Categories

## on the loan worksheet in cell c9

Office 2013 – myitlab:grader – Instructions Exploring Series Vol. 2

Specialized Functions

Project Description: In the following project, you will use Excel to perform calculations regarding rental properties. You will create a basic search, utilize database functions, and create an amortization table

Instructions: For the purpose of grading the project you are required to perform the following tasks: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Download and open the file named exploring_e07_grader_h1.xlsx, and then save the file as e07c2Apartment_LastFirst, replacing LastFirst with your name. 0 2 Insert functions in the Pet Deposit column of the Summary worksheet to calculate the required pet deposit for each unit. If the unit has two or more bedrooms and was remodeled after 2008 the deposit is \$125, if not it is \$75. 10 3 Enter nested functions in the Recommendation column to indicate Need to remodel if the apartment is unoccupied and was last remodeled before 2005. For all other apartments, display No change. 10 4 Type 101 in cell B2. 4 5 Insert a nested lookup function in cell E2 that will look up the rental price in column D using the apartment number referenced in cell B2. 10 6 Click the Database worksheet and enter conditions in the Criteria Range for unoccupied two- and three-bedroom apartments that need to be remodeled. 10 7 Perform an advanced filter based on the criteria range. Filter the existing database in place. 10 8 In cell C7, enter a DCOUNTA function to calculate the number of apartments to remodel. 6 9 In cell C8, enter a database function to calculate the total lost rent for the month. 2 10 Enter a database function to calculate the year of the oldest remodel in cell C9. 2 11 Click the Loan worksheet and enter 3/20/2015 in cell B7. 2 12 Insert a formula in cell E2 to calculate the loan amount based on the loan parameters in the input area. 2 13 Insert a formula in cell E3 to calculate the total number of periods. 2 14 Insert a formula in cell E4 to calculate the periodic monthly rate. 2 15 Insert a function in cell E5 to calculate the monthly payment. Ensure that the function returns a positive value. 2 16 In cell E6, insert a function to calculate the total interest paid on the loan. Ensure that the function returns a positive value. 2 17 Complete the loan amortization table for the first five payments only. In cell A11, enter 1. In cell B11, create a relative reference to cell B7 and in cell C11, create a relative reference to cell E2. Use the DATE function to complete the Payment Date column and financial functions for the Interest Paid and Principal Payment columns. In cell F11, enter =C11-E11. In cell C12, create a relative reference to cell F11. Note: Be sure to only complete the table through row 15. 18 18 Create a footer with the sheet name code in the center, and the file name code on the right side of each worksheet. 6 19 Save the file making sure the worksheets are in the following order: Summary, Database, and Loan. Close Excel. Submit the file as directed. 0 Total Points 100

Updated: 08/03/2013 1 E_CH07_EXPV2_H1_Instructions.docx

Categories

## how much work w is done by each horse in a time t?

Two workhorses tow a barge along a straight canal. Each horse exerts a constant force of magnitude F, and the tow ropes make an angle θ with the direction of motion of the horses and the barge. (Figure 1) Each horse is traveling at a constant speed v.

How much work W is done by each horse in a time t?
Express the work in terms of the quantities given in the problem introduction.

How much power P does each horse provide?
Express your answer in terms of the quantities given in the problem introduction.

0 0 976
asked by HELP
Oct 24, 2013
A = Theta.
W = (F*cosA) * V*t.

P = (F*cosA) * V

1 1
posted by Henry
Oct 26, 2013
12

0 1
posted by bob
Aug 12, 2015
W = (Fcos(theta))*vt

0 0
posted by Khai Lim
Oct 22, 2016

Categories

## eighteen students in a class play baseball

Eighteen students in a class play baseball. Seventeen students in the class play basketball. Thirty students in the class plau either or both sports.

Select the Venn diagram that shows the number of students who play basketball and baseball.

A.The first diagram shows
the first circle intersects into the second circle. The left side is labeled Baseball and the numbers are 13. The middle doesn’t have a name and the number is 3. The right side says Basketball and the number is 12.

B. The second diagram shows
The circle intersects also. The left side is labeled Baseball and the number is 13. The middle isn’t labeled the number is 6. The right says basketball and the number is 11.

C. The third diagram is 2 circles that intersect. The left side is labeled Baseball and the number is 14. The middle isn’t labeled and the number is 4. The right side is Basketball and the number is 12

D. The left side is Baseball and the number is 12 the middle is 4 and right side is basketball and the number is 11.
Is the answer B?
Thank you
I really really don’t understand this and I have looked through all my papers and am still confused.

0 0 1,905
asked by Callie
Mar 2, 2015
The answer is A I just did this 🙂

1 0
posted by anonymous
Mar 2, 2015
1.A
2.B
3.C
4.B

5 4
posted by The_Awesome1
Feb 7, 2017
A
B
C
B

6 4
posted by Les
Mar 2, 2017
A
B
B
B

12 4
posted by pedro
Mar 2, 2017

A
B
B
B
Pedro is right

8 4
posted by Anonymous
Mar 6, 2017
Pedro is right

5 3
posted by CherriesAreGood
Mar 6, 2017
i just took it and got 100%!!!! it’s A,B,B,B

5 3
posted by anonymous
Mar 7, 2017
THE ANSWERS ARE
1:A
2:B
3:C
4:B
ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE 100% RIGHT I NEVER POST THE WRONG ANSWERS

5 9
posted by Anonymous
Mar 8, 2017
just took it Anonymous is correct 4/4

3 6
posted by TRUMP
Mar 8, 2017

A
B
B
B

18 0
posted by Bruh
Mar 10, 2017
abbb

9 0
posted by guwop
Mar 13, 2017
Answers are

1.A
2.B
3.C
4.B

3 9
posted by Anonymous
Mar 14, 2017
Answers are

1.A
2.B
3.C
4.B
I GOT 100%

3 11
posted by Anonymous
Mar 14, 2017
THE ANSWER IS

1. A
2. B
3. B
4. B 9 1
posted by STFU
Mar 14, 2017

abb

0 2
posted by Anonymous
Mar 15, 2017

1. A
2. B
3. B
4. B 10 2
posted by Anonymous 🙂
Mar 20, 2017
A
B
B
B 7 2
posted by Anonymous
Mar 23, 2017
ABBB is correct although it seems like it doesn’t. I made a mistake and did ABCB. ABBB is correct although you only get one wrong if you do ABCB. 2 2
posted by I hate Connexus Academy
Mar 27, 2017
its abbb just took the test 2 2
posted by Anonymous
Apr 7, 2017

It is abbb 100% correct

2 2
posted by Someone
May 2, 2017
If you are in connections academy then the correct answers are “ABBB” 100% trustworthy.

2 2
posted by Ms.Smart
May 3, 2017
it really is abbb for connexus

2 2
posted by Harper
Feb 1, 2018
yup A B B B r the answers tried A B C B got 3/4

2 2
posted by Anonymous
Feb 2, 2018
Yeah it’s ABBB, I came here to check my answers and my answers were ABCB so glad I came but these questions were confusing as hell.

2 0
posted by Dat Guy
Feb 2, 2018

A
B
B
B
If you want the correct answers here they are.

4 2
posted by Toxic ammonia blood
Feb 7, 2018
The REAL answers are

A
B
B
B

I got 3/4 for trusting the liars. But YOU can get a 100% if you go for ABBB

GOD LOVES YOU!!!

4 2
posted by Valerie
Feb 8, 2018
A
B
B
B

Is correct!

3 2
posted by LittleNoot
Feb 8, 2018
It’s ABBB

3 2
posted by Tisky
Feb 12, 2018
A
B
B
B

Is correct just took the test.

2 2
posted by No Lies
Feb 14, 2018

ITS ABCB YOU IDIOTS SITTIN ACTING LIKE FOOLS

2 2
posted by !@#\$%^&
Feb 14, 2018

1. A
2. B
3. B
4. B

THESE ARE 100 PERCENT CORRECT

2 2
posted by THE TRUTH
Feb 15, 2018
1) A
2) B
3) B
4) B

2 2
posted by Hello
Feb 20, 2018
OK ITS

A
B
C
B
THESE ARE RIGHT I GOT 100% WITH THESE ANSWERS THEY ARE CORRECT!!!!!!!

2 1
posted by silly_willy
Feb 21, 2018
why yall lien its a b b b its not that hard to post the right answers

1 2
posted by blue
Feb 21, 2018

the correct answers is

A. (13)5(12)
B. 18
C. 9
B. 16

3 0
posted by R.I.P
Feb 26, 2018
🙁

1 0
posted by ??
Feb 26, 2018
Abbb I did abcb and it was wrong!!

1 0
posted by Someone
Mar 6, 2018
A
B
C
B
These are the correct answers I just took the quiz and got 100%

3 1
posted by No name
Mar 7, 2018
It’s
A
B
B
B

1 3
posted by Yayyy
Mar 13, 2018

GUYS THE THIRD QUESTION IS DIFFERENT FOR SOME OF YOU THATS WHAT CONNEXUS DOES SO PEOPLE DONT CHEAT JUST CHILL

2 0
posted by Grace
Mar 13, 2018
He’ we go’w with tha pro’blms

0 0
posted by wot a’ ya do’in M8?!
Mar 19, 2018
ABCB just took it I guess it depends on your test

0 1
posted by Love
Mar 22, 2018
abcb for venn diagrams lesson 3 unit3 for conexus so stop posting

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 3, 2018
The answers are
A
B
B
B

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 30, 2018

Its abcb.. just took it and missed one due to the abbb wrong answers given. I dont get people trying to make others fail.. u expect help but want others to fail. Its not funny.

1 1
posted by Wish/ CA mom
Feb 25, 2019
its absolutely abbb i just got a 75 with abcb , yall annoying to post the wrong answers dawg

0 0
posted by joycelyn
Feb 27, 2019
yea it a b b b for lesson 3 unit 3 quick check

0 0
posted by Ms Sue
Mar 1, 2019
ABCB

0 1
posted by The one who always got the answers
Mar 25, 2019
OMG! I listened to anonymous and I got 3/4 the answers are A B C B !!! 100% correct believe me people!

0 0
posted by CraCra
Apr 1, 2019

2019 update
A
B
B
B
Is correct

1 0
posted by helper
Apr 13, 2019

Categories

## what is Î´hrxnâˆ˜ for the following chemical reaction? co2(g)+2koh(s)â†’h2o(g)+k2co3(s)

What is the standard enthalpy of reaction for the following chemical reaction?

CO2(g) + 2KOH(s) –> H2O(g) + K2CO3 (s)

Express your answers numerically in kJ.

0 0 401
asked by Sarah
Sep 23, 2008
Please note that we don’t do students’ homework for them. Our tutors try to give you the information to help you complete your assignment on your own. If there’s not a tutor with this specialty online right now, be sure to go back into your textbook or use a good search engine. http://hanlib.sou.edu/searchtools/

Once YOU have come up with attempted answers to YOUR questions, please re-post and let us know what you think. Then someone here will be happy to comment on your thinking.

=)

0 0
👩‍🏫
Writeacher
Sep 23, 2008
You need to look these values up, individually, in a set of tables. Then
delta H rxn = delta H products – delta H reactants.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Sep 23, 2008
-148.9

1 0
posted by yuritzy
Nov 24, 2008

Categories

## according to vaillant, __________ is a major preoccupation of midlife.

H AFTER ^ ri • •ID Conflict and

Peacema ki If you want peace, work for justice.”

—Pop.e.P.9ul.Vl.

What creates conflict?

How can peace be achieved?

Postscript: The conflict between individual and communal rights

There is a speech that has been spoken in many languages by the leaders of many countries. It goes like this; “The intentions of our country are entirely peaceful. Yet, we are also aware that other

^nations, with their new weapons, threaten us. Thus we must defend

iourselves against attack. By so doing, we shall protect our way of

jlife and preserve the peace” (Richardson, I960}. Almost every nation

^claims concern only for peace but, mistrusting other nations, arms

itself in self-defense. The result is a world that has been spending

\$5 billion per day on arms and armies while hundreds of millions die of

malnutrition and untreated disease (SIPRI, 2011).

The elements of such conflict (a perceived incompatibility of

actions or goals) are similar at many levels: conflict between nations in

an arms race, between religious factions disputing points of doctrine,

between corporate executives and workers disputing salaries, and

between bickering spouses. People in conflict perceive that one side s

gain is the other’s loss:

• “We want peace and security.” “So do we, but you threaten us.”

• “I’d like the music off.” “I’d like it on.”

• “We want more pay.” “We can’t afford it.”

A relationship or an organization without conflict is probably apa-

hetic. Conflict signifies involvement, commitment, and caring. If conflict

482 Part Three Social Relations

As civil rights leaders know, creatively managed con­ flicts can have constructive outcomes.

conflict A perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.

peace A condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships.

is understood and recognized, it can end

oppression and stimulate renewed and

improved human relations. Harmony

occurs when justice and mutual respect

prevail but also when “everyone knows

their place” in an unjust world (Dixon &

others, 2010). Without conflict, people

seldom face and resolve their problems.

Genuine peace is more than the sup­

pression of open conflict, more than a

fragile, superficial calm. Peace is the

outcome of a creatively managed con­

flict. Peace is the parties reconciling

their perceived differences and reaching

genuine accord. “We got our increased

pay. You got your increased profit. Now each of us is helping the other achieve the

organization’s goals.” Peace, says peace researcher Royce Anderson (2004), “is a

condition in which individuals, families, groups, communities, and/or nations experi­

ence low levels of violence and engage in mutually harmonious relationships.”

In this chapter we explore conflict and peacemaking by asking what factors create

or exacerbate conflict, and what factors contribute to peace:

• What social situations feed conflict?

• How do misperceptions fuel conflict?

• Does contact with the other side reduce conflict?

• When do cooperation, communication, and mediation enable reconciliation?

WHAT CREATES CONFLICT?__________ I Explain what feeds conflict.

Social-psychological studies have identified several ingredients of conflict. What’s striking (and what simplifies our task) is that these ingredients are common to all levels of social conflict, whether international, intergroup, or interpersonal.

Social Dilemmas Several of the problems that most threaten our human future—nuclear arms, cli­ mate change, overpopulation, natural-resource depletion—arise as various parties pursue their self-interests, ironically, to their collective detriment. One individual may think, “It would cost me a lot to buy expensive greenhouse emission controls. Besides, the greenhouse gases I personally generate are trivial.” Many others reason

483Conflict and Peacemaking

similarly, and the result is a warming climate, melting ice cover, rising seas, and more extreme weather.

In some societies, parents benefit by having many children who can assist with the family tasks and provide security in their old age. But when most families have many children generation after generation, the result is the collective devastation of overpopulation. Choices that are individually rewarding become collectively pun­ ishing. We therefore have a dilemma: How can we reconcile individual self-interest with communal well-being?

To isolate and study that dilemma, social psychologists have used laboratory games that expose the heart of many real social conflicts. “Social psychologists who study conflict are in much the same position as the astronomers,” noted conflict researcher Morton Deutsch (1999). “We cannot conduct true experiments with large-scale social events. But we can identify the conceptual similarities between the large scale and the small, as the astronomers have between the planets and Newton’s apple. That is why the games people play as subjects in our laboratory may advance our understanding of war, peace, and social justice.”

Let’s consider two laboratory games that are each an example of a social trap: the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons.

THE PRISONER’S DILEMMA

This dilemma derives from an anecdote concerning two suspects being questioned separately by the district attorney (DA) (Rapoport, 1960). The DA knows they are jointly guilty but has only enough evidence to convict them of a lesser offense. So the DA creates an incentive for each one to confess privately:

• If Prisoner A confesses and Prisoner B doesn’t, the DA will grant immunity to A and will use A’s confession to convict B of a maximum offense (and vice versa if B confesses and A doesn’t).

», • If both confess, each will receive a moderate sentence. F • If neither prisoner confesses, each will be convicted of a lesser crime and i receive a light sentence.

The matrix of Figure 13.1 summarizes the choices. If you were a prisoner faced with such a dilemma, with no chance to talk to the other prisoner, would you confess?

Prisoner A

Confesses Doesn’t confess

Confesses

Doesn’t confess

10 years

Chapter 13

social trap A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing its self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Examples include the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons.

FIGURE:: 13.1 The Classic Prisoner’s Dilemma In each box, the number above the diagonal is prisoner A’s outcome. Thus, if both prisoners confess, both get five years. If neither confesses, each gets a year. If one confesses, that prisoner is set free in exchange for evidence used to convict the other of a crime bringing a 10-year sentence. If you were one of the prisoners, unable to communicate with your fellow prisoner, would you confess?

484 Part Three Social Relations

FIGURE:: 13.2 Laboratory Version of the Prisoner’s Dilemma The numbers represent some reward, such as money. In each box, the number above the diagonal lines is the outcome for person A. Unlike the classic Pris­ oner’s Dilemma (a one-shot deci­ sion), most laboratory versions involve repeated plays.

Response 1 (defect)

Person A

iponse 1 Respo (defect) (coopera-^

12

Response 2 (cooperate)

12

-6

Many people say they would confess to be granted immunity, even though mutual nonconfession elicits lighter sentences than mutual confession. Perhaps this is because (as shown in the Figure 13.1 matrix) no matter what the other prisoner decides, each is better off confessing than being convicted individually. If the other also confesses, the sentence is moderate rather than severe. If the other does not confess, one goes free.

University students have faced variations of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, with the choices being to defect or to cooperate, and the outcomes not being prison terms but chips, money, or course points. As Figure 13.2 illustrates, on any given decision, a person is better off defecting (because such behavior exploits the other’s cooperation or protects against the other’s exploitation). However—and here’s the rub—by not cooperating, both parties end up far worse off than if they had trusted each other and thus had gained a joint profit. This dilemma often traps each one in a maddening predicament in which both realize they could mutually profit. But unable to commu­ nicate, and mistrusting each other, they often become “locked in” to not cooperating. Outside the university, examples abound: seemingly intractable and costly conflicts between Israelis and Palestinians over borders, U.S. Republicans and Democrats over taxation and deficits, and professional athletes and team owners over pay.

Punishing another’s lack of cooperation might seem like a smart strategy, but in the laboratory it can have counterproductive effects (Dreber & others, 2008). Punish­ ment typically triggers retaliation, which means that those who punish tend to esca­ late conflict, worsening their outcomes, while nice guys finish first. What punishers see as a defensive reaction, recipients see as an aggressive escalation (Anderson & others, 2008). When hitting back, they may hit harder while seeing themselves as merely returning tit for tat. In one experiment, London volunteers used a mechanical device to press back on another’s finger after receiving pressure on their own. While seeking to reciprocate with the same degree of pressure, they typically responded with 40 percent more force. Thus, touches soon escalated to hard presses, much like a child saying “I just touched him, and then he hit me!” (Shergill & others, 2003). THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS

Many social dilemmas involve more than two parties. Climate change stems from deforestation and from the carbon dioxide emitted by vehicles, furnaces, and coal-fired power plants. Each gas-guzzling SUV contributes infinitesimally to the problem, and

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 485

harm each does is diffused over many people. To model such social predicaments, researchers have developed laboratory dilemmas that involve multiple people.

A metaphor for the insidious nature of social dilemmas is what ecologist Garrett Hardin (1968) called the Tragedy of the Commons. He derived the name from the centrally located grassy pasture in old English towns.

In today’s world the “commons” can be air, water, fish, cookies, or any shared and limited resource. If all use the resource in moderation, it may replenish itself as rapidly as it’s harvested. The grass will grow, the fish will reproduce, and the cookie jar will be restocked. If not, there occurs a tragedy of the commons. Imagine 100 farmers surrounding a commons capable of sustaining 100 cows. When each grazes one cow, the common feeding ground is optimally used. But then a farmer reasons, “If I put a second cow in the pasture. I’ll double my output, minus the mere 1 percent overgrazing” and adds a second cow. So does each of the other farmers. The inevi­ table result? The Tragedy of the Commons—a mud field and famished cows.

Likewise, environmental pollution is the sum of many minor pollutions, each of which benefits the individual polluters much more than they could benefit them­ selves (and the environment) if they stopped polluting. We litter public places— dorm lounges, parks, zoos—while keeping our personal spaces clean. We deplete our natural resources because the immediate personal benefits of, for instance, taking a long, hot shower outweigh the seemingly inconsequential costs. Whalers knew others would exploit the whales if they didn’t, and that taking a few whales would hardly diminish the species. Therein lies the tragedy. Everybody’s business (conservation) becomes nobody’s business.

Is such individualism imiquely American? Kaori Sato (1987) gave students in a more collective culture, Japan, opportunities to harvest—for actual money trees from a simulated forest. The students shared equally the costs of planting the for­ est. The result was like those in Western cultures. More than half the trees were harvested before they had grown to the most profitable size.

Sato’s forest reminds me of our home’s cookie jar, which was restocked once a week. What we should have done was conserve cookies so that each day we could each enjoy two or three. But lacking regulation and fearing that other family mem­ bers would soon deplete the resource, what we actually did was maximize our individual cookie consumption by downing one after the other. The result; Within 24 hours the cookie glut would often end, the jar sitting empty for the rest of the week.

When resources are not partitioned, people often consume more than they real­ ize (Herlocker & others, 1997). As a bowl of mashed potatoes is passed around a table of 10, the first few diners are more likely to scoop out a disproportionate share than when a platter of 10 chicken drumsticks is passed.

The Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons games have several similar features.

THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR

First, both games tempt people to explain their ozon behavior situationally (“I had to protect myself against exploitation by my opponent”) and to explain their part­ ners’ behavior dispositionally (“she was greedy,” “he was untrustworthy ). Most never realize that their counterparts are viewing them with the same fundamental attribution error (Gifford & Hine, 1997; Hine & Gifford, 1996). People with self- inflating, self-focused narcissistic tendencies are especially unlikely to empathize with others’ perspectives (Campbell & others, 2005).

EVOLVING MOTIVES

Second, motives often change. At first, people are eager to make some easy money, then to minimize their losses, and finally to save face and avoid defeat (Brockner & others, 1982; Teger, 1980). These shifting motives are strikingly similar to the shifting motives during the buildup of the 1960s Vietnam War. At first. President Johnson’s speeches expressed concern for democracy, freedom, and justice. As the conflict escalated, his

Tragedy of the Commons The “commons” is any shared resource, including air, water, energy sources, and food supplies. The tragedy occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse—the tragedy—of the commons.

486 Part Three Social Relations

non-zero>sum games Games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose (also called mixed-motive situations).

“LIKE THE OLD BUFFALO

HUNTERS, FISHERMEN

HAVE A PERSONAL INCEN­

TIVE TO MAKE AS MUCH AS

THEY CAN THIS YEAR, EVEN

IF THEY’RE DESTROYING

THEIR OWN PROFESSION IN

THE PROCESS.”

—JOHN TIERNEY, “WHERE THE

TUNA ROAM,” 2006

Small is cooperative. On the Isle of Muck, off Scotland’s west coast, Constable Lawrence MacEwan has had an easy time policing the island’s residents, recently numbering 33. Over his 40 years on the job, there was never a crime (5cotf/s/j Life, 2001). In 2010, a row between two friends who had been drinking at a wedding became the first recorded crime in 50 years, but the next morning, they shook hands and all was well (Cameron, 2010).

concern became protecHng America’s honor and avoiding the national humiliaH^^ of losmg a war. A similar shift occurred during the war in Iraq, which was initiall^ proposed as a response to Iraq’s supposed weapons of mass destruction. ^

OUTCOMES NEED NOT SUM TO ZERO

Third, most real-life conflicts, like the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of thp Commons, are non-zero-sum games. The two sides’ profits and losses need not add up to zero. Both can win; both can lose. Each game pits the immediate interests of indi ^duals agamst the well-being of the group. Each is a diaboUcal social trap that shows how, even when each individual behaves “rationally,” harm can result. No maUcious person planned for the earth’s atmosphere to be warmed by a carbon dioxide blanket

Not all self-serving behavior leads to collective doom. In a plentiful commons—as in the world of the eighteenth-century capitalist economist Adam Smith (1776, p 18)— mdividu^ who seek to maximize their own profit may also give the commuidty wl^t It needs: It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner,” he observed, “but from their regard to their own interest.”

RESOLVING SOCIAL DILEMMAS

Faced with social traps, how can we induce people to cooperate for their mutual betterment? Research with the laboratory dilemmas reveals several ways (Gifford & Hine, 1997). ^

REGULATION If taxes were entirely voluntary, how many would pay their full share? Modern societies do not depend on charity to pay for schools, parks, and social and military security. We also develop rules to safeguard our common good. Fishing and hunting have long been regulated by local seasons and limits; at the ^obal level, an International Whaling Commission sets an agreed-upon “harvest” that enables whales to regenerate. Likewise, where fishing industries, such as the Alaskan halibut fishery, have implemented “catch shares”—guaranteeing each fisher a percentage of each year’s allowable catch—competition and overfishing have been greatly reduced (Costello & others, 2008).

In everyday life, however, regulation has costs—costs of administering and enforcing the regulations, costs of diminished personal freedom. A volatile political question thus arises: At what point does a regulation’s cost exceed its benefits?

SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL There is another way to resolve social dilemmas; Make the group small. In a small commons, each person feels more responsible and effec­ tive (Kerr 1989). As a group grows larger, people become more likely to think, “I couldn t have made a difference anyway”—a common excuse for noncooperation (Kerr &Kaufman-Gilliland, 1997).

487Conflict and Peacemaking

In small groups, people also feel more identified with a group’s success. Resi­ dential stability also strengthens communal identity and procommunity behavior (Oishi & others, 2007).

In small groups—in contrast to large ones—individuals are less likely to take more than their equal share of available resources (Allison & others, 1992). On the Pacific Northwest island where I grew up, our small neighborhood shared a com­ munal water supply. On hot summer days when the reservoir ran low, a light came on, signaling our 15 families to conserve. Recognizing our responsibility to one another, and feeling that our conservation really mattered, each of us conserved. Never did the reservoir run dry.

In a much larger commons—say, a city—voluntary conservation is less success­ ful. Because the harm one does diffuses across many others, each individual can rationalize away personal accountability. Some political theorists and social psy­ chologists therefore argue that, where feasible, the commons should be divided into smaller territories (Edney, 1980). In his 1902 Mutual Aid, the Russian revolu­ tionary Pyotr Kropotkin set down a vision of small communities rather than central government making consensus decisions for the benefit of all (Gould, 1988).

Evolutionary psychologist Robin Dunbar (1992, 2010) notes that hunter-gatherer societies often travel together as groups of 30 to 35 people, that tribal villages and clans often have averaged about 150 people—enough to afford mutual support and protection but not more people than one can monitor. He suspects it’s not a coinci­ dence that the average number of Facebook friends—about 125—echoes the size of our ancestral tribal villages, which reflect the number of people with whom we can have meaningful, supportive relationships. This seemingly natural group size is also, he believes, the optimum size for business organizations, religious congrega­ tions, and military fighting units.

COMMUNICATION To resolve a social dilemma, people must communicate. In the laboratory as in real life, group communication sometimes degenerates into threats and name-calling (Deutsch & Krauss, 1960). More often, communication enables cooperation (Bornstein & others, 1988,1989). Discussing the dilemma forges a group identity, which enhances concern for everyone’s welfare. It devises group norms and expectations and pressures members to follow them. Especially when people are face-to-face, it enables them to commit themselves to cooperation (Bouas & Komorita, 1996; Drolet & Morris, 2000; Kerr & others, 1994,1997; Pruitt, 1998).

A clever experiment by Robyn Dawes (1980, 1994) illustrates the importance of communication. Imagine that an experimenter offered you and six strangers a choice: You can each have \$6, or you can donate your \$6 to the others. If you give away your money, the experimenter will double your gift. No one will be told whether you chose to give or keep your \$6. Thus, if all seven give, everyone pockets \$12. If you alone keep your \$6 and all the others give theirs, you pocket \$18. If you give and the others keep, you pocket nothing. In this experiment, cooperation is mutually advantageous, but it requires risk. Dawes found that, without discussion, about 30 percent of people gave. With discussion, in which they could establish trust and cooperation, about 80 percent gave.

Open, clear, forthright communication between two parties reduces mistrust. Without communication, those who expect others not to cooperate will usually refuse to cooperate themselves (Messe & Sivacek, 1979; Pruitt & Kimmel, 1977). One who mistrusts is almost sure to be uncooperative (to protect against exploita­ tion). Noncooperation, in turn, feeds further mistrust (“VS^at else could I do? It’s a dog-eat-dog world”). In experiments, communication reduces mistrust, enabling people to reach agreements that lead to their common betterment.

CHANGING THE PAYOFFS Laboratory cooperation rises when experimenters change the payoff matrix to reward cooperation and punish exploitation (Balliet & others, 2011). Changing payoffs also helps resolve actual dilemmas. In some cit­ ies, freeways clog and skies collect smog because people prefer the convenience

Chapter 13

“FOR THAT WHICH

IS COMMON TO THE

GREATEST NUMBER

HAS THE LEAST CARE

BESTOWED UPON IT.”

-ARISTOTLE

“MY OWN BELIEF IS THAT

RUSSIAN AND CHINESE

BEHAVIOR IS AS MUCH

INFLUENCED BY SUSPICION

OF OUR INTENTIONS AS

OURS IS BY SUSPICION

OF THEIRS. THIS WOULD

MEAN THAT WE HAVE

GREAT INFLUENCE ON

THEIR BEHAVIOR-THAT,

BY TREATING THEM AS

HOSTILE, WE ASSURE THEIR

HOSTILITY.”

-U.S. SENATOR J. WILLIAM

FULBRIGHT(1971)

488 Part Three Social Relations

To change behavior, many cities have changed the payoff matrix. Fast carpool-only lanes increase the benefits of carpooling and the costs of driving alone.

“NEVER IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN CONFLICT WAS SO MUCH OWED BY SO MANY TO SO FEW.”

—SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL,

HOUSE OF COMMONS,

AUGUST 20,1940

of driving themselves directly to work. Each knows that one more car does not add noticeably to the congestion and pollution. To alter the personal cost-benefit calculations many cities now give carpoolers incentives, such as desig­ nated freeway lanes or reduced tolls.

APPEALING TO ALTRUISTIC NORMS In Chapter 12 we saw how increasing bystanders’ feelings of responsibility for others boosts altruism. Will appeals to altruistic motives similarly prompt people to act for the common good?

The evidence is mixed. On the one hand, just knowing the dire consequences of noncooperation has little effect. In labo­ ratory games, people realize that their self-serving choices are mutually destructive, yet they continue to make them. Out­ side the laboratory, warnings of doom and appeals to con­ serve have brought little response. Shortly after taking office in 1976, President Carter declared that America’s response to the energy crisis should be “the moral equivalent of war” and urged conservation. The following summer, Americans consumed more gasoline than ever before. At the beginning of this new century, people knew that global warming was under way—and were buying gas-slurping SUVs in record numbers. As we have seen many times in this book, attitudes sometimes fail to influence behavior. Knowing what is good does not necessarily lead to doing what is good.

Still, most people do adhere to norms of social responsibil­ ity, reciprocity, equity, and keeping one’s commitments (Kerr, 1992). The problem is how to tap such feelings. One way is through the influence of a charismatic leader who inspires others to cooperate (De Cremer, 2002). Another way is by defining situations in ways that invoke cooperative norms. In one experiment, only a third of participants cooperated in a simulation labeled the “Wall Street Game.” Two-thirds did so when the same social dilemma was labeled the “Community Game” (Liberman & others, 2004).

Communication can also activate altruistic norms. When permitted to communi­ cate, participants in laboratory games frequently appeal to the social-responsibility norm: “If you defect on the rest of us, you’re going to have to live with it for the rest of your life” (Dawes & others, 1977). So researcher Robyn Dawes (1980) and his associates gave participants a short sermon about group benefits, exploitation, and ethics. Then the participants played a dilemma game. The sermon worked: People chose to forgo immediate personal gain for the common good. (Recall, too, from Chapter 12, the disproportionate volunteerism and charitable contributions by people who regularly hear religious sermons.)

Could such appeals work in large-scale dilemmas? In the 1960s struggle for civil rights, many marchers willingly agreed, for the sake of the larger group, to suffer harassment, beatings, and jail. In wartime, people make great personal sacrifices for the good of their group. As Winston Churchill said of the Battle of Britain, the actions of the Royal Air Force pilots were genuinely altruistic: A great many people owed a great deal to those who flew into battle knowing there was a high probability—70 per­ cent for those on a standard tour of duty—that they would not return (Levinson, 1950).

To summarize, we can minimize destructive entrapment in social dilemmas by establishing rules that regulate self-serving behavior, by keeping groups small by enabling people to communicate, by changing payoffs to make cooperation more rewarding, and by invoking compelling altruistic norms.

Competition Hostilities often arise when groups compete for scarce jobs, housing, or resources. When interests clash, conflict erupts—a phenomenon Chapter 9 identified as realistic group conflict. As one Algerian immigrant to France explained after Muslim youth rioted in

489Conflict and Peacemaking

f Prpnch cities in the autumn of 2005, “There is no exit, no factories, no jobs for ■dozens of French c (c^inVmo 2005) ”We are the 99 percent EconomiclU- ^ Tilted te chirpy wTll s“^t prlstors in 2011: expressing their fjustice is overdue declared the Wail b P ^pleasure With 1 percent of

invading his Turkish province in 1919.

: Theystartedkiliingpeoplerightand^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and then I became mterested wLtevL science or specialization was

‘ After studying the social roots of savagery, Sherif introduced

camp m “Parate buse^ an p ^^,5 Oklahoma’s Robb« s Cav^ State Park^to^^^^ in various activities-preparing

ifying the good feeling, a ^ ^ the conflict. Near the first Grouo identity thus established, the stage u n m ” wVi#»n the

groups (baseball games, ° ^ ^ tMs was win-lose competition. Theforth), both groups responded enthusiastically. 1 Ills V* spoils (medals, knives) would all go to the , ,,ene from

boys marooned on an island. In Sh • • ^ it escalated to din-

Chapter 13

Little-known fact: How did Sherif unobtrusively observe the boys without inhibiting their behavior? He became the camp maintenance man (Williams, 2002).

Competition kindles conflict. Here, in Sherif’s Robber’s Cave experiment, one group of boys raids the bunkhouse of another.

490 Part Three

“DO UNTO OTHERS 20% BETTER THAN YOU WOULD EXPECTTHEMTODO UNTO YOU, TO CORRECT FOR SUBJECTIVE ERROR.”

—LINUS PAULING (1962)

Social Relations

after hearing tolerance-advocating messages, ingroup discussion often exacerh i dislike of the conflicting group (Paluck, 2010). All of this occurred without anv ? tural, physical, or economic differences between the two groups, and withal,”*’ who were their communiHes’ “cream of the crop.” Sherif noted that, had we the camp at that point, we would have concluded these “were wicked dishirh a Md vicious bunches of youngsters” (1966, p. 85). Actually, their evil behavior ‘ tnggered by an evil situation.

Competition breeds such conflict, later research has shown, especially when i.i p^ple perceive that resources such as money, jobs, or power are limited and avaU- able on a zero-sum basis (others’ gain is one’s loss), and (b) a distinct outeroun stands out as a potential competitor (Esses & others, 2005). Thus, those who see immigrants as competing for their own jobs will tend to express negative attitudes toward immigrants and immigration. ^

Fortunately, as we will see, Sherif not only made strangers into enemies; he then also made the enemies into friends.

Perceived Injustice “That’s i^air!” “What a ripoff!” “We deserve better!” Such comments typify conflicts bred by perceived injustice. But what is “justice”? According to some social-psychological theorists, people perceive justice as equity—the distribution of rewards in proportion to individuals’ contributions (Walster & others, 1978). If you and I have a relationship (employer-employee, teacher-student, husband-wife colleague-colleague), it is equitable if

My outcomes _ Your outcomes My inputs Your inputs

If you contribute more and benefit less than I do, you will feel exploited and irri- tated; I may feel exploitative and guilty. Chances are, though, that you will be more sensitive to the inequity than I will be (Greenberg, 1986; Messick & Sentis, 1979).

We may agree with the equity principle’s definition of justice yet disagree on whetiier our relationship is equitable. If two people are colleagues, what will each consider a relevant input? The older person may favor basing pay on seniority, the other on current productivity. Given such a disagreement, whose definition is likely to prevail. Those with social power usually convince themselves and others that they deserve what they’re getting (Mikula, 1984). This has been called a “golden” rule: Whoever has the gold makes the rules.

Critics argue that equity is not the only conceivable definition of justice. (Pause a moment: Can you imagine any other?) Edward Sampson (1975) argued that equity Uieonsts wrongly assume that the economic principles that guide Western, capital­ ist nations are umversal. Some noncapitalist cultures define justice not as equity but as equality or even fulfillment of need: “From each according to his abilities, to each accordmg to his needs” (Karl Marx). Compared with individualistic Americans, people socialized under the influence of collectivist cultures, such as China and ^dia, defme justice more as equality or need fulfillment (Hui & others, 1991 • Leung & Bond, 1984; Murphy-Berman others, 1984).

On what basis should rewards be distributed? Merit? Equality? Need^ Some com­ bination of those? Political philosopher John Rawls (1971) invited us to consider a tuture m which our own place on the economic ladder is unknown. Which stan­ dard of justice would we prefer?

Misperception Recall that conflict is a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals. Many conflicts contain but a small core of truly incompatible goals; the bigger problem is the misper­ ceptions of the other’s motives and goals. Hie Eagles and the Rattlers did indeed

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 491

have some genuinely incompatible aims. But their perceptions subjectively magni­ fied their differences (Figure 13.3).

In earlier chapters we considered the seeds of such misperception:

T • The self-serving bias leads individu- S’ als and groups to accept credit for I ’ their good deeds and shirk respon-

sibility for bad deeds, r • A tendency to sc//-j«stf/y inclines 1^ people to deny the wrong of their I evil acts. (“You call that hitting? I

hardly touched him!”) [■ • Thanks to the fundamental attribution error, each side sees the other’s hostility j as reflecting an evil disposition. \. • One then filters the information and interprets it to fit one’s preconceptions. \ • Groups frequently polarize these self-serving, self-justifying, biasing ?: tendencies. ‘ • One symptom of groupthink is the tendency to perceive one’s own group as ! r moral and strong, and the opposition as evil and weak. Acts of terrorism that S in most people’s eyes are despicable brutality are seen by others as “holy war.” [‘ • Indeed, the mere fact of being in a group triggers an ingroup bias. i • Negative stereotypes of the outgroup, once formed, are often resistant to con­

tradictory evidence. So it should not surprise us, though it should sober us, to discover that people in

conflict—people everywhere—form distorted images of one another. Wherever in the world you live, was it not true that when your country was last at war it clothed itself in moral virtue? that it prepared for war by demonizing the enemy? that most of its people accepted their government’s case for war and rallied ’round its flag? Show social psychologists Ervin Staub and Daniel Bar-Tal (2003) a group in intrac­ table conflict and they will show you a group that

• sees its own goals as supremely important. • takes pride in “us” and devalues “them.” • believes itself victimized.

■ • elevates patriotism, solidarity, and loyalty to their group s needs. • celebrates self-sacrifice and suppresses criticism. Although one side to a conflict may indeed be acting with greater moral vutue,

the point is that enemy images are fairly predictable. Even the types of mispercep­ tion are intriguingly predictable.

MIRROR-IMAGE PERCEPTIONS

To a striking degree, the misperceptions of those in conflict are mutual. People in conflict attribute similar virtues to themselves and vices to the other. When the American psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner (1961) visited the Soviet Union in 1960 and conversed with many ordinary citizens in Russian, he was astonished to hear them saying the same things about America that Americans were saying about Russia. The Russians said that the U.S. government was militarily aggressive; that it exploited and deluded the American people; that in diplomacy, it was not to be trusted. “Slowly and painfully, it forced itself upon one that the Russians’ distorted picture of us was curiously similar to our view of them—a mirror image.

Analyses of American and Russian perceptions by psychologists (Tobin & Eagles, 1992; White, 1984) and political scientists (Jervis, 1985) revealed that mirror-image

FIGURE:: 13.3 Many conflicts contain a core of truly incompatible goals surrounded by a larger exterior of misperceptions.

“AGGRESSION BREEDS PATRIOTISM, AND PATRIOTISM CURBS DISSENT.”

—MAUREEN DOWD, 2003

492 Part Three Social Relations

Self-confirming, mirror-image perceptions are a hallmark of intense conflict.

mirror-image perceptions Reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict: for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive.

perceptions persisted into the 1980s. The same action (patrolling the other’s coast with sellmg arms to smaller nations) seemed more hostile when they did it

When two sides have clashing perceptions, at least one of the two is misperceiving the other. And when such misperceptions exist, noted Bronfenbrenner, “It is a psy­ chological phenomenon without parallel in the gravity of its consequences … for if IS characteristic of such images that they are self-confirming.” If A expects B to be hostile

may treat B m such a way that B fulfills A’s expectations, thus beginning a vicious circle (Kennedy & Pronin, 2008). Morton Deutsch (1986) explained:

You hear the false rumor that a friend is saying nasty things about you; you snub him; he then badmouths you, confirming your expectation. Similarly, if the policymakers of East and West believe that war is likely and either attempts to increase its military security vis-a-vis the other, the other’s response will justify the initial move. Negative mirror-image perceptions have been an obstacle to peace in many

places: ^ ^

Both sides of the Arab-Israeli conflict insisted that “we” are motivated by our need to protect our security and our territory, whereas “they” want to obliter­ ate us and gobble up our land. “We” are the indigenous people here, “they” are the mvaders. “We” are the victims; “they” are the aggressors” (Bar-Tal, 2004; ^^^dsWeit, 1979; Kelman, 2007). Given such intense mistrust, negotiation is

• At Northern Ireland’s University of Ulster, Catholic and Protestant students viewed videos of a Protestant attack at a Catholic funeral and a Catholic attack at a Protestant funeral (Hunter & others, 1991). Most students attrib­ uted the other side’s attack to “bloodthirsty” motives but its own side’s attack to retaliation or self-defense.

• Terrorism is in the eye of the beholder. In the Middle East, a public opinion survey found 98 percent of Palestinians agreeing that the killing of 29 Pales­ tinians by an assault-rifle-bearing Israeli at a mosque constituted terrorism, and 82 percent disagreed that the killing of 21 Israeli youths by a Palestinian suicide-bombmg constituted terrorism (Kmglanski & Fishman, 2006) Israelis likewise have responded to violence with intensified perceptions of Palestinian evil intent (Bar-Tal, 2004).

OULU Lonriicts, iiuies 1 luup z^imoarao (^uu4a), engage “a two-categ^iy of good people, like US, and of bad people, like THEM.” “In fact,” n4e Danit

ahneman and Jonathan Renshon (200^, all the biases uncovered in 40 years of psv chological research are conducive to war. They “incline national leaders to exaggerat

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 493

the evil intentions of adversaries, to misjudge how adversaries perceive them, to he overly sanguine when hostilities start, and overly reluctant to make necessary con­ cessions in negotiations.”

Opposing sides in a conflict tend to exaggerate their differences. On issues such as immigration and affirmative action, proponents aren’t as liberal and opponents aren’t as conservative as their adversaries suppose (Sherman & others, 2003). Opposing sides also tend to have a “bias blind spot,” notes Cynthia McPherson Frantz (2006). They see their own understandings as not biased by their liking or disliking for others; but those who disagree with them seem unfair and biased.

John Chambers, Robert Baron, and Mary Inman (2006) confirmed misperceptions on issues related to abortion and politics. Partisans perceived exaggerated differ­ ences from their adversaries (who actually agreed with them more often than they supposed). From exaggerated perceptions of the other’s position arise culture wars. Ralph White (1996,1998) reports that the Serbs started the war in Bosnia partly out of an exaggerated fear of the relatively secularized Bosnian Muslims, whose beliefs they wrongly associated with Middle Eastern Islamic fundamentalism and fanati­ cal terrorism. Resolving conflict involves abandoning such exaggerated perceptions and coming to understand the other’s mind. But that isn’t easy, notes Robert Wright (2003): “Putting yourself in the shoes of people who do things you find abhorrent may be the hardest moral exercise there is.”

Destructive mirror-image perceptions also operate in conflicts between small groups and between individuals. As we saw in the dilemma games, both parties may say, “We want to cooperate. But their refusal to cooperate forces us to react defen­ sively.” When Kermeth Thomas and Louis Pondy (1977) asked executives to describe a significant recent conflict, only 12 percent felt the other party was cooperative; 74 percent perceived themselves as cooperative. The typical executive explained that he or she had “suggested,” “informed,” and “recommended,” whereas the antagonist had “demanded,” “disagreed with everything I said,” and “refused.”

Group conflicts are often fueled by an illusion that the enemy’s top leaders are evil but their people, though controlled and manipulated, are pro-us. This evil-leader- good people perception characterized Americans’ and Russians’ views of each other during the Cold War. The United States entered the Vietnam War believing that in areas dominated by the Communist Vietcong “terrorists,” many of the people were allies-in-waiting. As suppressed information later revealed, those beliefs were mere wishful thinking. In 2003 the United States began the Iraq War presuming the exis­ tence of “a vast underground network that would rise in support of coalition forces to assist security and law enforcement” (Phillips, 2003). Alas, the network didn’t materialize, and the resulting postwar security vacuum enabled looting, sabotage, persistent attacks on American forces, and increasing attacks from an insurgency determined to drive Western interests from the country.

“THE AMERICAN PEOPLE

ARE GOOD, BUT THE

LEADERS ARE BAD.”

-BAGHDAD GROCER ADUL

GESAN AFTER 1998 AMERICAN

BOMBING OF IRAQ

SIMPLISTIC THINKING

When tension rises—as happens during an international crisis—rational thinking becomes more difficult (Janis, 1989). Views of the enemy become more simplistic and stereotyped, and seat-of-the-pants judgments become more likely. Even the mere expectation of conflict can serve to freeze thinking and impede creative prob­ lem solving (Camevale & Probst, 1998). Social psychologist Philip Tetlock (1988) observed inflexible thinking when he analyzed the complexity of Russian and American rhetoric since 1945. During the Berlin blockade, the Korean War, and the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, political statements became simplified into stark, good-versus-bad terms. At other times—notably after Mikhail Gorbachev became the Soviet general secretary (Figure 13.4)—political statements acknowledged that each country’s motives are complex.

Researchers have also analyzed political rhetoric preceding the outset of major wars, surprise military attacks. Middle Eastern conflicts, and revolu­ tions (Conway & others, 2001). In nearly every case, attacking leaders displayed

494 Part Three Social Relations

FIGURE:: 13.4 Complexity of Official U.S. and Soviet Policy Statements, 1977-1986 Source:?rom Tetlock, 1988.

Mean integrative complexity (complexity = not simplistic)

Year

increasingly simplistic we-are-good/they-are-bad thinking immediately prior to new” u IT”””‘typically preceded wh^n P r optimism was cLirmed when President Reagan in 1988 traveled to Moscow to sign the American Russian mtermediate-range nuclear force (INF) treaty, and then Gorbachev visited

research CLOSE-UP Misperception and War

Most research that I report in this book offers numeri­ cal data drawn from observations of people’s behav­ ior, cognitions, and attitudes as exhibited in laboratory experiments or in surveys. But there are other ways to do research. Some social psychologists, especially in Europe, analyze natural human discourse; they study written texts or spoken conversation to glimpse how people interpret and construct the events of their lives (Edwards & Potter, 2005). Others have analyzed human behavior in historical contexts, as did Irving Janis (1972) in exploring groupthink in historical fiascoes and Philip Tetlock (2005) in exploring the judgment failures of supposed political experts.

In what was arguably social psychology’s longest career, Ralph K. White, legendary for his late 1930s studies of democratic versus autocratic leadership (with pioneering social psychologists Kurt Lewin and Ronald Lippitt), published in 2004—at age 97—a capstone article summarizing his earlier analyses (1968, 1984, 1986) of how misperceptions feed war. In reviewing 10 wars from the past century, White reported that each was marked by at least one of three mispercep­ tions: underestimating the strength of one’s enemy,

ratJona//z/ng one’s own motives and behavior, and, especially, demonizing the enemy.

Underestimating one’s adversary, he observed, embold- |: ened Hitler to attack Russia, Japan to attack the United i States, and the United States to enter the Korean and |

Vietnam wars. And rationalization of one’s own actions and I demonization of the adversary are the hallmark of war. In f

the early twenty-first century as the United States and Iraq i talked of war, each said the other was “evil.” To George I W Bush, Saddam Hussein was a “murderous tyrant” and a “madman” who threatened the civilized world with weap- ■ ons of mass destruction. To Iraq’s government, the Bush government was a “gang of evil” (Preston, 2002). |

The truth need not lie midway between such clash- I ing perceptions. Yet “valid perception is an antidote to hate,” concluded White as he reflected on his lifetime ‘ as a peace psychologist. Empathy-accurately perceiv- ; ing the other’s thoughts and feelings—is “one of the most important factors for preventing war. .. . Empathy can help two or more nations avoid the dangers of misperception that lead to the wars most would prefer not to fight.”

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 495

I New York and told the United Nations that he would remove 500,000 Soviet troops ^ fixim Eastern Europe:

^ I would like to believe that our hopes will be matched by our joint effort to put an end I to an era of wars, confrontation and regional conflicts, to aggressions against nature, to I the terror of hunger and poverty as well as to political terrorism. This is our common

goal and we can only reach it together.

SHIFTING PERCEPTIONS

If misperceptions accompany conflict, they should appear and disappear as con­ flicts wax and wane. And they do, with startling regularity. The same processes that create the enemy’s image can reverse that image when the enemy becomes an ally. Thus, the “bloodthirsty, cruel, treacherous, buck-toothed little Japs” of World War II soon became—in North American minds (Gallup, 1972) and in the media— our “intelligent, hard-working, self-disciplined, resourceful allies.”

The Germans, who after two world wars were hated, then admired, and then again hated, were once again admired—apparently no longer plagued by what earlier was presumed to be cruelty in their national character. So long as Iraq was attacking unpopular Iran, even while using chemical weapons to massacre its own Kurds, many nations supported it. Our enemy’s enemy is our friend. When Iraq ended its war with Iran and invaded oil-rich Kuwait, Iraq’s behavior suddenly became “barbaric.” Images of our enemies change with amazing ease.

The extent of misperceptions during conflict provides a chilling reminder that people need not be insane or abnormally malicious to form distorted images of their antagonists. When we experience conflict with another nation, another group, or simply a roommate or a parent, we readily misperceive our own motives as good and the other’s as evil. And just as readily, our antagonists form a mirror-image perception of us.

So, with antagonists trapped in a social dilemma, competing for scarce resources, or perceiving injustice, the conflict continues until something enables both parties to peel away their misperceptions and work at reconciling their actual differences. Good advice, then, is this: When in conflict, do not assume that the other fails to share your values and morality. Rather, compare perceptions, assuming that the other is likely perceiving the situation differently.

SUMMING UP: What Creates Conflict? • Whenever two or more people, groups, or nations

interact, their perceived needs and goals may con­ flict. Many social dilemmas arise as people pursue individual self-interest to their collective detriment. Two laboratory games, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons, exemplify such dilemmas. In real life we can avoid such traps by establishing rules that regulate self-serving behav­ ior; by keeping social groups small so people feel responsibility for one another; by enabling com­ munication, thus reducing mistrust; by changing payoffs to make cooperation more rewarding; and by invoking altruistic norms.

• When people compete for scarce resources, human relations often sink into prejudice and hostility. In his famous experiments, Muzafer Sherif found that win-lose competition quickly made strangers into

enemies, triggering outright warfare even among normally upstanding boys.

• Conflicts also arise when people feel unjustly treated. According to equity theory, people define justice as the distribution of rewards in proportion to one’s contributions. Conflicts occur when people disagree on the extent of their contributions and thus on the equity of their outcomes.

• Conflicts frequently contain a small core of truly incompatible goals, surrounded by a thick layer of misperceptions of the adversary’s motives and goals. Often, conflicting parties have mirror-image perceptions. When both sides believe “We are peace- loving—they are hostile,” each may treat the other in ways that provoke confirmation of its expecta­ tions. International conflicts are sometimes also fed by an evil leader-good people illusion.

496 Part Three Social Relations

“WE KNOW MORE ABOUT

WAR THAN WE DO ABOUT

PEACE—MORE ABOUT

KILLING THAN WE KNOW

ABOUT LIVING.”

-GENERAL OMAR BRADLEY,

1893-1981, FORMER U.S. ARMY

CHIEF OF STAFF

HOW CAN PEACE BE ACHIEVED? Explain the processes that enable the achievement of peace.

Although toxic forces can breed destructive conflict, we can harness other forces to bring conflict to a constructive resolution. What are these ingredients of peace and harmony?

We have seen how conflicts are ignited by social traps, competition, perceived injustices, and misperceptions. Although the picture is grim, it is not hopeless. Sometimes closed fists become open arms as hostilities evolve into friendship. Social psychologists have focused on four strategies for helping enemies become comrades. We can remember these as the four Cs of peacemaking: contact, coopera­ tion, communication, and conciliation.

Contact Might putting two conflicting individuals or groups into close contact enable them to know and like each other? Perhaps not: In Chapter 3, we saw how negative expectations can bias judgments and create self-fulfilling prophecies. When ten­ sions run high, contact may fuel a fight.

But we also saw, in Chapter 11, that proximity—and the accompanying interac­ tion, anticipation of interaction, and mere exposure—boosts liking. In Chapter 4, we noted how blatant racial prejudice declined following desegregation, showing that attitudes follow behavior. If this social-psychological principle now seems obvi­ ous, remember: That’s how things usually seem after you know them. To the U.S. Supreme Court in 1896, the idea that desegregated behavior might reduce preju­ dicial attitudes was anything but obvious. What seemed obvious at the time was “that legislation is powerless to eradicate racial instincts” (Plessy v. Ferguson).

DOES CONTACT PREDICT ATTITUDES? In general, contact predicts tolerance. In a painstakingly complete analysis, Linda Tropp and Thomas Pettigrew (2005a; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2008, 2011) assembled data from 516 studies of 250,555 people in 38 nations. In 94 percent of studies, increased contact predicted decreased prejudice. This is especially so for majority group attitudes toward minorities (Gibson & Claassen, 2010; Tropp & Pettigrew, 2005b).

Newer studies confirm the correlation between contact and positive attitudes: • The more interracial contact South African Blacks and Whites have, the less

prejudice they feel, and the more sympathetic their policy attitudes are to those of the other group (Dixon & others, 2007; Tredoux & Finchilescu, 2010).

• The more friendly contact Blacks and Whites have with one another, the bet­ ter their attitudes toward one another—and toward other outgroups, such as Hispanics (Tausch & others, 2010).

• The more contact straight people have with gays and lesbians, the more accepting they become (Smith & others, 2009).

• The more contact Dutch adolescents have with Muslims, the more accepting of Muslims they are (Gonzalez & others, 2008).

• Even vicarious indirect contact, via story reading or imagination, or through a friend’s having an outgroup friend, tends to reduce prejudice (Cameron & Rutland, 2006; Crisp & others, 2011; Turner & others, 2007a, 2007b, 2008, 2010). This indirect contact effect, also called “the extended-contact effect,” can spread more positive attitudes through a peer group (Christ & others, 2010).

In the United States, segregation and expressed prejudice have diminished together since the 1960s. But was interracial contact the cause of these improved attitudes? Were those who actually experienced desegregation affected by it?

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 497

DOES DESEGREGATION IMPROVE RACIAL ATTITUDES?

School desegregation has produced measurable benefits, such as leading more Blacks to attend and succeed in college (Stephan, 1988). Does desegregation of schools, neighborhoods, and workplaces also produce favorable social results? The evidence is mixed.

On the one hand, many studies conducted during and shortly after desegrega­ tion found Whites’ attitudes toward Blacks improving markedly. Whether the peo­ ple were department store clerks and customers, merchant marines, government workers, police officers, neighbors, or students, racial contact led to diminished prejudice (Amir, 1969; Pettigrew, 1969). For example, near the end of World War II, the U.S. Army partially desegregated some of its rifle companies (Stouffer & others, 1949). When asked their opinions of such desegregation, 11 percent of the White soldiers in segregated companies approved. Of those in desegregated companies, 60 percent approved. They exhibited “system justification”—the human tendency to approve the way things are.

When Morton Deutsch and Mary Collins (1951) took advantage of a made to-order natural experiment, they observed similar results. In accord with state law. New York City desegregated its public housing units; it assigned families to apartments without regard to race. In a similar development across the river in Newark, New Jersey, Blacks and Whites were assigned to separate buildings. When surveyed. White women in the desegregated development were far more likely to favor interracial housing and to say their attitudes toward Blacks had improved. Exaggerated stereotypes had wilted in the face of reality. As one woman put it, “I’ve really come to like it. 1 see they’re just as human as we are.”

Such findings influenced the Supreme Court’s 1954 decision to desegregate schools and helped fuel the 1960s civil rights movement (Pettigrew, 1986,2004). Yet initial studies of the effects of school desegregation were less encouraging. After reviewing all the available studies, Walter Stephan (1986) concluded that racial atti­ tudes had been little affected by desegregation. For Blacks, the noticeable effect of desegregated schooling was less on attitudes than on their increased likelihood of attending integrated (or predominantly White) colleges, living in integrated neigh­ borhoods, and working in integrated settings.

Thus, we can see that sometimes desegregation improves racial attitudes, and sometimes—especially when there is anxiety or perceived threat (Pettigrew, 2004)—it doesn’t. Such disagreements excite the scientist’s detective spirit. What explains the difference? So far, we’ve been lumping all kinds of desegregation together. Actual desegregation occurs in many ways and under vastly different conditions.

WHEN DOES DESEGREGATION IMPROVE RACIAL ATTITUDES?

Given that “mere exposure” can produce liking (Chapter 11), might exposure to other-race faces produce increased liking for other-race strangers? Indeed yes, Leslie Zebrowitz and her colleagues (2008) discovered, when exposing White par­ ticipants to Asian and Black faces. Might the frequency of interracial contact also be a factor? Indeed it seems to be. Researchers have gone into dozens of desegre­ gated schools and observed with whom children of a given race eat, talk, and loiter. Race influences contact. Whites disproportionately associate with Whites, Blacks with Blacks (Schofield, 1982, 1986). In one study of Dartmouth University e-mail exchanges. Black students, though only 7 percent of students, sent 44 percent of their e-mails to other Black students (Sacerdote & Marmaros, 2005).

The same self-imposed segregation was evident in a South African desegregated beach, as John Dixon and Kevin Durrheim (2003) discovered when they recorded the location of Black, White, and Indian beachgoers one midsummer (Decem­ ber 30th) afternoon (Figure 13.5). Desegregated neighborhoods, cafeterias, and

498 Part Three Social Relations

FIGURE :: 13.5 Desegregation Needn’t Mean Contact After this Scottburgh, South Africa, beach became “open” and desegregated in the new South Africa, Blacks (represented by red dots), Whites (blue dots), and Indians (yellow dots) tended to cluster with their own race.

Source: From Dixon & Durrheim, 2003.

restaurants, too, may fail to produce integrated interactions (Clack & others, 2005; Dixon & others, 2005a, 2005b). “Why are all the Black kids sitting together?” people may wonder (a question that could as easily be asked of the White kids). One natu­ ralistic study observed 119 class sessions of 26 University of Cape Town tutorial groups, which averaged 6 Black and 10 White students per group (Alexander & Tredoux, 2010). On average, the researchers calculated, 71 percent of Black students would have needed to change seats to achieve a fully integrated seating pattern.

In one study that tracked the attitudes of more than 1,600 European students, over time, contact did serve to reduce prejudice. But prejudice also minimized con­ tact (Binder & others, 2009). Anxiety as well as prejudice helps explain why par­ ticipants in interracial relationships (when students are paired as roommates or as partners in an experiment) may engage in less intimate self-disclosure than those in same-race relationships (Johnson & others, 2009; Trail & others, 2009).

Efforts to facilitate contact sometimes help, but sometimes fall flat. “We had one day when some of the Protestant schools came over,” explained one Catholic youngster after a Northern Ireland school exchange (Cairns & Hewstone, 2002). “It was supposed to be like … mixing, but there was very little mixing. It wasn’t because we didn’t want to; it was just really awkward.” The lack of mixing stems partly from “pluralistic ignorance.” Many Whites and Blacks say they would like more contact but misperceive that the other does not reciprocate their feelings. (See “Research Close-Up; Relationships That Might Have Been.”)

FRIENDSHIP The encouraging older studies of store clerks, soldiers, and hous­ ing project neighbors involved considerable interracial contact, more than enough to reduce the anxiety that marks initial intergroup contact. Other studies show similar benefits when they involve prolonged, personal contact—between Black and White prison inmates, between Black and White girls in an interracial sum­ mer camp, between Black and White university roommates, and between Black, Colored, and White South Africans (Clore & others, 1978; Foley, 1976; Holtman & others, 2005; Van Laar & others, 2005). Among American students who have

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 499

research CLOSE UP Relationships That Might Have Been

Perhaps you can recall a time when you really would have liked to reach out to someone. Maybe it was someone to whom you felt attracted. But doubting that your feel­ ings were reciprocated, you didn’t risk rebuff. Or maybe it was someone of another race whom you wanted to welcome to the open seat at your dining hall or library table. But you worried that the person might be wary of sitting with you. It’s likely that on some such occasions the other person actually reciprocated your wish to con­ nect but assumed that your distance signified indiffer­ ence or even prejudice. Alas, thanks to what Chapter 8 called “pluralistic ignorance”—shared false impressions of another’s feelings—you passed like ships in the night.

Studies by University of Manitoba psychologist Jacquie Vorauer (2001,2005; Vorauer& Sakamoto, 2006) illuminate this phenomenon. In their new relationships, people often overestimate the transparency of their feelings, Vorauer reports. Presuming that their feelings are leaking out, they experience the “illusion of transparency (Chapter 2). Thus, they may assume that their body language conveys their romantic interest, when actually the intended recipi­ ent never gets the message. If the other person shares the positive feelings, and is similarly overestimating his or her own transparency, then the possibility of a relationship is quenched.

The same phenomenon, Vorauer reports, often occurs with low-prejudice people who would love more friend­ ships with those outside their racial or social group. If Whites presume that Blacks think them prejudiced, and

I if Blacks presume that Whites stereotype them, both will I feel anxious about making the first move. Such anxiety is i “a central factor” in South Africa’s “continuing informal I segregation,” reports Gillian Finchilescu (2CX)5). Seeking to I replicate and extend Vorauer’s work, Nicole Shelton and [ Jennifer Richeson (2005; Richeson & Shelton, 2012) under­

took a coordinated series of surveys and behavioral tests. In their first study. University of Massachusetts White

students viewed themselves as having more-than-average interest in cross-racial contacts and friendships, and they perceived White students in general as more eager for such than were Black students. Black students had mirror- image views—seeing themselves as more eager for such than were White students. “I want to have friendships across racial lines,” thought the typical student. But those in the other racial group don’t share my desire.”

Would this pluralistic ignorance generalize to a spe­ cific setting? To find out, Shelton and Richeson’s second study asked White Princeton students to imagine how they would react upon entering their dining hall and

………………..

noticing several Black (or White) “students who live near you sitting together.” How interested would you be in joining them? And how likely is it that one of them would beckon you to join them? Again, Whites believed that they more than those of the other race would be inter­ ested in the contact.

And how do people explain failures to make interra­ cial contact? In their third study, Shelton and Richeson invited Princeton White and Black students to contem­ plate a dining hall situation in which they notice a table with familiar-looking students of the other race, but nei­ ther they nor the seated students reach out to the other. The study participants, regardless of race, attributed their own inaction in such a situation primarily to fear of rejection, and more often attributed the seated students’ inaction to lack of interest. In a fourth study at Dartmouth University, Shelton and Richeson replicated this study with different instructions but similar results.

Would this pluralistic ignorance phenomenon extend to other real-life settings, and to contact with a single other person? In Study 5, Shelton and Richeson invited Princeton students, both Black and White, to a study of “friendship formation.” After participants had filled out some background information, the experimenter took their picture, attached it to background information, ostensibly took it to the room of a supposed fellow participant, and then returned with the other person’s sheet and photo- showing a person of the same sex but the other race. The participants were then asked, “To what extent are you con­ cerned about being accepted by the other participant?” and “How likely is it that the other person won’t want you as a friend?” Regardless of their race, the participants guessed that they, more than the other-race fellow participant, were interested in friendship but worried about rejection.

Do these social misperceptions constrain actual inter­ racial contact? In a sixth study, Shelton and Richeson confirmed that White Princeton students who were most prone to pluralistic ignorance—to presuming that they feared interracial rejection more than did Black students—were also the most likely to experience dimin­ ishing cross-racial contacts in the ensuing seven weeks.

Vorauer, Shelton, and Richeson are not contend­ ing that misperceptions alone impede romances and cross-racial friendships. But misperceptions do restrain people from risking an overture. Understanding this phenomenon—recognizing that others’ coolness may actually reflect motives and feelings similar to our own- may help us reach out to others, and sometimes to trans­ form potential friendships into real ones.

500 Part Three Social Relations

THE inside STORY

‘ : /t’

Nicole Shelton and Jennifer Richeson on Cross-Racial Friendships

During the initial stages of our collaboration, we spent time simply listening to each other talk about the stress associated with being assistant professors. We noticed that both White and ethnic minority students in our classes often indicated that they genuinely wanted to interact with people outside of their ethnic group but were afraid that they would not be accepted. However, they did not think people of other ethnic groups had the same fears; they assumed that members of other groups simply did not want to connect. This sounded very much like Dale Miller’s work on pluralistic ignorance. Over the course of a few weeks, we designed a series of studies to explore plu­ ralistic ignorance in the context of interracial interactions.

Since the publication of our article, we have had researchers tell us that we should use our work in new student orientation sessions in order to reduce students’

fears about reaching across racial lines. We are delighted that when we present this work in our courses, students of all racial backgrounds tell us that it indeed has opened their eyes about making the first move to develop inter­ racial friendships.

Nicole Shelton

Princeton University

Jennifer Richeson

Northwestern University

Studied in Germany or in Britain, the more their contact with host country people, the more positive their attitudes (Stangor & others, 1996). Exchange students’ hosts also are changed by the experience; they become more likely to see things from the other visitor culture’s perspective (Vollhardt, 2010).

In experiments, contact with someone of another race who acts positively (warm and relaxed) makes their race less salient—less likely to be noted and commented on than when their behavior is distant and tense (Paolini & others, 2010). Those who form friendships with outgroup members develop more positive attitudes toward the outgroup (Page-Gould & others, 2010; Pettigrew &: Tropp, 2000). It’s not just head knowledge of other people that matters; it’s also the emotional ties that form with intimate friendships and interracial roommate pairings that serve to reduce anxiety and increase empathy (Barlow & others, 2009; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2000, 2011; Shook & Fazio, 2008). For initially intolerant people, the anxiety-reducing effect of contact is especially strong (Hodson, 2011).

The diminishing anxiety that accompanies friendly outgroup interactions is a biological event: It is measurable as decreased stress hormone reactivity in cross­ ethnic contexts (Page-Gould & others, 2008).

“Group salience” (visibility) also helps bridge divides between people. If you forever think of that friend solely as an individual, your affective ties may not generalize to other members of the friend’s group (Miller, 2002). Ideally, then, we should form trusting friendships across group lines but also recognize that the friend represents those in another group—with whom we turn out to have much in common (Brown & others, 2007).

We are especially likely to befriend dissimilar people when their outgroup iden­ tity is initially minimized. If our liking for our new friends is then to generalize to others, their group identity must at some point become salient. So, to reduce preju­ dice and conflict, we had best initially minimize group diversity, then acknowledge it, then transcend it.

Surveys of nearly 4,000 Europeans reveal that friendship is a key to success­ ful contact: If you have a minority group friend, you become much more likely to express sympathy and support for the friend’s group, and even somewhat more

501Conflict and Peacemaking

support for immigration by that group. It’s true of West Geimans attitudes toward TurL, French people’s attitudes toward Asians and North Africans Netherland ers’ attitudes toward Surinamers and Turks, British attitudes toward West Indians and Asians, and Northern Ireland Protestants’ and Catholics’ attitudes toward eac other (Brown & others, 1999; Hamberger & Hewstone, 1997; Paolmi & others, 2004,

Pettigrew, 1997). EOUAL-STATUS CONTACT The social psychologists who advocated desegre­ gation never claimed that all contact would improve attitudes. They expected poor results when contacts were competitive, unsupported by (Pettigrew, 1988; Stephan, 1987). Before 1954 many prejudiced Whites had frequent contacts with Blacks—as shoeshine men and domestic workers As we saw m C ap- ter 9, such unequal contacts breed attitudes that merely justify inequality. So it’s important that the contact be equal-status contact, like that between the store clerks, the soldiers, the neighbors, the prisoners, and the suiter

In colleges and universities, informal interactions enabled by classroom ethn diversity pay divideirds for all students, report University of ^ntem7 Patricia Gurin and colleagues from national collegiate surveys (2002). Such inte tions tend to be intellectually growth-promoting and to difference. Such findings informed a U.S. Supreme Court 2003 decision that rac diversity is a compelling interest of higher education and may be a criterion m admissions.

Although equal-status contact can help, it is sometimes not enough. It didn help when Muzafer Sherif stopped the Eagles versus Rattlers compehtion and bro g the groups together for noncompetitive activities, such as watchmg movies, sho tag off fimwoAs, arrd eating. By that time, their hostility -s so strong that mere contact only provided opportunities for taunts and attacks. When an Eagle was dumped b/a Rattler, his fellow Eagles urged him to “brush off the dta.” Desegre-

gating the two groups hardly promoted their social integration.^ Sven entrenched host4 what can a peacemaker do? Think back to the suc­ cessful and the unsuccessful desegregation efforts. The army s racial companies didn’t just bring Blacks and Whites into equal-status contact, it ma them interdependent. Together, they were fighting a common enemy, stri g

Dofs^thars^glest a second factor that predicts whether the effect of desegre­

gation will be favorable? Does competitive contact divide and cooperative contac Lte? Consider what happens to people who together face a ^ ment. In conflicts at all levels, from couples to rival teams to nations, shared thre

and common goals breed unity.

COMMON EXTERNAL THREATS BUILD COHESIVENESS Together with others, have you ever been caught in a blizzard, punished by a teacher, or persecuted and ridiculed because of your social, racial or rd’g’ou® ‘^en­ tity? If so, you may recall feeling close to those with whom you shared *6 Predica- mLt Perhaps previous social barriers were dropped as you helped one anothe dig out of the sLw or struggled to cope with your common more extreme crises, such as a bombing, also often repor a spirit of cooperation and solidarity rather than all-for-themselves pamc (Drury & others, 2009).

Such friendliness is common among those who experience a shared tteeatjolm Lanzetta (1955) observed this when he put four-man groups of naval ROTC cadets to work on problem-solving tasks and then began informmg them that their answers were wrong, their productivity mexcusably ow, g pid. Other groups did not receive this harassment. Lanzetta observed that the gro p

Chapter 13

equal-status contact Contact on an equal basis. Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those of equal status. Thus, to reduce prejudice, interracial contact should idealy be between persons equal in status.

“I COULDN’T HELP BUT SAY

TO [MR. GORBACHEV), JUST

THINK HOW EASY HIS TASK

AND MINE MIGHT BE IN

THESE MEETINGS THAT WE

HELD IF SUDDENLY THERE

WAS A THREAT TO THIS

WORLD FROM SOME OTHER

SPECIES FROM ANOTHER

PLANET. [WE’D] FIND OUT

ONCE AND FOR ALL THAT

WE REALLY ARE ALL HUMAN

BEINGS HERE ON THIS

EARTH TOGETHER.”

—RONALD REAGAN,

DECEMBERS 1985, SPEECH

502 Part Three Social Relations

H’lV sfreiken!

Shared predicaments trigger cooperation, as these Walmart workers on strike in Germany demonstrate.

members under duress became friendlier to one another more cooperative, less argumentative, less competitive Thev were in it together. And the result was a cohesive spirit. ^

Having a common enemy unified the groups of competing boys m Sherif’s camping experiments—and in many subs^ quent experiments (Dion, 1979). Just being reminded of an out­ group (say, a rival school) heightens people’s responsiveness to their own group (Wilder & Shapiro, 1984). When keenly conscious of who “they” are, we also know who “we” are. ^

When facing a well-defined external threat during war­ time, we-feeling soars. The membership of civic organizations mushrooms (Putnam, 2000). Shared threats also produce a pditical ‘rally ’round the flag” effect (Lambert & others, 2010) After 9/11, “old racial antagonisms… dissolved,” reported the New YorkTimes (Sengupta, 2001). “I just thought of myself as Black, said 18-year-old Louis Johnson, reflecting on life before 9/11. “But now I feel like Tm an American, more than

A 4.U £n /XT ^ divorce rates dropped in the aftemath of 9/11 (Hansel & others, 2011). One sampling of conversation 0^9/11, and aiiother of New York Mayor Giuliani’s press conferences before and after 9/11 found a doubled rate of the word “we” (Liehr & others, 2004; Pennebaker & Lay, 2002).

ratings reflected this threat-bred spirit of oresTdent P^’^^ident of 9/10 had become the halted L hfs t ^ 1 hate us.” Thereaf- (Hgure 13 6)^* gradually declined but then jumped again as the war in Iraq began

FIGURE :: 13.6 External Threats Breed Internal Unity As the ups and downs of President George Bush’s approval ratings illustrate, national conflicts mold public attitudes (Gallup, 2006).

503Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13

Even just imagining or fearing the extinction of one’s group often serves to strengthen ingroup solidarity (Wohl & others, 2010). Leaders may therefore create a threatening external enemy as a technique for building group cohesiveness. George Orwell’s novel 1984 illustrates the tactic: The leader of the protagonist nation uses border conflicts with the other two major powers to lessen internal strife. From time to time the enemy shifts, but there is always an enemy. Indeed, the nation seems to need an enemy. For the world, for a nation, for a group, having a common enemy is powerfully unifying. Thus, we can expect that Protestant-Cafiiolic religious differ­ ences that feel great in Northern Ireland or South America will feel more negligible to those living under Islamic regimes. Likewise, Sunni and Shia Islamic differences that feel great in Iraq will not seem so great to Muslims in countries where both must cope with anti-Muslim attitudes.

Might the world likewise find unity if facing a common enemy? On September 21, 1987, President Ronald Reagan observed, “In our obsession with antagonisms of the moment, we often forget how much unites all the members of humanity. Per­ haps we need some outside, universal threat to recognize this common bond.” Two decades later, A1 Gore (2007) agreed, suggesting that, with the specter of climate change, “We—all of us—now face a universal threat. Though it is not from outside this world, it is nevertheless cosmic in scale.”

“THERE’S AN ENEMY OUT

THERE.”

-GEORGE W. BUSH, 2005

focus ON Why Do We Care Who Wins?

Why, for sports fans everywhere, does it matter who wins? Why does it matter to Bostonians whether two dozen mul­ timillionaire temporary Red Sox employees, most born in other states or countries, win the World Series? During the annual NCAA basketball “March Madness,” why do per­ fectly normal adults become insanely supportive of their team, and depressed when it loses? And why for that ulti­ mate sporting event. World Cup Football, do soccer fans worldwide dream of their country victorious?

Theory and evidence indicate that the roots of rivalry run deep. There’s something primal at work when the crowd erupts as the two rivals take the floor for a basketball game. There’s something tribal at work during the ensuing two hours of passion, all in response to the ups and downs

■I of a mere orange leather sphere. Our ancestors, living in a world where neighboring tribes occasionally raided and pillaged one another’s camps, knew that there was safety in solidarity. (Those who didn’t band together left fewer descendants.) Whether hunting, defending, or attacking, more hands were better than two. Dividing the world into “us” and “them” entails significant costs, such as racism and war, but also provides the benefits of communal soli­ darity. To identify us and them, our ancestors—not so far removed from today’s rabid fans—dressed or painted themselves in group-specific costumes and colors. Sports and warfare, notes evolutionary psychologist Benjamin Winegard (2010), are mostly done by males associated with geographical areas and wearing group-identifying uniforms. Both use war-relevant skills (running, tackling, throwing). And both offer rewards to the victors.

As social animals, we live in groups, cheer on our groups, kill for our groups, die for our groups. We also define ourselves by our groups. Our self-concept—our sense of who we are—consists not only of our personal attributes and attitudes but also of our social identity. Our social identities—our knowing who “we” are—strengthens self-concept and pride, especially when perceiving that “we” are superior. Lacking a positive individual identity, many youths find pride, power, and identity in gangs. Many patriots define themselves by their national identities.

The group definition of who we are also implies who we are not. Many social-psychological experiments reveal that being formed into groups—even arbitrary groups—promotes ingroup bias. Cluster people into groups defined by nothing more than their birth date or even the last digit of their driver’s license and they’ll feel a certain kinship with their number mates, and will show them favoritism. So strong is our group consciousness that “we” seem better than “they” even when “we” and “they” are defined randomly.

As post-9/11 America illustrates, group solidarity soars when people face a common enemy. As Muzafer Sherif’s Robber’s Camp experiment vividly demon­ strated, competition creates enemies. Fueled by com­ petition and unleashed by the anonymity of a crowd, passions can culminate in sport’s worst moments—fans taunting opponents, screaming at umpires, even pelting referees with beer bottles.

Group identification soars further with success. Fans find self-respect by their personal achievements but

(cont/nued)

504 Part Three Social Relations

also, in at least small measure, by their association with the victorious athletes when their team wins. Queried after a big football victory, university students commonly report that “we won” (Cialdini & others, 1976). As we noted in Chapter 9, they bask in reflected glory. Asked the outcome after a defeat, students more often dis­ tance themselves from the team by saying, “They lost.”

Ironically, we often reserve our most intense passions for rivals most similar to us. Freud long ago recognized that animosities formed around small differences: “Of two neighbouring towns, each is the other’s most jealous rival; every little canton looks down upon the others with contempt. Closely related races keep one another at arm’s length; the South German cannot endure the North German, the Englishman casts every kind of aspersion upon the Scot, the Spaniard despises the Portuguese.”

As an occasional resident of Scotland, I’ve witnessed many examples of the Xenophobe’s Guide to the Scots observation—that Scots divide non-Scots “into two main groups: (1) The English; (2) The Rest.” As rabid Chicago Cubs fans are happy if either the Cubs win or the White Sox lose, so ardent New Zealand soccer fans root for New Zealand and whoever is playing Australia (Halberstadt & others, 2006). Rabid fans of Scottish soccer likewise rejoice in either a Scotland victory or an England defeat. “Phew! They Lost,” rejoiced one Scottish tabloid front­ page headline after England’s 1996 Euro Cup defeat—by Germany, no less. To a sports fan, few things are so sweet as an archrival’s misfortune. Both a rival’s failure and a

favored team’s success activate pleasure-associated brain areas (Cikara & others, 2011).

Numerical minorities, such as the Scots in Britain, are especially conscious of their social identities. The 5 million Scots are more conscious of their national iden­ tity vis-a-vis the neighboring 51 million English than vice versa. Likewise, the 4 million New Zealanders are more conscious of their identity vis-a-vis the 23 million Australians, and they are more likely to root for Australia’s sports opponents (Halberstadt & others, 2006).

Group identity feeds, and is fed by, competition.

superordinate goal A shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort: a goal that overrides people’s differences from one another.

SUPERORDINATE GOALS FOSTER COOPERATION

Closely related to the unifying power of an external threat is the unifying power of superordinate goals, goals that unite all in a group and require cooperative effort. To promote harmony among his warring campers, Sherif introduced such goals. He created a problem with the camp water supply, necessitating both groups’ cooperation to restore the water. Given an opportunity to rent a movie, one expen­ sive enough to require the joint resources of the two groups, they again cooperated. When a truck “broke down” on a camp excursion, a staff member casually left the tug-of-war rope nearby, prompting one boy to suggest that they all pull the truck to get it started. When it started, a backslapping celebration ensued over their victori­ ous “tug-of-war against the truck.”

After working together to achieve such superordinate goals, the boys ate together and enjoyed themselves around a campfire. Friendships sprouted across group lines. Hostilities plummeted (Figure 13.7). On the last day, the boys decided to travel home together on one bus. During the trip they no longer sat by groups. As the bus approached Oklahoma City and home, they, as one, spontaneously sang “Oklahoma” and then bade their friends farewell. With isolation and competition, Sherif made strangers into bitter enemies. With superordinate goals, he made enemies into friends.

Are Sherif’s experiments mere child’s play? Or can pulling together to achieve superordinate goals be similarly beneficial with adults in conflict? Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1979) wondered. So in a series of two-week experiments involving more than 1,000 executives in 150 different groups, they re-created the essential features of the situation experienced by the Rattlers and the Eagles. Each group first

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 505

Ratings of outgroup, percent totally unfavorable

FIGURE :: 13.7 After competition, the Eagles and the Rattlers rated each other unfavorably. After they worked cooperatively to achieve superordinate goals, hostility dropped sharply. 5ou/‘ce:Data from Sherif, 1966, p.84.

engaged in activities by itself, then competed with another group, and then cooper­ ated with the other group in working toward jointly chosen superordinate goals. Their results provided “unequivocal evidence that adult reactions parallel those of Sherif’s younger subjects.”

Extending those findings, John Dovidio, Samuel Gaertner, and their collaborators (2005, 2009) report that working cooperatively has especially favorable effects under conditions that lead people to define a new, inclusive group that dissolves their for­ mer subgroups. Old feelings of bias against another group diminish when members of the two groups sit alternately around a table (rather than on opposite sides), give their new group a single name, and then work together under conditions that fos­ ter a good mood. “Us” and “them” become “we.” To combat Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II, the United States and the former USSR, along with other nations, formed one united group named the Allies. So long as the superordinate goal of defeating a common enemy lasted, so did supportive U.S. attitudes toward the Russians. Economic interdependence through international trade also motivates peace. “Where goods cross frontiers, armies won’t,” notes Michael Shermer (2006). With so much of China’s economy now interwoven with Western economies, their economic interdependence diminishes the likelihood of war between China and the West.

The cooperative efforts by the Rattlers and the Eagles ended in success. Would the same harmony have emerged if the water had remained off, the movie unaffordable, the truck still stalled? Likely not. In experiments with Univer­ sity of Virginia students, Stephen Worchel and his associ­ ates (1977, 1978, 1980) confirmed that successful cooperation between two groups boosts their attraction for each other. If previously conflicting groups fail in a cooperative effort, how­ ever, and if conditions allow them to attribute their failure to each other, the conflict may worsen. Sherif’s groups were already feeling hostile to each other. Thus, failure to raise sufficient funds for the movie might have been attributed to one group’s “stinginess” and “selfishness.” That would have exacerbated rather than alleviated their conflict. Unity is fed

Promoting “common ingroup identity.” The banning of gang colors and the common European practice of school uniforms—an increasing trend in the United States, as

506 Part Three

Interracial cooperation—on athletic teams, in class projects and extracurricular activities—melts differences and improves racial attitudes. White teen athletes who play cooperative team sports (such as basketball) with Black teammates express more liking and support for Blacks than do their counter­ parts involved in individual sports (such as wrestling) (Brown & others, 2003).

Social Relations

COOPERATIVE LEARNING IMPROVES RACIAL ATTITUDES

So far we have noted the modest social benefits of desegregation if unaccompanied by the emotional bonds of friendship and by equal-status relationships. And we have noted the dramatic social benefits of successful, cooperative contacts between members of rival groups. Several research teams therefore wondered: Without compromising academic achievement, could we promote interracial friendships by replacing competitive learning situations with cooperative ones? Given the diver­ sity of their methods—all involving students on integrated study teams, sometimes m competition with other teams—the results are striking and heartening.

Are students who participate in existing cooperative activities, such as interracial athletic teams and class projects, less prejudiced? In one experiment. White youth on two- to three-week Outward Bound expeditions (involving intimate contact and cooperation) expressed improved attitudes toward Blacks a month after the expedi­ tion if they had been randomly assigned to an interracial expedition group (Green & Wong, 2008).

Robert Slavin and Nancy Madden (1979) analyzed survey data from 2,400 stu­ dents in 71 American high schools and found similarly encouraging results. Those of different races who play and work together are more likely to report having friends of another race and to express positive racial attitudes. Charles Green and his colleagues (1988) confirmed this in a study of 3,200 Florida middle-school stu­ dents. Compared with students at traditional, competitive schools, those at schools with interracial ‘Teaming teams” had more positive racial attitudes.

From such correlational findings, can we conclude that cooperative interracial activity improves racial attitudes? The way to find out is to experiment. Randomly designate some students, but not others, to work together in racially mixed groups. Slavin (1985; Slavin & others, 2003, 2009) and his colleagues divided classes into interracial teams, each composed of four or five students from all achievement lev­ els. Team members sat together, studied a variety of subjects together, and at the end of each week competed with the other teams in a class tournament. All members contributed to their team’s score by doing well, sometimes by competing with other students whose recent achievements were similar to their own, sometimes by com­ peting with their own previous scores. Everyone had a chance to succeed. More­ over, team members were motivated to help one another prepare for the weekly tournament by drilling each other on fractions, spelling, or historical events— whatever was the next event. Rather than isolating students from one another, team competition brought them into closer contact and drew out mutual support.

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 507

Cooperation and peace. Researchers have identified more than 40 peaceful societies—societies v/here people live with no, or virtually no, recorded instances of violence. An analysis of 25 of these societies, including the Amish shown here, reveals that most base their worldviews on cooperation rather than competition (Bonta,1997).

Another research team, led by Elliot Aronson (2004; Aronson & Gonzalez, 1988), elicited similar group cooperation with a “jigsaw” technique. In experiments in Texas and California elementary schools, the researchers assigned children to racially and academically diverse 6-member groups. The subject was then divided into six parts, with each student becoming the expert on his or her part. In a unit on Chile, one student might be the expert on Chile’s history, another on its geography, another on its culture. First, the various “historians,” “geographers,” and so forth got together to master their material. Then they returned to the home groups to teach it to their classmates. Each group member held, so to speak, a piece of the jigsaw.

Self-confident students therefore had to listen to and learn from reticent stu­ dents who, in turn, soon realized they had something important to offer their peers. Other research teams—led by David Johnson and Roger Johnson (1987, 2003, 2004, 2010) at the University of Miimesota, Elizabeth Cohen (1980) at Stanford Univer­ sity, Shlomo Sharan and Yael Sharan (1976,1994) at Tel Aviv University, and Stuart Cook (1985) at the University of Colorado—devised additional methods for cooper­ ative learning. Studies (148 of them across eleven countries) show that adolescents, too, have more positive peer relationships and may even achieve more when work­ ing cooperatively rather than competitively (Roseth & others, 2008).

What can we conclude from all this research? With cooperative learning, students learn not only the material but other lessons. Cooperative learning, said Slavin and Cooper (1999), promotes “the academic achievement of all students while simulta­ neously improving intergroup relahons.” Aronson reported that “children in the interdependent, jigsaw classrooms grow to like each other better, develop a greater liking for school, and develop greater self-esteem than children in traditional classrooms” (1980, p. 232).

Cross-racial friendships also begin to blossom. The exam scores of minority students improve (perhaps because academic achievement is now peer supported). After the experiments are over, many teachers continue using cooperative learning (D. W. Johnson & others, 1981; Slavin, 1990). “It is clear,” wrote race-relations expert John McConahay (1981), that cooperative learning “is the most effective practice for improving race relations in desegregated schools that we know of to date.”

Should we have “known it all along”? At the time of the 1954 Supreme Court decision, Gordon Allport spoke for many social psychologists in predicting that “Prejudice… may be reduced by equal status contact between majority and minority

“THIS WAS TRULY AN

EXCITING EVENT. MY

STUDENTS AND I HAD

FOUND A WAY TO MAKE

DESEGREGATION WORK

THE WAY IT WAS INTENDED

TO WORK!”

-ELLIOT ARONSON, “DRIFTING

MY OWN WAY.” 2003

508 Part Three Social Relations

groups in the pursuit of common goals” (1954, p. 281). Cooperative learning experi­ ments confirmed Allport’s insight, making Robert Slavin and his colleagues (1985, 2003) optimistic: “Thirty years after Allport laid out the basic principles operational­ ized in cooperative learning methods, we finally have practical, proven methods for implementing contact theory in the desegregated classroom…. Research on coopera­ tive learning is one of the greatest success stories in the history of educational research.”

focus ON Branch Rickey, Jackie Robinson, and the integration of Baseball

On April 10, 1947, a nineteen-word announcement forever changed the face of baseball and put social-psychological principles to the test: “The Brooklyn Dodgers today pur­ chased the contract of Jackie Roosevelt Robinson from the Montreal Royals, He will report immediately.” Five days later, Robinson became the first African American since 1887 to play major league baseball. In the fall, Dodger fans realized their dreams of going to the World Series. Robinson, after enduring racial taunts, beanballs, and spikes, was voted Sporting News rookie of the year, and in a poll finished second to Bing Crosby as the most popular man in America, Baseball’s racial barrier was forever broken.

Motivated by both his Methodist morality and a drive for baseball success. Major League baseball executive Branch Rickey had been planning the move for some time, report social psychologists Anthony Pratkanis and Marlene Turner (1994a, 1994b). Three years earlier, Rickey had been asked by the sociologist-chair of the Mayor’s Committee on Unity to desegregate his team. His response was to ask for time (so the hiring would not be attributed to pressure) and for advice on how best to do it. In 1945 Rickey was the only owner voting against keeping Blacks out of baseball. In 1947 he made his move using these principles identified by Pratkanis and Turner:

• Create a perception that change is inevitable. Leave little possibility that protest or resistance can turn back the clock. The team’s radio announcer. Red Barber, a traditional southerner, recalled that in 1945 Rickey took him to lunch and explained very slowly and strongly that his scouts were searching for “the first black player I can put on the white Dodgers. I don’t know who he is or where he is, but, he is coming.” An angered Barber at first intended to quit, but in time decided to accept the inevitable and keep the world’s “best sports announcing job.” Rickey was equally matter-of-fact with the players in 1947, offering to trade any player who didn’t want to play with Robinson.

• Establish equal-status contact with a superordinate goal. One sociologist explained to Rickey that when relationships focus on an overarching goal, such as winning the pennant, “the people involved would

adjust appropriately.” One of the players who had been initially opposed later helped Robinson with his hitting, explaining, “When you’re on a team, you got to pull together to win.”

• Puncture the norm of prejudice. Rickey led the way, but others helped. Team leader, shortstop Pee Wee Reese, a southerner, set a pattern of sitting and eat­ ing with Robinson. One day in Cincinnati, as the crowd was hurling slurs—”get the nigger off the field”—Reese left his shortstop position, walked over to Robinson at first base, smiled and spoke to him, and then—with a hushed crowd watching—put his arm around Robinson’s shoulder.

• Cut short the spiral of violence by practicing nonvio­ lence. Rickey, wanting “a ballplayer with guts enough not to fight back,” role-played for Robinson the kind of insults and dirty play he would experience and gained Robinson’s commitment not to return vio­ lence with violence. When Robinson was taunted and spiked, he left the responses to his teammates. Team cohesion was thereby increased.

Robinson and Bob Feller later became the first play­ ers in baseball history elected to the Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. As he received the award, Robinson asked three persons to stand beside him: his mother, his wife, and his friend Branch Rickey.

Jackie Robinson and Branch Rickey

509Conflict and Peacemaking

To sum up, cooperative, equal-status contacts exert a positive influence on boy campers, industrial executives, college students, and schoolchildren. Does the prin­ ciple extend to all levels of human relations? Are families imified by pulling together to farm the land, restore an old house, or sail a sloop? Are communal identities forged by bam raisings, group singing, or cheering on the football team? Is inter­ national understanding bred by international collaboration in science and space, by joint efforts to feed the world and conserve resources, by friendly personal contacts between people of different nations? Indications are that the answer to all of those questions is yes (Brewer & Miller, 1988; Desforges & others, 1991,1997; Deutsch, 1985, 1994). Thus, an important challenge facing our divided world is to identify and agree on our superordinate goals and to structure cooperative efforts to achieve them.

GROUP AND SUPERORDINATE IDENTITIES In everyday life, we often reconcile multiple identities (Gaertner & others, 2000, 2001). We acknowledge our subgroup identity (as parent or child) and then tran­ scend it (sensing our superordinate identity as a family). Pride in our ethnic heri­ tage can complement our larger communal or national identity. Being mindful of our muUipk social identities that we partially share with anyone else enables social cohesion (Brewer & Pierce, 2005; Crisp & Hewstone, 1999,2000). “I am many things, some of which you are, too.”

But in ethnically diverse cultures, how do people balance their ethnic identities with their national identities? They may have a “bicultural” or “omnicultural” identity, one that identifies with both the larger culture and one’s own ethnic and religious culture (Moghaddam, 2009,2010; Phinney, 1990). “In many ways, I am like everyone around me, but I also affirm my own cultural heritage.” Thus, ethnically conscious Asians liv­ ing in England may also feel strongly British (Hutnik, 1985). French Canadians who identify with their ethnic roots may or may not also feel strongly Canadian (Driedger, 1975). Hispanic Americans who retain a strong sense of their “Cubanness” (or of their Mexican or Puerto Rican heritage) may feel strongly American (Roger & others, 1991). As W. E. B. DuBois (1903, p. 17) explained in The Souls of Black Folk, “The American Negro [longs]… to be both a Negro and an American.”

Over time, identification with a new culture often grows. Former East and West Germans come to see themselves as “German” (Kessler & Mummendey, 2001). The children of Chinese immigrants to Australia and the United States feel their Chinese identity somewhat less keenly, and their new national identity more strongly, than do immigrants who were bom in China (Rosenthal & Feldman, 1992). Often, however, the grandchildren of immigrants feel more comfortable iden­ tifying with their ethnicity (Triandis, 1994).

Researchers have wondered whether pride in one’s group competes with iden­ tification with the larger culture. As we noted in Chapter 9, we evaluate ourselves partly in terms of our social identities. Seeing our own group (our school, our employer, our family, our race, our nation) as good helps us feel good about our­ selves. A positive ethnic identity can therefore contribute to positive self-esteem. So can a positive mainstream culture identity. “Marginal” people, who have nei­ ther a strong ethnic nor a strong mainstream cultural identity (Table 13.1), often have low self-esteem. Bicultural people, who affirm both identities, typically

TABLE :: 13.1 Ethnic and Cultural Identity

Identification with Ethnic Group

Identification with Majority Group Strong Weak

Strong

Weak

Bicultural Assimilated

Chapter 13

“MOST OF US HAVE

OVERLAPPING IDENTITIES

WHICH UNITE US WITH

VERY DIFFERENT GROUPS.

WE CAN LOVE WHAT WE

ARE, WITHOUT HATING

WHAT—AND WHO-WE

ARE NOT. WE CAN THRIVE

IN OUR OWN TRADITION,

EVEN AS WE LEARN

FROM OTHERS, AND

COME TO RESPECT THEIR

TEACHINGS.”

—KOFI ANNAN, NOBEL PEACE

PRIZE LECTURE, 2001

510 Part Three Social Relations

A difficult balancing act. These ethnically conscious French Canadians— supporting Bill 101 “live French in Quebec”—may or may not also feel strongly Canadian. As countries become more ethnically diverse, people debate how we can build societies that are both plural and unified.

bargaining Seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties.

mediation An attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions.

arbitration Resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement.

have a strongly positive self-concept (Phinney, 1990; see also Sam & Berry, 2010). Often, they alternate between their two cultures, adapting their language and behavior to whichever group they are with (LaFromboise & others, 1993).

Debate continues over the ideals of multiculturalism (celebrating differ­ ences) versus assimilation (meshing one’s values and habits with the prevail­ ing culture). On one side are those who believe, as the Department of Canadian Heritage (2006) has declared, that “mul­ ticulturalism ensures that all citizens can keep their identities, can take pride in their ancestry and have a sense of belonging. Acceptance gives Canadians a feeling of security and self-confidence, making them open to and accepting of diverse cultures.” On the other side are those who concur with Britain’s Com­ mission for Racial Equality chair, Trevor Phillips (2004), in worrying that mul­ ticulturalism separates people. Experi­ ments by Jacquie Vorauer and Stacey Sasaki (2011) showed that in threatening situations, highlighting multicultural dif­

ferences enhanced hostility. Focusing on differences prompted people to attend and attach meaning to outgroup members’ threatening behaviors. An alternative com­ mon values view inspired the Rwandan government to declare “there is no eth­ nicity here. We are all Rwandan.” In the aftermath of Rwanda’s ethnic bloodbath, government documents and government-controlled radio and newspapers have ceased mentioning Hutu and Tutsi (Lacey, 2004).

In the space between multiculturalism and assimilation lies “diversity within unity,” an omnicultural perspective advocated by cultural psychologist Fathali Moghaddam (2009, 2010) and by sociologist Amitai Etzioni and others (2005): “It presumes that all members of a given society will fully respect and adhere to those basic values and institutions that are considered part of the basic shared framework of the society. At the same time, every group in society is free to maintain its distinct subculture—those policies, habits, and institutions that do not conflict with the shared core.”

By forging unifying ideals, immigrant countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia have avoided ethnic wars. In these countries, Irish and Italians, Swedes and Scots, Asians and Africans seldom kill in defense of their eth­ nic identities. Nevertheless, even the immigrant nations struggle between separa­ tion and wholeness, between people’s pride in their distinct heritage and unity as one nation, between acknowledging the reality of diversity and questing for shared values. The ideal of diversity within unity forms the United States motto: E pluribus unum. Out of many, one.

Communication Conflicting parties have other ways to resolve their differences. When husband and wife, or labor and management, or nation X and nation Y disagree, they can bargain with each other directly. They can ask a third party to mediate by making suggestions and facilitating their negotiations. Or they can arbitrate by submitting their disagreement to someone who will study the issues and impose a settlement.

511Conflict and Peacemaking

BARGAINING If vou want to buy or sell a new car, are you better off adopting a tough bargain- mg stance-opening with an extreme offer so that splitting the difference wdl yield a favorable result? Or are you better off beginnmg with a sincere good-

Experiments suggest no simple answer. On the one hand, those who demand more will often get more. Robert Cialdini, Leonard Bickman, and John Cacioppo (1979) provide a typical result: In a control condition, they approached various Chevrolet dealers and asked the price of a new Monte Carlo sports coupe with designated options. In an experimental condition, they approached other dealers and first struck a tougher bargaining stance, asking for and rejecting a price on a different car (“I need a lower price than that. That’s a lot”). When they theri asked the price of the Monte Carlo, exactly as in the control condition, they received offers that averaged some \$200 lower. ^

Tough bargaining may lower the other party’s expectations, makmg the other side willing to settle for less (Yukl, 1974). But toughness can sometimes back- fire Many a conflict is not over a pie of fixed size but over a pie that shrinks if the conflict continues. A time delay is often a lose-lose scenario. When a strike is pro­ longed, both labor and management lose. Being tough is another potential lo^-lose scenario. If the other party responds with an equally tough stance, both may be locked into positions from which neither can back down without losing face. In the weeks before the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the first President Bush threatened, m the full glare of pubUcity, to “kick Saddam’s ass.” Saddam Hussein, no less macho, threatened to make “infidel” Americans “swim in their own blood.” After such belligerent state­ ments, it was difficult for each side to evade war and save face.

MEDIATION A third-party mediator may offer suggestions that enable conflicting parties to make concessions and still save face (Pruitt, 1998). If my concession can be attrib­ uted to a mediator, who is gaining an equal concession from my antagonist, neither of us will be viewed as weakly caving in. TURNING WIN-LOSE INTO WIN-WIN Mediators also help resolve conflicts by facilitating constructive communication. Their first task is to help the parties rethink the conflict and gain information about the others’ interests. Typically, peo­ ple on both sides have a competitive “win-lose” orientation: They are successful if their opponent is unhappy with the result, and unsuccessful if theu opponent is pleased (Thompson & others, 1995). The mediator aims to replace this win-lose orientation with a cooperative “win-win” orientation, by prodding both sides to set aside their conflicting demands and instead to think about needs, interests, and goals. In experiments, Leigh Thompson (1990a, 1990b) found that, with experience, negotiators become better able to make mutually beneficial trade-offs and thus to achieve win-win resolutions.

A classic story of such a resolution concerns the two sisters who quarreled over an orange (Follett, 1940). Finally they compromised and split the orange in halt, whereupon one sister squeezed her half for juice while the other used the peel on her half to make a cake. If the sisters had each explained why they wanted the orange, they very likely would have agreed to share it, giving one sister all t^e Juice and the other all the peel. This is an example of an integrative agreement (Pruitt & Lewis, 1975,1977). Compared with compromises, in which each party sacrifices something important, integrative agreements are more enduring, because they are mutually rewarding, they also lead to better ongoing relationships (Pruitt, 1986).

UNRAVELING MISPERCEPTIONS WITH CONTROLLED COMMUNICA­ TIONS Communication often helps reduce self-fulfilling misperceptions. Per­ haps you can recall experiences similar to that of this college student:

Chapter 13

integrative agreements Win-win agreements that reconcile both parties’ interests to their mutual benefit.

512 Part Three Social Relations

Often, after a prolonged period of little communication, I perceive Martha’s silence as a sign of her dislike for me. She, in turn, thinks that my quietness is a result of my being mad at her. My silence induces her silence, which makes me even more silent… until this snowballing effect is broken by some occurrence that makes it necessary for us to interact. And the communication then unravels all the misinterpretations we had made about one another.

The outcome of such conflicts often depends on how people communicate their feelings to one another. Roger Knudson and his colleagues (1980) invited married couples to come to the University of Illinois psychology laboratory and relive, through role playing, one of their past conflicts. Before, during, and after their conversation {which often generated as much emotion as the actual previ­ ous conflict), the couples were observed closely and questioned. Couples who evaded the issue—by failing to make their positions clear or failing to acknowledge their spouse’s position—left with the illusion that they were more in harmony and agreement than they really were. Often, they came to believe they now agreed more when actually they agreed less. In contrast, those who engaged the issue—by mak­ ing their positions clear and by taking one another’s views into account—achieved more actual agreement and gained more accurate information about one anoth­ er s perceptions. That helps explain why couples who communicate their concerns directly and openly are usually happily married (Crush & Glidden, 1987).

Such findings have triggered programs that train couples and children how to manage conflicts constructively (Horowitz and Boardman, 1994). If managed con­ structively, conflict provides opportunities for reconciliation and more genuine harmony. Psychologists Ian Gotlib and Catherine Colby (1988) offer advice on how to avoid destructive quarrels and how to have good quarrels (Table 13.2). Chil­ dren, for example, learn that conflict is normal, that people can learn to get along with those who are different, that most disputes can be resolved with two winners, and that nonviolent communication strategies are an alternative to a world of bul­ lies and victims. This “violence prevention curriculum … is not about passivity,” noted Deborah Prothrow-Stith (1991, p. 183). “It is about using anger not to hurt oneself or one’s peers, but to change the world.”

David Johnson and Roger Johnson (1995, 2000, 2003) put first-grade through ninth-grade children through about a dozen hours of conflict resolution training in six schools, with very heartening results. Before the training, most students

TABLE 13.2 How Couples Can Fight Constructively

Do Not Do

1* * * evade die argument, give the silent treatm^t, walk out on it • use your intimate knowledge of the other

person to hit below the belt and humiliate

•T’ * bring in unrelated issues^

• feign agreement while harboring resentment

^ * |eiU the other party how she or he is feeling

• attack indirectly by criticizing someone or something the other person values

I * undermine the other by intensifying his or j; her insecurity or threatening disaster

• clearly define the issue and repeat the other’s arguments in your own words

• divulge your positive and negative feelings

• welcome feedback about your behavior

• clarify where you agree and disagree and what matters most to each of you

‘ ask questions that help the oflier find words to express the concern

’ wait for spontaneous explosions to subside, without retaliating

offer positive suggestions for mut|i^f §

Conflict and Peacemaking Chapter 13 513

Communication facilitators work to breakdown barriers, as in this diversity training exercise for teenagers.

were involved in daily conflicts—put-downs and teasing, playground turn-takmg conflicts, conflicts over possessions-conflicts that nearly always also resulted m a winner and a loser. After training, the children more often found win-win solutions, better mediated friends’ conflicts, and retained and applied their new skills in and out of school throughout the school year. When implemented with a whole student body, the result is a more peaceful student community and increased academic

Co^mct researchers report that a key factor is trust (Noor & others, 2008; Ross & Ward 1995). If you believe the other person is well intentioned, you are more likely to divulge your needs and concerns. Lacking trust, you may fear that bemg open will give the other party information that might be used against you. Even sim­ ple behaviors can enhance trust. In experiments, negotiators who were instructed to mimic the others’ mannerisms, as naturally empathic people in close relation­ ships often do, elicited more trust and greater discovery of compatible mterests and mutually satisfying deals (Maddux & others, 2008).

When the two parties mistrust each other and communicate unproductively, a third-party mediator—a marriage counselor, a labor mediator, a diplomat—sometimes helps. Often the mediator is some­ one trusted by both sides. In the 1980s it took an Algerian Muslim to mediate the conflict between Iran and Iraq, and the pope to resolve a geographical dispute between Argentina and Chile (Carnevale & Choi, 2000).

After coaxing the conflicting parties to rethink their perceived win-lose conflict, the mediator often has each party identify and rank its goals. When goals are compatible, the ranking procedure makes it easier for each to concede on less-important goals so that both achieve their chief goals (Erickson & others, 1974; Schulz & Pruitt, 1978). South Africa achieved internal peace when Black and White South Africans

“[THERE IS] A PSYCHOLOGI­

CAL BARRIER BETWEEN US,

A BARRIER OF SUSPICION,

A BARRIER OF REJECTION;

A BARRIER OF FEAR, OF

DECEPTION, A BARRIER OF

HALLUCINATION..,

—EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT

ANWAR AL-SADAT, TO THE

ISRAELI KNESSET, 1977

Trust, like other social behaviors, is also a biological phenomenon. Social neuroscientists have found that individuals with lowered levels of serotonin, the brain neurotransmitter, become more likely to see a low offer in a laboratory game as unfair, and to reject it (Crockett & others, 2008). Infusions of the hormone oxytocin have something of an opposite effect, increasing people’s trust of strangers in laboratory games (Zak, 2008).

514 Part Three Social Relations

with majority rule and safeguarding the security, welfare, and rights of Whites (Kelman, 1998).

When labor and management both believe that management’s goal of higher productivity and profit is compatible with labor’s goal of better wages and working conditions, they can begin to work for an integrative win-win solution. If workers will forgo benefits that are moderately beneficial to them but very costly to man­ agement (perhaps company-provided dental care), and if management will forgo moderately valuable arrangements that workers very much resent (perhaps inflex­ ibility of working hours), both sides may gain (Ross & Ward, 1995). Rather than seeing itself as making a concession, each side can see the negotiation as an effort to exchange bargaining chips for things more valued.

When the parties then convene to communicate directly, they are usually not set loose in the hope that, eyeball-to-eyeball, the conflict will resolve itself. In the midst of a threatening, stressful conflict, emotions often disrupt the ability to understand the other party’s point of view. Although happiness and gratitude can increase trust, anger decreases it (Dunn & Schweitzer, 2005). Communication may thus become most difficult just when it is most needed (Tetlock, 1985).

The mediator will often structure the encounter to help each party understand and feel understood by the other. The mediator may ask the conflicting parties to restrict their arguments to statements of fact, including statements of how they feel and how they respond when the other acts in a given way: “I enjoy music. But when you play it loud, I find it hard to concentrate. That makes me crabby.” Also, the mediator may ask people to reverse roles and argue the other’s position or to imagine and explain what the other person is experiencing. The mediator may have them restate one another’s positions before replying with their own: “It annoys you when I play my music and you’re trying to study.”

Experiments show that taking the other’s perspective and inducing empathy decreases stereotyping and increases cooperation (Batson & Moran, 1999; Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000; Todd & others, 2011). It helps to humanize rather than demonize the other. Older people often find that easier to do, by having the wisdom to appreci­ ate multiple perspectives and the limits of knowledge (Grossmann & others, 2010). Sometimes our elders are older, wiser, and better able to navigate social conflicts.

Neutral third parties may also suggest mutually agreeable proposals that would be dismissed—”reactively devalued”—if offered by either side. Constance StiUinger and her colleagues (1991) found that a nuclear disarmament proposal that Americans dismissed when attributed to the former Soviet Union seemed more acceptable when attributed to a neutral third party. Likewise, people will often reactively devalue a concession offered by an adversary (“they must not value it”); the same concession may seem more than a token gesture when suggested by a third party.

These peacemaking principles—based partly on laboratory experiments, partly on practical experience—have helped mediate both interna­ tional and industrial conflicts (Blake & Mouton, 1962, 1979; Fisher, 1994; Wehr, 1979). One small team of Arab and Jewish Americans, led by social psychologist Herbert Kelman (1997, 2007, 2008), has conducted workshops bringing together influential Arabs and Israelis. Kelman and col­ leagues counter misperceptions and have partici­ pants seek creative solutions for their common good. Isolated, the participants are free to speak

Building trust, enabling communication. When President Obama and his political antagonist, House Republican leader John Boehner, played golf, they were each attempting to enhance their relationship and enhance their ability to communicate.

515Conflict and Peacemaking

directly to their adversaries without fear that their constituents are second-guessing what tLy are saying. The result? Those from both sides typically come to under­ stand the^ther’s perspective and how the other side responds to their own group s

actions.

arbitration Some conflicts are so intractable, the underlying interests so divergent, that a mutu- X satisfactory resolution is unattainable. Conflicting claims to Jerusalem as the capital of an dependent Palestine versus a secure Israel have, so far, proven inhactable. In a divorce dispute over custody of a child, both parents canno enjoy fuU custody. In those and many other cases (disputes over tenants repair bills, aft ktes’ wages, and national territories), a third-party mediator may-or may not

M not the parties may turn to arbitration by having the mediator or another tod

party impose a settlement. Disputants usually prefer to Lt arbitration so that they retain control over the outcome. Neil “ others (1987) observed this preference in an experiment involving disputants com ing to a dispute settlement center. When people knew they would face an a^’^ted settlement if mediation failed, they tried harder to resolve the problem, exhibited less hostility, and thus were more likely to reach agreement.

In cases where differences seem large and irreconcilable, the prospect of arbitra­ tion may cause the disputants to freeze their positions, hopmg to gam an adv^- tage when the arbitrator chooses a compromise. To combat that tendency, so difputes, such as those involving salaries of individual baseball with “final-offer arbitration,” in which the third party chooses one of the two final offers. Final-offer arbitration motivates each party to make a reasonab e _

Typically, however, the final offer is not as reasonable as it would be if each parw free of self-serving bias, saw its own proposal through others eyes. Negoha- hon researchers report that most disputants are made stubborn by optimistic ove confidTce” (KahnLan & Tversky, 1995). Successful mediation is hmdered when as often happens, both parties believe they have a two-thirds chance of wmnmg final-offer arbitration (Bazerman, 1986,1990).

Conciliation Sometimes tension and suspicion run so high that even communication, let a one resolution, becomes all but impossible. Each party may threaten, coerce, or retaliate against the other. Unfortunately, such acts tend to be reciprocated, escalahng the cLflict So, would a strategy of appeasing the other party by being unconditionally cooperative produce a satisfying result? Often not. In laboratory games, ‘hose wto are 100 percent cooperative often are exploited. Politically, a one-sided pacifis

usually out of the question.

^cklpsychologlstCharles Osgood (1962,1980) advocated a third alternative one that is concmLry yet strong enough to discourage exploitoon. C^good called it grad ated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduchon.” He mcknamed it GRIT a laW that suggests the determination it requires. GRIT aims to reverse the conflict spiral by triggering reciprocal de-escalation. To do so, it draws upon social-psychological concepts such as the norm of reciprocity and the attribution of motives.

GRH requires one side to initiate a few small de-escalatory actions, after aniioim^ ing a concilltory intent. The initiator states its desire to reduce conciliatory act before making it, and invites the adversary to reciprocate Such announcements create a framework that helps the adversary correctly interpret what otherwise might be seen as weak or tricky actions. They also brmg pubhc pressure to bear on the adversary to follow the reciprocity norm.

Categories

## which statement best describes the relationship between science and technology

1. Which statement best describes the relationship between science and technology?

A. The goal of science is to gain an understanding of the natural world, while the goal of technology is to use that understanding to improve people’s lives.<<
B. The goal of science is to create solutions that improve people’s lives by mimicking the natural world, while the goal of technology is to build machines.
C. The goal of science is to use technology, while the goal of technology is use science.
D. The study of science does not rely on technology, while technology could not exist without science.

1. In the 1900s, many farmers replaced their horse-drawn plows with tractors. Which of the following describes a cost of this new technology?
A. Farmers needed a lot more horses and had to pay more in horse feed.

B. Farmers could grow more crops because they could plow more land with the tractor than with a horse-drawn plow.<<
C. Farmers with tractors needed fewer workers, so many people lost their jobs.
D. Tractors increased the amount of work a farmer could do in the same amount of time.

1. Which factor is most helpful in helping technology to progress?
A. Unintended consequences

B. A better understanding of the natural world.
C. Risk-Benefit Analysis
D. Obsolete technologies

1. An oven is a technological system. Which of the following describes an input into the system?

A. Setting the temperature.<<
B. Burning gas releases heat.
C. A thermostat monitors the temperature and increases the gas flow when the temperature falls to low.
D. A cake is baked.

1. Which of the following describes feedback in an oven?
A. Setting the temperature.

B. Burning gas releases heat.<<
C. A thermostat monitors the temperature and increases the gas flow when the temperature falls to low.
D. A cake is baked.

0 0 627
asked by Ahxello
Sep 12, 2017
Agree 1-4, but disagree with 5. See definition of feedback.

0 0
posted by PsyDAG
Sep 12, 2017
A.
C.
B.
A.
C.

0 0
posted by Cupcake
Sep 18, 2017
Cupcake is 100 percent right just so u dont get it wrong 5/5

0 0
posted by get him ftw 23
Sep 19, 2017
thanks cupcake his answers are right i got a 5/5 bye 🙂

0 0
posted by lamonsta
Sep 19, 2017

i think the the answers are a c b a c

0 0
posted by damonster
Sep 19, 2017
Ms. Cupcake, is right. 100% 5/5

0 0
posted by Evaluate girl
Sep 26, 2017
thxs cupcake:)

0 0
posted by Angelina
Oct 4, 2017
100% goes to cupcake 5/5 yay thx cupcake

0 0
posted by Jojo
Nov 6, 2017
thank you cupcake 100%

0 0
posted by someone
Aug 27, 2018

Thanks all of you for your help!

0 0
posted by Tundradragon
Aug 27, 2018
Cupcake is right. In 2018

0 0
posted by Dog eats spaghetti
Aug 29, 2018
CUPCAKE IS 10000000% CORRECT, DO NOT LISTEN TO miss.Jack! She/he is trying to get you to pick the wrong answers!!

0 0
posted by cAt.ExE HaS sTopPeD wORkInG
Aug 30, 2018
Thanks Cupcake!

0 0
posted by huskiesrule1
Sep 4, 2018

1. A
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. C 0 0
posted by Hal
Sep 11, 2018

thanks cupcake
100% 5/5

0 0
posted by oof
Sep 19, 2018
Cupcake is correct thanks !!!!

0 0
posted by SinatraSchool
Sep 19, 2018
thanks cupcake i got 5/5 (100%)

0 0
posted by adam box
Sep 19, 2018
u guys r the best i love this site

0 0
posted by the guy that has a random name
Sep 19, 2018
Thx Cupcake

0 0
posted by Jordan
Sep 25, 2018

cupcake is 100% correct

0 0
posted by dipstick
Sep 25, 2018
TYSM Cupcake!!

0 0
posted by <3 Vaeh <3
Sep 26, 2018
THANKS CUPCAKE YOU IS SOOOOOOOOOO RIGHT

0 0
posted by J
Sep 27, 2018

Categories

## rank the crystal lattice structures in order of decreasing efficiency of space in the structure.

Rank the crystal lattice structures in order of decreasing efficiency of space in the structure?

Face centered cubic, body centered cubic, simple cubic, hexagonal close packing.

0 0 236
asked by gnozahs
May 14, 2009
I think you can find the answers here.
http://departments.kings.edu/chemlab/vrml/packgeo.html

0 0
posted by DrBob222
May 14, 2009

## what does a cat need to play baseball

Geometry question. a Math riddle. What does a cat need to play baseball?

0 0 500
asked by Jim
Dec 8, 2008
A purrmitt

1 0
posted by drwls
Dec 8, 2008
which of the following is not a point on AC

0 0
posted by elizbeth
Jan 31, 2018
Point D

0 0
posted by Morelia
Oct 3, 2018
What does a cat need to play baseball

0 0
posted by Billy Bod Joe
Mar 19, 2019

Categories

## which molecule or compound below contains a polar covalent bond?

which molecule or compound below contains a polar covalent bond? why?
C2H4

LiI

NCL3

ZnS

AgCl

0 0 468
asked by natash
May 1, 2008
Draw the Lewis dot structure for each of the molecules. You can eliminate LiI, ZnS and AgCl because they are not covalent (but they are polar). The correct one, of the two remaining, is the one with an unshared pair of electrons.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
May 1, 2008
Pv

0 0
posted by S
Mar 10, 2016

Categories

## nickel metal is added to a solution of copper(ii) nitrate.

Using the activity series (Table 4.5), write balanced chemical equations for the following reactions. If no reaction occurs, simply write NR. (a) Nickel metal is added to a solution of copper (II) nitrate; (b) a solution of zinc nitrate is added to a solution of magnesium sulfate; (c) hydrochloric acid is added to gold metal; (d) chromium metal is immersed in an aqueous solution of cobalt (II) chloride; (e) hydrogen gas is bubbled through a solution of silver nitrate.

0 0 780
asked by rob
Oct 9, 2011
All of these follow the same rule.
A metal will displace the ion of any other metal BELOW it in the activity series.
For example:
Ni + Cu(NO3)2 ==> Cu + Ni(NO3)2
Au + HCl ==> NR (because Au is not below H).
The second one (Zn(NO3)2 + MgSO4) doesn’t belong in this question since it isn’t a single replacement. As it stands; however, there is no reaction.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Oct 9, 2011

Categories

## what does a cladogram show?

What does a cladogram show?
A)comparison of the relative ages of organisms
B)evolutionary relationships between organisms
C)comparison of species that are most similar
D)ecological relationships between organisms***

Which pair below has the most shared derived characteristics?
A)horse, dolphin
B)dolphin, spider
C)cow, horse***
D)spider, cow

Which of the following is NOT used as evidence when constructing cladograms?
A)ecological roles of present-day organisms***
B)DNA sequences of present-day organisms
C)fossils of extinct organisms
D)body characteristics of extinct and present-day organisms

Sorry if i misspelled anything!

0 0 2,430
asked by Universal Almighty
May 26, 2016
3/4

1. Is D 0 0
posted by Shush
Oct 13, 2016
the answers are:
2. B
3. C
4. B
5. A

These are 100% right for science 8B Unit 1: Natural selection and adaptation Lesson 7: Evolution and biological classification (Connexus)

28 0
posted by Anon
Feb 1, 2017
thx anon 100%

4 0
posted by dude
Feb 1, 2017
anon is right

3 0
posted by 21
Mar 15, 2017

B

1 2
one is b

2 0
posted by mae
May 17, 2017
im so fresh

0 1
posted by ⌐■_■
Nov 14, 2017
its wrong i just took it and i gave me a 50

1 1
posted by cardi B
Nov 19, 2017
Thanks Anon 100%

2 0
posted by Jack
Jan 24, 2018

Thanks Anon

2 0
posted by Arai
Jan 24, 2018
4/4 thanks anon

2 0
posted by J
Jan 30, 2018
Anon is right for conections

1 0
posted by Hi
Feb 2, 2018
Anon is correct

1.B
2.C
3.B
4.A

If you go to connections.

3 0
posted by BOIIIIII
Mar 22, 2018
B
C
B
A

2 0
posted by bigred
Apr 19, 2018

4/4 thx Anon

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 23, 2018
The funny thing is, teachers can’t sew jiskha for giving answers. btw, it’s not called cheating, it’s called checking your answers. Jiskha is made for HOMEWORK HELP! should I say it louder or are you def, hypocrites?!

Anyways, yeah, it’s homework help, so, ConnexAcad can’t do anything about kids gettin answers! >:D

2 0
posted by Anonymous
May 1, 2018
no its cheating

0 2
posted by urmom
May 1, 2018
B
C
B
A

1 0
posted by EINSTIEN
May 2, 2018
Honestly I understand that teachers will get upset but like weren’t you the student once haven’t ever looked something up maybe even once to get your grade a little higher. Because this ish can be hard sometimes ok

3 0
posted by Jezziedut
May 21, 2018

what dose a cladogram show?

0 0
posted by meseret
May 29, 2018
@Anon is 100% correct! 🙂

1. B
2. C
3. B
4. A

Your Welcome! 🙂

3 0
posted by lun 2.0
May 29, 2018

1. B
2. C
3. B
4. A 3 0
posted by Hal
Oct 18, 2018
are these for lesson 7 Evolution and Biological Classification?
i need to confirm this… if these are for other quiz, plz speak up now. 0 0
posted by Warrior Cat Lover
Nov 28, 2018
nobody?…. alright then, i will confirm this myself….. 0 0
posted by Warrior Cat Lover
Nov 28, 2018

yup this is correct, 4/4 (100%) 🙂

2 0
posted by Warrior Cat Lover
Nov 28, 2018

Categories

## what is the unit rate for fred’s sub shop

1.What is the unit rate for Fred’s Sub shop?(Will post photo/link in the comments)

A. \$10 for 2 subs
B. \$5 for 2 sub
C. \$1 for 1/5 of a sub
D. \$30 for 6 subs

1. What is the slope-intercept equation for the cost of a sub at Fred’s sub shop?

A. y = 2x
B. y = 10x
C. y = 5x
D. y = 5x + 2

1. The data in the table are linear. Use the table to find the slope.(Will link in the comments)

A. 3/2
B. -3/2
C. -2/3
D. 2/3

1. What hill described in the table is the steepest? Explain.(Will link in the comments)

A. Bell Hill: It rises one foot for every 4 feet of horizontal travel.
B. Dixie Hill: It rises two feet for every 1 feet of horizontal travel.
C. Liberty Hill:It rises four feet for every three feet of horizontal travel.
D. Liberty Hill:It rises 3/4 foot for every 1 feet of horizontal travel.

My answers:

1. A
2. Not really sure, D?
3. -3/2?
4. D? 1 0 3,078
asked by Savaline
May 8, 2015
Okay, I don’t know how to post the photos, but if you have the answers please let me know which are correct and which are wrong! I really would like to boost my grade to a C+ but this stuff confuses me! Ms.Sue? 0 0
posted by Savaline
May 8, 2015
1.B
2.C That’s all I know. 1 2
posted by Anonymous
May 11, 2015
the answers are 1.B 2.C 3.B 4.D 1 8
posted by jess
May 13, 2015
B
C
B
D 5 9
posted by Me
May 20, 2015

Thanks Jess and “Me”!

1 4
posted by Kenxie
May 29, 2015
B
C
B
B

33 0
posted by Correct Answers
Nov 25, 2015
4 is b

8 0
posted by Anonymous
Jan 28, 2016
its D 4 is D GAWH

1 5
posted by Michelle
Feb 4, 2016
You guys are wrong the answers are
1.B
2.C
3.B
4.B
@Correct Answers is right
and so is @Anonymous too
NUmber 4 is b

10 0
posted by hidra
Feb 5, 2016

Hidra is right! I got 100% I knew the answer to 2 of them but I couldn’t find the other ones. Also make sure the last one makes sense to you, so you can get a 100% like me!

1 0
posted by J.E.G
Feb 10, 2016
Hindra was correct. I got 100% thank you very much.

0 0
posted by Correct
Feb 17, 2016
Yes hidra is right 100%!

0 0
posted by Ironman
Mar 11, 2016

# 4 is d. Trust me on this one.

1 1
posted by Skylar
Mar 20, 2016
Hidra is right I only looked at Jess and Me. I got 75% 😔☹️😤

0 0
posted by Kpop is real
Mar 25, 2016

B
C
B
B
Those are the right answers

4 0
posted by Kpop is real
Mar 25, 2016
4.) is D

0 2
posted by #FreeGucci
Mar 29, 2016
1.B
2.C
3.B
4.D
I’m in connections academy and I just the test and number 4 is D no questions about it 4 IS D.

1 4
posted by Gloria
Mar 30, 2016
Skylar
Is right I got 75% from trusting hidra 4 is D

1 1
posted by Batman
Mar 31, 2016
yeah 4 is d Gloria and Batman are right

0 0
posted by sav
Apr 7, 2016

1. is B) Sam’s 0 0
posted by Nina
Apr 17, 2016
omg hidra is right I just took the test Graphing Proportional Relationships Lesson 7 Connections Academy.
B
C
B
B
100% Guaranteed
I apologize if you have a different test than me. 2 1
posted by Rayven M.
Apr 18, 2016
B
C
B
B
All correct 7 0
posted by Ciera Rue
Apr 21, 2016
Number 4 is D for this test.. 0 0
posted by Anon
Apr 25, 2016
guys look two dif questions for #4.
the question she has is d
the other question is b. (sam) 0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 26, 2016

B
C
B
B

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 30, 2016
^^^^^^^

0 0
posted by Gracious Human
May 1, 2016
^^^^^^^^^ Thank you fren

0 0
posted by Just a weeb
May 1, 2016

1. \$5 for 1 sub
2. y= 5x
3. 5.5
4. Sam’s

These are the answers, so if you have the answers placed different, there will be no confusion!

4 0
posted by Anonymous
May 7, 2016
connexus 4 is D
NO dought just deal with it

0 1
posted by yes correct
May 9, 2016

Never mind
it is b just looked at open study b for 4 is correct

0 0
posted by yes correct
May 9, 2016
Numb 4 ia D I just got that one wrong…wow people..maybe they change the last question

0 0
posted by Anonymous
May 10, 2016
B
C
B
B

0 0
posted by yo :
May 10, 2016
It looks like there are 2 different sets of questions and that is what is causing all the confusion…one set of questions the last answer is B and the other set of questions is D…people read the questions originally posted and compare they to your question…numbers one and two are the same as mind but 3 and 4 are different, it was just dumb luck that the answer to number 3 just happened to be B for both questions. The question number 4 above the answer is D…the other question is “The equation for the cost for subs at Anne’s Restaurant is y=4.75x. If the cost for subs at all three sandwich places were graphed, which would have the steepest line?” That answer is B….hopes this clears up the confusion for everyone

1 0
posted by Bashful
May 10, 2016
those who think those are correct are wrong its
1.c
2.c
3.b
4.d

0 0
posted by joshua diin
May 11, 2016

THX EVERYONE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

0 0
posted by fox girl
May 11, 2016
The aswer for this set of questions is 4:D. For the one I had it was B:Sam’s.

0 0
posted by Ellie
May 12, 2016
Trust me it’s

B
C
B
B

1 0
posted by Kade matson
May 13, 2016
dude 4. is D I got a 3/4

0 0
posted by The_Meta13
May 18, 2016
LISTEN EVERYONE the answers for the Connections academy is B C B B I don’t know what everyone else is talking maybe its a different quiz but ALL CONNECTIONS ACADEMY USERS: B C B B

0 0
posted by anonymous
May 18, 2016

THANKS ANONYMOUS
“LISTEN EVERYONE the answers for the Connections academy is B C B B I don’t know what everyone else is talking maybe its a different quiz but ALL CONNECTIONS ACADEMY USERS: B C B B”

0 0
posted by Your Butt
May 20, 2016
connections:
BCBB
Whatever other Online School which was mentioned:
BCBD

1 0
posted by Don’t feel like telling my name
May 25, 2016
for my connections people it is
b
c
b
b

0 0
posted by cellis
Jan 30, 2017
B
C
B
B
Connections Students

0 0
posted by Jay
Jan 31, 2017
For Georgia connections it is
B
C
B
D

0 0
posted by Davye
Feb 1, 2017

Uhh yall can trust me or not, thats yall but the answers are
B
C
B
B
For Lesson 7: Graphing Proportional Relationships CE 2015
Algebra Readiness (Pre-Algebra) B Unit 2: Functions
GettingStartedGettingStartedInstruction

1 0
posted by Brah
Feb 1, 2017
Brah is right. 4 IS NOT d, its B!!!!

0 0
posted by Its Johnny!
Feb 1, 2017
BCBB is right in connections academy

0 0
posted by ttng
Feb 2, 2017
I got a 3/4.
ok the real answers are NOT BCBB.
You do it and you will get a 75%
The real answers are:
1.B
2.C
3.B
4.D
Trust me.

0 0
posted by Ashlin
Feb 7, 2017
IF YOU ARE ON UNIT 3 LESSON 7 GRAPHING PROPORTINAL RELATIONSHIPS IN CONNEXUS THE ANSWERS ARE
B
C
B
D

0 1
posted by Anonymous
Feb 15, 2017

The last one was D thanks a lot for making me fail :l

0 0
posted by Jiskha
Mar 1, 2017
B \$5 for 1 sub
C y = 5x
B 5.5
B Sam’s

0 0
posted by Kat
Mar 3, 2017
4 was d not c

0 0
posted by Amanda
Mar 11, 2017
4 is B I got 75% I’m sorry Skylar I love you bro

0 0
posted by Wally West
Mar 21, 2017
Got B for 4

0 0
posted by CherriesAreGood
Apr 4, 2017

Hidra is correct……….

0 0
posted by S.H.E.L.D
Apr 5, 2017
1.)B
2.)C
3.)B
4.)B

ARE RIGHT

0 0
posted by math boss
Apr 14, 2017
I can confirm that the answers are

B
C
B
B

0 0
posted by boss baby
May 2, 2017
Hidra #4 is liberty hill

0 0
posted by Christian
May 17, 2017
B
C
B
B
Is correct, I just took the quick check and its B, C, B, and B.

0 0
posted by Dawn
Jun 8, 2017

DONT BE RETARDED AND GO WITH…
B
C
B
D
YOU WILL GET (3/4) A FREAKING 75%
YOU WANT AN (4/4) A AWESOME 100% GO WITH…
B
C
B
B
THANK YOU!!!!!

1 0
posted by ULTRA INSTINCT
Jan 25, 2018
The following answers are correct for Unit 2:Functions Lesson 7: Graphing Proportional Relationships for connexus students

0 0
posted by Yup
Feb 1, 2018
The following answers are correct for Unit 2:Functions Lesson 7: Graphing Proportional Relationships for connexus students
1.B
2.C
3.B
4.B

0 0
posted by Yup
Feb 1, 2018
1.What is the unit rate for Fred’s Sub shop?

A. \$10 for 2 subs
B. \$5 for 2 sub
C. \$1 for 1/5 of a sub
D. \$30 for 6 subs

1. What is the slope-intercept equation for the cost of a sub at Fred’s sub shop?

A. y = 2x
B. y = 10x
C. y = 5x
D. y = 5x + 2

1. The data in the table are linear. Use the table to find the slope.

A. 3/2
B. -3/2 *
C. -2/3
D. 2/3

1. What hill described in the table is the steepest? Explain.

A. Bell Hill: It rises one foot for every 4 feet of horizontal travel.
B. Dixie Hill: It rises two feet for every 1 feet of horizontal travel.
C. Liberty Hill:It rises four feet for every three feet of horizontal travel.
D. Liberty Hill:It rises 3/4 foot for every 1 feet of horizontal travel. *

THE CORRECT ANSWERS ARE:
1)B
2)C
3)B
4)D

THE LAST QUESTION CHANGES, SO PLEASE BE CAREFUL!!

1 0
posted by eggie boy
Feb 1, 2018
It’s
B
C
B
D
Always look further down, and don’t believe people who post again using a different names saying, “100% this persons Answers!!!”.

0 0
posted by Elzbieta Bosak
Feb 12, 2018

BBCD is WRONG, I got 75% at Connections Academy. Thanks for posting wrong answers people.

0 0
posted by Abigail
Feb 14, 2018
REAL ANSWERS

1. B
2. C
3. B
4. B

100% on Connexus

1 0
posted by Connexus
Feb 15, 2018
There is 5 questions tho

1 0
posted by BOIZ
Mar 8, 2018
^^^^^ True

0 0
posted by LittleNoot
Mar 9, 2018
I got a 80 because i had 5 questions not 4 so if you have 5 questions connexus students heres the answers i promise a 100%

1.) B , \$ 5 for 1 sub
2.) C , 5x
3.) B , 5.5
4.) B, Sam’s
5.) B , y=4*0

3 0
posted by ElevenMike
Mar 9, 2018

There are 5 questions for this quick check and this year!
(for connexus only)

1.B

2.C

3.B

4.B

5.B

Promise this will give you a 100%

5 0
posted by GrApE
Mar 9, 2018
4 is b

0 0
posted by Hehe
Mar 21, 2018
For conexxus students the last one is D

0 0
posted by ~ify
Mar 29, 2018
4 is b i got a 75 because i trusted the people that said d

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 12, 2018

# 4 is D for SCCA

0 0
posted by Blahhh
Apr 16, 2018

1.F
2.U
3.C
4.K

200% I promis

4 0
posted by hush my child
Apr 18, 2018

1. B
2. C
3. B
4. B 0 0
posted by Ching Chong
Apr 19, 2018
Thanks Ching Chong 0 0
posted by Untold Secrets </3
Apr 30, 2018
@Ching Chong is 100% right! Thanks!!!! 0 0
posted by Laura
May 2, 2018
GUYS STOP THEY ARE ALL DIFFERENT FOR 4 FOR ME IT WAS B SAM BUT OBV ITS D FOR SOMEONE ELSE STOP ARGUEING 0 1
posted by the answers are different for the lAst one
May 13, 2018

people literally go crazy if one answer looked different than the other -_-
I mean, dude, if you get one wrong, it won’t take out 90 percent of your grade

0 0
posted by Cereal…. is life. -Life Cereal
May 15, 2018
its 4 D I got 3/4 for lesson 7 unit 5

0 1
posted by tracy
May 17, 2018
4 IS NOT D IT IS B!!!!!!

1 0
posted by hi
May 21, 2018
its sams

0 0
posted by hi
May 21, 2018
Just took it. If you have 4 questions, the last one is b. VOTE FOR TRUMP!!!!!

0 1
posted by The Russians
May 23, 2018

For California Connections Academy I got 4/4

1. B
2. C
3. B
4. B 3 0
posted by Help Humanity
Jun 12, 2018
B C B B I got 100% 4/4 2 0
posted by cAt.ExE HaS sTopPeD wORkInG
Jan 17, 2019
Just took the assignment, I can confirm that bcbb is right and that anyone putting bcbd is trying to make you get a question wrong. 1 0
posted by 420blazeit
Feb 6, 2019
For OCA, the answers are
B
C
B
B
I took the quick check and got the last wrong.
If you’re not in OCA, then the answers might be
B
C
B
D 0 0
posted by ·
Feb 11, 2019
B
C
B
B
B 0 0
posted by 5 Q
Feb 12, 2019
5. B. 0 0
posted by David S.
Feb 26, 2019
B
C
B
B
100% correct i got 4/4 1 0
posted by billie eyelish stan
Mar 4, 2019
You all are wrong I just did my test right now and 4 is d 0 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 7, 2019
hmm 0 0
posted by
Mar 15, 2019
6. B
7. C
8. B
9. D 0 0
posted by Kinsey
Mar 19, 2019

Truly the answers are…
B
C
B
D
Take them or not I don’t give a @#*\$. However hope you get 100%, see ya.

1 1
posted by FMLyay
Mar 20, 2019

1. B
2. C
3. B
4. B 1 0
posted by Hal
Apr 11, 2019
b
c
b
b

those who posted these answers are right, you can trust them

1 0
posted by 요웅화
Apr 17, 2019

Categories

## option is to choice as deference is to

1. A major difference between today’s Hispanic and past European immigrants is that— (1 point)
for Hispanics, the old country is only two hours away.
European immigrants were all light-skinned.
Hispanics are willing to take jobs Americans don’t want.
European immigrants did not come in such large numbers.

Choose the word or phrase that best completes the analogy.

1. Option is to choice as deference is to— (1 point)
rudeness.
respect.
difference.
alternative.
Choose the progressive or emphatic verb tense that is used in the sentence below.
2. The Cougars had been winning until the third quarter of the game. (1 point)
present perfect progressive
past perfect progressive
past progressive
3. Which of the following informational texts would be the most helpful if you wanted to gain perspective into how an historical event affected a particular type of person? (1 point)
a journal written by a person who experienced the event
an essay by an expert on that event
a newspaper article about the event
a speech given by a leader at the time of the event

My answers:
1.b
2.d
3.a
4.b

0 0 376
asked by Angela
May 13, 2012
Congratulations! All of your answers are WRONG!

0 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
May 13, 2012
A
B
B
A

0 0
posted by Lacey
May 13, 2012
caaba

0 0
posted by WriteTeacher
Mar 20, 2013
Lacey was right!(:

0 0
posted by Helper
May 11, 2013

Ms. Sue, that was RUDE!

1 0
posted by Stacey
May 28, 2013
Wow… Ms. Sue, you have the attitude of my old French teacher; in which she got fired and her teaching license removed :)…

1 0
posted by Patricia
May 29, 2013
Lacey is right!!

0 0
posted by Scarlett
Jul 27, 2013
She TRIED and she was looking to see if her answers were correct, which they were not so someone gave her the right answers, she learned from this. Your ignorance was not needed nor is it wanted. Btw getting an education is succeeding and learning, which is what this was! Seems like you’re the one that needs to get their education.

0 0
posted by Emily
May 20, 2015
bob you’re

0 0
posted by john
Jun 17, 2015

Damn Ms. Sue got a stick up her !@#\$%^& Go see a doctor and get that surgically removed

1 0
posted by Damnu
May 3, 2016
I once again find another example of How patheticly useless Ms.Sue can be

1 0
posted by Wut
May 5, 2016
Oh my… so rude!
If you have the updated version on the story “Familiar Strangers” the Answers are still A, B, B, A!

0 0
posted by Rach
May 18, 2016
You have to disrespect kids to feel good about yourself. What does that say about you ms.sue

1 0
posted by Smd
Jun 2, 2016
no wonder why you arnt married

1 0
posted by Smd
Jun 2, 2016

First all of you who are talking bad about Ms. Sue look just as bad as her. Yeah she is rude but you don’t have to make yourselves look bad too.
Also I just took this and got 100% the answers are:

1. The act of new immigrants moving to America from closer countries….
2. Respect

3.Past Perfect Progressive

1. A journal written by a person…

Also if you are in honors there was a 5th question:
“True or false:
Apropos means suitable”
The answer is true.
Hope that helps 😀
~SilentRebel :3

0 1
posted by SilentRebel
Jun 5, 2016
SilentRebel is correct,

I just took the Quick Check, the answers are in fact:

1. The act of new immigrants moving to America from closer countries….
2. Respect

3.Past Perfect Progressive

1. A journal written by a person…

Thanks SilentRebel!!!
P.S. Listen to SilentRebel, she has a very great point, although what was said was rude, let it go, and learn from your mistakes!!!

~The Helpful Tutor
“I Help Everyone No matter how tough it may be…”

0 0
posted by The Helpful Tutor
Mar 7, 2017
New update with a fifth question:

1. Apropos means suitable. (1 point)
True
1/1 point 0 0
posted by hlsml
Mar 13, 2017
SilentRebel is correct 🙂 0 0
posted by anon
May 25, 2017
go to ms sues most recent ansers you will be suprised 1 0
posted by if any of you think thats the rudest ms sue is llok at this
Dec 19, 2017

he was just trying to figure out the questions ms. sue

2 0
posted by stud

Categories

## nahco3(s)â‡Œnaoh(s)+co2(g) calculate the value of the equilibrium constant.

Estimate the value of the equilibrium constant at 550 K for each of the following reactions.

1) 2CO(g) + O2(g) <==> 2CO2(g)

2) 2H2S(g) <==> 2H2(g) + S2(g)

Thanks in advance!

0 0 1,108
asked by Miguel
Jul 18, 2010
Calculate (from tables) delta Go for each reaction, then delta Go = -RT*lnK.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Jul 18, 2010
Tried that…not right

0 0
posted by Miguel
Jul 18, 2010
If you didn’t use 8.314 for R, post your work.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Jul 18, 2010
It’s apparently a different formula since the temperature is not the standard 298 K

Work for the first:

delta G is equal to -514.4 kJ

lnK = 514.4/(0.008314)(550)

lnK = 112.5

e^112.5 = 7.17*10^48 = k

• which Mastering Chemistry says is wrong 0 0
posted by Miguel
Jul 18, 2010

I figured it out…

You use the formula

ln(k2/k1) = (delta H)/R * [(1/T1)-(1/T2)]

1) 5.24 * 10^44

2) 8.86 * 10^-13

0 1
posted by Miguel
Jul 18, 2010
Could you try and answer my other question?

(ht tp: //ww w. jiskha. com/ display. cgi?id= 1279495858)

take spaces out

0 0
posted by Miguel
Jul 18, 2010
I don’t see anything wrong with what you have done.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Jul 18, 2010
where do you get the K1 from?

0 0
posted by kaylan
Nov 17, 2014
can you answer it for 545 K

0 0
posted by kaylan
Nov 17, 2014

## write an equation showing how this buffer neutralizes added acid (hno3).

I need to know how to write an equation showing how a buffer containing ammonia and ammonium chloride neutralizes added acid of HNO3.
56,355 results
chem
I need to know how to write an equation showing how a buffer containing ammonia and ammonium chloride neutralizes added acid of HNO3.

asked by moe on October 24, 2010
Chemistry
What is the Henderson-Hasselbach equation? Use the equation to determine the ratio of [A-] to [HA] necessary to create an ammonium chloride/ammonia buffer with a pH of 8.50. Describe how to make this buffer given a solution of 0.1 M NH3 (aq) and a bottle

asked by Lindsey on March 4, 2012
chemistry
A buffer is made by dissolving H3PO4 and NaH2PO4 in water. a. write an equation that shows how this buffer neutralizes a small amount of acids. b. write an equation that shows how this buffer neutr?

asked by marcy on November 11, 2011
Chemistry
1.)An ammonia/ammonium buffer solution contains 0.35 M NH3 and 0.72 M NH4+. The Kb value of ammonia is 1.8×10−5. Calculate the pH of this buffer. 2.) Nitrous acid has a Ka of 4.5×10−4. What is the pH of a buffer solution containing 0.15 M HNO2 and

asked by LuigiR on November 25, 2015
Chemistry
I’m trying to write an equation for the reaction of zinc nitrate with aqueous ammonia. I know that zinc hyroxide is produced first but I don’t really know how to write an equation for this. This is what I came up with: Zn(NO3)2 + 2OH- –> Zn(OH)2 + 2NO3-

asked by Alice on March 1, 2010

Chemistry
A buffer solution of pH=9.24 can be prepared by dissolving ammonia and ammonium chloride in water. How many moles of ammonium chloride must be added to 1.0 L of .50 M ammonia to prepare the buffer?

asked by Kate on February 13, 2011
Chemistry
How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 2.10L of a 0.600M solution of ammonia,NH3 , to prepare a buffer solution that has a pH of 9.00? Kb for ammonia is 1.8×10^-5. I just wanted to make sure I dd this write, can you please check my work? Thank

asked by Jessica on October 8, 2011
chemistry
When ammonia gas is burned in oxygen the products formed are water and nitrogen monoxide gas. Write the balanced equation showing this reaction NH4 + O2 –> H2O + NO i am stuck balancing this

asked by lyne on January 23, 2009
chemistry
a 2.00l buffer contains 1.00 mol HNO3 mixed with 1.00mol NaNO2 a. write the relevant ionization equation for this buffer. b. determine its pH c. determine the new pH if 1.00g of NaOH is added to the buffer

asked by michelle on January 1, 2015
chemistry
a 2.00l buffer contains 1.00 mol HNO3 mixed with 1.00mol NaNO2 a. write the relevant ionization equation for this buffer. b. determine its pH c. determine the new pH if 1.00g of NaOH is added to the buffer.

asked by mehek on December 29, 2014
chem
Calculate the ph of a buffer solution that is 0.10M in ammonia and 0.15M in ammonium chloride .kb for ammonia is 1.8*10^-5

asked by lina on May 12, 2010
Math
What is the pH of buffer solution prepared with 0.05 M ammonia & 0.05 M ammonium chloride? The Kb value of ammonia is 1.80 ✖️ 10^-5 at 25C.

asked by Neth on July 20, 2016
Chem
How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 1.80L of 0.200M solution of ammonia,NH3, to prepare a buffer that has a pH of 8.69? Kb for ammonia is 1.8*10^-5

asked by Jennifer on April 18, 2009
AP Chemistry
Consider ammonia, what is the pH of a buffer solution prepared by adding 15.0 g of ammonium chloride to 5.00L of 0.200 M ammonia? ( the K for NH3 is given to me 1.80 x 10 to the power of -5)

asked by Yamani on April 11, 2010
chemistry
A buffer is made by dissolving HC2H3O2 and NaC2H3O2 in water. Write an equation that shows how this buffer neutralizes added acid. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in the answer.

asked by amanda on December 3, 2012

Chemistry
A buffer is made by dissolving H3PO4 and NaH2PO4 in water. 1. Write an equation that shows how this buffer neutralizes added acid. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer. 2. Write an equation that shows how

asked by Mernyshia on October 16, 2015
CHEMISTRY
Write the formulas for the following substances as they would appear in a total ionic equation: a) Aqueous acetic acid b) solid lithium carbonate c) Aqueous ammonia d) Aqueous sodium dihydrogen phosphate I don’t know, do we have to write the formula [like

asked by DAN on May 13, 2012
chem
what is the pH change after the addition of 10mL of 1.0M sodium hydroxide to 90mL of a 1.0M NH3/1.0M NH4^+ buffer? Kb ammonia= 1.8 x 10^-5 i found the pH for the original buffer to be 9.255, but i’m not sure how to go about the rest of the question,

asked by marie on April 16, 2011
calc
hydrogen is being pumped into a spherical balloon at the rate of 250 cubic inches per minute. in a and b, you must provide an equation with their proper numerical factors when showing the relationships inquired A) write an equation showing the relationship

asked by beckii on November 15, 2007
Chemistry (PLZ HELP)

1. Outline a procedure to prepare an ammonia/ammonium buffer solution. I’m confused how to start it off. This is an outline of how the steps should be: Step One – Calculate the concentration of hydronium ions in the solution that requires buffering. You

asked by Emily on May 24, 2018
anayltical chemistry
I have tried and tried to use the henderson-hasselbalch equation for this problem, but i do not understand how to plug in the data: how much ammonium sulfate should be added to 500mL of .3M ammonia to produce a buffer with a pH of 9.?

asked by joey on November 22, 2010
chemistry
How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 2.00L of a 0.100M solution of ammonia, NH3, to prepare a buffer solution that has a pH of 8.86? Kb for ammonia is 1.8×10−5.

asked by Jennifer on April 22, 2014
Chemistry
Discuss how to prepare 250.0 ml of an ammonium-ammonia buffer (pkb = 4.70), ph = 9 and total concentration of 0.05M using 0.10 M ammonium chloride and 0.10M aqueous ammonia

asked by Elizabeth on November 10, 2010
Science (Chemistry)
How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 1.90 L of a 0.200 M solution of ammonia, NH3, to prepare a buffer solution that has a pH of 8.99? Kb for ammonia is1.8*10^-5. Can anyone help me with this question? I have no idea how to solve it.

asked by Taylor on March 12, 2012
chemistry
Consider a room temperature 0.30M ammonia buffer at pH 9.5. As you raise the temperature of the buffer, would you expect the pH to change? Explain. (Pka of NH4+ is 9.26)

asked by julie on March 7, 2010

chemistry
Consider a room temperature 0.30M ammonia buffer at pH 9.5. As you raise the temperature of the buffer, would you expect the pH to change? Explain. (Pka of NH4+ is 9.26)

asked by julie on March 7, 2010
CHEMISTRY
How many grams of dry need to be added to 1.90 of a 0.800 solution of ammonia, , to prepare a buffer solution that has a of 9.00? Kb for ammonia is 1.8*10^-5.

asked by Abinaya on March 11, 2012
Chemistry
Help required- Urea, CO(NH2)2, is the excreted form of excess nitrogen in most vertebrates. In urinary infections, urease, released by microbial pathogens, degrades urea into CO2 and ammonia in the bladder. a) write a balanced equation of the reaction, b)

asked by AT on May 6, 2012
chemistry
Draw a well diagram of the set up of the aparatus that can be used to show that ammonia gas can burn in oxygen Write the equation for combustion of ammonia In oxygen PLEASE HELP MI TO ANSWER THAT QUESTION IT DEFEATED MI

asked by Taufiki Hazard on April 5, 2017
Chemistry
Ammonia (NH3) react with oxygen (O2) to produce nitrogen monoxide (NO) and water (H2O). Write and balance the chemical equation. How many liter of NO are produced when 2.0 liters of oxygen reacts with ammonia?

asked by Noah on December 10, 2018
chemistry
Choices: True,False. Select all that are True. The pH at the equivalence point of a weak base with a strong acid is expected to be less than 7 because of the presentce of the conjugated acid in the water. One cannot prepare a buffer from a strong acid and

asked by paul on November 26, 2011
Chemistry-confused
All alkalis produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. How do we write the chemical equation for aqueous ammonia? I see some textbooks write it as ammonia gas dissolving in water to form ammonium ions and hydroxide ions. NH3(g)+ H2O(l) ==> NH4+(aq) +

asked by janice on April 10, 2009
joint heirs college, Fola agoro, shomolu Lagos.
CHEMISTRY (1) What is the equation for reaction when calcium oxide and coke are heated in electric furnace (2) what solid remains when the following is heated-(a) lithium trioxonitrate (v), (b) potassium trioxonitrate (v), (c) calcium trioxonitrate (v).

asked by Agunlejika Precious on October 15, 2015
chemistry
an ezyme -catalysed reaction was carried out in a solution buffered with 0.05 M phosphate ph 7.2 . As a result of the reaction ,0.06M of acid was formed. (phosphoric acid has three pka values. The one required for this calculation is pka2=7.2). 1) what was

asked by josh on January 12, 2016
ap chemistry
Ammonia decompose upon intense heating to produce nitrogen and hydrogen elemental products. Write a balanced equation and then use stoichiometry problem solving to determin the mass of nitrogen product that can form if exactly 25.50g of ammonia is fully

asked by anonymous on August 10, 2016

chemistry
Ammonia decomposes upon heating to produce nitrogen and hydrogen elemental products. Write a balanced equation and then use stoichiometry problem solving to determin the mass of nitrogen product that can form if exactly 25.50 grams of ammonia(NH3) is fully

asked by anonymous on August 10, 2016
Chem Help PLEASE!
Asked earlier but got no reply :/ hopefully I get one now cause I’m really stuck and can’t completely my assignment cause of one question.. How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 1.90 L of a 0.200 M solution of ammonia, NH3, to prepare a buffer

asked by Taylor on March 14, 2012
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
TRUE OR FALSE? 1) A solution that is made out of 1.00mol/L ammonia and 0.50mol/L of ammonium chloride is a basic buffer. 2) The pH at the equivalence point of a weak base with a strong acid is expected to be less than 7 because the acid that is added is

asked by Lorenzo on December 8, 2012

Chemistry
In the lab we synthesised nickel (II) ammine tetraflouroborate using hydrated nickel chloride and ammonia then this solution was added to a slotion of ammonia and ammonium tetraflouroborate,now im struggling to write a fully balanced chemical

asked by Sikhulile on April 23, 2016
Chemistry
In the lab we synthesised nickel (II) ammine tetraflouroborate using hydrated nickel chloride and ammonia then this solution was added to a slotion of ammonia and ammonium tetraflouroborate,now im struggling to write a fully balanced chemical

asked by Sikhulile on April 23, 2016
Chemistry ammonia gas
In an experiment i had a test tube with Ca(NO3)2 solution in it and I added NaOH and a piece of aluminium. After carefully heating the solution ammonia gas was formed Can you help me write the equation for the reaction? I don’t know the other products just

asked by Marysia on October 29, 2008
chemistry
write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that would occur ewhen a base is added to a solution containing H2PO4-/HPO4^2- buffer system can you please help we write this balanced equation. thank you

asked by coco on August 14, 2015
Chemistry
Write balanced net ionic equAtions. D) zinc chloride and excess ammonia E) cupric phosphate and lots of ammonia A) ammonia and excess zinc sulfate

asked by ALISON on April 8, 2012
Chemistry
What volume of hydrogen is necessary to react with five liters of nitrogen to produce ammonia? (assume constant temprature and pressure) Balanced equation- N2 + 3H2= 2NH3 After finding this answer, what volum of ammonia is produced in this reaction? 1.

asked by Kylen on January 28, 2007
Chemistry
You need to prepare 1.0 L of a buffer with a pH of 9.15. The concentration of the acid in the buffer needs to be 0.100 M. You have available to you a 1.00 M NH4Cl solution, a 6.00 M NaOH solution, and a 6.00 M HCl solution. Determine how to make this

asked by Lily on February 25, 2018
Chemistry
Calculate the pH of: a) ammonia, 0.1M, in water b) ammonium chloride, 0.1M, in water c) a buffer solution containing ammonia (0.1M)and ammonium chloride (0.01M) For NH4^+, pKa = 9.25

asked by Abby on September 26, 2008
chemistry(buffer solutions)
Calculate the pH of the buffer solution that would be ormed by mixing 500cm3 of 0.1mol/dm3(aq)ammonia with 500cm3 off 0.1mol/dm3(aq)ammonia chloride.

asked by Heather on May 15, 2017
Chemistry
How would you calculate the pH of the buffer if 1.0mL of 5.0M NaOH is added to 20.0mL of this buffer? Can someone please explain to me how to do B and C step by step so I could understand it clearly? 🙂 Say, for example, that you had prepared a buffer in

asked by Airin on March 5, 2014

Chemistry
How would you calculate the pH of the buffer if 1.0mL of 5.0M NaOH is added to 20.0mL of this buffer? Can someone please explain to me how to do B and C step by step so I could understand it clearly? 🙂 Say, for example, that you had prepared a buffer in

asked by Airin on March 4, 2014
Chemistry
The pH of a buffer can be predicted using the Hendersen-Hasselbach equation: pH=pKa+ log([conjugate base][conjugate acid]) The choice of the conjugate acid-base pair (as you did in the previous questions) determines the pKa value to be used in the H-H

asked by J on November 26, 2015
Science
Hydrogen chloride is added to a buffer solution of ammonia, NH3, and ammonium chloride, NH4Cl. What is the effect on the concentration of ammonia? On the concentration of ammonium chloride?

asked by Nancy on March 11, 2008
chemistry
At standard pressure, ammonia melts at 195 K and boils at 240 K. If a sample of ammonia at standard pressure is cooled from 200 K down to absolute zero, what physical constants are needed to calculate the change in enhtalpy? I) the heat capacity of

asked by please help ! on March 1, 2012
chem
At standard pressure, ammonia melts at 195 K and boils at 240 K. If a sample of ammonia at standard pressure is cooled from 200 K down to absolute zero, what physical constants are needed to calculate the change in enhtalpy? I) the heat capacity of

asked by please help ! on March 1, 2012
Chemistry
What does ammonia have anything to do with bogdan’s rocket building? -can’t find this anywhere if we had to order ammonia we don’t order in pure. it is ordered in clandestine, liquid solution. the ammonia exists in this aq solution in eq. what is the eq

asked by Xi on October 27, 2008
Chemistry
What does ammonia have anything to do with bogdan’s rocket building? -can’t find this anywhere if we had to order ammonia we don’t order in pure. it is ordered in clandestine, liquid solution. the ammonia exists in this aq solution in eq. what is the eq

asked by Xi on October 27, 2008
chemistry
write a formula equation for the following equation:Ammonia reactsa with hydrogen chloride to form ammonium chloride. NH4 + HCl = NH4Cl something like that How about NH3 + HCl ==> NH4Cl (NH4^+ is the ammonium ion. NH3 is ammonia).

asked by Tiara on February 22, 2007
chemistry
If you add 5.0 mL of 0.50 M NaOH solution to 20.0 mL to Buffer C, what is the change in pH of the buffer? (where buffer C is 8.203 g sodium acetate with 100.0 mL of 1.0 M acetic acid) I have calculated the pH of buffer C to be 4.74. Now what? =\

asked by Chelsea on November 7, 2010
CHEMISTRY
I have trouble how to resist pH in buffer solutions ( in acidic buffer , and in basic buffer ) when we add an acid , and a base ! how the reactions in buffer follow Le chatlier’s principle ?

asked by MAD on July 16, 2014

chem
Ammonia reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide and water according to the following equation: 4NH3(g) + 7O2(g) ® 4NO2(g) + 6H2O(g) You react ammonia and oxygen, and at the end of the experiment you find that you produced 27.0 g of water, and have

asked by mich on November 2, 2009
Chemistry
The question is: what is the ratio [NH3/[NH4+] in an ammonia/ammonium chloride buffer solution with pH= 10.00? (pKa for ammonia=9.25) When working the problem, I tried to solve it a bit backwards, in that I plugged in each of the multiple choices I was

asked by Marcus on April 9, 2013
analytical chemistry
How much ammonium sulfate should be added to 500mL of .30M ammonia to make a buffer with a pH 9.0?

asked by joey on November 20, 2010
Chemistry
Calculate the pH of a buffer solution containing 1.0 M ammonia (NH3 ; Kb = 1.8 x 10-5) and 1.0 M ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).

asked by Nick on March 20, 2013
chemistry
What is the change in ph after addition of 10.0 ml of 1.0 m sodium hydroxide to 90.0 ml of a 1.0 m nh3/1.0 m nh4+ buffer? [kb for ammonia is 1.8 x 10-5]?

asked by Sarah on August 18, 2017
Chemistry
Use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the pH of a buffer prepared by adding 10mL of acetic acid to 20mL of 0.10M sodium acetate (Ka= 1.75 x 10^5 for acetic acid). Please showing working out, as am confused as to how to approach this question.

asked by Lois on May 9, 2010
Chemistry
Virtually all the nitric acid manufactured commercially is obtained by the ammonia oxidization process. This involves this first step: Ammonia gas combines with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide and water vapour. a) Write a balanced equation for the

asked by Kayla on January 20, 2015
Chemistry

1. Outline a procedure to prepare an ammonia/ammonium buffer solution. I’m confused how to start it off.

asked by Emily on May 25, 2018
Chemistry
Which of the following will buffer near pH=9? a. 0.5M sodiumacetate/0.5M acetic acid b. 0.5M ammonium chloride/0.5M ammonia c. 0.5M sodium dihydrogen phosphate/0.5M hydrogen phosphate i think a) 0.5M sodiumacetate/0.5M acetic acid will buffer near pH=9

asked by Cristian on October 17, 2012
chemistry
are this 2 equations the same NIE? and if not how come? Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of ammonia and acetic acid are combined. Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions

asked by savannah on November 17, 2011

Chemistry
Calculate the pH buffer made by combing 50.0 mL of 1.00M ammonia and 50.0mL of ammonium nitrate. Can I use the same formula? If so do I do anything with the mL

asked by Monique on November 11, 2011
CHEMISTRY
a) Write the formula for each component in a buffer solution of acetic acid and its’ salt. b) The Ka, for hypochlorous acid, HClO, is 7.2 x l0^–4 at 25°C. What is pKa? Write the equation for the reaction to which Ka applies.

asked by jess on October 26, 2015
chemistry
A buffer is made by combining 3.50 L of 0.200M butylamine, C4H9NH2 with 7.50L of 0.100M butylammonium chloride, C4H9NH3Cl. Assuming that volumes are additive, calculate the following. A) the pH of the buffer. B) the pH of the buffer after the addition of

asked by Studious on March 1, 2013
chemistry
A buffer is made by combining 3.50 L of 0.200M butylamine, C4H9NH2 with 7.50L of 0.100M butylammonium chloride, C4H9NH3Cl. Assuming that volumes are additive, calculate the following. A) the pH of the buffer. B) the pH of the buffer after the addition of

asked by Studious on March 1, 2013
Chemistry
3 buffers in the human body and what are their conjugate acid-base pairs? I have Bicarbonate Buffer, Phosphate/Ammonia Buffer, and Protein Buffers, where my confusion lies in what would be there conjugate acid base pairs…….

asked by Mandie on November 12, 2011
chemistry
What mass of ammonium chloride must be added to a 0.500 L solution of 0.250 M ammonia to make a buffer with a pH of 9.26? Kb (NH3) = 1.8 × 10–5?

asked by paula on March 28, 2015
chemistry help
What mass of ammonium chloride must be added to a 0.500 L solution of 0.250 M ammonia to make a buffer with a pH of 9.26? Kb (NH3) = 1.8 × 10–5?

asked by paula on March 30, 2015
chemistry
How many grams of solid ammonium chloride should be added to 1.50 L of a 0.224 M ammonia solution to prepare a buffer with a pH of 8.720 ?

asked by Zach on April 3, 2015
Science

1. You need to conduct an experiment in the laboratory. This requires that you prepare 500 ml of sodium acetate buffer with pH = 4.30. In laboratory you have solution of CH3COOH (pKa = 4.75), and a stock of CH3COONa.3H2O (MW=136.082 g/mol). Using

asked by Biochem on October 29, 2015
Chemistry
Write an equation showing the bicarbonate ion acting as an acid.

asked by Pedro Rodriguez on October 19, 2011

Chemistry
in an experiment, ammonia gas, NH3(g) was bubbled through distilled water. Some of the dissolved ammonia gas, NH3, reacted with the water to form the aqueous ammonia ions, NH4. When red litmus paper was placed in contact with the aqueous solution, the

asked by Joe on March 4, 2013
CHEM 120
What mass of ammonium nitrate must be added to 350 mL OF 0.150 M solution of ammonia to give a buffer having pH of 9.00? (Kb(NH3)= 1.8X10-5

asked by Mxolisi on November 10, 2016
Biochemistry
How would you make 100 mL of a carbonic acid buffer at 0.5 M and pH = 6.0 using 1.0 M NaHCO3 and either 1.0 M NaOH or 1.0 M HCl and water? so far, I have 50 mL NaHCO3. I plugged that into the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation of pH=pKa + log [A-]/HA] and

asked by Kindle on September 11, 2016
Chemistry
Write an equilibrium reaction equation for each of the following buffer mixtures: a)NH3(aq) and NH4Cl(aq) b)HC7H5O2(aq) and NaC7H5O2(aq)

asked by Anonymous on January 7, 2018
Organic Chem
Write a balanced equation showing the reaction of trimyristin and aqueous NaOH

asked by Ruth on October 10, 2011
Biochemistry
A buffer solution is prepared by mixing 2.50 mL of 2.00M sodium acetate with 3.30mL of 0.500M HCl and diluting the buffer with water to a final volume of 500.0mL. pK acetic acid: 4.76 what is ph of buffer? what is final concentration of buffer?

asked by Maria on February 4, 2014
Math
Write an equation for the tangent to the curve y=sinmx at the origin. I got y=mx, is this correct? Please help by showing work! Thanks

asked by Beth on January 3, 2016
chem
Write a chemical equation for Sr(OH)_2(aq) showing how it is a base according to the Arrhenius definition. I came up with Sr(OH)_2 (aq)–> Sr^+(aq) + OH ^- (aq). is this the final answer?

asked by moe on October 4, 2010
Chem
Write equation showing how to 2-phenylethanol could be prepared for each of the following starting materials: a) ethyl 2-phenylethanoate Thank you!

asked by Help! on February 8, 2015
chemistry

1. The reaction of 50 mL of N2 gas with 150 mL H2 gas to form ammonia via the equation: N 2(g) + 3H2 (g) → 2NH3 (g) will produce a total of mL of ammonia if pressure and temperature are kept constant

asked by Anonymous on August 12, 2014

chemistry
The pKb of ammonia solution, NH3(aq) is 4.76. A buffer solution contains NH4Cl and NH3, has a pH of 9.45, and a total ammonia concentration (all forms) of 0.400 M. What is the concentration of NH4+? (Hint: [NH4+] + [NH3] = 0.400 M)

asked by Anonymous on May 6, 2013
Chemistry
What is the concentration of ammonia in a solution that is .500 M NH4Cl and in which the solubility of Mg(OH)2 is 1.0×10^-3 M? Ksp for Mg(OH)2 is 6.3×10^-10. Write the equilibrium equation and calculate the overall K.

asked by Anonymous on November 18, 2010
chemistry
How do you calculate the pH when the following substances are added to a buffer.(all of the solutions are at .10M conc.) The buffer: 50mL NH3 + 50mL NH4NO3 1) 10mL buffer + 6mL water 2)10mL buffer + 5mL water +1mL HCl 3)10mL buffer + 6mL HCl 4)10mL buffer

asked by Mary on April 14, 2009
college chemistry
How do you calculate the pH difference when the following substances are added to a buffer.(all of the solutions are at .10M conc.) The buffer: 50mL NH3 + 50mL NH4NO3 1) 10mL buffer + 6mL water 2)10mL buffer + 5mL water +1mL HCl 3)10mL buffer + 6mL HCl

asked by Mary on April 13, 2009
Chemistry
9.3mL of ammonia base cleaner requires 12mL of 1M HCL to reach end point. A) what is molarity of ammonia and b) what is percentage of ammonia

asked by John on September 20, 2017

Categories

## what exponential function represents the data in the table? x f(x) 2 25 3 125 4 625

Which function rule represents the data in this…
29,646 results
Algebra
Find the next three terms in the sequence? -6,5,16,17 A 38,49,60* B 37,47,57 C 36,45,54 D 36,46,57 3 What are the first four terms of the sequence represented by the expression n(n-1)-5? A -7,-5,-3,1 B -5,-10,-15,-20 C 0,2,6,12 D -5,-3,1,7* 6.Given the

asked by Cindy on April 10, 2018
Math help please
these questions are for practice, they don’t count as points, but i don’t understand how to solve them.. can someone please explain them to me?? which function rule represents the data in the table below? input|1| 2| 3| 4|5 output|9|15|21|27|33 A)y=4+5x

asked by UMACBLACKBELT on June 2, 2015
Math
1.Mia charges \$2.25 per hour when she babysits, plus \$5.00 for transportation expenses.Which function rule represents the amount y mia charges to babysit for x hours? A)Y = 2.25x + 5.00*** B)X = 5.00y + 2.25 C)Y = 5.00x + 2.25 D)Y = 7.25x 2.(So this one is

asked by Reeses on May 20, 2017
MATH

1. Write a function rule that represents y is 5 less than the product of 4 and x. 16. Write a function rule that represents 7 less than three fifths of b is a. 17. Write a function rule that represents the almond extract a remaining in an 8 oz bottle

asked by Please help on January 29, 2018
math

1. Which function is a quadratic function? A. y=3x^2+x B. y=2x-1 C. y=3/x D. y= -|x| Which function rule represents the data in the table? x -3, -2, -1, 0, 1 y 1, -2, -5, -8, -11 A. y=-3x-8 B. y=1/3x -8 C. y=1/3x+8 D. y=3x+8

asked by Anonymous on June 5, 2015

Math
1.Suppose that the function f(x) = 5x + 3 represents the number of cars that drive by in x minutes. How many cars will drive by in 10 minutes? a. 80 b. 53 c. 50 d. 35 2. Buses on your route runs every 8 minutes from 7:00am to 11:00am. You arrive at the bus

asked by Oreo Chips on March 31, 2017
math
Which function rule represents the data in this table? X: -3 -2 -1 0 1 Y: -17 -14 -11 -8 -5

asked by jai on April 21, 2016
Pre algebra
Which function rule represents the data in the table X|-3|-2|-1|0 |1 Y|1 |-2|-5|-8|-11 A. Y=-3x-8 B. Y=1/3x-8***? C. Y=1/3x+8 D. Y=-3x+8

asked by Bunnysayrawr on May 11, 2016
Which function rule represents the data in this…
Which function rule represents the data in this table? X: -3 -2 -1 0 1 Y: -17 -14 -11 -8 -5

asked by InDireNeedOfHelp on June 9, 2014
Pre-Algebra Please do Help !!!
Which function rule represents the data in the table? x= -3,-2,-1,0,1 y= 1,-2,-5,-8,-11 a. y= -3x-8 b. y= 1/3x-8 c. y= 1/3+8 d. y= 3x +8 i don’t know if it is b or c

asked by Beth on May 8, 2015
Math
Which function rule represents the data in the table below. Input (x) 1 2 3 4 5 Output (y) 9 15 21 27 33

asked by Anonymous on March 1, 2019
algebra
Which function rule represents the data in the table? X -3, -2, -1, 0, 1. Y -1, 2, 5, 8, 11. How do I find the answer?

asked by Buddy Boy on January 30, 2019
Algebra 1
EAch set of ordered pairs represents a function. Write a rule that represents the function (2,10),(4,20),(5,25),(7,35),(9,45)

asked by Dorianna on October 23, 2012
pre algebra
Which function rule represents the data in the table? x|-3|-2|-1|0|1 y|-1|2|5|8|11 The answer choices are 1. y=-3x-8 2. y= 1/3x-8 3. y= 1/3x+8 4. y= 3x+8 Please state the answer and how you got it. I want to be able to do this on my own in the future.

asked by olay on February 16, 2017
math
Write a function rule for the data in the table. Input (x) 1 2 3 4 5 Output(y) 6 8 10 12 14 I’ve been looking at this for about an hour now and can’t figure out how to write it. I understand what the rule is, but I dont know how to write it as a function

asked by meow on May 19, 2017

Algebra 1
The ordered pairs 1,4 – 2,16 – 3,64 – 4,256 – 5, 1024 represents a function. What rule represents this function. 1- 4 x power 2- 4x 3- xto the 4th power 4- x+4 my answer is 4x

asked by Steve on December 3, 2014
Math
I have done the work on all of these problems so please don’t give me lectures about cheating, I’m not 8 years old. 1.Given the function rule f(x) = x^2-3x+2, what is the output of f(-2)? A)-8 B)0 C)4 D)12*** 2.The data in the table represents a linear

asked by Reeses on May 17, 2017
Math
Make a table and graph each quadratic function. Use integers from -3 to 3 for inputs. #4- y= -x2 #5- y=2x squared #6- y= -8x squared #7- y= x squared + 2 Make a table and a graph for each function. Use only positive values for x. #10- y= 10/x #11- y= 8/x

asked by Math on May 11, 2016
Math “Need Help Asap”!

1. Do the data in the table represent a linear function? If so, write a rule for the function. x –3 –2 –1 0 1 y 1 –2 –5 –8 –11 (1 point) yes; y = –3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x + 8 yes; y = 3x + 8 16. Write a quadratic rule

asked by #FreeGucci on April 13, 2016
Math

1. Do the data in the table represent a linear function? If so, write a rule for the function. x –3 –2 –1 0 1 y 1 –2 –5 –8 –11 (1 point) yes; y = –3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x + 8 yes; y = 3x + 8 16. Write a quadratic rule

asked by #FreeGucci on April 13, 2016
Math help please ASAP

1. Do the data in the table represent a linear function? If so, write a rule for the function. x –3 –2 –1 0 1 y 1 –2 –5 –8 –11 (1 point) yes; y = –3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x + 8 yes; y = 3x + 8 16. Write a quadratic rule

asked by Delilah on May 2, 2013
Math Test

1. A rental car company charges \$150.00 for a weekly rental and an additional \$0.20 for each mile driven. The function rule C=0.20m+150.00 describes the relationship between the number of miles driven m and the total cost C. If the rental car can only be

asked by Kaai97 on November 30, 2015
math
Suppose that a ball has a rebound percentage of 75 and the ball is dropped from a height of 5ft onto the concrete below. Make a table of the data. Write a recursive rule for the data. Write a closed-form function rule for the data. What would the height of

asked by Lola on March 1, 2013
Pre-Algebra

1. Given the function rule f(x) = x² – 3x + 2, what is the output of f(–2)? 2. Suppose you earn \$12 each time you mow the lawn. Write the function describes the relationship between your total earnings E and the number of times you mow the lawn, m? 3.

asked by Anonymous on May 12, 2015
Algebra
The ordered pairs (1,6), (2,36), (3,216), (4,1296), and (5,7776) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function?

asked by Steve on October 17, 2014

Algebra
The ordered pairs (1,1), (2,8), (3,27), (4,64) , and (5,125) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function? My answer is y = x cubed

asked by Steve on October 17, 2014
Math help please

1. The ordered pairs (1, 1), (2, 8), (3, 27), (4, 64), and (5,125) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function? Y = x Y = 4x Y = x^2 Y = x^3 I don’t know how to solve this please help!

asked by Charlotte on November 7, 2013
Math
The ordered pairs (1, 5), (2, 25), (3, 125), (4, 625), and (5, 3125) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function? A. y = x5 **B. y = 5x C. y = 5x D. y = x + 5

asked by School Rocks on December 19, 2017
algebra
The ordered pairs (1, 81), (2, 100), (3, 121), (4, 144), and (5, 169) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function?

asked by Grace on April 10, 2017
Algebra
Please check my answer The ordered pairs (0,1), (1, 6),(2, 36), (3, 216), and (4, 1,296) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function? A y=x^6*** B y=6x C y=x+6 D y=6x

asked by Matt on May 20, 2016
Math
The ordered pairs (0,-3), (1,2), (2,7), (3,12) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function?

asked by Anonymous on December 19, 2014
ALGEBRA1
The ordered pairs (1, 16), (2, 25), (3, 36), (4, 49), and (5, 64) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function? A. y = x2 B. y = x + 15 C. y = 2(x+3) D. y = (x + 3)2 is it D?

asked by ERICH on October 26, 2017
math
Which quadratic rule represents the data in the table? x: -1 | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 Y: 4 | 5 | 4 | 1 | -4 A. y= -2x^2 + 5 B. y= -x^2 + 5 C. y= x^2 – 4 D. y= x^2 + 5 Is it A or C?

asked by anonymous on May 4, 2015
Pre Algebra Test
Which quadric rule represents the data in the table below? A. y=-2x^2+5 B. y=-x^2+5 C. y=x^2-5 D. y=x^2+5

asked by Summer on March 21, 2016
Pre Algebra
Which quadric rule represents the data in the table below? A. y=-2x^2+5 B. y=-x^2+5 C. y=x^2-5 D. y=x^2+5

asked by Summer on March 21, 2016

Math.
Which quadratic rule represents the data in the table? x: -1 | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 Y: 4 | 5 | 4 | 1 | -4 A. y= -2x^2 + 5 B. y= -x^2 + 5 C. y= x^2 – 4 D. y= x^2 + 5 Is it A or C?

asked by Anonymous on May 4, 2015
Math (Calculus)
Hello, Could somebody please help me with the following question? It asks to differentiate the function below according to derivate rules of calculus such as the power rule (if f(x)=x^n, then f'(x)=nx^n-1), the product rule (if F(x)=f(x)g(x) then

asked by Constantine on August 12, 2015
Algebra 1
The ordered pairs(1,4), (2,16), (3,64), (4,256),(5,1024) represent a function. What is a rule that represents,this function? My answer is y=x to the 4th power

asked by Steve on December 1, 2014
math
x y 0.5 2 1 1 2 0.5 4 0.25 5 ? 10 ? part a complet the 2 missin number? need help part b based on the table, writ a function rule that represents the relationship between x and y. rule need help_________________?

asked by jace on April 7, 2010
Patterns and nonlinear functions(Algebra 1)
The ordered pairs (1,1), (2,8),(3,27),(4,64), and (5,125) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function? (1 point) Y=x Y=4x Y=x^2*** Y=x^3 Reiny, Steve, Ms.Sue… is this correct or is it not?

asked by Gabby on November 4, 2013
Math
Function Table X. Y 0.5. 2 1. 1 2. 0.5 4. 0.25 5 10 What is the function rule that represents the relationship between x and y.

asked by Daniel on August 14, 2012
Math
Isaac and Sakura are both doing a science experiment where they are measuring the temperature of a liquid over time. Graphs that represent each of their data are shown below. mc003-1.jpg mc003-2.jpg Which statement is correct? The slope of the graph that

asked by Samaria on February 27, 2018
Math
Which quadratic rule represents the data in the table? X : -1 | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 Y: 4 | 5 | 4 | 1 | -4 Y = -2x^2 + 5 Y = -x^2 + 5 Y = -x^2 – 5 Y = x^2 + 5 My answer is Y = -x^2 – 5

asked by Cam on May 9, 2016
algebra
The Jackson High School gymnastics team sells calendars for their annual fundraiser. The function rule below describes the amount of money the team can raise, where y is the total amount in dollars, and x is the number of calendars sold. y x = + 3 28 Use

asked by crissy on February 23, 2016
math
Data were recorded for the demand and revenue of a given product. Find the linear regression line which represents the revenue function. Find the quadratic regression curve which represents the revenue function. Data Demand x Revenue y 1 0 100 2 4 139.2 3

asked by Jake on October 15, 2014

pre Algebra
Do the data in the table represent a linear function? If so, write a rule for the function. x –3 –2 –1 0 1 y 1 –2 –5 –8 –11 (1 point) yes; y = –3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x + 8 yes; y = 3x + 8

asked by Summer on March 21, 2016
Math
Do the data in the table represent a linear function? if so, write a rule for the function X= -2,-1,0,1,2 Y= -7, 1,8,17,25 A. yes; y= 8x + 9 B. yes ; y = 8x +8 C. yes ; y = 1/8x+8 D. no*** plz help me

asked by Abby on May 11, 2015
Math help please
Do the data in the table represent a linear function? If so, write a rule for the function. x: –3 –2 –1 0 1 y: 1 –2 –5 –8 –11 yes; y = –3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x – 8 yes; y = 1/3x + 8 yes; y = 3x + 8

asked by Delilah on May 3, 2013
Math
Do the data in the table represent a linear function? if so, write a rule for the function X= -2,-1,0,1,2 Y= -7, 1,8,17,25 A. yes; y= 8x + 9 B. yes ; y = 8x +8 C. yes ; y = 1/8x+8 D. no***

asked by Abby on May 11, 2015
Math Ms. Sue please

1. Use the function rule ƒ(x) = x2 – 5x + 1. Find the output ƒ(–3). (1 point) 7 –5 25 5 7. Suppose you earn \$12 each time you mow the lawn. Use function notation to describe the relationship between your total earnings E and the number of times m

asked by Delilah on May 2, 2013
Math
Write a function rule that represents the sentence. C is 8 more than half of n. c=8+n/2 c+8=n/2 c+8=1/2+n c=n/2-8

asked by Mike on October 25, 2015
ALGEBRA
the ordered pairs pairs (1,36), (2,49), (3,64). (4,81), and (5,100) represent a function. What is a rule that represents this function y=x^2 y=36x y=(x+5)^2**** y=(x=6)^2

asked by BUBBLES on November 5, 2015
Algebra 1
Which rule below represents a quadratic function with vertex (4 ,-5) and passing through the point (0, -1)? y=(x-4)(x+5)-1 y=(x-4)^2-5 y = 0.25 (x – 4)^2 – 5 y = 0.12 (x – 4)^2 – 5

asked by Jamie Ciacico on August 14, 2015
Algebra; HELP PLEASE.
I don’t understand the topic we’re learning in math. /: Provide an explanation, steps on how you figured the answer out, and of course, the answer. Tell whether the table represents an exponential function. If so, write a rule for the function. x: -2, -1,

asked by He’s not all bad like his reputation </3 on February 2, 2012
Algebra; HELP IMMEDIATELY
I don’t understand the topic we’re learning in math. /: Provide an explanation, steps on how you figured the answer out, and of course, the answer. Tell whether the abe represents an exponential function. If so, write a rule for the function. x: -2, -1, 0,

asked by He’s not all bad like his reputation </3 on February 2, 2012

math
wht is the function rule that represents the relationship found in the following ordered pairs (-5,22),(10,-23),(4,-5),(-7,28),(6,-11)

asked by Anonymous on February 8, 2011
Algebra
PLEASE HELP!!! Write a function rule that represents each sentence.: 1. 7 less than three times m is n. 2. 14 more than the quotient of a number t and 10 is u.

asked by Samantha on February 17, 2016
microeconomics
Using MS Excel or a table in MS Word, complete Table-1 (Joseph Farms, Inc., Cost and Revenue Data). Assume that the price is \$165. Assume the fixed costs are \$125, at an output level of 1. Assume that the data represents a firm in pure competition. Show

asked by lee on September 10, 2014
Calc
I’m creating a “calculu for dummies” project book. I’ve already done most of it, I’m just stuck on these ones. Thank you! -What is the definition of a derivative? -What does the derivative of a function tell you (in english) ? Then I need an example of the

asked by Jill on May 19, 2011
algebra
does the data in the table represent a linear function? if so, wirte a rule for the function. (below is what the table looks like) x | -2| -1| 0 | 1| 2| y | -7| 1| 8 | 17| 25| answer choices yes; y = 8x +9 yes; y = 8x + 8 no yes; y = 1/8x + 8

asked by Emma on June 5, 2014
Math
The following data represents the high-temperature distribution for a summer month in a city for some of the last 130 years. Treat the data as a population. Temperature Days 50-59 4 60-69 309 70-79 1428 80-89 1485 90-99 393 100-109 8 According to the

asked by Kristina on January 27, 2013
HELP MATH !!
Melanie charges \$4.50 per hour when she washes cars, plus \$5.00 for supplies. Which function rule represents the amount y Melanie charges to wash cars for x hours? (1 point) a) y = 0.50x b) y = 4.50x + 5.00 c) y = 5.00x + 4.50 d) y = 9.50x The sale price

asked by kelsey on May 23, 2014
algebra1
Which of the following functions represents a geometric sequence? Why? Answer Choices The function f(x)=x7 represents a geometric sequence because each term is raised to the seventh power to make it greater. The function f(x)=7x represents a geometric

asked by miyah on October 9, 2017
ALGEBRA
Max charges \$3.50 per hour when he mows lawns, plus \$6.00 for transportation expenses. Which function rule represents the amount y Max charges to mow lawns for x hours? y = 9.50x y = 6.00x + 3.50 y = 3.50x + 6.00* y = 2.5x The sale price of ground beef

asked by BUBBLES on February 19, 2015
algebra
which data set represents an increasing linear function? a) (1,-2),(3,1),(5,4),(7,7) b) (1,1),(2,0),(3,-1),(4,-2) c) (1,-3),(3,5),(5,11),(7,18) d) (1,17),(2,15),(3,11),(4,3) my answer: c) (1,-3),(3,5),(5,11),(7,18)

asked by gracie on June 3, 2014

Math I need help ASAP!
1) Identify the function rule shown in the table. Function Table n – 3, 4, 5, 6 y – 2, 1, 0, -1 a. y = 2 + n b. y = 5n c. y = 5 – n d. not enough information ** 2) What is the values of the function y = -2x – 4 for x = 0,1,2 and 3? a. 0, -6, -8, -10 b. -4,

asked by Talea on April 7, 2015
MATH help can anyone check my answer plzz!!
1)evaluate the function for x=2f(x)=7x-5 A)9 B)19 C)-9 D)-19 2)Candy is on sale for \$0.75 each you have a coupon for \$0.25 off your total purchase write a function rule for the coast on n pieces of candy. A)C(n)=0.25n-0.75 B)C(n)=0.75n-0.25 C)C(n)=1.0n

asked by that emo girl! on February 8, 2018
Algebra
Myra uses an inverse variation function to model the data for the ordered pairs below. (2, 30), (3, 20), (4, 15), (5, 12), (6, 10) Which statement best explains whether an inverse variation function is the best model for the data? An inverse function is

asked by Melanie on July 7, 2014
Math help! Hurry Please~

1. Scientists estimate the rate of the wildebeest running at full speed to be 66 feet per second. Write a function rule to describe the relationship between the time, t, and the distance ,d, a wildebeest travels when running at full speed.(1 point) a. t =

asked by Fluffy Unicorn on March 9, 2017
Math Plz help ASAP
In football, a field goal is worth 3 points. Which function rule relates the number of field goals, f, and the number of points, p? A) f=3p B) p=3f C) 3+f D) p=3+f Which function rule is represented by the table? X[0,1,2,3 Y[3,5,7,9 A)y=x+3 B)y=x+6

asked by ThatOneGuy on February 28, 2017
math
I have the same project as Jill down there… -What is the definition of a derivative? -What does the derivative of a function tell you (in english) ? Then I need an example of the power rule, quotient rule, and chain rule. -What information does the FIRST

asked by Teenie on May 19, 2011
Math
The graph represents function 1 and the equation represents function 2: A graph with numbers 0 to 4 on the x-axis and y-axis at increments of 1. A horizontal straight line is drawn joining the ordered pairs 0, 3 and 4, 3. Function 2 y = 3x + 1 How much

asked by Marc-Anthony on January 11, 2016
Calculus
What would an example of a logarithmic function that contains two trig functions within it where you would need to use chain rule and product rule to take derivative look like? How would taking the derivative of the function in its original form look

asked by Robin on February 12, 2015
Math– algebra 2
write a function rule for the following table– x f(x) 3 9 4 16 5 25 6 36 I know how to find the function rule, it’s just that this is a bit confusing since the f(x) isn’t constant. Thank you so much!

asked by IhaveaQ on July 28, 2017
Calculus
Would someone clarify this for me… Is antiderivatives just another name for intergral and why is intergral of a function is the area under the curve? Antiderivatives is another word for integral. Why area? THink on this…the integral is the sum of all

asked by Jan on September 12, 2006

Algebra (math)
The graph represents function 1 and the equation represents function 2: A graph with numbers 0 to 4 on the x-axis and y-axis at increments of 1. A horizontal straight line is drawn joining the ordered pairs 0, 3 and 4, 3. Function 2 y = 4x + 1 How much

asked by Winchester on January 4, 2017
MATH URGENT!!!!!
The graph represents function 1 and the equation represents function 2: A graph with numbers 0 to 4 on the x-axis and y-axis at increments of 1. A horizontal straight line is drawn joining the ordered pairs 0, 3 and 4, 3. Function 2 y = 2x + 1 How much

asked by Anonymous on December 5, 2016
Algebra
Help Please Write a function rule that represents each sentence. 1. 11 less than the product of a number y and -2 is z. 2. 5 less than the quotient of a number n and 4 is m.

asked by Katie on January 7, 2014
Math
I need some help on this function rule question. 8.) Find the function rule. x: -2 -1 0 1 2 y: 9 4 -1 -6 -11 I’m having a really hard time figuring this out. Thnx

asked by Need Help ASAP!!! on March 16, 2017
Math
I need some help on this function rule question please. 8.) Find the function rule. x: -2 -1 0 1 2 y: 9 4 -1 -6 -11 I’m having a really hard time figuring this out. Thanks to anyone that helps:)

asked by Anonymous on March 16, 2017
Math
If M(t)=29.9t^2+3892, where t=0 represents 1990. How would I describe the transformation of the common function f(t)=t^2. How can I rewrite the function so that t=0 represents 2000.

asked by Caroline on February 9, 2011
Calculus
Find the derivative of [(2+x)/(x-3)]^(2/5) I tried the power of a function rule, quotient rule, the chain rule but keep getting stuck.

asked by Sam on January 28, 2018
Algebra 2
Suppose the polynomial function below represents the power generated by a wind turbine, where x represents the wind speed in meters per second and y represents the kilowatts generated. Interpret f(10) f(x) = 0.08x^3 + x^2 + x + 0.26 ___ Does

asked by Anonymous on January 13, 2018
Math
A rental car company charges \$150.00 for a weekly rental and an additional \$0.20 for each mile driven. The function rule C=0.20m+150.00 describes the relationship between the number of miles driven m and the total cost C. If the rental car can only be

asked by Kaai97 on November 30, 2015
Science
A researcher is gathering data from four geographical areas designated: South=1;North=2; East=3; West=4. The geographical regions represents a. categorical data b. quantitative data c. directional data d. either quantitative or categorical data

asked by John on May 27, 2011

math help !

1. Which function rule would help you find the values in the table ? n 2 4 6 m -8 -16 -24 A) m = -2n B) m = n – 2 C) m = n – 4 D) m = -4n 2. Explain how to write a function rule from the table below. Then write a function rule. x 2 4 6 y 1 0 –1

asked by kelsey on May 18, 2014
Simpson’s rule
Is the simpson’s rule always more accurate than the midpoint rule and trapezoidal rule? Not always; it is possible that the midpoint and/or trapezoidal rule determine exact values. 1. Some functions values for a function f are given below. x 0 0.5 1.0 f(x)

asked by 413 on October 24, 2006
Math
Sarah has to go to her brother’s baseball tournament that lasts for 4 days. She eats two-thirds of a hotdog at every game. He plays 2 games a day. Define your variables, write a function rule, find the domain and range, and tell whether the data is

asked by Lynn on October 2, 2016
Calculus
What would an example of a logarithmic function that contains a radical within it and a quotient within it where you would need to use chain rule and quotient rule to take derivative look like? How would taking the derivative of the function in its

asked by Robin on February 12, 2015
Math
Write a function rule to represent the situation. The total cost C for g grams of buffalo meat if each gram costs \$3.43 Write a function rule using C and G as variables

asked by clickbait on December 12, 2018
Math Check Answers
Write a rule for the function represented by the table. x y 0 13 1 28 2 43 3 58 y= 15 + 13x y= 14 + 12x y= 13 + 15x** y= 12 + 14x Which function rule would help you find the values in the table? j k 2 -12 4 -24 6 -36 8 -48 k= -12j k= -6j** k= j – 12 k= j –

asked by Amanda on October 24, 2016
Math – Calculus Question.
hey can someone explain to me the relationship between the chain rule and implicit differentiation? It would be very much appreicated, thanks The chain rule is utilized whenever you have a function within a function such as cos^2 x or (5x+1)^1/2. Implicit

asked by Andrew D on December 6, 2006
Algebra
The table below represents a linear function f(x) and the equation represents a function g(x): x f(x) −1 −5 0 −1 1 3 g(x) g(x) = 2x − 7 Part A: Write a sentence to compare the slope of the two functions and show the steps you used to determine the

asked by Anonymous on July 17, 2017
Pre-Calculus
he amount M (in billion of dollars) of mortgage debt outstanding in the US from 1990 to 2001 can be approximated by the function M(t)= 29.9t^2 + 3892 where t=0 represents 1990. Rewrite the function so that t=0 represents 2000.

asked by Tara on February 16, 2015
math
certain superstores will often price match or even beat a competitor’s price by 10%.the function g(x)=0.90x represents the sale price of a piece of merchandise at such a superstore.the function f(x)=0.13x represents the HST owed on a purchase with a

asked by steve on May 23, 2016

MATH 1 QUESTION VERY HARD PLS HELP ASAP!!!!!
PLEASE HELP ASAP!!!!! i don’t know! Explain how to write a function rule from the table below. Then write a function rule. x: 2 4 6 y: 1 0 –1 i know its so simple but im having so much trouble!!!:( pls help!

asked by zumai on May 19, 2014
Math please help
I am looking at this question and I’m completely spacing how to do it I am looking in my book and I still have no idea how I do it. Explain how to write a function rule from the table below. Then write a function rule. |X|2|4| 6| |Y|1|0|-1| Please help

asked by BunnySayRawr on June 1, 2016
math

1. Geoff planted dahlias in his garden. Dahlias have bulbs that divide and reproduce underground. In the first year, Geoff’s garden produced 6 bulbs. In the second year, it produced 12 bulbs, and in the third year, it produced 24 bulbs. If this pattern

asked by Olive on March 22, 2016
math

1. Geoff planted dahlias in his garden. Dahlias have bulbs that divide and reproduce underground. In the first year, Geoff’s garden produced 6 bulbs. In the second year, it produced 12 bulbs, and in the third year, it produced 24 bulbs. If this pattern

asked by Olive on March 22, 2016
Managerial Economics
A company has developed the production function of Q=80L.5 K0.6 where L represents labor and K represents Capital. a. If L is increased by 2% with K unchanged, what is the resulting percentage change in output? b. Describe the nature of returns to scale

asked by Patty on August 1, 2014

Categories

## humans developed antibiotics to fight bacterial infections

Humans developed antibiotics to fight bacterial infections. However, some antibiotics are no longer effective in killing the bacteria they once killed. How does the theory of evolution explain this?

a. The antibiotic mutated the bacteria, which allowed resistance to develop.
b. After being exposed to the antibiotic, individual bacteria acquired the ability to resist the antibiotic.
c. Genetic variation in bacteria made it possible for some individuals to have resistance to the antibiotic, survive and reproduce.*
d. The antibiotic mutated to an ineffective form

Thanks so much 🙂

1 0 2,118
asked by Anonymous
May 12, 2015
Ok anyway thanks:)

0 1
posted by Anonymous
May 12, 2015
After being exposed to the antibiotic, individual bacteria acquired the ability to resist the antibiotic.

0 0
posted by sciencewhiz
Mar 28, 2019

Categories

## what is the tone in the following excerpt from the gift of the magi

What is the tone in the following excerpt from “The Gift of the Magi” ?
1,997 results
English
What is the tone in the following excerpt from “The Gift of the Magi” ? There was clearly nothing to do but flop down on the shabby little couch and howl. So Della did it. Which instigates the moral reflection that life is made up of sobs,sniffles, and

asked by Anonymous on May 9, 2018
English
Has anyone here read the Gift of the Magi? I want some confirmation on a few parts.

asked by Anonymous on October 2, 2014
English
What does the story “The Gift of the Magi” say about material possessions?

asked by Anonymous on October 3, 2014
English
Would Della from Gift of the Magi be a round and static character?

asked by Anonymous on October 28, 2014
English
in which of the following resides the irony in the short stories the gift of the magi and the necklace

asked by Steve on May 29, 2015

English
What does this mean in the Gift of the Magi? While the mistress of the house is gradually subsiding from the first stage to the second, take a look at the home. A furnished flat at \$8 per week. It did not exactly beggar description, but it certain had that

asked by Anonymous on October 3, 2014
english
Read the excerpt from O. Henry’s “The Gift of the Magi. ” Which three sentences in this passage reflect traditional stereotypes of men and women? A. White fingers and nimble tore at the string and paper. B. And then an ecstatic scream of joy; and then,

asked by catie on March 12, 2017
English

1. Read the excerpt from Robert Browning’s “My Last Duchess.” “She thanked men-good! But thanked/Somehow-I know not how-as if she ranked/My gift of a nine-hundred-year-old name/With anybody’s gift…” Which of these best describes the speaker’s attitude

asked by Cassie on May 14, 2015
grammar
( The Gift of the Magi ) is O.Henry’s most famous short story. should the () be italized or in quotation marks I think quotation marks please help

asked by kevin on April 13, 2012
English 125 introduction literature
summarize the major similarities and differences between the forms of drama, poetry, and the short story. Demonstrate your ideas with textual examples from the course readings. In your response, include at least one example of each literary form. If you

asked by Ethel on August 20, 2012
writing
In your post, summarize the major similarities and differences between the forms of drama, poetry, and the short story. Demonstrate your ideas with textual examples from the course readings. In your response, include at least one example of each literary

asked by sjrock on June 8, 2011
English
Imagine your friend’s cousin writes a rebuttal argument to her claim in favor of teens owning smartphones. Read his argument excerpt and answer the question that follows: Smartphone ownership among teens is certainly on the rise. Yet there is reason for

asked by T on March 2, 2018
MATH
Plz I do not understand. You and your two sisters bought a gift for your brother. You paid 7.50 for your share (one third of the gift) . What is the total cost of the gift

asked by Abby Marcil on October 9, 2016
English
can you help me with this please You will write a literary analysis on how Mark Twain uses tone in the excerpt by writing a 5-paragraph, double-spaced essay supporting your position.

asked by just a brother who needs help on October 20, 2018
English! – Help!
Can someone help me with these? My answer has a “***” next to it. 1. What do you think the narrator of “The Gift of the Magi” considers as having real value? (1 point) the protagonists’ hard work the protagonists’ wisdom the protagonists’ possessions

asked by Sandy East Ward on June 3, 2014

Math
Six people are playing Secret Santa for Christmas. They will each give one gift to someone, and each receive one gift from someone. They are not allowed to receive their own gift. How many different ways are there to exchange gifts?

asked by Brian on July 1, 2013
maths
6 people are playing Secret Santa for Christmas. They will each give one gift to someone, and each receive one gift from someone. They are not allowed to give their gift to themselves. How many different ways are there to do so?

asked by Anonymous on February 15, 2013
English
English – rfvv, Wednesday, March 8, 2017 at 2:32pm Thank you for your help. One more question… 6. I got a nice gift on my birthday. 7. I got a nice gift for my birthday. (In #6, I received a gift on the date of the birthday. Is it right? In #7, is it

asked by rfvv on March 8, 2017
English

1. How about making a gift together? What do you say to making a gift together? How do you feel about making a gift together? Why not make a gift together? (Are they all the same? Which ones are commonly used?) 2. Is a green pepper green and is a red

asked by John on May 7, 2009
English
Another question regarding the poem Annabel Lee. Can you check my response for me and help me elaborate on the rhythm explanation please; 1. What is the overall tone of the poem? How does the rhythm of the poem affect the tone? my ans: The tone of the poem

asked by Wendy on May 25, 2015
math
at the end of a soccer game season four families decide to buy the coach of gift certificate to a sporting goods store. each family contributes \$35 towards the gift certificate. write and solve a division equation to find how much the gift certificate is

asked by Angelina on April 21, 2015
Algebra 1b
Task 1—Shipping a gift. You have selected a special gift for a cousin or other family member of similar age. You’re not close enough to deliver it by hand, so you will need to ship it to him or her. What did you choose for a gift? What size box will

asked by Diana on December 22, 2016
American Government
Article IV. The people of this commonwealth have the sole and exclusive right of governing themselves, as a free, sovereign, and independent state; and do, and forever hereafter shall, exercise and enjoy every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not,

asked by Elise Bedford on May 18, 2017
Social Studies
Based on the excerpt how does this newspaper article compare to the yellow journalism articles written about the explosion of the battleship Maine in 1898? A.This article is more biased than the yellow journalism articles B.This article is less biased than

asked by Arianne on March 2, 2017
English
One more question related to ‘for’ goes as follows. Thank you for your explanation. 11. The nice gift for my birthday was a dictionary. 12. A nice gift for my birthday was a dictionary. (Q1: Do we have to use ‘the’ or ‘a’ before ‘nice gift’ in the

asked by rfvv on March 8, 2017

math
My Math Problem When wrapping a birthday gift for his mother, Kenji adds an additional 2.5 square feet of gift wrap to allow for overlap. How many square feet of gift wrap will Kenji use to wrap a gift 3.5 feet long, 18 inches wide, and 2 feet high? My

asked by Americal on February 21, 2014
Math
When wrapping a birthday gift in the shape of a rectangular prism for his mother, Kenji adds an additional 2.5 square feet of gift wrap to allow for overlap.How many square feet of gift wrap will Kenji use to wrap a gift 3.5 feet long, 18 inches wide, and

asked by Thomas on March 12, 2017
math
sara spent 20.00 of her money on a gift for her mom, than half of her remaining money on a gift for her dad. sara last gift , for her brother, cost her 15.00. she left with 10.00. how much money did she start with?

asked by Anonymous on December 19, 2012
Math (LCM)
A music store gives every 20th customer a \$5 gift card. every 50th customer gets a \$10 gift card. Which customer will be the first to receive both types of gift cards? Use prime factorizations.

asked by Kyle on September 30, 2014
english
How does the circumstantial struggle in O. Henry’s “The Gift of the Magi” add to the situational irony in the story? a. Jim and Della’s lack of money is magnified when they sell their priceless possessions for gifts that turn out to be meaningless.

asked by catie on March 11, 2017
Math
I music store gives every 20th customer a five dollar gift card. Every 50th customer gets a \$10 gift card. Which customer will be the first to receive both types of gift cards?

asked by Ava on September 18, 2017
math
a music store gives every 20th customer a \$5 gift card. Every 50th customer gets a \$10 gift card. which customer will be the first to receive both types of gift cards?

asked by teresa on September 21, 2017
Math
A music store gives every 20th customer a \$5 gift card. Every 50th customer gets a \$10 gift card. Which customer will be the first to receive both types of gift cards?

asked by Nina on September 26, 2016
math
a music store gives every 20th customer a \$5 gift card. Every 50th customer gets a \$10 gift card. which customer will be the first to receive both types of gift cards?

asked by teresa on September 21, 2017
English
What kind of gift do you want from Australia? (What is the meaning of ‘from Australia? Does he mean the gift made in Australia? Or a gift from a person, the writer, in Australia?)

asked by Tom on September 17, 2009

social studies
How is the tone of the newspaper article different from the tone of the letter Hi there, Does this question refer to a specific newspaper article and letter? If so we would need to see the two examples to note the difference in tone. The purpose of a news

asked by Imar on September 4, 2006
English
the tone of Breaking Through is a respectful b none of these choices are correct c bitter d amused e angry I think a,c,d,e are the right answer and i think the tone of this book is depend on which parts of it. Different parts have different tone.

asked by Rainbow on July 2, 2010
english
december is the month for gift giving.write about a gift that you would like to give to a special person?

asked by komal on December 22, 2010
please show how to set up this problem
Kim, Beth, and Jenny gave money to buy their mother a birthday gift. The gift cost \$40. Kim gave 35% of the money for the gift. Beth gave 3/8 of the money for the gift. How much money did Jenny give to buy the gift?

asked by reggie on January 19, 2016
Math
Brady bought a gift that cost 15.99. After a sales tax of 5%, how much did he spend on his gift?

asked by Justin Cassard on December 9, 2014
Physics waves
I am stuck with both of these questions. Thanks in advanced! 1. If one tone has a frequency of 110 Hz and another tone is played near it with a tone of 113 Hz, the beat frequency is _ Hz 2. A standing wave has 3 nodes in a string 20 m long. The

asked by Liz on April 20, 2014
English
In what ways are the sea and the role of Poseidon important in the test prep excerpt? Support your answer with details from the excerpt.

asked by Help me please, and thank you on October 14, 2018
Language Arts
Is this a good analytical paragraph? Edgar Allen Poe’s poem, “The Bells”, uses personification and alliteration in order to establish a new tone for each stanza. Personification is used to create a transition in the stanzas, to differentiate the tone

asked by D on November 18, 2014
English
CHECK PLEASE? Is this a good analytical paragraph? Edgar Allen Poe’s poem, “The Bells”, uses personification and alliteration in order to establish a new tone for each stanza. Personification is used to create a transition in the stanzas, to

asked by D on November 18, 2014
English 4
Describe the tone of the final line in “Anthem for Doomed Youth.” What specific words help to establish this tone? The speaker ends with an image of blinds being drawn before dark. That word “slow” reflects the way the poem has been slowing down

asked by Ciara on April 24, 2015

english- mood/tone
My teacher says that mood and tone are not the same thing, but I have trouble establishing a difference between the two. How can I tell them apart? Mood: http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/lit_terms/terms/2terms.html#Mood Tone:

asked by Anonymous on September 24, 2006
English
I have 3 more questions that I’m confused on. 1. Read the argument excerpt related to teen use of smartphones and answer the question that follows: People on either side of the smartphones-for-teens debate can’t agree on the evidence. Sure, there’s proof

asked by T on March 2, 2018
math
mark is making gift bags for his friends. there are stickers in 1/4 of the gift bags. If mark makes 12 gift bags. how many wil contain stickers? 1/4×12=3 is this correct

asked by Paul on March 18, 2017
maths
‘A ‘ person gives gift to another person ‘B ‘on an occasion, ‘B ‘ gives the same gift to ‘C ‘, and so on. What is the probability that the gift returns to the person ‘A ‘ again

asked by faizel on January 1, 2013
math
A store gave away a \$5 gift card to every sixth customer and a \$10 gift card to every tenth customer.Which customer would be the first one to receive both a \$5 and a \$10 gift card?please help

asked by CeCe on November 5, 2013
business communication
The language style of minutes reflects the type of meeting held. This means: (Points: 5) a) the more formal the meeting, the more informal the wording and tone of the minutes. b) the more informal the meeting, the more formal the wording and tone of the

asked by lisa on June 27, 2011
math
Craig is creating gift baskets for the food pantry to give away. He has 91 canned food items and 52 boxed food items, giving him a total of 143 items. The sum is shown below. He wants to make sure that every gift basket has an equal amount of canned food

asked by Spartans on February 18, 2015
math
Craig is creating gift baskets for the food pantry to give away. He has 91 canned food items and 52 boxed food items, giving him a total of 143 items. The sum is shown below. He wants to make sure that every gift basket has an equal amount of canned food

asked by Spartans on February 18, 2015
Math
you are making identical gift bags using 24 candles and 36 bottles of lotion. What is the greatest number of gift bags you can make with no items left ?

asked by Sha’Marion on September 3, 2015
Math
a cardbord gift-box has a surface area of 478cm2 and a volume of 570cm3. what are the length,width,and height of the carbox gift-box? I Need Help

asked by Sofia on April 9, 2013

math
you are making identical gift bags using 24 candles and 36 bottles of lotion. What is the greatest number of gift bags you can make with no items left over.

asked by teresa on September 19, 2017
Math
Tee received six \$25 gift cards for his birthday. If he spends 1/4 of his money from the gift cards on Saturday, how much did he save to spend later?

asked by Joe on November 18, 2010
math
LeAnn wants to gift wrap a present she got for her little brother. How many square inches of gift wrap will be needed to cover a box that is 5in x 7in x 3in?

asked by derek on March 19, 2019
Math
Vidya wants to cover a gift box whose dimensions are 20 cm,30cm and 8cm. She has a piece of paper of area 1 metre square. Will she be able to cover the gift? Explain.

asked by Harjot on January 25, 2018
math
Five children in the Woods family have decided to purchase an anniversary gift for their parents. They estimate the price of the gift to be \$170. Each person has already contributed \$10. If they have eight weeks to raise the rest of the money, how much

asked by Anonymous on May 13, 2016
Literature4000
How would you describe the tone of this essay? What evidence supports your interpretation? i know its a serious, satiric tone .. but how can i provide examples?

asked by Mark J on November 1, 2011
language
A poem’s underlying message or concept _. 1 poetic diction 2 tone 3 atmosphere 4 all of these 5 none of these I think its the tone? Is this right?

asked by Courtney on June 2, 2010
Music
Pour different amounts of water into three identical glass bottles. Which has the highest tone, which has the lowest tone. Why?

asked by isaiah on October 24, 2008
math
You received a \$100 gift certificate to a clothing store. The store sells t-shirts for \$15 and dress shirts for \$22. You want to spend no more than the amount of the gift certificate. You want to leave at most \$10 of the gift certificate unspent. You need

asked by Elizabeth on December 4, 2018
La
How do poets use imagery, connotation,and denotation to contribute to tone in a poem? I don’t really understand tone and such, if someone could explain?

asked by La help on March 8, 2018

English
What are the pros/cons of the short story/short poem in communicating ideas? It is short, and sticks in the mind. Crossing the Bar comes to my mind, I first heard it in Junior High School over fifty years ago. Poe’s The Raven is another. O’Henry’s story

asked by Christo on March 21, 2007
math
Write an equation for each situation using the two given variables.(a) Gwen received a gift card for \$400. She uses it each month to treat herself to a mani-pedi for \$35. Let D be the money on her gift card after m months.

asked by Anonymous on February 2, 2018
AP physics (simple experiment question)
the 440Hz and the 441 Hz tone bars are to be placed horizontally on stable surface. strike both tone bars with the hammer. 10. what do you hear? report any pattern you hear to the sound generated. 11. when striking a single tone bar sprinkles some powder

asked by Anthony on April 6, 2017
Math
Gayle had 5 1/3pounds of candy.She put 1 1/2 pounds of candy into each gift bag.How many gift bags could she fill completely fill? What fraction of a gift bag will she have left? what fraction of a pound of candy will she have left?

asked by Michelle on September 21, 2011
Math
Gayle had 5 1/3pounds of candy.She put 1 1/2 pounds of candy into each gift bag.How many gift bags could she fill completely fill? What fraction of a gift bag will she have left? what fraction of a pound of candy will she have left?

asked by Michelle on September 21, 2011
English
10.) “Glory be to God for dappled things-/For skies of couple-color as a brinded cow…” Which of these best describes this excerpt from Gerard Manley Hopkins’s “Pied Beauty”? A.) It is an example of sprung rhythm. B.) It is an example of iambic

asked by Cassie on May 14, 2015
english
I having trouble with a question the teacher gave me. “In what tone does the narrator tell the story? How is this tone established?” “The Lottery Ticket” by Anton Chekhov

asked by Joash on March 1, 2017
9th Grade Honors English
In the book Inside the Walls of Troy, what view does the reader get through her eyes? I know that Cassandra loathed her gift of foreseeing the future and that she didn’t want anyone to find out about her gift,in fear of being judged and criticized for it,

asked by Lillith on October 12, 2016
English
The elements of persuasion are? Answers are Pace,volume,tone,repetition,action Pace,volume,tone,repetition,imagery Action,words,facial,expression,tone None of the above I think it is the second one thanks

asked by snow on March 7, 2014
statistics
Simple question I may be over thinking 30. Gift Baskets: The Gift Basket Sore had the following premade gift baskets containing the following combinations in stock. cookies mugs candy ————————————– coffee 20 13 10 tea 12 10 12

asked by Anonymous on February 20, 2014

English
What is the tone of Guy de Maupassant’s short story, “The Necklace?” I cannot find out whether or not this tone is reproving and mocking or realistic and ironic. If anyone could help that would be great as I am completely stuck on this.

asked by Mame on June 1, 2016
Literature
what if I say that the tone of ‘Legal Alien’ is uncomfortable and complicated as she describes the harships being faced? And for Harlem, can I just say that the tone seems calm as he compares the deffered dreams to unpleasant things? ..I really need help

asked by mysterychicken on December 2, 2009
math
if a gift is 42.40 including tax,what is the retail price for the gift if the sales tax is 6% ??

asked by gaby on January 6, 2010
English
please check my answer thanks 🙂 In addition to the information you include in a document, the_________ of your writing sends a message to the reader tone method length phase I picked tone

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2007
English 4
In the excerpt from Hard Times, Dickens refers to an “adversary.” What is the meaning of this word? In the context of the final paragraph of the excerpt, who or what is the adversary being discussed? An adversary is generally considered to be a person,

asked by Ciara on April 27, 2015
grammar
Hello, I need a grammatical correction in the following excerpt from my essay, “We can see the benefits of having a husband for a woman in the following excerpt…” My teacher circled the phrase “having a husband for a woman” (which means that there is

asked by Tom on March 22, 2009
Math
Michelle has a starting balance on a gift card for \$300. She buys several dresses at \$40 a piece. After her purchases she has \$140 left on the gift card. How many dresses did she buy?

asked by abby on January 12, 2015
algebra
A department store purchases gift boxes that each have a volume of 256 cubic inches. The width of each box is 4 less than the length. The height is twice thw width. What are the dimentions of a gift box?

asked by sheila on February 23, 2008
english
beautiful china figures Are you look for an ideal gift for a friend or loved one?Why not choose one of our beautiful china figures to give to someone special.Each figure comes on a wooden stand with a gold plaque where we will engrave your chosen message.

asked by llp on November 13, 2012
math
Brittany has a gift box in the shape of a cube.Each side of the box measures 15 cm. What is the volume of the gift box?

asked by Anonymous on March 11, 2014

Math
Brittany has a gift box in the shape of a cube. Inside of the box measures 15 cm. What is the volume of the gift box.?

asked by Alana on January 30, 2017
Math
A gift shop buys greeting cards at \$3.50 each, and sells them at an 80% markup. At what price does the gift shop sell each greeting card?

asked by ashataie on January 26, 2015
Math
A gift shop buys greeting cards at \$3.50 each, and sells them at an 80% markup. At what price does the gift shop sell each greeting card?

asked by Kammi on March 18, 2013
English (Check)
Indicate which aspects of the Puritan Plain Style (short words, direct statements, and references to ordinary, everyday objects) are displayed by each poetry excerpt. 1. If ever two were one, then surely we. If ever man were lov’d by wife, then thee. A:

asked by Victoria on February 20, 2016
CSU
A speaker has a diameter of 0.303 m. (a) Assuming that the speed of sound is 343 m/s, find the diffraction angle è for a 1.80-kHz tone. (b) What speaker diameter D should be used to generate a 3.72-kHz tone whose diffraction angle is as wide as that for

asked by Japhet on January 31, 2016
Physics
A speaker has a diameter of 0.303 m. (a) Assuming that the speed of sound is 343 m/s, find the diffraction angle è for a 1.80-kHz tone. (b) What speaker diameter D should be used to generate a 3.72-kHz tone whose diffraction angle is as wide as that for

asked by Japhet on January 31, 2016
Language Arts
In Chapter 40, Sal receives the gift of a chicken from Ben. The chicken’s name is Blackberry. Explain the irony in Ben’s gift and the name that he gives it.

asked by becky on May 19, 2016
Lang Arts
In Chapter 40, Sal receives the gift of a chicken from Ben. The chicken’s name is Blackberry. Explain the irony in Ben’s gift and the name that he gives it.

asked by Plz Help on February 26, 2018
math
Every cereal box has a gift inside, but you cannot tell from the outside what the gift is. The store manager assures you that 16 of the 58 boxes on the shelf have the secret decoder ring. The other 42 boxes on the shelf have a different gift inside. If you

asked by vicke on November 8, 2015
math
Every cereal box has a gift inside, but you cannot tell from the outside what the gift is. The store manager assures you that 16 of the 58 boxes on the shelf have the secret decoder ring. The other 42 boxes on the shelf have a different gift inside. If you

asked by john on November 8, 2015

English

1. The _ of an introduction to an essay establishes how you feel about your topic and the relationship with your readers. A. point of view B. focus C. topic D. tone I believe it is D) Tone.

asked by studnet on February 17, 2017
business
What other things besides CAPS can communicate unintentional tone in an email? I am at a lost here all I can think of is your tone and caps brings off a bad message.

asked by april on November 1, 2008
physics
A 10000 Hz tone must have what intensity level to seem as loud as a 50 Hz tone that has a 100 dB sound level? (See Fig. 12-7.) 12_07.gif

asked by Jay on July 15, 2012
math 2
brittany has a gift box in the shape of a cube. each side of the box measures 15 centimeters. what is the volume of the gift box? is the answer 255, 1,250, 3,375, or 3,475 and how did you arrive at that answer

asked by kimmy plus on March 6, 2014
Math
A gift box is 15 inches long, 10 inches wide, and 3 inches high. How much wrapping paper is needed to wrap the gift box? 225 in.2 450 in.2 525 in.2(my answer) 650 in.2

asked by SmartyPants on March 7, 2015

Categories

## identify the sentence that contains a word or phrase that should not be in italics

Identify the word or phrase that should be in italics.

1.) Riding the Orient Express toward Istanbul, Tom read the novels of Mark Twain.

A.) Orient Express
B.) Istanbul
C.) Mark Twain
D.) none

2.) He felt like a character in a Steven Spielberg movie as he listened to a Strauss waltz while eating spaghetti in the dining car.

A.) Steven Spielberg
B.) Strauss waltz
C.) spaghetti
D.) none

I think 1 is D and 2 is B…?

0 0 1,577
asked by Cassie
Nov 11, 2013
I disagree with both of your answers.

0 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Nov 11, 2013
Then I would say 1 is A and 2 is D but I am not sure. These were my other answers. I am not to good at English class.

1 0
posted by Cassie
Nov 11, 2013
I agree with both of your answers, now. Cassie, you’re doing fine. Most of your answers are perfect!

1 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Nov 11, 2013
Ok thanks again Ms. Sue!

0 0
posted by Cassie
Nov 11, 2013

I am going to post a few more to check and if you would check them that would be great.

0 0
posted by Cassie
Nov 11, 2013
Great!

Here’s a little secret. I wasn’t sure about the Orient Express because the few online references I saw did not use italics for it. But when the grammar website used it as an example, I was convinced.

1 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Nov 11, 2013
Ok Thank you. I posted a couple more to check if you could.

0 0
posted by Cassie
Nov 11, 2013
There is a movie coming out in 2017.
Coming to theatres on November 10th 2017.
Watch the 1974 original that came out in theatres on November 24th, 1974.
This time this is the remake in 2017.
This is gonna be awesome.

0 5
posted by Raven Kolenda
May 9, 2017

Categories

## the two rectangles are similar. which is the correct proportion

1. The two rectangles are similar. Which is the correct proportion for corresponding sides?
37,620 results
Math
2. The two rectangles are similar. Which is the correct proportion for corresponding sides? the two rectangles are 4 by 12 and 8 by 24. thanks! A) 12/8=24/4 B) 8/4=24/12 C) 12/4=8/24 D) 4/12=24/8 Is the answer C? I’m not quite sure about it but that’s what

asked by Tim on March 14, 2016
Brain freezer a.k.a. MATH
Please Help! Are all squares similar? I think that they aren’t but i’m not sure. I think this because rectangles can be squares and rectangles can take different forms and shapes. Please help What do you mean by square? A square will always have a 4 sides

asked by Crystal on December 14, 2006
MATH URGENT!
Ok I don’t understand how to find similar figures when using proportions. Can someone explain it to me? Two figures that have the same shape are said to be similar. When two figures are similar, the ratios of the lengths of their corresponding sides are

asked by Ashley on April 24, 2007
Math
graph the data in each table Perimeters of Similar Rectangles x 1 2 3 4 5 P ? ? ? ? ? Graph P 40 30 20 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 X Area of Similar Rectangles X 1 2 3 4 5 A ? ? ? ? ? A 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 X 1st rectangle is one side x bottom 2x

asked by Stephanie on February 25, 2013
Math HElP!!!!!!!!
A group of students decided to look at rectangles that are spuare. They find that no matter what size square they drew, every square was similar to shape B in the Shapes Set and to all other squares. They found that all squares are similar! They decided to

asked by chemiii on December 4, 2006

Math. Help Me!..please!
How do u find similar figures when using a proportion?’cause I don’t get it dude. **EXAMPLE-On two sides-72m On the other 2-45m The next one says On one side-50m On the other- 80m Determine whether they are similar. I don’t get it. Please help! THANX! it

asked by Fred on April 24, 2007
math
consider pairs of rectangles where the dimensions are doubled (rectangles with all sides X2 and all sides X4, or those with all sides X3 and all sides X6. what happens to the perimeter when you double each of the dimensions of a rectangle?, Then what

asked by chance on February 22, 2011
Geometry

# 4 Which could be the scale factor of the following similar figures? (1 point) The first triangle’s sides are 9,9,12 The second triangles sides are 6,6,8 A.) 2/3 B.) 3/4 C.) 1 D.) 3/2 E.) 4/3 My answers: b & c ___________________ #5 The

asked by Patty on March 15, 2016
Geometry
Two rectangles are similar the ratio of the lengths of their corresponding sides is 1:2 find the ratio of the peremeters of the two rectangles the find the ratio of the areas explain your answers

asked by Anonymous on March 4, 2012
math
please help out 7. Figures that are Congruent or Similar just check if my answers are correct. What is the correct way to classify the figures shown below? Two triangles are shown. Triangle A B C has edge A C measuring 4 units, edge B C measuring 6 units,

asked by Street fighter on February 14, 2019
Math I really need help!
http://www.jiskha.com/display.cgi?id=1165286122 A group of students decided to look at rectangles that are spuare. They find that no matter what size square they drew, every square was similar to shape B in the Shapes Set and to all other squares. They

asked by bobpursley on December 4, 2006
math
On a centimeter dot array, draw all possible rectangles with a perimeter of 16cm and sides whose lengths are whole centimeters. Label the lengths of two adjacent sides of each. Also the area of each rectangle. Compare the shapes of the rectangles with the

asked by trina on January 29, 2013
math
A Triangle has sides 4,8,and 11. In a similar triangle the shortest side is 8 and the longest side is x. a) Write a proportion that models the situation. b) Solve the proportion for x.

asked by Felicia on March 27, 2013
math
2 rectangles are similar. Which is a correct proprtion for corresponding sides? For one rectangle, the length is 12 and the width is 4. The other rectangle has 8 as the width and x as the length. I think it’s 4/12=x/8. Is this right?

asked by keisha on November 23, 2007
Geometry
the ration if the side lengths of two similar rectangles is 4:3. what is the ratio of the areas of the rectangles?

asked by Amber on January 9, 2013

Alg II
I have a rectangle whose sides are in the proportion b:a, where b is the longer side. I draw a line parallel to a inside the rectangle in order to break it up into a square with sides of length a and a second rectangle. Amazingly, the sides of the new

asked by Peter on January 11, 2011
Math
Here is my problem. I’m to solve the proportion of 4/5=x-8/8. My answer looks like tis: 32=5x-8 add 8 to both sides so then it would look like this: 8+32=5x-8+8 therefore my next step is 40=5x now I divided both sides by 5 and got 8=x. Is this correct?

asked by B.B. on July 15, 2009
math
Two rectangles are similar. One has a length of 10 cm and a width of 8 cm, and the other has a width of 7 cm. Find the length of the second triangle. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. I got 8.8 cm. I made a proportion 8/10=7/x and that’s how I got

asked by keisha on November 23, 2007
math
the lengths of corresponding sides of similar rectangles have a ratio of 7:4 the perimeter of the smaller rectangle is 80 ft. what is the peremiter of the larger rectangle?

asked by walter on February 4, 2011
3 grade math ms sue
Name the lengths of the sides of three rectangles with perimeters of 12 units. Use only whole numbers. My son did -2-4-2-4 And one more 1-5-1-5 And one more 3-3-3-3 And I need one more rectangles number how you can make

asked by Dw on March 8, 2012
pre-algebra
how do i solve proportions??? please help!! And how do i kno what corrisponding sides are??? To solve a proportion, use cross products. For example, the proportion = can be solved as follows: = Write the original proportion. 50 n = 3 180 Find the cross

asked by jaimmers on March 15, 2007
Math
What is the correct way to classify the figures shown below? A. Similar B. Congruent **** C. Neither Which figure is congruent to the figure shown?1416290567.gif A. B. C. Which of the following statements are true? A. All similar figures are also Congruent

asked by Weather on February 11, 2019
geometry easy
The sides of a triangle are 8,15 and 18 the shortest side of a similar triangle is 10 how long are the other sides? Find the scale factor of similar triangles whose sides are 4,12,20 and 5,15,25 Assume that traingle xyz is similar to triangle rpn with

asked by barbie lee on November 17, 2013
GEOMETRY
The sides of a triangle are 8,15 and 18 the shortest side of a similar triangle is 10 how long are the other sides? Find the scale factor of similar triangles whose sides are 4,12,20 and 5,15,25 Assume that traingle xyz is similar to triangle rpn with

asked by BARBIE LEE on November 16, 2013
geometry
The sides of a triangle are 8,15 and 18 the shortest side of a similar triangle is 10 how long are the other sides? Find the scale factor of similar triangles whose sides are 4,12,20 and 5,15,25 Assume that traingle xyz is similar to triangle rpn with

asked by barbie lee on November 17, 2013

geometry triangles
The sides of a triangle are 8,15 and 18 the shortest side of a similar triangle is 10 how long are the other sides? Find the scale factor of similar triangles whose sides are 4,12,20 and 5,15,25 Assume that traingle xyz is similar to triangle rpn with

asked by BARBIE LEE on November 16, 2013
math

1. An equilateral triangle is similar to a scalene triangle. 2. Two congruent polygons are similar. 3. Two rectangles are similar. Can you please tell me if each of these are always, sometimes, or never true.

asked by Rayden on November 30, 2017
math
Which of the following statements is true? A. all trapezoids are similar B.all isosceles triangles are the same C.all rectangles are similar D.all equilateral triangles are similar

asked by alfonso on December 6, 2012
Geometry
Which statement is true about the following pair of rectangles they are not similar they are not similar because 30 over three equals 60/6 they are not summer because 33/60 is less than 30/60

asked by Me on February 21, 2019
Math Quiz
Math Quiz please help fast Write the following ratio in simplest form: 32 min:36 min (1 point) 8:9 8:36 32:9 128:144 2. Marie saved \$51. On Wednesday, she spent \$8 of her savings. What ratio represents the portion of her total savings that she still has

asked by Dan on December 12, 2013
physics
The magnitude of each of the charges in the figure below is 8.75 10-12 C. The lengths of the sides of the rectangles are 2.94 cm and 4.80 cm. Find the magnitude of the electric field at the center of the rectangle in the figures below. both pictures are

asked by michelle on January 10, 2011
math
draw a 5cm x 5cm grid in your homework book. your task is to break the grid up into rectangles of the correct size. your grid must contain 6 x 2cm rectangles, 3 x 3cm rectangles and 1 x 4cm rectangle (or square) how do i do this??

asked by chloe on October 20, 2010
math
The ladders shown below are standing against the wall at the same angle. How high up the wall does the longer ladder go? (All measurements are in feet.) ladders 11.25 ft 12.5 ft 14 ft 14 ft 2. The pair of polygons is similar. Find the value of x. polygons

asked by Steve Plzzz Help now !! on December 3, 2012
Maths
Draw a rectangle of perimeter 30cm and length of sides in the ratio 1:2.draw two more rectangles of the same perimeter with the length of sides in the ratio 2:3 and 3:7 compute the areas of all three rectangles?

asked by Gooks chandru on December 19, 2016
math , correction
theres a diagram which in the diagram the points are: (-3,1),(0,3),(2,0), (-1,-2). And the directions say: use the concept of slope to determine if the given figure is a parallelogram or a rectangle: so this is what i did please can someone check it to see

asked by jasmine20 on January 15, 2007

Math
Two rectangles are similar and the ratio of their sides is 1: 4. Find the ratio of their perimeters??? Find the ratio of their areas??? How do I do this?

asked by Kat on May 4, 2011
Math
Tell whether the pair of polygons is similar. Explain why or why not. The polygon A is bigger. The side of the polygon is 10ft and the top sides of the polygon is 11ft. The polygon B is smaller. The side of the polygon is 8.4ft and the top side of the

asked by Enna on November 9, 2018
math
Chen is covering a 12-in. by 10-in. board with 1-inch-square tiles. He uses gray tiles to make six 2-in. by 2-in. squares. He covers the rest of the board with white tiles. How many more white tiles than gray tiles will Chen use? Six small rectangles

asked by Anonymous on June 10, 2015
Math
On a centimter dot grid, draw all pissible rectangles with area of 12 sq cm and sides whose length s are whole centimeters. Label the lengths of two adjacent sides of each rectangle.

asked by Chris on February 9, 2017
Math
A 4-inch-wide by 6-inch-long picture is placed on a solid mat that forms a frame around it. The mat is 8 inches long. The mat and the picture are similar rectangles. What is the area of the mat? I couldn’t find the width of the mat. If the picture and the

asked by cass on February 25, 2016
Calculus
I am in a car and travel for 12 minutes. Below are the speeds in mph, recorded every two minutes. Use trapezoids, right-bound rectangles, and midpoint rectangles to estimate the distance I traveled. Min 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Speed 20 22 35 46 50 50 20

asked by Anonymous on February 8, 2015
Geometry
Which statement is true? A. All squares are rectangles. B. All quadrilaterals are rectangles. C. All parallelograms are rectangles. D. All rectangles are squares. I thought it was B.

asked by Vanessa on August 11, 2014
math
Explain why it is possible to draw more than two different rectangles with an area of 36 square units, but it is not possible to draw more than two different rectangles with an area of 15 square units. The sides of the rectangles are whole numbers. EXPLAIN

asked by Kyle on February 7, 2015
Math
Maya has 5 sheets of paper. She cuts each sheet into 3 equal sized rectangles. The rectangles are shared equally among 6 students. How many rectangles does each student get?

asked by Rakesh on January 21, 2015
Calculus
For the function f described by the following table, estimate ç40 0 f(x)dx using the following. Enter each answer as a sum to show your work. 5 left rectangles 5 right rectangles 5 midpoint rectangles x 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 y 7 -46 -50 45 -7

asked by Robin on July 15, 2013

Math
in the center of the first sheep of graph paper, draw a figure with straight sides that will fit in a 15 by 20 block (the figure can be hard or easy so I was thinking of going with a simple rectangle). On the second sheet of graph paper draw the same

asked by Marie on June 3, 2012
Math
On a centimeter dot array, draw all possible rectangles with a perimeter of 12 cm and sides whose lengths are whole centimeters. Label the lengths of two adjacent sides of each rectangle.

asked by VauNea on November 25, 2012
Math
On a centimer dot array draw all possible rectangles with perimeter of 16 cm and sides whose lengths are whole centimeters label the lengths of two adjacent sides of each rectangle

asked by Anonymous on January 26, 2015
geometry
on a centimeter dot array draw all possible rectangles with a perimeter of 22 cm and sides whose lengths are whole centimeters label the lengths of 2 adjacent sides of each rectangle

asked by mike on October 8, 2014
Math
On a centimeter dot array, draw all possible rectangles with an area of 16 sq cm and sides whose lengths are whole centimeters. Label the lengths of two adherent sides of each rectangle

asked by Zoey on February 5, 2013
dot array
centimeter dot array draw all possible rectangles with the area of 16 sq cm and sides whose lengths are whole centameters. lable lengths of two adjacent sides of each rectangle?? how do you do this

asked by gage on May 30, 2012
Math
On a centimeter dot grid, draw all the possible rectangles with a perimeter of 14 cm and sides whose lengths are whole centimeters. Label the lengths of two adjacent sides of each rectangle.

asked by Martha on May 25, 2016
can u help me
Which of the following statements is always true of similar polygons? (1 point) Corresponding angles of similar figures have the same measure. The lengths of corresponding sides form equivalent ratios. The lengths of corresponding sides have the same

asked by tesj on January 17, 2013
Math
Draw all the possible rectangles with a perimeter of 26 cm and whole number lengths of sides. For each rectangle, label the lengths of two adjacent sides

asked by Molly on September 29, 2013
math
Need help! The problem is: draw all the possible rectangles with a perimeter of 26 centimeters and whole number lengths of sides for each rectangle label the lengths of two adjacent sides. Dot array homework sheet. Thanks!

asked by Hannah on October 6, 2014

Optimization (Math)
The mayor of a village wants to build a library of which the windows have a shape of a rectangle on top of a square. The total perimeter of each window is of P meters and varies depending on each windows size. Find the dimensions of the windows in terms of

asked by Tommy on November 1, 2011
geometery
Rectangles ABCD and EFGH are similar. The perimeter of rectangle ABCD is 5 times greater than the perimeter of rectangle EFGH. What is the relationship between the areas of the rectangles?

asked by jessica on June 11, 2012
Calculus
I am in a car and travel for 12 minutes. Below are the speeds in mph, recorded every two minutes. Use trapezoids, right-bound rectangles, and midpoint rectangles to estimate the distance I traveled. Min 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Speed 20 22 35 46 50 50 20

asked by Anonymous on February 5, 2015
Math
Which statement is true about the following pair of rectangles K they are not similar because 6/60 does not equal 38 over three

asked by Me on February 21, 2019
math
The widths of two similar rectangles are 16 cm and 14 cm. What is the ratio of their perimeters? Of their areas?

asked by john on June 16, 2016
math
It is hard to type fractions here, but I will try. My book says I need to “tell why the ratio \$0.37 \$1.85 _ and _ 1 stamp 5 stamps is not a proportion.” It looks like a correct proportion to me! Is the problem that there is a 1 as a denominator?

asked by Lee on January 5, 2009
Math Help Please!!!!!!
Which figures will always be similar to each other? two rectangles, two trapezoids, two equilateral triangles, or two hexagons.

asked by Bell on February 18, 2013
math need help now
which 2 figures will always be similar 2 each other? A.2 rectangles B. 2 trapezoids C.2 equilateral triangles D.2 hexagons

asked by abbie on February 24, 2017
Math
Which figures will always be similar to each other? A. Two rectangles* B. Two trapezoids C. Two equilateral triangles D. Two hexagons

asked by Lol on March 3, 2016
math
which figures will always be similar to each other? A.two rectangles B.two trapezoids C.two equilateral triangles D.two hexagrams

asked by bonn on February 26, 2014

Geometry
Which figures will always be similar to each other? 1. Two rectangles 2. Two hexagons 3. Two trapezoids 4. Two equalitarel triangles*** I think its D

asked by HALP on March 8, 2019
Math(Connexus 6th)Unit 6
A room has 2 sections as shown in the picture below. Which expression uses the Distributive Property to find the total area of the room? (A rectangle is divided into two smaller rectangles by a vertical line. The vertical height of the rectangles is 14. To

asked by Can you help me please(I need answers fast) on December 6, 2017
7th grade math ASAP please
Help please i don’t understand 2, 4, and 10 quick please thanks 1. Write the following ratio in simplest form: 32 min:36 min 8:9 8:36 32:9 128:144 2. Marie saved \$51. On Wednesday, she spent \$8 of her savings. What ratio represents the portion of her total

asked by Delilah on October 30, 2012
Geometry
Two similar rectangular prisms have corresponding sides that measure 5 feet and 6 feet. If the measures of two corresponding sides of two similar solids are 3 meters and 5 meters, what is the ratio of the surface areas of the solids?

asked by Bonnie on May 20, 2012
Math
If a rectangle has four congruent sides, it is a square. A square has perpendicular diagonals. Conclusion: A rectangle has diagonals that are always perpendicular. Which of the following is correct The conclusion is valid by the law of syllogism. The

asked by Dylan on October 15, 2015
buckeye elementary
name the lengths of the sides of three rectangles that have perimeters of 14 units

asked by jelica on March 2, 2011
math
Name the lengths of the sides of three rectangles that have perimeters of 14 units.

asked by leslie on April 18, 2011
math
what rectangles with whole-centimetre sides have a perimeter of 44cm

asked by Anonymous on April 24, 2013
math
The ratio of the corresponding sides of two similar triangles is 3:2. The sides of the larger triangle are 15 cm, 24 cm, and 27 cm. What are the lengths of the sides of the smaller triangle?

asked by Kylie on April 11, 2011
MATH
Joelle set up the following proportion to solve for x. Determine if her proportion is correct. If not, explain what is wrong with it.

asked by sexycat211 on March 24, 2015

Geometry: Student Correction (Stuck)
Joelle set up the following proportion: 4/6 = 5/x. Solve for x. Determine if proportion is correct. If not, explain what is wrong with it.

asked by Lydia on March 29, 2013
Math
Name the lengths of the sides of three rectangles with perimeters of 12 units. Use only whole numbers..

asked by Kerri on May 29, 2013
math
name the lengths of the sides of 3 rectangles with perimeters of 12 units using only whole numbers

asked by Anonymous on May 20, 2009
math
name the lengths of the sides of three rectangles with the perimeters of 12 units use only whole numbers

asked by bella on November 21, 2013
Math
Using only sides that are whole numbers, name the dimensions of three rectangles that have perimeters of 14 units.

asked by Lucy on April 5, 2016
Math
Name the lengths of the sides of three rectangles with perimeters of 12 units. use only whole numbers

asked by Mimi on April 14, 2016
math
name the lenths of the sides of three rectangles with perimeters of 12 units. use only whole numbers

asked by derrick mack on March 14, 2011
math
rectangles with the perimeter of 16 centimeters and sides whose lengths a whole centimeters. Label the lengths of two adjacent sides of each rectangle.

asked by unknown on April 18, 2016
math
name the lengths of the sides os three rectangles with the perimeters of 12 units. Use only hole numbers

asked by nicky on April 17, 2013
math
sketch and label all possible rectangles with a perimeter of 30 cm and sides whose lengths are whole numbers

asked by khy on May 4, 2015

Math…Geometry
Hello, Can someone please tell me if I worked this out correct and ended with the right answer? Thank You… I need to find the area and Height of this right triangle ( only knowing the lengths of its sides)side 6,5,11… Is this correct? sides 6, 5, 11 —

asked by Mandi on August 3, 2007
Algebra
Which of the following describes a correct method for solving the equation below? -7/2n + 5 = -16 1. add 5 to both sides, then divide both sides by 2/7 2. subtract 5 from both sides, then multiply both sides by -7/2 3. add -5 to both sides, then multiply

asked by Anon on December 15, 2015
math,algebra
is this correct? solve: 9x^2=14 this is what i did: i divide 9 by both sides x^2=1.6 is this first step right Then take the square root of both sides. x^2=1.6 you said to take the squar root of both sides. so is this correct x = 1.264911

asked by jasmine20 on April 14, 2007
3rd grade
sketch and label all possible rectangles with a perimeter of 30cm and sides whose lengths are whole numbers

asked by Bruna on October 6, 2010
Math

1. Which ratios form a proportion? (1 point) a. 3/15, 12/55 b. 8/24, 12/35 c. 5/18, 25/90 ***??? d. 4/11, 16/25 2. Which ratio forms a proportion with 9/15? (1 point) a. 6/10 ***??? b. 16/21 c. 36/50 d. 45/70 3. A textbook weighs 2.5 pounds. How many

asked by Ella on November 16, 2017
Math
So I have to draw two rectangles on graph paper that each have to fit in a 15 by 20 block. The first rectangle can be what ever size you want but the second one needs be similar with a 3/5 ratio of the first. I can’t figure out what their sizes should be.

asked by Marie on June 3, 2012
dot array
on centameter dot array draw all possible rectangles with a perimeter of 16 cm and sides whose lengths are whole centimeters

asked by gage on May 30, 2012
Math
On centimeter dot grid draw all possible rectangles with a perimeter of 16 cm and sides whose lengths are whole centimeters

asked by Nooreen on April 29, 2017
math
Name the lenghts of the sides of three rectangles with a perimeter of 12 units use whole numbers only. I don’t understand the question

asked by malachi on February 16, 2011
maths(matris)
two sides of a rectangle differ by 3.5cm.find the dimentions of the rectangles if its perimeter is 67cm?

asked by samin on January 25, 2013

math
On a centimeter dot grid, draw all possible rectangles with a perimeter of 14 cm and sides whose lengths are whole centimeters.

asked by Riley on April 1, 2015
Calc.
a)If f(x)= x/(x+2), 1 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 4, find the left and right sums for n= 10, 30, and 50. b)Illustrate by graphing the rectangles in part a. c)Show that the exact area under f lies between 1.603 and 1.624. So this is all I

asked by CMM on January 13, 2011
Math – Help!

1. What are all the possibly ways to classify a rectangle? A. quadrilateral, parallelogram, rectangle *** ?? B. parallelogram, rectangle (Or this…) C. quadrilateral, rectangle 2. Which property is not a characteristic of a parallelogram? A. Opposite

asked by Petra on March 10, 2016
Are all math answers correct?

1. What are all the possibly ways to classify a rectangle? A. quadrilateral, parallelogram, rectangle *** ?? B. parallelogram, rectangle (Or this…) C. quadrilateral, rectangle 2. Which property is not a characteristic of a parallelogram? A. Opposite

asked by Petra on March 11, 2016
math
What are parallegrams? A parallelogram is a 4 sided figure where the opposite sides are parallel. Ok…that still might not have helped much. What it means to say, “the opposite sides are parallel” is that if you were to keep extending them out both

asked by john on March 16, 2007

Categories

## determine the mass of oxygen in a 7.2-g sample of al2(so4)3.

Determine the mass of oxygen in a 7.2-g sample of Al2(SO4)3

0 0 221
asked by dave
Apr 18, 2016
mols Al2(SO4)3 = grams/molar mass = ?
There are 12 O atoms per 1 mol Al2(SO4)3 so there are 12 x mols Al2(SO4)3 there.

Convert mols O to grams O. g = mols x 16 = ?

I assume the question means grams O (atoms) and not O2 (molecules).

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Apr 18, 2016

Categories

## 24 ten thousand

Math
Rename the number
24 ten thousand

0 0 108
asked by Patricia
Sep 27, 2017
240,000

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Sep 27, 2017

Categories

## what is ad/ab in simplest form

Find AB in simplest form if A(0,3) and B(2,7)

AB=_

*I need help on this last problem I have! Someone please walk me through and how to get the answer

0 0 296
asked by Anonymous
Sep 10, 2014
Use your distance formula:

AB = √((2-0)^2+(7-3)^2) = √(4+16) = √20 = 2√5

0 0
posted by Steve
Sep 10, 2014
What is the midpoint of AB of the question find AB if A(0,3) and B(2,7)?

0 0
posted by shakira
Sep 14, 2015
use formula xm=x1+x2 divided by 2 also ym=y1+y2 divide by 2 answer is (1,5)

0 0
posted by gen
Sep 7, 2017

Categories

## what can you use to tie up a spaceship

math
what can you use to tie up a spaceship

4 1 2,027
asked by Anonymous
Apr 17, 2008
Astro Knots

2 1
posted by David
Oct 18, 2008
ASTRO KNOTS

Sostupidimsorryitsadumbjokereally

2 2
posted by poop
Apr 11, 2013
WITH ASTROKNOTS

2 1
posted by BOB
Nov 16, 2014
Astro KNots

2 1
posted by Juan
Apr 12, 2016

Astronauts

1 3
posted by Anonymous
Feb 14, 2017
What’s the written answers to math worksheet what can you use to tie up a spaceship page 156

1 1
posted by Anonymous
Mar 22, 2017
my nuts

2 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 27, 2019
your mom

1 2
posted by leeeee
Mar 6, 2019
Astro thots

4 1
posted by Salad
Mar 7, 2019

Astro Knots. Btw, what is the math for it? ;-;

0 0
posted by Mel
Mar 7, 2019
jhklngjdkgndjnb;

0 1
posted by Anonymous
Mar 12, 2019
Astro Nuts

0 1
posted by Anonymous
Mar 13, 2019
yes

1 0
posted by Nicholette
Mar 13, 2019
Roasted and toasted garlic toasted toast

0 1
posted by Hehe
Mar 14, 2019

Astro knots

0 0
posted by Julie
Apr 8, 2019

Categories

## what canadian landform covers about half of the country

1.What Canadian landform covers about half of the country? the Canadian Shield 2.The four major kinds of natural vegetation in the United States and Canada are tundra, grassland, desert scrub, and Forest 3.Why is mining
17,466 results
Social Studies
What Canadian landform covers about half of the country? A.the Interior Plains B.the Canadian Shield C.the St. Lawrence Lowlands D.the Yukon Territory

asked by Carli on February 28, 2017
History
What Canadian landform covers about half of the country?

asked by need help on February 20, 2018
Social Studies
This Canadian landform covers about half of the country. Need help? confused.

asked by Sofia on June 14, 2015
Social studies
1: This is the largest landform in Canada. A: Interior Plaines B: Canadian Shield C: Canadian Cordillera D: Arctic Archipelago

asked by help Asapppp on January 17, 2019
geography
one difference of the Canadian shield and the Western Cordillera My work And now forget about the similarities on to the differences. There are many differences about the Canadian Shield and the Western Cordillera but for today I’ll keep it snappy and

asked by Dante on January 14, 2015

Geo project. help.
I am suppose to create a power-point presentation on ONE of the following Canadian Landforms:Canadian Shield, Appalachians, Western Cordillera, Arctic Islands, Interior Plains, Great Lakes-St.Lawrence lowlands. My question is which one should I pick? Which

asked by Jenny on April 16, 2007
Socials
What region is each of the following places located in? a) kamloops, BC –I think Intermountain. b) Saskatoon, Sask — I don’t know. I thought it was Canadian Shield, but it isn’t. c) Vancouver, BC –Coast Mountains d) Toronto, Ont. –Great Lake St.

asked by Anonymous on April 13, 2011
Math, rates
Which rates are equivalent? 6 U.S. dollars = 18 U.S. dollars 8 Canadian dollars 20 Canadian dollars 6 U.S. dollars = 9 U.S. dollars 8 Canadian dollars 12 Canadian Dollars 6 U.S. dollars = 9 U.S. dollars 8 Canadian dollars 16 Canadian dollars 6 U.S. dollars

asked by carol on March 26, 2007
Geography.
What era was each of these physical landform regions formed? 1. Innuitian Mountains 2. Arctic and Hudson Bay Lowlands 3. Western Cordillera 4. Interior Plains 5. Canadian Shield 6. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowland 7. Appalachians thanks so much.^^ Please

asked by May on April 10, 2007
Q&A Check Please, geo 7th grade
Toronto reflects more of the British culture rather than the French culture. TRUE? Which of the following Canadian region is best described as undeveloped because of its harsh climate and terrain? a. Northern Territories b. British Columbia c. Yukon d.

asked by rawr… im a dinosaur…. rawr on November 5, 2012
Law
What’s the criteria for being a Canadian citizen? And if you are born in Canada are you automatically a Canadian citizen? Like suppose you can on vacation to Canada from some foreign country and you gave birth to your kid here, would your kid be a Canadian

asked by Lena on November 8, 2008
Social Studies
What type of climate occurs on the U.S. and Canadian border? maritime Arctic continental warm summer tundra This is a rocky area that is dotted with lakes and extends from the Hudson Bay to the Canadian Rockies. Canadian Cordillera Canadian Shield St.

asked by Emily Torres on September 20, 2018
Canadian Law
Between the Canadian Bill of Rights (1960) and the Canadian Charter of Rights & Freedoms, which is better able to protect the rights and freedoms of Canadian citizens and why? The answer is the Canadian Charter of Rights & Freedoms but I`m not sure why.

asked by Lena on November 9, 2008
geography
How was the Canadian Shield formed? Thanks

asked by I NEED HELP NOW!!:) on January 30, 2011
Business
If you’re a Canadian exporter would you like to see a higher Canadian dollar or a lower Canadian dollar in relation to the US Dollar? Explain using an example. I would like to see what perspectives different people have

asked by Eva on October 15, 2017

Help
What resource is MOST associated with the area known as the Canadian Shield?

asked by Bonny the Horse on December 21, 2016
Opinions needed pls.
Which types of body art do you believe would be acceptable in mainstream Canadian society? Does this make it “good”? Explain your opinion. Thnks. Without question, cosmetic surgery is acceptable in Canadian society. It comes in many forms. Face, torso,

asked by May on March 8, 2007
statistics
Of the 15 teams in the National Hockey League Eastern Conference, three of them are based in canadian cities. Each year, eight of these teams qualify for the playoffs. Assuming that all the 15 teams have an equal chance of getting into the playoffs, what

asked by Anonymous on November 7, 2012
math
Of the 15 teams in the National Hockey League Eastern Conference, three of them are based in canadian cities. Each year, eight of these teams qualify for the playoffs. Assuming that all the 15 teams have an equal chance of getting into the playoffs, what

asked by Carol on November 7, 2012
geography
The similarities of Canadian shield and Western Cordillera

asked by Dante on January 14, 2015
Soc studies
The Canadian Shield has few Rich minerals,is this true or false?

asked by Harley on January 19, 2017
IINFORMATION NEEDED HELP
What did Kamloops resident Wendy Gardner do with Team Subaru in Fiji? Name the Canadian architect who designed the Experience Music Project in Seattle. Obtain an image of the building. What Canadian with the first name Daniel is a frequent producer of U2

asked by ComputerPal on June 9, 2009
World history

1. Which of the following statements about the physical geography of North America is true? A. The most geologically active region of North America is found along the West Coast. B. The ancient rock of the Canadian Shield covers about one-fourth of Canada.

asked by Lilia on June 10, 2013
Happy Thanksgiving Canada
Happy Thanksgiving to my fellow Canadian tutors and to the Canadian students at Jiskha.

asked by Reiny on October 11, 2010
Math
If a Canadian dollar is worth US \$1.02, how many Canadian dollars would you need to buy something that costs US \$29.95

asked by Anonymous on February 8, 2016

math
two canadians board a bus. one canadian is the farther of the other canadian’s son. how is this possible

asked by anu on November 30, 2009
socials
canadian charter of rights and freedoms(misc.) right that say canadian ppl are allowed to move to any location of Canada? ( mobility?) # of official languages in canadian constitution agreeing with charter (that be french and english ?) this can dominate

asked by Mohammad on January 3, 2012
Editing
I made some more changes. Could someone please edit it again? In 1915, the 1st Canadian Division was recognized as a fighting force, for holding their ground against a new type of warfare: chlorine gas. It was at the Battle of Ypres where the Germans

asked by Gina on October 7, 2007
HISTORY!!
im sopposed to write a letter to the Canadian government and its 1872 about how i feel about the dominion lands act. id ont really know anything about it, or what i should put. something about the canadian mounted police as well. sorry this is all i know.

asked by beeca on January 13, 2009
Econ
Use diagrams of the Market for Loanable Funds and the Market for Foreign Currency to describe what would happen to the net capital outflow, the Canadian real exchange rate and net exports in each of the following scenarios: — Instead of using diagrams it

asked by Agent on March 18, 2012
Statistics
Daily water intake (including water used in drinks such as coffee, tea and juice) for Canadian adults follows a normal distribution with mean 1.86 litres and standard deviation 0.29 litres. (a) Can you calculate the probability that the mean daily water

asked by Mel on November 4, 2014
Easy Work
How do you know whan a word is in standard or non-standard Canadian English? http://www.jiskha.com/display.cgi?id=1161223800.1161225901 Can I fond a Canadian-english dictionary online possibly. And I understand what you have said. But if a word is given

asked by Gina on October 18, 2006
ss helpppp
The most obvious influence of British colonization on the country of Australia is Australia’s A) use of the English language.**** B) adoption of British currency. C) declaration of war on France. D) participation in world trade. Which of these marked the

asked by Katie on May 23, 2017
Chemistry
Some time ago, a U.S. citizen traveling in Canada observed that the price of regular gasoline was 0.771 Canadian dollars per liter. The exchange rate at the time was 1.401 Canadian dollars per one U.S. dollar. Calculate the price of the Canadian gasoline

asked by Luke on June 29, 2014
Economy
Suppose that Canadian farmers can grow wheat more cheaply than can U.S. farmers. In the interest of efficiency, what is the desirable outcome? 1) Allow the Canadian farmers to sell their wheat for a lower price. 2) Pass a law in Canada mandating a minimum

asked by C.P on August 26, 2013

Math
A.48 u.s. dollars?= 72 us dollars 64 Canadian dollars 128 Canadian dollars. B.18 U.S. dollars=? 54 US dolalrs 24 Canadian dollars 60 Canadian dollars C.18 us dollars=? 45 Us dollars 24 Canadian dollars 48 Canadian dollars D. 36 Us dollars=? 54 us dollars

asked by M. W on April 2, 2009
geography
Heyyyyy, Where was the eroded material from the Canadian shield deposited and what did this material become? THANKS SO MUCH TO ALL!! 🙂

asked by I NEED HELP NOW!!:) on October 6, 2010
economics
How would a fall in U.S. interest rates affect Canadian investment, saving, net foreign investment, and the Canadian real exchange rate

asked by Anonymous on August 1, 2012
Macro economics
How would a fall in U.S. interest rates affect Canadian investment, saving, net foreign investment, and the Canadian real exchange rate

asked by Anonymous on July 31, 2012
Infertility
Where can I find a list of Canadian statistics, such as graphs and/or tables that show the most recent Canadian statistics about infertility drugs? Thanks so much!

asked by Montana on May 3, 2008
Editing
Could someone edit this for me… In 1915, the 1st Canadian Division was recognized as a fighting force, for holding their ground against a new type of warfare; chlorine gas. It was at the Battle of Ypres where the Germans released 160 tons of poisonous

asked by Gina on October 7, 2007
algebra
on one day the value of \$1.00 was equal to 0.77 euro or \$1.24 Canadian. Write a function to represent the value of Canadian dollars in euros. What is the value of th efunctoin for an input of 5 rounded to the nearest cent, and what does it represent

asked by Jessica on September 8, 2010
Canadian History
Hello i need 8 events that happend in canada, i need to no when it happend to, im makeing a canadian time line, if any one could give me a site to thnx…

asked by Niel on September 17, 2006
money conversion problem
I have a currency conversion problem that I have found difficult to solve. Suppose that a currency speculator believes that as time goes on the exchange rate is going to fall. On November 1st the speculator converts \$1,000 US into Canadian dollars (just

asked by linda on January 22, 2013
economics
What effects will this change have on the exchange rate of the canadian dollar in terms of the us dollar? Good Canadian real estate market sends a signal to American construction companies.

asked by Ariza on June 21, 2010

math
You have 15 pennies in your pocket, 3 are Canadian. You pick aenny out of your pocket at random. FInd p (not Canadian)

asked by Anonymous on February 3, 2015
SS
What best explains why Canada is characterized as a mosaic rather than as a melting pot? Throughout Canada the only language spoken is French. Canadian culture encourages immigrants to blend together to form a single culture. Canadian culture is based only

asked by Anonymous on March 26, 2018
math liberal arts
A piece of land in Ottawa with an area of 0.4 square kilometers is priced at 5600 Canadian dollars. If there are 1.358 Canadian dollars per (U.S.) dollar, then what is the price in dollars per squaremile?

asked by Anonymous on January 26, 2013
Canadian Law
What are some things that are in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms but is not in the Canadian Bill of Rights?

asked by Lena on November 9, 2008
Editing
I have an ISU project due tomorrow. Could someone please edit this article on Vimy Ridge for me. Please and thanks. The Battle of Vimy Ridge commenced at dawn on April 9, 1917, when all four divisions of the Canadian Corps attacked Vimy Ridge above the

asked by Gina on October 11, 2007
math
A piece of land with an area of .5 square kilometers is priced at \$5700 Canadian. If there are 1.269 Canadian dollars per (US) dollar, then what is the price in dollars per square mile?

asked by Shawnel on July 26, 2013
history
from 1867 to present day. what would be three defining moments of canadian history? 3 moments that reflect independence in some way-( i got the constituion act of 1862, the history of the canadian flag and …..?

asked by just wondering on June 11, 2009
Canadian history
1)Canadians have been called “hewers of wood and drawers of water.” What does this phrase mean when applied to the Canadian economy? How valid is the comment for today’s Canadian industries? (Section 1-3) 2)In the last 5 years Canada’s currency has

asked by prethy on September 4, 2010
English
Margaret Atwood is a Canadian novelist and poet. Would the adjectives in the sentence be novelist, poet and Canadian is a Proper Adj

asked by Anonymous on September 23, 2010
Reading Com.
What light is to greece, space is to Canada. Awareness in almost every direction lie uninhabited land that has shaped the perceptions of artists, defined national character, determined an architecture and established Canadian way of seeing. Canadian

asked by Tyler on August 23, 2008

college math
A piece of land in Ottawa with an area of 0.4 square kilometers is priced at 5600 Canadian dollars. If there are 1.358 Canadian dollars per (U.S.) dollar, then what is the price in dollars per square mile?

asked by Leissa on June 24, 2010
math
A bag contains 44 U.S. quarters and six Canadian quarters. (The coins are identical in size.) If seven quarters are randomly picked from the bag, what is the probability of getting at least one Canadian quarter? (Round your answer to one decimal place.)

asked by brad on March 3, 2013
math
one U.S. dollar is equivilant to \$1.34 dollars Canadian dollars. Write an algebraic expression the number of US dollars you get for the N Canadian dollars

asked by marisa on September 3, 2013
Math
According to the Royal Canadian. Mint Act, a 50-cent Canadian coin must have a diameter of. 27.13 millimeters. What is the … tenth of a square millimeter? … nearest square inch of the smallest cover that … area to the nearest tenth of a meter.

asked by Aaliyah on February 25, 2016
ECONOMICS
T or F Interest payments on Canadian government debts to foreigners are a major reason for our negative current account.

asked by Abigail on June 22, 2010
Finance
The spot exchange rate for the Canadian dollar is Can \$1.14 and the six-month forward rate is Can \$1.17. Calculate whether a U.S. dollar or a Canadian dollar is worth more.

asked by B on December 17, 2013
Statistics
Daily water intake (including water used in drinks such as coffee, tea and juice) for Canadian adults follows a normal distribution with mean 1.5 litres and standard deviation 0.31 litres. (d) Using the 68-95-99.7 Rule, approximately 95% of samples of 22

asked by C on November 5, 2014
Geography
1.Name the Canadian ports that are opened all year round. 2.Which Canadian city is the eastern most provincial capital? Plz help. THANKS. http://www.acpa-ports.net/industry/cpafacts.html http://www.travelsense.org/destinations/canadacruise.asp Read

asked by Kate on February 5, 2007
Help in Understanding
Posted by Anonymous on Friday, May 6, 2011 at 8:45pm. How did the conflict occur? Was it just because of the land? I’m having some trouble understanding. Please explain to me. About the Red River Colony – Ms. Sue, Friday, May 6, 2011 at 9:18pm The conflict

asked by Emma on May 7, 2011
Algebra 2 Honor
On one day the value of \$1.00 U.S. was equivalent to 0.77 euro. On the same day \$1.00 U.S. was equivalent to \$1.24 Canadian. Write the function to represent the value of Canadian dollars euros. What is the value of the function for an input of 5 rounded to

asked by Alex on September 3, 2010

English
How do you know whan a word is in standard or non-standard Canadian English? Many dictionaries contain this information. If you live in Canada, please check your library for a dictionary that shows standard and non-standard Canadian usage. Also —

asked by Gina on October 18, 2006
Explain-English
Contrary to some public and media discourse that multiculturalism is divisive and perpetuates enclavism and separate identities, this article describes a variety of multicultural common spaces wherein Canadians of all backgrounds interact and together

asked by Thara on November 17, 2010
math
If a United States dollar is worth \$1.41 in Canadian money, how much is \$100 in Canadian money worth in the united state money, to the nearest cent

asked by Anonymous on February 15, 2015
Social science
Most major cities in core countries are postindustrial. Can you think of an example of a growing city that is still in its industrial phase? How is it different from most Canadian cities?

asked by Anonymous on March 30, 2017
gramar
please proof read it and i try my best fixing my mistake can you check my puncuation and capitalization. please On April 9 1917 easter Monday,Canadian soldiers in World war I mounted on their most important offensives of the war.Vimy Ridge,a hill in

asked by anu on January 20, 2010
English
The feeling that things weren’t as good as they seemed is best described by which line from “Borders”? A.”I told Stella that we were Blackfoot and Canadian, but she said that didn’t count because I was a minor.” B.”We got postcards from Laetitia regularly,

asked by Your Friend on January 27, 2017
math
Suppose that you learn, prior to your trip to British Columbia, that gasoline will cost \$1.50 (in Canadian dollars) for every liter you purchase. You know from checking the Internet that 1 liter is equivalent to 0.26 gallons and the currency conversion

asked by emma on May 11, 2013
math
Suppose that you learn, prior to your trip to British Columbia, that gasoline will cost \$1.50 (in Canadian dollars) for every liter you purchase. You know from checking the Internet that 1 liter is equivalent to 0.26 gallons and the currency conversion

asked by emma on May 11, 2013
Social Studies
Where is the largest population concentration in the Western Hemisphere? a. in the interior of Mexico b. along the Brazilian coast c. on the northeast U.S. and southeast Canadian seaboards*** d. in the southern half of California

asked by Kaai97 on December 24, 2015
ela
can you proof read once more please it was grammar worksheet i just corrected but i thought it will lots of mistake that why i gave to you to proofread. tomorrow i have to tell the answers because everyone has some paragraph On April 9, 1917, Easter

asked by anu on January 20, 2010

Economics

1. What policy does the Bank of Canada follow when the Canadian dollar is strong? 2. What policy does the Bank of Canada follow when the Canadian dollar is weak? 3. What effect does holding gold currency have on the economy? would the first be monetary

asked by Sai on October 21, 2017
Socials
I am writing an essay for socials and the topic is: To what extent was the treatment of First Nations by the Canadian government justified? So far, I plan to explain both sides but lean more to the unjustified side(2 body paragraphs on that). My points

asked by Lily on May 4, 2015
S.S redo

1. The economic centers of the Northeast are the region’s _. (1 point) farms fisheries forests cities 2. Two major ports in the South are _____________. (1 point) Atlanta and Dalton Raleigh and Austin Miami and New Orleans New York City

asked by Please help! on March 12, 2014
socials
what the purpose of the dieppe raid? why were canadian troops selected for it? why did it fail? what useful information have been learned from raid? purpose to practice and test new techniques and equipment. canadian troops selected for this because they

asked by Mohammad on November 15, 2011
world history

1. The armistace of November 11, 1918, brought to an end almost four years of humans killing humans. It was great that the war was over. Many people had a difficult time adjusting though. What was post-WWI Canadian society like? Your answer should include

asked by Bob Zhou on July 19, 2009
History
The following, “People want to ensure that Puerto Ricans always identify with the Spanish language and culture.” Provides support for which of the following statuses for the country of Puerto Rico? Separate Nation* U.S. Commonwealth U.S. State Canadian

asked by H2015 on May 29, 2015
MATH!
If the Canadian dollar is worth 49% less than the U.S. dollar, then the US dollar is worth what percent more than the Canadian dollar? (Round the answer to the nearest hundredth of a percent).

asked by Thara! on January 28, 2010
History

1. The economic centers of the Northeast are the region’s . A. farms B. fisheries C. forests D. cities* 2. Two major ports in the South are ________. A. Atlanta and Dalton B. Raleigh and Austin C. Miami and New Orleans* D. New York

asked by connexus student on March 4, 2019
Economics (SraJMcGin)
Given the larger population runs in The States than in Canada, the costs are spread over more units. In fact in The States a cost over run of 10% could be dumped in Canada. Given the law of demand, what would happen to the Canadian company? If you worked

asked by David on March 3, 2011
SS
How is unity and division a theme in Canadian history? How did distinct English and French populations form in Canada? What is the relationship between natural resources and European settlement? How is conflict and compromise a theme in Canadian history?

asked by Leila on September 17, 2016

Math
Many nations compare the value of their currency to the US dollar. On a day early in 2009, \$1 CDN (1 Canadian dollar) was worth \$0.8290 USD (US dollar). This is known as an exchange rate. On the same date \$1 USD could be used to buy 0.7579 Euros or 0.6709

asked by Anonymous on January 19, 2013
English
The stadium covers nine-and-a-half acres of land. Would the complete predicate be covers nine-and-a-half acres and the verb be covers?

asked by Anonymous on September 14, 2010
social studies
what kind of landform covers the central part of North America

asked by dee on September 26, 2010
Stats
Daily water intake (including water used in drinks such as coffee, tea and juice) for Canadian adults follows a normal distribution with mean \$\var{mu}\$ litres and standard deviation \$\var{sigma}\$ litres. a) What is the probability that the mean daily

asked by Hui on June 5, 2015
social studies
I have completed my education but can’t find a job. How can I organize politically to change this situation within the norms of Canadian politics? Work to get your Native population better conditions. Always a needfull situation. What kind of job are you

asked by Sheri on November 23, 2006
Socials (URGENT)
Why did the canadian government feel the need to control the economy, transportation and trade after war was declared in 1914? Was this a genuine need? Explain. Hi, I need some help on the second half of the question. Was it a genuine need? I can’t find

asked by John on October 17, 2011
English
What kinds of food can you make? 1. I can make pasta. 2. I can make ramen. 3. I can make noodles. 4. I can make fruit soup/juice. 5. I can make cooked rice. 6. I can make cookies. 7. I can make bread. 8. I can make Japanese food, sushi. 9. I can make

asked by rfvv on April 9, 2015
MACROECONOMICS
Suppose that there are 10 million workers in Canada and South Korea and each worker in Canada and South Korea can produce 4 cars per year. A Canadian worker can produce 10 tonnes of grain a year, whereas a South Korean worker can produce 5 tonnes of grain

asked by cheryl on November 13, 2011
statistics
Suppose that there are 10 million workers in Canada and South Korea and each worker in Canada and South Korea can produce 4 cars per year. A Canadian worker can produce 10 tonnes of grain a year, whereas a South Korean worker can produce 5 tonnes of grain

asked by cheryl on November 11, 2011
computer sicence C++
Americans spell differently from Canadians. Americans write “neighbor” and “color” while Canadians write “neighbour” and “colour”. Write a program to help Americans translate to Canadian. Your program should interact with the user in the following way.

asked by Riana on September 28, 2013

Data Management (Math)
A Canadian postal code uses six characters. The first, third, and fifth are letters, while the second, fourth, and sixth are digits. A U.S.A zip code contains five characters, all digits. How many codes are possible for each country?

asked by Student on June 19, 2011
math!
Radu has just returned from a business trip in Britain with £250 of uncashed traveller’s cheques. How much would he receive from the bank when he converts the currency back to Canadian dollars, assuming that the bank offers an exchange rate of C\$1.00 =

asked by Thara on February 6, 2010
Social Studies Ms. Sue please
Sorry there are so many questions!!!! 1. The economic centers of the Northeast are the region’s _. (1 point) farms fisheries forests cities 2. Two major ports in the South are _____________. (1 point) Atlanta and Dalton Raleigh and Austin

asked by Delilah on March 27, 2013
English!
What type of company information can be found on the business library databases? Answer (a) Full-text articles on Canadian companies from newspapers, magazines and journals. (b) Full-text articles on Canadian companies from newspapers, magazine and

asked by Thara on February 3, 2010
Social Studies
Which of the following is a faith of Iranian origin? 1. Judaism 2. Islam* 3. Christianity 4. Zoroastrianism Which is the main climate in Cyprus? 1. Tropical wet and dry 2. Continental cool summer 3. Mediterranean* 4. Humid subtropical More than half of

asked by Check Please on November 29, 2017