chemistry I don’t understand this question and answer can someone help me? In order to exhibit delocalized pi bonding, a molecule must have . At least resonance 2 resonance structures. asked by Ana on October 19, 2010 chemistry Among the resonance structures of SCN-, is it true that the more widely-used structure is considered the “real” structure? Two resonance structures of SCN- are S=C=N and S-C≡N. asked by Anonymous on April 23, 2008 chemistry The hydrogen carbonate ion is formed when an H+ ion combines with the polyatomic ion CO32-. What is the net charge on the hydrogen carbonate ion? A. 2- B. 1- C. 1+ D. 2+ A asked by Keri on November 9, 2012 chemistry A carbonate ion, CO32−, can participate in an acid-base reaction. How should the carbonate ion be classified? asked by Morgan on October 13, 2014 8th grade physical science what is the charge on carbonate ion? Compared to the number of protons, how many electrons does the carbonate ion have? asked by Taylor on November 17, 2008 Chemistry Can someone explain hybrid structures and resonance structures. asked by Chris on March 2, 2010 Chemistry Draw Lewis dot structures, including appropriate resonance forms, and assign formal charges to each of those structures, for the molecule urea, with chemical formula NH2CONH2. You should find at least 3 such structures, some of which will have formal asked by Emma on October 25, 2009 Chemistry I have a homework question that says: “Three resonance structures of the following anion are possible. One is given below, but it is incomplete. Complete the given structure by adding non-bonding electrons and formal charges. Draw the two remaining asked by Anne on September 8, 2016 Chemistry A student draws four resonance structures for nitromethane (CH3NO2). How many lewis structures should have been drawn to represent nitromethane? asked by Amy on December 5, 2010 chemistry predict how many sodium ions would combine with: (a) a chlorine ion. (b) a carbonate ion. (c) a phosphate ion. asked by Hana on March 24, 2008 Chemistry Select the true statements regarding the resonance structures of formate. HCO2 Check all that apply: Each oxygen atom has a double bond 50% of the time. The actual structure of formate is an average of the two resonance forms. Each carbon-oyxgen bond is asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2012 chemistry How many resonance structures does N3- have? A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. No resonance C. 4 asked by Anonymous on December 12, 2012 Chemistry Choose the true statements regarding the charge-minimized Lewis structure(s) of the BrO2- ion. (selet all that apply) a. There is only one charge-minimized structure for this ion. b. There are two charge-minimized resonance structures for this ion. c. The asked by Lindsay on October 5, 2008 Resonance structures Is there a good article on how to draw resonance structures? Sheryl Sheryl, These are so hard to do on these boards. In fact, I think it is impossible to draw them on these boards. This site may help some. asked by Sheryl on September 24, 2006 Chemistry Suppose that you wanted to be sure that a metal ion, any metal ion, would dissolve in water. What salt of themetal ion compound would you choose? 1. the carbonate (CO2−3 ) salt of the metal ion 2. the hydroxide (OH−) salt of the metal ion 3. the asked by May on October 4, 2010 Chemistry What is the proper chemical formula for the perchlorate ion. Enter the formula by writing the formula followed by a comma and then any charge on the ion. For example: the carbonate ion, CO32- would be entered as CO3,2- (note the comma). Enter singly asked by girl1991 on April 12, 2008 chemistry Suppose that you wanted to be sure that a metal ion, any metal ion, would dissolve in water. What salt of the metal ion compound would you choose? 1. the hydroxide (OH−) salt of the metal ion 2. the carbonate (CO2− 3 ) salt of the metal ion 3. the asked by cheri on September 19, 2012 Chemistry I don’t understand this question and answer can someone help me? In order to exhibit delocalized pi bonding, a molecule must have . At least resonance 2 resonance structures. & In comparing the same two atoms bonded together, the greater the bond order, asked by Ana on October 20, 2010 chemistry what are two resonance structures for SPN asked by Anonymous on October 19, 2010 chemistry resonance structures of ch3nco asked by chamo on April 3, 2011 chemistry The net ionic equations for the following 1. Dissolution of silver oxalate with nitric acid 2. Complexation of the iron(III) by the thiocyanate ion 3. Precipitation of the carbonate ion with barium ion 4. precipitation of the oxalate ion with barium ion 5. asked by Jake on November 30, 2010 Chemistry What are all the resonance Structures of Carbon Tetraoxide? asked by Vinny on November 9, 2010 DrBob222-Questions Can you please check these for me. Thank you very much in return:-) For Al2(SO4)3 you gave me Aluminum ion and Sulfate ion. These are the rest: CaCl2 = Calcium ion and Chlorite ion Na2O = Sodium ion and Oxygen ion AgCl = silver ion and chlorine ion Na3PO4 asked by Sara on April 20, 2010 chem how many resonance structures can be drawn for sulfur trioxide, SO_3? asked by edna on November 27, 2007 chemistry do the resonance structures only apply for oxygen and double bonds? asked by alex on November 11, 2007 chem how many resonance structures can be drawn for sulfur trioxide, SO_3? asked by edna on November 27, 2007 Chem Urgency Is it possible to determine resonance structures…..or no? I understand what it is but I am not sure how the drawings come about or even how to recognize them. asked by Sami on November 26, 2007 chemistry How could you make the reaction Cu(NO3)2 + NaCO3 — CuCo3+NaNO3 balanced? You have the formula for sodium carbonate wrong> Na2CO3 The carbonate ion is -2 valence, and Na is +1. Now it will balance. asked by Carter on November 5, 2006 chemistry Solid sodium carbonate is slowly added to 50.0 mL of a 0.0310 M calcium acetate solution. The concentration of carbonate ion required to just initiate precipitation is asked by Anonymous on August 14, 2013 Chemistry In terms of aromatic compounds, how do I determine which pairs of structures are correct representations of resonance forms? For example in these structures: img33.imageshack.us/img33/2756/70725074.jpg I know there has to be a single bond, double bond, asked by Hatala on July 14, 2009 physic an object of mass 1.5 kg on a spring of force constant 600N/m loses 3% of its energy in each cycle.THE SYSTEM IS DRIVEn by a sinosuidal force with maximim value of F0=0.5N.(a) What is Q for this system?.(b) What is the resonance (angluar)frequency? (c) If asked by jjena on November 14, 2011 Physic Help please an object of mass 1.5 kg on a spring of force constant 600N/m loses 3% of its energy in each cycle.THE SYSTEM IS DRIVEn by a sinosuidal force with maximim value of F0=0.5N.(a) What is Q for this system?.(b) What is the resonance (angluar)frequency? (c) If asked by jjena on November 15, 2011 Physic Help please an object of mass 1.5 kg on a spring of force constant 600N/m loses 3% of its energy in each cycle.THE SYSTEM IS DRIVEn by a sinosuidal force with maximim value of F0=0.5N.(a) What is Q for this system?.(b) What is the resonance (angluar)frequency? (c) If asked by jjena on November 14, 2011 Chem Suppose that a stable element with atomic number 119, symbol Wr, has been discovered. (d) What would be the most likely charge of the Wr ion in stable ionic compounds? (e) Write a balanced equation that would represent the reaction of Wr with water. (f) asked by Dave on October 21, 2012 chemistry write the lewis structure for dinitrogen oxide. include the 2 resonance structures and formal charges where appropriate. asked by Missy on September 20, 2010 Chemistry What is the silver ion concentration in a solution prepared by mixing 345 mL of 0.352 M silver nitrate with 443 mL of 0.511 M sodium carbonate? The Ksp of silver carbonate is 8.1 × 10-12 asked by CP on March 11, 2013 Chemistry Please help with this! Draw Lewis structures of all of the important resonance states for the following molecules or ions. Be sure to indicate all formal charges and all unshared electron pairs. H3CCO+ C2H4Br+ C7H7+ (This is a ring with one H on each C) asked by Jawad on September 1, 2005 CHEMISTRY would you tell me how many resonance structures H2SO4 has? i am really confused, i drew them and i got alot. also CH3COOCH3. by the way what is CH3COOCH3? i couldn’t find it on wikipedia. asked by sharon on May 28, 2010 chem If 0.752 g of pure sodium carbonate was dissolved in water and the solution titrated with 25.90 mL of hydrochloric acid to a methyl orange end point, calculate the molarity of the hydrochloric acid solution. (Hint: This process takes the carbonate ion to asked by Beth on April 3, 2011 Chemistry Which of the following nitrogen oxide molecules and related ions is/are diamagnetic and has/have more than two charge-minimized resonance structures? 1. NO 2. NO2 3. N2O4 4. NO2- asked by Dave on October 25, 2009 Ion Charge & Formulas of Ionic Compounds Can you please take a look at my questions. Thank you very much. 1.classify the law of definite proportions. In specific proportions, A type of compound always contains the same elements. Is this good? Any other info would be greatly appreciated. 2.how do asked by Sara on April 20, 2010 Chem 1 Given the bond energy data below, which is the best prediction for the bond energy of the bond between the nitrogen and the oxygen atom in N2O? bond energy (kJ/mol) N-O single bond 201 N-O double bond 607 Indicate if it will be the single bond, double bond asked by Rossina on November 16, 2006 chemistry What is the molar solubility of silver carbonate Ag2CO3 at 25 C if it is dissolved in a 0.15M solution of silver nitrate, AgNO3? Solubility constant: silver carbonate = 8.1 *10^(-12) Answer: 3.6 *10^(-10) So… not sure exactly what to do here. AgCO3 + asked by molar solubility on July 30, 2011 chemistry Draw one of the Lewis structure of the N2O5. In each case one oxygen bridges the nitrogens (N-O-N single bond) and 2 other oxygens are bonded to each N. How many equivalent resonance structures are there that satisfy the octet rule and where O makes at asked by K on November 6, 2014 chemistry Draw one of the Lewis structure of the N2O5. In each case one oxygen bridges the nitrogens (N-O-N single bond) and 2 other oxygens are bonded to each N. How many equivalent resonance structures are there that satisfy the octet rule and where O makes at asked by john on November 4, 2014 physics Resonance of sound waves can be produced within an aluminum rod by holding the rod at its midpoint and stroking it with an alcohol-saturated paper towel. In this resonance mode, the middle of the rod is a node while the ends are antinodes; no other nodes asked by Erica–help! on December 6, 2010 Chemistry Write the HA reaction for each acid below. Account for the following activity order by drawing the important resonance contributing structures (those having only one negative (-) formal charge) for A-. HA + H2O H3O+ + A- stronger HClO4>HClO3>HClO weaker asked by Ochem Student on September 2, 2018 Chemistry What is the formula for the ions in the compounds BaSO4 and Li2CO3 BaSO4 has barium ions (Ba2+, Sulfate ions SO42-, and Lithium carbonate has lithium ions Li1+, and carbonate ions CO32- Ba ions (might be written as Ba^2+) and sulfate (might be written as asked by Bryan on November 16, 2006 Chemistry Draw the resonance structures for SeS2 and SiS2. There are 2 for SeS2 and 3 for SiS2. I really need help with this. If it can be explain with words, since pictures would be hard. Thanks! asked by Alexis on December 1, 2010 physics if the shortest lenggth of the tube for resonance is 0.1m and next resonance length is 0.35m what is the frequency of the vibration asked by kelvin on May 30, 2013 electronics Which of the following statements is true with reference to an L-C resonant circuit? (1) The impedance of a parallel L-C circuit is low at resonance and higher at frequencies above and below resonance. The impedance of a series circuit is high at resonance asked by Anonymous on July 10, 2017 chemistry write the formula for and indicate the charge on each of the following ions: a) sodium ion b) aluminum ion c) chloride ion d) nitride ion e e)iron (II) ion f) iron (III) ion asked by john on February 28, 2008 Chemistry What is the only positive ion found in H2SO4(aq)? a. ammonium ion b. hydronium ion c. hydroxide ion d. sulfate ion The answer’s b, but I don’t understand why. asked by danny123 on November 20, 2010 Chemistry Draw the Lewis Structure of CH3NCS including all resonance forms. Assign formal charges. Do not include resonance arrows. asked by Raeann on December 11, 2016 Science Compared to the number of protons how many electrons does the carbonate ion have asked by Blah on November 9, 2010 Chemistry 0.10 M solution of a weak monoprotic acid has a hydronium-ion concentration of 5.0 * 10^-4 M. What is the equilibrium constant, Ka, for this acid? a. 5.0 *10^-2 b. 5.0 * 10^-3 c. 2.5 * 10^-4 d. 2.5 * 10^-5 e. 2.5 * 10^-6 2. (Points: 1) What is the asked by wite2khin on May 13, 2010 chemistry THe thiocyanate ion acts as a Lewis base, donating a pair of electrons to the Fe ^ 3+ ion. Both sulfur and nitrogen atoms have lone pair electrons that can potentially be donated. Therefore, ther are two different structures (linkage isomers) that can be asked by Judy on June 29, 2010 chemistry To create a 0.1 M carbonate buffer pH = 10.2. You choose to use a combination of HCO3- / CO32-. This buffer system has pKa = 9.9. a) Calculate how much you need to weigh in each of the sodium salts, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, to create 1.0 L carbonate (with asked by Maria on September 9, 2016 chemistry help !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! a)A N6+ ion in its ground state absorbs an X-ray photon of energy 2.0000 keV. Explain what happens to the ion and why. b)Explain why the nitrogen ion N6+ is a hydrogen-like ion. Assuming the ion is for the major stable isotope 14N, state which sub-atomic asked by john on March 10, 2013 chemistry Which of these ions may be precipitated as sulfides? Assume neutral aqueous solution, pH=7. Silver (I) ion Sodium ion Calcium ion Lead (II) ion Manganese (II) ion Ammonium ion I think the silver I ion, lead II ion, and manganese ion may be precipitated as asked by Sarah on February 27, 2008 Chem Which of these ions may be precipitated as sulfides? Assume neutral aqueous solution, pH=7. Silver (I) ion Sodium ion Calcium ion Lead (II) ion Manganese (II) ion Ammonium ion I think the silver I ion, lead II ion, and manganese ion may be precipitated as asked by Sarah on February 27, 2008 Chemistry 102 The Ksp for cerium iodate, Ce(IO3)3 is 3.2 e-10. What is the molar solubility of Ce ion in pure water? = .0019 M B) A 0.031 M sodium iodate is added as a common ion. What is the concentration of Ce ion with the common ion present? C) What is the ratio of asked by Nick on April 21, 2010 chemistry When copper is dissolved in nitric acid, a brown gas (NO2) is evolved, either by direct production of NO2 or by production of NO which is oxidized to NO2 by O2. Provide a Lewis drawing and resonance structures for the nitrate anion. asked by Vishnu on October 4, 2008 CHEMISTRY Provide the name of the oxyanion of the acid HNO2(aq) I ENTERED Carbonate ion BUT ITS WRONG asked by MELISSA on June 24, 2016 chemistry What is the carbonate-ion, CO3-2, concentration in a 0.037 M carbonic acid solution? a. 1.2 ´ 10-4 b. 4.2 ´ 10-7 c. 7.6 ´ 10-8 d. 4.8 ´ 10-11 e. 5.2 ´ 10-19 asked by iby on May 14, 2010 Chemistry I did a back titration with an unknown carbonate and using the average % carbonate (by mass) which I found to be 27.40% and appropriate calculation decided where the unknown is an alkali metal carbonate or an alkaline earth metal carbonate. I have no idea asked by Laura on March 5, 2012 Chemistry Suppose that a stable element with atomic number 119, symbol Wr, has been discovered. (a) Write the ground-state electron configuration for Wr, showing only the valence-shell electrons. (b) Would Wr be a metal or a nonmetal? Explain in terms of electron asked by Lily on October 20, 2012 Chemistry One mole of each of the following compounds is added to water in separate flasks to make 1.0 L of solution. Which solution has the largest total ion concentration? a. aluminum hydroxide b. silver chloride c. sodium chloride d. calcium carbonate e. asked by Sam on May 9, 2011 chemistry 2 Which property of group 2 elements ( magnesium to barium) and their compounds increases with an increasing proton (atomic) number? A)the magnitude of the enthalpy change of hydration of the metal ion B)the pH of the aqueous chloride C)the solubility of the asked by areebah on August 31, 2017 chemistry 2 Which property of group 2 elements ( magnesium to barium) and their compounds increases with an increasing proton (atomic) number? A)the magnitude of the enthalpy change of hydration of the metal ion B)the pH of the aqueous chloride C)the solubility of the asked by areebah on August 31, 2017 Chemistry The compound butane, has two structures. They have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of bonds in their structures. As a result, they can have different chemical and physical properties. Draw the lewis structures of all the isomers of asked by Hannah on November 16, 2011 Chemistry Often, acetal formation is carried out directly with the help of a carbonyl and a diol under acidic conditions. a) Show two acid-base reactions that could occur in the presence of a strong acid such as p-toluenesulfonic acid. b)Draw the two resonance asked by Lindz on November 5, 2006 CHEM If NO3- has 3 resonance structures, but only one has to be written, where does the extra electron, making there then be 24 electrons, go if you cannot put brackets around the structure you are drawing? Do you put -1 on both of the singly bonded asked by K on November 26, 2007 Chemistry Would the following structures be polar or nonpolar? (Not applicable if the structure is an ion. Pick “ionic” in that case). SO2 N2O N3− asked by Johannie on April 10, 2010 Science What is a polyatomic ion? A polyatomic ion is an ion composed of more than one kind of atom. For example, the hydrogen carbonate ion, HCO3^- (also called bicarbonate), ammonium ion (NH4^+), oxalate ion (C2O4^-2), phosphate ion (PO4^-3), sulfate ion asked by Jeff on January 7, 2007 Chemistry How many resonance structures do these following acids have? H2CO3-carbonic acid H3PO4-phosphoric acid H2SO4-sulfuric acid HNO3-nitric acid CH3COOH- acetic acid CH2ClCOOH- chloroacetic acid CHCl2COOH- dichloroacetic acid CCl3COOH- trichloroacetic acid asked by Joseph on November 4, 2014 Chemistry You are provided with water and laboratory apparatus. 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You should specify the amount of sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate that you would use. asked by Parveen on August 12, 2012 chemistry a student accidentally mixed sodium carbonate an calcium carbonate. state how he would obtain pure sodium carbonate from the mixture asked by james on April 8, 2018 Categories ## why do you think the canadian government is opposed to quebec’s becoming a separate nation PLEASE EXPLAIN IN YOUR OWN WORDS PLEASE PLEASE HELP IN YOUR OWN WORDS PLEASE. 🙁 🙁 1) Explain the similarities and differences between corporate farms and mixed-crop farms. 2) Identify two problems resulting from urban sprawl in the western region of the United States. If these problems are not solved, what will the outcome likely be? 3) Why do you think the Canadian government is opposed to Quebec’s becoming a separate nation? In your answer, briefly explain why some residents of Quebec want to break away from Canada. 0 0 203 asked by Jane Mar 28, 2013 Tell us what you think. 0 0 posted by Jman Mar 28, 2013 To break away from 0 0 posted by Angie May 1, 2013 Dear Students. We are watching these sites. Do not use them for your test. This is considered cheating. 0 0 posted by me Feb 26, 2014 anadian was once part of British and French. The people in Quebec are most likely French or have a French ancestry. They speak French their and counts it as a main language. I think Quebec want to break away because of its French history or canadian’s involvement with British or that they have different culture, etc. Canadian doesn’t want Quebec to break away is probably because of that Quebec is a large, economy part and no country want to lose land. 0 0 posted by Reba Mar 28, 2014 me some of these questions that are on test are also on regular school work im on connexus and it has this as a quick check not a test 0 0 posted by monster Mar 20, 2017 me, and your not cheating, /:|. Everyone comes to this ite for one reason and thats to cheat. 0 0 posted by Mudman Mar 23, 2017 bruh, you are correct and if students had read their assignment and taken great notes they would not have to cheat! 0 0 posted by Annoyed teacher Apr 3, 2017 “Me” and you expect us to believe that some random person named “Me” is a teacher? 0 0 posted by Oh wow, i mean wow Apr 4, 2017 please note the fact that we won’t use your answers, and we’ll write them in our own words, if you don’t wanna help, don’t help, but don’t come to a person asking for help and tell them they can’t have help. 0 0 posted by Oh wow, i mean wow Apr 4, 2017 Wow. 0 0 posted by Ms. Sue Mar 9, 2018 me do it look like i give a care about cheating hahaha noooooo 0 0 posted by PillowTalk Mar 15, 2018 Using this site is considered cheating for any test/assessment. If you pay attention in class and take notes, read your textbook, and most importantly, actually study!…you won’t have to cheat. 0 0 posted by Sam I Am Mar 20, 2018 @ Sam I Am then why the !@#$%^& are u here u wont be here if u did all that s**t u told us all to do ur here for answers to so u can really stfu up ur one of many to talk about cheating.

Also @ me

U expect us to believe ur a teacher watching us yea ok thats a lie nobody gonna believe a teachers name is ‘me’ so stop lying

0 0
posted by help
Apr 5, 2018
@ help I sooooo agree with u

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 5, 2018

I agree with you

0 0
posted by Cole
Apr 7, 2018
hgcf

0 0
posted by jacob
Apr 9, 2018
ms sue it not a teacher

0 0
posted by reaper
Apr 11, 2018

Categories

## find the ear in each of the following cases

Find the EAR in each of the following cases.
Stated Rate (APR) Number of Times
8 % Quarterly %
16 % Monthly %
12 % Daily %
15 % Infinite %

0 0 291
Jul 10, 2010
8% APR paid quarterly is (1.02)^4 -1 = 8.243%
16% APR paid monthly is (1.01333)^12 -1 = 17.22%
12% APR paid daily is (1.0003288)^365 = 12.75%
15% APR compounded with infinite frequency is
e^.15 -1 = 16.18%

0 0
posted by drwls
Jul 11, 2010
Thank you, that infinite was was real confusing. Any advice on the other two questions I posted?

0 0
posted by Carla
Jul 11, 2010

Categories

## an equilibrium mixture of pcl5

at an equilibrium mixture of PCl5, PCl3, and Cl2 has partial pressures of 217.0 Torr, 13.2 Torr and 13.2 Torr respectively. a quantity of Cl2 is injected into the mixture, and the total pressure jumps to 263.0 Torr (at the moment of mixing). the system then re-equilibrates. calculate the new partial pressures after equilibrium is reestablished.

0 0 324
Feb 25, 2014
……….PCl5 –> PCl3 + Cl2
E………217…….13.2 13.2

Kp = pPCl3*pCl2/pPCl5.
Substitute the E line into Kp expression and solve for Kp.

Total P = 217 + 13.2 + 13.2 = 243.4
New total P = 263
Cl2 added = 263-243.4= 19.6 torr
New Cl2 = 19.6 + 13.2 = 32.8 torr

………..PCl5 ==> PCl3 + Cl2
I……….217……13.2…32.8
C………..x…….-x……-x
E………217+x….13.2-x..32.8-x

Substitute the E line into Kp expression and evaluate x and the others.
Post your work if you get stuck.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Feb 25, 2014

Categories

## rank these substances in order of increasing solubility in water.

Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing solubility in water:

• O2
• LiCl
• Br2
• CH3OH

Like dissolves like; that is, polar compounds usually are soluble in water and non-polar compounds are not soluble in water. From that description, make your choices and post what you think. We can help you from there. OR, tell us what you don’t understand about the question.

So, O2 is nonpolar, and is therefore not soluble. Br2 is also nonpolar, so how do I know which one is more soluble? LiCl is ionic – does that mean it is soluble? I know NaCl is soluble and that’s an ionic compound. CH3OH has some polar and nonpolar bonds. Where do I go from there?

You are right that oxygen is only slightly soluble in water. Bromine reacts with water to form HOBr and HBr so there is more solublity there. LiCl, if it is ionic, must be polar and (you did well to compare with NaCl because both Li and Na are in group IA of the periodic table) so you would expect LiCl to be quite soluble. Methyl alcohol is essentially miscible with water in all proportions (see the OH group on CH3OH and note HOH has the same OH from water). So it is an educated guess as to which, LiCl or CH3OH, has the greater solubility. I looked up LiCl and 1 gram will dissolve in 1.3 mL cold water or 0.8 mL hot water (VERY soluble). I believe CH3OH is miscible ihn all proportions so I would rank it higher. However, you form your own conclusion.

so it would be O2, Br2, LiCl, CH3OH. Very confusing.

Br2
CH3OH
LiCl
O2

What is the I- concentration just as AgCl begins to precipitate when 1.0 M AgNO3 is slowly added to a colution containing 0.020 M Cl- and 0.020 M I-?

0 0 1,068
Jan 2, 2007
it’s based on intermolecular forces too. br and o are both nonpolar so it’s all like “why would one be more soluable than the other?” but it’s because br has more dispersion forces since it has more electrons. so br is a little bit more polarish (although not technically polar), and since water is very polar, that means it wants to bond with the most polarish atom. so o2 is definently first. then br. what about licl and ch3oh? well, both are polar, but ch3oh has hydrogen bonds. hydrogen bonds are stronger. water, too, has hydrogen bonds. so it wants to bond with another hydrogen bond more than it wants to bond with just a dipole. therefore ch3oh is the most. why is licl before the diatomics, though? because licl still behaves more polarish than the diatomics. just think about intermolecular forces and it all makes sense. (sorry if this is really confusing… it makes no sense without a firm grasp of intermolecular forces plus i’ve been studying this stuff for the past six hours -_-)

1 0
posted by mackenzie
Feb 5, 2010
Arrange compounds in order of increase lattric energy MgCl2.SrCl2. BaCl2.MgF2. Bal2

0 0
posted by jasmine
Nov 6, 2013
i dont know

0 0
posted by LeGiTSCOPES
Apr 9, 2017

Categories

## a rocket is launched straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.90Ã—104 m/s .

A rocket is launched straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.80Ã—104 m/s^2. a)What is its speed when it is very far away from the earth?
46,936 results
physics
A rocket is launched straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.80×104 m/s^2. a)What is its speed when it is very far away from the earth?

asked by kelly on December 1, 2009
Physics
A rocket is launched from rest. After 8.0 min, it is 160 Km above the Earth’s surface and is moving at a speed of 7.6 Km/s. Assuming the rocket moves up in a straight line, what are its (a) average velocity and (b) average acceleration?

asked by John on September 13, 2011
Physics
A rocket starts from rest and moves upward from the surface of the earth. For the first 10s of its motion, the vertical acceleration of the rocket is given by a_y =( 2.70m/s^3)t, where the +y-direction is upward. 1) What is the height of the rocket above

asked by Jason on September 10, 2011
physics
A rocket is launched vertically from Earth’s surface with a velocity of 3.4 km/s. How high does it go: From Earth’s centre? From Earth’s surface? how can this be done without any time or force mentioned ??

asked by matin on May 9, 2012
Physics
What is the speed of the rocket when it is 350 above the surface of the earth? A rocket starts from rest and moves upward from the surface of the earth. For the first 10 of its motion, the vertical acceleration of the rocket is given by a(y)=2.9, where the

asked by Andrew on September 9, 2012

Physics
PROJECTILE LAUNCHED FROM EARTH’S SURFACE? A projectile is shot straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.20×10^4km/hr. How high does it go? (answer in km) Supposed to solve this using F=G(mm/2r)…?

asked by Dan on April 12, 2011
PHYSICS
At the Earth’s surface, a projectile is launched straight up at a speed of 8.4 km/s. To what height will it rise? Ignore air resistance and the rotation of the Earth.

asked by Rachel on March 11, 2011
Physics
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asked by Joe on April 29, 2014
physics
A 3Kg projectile is fired straight upward from earth’s surface with a speed that is one-fourth the escape speed. Neglecting air resistance. a) What is the Kinetic energy of this projectile when it is launched? b) what is the gravitational potential energy

asked by rick on February 14, 2011
physics
A projectile is shot straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.50×104 .

asked by rick on November 30, 2012
Physics
A projectile is shot straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.20×104 KM/HR. How high does it go?

asked by Michael on April 6, 2010
Physics
A projectile is shot straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.20×104 km/hr. How high does it go?

asked by Zack on April 6, 2010
Physics
A projectile is shot straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.20 x 104 km/hr. How high does it go?

asked by Sarah on December 5, 2014
Physics
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asked by Anonymous on February 26, 2014
Physics
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asked by Dustin on September 28, 2007

Physics
a. 2 objects each of mass 200 kg and 500 kg are separated by 50 cm. Where body of mass 20 kg should be placed so that the resultant force of gravity experienced by objects equal to zero? b. launched a rocket leaving Earth. Known radius of the earth 6.4 x

asked by steffy Jane on May 6, 2013
Science
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 30.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.50 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 160 m. A. what is the maximum height reached by the rocket? B. how long

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Physics
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asked by Help on November 18, 2014
physics
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asked by Ugandanmafia on February 28, 2011
pre cal
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asked by ari on July 12, 2016
Chemistry
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 45.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 1.50 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 160 m. A. what is the max height reached by the rocket? B. How long after

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NIC
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Physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 50 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.00 m/s^2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 150 m. a) What is the max. height reached by the rocket? b) When does the

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physics
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Physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 46.4 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.18 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 138 m. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? How long after

asked by Marty on September 4, 2015

physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 30.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.50 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 170 m. (a) What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? m (b) How

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Physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 57.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 1.50 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 190 m. (a) What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? (b) How long

asked by <3 on September 11, 2013
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 60.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.00 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 130 m. (a) What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? (b) How long

asked by tommy on September 7, 2010
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 30.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 1.50 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 170 m. (a) What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? (b) How long

asked by ashley on September 15, 2011
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 60.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.00 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 130 m. (a) What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? m (b) How

asked by frank on September 6, 2010
physics
model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 50.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 1.00 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 130 m. (a) What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? m (b) How long

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Physics
A rocket launched from earth with a rest mass of 150,000Kg moves at 2.8×10^8 m/s during a voyage that takes 1.3 years, according to a clock on board the rocket. a) Using relativity, calculate how long the voyage would take, from earth’s reference frame. b)

asked by Dani on September 9, 2018
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 50m/s. It acccelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2m/s^2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 150m. (a)What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? (b)How long after

asked by Anonymous on September 14, 2007
Physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an install speed of 57.6 m/s. it accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 1.70m/s^2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 240m. A. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? The

asked by Ashley on September 11, 2013
Math/calculus
a toy rocket is shot into the air at the top of a building so that its height above the ground t seconds after the rocket is launched is given by the formula h(t)= -3t cubed + 6t squared + 27t feet from liftoff until the rocket crashes into the ground.

asked by lola on July 13, 2012

Physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 58.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 1.50 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 120 m. (a) What can you say about the motion of the rocket after its

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trig
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asked by hanna tret on September 9, 2011
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 60.0 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.00 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 130 m. (a) What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? Your

asked by jim on September 6, 2010
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 51.3 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 1.82 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 150 m. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket?

asked by Jasmine on September 19, 2013
Physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 47.8 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 1.83 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 163 m. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket?

asked by Wing on September 14, 2011
physics
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asked by sam on January 23, 2014
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 50.2 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.12 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 167 m. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket?

asked by NICOLE on August 31, 2012
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 45.6 m/s. It acceler- ates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.88 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 151.6 m. 1. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket?

asked by Anonymous on September 20, 2014
Physics
The international space center is 1500km above the earth surface. Determine the escape velocity of a rocket launched into space at this altitude if the mass of the earth is 6.010^-24kg and the radius is 6.410^6 m.

asked by Bill on May 27, 2018
physics
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asked by Justin on January 25, 2014

physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 47.7 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.02 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 157 m. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? How long after

asked by cat on January 23, 2014
physics
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asked by a on October 12, 2011
science
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asked by Kim on May 8, 2007
physics
A stationary rocket is launched vertically upward. After 4s, the rocket’s fuel is used up and it is 225.6 m above the ground. At this instant the velocity of the rocket is 112,8 m/s. Then the rocket undergoes free fall. Ignore the effect of the air

asked by clement on March 8, 2014
Exploring Space
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physics
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asked by ben on October 3, 2011
physics
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asked by anonymous on October 15, 2011
algebra
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asked by Ressie on May 21, 2013
Math
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asked by Bilal on January 22, 2014
Calc
A rocket is launched with an initial velocity of zero, and with acceleration in feet per second per second defined by: ——–( 20e^(-t/2), for 0 10 seconds. Thanks!

asked by Michael on February 24, 2008

algebra
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asked by rr on May 15, 2012
Physics
If a projectile is launched from Earth with a speed equal to the escape speed, how high above the Earth’s surface is it when its speed is three-fifths the escape speed? I keep getting the answer 2.56×10^6 m after solving it a few different ways. Help would

asked by Kristin on April 28, 2012
Calc
A rocket is launched with an initial velocity of zero, and with acceleration in feet per second per second defined by: ——–( 20e^(-t/2), for 0 10 seconds. Show all work. Thanks a lot!

asked by Michael on February 22, 2008
physic
A sounding rocket, launched vertically upward with an initial speed of 79.0 m/s, accelerates away from the launch pad at 5.70 m/s2. The rocket exhausts its fuel, and its engine shuts down at an altitude of 1.15 km, after which it moves freely under the

asked by joy on January 23, 2018
physics
A 9.50 kg rocket produces a thrust of 365 N. The rocket is pointed upward and the bottom of the rocket is attached to, and is resting on, a spring with a spring constant of 320 N/m. If the spring compressed 0.291 m prior to launch, what is the rocket’s

asked by Anonymous on November 12, 2018
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 45.4 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.98 m/s 2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 150 m. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? The

asked by ben on October 2, 2011
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 51.6 m/s. It accelerates with a constant upward acceleration of 1.96 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 230 m. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? The acceleration

asked by a on October 11, 2011
physics
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asked by nate on March 26, 2010
physiscs
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 53.0 m/s. It acceler- ates with a constant upward acceleration of 3.21 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 230 m. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? The

asked by juan on September 29, 2012
physics
The engine of a toy rocket supplies an average acceleration of 38.0 m/s/s to the rocket for an interval of 0.80 s. A.)If the toy roocket is launched vertically, how high does it rise in this interval? B.) How fast is the rocket moving at the end of 0.80 s?

asked by Kendra on January 19, 2010

physics
A firework rocket is launched vertically from rest and loses 60% of its mass during a burn time of 4 seconds. What is the final speed of the rocket relative to the ground (in m/s) when the gas relative to the rocket has a speed v= 80 m/s? a. 15 m/s; b. 34

asked by Ken on December 29, 2013
Physics
An object is projected from a satellite orbiting 200 km above the surface of the earth. The object has a speed relative to the Earth of 2.85×104 m/s. What is its speed when it is very far from the earth?

asked by James on November 17, 2016
physics
A spy satellite was launched into a circular orbit with a height of 599 km above the surface of the Earth. Determine its orbital speed and period. (The mass of the Earth is 5.97 1024 kg, and the radius of the Earth is 6370 km.)

asked by tae on April 23, 2013
physics
A model rocket is launched straight upward with an initial speed of 52 m/s. It acceler- ates with a constant upward acceleration of 2.6 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude of 202.2 m. What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? Answer in units

asked by squires on August 30, 2011
gravity
A spaceship is launched from the Earth’s surface with a speed v. The radius of the Earth is R. What will its speed be when it is very far from the Earth? (Use any variable or symbol stated above along with the following as necessary: G for the

asked by Anonymous on November 5, 2010
Physics
A spaceship is launched from the Earth’s surface with a speed v. The radius of the Earth is R. What will its speed be when it is very far from the Earth? (Use any variable or symbol stated above along with the following as necessary: G for the

asked by Donny on November 3, 2010
Physics
A spaceship is launched from the Earth’s surface with a speed v. The radius of the Earth is R. What will its speed be when it is very far from the Earth? (Use any variable or symbol stated above along with the following as necessary: G for the

asked by Oscar on November 4, 2010
physics
A rocket carrying a satellite is accelerating straight up from the earth’s surface. At 1.20 after liftoff, the rocket clears the top of its launch platform, 68 above the ground. After an additional 4.85 , it is 1.50 above the ground.Calculate the magnitude

physics
A 7710-kg rocket is set for vertical firing from the earth’s surface. If the exhaust speed is 1350 m/s, how much gas must be ejected each second in order for the thrust to be equal to the weight of the rocket? How much gas must be ejected each second to

asked by shelby on March 4, 2008
Physics
A small rocket is launched vertically, attaining a maximum speed at burnout of 1.0 102 m/s and thereafter coasting straight up to a maximum altitude of 1482 m. Assuming the rocket accelerated uniformly while the engine was on, how long did it fire and how

asked by Preetha on October 7, 2010

Physics
A rocket is launched from rest and moves in a straight line at 42.5 ° above the horizontal with an acceleration of 62.5 m/s2. After 32.0 s of powered flight, the engines shut off and the rocket follows a parabolic path back to earth. Find the time of

asked by Fabio on February 4, 2013
Math
A rocket is launched straight up. At t seconds after being launched, its altitude is given by h = 4t^2 metres. You are on the ground 400 metres from the launch site, watching the rocket. The line of sight from you to the rocket makes an angle theta

asked by Jim on April 20, 2015
math 116
A launched rocket has an altitude in meters, given by the polynomial h+vt-4.9^2, h is the height in meters v is the velocity in meters per second and t is the number of seconds for which it takes the rocket to become airborne. If the rocket is launched

asked by Jessie on May 15, 2011
math 117
A launched rocket has an altitude in meters, given by the polynomial h+vt-4.9^2, h is the height in meters v is the velocity in meters per second and t is the number of seconds for which it takes the rocket to become airborne. If the rocket is launched

asked by sue on May 16, 2011
math 117
A launched rocket has an altitude in meters, given by the polynomial h+vt-4.9^2, h is the height in meters v is the velocity in meters per second and t is the number of seconds for which it takes the rocket to become airborne. If the rocket is launched

asked by Jessie on May 15, 2011
math 117
A launched rocket has an altitude in meters, given by the polynomial h+vt-4.9^2, h is the height in meters v is the velocity in meters per second and t is the number of seconds for which it takes the rocket to become airborne. If the rocket is launched

asked by Jessica on May 15, 2011
Algbrah
A launched rocket has an altitude in meters, given by the polynomial h+vt-4.9^2, h is the height in meters v is the velocity in meters per second and t is the number of seconds for which it takes the rocket to become airborne. If the rocket is launched

asked by Jessie on May 15, 2011
Algebra~Scary problem!
A launched rocket has an altitude, in meters, given by the polynomial h+vt-4.9t^2, where h is the height, in meters, from which the launch occurs, at the velocity v in meters per second, and the t is the number of seconds for which the rocket is airborne.

asked by Sahara on May 27, 2008
math-algebra
A launched rocket has an altitude, in meters, given by the polynomial h = vt -4.9t^2, where h is the height, in meters, from which the launch occurs, at velocity v in meters per second, and t is the number of seconds for which the rocket is airborne. If a

asked by Michelle on October 9, 2010
math
a launched rocket has an altitude, in meters, given by the polynimial h+vt-4.9t^2 where h is the height, in meters, from which the launch occurs, at velocity v in meters per second, and t is the number of seconds for which the rocket is airborne. If a

asked by pam on March 21, 2013

Physics
A rocket is launched straight up with constant acceleration. Four seconds after liftoff, a bolt falls off the side of the rocket. The bolt hits the ground 6.70s later. What was the rocket’s acceleration? Express your answer with the appropriate units.

asked by Dib on September 3, 2014
physics
A rocket is launched straight up with constant acceleration. Four seconds after liftoff, a bolt falls off the side of the rocket. The bolt hits the ground 6.10s later. What was the rocket’s acceleration?

asked by Jeff on September 6, 2008
Science
A rocket with mass 20000kg is launched straight upwards. the rocket experience an average drag force ( air resistance ) of 15000 N. What thrust force will be necessary for the rocket to maintain an acceleration of 4.5m/s square upwards?

asked by Ralphkim on November 22, 2015
PHYSICS
A model rocket is constructed with a motor that can provide a total impulse of 25.5 N · s. The mass of the rocket is 0.213 kg. What is the speed that this rocket achieves when launched from rest? Neglect the effects of gravity and air resistance.

asked by ZAC on October 21, 2010
physics
A model rocket is constructed with a motor that can provide a total impulse of 25.5 N · s. The mass of the rocket is 0.213 kg. What is the speed that this rocket achieves when launched from rest? Neglect the effects of gravity and air resistance.

asked by josh on October 21, 2010
Physics
A rocket is launched straight up with constant acceleration. Four seconds after liftoff, a bolt falls off the side of the rocket. The bolt hits the ground 7.10 later. What was the rocket’s acceleration?

asked by Mark on January 28, 2010
phys
A rocket is launched straight up with constant acceleration. Four seconds after liftoff, a bolt falls off the side of the rocket. The bolt hits the ground 6.0s{\rm s} later.What was the rocket’s acceleration?

asked by Av on September 16, 2014
physics
A rocket is launched straight up with constant acceleration. Four seconds after liftoff, a bolt falls off the side of the rocket. The bolt hits the ground 6.40 s later. What is the rocket’s acceleration?

asked by Michael on January 26, 2009
Physics
A rocket is launched at an angle of è = 48° above the horizontal with an initial speed vi = 62 m/s, as shown below. It moves for 25 s along its initial line of motion wth an acceleration of 25.6 m/s2. At this time, its engines fail and the rocket

asked by Anonymous on October 26, 2015
intermediate algebra
A model rocket Is launched from a height of 50ft. The formula h=-16t^2+70t +50 describes the rocket’s height,h,in feet seconds after it was launched. How long will it take the rocket to reach to reachthe ground?

asked by Nellie on November 16, 2014

Math
A rocket is launched from the top of a 50 foot cliff with an initial velocity of 120 feet per second. The height, h, of the rocket after t seconds is given by the equation h=-16t^2 + 120t+ 50. How long after the rocket is launched will it be 10 feet from

asked by Anonymous on April 28, 2016
science
3.A rocket launched accelerates at 3.5m/s^2 in 5.90 secs and2.98m/s^2 in the next 5.98 secs and then experiences a free fall. What time will the rocket be in air? Assume that the rocket is launched from the ground.

asked by mano on July 6, 2016
science
A rocket launched accelerates at 3.5m/s^2 in 5.90 secs and2.98m/s^2 in the next 5.98 secs and then experiences a free fall. What time will the rocket be in air? Assume that the rocket is launched from the ground.

asked by Anonymous on September 2, 2013
Physics
A toy rocket is launched upwards from rest. The rocket engine will cause the rocket to accelerate at 25 m/s^2 for 3.0 seconds. a) How fast is the rocket moving aft the end of the 3 seconds? b) What is the maximum height reached by the rocket? c) What is

asked by Sam on October 7, 2010
physics
A rocket is fired straight up through the atmosphere from the South Pole, burning out at an altitude of 208 km when traveling at 5.8 km/s. (a) What maximum distance from Earth’s surface does it travel before falling back to Earth? I know how to do the

asked by nate on March 29, 2010

Categories

## which of the following is a theme the author explores in johnny tremain

Johnny Tremain

Which of the following is a theme the author explores in Johnny Tremain? select all that apply.
Friends and Family
The costs of war
Fear of failure
coming of age

they all seem to apply but i assume i can only pick two. which ones? help asap? thanks

2 0 6,315
Jan 10, 2015
Choose the two that you think are most important in this novel.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Jan 10, 2015
A & B?

0 0
posted by SkatingDJ
Jan 10, 2015
I vote for D.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Jan 10, 2015
so A & D.?

0 0
posted by SkatingDJ
Jan 10, 2015

Yes, those would be my choices.

1 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Jan 10, 2015
thanks Ms. Sue!:) I may post more

0 0
posted by SkatingDJ
Jan 10, 2015
You’re welcome. But remember, I haven’t read this book in almost 70 years.

1 5
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Jan 10, 2015
The correct answer for the question is B & D.

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Jan 16, 2015
Agreed. It is B and D!

1 0
posted by Shorty
Jan 20, 2015

Which of the following is a theme the author explores in Johnny Tremain? select all that apply.

0 0
posted by wrapper
Jan 3, 2016

1. B and D
2. B
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. A
7. C
8. A
9. C
10. This is written response 89 1
posted by Pacman
Jan 9, 2016
Thanks Pacman! 7 0
posted by Obi Wan Kenobi
Jan 11, 2016
Packman are those answers for an entire test 5 0
posted by 3 Times
Jan 11, 2016
yes bro !! 5 0
posted by conexsus
Jan 12, 2016

thank you so much pacman i got them all right

4 0
posted by connexus girl
Jan 14, 2016
Yes He is thanks your the best!!

4 0
posted by Keke is Smart
Jan 21, 2016
Thanks guys:)

4 0
posted by Warframe is the best game ever!
Jan 25, 2016
I haven’t read any of the book because of Jishka I just get all of my answers here lol

27 0
posted by Connections Person
Jan 26, 2016
but you guys have to read “THE GIVER” it is really interesting …

14 0
posted by tbh
Jan 29, 2016

pacman is only a geanous

4 0
posted by Mason
Jan 29, 2016
Mrs. Johnson I presume?

0 4
posted by Bryan Vo
Jan 29, 2016
oh please for the last time this not a cheating site it here to help you when you and if it was why you on here then CHEATER

3 6
posted by Keke is Smart
Apr 4, 2016

1. B and D
2. B
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. A
7. C
8. A
9. C

Keke is smart

I really don’t care is I cheat as long as I get good grades 🙂

23 0
posted by boo
Nov 24, 2016
Is this Keke Escalente

0 0
posted by Jayleen
Dec 9, 2016

it’s not a cheating site, it’s just a site where you go to say you need help, when in reality this is your last choice when the answer doesn’t come up immediately on Google. Thx internet.

6 6
posted by Justise
Dec 15, 2016
Pacman is the only person I trust to give the answers and he’s right and I love him.

# nohomo

12 0
posted by SomeBody
Dec 16, 2016
okay if ya think that this is a cheating site then why ya here it means that ya cheating sooo ya dont say that this site is cheating its for help people get that in your mind gosh!!!!!!!!!!!

3 1
posted by Anonymous
Dec 17, 2016
Pacman, you saved my life with this book. Forever thankful. On da real!

2 0
posted by YourBruh Forever
Jan 4, 2017
Pacman is right!

3 0
Jan 12, 2017

THANK YOU PACMAN!!!

3 1
posted by Evergreen
Jan 13, 2017
Your teachers know that you are cheating. Just so you are aware.

0 9
posted by English Teacher
Jan 15, 2017
Hi everyone! I hope you all made a good grade on your final for Johnny Tremain, but I really suggest reading The Giver next semester, it is a great book. Happy finals!

4 0
posted by Ms. Abraham
Jan 15, 2017

0 0
posted by Jiaxi Ma
Jan 22, 2017
THANK YOU PACMAN 10/10!!!! 100%!!!!!!

2 0
posted by hgvbgf
Jan 23, 2017

Thank you @Pacman <3 u dude 🙂

2 0
posted by Uni-Clair
Dec 11, 2017
THX Bro

1 0
posted by That Guy
Dec 11, 2017
im sorry didnt realise it was that big

3 0
posted by DATBOI@ALCA
Dec 14, 2017
if you guys haven’t read the book it is great so is this website

1 0
posted by noname
Dec 14, 2017
How about people stop putting so many enters into their messages. And this site is supposed to be used for “CHECKING” answers that you have already tried to figure out. It is only cheating if you did not already answer it!

0 4
posted by Caring Person
Dec 15, 2017

keke if this isnt a cheating site, then why are you on it

1 0
posted by Bre
Dec 15, 2017
Some people come here to cheat while others come to check their work and help other people.

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Dec 15, 2017
And BTW stop spamming
I posted the comment above

0 1
posted by Anonymous
Dec 15, 2017
Pac man Wins again

2 0
posted by Mr. Falcon
Dec 20, 2017
anyone got answers for the written essay part?

0 0
posted by BOIII
Jan 2, 2018

Oh, how grading becomes so much easier when you cheat. 0/14. It’s like handing out candy.

0 4
posted by LA Teacher
Feb 13, 2018
Pacman is right he always has the right answers!

0 0
posted by TRUST ME!!
Nov 20, 2018
Pacman is correct 💙

0 0
posted by Woltia
Dec 14, 2018

1. B and D
2. B
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. A
7. C
8. A
9. C
10. Essay 4 1
posted by Hal
Dec 16, 2018
Thanks Pac man 0 0
posted by NBA YoungBoy
Dec 18, 2018
11. B and D
12. B
13. C
14. B
15. A
16. A
17. C
18. A
19. C
20. This is written response

Thanks pacman got em all right

1 0
posted by gymnast 9076
Dec 18, 2018
Fact: It is indeed cheating. You aren’t doing your school work, aren’t doing any of it by yourself, you aren’t studying. Sure, you can dislike this, it just proves how big of a crybaby you are.

2 5
posted by Yo Homie
Dec 19, 2018
I read 7 chapters of the book, gave up after that xD. But it’s good if you are into the stuff that book presents.

3 0
posted by DifieJaucy
Dec 20, 2018
We can figure out if you kids cheated or not. I am a teacher who 9/10 times can figure out if you cheated. If you cheat you will be getting a 0. Cheating is a very important matter. If you cheat when the STARR test comes up and you guys can’t use the internet or other sources you will fail.

1 3
posted by ELA Teacher
Dec 28, 2018
Lesson 4.13 Quiz

1. B and D
2. B
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. A
7. C
8. A
9. C
These are checked and verified by a literal gradebook. You’re Welcome!
Xoxo 2 0
Jan 7, 2019

@Yo Homie you are correct. Same with @ELA Teacher… Do your own work. Ask for help don’t expect a full on answer to the tests. After all you are only screwing yourself cuz you won’t make it anywhere in life by cheating. Dislike this idc it just proves how immature you are. Grow up. You are all in middle school. Cheating will get you nowhere. I have good grades always did, but when I need help I ask for it. This is a last resort. Although it is kinda funny to see y’all trying to justify cheating. TRY TO DO YOUR WORK OR ASK FOR HELP NEXT TIME. Please. It’s also really funny to see y’all arguing the way you do. You know cheating is bad. It will get you nowhere so why? This site was originally made for help, but anymore it just seems like a cheat site. Scuff This disgusts me honestly.
~Just a savage

3 2
posted by savagegirl
Jan 7, 2019
Shes right

0 0
posted by Steel_Shock
Jan 8, 2019
She is so correct, but I do have to admit I cheat too. I am planning to STOP though so beat that. But ask for help when needed i will do same. Thanks guys who helped and other people grow up an learn NOT to aurgue.
Thanks
Bye Savage Girl Too!

0 0
posted by Savage Girl Too
Jan 8, 2019
can anyone tell me number 10 please i suck at writing

0 0
posted by ¯_(๑❛ᴗ❛๑)_/¯
Jan 14, 2019
@Love ^^ i agree,

0 0
posted by Vaeh <3
Jan 17, 2019

Savage girl “I have good grades and always have” Sure… That’s why you can’t use proper grammar right? Cheating to pass will get you your diploma which will get you a job… So yeah it does actually get you somewhere in life.

1 1
posted by Anonymous
Jan 23, 2019
Yeah It’ll get you a job but when you go to college and can’t do any of your work because you decided to use good ol’ jiskha to grow your pint-sized brains instead of actually reading the answers they give you in your work, you won’t get a job. You will not pass college.

0 0
posted by Yo homie
Feb 22, 2019

Categories

## what is one of the values revealed through the indian epics

what is one of the values revealed through the indian epics
A: the equality of men and women
B: the importance of duty over personal desires
C: the superiority of the nobility
D: the knowledge gained through war and conquest

How did geography affect where ancient peoples settled on the Indian subcontinent?
A: settlements grew in arid areas where herders had some space
B:settlements were built in mountainous regions to avoid invaders
C: settlements developed in river valleys that were fertile for farming
D: settlements developed where cilivizations were previously built

What do archaeologists identify as one possible reason for the decline of the Indus cilvlizations?
A: the Aryana attacked and overran Indus cities
B: to many tress were cut down leaving the Indus with no fuel
C: the Indus experienced a devastating drought
D: the Indus people migrated to a new region

How was aryan society structured?
A: people were divided into social groups based on family wealth?
B: people were divided into social groups based on occupation
C: people were divided into social groups based on religious beliefs
D: people were divided into social groups based on the size of their farm

What is one way that Buddhism differs Hinduism?

A: Buddhism has teachers and spiritual practice
B: Buddhism reclines that people are all interconnected
C: Buddhism rejects a cast system and focuses on mediation
D: Buddhism teaches that a persons actions have consequences for spiritual development.

How do cattle link the Indus and aryan civilizations and modern India?
A: all three populations traded cattel with other cultures
B: all three populations used cattle in their diets
C: all three populations were cattle herding societies
D. All three populations held a special regard for cattle

0 0 420
Sep 1, 2016
All help will be SO SO much apperiative!

0 0
posted by Hahahajokerqueen
Sep 1, 2016

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Sep 1, 2016

0 0
posted by Hahahajokerqueen
Sep 1, 2016
I really need help to get this done I have been doing school since 8 this morning……I have been doing a lot for vaca

0 0
posted by Hahahajokerqueen
Sep 1, 2016

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Sep 1, 2016
Oh sorry I read that wrong! And any way possible I mean i just would like the answers cues I am honestly so tierd

0 0
posted by Hahahajokerqueen
Sep 1, 2016
I know where the answers are. They are lurking in your text, just waiting for you to find them.

To get you started:

1. B
2. C

Study your text and take it from there.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Sep 1, 2016
Thank u ms. Sue I finally got it…..thank u so so much!

0 0
posted by Hahahajokerqueen
Sep 1, 2016
You are very welcome.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Sep 1, 2016

0 0
posted by History
Sep 29, 2016
1.a
2.b
3.c
4.c
5.b
6.c
7.d
8.b, d
100% I promise. I just took the quiz.

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 3, 2016
Anonymous is right i got 100%

0 0
posted by Kal
Oct 3, 2016
Anonymous was wrong 3 isn’t c I just took the quiz and it was wrong

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 6, 2016
Anonymous is right!

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 12, 2016

@Social studies help 3 is C I just took the test and got 100%. Also 4 has 2 answers B,D. For all connexus kids this is right.

0 0
posted by Connexus
Sep 21, 2017

1. a
2. b
3. c
4. B,C
5. b
6. c
7. d
8. b,d 0 0
posted by …
Sep 21, 2017
for conections student “Connexus” ^^^ is correct! 0 0
posted by _ilovepink_24
Sep 28, 2017
…’s answers are 100% correct. no bs. anon’s answers would have been partially incorrect despite people saying they got 100% 0 0
posted by Response
Sep 29, 2017
That’s correct thanks 0 0
posted by You’re welcome
Oct 3, 2017

Yup Connexus is correct

0 0
posted by Blank
Oct 5, 2017
Number 4 is B and C I just took the quiz

0 0
posted by Jane
Oct 12, 2017
Anonymous is right is right

0 0
posted by anonymous muah ha ha ha
Oct 12, 2017
1.a
2.b
3.c
4.b&c
5.b
6.c
7.d
8.b&d

0 0
posted by Ay333
Sep 7, 2018
^ 100

0 0
posted by usc_5
Nov 1, 2018

Categories

## how much work must be done on a system to decrease its volume

How much work must be done on a system to decrease its volume from 14.0 L to 5.0 L by exerting a constant pressure of 4.0 atm?

0 0 1,858
Oct 22, 2014
w = -p(Vfinal-vinitial)
w = -(4.0)(5.0-14.0)
w = -4.0-9 = +36 Latm
If you want to convert to J multiply by 101.325.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Oct 22, 2014
5,471.55

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 20, 2017

## which of these statements is not true?

Which of the following statements is NOT true in regard to Brazil’s interior plateau? (A) It experiences periods of drought. (B) Its soil is often devastated by heavy rains that cannot penetrate the dry, hard ground. (C) Poverty is prevalent
14,533 results
social studies
Which of the following statements is NOT true in regard to Brazil’s interior plateau? (A) It experiences periods of drought. (B) Its soil is often devastated by heavy rains that cannot penetrate the dry, hard ground. (C) Poverty is prevalent in this

asked by Priya on July 22, 2010
Geography

1. Which of the following is NOT true in regard to Brazil’s interior plateau? a. it experiences periods of drought b. its soil is often devestated by heavy rains that cannot penetrate the dry, hard, ground. c. poverty is prevalant in this region d.

asked by mysterychicken on October 13, 2009
Geography

1. All of the following statements about Brazil’s economy are true EXCEPT: a. Because of the development of gasohol, Brazil no longer has to import expensive foreign oil b. Industrial developments have destroyed the middle class c. Jobs in service

asked by y912f on February 8, 2010
Geography
Need help with these- 17. The climate on the Caribbean coast of Central America in rainier than the climate on the Pacific coast because the Caribbean coast a. receives moisture throughout the year from the northeasterly winds blowing toward Central

asked by mysterychicken on September 10, 2009
geography brazil
the new capitol of brazil was built in the interior called——- its purpose to get people to move. brazil is the largest —–in south america i thought it was country but it begins with an n. thank you

asked by polly on December 4, 2008

social studies
All of the following statements about Brazil’s economy are true except: (A) Because of the development of gasohol, Brazil no longer has to import expensive foreign oil. (B) Industrial developments have destroyed the middle class. (C) Jobs in service

asked by Priya on July 22, 2010
S.S. help plz

1. Rain forests are important because they contribute to the world’s supply of (1 point) soil. oxygen. food. harbors. 2. The capital of Brazil was moved from the coast to the interior because the government wished to (1 point) develop the interior by

asked by BallaWitSwagg on May 28, 2013
health
which of the following statements is true in regard to limited data sets?

asked by Anonymous on September 23, 2015
Geography
Can someone please check if my answers are correct? 16. Although most of South America lies within the tropical latitudes a. climate and vegetation differ greatly in the region b. cold ocean currents keep the air cool and dry c. there is little tropical

asked by mysterychicken on September 7, 2009
Geography (Ms. Sue)
1). How does the population of brazil resemble that of the United States? A: The population of Brazil resembles that of the United States as both of these countries’ populations consist of a diverse mixture of ethnic groups. 2). Which European country sent

asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2013
Physics
A vacant, 1560 kg car begins from rest and rolls 46 meters down an inclined plateau before rolling off the edge and crashing into the sea below. The plateau is at a constant downward angle of 12.4 degrees with the horizontal. The coefficient of rolling

asked by Anon on January 17, 2008
1.D 2.A 4.C 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the coastal ranges … As it continues along to the northern

asked by matt on April 5, 2014
1.D 2.A 4.C 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the coastal ranges … As it continues along to the northern

asked by matt on April 5, 2014
1.D 2.A 4.C 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the coastal ranges … As it continues along to the northern

asked by matt on April 5, 2014
SOCIAL STUDIES PLZZ HELP

1. In the 1950s, in order to develop Brazil’s interior, the government moved the capital from Rio de Janeiro and built a new one called (1 point)Brasilia. Belem. Salvador. Manaus. 2. All of the following are threats to the rainforest EXCEPT (1

asked by hsk on April 30, 2012

Geography
Are these correct: Although Brazil is rich in natural resources, a. the government has done little to foster economics growth b. poverty is prevalent among its population c. the country has not yet begun to industrialize d. the location of these resources

asked by y912f on February 1, 2010
Math
1.Suppose we are given logic statements p, q, and r. a. If p → q and p → r, may we conclude that q → r? Answer yes or no and give a reason why. b. What is the converse of the following: not p → not q c. What is the contrapositive of r → q? d. The

asked by Melissa on December 11, 2016
math
A transversal intersects two parallel lines and forms eight angles. Which of the following statements is false? a)alternative interior angles are always congruent. b)corresponding angles are always congruent. c)adjacent interior angles are always

asked by robert on January 31, 2008
SAT math
Can someone please double check my true and false answers! 1. All cylinders are prisms: TRUE 2. The angle opposite a side length of 6 cm in a triangle is larger than an angle opposite a side length of 7 cm in the same triangle: FALSE 3. The perpendicular

asked by mysterychicken on June 2, 2013
history
In the 1930s what did brazil do to restore its fallng economy? A. brizal moved away from dependence on a single export. B. brazil fozused efforts on forestry C. brazil restored its silk trade with china D. brazil privatized the nations buisness and restoed

asked by sarah on January 6, 2012
math
△GHJ∼△MNP Which statements are true? Select each correct answer. m∠J=m∠P (TRUE) ∠H≅∠N (TRUE) HJ¯≅NP¯ (it has the line over them) false GH=MN (TRUE) GJ/MP=GH/MN ( TRUE )

asked by am i correct ? on December 4, 2017
world geography
_ in brazil’s interior has led to the clearing of the rain forests. a. building roads b. building settlements c. mining for iron, copper, and tin d. all of the above

asked by natasha napier on May 29, 2012
Math
please show me how to do this… A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 12 + 42 + 72 + . . . + (3n – 2)2 = n(6n^2-3n-1)/2 Also, please

asked by Taylor on March 14, 2016
World Geography
Brazil is the giant of S. America, and it has the largest and most productive economy. But Brazil is unlike other S. American states in a number of ways (ie. no megacity on a scale with San Paulo anywhere else in the realm) so that what locals call the

asked by Stephanie on February 10, 2009
Geography (Ms. Sue)
1). How does the population of brazil resemble that of the United States? A: The population of Brazil resembles that of the United States as both of these countries’ populations consist of a diverse mixture of ethnic groups. 2). Which European country sent

asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2013

chemistry
Which of the following statements is NOT true in regards to water, ethanol, and isopropanol? A. Water has the highest boiling point. B. H-O-H and C-O-H bond angles are all equal to 1095. C. Dispersion forces affect all three molecules. D. Two lone pairs of

asked by helppleez on January 26, 2007
Designing Specialty Areas
Which of the following statements is true in regard to woodworking for preschoolers? A. A woodworking center for preschoolers should contain a variety of different types of tools such as hammers, pliers, handsaws, and screwdrivers. B. Preschoolers are

asked by Priscila on March 30, 2017
Calculus
Which one or ones of the following statements is/are true? I. If the line y=2 is a horizontal asymptote of y= f(x), then is not defined at y=2. II. If f(5)>0 and f(6)

asked by Alice URGENT on December 3, 2018
counseling
Which of the following statements is most accurate with regard to Piaget’s theory?

asked by chantelle on July 3, 2016
math
A transversal intersects two parallel lines and forms eight angles. Which of the following statements is false? a)alternative interior angles are always congruent. b)corresponding angles are always congruent. c)adjacent interior angles are always

asked by robert on January 31, 2008
Computers (RAM)
Just giving this a shot, Which of the following statements about RAM are TRUE? Select all that apply. a) Any part of RAM can be accessed at any time. b) RAM is an area of a computer that holds programs and data that are waiting to be processed, to be

asked by Ray on January 8, 2017
Physics
Pease evaluate the statements by choosing from these three statements Always true: the statement is true under any circumstances Not necessarily true: the statement may be true in some circumstances, but not in others Always false: under no circumstances

asked by Chris on January 27, 2015
Chemistry (Check)
Classify each of these statements as always true, sometimes true, or never true 11)sometimes true 12)Never True 11)Scientific notation is used to express large numbers in convenlent form. 12)Siginificant figures include all the digits that can be known

asked by Bryan on January 13, 2007
1.B 2.C 3.A 4.B 5.D 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the coastal ranges … As it continues along to the

asked by matt on April 3, 2014
Im not sure these are right.I Tryed my best :D. 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.A or B 5.B 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the

asked by matt on April 3, 2014

Geography

1. Great cultural diversity exists in African countries, especially those a. with small populations b. located along the northern coast c. located south of the Sahara d. that were independent in 1914 C? 6. Which of the following statements is NOT true? a.

asked by mysterychicken on October 30, 2009
Geography

1. Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. the Nile River is a major transportation route across southern Africa b. the central plateau produces many cataracts in African rivers. c. Africa’s rivers can be used for hydroelectric power d. because

asked by mysterychicken on October 22, 2009
Economics – (CPI)
In Brazil, the reference base period for the CPI is December 1993. In September 2000, prices had risen by 1,565.93 percent since the base period. The inflation rate in Brazil during the year ending September 2001 was 6.46 percent, and during the year

asked by CrankSt4r on March 3, 2008
Calculus
If f is a continuous function with even symmetry and lim x→∞ f(x)=10, which of the following statements must be true? I. lim x→∞ f(x)=10 II. there are no vertical asymptotes III. The lines y=10 and y= -10 are horizontal asymptotes a) I only b) II

asked by Maria on December 4, 2018
Geography
What is the capital of the landlocked country that borders Russia to the north and China to the south. Also, is this correct? Eastern Brazil has a higher elevation that western Brazil. Thanks!

asked by Morgan on January 8, 2013
Cultural Diversity
Which of these statements is Not true? 1. Eye contact with the listener signals approval and consent in most Non-Anglo cultural groups. 2. African-American children are taught to look away from a peer while listening. 3. Eye contact in Asian-American

asked by Rose on November 1, 2007
math
State which of the following are logical statements and then classify the statements as true or false. a) 1 + 4 = 6 b) She is in our class c) Butte is the capital of Montana d) 3 + x = x + 3

asked by kely on September 1, 2012
Geography
All of the following statements about Australia are true except: Australia is the flattest continent. The continent is crossed by several powerful rivers. The area west of the Great Dividing Range is arid plain or dry plateau. The area east of the Great

asked by Renee on December 11, 2009
Psychology (Ms. Sue)
Ms. Sue would you please check my answers? 1. To begin to regulate their emotions, children must first start to learn impulse control? True 2. Young children typically have low self esteem since they compare their abilities with their peers? False 3. Guilt

asked by Lisa on September 27, 2013
Observing development of the young child
The three types of pretending in children’s dramatic play:pretending with a regard to a role, pretending with regard to an object, and pretending with to regard an action. The three types of pretending were described by researcher A, Jean Piaget B, Rhonda

asked by Olivia on August 27, 2012

chemistry
In the chemical plating experiment zinc powder is dissolved in a hot NaOH solution to form sodium zincate according to the following reacton: Zn(s) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2ZnO2(aq) + H2(g) Answer true or false for each of the following statements regarding the

asked by chem help on May 2, 2010
psychology
Regarding the use of anesthetics during childbirth, which of the following statements is true? A. they are rarely used these days B. the epidural procedure is most often favored. C. anesthetics is current use can’t cross the placenta barrier to affect the

asked by ourania on December 14, 2008
Confidentiality Health
Which of the the following statements is true in regard to limited data sets? A.Limited data sets contain some individual identifiers. B.Patients must authorize the use of limited data sets. C. Those who receive limited data sets can pass them on without

asked by Brenna on February 21, 2012
Physics Help
A projectile is fired at an upward angle of 60 degrees with a speed of 100m/s. It lands on a plateau 150m higher. What is the projectile’s speed the moment before it strikes the plateau? I’m thinking to just use the kinematic equation Vf^2= Vi^2 + 2aΔy.

asked by George on December 13, 2015
I need to write an essay response answering these 2 questions: 1. Are pit houses really the most efficient/ practical houses for the Plateau people? My ans: No, it isn’t 2.Which lodging would be the best for the Plateau regions and why? (at least 4

asked by Bethany on January 12, 2014
Geography

1. The South African government changed its policy of apartheid in 1990 and 1991 because of a. the policy’s failure to eliminate racial discrimination b. promises of economic aid from major industrial nations c. international sanctions and an increase in

asked by y912f on March 20, 2010
Government Check
Which is NOT true of the segregation laws passed after the Civil War? a)They prohibited interracial marriage. b)They did not only apply to blacks. *c)They were only in the South. d)All of these statements are true. I was confused between c and d because

asked by Ariel on July 4, 2010
Math
An automobile manufacturing plant produces cars according to a fixed pattern. During one day, the first five cars have the following colors and equipment. blue with a stereo and dark interior white with a stereo and light interior green without a stereo

asked by Sandy on March 17, 2016
science
Let , , and be disjoint subsets of the sample space. For each one of the following statements, determine whether it is true or false. Note: “False” means “not guaranteed to be true.” a) True FalseStatus: unsubmitted b) True FalseStatus: unsubmitted c) True

asked by intel on February 6, 2014
Calculus (Urgent Help)
Okay, I need major help! Can someone tell me if these statements are true or false ASAP please. Thank you. 1. If ƒ′(x) < 0 when x < c then ƒ(x) is decreasing when x < c. True 2. The function ƒ(x) = x^3 – 3x + 2 is increasing on the interval -1 < x <

asked by Veronica on July 25, 2008

Home Economics
I have two questions. These two questions have to do with interior decorating. 1) Which of the following expresses a color value? A)True Green B)Dark Green C)Blue-green D)Yellow-green 2) Which of the following statements is correct regarding the design

asked by Mirayah on March 2, 2007
ss
Which of the following shows the strong influence of African traditions in Brazil? A. music and dance during the celebration of Carnival B. the use of plantation agriculture to grow cash crops C. the large Catholic majority in Brazil D. the strong national

asked by tim on November 27, 2018
English
I’m posting you your answers for the true-false activity again because I don’t want to make them wrong. Lorenzo thinks that learning English is difficult. TRUE Lorenzo prefers geography lessons to English lessons. TRUE Though Lorenzo doesn’t say it

asked by Henry2 on September 20, 2011
abnormal psychology
Is this true or false With regard to life transitions, adolescence appears to be a time of particular stress because of the many changes that occur.

asked by jazz on November 3, 2013
Criminology
According to proponents of capital punishment, which of the following is a true statement? A. Capital punishment deters crime. B. Capital punishment is less expensive than imprisonment. C. Capital punishment is widely accepted in the international

asked by Pat on December 13, 2014
Math
The sum of the degrees of the interior angles of a triangle is _ degrees What is the sum of the interior angles of a parallelogram ? What is the sum of the interior angles of a rhombus? What is the sum of the interior angles of a kite? What is the sum

asked by Mackenzie on June 4, 2014
GEOMETRY
True or false? A quadrilateral can have more than one acute interior angle

asked by Twg on August 20, 2009
Marh
An automobile manufacturing plant produces cars according to a fixed pattern. During one day, the first five cars have the following colors and equipment. blue with a stereo and dark interior white with a stereo and.light interior- green without a stereo

asked by Sandy on March 16, 2016
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Sn: 2 is a factor of n2 + 7n Could you please show your work? I want to know how to solve.

asked by Hello on March 7, 2016
Algebra
A positive integer minus a positive integer is always positive. This statement is sometimes true. For example, 17 – 5 = 12, but 15 – 20 = –5. post five other statements about the addition and subtraction of positive and negative integers, and ask

asked by Mary Ann on October 8, 2013

Math
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 is a factor of n2 + 7n

asked by Anonymous on March 4, 2016
pre calc
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 is a factor of n2 + 7n

asked by allexelle on October 10, 2015
pre-calc
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 is a factor of n^2 + 7n

asked by cam on May 4, 2017
pre calc
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 is a factor of n2 + 7n

asked by allexelle on October 9, 2015
History
Brazil’s history differs from the history of most countries in South America because Brazil A. was never successfully colonized by the Europeans B. was colonized by Portugal, not Spain*** C. had a few natural resources to export D. achieved its

asked by hi on March 13, 2019
Shalee ^~^
1) Which of the following statements about the sun’s structure is true? The sun has a solid surface The sun has an interior and an atmosphere The sun’s interior is similar to the Earth’s; it has a core, mantle, and crust*** The sun’s outermost layer is

asked by Shalee ^~^ on October 7, 2015
Science
1) Which of the following statements about the sun’s structure is true? The sun has a solid surface The sun has an interior and an atmosphere The sun’s interior is similar to the Earth’s; it has a core, mantle, and crust*** The sun’s outermost layer is

asked by Shalee ^~^ on October 7, 2015
MATHS
IF ONE OF THE INTERIOR ANGLES OF A REGULAR POLYGON IS TO BE EQUAL TO (9/8) TIMES OF ONE OF THE INTERIOR ANGLES OF A REGULAR HEXAGON,THEN THE INTERIOR SIDES OF THE POLYGONS IS …….?

asked by NISHI on April 1, 2013
pre-calc
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 1^2 + 4^2 + 7^2 + . . . + (3n – 2)^2 = (n(〖6n〗^2-3n-1))/2

asked by Ciara on April 16, 2015
Math
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 + 5 + 8 + . . . + ( 3n – 1) = n(1 + 3n)/2

asked by Crystal on March 4, 2016

math
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 + 5 + 8 + . . . + ( 3n – 1) = n(1 + 3n)/2

asked by Pablo on March 4, 2016
pre-calc – JAI
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2+5+8+…+(3n-1)=n(1+3n)/2

asked by Ciara on April 17, 2015
PRE – CALCULUS
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2+5+8+…+(3n-1)=n(1+3n)/2

asked by Ciara on April 17, 2015
Math
A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 1^2 + 4^2 + 7^2 + . . . + (3n – 2)^2 = Not exactly sure how to do this! Could someone help?

asked by Jess on March 3, 2016
human resources
Search the Internet to find at least three examples of mission statements for human service organizations. · Create a 10- to 12-slide PowerPoint® presentation that addresses the following in regard to each mission statement.

asked by alma on March 14, 2010
geometry
A regular polygon has an interior angle that measures 90°. Which of the following statements is used to prove that the polygon is a square

asked by Anonymous on February 15, 2012
Civics
Which is NOT true of the segregation laws passed after the Civil War? =They prohibited interracial marriage. They did not only apply to blacks. They were only in the South. All of these statements are true.

asked by Sierra on February 14, 2012
PHYSICS HELP
Please check to see if these statements are right. Through the process of doing work, energy can move between the external world and the system as the result of forces. I believe this is true. Please verify. Yes, true.

asked by Pat on January 10, 2007
Ethics
With regard to the Hippocratic Oath, which of the following statements, if any, is true? The Hippocratic Oath requires physicians to obtain the consent of their patients. The Hippocratic Oath requires physicians to provide information to their patients.

asked by Anonymous on February 4, 2017
physics (geometry bit)
h t t p : / / i m g 4 3 . i m a g e s h a c k . u s / i m g 4 3 / 4 7 4 1 / 9 4 7 4 7 1 1 6 . j p g ok the two read angles are equal to each other because they are complementary if i remeber correctly the only thing we can conclude is that when we add the

asked by physics (geometry bit) on August 10, 2009

Math
Prove that an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the non adjacent interior angles of that triangle. Use the following variables in your proof. Exterior angle=w Interior adjacent angle= x Interior non adjacent angle1= y Interior non

asked by Brian on June 2, 2016
If I have a polygon with x+2y sides, how do I find the interior and eterior angle? I know that to find the interior angle you use 180(x-2) and for the exterior you use 360/x. But do i just plug in x+2y for every x? I’m lost 180(x-2) gives you the SUM of

asked by Emily on March 30, 2007
American Government
Which is NOT true of the segregation laws passed after the Civil War? My answer is 3. 1.)They prohibited interracial marriage. 2.)They did not only apply to blacks. 3.)They were only in the South. 4.)All of these statements are true.

asked by Mackenzie on February 13, 2012
Chemistry

1. Explain the difference between a galvanic (voltaic) cell and an electrolytic cell. For a reaction in a galvanic cell, change in S is negative. Which of the following statements is true? Defend your answer. a.”E”willncrease with an increase in

asked by Ryan on April 26, 2012
chemistry
Which of the following statements about proteins is true? The simpler an amino acid is, the more likely it is to be generated within the body. The source of a protein (mammal, fish, or poultry) has little effect on nutritional value. All of these are true.

asked by asap on April 15, 2013
Math
The statements p â†’ q and q â†’ r are given. If we know q is true, is p necessarily true? Explain.?

asked by Melissa on December 12, 2016
Math
The statements p → q and q → r are given. If we know q is true, is p necessarily true? Explain.

asked by Melissa on December 12, 2016
true of false
does all statements must be true in a true or false question

asked by connxus kid on December 28, 2017
A planet is in circular orbit about a remote star, far from any other object in the universe. Which of the following statements is true? a. None of the other statements are true. b. There is only one force acting on the planet. c. There are two forces

asked by Catherine on April 30, 2011
HISTORY
ISNT THIS RITE? With regard to British influences on India, which of the following statements is true? A. A primary objective of British rule was attaining food self-sufficiency for Indians. B. The common name for the British Indian Empire was the “British

asked by tacarey on November 16, 2011

Math
Can someone check my answers and help me 1. A vector in standard position has its initial points at (0,0) True? 2. The general formula for finding the probability of two events A and B that are not mutually exclusive and overlap is given by: P(A or B) =

asked by mysterychicken on June 9, 2013
Social Studies
Rain forests are important because they contribute to the world’s supply of soil. oxygen. food. harbors. 2. The capital of Brazil was moved from the coast to the interior because the government wished to develop the interior by attracting people to it.

asked by H2015 on May 30, 2015
physical
for a gaussin surface through which the net flux is zero the following 4 statements could be true which of the statements must be true a)tere are no charges inside the surface b)the net charge inside the surface is 0 c)the electric field is 0 everywhere on

asked by abbas on February 16, 2014
History
I need help finding the answers! 1. Which of the following key terms has been responsible for the formation of many limestone caves in northern Georgia? (1 point)fault erosion plateau elevation 2. Which of the following regions is located in the

asked by Shawn on August 12, 2015
English
Jack: I’ll be there in 20 minutes. I’m stopping at the store to pick up some batteries. Do you need anything Which of the following statements about Jack’s dialog is true? 1. All three sentences use future form and meaning 2.All three sentences use present

asked by Jim Collum on June 10, 2013

Categories

## for participating countries nafta called for

1. For participating countries, NAFTA called for a challenge to U.S. economic leadership. the gradual removal of trade restrictions. the development of a single currency. *a removal of environmental controls.
12,459 results
history
2. For participating countries, NAFTA called for a challenge to U.S. economic leadership. the gradual removal of trade restrictions. the development of a single currency. *a removal of environmental controls.

asked by Anonymous on April 30, 2013
Social Studies
Economic trends in China’s Gross Domestic Product over a 50-year period can best be described as a. a gradual but steady decline in economic activity. b. relatively stable with low levels of economic activity from the 1950s to the late 1990s. c. a gradual

asked by Kaai97 on October 30, 2015
microeconomics
I am having a problem with one of my homework questions and would like some help if possible…here is the question.. According to an article in the New York Times (Nov. 5, 1993),”many Midwest wheat farmers oppose the NAFTA free trade agreement asmuch as

asked by Deana on August 21, 2006
Government
which is true statement about the North American Free Trade Agreement? NAFTA is the most successful of the world’s largest free trade zone in the world. NAFTA has established the largest free trade zone in the world. NAFTA was created after world war 2 to

asked by Anonymous on December 6, 2017
Managerial Economics
Ross Perot added his memorable “insight” to the debate over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) when he warned that passage of NAFTA would create a “giant sucking sound” as U. S. employers shipped jobs to Mexico, where wages are lower

asked by Dede on October 31, 2010

Economics
Ross Perot added his memorable “insight” to the debate over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) when he warned that passage of NAFTA would create a “giant sucking sound” as U. S. employers shipped jobs to Mexico, where wages are lower

asked by GG on November 5, 2011
Geography

1. All of the following are economic supranational organizations except………. A. NAFTA B. ISIS C. ECOWAS D. APEC E. MERCOSUR Other B

asked by Anonymous on April 2, 2016
Definition question?
Definition- political division Word Choices- secede, tariff, or NAFTA NAFTA?

asked by rawr… im a dinosaur…. rawr on November 3, 2012
Social Studies
Why didn’t countries other than the United States take a leadership role in the world after World War II? A)The United States was one of the only democracies strong enough to fight communism. B)The United States was the only Western nation with a military

asked by on May 26, 2018
geography
Members of which economic alliance can live, work, even vote in any member nation? A)NAFTA B)OAU C)EU D)ASEAN i think its A or C am i right

asked by nicky on March 10, 2010
Social Studies

1. Which of these South Asian countries is an Islamic republic? A. Pakistan B. Bangladesh C. Sri Lanka D. Nepal I believe the answer is A but I want to make sure 2. Why are poverty levels high in much of South Asia? A. high populations and low economic

asked by alexa on September 26, 2018
Social Studies
what is one way Central American countries have worked to improve their economies a. by reducing the type of goods they trade b. by raising tariffs on imported goods c. by participating in free trade agreement d. by imposing embargos on imports from other

Geography

1. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, what are some of the major problems faced by many of the new countries. (I don’t really know how to answer this question) This is what i got: 47. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, there were some major

asked by y912f on May 18, 2010
geography
Members of which economic alliance can live, work, even vote in any member nation? A)NAFTA B)OAU C)EU D)ASEAN i really don’t know this one maybe a but im very unsure

asked by nicky on March 10, 2010
Why are most modern economies referred to as mixed economies? * 1 point Poverty is always highest in countries with market economies. Government planners do not know how to handle economic problems. Products made by traditional economies have no markets in

asked by Haley on October 5, 2017

social studies
how are some African people and nations working to improve their economic situation? Some African people are leaving. Northern Africans are illegally boating to Europe. Several countries have destroyed their economic infrastructure by stealing

asked by preston on February 9, 2007
Challenge Help
Ok so, my birthday is coming up and im planning my party. The theme is challenger, and I am finding all the most funest challenges. I am only 12 so nothing painful like the salt and ice challenge. I already have the bean boozled challenge, the watermelon

asked by Kennabug on March 10, 2015
geography
A country in southeast Asia between Burma and Laos used to be called Siam. What is it called today? My answer is Thailand. Is this right? How many countries does the Antarctic Circle pass through? My answer is zero. It does not pass through any countries.

asked by Reed on October 23, 2011
government
Current First World’s military intervention in Third World countries, whether unilateral, multilateral, or through the United Nations, has little to do with the promotion of democracy; rather, it repeats the old colonial practice of “divide and rule”

asked by jenny on October 6, 2008
what is your opinion of leadership? I think leadership isn’t always about being outspoken and holding a high position in an extracurricular activity. I just want to hear your opinions, that refute the norm meaning of leadership. thank you

asked by Amy on March 5, 2011

1. What act did Congress pass in order to relocate Native Americans? a.) Naturalization Act b.) Alien Act c.) Relocation Act d.) Indian Removal Act

asked by Destiny on February 20, 2014
World History
How has the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) helped Asian countries? APEC facilitates trade between Pacific Rim nations by promoting a single currency to eliminate exchange rates. APEC reduces trade barriers and promotes open markets between

asked by mgoguen on November 30, 2018
ss-help
Why were Native Americans forced to leave their lands during the 1830s? settlers wanted to settle the land U.S. citizens settled the land first the Supreme Court ordered their removal their new lands were better for farming Why was the forced march called

asked by Anonymous on February 10, 2014
Social Studies
1.) Which of the following factors has helped improve Bangladesh’s economy in recent years? A. new tariffs B. microlending*** C. shifting to a command economy D. increasing focus on agriculture 2.) Which of these South Asian countries is an Islamic

asked by hiii on March 5, 2019
world geography
some latin america countries need debt relief: a. from other countries to carry out economic programs b. because such a large segment of their population is poor c. because their economies are doing so well d. but have too good credit rating with

asked by natasha napier on May 29, 2012

english

asked by dunstan on February 7, 2013

1. Why were Native Americans forced to leave their lands during the 1830s? a.) settlers wanted to settle the land b.) U.S. citizens settled the land first c.) the Supreme Court ordered their removal d.) their new lands were better for farming. 4.

asked by Hannah on January 29, 2015
Social Studies
2.)Why were Native Americans forced to leave their lands during the 1830s? a.)settlers wanted to settle the land b.)U.S. citizens settled the land first c.)the Supreme Court ordered their removal d.)their new lands were better for farming 4.)How did

asked by Yvonne on January 24, 2015
accounting
What benefits do you see for the U.S. economy in tax-sparing credits? Should it be expanded or reduced? Why or why not? The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has tax consequences. Discuss the costs and benefits as you see them for the U.S. from

asked by daniel on December 5, 2010
To Ms. Sue
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Before the French Revolution France had a system of government and society which was called the OLD REGIME. In the 1780’s France was experiencing many economic difficulties. LOUIS XVI called a meeting of the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY in order

asked by Sara on October 28, 2009
1.A 4.A 5.B 6.C 8.C 1.The story of Omar best reflects A. opportunities for people in the Pampas. B. struggles faced by families who work the mines of the Andes. C. hardships undertaken by indigenous farming families. D. benefits of urban life along the

asked by matt on March 26, 2014
Social Studies 1
Which countries separated the Soviet Union from Western Europe? The so-called Warsaw Pact countries. Use Google or anothe search engine for references that will provide their names.

asked by Charles on April 18, 2007
World History
Which factor was a challenge to the expansion and control of Roman territory? its location on the Mediterranean Sea its available local resources its lack of military leadership its location near Celtic and Germanic tribes

asked by Kiki on May 19, 2018
Economics
-> In some countries, the role of women is not regarded in the same way as a man. How might this effect production in the country and the consequent effect on standard of living? -> The run up to the 2004 election saw the Liberal Coalition stress its

asked by Jason on February 9, 2012
-> In some countries, the role of women is not regarded in the same way as a man. How might this effect production in the country and the consequent effect on standard of living? -> The run up to the 2004 election saw the Liberal Coalition stress its

asked by Jason on February 9, 2012

Socials
What is the economic policy called “laissez-faire” all about? The economic policy called “laissez- faire” is about business and industry getting freed from government regulations that would hurt their ability to pursue a profit. People who support a

asked by Sara on November 19, 2009
check geo
some latin america countries need debt relief: A)from other countries to carry out economic progress b)because such a large segment of thier population is poor. C)because thier economics are doing well. D)but have too good a credit rating with

asked by henry on August 21, 2009
Economics
I’m writing an essay on what I think is the most important issue facing the global economy. Would a good topic be the economic development in certain nations? The phase “economic development in certain nations” is both vague and too broad. You must keep

Socials
French Revolution Before the French Revolution France had a system of government and society which was called the Old Regime. In the 1780’s France was experiencing many economic difficulties. Louis XVI called a meeting of the National Assembly in order to

asked by Sara on October 28, 2009
Economics
In recent years, talk has risen and ebbed about creating a FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas), encompassing countries in North, Central and South America. Based on the successes and failures of NAFTA evaluate whether the United States should

asked by Diantoni on November 2, 2007
Soc. Studies
How did President Jackson respond to the Supreme Court’s ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee? A. He asked Congress to revoke the Indian Removal Act of 1830. B. He appealed the decision on the grounds that

asked by Cassie on February 11, 2013
Geography

1. Why have the people of West Africa started to work at the local level to help their economies? a. They have learned that their governments alone can do little to improve economic conditions b. Foreign countries have stopped all economic aid to West

asked by y912f on March 19, 2010
History
Yes or no. To have a favorable balance of trade, a country must sell fewer goods to other countries than it buys from other countries. Yes or no.Money is an example of an capital resource. Yes or no.In our economic system, people receive wages for

asked by Jacob on September 12, 2010
1301
It is often assumed that the South had better military leadership. Might it be argued that the South enjoyed superior military leadership in the East, at least until 1864, but that the North had consistently better leadership in the West?

asked by susan on November 14, 2009
Current events
How does the economic crisis effect countries like new zealand? What are countries doing to help with this crisis?

asked by Reed on October 15, 2008

us history
from fdr’s first inaugral speech ,how did he attempt to win the support of the american people for his leadership during the economic crisis of the great depression

asked by sandhya on April 7, 2011
US HISTORY
from fdr’s first inaugral speech ,how did he attempt to win the support of the american people for his leadership during the economic crisis of the great depression

asked by sandhya on April 7, 2011
MicroEconomics
One of the early economic laws was called Says Law that stated that supply creates its own demand. Using the circular flow chart, explain what this means and how an expanding population results in economic growth.

asked by Katie on September 26, 2008
macroeconomics
One of the early economic “laws” was called Say’s Law that stated that—supply creates its own demand. Using the circular flow chart, explain what this means and how an expanding population results in economic growth.

asked by samatha on March 30, 2008
Sociology
There are three levels or three areas of underdevelopment. identify those, with examples from various countries. How equitable economic distribution help or hurt development? 2. What is Human Development Index? What is GDP? Dow do these two factors relate

asked by brenda on January 17, 2010
English
I am doing an application it says: Have you held any leadership type positions? Yes/No Please describe (100 words or less) I did not have any leadership type positions, so no. My question is, do I have to explain why I did not have any leadership or is it

asked by Jake on January 23, 2012
US History
Hello! I just need an idea for a topic in this assignment, as I am not sure of a topic to choose. The assignment is: The United States faces a number of challenges and issues in the twenty-first century. Some are domestic in nature, while others are

asked by Evelyn W. on June 5, 2018
what are the core values that your leadership model emphasizes? In what ways does my leadership model reflect existing scholarship on leadership and in what ways is my approach unique to me? what barriers and opportunities exist towards the implementation

asked by sarah on August 15, 2013
Economics
What would be the economic implications for both exporting countries and importing countries be if the world were not so interdeendent?How would a world with less interdependence affect your life? For a start, look at where your clothing was made. Probably

asked by Christian on May 19, 2007
Social Studies
A local park is always littered with trash. Every time Alisha takes her dog to the park, she can’t help but notice that trash is everywhere. She knows that this is a hazard to the environment. When she looks around, Alisha realizes that the park only

asked by Baby_Banana on December 4, 2017

history

1. President Clinton sent military troops to Bosnia to bring about peace and distribute food during a famine. stop immigrants from coming to the United States. *bomb Serbian strongholds and enforce peace. stop ethnic cleansing of Muslims and Croats. 3.

asked by Anonymous on April 30, 2013
how did the supreme court decision in Worcester V.Georgia and the Indian removal act lead to the removal and resettlement of native Americans groups? Can anyone help me with this please?

asked by Mary on February 16, 2018
SS
How did the supreme court decision in Worcester v Georgia and the Indian Removal Act lead to the removal and resettlement of native American groups?

asked by Anonymous on December 21, 2016
Social Studies
how did the supreme court decision in Worcester V.Georgia and the Indian removal act lead to the removal and resettlement of native Americans groups?

asked by THOMAS BEASLY on February 7, 2018
Social Studies
How did the supreme court decision in Worcester v Georgia and the Indian Removal Act lead to the removal and resettlement of native American groups?

asked by AlyaK on November 14, 2016
Social Studies
How did the Supreme Court decision in Worcester v. Georgia and the Indian Removal Act lead to the removal and resettlement of Native American groups?

asked by Henry on January 24, 2018
History
Which best defines petro-economics? a. a nation’s industrial output that stays consistent despite market turmoil b. the influence of oil wealth in shaping economic and political climates c. the gross national product of countries that produce marble and

asked by Charlie on August 21, 2018
human relations
learning is generally considered a lasting change in behavior based on a) practice and experience b) practice and challenge c) challenge and experience d.) challenge and reinforcement

asked by Teweety on November 8, 2011
The U.S. congress approved the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) despite strong opposition from organized labor. What motivated labor’s stand? Have labor’s forecases turned out to be correct?

asked by M on June 7, 2007
American History
Which statement below summarizes President Richard Nixon’s policy of Vietnamization. A. Train the South Vietnamese so America can slowly withdraw its troops B.Order an immediate removal of Americans from Vietnam. c. Meet with the North Vietnamese and

asked by Angie on April 7, 2016

Social Studies
How do low literacy rates relate to the economy of a country? 1. They are associated with lower levels of education, which reduce economic development.* 2. They are associated with higher levels of education, which increase economic development 3. They are

asked by Jessie on November 5, 2015
anthropology
what are the leading economic countries and why?

asked by Sue on January 19, 2010
History
9.)How did the Supreme Court ruling on the Indian Removal Act affect Andrew Jackson’s course of action regarding Native Americans? A.)It forced him to change the location of the resettlements but little else. B.)It forced him to start over and rethink the

asked by YRN DJ on January 22, 2016
Economics
Working where we want to is an example of which economic goal? A. economic freedom B. economic growth C. economic security D. economic equity A?

asked by Nirvana on January 29, 2016
How did the supreme court decision in Worcester v Georgia and the Indian Removal Act lead to the removal and resettlement of native American groups? please help me with this all i want is help getting started or a sample essay

asked by Rain on December 21, 2016
Social Studies
How did the Supreme Court decision in Worcester V. Georgia and the Indian Removal Aact lead to removal and resettlement of Native American Groups? I am completely lost on this question can someone please help.

asked by FluttershyK on October 7, 2016
social studies
How did Southeast Asia’s geography contribute to the region’s economic development? A. Much of Southeast Asia is separated from the rest of Asia by high mountains, making it a difficult place to invade. B. Many Southeast Asian countries were positioned

asked by spearitt on November 19, 2018
Social Studies

1. In North Africa, overgrazing has contributed to which environmental challenge? A. deforestation B. desertification C. lack of clean water D. climate change*** 2.Tense relations between the Hausa people and the Igbos and Yorubas in Nigeria is an example

asked by Julian on February 20, 2019
Global Issues (ms.sue)
It is a known fact that all though there are some countries in the world that are abundant in wealth and possessions, there are also other countries at different parts of the world which are developing countries and are deprived of most of the goods that

asked by y912f on October 26, 2010
social studies
How has democracy impacted Central America? A.increased dependence on Spain B.increased economic prosperity and stability C.increased control by the United States**** D.increased restrictions on trade Which impact did Enlightenment ideas have on the

asked by need helppppp on February 22, 2019

Social Studies
how did the supreme court decision in worcester v. georgia and the indian removal act lead to the removal and resettlement of native american groups? I need help on this, I looked up websites and can’t find anything. Can you give me a summary and I will

asked by JacobSartorius.IsMyBoyfriend on December 2, 2016
hhs 235

1. What type of leadership is practiced at NCF, transactional or transformational? How do you know? 2. What type of leadership is practiced at SSS, transactional or transformational? How do you know? 3. Which style of leadership would you recommend for a

asked by Ree on July 6, 2008
Social Studies
Why has Mongolia’s economic growth been weaker than the economic growth of Taiwan and China? My answer; Mongolia is landlocked while Taiwan is surrounded by water. Therefore Taiwan can sea-trade with other countries easier. Is this correct? Thanks!

asked by Hailey! on December 8, 2017
MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Is charismatic leadership a viable leadership style or just a “catchy” phrase? Do you agree or disagree with organizational “flattening?”

asked by Lakesha on June 23, 2010
management

asked by patti on May 9, 2008
History
Why was Vietnam key to the US taming communism in Asia? a) None of these answers b) Vietnam and the US had strong economic ties that both countries allocated throughout other countries in Asia. c) Vietnam was a major supplier of rice into the United

asked by Rebecca on May 12, 2015
Economics
Suppose the market wage for farmers is $10 per hour in country A and$20 per hour in country B, there is the same number of people in both countries, there is the same amount of arable land, and initially there is no way for farmers to move between A and

asked by wellington on April 27, 2015
mgt 415
Participative leadership is in my opinion what Professor Hill conveys in her message. I do not think that Professor Hill implies that leaders must delegate leadership but rather share and involve others to participate in the leadership process. can some

asked by meshelle on August 8, 2010
western civilization 2
In 1973 the countries of the West faced a new economic hardship when Answer the U.S. withdrew many loans and investments from Europe. the Soviet Union placed an embargo on trade with western Europe. the Japanese GNP surpassed that of Europe. oil-exporting

asked by dynasty on January 9, 2011
i am readin this book called “the wave” i am lookin for the answer n i cant find it…can sumone please help me…this is the question…explain the requirements for participating in “the wave” experiment and how they were monitored. evaluate if they were

asked by cristal on September 3, 2010

Can you guys please help me with this i don;t understand it plzz how did the supreme court decision in Worcester V.Georgia and the Indian removal act lead to the removal and resettlement of native Americans groups? Can you explain it to me or give a link

asked by that emo girl! on February 12, 2018
English
I left out these sentences. Thank you. 1) I hope the weather will be nice/good. I hope to have luck with the weather. If there is heavy rain, I’ll have to wear walking boots. I also have a wind breaker in my rucksack in case it will rain. 2) All the boys

asked by Matthew on March 14, 2012
Geography

# 49. It has been said that Eastern Europe is a political region more than a physical region. Would you agree or disagree with this statement? You must provide a solid argument for your position. I’m not sure if I’ve posted this up already, but here’s what

asked by y912f on February 22, 2010
American History
The Panic of 1837 resulted in large measure from A. the policies of Martin Van Buren’s administration B. the policies of John Quincy Adams C. complex changes in the international economic system D. the cost associated with Indian removal I choose C

asked by Shawn on January 26, 2014
History
Which option accurately describes events of the Haitian Slave Revolt on the island of Hispaniola (formerly Saint-Domingue)? A. Aztec and Incan slaves revolted against the English under the leadership HernÃ¡n CortÃ©s to win their independence. B.

asked by Michael on January 22, 2018
government
the custom that gives the senate some control over the president’s power to appoint officials is called a. the removal power b. commutation c. persona non grata d. senatorial courtesy d.

asked by jere on January 16, 2008
social studies
Which of the following is a likely reason that someone today might decide to move from a city in the Midwest to the South? 1. A. the decline of manufacturing in the Midwest B. the many high tech jobs available in the South—– C. urban overcrowding in the

asked by ben on September 11, 2018

1. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) can be expected to A. increase trade restrictions among the member nations. B. result in political unification of the member countries. C. increase the number of low-wage jobs in the U.S. D. vastly

asked by Anonymous on April 21, 2015
history
The nations of the world that were formerly victims of imperialism and did not align themselves with either the West or the Communist powers are today called what? A. first world countries B. second world countries C. underdeveloped nations D. developing

asked by Beth on February 3, 2013
history
Which of the following can be seen as the primary factor in the eventual push for American independence? Economic Hardship Taxation without Representation Push for Religious Leadership Cultural Differences with Great Britain I kinda think its B, am I

asked by lilkakes on October 23, 2018

Social Studies
How did the supreme Court decision in Worcester v. Georgia and the Indian Removal Act lead to the removal and resettlement of Native American grops The Indian Removal Act leads to the removal and resettlement of Native Americans because the other states

asked by FunnyFlies on February 13, 2017
Social Studies 1 QUESTION
How did the supreme court decision in Worcester v. Georgia and the Indian removal act lead to the removal and the resettlement of native American groups? (please help i searched it up got nothing looked in my text book didn’t understand anything. please

asked by Amaya on December 5, 2017
math (algerba 1)
I have a worksheet called puzzle 21 Super Challenge. It’s from Crossmatics, Dale Seymour Publications and it’s page number is 21. Anyways, I don’t understand what it means when it says see 4-across. What does that mean?

asked by Kate on January 2, 2013
history

asked by SHarday on February 17, 2015
HHS 235

asked by Patricia on January 31, 2008

Categories

## regarding the difference between fiction and nonfiction, which statement is most accurate?

Redarding the difference between fiction and nonfiction, which statement is most accurate

A.writers of non fiction have no need to express passionate opinion
B.nonfiction writers are more often free to move about in time and space
C.nonfiction writers are free to emblish the facts
D.literary fiction does little except inform and specify

0 0 118
Jul 25, 2012
I agree.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Jul 25, 2012
the answer is C jus took the test

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Jul 25, 2012
I strongly disagree. Non-fiction writers are NOT free to embellish the facts.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Jul 25, 2012
me too, the answer is A

0 0
posted by gg
Jan 22, 2014

a is it

0 0
posted by moaee
Apr 12, 2014
The correct answer is B. I just took the test. All the answers wrong except for B

0 0
posted by Nee
May 22, 2015

Categories

## if on=8x-8 lm=7x+4 nm=x-5 and ol=3y-6

If ON=8x-8, LM=7x+4, NM=x-5, and OL=3y-6,
find the values of x and y for which LMNO must
be a parallelogram.
{O is on the left, N is on top right, L is on bottom left
and M is on bottom right}

Thank You 🙂

0 0 1,372
Jan 8, 2012
For a parallelogram, opposite sides must be equal.

ON = LM
8x-8 = 7x+4
x = 12

OL = NM
3y-6 = x-5
3y-6 = 12-5 = 7
3y = 13
y = 13/3

5 0
posted by Steve
Jan 8, 2012
ha

0 0
posted by Bobé Phett
Jan 10, 2013
Maths

1 0
posted by Hassan
Apr 7, 2013

Categories

## determine the average rate of change in concentration of b from t=0 s to t=202 s.

chemistry
I really don’t understand rate law. Could you explain that and help with this problem please?

Determine the average rate of change of B from t=0 s to t=202 s.
A–>2B
Time (s) Concentration of A (M)
0 0.74
101 0.45
202 0.16

0 0 294
Mar 23, 2012
The tabular data is for A. The question asks for B.
From 0 sec to 202 sec the change in A was 0.74 to 0.16 or -0.58.
Therefore, rate of change for A is -0.58 M/202 sec or 0.00287 M/s.
The problem asks for B. Therefore, rate of change for B is twice that.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Mar 23, 2012
-.00574

0 0
posted by AM
Jan 27, 2014

Categories

## why did king kong eat a truck

Why did King Kong eat a truck?

3 0 1,609
Apr 20, 2010
You’ll find out after you’ve correctly solved your math problems.

0 6
posted by Ms. Sue
Apr 20, 2010
dont no why

0 3
posted by michaela
Apr 21, 2010
he want meals on the wheels

1 4
posted by Anonymous
Sep 20, 2010
HEALWAYSWANTEDABIGMACK

HE ALWAYS WANTED A BIG MACK

for B-33 in Objective 3-i

6 0
posted by Evan inc.
Sep 23, 2010

HEWANTEDMEALSONWHEELS

0 2
posted by Yup
Mar 9, 2011
HEALWAYSWANTEDABIGMACK

3 0
posted by Angel
Feb 16, 2012
~he always wanted a big mack~

(this is for the “algebra with pizzazz” worksheet)

0 0
posted by Anonymous
May 16, 2014
he always wanted a big mack

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 3, 2015
HE ALWAYS WANTED A BIG MACK

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Nov 23, 2015

He always wanted a Big Mac. Duh. (Actually I don’t get the joke but whateves.)

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 23, 2016
xXx_Mactruckbigmcdonalds_xXx

0 0
posted by Creepy Guy next door
Jul 11, 2016
~healwayswantedabigmack~

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Jan 20, 2017
He Always Wanted A Big Mack

0 0
Feb 8, 2017
HE ALWAYS WANTED A BIG MACK

0 0
posted by marilyn
Dec 1, 2017

hewantedabigmack (now all I need is the work)

0 0
posted by idk
Feb 5, 2018
Because he wanted to be thicc

0 0
posted by Lavar
Mar 5, 2018