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on the loan worksheet in cell c9

Office 2013 – myitlab:grader – Instructions Exploring Series Vol. 2

Specialized Functions

Project Description: In the following project, you will use Excel to perform calculations regarding rental properties. You will create a basic search, utilize database functions, and create an amortization table

Instructions: For the purpose of grading the project you are required to perform the following tasks: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Download and open the file named exploring_e07_grader_h1.xlsx, and then save the file as e07c2Apartment_LastFirst, replacing LastFirst with your name. 0 2 Insert functions in the Pet Deposit column of the Summary worksheet to calculate the required pet deposit for each unit. If the unit has two or more bedrooms and was remodeled after 2008 the deposit is $125, if not it is $75. 10 3 Enter nested functions in the Recommendation column to indicate Need to remodel if the apartment is unoccupied and was last remodeled before 2005. For all other apartments, display No change. 10 4 Type 101 in cell B2. 4 5 Insert a nested lookup function in cell E2 that will look up the rental price in column D using the apartment number referenced in cell B2. 10 6 Click the Database worksheet and enter conditions in the Criteria Range for unoccupied two- and three-bedroom apartments that need to be remodeled. 10 7 Perform an advanced filter based on the criteria range. Filter the existing database in place. 10 8 In cell C7, enter a DCOUNTA function to calculate the number of apartments to remodel. 6 9 In cell C8, enter a database function to calculate the total lost rent for the month. 2 10 Enter a database function to calculate the year of the oldest remodel in cell C9. 2 11 Click the Loan worksheet and enter 3/20/2015 in cell B7. 2 12 Insert a formula in cell E2 to calculate the loan amount based on the loan parameters in the input area. 2 13 Insert a formula in cell E3 to calculate the total number of periods. 2 14 Insert a formula in cell E4 to calculate the periodic monthly rate. 2 15 Insert a function in cell E5 to calculate the monthly payment. Ensure that the function returns a positive value. 2 16 In cell E6, insert a function to calculate the total interest paid on the loan. Ensure that the function returns a positive value. 2 17 Complete the loan amortization table for the first five payments only. In cell A11, enter 1. In cell B11, create a relative reference to cell B7 and in cell C11, create a relative reference to cell E2. Use the DATE function to complete the Payment Date column and financial functions for the Interest Paid and Principal Payment columns. In cell F11, enter =C11-E11. In cell C12, create a relative reference to cell F11. Note: Be sure to only complete the table through row 15. 18 18 Create a footer with the sheet name code in the center, and the file name code on the right side of each worksheet. 6 19 Save the file making sure the worksheets are in the following order: Summary, Database, and Loan. Close Excel. Submit the file as directed. 0 Total Points 100

Updated: 08/03/2013 1 E_CH07_EXPV2_H1_Instructions.docx

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find the sum of the interior angles of a nonagon


  1. Find the sum of the interior angles of a nonagon. (1 point)

140°
1,620°
1,260°
1,450°


  1. Find the measure of each interior angle of a polygon with 12 sides. (1 point)

1,800°
150°
180°
145°


  1. Four of the angles of a pentagon measure 85°, 110°, 135°, and 95°. Find the measure of the missing angle. (1 point)

115°
95°
135°
85°

My answers:

  1. 1,260°
  2. 150°
  3. 115° 1 0 2,386
    asked by Delilah
    Feb 5, 2013
    All are right. 1 0
    👩‍🏫
    Ms. Sue
    Feb 5, 2013
    2.
    Find the sum of the interior angles of a nonagon. (1 point)

140°
1,620°
1,260°
1,450°

When you walk all the way around a figure with straight sides clockwise you turn 360 degrees. Ech of your right turns is 180 – interior angle there

in this case 9 * right turn angle = 360
right turn angle = 40
so each interior angle is 180 – 40 = 140
9* 140 = 1260

4.
Same deal for the next one
360/ 12 = 30
180 – 30 = 150 = interior angle

5.
each exterior angle = 180 – angle
180 – 85 = 95
180 – 110 = 70
180 – 135 = 45
180 – 45 = 85
then we have (180-x)
95+70+45+85 +180 – x = 360
475 – x = 360
x = 115

1 1
posted by Damon
Feb 5, 2013
Those answer are all correct, good job.

0 0
posted by Ms. Smart
Feb 10, 2017
Connexus answers

  1. B
  2. C
  3. A
  4. B
  5. A
  6. C
  7. D
  8. C
  9. B
  10. D
  11. C
  12. You have to do that one yourself it’s a writen answer. 8 1
    posted by Allison
    Feb 3, 2019

Thank you Allison

0 0
posted by UnaLoca
Feb 4, 2019
Nice job Allison! Those answers are 100%

0 0
posted by MarineCat6
Feb 12, 2019

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dissertation proposal help dissertation writing services phd dissertation writing services

according to vaillant, __________ is a major preoccupation of midlife.

H AFTER ^ ri • •ID Conflict and

Peacema ki If you want peace, work for justice.”

—Pop.e.P.9ul.Vl.

What creates conflict?

How can peace be achieved?

Postscript: The conflict between individual and communal rights

There is a speech that has been spoken in many languages by the leaders of many countries. It goes like this; “The intentions of our country are entirely peaceful. Yet, we are also aware that other

^nations, with their new weapons, threaten us. Thus we must defend

iourselves against attack. By so doing, we shall protect our way of

jlife and preserve the peace” (Richardson, I960}. Almost every nation

^claims concern only for peace but, mistrusting other nations, arms

itself in self-defense. The result is a world that has been spending

$5 billion per day on arms and armies while hundreds of millions die of

malnutrition and untreated disease (SIPRI, 2011).

The elements of such conflict (a perceived incompatibility of

actions or goals) are similar at many levels: conflict between nations in

an arms race, between religious factions disputing points of doctrine,

between corporate executives and workers disputing salaries, and

between bickering spouses. People in conflict perceive that one side s

gain is the other’s loss:

• “We want peace and security.” “So do we, but you threaten us.”

• “I’d like the music off.” “I’d like it on.”

• “We want more pay.” “We can’t afford it.”

A relationship or an organization without conflict is probably apa-

hetic. Conflict signifies involvement, commitment, and caring. If conflict

482 Part Three Social Relations

As civil rights leaders know, creatively managed con­ flicts can have constructive outcomes.

conflict A perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.

peace A condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships.

is understood and recognized, it can end

oppression and stimulate renewed and

improved human relations. Harmony

occurs when justice and mutual respect

prevail but also when “everyone knows

their place” in an unjust world (Dixon &

others, 2010). Without conflict, people

seldom face and resolve their problems.

Genuine peace is more than the sup­

pression of open conflict, more than a

fragile, superficial calm. Peace is the

outcome of a creatively managed con­

flict. Peace is the parties reconciling

their perceived differences and reaching

genuine accord. “We got our increased

pay. You got your increased profit. Now each of us is helping the other achieve the

organization’s goals.” Peace, says peace researcher Royce Anderson (2004), “is a

condition in which individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or nations experi­

ence low levels of violence and engage in mutually harmonious relationships.”

In this chapter we explore conflict and peacemaking by asking what factors create

or exacerbate conflict, and what factors contribute to peace:

• What social situations feed conflict?

• How do misperceptions fuel conflict?

• Does contact with the other side reduce conflict?

• When do cooperation, communication, and mediation enable reconciliation?

WHAT CREATES CONFLICT?__________ I Explain what feeds conflict.

Social-psychological studies have identified several ingredients of conflict. What’s striking (and what simplifies our task) is that these ingredients are common to all levels of social conflict, whether international, intergroup, or interpersonal.

Social Dilemmas Several of the problems that most threaten our human future—nuclear arms, cli­ mate change, overpopulation, natural-resource depletion—arise as various parties pursue their self-interests, ironically, to their collective detriment. One individual may think, “It would cost me a lot to buy expensive greenhouse emission controls. Besides, the greenhouse gases I personally generate are trivial.” Many others reason

483Conflict and Peacemaking

similarly, and the result is a warming climate, melting ice cover, rising seas, and more extreme weather.

In some societies, parents benefit by having many children who can assist with the family tasks and provide security in their old age. But when most families have many children generation after generation, the result is the collective devastation of overpopulation. Choices that are individually rewarding become collectively pun­ ishing. We therefore have a dilemma: How can we reconcile individual self-interest with communal well-being?

To isolate and study that dilemma, social psychologists have used laboratory games that expose the heart of many real social conflicts. “Social psychologists who study conflict are in much the same position as the astronomers,” noted conflict researcher Morton Deutsch (1999). “We cannot conduct true experiments with large-scale social events. But we can identify the conceptual similarities between the large scale and the small, as the astronomers have between the planets and Newton’s apple. That is why the games people play as subjects in our laboratory may advance our understanding of war, peace, and social justice.”

Let’s consider two laboratory games that are each an example of a social trap: the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons.

THE PRISONER’S DILEMMA

This dilemma derives from an anecdote concerning two suspects being questioned separately by the district attorney (DA) (Rapoport, 1960). The DA knows they are jointly guilty but has only enough evidence to convict them of a lesser offense. So the DA creates an incentive for each one to confess privately:

• If Prisoner A confesses and Prisoner B doesn’t, the DA will grant immunity to A and will use A’s confession to convict B of a maximum offense (and vice versa if B confesses and A doesn’t).

», • If both confess, each will receive a moderate sentence. F • If neither prisoner confesses, each will be convicted of a lesser crime and i receive a light sentence.

The matrix of Figure 13.1 summarizes the choices. If you were a prisoner faced with such a dilemma, with no chance to talk to the other prisoner, would you confess?

Prisoner A

Confesses Doesn’t confess

Confesses

Doesn’t confess

10 years

Chapter 13

social trap A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing its self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Examples include the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons.

FIGURE:: 13.1 The Classic Prisoner’s Dilemma In each box, the number above the diagonal is prisoner A’s outcome. Thus, if both prisoners confess, both get five years. If neither confesses, each gets a year. If one confesses, that prisoner is set free in exchange for evidence used to convict the other of a crime bringing a 10-year sentence. If you were one of the prisoners, unable to communicate with your fellow prisoner, would you confess?

484 Part Three Social Relations

FIGURE:: 13.2 Laboratory Version of the Prisoner’s Dilemma The numbers represent some reward, such as money. In each box, the number above the diagonal lines is the outcome for person A. Unlike the classic Pris­ oner’s Dilemma (a one-shot deci­ sion), most laboratory versions involve repeated plays.

Response 1 (defect)

Person A

iponse 1 Respo (defect) (coopera-^

12

Response 2 (cooperate)

12

-6

Many people say they would confess to be granted immunity, even though mutual nonconfession elicits lighter sentences than mutual confession. Perhaps this is because (as shown in the Figure 13.1 matrix) no matter what the other prisoner decides, each is better off confessing than being convicted individually. If the other also confesses, the sentence is moderate rather than severe. If the other does not confess, one goes free.

University students have faced variations of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, with the choices being to defect or to cooperate, and the outcomes not being prison terms but chips, money, or course points. As Figure 13.2 illustrates, on any given decision, a person is better off defecting (because such behavior exploits the other’s cooperation or protects against the other’s exploitation). However—and here’s the rub—by not cooperating, both parties end up far worse off than if they had trusted each other and thus had gained a joint profit. This dilemma often traps each one in a maddening predicament in which both realize they could mutually profit. But unable to commu­ nicate, and mistrusting each other, they often become “locked in” to not cooperating. Outside the university, examples abound: seemingly intractable and costly conflicts between Israelis and Palestinians over borders, U.S. Republicans and Democrats over taxation and deficits, and professional athletes and team owners over pay.

Punishing another’s lack of cooperation might seem like a smart strategy, but in the laboratory it can have counterproductive effects (Dreber & others, 2008). Punish­ ment typically triggers retaliation, which means that those who punish tend to esca­ late conflict, worsening their outcomes, while nice guys finish first. What punishers see as a defensive reaction, recipients see as an aggressive escalation (Anderson & others, 2008). When hitting back, they may hit harder while seeing themselves as merely returning tit for tat. In one experiment, London volunteers used a mechanical device to press back on another’s finger after receiving pressure on their own. While seeking to reciprocate with the same degree of pressure, they typically responded with 40 percent more force. Thus, touches soon escalated to hard presses, much like a child saying “I just touched him, and then he hit me!” (Shergill & others, 2003). THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS

Many social dilemmas involve more than two parties. Climate change stems from deforestation and from the carbon dioxide emitted by vehicles, furnaces, and coal-fired power plants. Each gas-guzzling SUV contributes infinitesimally to the problem, and

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 485

harm each does is diffused over many people. To model such social predicaments, researchers have developed laboratory dilemmas that involve multiple people.

A metaphor for the insidious nature of social dilemmas is what ecologist Garrett Hardin (1968) called the Tragedy of the Commons. He derived the name from the centrally located grassy pasture in old English towns.

In today’s world the “commons” can be air, water, fish, cookies, or any shared and limited resource. If all use the resource in moderation, it may replenish itself as rapidly as it’s harvested. The grass will grow, the fish will reproduce, and the cookie jar will be restocked. If not, there occurs a tragedy of the commons. Imagine 100 farmers surrounding a commons capable of sustaining 100 cows. When each grazes one cow, the common feeding ground is optimally used. But then a farmer reasons, “If I put a second cow in the pasture. I’ll double my output, minus the mere 1 percent overgrazing” and adds a second cow. So does each of the other farmers. The inevi­ table result? The Tragedy of the Commons—a mud field and famished cows.

Likewise, environmental pollution is the sum of many minor pollutions, each of which benefits the individual polluters much more than they could benefit them­ selves (and the environment) if they stopped polluting. We litter public places— dorm lounges, parks, zoos—while keeping our personal spaces clean. We deplete our natural resources because the immediate personal benefits of, for instance, taking a long, hot shower outweigh the seemingly inconsequential costs. Whalers knew others would exploit the whales if they didn’t, and that taking a few whales would hardly diminish the species. Therein lies the tragedy. Everybody’s business (conservation) becomes nobody’s business.

Is such individualism imiquely American? Kaori Sato (1987) gave students in a more collective culture, Japan, opportunities to harvest—for actual money trees from a simulated forest. The students shared equally the costs of planting the for­ est. The result was like those in Western cultures. More than half the trees were harvested before they had grown to the most profitable size.

Sato’s forest reminds me of our home’s cookie jar, which was restocked once a week. What we should have done was conserve cookies so that each day we could each enjoy two or three. But lacking regulation and fearing that other family mem­ bers would soon deplete the resource, what we actually did was maximize our individual cookie consumption by downing one after the other. The result; Within 24 hours the cookie glut would often end, the jar sitting empty for the rest of the week.

When resources are not partitioned, people often consume more than they real­ ize (Herlocker & others, 1997). As a bowl of mashed potatoes is passed around a table of 10, the first few diners are more likely to scoop out a disproportionate share than when a platter of 10 chicken drumsticks is passed.

The Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons games have several similar features.

THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR

First, both games tempt people to explain their ozon behavior situationally (“I had to protect myself against exploitation by my opponent”) and to explain their part­ ners’ behavior dispositionally (“she was greedy,” “he was untrustworthy ). Most never realize that their counterparts are viewing them with the same fundamental attribution error (Gifford & Hine, 1997; Hine & Gifford, 1996). People with self- inflating, self-focused narcissistic tendencies are especially unlikely to empathize with others’ perspectives (Campbell & others, 2005).

EVOLVING MOTIVES

Second, motives often change. At first, people are eager to make some easy money, then to minimize their losses, and finally to save face and avoid defeat (Brockner & others, 1982; Teger, 1980). These shifting motives are strikingly similar to the shifting motives during the buildup of the 1960s Vietnam War. At first. President Johnson’s speeches expressed concern for democracy, freedom, and justice. As the conflict escalated, his

Tragedy of the Commons The “commons” is any shared resource, including air, water, energy sources, and food supplies. The tragedy occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse—the tragedy—of the commons.

486 Part Three Social Relations

non-zero>sum games Games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose (also called mixed-motive situations).

“LIKE THE OLD BUFFALO

HUNTERS, FISHERMEN

HAVE A PERSONAL INCEN­

TIVE TO MAKE AS MUCH AS

THEY CAN THIS YEAR, EVEN

IF THEY’RE DESTROYING

THEIR OWN PROFESSION IN

THE PROCESS.”

—JOHN TIERNEY, “WHERE THE

TUNA ROAM,” 2006

Small is cooperative. On the Isle of Muck, off Scotland’s west coast, Constable Lawrence MacEwan has had an easy time policing the island’s residents, recently numbering 33. Over his 40 years on the job, there was never a crime (5cotf/s/j Life, 2001). In 2010, a row between two friends who had been drinking at a wedding became the first recorded crime in 50 years, but the next morning, they shook hands and all was well (Cameron, 2010).

concern became protecHng America’s honor and avoiding the national humiliaH^^ of losmg a war. A similar shift occurred during the war in Iraq, which was initiall^ proposed as a response to Iraq’s supposed weapons of mass destruction. ^

OUTCOMES NEED NOT SUM TO ZERO

Third, most real-life conflicts, like the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of thp Commons, are non-zero-sum games. The two sides’ profits and losses need not add up to zero. Both can win; both can lose. Each game pits the immediate interests of indi ^duals agamst the well-being of the group. Each is a diaboUcal social trap that shows how, even when each individual behaves “rationally,” harm can result. No maUcious person planned for the earth’s atmosphere to be warmed by a carbon dioxide blanket

Not all self-serving behavior leads to collective doom. In a plentiful commons—as in the world of the eighteenth-century capitalist economist Adam Smith (1776, p 18)— mdividu^ who seek to maximize their own profit may also give the commuidty wl^t It needs: It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner,” he observed, “but from their regard to their own interest.”

RESOLVING SOCIAL DILEMMAS

Faced with social traps, how can we induce people to cooperate for their mutual betterment? Research with the laboratory dilemmas reveals several ways (Gifford & Hine, 1997). ^

REGULATION If taxes were entirely voluntary, how many would pay their full share? Modern societies do not depend on charity to pay for schools, parks, and social and military security. We also develop rules to safeguard our common good. Fishing and hunting have long been regulated by local seasons and limits; at the ^obal level, an International Whaling Commission sets an agreed-upon “harvest” that enables whales to regenerate. Likewise, where fishing industries, such as the Alaskan halibut fishery, have implemented “catch shares”—guaranteeing each fisher a percentage of each year’s allowable catch—competition and overfishing have been greatly reduced (Costello & others, 2008).

In everyday life, however, regulation has costs—costs of administering and enforcing the regulations, costs of diminished personal freedom. A volatile political question thus arises: At what point does a regulation’s cost exceed its benefits?

SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL There is another way to resolve social dilemmas; Make the group small. In a small commons, each person feels more responsible and effec­ tive (Kerr 1989). As a group grows larger, people become more likely to think, “I couldn t have made a difference anyway”—a common excuse for noncooperation (Kerr &Kaufman-Gilliland, 1997).

487Conflict and Peacemaking

In small groups, people also feel more identified with a group’s success. Resi­ dential stability also strengthens communal identity and procommunity behavior (Oishi & others, 2007).

In small groups—in contrast to large ones—individuals are less likely to take more than their equal share of available resources (Allison & others, 1992). On the Pacific Northwest island where I grew up, our small neighborhood shared a com­ munal water supply. On hot summer days when the reservoir ran low, a light came on, signaling our 15 families to conserve. Recognizing our responsibility to one another, and feeling that our conservation really mattered, each of us conserved. Never did the reservoir run dry.

In a much larger commons—say, a city—voluntary conservation is less success­ ful. Because the harm one does diffuses across many others, each individual can rationalize away personal accountability. Some political theorists and social psy­ chologists therefore argue that, where feasible, the commons should be divided into smaller territories (Edney, 1980). In his 1902 Mutual Aid, the Russian revolu­ tionary Pyotr Kropotkin set down a vision of small communities rather than central government making consensus decisions for the benefit of all (Gould, 1988).

Evolutionary psychologist Robin Dunbar (1992, 2010) notes that hunter-gatherer societies often travel together as groups of 30 to 35 people, that tribal villages and clans often have averaged about 150 people—enough to afford mutual support and protection but not more people than one can monitor. He suspects it’s not a coinci­ dence that the average number of Facebook friends—about 125—echoes the size of our ancestral tribal villages, which reflect the number of people with whom we can have meaningful, supportive relationships. This seemingly natural group size is also, he believes, the optimum size for business organizations, religious congrega­ tions, and military fighting units.

COMMUNICATION To resolve a social dilemma, people must communicate. In the laboratory as in real life, group communication sometimes degenerates into threats and name-calling (Deutsch & Krauss, 1960). More often, communication enables cooperation (Bornstein & others, 1988,1989). Discussing the dilemma forges a group identity, which enhances concern for everyone’s welfare. It devises group norms and expectations and pressures members to follow them. Especially when people are face-to-face, it enables them to commit themselves to cooperation (Bouas & Komorita, 1996; Drolet & Morris, 2000; Kerr & others, 1994,1997; Pruitt, 1998).

A clever experiment by Robyn Dawes (1980, 1994) illustrates the importance of communication. Imagine that an experimenter offered you and six strangers a choice: You can each have $6, or you can donate your $6 to the others. If you give away your money, the experimenter will double your gift. No one will be told whether you chose to give or keep your $6. Thus, if all seven give, everyone pockets $12. If you alone keep your $6 and all the others give theirs, you pocket $18. If you give and the others keep, you pocket nothing. In this experiment, cooperation is mutually advantageous, but it requires risk. Dawes found that, without discussion, about 30 percent of people gave. With discussion, in which they could establish trust and cooperation, about 80 percent gave.

Open, clear, forthright communication between two parties reduces mistrust. Without communication, those who expect others not to cooperate will usually refuse to cooperate themselves (Messe & Sivacek, 1979; Pruitt & Kimmel, 1977). One who mistrusts is almost sure to be uncooperative (to protect against exploita­ tion). Noncooperation, in turn, feeds further mistrust (“VS^at else could I do? It’s a dog-eat-dog world”). In experiments, communication reduces mistrust, enabling people to reach agreements that lead to their common betterment.

CHANGING THE PAYOFFS Laboratory cooperation rises when experimenters change the payoff matrix to reward cooperation and punish exploitation (Balliet & others, 2011). Changing payoffs also helps resolve actual dilemmas. In some cit­ ies, freeways clog and skies collect smog because people prefer the convenience

Chapter 13

“FOR THAT WHICH

IS COMMON TO THE

GREATEST NUMBER

HAS THE LEAST CARE

BESTOWED UPON IT.”

-ARISTOTLE

“MY OWN BELIEF IS THAT

RUSSIAN AND CHINESE

BEHAVIOR IS AS MUCH

INFLUENCED BY SUSPICION

OF OUR INTENTIONS AS

OURS IS BY SUSPICION

OF THEIRS. THIS WOULD

MEAN THAT WE HAVE

GREAT INFLUENCE ON

THEIR BEHAVIOR-THAT,

BY TREATING THEM AS

HOSTILE, WE ASSURE THEIR

HOSTILITY.”

-U.S. SENATOR J. WILLIAM

FULBRIGHT(1971)

488 Part Three Social Relations

To change behavior, many cities have changed the payoff matrix. Fast carpool-only lanes increase the benefits of carpooling and the costs of driving alone.

“NEVER IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN CONFLICT WAS SO MUCH OWED BY SO MANY TO SO FEW.”

—SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL,

HOUSE OF COMMONS,

AUGUST 20,1940

of driving themselves directly to work. Each knows that one more car does not add noticeably to the congestion and pollution. To alter the personal cost-benefit calculations many cities now give carpoolers incentives, such as desig­ nated freeway lanes or reduced tolls.

APPEALING TO ALTRUISTIC NORMS In Chapter 12 we saw how increasing bystanders’ feelings of responsibility for others boosts altruism. Will appeals to altruistic motives similarly prompt people to act for the common good?

The evidence is mixed. On the one hand, just knowing the dire consequences of noncooperation has little effect. In labo­ ratory games, people realize that their self-serving choices are mutually destructive, yet they continue to make them. Out­ side the laboratory, warnings of doom and appeals to con­ serve have brought little response. Shortly after taking office in 1976, President Carter declared that America’s response to the energy crisis should be “the moral equivalent of war” and urged conservation. The following summer, Americans consumed more gasoline than ever before. At the beginning of this new century, people knew that global warming was under way—and were buying gas-slurping SUVs in record numbers. As we have seen many times in this book, attitudes sometimes fail to influence behavior. Knowing what is good does not necessarily lead to doing what is good.

Still, most people do adhere to norms of social responsibil­ ity, reciprocity, equity, and keeping one’s commitments (Kerr, 1992). The problem is how to tap such feelings. One way is through the influence of a charismatic leader who inspires others to cooperate (De Cremer, 2002). Another way is by defining situations in ways that invoke cooperative norms. In one experiment, only a third of participants cooperated in a simulation labeled the “Wall Street Game.” Two-thirds did so when the same social dilemma was labeled the “Community Game” (Liberman & others, 2004).

Communication can also activate altruistic norms. When permitted to communi­ cate, participants in laboratory games frequently appeal to the social-responsibility norm: “If you defect on the rest of us, you’re going to have to live with it for the rest of your life” (Dawes & others, 1977). So researcher Robyn Dawes (1980) and his associates gave participants a short sermon about group benefits, exploitation, and ethics. Then the participants played a dilemma game. The sermon worked: People chose to forgo immediate personal gain for the common good. (Recall, too, from Chapter 12, the disproportionate volunteerism and charitable contributions by people who regularly hear religious sermons.)

Could such appeals work in large-scale dilemmas? In the 1960s struggle for civil rights, many marchers willingly agreed, for the sake of the larger group, to suffer harassment, beatings, and jail. In wartime, people make great personal sacrifices for the good of their group. As Winston Churchill said of the Battle of Britain, the actions of the Royal Air Force pilots were genuinely altruistic: A great many people owed a great deal to those who flew into battle knowing there was a high probability—70 per­ cent for those on a standard tour of duty—that they would not return (Levinson, 1950).

To summarize, we can minimize destructive entrapment in social dilemmas by establishing rules that regulate self-serving behavior, by keeping groups small by enabling people to communicate, by changing payoffs to make cooperation more rewarding, and by invoking compelling altruistic norms.

Competition Hostilities often arise when groups compete for scarce jobs, housing, or resources. When interests clash, conflict erupts—a phenomenon Chapter 9 identified as realistic group conflict. As one Algerian immigrant to France explained after Muslim youth rioted in

489Conflict and Peacemaking

f Prpnch cities in the autumn of 2005, “There is no exit, no factories, no jobs for ■dozens of French c (c^inVmo 2005) ”We are the 99 percent EconomiclU- ^ Tilted te chirpy wTll s“^t prlstors in 2011: expressing their fjustice is overdue declared the Wail b P ^pleasure With 1 percent of

invading his Turkish province in 1919.

: Theystartedkiliingpeoplerightand^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and then I became mterested wLtevL science or specialization was

‘ After studying the social roots of savagery, Sherif introduced

camp m “Parate buse^ an p ^^,5 Oklahoma’s Robb« s Cav^ State Park^to^^^^ in various activities-preparing

ifying the good feeling, a ^ ^ the conflict. Near the first Grouo identity thus established, the stage u n m ” wVi#»n the

groups (baseball games, ° ^ ^ tMs was win-lose competition. Theforth), both groups responded enthusiastically. 1 Ills V* spoils (medals, knives) would all go to the , ,,ene from

boys marooned on an island. In Sh • • ^ it escalated to din-

Chapter 13

Little-known fact: How did Sherif unobtrusively observe the boys without inhibiting their behavior? He became the camp maintenance man (Williams, 2002).

Competition kindles conflict. Here, in Sherif’s Robber’s Cave experiment, one group of boys raids the bunkhouse of another.

490 Part Three

“DO UNTO OTHERS 20% BETTER THAN YOU WOULD EXPECTTHEMTODO UNTO YOU, TO CORRECT FOR SUBJECTIVE ERROR.”

—LINUS PAULING (1962)

Social Relations

after hearing tolerance-advocating messages, ingroup discussion often exacerh i dislike of the conflicting group (Paluck, 2010). All of this occurred without anv ? tural, physical, or economic differences between the two groups, and withal,”*’ who were their communiHes’ “cream of the crop.” Sherif noted that, had we the camp at that point, we would have concluded these “were wicked dishirh a Md vicious bunches of youngsters” (1966, p. 85). Actually, their evil behavior ‘ tnggered by an evil situation.

Competition breeds such conflict, later research has shown, especially when i.i p^ple perceive that resources such as money, jobs, or power are limited and avaU- able on a zero-sum basis (others’ gain is one’s loss), and (b) a distinct outeroun stands out as a potential competitor (Esses & others, 2005). Thus, those who see immigrants as competing for their own jobs will tend to express negative attitudes toward immigrants and immigration. ^

Fortunately, as we will see, Sherif not only made strangers into enemies; he then also made the enemies into friends.

Perceived Injustice “That’s i^air!” “What a ripoff!” “We deserve better!” Such comments typify conflicts bred by perceived injustice. But what is “justice”? According to some social-psychological theorists, people perceive justice as equity—the distribution of rewards in proportion to individuals’ contributions (Walster & others, 1978). If you and I have a relationship (employer-employee, teacher-student, husband-wife colleague-colleague), it is equitable if

My outcomes _ Your outcomes My inputs Your inputs

If you contribute more and benefit less than I do, you will feel exploited and irri- tated; I may feel exploitative and guilty. Chances are, though, that you will be more sensitive to the inequity than I will be (Greenberg, 1986; Messick & Sentis, 1979).

We may agree with the equity principle’s definition of justice yet disagree on whetiier our relationship is equitable. If two people are colleagues, what will each consider a relevant input? The older person may favor basing pay on seniority, the other on current productivity. Given such a disagreement, whose definition is likely to prevail. Those with social power usually convince themselves and others that they deserve what they’re getting (Mikula, 1984). This has been called a “golden” rule: Whoever has the gold makes the rules.

Critics argue that equity is not the only conceivable definition of justice. (Pause a moment: Can you imagine any other?) Edward Sampson (1975) argued that equity Uieonsts wrongly assume that the economic principles that guide Western, capital­ ist nations are umversal. Some noncapitalist cultures define justice not as equity but as equality or even fulfillment of need: “From each according to his abilities, to each accordmg to his needs” (Karl Marx). Compared with individualistic Americans, people socialized under the influence of collectivist cultures, such as China and ^dia, defme justice more as equality or need fulfillment (Hui & others, 1991 • Leung & Bond, 1984; Murphy-Berman others, 1984).

On what basis should rewards be distributed? Merit? Equality? Need^ Some com­ bination of those? Political philosopher John Rawls (1971) invited us to consider a tuture m which our own place on the economic ladder is unknown. Which stan­ dard of justice would we prefer?

Misperception Recall that conflict is a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals. Many conflicts contain but a small core of truly incompatible goals; the bigger problem is the misper­ ceptions of the other’s motives and goals. Hie Eagles and the Rattlers did indeed

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 491

have some genuinely incompatible aims. But their perceptions subjectively magni­ fied their differences (Figure 13.3).

In earlier chapters we considered the seeds of such misperception:

T • The self-serving bias leads individu- S’ als and groups to accept credit for I ’ their good deeds and shirk respon-

sibility for bad deeds, r • A tendency to sc//-j«stf/y inclines 1^ people to deny the wrong of their I evil acts. (“You call that hitting? I

hardly touched him!”) [■ • Thanks to the fundamental attribution error, each side sees the other’s hostility j as reflecting an evil disposition. \. • One then filters the information and interprets it to fit one’s preconceptions. \ • Groups frequently polarize these self-serving, self-justifying, biasing ?: tendencies. ‘ • One symptom of groupthink is the tendency to perceive one’s own group as ! r moral and strong, and the opposition as evil and weak. Acts of terrorism that S in most people’s eyes are despicable brutality are seen by others as “holy war.” [‘ • Indeed, the mere fact of being in a group triggers an ingroup bias. i • Negative stereotypes of the outgroup, once formed, are often resistant to con­

tradictory evidence. So it should not surprise us, though it should sober us, to discover that people in

conflict—people everywhere—form distorted images of one another. Wherever in the world you live, was it not true that when your country was last at war it clothed itself in moral virtue? that it prepared for war by demonizing the enemy? that most of its people accepted their government’s case for war and rallied ’round its flag? Show social psychologists Ervin Staub and Daniel Bar-Tal (2003) a group in intrac­ table conflict and they will show you a group that

• sees its own goals as supremely important. • takes pride in “us” and devalues “them.” • believes itself victimized.

■ • elevates patriotism, solidarity, and loyalty to their group s needs. • celebrates self-sacrifice and suppresses criticism. Although one side to a conflict may indeed be acting with greater moral vutue,

the point is that enemy images are fairly predictable. Even the types of mispercep­ tion are intriguingly predictable.

MIRROR-IMAGE PERCEPTIONS

To a striking degree, the misperceptions of those in conflict are mutual. People in conflict attribute similar virtues to themselves and vices to the other. When the American psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner (1961) visited the Soviet Union in 1960 and conversed with many ordinary citizens in Russian, he was astonished to hear them saying the same things about America that Americans were saying about Russia. The Russians said that the U.S. government was militarily aggressive; that it exploited and deluded the American people; that in diplomacy, it was not to be trusted. “Slowly and painfully, it forced itself upon one that the Russians’ distorted picture of us was curiously similar to our view of them—a mirror image.

Analyses of American and Russian perceptions by psychologists (Tobin & Eagles, 1992; White, 1984) and political scientists (Jervis, 1985) revealed that mirror-image

FIGURE:: 13.3 Many conflicts contain a core of truly incompatible goals surrounded by a larger exterior of misperceptions.

“AGGRESSION BREEDS PATRIOTISM, AND PATRIOTISM CURBS DISSENT.”

—MAUREEN DOWD, 2003

492 Part Three Social Relations

Self-confirming, mirror-image perceptions are a hallmark of intense conflict.

mirror-image perceptions Reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict: for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive.

perceptions persisted into the 1980s. The same action (patrolling the other’s coast with sellmg arms to smaller nations) seemed more hostile when they did it

When two sides have clashing perceptions, at least one of the two is misperceiving the other. And when such misperceptions exist, noted Bronfenbrenner, “It is a psy­ chological phenomenon without parallel in the gravity of its consequences … for if IS characteristic of such images that they are self-confirming.” If A expects B to be hostile

may treat B m such a way that B fulfills A’s expectations, thus beginning a vicious circle (Kennedy & Pronin, 2008). Morton Deutsch (1986) explained:

You hear the false rumor that a friend is saying nasty things about you; you snub him; he then badmouths you, confirming your expectation. Similarly, if the policymakers of East and West believe that war is likely and either attempts to increase its military security vis-a-vis the other, the other’s response will justify the initial move. Negative mirror-image perceptions have been an obstacle to peace in many

places: ^ ^

Both sides of the Arab-Israeli conflict insisted that “we” are motivated by our need to protect our security and our territory, whereas “they” want to obliter­ ate us and gobble up our land. “We” are the indigenous people here, “they” are the mvaders. “We” are the victims; “they” are the aggressors” (Bar-Tal, 2004; ^^^dsWeit, 1979; Kelman, 2007). Given such intense mistrust, negotiation is

• At Northern Ireland’s University of Ulster, Catholic and Protestant students viewed videos of a Protestant attack at a Catholic funeral and a Catholic attack at a Protestant funeral (Hunter & others, 1991). Most students attrib­ uted the other side’s attack to “bloodthirsty” motives but its own side’s attack to retaliation or self-defense.

• Terrorism is in the eye of the beholder. In the Middle East, a public opinion survey found 98 percent of Palestinians agreeing that the killing of 29 Pales­ tinians by an assault-rifle-bearing Israeli at a mosque constituted terrorism, and 82 percent disagreed that the killing of 21 Israeli youths by a Palestinian suicide-bombmg constituted terrorism (Kmglanski & Fishman, 2006) Israelis likewise have responded to violence with intensified perceptions of Palestinian evil intent (Bar-Tal, 2004).

OULU Lonriicts, iiuies 1 luup z^imoarao (^uu4a), engage “a two-categ^iy of good people, like US, and of bad people, like THEM.” “In fact,” n4e Danit

ahneman and Jonathan Renshon (200^, all the biases uncovered in 40 years of psv chological research are conducive to war. They “incline national leaders to exaggerat

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 493

the evil intentions of adversaries, to misjudge how adversaries perceive them, to he overly sanguine when hostilities start, and overly reluctant to make necessary con­ cessions in negotiations.”

Opposing sides in a conflict tend to exaggerate their differences. On issues such as immigration and affirmative action, proponents aren’t as liberal and opponents aren’t as conservative as their adversaries suppose (Sherman & others, 2003). Opposing sides also tend to have a “bias blind spot,” notes Cynthia McPherson Frantz (2006). They see their own understandings as not biased by their liking or disliking for others; but those who disagree with them seem unfair and biased.

John Chambers, Robert Baron, and Mary Inman (2006) confirmed misperceptions on issues related to abortion and politics. Partisans perceived exaggerated differ­ ences from their adversaries (who actually agreed with them more often than they supposed). From exaggerated perceptions of the other’s position arise culture wars. Ralph White (1996,1998) reports that the Serbs started the war in Bosnia partly out of an exaggerated fear of the relatively secularized Bosnian Muslims, whose beliefs they wrongly associated with Middle Eastern Islamic fundamentalism and fanati­ cal terrorism. Resolving conflict involves abandoning such exaggerated perceptions and coming to understand the other’s mind. But that isn’t easy, notes Robert Wright (2003): “Putting yourself in the shoes of people who do things you find abhorrent may be the hardest moral exercise there is.”

Destructive mirror-image perceptions also operate in conflicts between small groups and between individuals. As we saw in the dilemma games, both parties may say, “We want to cooperate. But their refusal to cooperate forces us to react defen­ sively.” When Kermeth Thomas and Louis Pondy (1977) asked executives to describe a significant recent conflict, only 12 percent felt the other party was cooperative; 74 percent perceived themselves as cooperative. The typical executive explained that he or she had “suggested,” “informed,” and “recommended,” whereas the antagonist had “demanded,” “disagreed with everything I said,” and “refused.”

Group conflicts are often fueled by an illusion that the enemy’s top leaders are evil but their people, though controlled and manipulated, are pro-us. This evil-leader- good people perception characterized Americans’ and Russians’ views of each other during the Cold War. The United States entered the Vietnam War believing that in areas dominated by the Communist Vietcong “terrorists,” many of the people were allies-in-waiting. As suppressed information later revealed, those beliefs were mere wishful thinking. In 2003 the United States began the Iraq War presuming the exis­ tence of “a vast underground network that would rise in support of coalition forces to assist security and law enforcement” (Phillips, 2003). Alas, the network didn’t materialize, and the resulting postwar security vacuum enabled looting, sabotage, persistent attacks on American forces, and increasing attacks from an insurgency determined to drive Western interests from the country.

“THE AMERICAN PEOPLE

ARE GOOD, BUT THE

LEADERS ARE BAD.”

-BAGHDAD GROCER ADUL

GESAN AFTER 1998 AMERICAN

BOMBING OF IRAQ

SIMPLISTIC THINKING

When tension rises—as happens during an international crisis—rational thinking becomes more difficult (Janis, 1989). Views of the enemy become more simplistic and stereotyped, and seat-of-the-pants judgments become more likely. Even the mere expectation of conflict can serve to freeze thinking and impede creative prob­ lem solving (Camevale & Probst, 1998). Social psychologist Philip Tetlock (1988) observed inflexible thinking when he analyzed the complexity of Russian and American rhetoric since 1945. During the Berlin blockade, the Korean War, and the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, political statements became simplified into stark, good-versus-bad terms. At other times—notably after Mikhail Gorbachev became the Soviet general secretary (Figure 13.4)—political statements acknowledged that each country’s motives are complex.

Researchers have also analyzed political rhetoric preceding the outset of major wars, surprise military attacks. Middle Eastern conflicts, and revolu­ tions (Conway & others, 2001). In nearly every case, attacking leaders displayed

494 Part Three Social Relations

FIGURE:: 13.4 Complexity of Official U.S. and Soviet Policy Statements, 1977-1986 Source:?rom Tetlock, 1988.

Mean integrative complexity (complexity = not simplistic)

Year

increasingly simplistic we-are-good/they-are-bad thinking immediately prior to new” u IT”””‘typically preceded wh^n P r optimism was cLirmed when President Reagan in 1988 traveled to Moscow to sign the American Russian mtermediate-range nuclear force (INF) treaty, and then Gorbachev visited

research CLOSE-UP Misperception and War

Most research that I report in this book offers numeri­ cal data drawn from observations of people’s behav­ ior, cognitions, and attitudes as exhibited in laboratory experiments or in surveys. But there are other ways to do research. Some social psychologists, especially in Europe, analyze natural human discourse; they study written texts or spoken conversation to glimpse how people interpret and construct the events of their lives (Edwards & Potter, 2005). Others have analyzed human behavior in historical contexts, as did Irving Janis (1972) in exploring groupthink in historical fiascoes and Philip Tetlock (2005) in exploring the judgment failures of supposed political experts.

In what was arguably social psychology’s longest career, Ralph K. White, legendary for his late 1930s studies of democratic versus autocratic leadership (with pioneering social psychologists Kurt Lewin and Ronald Lippitt), published in 2004—at age 97—a capstone article summarizing his earlier analyses (1968, 1984, 1986) of how misperceptions feed war. In reviewing 10 wars from the past century, White reported that each was marked by at least one of three mispercep­ tions: underestimating the strength of one’s enemy,

ratJona//z/ng one’s own motives and behavior, and, especially, demonizing the enemy.

Underestimating one’s adversary, he observed, embold- |: ened Hitler to attack Russia, Japan to attack the United i States, and the United States to enter the Korean and |

Vietnam wars. And rationalization of one’s own actions and I demonization of the adversary are the hallmark of war. In f

the early twenty-first century as the United States and Iraq i talked of war, each said the other was “evil.” To George I W Bush, Saddam Hussein was a “murderous tyrant” and a “madman” who threatened the civilized world with weap- ■ ons of mass destruction. To Iraq’s government, the Bush government was a “gang of evil” (Preston, 2002). |

The truth need not lie midway between such clash- I ing perceptions. Yet “valid perception is an antidote to hate,” concluded White as he reflected on his lifetime ‘ as a peace psychologist. Empathy-accurately perceiv- ; ing the other’s thoughts and feelings—is “one of the most important factors for preventing war. .. . Empathy can help two or more nations avoid the dangers of misperception that lead to the wars most would prefer not to fight.”

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 495

I New York and told the United Nations that he would remove 500,000 Soviet troops ^ fixim Eastern Europe:

^ I would like to believe that our hopes will be matched by our joint effort to put an end I to an era of wars, confrontation and regional conflicts, to aggressions against nature, to I the terror of hunger and poverty as well as to political terrorism. This is our common

goal and we can only reach it together.

SHIFTING PERCEPTIONS

If misperceptions accompany conflict, they should appear and disappear as con­ flicts wax and wane. And they do, with startling regularity. The same processes that create the enemy’s image can reverse that image when the enemy becomes an ally. Thus, the “bloodthirsty, cruel, treacherous, buck-toothed little Japs” of World War II soon became—in North American minds (Gallup, 1972) and in the media— our “intelligent, hard-working, self-disciplined, resourceful allies.”

The Germans, who after two world wars were hated, then admired, and then again hated, were once again admired—apparently no longer plagued by what earlier was presumed to be cruelty in their national character. So long as Iraq was attacking unpopular Iran, even while using chemical weapons to massacre its own Kurds, many nations supported it. Our enemy’s enemy is our friend. When Iraq ended its war with Iran and invaded oil-rich Kuwait, Iraq’s behavior suddenly became “barbaric.” Images of our enemies change with amazing ease.

The extent of misperceptions during conflict provides a chilling reminder that people need not be insane or abnormally malicious to form distorted images of their antagonists. When we experience conflict with another nation, another group, or simply a roommate or a parent, we readily misperceive our own motives as good and the other’s as evil. And just as readily, our antagonists form a mirror-image perception of us.

So, with antagonists trapped in a social dilemma, competing for scarce resources, or perceiving injustice, the conflict continues until something enables both parties to peel away their misperceptions and work at reconciling their actual differences. Good advice, then, is this: When in conflict, do not assume that the other fails to share your values and morality. Rather, compare perceptions, assuming that the other is likely perceiving the situation differently.

SUMMING UP: What Creates Conflict? • Whenever two or more people, groups, or nations

interact, their perceived needs and goals may con­ flict. Many social dilemmas arise as people pursue individual self-interest to their collective detriment. Two laboratory games, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons, exemplify such dilemmas. In real life we can avoid such traps by establishing rules that regulate self-serving behav­ ior; by keeping social groups small so people feel responsibility for one another; by enabling com­ munication, thus reducing mistrust; by changing payoffs to make cooperation more rewarding; and by invoking altruistic norms.

• When people compete for scarce resources, human relations often sink into prejudice and hostility. In his famous experiments, Muzafer Sherif found that win-lose competition quickly made strangers into

enemies, triggering outright warfare even among normally upstanding boys.

• Conflicts also arise when people feel unjustly treated. According to equity theory, people define justice as the distribution of rewards in proportion to one’s contributions. Conflicts occur when people disagree on the extent of their contributions and thus on the equity of their outcomes.

• Conflicts frequently contain a small core of truly incompatible goals, surrounded by a thick layer of misperceptions of the adversary’s motives and goals. Often, conflicting parties have mirror-image perceptions. When both sides believe “We are peace- loving—they are hostile,” each may treat the other in ways that provoke confirmation of its expecta­ tions. International conflicts are sometimes also fed by an evil leader-good people illusion.

496 Part Three Social Relations

“WE KNOW MORE ABOUT

WAR THAN WE DO ABOUT

PEACE—MORE ABOUT

KILLING THAN WE KNOW

ABOUT LIVING.”

-GENERAL OMAR BRADLEY,

1893-1981, FORMER U.S. ARMY

CHIEF OF STAFF

HOW CAN PEACE BE ACHIEVED? Explain the processes that enable the achievement of peace.

Although toxic forces can breed destructive conflict, we can harness other forces to bring conflict to a constructive resolution. What are these ingredients of peace and harmony?

We have seen how conflicts are ignited by social traps, competition, perceived injustices, and misperceptions. Although the picture is grim, it is not hopeless. Sometimes closed fists become open arms as hostilities evolve into friendship. Social psychologists have focused on four strategies for helping enemies become comrades. We can remember these as the four Cs of peacemaking: contact, coopera­ tion, communication, and conciliation.

Contact Might putting two conflicting individuals or groups into close contact enable them to know and like each other? Perhaps not: In Chapter 3, we saw how negative expectations can bias judgments and create self-fulfilling prophecies. When ten­ sions run high, contact may fuel a fight.

But we also saw, in Chapter 11, that proximity—and the accompanying interac­ tion, anticipation of interaction, and mere exposure—boosts liking. In Chapter 4, we noted how blatant racial prejudice declined following desegregation, showing that attitudes follow behavior. If this social-psychological principle now seems obvi­ ous, remember: That’s how things usually seem after you know them. To the U.S. Supreme Court in 1896, the idea that desegregated behavior might reduce preju­ dicial attitudes was anything but obvious. What seemed obvious at the time was “that legislation is powerless to eradicate racial instincts” (Plessy v. Ferguson).

DOES CONTACT PREDICT ATTITUDES? In general, contact predicts tolerance. In a painstakingly complete analysis, Linda Tropp and Thomas Pettigrew (2005a; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2008, 2011) assembled data from 516 studies of 250,555 people in 38 nations. In 94 percent of studies, increased contact predicted decreased prejudice. This is especially so for majority group attitudes toward minorities (Gibson & Claassen, 2010; Tropp & Pettigrew, 2005b).

Newer studies confirm the correlation between contact and positive attitudes: • The more interracial contact South African Blacks and Whites have, the less

prejudice they feel, and the more sympathetic their policy attitudes are to those of the other group (Dixon & others, 2007; Tredoux & Finchilescu, 2010).

• The more friendly contact Blacks and Whites have with one another, the bet­ ter their attitudes toward one another—and toward other outgroups, such as Hispanics (Tausch & others, 2010).

• The more contact straight people have with gays and lesbians, the more accepting they become (Smith & others, 2009).

• The more contact Dutch adolescents have with Muslims, the more accepting of Muslims they are (Gonzalez & others, 2008).

• Even vicarious indirect contact, via story reading or imagination, or through a friend’s having an outgroup friend, tends to reduce prejudice (Cameron & Rutland, 2006; Crisp & others, 2011; Turner & others, 2007a, 2007b, 2008, 2010). This indirect contact effect, also called “the extended-contact effect,” can spread more positive attitudes through a peer group (Christ & others, 2010).

In the United States, segregation and expressed prejudice have diminished together since the 1960s. But was interracial contact the cause of these improved attitudes? Were those who actually experienced desegregation affected by it?

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 497

DOES DESEGREGATION IMPROVE RACIAL ATTITUDES?

School desegregation has produced measurable benefits, such as leading more Blacks to attend and succeed in college (Stephan, 1988). Does desegregation of schools, neighborhoods, and workplaces also produce favorable social results? The evidence is mixed.

On the one hand, many studies conducted during and shortly after desegrega­ tion found Whites’ attitudes toward Blacks improving markedly. Whether the peo­ ple were department store clerks and customers, merchant marines, government workers, police officers, neighbors, or students, racial contact led to diminished prejudice (Amir, 1969; Pettigrew, 1969). For example, near the end of World War II, the U.S. Army partially desegregated some of its rifle companies (Stouffer & others, 1949). When asked their opinions of such desegregation, 11 percent of the White soldiers in segregated companies approved. Of those in desegregated companies, 60 percent approved. They exhibited “system justification”—the human tendency to approve the way things are.

When Morton Deutsch and Mary Collins (1951) took advantage of a made to-order natural experiment, they observed similar results. In accord with state law. New York City desegregated its public housing units; it assigned families to apartments without regard to race. In a similar development across the river in Newark, New Jersey, Blacks and Whites were assigned to separate buildings. When surveyed. White women in the desegregated development were far more likely to favor interracial housing and to say their attitudes toward Blacks had improved. Exaggerated stereotypes had wilted in the face of reality. As one woman put it, “I’ve really come to like it. 1 see they’re just as human as we are.”

Such findings influenced the Supreme Court’s 1954 decision to desegregate schools and helped fuel the 1960s civil rights movement (Pettigrew, 1986,2004). Yet initial studies of the effects of school desegregation were less encouraging. After reviewing all the available studies, Walter Stephan (1986) concluded that racial atti­ tudes had been little affected by desegregation. For Blacks, the noticeable effect of desegregated schooling was less on attitudes than on their increased likelihood of attending integrated (or predominantly White) colleges, living in integrated neigh­ borhoods, and working in integrated settings.

Thus, we can see that sometimes desegregation improves racial attitudes, and sometimes—especially when there is anxiety or perceived threat (Pettigrew, 2004)—it doesn’t. Such disagreements excite the scientist’s detective spirit. What explains the difference? So far, we’ve been lumping all kinds of desegregation together. Actual desegregation occurs in many ways and under vastly different conditions.

WHEN DOES DESEGREGATION IMPROVE RACIAL ATTITUDES?

Given that “mere exposure” can produce liking (Chapter 11), might exposure to other-race faces produce increased liking for other-race strangers? Indeed yes, Leslie Zebrowitz and her colleagues (2008) discovered, when exposing White par­ ticipants to Asian and Black faces. Might the frequency of interracial contact also be a factor? Indeed it seems to be. Researchers have gone into dozens of desegre­ gated schools and observed with whom children of a given race eat, talk, and loiter. Race influences contact. Whites disproportionately associate with Whites, Blacks with Blacks (Schofield, 1982, 1986). In one study of Dartmouth University e-mail exchanges. Black students, though only 7 percent of students, sent 44 percent of their e-mails to other Black students (Sacerdote & Marmaros, 2005).

The same self-imposed segregation was evident in a South African desegregated beach, as John Dixon and Kevin Durrheim (2003) discovered when they recorded the location of Black, White, and Indian beachgoers one midsummer (Decem­ ber 30th) afternoon (Figure 13.5). Desegregated neighborhoods, cafeterias, and

498 Part Three Social Relations

FIGURE :: 13.5 Desegregation Needn’t Mean Contact After this Scottburgh, South Africa, beach became “open” and desegregated in the new South Africa, Blacks (represented by red dots), Whites (blue dots), and Indians (yellow dots) tended to cluster with their own race.

Source: From Dixon & Durrheim, 2003.

restaurants, too, may fail to produce integrated interactions (Clack & others, 2005; Dixon & others, 2005a, 2005b). “Why are all the Black kids sitting together?” people may wonder (a question that could as easily be asked of the White kids). One natu­ ralistic study observed 119 class sessions of 26 University of Cape Town tutorial groups, which averaged 6 Black and 10 White students per group (Alexander & Tredoux, 2010). On average, the researchers calculated, 71 percent of Black students would have needed to change seats to achieve a fully integrated seating pattern.

In one study that tracked the attitudes of more than 1,600 European students, over time, contact did serve to reduce prejudice. But prejudice also minimized con­ tact (Binder & others, 2009). Anxiety as well as prejudice helps explain why par­ ticipants in interracial relationships (when students are paired as roommates or as partners in an experiment) may engage in less intimate self-disclosure than those in same-race relationships (Johnson & others, 2009; Trail & others, 2009).

Efforts to facilitate contact sometimes help, but sometimes fall flat. “We had one day when some of the Protestant schools came over,” explained one Catholic youngster after a Northern Ireland school exchange (Cairns & Hewstone, 2002). “It was supposed to be like … mixing, but there was very little mixing. It wasn’t because we didn’t want to; it was just really awkward.” The lack of mixing stems partly from “pluralistic ignorance.” Many Whites and Blacks say they would like more contact but misperceive that the other does not reciprocate their feelings. (See “Research Close-Up; Relationships That Might Have Been.”)

FRIENDSHIP The encouraging older studies of store clerks, soldiers, and hous­ ing project neighbors involved considerable interracial contact, more than enough to reduce the anxiety that marks initial intergroup contact. Other studies show similar benefits when they involve prolonged, personal contact—between Black and White prison inmates, between Black and White girls in an interracial sum­ mer camp, between Black and White university roommates, and between Black, Colored, and White South Africans (Clore & others, 1978; Foley, 1976; Holtman & others, 2005; Van Laar & others, 2005). Among American students who have

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 499

research CLOSE UP Relationships That Might Have Been

Perhaps you can recall a time when you really would have liked to reach out to someone. Maybe it was someone to whom you felt attracted. But doubting that your feel­ ings were reciprocated, you didn’t risk rebuff. Or maybe it was someone of another race whom you wanted to welcome to the open seat at your dining hall or library table. But you worried that the person might be wary of sitting with you. It’s likely that on some such occasions the other person actually reciprocated your wish to con­ nect but assumed that your distance signified indiffer­ ence or even prejudice. Alas, thanks to what Chapter 8 called “pluralistic ignorance”—shared false impressions of another’s feelings—you passed like ships in the night.

Studies by University of Manitoba psychologist Jacquie Vorauer (2001,2005; Vorauer& Sakamoto, 2006) illuminate this phenomenon. In their new relationships, people often overestimate the transparency of their feelings, Vorauer reports. Presuming that their feelings are leaking out, they experience the “illusion of transparency (Chapter 2). Thus, they may assume that their body language conveys their romantic interest, when actually the intended recipi­ ent never gets the message. If the other person shares the positive feelings, and is similarly overestimating his or her own transparency, then the possibility of a relationship is quenched.

The same phenomenon, Vorauer reports, often occurs with low-prejudice people who would love more friend­ ships with those outside their racial or social group. If Whites presume that Blacks think them prejudiced, and

I if Blacks presume that Whites stereotype them, both will I feel anxious about making the first move. Such anxiety is i “a central factor” in South Africa’s “continuing informal I segregation,” reports Gillian Finchilescu (2CX)5). Seeking to I replicate and extend Vorauer’s work, Nicole Shelton and [ Jennifer Richeson (2005; Richeson & Shelton, 2012) under­

took a coordinated series of surveys and behavioral tests. In their first study. University of Massachusetts White

students viewed themselves as having more-than-average interest in cross-racial contacts and friendships, and they perceived White students in general as more eager for such than were Black students. Black students had mirror- image views—seeing themselves as more eager for such than were White students. “I want to have friendships across racial lines,” thought the typical student. But those in the other racial group don’t share my desire.”

Would this pluralistic ignorance generalize to a spe­ cific setting? To find out, Shelton and Richeson’s second study asked White Princeton students to imagine how they would react upon entering their dining hall and

………………..

noticing several Black (or White) “students who live near you sitting together.” How interested would you be in joining them? And how likely is it that one of them would beckon you to join them? Again, Whites believed that they more than those of the other race would be inter­ ested in the contact.

And how do people explain failures to make interra­ cial contact? In their third study, Shelton and Richeson invited Princeton White and Black students to contem­ plate a dining hall situation in which they notice a table with familiar-looking students of the other race, but nei­ ther they nor the seated students reach out to the other. The study participants, regardless of race, attributed their own inaction in such a situation primarily to fear of rejection, and more often attributed the seated students’ inaction to lack of interest. In a fourth study at Dartmouth University, Shelton and Richeson replicated this study with different instructions but similar results.

Would this pluralistic ignorance phenomenon extend to other real-life settings, and to contact with a single other person? In Study 5, Shelton and Richeson invited Princeton students, both Black and White, to a study of “friendship formation.” After participants had filled out some background information, the experimenter took their picture, attached it to background information, ostensibly took it to the room of a supposed fellow participant, and then returned with the other person’s sheet and photo- showing a person of the same sex but the other race. The participants were then asked, “To what extent are you con­ cerned about being accepted by the other participant?” and “How likely is it that the other person won’t want you as a friend?” Regardless of their race, the participants guessed that they, more than the other-race fellow participant, were interested in friendship but worried about rejection.

Do these social misperceptions constrain actual inter­ racial contact? In a sixth study, Shelton and Richeson confirmed that White Princeton students who were most prone to pluralistic ignorance—to presuming that they feared interracial rejection more than did Black students—were also the most likely to experience dimin­ ishing cross-racial contacts in the ensuing seven weeks.

Vorauer, Shelton, and Richeson are not contend­ ing that misperceptions alone impede romances and cross-racial friendships. But misperceptions do restrain people from risking an overture. Understanding this phenomenon—recognizing that others’ coolness may actually reflect motives and feelings similar to our own- may help us reach out to others, and sometimes to trans­ form potential friendships into real ones.

500 Part Three Social Relations

THE inside STORY

‘ : /t’

Nicole Shelton and Jennifer Richeson on Cross-Racial Friendships

During the initial stages of our collaboration, we spent time simply listening to each other talk about the stress associated with being assistant professors. We noticed that both White and ethnic minority students in our classes often indicated that they genuinely wanted to interact with people outside of their ethnic group but were afraid that they would not be accepted. However, they did not think people of other ethnic groups had the same fears; they assumed that members of other groups simply did not want to connect. This sounded very much like Dale Miller’s work on pluralistic ignorance. Over the course of a few weeks, we designed a series of studies to explore plu­ ralistic ignorance in the context of interracial interactions.

Since the publication of our article, we have had researchers tell us that we should use our work in new student orientation sessions in order to reduce students’

fears about reaching across racial lines. We are delighted that when we present this work in our courses, students of all racial backgrounds tell us that it indeed has opened their eyes about making the first move to develop inter­ racial friendships.

Nicole Shelton

Princeton University

Jennifer Richeson

Northwestern University

Studied in Germany or in Britain, the more their contact with host country people, the more positive their attitudes (Stangor & others, 1996). Exchange students’ hosts also are changed by the experience; they become more likely to see things from the other visitor culture’s perspective (Vollhardt, 2010).

In experiments, contact with someone of another race who acts positively (warm and relaxed) makes their race less salient—less likely to be noted and commented on than when their behavior is distant and tense (Paolini & others, 2010). Those who form friendships with outgroup members develop more positive attitudes toward the outgroup (Page-Gould & others, 2010; Pettigrew &: Tropp, 2000). It’s not just head knowledge of other people that matters; it’s also the emotional ties that form with intimate friendships and interracial roommate pairings that serve to reduce anxiety and increase empathy (Barlow & others, 2009; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2000, 2011; Shook & Fazio, 2008). For initially intolerant people, the anxiety-reducing effect of contact is especially strong (Hodson, 2011).

The diminishing anxiety that accompanies friendly outgroup interactions is a biological event: It is measurable as decreased stress hormone reactivity in cross­ ethnic contexts (Page-Gould & others, 2008).

“Group salience” (visibility) also helps bridge divides between people. If you forever think of that friend solely as an individual, your affective ties may not generalize to other members of the friend’s group (Miller, 2002). Ideally, then, we should form trusting friendships across group lines but also recognize that the friend represents those in another group—with whom we turn out to have much in common (Brown & others, 2007).

We are especially likely to befriend dissimilar people when their outgroup iden­ tity is initially minimized. If our liking for our new friends is then to generalize to others, their group identity must at some point become salient. So, to reduce preju­ dice and conflict, we had best initially minimize group diversity, then acknowledge it, then transcend it.

Surveys of nearly 4,000 Europeans reveal that friendship is a key to success­ ful contact: If you have a minority group friend, you become much more likely to express sympathy and support for the friend’s group, and even somewhat more

501Conflict and Peacemaking

support for immigration by that group. It’s true of West Geimans attitudes toward TurL, French people’s attitudes toward Asians and North Africans Netherland ers’ attitudes toward Surinamers and Turks, British attitudes toward West Indians and Asians, and Northern Ireland Protestants’ and Catholics’ attitudes toward eac other (Brown & others, 1999; Hamberger & Hewstone, 1997; Paolmi & others, 2004,

Pettigrew, 1997). EOUAL-STATUS CONTACT The social psychologists who advocated desegre­ gation never claimed that all contact would improve attitudes. They expected poor results when contacts were competitive, unsupported by (Pettigrew, 1988; Stephan, 1987). Before 1954 many prejudiced Whites had frequent contacts with Blacks—as shoeshine men and domestic workers As we saw m C ap- ter 9, such unequal contacts breed attitudes that merely justify inequality. So it’s important that the contact be equal-status contact, like that between the store clerks, the soldiers, the neighbors, the prisoners, and the suiter

In colleges and universities, informal interactions enabled by classroom ethn diversity pay divideirds for all students, report University of ^ntem7 Patricia Gurin and colleagues from national collegiate surveys (2002). Such inte tions tend to be intellectually growth-promoting and to difference. Such findings informed a U.S. Supreme Court 2003 decision that rac diversity is a compelling interest of higher education and may be a criterion m admissions.

Although equal-status contact can help, it is sometimes not enough. It didn help when Muzafer Sherif stopped the Eagles versus Rattlers compehtion and bro g the groups together for noncompetitive activities, such as watchmg movies, sho tag off fimwoAs, arrd eating. By that time, their hostility -s so strong that mere contact only provided opportunities for taunts and attacks. When an Eagle was dumped b/a Rattler, his fellow Eagles urged him to “brush off the dta.” Desegre-

gating the two groups hardly promoted their social integration.^ Sven entrenched host4 what can a peacemaker do? Think back to the suc­ cessful and the unsuccessful desegregation efforts. The army s racial companies didn’t just bring Blacks and Whites into equal-status contact, it ma them interdependent. Together, they were fighting a common enemy, stri g

Dofs^thars^glest a second factor that predicts whether the effect of desegre­

gation will be favorable? Does competitive contact divide and cooperative contac Lte? Consider what happens to people who together face a ^ ment. In conflicts at all levels, from couples to rival teams to nations, shared thre

and common goals breed unity.

COMMON EXTERNAL THREATS BUILD COHESIVENESS Together with others, have you ever been caught in a blizzard, punished by a teacher, or persecuted and ridiculed because of your social, racial or rd’g’ou® ‘^en­ tity? If so, you may recall feeling close to those with whom you shared *6 Predica- mLt Perhaps previous social barriers were dropped as you helped one anothe dig out of the sLw or struggled to cope with your common more extreme crises, such as a bombing, also often repor a spirit of cooperation and solidarity rather than all-for-themselves pamc (Drury & others, 2009).

Such friendliness is common among those who experience a shared tteeatjolm Lanzetta (1955) observed this when he put four-man groups of naval ROTC cadets to work on problem-solving tasks and then began informmg them that their answers were wrong, their productivity mexcusably ow, g pid. Other groups did not receive this harassment. Lanzetta observed that the gro p

Chapter 13

equal-status contact Contact on an equal basis. Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those of equal status. Thus, to reduce prejudice, interracial contact should idealy be between persons equal in status.

“I COULDN’T HELP BUT SAY

TO [MR. GORBACHEV), JUST

THINK HOW EASY HIS TASK

AND MINE MIGHT BE IN

THESE MEETINGS THAT WE

HELD IF SUDDENLY THERE

WAS A THREAT TO THIS

WORLD FROM SOME OTHER

SPECIES FROM ANOTHER

PLANET. [WE’D] FIND OUT

ONCE AND FOR ALL THAT

WE REALLY ARE ALL HUMAN

BEINGS HERE ON THIS

EARTH TOGETHER.”

—RONALD REAGAN,

DECEMBERS 1985, SPEECH

502 Part Three Social Relations

H’lV sfreiken!

Shared predicaments trigger cooperation, as these Walmart workers on strike in Germany demonstrate.

members under duress became friendlier to one another more cooperative, less argumentative, less competitive Thev were in it together. And the result was a cohesive spirit. ^

Having a common enemy unified the groups of competing boys m Sherif’s camping experiments—and in many subs^ quent experiments (Dion, 1979). Just being reminded of an out­ group (say, a rival school) heightens people’s responsiveness to their own group (Wilder & Shapiro, 1984). When keenly conscious of who “they” are, we also know who “we” are. ^

When facing a well-defined external threat during war­ time, we-feeling soars. The membership of civic organizations mushrooms (Putnam, 2000). Shared threats also produce a pditical ‘rally ’round the flag” effect (Lambert & others, 2010) After 9/11, “old racial antagonisms… dissolved,” reported the New YorkTimes (Sengupta, 2001). “I just thought of myself as Black, said 18-year-old Louis Johnson, reflecting on life before 9/11. “But now I feel like Tm an American, more than

A 4.U £n /XT ^ divorce rates dropped in the aftemath of 9/11 (Hansel & others, 2011). One sampling of conversation 0^9/11, and aiiother of New York Mayor Giuliani’s press conferences before and after 9/11 found a doubled rate of the word “we” (Liehr & others, 2004; Pennebaker & Lay, 2002).

ratings reflected this threat-bred spirit of oresTdent P^’^^ident of 9/10 had become the halted L hfs t ^ 1 hate us.” Thereaf- (Hgure 13 6)^* gradually declined but then jumped again as the war in Iraq began

FIGURE :: 13.6 External Threats Breed Internal Unity As the ups and downs of President George Bush’s approval ratings illustrate, national conflicts mold public attitudes (Gallup, 2006).

503Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13

Even just imagining or fearing the extinction of one’s group often serves to strengthen ingroup solidarity (Wohl & others, 2010). Leaders may therefore create a threatening external enemy as a technique for building group cohesiveness. George Orwell’s novel 1984 illustrates the tactic: The leader of the protagonist nation uses border conflicts with the other two major powers to lessen internal strife. From time to time the enemy shifts, but there is always an enemy. Indeed, the nation seems to need an enemy. For the world, for a nation, for a group, having a common enemy is powerfully unifying. Thus, we can expect that Protestant-Cafiiolic religious differ­ ences that feel great in Northern Ireland or South America will feel more negligible to those living under Islamic regimes. Likewise, Sunni and Shia Islamic differences that feel great in Iraq will not seem so great to Muslims in countries where both must cope with anti-Muslim attitudes.

Might the world likewise find unity if facing a common enemy? On September 21, 1987, President Ronald Reagan observed, “In our obsession with antagonisms of the moment, we often forget how much unites all the members of humanity. Per­ haps we need some outside, universal threat to recognize this common bond.” Two decades later, A1 Gore (2007) agreed, suggesting that, with the specter of climate change, “We—all of us—now face a universal threat. Though it is not from outside this world, it is nevertheless cosmic in scale.”

“THERE’S AN ENEMY OUT

THERE.”

-GEORGE W. BUSH, 2005

focus ON Why Do We Care Who Wins?

Why, for sports fans everywhere, does it matter who wins? Why does it matter to Bostonians whether two dozen mul­ timillionaire temporary Red Sox employees, most born in other states or countries, win the World Series? During the annual NCAA basketball “March Madness,” why do per­ fectly normal adults become insanely supportive of their team, and depressed when it loses? And why for that ulti­ mate sporting event. World Cup Football, do soccer fans worldwide dream of their country victorious?

Theory and evidence indicate that the roots of rivalry run deep. There’s something primal at work when the crowd erupts as the two rivals take the floor for a basketball game. There’s something tribal at work during the ensuing two hours of passion, all in response to the ups and downs

■I of a mere orange leather sphere. Our ancestors, living in a world where neighboring tribes occasionally raided and pillaged one another’s camps, knew that there was safety in solidarity. (Those who didn’t band together left fewer descendants.) Whether hunting, defending, or attacking, more hands were better than two. Dividing the world into “us” and “them” entails significant costs, such as racism and war, but also provides the benefits of communal soli­ darity. To identify us and them, our ancestors—not so far removed from today’s rabid fans—dressed or painted themselves in group-specific costumes and colors. Sports and warfare, notes evolutionary psychologist Benjamin Winegard (2010), are mostly done by males associated with geographical areas and wearing group-identifying uniforms. Both use war-relevant skills (running, tackling, throwing). And both offer rewards to the victors.

As social animals, we live in groups, cheer on our groups, kill for our groups, die for our groups. We also define ourselves by our groups. Our self-concept—our sense of who we are—consists not only of our personal attributes and attitudes but also of our social identity. Our social identities—our knowing who “we” are—strengthens self-concept and pride, especially when perceiving that “we” are superior. Lacking a positive individual identity, many youths find pride, power, and identity in gangs. Many patriots define themselves by their national identities.

The group definition of who we are also implies who we are not. Many social-psychological experiments reveal that being formed into groups—even arbitrary groups—promotes ingroup bias. Cluster people into groups defined by nothing more than their birth date or even the last digit of their driver’s license and they’ll feel a certain kinship with their number mates, and will show them favoritism. So strong is our group consciousness that “we” seem better than “they” even when “we” and “they” are defined randomly.

As post-9/11 America illustrates, group solidarity soars when people face a common enemy. As Muzafer Sherif’s Robber’s Camp experiment vividly demon­ strated, competition creates enemies. Fueled by com­ petition and unleashed by the anonymity of a crowd, passions can culminate in sport’s worst moments—fans taunting opponents, screaming at umpires, even pelting referees with beer bottles.

Group identification soars further with success. Fans find self-respect by their personal achievements but

(cont/nued)

504 Part Three Social Relations

also, in at least small measure, by their association with the victorious athletes when their team wins. Queried after a big football victory, university students commonly report that “we won” (Cialdini & others, 1976). As we noted in Chapter 9, they bask in reflected glory. Asked the outcome after a defeat, students more often dis­ tance themselves from the team by saying, “They lost.”

Ironically, we often reserve our most intense passions for rivals most similar to us. Freud long ago recognized that animosities formed around small differences: “Of two neighbouring towns, each is the other’s most jealous rival; every little canton looks down upon the others with contempt. Closely related races keep one another at arm’s length; the South German cannot endure the North German, the Englishman casts every kind of aspersion upon the Scot, the Spaniard despises the Portuguese.”

As an occasional resident of Scotland, I’ve witnessed many examples of the Xenophobe’s Guide to the Scots observation—that Scots divide non-Scots “into two main groups: (1) The English; (2) The Rest.” As rabid Chicago Cubs fans are happy if either the Cubs win or the White Sox lose, so ardent New Zealand soccer fans root for New Zealand and whoever is playing Australia (Halberstadt & others, 2006). Rabid fans of Scottish soccer likewise rejoice in either a Scotland victory or an England defeat. “Phew! They Lost,” rejoiced one Scottish tabloid front­ page headline after England’s 1996 Euro Cup defeat—by Germany, no less. To a sports fan, few things are so sweet as an archrival’s misfortune. Both a rival’s failure and a

favored team’s success activate pleasure-associated brain areas (Cikara & others, 2011).

Numerical minorities, such as the Scots in Britain, are especially conscious of their social identities. The 5 million Scots are more conscious of their national iden­ tity vis-a-vis the neighboring 51 million English than vice versa. Likewise, the 4 million New Zealanders are more conscious of their identity vis-a-vis the 23 million Australians, and they are more likely to root for Australia’s sports opponents (Halberstadt & others, 2006).

Group identity feeds, and is fed by, competition.

superordinate goal A shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort: a goal that overrides people’s differences from one another.

SUPERORDINATE GOALS FOSTER COOPERATION

Closely related to the unifying power of an external threat is the unifying power of superordinate goals, goals that unite all in a group and require cooperative effort. To promote harmony among his warring campers, Sherif introduced such goals. He created a problem with the camp water supply, necessitating both groups’ cooperation to restore the water. Given an opportunity to rent a movie, one expen­ sive enough to require the joint resources of the two groups, they again cooperated. When a truck “broke down” on a camp excursion, a staff member casually left the tug-of-war rope nearby, prompting one boy to suggest that they all pull the truck to get it started. When it started, a backslapping celebration ensued over their victori­ ous “tug-of-war against the truck.”

After working together to achieve such superordinate goals, the boys ate together and enjoyed themselves around a campfire. Friendships sprouted across group lines. Hostilities plummeted (Figure 13.7). On the last day, the boys decided to travel home together on one bus. During the trip they no longer sat by groups. As the bus approached Oklahoma City and home, they, as one, spontaneously sang “Oklahoma” and then bade their friends farewell. With isolation and competition, Sherif made strangers into bitter enemies. With superordinate goals, he made enemies into friends.

Are Sherif’s experiments mere child’s play? Or can pulling together to achieve superordinate goals be similarly beneficial with adults in conflict? Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1979) wondered. So in a series of two-week experiments involving more than 1,000 executives in 150 different groups, they re-created the essential features of the situation experienced by the Rattlers and the Eagles. Each group first

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 505

Ratings of outgroup, percent totally unfavorable

FIGURE :: 13.7 After competition, the Eagles and the Rattlers rated each other unfavorably. After they worked cooperatively to achieve superordinate goals, hostility dropped sharply. 5ou/‘ce:Data from Sherif, 1966, p.84.

engaged in activities by itself, then competed with another group, and then cooper­ ated with the other group in working toward jointly chosen superordinate goals. Their results provided “unequivocal evidence that adult reactions parallel those of Sherif’s younger subjects.”

Extending those findings, John Dovidio, Samuel Gaertner, and their collaborators (2005, 2009) report that working cooperatively has especially favorable effects under conditions that lead people to define a new, inclusive group that dissolves their for­ mer subgroups. Old feelings of bias against another group diminish when members of the two groups sit alternately around a table (rather than on opposite sides), give their new group a single name, and then work together under conditions that fos­ ter a good mood. “Us” and “them” become “we.” To combat Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II, the United States and the former USSR, along with other nations, formed one united group named the Allies. So long as the superordinate goal of defeating a common enemy lasted, so did supportive U.S. attitudes toward the Russians. Economic interdependence through international trade also motivates peace. “Where goods cross frontiers, armies won’t,” notes Michael Shermer (2006). With so much of China’s economy now interwoven with Western economies, their economic interdependence diminishes the likelihood of war between China and the West.

The cooperative efforts by the Rattlers and the Eagles ended in success. Would the same harmony have emerged if the water had remained off, the movie unaffordable, the truck still stalled? Likely not. In experiments with Univer­ sity of Virginia students, Stephen Worchel and his associ­ ates (1977, 1978, 1980) confirmed that successful cooperation between two groups boosts their attraction for each other. If previously conflicting groups fail in a cooperative effort, how­ ever, and if conditions allow them to attribute their failure to each other, the conflict may worsen. Sherif’s groups were already feeling hostile to each other. Thus, failure to raise sufficient funds for the movie might have been attributed to one group’s “stinginess” and “selfishness.” That would have exacerbated rather than alleviated their conflict. Unity is fed

Promoting “common ingroup identity.” The banning of gang colors and the common European practice of school uniforms—an increasing trend in the United States, as

506 Part Three

Interracial cooperation—on athletic teams, in class projects and extracurricular activities—melts differences and improves racial attitudes. White teen athletes who play cooperative team sports (such as basketball) with Black teammates express more liking and support for Blacks than do their counter­ parts involved in individual sports (such as wrestling) (Brown & others, 2003).

Social Relations

COOPERATIVE LEARNING IMPROVES RACIAL ATTITUDES

So far we have noted the modest social benefits of desegregation if unaccompanied by the emotional bonds of friendship and by equal-status relationships. And we have noted the dramatic social benefits of successful, cooperative contacts between members of rival groups. Several research teams therefore wondered: Without compromising academic achievement, could we promote interracial friendships by replacing competitive learning situations with cooperative ones? Given the diver­ sity of their methods—all involving students on integrated study teams, sometimes m competition with other teams—the results are striking and heartening.

Are students who participate in existing cooperative activities, such as interracial athletic teams and class projects, less prejudiced? In one experiment. White youth on two- to three-week Outward Bound expeditions (involving intimate contact and cooperation) expressed improved attitudes toward Blacks a month after the expedi­ tion if they had been randomly assigned to an interracial expedition group (Green & Wong, 2008).

Robert Slavin and Nancy Madden (1979) analyzed survey data from 2,400 stu­ dents in 71 American high schools and found similarly encouraging results. Those of different races who play and work together are more likely to report having friends of another race and to express positive racial attitudes. Charles Green and his colleagues (1988) confirmed this in a study of 3,200 Florida middle-school stu­ dents. Compared with students at traditional, competitive schools, those at schools with interracial ‘Teaming teams” had more positive racial attitudes.

From such correlational findings, can we conclude that cooperative interracial activity improves racial attitudes? The way to find out is to experiment. Randomly designate some students, but not others, to work together in racially mixed groups. Slavin (1985; Slavin & others, 2003, 2009) and his colleagues divided classes into interracial teams, each composed of four or five students from all achievement lev­ els. Team members sat together, studied a variety of subjects together, and at the end of each week competed with the other teams in a class tournament. All members contributed to their team’s score by doing well, sometimes by competing with other students whose recent achievements were similar to their own, sometimes by com­ peting with their own previous scores. Everyone had a chance to succeed. More­ over, team members were motivated to help one another prepare for the weekly tournament by drilling each other on fractions, spelling, or historical events— whatever was the next event. Rather than isolating students from one another, team competition brought them into closer contact and drew out mutual support.

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 507

Cooperation and peace. Researchers have identified more than 40 peaceful societies—societies v/here people live with no, or virtually no, recorded instances of violence. An analysis of 25 of these societies, including the Amish shown here, reveals that most base their worldviews on cooperation rather than competition (Bonta,1997).

Another research team, led by Elliot Aronson (2004; Aronson & Gonzalez, 1988), elicited similar group cooperation with a “jigsaw” technique. In experiments in Texas and California elementary schools, the researchers assigned children to racially and academically diverse 6-member groups. The subject was then divided into six parts, with each student becoming the expert on his or her part. In a unit on Chile, one student might be the expert on Chile’s history, another on its geography, another on its culture. First, the various “historians,” “geographers,” and so forth got together to master their material. Then they returned to the home groups to teach it to their classmates. Each group member held, so to speak, a piece of the jigsaw.

Self-confident students therefore had to listen to and learn from reticent stu­ dents who, in turn, soon realized they had something important to offer their peers. Other research teams—led by David Johnson and Roger Johnson (1987, 2003, 2004, 2010) at the University of Miimesota, Elizabeth Cohen (1980) at Stanford Univer­ sity, Shlomo Sharan and Yael Sharan (1976,1994) at Tel Aviv University, and Stuart Cook (1985) at the University of Colorado—devised additional methods for cooper­ ative learning. Studies (148 of them across eleven countries) show that adolescents, too, have more positive peer relationships and may even achieve more when work­ ing cooperatively rather than competitively (Roseth & others, 2008).

What can we conclude from all this research? With cooperative learning, students learn not only the material but other lessons. Cooperative learning, said Slavin and Cooper (1999), promotes “the academic achievement of all students while simulta­ neously improving intergroup relahons.” Aronson reported that “children in the interdependent, jigsaw classrooms grow to like each other better, develop a greater liking for school, and develop greater self-esteem than children in traditional classrooms” (1980, p. 232).

Cross-racial friendships also begin to blossom. The exam scores of minority students improve (perhaps because academic achievement is now peer supported). After the experiments are over, many teachers continue using cooperative learning (D. W. Johnson & others, 1981; Slavin, 1990). “It is clear,” wrote race-relations expert John McConahay (1981), that cooperative learning “is the most effective practice for improving race relations in desegregated schools that we know of to date.”

Should we have “known it all along”? At the time of the 1954 Supreme Court decision, Gordon Allport spoke for many social psychologists in predicting that “Prejudice… may be reduced by equal status contact between majority and minority

“THIS WAS TRULY AN

EXCITING EVENT. MY

STUDENTS AND I HAD

FOUND A WAY TO MAKE

DESEGREGATION WORK

THE WAY IT WAS INTENDED

TO WORK!”

-ELLIOT ARONSON, “DRIFTING

MY OWN WAY.” 2003

508 Part Three Social Relations

groups in the pursuit of common goals” (1954, p. 281). Cooperative learning experi­ ments confirmed Allport’s insight, making Robert Slavin and his colleagues (1985, 2003) optimistic: “Thirty years after Allport laid out the basic principles operational­ ized in cooperative learning methods, we finally have practical, proven methods for implementing contact theory in the desegregated classroom…. Research on coopera­ tive learning is one of the greatest success stories in the history of educational research.”

focus ON Branch Rickey, Jackie Robinson, and the integration of Baseball

On April 10, 1947, a nineteen-word announcement forever changed the face of baseball and put social-psychological principles to the test: “The Brooklyn Dodgers today pur­ chased the contract of Jackie Roosevelt Robinson from the Montreal Royals, He will report immediately.” Five days later, Robinson became the first African American since 1887 to play major league baseball. In the fall, Dodger fans realized their dreams of going to the World Series. Robinson, after enduring racial taunts, beanballs, and spikes, was voted Sporting News rookie of the year, and in a poll finished second to Bing Crosby as the most popular man in America, Baseball’s racial barrier was forever broken.

Motivated by both his Methodist morality and a drive for baseball success. Major League baseball executive Branch Rickey had been planning the move for some time, report social psychologists Anthony Pratkanis and Marlene Turner (1994a, 1994b). Three years earlier, Rickey had been asked by the sociologist-chair of the Mayor’s Committee on Unity to desegregate his team. His response was to ask for time (so the hiring would not be attributed to pressure) and for advice on how best to do it. In 1945 Rickey was the only owner voting against keeping Blacks out of baseball. In 1947 he made his move using these principles identified by Pratkanis and Turner:

• Create a perception that change is inevitable. Leave little possibility that protest or resistance can turn back the clock. The team’s radio announcer. Red Barber, a traditional southerner, recalled that in 1945 Rickey took him to lunch and explained very slowly and strongly that his scouts were searching for “the first black player I can put on the white Dodgers. I don’t know who he is or where he is, but, he is coming.” An angered Barber at first intended to quit, but in time decided to accept the inevitable and keep the world’s “best sports announcing job.” Rickey was equally matter-of-fact with the players in 1947, offering to trade any player who didn’t want to play with Robinson.

• Establish equal-status contact with a superordinate goal. One sociologist explained to Rickey that when relationships focus on an overarching goal, such as winning the pennant, “the people involved would

adjust appropriately.” One of the players who had been initially opposed later helped Robinson with his hitting, explaining, “When you’re on a team, you got to pull together to win.”

• Puncture the norm of prejudice. Rickey led the way, but others helped. Team leader, shortstop Pee Wee Reese, a southerner, set a pattern of sitting and eat­ ing with Robinson. One day in Cincinnati, as the crowd was hurling slurs—”get the nigger off the field”—Reese left his shortstop position, walked over to Robinson at first base, smiled and spoke to him, and then—with a hushed crowd watching—put his arm around Robinson’s shoulder.

• Cut short the spiral of violence by practicing nonvio­ lence. Rickey, wanting “a ballplayer with guts enough not to fight back,” role-played for Robinson the kind of insults and dirty play he would experience and gained Robinson’s commitment not to return vio­ lence with violence. When Robinson was taunted and spiked, he left the responses to his teammates. Team cohesion was thereby increased.

Robinson and Bob Feller later became the first play­ ers in baseball history elected to the Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. As he received the award, Robinson asked three persons to stand beside him: his mother, his wife, and his friend Branch Rickey.

Jackie Robinson and Branch Rickey

509Conflict and Peacemaking

To sum up, cooperative, equal-status contacts exert a positive influence on boy campers, industrial executives, college students, and schoolchildren. Does the prin­ ciple extend to all levels of human relations? Are families imified by pulling together to farm the land, restore an old house, or sail a sloop? Are communal identities forged by bam raisings, group singing, or cheering on the football team? Is inter­ national understanding bred by international collaboration in science and space, by joint efforts to feed the world and conserve resources, by friendly personal contacts between people of different nations? Indications are that the answer to all of those questions is yes (Brewer & Miller, 1988; Desforges & others, 1991,1997; Deutsch, 1985, 1994). Thus, an important challenge facing our divided world is to identify and agree on our superordinate goals and to structure cooperative efforts to achieve them.

GROUP AND SUPERORDINATE IDENTITIES In everyday life, we often reconcile multiple identities (Gaertner & others, 2000, 2001). We acknowledge our subgroup identity (as parent or child) and then tran­ scend it (sensing our superordinate identity as a family). Pride in our ethnic heri­ tage can complement our larger communal or national identity. Being mindful of our muUipk social identities that we partially share with anyone else enables social cohesion (Brewer & Pierce, 2005; Crisp & Hewstone, 1999,2000). “I am many things, some of which you are, too.”

But in ethnically diverse cultures, how do people balance their ethnic identities with their national identities? They may have a “bicultural” or “omnicultural” identity, one that identifies with both the larger culture and one’s own ethnic and religious culture (Moghaddam, 2009,2010; Phinney, 1990). “In many ways, I am like everyone around me, but I also affirm my own cultural heritage.” Thus, ethnically conscious Asians liv­ ing in England may also feel strongly British (Hutnik, 1985). French Canadians who identify with their ethnic roots may or may not also feel strongly Canadian (Driedger, 1975). Hispanic Americans who retain a strong sense of their “Cubanness” (or of their Mexican or Puerto Rican heritage) may feel strongly American (Roger & others, 1991). As W. E. B. DuBois (1903, p. 17) explained in The Souls of Black Folk, “The American Negro [longs]… to be both a Negro and an American.”

Over time, identification with a new culture often grows. Former East and West Germans come to see themselves as “German” (Kessler & Mummendey, 2001). The children of Chinese immigrants to Australia and the United States feel their Chinese identity somewhat less keenly, and their new national identity more strongly, than do immigrants who were bom in China (Rosenthal & Feldman, 1992). Often, however, the grandchildren of immigrants feel more comfortable iden­ tifying with their ethnicity (Triandis, 1994).

Researchers have wondered whether pride in one’s group competes with iden­ tification with the larger culture. As we noted in Chapter 9, we evaluate ourselves partly in terms of our social identities. Seeing our own group (our school, our employer, our family, our race, our nation) as good helps us feel good about our­ selves. A positive ethnic identity can therefore contribute to positive self-esteem. So can a positive mainstream culture identity. “Marginal” people, who have nei­ ther a strong ethnic nor a strong mainstream cultural identity (Table 13.1), often have low self-esteem. Bicultural people, who affirm both identities, typically

TABLE :: 13.1 Ethnic and Cultural Identity

Identification with Ethnic Group

Identification with Majority Group Strong Weak

Strong

Weak

Bicultural Assimilated

Chapter 13

“MOST OF US HAVE

OVERLAPPING IDENTITIES

WHICH UNITE US WITH

VERY DIFFERENT GROUPS.

WE CAN LOVE WHAT WE

ARE, WITHOUT HATING

WHAT—AND WHO-WE

ARE NOT. WE CAN THRIVE

IN OUR OWN TRADITION,

EVEN AS WE LEARN

FROM OTHERS, AND

COME TO RESPECT THEIR

TEACHINGS.”

—KOFI ANNAN, NOBEL PEACE

PRIZE LECTURE, 2001

510 Part Three Social Relations

A difficult balancing act. These ethnically conscious French Canadians— supporting Bill 101 “live French in Quebec”—may or may not also feel strongly Canadian. As countries become more ethnically diverse, people debate how we can build societies that are both plural and unified.

bargaining Seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties.

mediation An attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions.

arbitration Resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement.

have a strongly positive self-concept (Phinney, 1990; see also Sam & Berry, 2010). Often, they alternate between their two cultures, adapting their language and behavior to whichever group they are with (LaFromboise & others, 1993).

Debate continues over the ideals of multiculturalism (celebrating differ­ ences) versus assimilation (meshing one’s values and habits with the prevail­ ing culture). On one side are those who believe, as the Department of Canadian Heritage (2006) has declared, that “mul­ ticulturalism ensures that all citizens can keep their identities, can take pride in their ancestry and have a sense of belonging. Acceptance gives Canadians a feeling of security and self-confidence, making them open to and accepting of diverse cultures.” On the other side are those who concur with Britain’s Com­ mission for Racial Equality chair, Trevor Phillips (2004), in worrying that mul­ ticulturalism separates people. Experi­ ments by Jacquie Vorauer and Stacey Sasaki (2011) showed that in threatening situations, highlighting multicultural dif­

ferences enhanced hostility. Focusing on differences prompted people to attend and attach meaning to outgroup members’ threatening behaviors. An alternative com­ mon values view inspired the Rwandan government to declare “there is no eth­ nicity here. We are all Rwandan.” In the aftermath of Rwanda’s ethnic bloodbath, government documents and government-controlled radio and newspapers have ceased mentioning Hutu and Tutsi (Lacey, 2004).

In the space between multiculturalism and assimilation lies “diversity within unity,” an omnicultural perspective advocated by cultural psychologist Fathali Moghaddam (2009, 2010) and by sociologist Amitai Etzioni and others (2005): “It presumes that all members of a given society will fully respect and adhere to those basic values and institutions that are considered part of the basic shared framework of the society. At the same time, every group in society is free to maintain its distinct subculture—those policies, habits, and institutions that do not conflict with the shared core.”

By forging unifying ideals, immigrant countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia have avoided ethnic wars. In these countries, Irish and Italians, Swedes and Scots, Asians and Africans seldom kill in defense of their eth­ nic identities. Nevertheless, even the immigrant nations struggle between separa­ tion and wholeness, between people’s pride in their distinct heritage and unity as one nation, between acknowledging the reality of diversity and questing for shared values. The ideal of diversity within unity forms the United States motto: E pluribus unum. Out of many, one.

Communication Conflicting parties have other ways to resolve their differences. When husband and wife, or labor and management, or nation X and nation Y disagree, they can bargain with each other directly. They can ask a third party to mediate by making suggestions and facilitating their negotiations. Or they can arbitrate by submitting their disagreement to someone who will study the issues and impose a settlement.

511Conflict and Peacemaking

BARGAINING If vou want to buy or sell a new car, are you better off adopting a tough bargain- mg stance-opening with an extreme offer so that splitting the difference wdl yield a favorable result? Or are you better off beginnmg with a sincere good-

Experiments suggest no simple answer. On the one hand, those who demand more will often get more. Robert Cialdini, Leonard Bickman, and John Cacioppo (1979) provide a typical result: In a control condition, they approached various Chevrolet dealers and asked the price of a new Monte Carlo sports coupe with designated options. In an experimental condition, they approached other dealers and first struck a tougher bargaining stance, asking for and rejecting a price on a different car (“I need a lower price than that. That’s a lot”). When they theri asked the price of the Monte Carlo, exactly as in the control condition, they received offers that averaged some $200 lower. ^

Tough bargaining may lower the other party’s expectations, makmg the other side willing to settle for less (Yukl, 1974). But toughness can sometimes back- fire Many a conflict is not over a pie of fixed size but over a pie that shrinks if the conflict continues. A time delay is often a lose-lose scenario. When a strike is pro­ longed, both labor and management lose. Being tough is another potential lo^-lose scenario. If the other party responds with an equally tough stance, both may be locked into positions from which neither can back down without losing face. In the weeks before the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the first President Bush threatened, m the full glare of pubUcity, to “kick Saddam’s ass.” Saddam Hussein, no less macho, threatened to make “infidel” Americans “swim in their own blood.” After such belligerent state­ ments, it was difficult for each side to evade war and save face.

MEDIATION A third-party mediator may offer suggestions that enable conflicting parties to make concessions and still save face (Pruitt, 1998). If my concession can be attrib­ uted to a mediator, who is gaining an equal concession from my antagonist, neither of us will be viewed as weakly caving in. TURNING WIN-LOSE INTO WIN-WIN Mediators also help resolve conflicts by facilitating constructive communication. Their first task is to help the parties rethink the conflict and gain information about the others’ interests. Typically, peo­ ple on both sides have a competitive “win-lose” orientation: They are successful if their opponent is unhappy with the result, and unsuccessful if theu opponent is pleased (Thompson & others, 1995). The mediator aims to replace this win-lose orientation with a cooperative “win-win” orientation, by prodding both sides to set aside their conflicting demands and instead to think about needs, interests, and goals. In experiments, Leigh Thompson (1990a, 1990b) found that, with experience, negotiators become better able to make mutually beneficial trade-offs and thus to achieve win-win resolutions.

A classic story of such a resolution concerns the two sisters who quarreled over an orange (Follett, 1940). Finally they compromised and split the orange in halt, whereupon one sister squeezed her half for juice while the other used the peel on her half to make a cake. If the sisters had each explained why they wanted the orange, they very likely would have agreed to share it, giving one sister all t^e Juice and the other all the peel. This is an example of an integrative agreement (Pruitt & Lewis, 1975,1977). Compared with compromises, in which each party sacrifices something important, integrative agreements are more enduring, because they are mutually rewarding, they also lead to better ongoing relationships (Pruitt, 1986).

UNRAVELING MISPERCEPTIONS WITH CONTROLLED COMMUNICA­ TIONS Communication often helps reduce self-fulfilling misperceptions. Per­ haps you can recall experiences similar to that of this college student:

Chapter 13

integrative agreements Win-win agreements that reconcile both parties’ interests to their mutual benefit.

512 Part Three Social Relations

Often, after a prolonged period of little communication, I perceive Martha’s silence as a sign of her dislike for me. She, in turn, thinks that my quietness is a result of my being mad at her. My silence induces her silence, which makes me even more silent… until this snowballing effect is broken by some occurrence that makes it necessary for us to interact. And the communication then unravels all the misinterpretations we had made about one another.

The outcome of such conflicts often depends on how people communicate their feelings to one another. Roger Knudson and his colleagues (1980) invited married couples to come to the University of Illinois psychology laboratory and relive, through role playing, one of their past conflicts. Before, during, and after their conversation {which often generated as much emotion as the actual previ­ ous conflict), the couples were observed closely and questioned. Couples who evaded the issue—by failing to make their positions clear or failing to acknowledge their spouse’s position—left with the illusion that they were more in harmony and agreement than they really were. Often, they came to believe they now agreed more when actually they agreed less. In contrast, those who engaged the issue—by mak­ ing their positions clear and by taking one another’s views into account—achieved more actual agreement and gained more accurate information about one anoth­ er s perceptions. That helps explain why couples who communicate their concerns directly and openly are usually happily married (Crush & Glidden, 1987).

Such findings have triggered programs that train couples and children how to manage conflicts constructively (Horowitz and Boardman, 1994). If managed con­ structively, conflict provides opportunities for reconciliation and more genuine harmony. Psychologists Ian Gotlib and Catherine Colby (1988) offer advice on how to avoid destructive quarrels and how to have good quarrels (Table 13.2). Chil­ dren, for example, learn that conflict is normal, that people can learn to get along with those who are different, that most disputes can be resolved with two winners, and that nonviolent communication strategies are an alternative to a world of bul­ lies and victims. This “violence prevention curriculum … is not about passivity,” noted Deborah Prothrow-Stith (1991, p. 183). “It is about using anger not to hurt oneself or one’s peers, but to change the world.”

David Johnson and Roger Johnson (1995, 2000, 2003) put first-grade through ninth-grade children through about a dozen hours of conflict resolution training in six schools, with very heartening results. Before the training, most students

TABLE 13.2 How Couples Can Fight Constructively

Do Not Do

1* * * evade die argument, give the silent treatm^t, walk out on it • use your intimate knowledge of the other

person to hit below the belt and humiliate

•T’ * bring in unrelated issues^

• feign agreement while harboring resentment

^ * |eiU the other party how she or he is feeling

• attack indirectly by criticizing someone or something the other person values

I * undermine the other by intensifying his or j; her insecurity or threatening disaster

• clearly define the issue and repeat the other’s arguments in your own words

• divulge your positive and negative feelings

• welcome feedback about your behavior

• clarify where you agree and disagree and what matters most to each of you

‘ ask questions that help the oflier find words to express the concern

’ wait for spontaneous explosions to subside, without retaliating

offer positive suggestions for mut|i^f §

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 513

Communication facilitators work to breakdown barriers, as in this diversity training exercise for teenagers.

were involved in daily conflicts—put-downs and teasing, playground turn-takmg conflicts, conflicts over possessions-conflicts that nearly always also resulted m a winner and a loser. After training, the children more often found win-win solutions, better mediated friends’ conflicts, and retained and applied their new skills in and out of school throughout the school year. When implemented with a whole student body, the result is a more peaceful student community and increased academic

Co^mct researchers report that a key factor is trust (Noor & others, 2008; Ross & Ward 1995). If you believe the other person is well intentioned, you are more likely to divulge your needs and concerns. Lacking trust, you may fear that bemg open will give the other party information that might be used against you. Even sim­ ple behaviors can enhance trust. In experiments, negotiators who were instructed to mimic the others’ mannerisms, as naturally empathic people in close relation­ ships often do, elicited more trust and greater discovery of compatible mterests and mutually satisfying deals (Maddux & others, 2008).

When the two parties mistrust each other and communicate unproductively, a third-party mediator—a marriage counselor, a labor mediator, a diplomat—sometimes helps. Often the mediator is some­ one trusted by both sides. In the 1980s it took an Algerian Muslim to mediate the conflict between Iran and Iraq, and the pope to resolve a geographical dispute between Argentina and Chile (Carnevale & Choi, 2000).

After coaxing the conflicting parties to rethink their perceived win-lose conflict, the mediator often has each party identify and rank its goals. When goals are compatible, the ranking procedure makes it easier for each to concede on less-important goals so that both achieve their chief goals (Erickson & others, 1974; Schulz & Pruitt, 1978). South Africa achieved internal peace when Black and White South Africans

“[THERE IS] A PSYCHOLOGI­

CAL BARRIER BETWEEN US,

A BARRIER OF SUSPICION,

A BARRIER OF REJECTION;

A BARRIER OF FEAR, OF

DECEPTION, A BARRIER OF

HALLUCINATION..,

—EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT

ANWAR AL-SADAT, TO THE

ISRAELI KNESSET, 1977

Trust, like other social behaviors, is also a biological phenomenon. Social neuroscientists have found that individuals with lowered levels of serotonin, the brain neurotransmitter, become more likely to see a low offer in a laboratory game as unfair, and to reject it (Crockett & others, 2008). Infusions of the hormone oxytocin have something of an opposite effect, increasing people’s trust of strangers in laboratory games (Zak, 2008).

514 Part Three Social Relations

with majority rule and safeguarding the security, welfare, and rights of Whites (Kelman, 1998).

When labor and management both believe that management’s goal of higher productivity and profit is compatible with labor’s goal of better wages and working conditions, they can begin to work for an integrative win-win solution. If workers will forgo benefits that are moderately beneficial to them but very costly to man­ agement (perhaps company-provided dental care), and if management will forgo moderately valuable arrangements that workers very much resent (perhaps inflex­ ibility of working hours), both sides may gain (Ross & Ward, 1995). Rather than seeing itself as making a concession, each side can see the negotiation as an effort to exchange bargaining chips for things more valued.

When the parties then convene to communicate directly, they are usually not set loose in the hope that, eyeball-to-eyeball, the conflict will resolve itself. In the midst of a threatening, stressful conflict, emotions often disrupt the ability to understand the other party’s point of view. Although happiness and gratitude can increase trust, anger decreases it (Dunn & Schweitzer, 2005). Communication may thus become most difficult just when it is most needed (Tetlock, 1985).

The mediator will often structure the encounter to help each party understand and feel understood by the other. The mediator may ask the conflicting parties to restrict their arguments to statements of fact, including statements of how they feel and how they respond when the other acts in a given way: “I enjoy music. But when you play it loud, I find it hard to concentrate. That makes me crabby.” Also, the mediator may ask people to reverse roles and argue the other’s position or to imagine and explain what the other person is experiencing. The mediator may have them restate one another’s positions before replying with their own: “It annoys you when I play my music and you’re trying to study.”

Experiments show that taking the other’s perspective and inducing empathy decreases stereotyping and increases cooperation (Batson & Moran, 1999; Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000; Todd & others, 2011). It helps to humanize rather than demonize the other. Older people often find that easier to do, by having the wisdom to appreci­ ate multiple perspectives and the limits of knowledge (Grossmann & others, 2010). Sometimes our elders are older, wiser, and better able to navigate social conflicts.

Neutral third parties may also suggest mutually agreeable proposals that would be dismissed—”reactively devalued”—if offered by either side. Constance StiUinger and her colleagues (1991) found that a nuclear disarmament proposal that Americans dismissed when attributed to the former Soviet Union seemed more acceptable when attributed to a neutral third party. Likewise, people will often reactively devalue a concession offered by an adversary (“they must not value it”); the same concession may seem more than a token gesture when suggested by a third party.

These peacemaking principles—based partly on laboratory experiments, partly on practical experience—have helped mediate both interna­ tional and industrial conflicts (Blake & Mouton, 1962, 1979; Fisher, 1994; Wehr, 1979). One small team of Arab and Jewish Americans, led by social psychologist Herbert Kelman (1997, 2007, 2008), has conducted workshops bringing together influential Arabs and Israelis. Kelman and col­ leagues counter misperceptions and have partici­ pants seek creative solutions for their common good. Isolated, the participants are free to speak

Building trust, enabling communication. When President Obama and his political antagonist, House Republican leader John Boehner, played golf, they were each attempting to enhance their relationship and enhance their ability to communicate.

515Conflict and Peacemaking

directly to their adversaries without fear that their constituents are second-guessing what tLy are saying. The result? Those from both sides typically come to under­ stand the^ther’s perspective and how the other side responds to their own group s

actions.

arbitration Some conflicts are so intractable, the underlying interests so divergent, that a mutu- X satisfactory resolution is unattainable. Conflicting claims to Jerusalem as the capital of an dependent Palestine versus a secure Israel have, so far, proven inhactable. In a divorce dispute over custody of a child, both parents canno enjoy fuU custody. In those and many other cases (disputes over tenants repair bills, aft ktes’ wages, and national territories), a third-party mediator may-or may not

M not the parties may turn to arbitration by having the mediator or another tod

party impose a settlement. Disputants usually prefer to Lt arbitration so that they retain control over the outcome. Neil “ others (1987) observed this preference in an experiment involving disputants com ing to a dispute settlement center. When people knew they would face an a^’^ted settlement if mediation failed, they tried harder to resolve the problem, exhibited less hostility, and thus were more likely to reach agreement.

In cases where differences seem large and irreconcilable, the prospect of arbitra­ tion may cause the disputants to freeze their positions, hopmg to gam an adv^- tage when the arbitrator chooses a compromise. To combat that tendency, so difputes, such as those involving salaries of individual baseball with “final-offer arbitration,” in which the third party chooses one of the two final offers. Final-offer arbitration motivates each party to make a reasonab e _

Typically, however, the final offer is not as reasonable as it would be if each parw free of self-serving bias, saw its own proposal through others eyes. Negoha- hon researchers report that most disputants are made stubborn by optimistic ove confidTce” (KahnLan & Tversky, 1995). Successful mediation is hmdered when as often happens, both parties believe they have a two-thirds chance of wmnmg final-offer arbitration (Bazerman, 1986,1990).

Conciliation Sometimes tension and suspicion run so high that even communication, let a one resolution, becomes all but impossible. Each party may threaten, coerce, or retaliate against the other. Unfortunately, such acts tend to be reciprocated, escalahng the cLflict So, would a strategy of appeasing the other party by being unconditionally cooperative produce a satisfying result? Often not. In laboratory games, ‘hose wto are 100 percent cooperative often are exploited. Politically, a one-sided pacifis

usually out of the question.

^cklpsychologlstCharles Osgood (1962,1980) advocated a third alternative one that is concmLry yet strong enough to discourage exploitoon. C^good called it grad ated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduchon.” He mcknamed it GRIT a laW that suggests the determination it requires. GRIT aims to reverse the conflict spiral by triggering reciprocal de-escalation. To do so, it draws upon social-psychological concepts such as the norm of reciprocity and the attribution of motives.

GRH requires one side to initiate a few small de-escalatory actions, after aniioim^ ing a concilltory intent. The initiator states its desire to reduce conciliatory act before making it, and invites the adversary to reciprocate Such announcements create a framework that helps the adversary correctly interpret what otherwise might be seen as weak or tricky actions. They also brmg pubhc pressure to bear on the adversary to follow the reciprocity norm.

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balance each of the following redox reactions occurring in acidic aqueous solution.

Balance each of the following redox reactions occu
Balance each of the following redox reactions occurring in acidic solution
a) SO32- (s) +MNO4- —> SO42- +Mn2+
b) S2O32-+ Cl2 —> SO42-+Cl-

0 0 290
asked by Sunshine
Aug 5, 2009
You need to know and understand how to do these yourself. So rather than give you the balanced equations, I will tell you that
a)S changes oxidation state from +4 on the left to +6 on the right. Mn changes its oxidation state from +7 on the elft to +2 on the right.

b)S changes oxidation state from 2 (for each S) on the left to +6 on the right.
Cl changes from zero on the left to -1 on the right.

If this doesn’t help all that much, tell me what you don’t understand about how to balance redox equation.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Aug 5, 2009
I’m mainly having trouble with adding H20/H+ and then balancing it!

0 0
posted by Sunshine
Aug 5, 2009
Post your work on the first one as far as you can go and I’ll help you through it.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Aug 5, 2009
A)
OX
H20+SO32- –> SO42- +2H+ 2e-

RED

16H+ +2MnO4- —> 2Mn2+ 8H20

0 0
posted by Sunshine
Aug 5, 2009

Both half reactions look balanced to me; the second one is twice what is necessary. Notice you can reduce each coefficient by 1/2 to make them 8,1,1,4.
Looks like you did a good job to me.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Aug 5, 2009
Here is a method I use.
SO3^- ==> SO4^-2

  1. S changes from +4 to 6. Add electrons to the appropriate side (right for this one) to balance the change in oxidation state.
  2. SO3^-2 ==> SO4^-2 + 2e
  3. Now count the charge on each side. The left is -2 and the right is -4; therefore, add
    (a) H^+ to balance the charge if it is acid solution or
    (b)OH^- to balance the charge if it is basic or neutral solution.
    This is acid so we add 2H^+ to balance the charge.
  4. SO3^-2 ==> SO4^-2 + 2e + 2H^+
  5. Now add water (usually to the opposide side) to balance the H atoms. Oxygen SHOULD balance at that point.
    H2O + SO3^-2 ==> SO4^-2 + 2e + 2H^+

For the Mn, without all the explaining, but I’ll follow the same format.

MnO4^- ==> Mn^+2
Mn goes from 7 to 2; therefore, add 5e to the left side.
MnO4^- + 5e ==> Mn^+2

Charge is -6 on the left, +2 on the right, add 8H^+ on the left to balance the charge.
8H^+ + 5e + MnO4^- ==>Mn^+2

Now add 4H2O to the right to balance the H atoms
8H^+ + 5e + MnO4^- ==> Mn^+2 + 4H2O

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Aug 5, 2009
Thank you

0 0
posted by Sunshine
Aug 5, 2009

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in which of the following situations is a sound wave most likely to travel through air

  1. In which of the following situations is a sound wave most likely to travel through air?

A) An alarm clock rings in a vacuum.
B) A giant star explodes.
C) A grasshopper eats a leaf.
D) An astronaut uses tools in space.

  1. Which of the following factors determines the loudness of a sound?

A) Frequency of the sound.
B) Amplitude of the sound.
C) The temperature of the medium.
D) The density of the medium.

  1. Which of the following affects the speed of sound?

A) The amplitude of the wave.
B) The frequency of the wave.
C) The phase of the medium.
D) The wavelength.

  1. A blind person walks through the neighborhood making loud clicking noises with his tongue. He doesn’t use a walking stick nor does he have a seeing-eye-dog. However, he avoids ever obstacle and is able to navigate his way around the neighborhood safely. What can be inferred from the given information?

A) He is detecting the reflection of sound waves.
B) He is detecting the refraction of sound waves.
C) He is detecting the absorption of sound waves.
D) He is detecting the diffraction of sound waves.

Please help quickly!! Thanks!

0 0 2,815
asked by Jasmine
Dec 9, 2013
1.C
2.B
3.C
4.A

21 0
posted by Princess Anna
Dec 9, 2013
K, Thanks Anna. That’s what I thought. 😀

5 1
posted by Jasmine
Dec 9, 2013
Your welcome 🙂

2 0
posted by Princess Anna
Dec 9, 2013
1 cant c. cause a grasshopper eat really quiet…

0 3
posted by Ur_Mom
Oct 31, 2014

I got 100./. yay

1 0
posted by ms. cat
Nov 11, 2014
Thanks i got 100

1 0
posted by Tierra
Apr 2, 2015
OMG TY SO MUCH I LOVE UUU I GAWT 100 %

1 0
posted by jam
May 16, 2015
NOW I CAN GO TO COLLEGE

1 1
posted by jam
May 16, 2015
tanks guys

1 0
posted by TiffenyLPS
Oct 21, 2015

Lol ya’ll are funny. 😀

1 0
posted by Mariana
Nov 12, 2015
I am going to see what answers get me 100%….

1 0
posted by Yuck
Mar 27, 2016
5 is A

11 0
posted by Olive
Mar 30, 2016
IS 1 ACTUALLY C?

3 0
posted by YAY
Apr 11, 2016
I got 100% thx ppl

1 0
posted by King Tyler
Apr 25, 2016

1.C
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A

31 0
posted by LaShyla
Apr 27, 2016
lashyla is correct

2 0
posted by hhh
Apr 27, 2016
lashyla is right

0 0
posted by The_Meta13
May 16, 2016
1.c
2.b
3.c
4.a
5.a
These are the answers I took the test and I got 100%.

8 0
posted by raina the helper
Oct 6, 2016
Thank you, I got 100% on the quiz!

2 0
posted by Jane Barlow.
Nov 2, 2016

thanks I got 100%

2 0
posted by Corbin
Apr 11, 2017
c
b
c
a
a

4 0
posted by boo
Apr 26, 2017
ty guys

2 0
posted by a pimp named slick back
May 15, 2017
In which of the following situation is light most likely to be refracted

0 0
posted by Cassandra
Sep 15, 2017
greggggg

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Sep 20, 2017

I think c am i right?

0 0
posted by qdaewrf
Nov 2, 2017
-_-

0 0
posted by qdaewrf
Nov 2, 2017
THX 100%

0 0
posted by GameZone
Nov 13, 2017
TYSM!

0 0
posted by Welp
Dec 1, 2017
DONT CHEAT

0 1
posted by Andreas
Mar 14, 2018

the answers are correct. And Andreas, that’s not going to stop anyone from cheating. I commend you for your efforts, though. Nice try.

0 0
posted by Tisky
Mar 22, 2018
Andrea your cheating cause your on here. Think about it Ñina.

And Boo is right

C
B
C
A
A

Thank you Hunny~!

3 0
posted by \/(._.)\/
Mar 28, 2018
C
B
C
A
A

2 0
posted by N
Apr 29, 2018
C because every thing else cant make noise because they are deprived ofbair so even though “They eat real quiet” they still make a noise.

0 0
posted by Norot
May 1, 2018
The answers are
c
b
c
a
a’

LIKE BAM

3 0
posted by Lexxy
May 3, 2018

c
b
c
a
a

3 0
posted by PearsonConnexus
May 4, 2018
1.C
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A

2 1
posted by Emo Aunt
May 9, 2018
The answers are
C
B
C
A
A
I just took the test and I got 100%

3 0
posted by Thank you
May 9, 2018
@BOO is correct! Thanks love! 🙂

0 0
posted by hearteyes
May 10, 2018
Lexxy? Lexey?!

0 0
posted by Cereal…. is life. -Life Cereal
May 15, 2018

boo is correct 🙂

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posted by Anonymous
May 21, 2018
Unit 4 Lesson 2
C
B
C
A
A
100%

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posted by DifieJaucy
Nov 6, 2018
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Nov 27, 2018
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Feb 11, 2019

  1. C
  2. B
  3. C
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  5. A 0 0
    posted by Hal
    Mar 18, 2019

THANK YOU

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posted by anonymous
Apr 1, 2019
thank u so much LaShyla that helped alot much thanks

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Apr 2, 2019
for connections unit 4 lesson 2
Sound

1.C
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A

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posted by Netflix
Apr 9, 2019

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an aphorism is a cleverly worded statement that is meant

The majority of Robert Frost’s poems concern life in the city.

true
false

i think its true

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asked by Lexi
Jan 27, 2012
http://www.internal.org/Robert_Frost

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Jan 27, 2012
I do not think so. I just checked out a book of his poems from the library and it seems more of a quiet, country theme. I am not sure but i think so

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posted by me/4/me
Jan 27, 2012

  1. An aphorism is a cleverly worded statement that is meant to trick the listener into believing a lie. (1 point)
    (0 pts) true
    (1 pt) false
    1 /1 point
  2. It is the neighbor who believes that good fences make good neighbors, not the speaker. (1 point)
    (1 pt) true
    (0 pts) false
    1 /1 point
  3. The underlined portion of the sentence below is an example of a subordinate clause.
    Many people use bamboo screens that roll up and down.
    (1 point)
    (0 pts) true
    (1 pt) false
    1 /1 point
  4. The majority of Robert Frost’s poems concern life in the city. (1 point)
    (0 pts) true
    (1 pt) false
    1 /1 point

The final score is 4/4 (100%).

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posted by Urwelcome
Feb 7, 2012

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write chemical formulas for the compounds formed by the following positive and negative ions.

Write chemical formulas for the compounds formed by the following positive and negative ions: Ba2 and NO3-, Al3 and Co3, and K and PO43-
50,542 results
Chemistry
Write chemical formulas for the compounds formed by the following positive and negative ions: Ba2+ and NO3-, Al3+ and Co3, and K+ and PO43-

asked by Kelly on July 30, 2016
chemistry
Please I need help. Many,but not all, compounds are made up of positive and negative ions. Three positive ions A^+, B^2+ and C^3+ could form a total of six different compounds with negative ions, Y^2- and Z^3-. Derive the formulae for six compounds and

asked by Shane on August 28, 2014
Chemistry Plz hurrry
What are charateristic of a ionic bond and a chemical bond? An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond that involves gain or loss of valence (outer shell) electrons in order to attain stability. That is not what I am looking for but thanks anyway An ionic

asked by Smooches on November 30, 2006
Chemistry
Write the binary formulas for the compounds formed from the following ions: Na+, Cl-

asked by Danny M on October 25, 2007
Ion charge & formulas of ionic compunds-DrBob222
These are the other questions: I’ll start from Number 1. 1. I have to write down the symbol for the following ions: a- sodium = Na b- chloride = CL c- sulfate = S d- ammonium = ? would it be NH4? e- chromium (II) = Cr f- chromium(III) = Cr 2. write the

asked by Sara on April 20, 2010

chemistry
write the formulas and give the names of the compounds formed by the following ions a) Cr^2+ and F^- b) Ni^2+ and O^2 and c) Fe^3+ and O^2-

asked by john on March 2, 2008
Chemistry
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by NH4+ with the following anions: NO3−, HCO3−, SO42−, HPO42−. Express your answers as chemical formulas separated by commas. Use the given order of anions.

asked by Morgan on October 3, 2016
chemistry
What is the largest number of ions in any of your formulas? What is the total positive charge and the total negative charge in each formula with this many ions? Give two examples of these formulas.

asked by maath on September 23, 2018
Aqueous Solution
Write the positive and negative ions that result when the following compounds are dissolved in aqueous solution: Na2S (aq): (NH4)2CO3 (aq): K2SO4 (aq):

asked by Annette W on March 17, 2013
aqueous solution
Write the positive and negative ions that result when the following compounds are dissolved in aqueous solution: Na2S (aq): (NH4)2CO3 (aq): K2SO4 (aq):

asked by Annette W on March 21, 2013
chemistry
Which of the following consists of positive and negative ions bound together and held in place in a crystalline solid? A. Covalent bonds B. Ionic compounds C. Molecular compounds D. Molecules I say B

asked by shana on November 10, 2012
Bio

  1. An isotope is an atom of an element that varies in mass number due to variation in the number of: A. atoms. B. protons. C. neutrons. D. electrons. is it C 2, A covalent bond is: A. the attraction that one atom has for another atom. B. the attraction

asked by Amy on July 10, 2013
Intro Chemistry
If a sample of BaSO3 is found to contain 1.73 · 1018 SO32- ions how many moles of Ba2+ ions are present? Express your answer in scientific notation. The following information is given: Molar Mass (g/mol) BaSO3 217.39 Ba2+ ion 137.33 SO32- ion 80.063

asked by echem on March 13, 2010
Chemistry
I’m doing online homework and the follow question has come up: Write the formulas of the compounds formed by Pb4+ with the following anions: NO3−, ClO3−, SO32−, H2PO4−. Express your answers as chemical formulas separated by commas. Use the given

asked by CeeCee on October 1, 2016
Chemistry (CHEM)
Can someone explain the electrical conductivity of melted and of aqueous solutions of ionic compounds. An explain it using the characteristics of ionic compounds. ThankS A Whole lot.. In Advance I suggest you go to the site recommended by Ms.Sue. Here is a

asked by Brittany on November 14, 2006

chemistry
Write the balanced equation for the hydration of CuSO4. Indicate the physical states using the abbreviations (s), (l), or (g) for solid, liquid, or gas, respectively. Use (aq) to indicate the aqueous phase. Indicate appropriate charges on negative and

asked by rose on November 1, 2013
Critical thinking
Could someone please help me I do not know how to figure these problems out: write the names for the compounds as ionic, polar covalent, or non-polar covalent. SO3/CaO/I2… write the names for the compounds with these chemical formulas: Ag2SO4/ Lif/ CS2/

asked by Chelsea on May 5, 2008
Chemistry
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by NH4+ with the following anions: CN−, HCO3−, SO42−, HPO42−

asked by Miranda on February 19, 2017
Chem
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by Pb4+ with the following anions: CN−, ClO3−, SO42−, H2PO4−.

asked by Grace on March 4, 2016
Chemistry
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by NH4+ with the following anions: CN-, ClO3-, SO42-, H2PO4-

asked by Kim on November 25, 2015
Chemistry
Write balanced chemical equations for all transferals of the compounds from organic to aqueous phases and for all precipitation reactions. **Note: If a compound does not move from one layer to another, no reaction has occurred, and no equation can be

asked by Live on November 13, 2018
Chemistry 120
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by Pb4+ with the following anions: NO3−, HCO3−, SO42−, H2PO4

asked by Anonymous on September 25, 2015
SCIENCE
GIVEN THE POSITIVE & NEGATIVE IONS, COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING BY WRITING A CHEMICAL FORMULA: NH4+, (C2H3OO)-

asked by KERRIE on April 19, 2009
CHEMISTRY
list three differences between molecular and ionic compounds, and explain how they relate to the differences in bond types…..how do i relate to the differences in bond types? List the differences and we’ll talk about how they relate to the bond type. 1.

asked by INEEDHELP!!! on December 6, 2006
math-calculus
write the following absolute value functions as piecewise functions. i really not get how to do this f(x) = |x| i think im supposed to state as positive and negative but i not even know what that x means. i only guessing and saying that for positive it be

asked by Shreya on January 10, 2012

math-calculus
write the following absolute value functions as piecewise functions. i really not get how to do this f(x) = |x| i think im supposed to state as positive and negative but i not even know what that x means. i only guessing and saying that for positive it be

asked by Shreya on January 10, 2012
chemistry cp
The term formula mass is a general term that can be applied to both ionic compounds and molecular compounds because (a) ionic compounds exist as individual molecules (b) molecular formulas are always empirical formulas (c) not all formulas represent

asked by sally on April 7, 2015
Naming Ionic Compounds
Can you please have a look at my questions. Thank you very much in return:-) 1. Will 2 metals develop an ionic compound? Clarify. I don’t think they will, but I don’t know how to explain. I only know that in order to form ionic compounds, the total number

asked by Sara on April 21, 2010
Ionic compounds Scinece

  1. What happens to the change on individual ions when they form ions? 11. Write the names of the two ions in each of the following compounds. (C) Na2O (E) Na3PO4 (G) NH4OH (H) Ca (NO3)2 8. Use the tables of metals, non-metals, and polyatomic ions and the

asked by Joshua on January 22, 2015
chemistry(check my work on anothe rproblem)
When a reaction mixture with a total volume of 1390 mL that is 0.00791 M aqueous Ba2+ was stoichiometrically produced as per the balanced equation, what mass (g) of Ba2+ was required? Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2 HClO4(aq) → Ba(ClO4)2(aq) + 2 H2O(l) .00791×1.39=mole

asked by eng on April 3, 2010
Chemistry
When 0.100 L of 0.200 M K2C2O4 react with 0.150 L of 0.250 M BaBr2, BaC2O4 forms an insoluble precipitate. Calculate the final concentrations of the ions that remain in solution after the reaction. I know how to get the net ionic equation (Ba2+ + C2O4- ->

asked by Anonymoose on October 1, 2018
Chem Help!
Assume that a given solution caontains Ag+or Ba2+ or a mixture of both. A reasonable method for doing a qualitative analysis on this solution might be sketched out as followes (remember || means a precipitate forms and | means a solution remains. It is

asked by Anonymous. on April 6, 2014
chemistry
Write the formulas of the compounds formed Pb+4 with the following anions:OH-, NO3- , CO3(2-), HSO4- , PO4{3-} . Use the given order of anions.

asked by shay on October 2, 2012
Chemistry – Ionic Compounds
List all possible unit formulas (chemical formulas) that can be constructed by the formation of binary ionic compounds from the following elements. (Separate substances in a list with a comma.) Br (Z = 35), Sr (Z = 38), Ca (Z = 20), Ga (Z = 31), O (Z = 8)

asked by Anonymous on June 11, 2017
Chemistry
Describe the ammonium ion, NH4+, and the sulfate ion, SO42-. What compounds would these ions form with potassium and fluoride ions? Write the formula units for the resulting compounds.

asked by Adimi on June 20, 2016

chemistry
Write formulas for the binary ionic compounds formed between the following elements: a. Sodium and Iodine b. Calcium and sulfur c. Zinc and Chlorine d. Barium and Fluorine e. Lithium and Oxygen

asked by lynda smith on October 19, 2009
Science
Plz Correct me!! Table salt has the chemical formula NaCl. Table sugar has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Which of the following is true? (1 point) Both compounds are held together by chemical bonds. Both compounds have the same density. Both compounds

asked by Vanessa on January 28, 2016
Science
Table salt has the chemical formula NaCl. Table sugar has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Which of the following is true? (1 point) Both compounds are held together by chemical bonds. Both compounds have the same density. Both compounds react with water.

asked by Vanessa on January 28, 2016
Science
Table salt has the chemical formula NaCl. Table sugar has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Which of the following is true? (1 point) Both compounds are held together by chemical bonds. Both compounds have the same density. Both compounds react with water.

asked by Del Rey on January 28, 2016
Integrated Science
What do positive hydrogen ions produce when they react with water in solution? A).hydroxide ions B).hydronium ions C).a salt D).negative hydrogen ions I believe the answer is A). Is this correct?

asked by Kiley on December 15, 2018
CHEMISTRY
write formulas for the binary ionic compounds formed between the follwing elements a) sodium and iodine b) calcium and sulfur c) zinc and chlorine d) barium and fluorine e) lithium and oxygen

asked by john on February 28, 2008
chemistry
what is the formulas for the compounds formed by the following : Al and (NO3)1-

asked by BoBo on December 18, 2010
AP Chemistry
The formulas for ethanol and ammonium nitrate are C2H5OH and NH4NO3. In what respects are these formulas and compounds different? Am I supposed to say that there are different elements that make up the compounds?

asked by Jen on September 5, 2011
chemistry 20
A student mixed a solution of aqueous calcium chloride with an aqueous solution of magnesium sulphate. A precipitate formed. 1) Write the balance chemical equation for the reaction including states of matter. Ensure you write the reactants as a dissociated

asked by amber on May 11, 2015
Chemistry
I would really like to understand how to do these problems, because my exam is coming up in a few weeks. I still cannot comprehend how you can tell if a system is is positive or negative according to reaction. For #1, I presume it is E if it is spontaneous

asked by Rainie on March 27, 2014

Chemistry
I would really like to understand how to do these problems, because my exam is coming up in a few weeks. I still cannot comprehend how you can tell if a system is is positive or negative according to reaction. For #1, I presume it is E if it is spontaneous

asked by Rainie on March 28, 2014
science question
Histones interact with DNA at specific loci because DNA has phosphate functional groups. This interaction occurs because histones have a net _ positive charge, which derives from their __ residues, and interact with DNA because of its net _

asked by Sara on July 21, 2006
chemistry
Two compounds of molecular formula respectively C2H4O and C4H8O produce a yellow orange precipitate by the reaction DNPH. a)is this indication sufficient to write the structural formulas of these two compounds? Explain. b)what identification tests should

asked by angy on July 12, 2016
science(chem)
CH3CHClCH2Cl vs. CH2ClCHClCH3 How would I know if : -The two formulas represent different compounds which are constitutional isomers. -The two formulas represent different compounds that are not isomeric. -The two formulas represent the same compound. ~if

asked by ~christina~ on August 31, 2007
chem
For which element would you expect isotope effects to be of the greatest importance in CHEMICAL processes? a.H b.He c.Li d.B This problem could be interpreted many different ways and come up with different answers, I suppose. In the context of number of

asked by nivi on April 23, 2007
Math
We are adding positive and negative numbers. The question is State positive or negative or it depends along with my answers. Are these correct? Positive + positive: positive Positive + negative: it depends Negative + negative: negative Positive –

asked by Carly on February 12, 2016
Science Question for Lance
Histones interact with DNA at specific loci because DNA has phosphate functional groups. This interaction occurs because histones have a net _ positive charge, which derives from their __ residues, and interact with DNA because of its net _

asked by sara on July 22, 2006
Chemistry-Paramagnetic or Diamagnetic
I did a lab where I was supposed to make “estimates” on transition compounds based on their electron configuration of how the compounds will react positively or negatively and then to experiment the compounds in conjunction with the strong magnets to

asked by Jessie on January 10, 2015
Chemistry
Acids produce (positive or negative) ions in water and bases produce (positive or negative) ions in water. Thanks for helping with this.

asked by Patrice on March 10, 2009
Ion Charge & Formulas of Ionic Compounds
Can you please take a look at my questions. Thank you very much. 1.classify the law of definite proportions. In specific proportions, A type of compound always contains the same elements. Is this good? Any other info would be greatly appreciated. 2.how do

asked by Sara on April 20, 2010

Chemistry
Write the chemical formula and number of ions formed when the following electrolyte dissolves in water. Make sure to include appropriate states. K3PO4 = ??? Any help with this is greatly appreciated!

asked by Amanda on February 8, 2014
Chemistry
Can someone help me with these two questions? Thank you! a.) Describe (give instructions) how you would prepare 7.00 L of 0.750 M K2CrO4 from a 2.25 M K2Cro4 stock solution b.) A stock solution containing Ba2+ ions was prepared by dissolving 23.0 grams of

asked by Anonymous on June 11, 2015
chemistry
What is a special group of compounds that produce H+ ions when dissolved in water? A. Acids B. Ionic compounds C. Molecular compounds D. Polyatomic compounds I think A

asked by Keri on November 10, 2012
chemistry
Two different chloride compounds of platinum are known, compound X and Y. When 3.45g of compound X is heated, 2.72g of compound Y is formed to 1.99g of platinum metal and some more chlorine gas. Determine the formulas of compounds X and Y.

asked by Chansa on May 4, 2016
Chemistry
Do positive ions or the negative ions cause the change in flame color ? Explain why and give on example.

asked by John on October 23, 2015
CHEMISTRY
do the positive ions or the negative ions cause the change in flame color?

asked by Anonymous on October 27, 2013
Chemistry
When an ionic compound dissolves in water, splitting into its respective ions, the positive ions will be attracted to the _ end of the water molecule. A. neutral B. partially positive C. partially negative

asked by Jarred on August 13, 2010
Chemistry
Samples of three different compounds were analyzed and the masses of each element were determined. Compound Mass Mass N(g) O(g) A 5.6 3.2 B 3.5 8.0 C 1.4 4.0 If you were John Dalton and had never heard of a mole, which of the following would you think were

asked by Davis on August 29, 2011
proofread chemistry
write the formulas for the following compounds Sodium chlorate i put NaCl Lead (II) phosphate i put Pb2P For Magnesium hydrogen carbonate i had no clue! then it stats state the number of electrons lost or gained in forming each of these Ions. I didn’t

asked by John on March 8, 2008
Chemistry(Please check answers)
1) For a reaction delta Go is more negative than delta Ho. What does this mean? a. delta So is zero. b. delta So is negative c. delta So is positive d. delta So is negative if delta Ho is positive. e. delta So is negative if delta Ho is negative. I think

asked by Hannah on April 23, 2012

Chemistry
Sea water conducts electricity. Which statements give the best explanation for this a) Ions are able to move around in sea water b) Electrons can pass from ion to ion in the sea water c) The sea water contains more ions with positve charges than ions with

asked by peter on November 6, 2010
chemistry
Sodium flouride, NaF, is a basic salt. Write the chemical equation that describes how the salt breaks up into its ions. Write the chemical equation that describes how one of the ions behaves as a base in water to produce OH-.

asked by John on June 27, 2010
chemistry please help ASAP
how do I find two positive ions and two negative ions that are isoelectronic with a) Ar b) Xe

asked by elizabeth on October 11, 2011
chemistry help please ASAP
how do I find two positive ions and two negative ions that are isoelectronic with a) Ar b) Xe

asked by elizabeth on October 11, 2011
Science

  1. Given the chemical formulas of the following compounds, name each compound and state the rules you used to determine each name. • RbF • CuO • (NH4)2C2O4

asked by Taylor on December 19, 2012
Physics
In designing a velocity selector that uses uniform perpendicular electric and magnetic fields, you want to select positive ions of charge +5e that are traveling perpendicular to the fields at 8.75 km/s. The magnetic field availabe to you has a magnitude of

asked by J on February 18, 2008
Science-Periodic Table
Where r the elements that form ions with a positive charge located? where r the elements that form ions with a negative charge located? can someone please briefly explain this whole positive and negative charge thing to me. I kind of get it, but the

asked by Sara on April 8, 2010
Honors Chemistry
Can someone check my work please? Thanks :)) 2. Write the formulas for the compounds formed between the following: g. Cu+2 and NO3- (the +2 and – are superscripts, while the 3 is a subscript) ===> I got Cu(NO3)2. h. NH4 and SO4(2-) (the two 4’s are

asked by Emily on October 13, 2009
Dr.Bob222- IChemical formulas&Reactions
When aqueous copper(II)chloride reacts with aqueous ammonium phosphate, soluble ammonium chloride forms and copper(II) phosphate precipitates out of solution. 1. Write the balanced molecular equationfor this reaction. 2. Write the balanced complete ionic

asked by chrissy on January 3, 2007
phsics
throughout a time interval, while the speed of a particle increases as it moves along the x-axis, its velocity and acceleration might be: a) positive and negative B) negative and negative c) negative and positive D) negative and zero E) positive and zero

asked by jack on September 2, 2013

Physics
In a crystal of salt there are electrons and positive ions. How does the net charge of the electrons compare with the net charge of the ions? 1. Unable to determine 2. Sometimes the net charge of the negative electrons is greater than the net charge of the

asked by Tiffany on February 7, 2013
chemistry
Can someone please help me with these? Write formulas for the following compounds. copper (III) chlorate lead (II) nitrate Cu(ClO3)3 Pb(NO3)2 Do you know the polyatomic ions? Tell us what you don’t understand about looking at the periodic table and doing

asked by Florencia on February 13, 2007
Science
What are the formulas for lithium bromide? http://www.webelements.com/webelements/compounds/text/Li/Br1Li1-7550358.html where can i find the formula for cupric nitride,and magnesium chloride also. and what are the formulas for the compounds formed by

asked by Mark on January 7, 2007
chemistry
why do positive ions and negative ions form?

asked by Tracy on December 10, 2008
Chemistry
what is the name of the ions that are formed when the following compounds dissolve in water. (a) BaBr2 (b) (NH4)2CrO4 (c)HBr

asked by Shane on November 23, 2012
A&P
Compare ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonding, and fully describe an example of each. Is this right and I need help with an example of a covalent bond. Ionic bond is formed from one metal and one non metal. It is a solid at room temperate. In an ionic bond

asked by Danielle on November 14, 2010
Chemistry-confused
All alkalis produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. How do we write the chemical equation for aqueous ammonia? I see some textbooks write it as ammonia gas dissolving in water to form ammonium ions and hydroxide ions. NH3(g)+ H2O(l) ==> NH4+(aq) +

asked by janice on April 10, 2009
chemistry
Teacher gave us homework that I really don’t understand. We must write chemical reactions by which we differentiate alcohols, esters, hydrogenic carbon,carboxylic acid and halogen alkanes from each other. We must not write the same reaction for two

asked by Nina on February 15, 2011
science
Teacher gave us homework that I really don’t understand. We must write chemical reactions by which we differentiate alcohols, esters, hydrogenic carbon,carboxylic acid and halogen alkanes from each other. We must not write the same reaction for two

asked by Nina on February 16, 2011
chemistry
how many chloride (CL negative two) ions are needed to balance a positive charge of Barium positive two?

asked by monique on February 21, 2012

science
Examples of positive, negative and neutral friction? We always learned about friction as either being positive (tires gripping the road, brake friction for stopping etc.) or negative friction (causing wear or heat as in a bearing or engine due to parts

asked by sw on March 16, 2008
science
IDK these help pls 1. Which of the following is a compound? A. O2 B. NH3 C. H2O+NaCl D. N2 2. What is the difference between compounds and mixtures? A. Compounds contain only one element; mixtures contain two or more elements. B. Compounds contain two or

asked by hawseefoo on October 3, 2018
Adv Chem 12th grade

  1. Given the chemical formulas of the following compounds, name each compound and state the rules you used to determine each name. • RbF • CuO • (NH4)2C2O4 (Note: C2O4– is called oxalate.)

asked by Taylor on December 19, 2012
Chemistry
When the halogens form ionic compounds, what is the ion charge of the halide ions? negative one

asked by Raj on February 15, 2007
chemistry
what are 4 chemical properties of organic compounds?i know there non polar molecules and they tend to e soluble in non polar solvents,,but my homework says i need 2 more and i don’t know what else..thanks 🙂 Some organic compounds are non-polar and some

asked by tameka on January 3, 2007
Decartes Rule of Signs
Could you explain to me decartes Rule of signs? Here are my questions: Use Decartes Rule of signs to determine the possible number of postive and negative real zeros for the given function. 1. f(x)=-7x^9+x^5-x^2+6 choices are: a. 2 or 0 positive zeros,2 or

asked by Ash on October 9, 2007
chemistry
Write the compound formulas for each of the following pairs and the name of the compound formed when the elements or radicals combine. Mg+2 + OH-1 K+1 + PO4-3 Cu+2 + S-2 N+5 + O-2 Compounds have zero charge. Therefore, for magnesium hydroxide, the first

asked by jessica on March 19, 2007
chemistry
in what ratio 0.2M NaCl and 0.1M CaCl2 solutions are to be mixed so that in the resulting solution, the concentration of negative ions is 50% greater than the concentration of positive ions?

asked by jaimi on April 16, 2015
physics..
This seems easy and yet i’m skeptical if these are actually supposed to be difficult.. It asks for a lot. It’s seems repetitive.. 1. a falling stone takes .30 seconds to travel past a window 2.2m tall. From what height above the top of the window did the

asked by Abby on December 16, 2015
chemistry
A sample of 0.6760 g of an unknown compound containing barium ions (Ba2+) is dissolved in water and treated with an excess of Na2SO4. If the mass of the BaSO4 precipitate formed is 0.1405 g, what is the percent by mass of Ba in the original unknown

asked by Michael on September 29, 2010

chemistry
Write the formula of the ionic compound that forms between a. copper(I) ions and chloride ions—CuCl b. copper(II) ions and hydrogen sulfate ions–Cu(HSO4)2 c. lithium ions and iodide ions–LiI d. cobalt(III) ions and phosphate ions—CoPO4

asked by krystal on February 6, 2012
Chemistry
If I had a question about complex ions and the problem had a “mixture” of two compounds, how would I know if one of the products formed is going to be a solid or liquid? I know there are solubility rules, but is there something else you can use to tell?

asked by Hank on November 22, 2014
science
what are 4 differences between ionic and covalent bonding? plz help thanks!! http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/compounds/faq/properties-ionic-vs-covalent.shtml i clicked on the link but it doesnt tell me anything See if it works (Broken Link

asked by hannah on March 19, 2007
Grade 12 chemistry
For a chem lab, i was given a table that results when pairs of chemical solutions are mixed.For each set of compounds that formed a precipitate, I had to determine the precipitate. I have done that and now one of the questions i have to answer based on the

asked by Teneal on December 31, 2011
Algebra 1
Write a rule for a nonlinear function such that y is negative when x = 1, positive when x = 2, negative when x = 3, positive when x = 4, and so on. The entire problem confuses me. I have no idea what its even asking besides it wants an equation.

asked by Alexis on October 31, 2014

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what is the value of x? enter your answer in the box. x =

The triangles are similar.

What is the value of x?

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x =
two right triangles. the larger triangle has a long leg of 96 units, short leg of 28 units, and the hypotenuse is labeled 6 x plus 28. the smaller triangle has a long leg of 24 units, short leg of 7 units, and hypotenuse of 25 units.

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asked by sombody
Jan 25, 2018
the sides of the larger triangle are 4 times the sides of the smaller

6x + 28 = 4 * 25

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Jan 25, 2018

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what are powers of the us government that are named and listed in the constitution called

What are powers of the U.S. government that are named and listed in the Constitution called?

A.expressed powers

B.implied powers

C.inherent powers

D.prohibited powers

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asked by Kidthelearner
Aug 25, 2016
http://www.ushistory.org/gov/3a.asp

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👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 25, 2016
thanks!

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posted by Kidthelearner
Aug 25, 2016
You’re welcome.

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👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 25, 2016
so B?

1 0
posted by Kidthelearner
Aug 25, 2016

No,

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 25, 2016
ok…

0 0
posted by Kidthelearner
Aug 25, 2016
Is the answer c?

0 0
posted by Jordan
Sep 6, 2016
A is the correct answer

0 0
posted by Miss I Love You
Sep 14, 2016
Just took it.
1.A 2.A 3.C 4.B

!@#$%^&soutforharambe

2 0
posted by yesman
Sep 21, 2016

^^^ IS correct 100%^^^^

0 0
posted by Yesman
Sep 21, 2016
Thank you for the right answers yesman.

0 0
posted by Thanks!
Sep 23, 2016
Thanks for them answers☺️☺️☺️

0 0
posted by Happy
Sep 26, 2016
yesman is 100% right

0 0
posted by BS
Oct 2, 2016
Thanks yesman!

0 0
posted by Lol smiley face
Oct 5, 2016

yesman is actually a king TYSM

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 10, 2016
yesman is right

0 0
posted by amy
Nov 30, 2016
all are right 100%

0 0
posted by mona
Feb 3, 2017
YESMAN is the fu**ing man

1 0
posted by Jorge
Apr 5, 2017
A
A
C
B
Thank me later

0 0
posted by Richard
Aug 28, 2017

Richard is 100% correct

0 0
posted by DessBlicky
Sep 15, 2017
They’re both right. Thanks.

0 0
posted by Padawan
Sep 21, 2017

  1. A
  2. A
  3. C
  4. B

i just took it

0 0
posted by yoongi
Sep 22, 2017
yoongi is right

0 0
posted by bbygrl
Sep 22, 2017
1.) A
2.) A
3.) C
4.) B

100% For connexus! 😛

0 0
posted by Fox Girl
Sep 26, 2017

I’ll read first

0 0
posted by SonikkuTheNerd
Sep 26, 2017
Thanks I got 100%

0 0
posted by SonikkuTheNerd
Sep 26, 2017
a
a
c
b
is correct

0 0
posted by bleh
Oct 20, 2017

  1. expressed powers
  2. Both national and state … share power
  3. tariff laws
  4. supremacy clause 0 0
    posted by Trinity
    Jan 19, 2018
    trinity is right, I got a 100% 0 0
    posted by seulgi
    Sep 7, 2018

All 100% correct, thank you!

0 0
posted by Odious
Sep 26, 2018

Categories
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what is the enthalpy for reaction 1 reversed? reaction 1 reversed: 2co2 + 3h2o→c2h5oh + 3o2

What is the enthalpy for reaction 1 reversed?
14,146 results
chemistry
What is the enthalpy for reaction 1 reversed? reaction 1 reversed: 2CO2+3H2O=C2H5OH+3O2 express the answer in kJ/mol

asked by Lilit*** on October 19, 2008
Chemistry due soon
What is enthalpy? A. Enthalpy is the kinetic energy of a system. B. Enthalpy is the heat involved in a reaction. C. Enthalpy is the temperature of a reaction. D. Enthalpy is the mass involved in a reaction. I think the answer is a or b

asked by Morgan on November 6, 2014
chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy of reaction for the combustion of ethene. Express the enthalpy of reaction calculated in question above as a molar enthalpy of reaction per mole of carbon dioxide.

asked by shyanne on January 8, 2013
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference between the enthalpy of the products and the

asked by Anonymous on February 20, 2008
Hess’ law
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into its constitute elements. B. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one

asked by christine on February 9, 2007

Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Heat evolved in a given process can be expressed as the sum of the heats of several processes that, when added, yield the process of interest. B. The enthalpy of a process is the difference

asked by Jared on May 7, 2007
Chemistry
Which of the following is the best definition of Hess’ Law? A. Since enthalpy is a state function, it will be different if a reaction takes place in one step or a series of steps. B. Heat is always released by the decomposition of 1 mole of a compound into

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2008
Chemistry
The enthalpy of formation for a substance corresponds to the enthalpy change for a reaction. Write the specific chemical reaction defining the enthalpy of formation of butane: Just checking to make sure this is correct: 4C + 5H2 —> C4H10

asked by AJ on March 26, 2017
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 22, 2008
Chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Sean on June 3, 2009
Chemistry
Given the following equations: 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)–> 2 H2O (l) deltaH = -571.6 kJ N2 (g) + O2 (g)–>2 NO (g) deltaH = +180.5 kJ N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) —>2 NH3 (g) deltaH = -92.22 kJ Determine the enthalpy change (deltaH) for the following reaction: 2 NO (g) +

asked by Katherine on October 8, 2009
Chemistry practice
Using the form of energy diagram,make a concept map of the two different methods of calculation of reaction enthalpy(via the bond enthalpy and via the enthalpy of formation)

asked by Gift on July 31, 2011
Chemistry
When a chemist burns ammonia according to the reaction below she finds that the reaction releases heat. (It is exothermic.) 4NH3(g) + 3O2(g) 2N2(g) + 6H2O(g) The enthalpy of the reaction DH = -1267 kJ. What is the enthalpy change (in kJ) when 7 grams of

asked by Devin on January 12, 2015
Chemistry
O3 + NO –> O2 + NO2 (all in gas state) Calculate the change in enthalpy for the reaction at room temp. using the following data ^Hf: O3 = 143 NO = 90 NO2 = 33 So, I have 143+90–> X + 33. I don’t know what the enthalpy of O2 is. I assume you simply

asked by Anonymous on February 18, 2008
chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012

chemistry-Thermochemistry (grade 12)
calculate enthalpy of H for the reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O(l) -> N2(g) + 4H2)(l) Given the reactions N2H4(l) + O2(g) -> N2(g) + 2H2O(l) Enthalpy of H = -6.22.2 kJ H2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) -> H2O(l) enthalpy of H = -285.8 kJ/mol H2(g) + O2(g) -> H2O2(l) enthalpy of

asked by Rose Bud on February 16, 2012
chemistry
The reaction between 0.045 g of calcium with an excess of water was carried out in an ice calorimeter as used in this lab. The volume of water in the calorimeter decreased by 0.18 mL during the reaction a) Write the equation for the reaction which occurs.

asked by Anonymous on November 10, 2008
CHEMISTRY
1.Calculate the enthalpy change (ΔHºrxn) for the following reaction: (The enthalpy of formation of aqueous sodium hydroxide is -469.60 kJ/mol. The enthalpy of formation of liquid water is -285.8 kJ/mol.) 2Na (s) + 2H2O (l) → 2NaOH (aq) + H2 (g) 2.Do

asked by Cha-Ching on December 16, 2011
Chemistry – Enthalpy reactions
What is the reaction enthalpy for CaCO3(s) –> CaO(s) + CO2(g)? should i be using a enthalpy reaction table?

asked by Rose Bud on February 29, 2012
Chem
Change in enthalpy problem. Consider the reaction represented below. Referring to the data in the table below, calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction at 25 degrees C. O3(g)+NO(g)–>O2(g)+NO2(g) Standard enthalpy of formation in kJ/mol:

asked by Dan on November 19, 2007
Chemistry-College
S(rhombic)+O2(g)—>SO2(g) change in H(rxn)= -296.06 kJ/mol S(monoclinic)+O2(g)—>SO2(g) change in H(rxn)= -296.36 kJ/mol 1. Calculate the enthalpy change for the transformation. S(rhombic)–>S(monoclinic) Our goal is to calculate the enthalpy change for

asked by Lucy on October 31, 2010
Chemistry- please help ASAP!!!! thank you
S(rhombic)+O2(g)—>SO2(g) change in H(rxn)= -296.06 kJ/mol S(monoclinic)+O2(g)—>SO2(g) change in H(rxn)= -296.36 kJ/mol 1. Calculate the enthalpy change for the transformation. S(rhombic)–>S(monoclinic) Our goal is to calculate the enthalpy change for

asked by Annabelle on October 31, 2010
College (Enthalpy) – College
S(rhombic)+O2(g)—>SO2(g) change in H(rxn)= -296.06 kJ/mol S(monoclinic)+O2(g)—>SO2(g) change in H(rxn)= -296.36 kJ/mol 1. Calculate the enthalpy change for the transformation. S(rhombic)–>S(monoclinic) Our goal is to calculate the enthalpy change for

asked by Lucy on October 31, 2010
chemistry
Calculate enthalpy change of reaction for the combustion of gaseous ethanol. C2H5OH + 3O2 >> CO2 + 3H2O. Using standard molar enthalpies of formation. C2H5OH -235.3 ( it’s negative sign) CO2 -393.5 H2O -241.8 (1) Calculate the enthalpy change of reaction

asked by Alex on April 20, 2010
help help help chemistry
why will no one answer this question? For a one step reaction, the activation energy for the forward reaction is 40.0 kJ/mol and the enthalpy of reaction is -20.0 kJ /mol. Which statement below is true? a. The activation energy of the forward reaction

asked by john117 on February 27, 2012

chemsitry
c. Use the enthalpy diagram provided above and apply Hess’s Law to determine the standard enthalpy of formation for C12O36H20N12 (s) using the results from part (a) and the following values: The standard enthalpy of formation of gaseous carbon dioxide is

asked by Nora on October 23, 2010
chemistry
For a one step reaction, the activation energy for the forward reaction is 40.0 kJ/mol and the enthalpy of reaction is -20.0 kJ /mol. Which statement below is true? a. The activation energy of the forward reaction would be affected to a greater extent than

asked by john117 on February 27, 2012
chemistry
The enthalpy change for the following reaction is -483.6 kJ: 2H2(g) + O2(g) = 2H2O(g) Therefore, the enthalpy change for the following reaction is _ kJ: 4H2(g) + 2O2(g) = 4H2O(g)

asked by danny on January 31, 2015
chemistry
For a one step reaction, the activation energy for the forward reaction is 40.0 kJ/mol and the enthalpy of reaction is -20.0 kJ /mol. Which statement below is true? a. The activation energy of the forward reaction would be affected to a greater extent than

asked by bob on February 24, 2012
chemistry
For a one step reaction, the activation energy for the forward reaction is 40.0 kJ/mol and the enthalpy of reaction is -20.0 kJ /mol. Which statement below is true? a. The activation energy of the forward reaction would be affected to a greater extent than

asked by bob on February 25, 2012
Chemistry
For a one step reaction, the activation energy for the forward reaction is 40.0 kJ/mol and the enthalpy of reaction is -20.0 kJ /mol. Which statement below is true? a. The activation energy of the forward reaction would be affected to a greater extent than

asked by Mohamed on March 1, 2012
chemistry
2.9 The standard enthalpy of formation of the metallocene bis(benzene)chromium was measured in a calorimeter. It was found for the reaction Cr(C6H6)2(s) → Cr(s) + 2 C6H6(g) that . Find the corresponding reaction enthalpy and estimate the standard

asked by girlgirl on June 18, 2011
Chemistry
Nitrogen and oxygen can react directly with one anotheer to produce nitrogen dioxide according to N2(g) + 2O2(g) –> 2NO2(g) The reaction may also be imagined to take place by first producing nitrogen oxide N2(g) + O2(g) –> 2NO(g) which then produces NO2

asked by Sarah on November 12, 2015
Chemistry help
I am not to sure how to approach the problem… Hydrazine is used as a rocket fuel because its reaction with oxygen is extremely exothermic: N2H4(liquid) + O2(g) ==> N2(g) + 2H2O(liquid) ΔH(reaction) = -615 kJ mol-1 What is the enthalpy of this reaction

asked by Anonymous on May 11, 2014
Chemistry
In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for ethanol. I need help with balancing the

asked by Mark on October 26, 2015

CHEMISTRY!!!!
In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for ethanol. I need help with balancing the

asked by Mark on October 26, 2015
chemistry help!!!
In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for ethanol. I need help with balancing the

asked by Mark on October 25, 2015
chemistry help!
In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for ethanol. I need help with balancing the

asked by mark on October 26, 2015
chemistry
In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for ethanol. I need help with balancing the

asked by Mark on October 25, 2015
chemistry help!!!
In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for ethanol. I need help with balancing the

asked by Mark on October 25, 2015
CHEMISTRY!!!!
In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for ethanol. I need help with balancing the

asked by Mark on October 26, 2015
Chemistry
In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for ethanol. I need help with balancing the

asked by Mark on October 26, 2015
Chemistry
How is the enthalpy change for a reaction related to the enthalpy of the reactants and products? Is it that the enthalpy for the reactants and products equals the enthalpy change for the reaction?

asked by Anonymous on July 9, 2015
Chemistry
Please show me how to work! thanks When Snno2(s) is formed form the comustion of gray tin, the reaction enthalpy is -578.6 kJ, and when white tin is burned to form SnO2(s), the reaction enthalpy is -580.7 kJ. Calculate the reaction enthalpu for

asked by Sam on October 20, 2012
college chemistry
for the reaction at 298 K 2A+b —->C enthalpy=100 K/cal entropy= 0.050 kcal/k assuming enthalpy and entropy to be constant over the temperature range, at what temperature will the reaction become spontaneous? answer: T>2000K

asked by thomas on May 9, 2015

Chem
I was given a problem that my book did not explain how to do, so I attempted to figure it out myself. Let me know if my conclusion is fallacious. Given the reactions H2O(g) + CO(g) H2(g) + CO2(g), K= 1.6 FeO(s) + CO(g) Fe(s) + CO2(g), K= .67 Find K for the

asked by Chris on April 9, 2007
Chemistry
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Mark on November 23, 2008
Chemistry-Dr.Bob
Since most chemical reactions are conducted in containers open to the armisphere, why is the energy transfer associated with a chemical reaction generally expressed as the change in enthalpy? Is it because the enthalpy of reaction measures the change in

asked by Sanaya on January 10, 2016
chemistry
give enthalpy profile diagrams to illustrate endothermic and exothermic reactions. include an explanation of cocepts such as enthalpy change, activation energy and catalysts.explain how the process of bond breakage and formation determine the enthalpy

asked by ABRAHAM on February 2, 2011
Chemistry
If delta H°rxn and delta S°rxn are both positive values, what drives the spontaneous reaction and in what direction at standard conditions? The spontaneous reaction is a)enthalpy driven to the left. b)entropy driven to the right. c)entropy driven to the

asked by Alexis on April 20, 2014
AP Chem
Reaction 1: NaOH + HCL –> H20 + NaCl delta H of -100.332 kj/mol Reaction 2: NaOH + NH4Cl –> NH3 + H20 : delta H of 358.639 kj/mol Reaction 3: HCl + NH3 –> NH4Cl : delta H of -51.701 kj/mol Use your answers from question 2 above and Hess’s law to

asked by Serena on October 13, 2014
chemistry
is this the answer to B ) CH3CH2OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and ethanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion

asked by Mark on October 27, 2015
Chemistry
If the standard enthalpy of formation of PH3(g) is +5.4 kJ mol-1, calculate the reaction enthalpy for 2PH3(g)—>2P(s)+3H2(g)

asked by Sam on October 20, 2012
Chemistry – Enthalpy change and stoichiometry
N2 + O2 = 2NO enthalpy change = +180.6kJ c) what is the enthalpy change for the formation of one mole of nitrogen monoxide? d) What is the enthalpy change for the reaction of 1.000 * 10^2g of nitrogen with sufficient oxygen? I do not understand how to

asked by Farah on February 23, 2011
chemistry
State whether each of the following will increase,decrease or unchange when catalyst is added to the reaction and give an explanation for your answer please a) rate of reaction b)activation energy c)reaction enthalpy d)equilibrium of reaction

asked by Gift on July 9, 2011

Chemistry!
Calculate the work involved if a reaction with an enthalpy change of -2418 kJ is carried out in a vessel with a mobile, frictionless piston. Other details: the reaction is H2(g) + 1/2Oxygen2(g) yields H2O(g) with enthalpy change of -241.8 kJ/mol. The

asked by Elizabeth on November 23, 2008
Chemistry
Reposted: Use Hess’s law to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction: 3C(s) + 3H2(g) yield C3H6(g) Given the following thermochemical equations: 2C3H6(g) + 9O2(g) yield 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) enthalpy change= -4116.0 kJ/mol C(s) + O2(g) yield CO2(g)

asked by Hailee on March 17, 2012
chemistry… HELP !!!!!!!
The average bond enthalpy for C__H is 413 kJ/mol. In other words, 413 kJ of energy is required to break a mole of CH into atoms: CH (g) —-> C(g) + H(g) delta H= 413 kJ Using this information, and enthalpy of C6H6=5535kJ, calculate the enthalpy change of

asked by sarah on November 18, 2012
chemistry
For the reaction shown below complete the following calculations. H2(g) + C2H4(g) –> C2H6(g) (a) Estimate the enthalpy of reaction using the bond energy values in Table 9.4. (b) Calculate the enthalpy of reaction, using standard enthalpies of formation.

asked by hannah on October 27, 2008
Chem please help
If the following reaction: NO(g) + 1/2O2(g) NO2(g) has the following enthalpy change: H° = -56 kJ/mol What is the enthalpy of the decomposition reaction of 2 moles of NO2? A. 112 kJ B. 56 kJ C. -56 kJ D. -112 kJ i think the answer is d

asked by Morgan on November 7, 2014
Chemistry due soon
If the following reaction: NO(g) + 1/2O2(g) NO2(g) has the following enthalpy change: H° = -56 kJ/mol What is the enthalpy of the decomposition reaction of 2 moles of NO2? A. 112 kJ B. 56 kJ C. -56 kJ D. -112 kJ i think the answer is d

asked by Morgan on November 7, 2014
Chemistry
Consider the isomerization equlibria of an alkene (C4H8) that co-exists as three isomers. (These 3 are in an equlibrium triangle) Reaction 1: cis-2-butene ⇔ trans-2-butene Reaction 2: cis-2-butene ⇔ 2-methylpropene Reaction 3: trans-2-butene ⇔

asked by Gleb on March 3, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate enthalpy of reaction C2H4 + H2 gives C2H6.enthalpy of combustion of ethene, H2,and ethane are -1410,-286,-15.60kj/mol respectively

asked by Shaika on November 7, 2016
gen Chem
I’ve attempted this problem but not sure if i’m on the right track. Use the enthalpy diagram provided above and apply Hess’s Law to determine the standard enthalpy of formation for C12O36H20N12 (s) using the results from part (a) and the following

asked by Vince on October 26, 2010
chemistry
How to calculate enthalpy change of the following reaction? : S + 2h2o >>> so2 + 2h2 given: s+o2 >>> so2 – enthalpy change = -296.8 kJ h2 + 1/2o2 >> h20 enthalpy change= -285.8kj I was trying to solve it myself but i got confused.. i know i have to change

asked by olexandra on April 19, 2010

Chemistry VERY DIFFICULT
Imagine you have been given a series of materials to react together and the following enthalpy change data has been recorded. Explain the terms exothermic and endothermic, and identify which of the following are exothermic and endothermic reactions. Ensure

asked by Jack on January 10, 2017
Chemistry
I’m trying to calculate the enthalpy of the reaction Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) -> MgCl2(aq) + H2 (g) however I cannot find the enthalpy of the compound MgCl2 (aq) and I cannot calculate the total enthalpy without it

asked by Kirstie on March 27, 2011
Chemistry
The following reaction has a standard enthalpy of reaction of -146.0 kJ/mol: Cu2O(s) + 1/2 O2(g) -> 2CuO(s) The standard enthalpy of formation of Cu2O(s) is -168.6 kJ/mol. What is the standard enthalpy of formation of CuO(s)?

asked by James on March 11, 2011
Chemistry

  1. The delta Hf of an element in its standard state is defined to be a) 0 kJ/mol b) 10 kJ/mol c) -10 kJ/mol d) greater than 0 kJ/mol e) a unique value for each element I am assuming its a? 2. Which of the following statements are true? I) The reaction

asked by Bobby on July 21, 2010
chemistry
A 114g sample of sucrose undergoes incomplete combustion according to the reaction C12H22011 + 5O2 —> 4C + 6CO + 2CO2 + 11H2O using the chart of enthalpies of formation determine the enthalpy released by the sample i think that it is a simple enthalpy

asked by rick on July 25, 2010
Chemistry Dr. BOB
I don’t get it!! In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for ethanol. I need help with

asked by Mark on October 27, 2015
chemistry BOB
is this the answer to B ) CH3CH2OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and ethanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion

asked by Mark on October 27, 2015
general chemistry
A sample consisting of 0.025 mol of a solid compound is placed inside a metal cylinder. The cylinder was immersed in a water bath consisting of 10.00 kg of water at an original temperature of 25.00 °C. When the compound decomposes, the temperature of the

asked by Nora on October 23, 2010
Chemistry – Science (Dr. Bob222)
Hydrazine is used as a rocket fuel because its reaction with oxygen is extremely exothermic: N2H4(liquid) + O2(g)  N2(g) + 2H2O(liquid) ΔH(reaction) = -615 kJ mol-1 What is the enthalpy of this reaction if water were produced in the gaseous rather than

asked by Ana on May 8, 2014
Chemistry
Consider the following reaction: H2(g) + I2(s) —> 2HI(g) TriangleH = 51.9 kj (enthalpy) Calculate the standard enthalpies of reaction for the following reaction: 6HI(g) —> 3H2(g) + 3I2(s) Thanks!

asked by Sandy on April 28, 2012

chemistry
If you need to multiply the following reaction by 2 to be an intermediate reaction in a Hess’s law problem, what would be the final value for the enthalpy of reaction you use for this intermediate reaction? C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O, H = -1410 kJ

asked by Anonymous on November 24, 2014
Chemistry
What is the enthalpy change for the first reaction? Fe2O3(s) → 2Fe(s) + 3/2O2(g) ΔH = 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Fe2O3 (s) ΔH = -1,652 kJ I think I’m supposed to rearrange the equation and double everything but enthalpy isn’t my strong suit

asked by Hahn on October 7, 2014
Chemistry
Assuming the dissolution of borax in water is a spontaneous reaction, do you expect the change in enthalpy to be positive or negative or are both signs possible? Explain your answer A. Neither, enthalpy does not change, the positive entropy for the

asked by Linda on May 7, 2007
Chemistry
Find the enthalpy for : 4Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3 I got the following informations: Fe + 3H2O = Fe(OH)3 + 3/2H2 – Enthalpy is 160.9 kj H2 + 1/2O2 = H2O – Enthalpy is -285.8 kj Fe2O3 + 3H2O = 2Fe(OH)3 – Enthalpy is 288.6 I try using Hess Law but cannot solve it.

asked by Shadow on May 13, 2013
Chemistry
The lab we are doing is: Determining the ENTHALPY of a Chemical Reaction. There are three reactions. Reaction 1: NaOH + HCl, Reaction 2: NaOH + NH4Cl, and Reaction 3: HCl + NH3. I found the max temp, initial temp, and temp change of each reaction. Can you

asked by Rina on October 29, 2017
chemistry DR BOB
is this the answer to B ) C2H5OH(liq)+ 3O2(g) –> 2CO2(g) +3H2O(liq) In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and ethanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a

asked by Mark on October 27, 2015
chemistry DR BOB!
is this the answer to B ) C2H5OH(liq)+ 3O2(g) –> 2CO2(g) +3H2O(liq) In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and ethanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a

asked by Mark on October 27, 2015
CHM1045
NH4NO3(s) right arrow NH4+(aq) + NO3−(aq) In order to measure the enthalpy change for this reaction, 1.21 g of NH4NO3 is dissolved in enough water to make 25.0 mL of solution. The initial temperature is 25.8°C and the final temperature (after the solid

asked by Philip Golden on March 30, 2013
chemistry
Find the false statement(s) about the thermochemistry experiment in which nitric acid is reacted with sodium hydroxide, and the enthalpy of the reaction is measured using an ice calorimeter. i. Regardless of which strong acid and strong base are used for

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2008
chemistry Dr BOB
is this right? C2H6O + 3O2 = 2CO2 + 3H2O In winemaking, the sugars in grapes undergo fermentation by yeast to yield CH3CH2OH and CO2. During cellular respiration, sugar and enthanol are “burned” to water vapor andCO2. Write a combustion reaction for

asked by Mark on October 27, 2015

chem please help drbob222
In the roasting of zinc ore, the total enthalpy for the reactants is -412.0 kJ and the total enthalpy for the products is -1294.54 kJ. What is the enthalpy for the roasting reaction? A. 882.54 kJ B. -1706.54 kJ C. 1706.54 kJ D. -882.54 kJ I think the

asked by Morgan on November 25, 2014
Thermochemistry
I’m confused about the difference between the q in q=mc(Tf-Ti) and (Delta)H, or enthalpy. What exactly does enthalpy mean and how is that different than q? (I’m also confused about what Gibbs Free Energy actually means; I know that if it’s negative, the

asked by Kevin on December 2, 2008
chemistry
a) Describe how to determine if a reaction will be thermodynamically favorable. b) Describe what happens to the Gibbs Free Energy term when a chemical reaction is reversed. c) Describe how coupling reactions are used to drive an unfavorable chemical

asked by Morgan on March 12, 2015
CHEMISTRY
AT 25 DEGREES CELSIUS THE STANDARD ENTHALPY OF COMBUSTION OF GASEOUS PROPANE IS -2219.0 KJ PER MOLE OF PROPANE AND THER STANDARD ENTHALPY OF GASEOUS PORPYLENE IS -2058.3 KJ PER MOLE OF P[ROPYLENE. wHAT IS THE STANDARD ENTHALPY CHANGE FOR THE FOLLOWING

asked by Anonymous on July 23, 2011
Chemisty
I need a recap of how to do the question below. I just need the basic guidelines: The enthalpy change for the reaction 2H2(g)+O2 > 2H2O is -571.6kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O.

asked by Todd on June 26, 2015
chemistry kinetics
Statement-I : For an endothermic reaction, the activation energy is less than the change in enthalpy. Statement-II: Activation energy of a reaction, at a given temperature can never be greater than its change in enthalpy are these statements true? give

asked by swa on May 24, 2012
chemistry
NH4NO3(s) NH4+(aq) + NO3−(aq) In order to measure the enthalpy change for this reaction above, 1.07 g of NH4NO3 is dissolved in enough water to make 25.0 mL of solution. The initial temperature is 25.8°C and the final temperature (after the solid

asked by DeeDee on November 16, 2012
Chemistry
In a thermochemistry experiment the reaction of 0.0857 g of an unknown metal and an excess of 4.0 M HCl resulted in a 0.210 mL decrease in the volume of an ice/water mixture. Calculate the enthalpy of this reaction per 1 g of metal reacted. Needed data:

asked by Raj on December 1, 2007
Chemistry
If calcium carbide has a standard enthalpy of formation of -59.8 kJ/mol and acetylene has a standard enthalpy of formation of 226.73 kJ/mol, what is the standard enthalpy change for the reaction?

asked by Kelly on February 20, 2013
chemistry
2C2H2(g) + 5O2(g)→4CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) a. Determine the enthalpy change for the reaction. ΔH = (4(-393.5)+ 2(-241.8)) – (2(227) + 5(0)) The enthalpy change is -2511.6. b. Determine the entropy change for the reaction. ΔS = (4(213.7)+ 2(188.7)) –

asked by Morgan on January 31, 2015

Chemistry
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
CHEMISTRY
I know I posted this question before, but can you clarify it?? MY QUESTION IS AFTER YOU SWITCHED THE DELTA H1 THE CHANGE IN THE ENTHALPY IS NEGATIVE…. BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN ENTHALPY OF THE ORIGINAL DELTA H1 IS

asked by Anonymous on November 14, 2013
chemistry, please help
2NO2(g)–> 2NO(g) + O2(g) , H=+114.2kJ (Note: H, S, G all have a degree sign next to them) NO: H(enthalpy)=90.3kJ/mol, S(entropy)=210.7J/mol*K, G(gibbs energy)=86.6 O2: H(enthalpy)=0, S(entropy)=?, G(gibbs energy)=0 kJ/mol NO2: H(enthalpy)=33.2, S=239.9,

asked by apoorva on February 4, 2008
Science
The enthalpy change for the reaction 2 H2 + O2 > 2 H20 is -571.6 kJ. Determine the enthalpy change for the decomposition of 24.0g H2O. My Process -571.6 is the enthalpy of 2 mols of H2O. So the enthalpy of 1 mol of H2O will be -285.8. Since it’s

asked by Mike on July 9, 2015
Chemistry
From your experience, predict which of the following reactions are spontaneous. a) Zn(s) + 2H+(aq)–> Zn+2(aq) + H2 (g) b) CaCO3(s) + 2H2O(l) –> Ca(OH)2(s) + H2CO3(aq) c) CH4(g) + O2(g) –> CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) d) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) –> AgCl (s) Our book

asked by Chris on February 14, 2007

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what does it mean to say that two variables are negatively correlated

1.)what does it mean to say that two variables are negatively correlated

A.)When one variable increases, the other decreases.

B.)When variable increases, the other also
C.)When one variable decreases, the other also decfreases
D.)Both variables changes at the same rate

I choosed “B” but my mom is saying no im wrong its “D” who’s correct?!

0 1 4,497
asked by YRN DJ
Nov 11, 2015
If it’s negative correlation, what does “negative” mean? B and D are wrong.

0 1
posted by Reed
Nov 11, 2015
So would it be c?

0 2
posted by Hi
Nov 16, 2015
No its a

3 0
posted by Hi
Nov 16, 2015
The answer is A

3 0
posted by 🙂
Jan 26, 2016

a
b
d
c
a

32 0
posted by Anonymous
Nov 8, 2016
Scatter Plots: Comparing Variables

Responses saved. The final score is 5/5 (100%).

Multiple Choice

  1. What does it mean to say that two variables are negatively correlated? (1 point)
    Correct answer (1 pt) When one variable increases, the other decreases.
    Unselected answer (0 pts) When one variable increases, the other also increases.
    Unselected answer (0 pts) When one variable decreases, the other also decreases.
    Unselected answer (0 pts) Both variables change at the same rate.
    1 /1 point
    Examine the data table below, which shows a list of employees at a company, how many years of higher education they have, and their current salary. Use this table to answer the following three questions.

Employee Name Years of Higher Education Current Salary
Joslyn Smith 6 $81,500
Heather Miller 2 $38,000
Marie Coolidge

  1. Complete the missing data in the table above using the following information.

Marie Coolidge is a new employee. She has five years of experience in a similar job, where she was paid $45,000–$65,000. She has four years of higher education. Her current salary will be $55,000. (1 point)
Unselected answer (0 pts) 4, $45,000
Correct answer (1 pt) 4, $55,000
Unselected answer (0 pts) 5, $50,000
Unselected answer (0 pts) 5, $65,000
1 /1 point

  1. Assuming that the data for all employees follows the same pattern, which kind of relationship is there between years of higher education and current salary? (1 point)
    Unselected answer (0 pts) a clustered relationship
    Unselected answer (0 pts) There is no relationship.
    Unselected answer (0 pts) a negative correlation
    Correct answer (1 pt) a positive correlation
    1 /1 point
  2. Which of the following is a variable in the data table above? (1 point)
    Unselected answer (0 pts) previous salary
    Unselected answer (0 pts) years of experience
    Correct answer (1 pt) years of higher education
    Unselected answer (0 pts) average salary
    1 /1 point
  3. Which kind of relationship is shown in the following scatter plot?

A graph with a x -axis and y-axis is shown. 5 black dots ranging from left-parenthesis 1 comma 9.8 right-parenthesis to left-parenthesis 9 comma 1.3 right-parenthesis in a downward slope. (1 point)
Correct answer (1 pt) negative correlation
Unselected answer (0 pts) positive correlation
Unselected answer (0 pts) a direct relationship
Unselected answer (0 pts) no trend
1 /1 point

The final score is 5/5 (100%).

16 0
posted by Awesome Kid
Nov 14, 2016
Thanks! your the best <3

0 0
posted by Jennifer
Nov 15, 2016
Dang boy, that’s dedication. THANKS!!!

1 0
posted by pizzabeast21
Nov 24, 2016
you can copy uncopyiable things by disabling java script

3 0
posted by lilnig
Dec 1, 2016

awesome kid is right

0 0
posted by unknown
Dec 8, 2016
yep they r right ABDCA

1 0
posted by Rebel teen
Dec 21, 2016

  1. A
  2. B
  3. D
  4. C
  5. A 9 0
    posted by nibba
    Jun 5, 2017
    nibba right 0 0
    posted by poor
    Oct 4, 2017
    Those answers are right! 0 0
    posted by Get Grammarly
    Oct 13, 2017

I got a 100% with these:
A
B
D
C
A
They are right.

2 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 26, 2017
Awsome Kid was correct 100% thank you!!

  1. A – When one variable increases, the other decreases.
  2. B – 4, $55,000
  3. D – a positive correlation
  4. C – years of higher education
  5. A – negative correlation 2 0
    posted by Keith
    Mar 2, 2018
    1.A
    2.B
    3.D
    4.C
    5.A

Full Credit Goes to Awesome Kid! (100% Correct Answers)

2 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 17, 2018
ABDCA!

2 0
posted by girl
Apr 26, 2018
Awesome Kid, Anonymus(The anonymous near the top of comments), and Nibba. Are all correct If you are in connections academy Lesson 2 Unit 4 Ed Tech, Then the quick check answers are

  1. A
  2. B
  3. D
  4. C
  5. A 1 0
    posted by ThatOneGirl
    Nov 1, 2018
  6. A
  7. B
  8. D
  9. C
  10. A 1 0
    posted by Hal
    Nov 4, 2018
    Thanks my nibba 0 0
    posted by frog
    Mar 13, 2019
Categories
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if x+3/3=y+2/2 then x/3=

if x+3/3=y+2/2, then x/3=?
whats the answer? I think its y/2. but im probly wrong. please explain to me.

0 0 675
asked by Corie
Feb 5, 2013
(x+3)/3 = (y+2)/2
x/3 + 1 = (y+2)/2
x/3 = (y+2)/2 – 1
= (y+2-2)/2
= y/2

good work

1 0
posted by Steve
Feb 5, 2013
thanks so much!!!

0 0
posted by Corie
Feb 6, 2013

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what statement best describes jefferson’s attitude toward government?

What statement best describes Jefferson’s attitude toward government?
A. He wanted a larger and more powerful government.
B. He wanted a smaller federal government with reduced taxes, military, and bureaucracy.
C. He believed that a government wasn’t needed to run the United States.
D. He wanted to keep government the same as it was under the Federalists.

0 0 303
asked by aj_4you
Oct 13, 2016
Hello there! I believe the answer is, B!
Hope I helped, join me on Brainly(dot)com

0 0
posted by Nick
Dec 7, 2016

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does the relation in the table represent direct variation inverse variation or neither

Does the relation in the table represent direct variation inverse variation or neither? If it is a direct or inverse variation, write an equation to represent the relation.
(x,y)
(5,2)
(10,1)
(15,2/3)
(20,1/2)

0 0 759
asked by Sally
Oct 17, 2016
It looks like inverse,

x doubled from the 1st to second point and y became 1/2 as much.

from 5 to 15 tripled
2 to 2/3 became 1/3

0 0
posted by John
Oct 17, 2016
following up on John’s observation, let

y = k/x
for (5,2)
2 = k/5
k = 10

y = 10/x

check for (10,1)
is 1 = 10/10, yes
check for the last one: (20, 1/2)
is 1/2 = 10/20 , yes

0 0
posted by Reiny
Oct 17, 2016
clearly, xy=10

that’s inverse variation.

0 0
posted by Steve
Oct 17, 2016

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the current atomic model would be revised if

the current atomic model would be revised if A. better microscopes were being used to study its structure. B.better microscopes are invented in the future. C. new information about an atom’s structure is discovered. D.
16,769 results
Science Chemical Reactions

  1. The current atomic model would be revised if (1 point) A• better microscopes were being used to study its structure. B• better microscopes are invented in the future. C• new information about an atom’s structure is discovered. C• a new

asked by John Smith on March 7, 2018
Science
The current atomic model would be revised if A. better microscopes were being used to study its structure. B. better microscopes are invented in the future. C. new information about an atom’s structure is discovered. D. a new element is discovered in the

asked by Anonymous on February 8, 2019
science
the current atomic model would be revised if 1)better microscopes were being used to study its structure. 2)better microscopes are invented in the future. 3)new information about an atoms structure is discovered.*** 4) a new element is discovered in the

asked by alainaforysthe on October 9, 2017
Science
The current atomic model would be revised if… A.)Better microscopes were being used to study its structure. B.)Better microscopes are invented in the future. C.)New information about an atoms structure is discovered.

asked by #HelpMe on October 22, 2018
science help
What would happen to the current model of the atom if new information about its structure is discovered in the future? A. The current atomic model would be revised. B. The current atomic model would be strengthened. C. The current atomic model would be

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science
1.the modern atomic model includes orbiting the nucleus. which of the following parts of dalton’s was disproved by the discovery of the electron atoms are tiny particles atoms cannot be divided into smaller parts atoms have specific mass and size atoms

asked by alex on September 30, 2015
Science…. PLEASE HELP :(((
The current atomic model would be revised if _. 🙁

asked by Idk on January 25, 2018
science Help 911!!
If new information about the behavior of atoms is discovered and verified, then revisions will need to be made to the current? A. atomic theory B. atomic model C. atomic number D. carbon cycle Is the answer A?

asked by blue on November 14, 2014
Science

  1. The description of the structure of the atom is called the . ATOMIC MODEL 19. In a water molecule, two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen share electrons. A _ bond is found in a water molecule. COVALENT BOND 20. Sodium chloride is formed

asked by Amy@@ on March 3, 2017
science Help 911!!
One way the modern atomic model differs from Thompson’s atomic model is that electrons are no longer scattered throughout an atoms positive matter like chocolate chips in cookie dough. Instead, each electron is outside of the nucleus occupying a

asked by blue on November 14, 2014
CICI
How do light microscopes work? Light microscopes use an electron beam to create an image of a specimen. Light microscopes use a combination of light and lenses to magnify a specimen.*** Light microscopes use a tiny tip that traces a specimen, enlarging it.

asked by Science on September 24, 2015
Science question
What would happen to the current model of the atom if new information about it’s structure is discovered in the future? Would it be revised, strengthened,proven or defended?

asked by Gabby on October 31, 2013
Chemistry
which atomic model best explains the helium atom? A. Bohr’s Model B. Dalton’s Model c. Quantum mechanical model D. Thompson Model Not really sure what this question is asking.

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Science!
Ernest Rutherford’s atomic model included a nucleus comprised of positive particles called protons. Later, James Chadwick discovered neutrons. How did Chadwick’s discovery change the atomic model? A. The new model showed a negatively charged nucleus. B.

asked by blue on October 21, 2014
Science – Chemistry

  1. Dalton’s idea that atoms cannot be divided into smaller parts was disproved by the discovery of the _. 2. The description of the structure of the atom is called the . 3. In a water molecule, two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen share

asked by Hunter on April 29, 2016

Science 1 easy question!!!!
One way the modern atomic model differs from Thomsons atomic model is that electrons are no longer scattered throughout an atoms positive matter like chocolate chips in cookie dough, instead each electron is outside of the nucleus occupying a specific

asked by check my answer on November 25, 2014
science
One way the modern atomic model differs from Thomson’s atomic model is that electrons are no longer scattered throughout an atom’s positive matter like chocolate chips in cookie dough. Instead, each electron is outside of the nucleus occupying a

asked by ………. on January 14, 2015
science
briefly describe two types of microscopes other than light microscopes, and explain for what purposes they would be used.

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One advantage of electron microscopes over light microscopes is their _. A. size B. higher magnification C. two-dimensional image D. use of live specimens

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What is the resolving power for light microscopes, and what is it for electron microscopes?

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Foggy optics, inc. makes laboratory microscopes. setting up each production run costs $2500. Insurance costs, based on the average number of microscopes in the warehouse, amount to $20 per microscope per year. storage costs, based on the maximum number of

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  1. what do the spectral lines represent in the bohr atomic model? 2. What do the black spaces represent in the Bohr atomic model?

asked by jojo on March 18, 2008
Science
The modern atomic model includes electrons orbiting the nucleus. Which of the following parts of Dalton’s atomic model was disproved by the discovery of the electron? A. Atoms are tiny particles. B. Atoms cannot be divided into smaller parts. C. Atoms

asked by Anonymous on January 9, 2019
science
The modern atomic model includes electrons orbiting the nucleus. Which of the following parts of Dalton’s atomic model was disproved by the discovery of the electron? – Atoms are tiny particles. – Atoms cannot be divided into smaller parts . – Atoms have

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Science
Daltons idea that atoms cannot be divided into smaller parts was was disproved by the discovery of______? The description of the structure of the atom is called the________? In a water molecule, two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen shared

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  1. The picture is a model of a nitrogen atom. What is incorrect about the atomic orbital arrangement of electrons in this model?

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The cell theory was A: developed by Robert Hooke B: developed before microscopes were invented C: developed only after electron microscopes became widely used D: developed by many scientists over many years Is the answer A?

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one way the modern atomic model differs from the bohr model of an atom

asked by Haylie on November 6, 2016
Science–HELP!!
Can you please check my answers: 1. Dalton’s idea that atoms cannot be divided into smaller parts was disproved by the discovery of (electrons?) 2. The description of the structure of the atom is called ___ (atomic model?) 3. In a water

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Chemistry
How can the atomic orbital be described in the quantum mechanical wave model of the orbitals? A. A collection of balloons B. A circular ring C. A probability density thinking its a, since the model has a complex shape, but not sure… any help?

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Chemistry
The Bohr model stops representing correct atomic structure when? Why? What does this mean for remaining atoms? How does Bohr’s model relates to the periodic table?

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college statistics
The CEO of ABC manufacturing commissioned a study to look at the differences between the current salaries of her employees (n = 474) and their starting salaries. The study collected current and beginning salary data for each of the 474 employees and the

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physics
Explain what ideas led Bohr to suggest a new atomic model; and state Bohr postulates. Explain also, in words, what the correspondence principle is in atomic physics.

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Which of the following identifies a measurement, its SI units, and the tool most commonly used to measure it? a. length, meter, ruler *** b. temperature, degrees Fahrenheit, thermometer c. weight, gram, scale d. volume, millimeter, meniscus Why do

asked by Help me, from Chloe on August 30, 2016
Science
Which of the following identifies a measurement, its SI units, and the tool most commonly used to measure it? a. length, meter, ruler *** b. temperature, degrees Fahrenheit, thermometer c. weight, gram, scale d. volume, millimeter, meniscus Why do

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Final Exam- Honors Physical Science
how can you determine the number of protons, electrons,neutrons, atomic number, and the atomic mass of an element using the periodic table? Atomic mass is given in the table, as well as the atomic number and atomic mass number. Atomic number is the number

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Science 10
I am doing my science 10 by correspondence and I came upon a question that puzzles me. Why are modern light microscopes called Compound microscopes. That and How would I “determine theactual size of the cells shown in the illistration if the field diameter

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physics
Which of the following is correct according to Rutherford’s atom model? Choose one answer. a. Atomic spectra should be line spectra. b. Electrons do not radiate while revolving in an orbit. c. Atomic spectra should be continuous spectra. d. Electrons are

asked by ashley — HELP PLEASEE!!! on May 1, 2011
Thank you Ann (kinematics)
Thank you Ann! I had the equations and really was closing in on the answer… (stopping for 23 s is what really got me confused) in either case, the displacement for a) is 888 m ! Now I’ll try to calculate (b). Thank you much! P.S. This is in response to

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Im analyzing the case study for the company The big Carrot. The case is confusing and I need to figure out which decision making model the company uses? Through our class we have 4 options. The managment science approach, the carnegie model, the

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How do i solve this. Atomic Theory Date (year) Name of Scientist(s) Contribution to the Theory Source 5th century BC Leucippus and Democritus They proposed that all matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms that can’t be split into smaller pieces

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A major motor company displays a die-cast model of its first automobile, made from 9.35kg of iron. To celebrate its one-hundreth year in business, a worker will recast the model in gold from the original dies. What mass of gold is needed to make the new

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Chemistry
What parts of Dalton’s atomic theory no longer agree with the current picture of the current picture of the atom? Provide an answer using at least 3 to 4 complete content related sentences in your own words.

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Revised sentence from an earlier question. Any grammatical errors? My education, communication skills, and international experience in both a study and work capacity prove me a standout candidate for the position.

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What is Daltons atomic model look like?

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science helpppppp again!!
the cell theory was developed by Robert hooke*** developed before microscopes were invented developed only after electron microscopes became widely used developed by many scientists over the years Most Bacteria are unicellular eukaryotes unicellular

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A doctor needs at least 60 adults for a medical study. He cannot use more than 40 men in the study. Write a system of inequalities to model the situation and solve the system by graphing.

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What was the name of Antoine Henri Becquerel’s atomic model?

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SCIENCE
What was the name of Antoine Henri Becquerel’s atomic model?

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How did the discovery of neutrons change the atomic model?

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The standard atom for the atomic masses of all the elements is the atom of carbon which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons (12C) and is assigned the atomic mass of exactly 12. Under this standard, the atomic mass of iron, atomic number 26, is 55.845 u and the

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Physics
What happens to the atomic number of the daughter nucleus if it is formed after the emission of the beta particle? The atomic number remains the same. The atomic number increases by two. The atomic number increases by one. The atomic number decreases by

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What happens to the atomic number of the daughter nucleus if it is formed after the emission of the beta particle? The atomic number remains the same. The atomic number increases by two. The atomic number increases by one. The atomic number decreases by

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The term “curriculum” can mean an academic area of study or: 1. a federal guideline 2. a holistic subject 3. the total program 4. a separate model Can’t “curriculum” mean the total program? Generally, it means an integrated program of study. That can be

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Physical Science 9
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Why are the atomic masses listed in the periodic table not whole numbers? Answer Scientists have yet to make the precise measurements. That would be too much of a coincidence. ??>>The atomic masses are average atomic masses. or >>Today’s instruments are

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Back to the atomic emmission spectrum and the atomic theory. in the 1900s, scientists observed that when a gaseous element, such as hydrogen was subjected to an electric discarge that the atoms emitted electromagnetic radiation. The light emmitted could be

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What happens to the atomic number of the daughter nucleus if it is formed after the emission of the beta particle? The atomic number remains the same. The atomic number increases by two. The atomic number increases by one. The atomic number decreases by

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consider a country with an economic structure consistent with the assumptions of the classical model. Suppose that businesses in this nation suddenly anticipate higher future proftability from investments they undertake today. explain whether or how this

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The CEO of ABC manufacturing commissioned a study to look at the differences between the current salaries of her employees by employee job title. There were three job categories: clerical, custodial, and managerial. The study collected current salary data

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The CEO of ABC manufacturing commissioned a study to look at the differences between the current salaries of her employees by employee job title. There were three job categories: clerical, custodial, and managerial. The study collected current salary data

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The CEO of ABC manufacturing commissioned a study to look at the differences between the current salaries of her employees by employee job title. There were three job categories: clerical, custodial, and managerial. The study collected current salary data

asked by elizabeth on August 19, 2015
chemistry
What are the materials used to create a free standing atomic model of iodine?

asked by Mimi on January 3, 2012
pschology
Research Data Critique Scenario One The CEO of ABC manufacturing commissioned a study to look at the differences between the current salaries of her employees by employee job title. There were three job categories: clerical, custodial, and managerial. The

asked by sandra on March 2, 2015

Math
Mrs. Roberts plans to purchase a microscope for a present as a Christmas gift. The A model magnifies to a maximum of 5 x10 2 power , while the b model magnifies to a maximum of 3×10 3 power times. Which of the following statements is true? 1. The b model

asked by Mydogbear on May 5, 2017
exponential equations
If a brand new Nissan Frontier pickup truck has a current value of $22 500 off the lot, calculate how long, t, it will take to depreciate to half of it’s current value. This particular model has a depreciation rate of 23%. Give answer to 2 decimal

asked by Anonymous on March 29, 2015
statistics
I’m trying to work through the proof for SST = SSM + SSE MEAN = ∑(X)/N SST = ∑((x – MEAN)^2) = ∑(x^2 – 2 * x1 * MEAN + MEAN^2) = ∑(x^2) – 2 * MEAN * ∑(x) + N * MEAN^2 = ∑(x^2) – 2 * ∑(x)^2/N + ∑(x)^2/N = ∑(x^2) – ∑(x)^2/N SSM =

asked by statstudent on August 29, 2007
teachers aide in early childhood education program
the most rigidly structured early childhood program disussed in this study unit is ? (a)head start (b)the eclectic model (c)the montessori model (d)DISTAR I cannot figure this one out ,i know it is not head start .can someone please help me

asked by susue on September 1, 2011
science
ok this is a word search! study of ancient artifacts- study of animals_ study of prehistoric fossils- study of chemical matter- study of the laws of motion and matter- study of life sciences-

asked by Moe on November 11, 2007
SCIENCE
Why split field microscopy is used in mask aligner? I. As dimension of the alignment marks on wafer as well as masks are in micron range, microscopes are required to observe those while aligning II. Split-field microscopy enables the user to view the

asked by medical electronics on August 27, 2018
PHYSICS
Calculate for Bohr’s atomic model the speed of the orbiting electron in the n = 7 state. (Answer in m/s)

asked by Physics Lover on March 13, 2016
science
I have to draw Atomic Model Drawings of the Reaction to H2CO3 and then show a balance check. How do I do that?

asked by Anonymous on October 23, 2010
Physical Science
Write a paragraph or two about how and why has the atomic idea/model changed (Greeks 1600-1930)

asked by Juliet on December 14, 2012
Science
Show me how to choose an element and draw it’s atomic model Labeling all the parts and particles

asked by Chelsey on September 17, 2007

Statistics in Psychology
What is a proper Null and Alternative HypothesThe CEO of ABC manufacturing commissioned a study to look at the differences between the current salaries of her employees by employee job title. There were three job categories: clerical, custodial, and

asked by Annette Hill on August 17, 2014
Chemistry
12) Naturally occurring argon is composed of 0.3365% of 36Ar (atomic mass, 35.9675 u), 0.0632% of 38Ar (atomic mass, 37.9627 u), and 99.6003% of 40Ar (atomic mass, 39.9624 u). Use these data to calculate the average atomic mass of argon.

asked by Luke on July 1, 2014
physical science
compare the postions of the electrons in Bohr’s model of the atom with their positions according to modern atomic theory

asked by taylor on October 15, 2008
stastistics(psychology)
A study was conducted to identify the predictors for symptomatic distress in EMS workers. Five predictor variables were used in a regression model and fitted to a data collected on n = 147 EMS workers and yielded F* = 34.47. In testing the usefulness of

asked by jamal on February 3, 2012
Chem Check Please!!!
1) Calculate the cell potential, at 25 C, based upon the overall reaction Zn2+(aq) + 2 Fe2+(aq) -> Zn(s) + 2 Fe3+(aq) if [Zn2+] = 1.50 x 10^-4 M, [Fe3+] = 0.0200 M, and [Fe2+] = 0.0100 M. The standard reduction potentials are as follows: Zn2+(aq) + 2

asked by Chris on May 3, 2014
physical science

  1. Draw a model of the atom shown in the atomic box below. Be sure to place all the protons, and neutrons in the correct location.

asked by Chandresh on April 25, 2011
Science 1 easy question!!!!
If new information about the behavior of atoms is discovered and verified, then revisions will need to be made to the current___ My answer: Atomic model?

asked by check my answer on November 25, 2014
science
The current classification system used by biologists is: A)Complex and unchanging. b)universally accepted by all biologists c)based on four generalized types of living organism: the bacteria, archaea, eukarya and protista d) updated and revised whenever

asked by Jon on September 17, 2011
Astronomy NEOs
When Stuart ( 2003) revised the magnitude for spotting NEOs comets, over 1KM etc from H =18 to H 17.75 … did this increase , decrease, or did the population of NEOs stay the same. and why ??? Me personally ..I think the number of NEOs over 1 KM has

asked by Lewis on February 7, 2008
science,physics,chemistry
According to our theory atomic size should increase in groups from top to bottom but in group 13 Aluminium has atomic radius 143 pm and Gallium has atomic radius 135 pm which is less WHY??????

asked by Neh on July 7, 2016

Chemistry
What is the nuclear charge of an atom with a mass of 23 and an atomic number of 11? (1) 11+ (2) 12+ (3) 23+ (4) 34+ How do you figure this out? Would the answer be (1) 11+ since the atomic number is 11 and atomic #=protons which are positive??

asked by Anonymous on June 14, 2009
Chemistry
How can the atomic orbital be described in the quantum mechanical wave model of the orbitals? A. A collection of balloons B. A circular ring C. A probability density

asked by Morgan on January 28, 2015
Math
A college student is using the following model to determine the total number of text messages she will have in the inbox in her cell phone, if she does not delete any of the current messages or future messages she receives in the next x days. In the model,

asked by Cindy on February 19, 2014
Math
The depth of the first model of a mobile phone measure 7/20 of an inch. The second model is 6/7 Was the depth of the first model. The third model measured 27/35 of the size of the first model. The fourth model was 4/5 the size of the first model. What is

asked by Essie on October 7, 2015
Science
What type model would you use to study an earthquake?

asked by jay on August 22, 2012
science
Choose one primary reference that uses cultured cells as an experimental model. Describe briefly the type of cells used, why these particular cells were useful for the study and how they are used. List two ways in which the cells used in the study would

asked by jiskhagozok on February 4, 2014
Chemistry Subatomic particles
Fill in the chart (Numbers correspond to each other[I.E 1 in 1st group connects with 1in 2nd]) Subatomic particle found 1.Proton 2.Neutron 3.Electron Scientist 1.Rutherford 2.Chadwick 3.Thomson Experiment 1.Gold Foil Experiment? 2.? 3.Cathode Ray Tube Data

asked by Joey on June 29, 2015
SCIENCE
Which currents are cold and which are warm? North Equatorial current, Equatorial counter current, South equatorial current, Peru current, Florida current, Guinea current, and Falkland current. I have found out 11 others but not these.

asked by Pat on January 16, 2007
science
what are the uses of compound microscopes?

asked by katelynn on September 7, 2008
math
The atomic number of cadium is half the atomic number of curium. Define a variable and write an expression for the atomic number of cadmium. I’m working in a group with my friends and we need help we’re not the same people.

asked by Ricky on September 8, 2010

math
The atomic number of cadium is half the atomic number of curium. Define a variable and write an expression for the atomic number of cadmium. I’m working in a group with my friends and we need help we’re not the same people.

asked by Samantha on September 8, 2010
math
The atomic number of cadium is half the atomic number of curium. Define a variable and write an expression for the atomic number of cadmium. I’m working in a group with my friends and we need help we’re not the same people.

asked by Martin on September 8, 2010
LEARNING SKILLS
Suppose you’re just beginning to study the information in your third shipment of material. When can you expect the next shipment to be sent? A. When you submit a certain number of examinations in your current shipment B. When you call DIAL-A-QUESTION® and

asked by Anonymous on January 27, 2011
math
In a study of the change of insect population,there was about 170 insects four weeks after the study began and about 320 after two more weeks. Assume an exponential model of growth. a.Find an equation relation the population to the time in weeks.

asked by alyssa on September 24, 2012
Science
Hey….I need help with my homework. I’m in 9th grade, high school. Its pyhsical science about Atomic Math.. Heres the question: Multiply the atomic number of hydrogen by the number of electrons in mercury, which has an atomic number of 80.

asked by Sammi on December 6, 2007

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a 1500-w heater is designed to be plugged into a 120-v outlet.

A current of 4.00 A flows through the heating element of heater converting 500 J of electrical energy into thermal energy every second. What is the voltage across the ends of the heating element?

a. 2000 V
b. 125 V
c. 250 V
d. 0.008 V
e. 0.125 V

0 0 110
asked by John
Mar 1, 2013
Power = 500J/s = 500 Watts.

V*I = 500
V = 500/I = 500/4 = 125 Volts.

0 0
posted by Henry
Mar 3, 2013

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which of the following does congress have the authority to do based upon the constitution

  1. Which of the following does Congress have the authority to do based upon the Constitution? (1 point)
    tax church services
    regulate local property tax
    regulate shipping licenses for vessels operating on rivers between states
    tax the sale and consumption of oranges exported to Europe from the United States
  2. Why did the Framers grant Congress the power to tax? (1 point)
    to make sure that national wealth was distributed evenly among the states
    to make sure the federal government could fund public needs
    to make sure the states would create their own taxes
    to make sure the federal government would hold power over the states
  3. As the interpretation of the commerce power has changed over time, which of the following
    activities can Congress regulate under the commerce power?
    (1 point)
    discriminatory practices
    gubernatorial elections
    export taxes
    religious practice
  4. d
    2.d
    3.c 0 0 1,219
    asked by Anonymous
    Sep 20, 2016
  5. d – no
    2.d – no
    3.c – yes 0 0
    👩‍🏫
    Ms. Sue
    Sep 20, 2016
    is 1.B
    2.B 0 0
    posted by Anonymous
    Sep 20, 2016
    1.B – no
    2.B – yes

You’re on your own now.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Sep 20, 2016
1.c
2.b
3.a

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 5, 2016

100% correct. ^ Thanks.

0 0
posted by Anon
Oct 13, 2016
Anonymous is 100% right

0 0
posted by Anon
Oct 13, 2016
Ms.Sue isn’t even right 90% of the time. When she is right, she is rude about it. But yeah the answers are…
C
B
A

100%

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posted by Dread Pirate Roberts
Oct 13, 2016
I literally just did this. i got them all wrong. Its:
C
B
A

0 0
posted by Solia
Oct 14, 2016
100% correct

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posted by Becky
Oct 18, 2016

C
B
A

100%

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posted by Weeb
Oct 18, 2016
c
b
a

100%

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posted by hlsml
Oct 19, 2016
1 is c
2 is b
3 is a
3/3 100%

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posted by fly
Nov 28, 2016
CBA is the right answers

0 0
posted by Pro answerer
Oct 19, 2017
c
b
a

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1 0
posted by CORRECT ANSWERS
Nov 21, 2017

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arrange the following compounds in order of increasing acidity.

Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acidity. a. H2O, H3O-, Ho- == HO-, H2O, H3O- b. NH3
21,075 results
Organic Chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acidity. a. H2O, H3O-, Ho- == HO-, H2O, H3O- b. NH3

asked by Rhea on August 4, 2014
Chemistry(Please check)
Which of the following equations correspond to the Ka2 for phosphoric acid? note: the double equal sign (==) means equilibrium. a) HPO42- (aq) + H2O (l) == H3O+(aq) + PO43-(aq) b) PO43- (aq) + H2O (l) == HPO42-(aq) + OH–(aq) c) H3PO4 (aq) + H2O (l) ==

asked by Hannah on April 1, 2012
Chem
Which equation represents what happens when a small amount of strong base is added to the buffer? OH- + A- A2- + H2O OH- + HA A- + H2O H3O+ + A- HA + H2O H3O+ + HA H2A+ + H2O

asked by Kyleigh on May 5, 2018
Chemistry
Arrange each group of compounds/ions in order of increasing pH. 1. Li2CO3 , OH^- , NH4Br , NaCl 2. CH4 , HBr , H2O , F^- Lastly, I’d like to check if my answers for the following three questions were listed correctly in order of pH levels increasing. 3.

asked by TP on March 31, 2018
O.CHEM -> PLEASE CHECK!!
Arrange the compounds in the order of increasing boiling point ***(LOWEST first): 1) H3C-O-CH3 2) H2O 3) CH3CH2OH 4) CH3CH2SH I think the order should be: #1, 4, 3, 2 Arrange the following in order of increasing rate of reactivity with conc.HBr ***(LEAST

asked by K on March 12, 2008

chem
Section: Ionization expressions, Weak Bases Using the equilibrium constants listed in your book, arrange the following .1 M aqueous solutions in order of increasing pH. a)NaNO2 b)HCl c)NaF d)Zn(H2O)3(OH)(NO3) Here’s what I have so far: a) NaNO2 –> Na+ +

asked by Chris on April 28, 2007
Chemistry
The question says write a reaction for the ionization of the following compound in water. Identify the acid, the base, the conjugate acid, and the conjugate base in each of them. 1. H2SO4 2. KOH 3. CH3COOH 4. NH3 5. HNO3 My guesses are: H2SO4 + H2O -> H3O+

asked by Samantha on May 31, 2009
Chemistry
1.The pH of a 0.10 mol/L aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 is not 7.00. The equation that best accounts for this observation is: a. Fe3+(aq) + 3H2O(l)Fe(OH)3(aq) + 3H+(aq) b. NO3-(aq) + H2O(l) HNO3(aq) + OH-(aq) c. Fe(H2O)63+(aq) + H2O(l)Fe(H2O)5(OH)2+(aq) +

asked by Anonymous on January 10, 2018
chemistry
Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CCl4, CH4, CH2Cl2 – Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CF4, CH4, CH2F2 – Water, H2O, is a liquid at room temperature. Hydrogen selenide, H2Se, is a

asked by adex on March 18, 2013
Chemistry
(a)What is the bond order of the diatomic molecule BN? (b) Is BN paramagnetic? (c) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond energy: B2, N2, BN. (d) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond length: B2, N2, BN.

asked by b on November 18, 2012
chemistry
Which reactants in the reactions below are acting as Br©ªnsted-Lowry bases? NH4 +(aq) + OH−(aq) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) H2PO4 −(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HPO4 2−(aq) is the answer H2O and the H3O+

asked by Jin on July 6, 2010
Chemistry
Rank the following solutions in order of increasing acidity. 1 M phenol 1 M boric acid 1 M cyanic acid 1 M formic acid 1 M hydrochloric acid 2. Rank the following solutions in order of increasing basicity. 1 M C3H5O3Na 1 M KF 1 M KOCN 1 M KOCl All I know

asked by Neha on October 23, 2011
chemistry
list the following substances in order of increasing molar entropy at 25’c. H2O(l), H2O(g), H2O(s), C(s), Ar (g) Explain your reasoning

asked by harry on February 12, 2013
chemistry
Which of the following chemical reactions represents a neutralization reaction? A. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + H2O B. HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl C. NH3 + H2O NH4++ OH- D. CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3O+

asked by jessie on September 12, 2016
chemistry
The term “Ka for the ammonium ion” describes the equilibrium constant for which of the following reactions? 1. NH3 + H2O ⇀↽ NH4 + + OH− 2. NH+ 4 + OH− ⇀↽ NH3 + H2O 3. NH3 + H3O + ⇀↽ NH+ 4 + H2O 4. NH+ 4 + H2O ⇀↽ NH3 + H3O + 5. The

asked by Anonymous on February 7, 2015

chemistry
Reverse the reactions. Label the acids and bases on the left-hand side of each of the reversed equations? 1. HCl + NH3 => NH4+ + Cl- 2.NH3 + H2O => NH4+ +OH- 3. HCl +H2O => H3O+ +Cl- 4. H3PO4 +H20 => HPO4^-2 +H3O+ 5.H2PO4- +H2O => HPO4^-2 +H3O+

asked by Alex on May 2, 2013
Chemistry, reactions w/ water
Write the equation for the reaction of each of the following with water. a) HCl b) CH3COOH c) NaOH d) NH3 Are these correct? a. HCl (aq) + H2O (l) –> H3O+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) b. CH3COOH (aq) + H2O (l) –> CH3COO- (aq) + H3O+ (aq) c. NaOH (aq) + H2O (l) –>

asked by Marissa on May 6, 2008
Chemistry

  1. Which of the following chemical reactions is most likely to have the largest equilibrium constant K? CH3COO- (aq) + H2O(l) = CH3COOH(aq) + OH-(aq) HCl(aq) + H2O(l) = H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) = CH3COO- (aq) + H3O+(aq) H3PO4(aq) + NH3(aq) =

asked by Jameson on May 5, 2018
Chemisty !!
(a) Why do the densities of most liquids increase as they are cooled and solidified? How does water differ in this regard? (b) Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing surface tension at a given temperature, and explain your ranking. CH3CH3,

asked by Xiang ! on September 2, 2013
CHEMISTRY
Rank the following complex ions in order of increasing wavelength of light absorbed. (Use the appropriate symbol to separate substances in the list.) Co(H2O)63+, Co(CN)63-, CoI63-, Co(en)33+

asked by Sarah on March 19, 2012
CHEMISTRY
Rank the following complex ions in order of increasing wavelength of light absorbed. (Use the appropriate symbol to separate substances in the list.) Co(H2O)63+, Co(CN)63-, CoI63-, Co(en)33+

asked by Sarah on March 21, 2012
Chemistry – Order of Bond Polarity
Hi I am having a bit of trouble with this question CCl4 is confusing me: Qu)Rank the following compounds in order of bond polarity; HF, CH4, H2O, H2S, CCl4 Asw)lowest to highest bond polarity: CH4, CCl4, H2S, H2O, HF Is this correct? Thanks!

asked by Anonymous on May 11, 2016
CHEMISTRY
IDENTIFY THE CONJUGATE ACID-BASE PAIR IN THE FOLLOWING REACTIONS. A) HSO4^- + SO3^2- HSO3^- + SO4^2- B) S^2- + H20 HS^- + OH^- C) CN^- + H3O^+ HCN + H2O D) H2SE + H2O HSE^- + H3O^+

asked by HELPPPPP on October 15, 2011
chemistry
Calculate the value of [H3O+] in a 0.01 M HOBr solution. Ka = 2.5E-9 I’m having a problem with just writing the equilibrium expression. do you add H2O to the HOBr? HOBr + H2O H3O+ + OBr- but then you could say that because HOBr = .01 M, then 0Br- = .01 M,

asked by Audrey on November 23, 2010
Chemistry
Use the Bronsted-Lowry definitions to identify the two conjugate acid-base pairs in the following acid-base reaction: H20 + H20 H30^+ + OH^- Let’s see what you think on this after the previous post. Just remember, the acid is the one that HAS the H and the

asked by Raj on May 26, 2007

Chemistry
In the reaction Ca(H2O)+2 6 + H2O ! Ca(H2O)5(OH)+ + H3O+ the calcium compound on the left acts accord- ing to the Bronsted-Lowry theory as 1. a base. 2. an acid. 3. a salt. 4. a solvent.

asked by Anonymous on March 22, 2011
Biochemistry 105

  1. Arrange the following molecules in the order of increasing polarity. a. (PH3, HCl, H2O, CCl4) b. (NH3, HF, H2O, HBr)

asked by Sophia on February 12, 2017
chemistry
Acetic acid, CH3CO2H, is the active ingredient in vinegar. It’s often abbreviated “HOAc”. Vinegar is acidic because acetic acid makes H3O+ when it partially ionizes in water: HOAc(aq) + H2O H3O+(aq) + OAc–(aq) Suppose that you have a solution of

asked by hannah on March 19, 2013
Relative Acidities
Rank the given compounds on their relative acidity. Here was the order I thought it was but it turned out to be wrong. (i based it based off of sp being most acidic and sp3 being least acidic) STRONGEST HC(triple bond)C-CH3 H2C=CH2 CH3NH2 H2O CH4–>

asked by Allie on February 16, 2011
chemistry

  1. Which of the two reactions, A or B is a neutralization reaction? Explain why. A. HBr + H2O = Br- = H3O+ B. HClO + NaOH = NaClO + H2O 26. A. Look at the reaction again. when this reaction is reversed. Br- + H3O+ = HBr = H2O what substance is the acid,

asked by Sierra on September 16, 2014
Chemistry
Question 9 Unsaved What is the rate law for the following reaction, if the order of the reaction is m, an unknown? H2O2(aq) → H2O(l) + ½O2(g) a. k [H2O2]m b.k [H2O]m [O2]1/2 c.k [H2O] m /[H2O][O2 d.k[H2O] m [O2]m Thanks in advance. The k and m are meant

asked by Ramon on March 23, 2018
Chemistry – Le Chatelier’s Principle
Hi, I have a question regarding the following chemical equilibrium equation: 2CrO4^2- + 2H3O^+ Cr2O7^2- + 3H2O The question is: how would you manipulate the above equation to produce more Cr2O7^2- ions without adding any Chromium based compounds? I

asked by Constantine on March 9, 2014
chemistry
Write an equilibrium expression for each chemical equation involving one or more solid or liquid reactants or products. HCHO2(aq)+H2O(l)⇌H3O+(aq)+CHO−2(aq) Use A for [HCHO2], B for [H2O], C for [H3O+], D for [CHO−2].

asked by Anon on December 3, 2014
Chemistry
Rank the following 4 compounds in order of lowest to highest freezing point. Enter the formulas in the spaces provided. For example, enter CH4 as CH4. H2O MgO CH4 H2S

asked by Whats Good on November 19, 2011
Chemistry
Using the concentration of CH3COOH (0.8326M) and the equilibrium concentration of H3O+ (3.2×10-3), complete the reaction table for vinegar. Then calculate the acidity constant. Reaction table is given Ch3COOH + H2O –CH3COO- + H3O+ Initial. Change

asked by Danielle on October 15, 2015

Chemistry 102
For a question like “calculate the pH of an aq.solution that is 1.0 M CH3COOH and 1.0 M CH3COONa, how do you know to write the equation like this: CH3COOH + H2O => H3O+ + CH3COO- and not like H3O+ + CH3COO- => CH3COOH + H2O for the ICE chart. This would

asked by Nick on May 3, 2010
chemistry
Using the concentration of CH3COOH (0.8326M) and the equilibrium concentration of H3O+ (OJ = 31.6×10^-6 and milk = 3.16×10^-8), complete the reaction table for vinegar. Then calculate the acidity constant. Please show all work in solving the problem.

asked by Lisa on April 1, 2012
chemistry
rank the following ionic compounds in order of increasing lattice energy NaF, Csl, CaO

asked by re on March 3, 2011
Chemistry
rank the compounds below in order of increasing vapor pressure at 298 K? A) c3h6 B) c4h8 C) c5h10

asked by Vanessa on December 12, 2016
science ap chemistry
What is the equilibrium expression for the following acid dissociation reaction? CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3O+ A. [CH3COO-][H3O+]/[CH3COOH][H3O] B. [CH3COOH][H2O]/[CH3COO-][H3O+] C. [CH3COOH]/[CH3COO-][H3O-] D. [CH3COO-][H3O+]/[CH3COOH]

asked by jessie on September 10, 2016
chemistry
What is the equilibrium expression for the following acid dissociation reaction? CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3O+ A. [CH3COO-][H3O+]/[CH3COOH][H3O] B. [CH3COOH][H2O]/[CH3COO-][H3O+] C. [CH3COOH]/[CH3COO-][H3O-] D. [CH3COO-][H3O+]/[CH3COOH]

asked by jessie on August 22, 2016
acid base chem
I’m reviewing my notes for a test tomorrow, and I found that I have a question concerning acids that under go multiple protonizations. I know the molarity [or moles, if that’s being calculated] of H3O+ of the first protonization can be found using the Ka,

asked by Krystal on May 20, 2007
Chemistry
i need help. Calculate the pH of a 0.24 M CoCl3 solution. The Ka value for Co(H2O)63+ is 1.0 10-5. how do u do these with like the Cl there? Responses Chemistry – DrBob222, Monday, February 16, 2009 at 12:35am Just ignore the Cl^-. Co(H2O)6Cl3 ==>

asked by Lindsey on February 16, 2009
Chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acid strength (1 = weakest, 4 = strongest) HCOOH CH2ClCOOH CHCl2COOH CH3COOH

asked by Matt on November 20, 2007
chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acid strength (1 = weakest, 4 = strongest) HClO HClO3 HClO2 HClO4

asked by mark on November 18, 2007

CHEMISTRY
Consider a 58.4 g sample of H2O(g) at 125°C. What phase or phases are present when -162 kJ of energy is removed from this sample? Specific heat capacities: ice, 2.1 J g-1 °C-1; liquid, 4.2 J g-1 °C-1; steam, 2.0 J g-1 °C-1, ΔHvap = 40.7 kJ/mol, ΔHfus

asked by Sarah on November 17, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the end point pH, when 25 mL of 0.01 mol/L HCl solution reacts exactly with 25 mL of 0.1 mol/L NH4OH solution. NH3 Kb = 1.8 x 10^-5 This will be the pH of NH4Cl solution. NH4+ + HOH ==> NH3 + H3O^+ Ka = Kw/Kb = (NH3)(H3O^+)/(NH4^+). Solve for

asked by Raj on May 31, 2007
Chemistry — Please Help!!
Find the pH of a mixture of .150 M HF(aq) solution and 0.100 M HClO2(aq) HF + H2O F- + H3O+ Ka= 3.510^-4 So I will show my attempt below… [HF] [F-] [H3O+] I .150 0 0 C -x +x +x E .15-x x x Ka= [F-][H3O+]/[HF] 3.510^-4= x^2/(.150-x) assume x is small so

asked by Erin on April 26, 2010
Chemistry
Hi I have two questions and I was hoping someone could help me with them. 1. Classify the following compounds as ionic or covalent a. MgCl2 b. Na2S c. H2O d. H2S 2. Which compound in each pair exhibits the stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonding? a. H2S

asked by Alekya on August 2, 2007
intro to chem
disolving sucrose, NaCl< and calcium chloried affect the boiling point of frezing point of water. Assuming that you have 0.1m solution of all these 3 compounds: a)rank then in order of decreasing freezing point. b) rank in order of increasing boiling point

asked by julia on October 27, 2010
Chemistry
Order in the increasing value of their polarity? HF NH3 H2O CO2 here i used the scale and got their numbers. HF>H2O>CO2>NH3 am i correct?

asked by Josh on August 17, 2017
chemistry
predict the order of increasing acidity of the compounds. Give a brief explanation why. Butanoic acid-Nexanoic acid-Benzoic acid-Acetic acid. thx

asked by david on November 6, 2010
chem
For the following reactions, name the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases. Then name the conjugate acid and bases. H3O+(aq) + CN-(aq) HCN(aq) + H2O I’m really confused on this whole concept even thought it’s not really difficult. I said: acids: H3O+ bases: CN-

asked by Chris on April 27, 2007
Chem Oxidation-Reduction Titrations
H2O2→ O2 + 2H+ + 2e- OCl- + 2H+ + 2e-→ H2O+ Cl- H2O2(aq) + OCl-(aq) → H2O(l) + Cl- (aq) + O2(g)Assign oxidation numbers to the following atoms: O in H2O2 ; Cl in OCl- ______The oxidizing agent for this RedOx rxn is_______. The

asked by B on February 8, 2018
Enthalpy Change Calculations
Find the heat of reaction (ΔH) for each of the following chemical reactions and note whether each reaction is exothermic or endothermic. 1. H2O(l) -> H2O(g) This is what I have so far: H2(g) + ½ O2(g) -> H2O(l) ΔH = -286.0 kJ/mol H2(g) + ½ O2(g) ->

asked by Emily on August 5, 2015

CHM
Need help please Which of the following equations has the coefficients 2,1,1,2 when it is balanced? Fe2O3 + HClO4 → Fe(ClO4)3 + H2O Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4 → Ca3(PO4)2 + H2O KOH + H2SO4 → K2SO4 + H2O Ba(OH)2 + P4O10 → Ba3(PO4)2 + H2O Al2O3 + H2SeO4 →

asked by Aliyah on October 10, 2012
chemistry
Find the mass of water (H2O) needed to react with 150 grams of potassium (K) 2K(s) + 2 H2O (g)-2KOH +H2(g) How do I get the number of moles in H2O? Desperate to understand this. I got K= 150g./39.0983=3.84 mols of K. Then would it be 3.84(2mols H2O/7.68)

asked by Teresa on October 27, 2014
chemistry
the autoionization of water, as represented by the equation below, is known to be endothermic. What can be correctly said of what occurs as the temperature of water is raised?(please explain) H2O(l)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)

asked by Anonymous on April 22, 2014
chemistry
Which of the following is a precipitation reaction? I. 2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) → 2 MgO (s) II. SO3 (g) + 2 H2O (l) → H3O+ (aq) + HSO4- (aq) III. Pb2+ (aq) + CrO42- (aq) → PbCrO4 (s) IV. 2 H2O (g) → 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) V. Ag+ (aq) + 2 NH3 (aq) →

asked by sos on September 23, 2013
chemistry
intermolecular forces Rank the following substance from highest melting point to lowest melting point. My teacher gave a list of compounds: H2O, NO2,F2,CI2 and to have a high melting point means that you need a stronger IMF. Rank the following substances

asked by jen on March 17, 2009
CHEMISTRY
What are the ka and kb reactions of NaHSO3 ? I tried it out and thought it would be ka= HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l)= H+(aq) + SO3-(aq) kb= HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l)= H3O+(aq)+ OH-(aq) Would that be right? or is it wrong? please can you take a look at it . Thanks.

asked by Nia on October 20, 2011
CHEMISTRY
What are the ka and kb reactions of NaHSO3 ? I tried it out and thought it would be ka= HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l)= H+(aq) + SO3-(aq) kb= HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l)= H3O+(aq)+ OH-(aq) Would that be right? or is it wrong? please can you take a look at it . Thanks.

asked by Nia on October 20, 2011
CHEMISTRY
Identify the conjugate base in the following reaction. H2O (l) + HCO31- (aq) ¨ H3O+ (aq) + CO32- (aq)? Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acid in the following reaction. H2O (l) + HCO31- (aq) ¨ H3O+ (aq) + CO32- (aq)

asked by AL on December 3, 2014
chemistry
In the following options which one is maximum/highly exothermic reaction..? 1)SrO+h2o 2)BaO+h2o 3)CaO+h2o 4)MgO+h2o Pls…. Need it real quick

asked by piyush on April 27, 2013
Dr.Bob
A 100.0 mL sample of 0.05 M NH3 is titrated with 0.10 M HCl. Determine the pH of the solution after the addition of 50.0 mL HCl. Here is my work: NH3 + H3O+ –> NH4+ + H2O Before Addition: NH3= 0.005 mol H3O= 0 mol NH4+ = 0 mol Addition: NH3 = 0.005 mol

asked by Nevaeh on April 16, 2016

chemistry
What is the molarity of H3O+ in a 4.97×10-2 M NH4Cl solution that hydrolyzes according to the equation. NH4+(aq) + H2O(l) = H3O+(aq) + NH3(aq)

asked by uci student on May 4, 2010
chemistry
What is the molarity of H3O+ in a 5.33×10^-4 M NH2NH3Cl solution that hydrolyzes according to the equation. NH2NH3^+(aq) + H2O(l) = H3O^+(aq) + NH2NH2(aq)

asked by Diem on May 5, 2010
general chemistry
I’ve been trying to solve these for while now, and i keep getting them wrong…. please help!! A solution of NH4Cl hydrolyzes according to the equation. If the [NH3] in the solution after hydrolysis is 0.00000508 M, calculate the equilibrium concentration

asked by carly on November 5, 2010
Chemistry
How do you find the Ka1 and Ka2 of oxalic acid when it is in a solution that is 1.05 M H2C2O4 and has a pH of 0.67. [C2O4^2-] = 5.3×10^-5 M. I have tried using an ICE table for both reactions, as oxalic acid is a diprotic acid, but I am having trouble

asked by Erika on November 1, 2015
chem 2
indictae the reactant that is a bronsted lowry acid. HCN(aq) +H2O (l)—> H3O+(aq)=CN-(aq) HCN CN- H20 H30 i think it is HCN the weak acid substance which acts as a proton (H+) donor and CN the weak base? You are right. The HCN donates the proton (to H2O)

asked by jane on April 30, 2007
Chemistry
Consider 2 separate solutions, one of a weak acid HA and one of HCL. Assume that you started with 10 molecules of each. Draw a picture of what each solution looks like at equilibrium. Ok to my very limited knowledge on this subject so far, a weak acid at

asked by kevin on October 11, 2011
chemistry
what is the pH of a solution that is .15 M in HOCl and .25 M NaOCl after .05 mol HCl/L has been bubbled into the solution? this is what I did: HOCl + H2O —-> H3O+ + OCl- .15 .25 -.05 +.05 ————————— .1 .30 3.5E-8=[H3O][.3]/[.1] H3O=

asked by Audrey on November 23, 2010
chem
Rank these in order of increasing freezing points: C2H6O, NaCl, NaSO4, C12H22O11 I suggest that you look them up. You will have to make an assumption at the isomer of the organic compounds that is intended, but it will not make a difference to the ranking.

asked by Helen on April 18, 2007
Chemistry
Find the mass of water (H2O) needed to react with 150 grams of potassium (K) 2K(s) + 2 H2O (g)-2KOH +H2(g) How do I get the number of moles in H2O? Desperate to understand this. I got K= 150g./39.0983=3.84 mols of K. Then would it be 3.84(2mols H2O/7.68)

asked by Teresa on October 27, 2014
Chemistry
If we were asked to order SO2,H2O,CuO and CaO considering their acidity, how do we find what is more acidic from CaO and CuO?

asked by Shenaya on July 27, 2017

Chemistry URGENT/DR BOB
Can someone may sure that I balanced the following groups of equations correctly. Write an equation to show how acetic acid reacts with water to produce ions in solution. C2H4O2 + H2O >>>>>>> H3O + C2H3O Write an equation for the neutralization of HCl and

asked by jazz on April 23, 2014
chemistry
Choose the groups of molecules below in which all the molecules have a net dipole moment. a. SiHCl3, O2, H2O b. HF, H2ClCH2, H2O c. HF, CH3Cl, H2O d. CCl4, HCl, NH3 e. HF, H2O, N2

asked by janet on January 24, 2008
Chemistry
Which of the following processes is endothermic? a) H2O (g) –> H2O (l) b) 3O2 (g) + 2CH3OH(g) –> 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) c) H2O (s) –> H2O (l) d) O2(g) + 2H2(g) –> 2H2O(g) I a guessing b, since energy has to go into the reaction for water to go from a solid

asked by Anon on March 24, 2017
chemistry
what is the Molarity (M) of a 0.87m aqueous solution of ammonia, NH3? The density of the solution is 0.823 g/mL. Answer: 0.71 M So I have: 0.823 g H2O+NH3/1 ml H2O+NH3 17.034 g NH3/1 mol 18.016 g H2O/1 mol 0.87 mol NH3/1 kg H2O I’ve tried this several ways

asked by molality—>molarity on July 10, 2011
CHEMISTRY
which one of the following reactions represents the balanced chemical equation for the formation of water from hydrogen gas and oxygen gas? a. 2H(g) + O(g) a H2O(I) b. H2(g) +o(g) a H2O(I) c. 2 H2(g) + O2(g) a 2 H2O(I) d. 2 H(g) + 1/2 O2(g) a H2O(I)

asked by GRACE on May 9, 2010
Chemistry
The aquation of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) in acid solution takes place according to the equation: Fe(phen)32++ 3 H3O++ 3 H2O →Fe(H2O)62++ 3 phenH+. If the activation energy, Ea, is 126 kJ/mol and the rate constant at 30°C is 9.8 × 10-3 min-1,

asked by Derek on December 2, 2014
Chemistry
Hi there, can someone please help me with this chemistry problem? Write the equation for the acid-base reaction that takes place when nitric acid (HNO3) dissolves in H2O. (Include the phase of each substance.) I got HNO3(aq) + H2O –> H3O+(aq) + NO3−(aq)

asked by Amy on December 18, 2017
Chemistry
Can someone please help me with these chemistry questions…I just don’t get it! 1. Using the following elements, rank them in order of increasing melting points, based on the periodic trend for melting point: Sr, Mg, Be, Ba? Would it be Be, Mg, Sr, Ba or

asked by Taylor on September 16, 2009
Chem 2
You are instructed to create 600. mL of a 0.56 M phosphate buffer with a pH of 7.6. You have phosphoric acid and the sodium salts NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, and Na3PO4 available. (Enter all numerical answers to three significant figures.) H3PO4(s) + H2O(l)

asked by Mia Ismaili on October 26, 2016
Chemistry

  1. What will happen if I add water to a FeSCN+2 solution? FeSCN+2(aq) + H2O(l) ???? 2. Will the equilibrium shift to the left or right? The FeCNS++ is red colored. I think adding water will simply dilute the red color. Won’t it react in any way? Small

asked by Fiona on May 1, 2007

chem
Are these correct? Rank the following species in order of increasing acidity. Explain your reasons of ordering them as you do. NH3 ,H2SO4, CH3OH, CH3COOH CH3COOH > H2SO4> CH3OH >NH3 Rank the following species in order of increasing basicity. Explain your

asked by manny on August 20, 2007
college chem
You are instructed to create 400. mL of a 0.40 M phosphate buffer with a pH of 6.9. You have phosphoric acid and the sodium salts NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, and Na3PO4 available. (Enter all numerical answers to three significant figures.) H3PO4(s) + H2O(l)

asked by leah on June 23, 2014
chem
Predict the order of the increasing vapor pressure for the following compounds: FCH2CH2F FCH2CH2OH HOCH2CH2OH Result:the order its written that the oreder it’s increasing but im not sure

asked by Ron on June 11, 2007
chemistry
Diborane (B2H6) is a highly reactive boron hydride, which was once considered as a possible rocket fuel for the U.S. space program. Calculate ∆H for the synthesis of diborane from its elements, according to the equation 2 B (s) + 3 H2 (g) → B2H6 (g)

asked by Lisa on January 25, 2015
Chemistry
You are instructed to create 500. mL of a 0.25 M phosphate buffer with a pH of 7.7. You have phosphoric acid and the sodium salts NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, and Na3PO4 available. (Enter all numerical answers to three significant figures.) H3PO4(s) + H2O(l)

asked by Sarah on March 6, 2019
Chemistry- HW Check
I have seven homework problems. I did them but I wasn’t sure if I did them correctly. Did I do them correct? Thank you! Give the reaction that describes how the hydrazine, N2H4(aq), / hydrazinium ion, N2H51+(aq), buffer reacts with a strong base such as

asked by Maegan G on November 15, 2011
Chemistry
Oxalic acid, found in the leaves of rhubarb and other plants, is a diprotic acid. H2C2O4 + H2O ↔ H3O+ + HC2O4- Ka1= ? HC2O4- + H2O ↔ H3O+ + C2O42- Ka2 = ? An aqueous solution that is 1.05 M H2C2O4 has pH = 0.67. The free oxalate ion concentration in

asked by Ashley on November 15, 2016
chem
In a solution prepared by mixing CH3OH with H2O the major species pesent are 1. a. CH3+, OH, and H2O 2. b. CH3O, H+, and H2O 3. c. CH3OH and H2O 4. d. CH3OH, H+, and OH I know i have to get an equation having trouble doing that!! please help!!

asked by Mark on April 24, 2010
chemistry
According to the following thermochemical equation, what mass of H2O (in g) must form in order to produce 975 kJ of energy? SiO2(s) + 4 HF(g) → SiF4(g) + 2 H2O(l), ΔH°rxn = -184 kJ

asked by Amber on June 14, 2011
Chemistry Logic
How can I tell a conjugate base from a regular base and a conjugate acid from a regular acid? For example, in: H2O + HONH3 (reversible arrows) HONH2 + H3O+ What is the acid, base, conjugate base, conjugate acid? Is there no base and conjugate base since

asked by Taasha on August 3, 2007

chemistry
Acid dissociation constant for HNO3+H2O-H3O+ +NO3= I have [H3O+][NO1-3]/[HNO3] Do I have this right?

asked by Sarah on November 22, 2011
chemistry
Consider the exothermic reaction CoCl42-(aq) + 6 H2O(l) Co(H2O)62+(aq) + 4 Cl -(aq). Will the equilibrium concentration of CoCl42- increase or decrease when the following changes occur? a) HCl is added. (b) Co(NO3)2 is added. both of those compounds are

asked by Robbin on April 19, 2011
Chemistry
I don’t really understand why unit analysis works. I found a simple example on a website (I can post the link in a comment if you want). It says, For example, convert 18 grams of water to moles. The molar mass of water is 18 g/mol; therefore : 18g H2O x 1

asked by A Canadian on February 7, 2013
Chemistry
Complete the following equilibrium reactions that are pertinent to an aqueous solution of Ag2CO3. Physical states, s, l, g, and aq, are optional. So far I worked it out to be: Ag2CO3(s) 2Ag^+ + CO3^(2-) H2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) H3O^(1+) + (HCO3)^(-) HCO3^(-)(aq)

asked by Craig on April 6, 2016
chemistry
Identify the acid/conjugate base and base/conjugate acid pairs for the following reactions H2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HCO3 -(aq) C5H5N(aq) + H2O(l) C5H5NH+(aq) + OH-(aq

asked by jake on April 28, 2011

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what number should be added to both sides of the equation to complete the square? x2 + 12x = 11

Christian is solving the equation x2 – 12x = 4 by completing the square. What number must be added to both sides of the equation to complete the square?
77,930 results
Pre-Cal
Christian is solving the equation x2 – 12x = 4 by completing the square. What number must be added to both sides of the equation to complete the square?

asked by Anonymous on October 26, 2012
Algebra
Which of the following statements is true? A. Any quadratic equation can be solved by completing the square. B. Completing the square always gives two distinct solutions. C. You can’t complete the square if there is no constant in the equation. D. You

asked by Emma on July 21, 2014
Algebra
solve the equation by completing the square 3x^2-12x+1=0

asked by Lily on November 16, 2010
algrebra 2
it is called completing the square here is the equation 4x^2-4x+1=9 if anyone can help me please do okay i really need ot understand this 4x^2-4x+1=9 Move the numbers to the other side. 4x^2 -4x = 9-1 4x^2 -4x = 8 Now factor out 4 to make things easier.

asked by lisa on November 2, 2006
Algebra 2
Completing the square method allows you to solve any quadratic equation. For each of the following determine what number completes the square. I cannot find my notes on completing the square, can someone please help with these two problems? 1. x^2+8x 2.

asked by Christian on May 21, 2007

math
My problem I have involves a method that requires using the quadratic equations that comes from India. Here the problem that I have to solve : x to the second power plus 12x minus 64 equals 0 I need someone to walk me through each step to arrived to the

asked by Dave on February 13, 2011
Math
A sum of a number and it’s reciprocal is 2 1/30 (mixed fraction) determine the number? I have tried solving it with no luck. I get stuck on the part of completing the square. Please help me Thank you

asked by Star on March 31, 2018
Algebra
How do I solve a quadratic equation x^2 – x = 30 by completing the square- I don’t understand-could someone just explain the steps to solving this

asked by Jamie on September 21, 2010
algebra1
Olivia is solving the equation x^2-12x=18 what should she add to both sides to complete the square?

asked by mia on June 4, 2013
Algebra
I was given this answers to a problems I solved but I do not understand what she means hope you can help. Before attempting to solve this quadratic equation, determine how many solutions there will be for this quadratic equation. Explain your reasoning.

asked by Charly on June 2, 2011
Algebra
I was given this answers to a problems I solved but I do not understand what she means hope you can help. Before attempting to solve this quadratic equation, determine how many solutions there will be for this quadratic equation. Explain your reasoning.

asked by Charly on June 2, 2011
Algebra Quadratic Equations
I am trying to define the different appraoches to solving quadratic equations. My book says using quadratic formula, completing the sqaure and factoring. I thought completing the square would be by facotring? How are these two different?

asked by Marysvoice on February 5, 2008
math
Rewrite by completing the square. 2x^2 – 12x + 11

asked by Cassy on January 19, 2014
Algebra
Completing the square method allows you to solve any quadratic equation. For each of the following determine what number completes the square. I cannot find my notes on completing the square, can someone please help with these two problems? 1. x^2+8x 2.

asked by Christian on May 21, 2007
trig
how do i solve this completing the square problem: 3x^2+12x+10=0

asked by Anonymous on April 26, 2011

COLLEGE ALGEBRA
Solve by completing the square 12x^2+11x=5

asked by KARINA on June 6, 2011
COLLEGE ALGEBRA ..HELP!
Solve by completing the square 12x^2+11x=5

asked by KARINA on June 7, 2011
math
Solve the equation by completing the square. If the solutions are real, give exact and approximate answers. Otherwise, list the exact solutions. 12x=-3x^2-14 Please help!!!!! 🙁

asked by Andrea on April 18, 2018
maths
The method for completing the square can be used to write the expression -2x^2+12x-5 in the form a(x+b)^2 +c, where a,b, and c are constants. What is the value of c? Thank you for any help.

asked by Trevor on May 20, 2011
maths
Consider the equation x(square) + 4px + 2q = 0 where p and q are real constants. a) by completing square, show that (x+2p)square =4P(SQUARE)-2q b) Hence show that x= -2p +/- square root(4 p(square) -2p ) c) Use the above results to solve the equations 1)

asked by Jayden Haddy on August 4, 2013
Algebra II
1)What method(s) would you choose to solve the equation: x2 + 2x – 6 = 0 A. Square roots; there is no x-term. B. Quadratic formula, graphing; the equation cannot be factored easily since the numbers are large. C. Factoring; the equation is easily factored.

asked by Hally on January 15, 2013
maths
The method for completing the square can be used to write the expression −2x^2 + 12x−5 in the form a(x + b)^2 + c, where a, b and c are constants. Choose the option that gives the value of c. Options A −23 B −13 2 C 5 2 D 3 E 13 F 14

asked by albert on May 11, 2011
Math
Solving quadratic equations by completing the square. Could you show me every step how to do it. That way I’ll know probably know how to do the other ones. With that method you use. 1/2x^2 + x -13 = 0

asked by Basil on October 30, 2009
Algebra
To solve 9x^2-12x+4=49 by using the Square Root Property, you would first rewrite the equation was as A. 9x^2-12x-45=0 B.(3x-2)^2=+/-49 C.(3x-2)^2=7 D.(3x^2)^2=49

asked by Jenny on December 13, 2014
Algebra 2 -Conics
The directions are : Write each equation in standard form (if needed), then find appropriate information for the particular conic. the question: y=2x^2-12x+19 HOW DO I BEGIN??? Complete the square and rewrite as y = 2x^2-12x + 19 = 2(x^2 – 6x + 9)+ 19 – 18

asked by Devyn on February 15, 2007

algebra1
could you walk-through the steps to solving this problem because I am stuck; 3x-5(3x-7)=2(x+9)+45 Let me know if you have a question in any step. 3x-5(3x-7)=2(x+9)+45 3x-15x+35= 2x+18+45 -12x+35 = 2x+63 -35 -35 -12x= 2x +63-35 -12x= 2x +28 -2x -2x -12x-2x

asked by unknown on March 21, 2007
Algebra 1
I have to get this last problem done it’s for my project here’s the problem: solve by completing the square method x 2- 12x =-11

asked by Bo on May 2, 2013
Math check please

  1. Solve the system of equations y=2x^2-3 y=3x-1 a)no solution b)(-1/2,5),(2,-5/2) c)(-1/2,-5/2),(2,5)**** d)(1/2,5/2),(2,5) 2. How many real number solutions are there to the equation 0=-3x^2+x-4? a)0 ***** b)1 c)2 d)3 3.solve the equation by completing

asked by Kendra on March 19, 2015
maths
how do i find out the the equation of the line of symmetry for f(x)=ax^2+bx+c ? please explain it do me thanks! The line of symmetry runs through the vertex. so the x of the vertex is -b/(2a) and the equation of the line of symmetry is x = -b/(2a) e.g. for

asked by Emma on May 25, 2007
Algebra 2
Replace each of the question marks with a value that will make the polynomial a perfect square trinomial. 1. 4x^2+12x+? 2. ?+90x+81 Could someone show me how to solve these? Take the first: factor out the 4 4x^2+12x+? 4( x^2 + 3x + ?) take half the center

asked by Christian on May 21, 2007
Math (Quadratics)

  1. Solve for x in 8x^2 + 2x – 4 = 0 I have tried factoring, taking out a GCF then factoring, completing the square, and got a bunch of wrong answers. I thought we were supposed to complete the square, so maybe I’m just doing that wrong. I’m not looking for

asked by Ariana on October 8, 2015
alg2/trig
1)3x^2-12x-21 solve by completing the square in simplest radical form 2) (1/x+3)-(2/3-x)=(4/x^2-9)find values of x 3)3/radical(3a^2b^4) is equivalent to 4) factor completely 27x^-75x^4

asked by alice on January 22, 2012
Math
Hi everyone. Would someone be able to help me with this problems? I know it’s a lot, if you only want to help with one or two, that is fine!! 9. Could you show how to use factoring and the zero-proudct property to find the zeros of each quadratic function?

asked by Eliza on November 19, 2008
maths
solve the following equation by completing the square x(square) – 4(square root 5)x =6 = 0 Then x= or x=

asked by Jayden Haddy on August 3, 2013
math
i need to solve this equation by completing the square: x^2-14x+1=0 i don’t’ know how to do this, nor do i know what complete the square means. please help.

asked by Nic on November 4, 2008

maths
solve the following equation by completing square x(square) + 5x – 84 Pls show steps x= or x=

asked by Jayden Haddy on August 3, 2013
Sameul
by completing the square method solve the equation. x^2-2x-1 can u factor it? when i did it it couldn’t be factored. i also don’t know why it is not factorable because its a perfect square right? please help me

asked by Math 10 on October 31, 2009
math 10
by completing the square method solve the equation. x^2-2x-1 can u factor it? when i did it it couldn’t be factored. i also don’t know why it is not factorable because its a perfect square right? please help me

asked by shajevan on October 31, 2009
Math
Solve the equation by factoring, by finding square roots, or by completing the square. 4(x+8)^2=144 I’m not sure if I’m suppose to divide or multiply the 4 to both sides..

asked by Linda on November 10, 2011
maths
solve the following equation by completing the square x(square) -13x + 21 = 0 Then x= or x=

asked by Jayden Haddy on August 3, 2013
trinometry
consider the polar equation r=7 cos(θ+ pi divided by 4) A) change the equation to rectangular coordinates. B) by completing the square, obtain the Standard form of this well-known equation. I NEED HELP WITH THIS PROBLEM I DON’T KNOW WHERE TO START.

asked by jojo on November 20, 2015
algebra
1)Solve by factoring:5x^2=4-19x answer=-4,1/5 2)Which quadratic equation has roots 7 and -2/3? answer=A A.2x^2-11x-21=0 B.3x^2-19x-14=0 C.3x^2+23x+14=0 D.2x^2+11x-21=0 3)To solve 4x^2-28x+49=25 by using the square root property,you would first rewrite the

asked by Marissa on August 14, 2007
Calculus!! HELP!!
1) The sides of the triangle shown increase in such a way that (dz/dt=1) and (dx/dt=(3dy/dx)) At the instant when x = 12 and y = 5, what is the value of dx/dt? 2) Let f(x) = x^3 − 4. Which of these is the equation for the normal line to this curve at the

asked by Prince@18 on December 17, 2016
math,help
how do i find the following: is there a formula for this? Problem #15 Find the constant term that should be added to make the following expression a perfect square trinomial. x^2+7x square a few binomials and see if you can see a pattern e.g. (x+3)^2 = x^2

asked by jasmine20 on April 15, 2007
Math – urgent
When solving for x by completing the square as in the equation 3(x-1)^2-1=0 should I add one to both sides then divide by three or add one to both sides then square root both sides? It makes sense to me to first divide by three, but if I do this, I’m not

asked by Isobelle on October 16, 2008

MATH

  1. The equation y = 4.5x² + 9x + 15 describes the height of a diver, in metres, at x seconds. Change this equation into vertex form by completing the square. State the y-intercept, the equation of the axis of symmetry, and the vertex. B. Before locating

asked by pewdiepie on December 31, 2018
Math
Consider the equation x^2 + 20 = 12x A) draw geometric diagram representing this equation. B) Show how to complete the square geometrically. C) Solve the equation.

asked by John on April 10, 2008
algebra help
My class is doing a unit on the “completing the square method” which is used to solve quadratic equations. I need help understanding this method. It’s not making any sense right now! I have two problems and I need to figure out which number completes the

asked by Bailey on January 4, 2007
I need help with algebra ASAP!
I’m in Algebra 1 this year and I really need help solving these equations. Completing the square 1)c^2-7c= -12 2)x^2-2x-8= 0 Incomplete Quadratic Equations 1) 2x^2-2 = 16 Any advice will be appreciated! c^2-7c= -12 What is 1/2 of -7? Square that, and add

asked by Jessica on August 24, 2005
math
Transform the equation by completing the square: 4x^2 + y^2 – 8x + 6y -3 =0

asked by Boby on March 11, 2012
Algebra
How do you solve the equation by completing the square X^2+4x=10

asked by Steph on October 4, 2014
Math
Transform the equation by completing the square: y^2 + 2x – 6y – 7 = 0

asked by Joe on March 8, 2012
math/trigonometry
solve this equation by completing the square. x^2+4x-21=0

asked by Sally on May 23, 2010
Algebra
Can you solve these equation by completing the square 2x^2+7x-4=0 3x^2x-1=0

asked by Amy on November 7, 2014
Math
How do you solve the equation by completing the square X^2+4x=10

asked by Steph on October 4, 2014

Math
Solve the equation by completing the square x^2 -18 x =19 a. 1; 19 b. -1;19*** c. 3;6 d. 3:1

asked by Anonymous on February 28, 2018
Algebra
Solve the equation by completing the square. x² – 7x – 4 = 0 • 7.53, –0.53 • –7.53, –0.53 • –7.53, 0.53 • 7.53, 0.53

asked by Sandra on April 4, 2014
Math
Solve the equation by completing the square. 2x^2 + 9x + 1 = 0

asked by Kim on June 6, 2013
math
solve the equation by completing the square: x^2-9x-2=0

asked by princess on January 4, 2009
algerbra
could you please double check my work question:find the roots of the equation 2x^2+8x=12 by completing the square. leave answer in simplest radical form. work and answer: c=(b/2)^2 c(4/2)^2=4 2x^2 +8x=12 divide everything by 2 x^2 + 4x=6 x^2+4x+4=10

asked by Liz on April 22, 2017
pre cal
What is the center of the conic whose equation is x^2 + 2y^2 – 6x + 8y = 0 2.Which one of the following equations represents a hyperbola? (5 points) A) 3x^2 + y^2 + 12x – 7 = 0 B) 3x^2 + 3y^2 + 12x – 7 = 0 C) 3x^2 + y + 12x – 7 = 0 D) 3x^2 – 3y^2 + 12x – 7

asked by Mecie on April 16, 2012
Math

  1. Solve the equation using all three methods below. Factoring, completing the square, quadratic formula. x^2 + 3x – 4 = 0 and 4x^2 = 9 it seems like x^2 + 3x – 4 = 0 equals x = 1, -4 from all three methods but Im not sure 4x^2 = 9 equals x = 3/2, -(3/2)

asked by anonymous on September 2, 2018
Math
Solve each quadratic equation by completing the square. x^2-6x+2=0

asked by kevin Chen on November 3, 2010
Algebra
Can 2x^2+5x+10=0, be factored? If not, how do use, completing the square method for this equation? Thanks!

asked by Swtpllypb on September 20, 2009
math
2x^2 + 5x – 8 = 0 Solve the quadratic equation by completing the square.

asked by Jack on September 20, 2012

Math
Find the roots of the given equation by completing the square: ax^2+bx+c=0

asked by Devin on February 25, 2012
HELP ! Algebra
Solve the quadratic equation by completing the square. (-x^2 + 6x + 10 = 0)

asked by Robert on November 16, 2012
Algebra
Find the roots of the given equation by completing the square. αx^2 + βx + δ = 0

asked by omar on February 27, 2012
math
2x^2 + 5x – 8 = 0 Solve the quadratic equation by completing the square.

asked by Jack on September 20, 2012
Math
by completing the​ square, what value should you add to each side of the​ equation? x^2- 7x=5

asked by Kelly on April 24, 2016
Albebra
c squared-4c-12=0 we have to solve each equation by completing the square.

asked by Ron on December 4, 2007
algebra
solve the quadratic equation by completing the square -3x^2+9=1

asked by helen on December 18, 2013
Math
Transform the equation or inequality by completing the square. y^2+3x-6y-7=0

asked by Matt on February 27, 2012
Algebra
Can someone help me with these two equations, I need to solve them by completing the square, I know the answers, (Number 1 is -11.56, 1.56, and number 2 is -10.35, 1.35) I just can’t remember how to get those numbers again, I have so much math on my

asked by Aaron on December 16, 2016
Math check
Complete the square: x^2 -12x. Which of the following is the correct perfect-square trinomial? the answers are: a.) x^2 +22x+121 b.) x^2 -10x+25 c.) x^2 -20x+44 d.) x^2 -12x+36 This is tough because the answers could be a.) b.) and d.) I am not sure which

asked by Shawn on November 9, 2008

Calc
A rectangular storage container with an open top is to have a volume of 15m^3. The length of the base is twice the width of the base. Material for the base costs $6 per square meter. Material for the sides costs $7 per square meter. Find the cost of the

asked by Martina on March 29, 2007
Math
Transform the equation by completing the square: 4x^2 + y^2 – 8x + 6y -3 =0 Also show foci

asked by Jason on February 27, 2012
college math
Solve the quadratic equation by completing the square. x^2 + 14x + 35 = 0 and x^2 + 8x = 5

asked by juliana on May 22, 2012
math
Transform the equation or inequality by completing the square. x^2+y^2+4x-10y+20

asked by Bobby on February 27, 2012
college algebra
The goal of this problem is to solve the equation by completing the square. x^2-9x+14=0

asked by john on September 13, 2011
maths –plse help me..
solve the following equation by method of completing the perfect square:- 4x^2 + 4 √3 x +3=0

asked by Anonymous on December 13, 2012
algebra
Solve the quadratic equation by completing the square. -3x^2+9x=1 Not sure how to do these, if someone could expplain.

asked by Lee on October 31, 2012
math
Solve the equation by completing the square 16x^2+1=7x!!! Please help me ASAP!!!! 🙁

asked by Andrea on November 16, 2018
MATH
Solve the equation using completing the square method x^2-6x+9 Please I need your solutions

asked by Simon on February 26, 2018
Math
Using the method completing the square. Find the roots of this equation 4d^2= (d+4)(-d+12)

asked by Zulaiykherh on January 1, 2017

algebra 2
Samantha needs to solve the equation x2 – 12x = 40. What must she do to each side of the equation to complete the square?

asked by alexa on October 8, 2012
algebra 2
Samantha needs to solve the equation x2 – 12x = 40. What must she do to each side of the equation to complete the square?

asked by alexa on October 8, 2012
Math

  1. What is the simplified form of the expression? 2×2 + 4y + 3×2 – 2y + 3y (1 point) 5×4 + 5y2 5x2y + 5x2y 5×2 + 5y 10x2y 2. Simplify the following expression: 2(6x + 18) (1 point) –12x + 36 8x + 20 6x + 36 12x + 36 3. What is the product? 4 • (–5)

asked by helper on September 13, 2018
Algebra
What is the vertex form of the equation? y = -x^2+12x-4 My work: -(x^2 + 12x)-4 -(x^2 + 12x + 36)-4 + 36 Y= -(x+36)^2 + 32 Is this correct? I am not sure if I did this right or not? Thank you!

asked by Mitch n’ Joey on October 25, 2017
math
The rectangle given has a perimeter of 14 units. Find the value(s) of x by factoring a quadriatic equation. one side= 12/(x+1) other side= 6/(4-x) Remember that the perimeter of a rectangle is: P = 2L + 2W Note: P = perimeter, L = length, and W = width.

asked by Shay on January 17, 2007
Algebra 1
A square painting is surrounded by a frame. the outside edges of the frame are x inches in length, and the frame is 3 inches thick. What is the total area of the frame? A)-12x+36 B)12x-36 C)x^2+12x+36 D)x^2-12x-36 Is it C or D?

asked by Sam on December 22, 2016
math

  1. Solve the equation by completing the square. Round to the nearest hundredth if necessary. x2 – 6x = –8

asked by Tina on May 23, 2014
this math tho

  1. Solve the equation by completing the square. Round to the nearest hundreth if necessary. x^2 – 6x = 7 x = 7, 1 x = -7, 1 x = -7, -1 x = 7, -1

asked by This Girl on June 13, 2014
Algebra 1
Solve the equation by completing the square. Round to the nearest hundredth if necessary. x2 + 3x – 5 = 0 A.1.19, –4.19 B.–8.75, 5.75 C.1.66, 2.69 D.1.05, –4.05

asked by Chief4Keef5Sosa6 on March 1, 2018
Math
Consider the general quadratic equation ax^2 + bx + c = 0, where a is not equal to 0. Solve for x by completing the square.

asked by Annika on July 7, 2014

Math
I need help with these three problems. They are on a Study Guide and I need some refreshing up of how to do them. 17. Solve the equation using the zero product property… -8n(5n+3) 19. Solve the equation by factoring 5z^2-2z-3=0 20. Solve the equation by

asked by Amy on May 27, 2009
Math
I need help with these three problems. They are on a Study Guide and I need some refreshing up of how to do them. 17. Solve the equation using the zero product property… -8n(5n+3) 19. Solve the equation by factoring 5z^2-2z-3=0 20. Solve the equation by

asked by Amy on May 26, 2009
math
I need help with these three problems. They are on a Study Guide and I need some refreshing up of how to do them. 17. Solve the equation using the zero product property… -8n(5n+3) 19. Solve the equation by factoring 5z^2-2z-3=0 20. Solve the equation by

asked by Amy on May 26, 2009
Algebra
1)Solve by factoring:5x^2=4-19x answer=-4,1/5 2)Which quadratic equation has roots 7 and -2/3? answer=A A.2x^2-11x-21=0 B.3x^2-19x-14=0 C.3x^2+23x+14=0 D.2x^2+11x-21=0 3)To solve 4x^2-28x+49=25 by using the square root property,you would first rewrite the

asked by Marissa on August 12, 2007
math
The radius of a cylinder is 3x-2 cm. The height of the cylinder is x+3 cm. What is the surface area of the cylinder? The choices are: 2pi(3x^2 + 10x – 8) 2pi(12x^2 + 7x – 2) 2pi(12x^2 – 2x + 13) 2pi(12x^2 – 5x – 2) Please help me in setting this up and

asked by Jane on March 4, 2013

Categories
cheap dissertation writing services custom dissertation writing dissertation help dissertation writing services write my assignment

find [oh−] of a 0.33 m methylamine (ch3nh2) solution. (methylamine has a kb value of 4.4×10−4.)

what is the pH of a 0.10 M solution of methylamine (CH3NH2, kb= 4.4*10^-4) at 25 degree C?
23,742 results
chemistry
CH3NH2(aq)+H2O(l)=>CH3NH3+(aq)+OH-(aq) Kb=4.4 x 10^-4 Methylamine, CH3NH2, is a weak base that reacts with water according to the equation above. A student obtains a 50.0 mL sample of a methylamine solution and determines the pH of the solution to be

asked by ashdawg on April 4, 2013
AP Chemistry
CH3NH2(aq)+H2O(l)=>CH3NH3+(aq)+OH-(aq) Kb=4.4 x 10^-4 Methylamine, CH3NH2, is a weak base that reacts with water according to the equation above. A student obtains a 50.0 mL sample of a methylamine solution and determines the pH of the solution to be

asked by Christina on May 2, 2013
chemistry
What ratio [CH3NH3+]/[CH3NH2] is needed to prepare a buffer solution with a pH of 8.60 from methylamine, CH3NH2, and methylammonium chloride, CH3NH3Cl? Kb of CH3NH2 = 3.7e-4.

asked by Kasey on October 6, 2011
Chemistry
A few questions I don’t really get and need to see the work for A 50.0 mL sample of 0.55 M benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, a weak monoprotic acid, is titrated with 0.51 M NaOH. Calculate the pH at the equivalence point. Ka of C6H5COOH = 6.5 multiplied by 10-5.

asked by Dubs on April 22, 2010
Chemistry
A solution is prepared by diluting 65.0 mL of 0.175 M methylamine, CH3NH2, to a total volume of 225 mL. Calculate the pH of the diluted solution. Kb (CH3NH2) = 4.40 x 10-4

asked by Mallory on June 26, 2011

Analytical Chemistry
Calculate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of 0.160 M methylamine (CH3NH2) with 0.160 M HCl. The Kb of methylamine is 5.0× 10–4. Methylamine is a weak base and reacts with HCl to give the methylammonium ion. HCl + CH3NH2 CH3NH3^+ + Cl^-

asked by Sam on February 27, 2013
CHEIMSRTY
Methylamine (CH3NH2) forms hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Why is methylamine a Brønsted-Lowry base but not an Arrhenius base? I need help on this question. Please explain this to me!

asked by Sean on March 14, 2010
CHEMISTRY
Methylamine (CH3NH2) forms hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Why is methylamine a Brønsted-Lowry base but not an Arrhenius base? I need help on this question. Please explain this to me!

asked by Sean on March 14, 2010
chemistry
what is the pH of a 0.10 M solution of methylamine (CH3NH2, kb= 4.4*10^-4) at 25 degree C?

asked by Crystal on November 28, 2012
chemistry
what is the pH of a 0.10 M solution of methylamine (CH3NH2, kb= 4.4*10^-4) at 25 degree C?

asked by Crystal on November 28, 2012
Chemistry
Find the pH of a buffer that consists of 0.82 M methylamin (CH3NH2) and 0.71 M CH3NH3Cl (pKb of methylamine (CH3NH2) = 3.35.) I keep getting 3.41, but it says that it’s wrong…

asked by Edward on March 3, 2013
Chemistry
What is the pH of a solution that is 0.10 M CH3NH2 (methylamine) and 0.15 M methylammonium chloride?

asked by steve on February 24, 2011
College Chemistry Help Please!
what is the pH of a solution that is 0.200 M in methylamine, CH3 NH2 CH3NH2+ H20 CH3NH3+ + OH- Kb= 4.2 x 10 ^-4

asked by shanice on November 9, 2010
Chemistry!!
Calculate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of 0.180 M methylamine (CH3NH2) with 0.180 M HCl. The Kb of methylamine is 5.0× 10^–4.

asked by Sarah on May 11, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of 0.180 M methylamine (CH3NH2) with 0.180 M HCl. The Kb of methylamine is 5.0× 10–4.

asked by Mandy on December 5, 2013

Chemistry
Calculate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of 0.200 M methylamine (CH3NH2) with 0.200 M HCl. The Kb of methylamine is 5.0× 10–4.

asked by KB on March 11, 2013
chemistry
Calculate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of 0.210 M methylamine (CH3NH2) with 0.210 M HCl. The Kb of methylamine is 5.0×10−4.

asked by Anonymous on March 26, 2018
CHemistry
Calculate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of 0.140 M methylamine (CH3NH2) with 0.140 M HCl. The Kb of methylamine is 5.0× 10–4.

asked by Francesca on March 10, 2015
Chemistry HELP
A solution of gaseous methylamine, CH3NH2, turns red litmus blue. Write the equation and explain this observation.

asked by Tarkan on December 22, 2010
Chemistry
I am very confused about how to start this problem: A 29.8 mL sample of 0.354 M methylamine, CH3NH2, is titrated with 0.231 M hydrochloric acid. The pH before the addition of any hydrochloric acid is ?. The Kb of methylamine is 4.2×10^-4

asked by Dan on April 28, 2012
Chemistry
A) Determine the pH of a 0.98 x 10^-2 mol L solution of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) Ka = 4.0 x 10^-10 B) What is the pH of a 0.243mol L solution of methylamine? (pKb for CH3NH2 = 3.30) C) determine the pH of a buffer solution of Na2CO3 (pkb = 3.68, 0.125 M) and

asked by Jake on June 3, 2013
General Chemistry
1,When aqueous sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containing lead(II) nitrate, a soHowever, when additional aqueous hydroxide is added the precipitate redissolves forming a soluble [Pb(OH)4]2–(aq) complex ion.lid precipitate forms. 2,The Ksp of

asked by jay adams on February 3, 2015
chemistry
Consider a buffer solution consisting of CH3NH3Cl and CH3NH2. Which of the following statements are true concerning this solution? (Ka for CH3NH3+ = 2.3 x 10 -11). 1. A solution consisting of 0.1 M CH3NH3Cl and 0.1 M CH3NH2 would be a more effective buffer

asked by bekah on March 25, 2014
Chemistry
I’m trying do this question: 0.10 mol/L hydrochloric acid is titrated with 0.10 mol/L methylamine, CH3NH2. Calculate the pH of the equivalence point. I’m having trouble with the equation… How do you know what HCl + CH3NH2 will produce? Is there a rule or

asked by a Canadian on April 4, 2013
chemistry
MF16014: What is the pH of a solution prepared by mixing 25.00 mL of 0.10 M methylamine wiht 25.00 mL of 0.10 M methylammonium chloride? Assume that volumes are additive and that Kb = 3.70 x 10-4 for CH3NH2. how do i go about this question? If you know how

asked by joe on May 1, 2007

chem 2
methylamine is a weak base. calculate the pH of a .025 M solution of methylamine.

asked by timmy on November 4, 2014
Organic Chemistry
what is the name of the amide that is formed by the following reaction: Butanoic acid + Methylamine? – CH3CH2CH2COOH + CH3NH2 —> product + H2O? i put n-methylbutyramide and they counted it wrong.

asked by Tina on January 21, 2010
Chemistry
A 119.2mL sample of 0.105M methylamine (CH3NH2, Kb=3.7*10^-4) is titrated with 0.255M HNO3. Calculate the after the addition of each of the following volumes of acid. 49.1mL and 73.6mL. Please help.

asked by Melissa on February 6, 2011
AP Chemistry
In the titration of 77.5 mL of 1.0 M methylamine, CH3NH2 (Kb = 4.4 10-4), with 0.38 M HCl, calculate the pH under the following conditions. (a) after 50.0 mL of 0.38 M HCl has been added (b) at the stoichiometric point

asked by Bill on February 7, 2012
chemistry
0.10 M methylamine (CH3NH2) kb= 4.38e-4 calc the percent ionization so i did the ICE table to find that x=6.26e-3 and then i divided by .1 and then multiplied by 100. but i got the wrong answer whats did i do wrong?

asked by Spencer on February 14, 2009
Buffer solution
Solve an equilibrium problem (using an ICE table) to calculate the pH. a solution that is 0.205 M in CH3NH2 and 0.110 M in CH3NH3Br. i used th Ka of CH3NH2 and set up the problem as Ka=[H3O][CH3NH2]/[CH3NH3Br], but that was wrong. So i switched the

asked by Kyle on March 27, 2010
CHEMISTRY!!!=0
Determine pH of each solution: b) 0.20 M CH3NH3I I did…. CH3NH3^+ +H2O -> CH3NH2 + H3O^+ 0.20 —————0————–0 0.20-x————–x————x so i got… ? =x^2/0.20-x i looked up in the back of the book and found the Kb of CH3NH2 to

asked by ALISON on March 1, 2012
organic chemistry
What is the complete reaction mechanism for the reaction between butanone and methylamine (CH3NH2) with the reaction buffered at a pH of 3.5 and heated.

asked by Jenn on July 28, 2014
Chemistry
At 25°C, the methylaminium ion, CH3NH3+, has a Ka of 2.0 x 10–11. Which of the following is the pH of a 0.15 mol L–1 solution of methylamine? i tried out two methods because im not getting the right answer: H20 + Ch3Nh2 -> CH3NH3+ + OH- I made a

asked by Please help I tried for so long! on June 8, 2016
Chemistry
I am stumped on this one…Please help!!! Write a balanced base ionization reaction for methylamine (CH3NH2) in water. Identify all species as acids and bases and identify the conjuate acid-base pairs.

asked by Nathan on November 19, 2011

chemistry
What is the [CH3NH3+] of a solution which is 0.1003 M in CH3NH2 and 0.1204 M in CsOH? CH3NH2(aq) + H2O(l) « CH3NH3+(aq) + OH−(aq)

asked by Andy on May 6, 2014
Chemistry
NEWW- 0.10 M methylamine (CH3NH2) kb= 4.38e-4 calc the percent ionization so i did the ICE table to find that x=6.62e-3 (that was a typo the first time) and then i divided by .1 and then multiplied by 100. but i got the wrong answer whats did i do wrong?

asked by Spencer on February 15, 2009
Chemistry
A 100.0 mL of 0.200 M methylamine, CH3NH2, is titrated with 0.100 M HCl. Calculate the pH after 70.0 mL of 0.100 M HCl has been added.

asked by Donna on November 14, 2009
chemistry
Which of the following statements is true regarding the Lewis structure for methylamine, CH3NH2? a) There will be an unshared pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom. b) There will be three covalent bonds to the carbon. c) Nitrogen will form a double bond

asked by Sawyer on September 9, 2010
college chemistry
Calculate the [CH3NH3+] of a 7.02×10-3 M solution of the weak base CH3NH2 (make an approximate calculation assuming that initial concentration is equal to the equilibrium concentration). Round your answer to 3 significant digits. CH3NH2 + H2O = CH3NH3+ +

asked by sparkle on October 26, 2010
Chemistry
NH3 and CH3NH2 have Kb values of 1.8 x 10-5 and 5.0 x 10-4, respectively; which of the following statement(s) is (are) CORRECT? (i) CH3NH2 is a stronger base than NH3. (ii) the conjugate acid of CH3NH2 is a stronger acid than the conjugate acid of NH3.

asked by A.A on November 1, 2008
college
NH3 and CH3NH2 have Kb values of 1.8 x 10-5 and 5.0 x 10-4, respectively; which of the following statement(s) is (are) CORRECT? (i) CH3NH2 is a stronger base than NH3. (ii) the conjugate acid of CH3NH2 is a stronger acid than the conjugate acid of NH3.

asked by A.A on November 1, 2008
Chemistry Help
The most effective buffer solutions have equal concentrations of salt and acid (or base). Find the pH of a buffer solution with equimolar concentrations of: (a) HCOOH and NaCOOH (Ka = 3.5 x 10-4 for HCOOH) (b)CH3NH2 and CH3NH3Cl (Kb = 3.7 x 10-4 for

asked by Luke on February 23, 2017
Chemistry
In one experiment, 50.0ml of 0.10M CH3NH2, is mixed with 20.00ml of 0.10 M CH3NH3Cl. The kb of CH3NH2 is 3.70*10^-4. a) write the chemical reaction for the equilibrium which becomes established, using H2O as a reactant. b)Write the net-ionic equation that

asked by James on February 27, 2010
chem
Indicate whether the pH increases, decreases, or remains the same when each of the following is added. (CH3NH3)Cl to a solution of CH3NH2 pyridinium nitrate, (C5H5NH)(NO3) to a solution of pyridine, C5H5N sodium formate to a solution of formic acid how do

asked by hannah on March 18, 2013

Chemistry
What will the pH be if 15 mL of 0.1 M HCl are added to the buffer obtained by mixing 70 mL of 0.5 M CH3NH2 and 30 mL of 1.0 M CH3NH3+Cl-? (Kb for CH3NH2 is: 5.2 x 10-4 ) I’m having a hard time figuring out what to do first. is the ICE table come in handy

asked by Maria on January 18, 2015
CHEM
Calculate the equilibrium constant for the weak base CH3NH2, if a solution of the base with an initial concentration of 7.05×10-4 M has a [CH3NH3+] of 0.000379 M (make an exact calculation assuming that initial concentration is not equal to the

asked by harry on April 26, 2009
chemistry 1046
Solve an equilibrium problem (using an ICE table) to calculate the pH of each solution. a solution that is 0.266 M in CH3NH2 and 0.134 M in CH3NH3Br. Kb = 4.4e-4

asked by Anonymous on July 3, 2012
Chemistry
What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.20M methylamine and 0.15 M methylammonium chloride. which do i get the pH of

asked by LT on April 2, 2008
Chemistry Kb question need to clarify something
the pKb for methylamine is 3.36, what is the Kb for methylamine? pKa+pKb= 14.00 Kb= 10^-pKb = 4.4×10^-4 is the answer but HOW?? what is punched into the calculator to get 4.4 x 10^-4??

asked by Lori on December 16, 2010
Chemistry II
Calculate the pH at the equivalence point in the titration of 50ml of 0.20 M methylamine (Kb=4.3*10^-4) with a 0.40 M HCL solution.

asked by Katie on May 3, 2013
Chemistry
How many moles of HCl must be added to 100mL of a 0.100 M solution of methylamine (pKb=3.36) to give a buffer having a pH of 10.0?

asked by Joe on April 24, 2011
Chemistry
What is the kb of a 0.0200 m ( at equilibrium) solution of methyl amine, ch3nh2, that has a ph of 11.40?

asked by Dylan on July 2, 2016
Chemistry
Calculate pH of a solution that is 0.255M in CH3NH2 and 0.105M in CH3NH3Br

asked by Gabby on March 6, 2015
Chemistry
What is the pH of a 0.77M solution of methylamin at 25 degree C? CH3NH2, Kb= 4.4X10-4? How do I set this up to get the answer?

asked by George on March 7, 2013

Chemistry
What is the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of 0.26M CH3NH2(aq) with 0.26M HClO4(aq)? For CH3NH2, Kb = 3.6 x 10^-4. I arrived to the answer of pH=5.57 but its wrong. Can you tell me why it is wrong? Thanks!

asked by Ron A. on June 5, 2010
chemistry
One has a solution Sa of ethanoic acid of concentration Ca=1×10^-2 mol/l and pH=3.4 One mixes a volume Va=60ml of the solution Sa of ethanoic acid with a volume Vb1=20ml of the Sb1 solution of ammonia of concentration Cb1=2×10^-2 mol/l. The pH is 5 One

asked by vicky on December 25, 2016
chemistry
One has a solution Sa of ethanoic acid of concentration Ca=1×10^-2 mol/l and pH=3.4 One mixes a volume Va=60ml of the solution Sa of ethanoic acid with a volume Vb1=20ml of the Sb1 solution of ammonia of concentration Cb1=2×10^-2 mol/l. The pH is 5 One

asked by vicky on December 27, 2016
Chemistry
Hello, i seem to be stuck on a problem and do’nt know why im not gettin the right answer.I have the he Ka and Kb values for each of the weak acids and bases from the chart and I keep getting zero and the second one 2.27*10^-24 is this correct?? Thank uu

asked by Amy Wight on March 24, 2011
Chemistry
Hello, i seem to be stuck on a problem and do’nt know why im not gettin the right answer.I have the he Ka and Kb values for each of the weak acids and bases from the chart and I keep getting zero and the second one 2.27*10^-24 is this correct?? Thank uu

asked by Amy Wight on March 24, 2011
Chemistry
Hello, i seem to be stuck on a problem and do’nt know why im not gettin the right answer.I have the he Ka and Kb values for each of the weak acids and bases from the chart and I keep getting zero and the second one 2.27*10^-24 is this correct?? Thank uu

asked by Amy Wight on March 24, 2011
AP Chemistry
Which solution has the highest pH? 1. 0.1 M C6H5NH3Cl, Kb C6H5NH2 = 4.2 × 10−10 2. 0.1 M NH2(OH)2Cl, Kb NH2OH = 6.6 × 10−9 3. 0.1 M NaCl, Kb  zero 4. 0.1 M NH4Cl, Kb NH3 = 1.8 × 10−5 5. 0.1 M CH3NH3Cl, Kb CH3NH2 = 5.0 × 10−4

asked by Anonymous on February 25, 2014
Chemistry
In a 1.0× 10–2 M solution of CH3NH3Br(aq), identify the relative molar amounts of these species. H2O, OH-, CH3NH3+, CH3NH2, H3O+, Br-, HBr

asked by Joe on March 28, 2016
science
Please help!! Methylamine has a vapor pressure of 344 torr at -25∘C and a boiling point of -6.4∘C . Find ΔHvap for methylamine. I know that ln(P1/P2)=(ΔHvap/R)(1/T2-1/T1) but it doesn’t indicate whether the boiling point is the “normal boiling

asked by caleigh on December 12, 2016
Chem
In a 1.0× 10–2 M solution of CH3NH3Br(aq), identify the relative molar amounts from highest to lowest for : -Br- -OH- -CH3NH3+ -HBr -CH3NH2 -H3O+ -H2O

asked by Rich on November 8, 2013

Chem- Bronsted bases
Which of the following substances can act as a Bronsted base in aqueous solution? (Select all that apply.) H2O NH3 H2 CH3NH2 O2 PH41+ CO32-

asked by Elizabeth on February 23, 2014
Chemistry
1) Which ion(s) below would undergo hydrolysis in water? A) Cl- B) K+ C) NH4+ D) NO3- E) Two of the above My guess is C, but I’m not too sure about this one. 2) Calculate the [OH-] present in solution labeled 1.73 M methylamine. CH3NH3 + H2O –> CH3NH3+ +

asked by Amanda on May 1, 2014
Science
What concentration of CH3NH3Br is necessary to prepare a pH = 10.00 buffer solution assuming the base concentration is 0.49 M (Kb for CH3NH2 = 4.4 x 10-4).

asked by Yanis on May 1, 2013
Chem
What concentration of CH3NH3Br is necessary to prepare a pH = 10.00 buffer solution assuming the base concentration is 0.49 M (Kb for CH3NH2 = 4.4 x 10-4). In M

asked by Yanis on May 1, 2013
chemistry!
a) Find the pH at the equivalence point when 40ml of 0.025 M of methylamine (NH2CH3 and Kb = 4.4×10^-4) is titrated with 0.025 M HCl. b) The Kf for the complex ion Ag(NH3)2+ is 1.7×10^7. The Ksp for AgI is 1.5×10^-16. What is the molar solubility of AgI in

asked by Freddy on November 17, 2015
Science
Determine the pkb of methylamine if the kb is 4.4*10^-4.

asked by Terry on March 16, 2014
chemistry
What is the chemical equation of methylamine with CuSO4?

asked by Mikha on March 21, 2013
chemistry
What is the net ionic equation for the reaction of formic acid and methylamine

asked by lora on March 17, 2019
College Chemistry
Calculate the pH at the equivalence point in the titration of 55.0 mL of 0.180 M methylamine(Kb = 4.4 × 10−4) with 0.330 M HCl.

asked by Emily on March 29, 2017
Chemistry
what is the structure of CH3NH2 and CH3NH3

asked by Anonymous on February 28, 2011

CHEMISTRY- intermolecular forces
What intermolecular forces act in the following: H2 PH3 CH3NH2

asked by Jasmin on November 3, 2010
Chemistry
Suppose that 50.0 mL of 0.25 M CH3NH2(aq) is titrated with 0.35 M HCl(aq). (a) What is the initial pH of the 0.25 M CH3NH2(aq)? (b) What is the pH after the addition of 15.0 mL of 0.35 M HCl(aq)? (c) What volume of 0.35 M HCl(aq) is required to reach

asked by Dana on November 3, 2010
Chemistry
what mass of water will be formed by reaction of 3.50g of methylamine (8CH3NH2) with 15.0g of perchloric acid (13HClO4)? Answer is 99.1. How do you work this?

asked by Michelle on November 6, 2012
Chem
Methylaime, CH3NH2. If a 0.100 mol/L solution of methyamine has a pH of 11.80, calculate the ionization constant for the weak base. What is an ionization constant. Is it just K? This is what I did so far: 11.80 = -log (concentration of h3o+) 10^-11.80 =

asked by Lena on July 23, 2009
Chemistry
State whether each of the following aqueous solutions would be acidic, basic, or neutral. Include appropriate net-ionic equations to show why a given solution is acidic or basic. a) NaNO3 b)KC6H5CO2 c)50:50 mixture of C6H5CO2H+KC6H5CO2 d)(CH3NH3)Cl e)50:50

asked by Anonymous on March 12, 2010
college chemistry
Which base listed below would be the best to creat a buffer having a pH of 5.0230? hydrazine, Kb = 8.90e-7 methylamine, Kb = 3.70e-4 ethanolamine, Kb = 3.20e-5 pyridine, Kb = 1.40e-9

asked by hershi on April 5, 2014
Relative Acidities
Rank the given compounds on their relative acidity. Here was the order I thought it was but it turned out to be wrong. (i based it based off of sp being most acidic and sp3 being least acidic) STRONGEST HC(triple bond)C-CH3 H2C=CH2 CH3NH2 H2O CH4–>

asked by Allie on February 16, 2011
chemistry
Out of the following compounds, which one is the weakest base? NH3, CH3NH2, NH2F, NH2Br

asked by Anonymous on July 19, 2010
chem
a soln. that is .195 M in CH3NH2 and .105 M in CH3NH3Br what is the balanced equation for this ? How do you know ?

asked by natash on March 8, 2009
AP Chemistry
In the titration of 50.0 mL of 1.0 M CH3NH2 (kb=4.4 x 10^-4), with 0.50 M HCl, calculate the pH a) after 50.0 mL of 0.50 M has been added b) at the stoichiometric point.

asked by some kid on March 29, 2009

chemistry
how do you identify the base in this reaction? h2o(L) + CH3NH2(aq) yields OH-(aq) + CH3+(aq)

asked by ryan on May 12, 2012
chemistry
what is the formula of the product form when CH3NH2 reacts eith hydrogen ion?

asked by mano on October 9, 2010
Chemistry
what mass of nitrogen dioxide (8NO2) will form by reaction of 3.50 mole of perchloric acid (13HClO4) with excess methylamine (8CH3NH2)? Answer is 99.1 g. How do you work this?

asked by Michelle on November 6, 2012
Chemistry
State whether each of the following aqueous solutions would be acidic, basic, or neutral. Include appropriate net-ionic equations to show why a given solution is acidic or basic. a) NaNO3 b)KC6H5CO2 c)50:50 mixture of C6H5CO2H+KC6H5CO2 d)(CH3NH3)Cl e)50:50

asked by Julie on March 13, 2010
Chemistry
Complete and balance the following (CH3)2NH(aq)+CH3COOH(aq)→ CH3CH2NH2(aq)+HBr(aq)→ CH3NH2(aq)+HCOOH(aq)→

asked by Nancy on May 27, 2014
Chemistry
Consider the titration: .30 M HCl versus .30 M methlamine (CH3NH2). What is the concentration of CH3NH3+ at the equivalence point?

asked by Amy on November 29, 2010
chem
I am trying to figure out how to calculate the ratio of CH3NH2 to CH3NH3Cl required to create a buffer with pH of 10.26, I’m not sure where to start.

asked by moe on October 25, 2010
chem
I am trying to figure out how to calculate the ratio of CH3NH2 to CH3NH3Cl required to create a buffer with pH of 10.26, I’m not sure where to start.

asked by moe on October 25, 2010
Chemistry
Calculate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of 0.120 M methylamine with 0.120 M HCl (kb of methyalamine is 5.0 x 10^-4)

asked by Mariana on November 13, 2011
Chemistry
Complete and balance the reactions A) (CH3)2NH(aq)+CH3COOH(aq)→ B) CH3CH2NH2(aq)+HBr(aq)→ C) CH3NH2(aq)+HCOOH(aq)→

asked by Tim on June 3, 2014

Chem
Complete and balance the reaction of A) (CH3)2NH(aq)+CH3COOH(aq)→ B) CH3CH2NH2(aq)+HBr(aq)→ C) CH3NH2(aq)+HCOOH(aq)→

asked by Alex on June 2, 2014
chemistry
What volume of titrant would be required to reach the equivalence point in the titration of 25.0 mL and 0.825M CH3NH2 with 1.00 M HCL?

asked by Anonymous on October 19, 2011
Chemistry!!
Complete and balance the reaction of A) (CH3)2NH(aq)+CH3COOH(aq)→ B) CH3CH2NH2(aq)+HBr(aq)→ C) CH3NH2(aq)+HCOOH(aq)→

asked by Alex on June 2, 2014
chem
Arrange the following amines in order of decreasing base strength. NH3, NH2Br, CH3NH2, (CH3)2NH

asked by help!!! on February 16, 2009
science

  1. Which of the following is TRUE regarding this situation: Solution A has a pH of 7.38, and Solution B has a pH of 7.42? a.Solution B is more acidic than Solution A b.The pH of Solution A falls within the homeostatic pH range for extracellular body

asked by a on January 28, 2013

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How Can Fisherman Save Gas?

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Mar 2, 2009
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Fishermen can save gas by staying home.

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Mar 2, 2009
By forming carp pools(no spaces).

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Aug 12, 2011
4n^2-49

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choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution.

Choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution. N2O4 and NH4Cl C6H14 and C10H20 LiBr and C5H12 C6H14 and H2O None of the pairs
48,460 results
chemistry
Choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution. N2O4 and NH4Cl C6H14 and C10H20 LiBr and C5H12 C6H14 and H2O None of the pairs above will form a homogeneous solution.

asked by reem on February 3, 2016
chem- to clarify….
“How does a gas differ from a liquid with respect to the following property: Ability to mix with other substances of the same phase to form homogeneous mixtures Gases form homogeneous mixtures with each other regardless of the identities or relative

asked by Anon. on December 9, 2009
chem
How does a gas differ from a liquid with respect to the following property: Ability to mix with other substances of the same phase to form homogeneous mixtures Gases form homogeneous mixtures with each other regardless of the identities or relative

asked by asdf on December 9, 2009
science
Will you please check my answers? Substances or mixtures? 1. Carbon Dioxide = M 2.salt water =M 3. table salt = M Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Matter- 1. flat soda pop = Heterogeneous 2. aluminum foil = Homogeneous 3. black coffee = Homogeneous 4. beach

asked by Reed on September 12, 2012
Chemistry Basics- Please Help!
Choose either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Tea: homogenous Concrete: heterogeneous Soda: homogeneous Soapy Water: homogeneous Salt Water: homogeneous Granite: heterogeneous Please help, and thanks lots 😀

asked by Anonymous on March 3, 2015

Chemistyr 152
Given the following data, what is the value of delta Gf (in kJ) for N2O4 (g) at 25C. N2O4(g)—–2NO2(g) Keq= 0.144 delta Gf: ? 51.30 I thought of using the equation: delta G-RTlnQ I am not sure if that’s what I should use to find N2O4 though???? Choose

asked by Car on July 3, 2010
Chemistry
92.01 grams of N2O4 (g) is placed in a container and allowed to dissociate. N2O4 (g) –> 2NO2 (g) The mixture of N2O4 and NO2 resulting from the reaction occupies 36.0 liters at a total pressure of 773 mmHg and 45 °C. A. Let x equal the moles of N2O4 that

asked by Neha on August 4, 2011
Algebra
when writing linear equations, how do you determine which form of a line to use? choose 1 set of points from the choices below. then, solve the problem and post your solution, showing your steps. write an equation in point-slope form for the line that

asked by Faith on December 9, 2014
Algebra
Choose 1 set of points from the choices below. Then, solve the problem and post your solution, showing your steps. Write an equation in point-slope form for the line that passes through one of the following pairs of points (you may choose the pair you want

asked by Anonymous on December 6, 2013
chemistry
Can you please check if I came up with the right answer for this please. A 4.30L container had 55.10 moles of N2O4 added to it. When equilibrium was established the concentration of N2O4 was found to be 1.69M.What is the Kc for the following reaction?

asked by Andy on May 10, 2010
Chemistry
Dinitrogen tetroxide decomposes to nitrogen dioxide: N2O4 (g) —> 2NO2 (g) Delta H rxn: 55.3 kJ At 298 K a reaction vessel initially containing .100 atm of N2O4. When equilibrium is reached, 58% of the N2O4 has decomposed to NO2. -What percentage of N2O4

asked by Tyler on July 18, 2011
Chemistry
Dinitrogen tetroxide decomposes to nitrogen dioxide: N2O4(g)→2NO2(g)ΔHorxn=55.3kJ At 298 K, a reaction vessel initially contains 0.100 atm of N2O4. When equilibrium is reached, 58% of the N2O4 has decomposed to NO2. What percentage of N2O4 decomposes at

asked by Justiss on April 21, 2017
Math
Part 1: When writing linear equations, how do you determine which form of a line to use? Part 2: Choose 1 set of points from the choices below. Then, solve the problem and post your solution, showing your steps. Write an equation in point-slope form for

asked by Katie on January 8, 2014
chemistry
A fuel mixture used in the early days of rocketry is composed of two liquids, hydrazine (N2H4) and dinitrogen tetraoxide (N2O4), which ignite on contact to form nitrogen gas and water vapor. 2 N2H4 + N2O4 –> 3 N2 + 6 H2O If 1.50 x 102 g of N2H4 and 2.00 x

asked by Sheree’ on November 4, 2012
math
can someone answer these ive been stuck on them for almost 2 hours !!!!! 1.which pair of ratio form a proportion? choose all that apply. A. 1/6, 4/20 B. 7/9, 28/36 C. 14/18, 21/27 D. 30/80, 8/18 2.which pair of ratios does not form a proportion? A. 3/5,

asked by annabelle on January 23, 2014

Math-Algebra 1
Part 1: When writing linear equations, how do you determine which form of a line to use? Part 2: Choose 1 set of points from the choices below. Then, solve the problem and post your solution, showing your steps. Write an equation in point-slope form for

asked by Gabby on November 23, 2013
Chemistry
What are some examples of homogeneous and heterogeneous substances?

asked by Savannah on August 19, 2008
MATH !!!
PLEASE ANSWER THESE 3 I BEEN STUCK ON ALL DAY AND IM SICK OF THEM JUST WANNA SLEEP..PLEASE LABEL ANSWER WITH A B C D ! 1.which pair of ratio form a proportion? choose all that apply. A. 1/6, 4/20 B. 7/9, 28/36 C. 14/18, 21/27 D. 30/80, 8/18 2.which pair of

asked by annabelle on January 24, 2014
Chemistry
When heated, N2O4 dissociates as follows: N2O4 =2NO2 A flask initially contians .560 M N2O4. at this temperature, Kc is 4.00. what is the equilibrium concentration of NO2?

asked by Rob on November 4, 2010
Chemistry
Calculate the rate at which N2O4 is formed in the following reaction at the moment in time when NO2 is being consumed at a rate of 0.0521 M/s. 2NO2(g) N2O4 (g) I am not really sure how to go about this problem. rate = k (N2O4) d(NO2)/dt = -2 d(N2O4)/dt

asked by Martin on May 19, 2009
physical science
which of the following are pure substances? a. solutions b. compounds c. homogeneous mixtures d. colloids A?

asked by jenna on December 8, 2017
Science
The substances in a(n) _ mixture are usually easily seen and separated. A) homogeneous B) heterogeneous C) uniform D) umcontaminated

asked by Grace on February 8, 2019
chemistry
calculate Ke for the following (equilibrium concentrations given below substances) N2O4(g)+heat yields 2NO2(g) [.0325] [.022] Thank you!

asked by mary on January 18, 2010
Chemistry
Consider the following chemical equation: 2NO2–>N2O4 If 25.0mL of NO2 gas is completely converted to N2O4 gas under the same conditions, what volume will the N2O4 occupy?

asked by Victoria on July 2, 2010
chemistry
A 1.00 mol sample of N2O4 (g) is placed in a 10.0 L vessel and allowed to reach equilibrium accourding to the equation N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) K = .0004 Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of N2O4(g) and NO2(g)

asked by kevin on September 19, 2011

college chem
N2O4 —>2NO2 a 1 liter flask is charged with .4 mols of N2O4. at equilibrium at 373 k, .0055 mols of N2O4 remain. what is the Kc for this reaction? please explain to me how to get the rate law for this and solving

asked by josh on March 9, 2010
science
what is a mineral? noun: solid homogeneous inorganic substances occurring in nature having a definite chemical composition

asked by jack on November 7, 2006
Chemistry
Having some confusion with this question….I have the answers, just not able to reach them. A flask of volume 5L is evacuated and 43.8 g of solid N2O4 is introduced at 77K. The sample is then warmed to 298K during which the N2O4 vaporizes and some

asked by Val on April 24, 2010
chemistry
Kc=5.85×10^-3 at 25 degrees C for the reaction N2O4(g)2NO2(g) fifteen(15.0) grams of N2O4 is confined in a 5.00-L flask at 25 degrees C. Calculate(a) the number of moles of NO2 present at equilibrium and(b) the percentage of the original N2O4 that is

asked by confused on April 14, 2010
Math
There are 22 gloves in a drawer. 5 brown pair, 4 green pair, and 2 blue pair. If you had the reach into the drawer and it was dark, how many must you choose to ensure that you have a matching pair?

asked by Rachel on October 20, 2013
chemistry
Liquid Nitrogen tetroxide, N2O4(l), was used as a fuel in Apollo missions to the moon. In a closed container the gas N2O4(g) decomposes to nitrogen dioxide, NO2(g). The equilibrium constant,k, for this reaction is 0.87 at 55 degrees Celsius. A vessel

asked by Claus on April 3, 2008
CHM
Given the initial concentrations of 0.10 atm NO2 and 0.10 atm N2O4 in a 1.0 L flask, what will be the equilibrium partial pressure of NO2? N2O4(g)=2NO2 Kp=0.660at319K Choose one answer. a. 0.10 atm b. 0.31 atm c. 0.045 atm d. 0.72 atm e. 0.19 atm

asked by AMI on March 28, 2010
physical science
Does not settle on standing: I answered homogeneous mixture – solution and compound is this correct? Can separate when allowed to stand alone I answered heterogenous mixture * choices solution, compund, heterogenous mixture and homogeneous mixture

asked by liz on October 6, 2007
Math
Which pair of ratios can form a true proportion? A: 7/4,21/12 (I CHOOSE THIS) B: 6/3,5/6 C: 7/10,6/7 D: 3/5,7/12 Pls help

asked by MATH HELP FAST PLS on December 13, 2015
Math
Which pair of ratios can form a true proportion? A: 7/4,21/12 (I CHOOSE THIS) B: 6/3,5/6 C: 7/10,6/7 D: 3/5,7/12 Pls help

asked by MATH HELP FAST PLS on December 12, 2015

CHEMISTRY
A chemist studying the equilibrium N2O4(g)2NO2(g) controls the temperature so that keq ( equilibrium constant)= 0.028. At one equilibrium position, the concentration of N2O4 is 1.5 times greater than the concentration of NO2. Find the concentrations of the

asked by Anonymous on November 26, 2013
chemistry
calculate Ke for the following(equilibrium concertations given below substances H2(g) + Br(g)=2 Br+heat, N2O4(g) + heat= NO2(G)

asked by jessica on June 1, 2010
chemistry
From each pair of substances below, choose the one with the higher molar So, at 298 K a) Hg (s), Hg (l) d) C2H6 (g), C2H4 (g) b) HI (g), HCl (g) e) H2 (1 atm), H2 (2 atm), 1 mol at 298 K c) NH3 (g), Ne (g) f) NaCl(s), NaCl (aq)

asked by Jaline on January 29, 2017
algebra
Choose the equation in slope-intercept form for the line passing through each pair of points (1/2, 1) and 1, 5) y=1/8x+39/8 y=1/2x+9/2 y=2x+3 y=8x-3 (*)

asked by ragan on September 25, 2012
algebra II
Choose the equation in slope-intercept form for the line passing through each pair of points. (-4, -2) and (2, 3) y=-5/6x+14/3, or y=5/6x+4/3

asked by Mark on September 25, 2012
chemistry
Take a cup of water, add sugar, and stir. If the resulting solution contains sugar crystals that do not dissolve, the solution is said to be? a)an unsaturated solution b)a saturated solution c)a homogeneous solution d)none of the above Is it d –

asked by Thelma on July 23, 2010
Chemistry, Solutions
Two or more combined substances that do not react form a _. solution mixture substance compound

asked by Jason on September 16, 2010
math(check answers)
please check my math ANSWERS 1.which pair of ratio form a proportion? choose all that apply. A. 1/6, 4/20 B. 7/9, 28/36(I PICK THIS) C. 14/18, 21/27 D. 30/80, 8/18 2.which pair of ratios does not form a proportion? A. 3/5, 24/40 B. 30/10, 15/3(I PICK THIS)

asked by Matt on January 24, 2014
chemistry
Given the following thermochemical equations, NO(g) + (1/2) Cl2(g) –> NOCl(g) -37.78 kJ (per mol NOCl) NO(g) + (1/2) O2(g) –> NO2(g) -56.53 kJ (per mol NO2) 2 NO2(g) –> N2O4(g) -58.03 kJ (per mol N2O4) what is the standard enthalpy change for the

asked by abby on March 1, 2014
chemistry
Given the following thermochemical equations, NO(g) + (1/2) Cl2(g) –> NOCl(g) -37.78 kJ (per mol NOCl) NO(g) + (1/2) O2(g) –> NO2(g) -56.53 kJ (per mol NO2) 2 NO2(g) –> N2O4(g) -58.03 kJ (per mol N2O4) what is the standard enthalpy change for the

asked by abby on March 5, 2014

science
The equilibrium constant for the gas phase reaction N2O4 ⇀↽ 2 NO2 at a certain temperature is K = 0.0466. If the initial concentrations are [N2O4] = 1.0 M, [NO2] = 0.0 M, what are the final concentrations of [N2O4] and [NO2], respectively? 1. 1.0 M ;

asked by cora on February 1, 2016
Chemistry
Calcium carbonate is insoluble in water. Name two substances that when mixed in solution, will form a precipitate of calcium carbonate. Explain why is it the two substances that you have chosen. why does magnesium chloride cannot be prepared in the lab

asked by StuartKess on September 6, 2011
algebra
Which of the following ordered pairs is included in the solution set of the system, y < 2 – 2x and y > 2x -3? (4, 0) (0, 0) No Solution (3, 4) 2. Choose all correct answers. Which of the following are solutions of the system? x < 3 and x + y < 5 (2, 2) (4,

asked by Andrean on May 4, 2014
chemistry
The following system is at equilibrium with [N2O4] = 0.55 M and [NO2] = 0.25 M. If an additional 0.10 M NO2 is added to the reaction mixture with no change in volume, what will be the new equilibrium concentration of N2O4? N2O4(g) 2 NO2(g)

asked by Audrey on November 15, 2010
Chem 2
The following system is at equilibrium with [N2O4] = 0.55 M and [NO2] = 0.25 M. If an additional 0.10 M NO2 is added to the reaction mixture with no change in volume, what will be the new equilibrium concentration of N2O4? N2O4(g) 2 NO2(g)

asked by Beth on March 5, 2012
chemistry
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) cannot be obtained in a pure form in the gas phase because it exists as a mixture of NO2 and N2O4. At 23°C and 0.94 atm, the density of this gas mixture is 2.6 g/L. What is the partial pressure of each gas? NO2 N2O4

asked by Kailee on November 18, 2012
chemistry
A reaction mixture of N2O4 and NO2 absorbs the heat given off in the combustion of 6.35 L CH4 measured at 24.7 C and 812 Torr. How many moles of N2O4 can be converted to NO2 as a result? CH4 + 2O2 –> CO2 + 2H2O Delta H = -890.3 KJ N2O4 –> 2NO2 Delta H =

asked by maddie on March 22, 2016
AP Chemistry
Given: N2O4 (g) « 2NO2 (g) @ 25 degrees celcius, Kc is 5.84 x 10^-3. (A) Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of both gases when 4.00 grams of N2O4 is placed in a 2.00 L flask at 25 degrees celcius. (B) What will be the new equilibrium concentrations

asked by Frank on April 22, 2010
Chemistry
Okay, I feel like this question should be really easy because it’s a multiple choice question but how do you figure it out?? I’m completely drawing a blank. Consider the following equilibrium N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) Kc = 4.8E-3 Which set of concentrations

asked by a Canadian on April 9, 2013
Chemistry
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2, dimerizes easily to form dinitrogen tetroxide , N2O4 : 2NO2N2O4 a) Calculate Change in reaction G* and K for this equilibrium. b) Calculate the (e) (the measure of the progress of the reaction) for this equilibrium if 1.00 mol NO2

asked by Jenna on October 20, 2011

cHEM
cThe price of gold is $625 per troy ounce at this writing. How much heat (in J) is needed to raise the temperature of $5000.00 worth of gold from 29.5 oC to 70.5 oC? (1 troy oz = 31.10 g and the specific heat of Au is 25.42 J/(moloC).) I got 5.125, which

asked by Anonymous on October 19, 2012
chemistry
Dinitrogen tetroxide decomposes to form nitrogen dioxide in a second order reaction: N2O4(g)-> 2NO2(g) At 400K, the rate constant for this reaction has been measured to be 2.9×10^8 L/mol*s.suppose 0.222 mol of N2O4(g) is placed in a sealed 41.7L container

asked by Anonymous on April 22, 2014
math – pls check!!!
Write an equation in point-slope form for the line that passes through one of the following pairs of points (you may choose the pair you want to work with). Then, use the same set of points to write the equation in standard form and again in

asked by SkatingDJ on January 13, 2015
chem 12
1.00 mol of N2O4 and 1.00 mol of NO2 are placed in an 800 mL container. Calculate the initial concentrations of each gas. N2O4= 1.25 mol/L NO2=1.25 mol/L When equilibrium is reached, the concentration of NO2 increases by 0.50mol/L. Calculate the

asked by George on February 6, 2016
math
Solve this system using elimination. If a single solution exists, write the solution as an ordered pair. Your answer will be an ordered pair, no solution, or infinitely many solutions 3a+5b=-19 5a-27b=145

asked by john on May 3, 2012
Chemistry
For the reaction N2O4(g)=2NO2(g), the value of K at 25 degrees XCelsius is 7.19*10^-3. Calculate N2O4 at equilibrium when NO2 =2.20 *10^122 mol/L?

asked by Amy on July 14, 2012
math algebra
Solve the following system using elimination. If a single solution exists, write the solution as an ordered pair. Your answer will be an ordered pair, no solution, or infinitely many solutions. -a+b=-4 2a-3b=-2

asked by jorge on May 3, 2012
math
Solve the following system using elimination. If a single solution exists, write the solution as an ordered pair. Your answer will be an ordered pair, no solution, or infinitely many solutions x-y=4 3x-5=2

asked by ,algebra on May 2, 2012
MATH
Solve this system using elimination. If a single solution exists, write the solution as an ordered pair. Your answer will be an ordered pair, no solution, or infinitely many solutions 2x-y=0 3x+y=5

asked by eric on May 3, 2012
math
Solve the following system using elimination. If a single solution exists, write the solution as an ordered pair. Your answer will be an ordered pair, no solution, or infinitely many solutions. x-3y=5 2x-6y=10

asked by ,algebra on May 2, 2012

algebra 1
Solve this system using elimination. If a single solution exists, write the solution as an ordered pair. Your answer will be an ordered pair, no solution, or infinitely many solutions. 5x=y=15 3x+2y=9

asked by Anonymous on June 25, 2012
chemistry
Consider the following equation: N2O4(g)+ 2NO2(g) Kc= 5.8 x 10^-3 If the initial concentration of N2O4(g)= 0.040 M and the initial concentration of NO2(g) is 0 M, what is the equilibrium of concentration of N2O4(g)?

asked by Jim on July 3, 2010
Chemistry
I am currenty working on my AP Chem Summer Project, but I need a little help. Which of the following are pure substances, and which are homogeneous mixtures? a) sugar dissolved in water; b) tea and ice; c) french onion soup; d)mud; e) gasoline; f) carbon

asked by Samantha S. on June 23, 2011
Algebra
which ordered pair in the form (x, y) is a solution of this equation? (x+6)y=9 Possible Answers: A. (12,2) B. (3,1) C. (2,1) D. (4,1)

asked by Niki on January 22, 2016
Chemistry
The reaction N2O4(g) –>2NO2(g) has Kc = 0.133 at 25 °C. What is the NO2 concentration in a 5.00 liter flask if it contains 0.250 mol of N2O4 at equilibrium I know I set something equal to Kc?

asked by Anonymous on December 17, 2015
Chemistry
The equilibrium system N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) was established in a 1.00-liter vessel. Upon analysis, the following information was found: [NO2] = 0.500 M; [N2O4] = 0.0250 M. What is the value of Keq?

asked by Chiara on March 18, 2011
chemistry
The half-life for the first-order decomposition of is 1.3*10^-5. N2O4–> 2NO2 If N2O4 is introduced into an evacuated flask at a pressure of 17.0 mmHg , how many seconds are required for the pressure of NO2 to reach 1.4mmHg ? i know that the half life

asked by Anonymous on February 1, 2011
science
Which of the following substances are homogeneous and which are heterogeneous? Blood, carbon dioxide gas, solid carbon dioxide, rock, steak, iron, rust, concrete, air, oxygen, salt, milk.

asked by Sheryl on October 17, 2011
science
Which of the following methods separates a homogeneous solution by spinning the solution very fast? ik its not ‘D’ i got it wrong on my test a. Evaporation and distillation b. Filtration c. Centrifuge d. Magnetism So i think its A

asked by Dweah50 on December 14, 2018
Algebra help
Solve Rational Inequalities x^2-x-2/x^2+5x+6 2 …let’s choose 3. If we choose 3 for x, the result will be positive and not less than 0. Three of the tests work. If you are familiar with interval notation, the solution set can be written this way:

asked by Dee Williams on November 7, 2006

Discrete Math
True or False? Homogeneous linear recurrence equations are linear combinations of power functions. I think the answer is false because although a homogeneous linear recurrence equation is a linear combination, it is composed of constant coefficients.

asked by Sarah on May 31, 2013
chemistry
Much of the brown haze hanging over large cities is nitrogen dioxide, NO2(g). Nitrogen dioxide reacts to form dinitrogen tetroxide, N2O4(g), according to the equilibrium. 2NO2(g) N2O4(g) + 57.2 kJ (brown) (coulorless) Use this equilibrium to explain why

asked by ChemMaster98 on March 31, 2008
ALGEBRA
If a jeweller wishes to form 12 ounces oif 75%pure gold from substances that arev 60% AND 80% pure gold .How much of each substances must be mixed together to produce this?

asked by vincent on September 18, 2015
Algebra333333!!!
Choose the ordered pair that is a solution to the system of equations. 3x – y = 9 2x + y = 6 (3,0) (3,-18) (3,-1) (3,1) Once again add the two equations to get 5x = 15 Solve for x and substitute into either equation to find y.

asked by Margie on October 14, 2006
algebra
How do you write a real-world scenario that could be represented by the inequality 4x + 2y 40 and how are you supposed to choose one ordered pair that is a solution to the given inequality and explain what that ordered pair means in the context of your

asked by Ka’Sandra on August 11, 2010
Algebra 1
can anyone help! I have no clue how to do this.. PART 1: Use complete sentences to describe a real-world scenario that could be represented by the inequality 5x + 2y 45. PART 2: Choose one ordered pair that is a solution to the given inequality and explain

asked by Vee on February 6, 2011
Algebra 1- Virtual School
can anyone help! I have no clue how to do this.. PART 1: Use complete sentences to describe a real-world scenario that could be represented by the inequality 5x + 2y 45. PART 2: Choose one ordered pair that is a solution to the given inequality and explain

asked by Vee on February 6, 2011
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
WHAT ARE THE DEFINITION OF DRYING AGENT;DELIQUSCENT SUBSTANCES;HYGROSCOPIC SUBSTANCES;EFFLORESCENT SUBSTANCES.

asked by SAMIRA on February 10, 2012
Science

  1. Which of the following is true about mixtures? (1 point) Mixtures consist of two or more substances chemically combined. Mixtures cannot be separated by physical means. Mixtures consist of only one kind of atom. ***Mixtures have two or more substances

asked by TTR+S<3 on January 29, 2014
Algebra

  1. The table shows the heights in inches of trees after they have been planted. What is the height of a tree that is 64 in. Tall in its pot A. 42 in B. 52 in C. 60 in D. 76 in 3. Which ordered pair is a solution to y=8x A. 0,8 B. -1,8 C. 1.5,10 D. 2,16 4.

asked by Jason on October 13, 2016

Science

  1. Which of the following is true about mixtures? (1 point) Mixtures consist of two or more substances chemically combined. Mixtures cannot be separated by physical means. Mixtures consist of only one kind of atom. Mixtures have two or more substances

asked by Trover on January 25, 2016
Chemistry
At 55C, the K for the reaction: 2NO2(g) N2O4 is 1.15 a) write the equilibrium expression b) calculate the concentration of N2O4(g) present in equilibrium with 0.50 mole of NO2 Please help and explain

asked by Anonymous on April 8, 2012
Assignment help (chemistry)
in the reaction, N2O4–>2NO2, if the rate of formation of NO2 were 0.010 mol/L*s,, what would be the rate of decomposition for N2O4 Plz show steps thx

asked by Tarkan on November 10, 2011
english

  1. Choose the answer that displays the correct spelling of the plural form of the words in parentheses. How many (praying mantis) will we have to import to fight the (grasshopper)? 2. Choose the answer that displays the correct spelling of the plural form

asked by ashley on July 5, 2013
chemistry
Consider the equation: 2NO2(g) N2O4(g). Using ONLY the information given by the equation which of the following changes would increase the molar concentration at equilibrium of the product N2O4(g)?

asked by olivia jo on November 6, 2012
chemistry
2NO2(g)⇌N2O4(g). ΔH∘f for N2O4(g) is 9.16 kJ/mol.

asked by chad on April 9, 2017
chem
A flask is charged with 1.596 atm of N2O4(g) and 1.008 atm of NO2(g) at 25°C, and the following equilibrium is achieved. N2O4(g)-> 2 NO2(g) After equilibrium is reached, the partial pressure of NO2 is 0.504 atm. (a) What is the equilibrium partial

asked by Hannah on February 19, 2013
Algebra
Use substitution to determine whether the ordered pair (–2, –3) is a solution of the equation x2 – y = 7. Show some work. Be sure to state your conclusion about whether the ordered pair is a solution or not.

asked by Jen on June 9, 2009
Algebra
Use substitution to determine whether the ordered pair (– 3, – 2) is a solution of the equation 5x + y2 = –11. Show some work. Be sure to state your conclusion about whether the ordered pair is a solution or not.

asked by Math Loser 🙁 on October 29, 2010
math
the disney golf classic starts with 64 golfers.the golfers form pairs and each pair plays a match.the losers drop out and the winners of each pair then form new pairs and play again.then those winners form pairs and play.this continues until one wins.

asked by quan tanksley on November 8, 2012

math
Which of the following homogeneous systems have a nontrivial solution? 5x+ y + 5z =0 −2x + 2y− 4z = 0 4x− 3y + 6z = 0 can someone please explain how you know

asked by hannah on February 4, 2015
linear algebra
Which of the following homogeneous systems have a nontrivial solution? 5x+ y + 5z =0 −2x + 2y− 4z = 0 4x− 3y + 6z = 0 can someone please explain how you know

asked by sam on February 3, 2015
Algebra
Is (0,3) a solution to the equation y =x + 3 his is my teachers answer to my question of usage of the 2 numbers mentioned as possible solutions. yes it does make a difference. (4,8) is called an ordered pair. Ordered pairs are always in the form (x,y) That

asked by Faye on August 26, 2014
Chemistry
The decomposition of dinitrogen tetroxide produces nitrogen dioxide: N2O4 (g) —> 2 NO2(g) ΔG°= 2.80 kJ/mol Find the minimum partial pressure of N2O4 at which the reaction is spontaneous if P(NO2)=2.00 bar and T=298 K.

asked by Kerrie on June 12, 2012
PLLZ!PLLZ help with math quick!!!!!
6.Suppose you have a drawer full of white, black, and yellow pairs of socks. If the probability of picking a white pair of socks is 4/9, and the probability of picking a black pair of socks is 7/18, what is the probability of picking a yellow pair of

asked by plz plz help, i will fail 7th grade if i fail this on February 6, 2017

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which of the following contributes to your active digital footprint

Which of the following contributes to your active digital footprint?

a. adware that secretly tracks your buying behavior online
b. personal information you intentionally enter into a secure website when making a purchase ***
c. personal data from public records such as home sales
d. information about you from online newspaper articles

What contributes to your passive digital footprint?

a. entering your address into a website to sign up for a contest
b. cookies that track your online habits
c. uploading a profile picture to a social medi site
d. posting information on your personal web page

1 2 3,725
asked by Dakota
Feb 11, 2014
Your first answer is correct. The second answer is not.

http://www.answers.com/passive

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👩‍🏫
Writeacher
Feb 11, 2014
What contributes to your passive digital footprint?

a. entering your address into a website to sign up for a contest
b. cookies that track your online habits
c. uploading a profile picture to a social media site
d. posting information on your personal web page

0 1
posted by Dakota
Feb 11, 2014
No, sorry.

In which answer do YOU do NOTHING, but stuff happens anyway. Passive, remember?

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Writeacher
Feb 11, 2014
the second answer is b.) cookies that track it online habits

ik this because I just took a test and got it wrong because of this webpage 😂

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Apr 7, 2015

Correct Answers:

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how did the magna carta affect the power of the english king

  1. How did the Magna Carta affect the power of the English king?
    A. It had no effect on the king’s power.
    B. It closely linked the king’s power to the power of the nobles.
    C. It weakened the king’s power.
    D. It strengthened the king’s power.
  2. What was significant about the Magna Carta?
    A. English monarchs had to protect individual rights.
    B. Only lords and clergy on the Great counsil could raise taxed from then on.
    C. English monarchs were required to obey the law.
    D. Only the Great Council could select English monarchs from then on.

My answers:
1.C
2.A or C im not sure which one to pick.

Thank you for the help.

0 0 934
asked by Anonymous
Oct 26, 2016

  1. C — yes
  2. Go back and read about the Magna Carta again. Which is it? A or C?
http://www.history.com/news/ask-history/what-is-the-magna-carta

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which was one contributing factor to the growth of medieval

  1. Which was one contributing factor to the growth of medieval towns and cities?
    a. expansion of serfdom
    b. increased use of bartering in trade***
    c. growth of trade fairs
    d. a stronger monarchy
  2. As towns grew, which group was most likely to take responsibility for making improvements to the town?
    a. merchant guilds
    b. artisan guilds***
    c. wealthy cathedral bishops
    d. noblemen on whose land the town was built
  3. How did the growth of trade and manufacturing change women’s lives in Europe?
    a. Women were able to join and even run guilds.
    b. Women were given access to higher education.
    c. Women were forced to do dangerous hard labor.
    d. Women were at risk because towns were dangerous.***
  4. Which of the following correctly compares the leadership of the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches?
    a. Both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches elected popes to serve as heads of the clergy.***
    b. Both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches shared authority across many different clergy of equal status.
    c. The Roman Catholic Church centralized authority in the pope, while the Eastern Orthodox Church shared power between the emperor and the patriarch.
    d. While the Roman Catholic Church invested its authority in many different bishops, the Eastern Orthodox Church appointed one patriarch.
  5. How did interactions between Muslims and Europeans affect European financial practices?
    a. More Christians were able to lend money at interest.
    b. Using credit instead of cash became more common in business.***
    c. Landlords began to pay their peasants in cash.
    d. Insuring goods against loss became a common business practice.
  6. Why did prejudice against Jews increase in the late 1000s?
    a. Muslim rulers in Spain were intolerant of Jews.
    b. Many medieval Christians were suspicious of Jewish culture and practices.
    c. Jewish leaders wanted more control of government.
    d. Christian leaders believed that Jewish leaders were competing with them in an effort to win converts to their religions.***
  7. How did the Church gain secular power?
    a. Monks forced massive numbers of people to convert through fear of punishment.
    b. Canon law established secular courts under the control of the Church.
    c. The Church issued interdicts, laws passed by the Church regardless of secular law.
    d. The Church’s power to deny the sacraments gave the Church power over Christians.***
  8. Which of the following increased the economic power of the medieval Church?
    a. collection of tithes***
    b. construction of cathedrals
    c. lay investiture of bishops
    d. pilgrimages to shrines
  9. How did Christianity spread through Western and Central Europe during the early Middle Ages?
    a. Missionaries traveled across the continent, preaching the Gospels.***
    b. The Gospels were translated into Latin, the language peasants used.
    c. The Benedictine Rule forced everyone to pay a tithe to support new churches.
    d. Monasteries provided education and care for the poor.
  10. How did the Church try to protect medieval women?
    a. by granting forgiveness for their sins
    b. by granting them economic equality with men
    c. by instructing them in letters and mathematics
    d. by setting a minimum age for marriage
  11. How did the spread of Christianity affect village life in medieval Europe? Select all that apply. (2 answers)
    a. The important rituals of peoples’s lives happened in a Christian church.
    b. Parish priests paid the tithe to support the village government.
    c. The events on the religious calendar structured people’s lives.
    d. Bishops served as the main contact villagers had with the Christian Church.
  12. In which ways were the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches alike? Select all the apply. (2 answers)
    a. Both celebrated the sacraments.
    b. Both accepted the patriarch’s authority over all Christians.
    c. Both recognized Easter as the most important holy day.
    d. Both allowed priests to marry. 0 2 1,061
    asked by Olivia N J
    Oct 15, 2016
    Did you ever get the answer to this? 1 0
    posted by Anonymous
    Oct 22, 2016
  13. C
  14. A
  15. A
  16. C
  17. B
  18. B
  19. D
  20. A
  21. A
  22. D
  23. A, C
  24. A, C
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    posted by Anonymous
    Oct 23, 2016
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Oct 25, 2016
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Oct 30, 2016
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Nov 4, 2016
1C 2A 3A 4C 5B 6D 7D 8A
9A 10D 11C 12A

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Nov 11, 2016

14/14 thanks!!

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posted by thank you
Nov 16, 2016
Thank you!! But number 3 is : women were able to run guilds.

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Mar 20, 2017
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posted by John the 9th Grader
Oct 25, 2017
6 is B—Many medieval Christians were suspicious of Jewish culture and practices.

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Oct 26, 2017
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