Categories

## The Reluctant Fundamentalist Movie

The Reluctant Fundamentalist Movie

A

KEMAL told some challenges regarding CHANGEZ and his life to him and his response was interesting for him. CHANGEZ responded with different facts, which were regarding the love for the United States of America. KEMAL was asking about his time spam in America and development in Pakistan. He was intending to derive information regarding all suspects, related to him, which created barriers in his life. KEMAL started with the question about his country, the United States of America, as he wanted to know his intentions and previous life in that country. The purpose was to know the facts and intentions.

CHANGEZ responded to KEMAL with his admiration regarding United States contributions in economic success and development. The KEMAL’S comment were interesting for him, as he responded elaborately and told all the facts regarding his intentions and approaches towards extreme values. He responded with different facts, as he was trying to convince the KEMAL that he did not converted. He tried to demonstrate his intentions and positive behavior towards both countries, the United States of America and the Pakistan, his homeland.

The lesson he tried to teach to CHENGAZ was about fundamentalist right, limitations and its impacts on society and countries. This is a fact that he was almost converted after 9/11 incident, as he was questioned by the federal agents in the United States of America. The lesson was pertinent to Janissaries, which was a force, made in Turkey. This was pertinent, as he was also kidnapped by federal agents in US and finally questioned. (Nair, 2012)

The question regarding Rainer Kidnapping was prominent as, he was suspected according to CIA. The questions regarding Rainer kidnapping made him to ask many questions to him. In addition, at the place of interview, many protestors were placed outside. This was a great time to save the interviewer with a fine place to escape. However, he seemed suspected for KEMAL, as he was texting her sister according to him. The decision was made to off the interview and go to butcher shop. This was all right to set an interview with this man and derive some information for CIA agents in a café. However, things were going worse, as his students were not in favor of this interview, as he taught the lesson regarding anti America. (Nair, 2012)

Interestingly, KEMAL received the picture of Rainer, who was dead. There was only an option for KEMAL to use CHENGAZ to pass through ground among protestors. The CHENGAZ agreed with his decision, which caused some horrible results. This is a fact that the intention was not bad by the KEMAL but his gun gone off and he shoot his internee. In result, other students in the university shoot at KEMAL and but he was removed safely by CIA Agents from the place of incident. This was revealed that Rainer was found deal earlier in a day and on the other hand, CHENGAZ denied his collaboration with masterminds of Rainer’s kidnappers.

B

CHANGEZ told bobby that he was tired of reduction. He meant that he was frustrated and losing his capacity to answer all questions regarding suspects and fundamental rights according to religion, society and culture. This is a fact that he was confused after living in two countries, especially after 9/11 incidents. He explained this meaning by illustrating inner wounds. He explained that I do want more frustration and allegations regarding extremism. He wanted to live normal life now, as his American dream was destroyed.

This is a fact that there was a huge difference regarding fundamental rights and definitions. Meeting with Jim Cross and MUSTAFA FAZIL created difference, as both individuals were elaborating their intentions and interpretations. In results, he was confused and wanted to isolate for a while. This is a fact that Jim Cross promoted fundamentalism, which was modern and pertinent to American culture. IT was based on human rights, which discourages extremism as compared to Muslim world. On the other hand, Mustafa was intending to depict Muslim rights, which have to be achieved through exteriminsim. (Nair, 2012)

This is a fact that two types of fundamental have made him to live a worse life, which created impact on his family, friends, and students. This was necessary for him to study his religion again instead of listening two different fundamentalists. This was all about immense limitations that he faced after listening to both fundamentalists. He realized at the end that culture differences have to be happened according to region, religion, values and tradition of people. This is a fact that every religion has it won culture and values, which is different from other.

Interestingly, his intentions and confusions have led him to create a bad impact on his students, as he used to deliver Anti American lecture in classes. Obviously, he was teaching the generation of the country, which was the most important thing for him to guide them regarding their rights. Relative to country, it has to be recognized as fundamentalist according to Mustafa Fazi teachings, as he contained extremism.

On the other hand, this is revealed that people perceive different things from a county’s couture and values. Even in a country, people interpret different things according to their perception, which create contradictions with other countries and cultures. In addition, these contradictions can be seen even in existing country. This happened to CHENGAZ, as he guided his students towards a confused society.

In end, the fundamental rights seemed wrong for him because of two contradictions. He has faced problems in both, the United States of America and his homeland. The two types of fundamentals went wrong for him, as he lacked his own interpretations about religion and culture. This is a fact that MUSTAFA FAZIL contained a traditional approaches, which was pertinent to his religion, which was a valid reason for him to be converted., on the other hand,  regarding Jim Cross, he was intending to be convinced, as he spend a good life in the United Sates of America before 9/11 incident. (Nair, 2012)

References

Nair, M. (Director). (2012). The reluctant fundamentalist Video movie review [Motion Picture].

Categories

World War I

# Introduction

War always comes up with massive destruction that resulted in the loss of precious human lives and the financial loss that comes up with the damage of residential houses, building, the destruction of flora and fauna etc. The other losses such as environmental pollution due to the hazardous gases from the bombing remains in the air for long time and disturb the health.

Subsequently, the World War I was the most deadly and most destructive event of that time in the history of human as millions of precious human lives were lost, millions of people became paralyzed and countless people lost their houses.

## Thesis statement

Considering the World War I as a prominent in the history of human, the following writing is proposed to discuss various aspects of World War I. for the following writing the argument is planned to discuss that the World War I is remembered as one of the most destructive and bad event in the history of human as it took away lives of millions of people. It is also consider biggest mistake of human which resulted in nothing but massive destruction. This divided the entire world and penalized the development of the world as it pushed the world 100 years back. It was a different type of war therefore; the efforts which were made to protect the soldiers were badly failed as the war was full of uncertainties. In psychological aspect, it seems that the war was nothing but a blood shedding where human were killing human mercilessly as the element of humanity seems disappeared in the events of the war. Almost all the socialists people opposed this war as majorly they all believe that war is not the solution of problems but it will bring destruction. The most prominent experience was the racial diversity as people from almost all races took part in this war.

## How the war was expressed, imagined, remembered in literature (fiction, poetry)?

In different literatures the war is expressed differently in which the element of favoritism seems prominent. However in almost all the literatures, the one thing seems prominent as the World War I was just like a doomed day as blood shedding was everywhere, the most parts of Europe and some parts of Middle East were full with the human’s bodies and the corps were watering by blood than water. The atmosphere was polluted with the dust and hazardous gasses of bombing and the bullets were flying everywhere. It was like a doomed day as most of the literatures has expressed that even having feelings for the others, soldier were helpless in front of their duties and killing others. Grayzel has quoted a story in which she had quoted the words of a soldier who took part in the war and explained that “3 German soldiers were appeared as they were badly bleeding and were screaming for help and were crying for mercy but I had to follow the order and we had no feelings and so we left them to die”(Grayzel, 2012).

## How effective were attempts to protect soldiers in the war?

World War I was the deadliest ever event in the history since it took place as there were around 60 million soldiers from all over the world participated. These soldiers fought war in various location of the world including Greece, Iraq, France, China, North Sea, Pacific Ocean, etc. They had to face great uncertainties. However it was believed that they soldiers were well equipped but unfortunately, there preparation for the war was not enough as they had to meet with uncertainties in the war. However the training were made to train the soldiers to protect themselves in the challenging situations but these trainings were not enough in front of the deadliest weapons and environmental conditions(Grayzel, 2012).

This war was a terrible experience for all even they succeed to won the war of they have lost the war because it was the uncertainties hit them everywhere. It was found that the helmets which were used to protect the soldiers were not effective to resist against the rifles and the half body armors were also not contributed to protect the soldiers.  Especially the Adrian and Brodiewere badly affected as their helmets were failed to protect them. However somehow the full body armors were seem effective to protect the soldiers but they were too heavy to carry therefore they were not used effectively as they resisted the soldiers to everywhere.

Overall around ten million soldiers died during the World War and it is said that they died for nothing. According to the study it is found that the curator and zoologist of the armor collection and Met’s arms were also not effective however these techniques were effective to save some lives. The United Stated Armor body program was badly failed as it was found ineffective to millions of soldiers’ lives. The failure of the efforts to protect the soldier can be imagined as in starting month France had to lost around 250,000 soldiers as all the efforts to protect the soldiers were badly failed. However in these efforts only America somehow seems to protect some of their soldier through the American Expeditionary Force as it is stated that through this program the deaths batter cut around 26,000 deaths(Grayzel, 2012).

## How did psychology explain what was happening in the war?

The psychology explains that the World war was not ended with the ending announcement but it remained continue until the witness of the war remains alive because those who were killed people and those who became the victims, never forget the events of the World War I. It is found that the rate of psychological breakdown was extremely high among those who returned from the battle field also it was found that those who left their post were suffering badly from the mental stress of war.

It can also be imagined that how horrific the war was as the suicide became a major issue among the soldier who returned from the war. In this war, there are many incidents in which a large number of family members were fighting together therefore, to see the dead body of the family members and friend put them in great shock. The suicide ratio was highest among Americans and Germans and around four thousand soldiers from Germany killed themselves(Grayzel, 2012).

It was also found that it was quit hard for returning soldiers to readjust to civilian life therefore, most of them were found in physical trauma in result of losing their families and friends. It was even hard for the soldiers to share their experience. The psychological impact of the war were remained continue for a generation.

The term “Shell Shock” was also emerged in the starting period of the war as the soldiers share their experience under the fire of World War I. After the war the shell shock became the military priorities as psychiatric causalities battered the power of front line units.

## Why were people opposed to the war?

Antiwar movement was seen in almost all the countries and most prominently the pacifist or the socialist groups and the radical unions were prominent to protect against the war. In Britain Independent Labor Party opposed the war as they consider it as an in-humanistic approach. Women rights groups also opposed the War in which the Women Social and Political Union was prominent. In America Women also protested against the war and in January 1915 the Women’s Peace Party called the neutral countries to help to restore the world peace by stopping war and in this regards, 150 countries Peace Conference was held in Netherland(Grayzel, 2012).

The Industrial Workers of the World also opposed the war and started an antiwar movement in USA. Most of the people believet that the idea of War is not in the favor of the world and they asked to solve problems through the table talk. However the Americans were not in favor of the America to join war because they believe that it is the European issue and America should remain away. The German and Irish immigrants were not in favor that America get involved in the war. Some people believe that getting involved in the war would disturb the relations of America with other countries and it would penalized the economy growth.

## What was the experience of non-combatants in the war?

The experience of the noncombat was very bad as they had to subject to army discipline but they were not heaving weapons and they were not allowed to participate in battles. Their tasks were to provide the physical labor to the army in British Isles and overseas. However those who rejected to follow the orders were badly punished through the court martialled and they were sent to jail. They also had to face the terrible physical and emotional experiences(Grayzel, 2012).

## What was the experience of colonial troops in the war?

The most considerable part of the war experience was that there was racial diversity as people from all over the world and from all the races were fighting in the war. The war experience for the colonies, radical groups and dominions was profoundly transformative at various levels. Most of them had to face racist attitude and hate from the locals. For the Imperial defense the colonial were regularly used by the British but they were not asked to fight against the white races. Subsequently, the Indian troops was not given permission to fight in South African(Grayzel, 2012).

# Conclusion

The World War I is no doubt was one of the most deadly events in the history of human. The aforementioned discussion has shown that this war is still remembered as a dark period of human history which is full of the greatest event and cruelest events of human executions. Every country was affected by it and the soldiers even from the winning countries never forget this event. This event brought great changing to the world. The psychological effects of the war were remained with the generation. The people who opposed the war were found right at the end as the war was ended with nothing but massive destruction, the mountains of dead bodies, the streams of blood, the burning houses, the destroyed crops and the hazardous gasses contaminated atmosphere were left behind.

# Bibliography

Grayzel, S. R. (2012). The First World War: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford/St. Martin’s.

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## English 150 Final Exam

hat pivotal events have defined or changed your life (i.e. starting college, returning to college, a career change, an illness, a move, or a change in family structure)?  How do you think your life would be different if these events had not occurred? How might your life still be the same?

There are so many event in my which aided me to improve my life but I believe that getting education in outside my country is one of the most prominent event in my life that has completely changed my life. I always enjoy my studies and I always love to learn new things therefore, because of enthusiasm to learn knowledge I have a good student. However my thirst to explore new things, meet with new people and learn knowledge never ends and it always keep me warm to move forward.

After finishing my schooling in my country I decided to go abroad for foreign studies and then the journey that changed my life was started. I came to aboard for higher education but It is not the education that has changed my life but my experience to meet with the people from different cultures, different regions of the world and with different religion has given great exposure to my life.

The life that I had been living in my country since my birth is much different than the life I have been living since I have left my country for higher education. After leaving my country I have experienced some good things and some bad things but overall I think that I have learnt a lot because obviously the good things have enhanced my knowledge and the bad things given me lesson and experience.

In my country I was living somehow an aimless life because I was not having responsibilities and I was very careless as my father and mother mutually take care of all the matter and we have servants to do other things for us. However, since I have left my country proposed to get higher education in foreign countries, I feel a great change in my personality. I have become responsible as well as I do everything with great care because here I am alone and I have realized that I have to face challenges by myself. In the starting days I badly miss my parents but with time I came to learn that I have to face challenges to learn something. With this enthusiasm to learn more to become a respectful person in my family, to support my family as well as to help my country, I decided to remains determined to face all the challenges in aboard land. This thing has helped me to achieve some maturity in my personality and I started to feel strong in myself.

Secondly, I would love to share one thing that more than any other thing we should give respect to humanity. I feel that before meeting with the people from different countries and different religions we have a different set of mind about them but when I interact with them, I realized that we all human are same but we are just divided into different regions and religions and at this fact I remind the last Sermon of Holly Prophet in which he said that only those are better who are good in their behavior. Therefore I can proudly say that I have learnt to respect humanity and this fact has changed my views and my thoughts about the people who belong to other religion and regions of the world.

I also feel that this thing has brought great change into my personality because as I arrived here I found some very helping people who have helped me to improve my skills in realistic ways. I feel that this is the real difference in the education because I found that what I have learnt in my country was just limited to the knowledge of book but here I have learnt knowledge through theory as well as through the practical which helped me to learn better than ever before.

There is another thing which I want to share as after coming abroad I have learnt about the cultural differences and at once I believed that it would be so hard to live in a place with different cultural and social aspects among different people. Most interestingly I came to realize that God has gifted great ability to the human to be adjusted according to the circumstances. I believe that this a very important thing because if I look into my future, I can see that I would have to meet with the different people therefore, it would be very helpful for me to interact effectively and confidently when I will have some awareness about their cultural aspects because everyone has some deep relations with his cultural and social aspects. Therefore, I have realized that to work in a global setting, my experience of getting education with people from different regions and religions has given me platform to get ready for my future.

Categories

# List of Potential References

Engineeringchallenges.org. (2016). Make Solar Energy Economical. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/solar.aspx

Pau, D. I., & Uhomoibhi, J. (2012). “Solar power generation for ICT and sustainable development in emerging economies. Campus-Wide Information Systems , 29 (4), 213 – 225.

Stritih, U., Paksoy, H., Turgut, B., Osterman, E., Evliya, H., & Butala, V. (2015). Sustainable energy management Solar energy and thermal storage technologies in two Mediterranean countries. An International journal , 26 (5), 764 – 790.

# Motivation

The energy crisis is becoming crucial every day as the fossil fuel resources are reducing. The price of oil and gas are always fluctuating which is the constant threat to the economy of the country and this world. That’s why now countries are making an effort to generate electricity through other means. The most common are the solar energy as this is the kind of renewable energy. Sun is the massive source of energy, and its energy will last forever. Although solar energy is already utilized in major countries, the production is very low. It is facing many complications because the energy gather from this is not enough that can replace the energy produced by fossil fuels. Currently, there are many solar plants in the world, but no single one is capable of generating energy in the triple figure.

# Current status

This is the great challenge for the engineers and scientist as for how to increase the production of energy from the sun. Currently, there is only 1% of worlds total energy is produced by the Solar Energy. To make it more feasible and increase the productivity, there are several ways. This field of energy is mainly related to the electrical engineering or commonly known as electronics. Because it contains circuits, battery and PV cells. The knowledge of electrical engineering applies to the solar panel which is discussed further. Software Engineering also plays a role in order to setup the control system of the solar panel through programming and most important mechanical engineering as the construction and setup of the plant are done by the mechanical engineers (Engineeringchallenges.org, 2016).

All these engineering fields will collaborate to deal with the energy production challenge in the solar energy. The main work will start with the electrical engineering. As they have to make sure the energy production is increased and how they can focus the sun heat energy on the solar panels (Stritih, Paksoy, Turgut, Osterman, Evliya, & Butala, 2015).

Limitations

Although there is already a proper system for this it is not that much effective because the heat energy is not sufficient to generate high electric current in the PV cells of the solar panel. Due to intense use of the technology, various tools are invented, which increases the benefits of engineering. On the other hand, it makes life easy and increases the standard of life. Further, technology also helps to utilize resources in more effective and efficient method. Therefore, everyone should help to find new and improved methods of engineering.

# Technical goals

The challenge for present engineers is that they have to come up with the system which is best not just in economic terms but also the environmentally friendly. That’s why all the three major fields of engineering Electrical, Software and Mechanical sit together to come up with the unique solution to cultivate the solar energy.

Solutions

As the sun is a major source of energy in entire universe because there is fission reaction always happening on the surface of sun. This fission reaction generates enough energy which can fulfill the need of entire world energy demands. The problem is that there is no proper way to cultivate this energy on a large scale although there are some very big power plants are working in the desert areas. But those solar power plants are not enough to fulfill the requirements of the entire world.

Electrical engineers can solve this issue if they come up with the solar panel that is ten times efficient than the one which is already in use. If the solar panel can handle the high amount of current passage through it only, then it can be useful for the commercial use. Currently, solar panels are used for the emergency lighting purpose and panels are set on the roof of the house. But as mentioned above it is not enough to recover from the energy crisis. Engineers have to come up with the solar panel that can allow high current flow and the batteries which can store the massive voltage in them (Pau & Uhomoibhi, 2012).

The solar panel can be built as per requirement the major problem is the sunlight because we don’t have access to sunlight for 24 hours as it comes only for 10-12 hours. Mechanical Engineers have to select the right place on the earth where the sunlight falls almost more than 12 hours, and its intensity is also high. To make solar energy more economical engineers can use the material whose purity or conductivity is maximum as semi-conductors are best for this purpose but it also depends on the weather conditions.

Engineering disciplines

The solar panel must have enough power to cultivate the maximum solar energy from the radiation, and the conductivity of the material plays a key role in it. One other way to increase the productivity of energy within the solar cell is the correct use of its thickness as the side of the panel through which current has to travel should be thin while the other side which has to absorb should be a bit thick. This makes the perfect combination to produce the high-quality current.

Storage capacity and the way to store solar energy in the form of potential difference matters a lot because the storing capacity should be maximum. As the duration of sunlight matters on the weather condition, so it’s better to keep the maximum storage capacity for summer. There are many systems which provide the mass-storage system for the solar panel, but the problem is that once the current is stored in batteries. Then at night time the potential level shift and if the panel is not controlled through any program, it will lose its energy. The reason behind this is that at night time solar panel becomes the consumer and batteries become the provider due to which the current starts flow from battery to panel which in result cause the loss of energy.

Currently, the big solar power plants store their energy either in the huge generators or they transfer the electricity directly to the transmission lines, which are also economical. Because this reduces the electricity losses as when the energy is stored and then transferred to the consumers, there is a significant amount of energy loss happen in the form of friction and heat dissipation. That’s why it’s better to make a system through which the solar energy is directly utilized in day time although for night time storage is necessary.

Contribution towards solution

This is the most economical way to increase the production of solar energy or to increase the utilization of the solar energy. Solar cars should be made common for the public use as it can be very economical not just for the people but also for the economy of the country. The pollution can be reduced with this act. Transportation can be a great way to make the solar energy economical as there should be buses which operate on the solar energy and also the trains as this will be a great achievement for the mankind. Another way to improve the solar energy is its use in the daily life appliances, especially for the street light. We know that most of the energy consumption is in the form of electricity and if each house of the city is equipped with the proper solar system, then it can be the best way to make this energy economical. Industries consume the energy more than any one so it’s better they should also equip their system with the solar energy to make the system more economical.

The reason to choose this challenge is that this is one of the most trending topics in the world of science. As energy is the fundamental component of human life so, there must be an economical way to use it. The world is already facing the energy crisis many huge wells of crude oil are now dry. This is an alarming situation because sooner or later the world there will be a huge shortage of oil in the world. As currently, our major source of energy is oil and gas, so it’s time to shift the source of energy from fossil fuel to renewable.

Contribution to the solution

To contribute to the solution, every person can make the different by doing the little effort. As we can equip our homes and offices with the solar energy. At first, it looks expensive, but nothing can compare the long-term benefits it provides. The energy crisis is not just the only issue due to which renewable energy is so important. The World is facing the global warming problem which is also a reason that time has come to utilize the renewable energy sources. The best one, in this case, is Sun which is the huge source of energy. So to make this world a better place to live each and every person has to contribute in this field and with the help of government any country can make the difference. So to improve this world a place to experience every single individual needs to contribute in this field.

Personal reflection

As at present, our significant wellspring of vitality is oil and gas, so it’s a great opportunity to move the wellspring of vitality from fossil fuel to renewable. We realize that a large portion of the vitality utilization is as power and if every place of the city is furnished with the best possible nearby planetary group, then it can be the ideal approach to make this vitality practical.

References

Engineeringchallenges.org. (2016). Make Solar Energy Economical. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/solar.aspx

Pau, D. I., & Uhomoibhi, J. (2012). “Solar power generation for ICT and sustainable development in emerging economies. Campus-Wide Information Systems , 29 (4), 213 – 225.

Stritih, U., Paksoy, H., Turgut, B., Osterman, E., Evliya, H., & Butala, V. (2015). Sustainable energy management Solar energy and thermal storage technologies in two Mediterranean countries. An International journal , 26 (5), 764 – 790.

Categories

## “What is the global economy? Illustrate and explain its’ evolution. Is it good, bad or a bit of both?”

“What is the global economy? Illustrate and explain its’ evolution. Is it good, bad or a bit of both?”

World economy refers to the economy of the world. World economy includes economy of each country and somehow each country’s economy relates to each other.  The basic concept behind the world economy is the globalization. In the last few years, the concept of globalization increased that leads the countries to have the international business that not only improves the economy of the country but also improves the economy of the world.  With the passage of time, the globalization increased causes more and more trade between different countries.

In short, “world-wide economy is the economy of different countries along with economic activities between the countries that can affect the countries negatively or positively. It is basically, an exchange of goods and services between the countries of the world regarding money or monetary terms. The terms, international and global economy, are somehow different, and they are measured differently.  They are measured differently and are different from national economies.  The global economy is an aggregate of a national economy (Economist.com, 2013).

Global economies have also shaped the economy into the new look. Now the countries have become a global village. They can freely trade with each other and improve their GDP. It is important to note that global economies have provided new shape to the economy now economies are closer to each other. They can now share their resources for the production of efficient products. It is due to global economies and their emergence[1].

Advantages of the global economy are not difference because the economies and people living there. Global economies have provided ways of using resources and labor of different countries. It has provided and improved efficiency of the products. Global economies have merged economy together. With the help of globalization, people are now able to choose from a list of different products. Consumers are now able to get their desired products in fewer costs. Global economies have provided opportunities to the companies to grow in international markets. Now companies can easily start their businesses in other countries. It is also good for the prosperity of the country because it increases employment opportunities and production opportunities.

Global economies have increased competition in the market. Now it is difficult for local companies to compete with international companies with a high number of resources and capital. Meanwhile, it provided new ways of thinking too small businesses. Now local businesses can learn different lessons from strategies of international companies. Due to an availability of international labor, companies are now able to produce products at competitive prices. Companies can improve their market shares[2].

Global economies also provided new ways of employment to the people of developing countries. They can go and earn as per their will. It also improved the economies. Now a large percentage of GDP is obtained from exports of services and products. Now investment has the wide variety of opportunities. They can select from global investments. It helped developed countries to improve their GDP growth. Global economies have also helped to the developing countries. They can import products and services from developed countries because they are not able to go through high capital expenditures of production[3].

Globalization is not good for small and local businesses that have limited resources and market share. Global economies are not providing the good impact on developing countries. It is extracting their skilled labor and resources from developing countries. Global economies have created the monopoly of those countries that are rich with resources and technology.

Evolution of world economy:

Phase one of the industrial capitalization started in the eighteenth century. The structure of capital accumulation was created in this century to reduce the transportation cost. It was focused on the development of industries in the United States and Europe.

In the history, the economy of the world improves due the increased in development by the west.  While the other struggled to have the stable economy. However, there were many reasons to have the poor economy like World War I and World War II that lead the countries to face the devastated and poor condition.  It took a lot of years and time and hard world of many people in improving the economy of the country and taking part in the world economy with the help of trading system in monetary terms[4]

In the 19th century, the concept of globalization and trends were increasing leading people to have trade internationally at a global level.  Hundreds of years ago, people were entering the world of global economy, by exchanging goods and services.  However, there are many benefits of global economy, the condition of the country and structure of business in the country improves that lad the people to have better standards of living.

`           To improve the standards of living people started to move towards the western countries like Europe, America, and the United Kingdom etc. because these countries are the one who has the stable economic condition at that time.  The abrupt change, in the world economy, occurred due to the World War I.  It collapsed the world, international economy. The condition became worse after the World War II.  From the year 1950 to 1960, the concept of globalization decreased as compared to 50 years before[5].

Economies of the countries with the own good and services, every society or country, has its economy, which is decided regarding the behavior of the people. However, economic evolution or economic changes can be there when there is the innovation in the products and the services. There is the need to update the economy and the aspect related to the economy, with the passage of the time, so that there could be betterment and so the country moves with the world. The countries need to consider the changes in the market so that betterment can be their evolution.

Since then, the improvement in the world economy appeared as compared to in the past. The main reason behind this change is the increase in the technology, monetary policies, government rules and regulations and international trading policies.  These changes, lead the countries to have an international flow of business.  If a country has international business, it improves the economic level of the people and structure of the country as well as an industrial condition of the country.

In 19th and 20th century, technological change played the important role. On the other hand, the lowering the cost of international trade lead the countries to have more expansion of business without any problem and restriction like a large amount of money for transportation.   In the 10th century or the half of 20th century, countries started to have restrictions and change in policies like government policies and terms and conditions that lad the countries to have limited trade in other countries. In short, it affected the business greatly. It was the major threat to the world economy as well as the industrial condition of the countries (Grinin & Korotayev, 2013).

Increased in the transportation cost was discouraging factor for the industrial or businessperson.  Limited trading between the countries and change in policy, term, and conditions were discouraging for the international trade.  After that, the increased in the tax, restriction, and change regarding trade by the international country worsen the condition of international trade and globalization[6].

Is it good, bad or a bit of both?”

Global economies have both characteristics. They also contain advantages as well as disadvantages for the countries. Global economies have created many advantages for the countries like it created job opportunities for the people. Developing countries are there to show that job opportunities to their citizens. The rate of inflation in these countries is very high, and their labor is getting lower rates by exchange of their services. Now people are able not to earn money by going into other countries. It has also created the exchange of culture of different countries.

It has also provided workforce diversity to the companies. Global economies have provided new ways of expansion to the companies. Now they can expand to the other countries freely and produce their goods accordingly. Organizations can also outsource their production in countries where labor is cheap. Global economies have provided opportunities to the organizations to produce cheap but quality products. Developed countries are rich with innovation and technological development. Companies operating in developed countries can also move towards developing countries for the purpose of expansion[7].

It is also the biggest advantage of global economies that companies can also produce efficient goods and services for the customers. Global economies have more advantages and benefits as compared to disadvantages. Global economies have also increased the production in countries. It has also improved their foreign exchange. Now the companies can earn foreign exchange with the help of global investments.  It is important to note that global economies have also provided the better choice to the consumers. Now the consumers can select from the large variety of products and services. It also increased competition. This competition has provided opportunities to the countries to improve their technological development. Now international companies can improve their competitive advantage. They are improving their skills and capabilities to compete with each other.

Global economies have also created the trade in the new look. Now the countries can freely trade with each other. Many countries have signed free trade agreements to facilitate import and export. There are few disadvantages of global economies evolution. One disadvantage is that it is not good for developing economies. Global economies evolution has only improved wealth in developed countries. It did not provide any advantage to developing countries. It is not good for small businesses as they have limited resources and capabilities[8].

It is concluded that global economies have evolved with the passage of time. Now it is not difficult to transfer labor and products from one country to another. Evolution of global economies has provided new progress in the countries. It has also improved the performance of companies. Meanwhile, it has also increased competition. It is concluded that global economies development has both advantages as well as disadvantages but its advantages are more.

References

Dunning, J. H., & Lundan, S. M. (2008). Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Economist.com. (2013, September 23). When did globalization start? Retrieved October 15, 2016, from http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2013/09/economic-history-1

Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2013). Evolution: Development within Big History, Evolutionary and World-System Paradigms. ООО “Издательство “Учитель.

O’Rourke, K. H., & Williamson, J. G. (2001). Globalization and History: The Evolution of a Nineteenth-century Atlantic Economy. MIT Press.

Presencing.com. (2015). Economic evolution. Retrieved October 15, 2016, from https://www.presencing.com/ego-to-eco/economic-evolution

[1] Dunning, J. H., & Lundan, S. M. (2008). Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy. Edward Elgar Publishing.

[2] Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2013). Evolution: Development within Big History, Evolutionary and World-System Paradigms. ООО “Издательство “Учитель.

[3] Economist.com. (2013, September 23). When did globalization start? Retrieved October 15, 2016, from http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2013/09/economic-history-1

[4] Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2013). Evolution: Development within Big History, Evolutionary and World-System Paradigms. ООО “Издательство “Учитель.

[5] Presencing.com. (2015). Economic evolution. Retrieved October 15, 2016, from https://www.presencing.com/ego-to-eco/economic-evolution

[6] O’Rourke, K. H., & Williamson, J. G. (2001). Globalization and History: The Evolution of a Nineteenth-century Atlantic Economy. MIT Press.

[7] Dunning, J. H., & Lundan, S. M. (2008). Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy. Edward Elgar Publishing.

[8] Economist.com. (2013, September 23). When did globalization start? Retrieved October 15, 2016, from http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2013/09/economic-history-1

Categories

## Consumer Behavior

CRM & Consumer Behavior

Journal Article Summary (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013)

Introduction

In this article, the authors have evaluated the effects of cutomer relationship management and its elements on consumer satisfaction and customer loyalty which are two very crucial aspects of the consumer behaviour. CRM is one of the most intgral startegies that can be used by the management of the firms. This can contribute well towards the productivity of the firm and its proftability as well. The research study has been conducted on 300 respondents and the techniques used is multiple regression analysis. The information that can be extracted from the research is that employees have a major role to play improving loayalty and satisfaction of the customers.

Social networks are varied useful tools in order to provide support to the enterprises so the at the chances of survival can be improved with the help of spreading the word of mouth in a better manner both within the organization as well as outside it. This allows the organizations to develop a virtual community which extends the boundaries of the organization outside its current market reach. This also allows the firms remain aligned with the environmental aspects of the community and infuse them within the networks and regulations as well as the business operations. However, the journal article focusses the general overview of the literature on this particular topic. The topic of discussion here is to develop an understanding of how the spread social networks influence on the economy of the enterprise.

Innovation is based on a new idea that is used to improve a product or a service. It can also be used in the processes and operations of the business as well. Diffusion is meant to communicate the new ideas across different channels as well as the networks so that it can reach more audiences that are connected through these networks. Hence it means that an innovative idea can be communicated across different social networks of stakeholders and this is very beneficial for the purpose of spreading the production. Innovation diffusion is a major issue within the high technology sectors of the economy including telecommunication and information technology. These sectors continue to grow and experience a high level of rapid changes related to continuous innovation (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

With these innovations, the institutional networks have to be in place to make sure that the innovations are diffused within the community. For the purpose of successful innovation diffusion, specialists like change agents and opinion leaders have a crucial role to play in order to carry out the activities across various communities of stakeholders. As per the experts, centrality and network density are the two aspects that are used to determine the propensity and the behavior mod the consumers and all other stakeholders. Here, network density represents the whole network and assesses the interconnectedness. The criteria or rationale of the technologies is to offer social benefits which are derived from positive network externalities which are directly linked to the mass adoption. These technologies include network based innovations that diffuse through the social networks.

Prior Research on the topic of CRM, customer Satisfaction, and customer Loyalty

According to a study (Khaligh, Miremadi, & Aminilari, 2012), the influecne of CRM on loyalty and retention of the cutomers in the telecom sector of Iran is assessed and evaluated. Fro the purpose of the study, data is collected from over 200 Iranian telecom services users and the results indicate that the commitment the management of the firm and the system is a must for  successful implementations of Customer Relationship Management. The strategy should be designed as per the flexibility and should also explicitly adhere to the policies, especially policies and regulations related to pricing strategies specifcally. These can play an intgrela role in improveing customer loyalty.

This means that profitability is directly influenced by customer satisfaction and loyalty. In the successful execution of the CRM, the information is successfully collected from the internal and external sources. These sources include customer services, sales department, after sales services, procurement, and marketing etc. This is very important when it comes to gather information on regarding the customer trends. This information will be available to assist the employees in making quick decisions and this information also allows the management to make accurate decisions as well (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

Hence, customer satisfaction and loyalty will be achieved by the company by addressing the requirements of each customer and this will allow the firm to solve many issues related to the customer segment. This will enable the firm to achieve both satisfaction and loyalty with help of successful implementation of CRM. The firm should be able to discover various issues and requirements of the customers and make an adjustment to its policies in accordance with the needs and wants of the market and this improves the overall competitiveness of the firm.

Important aspects of Customer Relationship Management

For the purpose of this study, four important elements of Customer Relationship Management have been taken. These elements include relationship development, employees’ behavior, customer service and interaction management (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

Interaction Management

These include having an interaction along the touch points. Primary goal is to find out when and how to get in contact with the firms. These interaction operations should be customized and should be managed across all touch points. These touch points are developed through data collection from cutomer records and data samples. These should be used for distribution of various products and services as well as to develop a communication infrastructure with the customers. This calls for interaction management which involves execution of few methods like getting the feedback from the customers and improve the interaction with the customers using the techniques such as social networks (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

Relationship Development

Relationship development deals with the research of structures and assessment of the relationship between the suppliers and customers. One of the crucial activities that are involved in relationship development is monitoring and control of the whole process and this involves services like services and complaints management. The relationship processes include mechanisms, procedures, activities and schedules that are used to deliver the services and goods to the customers. The KPIs in this area are lifetime value of the customers, the rate of retention, as well as satisfaction of the customers, should be set by the firm itself (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

Service Quality

In order to understand the aspects that are necessary for the firms to achive the customer satisfaction and loyalty, service quality has a very crucial role to play. Service quality can have a very bebeficail impact obn the productivity of the firm. Service quality can be implemented as follows (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013),

1. Providing good quality products and services at reasonable and competitive prices.
2. Handling the complaints of the customers regarding products and services carefully
3. Meet the expectations of the customers and provide them with a variety of options.

Employee Behavior

Employees that conform with the firm’s behavior and value will most probably improve the raltionsship between the firm and the cutomers. The effects of positive employee behaviour can be seen when the employees respond to the complaints of the customers in a timely fashion and this can be expressed in terms of improving speed of response to the customers and make sure that all the employees are friendly and very respectful towards the customers (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

Study Objective

The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of CRM on customer loyalty as well as customer satisfaction. Several critical elements are identified based on the literature review for the study. There is a close link between CRM, customer satisfaction, loyalty as well as quality services, employee behavior, interaction management and relationship development.

Research Methodology

In this study, the quantitative technique has been used and for the purpose of data collection, a set of questionnaires will be distributed.  The assessment and evaliaution will be done over the data will be inferential statistical analysis for the purpose of attaining the final goal of the study. This is superior to use diverse methodical methods to derive the valuable outcomes. The assessment and interpretation based on underlying meanings and the different affiliation of the patterns. In addition, this is good for the investigator to have or use the different figures regarding the research. This is all about to host data from different sources and navigate them as the whole. Moreover, in this research, we will use we will assemble the data in form of different tables and charts and interpret them into the illustrations. This will help us to come up with evidence-based concepts, which can also help us to depict the effective outcomes.

In addition, there is unusual software such as SPSS and R to navigate the data in an effective and lucrative manner. Interestingly, we will organize all the variables through this effective and lucrative navigation process to make the research pertinent and flourishing. This is to mention that the data is to be interpreted by different multiple approaches. This is good to gather the data in form of numbers to have te best possible navigation. For Instance, to gather or collect the data, this is necessary to navigate the different financial reports and statistics. Furthermore, there are some sources regarding the quantitative research. These sources are surveys, observations, and secondary data. In this study, we will consider all these three methods to contain the diversity of data ad find valuable outputs. For Instance, relative to the secondary data, the researcher will navigate the accounts of the organizations and derive some numbers (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

This is good to have the secondary data from the financials of the company. On the other hand, this will be good for us to observe the aspects regarding the topic of the research and interpreted in the different numbers. Similarly, the surveys will also be effective to convert the observations into the numbers. There are two prominent techniques, which can be used in this research study. First, we can have the different graphs along with the interpretations. On the other hand, the testing of different correlations between multiple items is also effective techniques to make the research pertinent and successful. This research method contains the implication, as researchers are independent regarding the researched data. In this research method, the researcher can also use the primary data. However, this is better to convert it into the statistical form, as it can change the overall method of the research (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

This method is good to reduce the time, as researchers will have the data,which is already interpreted. It will reduce the cost and time of the research. The validity and reliability of the data in this research manner are based on the intention of the researcher. For Instance, this will be good for the researchers to use the current fiscal statements to have the data in form of numbers. To make the research pertinent, this is better to relate previous data and integrate it with the present numbers to have a good evaluation. This can help us to have healthier navigation at the end.

Results

The relationship between the two variables such as the satisfaction of the customers is directly proportional to the CRM having the positive result of the R equal to the 0.4. The value of the square of the R adjustments would be the 0.17 which means that it would contribute the almost 18 % to the dependent  dimensions of the variable. The variable which is the significant over the variable as the β as per the 0.36 having the level of the significance less than .01 si the dominant factor where the β= 0.1 but the level of the significance would less than the .05. the regression evaluation of the for the CRM having the direct relationship or positive effect to the square proportion of the R having 0.18 is determined. The behavior or the attitude of the employees is highly a unique matter or most important variable of the customer satisfaction in which the value of the R = 0.4. The loyalty of the customer would affect if the customer satisfaction would not accomplish in terms of the behavior in terms of te development of the relationship in providing the services.  Therefore the behavior of the employee is the most important factor that a company must need to consider n taking the customer satisfaction (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

Explanations

The findings or the results indicate that the CRM is positively proportional to the variables which are the independent such as  the loyalty of the customers and the satisfaction of the customers whereas the workforce behavior as per the development of the relationship is influencing the most customer satisfaction. The findings or the results that we have conducted from the past studies are proved to be correct with this finding result along with the employee relationship with the customers is important in terms of retaining the satisfaction level in the customers. The organization must need to regularly check te employee behavior along with the courteous manner of dealing with the customers that would highly increase the satisfaction among the customers.

The knowledge about the core services and the products also play a key role in the satisfaction of the customers especially when the firm  is dedicated to attaining the utmost level of loyalty among the customers. Therefore the customer service is the vital element in which the organization has to pay a close attention or regularly improve the competencies of the workforce in the organization as too for motivating both the employees and the customers. The tools such as the framework of the analytical CRM in the data gathering technique of the customers are required to bring the relationship at the friendly rapport with the customers in which the extra inquiries must not include in the design making for improving the intensity of te customer relationship with the organization. The customers must need to act upon the promotion including te discounts as well as the premium services of the facilities of the organization (Long, Khalafinezhad, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013).

Article Conclusion

In the end, it is concluded that the customers must need to have the encouragement as the dynamic flexible part of the organizational culture in which the CRM must be an essential tool for bringing the satisfaction among the customers  in which the customer service play a key role in the loyalty of the customers. The purchasing intentions of te customer are positively linked to the model applied in the organization of the CRM in order to bring the utmost level of the strong relationship with the organization. The key aspect in this regard is that serious type orf the convenience strategy for the customer satisfaction is essential that would provide the feedback in terms of the core services they receive for the organization.

Evolution of Customer Relationship Management, Customer Satisfaction, and Customer Loyalty

Evolution of customer relationship management

A couple of decades ago, customer relationship management was not as popular as today. It has gone through a wide range of transitional events which ultimately made customer relationship management as an integral and most important part of the business. In today’s business era, no one can deny the importance of the customer relationship management. The role of the Robert and Kate Kestnbaum is important to introduce new insights into the customer relationship management. The utilization of statistical modeling to assess the customer and transactional data and communication with other customers is an integral part of such innovative steps in customer relationship management (Foxall, 2014).

For the time being, lot of software is being used in customer relationship management. The use of the software is common to process the customer and transactional information to derive meaning full conclusion from that information. The trends are settled and important information is derived to evaluate the results. There are diverse ranges of software that are being used in the customer relationship management. This software includes Oracle, CRM, and other legacy software. The use of the statistical analysis in customer relationship management was not common in past. However, in the current business era, customer relationship management is dynamic and agile. The information of the customers and their transactions is used to assess different trends in the market. These trends could be fluctuation in demand and supply as well as anticipation of the seasonal fluctuation in customer demands (Morse, 2015).

Evolution of Customer Satisfaction

The customer satisfaction at its early stages was not as much formal as today. Before the 1980s, the customer satisfaction was assessed with a mere interaction with the customer to investigate about the level of their satisfaction regarding the products and services they use. The majority of the emphasis was given on the products and service itself instead of the end users. Moreover, the logistics were also the center of importance. However, the paradigm shifted and companies put greater emphasis on the customers. They started figuring out the demands of the customers and the specifications and features that are most liked (Ebert, 2010).

They understood that the real success comes from fulfilling the demands of the customers. The end user is the key to the success. If you do not focus on the end users, the superior products and services cannot be made. That is why different business strategies used to develop. These strategies range from finance to marketing, human resources and alike. For customer satisfaction, different evaluation strategies were adopted to investigate the perceptions of the customers towards the products and services. For instance, questionnaire survey and application of the statistical analysis was an important step in that regard (Das, 2008).

The incorporation of the formal research process enabled the companies to assess the level of the customer satisfaction in and adequate and essential manner. Te customer feedback management and tracking are also given emphasis. These are important techniques to figure out that how the customers are responding to the products and services provided by the company.

Evolution of Customer Loyalty

The customer loyalty is important to retain the valuable customers to the business. The loyal customers provide a constant source of business. Therefore, organizations strive to provide a constant flow of loyal customers in order to preserve the financial conditions of the business. It is to be noted that nearly, 75% of the customers are enrolled in some sort of customer relationship programs offered by the organizations. This amount of the customers represents a significant number of customer populations throughout the world. The organizations also provide customer loyalty programs that are essential and adequate for the customers. The social media is an important factor that is needed to be utilized (Oliver, 2014).

Today is the era of communication and information technologies and lot of people have access to the internet. Thus, companies have recognized the importance of such mediums and are using in the customer loyalty program. The emotional attachment of the customers is important in order to assess their willingness to purchase the products or rendering the services. The social media surveys are being used in order to assess the level of customer loyalties. Thus, the use of the customer loyalty is an important part of the customer relationship management (Poynter, 2013).

The retention of the customer is a difficult task. The competition is tough and there are a large number of organizations that are striving to attract the customers with the offering of their own products and services. Therefore, the customers have the choice to choose among a large number of product lines that are available in the market. If the customer perceives that they are not getting the right product or service according to their demand, they may switch to other buyer or supplier. Thus, this will impact the financial position of the company due to lack of loyalty by the customers.

Proactive customer services

The companies are adopting a proactive approach to responding to the customers. This approach is essential in order to read what the customer demands and looking for specifications and features. They launch the products in the market that are up to the customer satisfaction. They are integrating different strategies in the business to provide state of the art services to the customers. For instance, the inclusion of the e-commerce channels in the business and their integration are important in that regard. There are different channels used in the realm of e-commerce. The use of the computers, PCs, laptops and other business applications and smartphones are being used (Quester, Pettigrew, Kopanidis, Hill, & Hawkins, 2013).

These applications must be integrated in an essential manner. The information flow regarding the customers and the transactions are important in order process the information. If information is available to a specific channel, it might hurt the transaction processing. Therefore, the companies emphasize on the integration of all channels. Therefore, this is also an important strategy for the proactive customer service and its availability.

Growth of loyalty programs

The research studies show that the loyalty programs are important to retain the customer with the business.  The loyalty programs are offered in different types and natures. Different types of incentives and offerings are provided in that realm. The research shows that the 60% of the companies are using loyalty programs to attract the customers. These programs are quite important to retain the customers in the business. The customers are price sensitive and they are looking for the superior product specification and features. Thus, the loyalty programs are necessary for the organizations and the clients (Rajagopal, 2010).

Different hotels, clubs and other organizations exclusively provide loyalty programs that are based on the customer’s liking for the specifications and features. Therefore, it is important to note that such kind of initiatives must be taken in the realm of the customer relationship management. The loyalty programs are very popular in traveling industry. The frequent flyer programs are one of such strategy. The positive impact on the customers is to fly with the same Airline again and again. The company provides loyalty points which are important to attract the customers and stay in transactional relationships. The boutique hotels comprise 4% of the markets that are in the United States. The percentage of the customer in the market represents a substantial number of share in the market.

Customer satisfaction and investment

Customer satisfaction and Loyalty are interrelated and are often discussed and determined by the level of the prevailing strength of the relationship. Moreover, the role of the episodes in the relations throughout a customer’s and his/her life cycle are important that affect in that regard.  Therefore, it is important to be noted that the companies can no longer only perceive and think about the ways to retain the customers. Moreover, one must understand that they think of the approaches that are continuously necessary to build the strong relationships in the process. If the lack of loyalty exists, it is sure that the service is longer being reactive to respond (Tarasi, Bolton, Gustafsson, & Walker, 2013).

The before according to Eloqua’s Kardon, says he is anticipating the emergence of a new paradigm. This paradigm depicts that the role of the customer in the level of success is based upon the consideration of the customer and manager relationship. The employees are the internal stakeholders and it is important that are so loyal to the company to focus on the product and services. Therefore, bonuses and salaries to customer retention are also seeing more and more viable in that regard. The employees will work with devotion and hard work. Thus, it is quite important to know that the role of the internal stakeholders is important in that regard (D’Antonio, 2010).

Influence of CRM on Customer Satisfaction & Loyalty

CRM has significant effect on the loyalty and satisfaction of the customers. CRM always focuses on the long-term orientation for the customers. The longer will be the relationship, the more will be the inward flow of the revenues. Thus, the financial condition of the company depends on the loyal customers. The loyal customers are also intact with the company and purchase the products and the services frequently (Sokolowski, 2013).

The customer relationship management always handles the customers with care. The management is always aware of the customer demand and its liking and disliking. They evaluate the specifications and features that are prioritized by the consumers. Thus, they respond to such prioritization and make the products and services viable to the customers. Therefore, Affective customer relationship management is an important component in the management of the customers for the sake of the business financial viability (Rai & Srivastava, 2013).

The management is able to take decisions proactively. Today’s era is fast and dynamic and business competition is tough. Therefore, customer relationship management plays crucial role in order to attract, retain and facilitate customers. The business management is aware of the customer’s preferences and specifications. Therefore, the management is in a position to produce the products and services according to the customer’s preferences.

Targeting profitable customers

The customer relationship management enables the management to keep a record of the key customers in the business. This provides an important source of information that is essential in order to provide special privileges to the key customers. For instance, the cellular companies keep an eye on the key customers in terms of the data usage and the volume limit. This implies that such kind of customers is loyal and special to the company. Thus, the management provides special programs and offers in terms of the incentives to the customers (CRM Switch, 2013).

The key customer is the backbone of the business. It is not a wise to lose such customers that are in long-term relationship with the company. They provide a constant source of revenues and always profit the company. However, it should be noted that always relying upon the long term customer is not a wise decision. The management must effort to have equal focus on all types of the customers. Therefore, the focus on the key and ordinary customer is important to be profitable in that regard.  Moreover, following implementation plan is important for customer relationship management for customer satisfaction and loyalty (Morse, 2015):

1. The customer relationship management always effectively responds to the customer queries and investigations. For instance, they focus on the inquiries that are inquired by the customer regarding new products, specifications, and features as well as new offering and programs. The CRM respond to customer inquiries and make the satisfied with the help of the provision of the important information in that regard.
2. The personalization of the customer services is also an integral part of the CRM. The personalized services enable the company to provide deliverables with customization and according to the needs of the customers. The after sale services and customer support is also included in that package.
3. Customer needs and requirements must be fulfilled. Major emphasis is needed to be given to the customer themselves instead of the products and services. This is important because the organizations sometimes give emphasis on the products and services itself; however, fundamentally these are the customer who utilizes such products and services. Therefore, tailoring of the products according to the needs and wants of the customer is an important consideration in that regard.
4. Customization of marketing and its related activities are important in order to make the customer loyal. The customization of the marketing activities means that the marketing is done according to the specification and features that are liked by the customers. When customers will see that the products and services are the representation of the marketing they see in both the social and mainstream channels, they will be more likely to purchase those products and service. Thus, this is an important factor to be understood.
5. Multichannel integration means that all online and brick and mortar Channels must be integrated with each other. The information regarding the customers and the transactional data must be shared on all channels. If the information is missing in one or multiple platforms, the business processes might be affected adversely. Thus, the integration of the e-commerce and other channels in the company is necessary.
6. The efficiency of the time required to contact the customers is important. The customer must be contacted as early as possible and delay in contact is needed to be avoided. The time efficiency is thus important in all of the aspects. Time is an important factor in business. Therefore, it is important to note that the intimate responding to the customer are quite important in all of its aspects in CRM.
7. Customer empowerment means that the customers are well aware of the products and services. In that realm, the employees of the company are important to make the customers fully aware of the product’s specifications and features that are required in order to make purchasing decisions. Thus, the customer must be empowered with complete product knowledge along with its specifications and features.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that CRM, customer loyalty, and customer satisfaction has come up a long way since the time of its inception. The major benefits of the customer relationship management are improved products and services. Te role of the feedback process is important to find out what sort of product and service features are needed by the customers. The management of the company is in a position to figure out such specification and respond accordingly. Thus, it is important the real benefit of the customer relationship management must be provided to the end users.When customers provide feedback regarding the products and services, the customer relationship management responds to such feedback and develops the goods and services accordingly. Thus, it is quite important that effective customer relationship management must be implemented. The loopholes in the practices could be toxic for the effective evaluation and implementation of the customer loyalty and its practices.The stiff completion is also a major force behind the acceleration of the customer relationship management. The rivalry among the competitors to gain market share force the organizations to engage in positive CRM.

References

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CRM Switch. (2013, September 12). A Brief History of Customer Relationship Management. Retrieved from CRM Switch: https://www.crmswitch.com/crm-industry/crm-industry-history/

D’Antonio, M. (2010, August 30). The Evolution of Customer Loyalty. Retrieved from 1to1 Media: http://www.1to1media.com/customer-loyalty/evolution-customer-loyalty

Das, K. (2008). CRM Best Practices: A Case Study of a European Bank. Metamorphosis: A Journal of Management Research, 7(2), 202-209.

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Ebert, T. (2010). Trust as the Key to Loyalty in Business-to-Consumer Exchanges: Trust Building Measures in the Banking Industry. Springer Science & Business Media.

Foxall, G. R. (2014). Consumer Behaviour (RLE Consumer Behaviour): A Practical Guide. Routledge.

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Gurski, D. (2014). Customer Experiences affect Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation of the Starbucks Experience using Structural Equation Modeling. Anchor Academic Publishing.

Khaligh, Miremadi, & Aminilari. (2012). The Impact of eCRM on Loyalty and Retention of Customers in Iranian Telecommunication Sector. International Journal of Business Management, 7(2), 150-162.

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Long, C. S., Khalafinezhad, R., Ismail, W. K., & Rasid, S. Z. (2013). Impact of CRM Factors on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty. Asian Social Science, 9(10), 1911-2025. Retrieved October 15, 2016

Morse, D. (2015). Powered by Customers: Relationship Is Key to Surviving 100 Years in Business. Journal of Creating Value, 1(1), 101-107.

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Poynter, R. (2013, November 6). The rise of customer satisfaction research. Retrieved from VisionCritical: https://www.visioncritical.com/rise-customer-satisfaction-research/

Quester, P. G., Pettigrew, S., Kopanidis, F., Hill, S. R., & Hawkins, D. I. (2013). Consumer Behaviour: Implications for Marketing Strategy. McGraw-Hill Education.

Rai, A. K., & Srivastava, M. (2013). Inter‐Scale Assessment & Comparison of Customer Loyalty in Banking Industry: An Empirical Study. Metamorphosis: A Journal of Management Research, 12(2), 67-85.

Rajagopal. (2010). Consumer Behavior: Global Shifts and Local Effects. Nova Science Publishers.

Rassega, Troisi, Torre, Cucino, Santoro, & Prudente. (2015). Social Networks and the Buying Behavior of the Consumer. Journal of Global Economics, 3(4), 2375-4389.

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Tarasi, C. O., Bolton, R. N., Gustafsson, A., & Walker, B. A. (2013). Relationship Characteristics and Cash Flow Variability: Implications for Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Customer Portfolio Management. Journal of Service Research, 16(2), 121-137.

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## the herfindahl index for a pure monopolist is

Multiple Choice: Each of the following questions or incomplete statements is followed by a series of suggested answers or completions.  Select the one best response for each question. (1 point each) [This exam has a maximum possible value of 100 points. 35 of these points come from the multiple choice questions, 12 of these points come from identification questions, and 53 of these points come from the essay questions.]

1. If all excess capacity in a monopolistically competitive industry was eliminated,

A. the industry would become more competitive.

B. there would be a greater diversity (variety) of products available. C. more firms would be necessary to meet the market’s demand for the industry’s product.

D. fewer firms would be necessary to meet the market’s demand for the industry’s product.

2. A monopoly is most likely to emerge and continue to monopolize its market when      A. firms have U-shaped average total cost curves.      B. income elasticity of demand for its product is high.      C. fixed capital costs are small relative to total costs.      D. economies of scale are large relative to market demand.

3. Consumers who clip and redeem discount coupons:

A. cause total revenue to decrease for firms that issue coupons for their products.

B. exhibit a unitary price elasticity of demand since all consumers have the ability to use

coupons.

C. exhibit the same price elasticity of demand for a given product as consumers who do not

clip and redeem coupons. D. exhibit a more elastic demand for a given product than consumers who do not clip and

redeem coupons. E.  exhibit a more inelastic demand for a given product than consumers who do not clip and

redeem coupons.

4. Critics of social regulation argue that it

A. increases the price level.

B. dampens incentives to invest and innovate.

C. is a relatively greater burden for small firms than for large firms.

D. has all of the above effects.

5. If the CEO of United Airlines plays golf with the CEO of American Airlines and then both

companies increase the prices of their airline tickets by 5% this is most likely a case of

A. a gentleman’s agreement. B. multiproduct pricing. C. cost-plus pricing. D. price leadership.

6. Skilled workers generally earn more than unskilled workers do because

A. the productivity of skilled labor is higher than that of unskilled labor.

B. the supply of skilled labor is greater than the supply of unskilled labor. C. the marginal cost of unskilled labor is higher than that of skilled labor.

D. the demand for unskilled labor is greater than the demand for skilled labor. E. the demand for unskilled labor is more elastic than the demand for skilled labor.

7. The smaller the number of firms in a monopolistically competitive industry and the greater the differentiation degree of product,

A. the greater the divergence between the demand and the marginal revenue curves for the firms in

the industry.

B. the larger will be the monopolistically competitive firm’s fixed costs.

C. the more inelastic is the monopolistically competitive firm’s demand curve.

D. the more elastic is the monopolistically competitive firm’s demand curve.

8. An example of an inclusive type labor organization / association is

A. the United Automobile Workers

B. the Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (electricians)

C. the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) D. both A and B.

E. All of the above.

9. The “wastefulness” of excess capacity is not considered totally bad by economists because

A. advertisers make more income that is then circulated to the rest of the economy via the

multiplier.

B. the monopolistically competitive firm has a negatively sloped demand curve.

C. the monopolistically competitive firm allocates resources more efficiently than firms in other

market structures.

D. excess capacity may allow for a greater diversity of products than would otherwise be available.

10.  Which of the following will create a demand for U.S. dollars in the foreign exchange market?

A. travel abroad by U.S. citizens

B. the desire of foreigners to buy U.S. stocks

C. the desire of U.S. citizens to purchase foreign stocks

D. U.S. imports

11. Firms are most likely to engage in price discrimination when

A. the product being sold can easily be resold.

B. they operate in a purely competitive industry. C. they operate in an industry which experiences excess capacity. D. all consumers in the market have the same price elasticity of demand. E. All of the above

12. The U.S. garment (clothing) workers’ union

A. favors free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers are substitutes.

B. opposes free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers are substitutes.

C. favors free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers complement each

other.

D. opposes free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers complement

each other.

13. Antitrust laws ________ whereas social regulations ________

A. are designed to promote competition; only improve competition in a market.

B. apply to specific firms and specific industries; apply to all firms and all industries.

C. lead to less competition in a market;. improve the quality of and the manner in which products

and services are produced.

D. Both B and C are correct.

E. All of the above are correct.

14. Suppose Ford Motor Company purchased a small steel company. This acquisition would be

considered

A. a horizontal combination/merger/acquisition.

B. a vertical combination/merger/acquisition.

C. a conglomerate combination/merger/acquisition.

D. a trust corporation.

E. illegal under current U.S. anti-trust laws.

15. Price discrimination refers to

A. selling a given product for different prices at two different points in time. B. a firm charging any price which is not equal to minimum average total cost.

C. the selling of a given product at different prices that reflect demand, not cost,

differences.

D. the difference between the price a purely competitive seller and a purely monopolistic

seller would charge.

16. Exclusive unions attempt to increase wages by

A. restricting the supply of labor. B. decreasing the demand for the product being produced. C. organizing all workers in the industry and bargaining for a “fair” wage. D. All of the above are techniques used by exclusive unions.

17. If the last worker hired by a firm has a marginal resource (labor) cost of $16 and a marginal revenue product of$12, the firm

A. is maximizing its profits.

B. can increase its profits by hiring additional workers.

C. can increase its profits by hiring fewer workers.

D. faces a perfectly elastic demand for its product.

18. Monopsonistic employers exist in many less developed countries. Other things equal, these monopsonistic employers will pay a

A. lower wage and employ fewer workers than will a purely competitive market.

B. higher wage and employ fewer workers than will a purely competitive market.

C. lower wage but employ a larger number of workers than will a purely competitive market. D. higher wage and employ a larger number of workers than will a purely competitive market.

E. lower wage but employ the same number of workers as will a purely competitive market.

19. Collusion among oligopolistic producers would be easiest to achieve in which of the following cases?

A. A rather large number of firms producing a standardized product. B. A rather large number of firms producing a differentiated product. C. A very small number of firms producing a standardized product.

D. A very small number of firms producing a differentiated product.

20. If a monopolist engages in price discrimination, it will  A. realize a smaller profit because it sells more output at a lower price. B. charge a higher price to individuals who have an inelastic demand and a lower price to individuals who have an elastic demand and thus produce more output and earn a greater

economic profit. C.  charge a higher price to individuals who have an inelastic demand and a lower price to individuals who have an elastic demand and thus produce less output and earn a greater economic profit. D. charge a higher price to individuals who have an elastic demand and a lower price to

individuals who have an inelastic demand and thus produce less output and earn a smaller

economic profit. E. charge a higher price to individuals who have an elastic demand and a lower price to

individuals who have an inelastic demand and thus produce less output and earn a greater economic profit.

21. The kinked-demand curve that exists in oligopoly helps to explain price rigidity (inflexibility) in oligopoly because

A. the model assumes firms are engaging in some form of collusion.

B. any independent price change results in increased revenue to the independently operating

oligopolist. C. demand is elastic above and inelastic below the current market price, thus any

independent price change results in decreased revenue to the independently operating

oligopolist. D. demand is inelastic above and elastic below the current market price, thus any

independent price change results in decreased revenue to the independently operating

oligopolist.

E. there is a gap in the marginal cost curve within which changes in marginal revenue will not

affect output or price.

22. Which of the following statements is correct?  A. The pure monopolist will maximize profit by producing at that point on the demand curve

where elasticity is zero. B.  Purely monopolistic sellers earn only normal profits in the long run.

C. The pure monopolist maximizes profits by producing that output at which the differential

between price and average cost is the greatest. D. In seeking the profit-maximizing output the pure monopolist underallocates resources to its

production. E. The pure monopolist maximizes profits by producing that output at which the differential

between marginal revenue and average marginal cost is the greatest.

23. The fair-return price method of regulating monopolies

A. causes monopolists to produce surplus amounts of their products. B. often causes the monopoly to encounter losses.

C. gives the monopolist no incentive to control costs.

D. often requires the government to subsidize the regulated monopoly.

E. causes an overallocation of resources to the monopolist’s product.

24.  A non-discriminating pure monopolist’s demand curve

A. is perfectly elastic.

B. is perfectly inelastic. C. lies below its marginal revenue curve. D. lies above its marginal revenue curve. E. coincides with its marginal revenue curve.

25. If a pure monopolist is operating at a price-quantity combination on the inelastic segment of its demand curve, in order to increase and maximize profits, it should  A. charge a lower price. B. charge a higher price. C. increase both price and quantity sold. D. retain its current price-quantity combination.

26. Cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because

A. they are illegal everywhere in the world. B. entry barriers are insignificant in oligopolistic industries. C. individual members may find it profitable to “cheat” on the cartel. D. it is profitable for the industry to charge a lower price and produce more output.

E. All of the above.

27. A firm will vertically integrate, if it is primarily trying to accomplish which of the following?

A. to expand and diversify asset holdings

B. to exercise greater market control

C. to increase control over suppliers of its inputs.

D. to increase competition among sellers

28. Assume six firms comprising an industry have market shares of 30%, 30%, 10%, 10%, 10%, and 10% percent. The Herfindahl Index for this industry is A. 80, representing extremely workable competition.

B. 100, representing the idle workable competition.

C. 1,100, representing very workable competition.

D. 2,000, representing less than workable competition.

E. 2,200, representing less than workable competition.

29. If a government regulatory commission wants to establish a socially optimal price for a natural monopoly, it should select a price  A. at which marginal revenue is zero.

B.  at which the marginal cost curve intersects the demand curve. C. at which the average total cost curve intersects the demand curve. D. which corresponds with the equality of marginal cost and marginal revenue.

30. Suppose there are only four manufacturers/sellers of pizza in Bremerville. The largest producer establishes the price for his pizza and the other three firms then set their pizza prices in the same range. This best describes

A. a cartel

C. multiproduct pricing.

D. a gentleman’s agreement.

31. Many oil industry analysts argue that when OPEC succeeds in increasing the price of crude oil this

may eventually harm OPEC and also drive the price of oil to lower levels. The analysts believe

this because

A. the demand for oil will increase since the supply of oil has increased.

B. the current high economic profits will draw other producers into the oil industry.

C. some OPEC members may be encouraged to cheat on the cartel’s (OPEC’s) low production

agreement.

D. both B and C are reasonable answers.

E. All of the above are reasonable answers

32. The table below gives the number of tons of apples and bananas that can be produced in

Country X and Country Y by employing the same amount of productive resources.

 Apples Bananas Apples Bananas Country X 10 0 Country Y 9 0 0 5 0 3

The theory of comparative advantage, which is based on opportunity cost, implies that, under

these conditions, Country X would find it advantageous to

A. export apples and import bananas.

B. export bananas and import apples.

C. export both apples and bananas and import nothing.

D. import both apples and bananas and export nothing.

33. The kinked demand curve of the oligopolist is based on the assumption that

A. independently operating competitors will follow a price decrease but ignore a price increase.

B. independently operating competitors will match both price decreases and increases.

C. independently operating competitors will follow a price increase but ignore a price decrease.

D. there is no product differentiation in the oligopolistic industry.

E. other firms will determine their pricing and output policies in collusion with the given firm.

34. Social regulations

A. increase the prices of goods and services.

B. dampen firms’ incentives to invest and innovate.

C. are a relatively greater burden for small firms than for large firms.

D. have all of the above effects.

35. Assume that the short-run equilibrium for a monopolistically competitive firm yields these results: P = $28.47; ATC =$22.13; and MR = MC = $17.47. Which of the following would be true? A. Existing firms will be encouraged to leave this industry. B. This firm could increase profits by decreasing output. C. This firm could increase profits by increasing output. D. Additional firms would be attracted into this industry. E. Per unit loss is$6.34.

(Identification and Essay Question 1 are on the following page)

Identification: In a sentence or two, briefly define or otherwise demonstrate your knowledge of the following concepts. (3 points each)

1. Monopolistic Competition

2. Game Theory

3. Citizen Utility Board

4. Consumer Surplus

ESSAYS: Answer the following 3 questions. Answer all parts to each question, and answer each question as fully and carefully as you can. Use complete sentences and a logical economic thought process in each of your answers. These questions are not so much essay questions as they are a series of short answer questions. Thus, you may feel more comfortable answering each part separately rather than trying to create one single essay answer. (Question 1 = 17 points; question 2 = 18 points; question 3 = 18 points)

1. Many people believe that if monopolies are not regulated, they will charge the highest

price they possibly can. Thus, the thought continues, monopolies must be totally

regulated by the government.

· Is the goal of a purely monopolistic firm to charge the highest price? If so why? If not what is the goal of the purely monopolistic firm and how does it achieve this goal? (3 points)

· How is it possible for the pure monopolist to earn economic profits in the long run? Why do most firms in the monopolistically competitive market structure earn only normal profits or minimal economic profit in the long run? Is it possible for some firms in the monopolistically competitive market structure to earn some economic profit in the long run? Why or why not?

(4 points)

· Of the two methods of government regulation, the socially optimum pricing method provides the more ideal societal results. What ideal results does this pricing method provide and how does it achieve this goal? Why doesn’t government frequently use this method of price regulation (i.e., what are the disadvantages of this pricing method)? (5 points)

· What pricing method does government usually employ when regulating pure monopolies? What results/improvement is the government trying to achieve under this approach?  What are the advantages of this approach compared to the socially optimum price? What are the disadvantages of this approach compared to the socially optimum price? (5 points)

· Explain all of your answers fully and in terms of economics.

(Essay Questions 2 and 3 are on the following page)

2.  There are more U.S. industries that operate in the monopolistically competitive market structure than

there are industries operating in either the pure competitive or pure monopoly.

· “Purely competitive and purely monopolistic industries will tend to be one-price industries. Monopolistic competition, however, is a multiprice industry.” Why are purely competitive industries and purely monopolistic industries one price industries and why are monopolistically competitive industries multiprice industries? Explain Fully. (5 points)

· Firms in oligopolistic industries also tend to sell their product (service) at the same price or in price clusters and tend to alter price infrequently. Using economic concepts, explain fully the reasons why oligopolistic firms tend to charge very similar prices and why they tend to change these prices fairly infrequently. (4 points)

· When oligopolistic firms do change price, all the firms in the industry tend to change their prices at the same time, or within days of one another. What types of agreements might allow oligopolistic firms to act in this collusive manner? Briefly explain each of these types of collusion. (3 points)

· Oligopolistic firms often develop via mergers or acquisitions. What are the three types of mergers or acquisitions that can occur? What is the difference between each of these types of mergers / acquisitions and what objective is (objectives are) firms trying to accomplish with each type of merger? (3 points)

· Which mergers are most often not allowed by the U.S. Justice Department? What measures does the Justice Department use in order to determine whether to allow a merger or not? (3 points)

· Explain all of your answers fully and in terms of economics.

3. Labor unions attempt to increase wages, maintain employment of members, and improve working conditions.

· What are the two basic types of labor unions, and what is the primary method (are the primary methods) used by each in its attempts to increase wages and employment?  What are the results, advantages, and disadvantages of each approach? (5 points)

· What is a monopsonistic labor market? Are the wage and employment results in a monopsonistic labor market different than the wage and employment results in a competitive labor market? Why and how do the results differ? (5 points)

· The percentage of the U.S. labor force that belongs to labor unions has been declining for several decades? What are some of the reasons that labor unions are less prevalent today than they were forty years ago? Explain each briefly. (4 points)

· Labor unions frequently oppose free international trade and support trade restrictions. Why? What are the two major forms of international trade restriction, how do they differ from each other, and why do labor unions support these trade restrictions? (4 points)

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## what is the value of x given that pq bc

What is the value of x, given PQ || BC? Triangle: A, B, C with bisector PQ AP = 8 PB = x AQ = 12 QC = 18
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Let AB and CD be two lines intersecting at point O. Let OP be the bisector of angle AOC, OT the bisector of angle POB, and OR the bisector of angle TOD. If angle POR = 25 degrees, find angle AOC and angle AOD.

asked by Freaky on November 28, 2010
Math
Let AB and CD be two lines intersecting at point O. Let OP be the bisector of angle AOC, OT the bisector of angle POB, and OR the bisector of angle TOD. If angle POR = 25 degrees, find angle AOC and angle AOD.

asked by Suzy on November 28, 2010
geometry
When is the perpendicular bisector of a side of a regular n-gon also an angle bisector?

asked by Bre on December 8, 2011
In triangle ABC, we have

asked by Gem on April 2, 2015

Math
The sides of a triangle are 15, 20 and 28. How long are the segments into which the bisector of the largest angle separates the opposite side

asked by Gems on October 24, 2016
math
In triangle ABC, BC = 20 * sqrt(3) and angle C = 30 degrees. Let the perpendicular bisector of BC intersect BC and AC at D and E, respectively. Find the length of DE.

asked by InfaRed on November 16, 2016
Math
The points P(-2,2) , Q(4,4) and R(5,2) are vertices of a Triangle. The perpendicular bisector of PQ and the line through P parallel to QR intersect at S. Find the coordinates of S.

asked by Felix on September 13, 2017
geometry PLZ HELP!!!!
how do write and graph a coordinate proof? Isoceles triangle ABC with AB congruent to BC perpendicular bisector BD from B to AC

asked by synester on November 23, 2009
math
In triangle $ABC$, $BC = 20 \sqrt{3}$ and $\angle C = 30^\circ$. Let the perpendicular bisector of $BC$ intersect $BC$ and $AC$ at $D$ and $E$, respectively. Find the length of $DE$.

asked by InfaRed on November 10, 2016
Geometry
In triangle ABC, BC = 20sqrt3 and angle C = 30 degrees. Let the perpendicular bisector of BC intersect BC and AC at D and E respectively. Find the length of E.

asked by JulieJones on June 5, 2015
math
The legs of a right triangle are 3 and 4 units long. Find the lengths, to the nearest tenth, of the segments into which the bisector of the right angle divides the hypotenuse. (Hint: Draw a picture of the triangle, label one segment of the hypotenuse “x,”

asked by molly on June 8, 2012
Calculus
Show by vector calculation that the bisector of the angle between the two equal sides of an isosceles triangle bisects the third side and is perpendicular to it.

asked by Anonymous on May 13, 2012
MATHS-geometry
how do you draw an obtuse angle triangle, construct the perpendicular bisector of each side Draw a triangle with one angle greater then 90 degrees. Find the midpoint of each side. Then draw a perpendicular to each side at each midpoint. The three lines may

asked by NIcole on June 3, 2007
MAth
The sides of a triangle are 15cm, 20cm, and 28cm. How long are the segments into which the bisector of the largest angle separates the opposite side?

asked by Raquel on January 27, 2018

geometry
the legs of a right angled triangle are 5 cm and 12cm long. find the lengths, to the tenth, of the segment into which the bisector of the right angle divides the hypotenuse.

asked by verenice on February 11, 2011
Geometry
The legs of a right triangle are 5cm and 12 cm long. Find the lengths, to the nearest tenth, of the segments into which the bisector of the right angle divides the hypotenuse.

asked by Billy on April 5, 2011
Geometry
Which of the following must be true about a perpendicular bisector and the segment it bisects? a. the perpendicular bisector and the segment bisect each other b. the angle of intersection depends on the length of the line segment c. the perpendicular

asked by Anonymous on August 16, 2018
Point N is on hypotenuse BC of triangle ABC such than angle CAN is 45 degrees. If AC=8 and AB=6, find AN. I did Pythagorean Theorem for triangle ABC, and hypotenuse BC will be 10. I don’t know how to continue from there. Oh, I’m also unsure about this, but

asked by My Name Is Bob on April 9, 2012
math
ABC is a right angled triangle . AD is bisector of angle BAC. Angle DAC = 20 degree . X = CD.

asked by Shalu on January 21, 2017
Geometry
Line CD is the perpendicular bisector of line AB. E and F are midpoints. If AB=6 and CZ=4, find the triangle ABC. Z is the centroid.

asked by caleb on February 3, 2015
Math (Geometry)
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB?

asked by Dan on May 15, 2013
heeelp MATH
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A.M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21,what is CM/MB?

asked by Anubhav on May 16, 2013
triangles (math)
BO and CO are respectively the bisector of angle b and angle c triangle ABC.AO produced meets BC at P, then find AB/AC.

asked by help(in much need)!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! on September 21, 2013
Math (Geometry)
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB?

asked by Dan on May 16, 2013

maths
ABC is a triangle with ∠BAC=60∘,AB=5 and AC=25. D is a point on the internal angle bisector of ∠BAC such that BD=DC. What is AD^2?

asked by Anonymous on March 20, 2013
Geometry
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ÚBAC. If CN/NB =21 , what is CM/MB ?

asked by Andrew on May 16, 2013
MATHS
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB?

asked by HELP!! on May 17, 2013
math
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB?

asked by Gandu man on May 18, 2013
math
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CNNB=21, what is CMMB?

asked by Anonymous on May 16, 2013
Math
Triangle ABC has a right angle at C. The bisector of an exterior angle at B intersects line AC at D. If AB=13 and BC=5, what is the length of segment BD?

asked by Gems on October 24, 2016
Geometry
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of A. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB ?

asked by AA on May 13, 2013
Math
If one of the angles of a triangle is 110 degree then the angle between the bisector of the other two angles is what ?

asked by Pranav on December 21, 2016
Geometry
BC is a triangle with ∠BAC=60∘,AB=5 and AC=25. D is a point on the internal angle bisector of ∠BAC such that BD=DC. What is AD^2? It is not stated that D lies on BC. This assumption is not necessarily true.

asked by Stranger on March 18, 2013
SAT math
Can someone please double check my true and false answers! 1. All cylinders are prisms: TRUE 2. The angle opposite a side length of 6 cm in a triangle is larger than an angle opposite a side length of 7 cm in the same triangle: FALSE 3. The perpendicular

asked by mysterychicken on June 2, 2013

trig
ABC is rightangled triangle. AD is the bisector of angle BAC. Angle DAC=15 degrees. X=CD. Find X. I know the answer is 7.1 but do not know how to do the actual sum. Can you please help.

asked by jane on May 5, 2011
trig
ABC is rightangled triangle. AD is the bisector of angle BAC. Angle DAC=15 degrees. X=CD. Find X. I know the answer is 7.1 but do not know how to do the actual sum. Can you please help AB = 23 CM

asked by jane on May 5, 2011
Math
I don’t know if finding the perpendicular bisector would help The x-axis, the y-axis, and the line through the point (1, 3) having slope -3 form a triangle, find the area.

asked by Blissy on December 20, 2013
MMATH08
IN PARALLELOGRAM ABCD, BISECTOR OF ANGLE A BISECTS BC,WILL BISECTOR OF ANGLE B BISECT AD,EXPLAIN HOW.

asked by DIPI on May 2, 2017
Math
Can someone please check this? given: line AE and line BD bisect each other. prove: triangle ACB is congruent to triangle ECD Statements 1. Line AE and line BD bisect each other 2. Line AC is congruent to line EC, line DC is congruent to line BC 3. Angle

asked by Ryan on October 8, 2018
Vectors
In triangle OAB, OA = 3i + 4k and OB = i + 2j – 2k. Find OP, where P is the point where the bisector of Angle AOB intersects AB. Answer is 7i/4 + 5j/4 + k/4 Don’t use the matrix method as I haven’t learnt it yet and please show working. Thx a lot.

asked by C on January 11, 2017
math pls
The lengths of segments PQ and PR are 8 inches and 5 inches, respectively, and they make a 60-degree angle at P. (d) Find the sizes of the other two angles of triangle PQR. (e) Find the length of the median drawn to side PQ. (f) Find the length of the

asked by Maryann on April 21, 2010
geometry/math pls help
The lengths of segments PQ and PR are 8 inches and 5 inches, respectively, and they make a 60-degree angle at P. (1) Find the sizes of the other two angles of triangle PQR. (2) Find the length of the median drawn to side PQ. (3) Find the length of the

asked by Maryann on April 21, 2010
Math
How is constructing a perpendicular bisector similar to constructing an angle bisector’s? How is it different? Help I’m sick with this

asked by Marco on August 27, 2018
maths
Trigonometry query. ABC is a rightangled triangle. AD is the bisector of angle BAC. Angle DAC = 15 degrees. X = CD. find X. I know the answer is 7.1 but cannot work out the theory. Could you please help? Thankyou.

asked by jane on May 5, 2011

MAth
ina given parallelogram ABCD THE ANGLE BISECTOR OF ANGLE A BISECTS BC .WILL ANGLE BISECTOR OF B ALSO BISECT AD?GIVE REASON.

asked by DEEPI on May 1, 2017
math
In triangle ABC, angle A = 80 degrees. The bisector of angle B and angel C intersect at point P. Angle BPC = what?

asked by Mika on September 28, 2011
fundamentals of math
A point lies on the of a line segment if and only if the point is equidistant from the endpoints of the segment. angle bisector trisector altitude perpendicular bisector

asked by Anonymous on August 6, 2016
math plz check ;-; sorry
A triangle has sides of lengths 5 cm, 5 cm, and square root 47cm. Which of the following statements is true? A. The triangle is an obtuse triangle because (√47)^2>5^2+5^2 B. The triangle is an acute triangle because 5^2

asked by leo on May 31, 2016
math plz check ;-;
A triangle has sides of lengths 5 cm, 5 cm, and square root 47cm. Which of the following statements is true? A. The triangle is an obtuse triangle because (√47)^2>5^2+5^2 B. The triangle is an acute triangle because 5^2

asked by leo on May 31, 2016

Categories

## minneapolis exurb crossword

THE

2

INNOVATORS

3

ALSO BY WALTER ISAACSON

Steve Jobs American Sketches

Einstein: His Life and Universe A Benjamin Franklin Reader

Benjamin Franklin: An American Life Kissinger: A Biography

The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made (with Evan Thomas) Pro and Con

4

HOW A GROUP OF HACKERS, GENIUSES, AND GEEKS CREATED THE DIGITAL

REVOLUTION

5

6

First published in Great Britain by Simon & Schuster UK Ltd, 2014 A CBS COMPANY

This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. No reproduction without permission.

The right of Walter Isaacson to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

Simon & Schuster UK Ltd 1st Floor

222 Gray’s Inn Road London WC1X 8HB

www.simonandschuster.co.uk

Simon & Schuster Australia, Sydney Simon & Schuster India, New Delhi

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Excerpts from “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace” from The Pill Versus the Springhill Mine Disaster by Richard Brautigan. Copyright © 1968 by Richard Brautigan. Reproduced by permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Photo research and editing by Laura Wyss, Wyssphoto, Inc., with the assistance of Elizabeth Seramur, Amy Hikida, and Emily Vinson, and by Jonathan Cox.

Interior design by Ruth Lee-Mui

ISBN: 978-1-47113-879-9 Ebook: 978-1-47113-881-2

The author and publishers have made all reasonable efforts to contact copyright-holders for permission, and apologise for any omissions or errors in the form of credits given. Corrections may be made to future printings.

Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY

CONTENTS

Illustrated Timeline Introduction

CHAPTER 1

Ada, Countess of Lovelace CHAPTER 2

The Computer CHAPTER 3

Programming CHAPTER 4

The Transistor CHAPTER 5

The Microchip CHAPTER 6

Video Games CHAPTER 7

The Internet CHAPTER 8

The Personal Computer CHAPTER 9

Software CHAPTER 10

Online CHAPTER 11

The Web CHAPTER 12

Acknowledgments Notes

Photo Credits

8

Index

9

THE

10

INNOVATORS

11

1800

1843

Ada, Countess of Lovelace, publishes “Notes” on Babbage’s Analytical Engine.

1847

George Boole creates a system using algebra for logical reasoning.

1890

The census is tabulated with Herman Hollerith’s punch-card machines.

12

1931

Vannevar Bush devises the Differential Analyzer, an analog electromechanical computer.

1935

Tommy Flowers pioneers use of vacuum tubes as on-off switches in circuits.

1937

13

Alan Turing publishes “On Computable Numbers,” describing a universal computer.

Claude Shannon describes how circuits of switches can perform tasks of Boolean algebra.

Bell Labs’ George Stibitz proposes a calculator using an electric circuit.

14

Howard Aiken proposes construction of large digital computer and discovers parts of Babbage’s Difference Engine at Harvard.

John Vincent Atanasoff puts together concepts for an electronic computer during a long December night’s drive.

1938

William Hewlett and David Packard form company in Palo Alto garage.

1939

Atanasoff finishes model of electronic computer with mechanical storage drums.

15

Turing arrives at Bletchley Park to work on breaking German codes.

1941

Konrad Zuse completes Z3, a fully functional electromechanical programmable digital computer.

16

John Mauchly visits Atanasoff in Iowa, sees computer demonstrated.

1952

1942

Atanasoff completes partly working computer with three hundred vacuum tubes, leaves for Navy.

1943

Colossus, a vacuum-tube computer to break German codes, is completed at Bletchley Park.

1944

17

Harvard Mark I goes into operation.

John von Neumann goes to Penn to work on ENIAC.

1945

Von Neumann writes “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC” describing a stored-program computer.

18

Six women programmers of ENIAC are sent to Aberdeen for training.

Vannevar Bush publishes “As We May Think,” describing personal computer.

Bush publishes “Science, the Endless Frontier,” proposing government funding of academic and industrial research.

ENIAC is fully operational.

1947

Transistor invented at Bell Labs.

1950

Turing publishes article describing a test for artificial intelligence.

19

1952

Grace Hopper develops first computer compiler.

Von Neumann completes modern computer at the Institute for Advanced Study.

UNIVAC predicts Eisenhower election victory.

1954

1954

Turing commits suicide.

20

Texas Instruments introduces silicon transistor and helps launch Regency radio.

1956

Shockley Semiconductor founded.

First artificial intelligence conference.

1957

21

Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, and others form Fairchild Semiconductor.

Russia launches Sputnik.

1958

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) announced.

22

Jack Kilby demonstrates integrated circuit, or microchip.

1959

Noyce and Fairchild colleagues independently invent microchip.

1960

J. C. R. Licklider publishes “Man-Computer Symbiosis.”

23

Paul Baran at RAND devises packet switching.

1961

President Kennedy proposes sending man to the moon.

1962

MIT hackers create Spacewar game.

Licklider becomes founding director of ARPA’s Information Processing Techniques Office.

Doug Engelbart publishes “Augmenting Human Intellect.”

1963

24

Licklider proposes an “Intergalactic Computer Network.”

Engelbart and Bill English invent the mouse.

1972

1964

Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters take bus trip across America.

1965

Ted Nelson publishes first article about “hypertext.”

25

Moore’s Law predicts microchips will double in power each year or so.

1966

Stewart Brand hosts Trips Festival with Ken Kesey.

26

Bob Taylor convinces ARPA chief Charles Herzfeld to fund ARPANET.

Donald Davies coins the term packet switching.

1967

ARPANET design discussions in Ann Arbor and Gatlinburg.

1968

Larry Roberts sends out request for bids to build the ARPANET’s IMPs.

27

Noyce and Moore form Intel, hire Andy Grove.

Brand publishes first Whole Earth Catalog.

28

Engelbart stages the Mother of All Demos with Brand’s help.

1969

First nodes of ARPANET installed.

1971

Don Hoefler begins column for Electronic News called “Silicon Valley USA.”

Demise party for Whole Earth Catalog.

Intel 4004 microprocessor unveiled.

29

Ray Tomlinson invents email.

1972

Nolan Bushnell creates Pong at Atari with Al Alcorn.

1973

1973

30

Alan Kay helps to create the Alto at Xerox PARC.

Ethernet developed by Bob Metcalfe at Xerox PARC.

Community Memory shared terminal set up at Leopold’s Records, Berkeley.

31

Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn complete TCP/IP protocols for the Internet.

1974

Intel 8080 comes out.

1975

Altair personal computer from MITS appears.

32

Paul Allen and Bill Gates write BASIC for Altair, form Microsoft.

First meeting of Homebrew Computer Club.

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak launch the Apple I.

1977

The Apple II is released.

33

1978

First Internet Bulletin Board System.

1979

Usenet newsgroups invented.

Jobs visits Xerox PARC.

1980

IBM commissions Microsoft to develop an operating system for PC.

1981

Hayes modem marketed to home users.

1983

34

Microsoft announces Windows.

Richard Stallman begins developing GNU, a free operating system.

2011

1984

35

Apple introduces Macintosh.

1985

Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant launch The WELL.

CVC launches Q-Link, which becomes AOL.

1991

36

Linus Torvalds releases first version of Linux kernel.

Tim Berners-Lee announces World Wide Web.

1993

Marc Andreessen announces Mosaic browser.

37

1994

Justin Hall launches Web log and directory.

HotWired and Time Inc.’s Pathfinder become first major magazine publishers on Web.

1995

Ward Cunningham’s Wiki Wiki Web goes online.

1997

38

IBM’s Deep Blue beats Garry Kasparov in chess.

1998

Larry Page and Sergey Brin launch Google.

1999

39

Ev Williams launches Blogger.

2001

Jimmy Wales, with Larry Sanger, launches Wikipedia.

2011

40

IBM’s computer Watson wins Jeopardy!

41

INTRODUCTION

HOW THIS BOOK CAME TO BE

The computer and the Internet are among the most important inventions of our era, but few people know who created them. They were not conjured up in a garret or garage by solo inventors suitable to be singled out on magazine covers or put into a pantheon with Edison, Bell, and Morse. Instead, most of the innovations of the digital age were done collaboratively. There were a lot of fascinating people involved, some ingenious and a few even geniuses. This is the story of these pioneers, hackers, inventors, and entrepreneurs—who they were, how their minds worked, and what made them so creative. It’s also a narrative of how they collaborated and why their ability to work as teams made them even more creative.

The tale of their teamwork is important because we don’t often focus on how central that skill is to innovation. There are thousands of books celebrating people we biographers portray, or mythologize, as lone inventors. I’ve produced a few myself. Search the phrase “the man who invented” on Amazon and you get 1,860 book results. But we have far fewer tales of collaborative creativity, which is actually more important in understanding how today’s technology revolution was fashioned. It can also be more interesting.

We talk so much about innovation these days that it has become a buzzword, drained of clear meaning. So in this book I set out to report on how innovation actually happens in the real world. How did the most imaginative innovators of our time turn disruptive ideas into realities? I focus on a dozen or so of the most significant breakthroughs of the digital age and the people who made them. What ingredients produced their creative leaps? What skills proved most useful? How did they lead and collaborate? Why did some succeed and others fail?

I also explore the social and cultural forces that provide the atmosphere for innovation. For the birth of the digital age, this included a research ecosystem that was nurtured by government spending and managed by a military-industrial-academic collaboration. Intersecting with that was a loose alliance of community organizers, communal-minded hippies, do-it-yourself hobbyists, and homebrew hackers, most of whom were suspicious of centralized authority.

Histories can be written with a different emphasis on any of these factors. An example is the invention of the Harvard/IBM Mark I, the first big electromechanical computer. One of its programmers, Grace Hopper, wrote a history that focused on its primary creator, Howard Aiken. IBM countered with a history that featured its teams of faceless engineers who contributed the incremental innovations, from counters to card feeders, that went into the machine.

Likewise, what emphasis should be put on great individuals versus on cultural currents has long been a matter of dispute; in the mid-nineteenth century, Thomas Carlyle declared that “the history of the world is but the biography of great men,” and Herbert Spencer responded with a theory that emphasized the role of societal forces. Academics and participants often view this balance differently. “As a professor, I tended to think of history as run by impersonal forces,” Henry Kissinger told reporters during one of his Middle East shuttle missions in the 1970s. “But when you see it in practice, you see the difference personalities make.”1 When it comes to digital-age innovation, as with Middle East peacemaking, a variety

42

of personal and cultural forces all come into play, and in this book I sought to weave them together.

The Internet was originally built to facilitate collaboration. By contrast, personal computers, especially those meant to be used at home, were devised as tools for individual creativity. For more than a decade, beginning in the early 1970s, the development of networks and that of home computers proceeded separately from one another. They finally began coming together in the late 1980s with the advent of modems, online services, and the Web. Just as combining the steam engine with ingenious machinery drove the Industrial Revolution, the combination of the computer and distributed networks led to a digital revolution that allowed anyone to create, disseminate, and access any information anywhere.

Historians of science are sometimes wary about calling periods of great change revolutions, because they prefer to view progress as evolutionary. “There was no such thing as the Scientific Revolution, and this is a book about it,” is the wry opening sentence of the Harvard professor Steven Shapin’s book on that period. One method that Shapin used to escape his half-joking contradiction is to note how the key players of the period “vigorously expressed the view” that they were part of a revolution. “Our sense of radical change afoot comes substantially from them.”2

Likewise, most of us today share a sense that the digital advances of the past half century are transforming, perhaps even revolutionizing the way we live. I can recall the excitement that each new breakthrough engendered. My father and uncles were electrical engineers, and like many of the characters in this book I grew up with a basement workshop that had circuit boards to be soldered, radios to be opened, tubes to be tested, and boxes of transistors and resistors to be sorted and deployed. As an electronics geek who loved Heathkits and ham radios (WA5JTP), I can remember when vacuum tubes gave way to transistors. At college I learned programming using punch cards and recall when the agony of batch processing was replaced by the ecstasy of hands-on interaction. In the 1980s I thrilled to the static and screech that modems made when they opened for you the weirdly magical realm of online services and bulletin boards, and in the early 1990s I helped to run a digital division at Time and Time Warner that launched new Web and broadband Internet services. As Wordsworth said of the enthusiasts who were present at the beginning of the French Revolution, “Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive.”

I began work on this book more than a decade ago. It grew out of my fascination with the digital-age advances I had witnessed and also from my biography of Benjamin Franklin, who was an innovator, inventor, publisher, postal service pioneer, and all-around information networker and entrepreneur. I wanted to step away from doing biographies, which tend to emphasize the role of singular individuals, and once again do a book like The Wise Men, which I had coauthored with a colleague about the creative teamwork of six friends who shaped America’s cold war policies. My initial plan was to focus on the teams that invented the Internet. But when I interviewed Bill Gates, he convinced me that the simultaneous emergence of the Internet and the personal computer made for a richer tale. I put this book on hold early in 2009, when I began working on a biography of Steve Jobs. But his story reinforced my interest in how the development of the Internet and computers intertwined, so as soon as I finished that book, I went back to work on this tale of digital-age innovators.

The protocols of the Internet were devised by peer collaboration, and the resulting system seemed to have embedded in its genetic code a propensity to facilitate such collaboration. The power to create and transmit information was fully distributed to each of the nodes, and any attempt to impose controls or a hierarchy could be routed around. Without falling into the teleological fallacy of ascribing intentions or a personality to technology, it’s fair to say that a

43

system of open networks connected to individually controlled computers tended, as the printing press did, to wrest control over the distribution of information from gatekeepers, central authorities, and institutions that employed scriveners and scribes. It became easier for ordinary folks to create and share content.

The collaboration that created the digital age was not just among peers but also between generations. Ideas were handed off from one cohort of innovators to the next. Another theme that emerged from my research was that users repeatedly commandeered digital innovations to create communications and social networking tools. I also became interested in how the quest for artificial intelligence—machines that think on their own—has consistently proved less fruitful than creating ways to forge a partnership or symbiosis between people and machines. In other words, the collaborative creativity that marked the digital age included collaboration between humans and machines.

Finally, I was struck by how the truest creativity of the digital age came from those who were able to connect the arts and sciences. They believed that beauty mattered. “I always thought of myself as a humanities person as a kid, but I liked electronics,” Jobs told me when I embarked on his biography. “Then I read something that one of my heroes, Edwin Land of Polaroid, said about the importance of people who could stand at the intersection of humanities and sciences, and I decided that’s what I wanted to do.” The people who were comfortable at this humanities-technology intersection helped to create the human-machine symbiosis that is at the core of this story.

Like many aspects of the digital age, this idea that innovation resides where art and science connect is not new. Leonardo da Vinci was the exemplar of the creativity that flourishes when the humanities and sciences interact. When Einstein was stymied while working out General Relativity, he would pull out his violin and play Mozart until he could reconnect to what he called the harmony of the spheres.

When it comes to computers, there is one other historical figure, not as well known, who embodied the combination of the arts and sciences. Like her famous father, she understood the romance of poetry. Unlike him, she also saw the romance of math and machinery. And that is where our story begins.

44

Ada, Countess of Lovelace (1815–52), painted by Margaret Sarah Carpenter in 1836.

45

Lord Byron (1788–1824), Ada’s father, in Albanian dress, painted by Thomas Phillips in 1835.

46

Charles Babbage (1791–1871), photograph taken circa 1837.

47

CHAPTER ONE

POETICAL SCIENCE In May 1833, when she was seventeen, Ada Byron was among the young women presented at the British royal court. Family members had worried about how she would acquit herself, given her high-strung and independent nature, but she ended up behaving, her mother reported, “tolerably well.” Among those Ada met that evening were the Duke of Wellington, whose straightforward manner she admired, and the seventy-nine-year-old French ambassador Talleyrand, who struck her as “an old monkey.”1

The only legitimate child of the poet Lord Byron, Ada had inherited her father’s romantic spirit, a trait that her mother tried to temper by having her tutored in mathematics. The combination produced in Ada a love for what she took to calling “poetical science,” which linked her rebellious imagination to her enchantment with numbers. For many, including her father, the rarefied sensibilities of the Romantic era clashed with the techno-excitement of the Industrial Revolution. But Ada was comfortable at the intersection of both eras.

So it was not surprising that her debut at court, despite the glamour of the occasion, made less impression on her than her attendance a few weeks later at another majestic event of the London season, at which she met Charles Babbage, a forty-one-year-old widowed science and math eminence who had established himself as a luminary on London’s social circuit. “Ada was more pleased with a party she was at on Wednesday than with any of the assemblages in the grand monde,” her mother reported to a friend. “She met there a few scientific people—amongst them Babbage, with whom she was delighted.”2

Babbage’s galvanizing weekly salons, which included up to three hundred guests, brought together lords in swallow-tail coats and ladies in brocade gowns with writers, industrialists, poets, actors, statesmen, explorers, botanists, and other “scientists,” a word that Babbage’s friends had recently coined.3 By bringing scientific scholars into this exalted realm, said one noted geologist, Babbage “successfully asserted the rank in society due to science.”4

The evenings featured dancing, readings, games, and lectures accompanied by an assortment of seafood, meat, fowl, exotic drinks, and iced desserts. The ladies staged tableaux vivants, in which they dressed in costume to re-create famous paintings. Astronomers set up telescopes, researchers displayed their electrical and magnetic contrivances, and Babbage allowed guests to play with his mechanical dolls. The centerpiece of the evenings—and one of Babbage’s many motives for hosting them—was his demonstration of a model portion of his Difference Engine, a mammoth mechanical calculating contraption that he was building in a fireproof structure adjacent to his home. Babbage would display the model with great drama, cranking its arm as it calculated a sequence of numbers and, just as the audience began to get bored, showed how the pattern could suddenly change based on instructions that had been coded into the machine.5 Those who were especially intrigued would be invited through the yard to the former stables, where the complete machine was being constructed.

Babbage’s Difference Engine, which could solve polynomial equations, impressed people in different ways. The Duke of Wellington commented that it could be useful in analyzing the variables a general might face before going into battle.6 Ada’s mother, Lady Byron, marveled

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that it was a “thinking machine.” As for Ada, who would later famously note that machines could never truly think, a friend who went with them to the demonstration reported, “Miss Byron, young as she was, understood its working, and saw the great beauty of the invention.”7

Ada’s love of both poetry and math primed her to see beauty in a computing machine. She was an exemplar of the era of Romantic science, which was characterized by a lyrical enthusiasm for invention and discovery. It was a period that brought “imaginative intensity and excitement to scientific work,” Richard Holmes wrote in The Age of Wonder. “It was driven by a common ideal of intense, even reckless, personal commitment to discovery.”8

In short, it was a time not unlike our own. The advances of the Industrial Revolution, including the steam engine, mechanical loom, and telegraph, transformed the nineteenth century in much the same way that the advances of the Digital Revolution—the computer, microchip, and Internet—have transformed our own. At the heart of both eras were innovators who combined imagination and passion with wondrous technology, a mix that produced Ada’s poetical science and what the twentieth-century poet Richard Brautigan would call “machines of loving grace.”

LORD BYRON Ada inherited her poetic and insubordinate temperament from her father, but he was not the source of her love for machinery. He was, in fact, a Luddite. In his maiden speech in the House of Lords, given in February 1812 when he was twenty-four, Byron defended the followers of Ned Ludd, who were rampaging against mechanical weaving machines. With sarcastic scorn Byron mocked the mill owners of Nottingham, who were pushing a bill that would make destroying automated looms a crime punishable by death. “These machines were to them an advantage, inasmuch as they superseded the necessity of employing a number of workmen, who were left in consequence to starve,” Byron declared. “The rejected workmen, in the blindness of their ignorance, instead of rejoicing at these improvements in arts so beneficial to mankind, conceived themselves to be sacrificed to improvements in mechanism.”

Two weeks later, Byron published the first two cantos of his epic poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, a romanticized account of his wanderings through Portugal, Malta, and Greece, and, as he later remarked, “awoke one morning and found myself famous.” Beautiful, seductive, troubled, brooding, and sexually adventurous, he was living the life of a Byronic hero while creating the archetype in his poetry. He became the toast of literary London and was feted at three parties each day, most memorably a lavish morning dance hosted by Lady Caroline Lamb.

Lady Caroline, though married to a politically powerful aristocrat who was later prime minister, fell madly in love with Byron. He thought she was “too thin,” yet she had an unconventional sexual ambiguity (she liked to dress as a page boy) that he found enticing. They had a turbulent affair, and after it ended she stalked him obsessively. She famously declared him to be “mad, bad, and dangerous to know,” which he was. So was she.

At Lady Caroline’s party, Lord Byron had also noticed a reserved young woman who was, he recalled, “more simply dressed.” Annabella Milbanke, nineteen, was from a wealthy and multi-titled family. The night before the party, she had read Childe Harold and had mixed feelings. “He is rather too much of a mannerist,” she wrote. “He excels most in the delineation of deep feeling.” Upon seeing him across the room at the party, her feelings were conflicted, dangerously so. “I did not seek an introduction to him, for all the women were absurdly courting him, and trying to deserve the lash of his Satire,” she wrote her mother. “I am not desirous of a place in his lays. I made no offering at the shrine of Childe Harold,

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though I shall not refuse the acquaintance if it comes my way.”9 That acquaintance, as it turned out, did come her way. After he was introduced to her

formally, Byron decided that she might make a suitable wife. It was, for him, a rare display of reason over romanticism. Rather than arousing his passions, she seemed to be the sort of woman who might tame those passions and protect him from his excesses—as well as help pay off his burdensome debts. He proposed to her halfheartedly by letter. She sensibly declined. He wandered off to far less appropriate liaisons, including one with his half sister, Augusta Leigh. But after a year, Annabella rekindled the courtship. Byron, falling more deeply in debt while grasping for a way to curb his enthusiasms, saw the rationale if not the romance in the possible relationship. “Nothing but marriage and a speedy one can save me,” he admitted to Annabella’s aunt. “If your niece is obtainable, I should prefer her; if not, the very first woman who does not look as if she would spit in my face.”10 There were times when Lord Byron was not a romantic. He and Annabella were married in January 1815.

Byron initiated the marriage in his Byronic fashion. “Had Lady Byron on the sofa before dinner,” he wrote about his wedding day.11 Their relationship was still active when they visited his half sister two months later, because around then Annabella got pregnant. However, during the visit she began to suspect that her husband’s friendship with Augusta went beyond the fraternal, especially after he lay on a sofa and asked them both to take turns kissing him.12 The marriage started to unravel.

Annabella had been tutored in mathematics, which amused Lord Byron, and during their courtship he had joked about his own disdain for the exactitude of numbers. “I know that two and two make four—and should be glad to prove it too if I could,” he wrote, “though I must say if by any sort of process I could convert two and two into five it would give me much greater pleasure.” Early on, he affectionately dubbed her the “Princess of Parallelograms.” But when the marriage began to sour, he refined that mathematical image: “We are two parallel lines prolonged to infinity side by side but never to meet.” Later, in the first canto of his epic poem Don Juan, he would mock her: “Her favourite science was the mathematical. . . . She was a walking calculation.”

The marriage was not saved by the birth of their daughter on December 10, 1815. She was named Augusta Ada Byron, her first name that of Byron’s too-beloved half sister. When Lady Byron became convinced of her husband’s perfidy, she thereafter called her daughter by her middle name. Five weeks later she packed her belongings into a carriage and fled to her parents’ country home with the infant Ada.

Ada never saw her father again. Lord Byron left the country that April after Lady Byron, in letters so calculating that she earned his sobriquet of “Mathematical Medea,” threatened to expose his alleged incestuous and homosexual affairs as a way to secure a separation agreement that gave her custody of their child.13

The opening of canto 3 of Childe Harold, written a few weeks later, invokes Ada as his muse: Is thy face like thy mother’s, my fair child! Ada! sole daughter of my house and of my heart? When last I saw thy young blue eyes they smiled, And then we parted.

Byron wrote these lines in a villa by Lake Geneva, where he was staying with the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and Shelley’s future wife, Mary. It rained relentlessly. Trapped inside for days, Byron suggested they write horror stories. He produced a fragment of a tale about a vampire, one of the first literary efforts on that subject, but Mary’s story was the one that became a classic: Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. Playing on the ancient Greek myth of the hero who crafted a living man out of clay and snatched fire from the gods for human use, Frankenstein was the story of a scientist who galvanized a man-made assemblage

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into a thinking human. It was a cautionary tale about technology and science. It also raised the question that would become associated with Ada: Can man-made machines ever truly think?

The third canto of Childe Harold ends with Byron’s prediction that Annabella would try to keep Ada from knowing about her father, and so it happened. There was a portrait of Lord Byron at their house, but Lady Byron kept it securely veiled, and Ada never saw it until she was twenty.14

Lord Byron, by contrast, kept a picture of Ada on his desk wherever he wandered, and his letters often requested news or portraits of her. When she was seven, he wrote to Augusta, “I wish you would obtain from Lady B some accounts of Ada’s disposition. . . . Is the girl imaginative? . . . Is she passionate? I hope that the Gods have made her anything save poetical—it is enough to have one such fool in the family.” Lady Byron reported that Ada had an imagination that was “chiefly exercised in connection with her mechanical ingenuity.”15

Around that time, Byron, who had been wandering through Italy, writing and having an assortment of affairs, grew bored and decided to enlist in the Greek struggle for independence from the Ottoman Empire. He sailed for Missolonghi, where he took command of part of the rebel army and prepared to attack a Turkish fortress. But before he could engage in battle, he caught a violent cold that was made worse by his doctor’s decision to treat him by bloodletting. On April 19, 1824, he died. According to his valet, among his final words were “Oh, my poor dear child!—my dear Ada! My God, could I have seen her! Give her my blessing.”16

Ada accepted her mother’s conviction that an immersion in math could help tame her Byronic tendencies. After her dangerous liaison with her tutor, and inspired by Babbage’s Difference Engine, she decided on her own, at eighteen, to begin a new series of lessons. “I must cease to think of living for pleasure or self-gratification,” she wrote her new tutor. “I find that nothing but very close and intense application to subjects of a scientific nature now seems to keep my imagination from running wild. . . . It appears to me that the first thing is to go through a course of Mathematics.” He agreed with the prescription: “You are right in supposing that your chief resource and safeguard at the present is in a course of severe intellectual study. For this purpose there is no subject to be compared to Mathematics.”17 He prescribed Euclidean geometry, followed by a dose of trigonometry and algebra. That should cure anyone, they both thought, from having too many artistic or romantic passions.

Her interest in technology was stoked when her mother took her on a trip through the British industrial midlands to see the new factories and machinery. Ada was particularly impressed with an automated weaving loom that used punch cards to direct the creation of the desired fabric patterns, and she drew a sketch of how it worked. Her father’s famous speech

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in the House of Lords had defended the Luddites who had smashed such looms because of their fear of what technology might inflict on humanity. But Ada waxed poetical about them and saw the connection with what would someday be called computers. “This Machinery reminds me of Babbage and his gem of all mechanism,” she wrote.18

Ada’s interest in applied science was further stimulated when she met one of Britain’s few noted female mathematicians and scientists, Mary Somerville. Somerville had just finished writing one of her great works, On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences, in which she tied together developments in astronomy, optics, electricity, chemistry, physics, botany, and geology.1 Emblematic of the time, it provided a unified sense of the extraordinary endeavors of discovery that were under way. She proclaimed in her opening sentence, “The progress of modern science, especially within the last five years, has been remarkable for a tendency to simplify the laws of nature and to unite detached branches by general principles.”

Somerville became a friend, teacher, inspiration, and mentor to Ada. She met with Ada regularly, sent her math books, devised problems for her to solve, and patiently explained the correct answers. She was also a good friend of Babbage’s, and during the fall of 1834 she and Ada would often visit his Saturday-evening salons. Somerville’s son, Woronzow Greig, aided Ada’s efforts to settle down by suggesting to one of his former classmates at Cambridge that she would make a suitable—or at least interesting—wife.

William King was socially prominent, financially secure, quietly intelligent, and as taciturn as Ada was excitable. Like her, he was a student of science, but his focus was more practical and less poetic: his primary interests were crop rotation theories and advances in livestock breeding techniques. He proposed marriage within a few weeks of meeting Ada, and she accepted. Her mother, with motives that only a psychiatrist could fathom, decided it was imperative to tell William about Ada’s attempted elopement with her tutor. Despite this news, William was willing to proceed with the wedding, which was held in July 1835. “Gracious God, who has so mercifully given you an opportunity of turning aside from the dangerous paths, has given you a friend and guardian,” Lady Byron wrote her daughter, adding that she should use this opportunity to “bid adieu” to all of her “peculiarities, caprices, and self- seeking.”19

The marriage was a match made in rational calculus. For Ada, it offered the chance to adopt a more steady and grounded life. More important, it allowed her to escape dependence on her domineering mother. For William, it meant having a fascinating, eccentric wife from a wealthy and famous family.

Lady Byron’s first cousin Viscount Melbourne (who had the misfortune of having been married to Lady Caroline Lamb, by then deceased) was the prime minister, and he arranged that, in Queen Victoria’s coronation list of honors, William would become the Earl of Lovelace. His wife thus became Ada, Countess of Lovelace. She is therefore properly referred to as Ada or Lady Lovelace, though she is now commonly known as Ada Lovelace.

That Christmas of 1835, Ada received from her mother the family’s life-size portrait of her father. Painted by Thomas Phillips, it showed Lord Byron in romantic profile, gazing at the horizon, dressed in traditional Albanian costume featuring a red velvet jacket, ceremonial sword, and headdress. For years it had hung over Ada’s grandparents’ mantelpiece, but it had been veiled by a green cloth from the day her parents had separated. Now she was trusted not only to see it but to possess it, along with his inkstand and pen.

Her mother did something even more surprising when the Lovelaces’ first child, a son, was born a few months later. Despite her disdain for her late husband’s memory, she agreed that Ada should name the boy Byron, which she did. The following year Ada had a daughter, whom she dutifully named Annabella, after her mother. Ada then came down with yet another mysterious malady, which kept her bedridden for months. She recovered well enough

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to have a third child, a son named Ralph, but her health remained fragile. She had digestive and respiratory problems that were compounded by being treated with laudanum, morphine, and other forms of opium, which led to mood swings and occasional delusions.

Ada was further unsettled by the eruption of a personal drama that was bizarre even by the standards of the Byron family. It involved Medora Leigh, the daughter of Byron’s half sister and occasional lover. According to widely accepted rumors, Medora was Byron’s daughter. She seemed determined to show that darkness ran in the family. She had an affair with a sister’s husband, then ran off with him to France and had two illegitimate children. In a fit of self-righteousness, Lady Byron went to France to rescue Medora, then revealed to Ada the story of her father’s incest.

This “most strange and dreadful history” did not seem to surprise Ada. “I am not in the least astonished,” she wrote her mother. “You merely confirm what I have for years and years felt scarcely a doubt about.”20 Rather than being outraged, she seemed oddly energized by the news. She declared that she could relate to her father’s defiance of authority. Referring to his “misused genius,” she wrote to her mother, “If he has transmitted to me any portion of that genius, I would use it to bring out great truths and principles. I think he has bequeathed this task to me. I have this feeling strongly, and there is a pleasure attending it.”21

Once again Ada took up the study of math in order to settle herself, and she tried to convince Babbage to become her tutor. “I have a peculiar way of learning, and I think it must be a peculiar man to teach me successfully,” she wrote him. Whether due to her opiates or her breeding or both, she developed a somewhat outsize opinion of her own talents and began to describe herself as a genius. In her letter to Babbage, she wrote, “Do not reckon me conceited, . . . but I believe I have the power of going just as far as I like in such pursuits, and where there is so decided a taste, I should almost say a passion, as I have for them, I question if there is not always some portion of natural genius even.”22

Babbage deflected Ada’s request, which was probably wise. It preserved their friendship for an even more important collaboration, and she was able to secure a first-rate math tutor instead: Augustus De Morgan, a patient gentleman who was a pioneer in the field of symbolic logic. He had propounded a concept that Ada would one day employ with great significance, which was that an algebraic equation could apply to things other than numbers. The relations among symbols (for example, that a + b = b + a) could be part of a logic that applied to things that were not numerical.

Ada was never the great mathematician that her canonizers claim, but she was an eager pupil, able to grasp most of the basic concepts of calculus, and with her artistic sensibility she liked to visualize the changing curves and trajectories that the equations were describing. De Morgan encouraged her to focus on the rules for working through equations, but she was more eager to discuss the underlying concepts. Likewise with geometry, she often asked for visual ways to picture problems, such as how the intersections of circles in a sphere divide it into various shapes.

Ada’s ability to appreciate the beauty of mathematics is a gift that eludes many people, including some who think of themselves as intellectual. She realized that math was a lovely language, one that describes the harmonies of the universe and can be poetic at times. Despite her mother’s efforts, she remained her father’s daughter, with a poetic sensibility that allowed her to view an equation as a brushstroke that painted an aspect of nature’s physical splendor, just as she could visualize the “wine-dark sea” or a woman who “walks in beauty, like the night.” But math’s appeal went even deeper; it was spiritual. Math “constitutes the language through which alone we can adequately express the great facts of the natural world,” she said, and it allows us to portray the “changes of mutual relationship” that unfold in creation. It is “the instrument through which the weak mind of man can most effectually read his Creator’s works.”

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This ability to apply imagination to science characterized the Industrial Revolution as well as the computer revolution, for which Ada was to become a patron saint. She was able, as she told Babbage, to understand the connection between poetry and analysis in ways that transcended her father’s talents. “I do not believe that my father was (or ever could have been) such a Poet as I shall be an Analyst; for with me the two go together indissolubly,” she wrote.23

Her reengagement with math, she told her mother, spurred her creativity and led to an “immense development of imagination, so much so that I feel no doubt if I continue my studies I shall in due time be a Poet.”24 The whole concept of imagination, especially as it was applied to technology, intrigued her. “What is imagination?” she asked in an 1841 essay. “It is the Combining faculty. It brings together things, facts, ideas, conceptions in new, original, endless, ever-varying combinations. . . . It is that which penetrates into the unseen worlds around us, the worlds of Science.”25

By then Ada believed she possessed special, even supernatural abilities, what she called “an intuitive perception of hidden things.” Her exalted view of her talents led her to pursue aspirations that were unusual for an aristocratic woman and mother in the early Victorian age. “I believe myself to possess a most singular combination of qualities exactly fitted to make me pre-eminently a discoverer of the hidden realities of nature,” she explained in a letter to her mother in 1841. “I can throw rays from every quarter of the universe into one vast focus.”26

It was while in this frame of mind that she decided to engage again with Charles Babbage, whose salons she had first attended eight years earlier.

CHARLES BABBAGE AND HIS ENGINES From an early age, Charles Babbage had been interested in machines that could perform human tasks. When he was a child, his mother took him to many of the exhibition halls and museums of wonder that were springing up in London in the early 1800s. At one in Hanover Square, a proprietor aptly named Merlin invited him up to the attic workshop where there was a variety of mechanical dolls, known as “automata.” One was a silver female dancer, about a foot tall, whose arms moved with grace and who held in her hand a bird that could wag its tail, flap its wings, and open its beak. The Silver Lady’s ability to display feelings and personality captured the boy’s fancy. “Her eyes were full of imagination,” he recalled. Years later he discovered the Silver Lady at a bankruptcy auction and bought it. It served as an amusement at his evening salons where he celebrated the wonders of technology.

At Cambridge Babbage became friends with a group, including John Herschel and George Peacock, who were disappointed by the way math was taught there. They formed a club, called the Analytical Society, which campaigned to get the university to abandon the calculus notation devised by its alumnus Newton, which relied on dots, and replace it with the one devised by Leibniz, which used dx and dy to represent infinitesimal increments and was thus known as “d” notation. Babbage titled their manifesto “The Principles of pure D-ism in opposition to the Dot-age of the University.”27 He was prickly, but he had a good sense of humor.

One day Babbage was in the Analytical Society’s room working on a table of logarithms that was littered with discrepancies. Herschel asked him what he was thinking. “I wish to God these calculations had been executed by steam,” Babbage answered. To this idea of a mechanical method for tabulating logarithms Herschel replied, “It is quite possible.”28 In 1821 Babbage turned his attention to building such a machine.

Over the years, many had fiddled with making calculating contraptions. In the 1640s, Blaise Pascal, the French mathematician and philosopher, created a mechanical calculator to

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reduce the drudgery of his father’s work as a tax supervisor. It had spoked metal wheels with the digits 0 through 9 on their circumference. To add or subtract numbers, the operator used a stylus to dial a number, as if using a rotary phone, then dialed in the next number; an armature carried or borrowed a 1 when necessary. It became the first calculator to be patented and sold commercially.

Thirty years later, Gottfried Leibniz, the German mathematician and philosopher, tried to improve upon Pascal’s contraption with a “stepped reckoner” that had the capacity to multiply and divide. It had a hand-cranked cylinder with a set of teeth that meshed with counting wheels. But Leibniz ran into a problem that would be a recurring theme of the digital age. Unlike Pascal, an adroit engineer who could combine scientific theories with mechanical genius, Leibniz had little engineering skill and did not surround himself with those who did. So, like many great theorists who lacked practical collaborators, he was unable to produce reliably working versions of his device. Nevertheless, his core concept, known as the Leibniz wheel, would influence calculator design through the time of Babbage.

Babbage knew of the devices of Pascal and Leibniz, but he was trying to do something more complex. He wanted to construct a mechanical method for tabulating logarithms, sines, cosines, and tangents.2 To do so, he adapted an idea that the French mathematician Gaspard de Prony came up with in the 1790s. In order to create logarithm and trigonometry tables, de Prony broke down the operations into very simple steps that involved only addition and subtraction. Then he provided easy instructions so that scores of human laborers, who knew little math, could perform these simple tasks and pass along their answers to the next set of laborers. In other words, he created an assembly line, the great industrial-age innovation that was memorably analyzed by Adam Smith in his description of the division of labor in a pin- making factory. After a trip to Paris in which he heard of de Prony’s method, Babbage wrote, “I conceived all of a sudden the idea of applying the same method to the immense work with which I had been burdened, and to manufacture logarithms as one manufactures pins.”29

Even complex mathematical tasks, Babbage realized, could be broken into steps that came down to calculating “finite differences” through simple adding and subtracting. For example, in order to make a table of squares—12, 22, 32, 42, and so on—you could list the initial numbers in such a sequence: 1, 4, 9, 16. . . . This would be column A. Beside it, in column B, you could figure out the differences between each of these numbers, in this case 3, 5, 7, 9. . . . Column C would list the difference between each of column B’s numbers, which is 2, 2, 2, 2. . . . Once the process was thus simplified, it could be reversed and the tasks parceled out to untutored laborers. One would be in charge of adding 2 to the last number in column B, and then would hand that result to another person, who would add that result to the last number in column A, thus generating the next number in the sequence of squares.

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Replica of the Difference Engine.

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Replica of the Analytical Engine.

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The Jacquard loom.

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Silk portrait of Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752–1834) woven by a Jacquard loom.

Babbage devised a way to mechanize this process, and he named it the Difference Engine. It could tabulate any polynomial function and provide a digital method for approximating the solution to differential equations.

How did it work? The Difference Engine used vertical shafts with disks that could be turned to any numeral. These were attached to cogs that could be cranked in order to add that numeral to (or subtract it from) a disk on an adjacent shaft. The contraption could even “store” the interim results on another shaft. The main complexity was how to “carry” or “borrow” when necessary, as we do with pencils when we calculate 36 + 19 or 42 – 17. Drawing on Pascal’s devices, Babbage came up with a few ingenious contrivances that allowed the cogs and shafts to handle the calculation.

The machine was, in concept, a true marvel. Babbage even figured out a way to get it to create a table of prime numbers up to 10 million. The British government was impressed, at least initially. In 1823 it gave him seed money of £1,700 and would eventually sink more than £17,000, twice the cost of a warship, into the device during the decade Babbage spent trying to build it. But the project ran into two problems. First, Babbage and his hired engineer did not quite have the skills to get the device working. Second, he began dreaming up

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something better.

Babbage’s new idea, which he conceived in 1834, was a general-purpose computer that could carry out a variety of different operations based on programming instructions given to it. It could perform one task, then be made to switch and perform another. It could even tell itself to switch tasks—or alter its “pattern of action,” as Babbage explained—based on its own interim calculations. Babbage named this proposed machine the Analytical Engine. He was one hundred years ahead of his time.

The Analytical Engine was the product of what Ada Lovelace, in her essay on imagination, had called “the Combining Faculty.” Babbage had combined innovations that had cropped up in other fields, a trick of many great inventors. He had originally used a metal drum that was studded with spikes to control how the shafts would turn. But then he studied, as Ada had, the automated loom invented in 1801 by a Frenchman named Joseph-Marie Jacquard, which transformed the silk-weaving industry. Looms create a pattern by using hooks to lift selected warp threads, and then a rod pushes a woof thread underneath. Jacquard invented a method of using cards with holes punched in them to control this process. The holes determined which hooks and rods would be activated for each pass of the weave, thus automating the creation of intricate patterns. Each time the shuttle was thrown to create a new pass of the thread, a new punch card would come into play.

On June 30, 1836, Babbage made an entry into what he called his “Scribbling Books” that would represent a milestone in the prehistory of computers: “Suggested Jacquard’s loom as a substitute for the drums.”30 Using punch cards rather than steel drums meant that an unlimited number of instructions could be input. In addition, the sequence of tasks could be modified, thus making it easier to devise a general-purpose machine that was versatile and reprogrammable.

Babbage bought a portrait of Jacquard and began to display it at his salons. It showed the inventor sitting in an armchair, a loom in the background, holding a pair of calipers over rectangular punch cards. Babbage amused his guests by asking them to guess what it was. Most thought it a superb engraving. He would then reveal that it was actually a finely woven silk tapestry, with twenty-four thousand rows of threads, each controlled by a different punch card. When Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria, came to one of Babbage’s salons, he asked Babbage why he found the tapestry so interesting. Babbage replied, “It will greatly assist in explaining the nature of my calculating machine, the Analytical Engine.”31

Few people, however, saw the beauty of Babbage’s proposed new machine, and the British government had no inclination to fund it. Try as he might, Babbage could generate little notice in either the popular press or scientific journals.

But he did find one believer. Ada Lovelace fully appreciated the concept of a general- purpose machine. More important, she envisioned an attribute that might make it truly amazing: it could potentially process not only numbers but any symbolic notations, including musical and artistic ones. She saw the poetry in such an idea, and she set out to encourage others to see it as well.

She barraged Babbage with letters, some of which verged on cheeky, even though he was twenty-four years her senior. In one, she described the solitaire game using twenty-six marbles, where the goal is to execute jumps so that only one marble remains. She had mastered it but was trying to derive a “mathematical formula . . . on which the solution depends, and which can be put into symbolic language.” Then she asked, “Am I too imaginative for you? I think not.”32

Her goal was to work with Babbage as his publicist and partner in trying to get support to build the Analytical Engine. “I am very anxious to talk to you,” she wrote in early 1841. “I will give you a hint on what. It strikes me that at some future time . . . my head may be made

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by you subservient to some of your purposes and plans. If so, if ever I could be worthy or capable of being used by you, my head will be yours.”33

A year later, a tailor-made opportunity presented itself.

LADY LOVELACE’S NOTES In his quest to find support for his Analytical Engine, Babbage had accepted an invitation to address the Congress of Italian Scientists in Turin. Taking notes was a young military engineer, Captain Luigi Menabrea, who would later serve as prime minister of Italy. With Babbage’s help, Menabrea published a detailed description of the machine, in French, in October 1842.

One of Ada’s friends suggested that she produce a translation of Menabrea’s piece for Scientific Memoirs, a periodical devoted to scientific papers. This was her opportunity to serve Babbage and show her talents. When she finished, she informed Babbage, who was pleased but also somewhat surprised. “I asked why she had not herself written an original paper on a subject with which she was so intimately acquainted,” Babbage said.34 She replied that the thought had not occurred to her. Back then, women generally did not publish scientific papers.

Babbage suggested that she add some notes to Menabrea’s memoir, a project that she embraced with enthusiasm. She began working on a section she called “Notes by the Translator” that ended up totaling 19,136 words, more than twice the length of Menabrea’s original article. Signed “A.A.L.,” for Augusta Ada Lovelace, her “Notes” became more famous than the article and were destined to make her an iconic figure in the history of computing.35

As she worked on the notes at her country estate in Surrey in the summer of 1843, she and Babbage exchanged scores of letters, and in the fall they had numerous meetings after she moved back to her London home. A minor academic specialty and gender-charged debate has grown up around the issue of how much of the thinking was hers rather than his. In his memoirs, Babbage gives her much of the credit: “We discussed together the various illustrations that might be introduced: I suggested several but the selection was entirely her own. So also was the algebraic working out of the different problems, except, indeed, that relating to the numbers of Bernoulli, which I had offered to do to save Lady Lovelace the trouble. This she sent back to me for an amendment, having detected a grave mistake which I had made in the process.”36

In her “Notes,” Ada explored four concepts that would have historical resonance a century later when the computer was finally born. The first was that of a general-purpose machine, one that could not only perform a preset task but could be programmed and reprogrammed to do a limitless and changeable array of tasks. In other words, she envisioned the modern computer. This concept was at the core of her “Note A,” which emphasized the distinction between Babbage’s original Difference Engine and his proposed new Analytical Engine. “The particular function whose integral the Difference Engine was constructed to tabulate is Δ7ux = 0,” she began, explaining that its purpose was the computation of nautical tables. “The Analytical Engine, on the contrary, is not merely adapted for tabulating the results of one particular function and of no other, but for developing and tabulating any function whatever.”

This was done, she wrote, by “the introduction into it of the principle which Jacquard devised for regulating, by means of punched cards, the most complicated patterns in the fabrication of brocaded stuffs.” Even more than Babbage, Ada realized the significance of this. It meant that the machine could be like the type of computer we now take for granted: one that does not merely do a specific arithmetic task but can be a general-purpose machine. She explained:

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The bounds of arithmetic were outstepped the moment the idea of applying cards had occurred. The Analytical Engine does not occupy common ground with mere “calculating machines.” It holds a position wholly its own. In enabling a mechanism to combine together general symbols, in successions of unlimited variety and extent, a uniting link is established between the operations of matter and the abstract mental processes.37

Those sentences are somewhat clotted, but they are worth reading carefully. They describe the essence of modern computers. And Ada enlivened the concept with poetic flourishes. “The Analytical Engine weaves algebraical patterns just as the Jacquard loom weaves flowers and leaves,” she wrote. When Babbage read “Note A,” he was thrilled and made no changes. “Pray do not alter it,” he said.38

Ada’s second noteworthy concept sprang from this description of a general-purpose machine. Its operations, she realized, did not need to be limited to math and numbers. Drawing on De Morgan’s extension of algebra into a formal logic, she noted that a machine such as the Analytical Engine could store, manipulate, process, and act upon anything that could be expressed in symbols: words and logic and music and anything else we might use symbols to convey.

To explain this idea, she carefully defined what a computer operation was: “It may be desirable to explain that by the word ‘operation,’ we mean any process which alters the mutual relation of two or more things, be this relation of what kind it may.” A computer operation, she noted, could alter the relationship not just between numbers but between any symbols that were logically related. “It might act upon other things besides number, were objects found whose mutual fundamental relations could be expressed by those of the abstract science of operations.” The Analytical Engine could, in theory, even perform operations on musical notations: “Supposing, for instance, that the fundamental relations of pitched sounds in the science of harmony and of musical composition were susceptible of such expression and adaptations, the engine might compose elaborate and scientific pieces of music of any degree of complexity.” It was the ultimate Ada-like “poetical science” concept: an elaborate and scientific piece of music composed by a machine! Her father would have shuddered.

This insight would become the core concept of the digital age: any piece of content, data, or information—music, text, pictures, numbers, symbols, sounds, video—could be expressed in digital form and manipulated by machines. Even Babbage failed to see this fully; he focused on numbers. But Ada realized that the digits on the cogs could represent things other than mathematical quantities. Thus did she make the conceptual leap from machines that were mere calculators to ones that we now call computers. Doron Swade, a computer historian who specializes in studying Babbage’s engines, has declared this one of Ada’s historic legacies. “If we are looking and sifting history for that transition, then that transition was made explicitly by Ada in that 1843 paper,” he said.39

Ada’s third contribution, in her final “Note G,” was to figure out in step-by-step detail the workings of what we now call a computer program or algorithm. The example she used was a program to compute Bernoulli numbers,3 an exceedingly complex infinite series that in various guises plays a role in number theory.

To show how the Analytical Engine could generate Bernoulli numbers, Ada described a sequence of operations and then made a chart showing how each would be coded into the machine. Along the way, she helped to devise the concepts of subroutines (a sequence of instructions that performs a specific task, such as computing a cosine or calculating compound interest, and can be dropped into larger programs as needed) and a recursive loop (a sequence of instructions that repeats itself).4 These were made possible by the punch-card mechanism. Seventy-five cards were needed to generate each number, she explained, and then the process became iterative as that number was fed back into the process to generate the next one. “It will be obvious that the very same seventy-five variable cards may be repeated for the computation of every succeeding number,” she wrote. She envisioned a library of commonly used subroutines, something that her intellectual heirs, including women such as

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Grace Hopper at Harvard and Kay McNulty and Jean Jennings at the University of Pennsylvania, would create a century later. In addition, because Babbage’s engine made it possible to jump back and forth within the sequence of instruction cards based on the interim results it had calculated, it laid the foundation for what we now call conditional branching, changing to a different path of instructions if certain conditions are met.

Babbage helped Ada with the Bernoulli calculations, but the letters show her deeply immersed in the details. “I am doggedly attacking and sifting to the very bottom all the ways of deducing the Bernoulli numbers,” she wrote in July, just weeks before her translation and notes were due at the printers. “I am in much dismay at having gotten so amazing a quagmire and botheration with these Numbers that I cannot possibly get the thing done today. . . . I am in a charming state of confusion.”40

When it got worked out, she added a contribution that was primarily her own: a table and diagram showing exactly how the algorithm would be fed into the computer, step by step, including two recursive loops. It was a numbered list of coding instructions that included destination registers, operations, and commentary—something that would be familiar to any C++ coder today. “I have worked incessantly and most successfully all day,” she wrote Babbage. “You will admire the Table and Diagram extremely. They have been made out with extreme care.” From all of the letters it is clear that she did the table herself; the only help came from her husband, who did not understand the math but was willing to methodically trace in ink what she had done in pencil. “Lord L is at this moment kindly inking it all over for me,” she wrote Babbage. “I had to do it in pencil.”41

It was mainly on the basis of this diagram, which accompanied the complex processes for generating Bernoulli numbers, that Ada has been accorded by her fans the accolade of “the world’s first computer programmer.” That is a bit hard to defend. Babbage had already devised, at least in theory, more than twenty explanations of processes that the machine might eventually perform. But none of these was published, and there was no clear description of the way to sequence the operations. Therefore, it is fair to say that the algorithm and detailed programming description for the generation of Bernoulli numbers was the first computer program ever to be published. And the initials at the end were those of Ada Lovelace.

There was one other significant concept that she introduced in her “Notes,” which harked back to the Frankenstein story produced by Mary Shelley after that weekend with Lord Byron. It raised what is still the most fascinating metaphysical topic involving computers, that of artificial intelligence: Can machines think?

Ada believed not. A machine such as Babbage’s could perform operations as instructed, she asserted, but it could not come up with ideas or intentions of its own. “The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything,” she wrote in her “Notes.” “It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. It can follow analysis; but it has no power of anticipating any analytical relations or truths.” A century later this assertion would be dubbed “Lady Lovelace’s Objection” by the computer pioneer Alan Turing (see chapter 3).

Ada wanted her work to be regarded as a serious scientific paper and not merely a public advocacy piece, so at the outset of her “Notes” she stated that she would “offer no opinion” on the government’s reluctance to continue funding Babbage’s endeavors. This did not please Babbage, who proceeded to write a screed attacking the government. He wanted Ada to include it in her “Notes,” without his name on it, as if it were her opinion. She refused. She did not want her work compromised.

Without informing her, Babbage sent his proposed appendage directly to Scientific Memoirs. The editors decided that it should appear separately and suggested that he “manfully” sign his name. Babbage was charming when he wished, but he could also be

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cranky, stubborn, and defiant, like most innovators. The proposed solution infuriated him, and he wrote Ada asking that she withdraw her work. Now it was her turn to become irate. Using a form of address typically used by male friends, “My Dear Babbage,” she wrote that “withdrawing the translation and Notes” would “be dishonorable and unjustifiable.” She concluded the letter, “Be assured that I am your best friend; but that I never can or will support you in acting on principles which I conceive to be not only wrong in themselves, but suicidal.”42

Babbage backed down and agreed to have his piece published separately in another periodical. That day Ada complained to her mother:

I have been harassed and pressed in a most perplexing manner by the conduct of Mr. Babbage. . . . I am sorry to come to the conclusion that he is one of the most impracticable, selfish, and intemperate persons one can have to do with. . . . I declared at once to Babbage that no power should induce me to lend myself to any of his quarrels or to become in any way his organ. . . . He was furious. I imperturbable and unmoved.43

Ada’s response to the dispute was a bizarre sixteen-page letter to Babbage, poured forth in

a frenzy, that vividly displayed her moodiness, exultations, delusions, and passions. She cajoled and berated him, praised and denigrated him. At one point she contrasted their motives. “My own uncompromising principle is to endeavour to love truth and God before fame and glory,” she claimed. “Yours is to love truth and God; but to love fame, glory, honours yet more.” She proclaimed that she saw her own inevitable fame as being of an exalted nature: “I wish to add my might toward expounding and interpreting the Almighty and his laws. . . . I should feel it no small glory if I were able to be one of his most noted prophets.”44

Having laid that groundwork, she offered him a deal: they should forge a business and political partnership. She would apply her connections and persuasive pen to his endeavor to build his Analytical Engine if—and only if—he would let her have control over his business decisions. “I give you the first choice and offer of my services and my intellect,” she wrote. “Do not lightly reject them.” The letter read in parts like a venture capital term sheet or a prenuptial agreement, complete with the possibility of arbitrators. “You will undertake to abide wholly by the judgment of myself (or of any persons whom you may now please to name as referees, whenever we may differ) on all practical matters,” she declared. In return, she promised, she would “lay before you in the course of a year or two explicit and honorable propositions for executing your engine.”45

The letter would seem surprising were it not like so many others that she wrote. It was an example of how her grandiose ambitions sometimes got the best of her. Nevertheless, she deserves respect as a person who, rising above the expectations of her background and gender and defying plagues of family demons, dedicated herself diligently to complex mathematical feats that most of us never would or could attempt. (Bernoulli numbers alone would defeat many of us.) Her impressive mathematical labors and imaginative insights came in the midst of the drama of Medora Leigh and bouts of illness that would cause her to become dependent on opiates that amplified her mood swings. She explained at the end of her letter to Babbage, “My dear friend, if you knew what sad and direful experiences I have had, in ways of which you cannot be aware, you would feel that some weight is due to my feelings.” Then, after a quick detour to raise a small point about using the calculus of finite differences to compute Bernoulli numbers, she apologized that “this letter is sadly blotted” and plaintively asked, “I wonder if you will choose to retain the lady-fairy in your service or not.”46

Ada was convinced that Babbage would accept her offer to become entrepreneurial partners. “He has so strong an idea of the advantage of having my pen as his servant that he will probably yield; though I demand very strong concessions,” she wrote her mother. “If he does consent to what I propose, I shall probably be enabled to keep him out of much hot water and to bring his engine to consummation.”47 Babbage, however, thought it wiser to

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decline. He went to see Ada and “refused all the conditions.”48 Although they never again collaborated on science, their relationship survived. “Babbage and I are I think more friends than ever,” she wrote her mother the next week.49 And Babbage agreed the next month to pay a visit to her country home, sending her a fond letter referring to her as “the Enchantress of Numbers” and “my dear and much admired Interpreter.”

That month, September 1843, her translation and “Notes” finally appeared in Scientific Memoirs. For a while she was able to bask in acclaim from friends and to hope that, like her mentor Mary Somerville, she would be taken seriously in scientific and literary circles. Publication made her finally feel like “a completely professional person,” she wrote to a lawyer. “I really have become as much tied to a profession as you are.”50

It was not to be. Babbage got no more funding for his machines; they were never built, and he died in poverty. As for Lady Lovelace, she never published another scientific paper. Instead her life spiraled downward, and she became addicted to gambling and opiates. She had an affair with a gambling partner who then blackmailed her, forcing her to pawn her family jewels. During the final year of her life, she fought an exceedingly painful battle with uterine cancer accompanied by constant hemorrhaging. When she died in 1852, at age thirty- six, she was buried, in accordance with one of her last requests, in a country grave next to the poet father she never knew, who had died at the same age.

The Industrial Revolution was based on two grand concepts that were profound in their simplicity. Innovators came up with ways to simplify endeavors by breaking them into easy, small tasks that could be accomplished on assembly lines. Then, beginning in the textile industry, inventors found ways to mechanize steps so that they could be performed by machines, many of them powered by steam engines. Babbage, building on ideas from Pascal and Leibniz, tried to apply these two processes to the production of computations, creating a mechanical precursor to the modern computer. His most significant conceptual leap was that such machines did not have to be set to do only one process, but instead could be programmed and reprogrammed through the use of punch cards. Ada saw the beauty and significance of that enchanting notion, and she also described an even more exciting idea that derived from it: such machines could process not only numbers but anything that could be notated in symbols.

Over the years, Ada Lovelace has been celebrated as a feminist icon and a computer pioneer. For example, the U.S. Defense Department named its high-level object-oriented programming language Ada. However, she has also been ridiculed as delusional, flighty, and only a minor contributor to the “Notes” that bear her initials. As she herself wrote in those “Notes,” referring to the Analytical Engine but in words that also describe her fluctuating reputation, “In considering any new subject, there is frequently a tendency, first, to overrate what we find to be already interesting or remarkable; and, secondly, by a sort of natural reaction, to undervalue the true state of the case.”

The reality is that Ada’s contribution was both profound and inspirational. More than Babbage or any other person of her era, she was able to glimpse a future in which machines would become partners of the human imagination, together weaving tapestries as beautiful as those from Jacquard’s loom. Her appreciation for poetical science led her to celebrate a proposed calculating machine that was dismissed by the scientific establishment of her day, and she perceived how the processing power of such a device could be used on any form of information. Thus did Ada, Countess of Lovelace, help sow the seeds for a digital age that would blossom a hundred years later.

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Vannevar Bush (1890–1974), with his Differential Analyzer at MIT.

Alan Turing (1912–54), at the Sherborne School in 1928.

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Claude Shannon (1916–2001) in 1951.

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CHAPTER TWO

THE COMPUTER

Sometimes innovation is a matter of timing. A big idea comes along at just the moment when the technology exists to implement it. For example, the idea of sending a man to the moon was proposed right when the progress of microchips made it possible to put computer guidance systems into the nose cone of a rocket. There are other cases, however, when the timing is out of kilter. Charles Babbage published his paper about a sophisticated computer in 1837, but it took a hundred years to achieve the scores of technological advances needed to build one.

Some of those advances seem almost trivial, but progress comes not only in great leaps but also from hundreds of small steps. Take for example punch cards, like those Babbage saw on Jacquard’s looms and proposed incorporating into his Analytical Engine. Perfecting the use of punch cards for computers came about because Herman Hollerith, an employee of the U.S. Census Bureau, was appalled that it took close to eight years to manually tabulate the 1880 census. He resolved to automate the 1890 count.

Drawing on the way that railway conductors punched holes in various places on a ticket in order to indicate the traits of each passenger (gender, approximate height, age, hair color), Hollerith devised punch cards with twelve rows and twenty-four columns that recorded the salient facts about each person in the census. The cards were then slipped between a grid of mercury cups and a set of spring-loaded pins, which created an electric circuit wherever there was a hole. The machine could tabulate not only the raw totals but also combinations of traits, such as the number of married males or foreign-born females. Using Hollerith’s tabulators, the 1890 census was completed in one year rather than eight. It was the first major use of electrical circuits to process information, and the company that Hollerith founded became in 1924, after a series of mergers and acquisitions, the International Business Machines Corporation, or IBM.

One way to look at innovation is as the accumulation of hundreds of small advances, such as counters and punch-card readers. At places like IBM, which specialize in daily improvements made by teams of engineers, this is the preferred way to understand how innovation really happens. Some of the most important technologies of our era, such as the fracking techniques developed over the past six decades for extracting natural gas, came about because of countless small innovations as well as a few breakthrough leaps.

In the case of computers, there were many such incremental advances made by faceless engineers at places like IBM. But that was not enough. Although the machines that IBM produced in the early twentieth century could compile data, they were not what we would call computers. They weren’t even particularly adroit calculators. They were lame. In addition to those hundreds of minor advances, the birth of the computer age required some larger imaginative leaps from creative visionaries.

DIGITAL BEATS ANALOG The machines devised by Hollerith and Babbage were digital, meaning they calculated using digits: discrete and distinct integers such as 0, 1, 2, 3. In their machines, the integers were

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added and subtracted using cogs and wheels that clicked one digit at a time, like counters. Another approach to computing was to build devices that could mimic or model a physical phenomenon and then make measurements on the analogous model to calculate the relevant results. These were known as analog computers because they worked by analogy. Analog computers do not rely on discrete integers to make their calculations; instead, they use continuous functions. In analog computers, a variable quantity such as electrical voltage, the position of a rope on a pulley, hydraulic pressure, or a measurement of distance is employed as an analog for the corresponding quantities of the problem to be solved. A slide rule is analog; an abacus is digital. Clocks with sweeping hands are analog, and those with displayed numerals are digital.

Around the time that Hollerith was building his digital tabulator, Lord Kelvin and his brother James Thomson, two of England’s most distinguished scientists, were creating an analog machine. It was designed to handle the tedious task of solving differential equations, which would help in the creation of tide charts and of tables showing the firing angles that would generate different trajectories of artillery shells. Beginning in the 1870s, the brothers devised a system that was based on a planimeter, an instrument that can measure the area of a two-dimensional shape, such as the space under a curved line on a piece of paper. The user would trace the outline of the curve with the device, which would calculate the area by using a small sphere that was slowly pushed across the surface of a large rotating disk. By calculating the area under the curve, it could thus solve equations by integration—in other words, it could perform a basic task of calculus. Kelvin and his brother were able to use this method to create a “harmonic synthesizer” that could churn out an annual tide chart in four hours. But they were never able to conquer the mechanical difficulties of linking together many of these devices in order to solve equations with a lot of variables.

That challenge of linking together multiple integrators was not mastered until 1931, when an MIT engineering professor, Vannevar (rhymes with beaver) Bush—remember his name, for he is a key character in this book—was able to build the world’s first analog electrical- mechanical computer. He dubbed his machine a Differential Analyzer. It consisted of six wheel-and-disk integrators, not all that different from Lord Kelvin’s, that were connected by an array of gears, pulleys, and shafts rotated by electric motors. It helped that Bush was at MIT; there were a lot of people around who could assemble and calibrate complex contraptions. The final machine, which was the size of a small bedroom, could solve equations with as many as eighteen independent variables. Over the next decade, versions of Bush’s Differential Analyzer were replicated at the U.S. Army’s Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, and Manchester and Cambridge universities in England. They proved particularly useful in churning out artillery firing tables—and in training and inspiring the next generation of computer pioneers.

Bush’s machine, however, was not destined to be a major advance in computing history because it was an analog device. In fact, it turned out to be the last gasp for analog computing, at least for many decades.

New approaches, technologies, and theories began to emerge in 1937, exactly a hundred years after Babbage first published his paper on the Analytical Engine. It would become an annus mirabilis of the computer age, and the result would be the triumph of four properties, somewhat interrelated, that would define modern computing:

DIGITAL. A fundamental trait of the computer revolution was that it was based on digital, not analog, computers. This occurred for many reasons, as we shall soon see, including simultaneous advances in logic theory, circuits, and electronic on-off switches that made a

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digital rather than an analog approach more fruitful. It would not be until the 2010s that computer scientists, seeking to mimic the human brain, would seriously begin working on ways to revive analog computing.

BINARY. Not only would modern computers be digital, but the digital system they would adopt would be binary, or base-2, meaning that it employs just 0s and 1s rather than all ten digits of our everyday decimal system. Like many mathematical concepts, binary theory was pioneered by Leibniz in the late seventeenth century. During the 1940s, it became increasingly clear that the binary system worked better than other digital forms, including the decimal system, for performing logical operations using circuits composed of on-off switches.

ELECTRONIC. In the mid-1930s, the British engineer Tommy Flowers pioneered the use of vacuum tubes as on-off switches in electronic circuits. Until then, circuits had relied on mechanical and electromechanical switches, such as the clacking electromagnetic relays that were used by phone companies. Vacuum tubes had mainly been employed to amplify signals rather than as on-off switches. By using electronic components such as vacuum tubes, and later transistors and microchips, computers could operate thousands of times faster than machines that had moving electromechanical switches.

GENERAL PURPOSE. Finally, the machines would eventually have the ability to be programmed and reprogrammed—and even reprogram themselves—for a variety of purposes. They would be able to solve not just one form of mathematical calculation, such as differential equations, but could handle a multiplicity of tasks and symbol manipulations, involving words and music and pictures as well as numbers, thus fulfilling the potential that Lady Lovelace had celebrated when describing Babbage’s Analytical Engine.

Innovation occurs when ripe seeds fall on fertile ground. Instead of having a single cause, the great advances of 1937 came from a combination of capabilities, ideas, and needs that coincided in multiple places. As often happens in the annals of invention, especially information technology invention, the time was right and the atmosphere was charged. The development of vacuum tubes for the radio industry paved the way for the creation of electronic digital circuits. That was accompanied by theoretical advances in logic that made circuits more useful. And the march was quickened by the drums of war. As nations began arming for the looming conflict, it became clear that computational power was as important as firepower. Advances fed on one another, occurring almost simultaneously and spontaneously, at Harvard and MIT and Princeton and Bell Labs and an apartment in Berlin and even, most improbably but interestingly, in a basement in Ames, Iowa.

Underpinning all of these advances were some beautiful—Ada might call them poetic— leaps of mathematics. One of these leaps led to the formal concept of a “universal computer,” a general-purpose machine that could be programmed to perform any logical task and simulate the behavior of any other logical machine. It was conjured up as a thought experiment by a brilliant English mathematician with a life story that was both inspiring and tragic.

ALAN TURING Alan Turing had the cold upbringing of a child born on the fraying fringe of the British gentry.1 His family had been graced since 1638 with a baronetcy, which had meandered down the lineage to one of his nephews. But for the younger sons on the family tree, which Turing

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and his father and grandfather were, there was no land and little wealth. Most went into fields such as the clergy, like Alan’s grandfather, and the colonial civil service, like his father, who served as a minor administrator in remote regions of India. Alan was conceived in Chhatrapur, India, and born on June 23, 1912, in London, while his parents were on home leave. When he was only one, his parents went back to India for a few years, and handed him and his older brother off to a retired army colonel and his wife to be raised in a seaside town on the south coast of England. “I am no child psychologist,” his brother, John, later noted, “but I am assured that it is a bad thing for an infant in arms to be uprooted and put into a strange environment.”2

When his mother returned, Alan lived with her for a few years and then, at age thirteen, was sent to boarding school. He rode there on his bicycle, taking two days to cover more than sixty miles, alone. There was a lonely intensity to him, reflected in his love of long-distance running and biking. He also had a trait, so common among innovators, that was charmingly described by his biographer Andrew Hodges: “Alan was slow to learn that indistinct line that separated initiative from disobedience.”3

In a poignant memoir, his mother described the son whom she doted upon:

Alan was broad, strongly built and tall, with a square, determined jaw and unruly brown hair. His deep-set, clear blue eyes were his most remarkable feature. The short, slightly retroussé nose and humorous lines of his mouth gave him a youthful—sometimes a childlike— appearance. So much so that in his late thirties he was still at times mistaken for an undergraduate. In dress and habits he tended to be slovenly. His hair was usually too long, with an overhanging lock which he would toss back with a jerk of his head. . . . He could be abstracted and dreamy, absorbed in his own thoughts which on occasion made him seem unsociable. . . . There were times when his shyness led him into extreme gaucherie. . . . Indeed he surmised that the seclusion of a mediaeval monastery would have suited him very well.4

At the boarding school, Sherborne, he realized that he was homosexual. He became

infatuated with a fair-haired, slender schoolmate, Christopher Morcom, with whom he studied math and discussed philosophy. But in the winter before he was to graduate, Morcom suddenly died of tuberculosis. Turing would later write Morcom’s mother, “I simply worshipped the ground he trod on—a thing which I did not make much attempt to disguise, I am sorry to say.”5 In a letter to his own mother, Turing seemed to take refuge in his faith: “I feel that I shall meet Morcom again somewhere and that there will be work for us to do together there as I believed there was for us to do here. Now that I am left to do it alone, I must not let him down. If I succeed I shall be more fit to join his company than I am now.” But the tragedy ended up eroding Turing’s religious faith. It also turned him even more inward, and he never again found it easy to forge intimate relationships. His housemaster reported to his parents at Easter 1927, “Undeniably he’s not a ‘normal’ boy; not the worse for that, but probably less happy.”6

In his final year at Sherborne, Turing won a scholarship to attend King’s College, Cambridge, where he went in 1931 to read mathematics. One of three books he bought with some prize money was The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, by John von Neumann, a fascinating Hungarian-born mathematician who, as a pioneer of computer design, would have a continuing influence on his life. Turing was particularly interested in the math at the core of quantum physics, which describes how events at the subatomic level are governed by statistical probabilities rather than laws that determine things with certainty. He believed (at least while he was young) that this uncertainty and indeterminacy at the subatomic level permitted humans to exercise free will—a trait that, if true, would seem to distinguish them from machines. In other words, because events at the subatomic level are not predetermined, that opens the way for our thoughts and actions not to be predetermined. As he explained in a letter to Morcom’s mother:

It used to be supposed in science that if everything was known about the Universe at any particular moment then we can predict what it will be through all the future. This idea was really due to the great success of astronomical prediction. More modern science however has come to the conclusion that when we are dealing with atoms and electrons we are quite unable to know the exact state of them; our instruments being made of atoms and electrons themselves. The conception then of being able to know the exact state of the universe then really must break down on the small scale. This means then that the theory which held that as eclipses etc. are predestined so were all our actions breaks down too. We have a

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will which is able to determine the action of the atoms probably in a small portion of the brain, or possibly all over it.7

For the rest of his life, Turing would wrestle with the issue of whether the human mind was fundamentally different from a deterministic machine, and he would gradually come to the conclusion that the distinction was less clear than he had thought.

He also had an instinct that, just as uncertainty pervaded the subatomic realm, there were also mathematical problems that could not be solved mechanically and were destined to be cloaked in indeterminacy. At the time, mathematicians were intensely focused on questions about the completeness and consistency of logical systems, partly due to the influence of David Hilbert, the Göttingen-based genius who, among many other achievements, had come up with the mathematical formulation of the theory of general relativity concurrently with Einstein.

At a 1928 conference, Hilbert posed three fundamental questions about any formal system of mathematics: (1) Was its set of rules complete, so that any statement could be proved (or disproved) using only the rules of the system? (2) Was it consistent, so that no statement could be proved true and also proved false? (3) Was there some procedure that could determine whether a particular statement was provable, rather than allowing the possibility that some statements (such as enduring math riddles like Fermat’s last theorem,5 Goldbach’s conjecture,6 or the Collatz conjecture7) were destined to remain in undecidable limbo? Hilbert thought that the answer to the first two questions was yes, making the third one moot. He put it simply, “There is no such thing as an unsolvable problem.”

Within three years, the Austrian-born logician Kurt Gödel, then twenty-five and living with his mother in Vienna, polished off the first two of these questions with unexpected answers: no and no. In his “incompleteness theorem,” he showed that there existed statements that could be neither proved nor disproved. Among them, to oversimplify a bit, were those that were akin to self-referential statements such as “This statement is unprovable.” If the statement is true, then it decrees that we can’t prove it to be true; if it’s false, that also leads to a logical contradiction. It is somewhat like the ancient Greek “liar’s paradox,” in which the truth of the statement “This statement is false” cannot be determined. (If the statement is true, then it’s also false, and vice versa.)

By coming up with statements that could not be proved or disproved, Gödel showed that any formal system powerful enough to express the usual mathematics was incomplete. He was also able to produce a companion theorem that effectively answered no to Hilbert’s second question.

That left the third of Hilbert’s questions, that of decidability or, as Hilbert called it, the Entscheidungsproblem or “decision problem.” Even though Gödel had come up with statements that could be neither proved nor disproved, perhaps that odd class of statements could somehow be identified and cordoned off, leaving the rest of the system complete and consistent. That would require that we find some method for deciding whether a statement was provable. When the great Cambridge math professor Max Newman taught Turing about Hilbert’s questions, the way he expressed the Entscheidungsproblem was this: Is there a “mechanical process” that can be used to determine whether a particular logical statement is provable?

Turing liked the concept of a “mechanical process.” One day in the summer of 1935, he was out for his usual solitary run along the Ely River, and after a couple of miles he stopped to lie down among the apple trees in Grantchester Meadows to ponder an idea. He would take the notion of a “mechanical process” literally, conjuring up a mechanical process—an imaginary machine—and applying it to the problem.8

The “Logical Computing Machine” that he envisioned (as a thought experiment, not as a real machine to be built) was quite simple at first glance, but it could handle, in theory, any

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mathematical computation. It consisted of an unlimited length of paper tape containing symbols within squares; in the simplest binary example, these symbols could be merely a 1 and a blank. The machine would be able to read the symbols on the tape and perform certain actions based on a “table of instructions” it had been given.9

The table of instructions would tell the machine what to do based on whatever configuration it happened to be in and what symbol, if any, it found in the square. For example, the table of instructions for a particular task might decree that if the machine was in configuration 1 and saw a 1 in the square, then it should move one square to the right and shift into configuration 2. Somewhat surprisingly, to us if not to Turing, such a machine, given the proper table of instructions, could complete any mathematical task, no matter how complex.

How might this imaginary machine answer Hilbert’s third question, the decision problem? Turing approached the problem by refining the concept of “computable numbers.” Any real number that was defined by a mathematical rule could be calculated by the Logical Computing Machine. Even an irrational number such as π could be calculated indefinitely using a finite table of instructions. So could the logarithm of 7, or the square root of 2, or the sequence of Bernoulli numbers that Ada Lovelace had helped produce an algorithm for, or any other number or series, no matter how challenging to compute, as long as its calculation was defined by a finite set of rules. All of these were, in Turing’s parlance, “computable numbers.”

Turing went on to show that noncomputable numbers also existed. This was related to what he called “the halting problem.” There can be no method, he showed, to determine in advance whether any given instruction table combined with any given set of inputs will lead the machine to arrive at an answer or go into some loop and continue chugging away indefinitely, getting nowhere. The insolvability of the halting problem, he showed, meant that Hilbert’s decision problem, the Entscheidungsproblem, was unsolvable. Despite what Hilbert seemed to hope, no mechanical procedure can determine the provability of every mathematical statement. Gödel’s incompleteness theory, the indeterminacy of quantum mechanics, and Turing’s answer to Hilbert’s third challenge all dealt blows to a mechanical, deterministic, predictable universe.

Turing’s paper was published in 1937 with the not so snappy title “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem.” His answer to Hilbert’s third question was useful for the development of mathematical theory. But far more important was the by-product of Turing’s proof: his concept of a Logical Computing Machine, which soon came to be known as a Turing machine. “It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute any computable sequence,” he declared.10 Such a machine would be able to read the instructions of any other machine and carry out whatever task that machine could do. In essence, it embodied the dream of Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace for a completely general-purpose universal machine.

A different and less beautiful solution to the Entscheidungsproblem, with the clunkier name “untyped lambda calculus,” had been published earlier that year by Alonzo Church, a mathematician at Princeton. Turing’s professor Max Newman decided that it would be useful for Turing to go there to study under Church. In his letter of recommendation, Newman described Turing’s enormous potential. He also added a more personal appeal based on Turing’s personality. “He has been working without any supervision or criticism from anyone,” Newman wrote. “This makes it all the more important that he should come into contact as soon as possible with the leading workers on this line, so that he should not develop into a confirmed solitary.”11

Turing did have a tendency toward being a loner. His homosexuality made him feel like an outsider at times; he lived alone and avoided deep personal commitments. At one point he

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proposed marriage to a female colleague, but then felt compelled to tell her that he was gay; she was unfazed and still willing to get married, but he believed it would be a sham and decided not to proceed. Yet he did not become “a confirmed solitary.” He learned to work as part of a team, with collaborators, which was key to allowing his abstract theories to be reflected in real and tangible inventions.

In September 1936, while waiting for his paper to be published, the twenty-four-year-old doctoral candidate sailed to America in steerage class aboard the aging ocean liner RMS Berengaria, lugging with him a prized brass sextant. His office at Princeton was in the Mathematics Department building, which also then housed the Institute for Advanced Study, where Einstein, Gödel, and von Neumann held court. The cultivated and highly sociable von Neumann became particularly interested in Turing’s work, despite their very different personalities.

The seismic shifts and simultaneous advances of 1937 were not directly caused by the publication of Turing’s paper. In fact, it got little notice at first. Turing asked his mother to send out reprints of it to the mathematical philosopher Bertrand Russell and a half dozen other famous scholars, but the only major review was by Alonzo Church, who could afford to be flattering because he had been ahead of Turing in solving Hilbert’s decision problem. Church was not only generous; he introduced the term Turing machine for what Turing had called a Logical Computing Machine. Thus at twenty-four, Turing’s name became indelibly stamped on one of the most important concepts of the digital age.12

CLAUDE SHANNON AND GEORGE STIBITZ AT BELL LABS There was another seminal theoretical breakthrough in 1937, similar to Turing’s in that it was purely a thought experiment. This one was the work of an MIT graduate student named Claude Shannon, who that year turned in the most influential master’s thesis of all time, a paper that Scientific American later dubbed “the Magna Carta of the Information Age.”13

Shannon grew up in a small Michigan town where he built model planes and amateur radios, then went on to major in electrical engineering and math at the University of Michigan. In his senior year he answered a help-wanted listing tacked to a bulletin board, which offered a job at MIT working under Vannevar Bush helping to run the Differential Analyzer. Shannon got the job and was mesmerized by the machine—not so much the rods and pulleys and wheels that formed the analog components as the electromagnetic relay switches that were part of its control circuit. As electrical signals caused them to click open and clack closed, the switches created different circuit patterns.

During the summer of 1937, Shannon took a break from MIT and went to work at Bell Labs, a research facility run by AT&T. Located then in Manhattan on the Hudson River edge of Greenwich Village, it was a haven for turning ideas into inventions. Abstract theories intersected with practical problems there, and in the corridors and cafeterias eccentric theorists mingled with hands-on engineers, gnarly mechanics, and businesslike problem- solvers, encouraging the cross-fertilization of theory with engineering. This made Bell Labs an archetype of one of the most important underpinnings of digital-age innovation, what the Harvard science historian Peter Galison has called a “trading zone.” When these disparate practitioners and theoreticians came together, they learned how to find a common parlance to trade ideas and exchange information.14

At Bell Labs, Shannon saw up close the wonderful power of the phone system’s circuits, which used electrical switches to route calls and balance loads. In his mind, he began connecting the workings of these circuits to another subject he found fascinating, the system of logic formulated ninety years earlier by the British mathematician George Boole. Boole revolutionized logic by finding ways to express logical statements using symbols and

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equations. He gave true propositions the value 1 and false propositions a 0. A set of basic logical operations—such as and, or, not, either/or, and if/then—could then be performed using these propositions, just as if they were math equations.

Shannon figured out that electrical circuits could execute these logical operations using an arrangement of on-off switches. To perform an and function, for example, two switches could be put in sequence, so that both had to be on for electricity to flow. To perform an or function, the switches could be in parallel so that electricity would flow if either of them was on. Slightly more versatile switches called logic gates could streamline the process. In other words, you could design a circuit containing a lot of relays and logic gates that could perform, step by step, a sequence of logical tasks.

(A “relay” is simply a switch that can be opened and shut electrically, such as by using an electromagnet. The ones that clack open and closed are sometimes called electromechanical because they have moving parts. Vacuum tubes and transistors can also be used as switches in an electrical circuit; they are called electronic because they manipulate the flow of electrons but do not require the movement of any physical parts. A “logic gate” is a switch that can handle one or more inputs. For example, in the case of two inputs, an and logic gate switches on if both of the inputs are on, and an or logic gate switches on if either of the inputs is on. Shannon’s insight was that these could be wired together in circuits that could execute the tasks of Boole’s logical algebra.)

When Shannon returned to MIT in the fall, Bush was fascinated by his ideas and urged him to include them in his master’s thesis. Entitled “A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits,” it showed how each of the many functions of Boolean algebra could be executed. “It is possible to perform complex mathematical operations by means of relay circuits,” he summed up at the end.15 This became the basic concept underlying all digital computers.

Shannon’s ideas intrigued Turing because they neatly related to his own just-published concept of a universal machine that could use simple instructions, expressed in binary coding, to tackle problems not only of math but of logic. Also, since logic was related to the way human minds reason, a machine that performed logical tasks could, in theory, mimic the way humans think.

Working at Bell Labs at the same time was a mathematician named George Stibitz, whose job was to figure out ways to handle the increasingly complicated calculations needed by the telephone engineers. The only tools he had were mechanical desktop adding machines, so he set out to invent something better based on Shannon’s insight that electronic circuits could perform mathematical and logical tasks. Late one evening in November, he went to the stockroom and took home some old electromagnetic relays and bulbs. At his kitchen table, he put the parts together with a tobacco tin and a few switches to form a simple logical circuit that could add binary numbers. A lit bulb represented a 1, and an unlit bulb represented a 0. His wife dubbed it the “K-Model,” after the kitchen table. He took it into the office the next day and tried to convince his colleagues that, with enough relays, he could make a calculating machine.

One important mission of Bell Labs was to figure out ways to amplify a phone signal over long distances while filtering out static. The engineers had formulas that dealt with the amplitude and phase of the signal, and the solutions to their equations sometimes involved complex numbers (ones that include an imaginary unit that represents the square root of a negative number). Stibitz was asked by his supervisor if his proposed machine could handle complex numbers. When he said that it could, a team was assigned to help him build it. The Complex Number Calculator, as it was called, was completed in 1939. It had more than four hundred relays, each of which could open and shut twenty times per second. That made it both blindingly fast compared to mechanical calculators and painfully clunky compared to

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the all-electronic vacuum-tube circuits just being invented. Stibitz’s computer was not programmable, but it showed the potential of a circuit of relays to do binary math, process information, and handle logical procedures.16

HOWARD AIKEN Also in 1937 a Harvard doctoral student named Howard Aiken was struggling to do tedious calculations for his physics thesis using an adding machine. When he lobbied the university to build a more sophisticated computer to do the work, his department head mentioned that in the attic of Harvard’s science center were some brass wheels from a century-old device that seemed to be similar to what he wanted. When Aiken explored the attic, he found one of six demonstration models of Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine, which Babbage’s son Henry had made and distributed. Aiken became fascinated by Babbage and moved the set of brass wheels into his office. “Sure enough, we had two of Babbage’s wheels,” he recalled. “Those were the wheels that I had later mounted and put in the body of the computer.”17

That fall, just when Stibitz was cooking up his kitchen-table demonstration, Aiken wrote a twenty-two-page memo to his Harvard superiors and executives at IBM making the case that they should fund a modern version of Babbage’s digital machine. “The desire to economize time and mental effort in arithmetical computations, and to eliminate human liability to error is probably as old as the science of arithmetic itself,” his memo began.18

Aiken had grown up in Indiana under rough circumstances. When he was twelve, he used a fireplace poker to defend his mother against his drunk and abusive father, who then abandoned the family with no money. So young Howard dropped out of ninth grade to support the family by working as a telephone installer, then got a night job with the local power company so that he could attend a tech school during the day. He drove himself to be a success, but in the process he developed into a taskmaster with an explosive temper, someone who was described as resembling an approaching thunderstorm.19

Harvard had mixed feelings about building Aiken’s proposed calculating machine or holding out the possibility that he might be granted tenure for a project that seemed to be more practical than academic. (In parts of the Harvard faculty club, calling someone practical rather than academic was considered an insult.) Supporting Aiken was President James Bryant Conant, who, as chairman of the National Defense Research Committee, was comfortable positioning Harvard as part of a triangle involving academia, industry, and the military. His Physics Department, however, was more purist. Its chairman wrote to Conant in December 1939, saying that the machine was “desirable if money can be found, but not necessarily more desirable than anything else,” and a faculty committee said of Aiken, “It should be made quite clear to him that such activity did not increase his chances of promotion to a professorship.” Eventually Conant prevailed and authorized Aiken to build his machine.20

In April 1941, as IBM was constructing the Mark I to Aiken’s specifications at its lab in Endicott, New York, he left Harvard to serve in the U.S. Navy. For two years he was a teacher, with the rank of lieutenant commander, at the Naval Mine Warfare School in Virginia. One colleague described him as “armed to the teeth with room-length formulas and ivy-covered Harvard theories” and running “smack into a collection of Dixie dumbbells [none of whom] knew calculus from corn pone.”21 Much of his time was spent thinking about the Mark I, and he made occasional visits to Endicott wearing his full dress uniform.22

His tour of duty had one major payoff: at the beginning of 1944, as IBM was getting ready to ship the completed Mark I to Harvard, Aiken was able to convince the Navy to take over authority for the machine and assign him to be the officer in charge. That helped him circumnavigate the academic bureaucracy of Harvard, which was still balky about granting him tenure. The Harvard Computation Laboratory became, for the time being, a naval

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facility, and all of Aiken’s staffers were Navy personnel who wore uniforms to work. He called them his “crew,” they called him “commander,” and the Mark I was referred to as “she,” as if she were a ship.23

The Harvard Mark I borrowed a lot of Babbage’s ideas. It was digital, although not binary; its wheels had ten positions. Along its fifty-foot shaft were seventy-two counters that could store numbers of up to twenty-three digits, and the finished five-ton product was eighty feet long and fifty feet wide. The shaft and other moving parts were turned electrically. But it was slow. Instead of electromagnetic relays, it used mechanical ones that were opened and shut by electric motors. That meant it took about six seconds to do a multiplication problem, compared to one second for Stibitz’s machine. It did, however, have one impressive feature that would become a staple of modern computers: it was fully automatic. Programs and data were entered by paper tape, and it could run for days with no human intervention. That allowed Aiken to refer to it as “Babbage’s dream come true.”24

KONRAD ZUSE Although they didn’t know it, all of these pioneers were being beaten in 1937 by a German engineer working in his parents’ apartment. Konrad Zuse was finishing the prototype for a calculator that was binary and could read instructions from a punched tape. However, at least in its first version, called the Z1, it was a mechanical, not an electrical or electronic, machine.

Like many pioneers in the digital age, Zuse grew up fascinated by both art and engineering. After graduating from a technical college, he got a job as a stress analyst for an aircraft company in Berlin, solving linear equations that incorporated all sorts of load and strength and elasticity factors. Even using mechanical calculators, it was almost impossible for a person to solve in less than a day more than six simultaneous linear equations with six unknowns. If there were twenty-five variables, it could take a year. So Zuse, like so many others, was driven by the desire to mechanize the tedious process of solving mathematical equations. He converted his parents’ living room, in an apartment near Berlin’s Tempelhof Airport, into a workshop.25

In Zuse’s first version, binary digits were stored by using thin metal plates with slots and pins, which he and his friends made using a jigsaw. At first he used punched paper tape to input data and programs, but he soon switched to discarded 35 mm movie film, which not only was sturdier but happened to be cheaper. His Z1 was completed in 1938, and it was able to clank through a few problems, though not very reliably. All the components had been made by hand, and they tended to jam. He was handicapped by not being at a place like Bell Labs or part of a collaboration like Harvard had with IBM, which would have allowed him to team up with engineers who could have supplemented his talents.

The Z1 did, however, show that the logical concept Zuse had designed would work in theory. A college friend who was helping him, Helmut Schreyer, urged that they make a version using electronic vacuum tubes rather than mechanical switches. Had they done so right away, they would have gone down in history as the first inventors of a working modern computer: binary, electronic, and programmable. But Zuse, as well as the experts he consulted at the technical school, balked at the expense of building a device with close to two thousand vacuum tubes.26

So for the Z2 they decided instead to use electromechanical relay switches, acquired secondhand from the phone company, which were tougher and cheaper, although a lot slower. The result was a computer that used relays for the arithmetic unit. However, the memory unit was mechanical, using movable pins in a metal sheet.

In 1939 Zuse began work on a third model, the Z3, that used electromechanical relays both for the arithmetic unit and for the memory and control units. When it was completed in 1941,

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it became the first fully working all-purpose, programmable digital computer. Even though it did not have a way to directly handle conditional jumps and branching in the programs, it could theoretically perform as a universal Turing machine. Its major difference from later computers was that it used clunky electromagnetic relays rather than electronic components such as vacuum tubes or transistors.

Zuse’s friend Schreyer went on to write a doctoral thesis, “The Tube Relay and the Techniques of Its Switching,” that advocated using vacuum tubes for a powerful and fast computer. But when he and Zuse proposed it to the German Army in 1942, the commanders said they were confident that they would win the war before the two years it would take to build such a machine.27 They were more interested in making weapons than computers. As a result, Zuse was pulled away from his computer work and sent back to engineering airplanes. In 1943 his computers and designs were destroyed in the Allied bombing of Berlin.

Zuse and Stibitz, working independently, had both come up with employing relay switches to make circuits that could handle binary computations. How did they develop this idea at the same time when war kept their two teams isolated? The answer is partly that advances in technology and theory made the moment ripe. Along with many other innovators, Zuse and Stibitz were familiar with the use of relays in phone circuits, and it made sense to tie that to binary operations of math and logic. Likewise, Shannon, who was also very familiar with phone circuits, made the related theoretical leap that electronic circuits would be able to perform the logical tasks of Boolean algebra. The idea that digital circuits would be the key to computing was quickly becoming clear to researchers almost everywhere, even in isolated places like central Iowa.

JOHN VINCENT ATANASOFF Far from both Zuse and Stibitz, another inventor was also experimenting with digital circuits in 1937. Toiling in a basement in Iowa, he would make the next historic innovation: building a calculating device that, at least in part, used vacuum tubes. In some ways his machine was less advanced than the others. It wasn’t programmable and multipurpose; instead of being totally electronic, he included some slow mechanical moving elements; and even though he built a model that was able to work in theory, he couldn’t actually get the thing reliably operational. Nevertheless, John Vincent Atanasoff, known to his wife and friends as Vincent, deserves the distinction of being the pioneer who conceived the first partly electronic digital computer, and he did so after he was struck by inspiration during a long impetuous drive one night in December 1937.28

Atanasoff was born in 1903, the eldest of seven children of a Bulgarian immigrant and a woman descended from one of New England’s oldest families. His father worked as an engineer in a New Jersey electric plant run by Thomas Edison, then moved the family to a town in rural Florida south of Tampa. At nine, Vincent helped his father wire their Florida house for electricity, and his father gave him a Dietzgen slide rule. “That slide rule was my meat,” he recalled.29 At an early age, he dove into the study of logarithms with an enthusiasm that seems a bit wacky even as he recounted it in earnest tones: “Can you imagine how a boy of nine, with baseball on his mind, could be transformed by this knowledge? Baseball was reduced to near zero as a stern study was made of logarithms.” Over the summer, he calculated the logarithm of 5 to the base e, then, with his mother’s help (she had once been a math teacher), he learned calculus while still in middle school. His father took him to the phosphate plant where he was an electrical engineer, showing him how the generators worked. Diffident, creative, and brilliant, young Vincent finished high school in two years, getting all A’s in his double load of classes.

At the University of Florida he studied electrical engineering and displayed a practical

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inclination, spending time in the university’s machine shop and foundry. He also remained fascinated by math and as a freshman studied a proof involving binary arithmetic. Creative and self-confident, he graduated with the highest grade point average of his time. He accepted a fellowship to pursue master’s work in math and physics at Iowa State and, even though he later was admitted to Harvard, stuck with his decision to head up to the corn belt town of Ames.

Atanasoff went on to pursue a doctorate in physics at the University of Wisconsin, where he had the same experience as the other computer pioneers, beginning with Babbage. His work, which was on how helium can be polarized by an electric field, involved tedious calculations. As he struggled to solve the math using a desktop adding machine, he dreamed of ways to invent a calculator that could do more of the work. After returning to Iowa State in 1930 as an assistant professor, he decided that his degrees in electrical engineering, math, and physics had equipped him for the task.

There was a consequence to his decision not to stay at Wisconsin or to go to Harvard or a similar large research university. At Iowa State, where no one else was working on ways to build new calculators, Atanasoff was on his own. He could come up with fresh ideas, but he did not have around him people to serve as sounding boards or to help him overcome theoretical or engineering challenges. Unlike most innovators of the digital age, he was a lone inventor, drawing his inspiration during solo car trips and in discussions with one graduate student assistant. In the end, that would prove to be a drawback.

Atanasoff initially considered building an analog device; his love of slide rules led him to try to devise a supersize version using long strips of film. But he realized that the film would have to be hundreds of yards long in order to solve linear algebraic equations accurately enough to suit his needs. He also built a contraption that could shape a mound of paraffin so that it could calculate a partial differential equation. The limitations of these analog devices caused him to focus instead on creating a digital version.

The first problem he tackled was how to store numbers in a machine. He used the term memory to describe this feature: “At the time, I had only a cursory knowledge of the work of Babbage and so did not know he called the same concept ‘store.’ . . . I like his word, and perhaps if I had known, I would have adopted it; I like ‘memory,’ too, with its analogy to the brain.”30

Atanasoff went through a list of possible memory devices: mechanical pins, electromagnetic relays, a small piece of magnetic material that could be polarized by an electric charge, vacuum tubes, and a small electrical condenser. The fastest would be vacuum tubes, but they were expensive. So he opted instead to use what he called condensers—what we now call capacitors—which are small and inexpensive components that can store, at least briefly, an electrical charge. It was an understandable decision, but it meant that the machine would be sluggish and clunky. Even if the adding and subtracting could be done at electronic speeds, the process of taking numbers in and out of the memory unit would slow things down to the speed of the rotating drum.

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George Stibitz (1904–95) circa 1945.

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Konrad Zuse (1910–95) with the Z4 computer in 1944.

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John Atanasoff (1903–95) at Iowa State, circa 1940.

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Reconstruction of Atanasoff’s computer.

Once he had settled on the memory unit, Atanasoff turned his attention to how to construct the arithmetic and logic unit, which he called the “computing mechanism.” He decided it should be fully electronic; that meant using vacuum tubes, even though they were expensive. The tubes would act as on-off switches to perform the function of logic gates in a circuit that could add, subtract, and perform any Boolean function.

That raised a theoretical math issue of the type he had loved since he was a boy: Should his digital system be decimal or binary or rely on some other numerical base? A true enthusiast for number systems, Atanasoff explored many options. “For a short time the base one- hundred was thought to have some promise,” he wrote in an unpublished paper. “This same calculation showed that the base that theoretically gives the highest speed of calculation is e, the natural base.”31 But, balancing theory with practicality, he finally settled on base-2, the binary system. By late 1937, these and other ideas were jangling around in his head, a “hodgepodge” of concepts that wouldn’t “jell.”

Atanasoff loved cars; he liked to buy, if he could, a new one each year, and in December 1937, he had a new Ford with a powerful V8 engine. To relax his mind, he took it for a late- night spin for what would become a noteworthy moment in the history of computing:

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One night in the winter of 1937 my whole body was in torment from trying to solve the problems of the machine. I got in my car and drove at high speeds for a long while so I could control my emotions. It was my habit to do this for a few miles: I could gain control of myself by concentrating on driving. But that night I was excessively tormented, and I kept on going until I had crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois and was 189 miles from where I started.32

He turned off the highway and pulled into a roadhouse tavern. At least in Illinois, unlike in Iowa, he could buy a drink, and he ordered himself a bourbon and soda, then another. “I realized that I was no longer so nervous and my thoughts turned again to computing machines,” he recalled. “I don’t know why my mind worked then when it had not worked previously, but things seemed to be good and cool and quiet.” The waitress was inattentive, so Atanasoff got to process his problem undisturbed.33

He sketched out his ideas on a paper napkin, then began to sort through some practical questions. The most important was how to replenish the charges in the condensers, which would otherwise drain after a minute or two. He came up with the idea of putting them on rotating cylinder drums, about the size of 46-ounce cans of V8 juice, so they would come into contact once a second with brushlike wires and have their charges refreshed. “During this evening in the tavern, I generated within my mind the possibility of the regenerative memory,” he declared. “I called it ‘jogging’ at that time.” With each turn of the rotating cylinder, the wires would jog the memory of the condensers and, when necessary, retrieve data from the condensers and store new data. He also came up with an architecture that would take numbers from two different cylinders of condensers, then use the vacuum-tube circuit to add or subtract them and put the result into memory. After a few hours of figuring everything out, he recalled, “I got in my car and drove home at a slower rate.”34

By May 1939, Atanasoff was ready to begin construction of a prototype. He needed an assistant, preferably a graduate student with engineering experience. “I have your man,” a friend on the faculty told him one day. Thus he struck up a partnership with another son of a self-taught electrical engineer, Clifford Berry.35

The machine was designed and hard-wired with a single purpose: solving simultaneous linear equations. It could handle up to twenty-nine variables. With each step, Atanasoff’s machine would process two equations and eliminate one of the variables, then print the resulting equations on 8 x 11 binary punch cards. This set of cards with the simpler equation would then be fed back into the machine for the process to begin anew, eliminating yet another variable. The process required a bit of time. The machine would (if they could get it to work properly) take almost a week to complete a set of twenty-nine equations. Still, humans doing the same process on desk calculators would require at least ten weeks.

Atanasoff demonstrated a prototype at the end of 1939 and, hoping to get funding to build a full-scale machine, typed up a thirty-five-page proposal, using carbon paper to make a few copies. “It is the main purpose of this paper to present a description and exposition of a computing machine which has been designed principally for the solution of large systems of linear algebraic equations,” he began. As if to fend off criticism that this was a limited purpose for a big machine, Atanasoff specified a long list of problems that required solving such equations: “curve fitting . . . vibrational problems . . . electrical circuit analysis . . . elastic structures.” He concluded with a detailed list of proposed expenditures, which added up to the grand sum of $5,330, which he ended up getting from a private foundation.36 Then he sent one of the carbon copies of his proposal to a Chicago patent lawyer retained by Iowa State, who, in a dereliction of duty that would spawn decades of historical and legal controversy, never got around to filing for any patents. By September 1942 Atanasoff’s full-scale model was almost finished. It was the size of a desk and contained close to three hundred vacuum tubes. There was, however, a problem: the mechanism for using sparks to burn holes in the punch cards never worked properly, and 84 there were no teams of machinists and engineers at Iowa State he could turn to for help. At that point, work stopped. Atanasoff was drafted into the Navy and sent to its ordnance laboratory in Washington, DC, where he worked on acoustic mines and later attended the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. Shifting his focus from computers to ordnance engineering, he remained an inventor, earning thirty patents, including on a minesweeping device. But his Chicago lawyer never applied for patents on his computer. Atanasoff’s computer could have been an important milestone, but it was, both literally and figuratively, relegated to the dustbin of history. The almost-working machine was put into storage in the basement of the physics building at Iowa State, and a few years later no one seemed to remember what it did. When the space was needed for other uses in 1948, a graduate student dismantled it, not realizing what it was, and discarded most of the parts.37 Many early histories of the computer age do not even mention Atanasoff. Even if it had worked properly, his machine had limitations. The vacuum-tube circuit made lightning-fast calculations, but the mechanically rotated memory units slowed down the process enormously. So did the system for burning holes in the punch cards, even when it worked. In order to be truly fast, modern computers would have to be all-electronic, not just partly. Nor was Atanasoff’s model programmable. It was geared to do just one thing: solve linear equations. Atanasoff’s enduring romantic appeal is that he was a lone tinkerer in a basement, with only his young sidekick Clifford Berry for a companion. But his tale is evidence that we shouldn’t in fact romanticize such loners. Like Babbage, who also toiled in his own little workshop with just an assistant, Atanasoff never got his machine to be fully functional. Had he been at Bell Labs, amid swarms of technicians and engineers and repairmen, or at a big research university, a solution would likely have been found for fixing the card reader as well as the other balky parts of his contraption. Plus, when Atanasoff was called away to the Navy in 1942, there would have been team members left behind to put on the finishing touches, or at least to remember what was being built. What saved Atanasoff from being a forgotten historical footnote is somewhat ironic, given the resentment he later felt about the event. It was a visit that he had in June 1941 from one of those people who, instead of toiling in isolation, loved visiting places and snatching up ideas and working with teams of people. John Mauchly’s trip to Iowa would later be the subject of costly lawsuits, bitter accusations, and dueling historical narratives. But it is what saved Atanasoff from obscurity and moved the course of computer history forward. JOHN MAUCHLY In the early twentieth century, the United States developed, as Britain had earlier, a class of gentleman scientists who congregated at wood-paneled explorers’ clubs and other rarefied institutes, where they enjoyed sharing ideas, listening to lectures, and collaborating on projects. John Mauchly was raised in that realm. His father, a physicist, was a research chief in the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Washington-based Carnegie Institution, the nation’s foremost foundation for promoting the advance and sharing of research. His specialty was recording electrical conditions in the atmosphere and relating them to the weather, a collegial endeavor that involved coordinating researchers from Greenland to Peru.38 Growing up in the Washington suburb of Chevy Chase, John was exposed to the area’s growing scientific community. “Chevy Chase seemed to have practically all the scientists in Washington,” he boasted. “The director of the Weights and Measures Division of the Bureau of Standards lived near us. So did the director of its Radio Division.” The head of the Smithsonian was also a neighbor. John spent many weekends using a desktop adding 85 machine to do calculations for his dad, and he developed a passion for data-driven meteorology. He also loved electrical circuits. With his young friends in his neighborhood, he laid intercom wires that connected their homes and built remote-control devices to launch fireworks for parties. “When I pressed a button, the fireworks would go off 50 feet away.” At age fourteen he was earning money helping people in the neighborhood fix faulty wiring in their homes.39 While an undergraduate at Johns Hopkins University, Mauchly enrolled in a program for exceptional undergraduates to leap directly into a PhD program in physics. He did his thesis on light band spectroscopy because it combined beauty, experiments, and theory. “You had to know some theory to figure out what the band spectra was all about, but you couldn’t do it unless you had the experimental photographs of that spectrum, and who’s going to get it for you?” he said. “Nobody but you. So I got plenty of training in glass blowing, and drawing vacuums, finding the leaks etc.”40 Mauchly had an engaging personality and a wonderful ability (and desire) to explain things, so it was natural that he would become a professor. Such posts were hard to come by in the Depression, but he managed to land one at Ursinus College, an hour’s drive northwest from Philadelphia. “I was the only person teaching physics there,” he said.41 An essential component of Mauchly’s personality was that he liked to share ideas—usually with a broad grin and a sense of flair—which made him a wildly popular teacher. “He loved to talk and seemed to develop many of his ideas in the give-and-take of conversation,” recalled a colleague. “John loved social occasions, liked to eat good food and drink good liquor. He liked women, attractive young people, the intelligent and the unusual.”42 It was dangerous to ask him a question, because he could discourse earnestly and passionately about almost anything, from theater to literature to physics. In front of a class he played the showman. To explain momentum he would whirl around with his arms flung out and then pulled in, and to describe the concept of action and reaction he would stand on a homemade skateboard and lurch back and forth, a trick that one year resulted in his falling and breaking an arm. People used to drive miles to hear his end-of-term pre-Christmas lecture, which the college moved to its biggest auditorium to accommodate all the visitors. In it he explained how spectrography and other tools of physics could be used to determine what was inside a package without unwrapping it. According to his wife, “He measured it. He weighed it. He submerged it in water. He poked it with a long needle.”43 Reflecting his boyhood fascination with meteorology, Mauchly’s research focus in the early 1930s was on whether long-range weather patterns were related to solar flares, sunspots, and the rotation of the sun. The scientists at the Carnegie Institution and the U.S. Weather Bureau gave him twenty years of daily data from two hundred stations, and he set to work calculating correlations. He was able (this being the Depression) to buy used desk calculators cheaply from ailing banks and to hire a group of young people, through the New Deal’s National Youth Administration, to do computations at fifty cents an hour.44 Like others whose work required tedious calculations, Mauchly yearned to invent a machine to do them. With his gregarious style, he set about finding out what others were doing and, in the tradition of great innovators, putting together a variety of ideas. In the IBM pavilion at the 1939 New York World’s Fair, he saw an electric calculator that used punch cards, but he realized that relying on cards would be too slow, given the amount of data he had to crunch. He also saw an encryption machine that used vacuum tubes to code messages. Might the tubes be used for other logical circuits? He took his students on a field trip to Swarthmore College to see counting devices that used circuits made with vacuum tubes to measure bursts of cosmic-ray ionization.45 He also took a night course in electronics and began to experiment with his own hand-wired vacuum-tube circuits to see what else they might do. 86 At a conference at Dartmouth College in September 1940, Mauchly saw a demonstration by George Stibitz of the Complex Number Calculator he had built at Bell Labs. What made the demonstration exciting was that Stibitz’s computer was sitting at Bell’s building in lower Manhattan, transmitting data over a Teletype line. It was the first computer to be used remotely. For three hours it solved problems submitted by the audience, taking about a minute for each. Among those at the demonstration was Norbert Wiener, a pioneer of information systems, who tried to stump Stibitz’s machine by asking it to divide a number by zero. The machine didn’t fall for the trap. Also present was John von Neumann, the Hungarian polymath who was soon to play a major role with Mauchly in the development of computers.46 When he decided to build a vacuum-tube computer of his own, Mauchly did what good innovators properly do: he drew upon all of the information he had picked up from his travels. Because Ursinus had no research budget, Mauchly paid for tubes out of his own pocket and tried to cadge them from manufacturers. He wrote the Supreme Instruments Corp. asking for components and declaring, “I am intending to construct an electrical calculating machine.”47 He discovered during a visit to RCA that neon tubes could also be used as switches; they were slower but cheaper than vacuum tubes, and he bought a supply at eight cents apiece. “Before November 1940,” his wife later said, “Mauchly had successfully tested certain components of his proposed computer and convinced himself that it was possible to build a cheap, reliable digital device using only electronic elements.” This occurred, she insisted, before he had even heard of Atanasoff.48 In late 1940 he confided in some friends that he hoped to pull together all of this information to make a digital electronic computer. “We are now considering construction of an electrical computing machine,” he wrote that November to a meteorologist he had worked with. “The machine would perform its operations in about 1/200th second, using vacuum tube relays.”49 Even though he was collaborative and picking up information from many people, he began to exhibit a competitive urge to be the first to make a new type of computer. He wrote a former student in December, “For your own private information, I expect to have, in a year or so, when I can get the stuff and put it together, an electronic computing machine. . . . Keep this dark, since I haven’t the equipment this year to carry it out and I would like to ‘be the first.’ ”50 That month, December 1940, Mauchly happened to meet Atanasoff, setting off a series of events followed by years of disputes over Mauchly’s propensity to gather information from different sources and his desire to “be the first.” Atanasoff was attending a meeting at the University of Pennsylvania, and he dropped by a session at which Mauchly proclaimed his hope of building a machine to analyze weather data. Afterward Atanasoff came up to say that he had been building an electronic calculator at Iowa State. Mauchly jotted on his conference program a note that Atanasoff claimed to have devised a machine that could process and store data at a cost of only$2 per digit. (Atanasoff’s machine could handle three thousand digits and cost about $6,000.) Mauchly was amazed. He estimated that the cost of a vacuum-tube computer would be almost$13 per digit. He said he would love to see how it was done, and Atanasoff invited him to come to Iowa.

Throughout the first half of 1941, Mauchly corresponded with Atanasoff and continued to marvel at the low cost he claimed for his machine. “Less than $2 per digit sounds next to impossible, and yet that is what I understood you to say,” he wrote. “Your suggestion about visiting Iowa seemed rather fantastic when first made, but the idea grows on me.” Atanasoff urged him to accept. “As an additional inducement I will explain the$2 per digit business,” he promised.51

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THE MAUCHLY-ATANASOFF VISIT The fateful visit lasted four days in June 1941.52 Mauchly drove from Washington and brought his six-year-old son, Jimmy, arriving late on Friday, June 13, much to the surprise of Atanasoff’s wife, Lura, who had not yet prepared the guest room. “I had to fly around, go to the attic, get extra pillows, and everything,” she later recalled.53 She also made them supper, since the Mauchlys had arrived hungry. The Atanasoffs had three children of their own, but Mauchly seemed to assume that Lura would take care of Jimmy during the visit, so she did, grudgingly. She took a dislike to Mauchly. “I don’t think he’s honest,” she told her husband at one point.54

Atanasoff was eager to show off his partly built machine, even as his wife worried that he was being too trusting. “You must be careful until this is patented,” she warned. Nevertheless, Atanasoff took Mauchly, along with Lura and the children, to the physics building basement the next morning, proudly pulling off a sheet to reveal what he and Berry were cobbling together.

Mauchly was impressed by a few things. The use of condensers in the memory unit was ingenious and cost-effective, as was Atanasoff’s method of replenishing their charge every second or so by putting them on rotating cylinders. Mauchly had thought about using condensers instead of more expensive vacuum tubes, and he appreciated how Atanasoff’s method of “jogging their memory” made it workable. That was the secret behind how the machine could be constructed for $2 per digit. After reading Atanasoff’s thirty-five-page memo detailing the machine, and taking notes, he asked if he could take a carbon copy home. That request Atanasoff denied, both because he had no extras to give away (photocopiers hadn’t been invented) and because he was becoming worried that Mauchly was sucking in too much information.55 But for the most part, Mauchly was uninspired by what he saw in Ames—or at least that is what he insisted in retrospect. The foremost drawback was that Atanasoff’s machine was not fully electronic but instead relied on the mechanical drums of condensers for memory. That made it inexpensive but also very slow. “I thought his machine was very ingenious, but since it was in part mechanical, involving rotating commutators for switching, it was not by any means what I had in mind,” Mauchly remembered. “I no longer became interested in the details.” Later, in his testimony at the trial over the validity of his patents, Mauchly called the semimechanical nature of Atanasoff’s machine “a rather drastic disappointment” and dismissed it as “a mechanical gadget which uses some electronic tubes in operation.”56 The second disappointment, Mauchly contended, was that Atanasoff’s machine was designed for a single purpose and could not be programmed or modified to perform other tasks: “He had not done anything to plan for this machine to be anything but a single set purpose machine and to solve sets of linear equations.”57 So Mauchly left Iowa not with a breakthrough concept for how to build a computer but rather with a handful of smaller insights to add to the basket of ideas he had been collecting, consciously and subconsciously, on his visits to conferences and colleges and fairs. “I came to Iowa with much the same attitude that I went to the World’s Fair and other places,” he testified. “Is there something here which would be useful to aid my computations or anyone else’s?”58 Like most people, Mauchly gleaned insights from a variety of experiences, conversations, and observations—in his case at Swarthmore, Dartmouth, Bell Labs, RCA, the World’s Fair, Iowa State, and elsewhere—then combined them into ideas he considered his own. “A new idea comes suddenly and in a rather intuitive way,” Einstein once said, “but intuition is nothing but the outcome of earlier intellectual experience.” When people take insights from multiple sources and put them together, it’s natural for them to think that the resulting ideas are their own—as in truth they are. All ideas are born that way. So Mauchly considered his 88 intuitions and thoughts about how to build a computer to be his own rather than a bag of ideas he had stolen from other people. And despite later legal findings, he was for the most part right, insofar as anyone can be right in thinking that his ideas are his own. That is the way the creative process—if not the patent process—works. Unlike Atanasoff, Mauchly had the opportunity, and the inclination, to collaborate with a team filled with varied talents. As a result, instead of producing a machine that didn’t quite work and was abandoned in a basement, he and his team would go down in history as the inventors of the first electronic general-purpose computer. As he was preparing to leave Iowa, Mauchly got a piece of pleasant news. He had been accepted into an electronics course at the University of Pennsylvania, one of the many around the country being funded on an emergency basis by the War Department. It was a chance to learn more about using vacuum tubes in electronic circuits, which he was now convinced was the best way to make computers. It also showed the importance of the military in driving innovation in the digital age. During this ten-week course in the summer of 1941, Mauchly got the chance to work with a version of the MIT Differential Analyzer, the analog computer designed by Vannevar Bush. The experience amped up his interest in building his own computer. It also made him realize that the resources to do so at a place like Penn were far greater than at Ursinus, so he was thrilled to accept an instructor’s position at the university when it was offered at the end of the summer. Mauchly conveyed the good news in a letter to Atanasoff, which also contained hints of a plan that unnerved the Iowa professor. “A number of different ideas have come to me recently anent computing circuits—some of which are more or less hybrids, combining your methods with other things, and some of which are nothing like your machine,” Mauchly wrote, truthfully. “The question in my mind is this: is there any objection, from your point of view, to my building some sort of computer which incorporates some of the features of your machine?”59 It’s hard to tell from the letter, or from the subsequent explanations, depositions, and testimony over the ensuing years, whether Mauchly’s innocent tone was sincere or feigned. 89 Howard Aiken (1900–1973) at Harvard in 1945. 90 John Mauchly (1907–80) circa 1945. 91 J. Presper Eckert (1919–95) circa 1945. 92 Eckert (touching machine), Mauchly (by pillar), Jean Jennings (in back), and Herman Goldstine (by Jennings) with ENIAC in 1946. Either way, the letter upset Atanasoff, who had still not succeeded in prodding his lawyer into filing any patent claims. He responded to Mauchly rather brusquely within a few days: “Our attorney has emphasized the need of being careful about the dissemination of information about our device until a patent application is filed. This should not require too long, and, of course, I have no qualms about having informed you about our device, but it does require that we refrain from making public any details for the time being.”60 Amazingly, this exchange still did not provoke Atanasoff or the lawyer to make a filing for patents. Mauchly proceeded to forge ahead during that fall of 1941 with his own design for a computer, which he correctly believed drew ideas from a wide variety of sources and was very different from what Atanasoff had built. In his summer course, he met the right partner to join him in the endeavor: a graduate student with a perfectionist’s passion for precision engineering, who knew so much about electronics that he served as Mauchly’s lab instructor, even though he was twelve years younger (at twenty-two) and didn’t yet have his PhD. J. PRESPER ECKERT 93 John Adam Presper Eckert Jr., known formally as J. Presper Eckert and informally as Pres, was the only child of a millionaire real estate developer in Philadelphia.61 One of his great- grandfathers, Thomas Mills, invented the machines that made salt water taffy in Atlantic City and, as important, created a business to manufacture and sell them. As a young boy, Eckert was driven by his family’s chauffeur to the William Penn private school, founded in 1689. But his success came not from the privileges of birth but from his own talents. He won a citywide science fair at age twelve by building a guidance system for model boats using magnets and rheostats, and at fourteen he devised an innovative way to use household current to eliminate troublesome batteries for the intercom system in one of his father’s buildings.62 In high school Eckert dazzled his classmates with his inventions, and he made money by building radios, amplifiers, and sound systems. Philadelphia, the city of Benjamin Franklin, was then a great electronics center, and Eckert spent time at the research lab of Philo Farnsworth, one of the inventors of television. Although he was accepted by MIT and wanted to go there, his parents did not wish him to leave. Pretending to have suffered financial setbacks because of the Depression, they pressured him to go to Penn and live at home. He did rebel, however, against their desire that he study business; instead he enrolled in the university’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering because he found the subject more interesting. Eckert’s social triumph at Penn was creating what he called an “Osculometer” (from the Latin word for mouth), which purported to measure the passion and romantic electricity of a kiss. A couple would hold the handles of the device and then kiss, their lip contact completing an electric circuit. A row of bulbs would light up, the goal being to kiss passionately enough to light up all ten and set off a blast from a foghorn. Smart contestants knew that wet kisses and sweaty palms increased the circuit’s conductivity.63 Eckert also invented a device that used a light-modulating method to record sound on film, for which he successfully applied for a patent at age twenty-one, while still an undergraduate.64 Pres Eckert had his quirks. Filled with nervous energy, he would pace the room, bite his nails, leap around, and occasionally stand atop a desk when he was thinking. He wore a watch chain that wasn’t connected to a watch, and he would twirl it in his hands as if it were rosary beads. He had a quick temper that would flare and then dissolve into charm. His demand for perfection came from his father, who would walk around construction sites carrying a large pack of crayons with which to scrawl instructions, using different colors to indicate which worker was responsible. “He was sort of a perfectionist and made sure you did it right,” his son said. “But he had a lot of charm, really. He got things done most of the time by people wanting to do the stuff.” An engineer’s engineer, Eckert felt that people like himself were necessary complements to physicists such as Mauchly. “A physicist is one who’s concerned with the truth,” he later said. “An engineer is one who’s concerned with getting the job done.”65 ENIAC War mobilizes science. Over the centuries, ever since the ancient Greeks built a catapult and Leonardo da Vinci served as the military engineer for Cesare Borgia, martial needs have propelled advances in technology, and this was especially true in the mid-twentieth century. Many of the paramount technological feats of that era—computers, atomic power, radar, and the Internet—were spawned by the military. America’s entry into World War II in December 1941 provided the impetus to fund the machine that Mauchly and Eckert were devising. The University of Pennsylvania and the Army’s Ordnance Department at Aberdeen Proving Ground had been tasked with producing the booklets of firing-angle settings needed for the artillery being shipped to Europe. In order 94 to be aimed properly, the guns required tables that factored in hundreds of conditions, including temperature, humidity, wind speeds, altitude, and gunpowder varieties. Creating a table for just one category of shell shot by one gun might require calculating three thousand trajectories from a set of differential equations. The work was often done using one of the Differential Analyzers invented at MIT by Vannevar Bush. The machine’s calculations were combined with the labor of more than 170 people, most of them women, known as “computers,” who tackled equations by punching the keys and cranking the handles of desktop adding machines. Women math majors were recruited from around the nation. But even with all of this effort, it took more than a month to complete just one firing table. By the summer of 1942, it was clear that production was falling further behind every week, rendering some of America’s artillery ineffective. That August, Mauchly wrote a memo that proposed a way to help the Army meet this challenge. It would change the course of computing. Titled “The Use of High Speed Vacuum Tube Devices for Calculating,” his memo requested funding for the machine that he and Eckert were hoping to build: a digital electronic computer, using circuits with vacuum tubes, that could solve differential equations and perform other mathematical tasks. “A great gain in the speed of calculation can be obtained if the devices which are used employ electronic means,” he argued. He went on to estimate that a missile trajectory could be calculated in “100 seconds.”66 Mauchly’s memo was ignored by Penn’s deans, but it was brought to the attention of the Army officer attached to the university, Lieutenant (soon to be Captain) Herman Goldstine, a twenty-nine-year-old who had been a math professor at the University of Michigan. His mission was to speed up the production of firing tables, and he had dispatched his wife, Adele, also a mathematician, on a cross-country tour to recruit more women to join the battalions of human computers at Penn. Mauchly’s memo convinced him that there was a better way. The decision of the U.S. War Department to fund the electronic computer came on April 9, 1943. Mauchly and Eckert stayed up all the night before working on their proposal, but they still hadn’t finished it by the time they got into the car for the two-hour ride from Penn to the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, where officials from the Ordnance Department were gathered. As Lieutenant Goldstine drove, they sat in the backseat writing the remaining sections, and when they arrived in Aberdeen, they continued working in a small room while Goldstine went to the review meeting. It was chaired by Oswald Veblen, the president of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, who was advising the military on mathematical projects. Also present was Colonel Leslie Simon, director of the Army’s Ballistic Research Laboratory. Goldstine recalled what happened: “Veblen, after listening for a short while to my presentation and teetering on the back legs of his chair, brought the chair down with a crash, arose, and said, ‘Simon, give Goldstine the money.’ He thereupon left the room and the meeting ended on this happy note.”67 Mauchly and Eckert incorporated their memo into a paper they titled “Report on an Electronic Diff. Analyzer.” Using the abbreviation diff. was cagey; it stood for both differences, which reflected the digital nature of the proposed machine, and differential, which described the equations it would tackle. Soon it was given a more memorable name: ENIAC, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. Even though ENIAC was designed primarily for handling differential equations, which were key to calculating missile trajectories, Mauchly wrote that it could have a “programming device” that would allow it to do other tasks, thus making it more of a general-purpose computer.68 In June 1943 construction of ENIAC began. Mauchly, who retained his teaching duties, served as a consultant and visionary. Goldstine, as the Army’s representative, oversaw the 95 operations and budget. And Eckert, with his passion for detail and perfection, was the chief engineer. Eckert became so dedicated to the project that he would sometimes sleep next to the machine. Once, as a joke, two engineers picked up his cot and gently moved him to an identical room one floor up; when he awoke he briefly feared the machine had been stolen.69 Knowing that great conceptions are worth little without precision execution (a lesson Atanasoff learned), Eckert was not shy about micromanaging. He would hover over the other engineers and tell them where to solder a joint or twist a wire. “I took every engineer’s work and checked every calculation of every resistor in the machine to make sure that it was done correctly,” he asserted. He disdained anyone who dismissed an issue as trivial. “Life is made up of a whole concentration of trivial matters,” he once said. “Certainly a computer is nothing but a huge concentration of trivial matters.”70 Eckert and Mauchly served as counterbalances for each other, which made them typical of so many digital-age leadership duos. Eckert drove people with a passion for precision; Mauchly tended to calm them and make them feel loved. “He was always kidding and joking with people,” Eckert recalled. “He was personable.” Eckert, whose technical skills came with a nervous energy and scattershot attention span, badly needed an intellectual sounding board, and Mauchly loved being that. Although he was not an engineer, Mauchly did have the ability to connect scientific theories with engineering practicalities in a way that was inspiring. “We got together and did this thing and I don’t think either of us would have done it by ourselves,” Eckert later conceded.71 ENIAC was digital, but instead of a binary system, using just 0s and 1s, it used a decimal system of ten-digit counters. In that regard, it was not like a modern computer. Other than that, it was more advanced than the machines built by Atanasoff, Zuse, Aiken, and Stibitz. Using what was called conditional branching (a capability described by Ada Lovelace a century earlier), it could hop around in a program based on its interim results, and it could repeat blocks of code, known as subroutines, that performed common tasks. “We had the ability to have subroutines and subroutines of subroutines,” Eckert explained. When Mauchly proposed this functionality, Eckert recalled, “it was an idea that I instantly recognized as the key to this whole thing.”72 After a year of building, around the time of D-Day in June 1944, Mauchly and Eckert were able to test the first two components, amounting to about one-sixth of the planned machine. They started with a simple multiplication problem. When it produced the correct answer, they let out a shout. But it took more than another year, until November 1945, for ENIAC to be fully operational. At that point it was able to perform five thousand additions and subtractions in one second, which was more than a hundred times faster than any previous machine. A hundred feet long and eight feet high, filling the space of what could be a modest three- bedroom apartment, it weighed close to thirty tons and had 17,468 vacuum tubes. By contrast, the Atanasoff-Berry computer, then languishing in a basement in Iowa, was the size of a desk, had only three hundred tubes, and could do merely thirty additions or subtractions per second. BLETCHLEY PARK Although few outsiders knew it at the time—and would not know for more than three decades—another electronic computer using vacuum tubes had been secretly built at the end of 1943 on the grounds of a redbrick Victorian manor in the town of Bletchley, fifty-four miles northwest of London, where the British had sequestered a team of geniuses and engineers to break the German wartime codes. The computer, known as Colossus, was the first all-electronic, partially programmable computer. Because it was geared for a special 96 task, it was not a general-purpose or “Turing-complete” computer, but it did have Alan Turing’s personal fingerprints on it. Turing had begun to focus on codes and cryptology in the fall of 1936, when he arrived at Princeton just after writing “On Computable Numbers.” He explained his interest in a letter to his mother that October: I have just discovered a possible application of the kind of thing I am working on at present. It answers the question “What is the most general kind of code or cipher possible,” and at the same time (rather naturally) enables me to construct a lot of particular and interesting codes. One of them is pretty well impossible to decode without the key, and very quick to encode. I expect I could sell them to H.M. Government for quite a substantial sum, but am rather doubtful about the morality of such things. What do you think?73 Over the ensuing year, as he worried about the possibility of war with Germany, Turing got more interested in cryptology and less interested in trying to make money from it. Working in the machine shop of Princeton’s physics building in late 1937, he constructed the first stages of a coding machine that turned letters into binary numbers and, using electromechanical relay switches, multiplied the resulting numerically encoded message by a huge secret number, making it almost impossible to decrypt. One of Turing’s mentors in Princeton was John von Neumann, the brilliant physicist and mathematician who had fled his native Hungary and was at the Institute for Advanced Study, which for the time being was located in the building that housed the university’s Mathematics Department. In the spring of 1938, as Turing was finishing his doctoral thesis, von Neumann offered him a job as his assistant. With the war clouds gathering in Europe, the offer was tempting, but it also felt vaguely unpatriotic. Turing decided to return to his fellowship at Cambridge and shortly thereafter joined the British effort to crack the German military codes. His Majesty’s Government Code and Cypher School was, at the time, located in London and staffed mainly by literary scholars, such as Dillwyn “Dilly” Knox, a classics professor from Cambridge, and Oliver Strachey, a dilettante socialite who played piano and occasionally wrote about India. There were no mathematicians among the eighty staffers until the fall of 1938, when Turing went there. But the following summer, as Britain prepared for war, the department began actively hiring mathematicians, at one point using a contest that involved solving the Daily Telegraph crossword puzzle as a recruitment tool, and it relocated to the drab redbrick town of Bletchley, whose main distinction was being at the juncture where the railway line between Oxford and Cambridge intersected with the one from London to Birmingham. A team from the British intelligence service, posing as “Captain Ridley’s shooting party,” visited the Bletchley Park manor house, a Victorian Gothic monstrosity that its owner wanted to demolish, and discreetly bought it. The code breakers were located in the cottages, stables, and some prefabricated huts that were erected on the grounds.74 Turing was assigned to a team working in Hut 8 that was trying to break the German Enigma code, which was generated by a portable machine with mechanical rotors and electrical circuits. It encrypted military messages by using a cipher that, after every keystroke, changed the formula for substituting letters. That made it so tough to decipher that the British despaired of ever doing so. A break came when Polish intelligence officers created a machine based on a captured German coder that was able to crack some of the Enigma codes. By the time the Poles showed the British their machine, however, it had been rendered ineffective because the Germans had added two more rotors and two more plugboard connections to their Enigma machines. Categories ## electric charges that are different electric charges that are different A) attract each other B) repel each other C) exist in pairs D) do not interact Magnetic field lines around a bar magnet A) are only perpendicular to the magnet B) spread out from one pole and curve around the other C) cross back and forth over one another D) are perfectly straight which of the following would decrease the magnetic field around the wire? A) decreasing the current B) reversing the The polls of the wire C) looping a section of the wire into a solenoid D) increasing the current What device transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy? A) an electromagnet B) an electric motor C) a generator D) a solenoid A device used to open and close an electric circuit is a(n) A) light bulb B) energy source C) switch D) resistor According to Ohm’s law resistance is equal to voltage devided by A) time B) conduction C) current D) potential In a series circuit with three bulbs A) The remaining two bolts will go out if one bulb burns out B) The remaining two bulbs are not affected if one bulb burns out C) The brightness of the light bulbs does not change if more bulbs are added D) a switch is never used The strength of the force of gravity depends on A) The masses of the objects in their speeds B) The masses of the objects and the distance between them C) The weight of the objects in their speeds D) The masses of the objects in their weight s According to Ohm’s law what is the resistance of a light bulb if the applied voltage is 9.0 V and the current is 0.30 amps? A) 0.033 ohms B) 2.7 ohms C) 30 ohms D) 8.7 ohms An example of an insulator is A) rubber B) copper C) silver D) iron The force of gravity on Jupiter is much stronger than the force of gravity on earth. Which of the following explains why this is true? A) Jupiters orbit is farther away from the sun then earths orbit B) Jupiter has more mass than earth C) jupiters orbit is closer to the sun than earths orbit D) Jupiter has less mass than earth An electric current produces a A) magnetic field B) magnet C) solenoid D) insulator A generator transforms A) potential energy to kinetic energy B) mechanical energy into electrical energy C) mechanical energy into electrical energy D) friction into electrical energy 0 0 2,839 asked by Anonymous Mar 31, 2015 Do you think your school approves of these test questions posted here? It looks to me like you’re wanting to cheat and have someone else give you these answers. 0 9 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Mar 31, 2015 No I just forgot to give my answers. Sorry my answers are 1) A 2) d 3) a 4) b 5) c 6) c 7) a 8) d 9) ? 10)? 11)b 12) b 13)d 2 3 posted by Anonymous Mar 31, 2015 12 is a 13 is b 8 is b 5 is c 4 is b 2 is b 1 0 posted by Dr.Bob Nov 4, 2015 ababccabcabab true 100% 0 1 posted by connections student Dec 19, 2015 connections student is correct. 0 1 posted by Anonymous Mar 3, 2016 The correct answers are: 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. c 7. a 8. b 9. c 10. a 11. b 12. a 13. b 14. true I promise these are correct. I took the test. Hope this helps! 45 0 posted by Olivia Mar 14, 2016 Olivia is 100% correct 8 0 posted by shes right Mar 24, 2016 Olivia is correct. 8 0 posted by Johanna Mar 28, 2016 Just took the practice, these are the answers. In this order 1 – 14. 1. A 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. B 9. C 10. A 11. B 12. A 13. B 14. A [true] 13 0 posted by Lily May 10, 2016 Olivia is correct 5 0 posted by Katrina Petrova Jan 17, 2017 1. A 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. B 9. C 10. A 11. B 12. A 13. B 14. A 100% Thanks olivia also if anyone has the unit test answers for this unit please provide them 5 0 posted by TEA Apr 22, 2017 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. c 7. a 8. b 9. c 10. a 11. b 12. a 13. b 14. true 10000000 2 0 posted by boo Apr 26, 2017 thanks 1 0 posted by jo gibson May 17, 2017 dude just stop. XD btw Olivia thank you 2 0 posted by Anonymous Feb 26, 2018 Olivia is correct is promise 1 0 posted by Anonymous Feb 26, 2018 Btw thx ppl that posted the answers (sorry i forgot all ur names) 2 0 posted by no name 4 u lol Apr 9, 2018 Why did I just scroll through all this? 4 0 posted by Why Apr 18, 2018 olivia is correct. 100%. thank you 0 0 posted by alexa Dec 4, 2018 1. A 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. B 9. C 10. A 11. B 12. A 13. B 14. True 0 0 posted by Hal Mar 9, 2019 Categories ## how are capital resources used in production How are capital resources used in production 0 0 2,184 asked by Anonymous Nov 21, 2016 http://www.stlouisfed.org/education/economic-lowdown-podcast-series/episode-2-factors-of-production 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Nov 21, 2016 Hi ms sue what is the answer to the question A; they allow producers better access to world markets ? B; they make it possible to employ more skilled labores ? C ; they provide tools that make production more efficient ? D ; they purchase raw materials needed for production 0 0 posted by Anonymous Nov 21, 2016 What did you learn from the website linked above? 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Nov 21, 2016 Can u help me 0 0 posted by Anonymous Nov 21, 2016 I tried to help you by showing you where to find the answer. 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Nov 21, 2016 It doesnt say the answer in their 0 0 posted by Anonymous Nov 21, 2016 How are capital resources used in production A:They allow producers better access to world markets. B:They make it possible to employ more skilled laborers C:They provide tools that make production more efficient D:They purchase the raw material needed for production I think its d and for the other ones I think they are 2:c 3:b 4:d 5:a 6:d 7:a and d 8:b 0 7 posted by please help!! Mar 27, 2017 Pls help is a lying jerk. He got me a 2 out of 9 1 4 posted by Clarissa Mar 29, 2017 It might be best to just use what you know…so yup 0 2 posted by None Mar 29, 2017 100% promised. 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. A 6. B 7. A and F 8. A Please help! Got me 2/8 44 1 posted by Helping you Apr 3, 2017 I PUT MY FULL TRUST IN HELPING YOU AND I GOT A 9/9 100% THANK YOU 8 0 posted by YES Apr 5, 2017 Ty helping you 100% 2 0 posted by Ally Apr 13, 2017 Helping you Is 100% correct! you can trust him! 2 0 posted by A helping hand Apr 19, 2017 “helping you” is right i got 100% i just finished that quiz 2 0 posted by i gotchu Apr 27, 2017 I praise you I needed a good grade and you gave me a great grade. 1 0 posted by THANKYOU helping hand Oct 31, 2017 Helping you is 100% correct 0 0 posted by Megan Nov 27, 2017 Thank you helping you ! 0 0 posted by TokyoGhoul Mar 15, 2018 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. A 6. B 7. A and F 8. A 2 1 posted by Pansexual forlife Apr 12, 2018 thanks @Helping You 100% rigth 0 0 posted by sup Apr 14, 2018 helping you is right 0 0 posted by Cece Shimdt Apr 16, 2018 @helping you Is trust worth 100% 0 0 posted by ~ify Apr 18, 2018 Helping u is correct 0 0 posted by Nick May 1, 2018 helping you is 100% please is a 2/8 and I don’t know why he/she put that up there but it makes me mad so thanks to helping you 0 0 posted by thanks May 3, 2018 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. A 6. B 7. A and F 8. A 1 0 posted by NinjaHyper May 17, 2018 Where are the backup notes to support the answers though 0 0 posted by UltraIronSpiderman8 Aug 27, 2018 is this for 45.0070001 social studies 0 0 posted by UltraIronSpiderman8 Aug 27, 2018 of course it is 0 0 posted by No lane No Game Aug 27, 2018 is it for real dough 0 0 posted by No lane No Game Aug 28, 2018 who here plays fortnite 1 1 posted by FAke memes Aug 28, 2018 everybody who said please help gave them the right answer ,,,,, your life is a lie 0 0 posted by your life is a lie Sep 3, 2018 Please help need all answers 0 0 posted by Jaiden Dec 4, 2018 Helping you is correct 😱🤡🤜👌🕶🎓 0 0 posted by Anonymous Dec 19, 2018 You guys know Plz said they THOUGHT those were the answer, right? They never said “100%” or “8/8” or anything like that. 0 0 posted by · Feb 12, 2019 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. A 6. B 7. A,F 8. A 0 0 posted by Hal Mar 30, 2019 @helping you is 100% correct 0 0 posted by Loacal gay girl🏳️‍🌈 Apr 2, 2019 The correct answers are: 1.C 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.A,F 6.A 7.A 8.B 9.Essay you have to do it! I just took the test! I hope it hopes! 0 0 posted by Wrong Apr 4, 2019 1.c 2.b 3.c 4.c 5.a 6.b 7.a,g 8.a 0 0 posted by connexus Apr 8, 2019 I play fornite 0 0 posted by dont ask me Apr 10, 2019 Thank you all I trusted you and I got 100% 0 0 posted by Blasted pigeon Apr 11, 2019 Categories ## what is the grooming process as it relates to online predators What is the grooming process as it relates to online predators? a.) the process by which online predators lure in minors to get them close enough to hurt them b.) the process by which online predators are trained c.) the process by which a cyber bully becomes an online predator d.) the process of training yourself to avoid online predators* What is an example of anonymous behavior online? a.) only using your name on password- protected websites b.) not offering an personal identifying information c.) entering your home address on an online gaming site d.) using your name online only with those you have met in person 2 1 2,725 asked by Mindy Feb 27, 2014 1. No 2. Yes 1 1 posted by Anonymous Feb 27, 2014 What is the grooming process as it relates to online predators? a.) the process by which online predators lure in minors to get them close enough to hurt them * b.) the process by which online predators are trained c.) the process by which a cyber bully becomes an online predator d.) the process of training yourself to avoid online predators 2 2 posted by Mindy Feb 27, 2014 Right. 1 1 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Feb 27, 2014 Thanks for checking! 🙂 1 1 posted by Mindy Feb 27, 2014 You’re welcome. 1 1 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Feb 27, 2014 mmmmmm 1 1 posted by Anonymous Jan 25, 2016 A 1&3 B 9 1 posted by abcd Feb 10, 2016 “abcd” is 100% correct 🙂 A 1&3 B 18 0 posted by Drew Feb 10, 2016 ty 3 0 posted by lamp Feb 18, 2016 A AC B 100% 6 0 posted by Andrew Mar 1, 2016 Andrew is correct 4 1 posted by Shun Mar 22, 2016 Tysm every one!! 1 0 posted by Fox Girl Nov 30, 2016 A A &C B Thank you !!!!!!! 1 0 posted by Connections wiz Jan 18, 2017 The answers are correct. 0 0 posted by Iko Matzou Mar 1, 2017 Thanks everyone!!! 0 0 posted by Hi Nov 24, 2017 100% correct 0 0 posted by Di Dec 2, 2017 yuh its a a, c b 5 0 posted by 5678 Oct 20, 2018 thx ABCD 0 1 posted by nathaan Dec 4, 2018 Categories ## the structures responsible for carrying information all over your body are The structures responsible for carrying information all over your body are? A. Muscles B. Alveoli C. Neurons (D). Blood Cells 1 0 2,539 asked by Kate Apr 24, 2015 For carrying information? I don’t think so. 0 4 👩‍🏫 Writeacher Apr 24, 2015 It was neurons 1 0 posted by Kate Apr 24, 2015 Right. 1 0 👩‍🏫 Writeacher Apr 24, 2015 neurons 1 0 posted by gabe May 13, 2015 thanks for the help 🙂 0 0 posted by Kate Apr 18, 2016 it is most definetally nerons 0 0 posted by gavin Apr 21, 2016 thank you 1 0 posted by carly Nov 30, 2016 1.C 2.B,C 3.B 4.C 5.A 6.C 7.A,D 8.D 9.B,C 10.D 11.True 12.True 13.True 14.True 15.True 100% 17 4 posted by Jarzzapan Apr 7, 2017 Number 7 is actually A, B, C, and D 3 6 posted by Skyler Apr 10, 2017 Everything is correct though! 0 0 posted by Skyler Apr 10, 2017 Jarzzapan with skyler’s correction is 20/20 100% 0 0 posted by Helping hand Apr 10, 2017 1. A. B. C. D. Still go a 90% 0 0 posted by Savanna Reed Apr 12, 2017 what is the point of 7 if thier all correct. and ur both 100% 0 0 posted by foxy the pirate fox Apr 19, 2017 skyler is correct I just got a 100% 0 0 posted by your hero Apr 24, 2017 jarzapan is right for ca 0 0 posted by kollen May 12, 2017 Number 1 is really a not c. Because i put c and it got me a 95 and not a hundred. 🙁 0 2 posted by Carli Jun 6, 2017 # 7 is actually C and D 1 0 posted by Anonymous Dec 8, 2017 # 7 is actually B and D i meant 4 0 posted by Anonymous Dec 8, 2017 number 7 is B and D 2 0 posted by Kiefer Dec 20, 2017 I just got a 14/18 so I got 77.4 which is a C thx y’all for making me not pass my class 1 4 posted by Nobody 101 Jan 9, 2018 1.C 2.B,C 3.B 4.C 5.A 6.C 7.B,D 8.D 9.B,C 10.D 11.True 12.True 13.True 14.True 15.True I guarantee you 100% 40 0 posted by Im a nobody Feb 13, 2018 I am a nobody is 100% correct for connexus 2018 unit 6. 3 0 posted by Connexus Help Mar 6, 2018 “I’m a nobody” is correct! I got a 100% 2 0 posted by Person… Mar 13, 2018 1.C 2.B,C 3.B 4.C 5.A 6.C 7.B,D 8.D 9.B,C 10.D 11.True 12.True 13.True 14.True 15.True Your Welcome guys! 1 1 posted by lun Mar 20, 2018 I would say all of the answers and try to act like i actually knew them but, im not so I’m a nobody is correct! i got a 100% thanks for the help! much appreciated 0 0 posted by Violet Mar 20, 2018 # 7 is B.and D. 0 1 posted by Tiara Mar 20, 2018 Yeee thanx I’m a nobody! 100%! 8th grade here I come! #2018 1 0 posted by MustStayAnonymus Mar 27, 2018 # 7 BD 0 0 posted by SUE FOR DAYYYYYZ Mar 27, 2018 7 is b and c 0 0 posted by Anonymous Apr 13, 2018 Lesson 5: Choosing Not to Drink Health and Physical Education 7 Unit 6: Alcohol 1.C 2.B,C 3.B 4.C 5.A 6.C 7.B,D 8.D 9.B,C 10.D 11.True 12.True 13.True 14.True 15.True I don’t Lie For CONNEXUS students 100% Correct I swear Check my profile if don’t trust me 5 0 posted by Nashi Dragneel Apr 20, 2018 Lesson 5: Choosing Not to Drink Health and Physical Education 7 Unit 6: Alcohol 1.C 2.B,C 3.B 4.C 5.A 6.C 7.B,D 8.D 9.B,C 10.D 11.True 12.True 13.True 14.True 15.True 100% correct 3 0 posted by Im vegan Apr 24, 2018 Here are the answers to the test. B BC B C A C BD D BC D TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE It will get you 100%. Make sure to get at least 2 wrong so there is no suspicion. 0 0 posted by The Guy With Some of the Answers Apr 26, 2018 7 is C and D 0 0 posted by Excalibur!! Apr 26, 2018 Guys do your own work, but 7 is B and D. These people are trying to troll you. 0 0 posted by Mr. Market Apr 27, 2018 I am not trolling. My answers are the real answers. And the I answers I put are 100% real. 0 0 posted by The Guy With Some of the Answers May 1, 2018 1. B. And D 0 0 posted by Zoie May 1, 2018 IM VEGAN AND NASHI DRAGNEEL ARE CORRECT 0 0 posted by me May 2, 2018 You guys like jazz? 1 0 posted by Dog eats spaghetti May 4, 2018 Thnx m8s 0 0 posted by you know what, idk May 6, 2018 thxs lun your the best 100% 0 0 posted by ya boi Nov 3, 2018 THANK YOU ALL OF YALL PPL WHO GAVE ME DA ANWERS LUV YA XD 0 0 posted by thatgirlocean Jan 24, 2019 thx people really helped me and thank you from saving me from my death XD 0 0 posted by ウララカオチャコ Mar 13, 2019 7 is B D thanks a lot 😑 0 0 posted by Supernatural Mar 22, 2019 I got 100% with “I am nobody”‘s answers ty 0 0 posted by Pineapple Apr 1, 2019 ty I am nobody, that really helped :3 1 0 posted by Kiwi Apr 19, 2019 @I am nobody is correct. 0 0 posted by Anon yesterday at 12:39pm 7 is B and D what is this bs 0 0 posted by Alex yesterday at 2:52pm thx Im a nobody!!! 0 0 posted by 🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥 yesterday at 8:15pm 👍✔👌100% 0 0 posted by 🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥 yesterday at 8:16pm Respond to this Question First Name Your Response Similar Questions anatomy and physiology II The respiratory menbrane lining the air sacs consist of what? The actual site of gas exchange within the lungs are? the actual site of gas exchange in the lungs are at the capillaries (smallest blood vessels) You are talking about asked by alice on July 13, 2007 Science help please 1. Name the components of the respiratory system in the order incoming air would encounter them during breathing. trachea, pharynx, larynx, alveoli, bronchi bronchi, larynx, alveoli, trachea, pharynx larynx, trachea, bronchi, asked by Anonymous on May 10, 2014 Chemistry Air entering the lungs ends up in tiny sacs called alveoli. It is from the alveoli that oxygen diffuses into the blood. The average voume of the alveoli is .00000000078 L. Assuming that the pressure in the alveoli is 1.0 atm and asked by Anonymous on June 19, 2010 Health 1. Your respiratory system is the system in your body that is responsible for breathing. True False 2. The lungs are made up of thick fibrous tissue. True False 3. Internal respiration takes place in the alveoli. True False 4. The asked by Carryyourtorches on October 27, 2017 Science Getting Oxygen 1) Name the components of the respiratory system in the order incoming air would encounter them during breathing. :Trachea,pharynx,larynx,alveoli,bronchi. :Bronchi,larynx,alveoli,trachea,pharynx. asked by TheLOUDEST_0430 on February 17, 2015 L.A.-Check Answer According to “Life Without Gravity” why can astronauts’ muscles become weak? a. Without gravity, the blood is rerouted from the legs to the head. b. Without gravity, the body “grows” as much as several inches. c. Without gravity, asked by Dani on October 12, 2016 bio o What are some of the benefits of squeezing so much data into virtually every cell in the body? o Why did humans not evolve with one central repository of DNA rather than having it replicated throughout the body? o Assume that asked by Anonymous on June 22, 2010 Science ( No Bad Post) 1. A muscle that does its job without your thinking about it is called a muscle. An example is the . (1 point) cardiac; bicep skeletal; blood vessels smooth; bladder none of these 2. The body’s muscles, bones, asked by YOLO on March 22, 2015 Science help please!!!!!!! Hi my textbook is not helping me at all, any links or ideas would be appreciated! What are some of the benefits of squeezing so much data into virtually every cell in the body? Why did we not evolve with one central repository of asked by Michelle on November 25, 2007 Science Hi my textbook is not helping me at all, any links or ideas would be appreciated! What are some of the benefits of squeezing so much data into virtually every cell in the body? Why did we not evolve with one central repository of asked by Michelle on November 25, 2007 ## which of these statements is not true? Which of the following statements is NOT true in regard to Brazil’s interior plateau? (A) It experiences periods of drought. (B) Its soil is often devastated by heavy rains that cannot penetrate the dry, hard ground. (C) Poverty is prevalent 14,533 results social studies Which of the following statements is NOT true in regard to Brazil’s interior plateau? (A) It experiences periods of drought. (B) Its soil is often devastated by heavy rains that cannot penetrate the dry, hard ground. (C) Poverty is prevalent in this asked by Priya on July 22, 2010 Geography 1. Which of the following is NOT true in regard to Brazil’s interior plateau? a. it experiences periods of drought b. its soil is often devestated by heavy rains that cannot penetrate the dry, hard, ground. c. poverty is prevalant in this region d. asked by mysterychicken on October 13, 2009 Geography 1. All of the following statements about Brazil’s economy are true EXCEPT: a. Because of the development of gasohol, Brazil no longer has to import expensive foreign oil b. Industrial developments have destroyed the middle class c. Jobs in service asked by y912f on February 8, 2010 Geography Need help with these- 17. The climate on the Caribbean coast of Central America in rainier than the climate on the Pacific coast because the Caribbean coast a. receives moisture throughout the year from the northeasterly winds blowing toward Central asked by mysterychicken on September 10, 2009 geography brazil the new capitol of brazil was built in the interior called——- its purpose to get people to move. brazil is the largest —–in south america i thought it was country but it begins with an n. thank you asked by polly on December 4, 2008 social studies All of the following statements about Brazil’s economy are true except: (A) Because of the development of gasohol, Brazil no longer has to import expensive foreign oil. (B) Industrial developments have destroyed the middle class. (C) Jobs in service asked by Priya on July 22, 2010 S.S. help plz 1. Rain forests are important because they contribute to the world’s supply of (1 point) soil. oxygen. food. harbors. 2. The capital of Brazil was moved from the coast to the interior because the government wished to (1 point) develop the interior by asked by BallaWitSwagg on May 28, 2013 health which of the following statements is true in regard to limited data sets? asked by Anonymous on September 23, 2015 Geography Can someone please check if my answers are correct? 16. Although most of South America lies within the tropical latitudes a. climate and vegetation differ greatly in the region b. cold ocean currents keep the air cool and dry c. there is little tropical asked by mysterychicken on September 7, 2009 Geography (Ms. Sue) 1). How does the population of brazil resemble that of the United States? A: The population of Brazil resembles that of the United States as both of these countries’ populations consist of a diverse mixture of ethnic groups. 2). Which European country sent asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2013 Physics A vacant, 1560 kg car begins from rest and rolls 46 meters down an inclined plateau before rolling off the edge and crashing into the sea below. The plateau is at a constant downward angle of 12.4 degrees with the horizontal. The coefficient of rolling asked by Anon on January 17, 2008 social studies(updated answers)– 1.D 2.A 4.C 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the coastal ranges … As it continues along to the northern asked by matt on April 5, 2014 social studies check answers 1.D 2.A 4.C 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the coastal ranges … As it continues along to the northern asked by matt on April 5, 2014 social studies check answers 1.D 2.A 4.C 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the coastal ranges … As it continues along to the northern asked by matt on April 5, 2014 SOCIAL STUDIES PLZZ HELP 1. In the 1950s, in order to develop Brazil’s interior, the government moved the capital from Rio de Janeiro and built a new one called (1 point)Brasilia. Belem. Salvador. Manaus. 2. All of the following are threats to the rainforest EXCEPT (1 asked by hsk on April 30, 2012 Geography Are these correct: Although Brazil is rich in natural resources, a. the government has done little to foster economics growth b. poverty is prevalent among its population c. the country has not yet begun to industrialize d. the location of these resources asked by y912f on February 1, 2010 Math 1.Suppose we are given logic statements p, q, and r. a. If p → q and p → r, may we conclude that q → r? Answer yes or no and give a reason why. b. What is the converse of the following: not p → not q c. What is the contrapositive of r → q? d. The asked by Melissa on December 11, 2016 math A transversal intersects two parallel lines and forms eight angles. Which of the following statements is false? a)alternative interior angles are always congruent. b)corresponding angles are always congruent. c)adjacent interior angles are always asked by robert on January 31, 2008 SAT math Can someone please double check my true and false answers! 1. All cylinders are prisms: TRUE 2. The angle opposite a side length of 6 cm in a triangle is larger than an angle opposite a side length of 7 cm in the same triangle: FALSE 3. The perpendicular asked by mysterychicken on June 2, 2013 history In the 1930s what did brazil do to restore its fallng economy? A. brizal moved away from dependence on a single export. B. brazil fozused efforts on forestry C. brazil restored its silk trade with china D. brazil privatized the nations buisness and restoed asked by sarah on January 6, 2012 math △GHJ∼△MNP Which statements are true? Select each correct answer. m∠J=m∠P (TRUE) ∠H≅∠N (TRUE) HJ¯≅NP¯ (it has the line over them) false GH=MN (TRUE) GJ/MP=GH/MN ( TRUE ) asked by am i correct ? on December 4, 2017 world geography _ in brazil’s interior has led to the clearing of the rain forests. a. building roads b. building settlements c. mining for iron, copper, and tin d. all of the above asked by natasha napier on May 29, 2012 Math please show me how to do this… A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 12 + 42 + 72 + . . . + (3n – 2)2 = n(6n^2-3n-1)/2 Also, please asked by Taylor on March 14, 2016 World Geography Brazil is the giant of S. America, and it has the largest and most productive economy. But Brazil is unlike other S. American states in a number of ways (ie. no megacity on a scale with San Paulo anywhere else in the realm) so that what locals call the asked by Stephanie on February 10, 2009 Geography (Ms. Sue) 1). How does the population of brazil resemble that of the United States? A: The population of Brazil resembles that of the United States as both of these countries’ populations consist of a diverse mixture of ethnic groups. 2). Which European country sent asked by Anonymous on September 27, 2013 chemistry Which of the following statements is NOT true in regards to water, ethanol, and isopropanol? A. Water has the highest boiling point. B. H-O-H and C-O-H bond angles are all equal to 1095. C. Dispersion forces affect all three molecules. D. Two lone pairs of asked by helppleez on January 26, 2007 Designing Specialty Areas Which of the following statements is true in regard to woodworking for preschoolers? A. A woodworking center for preschoolers should contain a variety of different types of tools such as hammers, pliers, handsaws, and screwdrivers. B. Preschoolers are asked by Priscila on March 30, 2017 Calculus Which one or ones of the following statements is/are true? I. If the line y=2 is a horizontal asymptote of y= f(x), then is not defined at y=2. II. If f(5)>0 and f(6) asked by Alice URGENT on December 3, 2018 counseling Which of the following statements is most accurate with regard to Piaget’s theory? asked by chantelle on July 3, 2016 math A transversal intersects two parallel lines and forms eight angles. Which of the following statements is false? a)alternative interior angles are always congruent. b)corresponding angles are always congruent. c)adjacent interior angles are always asked by robert on January 31, 2008 Computers (RAM) Just giving this a shot, Which of the following statements about RAM are TRUE? Select all that apply. a) Any part of RAM can be accessed at any time. b) RAM is an area of a computer that holds programs and data that are waiting to be processed, to be asked by Ray on January 8, 2017 Physics Pease evaluate the statements by choosing from these three statements Always true: the statement is true under any circumstances Not necessarily true: the statement may be true in some circumstances, but not in others Always false: under no circumstances asked by Chris on January 27, 2015 Chemistry (Check) Classify each of these statements as always true, sometimes true, or never true 11)sometimes true 12)Never True 11)Scientific notation is used to express large numbers in convenlent form. 12)Siginificant figures include all the digits that can be known asked by Bryan on January 13, 2007 social studies(updated answers) 1.B 2.C 3.A 4.B 5.D 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the coastal ranges … As it continues along to the asked by matt on April 3, 2014 social studies check answers Im not sure these are right.I Tryed my best :D. 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.A or B 5.B 1.“Along the southern coast of Brazil the central plateau descends in high, steep escarpments. It towers over the waves and moves back in ridges, leveling off from the peaks of the asked by matt on April 3, 2014 Geography 1. Great cultural diversity exists in African countries, especially those a. with small populations b. located along the northern coast c. located south of the Sahara d. that were independent in 1914 C? 6. Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. asked by mysterychicken on October 30, 2009 Geography 1. Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. the Nile River is a major transportation route across southern Africa b. the central plateau produces many cataracts in African rivers. c. Africa’s rivers can be used for hydroelectric power d. because asked by mysterychicken on October 22, 2009 Economics – (CPI) In Brazil, the reference base period for the CPI is December 1993. In September 2000, prices had risen by 1,565.93 percent since the base period. The inflation rate in Brazil during the year ending September 2001 was 6.46 percent, and during the year asked by CrankSt4r on March 3, 2008 Calculus If f is a continuous function with even symmetry and lim x→∞ f(x)=10, which of the following statements must be true? I. lim x→∞ f(x)=10 II. there are no vertical asymptotes III. The lines y=10 and y= -10 are horizontal asymptotes a) I only b) II asked by Maria on December 4, 2018 Geography What is the capital of the landlocked country that borders Russia to the north and China to the south. Also, is this correct? Eastern Brazil has a higher elevation that western Brazil. Thanks! asked by Morgan on January 8, 2013 Cultural Diversity Which of these statements is Not true? 1. Eye contact with the listener signals approval and consent in most Non-Anglo cultural groups. 2. African-American children are taught to look away from a peer while listening. 3. Eye contact in Asian-American asked by Rose on November 1, 2007 math State which of the following are logical statements and then classify the statements as true or false. a) 1 + 4 = 6 b) She is in our class c) Butte is the capital of Montana d) 3 + x = x + 3 asked by kely on September 1, 2012 Geography All of the following statements about Australia are true except: Australia is the flattest continent. The continent is crossed by several powerful rivers. The area west of the Great Dividing Range is arid plain or dry plateau. The area east of the Great asked by Renee on December 11, 2009 Psychology (Ms. Sue) Ms. Sue would you please check my answers? 1. To begin to regulate their emotions, children must first start to learn impulse control? True 2. Young children typically have low self esteem since they compare their abilities with their peers? False 3. Guilt asked by Lisa on September 27, 2013 Observing development of the young child The three types of pretending in children’s dramatic play:pretending with a regard to a role, pretending with regard to an object, and pretending with to regard an action. The three types of pretending were described by researcher A, Jean Piaget B, Rhonda asked by Olivia on August 27, 2012 chemistry In the chemical plating experiment zinc powder is dissolved in a hot NaOH solution to form sodium zincate according to the following reacton: Zn(s) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2ZnO2(aq) + H2(g) Answer true or false for each of the following statements regarding the asked by chem help on May 2, 2010 psychology Regarding the use of anesthetics during childbirth, which of the following statements is true? A. they are rarely used these days B. the epidural procedure is most often favored. C. anesthetics is current use can’t cross the placenta barrier to affect the asked by ourania on December 14, 2008 Confidentiality Health Which of the the following statements is true in regard to limited data sets? A.Limited data sets contain some individual identifiers. B.Patients must authorize the use of limited data sets. C. Those who receive limited data sets can pass them on without asked by Brenna on February 21, 2012 Physics Help A projectile is fired at an upward angle of 60 degrees with a speed of 100m/s. It lands on a plateau 150m higher. What is the projectile’s speed the moment before it strikes the plateau? I’m thinking to just use the kinematic equation Vf^2= Vi^2 + 2aΔy. asked by George on December 13, 2015 Socials Please help! I need to write an essay response answering these 2 questions: 1. Are pit houses really the most efficient/ practical houses for the Plateau people? My ans: No, it isn’t 2.Which lodging would be the best for the Plateau regions and why? (at least 4 asked by Bethany on January 12, 2014 Geography 1. The South African government changed its policy of apartheid in 1990 and 1991 because of a. the policy’s failure to eliminate racial discrimination b. promises of economic aid from major industrial nations c. international sanctions and an increase in asked by y912f on March 20, 2010 Government Check Which is NOT true of the segregation laws passed after the Civil War? a)They prohibited interracial marriage. b)They did not only apply to blacks. *c)They were only in the South. d)All of these statements are true. I was confused between c and d because asked by Ariel on July 4, 2010 Math An automobile manufacturing plant produces cars according to a fixed pattern. During one day, the first five cars have the following colors and equipment. blue with a stereo and dark interior white with a stereo and light interior green without a stereo asked by Sandy on March 17, 2016 science Let , , and be disjoint subsets of the sample space. For each one of the following statements, determine whether it is true or false. Note: “False” means “not guaranteed to be true.” a) True FalseStatus: unsubmitted b) True FalseStatus: unsubmitted c) True asked by intel on February 6, 2014 Calculus (Urgent Help) Okay, I need major help! Can someone tell me if these statements are true or false ASAP please. Thank you. 1. If ƒ′(x) < 0 when x < c then ƒ(x) is decreasing when x < c. True 2. The function ƒ(x) = x^3 – 3x + 2 is increasing on the interval -1 < x < asked by Veronica on July 25, 2008 Home Economics I have two questions. These two questions have to do with interior decorating. 1) Which of the following expresses a color value? A)True Green B)Dark Green C)Blue-green D)Yellow-green 2) Which of the following statements is correct regarding the design asked by Mirayah on March 2, 2007 ss Which of the following shows the strong influence of African traditions in Brazil? A. music and dance during the celebration of Carnival B. the use of plantation agriculture to grow cash crops C. the large Catholic majority in Brazil D. the strong national asked by tim on November 27, 2018 English I’m posting you your answers for the true-false activity again because I don’t want to make them wrong. Lorenzo thinks that learning English is difficult. TRUE Lorenzo prefers geography lessons to English lessons. TRUE Though Lorenzo doesn’t say it asked by Henry2 on September 20, 2011 abnormal psychology Is this true or false With regard to life transitions, adolescence appears to be a time of particular stress because of the many changes that occur. asked by jazz on November 3, 2013 Criminology According to proponents of capital punishment, which of the following is a true statement? A. Capital punishment deters crime. B. Capital punishment is less expensive than imprisonment. C. Capital punishment is widely accepted in the international asked by Pat on December 13, 2014 Math The sum of the degrees of the interior angles of a triangle is _ degrees What is the sum of the interior angles of a parallelogram ? What is the sum of the interior angles of a rhombus? What is the sum of the interior angles of a kite? What is the sum asked by Mackenzie on June 4, 2014 GEOMETRY True or false? A quadrilateral can have more than one acute interior angle asked by Twg on August 20, 2009 Marh An automobile manufacturing plant produces cars according to a fixed pattern. During one day, the first five cars have the following colors and equipment. blue with a stereo and dark interior white with a stereo and.light interior- green without a stereo asked by Sandy on March 16, 2016 Math help please A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Sn: 2 is a factor of n2 + 7n Could you please show your work? I want to know how to solve. asked by Hello on March 7, 2016 Algebra A positive integer minus a positive integer is always positive. This statement is sometimes true. For example, 17 – 5 = 12, but 15 – 20 = –5. post five other statements about the addition and subtraction of positive and negative integers, and ask asked by Mary Ann on October 8, 2013 Math A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 is a factor of n2 + 7n asked by Anonymous on March 4, 2016 pre calc A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 is a factor of n2 + 7n asked by allexelle on October 10, 2015 pre-calc A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 is a factor of n^2 + 7n asked by cam on May 4, 2017 pre calc A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 is a factor of n2 + 7n asked by allexelle on October 9, 2015 History Brazil’s history differs from the history of most countries in South America because Brazil A. was never successfully colonized by the Europeans B. was colonized by Portugal, not Spain*** C. had a few natural resources to export D. achieved its asked by hi on March 13, 2019 Shalee ^~^ 1) Which of the following statements about the sun’s structure is true? The sun has a solid surface The sun has an interior and an atmosphere The sun’s interior is similar to the Earth’s; it has a core, mantle, and crust*** The sun’s outermost layer is asked by Shalee ^~^ on October 7, 2015 Science 1) Which of the following statements about the sun’s structure is true? The sun has a solid surface The sun has an interior and an atmosphere The sun’s interior is similar to the Earth’s; it has a core, mantle, and crust*** The sun’s outermost layer is asked by Shalee ^~^ on October 7, 2015 MATHS IF ONE OF THE INTERIOR ANGLES OF A REGULAR POLYGON IS TO BE EQUAL TO (9/8) TIMES OF ONE OF THE INTERIOR ANGLES OF A REGULAR HEXAGON,THEN THE INTERIOR SIDES OF THE POLYGONS IS …….? asked by NISHI on April 1, 2013 pre-calc A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 1^2 + 4^2 + 7^2 + . . . + (3n – 2)^2 = (n(〖6n〗^2-3n-1))/2 asked by Ciara on April 16, 2015 Math A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 + 5 + 8 + . . . + ( 3n – 1) = n(1 + 3n)/2 asked by Crystal on March 4, 2016 math A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2 + 5 + 8 + . . . + ( 3n – 1) = n(1 + 3n)/2 asked by Pablo on March 4, 2016 pre-calc – JAI A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2+5+8+…+(3n-1)=n(1+3n)/2 asked by Ciara on April 17, 2015 PRE – CALCULUS A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 2+5+8+…+(3n-1)=n(1+3n)/2 asked by Ciara on April 17, 2015 Math A statement Sn about the positive integers is given. Write statements S1, S2, and S3, and show that each of these statements is true. Show your work. Sn: 1^2 + 4^2 + 7^2 + . . . + (3n – 2)^2 = Not exactly sure how to do this! Could someone help? asked by Jess on March 3, 2016 human resources Search the Internet to find at least three examples of mission statements for human service organizations. · Create a 10- to 12-slide PowerPoint® presentation that addresses the following in regard to each mission statement. asked by alma on March 14, 2010 geometry A regular polygon has an interior angle that measures 90°. Which of the following statements is used to prove that the polygon is a square asked by Anonymous on February 15, 2012 Civics Which is NOT true of the segregation laws passed after the Civil War? =They prohibited interracial marriage. They did not only apply to blacks. They were only in the South. All of these statements are true. asked by Sierra on February 14, 2012 PHYSICS HELP Please check to see if these statements are right. Through the process of doing work, energy can move between the external world and the system as the result of forces. I believe this is true. Please verify. Yes, true. asked by Pat on January 10, 2007 Ethics With regard to the Hippocratic Oath, which of the following statements, if any, is true? The Hippocratic Oath requires physicians to obtain the consent of their patients. The Hippocratic Oath requires physicians to provide information to their patients. asked by Anonymous on February 4, 2017 physics (geometry bit) h t t p : / / i m g 4 3 . i m a g e s h a c k . u s / i m g 4 3 / 4 7 4 1 / 9 4 7 4 7 1 1 6 . j p g ok the two read angles are equal to each other because they are complementary if i remeber correctly the only thing we can conclude is that when we add the asked by physics (geometry bit) on August 10, 2009 Math Prove that an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the non adjacent interior angles of that triangle. Use the following variables in your proof. Exterior angle=w Interior adjacent angle= x Interior non adjacent angle1= y Interior non asked by Brian on June 2, 2016 math–fast please If I have a polygon with x+2y sides, how do I find the interior and eterior angle? I know that to find the interior angle you use 180(x-2) and for the exterior you use 360/x. But do i just plug in x+2y for every x? I’m lost 180(x-2) gives you the SUM of asked by Emily on March 30, 2007 American Government Which is NOT true of the segregation laws passed after the Civil War? My answer is 3. 1.)They prohibited interracial marriage. 2.)They did not only apply to blacks. 3.)They were only in the South. 4.)All of these statements are true. asked by Mackenzie on February 13, 2012 Chemistry 1. Explain the difference between a galvanic (voltaic) cell and an electrolytic cell. For a reaction in a galvanic cell, change in S is negative. Which of the following statements is true? Defend your answer. a.”E”willncrease with an increase in asked by Ryan on April 26, 2012 chemistry Which of the following statements about proteins is true? The simpler an amino acid is, the more likely it is to be generated within the body. The source of a protein (mammal, fish, or poultry) has little effect on nutritional value. All of these are true. asked by asap on April 15, 2013 Math The statements p â†’ q and q â†’ r are given. If we know q is true, is p necessarily true? Explain.? asked by Melissa on December 12, 2016 Math The statements p → q and q → r are given. If we know q is true, is p necessarily true? Explain. asked by Melissa on December 12, 2016 true of false does all statements must be true in a true or false question asked by connxus kid on December 28, 2017 Physics (please help) A planet is in circular orbit about a remote star, far from any other object in the universe. Which of the following statements is true? a. None of the other statements are true. b. There is only one force acting on the planet. c. There are two forces asked by Catherine on April 30, 2011 HISTORY ISNT THIS RITE? With regard to British influences on India, which of the following statements is true? A. A primary objective of British rule was attaining food self-sufficiency for Indians. B. The common name for the British Indian Empire was the “British asked by tacarey on November 16, 2011 Math Can someone check my answers and help me 1. A vector in standard position has its initial points at (0,0) True? 2. The general formula for finding the probability of two events A and B that are not mutually exclusive and overlap is given by: P(A or B) = asked by mysterychicken on June 9, 2013 Social Studies Rain forests are important because they contribute to the world’s supply of soil. oxygen. food. harbors. 2. The capital of Brazil was moved from the coast to the interior because the government wished to develop the interior by attracting people to it. asked by H2015 on May 30, 2015 physical for a gaussin surface through which the net flux is zero the following 4 statements could be true which of the statements must be true a)tere are no charges inside the surface b)the net charge inside the surface is 0 c)the electric field is 0 everywhere on asked by abbas on February 16, 2014 History I need help finding the answers! 1. Which of the following key terms has been responsible for the formation of many limestone caves in northern Georgia? (1 point)fault erosion plateau elevation 2. Which of the following regions is located in the asked by Shawn on August 12, 2015 English Jack: I’ll be there in 20 minutes. I’m stopping at the store to pick up some batteries. Do you need anything Which of the following statements about Jack’s dialog is true? 1. All three sentences use future form and meaning 2.All three sentences use present asked by Jim Collum on June 10, 2013 Categories ## nut a fits on bolt b Nut C fits on Bolt C. Nut B fits on Bolt B. Nut A fits on Bolt A. Bolt C is larger than Bolt B. bolt A and Bolt B are exactly the same. Which is true? a. Nut C will fit on all of the bolts. b. Nut A will fit on Bolt C and Bolt B c. Bolt A will fit Nut A and Nut B d. Nut C will fit on Bolt A, but not on Bolt B. 0 0 2,299 asked by Ingrid Mar 21, 2016 read the information. A and B are the same. C is different from the others. 0 0 posted by Steve Mar 21, 2016 C, cz bolt a & b are the same!! 1 0 posted by Sara Draz May 18, 2016 d 0 0 posted by Anonymous Jul 19, 2016 l 0 0 posted by ; Dec 8, 2016 Categories ## which of the following is an example of the principle of checks and balances Government which of the following is an example of the principle of checks and balances? A)President can veto an act of congress. B)Members of congress have the power to raise their own salaries C)Federal courts have the power to hear cases involving federal law D)President can appoint officers of the armed forces My answer is A am i right? 0 0 421 asked by Fred Sep 2, 2016 Yes, A. 0 0 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue Sep 2, 2016 1. A 2. D 3. C 0 0 posted by Becky2theg Sep 21, 2016 Thanks So much Becky2theg! She’s 100% correct for connexus! 🙂 0 0 posted by Fox Girl Sep 21, 2017 LIES ONLY FIRST ONE IS CORRECT FOR CONNEXUS 0 1 posted by Nahhsnitch Oct 4, 2017 Woah woah, WHICH IS IT??!!! 0 0 posted by Girly Oct 10, 2017 Becky2theg is correct 0 0 posted by anon Oct 12, 2017 1. a 2. d 3. c becky is correct 0 0 posted by rabes Feb 3, 2018 Lesson 10: Principles of the Constitution # 45.0570001 American Government Unit 2: Foundations of American Government 1. Which of the following is an example of the principle of checks and balances? A. Presidents can veto an act of congress 2. Which branch of government has the power to make laws? D. Legislative 3. The U.S. government is divided into three branches. What is this an example of? # C. Separation of power There are all right! 0 0 posted by Yandere_Wolfie Aug 20, 2018 they’re* 0 0 posted by Yandere_Wolfie Aug 20, 2018 1. which of the following is an example of the principle of checks and balances? A)President can veto an act of congress. B)Members of congress have the power to raise their own salaries C)Federal courts have the power to hear cases involving federal law D)President can appoint officers of the armed forces 2. Which branch of government has the power to make laws? A) executive B) federal C) judicial D) legislative 3. The U.S. government is divided into three branches. What is this an example of? A)federalism B) interpretation C) Separation of power D)confederate system Correct Answers. 1) A 2) D 3) C 0 0 posted by Noboby Sep 4, 2018 1.a 2.d 3.c 0 0 posted by Jacob Sep 14, 2018 Categories ## ros soap note MN552 Advanced Health Assessment Unit 2 SOAP Note Section I Written Guide History, Interview, and Genogram Guide Date of History/Interview: 23rd, September, 2017 Source of history and Reliability: (client) 1. Biographical Data a. Name (use initials only): Mrs. W.W. b. Address: George street, House no. 4, California c. Phone number 305-555-5555 d. Primary language: speaks English e. Authorized representative: her daughter f. Age and Date of Birth: 50 y/o, July 15, 1967 g. Place of Birth: San Diego, California h. Gender: female i. Race: black j. Marital Status: divorced k. Ethnic/Cultural Origin: African l. Education: master’s in criminology m. Occupation/Professional: lecturer n. Health insurance: full medical coverage 2. Chief Complaint (reason for seeking health care): a. Brief spontaneous statement in client’s own words “The cough started as a chest cough but it has not been better since my first time visit to the clinic. During the day it doesn’t bother me as much, but during the night I cough a lot. For the last few weeks I have experienced pain in the chest.” b. Includes when the problem started “I started coughing like three months ago. I have undergone treatment from regular hospitals but nothing seems to change.” 3. History of Present Illness: A well organized, chronological record of client’s reason for seeking care, from time of onset to present. Please include the 8 critical characteristics using the PQRSTU pneumonic. P – Provocative or palliative The client states that in most cases room temperature affects her cough, when she feels cold she coughs more. She is also affected by strong smells like perfumes, and states that she cannot sit directly under a fan or air conditioner because the strong wind promotes her cough. Q – Quality or quantity The client feels pain in her chest when she coughs. Her throat is also sore. The cough produces sputum that seems clear. R – Region or radiation She only has coughing problem. No other complains. S – Severity The severity according to the patient is at 6 out of 10. T – Timing She states that when she starts coughing it can last for more than five minutes without stopping. She coughs mostly during the night or when she is irritated by a disturbing smell during the day or even strong wind. U – Understand Patient’s Perception of the problem Her fever seems low grade at 100 degrees without chills. After a long conversation with the client she says that she is worried she might have pneumonia. She has not had shortness of breath, she also denies postnasal drip. She has undergone chest X-rays, TB test, and taken many over the counter drugs and home remedies, with no improvement. 4. Past Medical History a. Medical Hx: major illnesses during life span, injuries, hospitalizations, transfusions, and disabilities. No other major medical complications, she was diagnosed with diabetes at age 45, present concern is only her cough. hospitalized once for vaginal delivery, no other surgical hx. b. Childhood Illnesses: Measles, chickenpox, Mumps, strep throat c. Surgical Hx; dates, outpatient, X-rays. Vaginal delivery on 02/26/1987, Chest X ray 08/15/2017 d. Obstetric HX: Only one pregnancy, and one delivery, she gave birth to her daughter who is the only child.no miscarriages or abortion cases. e. Immunizations: only as a child, immunization like MMR, Varicella, Tetanus, has not received busters as adult, but last visit to the doctor they gave her the flu shot. Patient states that she does not like getting vaccines. f. Psychiatric Hx: no psychiatric conditions reported. g. Allergies: allergic to dust h. Current Medications: Metformin 500mg BID for diabetes type 2. i. Last Examination Date: 12th March, 2017 No eye problem No foot problem There are some cavities No hearing problem EKG; normal Chest X-Ray; diffuse wheezes are present bilaterally with expiration. No crackles or bronchi. Pap test; no cervical cancer Mammogram; no signs of breast cancer Serum cholesterol; cholesterol level is at 200 Stool occult blood; no colon cancer Prostate; not relevant PSA; not relevant UA; not collected TB skin test; not detected Sickle- cell; no sickle cell disease PKU; non-applicable Hamatocrit; 35% – normal Genogram Three Generation Section 2 This section has a family medical history as stated by the patient. Patient states that she is currently divorced from her husband whose whereabouts are unknown, prior to divorce he was in good health. Patient W.W. had one daughter with her ex-husband, she is alive and has history of asthma. Patient narrates that her mother is alive and heathy for her age, her father is deceased, he had a history of heart failure. Her maternal grandmother is alive and overall healthy, just debilitated due to her age, her maternal grandfather had a heart attack and is deceased. Patients grandmother is alive with arthritis, and her paternal grandfather is alive with diabetes. On the Ex-husband family side, she knows in his family in his mother’s side his mother is alive and with diabetes, his father alive and with hypertension, his grandmother had a stroke and is deceased, and his grandfather had committed suicide. On her Ex-husbands fathers side his grandmother alive with diabetes and HTN and his grandfather is alive with prostate issues and diagnosed with BPH. Categories ## which of the following statements concerning reversing entries is​ true? Test Bank for Accounting Principles, Eleventh Edition 4 – 3 Completing the Accounting Cycle # CHAPTER 4 # COMPLETING THE ACCOUNTING CYCLE #### Summary of Questions by Learning Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy  Item LO BT Item LO BT Item LO BT Item LO BT Item LO BT True-False Statements 1. 1 K 9. 2 K 17. 4 K 25. 6 C sg33. 2 K 2. 1 K 10. 2 K 18. 4 C 26. 6 K sg34. 3 K 3. 1 C 11. 2 K 19. 5 C 27. 6 K sg35. 6 C 4. 1 C 12. 2 K 20. 5 K 28. 6 K sg36. 6 K 5. 1 K 13. 2 K 21. 5 C 29. 6 K sg37. 6 K 6. 1 K 14. 2 K 22. 6 K a30. 7 K 7. 1 C 15. 3 C 23. 6 C sg31. 1 K 8. 2 K 16. 3 K 24. 6 C sg32. 2 K Multiple Choice Questions 38. 1 K 66. 2 K 94. 3 C 122. 6 AN 150. 6 AP 39. 1 K 67. 2 K 95. 3 C 123. 6 AN 151. 6 AP 40. 1 K 68. 2 C 96. 3 C 124. 6 K a152. 7 K 41. 1 C 69. 2 K 97. 4 K 125. 6 K a153. 7 K 42. 1 C 70. 2 K 98. 4 K 126. 6 C sg154. 1 C 43. 1 K 71. 2 C 99. 4 K 127. 6 K sg155. 2 K 44. 1 C 72. 2 K 100. 4 K 128. 6 K sg156. 2 K 45. 1 K 73. 2 K 101. 4 K 129. 6 C sg157. 3 K 46. 1 K 74. 2 C 102. 4 K 130. 6 C st158. 4 K 47. 1 K 75. 2 C 103. 4 K 131. 6 K sg159. 4 K 48. 1 K 76. 2 C 104. 4 K 132. 6 K st160. 5 K 49. 1 K 77. 2 C 105. 4 K 133. 6 K sg161. 5 AN 50. 1 K 78. 2 C 106. 5 K 134. 6 K st162. 6 K 51. 1 C 79. 2 AN 107. 5 AN 135. 6 K sg163. 6 K 52. 1 K 80. 2 C 108. 5 K 136. 6 K st,a164. 7 K 53. 1 C 81. 2 C 109. 5 C 137. 6 K 165. 8 K 54. 1 AP 82. 2 C 110. 5 K 138. 6 C 166. 8 K 55. 1 C 83. 2 C 111. 5 AN 139. 1 AN 167. 8 K 56. 2 K 84. 2 AN 112. 5 AN 140. 6 AN 168. 8 K 57. 2 K 85. 2 C 113. 5 AN 141. 6 AN 169. 8 K 58. 2 K 86. 2 C 114. 5 AN 142. 6 AN 170. 8 K 59. 2 K 87. 3 K 115. 5 AN 143. 6 AN 171. 8 K 60. 2 K 88. 3 C 116. 6 AN 144. 6 AN 172. 8 K 61. 2 K 89. 3 K 117. 6 AN 145. 6 AN 173. 8 K 62. 2 K 90. 3 K 118. 6 AN 146. 6 K 174. 8 K 63. 2 K 91. 3 K 119. 6 AN 147. 6 K 175. 8 K 64. 2 K 92. 3 K 120. 6 AN 148. 6 K 65. 2 K 93. 3 K 121. 6 AN 149. 6 K sg This question also appears in the Study Guide. st This question also appears in a self-test at the student companion website. a This question covers a topic in an appendix to the chapter. #### Summary of Questions by Learning Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy  Brief Exercises 176. 2 AN 179. 2 K 182. 5 AN 185. 6 AP 177. 2 AN 180. 3 K 183. 6 AN 186. 6 K 178. 2 AN 181. 5 AN 184. 6 AP a187. 7 AP Exercises 188. 1 C 194. 1,6 AP 200. 2 AP 206. 5 AN 212. 6 AP 189. 1 C 194. 2 AN 201. 3 C 207. 5 AN a213. 7 AN 190. 1 AN 196. 2 AP 202. 3 AN 208. 5 AN a214. 7 AN 191. 1 AN 197. 2 AP 203. 4 C 209. 6 AP a215. 7 AN 192. 1 AN 198. 2 AP 204. 5 AN 210. 6 AN 193. 1 AN 199. 2 AP 205. 5 AN 211. 6 AP Completion Statements 216. 1 K 219.. 2 K 222. 4 K 225. 6 K 217. 1 K 220. 2 K 223. 6 K 226. 6 K 218. 2 K 221. 3 K 224. 6 K 227. 6 K Matching 228. 1-7 K Short-Answer Essay 229. 1 K 231. 6 K a233. 7 K 225. 5 K 230. 2 K 232. 6 K 234. 5 K #### SUMMARY OF Learning OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE  Item Type Item Type Item Type Item Type Item Type Item Type Item Type Learning Objective 1 1. TF 7. TF 42. MC 48. MC 54. MC 190. Ex 217. C 2. TF 31. TF 43. MC 49. MC 55. MC 191. Ex 228. MA 3. TF 38. MC 44. MC 50. MC 139. MC 192. Ex 229. SA 4. TF 39. MC 45. MC 51. MC 154. MC 193. Ex 5. TF 40. MC 46. MC 52. MC 188. Ex 194. Ex 6. TF 41. MC 47. MC 53. MC 189. Ex 216. C Learning Objective 2 8. TF 33. TF 63. MC 71. MC 79. MC 155. MC 197. Ex 9. TF 56. MC 64. MC 72. MC 80. MC 156. MC 198. Ex 10. TF 57. MC 65. MC 73. MC 81. MC 176. BE 199. Ex 11. TF 58. MC 66. MC 74. MC 82. MC 177. BE 200. Ex 12. TF 59. MC 67. MC 75. MC 83. MC 178. BE 218. C 13. TF 60. MC 68. MC 76. MC 84. MC 179. BE 219/220. C 14. TF 61. MC 69. MC 77. MC 85. MC 195. Ex 228. MA 32. TF 62. MC 70. MC 78. MC 86. MC 196. Ex 230. SA Learning Objective 3 15. TF 87. MC 90. MC 93. MC 96. MC 201. Ex 228. MA 16. TF 88. MC 91. MC 94. MC 157. MC 202. Ex 34. TF 89. MC 92. MC 95. MC 180. BE 221. C #### SUMMARY OF Learning OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE  Learning Objective 4 17. TF 98. MC 101. MC 104. MC 159. MC 228. MA 18. TF 99. MC 102. MC 105. MC 203. Ex 97. MC 100. MC 103. MC 158. MC 222. C Learning Objective 5 19. TF 107. MC 111. MC 115. MC 182. BE 207. Ex 235. SA 20. TF 108. MC 112. MC 160. MC 204. Ex 208. Ex 21. TF 109. MC 113. MC 161. MC 205. Ex 228. MA 106. MC 110. MC 114. MC 181. BE 206. Ex 234. SA Learning Objective 6 22. TF 37. TF 125. MC 135. MC 145. MC 184. BE 225. C 23. TF 116. MC 126. MC 136. MC 146. MC 185. BE 226. C 24. TF 117. MC 127. MC 137. MC 147. MC 186. BE 227. C 25. TF 118. MC 128. MC 138. MC 148. MC 183. Ex 228. MA 26. TF 119. MC 129. MC 149. MC 209. Ex 231. SA 27. TF 120. MC 130. MC 140. MC 150. MC 210. Ex 232. SA 28. TF 121. MC 131. MC 141. MC 151. MC 211. Ex 29. TF 122. MC 132. MC 142. MC 162. MC 212. Ex 35. TF 123. MC 133. MC 143. MC 163. MC 223. C 36. TF 124. MC 134. MC 144. MC 183. BE 224. C Learning Objective a7 a30. TF a153. MC a167. MC a213. Ex a215. Ex 228. MA a152. MC a164. MC a187. BE a214. Ex 233. SA Learning Objective a8 a165. MC a167. MC a169. MC a171. MC a173. MC a175. MC a166. MC a168. MC a170. MC a172. MC a174. MC Note: TF = True-False BE = Brief Exercise C = Completion MC = Multiple Choice Ex = Exercise MA = Matching SA = Short-Answer Essay ## CHAPTER Learning OBJECTIVES 1. Prepare a worksheet. The steps in preparing a worksheet follows. (a) Prepare a trial balance on the worksheet, (b) Enter the adjustments in the adjustments columns, (c) Enter adjusted balances in the adjusted trial balance columns, (d) Extend adjusted trial balance amounts to appropriate financial statement columns, and (e) Total the statement columns, compute net income (or net loss), and complete the worksheet. 2. Explain the process of closing the books. Closing the books occurs at the end of an accounting period. The process is to journalize and post closing entries and then underline and balance all accounts. In closing the books, companies make separate entries to close revenues and expenses to Income Summary, Income Summary to Owner’s Capital, and Owner’s Drawings to Owner’s Capital. Only temporary accounts are closed. 3. Describe the content and purpose of a post-closing trial balance. A post-closing trial balance contains the balances in permanent accounts that are carried forward to the next accounting period. The purpose of this trial balance is to prove the equality of these balances. 4. State the required steps in the accounting cycle. The required steps in the accounting cycle are (1) analyze business transactions, (2) journalize the transactions, (3) post to ledger accounts, (4) prepare a trial balance, (5) journalize and post adjusting entries, (6) prepare an adjusted trial balance, (7) prepare financial statements, (8) journalize and post closing entries, and (9) prepare a post-closing trial balance. 5. Explain the approaches to preparing correcting entries. One way to determine the correcting entry is to compare the incorrect entry with the correct entry. After comparison, the company makes a correcting entry to correct the accounts. An alternative to a correcting entry is to reverse the incorrect entry and then prepare the correct entry. 6. Identify the sections of a classified balance sheet. A classified balance sheet categorizes assets as current assets; long-term investments; property, plant, and equipment; and intangibles. Liabilities are classified as either current or long-term. There is also an owner’s (owners’) equity section, which varies with the form of business organization. a7. Prepare reversing entries. Reversing entries are the opposite of the adjusting entries made in the preceding period. Some companies choose to make reversing entries at the beginning of a new accounting period to simplify the recording of later transactions related to the adjusting entries. In most cases, only accrued adjusting entries are reversed. ## TRUE-FALSE STATEMENTS 1. A worksheet is a mandatory form that must be prepared along with an income statement and balance sheet. Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 2. If a worksheet is used, financial statements can be prepared before adjusting entries are journalized. Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 3. If total credits in the income statement columns of a worksheet exceed total debits, the enterprise has net income. Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 4. It is not necessary to prepare formal financial statements if a worksheet has been prepared because financial position and net income are shown on the worksheet. Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting 5. The adjustments on a worksheet can be posted directly to the accounts in the ledger from the worksheet. Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 6. The adjusted trial balance columns of a worksheet are obtained by subtracting the adjustment columns from the trial balance columns. Ans: F, SO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem LOlving, IMA: FSA 7. The balance of the depreciation expense account will appear in the income statement debit column of a worksheet. Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 8. Closing entries are unnecessary if the business plans to continue operating in the future and issue financial statements each year. Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 9. The owner’s drawings account is closed to the Income Summary account in order to properly determine net income (or loss) for the period. Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 10. After closing entries have been journalized and posted, all temporary accounts in the ledger should have zero balances. Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 11. Closing revenue and expense accounts to the Income Summary account is an optional bookkeeping procedure. Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 12. Closing the drawings account to Owner’s Capital is not necessary if net income is greater than owner’s drawings during the period. Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 13. The owner’s drawings account is a permanent account whose balance is carried forward to the next accounting period. Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 14. Closing entries are journalized after adjusting entries have been journalized. Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 15. The amounts appearing on an income statement should agree with the amounts appearing on the post-closing trial balance. Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 16. The post-closing trial balance is entered in the first two columns of a worksheet. Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 17. A business entity has only one accounting cycle over its economic existence. Ans: F, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 18. The accounting cycle begins at the start of a new accounting period. Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 19. Both correcting entries and adjusting entries always affect at least one balance sheet account and one income statement account. Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 20. Correcting entries are made any time an error is discovered even though it may not be at the end of an accounting period. Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 21. An incorrect debit to Accounts Receivable instead of the correct account Notes Receivable does not require a correcting entry because total assets will not be misstated. Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 22. In a corporation, Retained Earnings is a part of owners’ equity. Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 23. A company’s operating cycle and fiscal year are usually the same length of time. Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 24. Cash and supplies are both classified as current assets. Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 25. Long-term investments would appear in the property, plant, and equipment section of the balance sheet. Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 26. A liability is classified as a current liability if the company is to pay it within the forthcoming year. Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 27. A company’s liquidity is concerned with the relationship between long-term investments and long-term debt. Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Risk Analysis, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics 28. Current assets are customarily the first items listed on a classified balance sheet. Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 29. The operating cycle of a company is determined by the number of years the company has been operating. Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting a30. Reversing entries are an optional bookkeeping procedure. Ans: T, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 31. After a worksheet has been completed, the statement columns contain all data that are required for the preparation of financial statements. Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 32. To close net income to owner’s capital, Income Summary is debited and Owner’s Capital is credited. Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 33. In one closing entry, Owner’s Drawings is credited and Income Summary is debited. Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 34. The post-closing trial balance will contain only owner’s equity statement accounts and balance sheet accounts. Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 35. The operating cycle of a company is the average time required to collect the receivables resulting from producing revenues. Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics 36. Current assets are listed in the order of liquidity. Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 37. Current liabilities are obligations that the company is to pay within the coming year. Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting ### Answers to True-False Statements  Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. 1. F 7. T 13. F 19. F 25. F 31. T 37. T 2. T 8. F 14. T 20. T 26. T 32. T 3. T 9. F 15. F 21. F 27. F 33. F 4. F 10. T 16. F 22. T 28. T 34. F 5. F 11. F 17. F 23. F 29. F 35. F 6. F 12. F 18. T 24. T a30. T 36. T ## MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 38. Preparing a worksheet involves a. two steps. b. three steps. c. four steps. d. five steps. Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 39. The adjustments entered in the adjustments columns of a worksheet are a. not journalized. b. posted to the ledger but not journalized. c. not journalized until after the financial statements are prepared. d. journalized before the worksheet is completed. Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 40. The information for preparing a trial balance on a worksheet is obtained from a. financial statements. b. general ledger accounts. c. general journal entries. d. business documents. Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 41. After the adjusting entries are journalized and posted to the accounts in the general ledger, the balance of each account should agree with the balance shown on the a. adjusted trial balance. b. post-closing trial balance. c. the general journal. d. adjustments columns of the worksheet. Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 42. If the total debit column exceeds the total credit column of the income statement columns on a worksheet, then the company has a. earned net income for the period. b. an error because debits do not equal credits. c. suffered a net loss for the period. d. to make an adjusting entry. Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 43. A worksheet is a multiple column form that facilitates the a. identification of events. b. measurement process. c. preparation of financial statements. d. analysis process. Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 44. Which of the following companies would be least likely to use a worksheet to facilitate the adjustment process? a. Large company with numerous accounts b. Small company with numerous accounts c. All companies, since worksheets are required under generally accepted accounting principles d. Small company with few accounts Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 45. A worksheet can be thought of as a(n) a. permanent accounting record. b. optional device used by accountants. c. part of the general ledger. d. part of the journal. Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 46. The account, Supplies, will appear in the following debit columns of the worksheet. a. Trial balance b. Adjusted trial balance c. Balance sheet d. All of these answer choices are correct Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 47. When constructing a worksheet, accounts are often needed that are not listed in the trial balance already entered on the worksheet from the ledger. Where should these additional accounts be shown on the worksheet? a. They should be inserted in alphabetical order into the trial balance accounts already given. b. They should be inserted in chart of account order into the trial balance already given. c. They should be inserted on the lines immediately below the trial balance totals. d. They should not be inserted on the trial balance until the next accounting period. Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 48. When using a worksheet, adjusting entries are journalized a. after the worksheet is completed and before financial statements are prepared. b. before the adjustments are entered on to the worksheet. c. after the worksheet is completed and after financial statements have been prepared. d. before the adjusted trial balance is extended to the proper financial statement columns. Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 49. Assuming that there is a net loss for the period, debits equal credits in all but which section of the worksheet? a. Income statement columns b. Adjustments columns c. Trial balance columns d. Adjusted trial balance columns Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 50. Adjusting entries are prepared from a. source documents. b. the adjustments columns of the worksheet. c. the general ledger. d. last year’s worksheet. Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 51. The net income (or loss) for the period a. is found by computing the difference between the income statement credit column and the balance sheet credit column on the worksheet. b. cannot be found on the worksheet. c. is found by computing the difference between the income statement columns of the worksheet. d. is found by computing the difference between the trial balance totals and the adjusted trial balance totals. Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 52. The worksheet does not show a. net income or loss for the period. b. revenue and expense account balances. c. the ending balance in the owner’s capital account. d. the trial balance before adjustments. Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 53. If the total debits exceed total credits in the balance sheet columns of the worksheet, owner’s equity a. will increase because net income has occurred. b. will decrease because a net loss has occurred. c. is in error because a mistake has occurred. d. will not be affected. Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 54. The income statement and balance sheet columns of Iron and Wine Company’s worksheet reflect the following totals: Income Statement Balance Sheet Dr. Cr. Dr. Cr. Totals$72,000 $44,000$60,000 $88,000 The net income (or loss) for the period is a.$44,000 income.

b. $28,000 income. c.$28,000 loss.

d. not determinable.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

55. The income statement and balance sheet columns of Iron and Wine Company’s worksheet reflect the following totals:

Income Statement Balance Sheet

Dr. Cr. Dr. Cr.

Totals $72,000$48,000 $60,000$84,000

To enter the net income (or loss) for the period into the above worksheet requires an entry to the

a. income statement debit column and the balance sheet credit column.

b. income statement credit column and the balance sheet debit column.

c. income statement debit column and the income statement credit column.

d. balance sheet debit column and the balance sheet credit column.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

56. Closing entries are necessary for

a. permanent accounts only.

b. temporary accounts only.

c. both permanent and temporary accounts.

d. permanent or real accounts only.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

57. Each of the following accounts is closed to Income Summary except

a. Expenses.

b. Owner’s Drawings.

c. Revenues.

d. All of these are closed to Income Summary.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

a. in order to terminate the business as an operating entity.

b. so that all assets, liabilities, and owner’s capital accounts will have zero balances when the next accounting period starts.

c. in order to transfer net income (or loss) and owner’s drawings to the owner’s capital account.

d. so that financial statements can be prepared.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

59. Closing entries are

a. an optional step in the accounting cycle.

b. posted to the ledger accounts from the worksheet.

c. made to close permanent or real accounts.

d. journalized in the general journal.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

60. The income summary account

a. is a permanent account.

b. appears on the balance sheet.

c. appears on the income statement.

d. is a temporary account.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

61. If Income Summary has a credit balance after revenues and expenses have been closed into it, the closing entry for Income Summary will include a

a. debit to the owner’s capital account.

b. debit to the owner’s drawings account.

c. credit to the owner’s capital account.

d. credit to the owner’s drawings account.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

62. Closing entries are journalized and posted

a. before the financial statements are prepared.

b. after the financial statements are prepared.

c. at management’s discretion.

d. at the end of each interim accounting period.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

63. Closing entries

a. are prepared before the financial statements.

b. reduce the number of permanent accounts.

c. cause the revenue and expense accounts to have zero balances.

d. summarize the activity in every account.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

64. Which of the following is a true statement about closing the books of a proprietorship?

a. Expenses are closed to the Expense Summary account.

b. Only revenues are closed to the Income Summary account.

c. Revenues and expenses are closed to the Income Summary account.

d. Revenues, expenses, and the owner’s drawings account are closed to the Income Summary account.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

65. Closing entries may be prepared from all of the following except

a. Adjusted balances in the ledger

b. Income statement and balance sheet columns of the worksheet

c. Balance sheet

d. Income and owner’s equity statements

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

66. In order to close the owner’s drawings account, the

a. income summary account should be debited.

b. income summary account should be credited.

c. owner’s capital account should be credited.

d. owner’s capital account should be debited.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

67. In preparing closing entries

a. each revenue account will be credited.

b. each expense account will be credited.

c. the owner’s capital account will be debited if there is net income for the period.

d. the owner’s drawings account will be debited.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

68. The most efficient way to accomplish closing entries is to

a. credit the income summary account for each revenue account balance.

b. debit the income summary account for each expense account balance.

c. credit the owner’s drawings balance directly to the income summary account.

d. credit the income summary account for total revenues and debit the income summary account for total expenses.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

69. The closing entry process consists of closing

a. all asset and liability accounts.

b. out the owner’s capital account.

c. all permanent accounts.

d. all temporary accounts.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

70. The final closing entry to be journalized is typically the entry that closes the

a. revenue accounts.

b. owner’s drawings account.

c. owner’s capital account.

d. expense accounts.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

71. An error has occurred in the closing entry process if

a. revenue and expense accounts have zero balances.

b. the owner’s capital account is credited for the amount of net income.

c. the owner’s drawings account is closed to the owner’s capital account.

d. the balance sheet accounts have zero balances.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

72. The Income Summary account is an important account that is used

a. during interim periods.

c. annually in preparing closing entries.

d. annually in preparing correcting entries.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

73. The balance in the income summary account before it is closed will be equal to

a. the net income or loss on the income statement.

b. the beginning balance in the owner’s capital account.

c. the ending balance in the owner’s capital account.

d. zero.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

74. After closing entries are posted, the balance in the owner’s capital account in the ledger will be equal to

a. the beginning owner’s capital reported on the owner’s equity statement.

b. the amount of the owner’s capital reported on the balance sheet.

c. zero.

d. the net income for the period.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

75. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information:

Revenues $7,000 Expenses: Salaries and Wages Expense$3,000

Rent Expense 1,500

Supplies Expense 300

Insurance Expense 100

Total expenses 5,700

Net income $1,300 The entry to close the revenue account includes a a. debit to Income Summary for$1,300.

b. credit to Income Summary for $1,300. c. debit to Income Summary for$7,000.

d. credit to Income Summary for $7,000. Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 76. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information: Revenues$7,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $3,000 Rent Expense 1,500 Advertising Expense 800 Supplies Expense 300 Insurance Expense 100 Total expenses 5,700 Net income$1,300

The entry to close the expense accounts includes a

a. debit to Income Summary for $1,300. b. credit to Rent Expense for$1,500.

c. credit to Income Summary for $5,700. d. debit to Salaries and Wages Expense for$3,000.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

77. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information:

Revenues $7,000 Expenses: Salaries and Wages Expense$3,000

Rent Expense 1,500

Supplies Expense 300

Insurance Expense 100

Total expenses 5,700

Net income $1,300 After the revenue and expense accounts have been closed, the balance in Income Summary will be a.$0.

b. a debit balance of $1,300. c. a credit balance of$1,300.

d. a credit balance of $7,000. Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting Solution:$7,000 ( $5,700 ($1,300

78. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information:

Revenues $7,000 Expenses: Salaries and Wages Expense$3,000

Rent Expense 1,500

Supplies Expense 300

Insurance Expense 100

Total expenses 5,700

Net income $1,300 The entry to close Income Summary to Owner’s, Capital includes a. a debit to Revenues for$7,000.

b. credits to Expenses totalling $5,700. c. a credit to Income Summary for$1,300

d. a credit to Owner’s Capital for $1,300. Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 79. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information: Revenues$7,000

Expenses:

Salries and Wages Expense $3,000 Rent Expense 1,500 Advertising Expense 800 Supplies Expense 300 Insurance Expense 100 Total expenses 5,700 Net income$1,300

At June 1, 2014, Camera Obscura reported owner’s equity of $35,000. The company had no owner drawings during June. At June 30, 2014, the company will report owner’s equity of a.$29,300.

b. $35,000. c.$36,300.

d. $42,000. Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting Solution:$35,000 + $1,300 =$36,300

80. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000 Expenses: Salaries and Wages Expense$45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $(7,500) The entry to close the revenue account includes a a. debit to Income Summary for$7,500.

b. credit to Income Summary for $7,500. c. debit to Revenues for$70,000.

d. credit to Revenues for $70,000. Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 81. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information: Revenues$70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000 Rent Expense 12,000 Advertising Expense 10,000 Supplies Expense 6,000 Utilities Expense 2,500 Insurance Expense 2,000 Total expenses 77,500 Net income (loss)$ (7,500)

The entry to close the expense accounts includes a

a. debit to Income Summary for $7,500. b. credit to Income Summary for$7,500.

c. debit to Income Summary for $77,500. d. debit to Utilities Expense for$2,500.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

82. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000 Expenses: Salaries and Wages Expense$45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $(7,500) After the revenue and expense accounts have been closed, the balance in Income Summary will be a.$0.

b. a debit balance of $7,500. c. a credit balance of$7,500.

d. a credit balance of $70,000. Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 83. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information: Revenues$70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000 Rent Expense 12,000 Advertising Expense 10,000 Supplies Expense 6,000 Utilities Expense 2,500 Insurance Expense 2,000 Total expenses 77,500 Net income (loss)$ (7,500)

The entry to close Income Summary to Owner’s Capital includes

a. a debit to Revenue for $70,000. b. credits to Expenses totalling$77,500.

c. a credit to Income Summary for $7,500. d. a credit to Owner’s Capital for$7,500.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

84. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000 Expenses: Salaries and Wages Expense$45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $(7,500) At January 1, 2014, Fugazi reported owner’s equity of$50,000. Owner drawings for the year totalled $10,000. At December 31, 2014, the company will report owner’s equity of a.$17,500.

b. $32,500. c.$40,000.

d. $42,500. Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting Solution:$50,000 ( $10,000 ($7,500 ( $32,500 85. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information: Revenues$70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000 Rent Expense 12,000 Advertising Expense 10,000 Supplies Expense 6,000 Utilities Expense 2,500 Insurance Expense 2,000 Total expenses 77,500 Net income (loss)$ (7,500)

After all closing entries have been posted, the Income Summary account will have a balance of

a. $0. b.$7,500 debit.

c. $7,500 credit. d.$77,500 credit.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

86. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000 Expenses: Salaries and Wages Expense$45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $(7,500) After all closing entries have been posted, the revenue account will have a balance of a.$0.

b. $70,000 credit. c.$70,000 debit.

d. $7,500 credit. Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 87. A post-closing trial balance is prepared a. after closing entries have been journalized and posted. b. before closing entries have been journalized and posted. c. after closing entries have been journalized but before the entries are posted. d. before closing entries have been journalized but after the entries are posted. Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 88. All of the following statements about the post-closing trial balance are correct except it a. shows that the accounting equation is in balance. b. provides evidence that the journalizing and posting of closing entries have been properly completed. c. contains only permanent accounts. d. proves that all transactions have been recorded. Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 89. A post-closing trial balance will show a. only permanent account balances. b. only temporary account balances. c. zero balances for all accounts. d. the amount of net income (or loss) for the period. Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 90. A post-closing trial balance should be prepared a. before closing entries are posted to the ledger accounts. b. after closing entries are posted to the ledger accounts. c. before adjusting entries are posted to the ledger accounts. d. only if an error in the accounts is detected. Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 91. A post-closing trial balance will show a. zero balances for all accounts. b. zero balances for balance sheet accounts. c. only balance sheet accounts. d. only income statement accounts. Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 92. The purpose of the post-closing trial balance is to a. prove that no mistakes were made. b. prove the equality of the balance sheet account balances that are carried forward into the next accounting period. c. prove the equality of the income statement account balances that are carried forward into the next accounting period. d. list all the balance sheet accounts in alphabetical order for easy reference. Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 93. The balances that appear on the post-closing trial balance will match the a. income statement account balances after adjustments. b. balance sheet account balances after closing entries. c. income statement account balances after closing entries. d. balance sheet account balances after adjustments. Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 94. Which account listed below would be double ruled in the ledger as part of the closing process? a. Cash b. Owner’s Capital c. Owner’s Drawings d. Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 95. A double rule applied to accounts in the ledger during the closing process implies that a. the account is a temporary account. b. the account is a balance sheet account. c. the account balance is not zero. d. a mistake has been made, since double ruling is prescribed. Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 96. The heading for a post-closing trial balance has a date line that is similar to the one found on a. a balance sheet. b. an income statement. c. an owner’s equity statement. d. the worksheet. Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 97. Which one of the following is usually prepared only at the end of a company’s annual accounting period? a. Preparing financial statements b. Journalizing and posting adjusting entries c. Journalizing and posting closing entries d. Preparing an adjusted trial balance Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 98. The step in the accounting cycle that is performed on a periodic basis (i.e., monthly, quarterly) is a. analyzing transactions. b. journalizing and posting adjusting entries. c. preparing a post-closing trial balance. d. posting to ledger accounts. Ans: B, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 99. Which one of the following is an optional step in the accounting cycle of a business enterprise? a. Analyze business transactions b. Prepare a worksheet c. Prepare a trial balance d. Post to the ledger accounts Ans: B, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 100. The final step in the accounting cycle is to prepare a. closing entries. b. financial statements. c. a post-closing trial balance. d. adjusting entries. Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 101. Which of the following steps in the accounting cycle would not generally be performed daily? a. Journalize transactions b. Post to ledger accounts c. Prepare adjusting entries d. Analyze business transactions Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 102. Which of the following steps in the accounting cycle may be performed most frequently? a. Prepare a post-closing trial balance b. Journalize closing entries c. Post closing entries d. Prepare a trial balance Ans: D, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 103. Which of the following depicts the proper sequence of steps in the accounting cycle? a. Journalize the transactions, analyze business transactions, prepare a trial balance b. Prepare a trial balance, prepare financial statements, prepare adjusting entries c. Prepare a trial balance, prepare adjusting entries, prepare financial statements d. Prepare a trial balance, post to ledger accounts, post adjusting entries Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 104. The two optional steps in the accounting cycle are preparing a. a post-closing trial balance and reversing entries. b. a worksheet and post-closing trial balances. c. reversing entries and a worksheet. d. an adjusted trial balance and a post-closing trial balance. Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 105. The first required step in the accounting cycle is a. reversing entries. b. journalizing transactions in the book of original entry. c. analyzing transactions. d. posting transactions. Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 106. Correcting entries a. always affect at least one balance sheet account and one income statement account. b. affect income statement accounts only. c. affect balance sheet accounts only. d. may involve any combination of accounts in need of correction. Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 107. Merriweather Post Pavillion received a$820 check from a customer for the balance due. The transaction was erroneously recorded as a debit to Cash $280 and a credit to Service Revenue$280. The correcting entry is

a. debit Cash, $820; credit Accounts Receivable,$820.

b. debit Cash, $540 and Accounts Receivable,$280; credit Service Revenue, $820. c. debit Cash,$540 and Service Revenue, $280; credit Accounts Receivable,$820.

d. debit Accounts Receivable, $820; credit Cash,$560 and Service Revenue, $280. Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting Solution:$820 ( $280 ($540

108. If errors occur in the recording process, they

a. should be corrected as adjustments at the end of the period.

b. should be corrected as soon as they are discovered.

c. should be corrected when preparing closing entries.

d. cannot be corrected until the next accounting period.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

109. A correcting entry

a. must involve one balance sheet account and one income statement account.

b. is another name for a closing entry.

c. may involve any combination of accounts.

d. is a required step in the accounting cycle.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

110. An unacceptable way to make a correcting entry is to

a. reverse the incorrect entry.

b. erase the incorrect entry.

c. compare the incorrect entry with the correct entry and make a correcting entry to correct the accounts.

d. correct it immediately upon discovery.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

111. Zen Arcade paid the weekly payroll on January 2 by debiting Salaries and Wages Expense for $47,000. The accountant preparing the payroll entry overlooked the fact that Salaries and Wages Expense of$27,000 had been accrued at year end on December 31. The correcting entry is

a. Salaries and Wages Payable 27,000

Cash 27,000

b. Cash 20,000

Salaries and Wages Expense 20,000

c. Salaries and Wages Payable 27,000

Salaries and Wages Expense 27,000

d. Cash 27,000

Salaries and Wages Expense 27,000

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

112. Jawbreaker Company paid $940 on account to a creditor. The transaction was erroneously recorded as a debit to Cash of$490 and a credit to Accounts Receivable, $490. The correcting entry is a. Accounts Payable 940 Cash 940 b. Accounts Receivable 490 Cash 490 c. Accounts Receivable 490 Accounts Payable 490 d. Accounts Receivable 490 Accounts Payable 940 Cash 1,430 Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA Solution:$940 + $490 ($1,430

113. A lawyer collected $710 of legal fees in advance. He erroneously debited Cash for$170 and credited Accounts Receivable for $170. The correcting entry is a. Cash 170 Accounts Receivable 540 Unearned Service Revenue 710 b. Cash 710 Service Revenue 710 c. Cash 540 Accounts Receivable 170 Unearned Service Revenue 710 d. Cash 540 Accounts Receivable 540 Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA Solution:$710 ( $170 =$540

114. On May 25, Yellow House Company received a $650 check from Grizzly Bean for services to be performed in the future. The bookkeeper for Yellow House Company incorrectly debited Cash for$650 and credited Accounts Receivable for $650. The amounts have been posted to the ledger. To correct this entry, the bookkeeper should: a. debit Cash$650 and credit Unearned Service Revenue $650. b. debit Accounts Receivable$650 and credit Service Revenue $650. c. debit Accounts Receivable$650 and credit Cash $650. d. debit Accounts Receivable$650 and credit Unearned Service Revenue $650. Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA 115. On March 8, Black Candy Company bought supplies on account from the Arcade Fire Company for$550. Black Candy Company incorrectly debited Equipment for $500 and credited Accounts Payable for$500. The entries have been posted to the ledger. the correcting entry should be:

a. Supplies 550

Accounts Payable 550

b. Supplies 550

Accounts Payable 500

Equipment 50

c. Supplies 550

Equipment 550

d. Supplies 550

Equipment 500

Accounts Payable 50

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $550 ($500 ( $50 116. The following information is for Sunny Day Real Estate: Sunny Day Real Estate Balance Sheet December 31, 2014 Cash$ 25,000 Accounts Payable $60,000 Prepaid Insurance 30,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 15,000 Accounts Receivable 50,000 Mortgage Payable 85,000 Inventory 70,000 Total Liabilities 160,000 Land Held for Investment 85,000 Land 120,000 Building$100,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 370,000

Depreciation (20,000) 80,000

Total Assets $530,000 Owner’s Equity$530,000

The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as current assets is

a. $105,000. b.$175,000.

c. $190,000. d.$260,000.

Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $25,000 ($30,000 ( $50,000 ($70,000 ( $175,000 117. The following information is for Sunny Day Real Estate: Sunny Day Real Estate Balance Sheet December 31, 2014 Cash$ 25,000 Accounts Payable $60,000 Prepaid Insurance 30,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 15,000 Accounts Receivable 50,000 Mortgage Payable 85,000 Inventory 70,000 Total Liabilities 160,000 Land Held for Investment 85,000 Land 120,000 Building$100,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 370,000

Depreciation (20,000) 80,000

Total Assets $530,000 Owner’s Equity$530,000

The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as property, plant, and equipment is

a. $200,000. b.$220,000.

c. $285,000. d.$305,000.

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $120,000 ($80,000 ( $200,000 118. The following information is for Sunny Day Real Estate: Sunny Day Real Estate Balance Sheet December 31, 2014 Cash$ 25,000 Accounts Payable $60,000 Prepaid Insurance 30,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 15,000 Accounts Receivable 50,000 Mortgage Payable 85,000 Inventory 70,000 Total Liabilities 160,000 Land Held for Investment 85,000 Land 120,000 Building$100,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 370,000

Depreciation (20,000) 80,000

Total Assets $530,000 Owner’s Equity$530,000

The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as investments is

a. $0. b.$70,000.

c. $85,000. d.$155,000.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

119. The following information is for Sunny Day Real Estate:

Sunny Day Real Estate

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $25,000 Accounts Payable$ 60,000

Prepaid Insurance 30,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 15,000

Accounts Receivable 50,000 Mortgage Payable 85,000

Inventory 70,000 Total Liabilities 160,000

Land Held for Investment 85,000

Land 120,000

Building $100,000 Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 370,000 Depreciation (20,000) 80,000 Trademark 70,000 Total Liabilities and Total Assets$530,000 Owner’s Equity $530,000 The total dollar amount of liabilities to be classified as current liabilities is a.$15,000.

b. $60,000. c.$75,000.

d. $160,000. Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting Solution:$60,000 ( $15,000 ($75,000

120. The following information is for Bright Eyes Auto Supplies:

Bright Eyes Auto Supplies

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $40,000 Accounts Payable$ 130,000

Prepaid Insurance 80,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 50,000

Accounts Receivable 100,000 Mortgage Payable 150,000

Inventory 140,000 Total Liabilities 330,000

Land Held for Investment 180,000

Land 250,000

Building $200,000 Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 740,000 Depreciation (60,000) 140,000 Trademark 140,000 Total Liabilities and Total Assets$1,070,000 Owner’s Equity $1,070,000 The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as current assets is a.$140,000.

b. $220,000. c.$360,000.

d. $500,000. Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting Solution:$40,000 ( $80,000 ($100,000 ( $140,000 ($360,000

121. The following information is for Bright Eyes Auto Supplies:

Bright Eyes Auto Supplies

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $40,000 Accounts Payable$ 130,000

Prepaid Insurance 80,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 50,000

Accounts Receivable 100,000 Mortgage Payable 150,000

Inventory 140,000 Total Liabilities 330,000

Land Held for Investment 180,000

Land 250,000

Building $200,000 Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 740,000 Depreciation (60,000) 140,000 Trademark 140,000 Total Liabilities and Total Assets$1,070,000 Owner’s Equity $1,070,000 The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as property, plant, and equipment is a.$390,000.

b. $450,000. c.$570,000.

d. $630,000. Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting Solution:$250,000 ( $140,000 ($390,000

122. The following information is for Bright Eyes Auto Supplies:

Bright Eyes Auto Supplies

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $40,000 Accounts Payable$ 130,000

Prepaid Insurance 80,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 50,000

Accounts Receivable 100,000 Mortgage Payable 150,000

Inventory 140,000 Total Liabilities 330,000

Land Held for Investment 180,000

Land 250,000

Building $200,000 Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 740,000 Depreciation (60,000) 140,000 Trademark 140,000 Total Liabilities and Total Assets$1,070,000 Owner’s Equity $1,070,000 The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as investments is a.$0.

b. $140,000. c.$180,000.

d. $250,000. Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 123. The following information is for Bright Eyes Auto Supplies: Bright Eyes Auto Supplies Balance Sheet December 31, 2014 Cash$ 40,000 Accounts Payable $130,000 Prepaid Insurance 80,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 50,000 Accounts Receivable 100,000 Mortgage Payable 150,000 Inventory 140,000 Total Liabilities 330,000 Land Held for Investment 180,000 Land 250,000 Building$200,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 740,000

Depreciation (60,000) 140,000

Total Assets $1,070,000 Owner’s Equity$1,070,000

The total dollar amount of liabilities to be classified as current liabilities is

a. $50,000. b.$130,000.

c. $180,000. d.$330,000.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $130,000 ($50,000 ( $180,000 124. All of the following are property, plant, and equipment except a. supplies. b. machinery. c. land. d. buildings. Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 125. The first item listed under current liabilities is usually a. accounts payable. b. notes payable. c. salaries and wages payable. d. taxes payable. Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 126. Equipment is classified in the balance sheet as a. a current asset. b. property, plant, and equipment. c. an intangible asset. d. a long-term investment. Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 127. A current asset is a. the last asset purchased by a business. b. an asset which is currently being used to produce a product or service. c. usually found as a separate classification in the income statement. d. an asset that a company expects to convert to cash or use up within one year. Ans: D, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 128. An intangible asset a. does not have physical substance, yet often is very valuable. b. is worthless because it has no physical substance. c. is converted into a tangible asset during the operating cycle. d. cannot be classified on the balance sheet because it lacks physical substance. Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 129. Liabilities are generally classified on a balance sheet as a. small liabilities and large liabilities. b. present liabilities and future liabilities. c. tangible liabilities and intangible liabilities. d. current liabilities and long-term liabilities. Ans: D, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 130. Which of the following would not be classified a long-term liability? a. Current maturities of long-term debt b. Bonds payable c. Mortgage payable d. Lease liabilities Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 131. Which of the following liabilities are not related to the operating cycle? a. Salaries and wages payable b. Accounts payable c. Utilities payable d. Bonds payable Ans: D, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 132. Intangible assets include each of the following except a. copyrights. b. goodwill. c. land improvements. d. patents. Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 133. It is not true that current assets are assets that a company expects to a. realize in cash within one year. b. sell within one year. c. use up within one year. d. acquire within one year. Ans: D, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 134. The operating cycle of a company is the average time that is required to go from cash to a. sales in producing revenues. b. cash in producing revenues. c. inventory in producing revenues. d. accounts receivable in producing revenues. Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 135. On a classified balance sheet, current assets are customarily listed a. in alphabetical order. b. with the largest dollar amounts first. c. in the order of liquidity. d. in the order of acquisition. Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 136. Intangible assets are a. listed under current assets on the balance sheet. b. not listed on the balance sheet because they do not have physical substance. c. long-lived assets that are often very valuable. d. listed as a long-term investment on the balance sheet. Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting 137. The relationship between current assets and current liabilities is important in evaluating a company’s a. profitability. b. liquidity. c. market value. d. accounting cycle. Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Risk Analysis, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics 138. The most important information needed to determine if companies can pay their current obligations is the a. net income for this year. b. projected net income for next year. c. relationship between current assets and current liabilities. d. relationship between short-term and long-term liabilities. Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Risk Analysis, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics 139. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014: Accounts payable$ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

Equipment 210,000

What is the company’s net income for the year ending December 31, 2014?

a. $12,000 b.$28,000

c. $42,000 d.$133,000

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $133,000 ($21,000 ( $12,000 ($3,000 ( $17,000 ($32,000 ( $6,000 ($42,000

140. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Accounts payable $18,000 Accounts receivable 11,000 Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000 Advertising expense 21,000 Cash 15,000 Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000 Owner’s drawings 14,000 Depreciation expense 12,000 Insurance expense 3,000 Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000 Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000 Multiple Choice 140. (Cont.) Rent expense 17,000 Salaries and wages expense 32,000 Service revenue 133,000 Supplies 4,000 Supplies expense 6,000 Equipment 210,000 What is the balance that would be reported for owner’s equity at December 31, 2014? a.$158,000

b. $144,000 c.$130,000

d. $102,000 Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting Solution:$133,000 ( $21,000 ($12,000 ( $3,000 ($17,000 ( $32,000 ($6,000 ( $42,000($102,000 ( $42,000 ($14,000 ( $130,000 141. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014: Accounts payable$ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

Equipment 210,000

What are total current assets at December 31, 2014?

a. $26,000 b.$32,000

c. $36,000 d.$42,000

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $11,000 ($15,000 ( $6,000 ($4,000 ( $36,000 142. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014: Accounts payable$ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Equipment 210,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

What is the book value of the equipment at December 31, 2014?

a. $170,000 b.$182,000

c. $210,000 d.$238,000

Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $210,000 ($28,000 ( $182,000 143. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014: Accounts payable$ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

Equipment 210,000

Multiple Choice 143. (Cont.)

What are total current liabilities at December 31, 2014?

a. $18,000 b.$70,000

c. $88,000 d.$120,000

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $18,000 ($70,000 ( $88,000 144. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014: Accounts payable$ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

Equipment 210,000

What are total long-term liabilities at December 31, 2014?

a. $0 b.$70,000

c. $88,000 d.$90,000

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

145. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Accounts payable $18,000 Accounts receivable 11,000 Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000 Advertising expense 21,000 Cash 15,000 Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000 Owner’s drawings 14,000 Depreciation expense 12,000 Equipment 210,000 Insurance expense 3,000 Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000 Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000 Rent expense 17,000 Salaries and wages expense 32,000 Service revenue 133,000 Supplies 4,000 Supplies expense 6,000 What is total liabilities and owner’s equity at December 31, 2014? a.$176,000

b. $218,000 c.$190,000

d. $232,000 Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting Solution:$133,000 ( $21,000 ($12,000 ( $3,000 ($17,000 ( $32,000 ($6,000 ( $42,000($18,000 ( $70,000 ($88,000( $88,000 ( ($102,000 ( $42,000 ($14,000) ( \$218,000

146. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Categories

## which element is reduced in this reaction? cr2o72âˆ’ + 3 hno2 + 5 h+ â†’ 2 cr3+ + 3 no3âˆ’ + 4 h2o

Balance the following redox equations. All occur in Acidic solutions.

1. Cr2O7^2-^ + C2O4^2-^ -> Cr^3+^ + CO2
2. Cu + NO3^-^ -> CU^2+^ + NO
3. MnO2+ HNO2 -> Mn^2+^ + NO3^-^
4. PbO2 + Mn^2+^ + SO4^2-^ -> PbSO4 + MnO4^-^
5. HNO2 + Cr2O7^2-^ -> Cr^3+^ + NO3^-^ 2 0 1,735
Sep 3, 2008
Balancing oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction is a complex process. You must know how to assign some oxidation numbers and how to calculate others no matter which method you use. The best method in my opinion is the “Ion-Electron” method. This is not a lesson on how to do it. Your textbook and your class notes should take care of that. It is only a demonstration using your first reaction:
A. Determine which element is reduced and which is oxidized.
6. Find out which element is reduced (Its oxidation number decreases). The oxidation number of Cr in Cr2O7^-2 is found by assigning -2 as the oxidation number of O, and x to Cr:
2x + (-2)(7) = -2 (the -2 on the right side is the ionic charge)
Solving for x we get x = +6. So Cr on the left side = +6 on the right side it is +3.
7. Find out which element is oxidized. The only possibility is C. Why? Looking at C2O4^-2, we can set up:
2y + (-2)(4) = -2, and y = 3.
B. Write incomplete half reaction for reduction and for oxidation, then complete them and balance them for number of atoms and electrical charge:
8. Reduction
Cr2O7^-2 —> Cr^+3
(balancing atoms and charge by adding H+, H2O, and e^- as needed)
Cr2O7^-2(aq) + 14H^+(aq) + 6e^- —> 2Cr^+3 + 7H2O
(check number of atoms of each kind and total charge on both sides)
9. Oxidation
C2O4^2- —> CO2
(balancing atoms and charge)
C2O4^2- —> 2CO2 + 2e^-
C. Rewrite and reconcile the two half reactions, then add them and simplify:
Cr2O7^-2(aq) + 14H^+(aq) + 6e^- —> 2Cr^+3 + 7H2O
3C2O4^2- —> 6CO2 + 6e^-
(I multiplied the oxidation by 3 so that the total number of electrons transferred will be 6 as it is in the reduction)
Cr2O7^-2(aq) + 14H^+(aq) + 6e^- + 3C2O4^2- —> 2Cr^+3 + 7H2O + 6CO2 + 6e^-
(added left and right sides … then we simplify through cancellations)
Cr2O7^-2(aq) + 14H^+(aq) + 3C2O4^2- —> 2Cr^+3 + 7H2O + 6CO2 3 0
posted by GK
Sep 3, 2008
Step1: assign oxidation numbers.

Cr2O72- + C2O42- → Cr3+ + CO2

+6/-2 +3/-2 +3 +4/-2

Step2: Separate the overall reaction into two separate half reactions. One will be the oxidation reaction(where the oxidation number increased) and the other will be the reduction reaction( where the oxidation numbers decreased).

Oxidation:

C2O42- →CO2

Reduction:

Cr2O72- → Cr3+

Step 3: Balance each half-reaction in the following order:

First, balance all elements other than Hydrogen and Oxygen.
C2O42- →2CO2

Cr2O72- → 2Cr3+

Second, balance Oxygen by adding H2O.
C2O42- →2CO2

Cr2O72- → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

Third, balance Hydrogen by adding H+.
C2O42- →2CO2

14H+ + Cr2O72- → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

Step 4: balance each half reaction with respect to charge by adding electrons. The sum of the charges on both sides of the equation should be equal.

C2O42- →2CO2 + 2e–

6e– +14H+ + Cr2O72- → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

Step 5: Make sure the number of electrons in both half reactions equal by multiplying one or both half reactions by a small whole number.

3 x [C2O42- →2CO2 + 2e–] = 3C2O42- →6CO2 + 6e–

6e– +14H+ + Cr2O72- → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

Step 6: Add the two half reactions together canceling electrons and other species as necessary.

3C2O42- →6CO2 + 6e–

+

6e– +14H+ + Cr2O72- → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

3C2O42- +14H+ + Cr2O72- → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O + 6CO2

Final Answer: 3C2O42- +14H+ + Cr2O72- → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O + 6CO2

Hope this helps.

-CoolChemTutor

2 0
posted by CoolChemTutor
Nov 30, 2015
C2o4- co3+

0 0
posted by Akshay kumar
Jan 10, 2016
Cr2o72- + 3c2o42- +14H+ —– 2cr3+ + 6co2 + 13H2O…..is the correct answer!!

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posted by Tanmay kumar
Jul 27, 2017
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Categories

## why does the president put vegetables in his blender

Math
Why Does The President Put Vegetables in His Blender?

P.S.: It’s puzzle 163
HELP!!!!!!!!!

0 1 869
Dec 9, 2007

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Dec 9, 2007
He was hoping for whirled peas (World Peace)

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posted by shnider
Mar 13, 2008
he was hoping for whirled peas (world peace) (:

0 0
posted by hannah
Mar 19, 2008
why does the president put vegtables in his blender?

0 0
posted by jake
Mar 30, 2008

why does the president put vegetables in his blender

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 27, 2008
Its he is hoping for whirled peas. “Was” is too big

1 0
posted by anonymous
Oct 21, 2008
He is hoping for whirled peas

0 0
posted by Alta
Nov 11, 2008
why did you put vegetables in your blender?

0 0
posted by sasha
Feb 22, 2009
he IS hoping for whirled peas

0 0
posted by that guy
Apr 20, 2009

jerkinnnnnnnnn

0 0
posted by Marco polo
Dec 9, 2009
What a stupid question. They must be desperate this thing sucks i just did it for math hw

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posted by Foool
Feb 3, 2010
he is hoping for whirled peas

0 0
posted by Deep
Feb 18, 2010
2 yrs old god look at the dates fools

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posted by wow
Feb 23, 2010
da ansur 2 da qweshun is 4

0 0
posted by me licke maff
Mar 3, 2010

whirled peas 😀

0 0
posted by eminem lover
Dec 9, 2010
ijustr did this its so stupid

0 0
posted by jon
Jan 24, 2011
No Way

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posted by Dalton
Mar 3, 2011
he is hoping for whirled peas hahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahaha lol 😉

0 0
posted by mrs. belieber
Sep 20, 2012
(4,8)

0 0
posted by Delmar
Feb 25, 2016

5+535

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Jan 30, 2018
he is hoping for whirled peas. (world peace)

0 0
Oct 30, 2018
Wow this argument went on 8 years ago…

1 0
Nov 8, 2018

Categories

## what is produced at each electrode in the electrolysis of nabr(aq)?

What is produced at each electrode in the electrolysis of NaBr(aq) and AgF(aq)?

0 0 375
Mar 30, 2009
At the anode, the oxidation of bromide ions (1.07 ) occurs because it has a higher (less negative) potential than the oxidation of water (1.23 ) or fluoride ions (2.87 ). The product of the oxidation of bromide ions is liquid bromine.
At the cathode, the reduction of silver ions (+0.80 ) occurs because it has a higher potential than the reduction of water (0.83 ) or sodium ions (2.71 ). The product of the reduction of silver ions is solid silver

0 0
posted by Lauren
Nov 25, 2009

Categories

## a circular air hockey puck of radius

A physics student playing with an air hockey table (a frictionless surface) finds that if she gives the puck a velocity of 5.30 m/s along the length (2.80 m) of the table at one end,
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asked by Sally on February 19, 2015
physics
A copper rod of length 0.83 m is lying on a frictionless table (see the drawing). Each end of the rod is attached to a fixed wire by an unstretched spring that has a spring constant of k = 73 N/m. A magnetic field with a strength of 0.17 T is oriented

asked by VictorD2 on March 25, 2013
physics
An air puck of mass m1 = 0.45 kg is tied to a string and allowed to revolve in a circle of radius R = 1.0 m on a frictionless horizontal table. The other end of the string passes through a hole in the center of the table, and a mass m2 = 1.10 kg is

asked by melissa on November 30, 2010
physics
A 80- kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless sheet of ice throws a 6.2- kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 2.1 m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by kevin on October 31, 2009
physics
A 72- kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless sheet of ice throws a 5.6- kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 3.9 m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2014
Physics
A hockey puck slides off the edge of a table with the initial velocity of 20m/s. The table height is 2.0 m. What is the accleration of the puck right after it leaves the table?

asked by Jj on November 6, 2011
Physics
A paladin howitzer fires a 46.00 kg projectile towards a 1000 kg metal block resting on a frictionless surface. Just before impact, the projectile is traveling with a horizontal velocity of 529 m/s. After the collision, the embedded projectile and the

asked by Samiboo711 on February 2, 2015
Statistics 2231
12.05 A study of the students taking distance learning courses at a university finds that they are mostly older students not living in the university town. Choose a distance learning student at random. Let A be the event that the student is 25 years old or

asked by Regina on October 6, 2012
Solid mensuration
A wooden sphere 16 inches in diameter is placed on a table. The ball is cut horizontally 4in and 10in above the table surface. Find the surface area of the table remains after two cutting

asked by anonymous on March 10, 2016
physics
A 40 gram bullet is fired horizontally from a gun with a momentum of 2.8 (kg*m/s) and embeds itself into a 300 gram block of wood initially at rest on a wooden horizontal surface. After this collision the wood block slides 15 meters before falling off a

asked by Cass on January 16, 2013

Physics
A 40 gram bullet is fired horizontally from a gun with a momentum of 2.8 (kg*m/s) and embeds itself into a 300 gram block of wood initially at rest on a wooden horizontal surface. After this collision the wood block slides 15 meters before falling off a

asked by Cass on January 16, 2013
physics
Note: The direction of the acceleration ~a of the system is given in the figure. Three masses (17 kg, 21 kg and 67 kg) are connected by strings. The 67 kg mass slides on a horizontal surface of a table top and the 17 kg and 21 kg masses hang over the edge

asked by I dont like physics on November 24, 2015
Physics
An airplane has a mass of 2.8×106 kg , and the air flows past the lower surface of the wings at 81 m/s . Part A: If the wings have a surface area of 1100 m2 , how fast must the air flow over the upper surface of the wing if the plane is to stay in the

asked by Ashley on November 4, 2016
Probability
48% of the students in the school are female and the probability of taking of physics is independent of the gender of the student, what is the probability that a student chosen at random is both a female and taking physics?

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2017
Math
Out of a group of 600 students taking computer,mathematics or physics,there is no student taking both computer and mathematics.Every student takes computer or mathematics.150 take physics and mathematics and 250 take only one of the subjects.Find 1) the

asked by Mitu on December 30, 2015

Categories

## a passenger in the rear seat of a car moving at a steady speed is at rest relative to

A passenger in the rear seat of a car moving at a
steady speed is at rest relative to

a pedestrian on the corner ahead
the front seat of the car
the wheels of the car

A person walks 1 mile every day for excercise, leaving
her porch at 9:00 a.m. and returning at 9:25 a.m.
What is the total displacement of her daily walk?

1 mile
*0
25 minutes
none of the above

A person drives north 6 blocks, turns west, and
then drives 6 blocks. The driver then turns south
and drives 6 blocks. How could the driver have made
the distance shorter while maintaining the same
displacement?

*by driving west 6 blocks from the starting point
by driving north 4 blocks and west 7 blocks
by driving south 6 blocks from the starting point
by driving back to the starting point by the same route

A ball is rolled uphill a distance of 5 meters before it
slows, stops, and begins to roll back. The ball rolls
downhill 9 meters before coming to rest against a tree.
What is the magnitude of the ball’s displacement?

4meters
*9meters
14meters
45meters

Thank You 🙂 I appreciate it! ^_^

0 0 582
Jan 17, 2012

1. Displacement is the difference between the starting point and the end. In this case, they are the same,Therefore, the displacement is 0.
2. Ans. is A.
3. 9 – 5 = 4 meters beyond starting point. Disp. = 4 meters.
Ans. is A. 0 0
posted by Henry
Jan 18, 2012
Answer to the first question is: the front seat of the car.
Third answer is: by driving west 6 blocks from the starting point
Fourth answer is: 4 meters 0 0
posted by TwinWin
Mar 10, 2012
Man I need some help too! 0 0
posted by Im one sexy mother goose’s
Jan 15, 2015
TwinWin got it right. 100% correct. 0 0
posted by Emily
Jan 7, 2016

Thanks TwinWin

0 0
posted by 100%
Jan 7, 2018
twinwin 100% yay

0 0
Jan 8, 2018
Cheaters..

0 0
posted by Mr. Megee
Jan 17, 2018
100% twinwin and I love being a cheater.

0 0
posted by HEAVY METAL
Jan 19, 2018

Categories

## when constructing an angle bisector why must the arcs intersect

1. When constructing a perpendicular bisector, why must the compass opening be greater 1/2 than the length of the segment? 0 0 711
Aug 29, 2014
http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/wilsonst/courses/math_150/c-s/Perp-Bisect.html 0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
i don’t get it 0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
can you explain it to me 0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
I can’t explain it any better than that web site. What is it that you don’t understand?

Or try this site.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014

i don’t get why the compass has to be open more than 1/2 the length segment

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
Get a compass and try it.

How else are you going to get arcs above and below the line?

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
so i would answers it like….

the reason that the compass opening has to be greater than 1/2 of the segment is so it can make arcs.

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
That’s a good start. Continue —

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
i don’t know how to finish it

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014

Where do the arcs have to cross?

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
in the middle

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
Right.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
so now it would be

the reason that the compass opening has to be greater than 1/2 of the segment is so it can make arcs. and the arcs would have to cross in the middle so that when go to draw the line it would be straight.

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
Yay! You’re right!

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014

thank you

0 0
posted by stacey
Aug 29, 2014
You’re welcome.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Aug 29, 2014
For once Ms. Sue is helpful! gasp

0 0
posted by lol
Aug 30, 2018
The response was probably from before she ever started getting floods of kids. Or like James Bond, the title just gets passed down person-to-person, so the Ms. Sue we have now is just a jerk.

1 0
posted by lol no kidding
Sep 5, 2018

Categories

## which sentence is punctuated correctly?

1. which sentence is punctuated correctly?
a. “Are you finished yet, Miriam asked?”
b. Are you finished yet, ” Miriam asked?”
c. “Are you finished yet”?Miriam asked.
d. “Are you finished yet?” Miriam asked.***
2. Which sentence correctly uses punctuation with dialogue?
a. ” please be seated”, my teacher said.**
b. ” please be seated,” my teacher said
c. ” please be seated my teacher said.”
d. ” please be seated my teacher said”.
3. which of the following sentences is punctuated correctly?
a. On Tuesday October 29, 1929, stockholders sold millions of shares of stock.
b. On Tuesday, October 29 1929, stockholders sold millions of shares of stock.
c. On Tuesday, October 29, 1929 stockholders sold millions of shares of stock.
d. On Tuesday, October 29, 1929, stockholders sold millions of shares of stock.***
4. Which of the following sentences is punctuated correctly
A. Mississippi the Magnolia State, is known for its delicious food. ?**
b. Mississippi, the Magnolia State is known for its delicious food.
c. Mississippi, the Magnolia State, is known for its delicious food.
d. Mississippi the Magnolia State is known for its delicious food. 0 0 826
Oct 27, 2016
5. right
6. no (and what about capitalization?)
7. right
👩‍🏫
Writeacher
Oct 27, 2016
9. Which sentence correctly uses punctuation with dialogue?
a. ” Please be seated”, my teacher said.**
b. ” Please be seated,” my teacher said
c. ” Please be seated my teacher said.”
d. ” Please be seated my teacher said”.
10. Which of the following sentences is punctuated correctly
A. Mississippi the Magnolia State, is known for its delicious food. ?
b. Mississippi, the Magnolia State is known for its delicious food. ***
c. Mississippi, the Magnolia State, is known for its delicious food.
d. Mississippi the Magnolia State is known for its delicious food. 0 0
posted by john
Oct 27, 2016
11. no
12. no

Study the comma uses in the linked webpage, especially #4 and #6.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Writeacher
Oct 27, 2016

0 0
posted by leexi
Dec 5, 2016

Are those questions from teas 6?

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Dec 12, 2016

# 28 is wrong, John. The answer is: Mississippi, the Mongolia State, is known for it’s delicious food.

0 0
posted by TheGov
Nov 15, 2017
1.Crazed thoughts
2.arranged by personality
3.confusion
4.jumped
5.mysterious
6.He washed his hair brushed his teeth, and shined his shoes
7.Daniel received two, expensive parking tickets.
8.On our trip we will be driving, and taking the train.
9.This product is, for cleaning glass.
10.Throwing, the football, he pulled a muscle in his arm
11.George Washington was born on February 22,1732
12.its coloring, which is brown and green, allows it to hide in marshy areas
14.Orient Express
15.none
16.”Do they have puppies there?” She asked.

1. T.S. Eliot’s poem The Waste Land is often studied in English Classes
18.”I am absolutely positive,” Vera replied.
2. Quotation marks
3. italics
4. italics
5. Do, Washington D.C.
23.Does, Jennifer, Florida
6. Will, Giants, Sunday
25.”Are you finished yet?” Miriam asked
26″Please be seated,” my teacher said.
7. On Tuesday, October 29, 1929, stockholders sold millions of shares of stock.
28.Mississippi, the Mongolia State, is known for it’s delicious food.

4 0
posted by Ugly Bob
Nov 6, 2018
@Ugly Bob is correct! I just took the quiz & all of his answers are right!

0 1
posted by IDEK my dude
Nov 7, 2018
how do you guys have 28 questions i only have 27 and some of the questions are worded differently just make sure before you turn your quiz in guys.

0 0
posted by Areyousure
Dec 19, 2018