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Globalization impact on daily life

Globalization impact on daily life

Globalization influences the life of people as well as the business in a positive and in a negative way. Now globalization is everywhere for example; globalization is helping the nations to improve and to increase the standards of education, globalization is helping the nations to improve the and increase the effectiveness of the workplace by bringing in innovation and technological advancement. Moreover, globalization is helping people to bring in new civilization etc. the negative impact of the globalization that the people are facing at present is the uniqueness of culture of the country (Habitat, 2012). Now people are doing jobs in different countries, some people transform themselves according to the culture of the country while other develops the culture of the society according to their norms believes etc.

            The impact of globalization in my life includes; with the help of globalization, I can now order anything online from anywhere around the world , for example, I can order book for the studies by using Amazon or another online shopping site . I can order a dress or any other household thing from anywhere around the world. Globalization helped me to find the way to get things at low prices for example; if I am living in America, Europe, and the United Kingdom etc. I can order clothes, or household item from the China where things are cheap as compared to other countries and I will face low transportation cost (Murphree & Breznitz, 2011). Main advantage of doing this is that china Currency value is weaker than other countries like in Europe etc.  With the help of globalization, I can get an education online for example; I can watch videos, and lectures online to understand and to have new concepts. Moreover, now people can have access to different libraries of the well know universities on buying some amount of money (Ursul, et al., 2014 ).

            The main role that the globalization plays is the communication, with the help of globalization I can communicate with the people around the world. I can share my ideas, views and give them review online with the help of internet. I can communicate with the people of different countries using social media sites like Facebook, twitter, Instagram etc.  I can consult with a teacher regarding my studies, I can consult doctors regarding any kind of medical treatment etc. With the help of globalization, I can travel around the world by using Aircraft, by using watercraft or by using roads. Another positive impact of the globalization in my life is I can get an education from any country, can get a job in any country etc.

Reference:

Habitat, U. (2012). Cities in a Globalizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements. Routledge.

Murphree, M., & Breznitz, D. (2011). Run of the Red Queen: Government, Innovation, Globalization, and Economic Growth in China. Yale University Press.

Ursul, A. D., Kiss, E., N, A., Chumakov, Leonov, O. G., Weiming, T., et al. (2014 ). Globalistics and Globalization Studies: Aspects & Dimensions of Global Views. Uchitel Publishing House.

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Best Manage Change

Best manage change

Managing change in any organization is a very difficult task but at the same time, if the change is managed effectively, it will reward the whole organization. At the organization, it is the duty managers for effectively manage change by being a leader who knows all the challenges that what he will face during the implementation and what he would have to do to achieve success. A good manager will know how he has to engage employees in their team and effectively leads the business so that they can effectively collaborate how to manage change. An effective change management is necessary in any organization because with the changing needs of the world. The need of people also change and business has to innovate things through the different way of working and growing which requires a strategic change in the organization (Daft & Samson, 2014).

The successful and innovative products and services do not come easily. It is the efforts made by the whole organization through managing the structure of the business, effective communication protocols, new technology, employee engagement and many more things. And these all things are not easy to manage, the manager has to lead and sell change effectively. To manage change effectively, the manager must understand the barriers and the blockage that will occur during the change process and how he will manage those things. The managers must now that they cannot force change on the people because change is related to the emotions of the people that occur and become the reason for resistance to change. However, the managers who know how to sell change will be successful in the end through introducing new initiatives and will gain a workforce that will be more engaged and loyal. Managers can apply these steps for best managing the change in the organization (Goodman & Dingli, 2013).

Create the vision

Vision is the first step towards achieving the goal and how managers are going to achieve this goal through a good leadership. Vision gives the idea of future and how managers are going to fill the gap between the present and the future. Change is very much an important part of any organization. The first thing is to collect the customer feedback about company’s product and services because it gives the idea to the organization that where they are going now and what is needed to be changed. There must be an effective commitment from the senior management  that how far they are Willing to go for achieving the success. And they must understand that haste makes waste so for the long term strategy they must balance out the energy (Graetz, Rimmer, Smith, & Lawrence, 2012).

Understanding how change affects people

Before implementing any change managers must understand that the change factor starts from the lower level employee. Managers must consider their employees first that how readily they are going to accept the change and how the emotional pain they will feel. Because it is important to understand these psychological issues. There are two kinds of personalities of employees. Those are “dominance and assertiveness”. The people with the dominant personalities are risk takers and they accept the change far more easily because of their shorter attention span. However, the people with the assertive personalities fear change and are very much resistance to change because of their longer attention span…managers must understand the type of the personalities in his organization so that he must know how to manage each of these personalities and who needs to get address more than the other. Managers should respect the emotional pain of the employees that are in the assertive personalities that how he is going to make them ready and engaged in the change plan (KHANNA, 2015).

Managers must understand that employee who is resistance to change mainly because they are required to do something new and to leave their old way of doing the work which causes discomfort (Synnot, 2014). They think of it as they are giving up something, not in the context of gaining something. Managers must tackle this situation by giving them the motivation that this change will also fulfill their objectives as well. People often feel alone that they are taking risk managers must ensure that if they accept the change they will be on the winning team and explain how it is possible (Pugh, 2012).

Creating motivation for employees for accepting the change

People will not accept change if they think that their current work or situation is good enough. Managers must have to motivate employees about the benefits that they will get through accepting the change. The manager must show them the required behaviors that are necessary for the new change and for motivating them managers must show employees, that how that behavior will affect their position and fulfill their objectives (Sutton, 2014). They KSA match the new way of working and how much important their skills are to the organization. Encouraging them through recognizing their worked efforts will motivate them even more. If people truly started to believe that their resources are being recognized and their human capital are essential to the organization they will embrace the change. Reward plan must be created for the employees who accept and implement change in their work it will also motivate them (Pugh, 2012).

Implementation of change at the workplace

The next step after motivating employees and understanding their differences is leading the employees to change by explaining them about WHAT the change is and WHY it is being made in the organization and most importantly HOW they are going to make it in the organization and affect them as well.

Managers have to explain these WHAT, WHY and HOW questions related to the change. People never embrace the change fully if they are not given full information related to the change (Snell, Morris, & Bohlander, 2015).  It will also help employees by becoming more productive and will save their time if they understand it properly. Because telling the advantage of new technology that will affect them as well will be a personal win goal for them as well (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg, & Coulter, 2014).

Managers then need to explain the vision to the employees. Training and guiding must be provided to the employees at all the level of the work. Senior management must provide the resource, time and money and communication must be made by the senior management to the lower level employees as managers will feel that their managers are very much empathetic enough to provide them all the necessary requirements and in return they will also give them their hundred percent. Communication also lowers the stress and anxiety of the employees. And when the organization is restructuring jobs and refocusing the organization direction, the roles of each employee must be cleared out so that any kind of confusion must be avoided (Robbins, Cenzo, Coulter, & Woods, 2013).

To conclude one can say that managers then must model the required behavior that is expected from the employees and reward must be provided to each and every employee for accepting the change and for their work engagement. Experimental training will help employees in easily adapting the new work or how the new technology works. Teams must be made so that everyone can help each other. Managers must measure and analyze about how each employee are working and how it is affecting the outcomes of the company. The results must be displayed visually so that employees can easily track their position and what is needed and what is not needed in the process.

Reference

Daft, R. L., & Samson, D. (2014). Fundamentals of Management: Asia Pacific Edition PDF. Cengage Learning Australia.

Goodman, M., & Dingli, S. M. (2013). Creativity and Strategic Innovation Management. Routledge.

Graetz, F., Rimmer, M., Smith, A., & Lawrence, A. (2012). Managing Organisational Change, Google eBook. John Wiley & Sons.

KHANNA, R. (2015). PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

Pugh, M. L. (2012). Change Management in Information Services. Ashgate Publishing.

Robbins, S. P., Bergman, R., Stagg, I., & Coulter, M. (2014). Management. Pearson Australia.

Robbins, S., Cenzo, D. D., Coulter, M., & Woods, M. (2013). Management: the Essentials. Pearson Higher Education AU.

Snell, S. A., Morris, S. S., & Bohlander, G. W. (2015). Managing Human Resources. Cengage Learning.

Sutton, A. (2014). Work Psychology in Action. Palgrave Macmillan.

Synnot, B. (2014). Change Management An Introductory Overview. Bill Synnot.

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Hitchcock and Gothic

The Hitchcock has created horror through the lives of birds.The novel Daphne du Maurier  has the theme of mystery how the place of the British government  through the birds directing the meaning of the wording words and concerned people have  mystery of the waking up the concerned amateur way of taking the ways out of the circumstances . The marking Caps issue of the stage is well designed and they are concerned making the knocking out of the working nature of the market working the concerned division of the wonder act divided to the concerned.The purpose of the writing is to create understanding about the influence of Hitchcock on Gothic. 

The perfectly designed matter of music to create the emotions of horror has worked well and as the music used in the movie really develops the emotional feelings of terror and horror to the viewer. The plot of working differently defined the versions of making the montage and the newly dressed costumes are well decorated and the sense of music is concerned with eventual nature of making things smoothed. The outgoing of the natural circumstances is well equipped with the maturing circumstances advanced. The attacking to the human population is well arranged to the support of the scenario andto support the deployment version.  I’m going to stop reading here.

The film was among the  one of the successful movie of the time as the narration is well endangered of the concern the making of the film is well defined and as well as it provides help to learn. The dialogue as well as the get up of the characters seems very natural that gives a realistic look to the viewers by addressing the emotional attachment of the viewers through the music that perfectly suits the situation..The desirable film is wondered and valued because of the balance in the action, the body language, the dialogue with the scenarios supporting music. The Hitchcock Rebecca is successful film as throughout the movie the music raised the feelings among the viewers as the wondering things are happening around them. The desirable scene is on the one scenario version of marking the stanceevaluated.The version of the making the things developed and wonder around the certain nature of the making the concerned departmental scenario developed.

The film is essential parts of the making natural environment for the viewers by involving the measurement dissolution of the pattern the wondering the scenario of the dilemma constraints of the suspense of the concerned dissolution involvement marking the stances working of the stances worked deployment scene adopted version concerned measurement deployment. The motif nature of circumstances verdict dilution reefed to marking the exact conversation deployment. The concern is development the things back the space to give natural feelings.  The working elusion dissolved rendered making of the mix. The meanings are working of the newer talent discussing the dilemma of the concerned. The consignment involvement revealed to the basics in the measurement of the scene.      

The reviews are bad of stating the nature the narrator’s task as that was not been performed well. Mrs de Winter is an evolutional character in the movie. The novel and the film have a different core of the marking of the good scenario that is concerned with tasking of the apprehensivedimension of the nature and dwelling the version of the circumstances in the measurement and developed the natural construction into the agenda version drastically subject and version of the nature concerned. The marking are of the scene nature making the deployment of the concerned making the version to another level wording things concerned measurement nature. The dialogue of Mrs De winter were perfectly suited to his characterand to give an impressions to the viewers but here the music role was prominent to justify and to support the scenario effectively. 

The ghost in the story appears in somehow realistic styleby making things grow. They have come to England which when caning the neutral making the version of the concerned making the dilemma of the nature and bird having the attacks on human concerned development version. The stance is of the emerging ghost. The plot is nearly good but according to the critic the plot is really dull and making of the version of the sense of marking endanger birds.

Mrs. Danvers is the housekeeper at the Manderaley and eventually developing the plotter. Her nick name is Danny originates to the death of the previous mistress and marking the nature of the concerned. The newer Mrs. De winters are a central character of the movie. This character is trying to take the place of the Rebecca and built up the scenario of the concerned measurement of the marking the tasks of the wonder valuation changing the dilemma.  They kept secret Davners and ultimately found the illness. The plots are of making the nature development of the task. The making of the film is at the better instance. Dialogues are of the saying that I watched you go down and a year ago.

The musher is responsive along with the meaningful nature of and theconcern management verdict policy concluded with the instrumental verdict of the dilemma of the case scenario addiction of numerous paper work diluted with the nature of concern. The production is the enormous valuation revealed to the mandatory concern. The dilemma is the plot in which the story is told within the maximum approach verification. The authentic nature is to describing the major wording of the nation measurement conflict. The describing making the session of the above maintained valued level of the making allowed district making the concerned by the marking certain level of the mystery of the verdict always citation measurement.   

The Secret are saving characters which have the wonders of working as the secret not telling character. Twentieth century would be extensive because of the marking the natural apprehensivesection of the overall deciding to not explaining the disease too. This much secret keeping the character to be looking bad and indulging in the circumstances wondering the measurement of the wonders notes explaining concern development. The Concerned dilemma is the secret character wondering the making the version of evolution measurement concerning divisors of the concerned character involved in the making of the measurement concerned development in the scenario.

The premium nature of the concerned deployment of marking the nature is dissolved by the customs and the verdict of the hedging of the concerned employment dissolution that involved extra ordinarily visiting the circumstances developed making the construction deployed of the making of the market scenario development of the nature construction measurement evolved basically measurement of the concerned measurement discussion perfection deployment involved concerning the concerned.     

Both the writers of the novel presents the feminist touch of the natural consistency of the marking the version of delaying the plotter the concerned measurement will be checked by the consultancy of the working measures. The heroes of the female will be wondering the measurement of the basic concern is development of the characters. The female heroes are well known to the describing nature of the amateur and making the things working the nature of the making the concerned departmental scene improvement.

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Why we should do sports

Why we should do sports

Sports is the basic element of the human life as it keeps the person happy and healthy. The hobby of playing sports should be developed in the person since his or her childhood because it is the exercise with some fun. The sports are now divided into two categories that is the Indoor sports and the outdoor sports.

The indoor sports are those sports which are played inside the room or auditorium they are not that much physical sports. Because in these sports the mind is more used rather than the body. They increase the creativity and mentality of the person. Example of indoor games is the board games, chess, card games and poker (Rundh & Gottfridsson, 2015). The major games which are played all over the world are mostly the outdoor games because these games are physical games like Soccer, Football and the Cricket.

Competition without Violence

Sports build the spirit among the people and it is very true that this develop the competition among the players without any kind of rivalry or the violence. Sportsmanship is the best ethics a player can have as in this ethic the player must respect the opponent regardless of the matter that either the player is losing or winning the game.  While this is not totally true there are some sports which can cause violence like whenever there is the FIFA world cup is held in the world.

The supporter of different teams gets too much hype and frustrated that they start hurting each other even in the stadium. Just like what happen in the match between France and England this year. Otherwise the sports are the game of gentleman as they develop the necessary social ethics in the person who want to make progress and also develop the positive attitude of the person.

There are very famous rivalries in the sports but this does not mean they are at war. The rivalry among the player is just restricted to the game it has nothing to do with their social life that’s why we can see that there are several players who are rivals of each other when they playing sports but in real life they are best friends.

It brings people together

People from diverse nature of culture and background experience to interact with each other in the sports. This happens mostly in the Olympics in which the hundreds of participants from all across the world gather in one place in order to play sports and make their country people feel proud. This brings the culture diversity in the sports and allows the people to understand each other behavior and establish the patience in their personality.

The sports also allow them to become good friends and they can compete with different countries (Sinclair, 2005). The social life increases and people learn to respect each other ideas and opinion about different things. In other words, sports are breaking the cultural boundaries among the people and also discourage the clash of civilization because the game is played in the peaceful and motivated environment. 

The supporters from the all around the world visit in other country to support their team which is the positive sign for the teams and they can experience the culture of different countries and enjoy the environmental changes in their life.

They make people feel they are important

The special Olympics are held every year which inspire the life of million people because in those Olympic the people who are rejected by their society and this world take part. That is one of the best of their life because it makes them feel good that they have importance. Sports makes them realize that they do have value as a human being and they deserve to be respected.

As in real life they don’t have any friends because society don’t accept them they are forced to live in the healthcare center where they wheel of their life runs in the certain style. No change in their life and they start feeling awkward socially but when the people like them enters the sport they realize that how much important they are.

They are picked in the sports and people encourage them to prove their existence in this world which is the best feeling of the world. The best example of such kind of sport is the Rio Olympics which held earlier this year and leave the best memories in the word.

Sports give the best health

The one promise that the outdoor sports can do to the person is that it can develop the best health in the person.  Sports is the essential element in order to increase the stamina and health. That’s why people choose sport to be healthy all the time. The people who join gym and do heavy weight lifting if just try some physical sport can overcome all the resistance and become very fit.

When the large even comes in this world the people start joining the gyms and try to be fit to compete in the sport (Pritchard & Funk, 2010).  This makes them more good for their sport and competition. This shows that the sport is increasing the health overall in the world as they encourage the person to live the healthy life.

Sport is the best motivator for the person as it develops the sense of self-esteem and confidence in the person. In order to understand this let’s take the example of the world’s fastest man Usain Bolt. He belongs to the poor country but he beat every odd and become the world fastest man and winning the Olympic championship of running since the day he enters this sport.

As at first Usain bolt was a poor person and don’t have enough money to even eat the healthy food but now he is one of the wealthiest man and has best sportsmanship. This remarkable store tells us about that the person should never give up and sport help the person to be motivated all the time.

Sports develop good habits

One of the reason why everyone should practice some kind of sport is that it develops the best habit in the person. As the person wakes up early and encourage the person to get healthy exercise. Also the sport develops the trust and honesty in the person as during sports mostly players try to play fair and with honesty as this is the one element which makes sport interesting for the other people.

The honest player always gets the extra fame and respect because this is the crucial part of being a player. If the player of the soccer while playing soccer does not hold to the honesty and try to deceive the opponent with illegal tricks, then he can’t survive in his team. As due to the modern technology every single act of the player that he or she do in the field is recorded with the eyes of camera. So not playing fair in the game can put the big questions mark to the career of the player.

The sports develop the sense of responsibility and self-esteem in the player. The player faces the challenges of the sport with confidence as this also helps the player to be brave to face the challenges of the real world.

The sport shows that the active people have less anxiety and depression in their life because they are not spending their time in the useless things rather they are spending their time in useful things and get the best output from it. That’s why every person should take part in any sport which increase the confidence, make the person gentleman and teach the person how to live a respectful life in his or her society.

The person should choose the sport which he or she likes the most never chose the sport for which your mind of body is not ready. Because this can create the negative impact on your personality as you will not take part in the sport activities with full dedication and ultimately you will end up with the useless of time. This is surely not good for the person who want to become the professional persona as the person should know in what kind of sport he is effective and have talent to go further.

Conclusion

Looking the above discussion, we can say that there are more benefits of the sports then the person can imagine because they give the person ability to build his or her own career. The professional players have the great impact on the life of ordinary people as they have too much fan following so they should represent them as the role model for the public so that they can get the best people in the sports.

Sports as mentioned above is the great motivator as it allows the person to get rid of the stress and the darkness in their life. Sport lifts up the person to the next level due to which they can overcome the hardships in their life. So if the person wants to be successful and prosper in his or her life they should adopt some kind of sport. The sport can be adopted as the career or the hobby and for the person who adopt it as a hobby should give at least 2-3 hours daily to their sport in order to become fit and healthy.

Keeping in view all this the sport can establish the good relations among the different nations. The visits of different country team to the other country is the sign of respect. Like in history there have been great war among the France and England but when it comes to the sport both countries respect each other and play with patience. This shows that how much sport has impact not just at the life of the person but also globally.

So everyone should make the sport essential part of their life and practice sport on the daily basis. This can help the person to keep the social life active and his or her mind in peace. Sports help to get rid of useless stress and anxiety which people suffer due to the hardships in their life. Also sport helps the people to understand the behavior of the other person.

References

Chen. (2016, October 29). Retrieved from ELSEVIER: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-sport-and-health-science

David. (2016, October 29). Retrieved from Sport Sciences: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rjsp20/current

John. (2016, October 29). Retrieved from Sports and Social Issues: http://jss.sagepub.com/

Pritchard, M. P., & Funk, D. C. (2010). The formation and effect of attitude importance in professional sport. European Journal of Marketing , 44 (7), 1017 – 1036.

Rundh, B., & Gottfridsson, P. (2015). Delivering sports events: the arena concept in sports from a network perspective. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing , 30 (7), 785 – 794.

Sinclair, D. (2005). Sports education – a priority for Caribbean sports tourism. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management , 17 (6), 536 – 548.

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Politics Classical Ideologies

Liberalism

There are numerous classic ideologies that can be analyzed in light of contemporary politics, and for this purpose, liberalism is defined as a political ideology that has been founded by equality and liberty. In a liberal economy, the decisions are based on the individualism and voluntarism. This means that a majority of the decisions making is done by the individuals. Organizations and other government institutions are not involved in this process.

Recently, there has been a shift in the politics of Clinton, and she has shown that she supports liberalism. It is clearly evident from here recent speeches that she supports gay marriages and also supports the citizenships for the immigrants within the country as well. She also has a clear perspective on illegal and criminal reforms as well. However, Clinton has always been in support of these issues, and she has always shifted the positions as per the concerts of her party (Ball, Dagger, & O’Neill, 2016). 

The analysis of her speeches is conducted by here public statements, congressional voting records as well as the fundraising campaigns. As per the analysis, of her final run in the Senate, the record was more liberal that over 70% of all other leaders from the Democratic Party. Even Barack Obama was not more liberal than her. To add to this, she has been in the news for her many liberal statements as well. Her husband Bill Clinton was more moderate.

The issue of Gay Marriage was something that spat the members of Democratic Party. During the year of 2008, only 39% of the members of the party supported this marriage at the time. Clinton repositioned herself at that time when over 50% of the country’s population was supporting the same-sex marriage which clearly suggests that she shifted her position with the country’s population as well (Ball, Dagger, & O’Neill, 2016).

The situation is pretty much similar in the case with citizenships for immigrants within the US. In the year 2015, the polls suggested that nearly 60% of the country’s population was in support for citizenships for the immigrants in the US. This number was an overall high in the history and at that time there were over 70% of the party members were in support of citizenships for the immigrants. When it comes to criminal justice reforms, she called for rolling back the reforms and over 75% of the American population was supporting the reforms and over 80% of the party was in support of the reforms as well (Enten, 2015).

The counter libertarian critique is ageist the idea of gay marriage as well as criminal justice reforms and citizenships for the immigrants in the US. According to the counter libertarian critique, the country should be flooded with the immigrants as America is the land of opportunities. The critique is that too many immigrants will allow the other nationalities to work in the country and this will hold back the rights of the citizens of America. This critique is totally opposite to what globalization is. America is currently a melting pot of cultures from all over the globe.

Many people have traveled to the US on a settlement basis and this is flooding the country with immigrants, and similar is the case with the gay marriage. Same sex marriage is a huge issue when it comes to population growth, and the country will alter the growth of generations. In the case of, criminal justice reforms, the counter liberal critique is that the current criminal justice system has no issue and there is no need of reducing the criminal sentences for the current prisoners. The critique is also against the idea that the number of the prisoners should be reduced and for the low-level drug offenders there should be mandatory minimum sentences. The counter liberal critique is against the idea that the current system needs any improvements and it should continue to work as it has been doing the job for the country for over two centuries. 

References

Ball, T., Dagger, R., & O’Neill, D. I. (2016). Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal. Taylor & Francis,.

Enten, H. (2015, May 19). Hillary Clinton Was Liberal. Hillary Clinton Is Liberal. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from FivethirtyEght: http://fivethirtyeight.com/datalab/hillary-clinton-was-liberal-hillary-clinton-is-liberal/

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the herfindahl index for a pure monopolist is

Multiple Choice: Each of the following questions or incomplete statements is followed by a series of suggested answers or completions.  Select the one best response for each question. (1 point each) [This exam has a maximum possible value of 100 points. 35 of these points come from the multiple choice questions, 12 of these points come from identification questions, and 53 of these points come from the essay questions.]

1. If all excess capacity in a monopolistically competitive industry was eliminated,

A. the industry would become more competitive.

B. there would be a greater diversity (variety) of products available. C. more firms would be necessary to meet the market’s demand for the industry’s product.

D. fewer firms would be necessary to meet the market’s demand for the industry’s product.

2. A monopoly is most likely to emerge and continue to monopolize its market when      A. firms have U-shaped average total cost curves.      B. income elasticity of demand for its product is high.      C. fixed capital costs are small relative to total costs.      D. economies of scale are large relative to market demand.

3. Consumers who clip and redeem discount coupons:

A. cause total revenue to decrease for firms that issue coupons for their products.

B. exhibit a unitary price elasticity of demand since all consumers have the ability to use

coupons.

C. exhibit the same price elasticity of demand for a given product as consumers who do not

clip and redeem coupons. D. exhibit a more elastic demand for a given product than consumers who do not clip and

redeem coupons. E.  exhibit a more inelastic demand for a given product than consumers who do not clip and

redeem coupons.

4. Critics of social regulation argue that it

A. increases the price level.

B. dampens incentives to invest and innovate.

C. is a relatively greater burden for small firms than for large firms.

D. has all of the above effects.

5. If the CEO of United Airlines plays golf with the CEO of American Airlines and then both

companies increase the prices of their airline tickets by 5% this is most likely a case of

A. a gentleman’s agreement. B. multiproduct pricing. C. cost-plus pricing. D. price leadership.

6. Skilled workers generally earn more than unskilled workers do because

A. the productivity of skilled labor is higher than that of unskilled labor.

B. the supply of skilled labor is greater than the supply of unskilled labor. C. the marginal cost of unskilled labor is higher than that of skilled labor.

D. the demand for unskilled labor is greater than the demand for skilled labor. E. the demand for unskilled labor is more elastic than the demand for skilled labor.

7. The smaller the number of firms in a monopolistically competitive industry and the greater the differentiation degree of product,

A. the greater the divergence between the demand and the marginal revenue curves for the firms in

the industry.

B. the larger will be the monopolistically competitive firm’s fixed costs.

C. the more inelastic is the monopolistically competitive firm’s demand curve.

D. the more elastic is the monopolistically competitive firm’s demand curve.

8. An example of an inclusive type labor organization / association is

A. the United Automobile Workers

B. the Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (electricians)

C. the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) D. both A and B.

E. All of the above.

9. The “wastefulness” of excess capacity is not considered totally bad by economists because

A. advertisers make more income that is then circulated to the rest of the economy via the

multiplier.

B. the monopolistically competitive firm has a negatively sloped demand curve.

C. the monopolistically competitive firm allocates resources more efficiently than firms in other

market structures.

D. excess capacity may allow for a greater diversity of products than would otherwise be available.

10.  Which of the following will create a demand for U.S. dollars in the foreign exchange market?

A. travel abroad by U.S. citizens

B. the desire of foreigners to buy U.S. stocks

C. the desire of U.S. citizens to purchase foreign stocks

D. U.S. imports

11. Firms are most likely to engage in price discrimination when

A. the product being sold can easily be resold.

B. they operate in a purely competitive industry. C. they operate in an industry which experiences excess capacity. D. all consumers in the market have the same price elasticity of demand. E. All of the above

12. The U.S. garment (clothing) workers’ union

A. favors free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers are substitutes.

B. opposes free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers are substitutes.

C. favors free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers complement each

other.

D. opposes free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers complement

each other.

13. Antitrust laws ________ whereas social regulations ________

A. are designed to promote competition; only improve competition in a market.

B. apply to specific firms and specific industries; apply to all firms and all industries.

C. lead to less competition in a market;. improve the quality of and the manner in which products

and services are produced.

D. Both B and C are correct.

E. All of the above are correct.

14. Suppose Ford Motor Company purchased a small steel company. This acquisition would be

considered

A. a horizontal combination/merger/acquisition.

B. a vertical combination/merger/acquisition.

C. a conglomerate combination/merger/acquisition.

D. a trust corporation.

E. illegal under current U.S. anti-trust laws.

15. Price discrimination refers to

A. selling a given product for different prices at two different points in time. B. a firm charging any price which is not equal to minimum average total cost.

C. the selling of a given product at different prices that reflect demand, not cost,

differences.

D. the difference between the price a purely competitive seller and a purely monopolistic

seller would charge.

16. Exclusive unions attempt to increase wages by

A. restricting the supply of labor. B. decreasing the demand for the product being produced. C. organizing all workers in the industry and bargaining for a “fair” wage. D. All of the above are techniques used by exclusive unions.

17. If the last worker hired by a firm has a marginal resource (labor) cost of $16 and a marginal revenue product of $12, the firm

A. is maximizing its profits.

B. can increase its profits by hiring additional workers.

C. can increase its profits by hiring fewer workers.

D. faces a perfectly elastic demand for its product.

18. Monopsonistic employers exist in many less developed countries. Other things equal, these monopsonistic employers will pay a

A. lower wage and employ fewer workers than will a purely competitive market.

B. higher wage and employ fewer workers than will a purely competitive market.

C. lower wage but employ a larger number of workers than will a purely competitive market. D. higher wage and employ a larger number of workers than will a purely competitive market.

E. lower wage but employ the same number of workers as will a purely competitive market.

19. Collusion among oligopolistic producers would be easiest to achieve in which of the following cases?

A. A rather large number of firms producing a standardized product. B. A rather large number of firms producing a differentiated product. C. A very small number of firms producing a standardized product.

D. A very small number of firms producing a differentiated product.

20. If a monopolist engages in price discrimination, it will  A. realize a smaller profit because it sells more output at a lower price. B. charge a higher price to individuals who have an inelastic demand and a lower price to individuals who have an elastic demand and thus produce more output and earn a greater

economic profit. C.  charge a higher price to individuals who have an inelastic demand and a lower price to individuals who have an elastic demand and thus produce less output and earn a greater economic profit. D. charge a higher price to individuals who have an elastic demand and a lower price to

individuals who have an inelastic demand and thus produce less output and earn a smaller

economic profit. E. charge a higher price to individuals who have an elastic demand and a lower price to

individuals who have an inelastic demand and thus produce less output and earn a greater economic profit.

21. The kinked-demand curve that exists in oligopoly helps to explain price rigidity (inflexibility) in oligopoly because

A. the model assumes firms are engaging in some form of collusion.

B. any independent price change results in increased revenue to the independently operating

oligopolist. C. demand is elastic above and inelastic below the current market price, thus any

independent price change results in decreased revenue to the independently operating

oligopolist. D. demand is inelastic above and elastic below the current market price, thus any

independent price change results in decreased revenue to the independently operating

oligopolist.

E. there is a gap in the marginal cost curve within which changes in marginal revenue will not

affect output or price.

22. Which of the following statements is correct?  A. The pure monopolist will maximize profit by producing at that point on the demand curve

where elasticity is zero. B.  Purely monopolistic sellers earn only normal profits in the long run.

C. The pure monopolist maximizes profits by producing that output at which the differential

between price and average cost is the greatest. D. In seeking the profit-maximizing output the pure monopolist underallocates resources to its

production. E. The pure monopolist maximizes profits by producing that output at which the differential

between marginal revenue and average marginal cost is the greatest.

23. The fair-return price method of regulating monopolies

A. causes monopolists to produce surplus amounts of their products. B. often causes the monopoly to encounter losses.

C. gives the monopolist no incentive to control costs.

D. often requires the government to subsidize the regulated monopoly.

E. causes an overallocation of resources to the monopolist’s product.

24.  A non-discriminating pure monopolist’s demand curve 

A. is perfectly elastic.

B. is perfectly inelastic. C. lies below its marginal revenue curve. D. lies above its marginal revenue curve. E. coincides with its marginal revenue curve.

25. If a pure monopolist is operating at a price-quantity combination on the inelastic segment of its demand curve, in order to increase and maximize profits, it should  A. charge a lower price. B. charge a higher price. C. increase both price and quantity sold. D. retain its current price-quantity combination.

26. Cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because

A. they are illegal everywhere in the world. B. entry barriers are insignificant in oligopolistic industries. C. individual members may find it profitable to “cheat” on the cartel. D. it is profitable for the industry to charge a lower price and produce more output.

E. All of the above.

27. A firm will vertically integrate, if it is primarily trying to accomplish which of the following?

A. to expand and diversify asset holdings

B. to exercise greater market control

C. to increase control over suppliers of its inputs.

D. to increase competition among sellers

28. Assume six firms comprising an industry have market shares of 30%, 30%, 10%, 10%, 10%, and 10% percent. The Herfindahl Index for this industry is A. 80, representing extremely workable competition.

B. 100, representing the idle workable competition.

C. 1,100, representing very workable competition.

D. 2,000, representing less than workable competition.

E. 2,200, representing less than workable competition.

29. If a government regulatory commission wants to establish a socially optimal price for a natural monopoly, it should select a price  A. at which marginal revenue is zero.

B.  at which the marginal cost curve intersects the demand curve. C. at which the average total cost curve intersects the demand curve. D. which corresponds with the equality of marginal cost and marginal revenue.

30. Suppose there are only four manufacturers/sellers of pizza in Bremerville. The largest producer establishes the price for his pizza and the other three firms then set their pizza prices in the same range. This best describes

A. a cartel

B. price leadership.

C. multiproduct pricing.

D. a gentleman’s agreement.

31. Many oil industry analysts argue that when OPEC succeeds in increasing the price of crude oil this

may eventually harm OPEC and also drive the price of oil to lower levels. The analysts believe

this because

A. the demand for oil will increase since the supply of oil has increased.

B. the current high economic profits will draw other producers into the oil industry.

C. some OPEC members may be encouraged to cheat on the cartel’s (OPEC’s) low production

agreement.

D. both B and C are reasonable answers.

E. All of the above are reasonable answers

32. The table below gives the number of tons of apples and bananas that can be produced in

Country X and Country Y by employing the same amount of productive resources.

ApplesBananasApplesBananas
Country X100Country Y90
0503

The theory of comparative advantage, which is based on opportunity cost, implies that, under

these conditions, Country X would find it advantageous to

A. export apples and import bananas.

B. export bananas and import apples.

C. export both apples and bananas and import nothing.

D. import both apples and bananas and export nothing.

33. The kinked demand curve of the oligopolist is based on the assumption that

A. independently operating competitors will follow a price decrease but ignore a price increase.

B. independently operating competitors will match both price decreases and increases.

C. independently operating competitors will follow a price increase but ignore a price decrease.

D. there is no product differentiation in the oligopolistic industry.

E. other firms will determine their pricing and output policies in collusion with the given firm.

34. Social regulations

A. increase the prices of goods and services.

B. dampen firms’ incentives to invest and innovate.

C. are a relatively greater burden for small firms than for large firms.

D. have all of the above effects.

35. Assume that the short-run equilibrium for a monopolistically competitive firm yields these results: P = $28.47; ATC = $22.13; and MR = MC = $17.47. Which of the following would be true?

A. Existing firms will be encouraged to leave this industry.

B. This firm could increase profits by decreasing output.

C. This firm could increase profits by increasing output.

D. Additional firms would be attracted into this industry.

E. Per unit loss is $6.34.

(Identification and Essay Question 1 are on the following page)

Identification: In a sentence or two, briefly define or otherwise demonstrate your knowledge of the following concepts. (3 points each)

1. Monopolistic Competition

2. Game Theory

3. Citizen Utility Board

4. Consumer Surplus

ESSAYS: Answer the following 3 questions. Answer all parts to each question, and answer each question as fully and carefully as you can. Use complete sentences and a logical economic thought process in each of your answers. These questions are not so much essay questions as they are a series of short answer questions. Thus, you may feel more comfortable answering each part separately rather than trying to create one single essay answer. (Question 1 = 17 points; question 2 = 18 points; question 3 = 18 points)

1. Many people believe that if monopolies are not regulated, they will charge the highest

price they possibly can. Thus, the thought continues, monopolies must be totally

regulated by the government.

· Is the goal of a purely monopolistic firm to charge the highest price? If so why? If not what is the goal of the purely monopolistic firm and how does it achieve this goal? (3 points)

· How is it possible for the pure monopolist to earn economic profits in the long run? Why do most firms in the monopolistically competitive market structure earn only normal profits or minimal economic profit in the long run? Is it possible for some firms in the monopolistically competitive market structure to earn some economic profit in the long run? Why or why not?

(4 points)

· Of the two methods of government regulation, the socially optimum pricing method provides the more ideal societal results. What ideal results does this pricing method provide and how does it achieve this goal? Why doesn’t government frequently use this method of price regulation (i.e., what are the disadvantages of this pricing method)? (5 points)

· What pricing method does government usually employ when regulating pure monopolies? What results/improvement is the government trying to achieve under this approach?  What are the advantages of this approach compared to the socially optimum price? What are the disadvantages of this approach compared to the socially optimum price? (5 points)

· Explain all of your answers fully and in terms of economics.

(Essay Questions 2 and 3 are on the following page)

2.  There are more U.S. industries that operate in the monopolistically competitive market structure than

there are industries operating in either the pure competitive or pure monopoly.

· “Purely competitive and purely monopolistic industries will tend to be one-price industries. Monopolistic competition, however, is a multiprice industry.” Why are purely competitive industries and purely monopolistic industries one price industries and why are monopolistically competitive industries multiprice industries? Explain Fully. (5 points)

· Firms in oligopolistic industries also tend to sell their product (service) at the same price or in price clusters and tend to alter price infrequently. Using economic concepts, explain fully the reasons why oligopolistic firms tend to charge very similar prices and why they tend to change these prices fairly infrequently. (4 points)

· When oligopolistic firms do change price, all the firms in the industry tend to change their prices at the same time, or within days of one another. What types of agreements might allow oligopolistic firms to act in this collusive manner? Briefly explain each of these types of collusion. (3 points)

· Oligopolistic firms often develop via mergers or acquisitions. What are the three types of mergers or acquisitions that can occur? What is the difference between each of these types of mergers / acquisitions and what objective is (objectives are) firms trying to accomplish with each type of merger? (3 points)

· Which mergers are most often not allowed by the U.S. Justice Department? What measures does the Justice Department use in order to determine whether to allow a merger or not? (3 points)

· Explain all of your answers fully and in terms of economics.

3. Labor unions attempt to increase wages, maintain employment of members, and improve working conditions.

· What are the two basic types of labor unions, and what is the primary method (are the primary methods) used by each in its attempts to increase wages and employment?  What are the results, advantages, and disadvantages of each approach? (5 points)

· What is a monopsonistic labor market? Are the wage and employment results in a monopsonistic labor market different than the wage and employment results in a competitive labor market? Why and how do the results differ? (5 points)

· The percentage of the U.S. labor force that belongs to labor unions has been declining for several decades? What are some of the reasons that labor unions are less prevalent today than they were forty years ago? Explain each briefly. (4 points)

· Labor unions frequently oppose free international trade and support trade restrictions. Why? What are the two major forms of international trade restriction, how do they differ from each other, and why do labor unions support these trade restrictions? (4 points)

Explain all of your answers fully using economic logic and theory.   

PAGE

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minneapolis exurb crossword

THE

2

INNOVATORS

3

ALSO BY WALTER ISAACSON

Steve Jobs American Sketches

Einstein: His Life and Universe A Benjamin Franklin Reader

Benjamin Franklin: An American Life Kissinger: A Biography

The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made (with Evan Thomas) Pro and Con

4

HOW A GROUP OF HACKERS, GENIUSES, AND GEEKS CREATED THE DIGITAL

REVOLUTION

5

6

First published in Great Britain by Simon & Schuster UK Ltd, 2014 A CBS COMPANY

Copyright © 2014 by Walter Isaacson

This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. No reproduction without permission.

All rights reserved.

The right of Walter Isaacson to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

Simon & Schuster UK Ltd 1st Floor

222 Gray’s Inn Road London WC1X 8HB

www.simonandschuster.co.uk

Simon & Schuster Australia, Sydney Simon & Schuster India, New Delhi

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Excerpts from “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace” from The Pill Versus the Springhill Mine Disaster by Richard Brautigan. Copyright © 1968 by Richard Brautigan. Reproduced by permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Photo research and editing by Laura Wyss, Wyssphoto, Inc., with the assistance of Elizabeth Seramur, Amy Hikida, and Emily Vinson, and by Jonathan Cox.

Interior design by Ruth Lee-Mui

ISBN: 978-1-47113-879-9 Ebook: 978-1-47113-881-2

The author and publishers have made all reasonable efforts to contact copyright-holders for permission, and apologise for any omissions or errors in the form of credits given. Corrections may be made to future printings.

Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY

7http://www.simonandschuster.co.uk

CONTENTS

Illustrated Timeline Introduction

CHAPTER 1

Ada, Countess of Lovelace CHAPTER 2

The Computer CHAPTER 3

Programming CHAPTER 4

The Transistor CHAPTER 5

The Microchip CHAPTER 6

Video Games CHAPTER 7

The Internet CHAPTER 8

The Personal Computer CHAPTER 9

Software CHAPTER 10

Online CHAPTER 11

The Web CHAPTER 12

Ada Forever

Acknowledgments Notes

Photo Credits

8

Index

9

THE

10

INNOVATORS

11

1800

1843

Ada, Countess of Lovelace, publishes “Notes” on Babbage’s Analytical Engine.

1847

George Boole creates a system using algebra for logical reasoning.

1890

The census is tabulated with Herman Hollerith’s punch-card machines.

12

1931

Vannevar Bush devises the Differential Analyzer, an analog electromechanical computer.

1935

Tommy Flowers pioneers use of vacuum tubes as on-off switches in circuits.

1937

13

Alan Turing publishes “On Computable Numbers,” describing a universal computer.

Claude Shannon describes how circuits of switches can perform tasks of Boolean algebra.

Bell Labs’ George Stibitz proposes a calculator using an electric circuit.

14

Howard Aiken proposes construction of large digital computer and discovers parts of Babbage’s Difference Engine at Harvard.

John Vincent Atanasoff puts together concepts for an electronic computer during a long December night’s drive.

1938

William Hewlett and David Packard form company in Palo Alto garage.

1939

Atanasoff finishes model of electronic computer with mechanical storage drums.

15

Turing arrives at Bletchley Park to work on breaking German codes.

1941

Konrad Zuse completes Z3, a fully functional electromechanical programmable digital computer.

16

John Mauchly visits Atanasoff in Iowa, sees computer demonstrated.

1952

1942

Atanasoff completes partly working computer with three hundred vacuum tubes, leaves for Navy.

1943

Colossus, a vacuum-tube computer to break German codes, is completed at Bletchley Park.

1944

17

Harvard Mark I goes into operation.

John von Neumann goes to Penn to work on ENIAC.

1945

Von Neumann writes “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC” describing a stored-program computer.

18

Six women programmers of ENIAC are sent to Aberdeen for training.

Vannevar Bush publishes “As We May Think,” describing personal computer.

Bush publishes “Science, the Endless Frontier,” proposing government funding of academic and industrial research.

ENIAC is fully operational.

1947

Transistor invented at Bell Labs.

1950

Turing publishes article describing a test for artificial intelligence.

19

1952

Grace Hopper develops first computer compiler.

Von Neumann completes modern computer at the Institute for Advanced Study.

UNIVAC predicts Eisenhower election victory.

1954

1954

Turing commits suicide.

20

Texas Instruments introduces silicon transistor and helps launch Regency radio.

1956

Shockley Semiconductor founded.

First artificial intelligence conference.

1957

21

Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, and others form Fairchild Semiconductor.

Russia launches Sputnik.

1958

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) announced.

22

Jack Kilby demonstrates integrated circuit, or microchip.

1959

Noyce and Fairchild colleagues independently invent microchip.

1960

J. C. R. Licklider publishes “Man-Computer Symbiosis.”

23

Paul Baran at RAND devises packet switching.

1961

President Kennedy proposes sending man to the moon.

1962

MIT hackers create Spacewar game.

Licklider becomes founding director of ARPA’s Information Processing Techniques Office.

Doug Engelbart publishes “Augmenting Human Intellect.”

1963

24

Licklider proposes an “Intergalactic Computer Network.”

Engelbart and Bill English invent the mouse.

1972

1964

Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters take bus trip across America.

1965

Ted Nelson publishes first article about “hypertext.”

25

Moore’s Law predicts microchips will double in power each year or so.

1966

Stewart Brand hosts Trips Festival with Ken Kesey.

26

Bob Taylor convinces ARPA chief Charles Herzfeld to fund ARPANET.

Donald Davies coins the term packet switching.

1967

ARPANET design discussions in Ann Arbor and Gatlinburg.

1968

Larry Roberts sends out request for bids to build the ARPANET’s IMPs.

27

Noyce and Moore form Intel, hire Andy Grove.

Brand publishes first Whole Earth Catalog.

28

Engelbart stages the Mother of All Demos with Brand’s help.

1969

First nodes of ARPANET installed.

1971

Don Hoefler begins column for Electronic News called “Silicon Valley USA.”

Demise party for Whole Earth Catalog.

Intel 4004 microprocessor unveiled.

29

Ray Tomlinson invents email.

1972

Nolan Bushnell creates Pong at Atari with Al Alcorn.

1973

1973

30

Alan Kay helps to create the Alto at Xerox PARC.

Ethernet developed by Bob Metcalfe at Xerox PARC.

Community Memory shared terminal set up at Leopold’s Records, Berkeley.

31

Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn complete TCP/IP protocols for the Internet.

1974

Intel 8080 comes out.

1975

Altair personal computer from MITS appears.

32

Paul Allen and Bill Gates write BASIC for Altair, form Microsoft.

First meeting of Homebrew Computer Club.

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak launch the Apple I.

1977

The Apple II is released.

33

1978

First Internet Bulletin Board System.

1979

Usenet newsgroups invented.

Jobs visits Xerox PARC.

1980

IBM commissions Microsoft to develop an operating system for PC.

1981

Hayes modem marketed to home users.

1983

34

Microsoft announces Windows.

Richard Stallman begins developing GNU, a free operating system.

2011

1984

35

Apple introduces Macintosh.

1985

Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant launch The WELL.

CVC launches Q-Link, which becomes AOL.

1991

36

Linus Torvalds releases first version of Linux kernel.

Tim Berners-Lee announces World Wide Web.

1993

Marc Andreessen announces Mosaic browser.

37

Steve Case’s AOL offers direct access to the Internet.

1994

Justin Hall launches Web log and directory.

HotWired and Time Inc.’s Pathfinder become first major magazine publishers on Web.

1995

Ward Cunningham’s Wiki Wiki Web goes online.

1997

38

IBM’s Deep Blue beats Garry Kasparov in chess.

1998

Larry Page and Sergey Brin launch Google.

1999

39

Ev Williams launches Blogger.

2001

Jimmy Wales, with Larry Sanger, launches Wikipedia.

2011

40

IBM’s computer Watson wins Jeopardy!

41

INTRODUCTION

HOW THIS BOOK CAME TO BE

The computer and the Internet are among the most important inventions of our era, but few people know who created them. They were not conjured up in a garret or garage by solo inventors suitable to be singled out on magazine covers or put into a pantheon with Edison, Bell, and Morse. Instead, most of the innovations of the digital age were done collaboratively. There were a lot of fascinating people involved, some ingenious and a few even geniuses. This is the story of these pioneers, hackers, inventors, and entrepreneurs—who they were, how their minds worked, and what made them so creative. It’s also a narrative of how they collaborated and why their ability to work as teams made them even more creative.

The tale of their teamwork is important because we don’t often focus on how central that skill is to innovation. There are thousands of books celebrating people we biographers portray, or mythologize, as lone inventors. I’ve produced a few myself. Search the phrase “the man who invented” on Amazon and you get 1,860 book results. But we have far fewer tales of collaborative creativity, which is actually more important in understanding how today’s technology revolution was fashioned. It can also be more interesting.

We talk so much about innovation these days that it has become a buzzword, drained of clear meaning. So in this book I set out to report on how innovation actually happens in the real world. How did the most imaginative innovators of our time turn disruptive ideas into realities? I focus on a dozen or so of the most significant breakthroughs of the digital age and the people who made them. What ingredients produced their creative leaps? What skills proved most useful? How did they lead and collaborate? Why did some succeed and others fail?

I also explore the social and cultural forces that provide the atmosphere for innovation. For the birth of the digital age, this included a research ecosystem that was nurtured by government spending and managed by a military-industrial-academic collaboration. Intersecting with that was a loose alliance of community organizers, communal-minded hippies, do-it-yourself hobbyists, and homebrew hackers, most of whom were suspicious of centralized authority.

Histories can be written with a different emphasis on any of these factors. An example is the invention of the Harvard/IBM Mark I, the first big electromechanical computer. One of its programmers, Grace Hopper, wrote a history that focused on its primary creator, Howard Aiken. IBM countered with a history that featured its teams of faceless engineers who contributed the incremental innovations, from counters to card feeders, that went into the machine.

Likewise, what emphasis should be put on great individuals versus on cultural currents has long been a matter of dispute; in the mid-nineteenth century, Thomas Carlyle declared that “the history of the world is but the biography of great men,” and Herbert Spencer responded with a theory that emphasized the role of societal forces. Academics and participants often view this balance differently. “As a professor, I tended to think of history as run by impersonal forces,” Henry Kissinger told reporters during one of his Middle East shuttle missions in the 1970s. “But when you see it in practice, you see the difference personalities make.”1 When it comes to digital-age innovation, as with Middle East peacemaking, a variety

42

of personal and cultural forces all come into play, and in this book I sought to weave them together.

The Internet was originally built to facilitate collaboration. By contrast, personal computers, especially those meant to be used at home, were devised as tools for individual creativity. For more than a decade, beginning in the early 1970s, the development of networks and that of home computers proceeded separately from one another. They finally began coming together in the late 1980s with the advent of modems, online services, and the Web. Just as combining the steam engine with ingenious machinery drove the Industrial Revolution, the combination of the computer and distributed networks led to a digital revolution that allowed anyone to create, disseminate, and access any information anywhere.

Historians of science are sometimes wary about calling periods of great change revolutions, because they prefer to view progress as evolutionary. “There was no such thing as the Scientific Revolution, and this is a book about it,” is the wry opening sentence of the Harvard professor Steven Shapin’s book on that period. One method that Shapin used to escape his half-joking contradiction is to note how the key players of the period “vigorously expressed the view” that they were part of a revolution. “Our sense of radical change afoot comes substantially from them.”2

Likewise, most of us today share a sense that the digital advances of the past half century are transforming, perhaps even revolutionizing the way we live. I can recall the excitement that each new breakthrough engendered. My father and uncles were electrical engineers, and like many of the characters in this book I grew up with a basement workshop that had circuit boards to be soldered, radios to be opened, tubes to be tested, and boxes of transistors and resistors to be sorted and deployed. As an electronics geek who loved Heathkits and ham radios (WA5JTP), I can remember when vacuum tubes gave way to transistors. At college I learned programming using punch cards and recall when the agony of batch processing was replaced by the ecstasy of hands-on interaction. In the 1980s I thrilled to the static and screech that modems made when they opened for you the weirdly magical realm of online services and bulletin boards, and in the early 1990s I helped to run a digital division at Time and Time Warner that launched new Web and broadband Internet services. As Wordsworth said of the enthusiasts who were present at the beginning of the French Revolution, “Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive.”

I began work on this book more than a decade ago. It grew out of my fascination with the digital-age advances I had witnessed and also from my biography of Benjamin Franklin, who was an innovator, inventor, publisher, postal service pioneer, and all-around information networker and entrepreneur. I wanted to step away from doing biographies, which tend to emphasize the role of singular individuals, and once again do a book like The Wise Men, which I had coauthored with a colleague about the creative teamwork of six friends who shaped America’s cold war policies. My initial plan was to focus on the teams that invented the Internet. But when I interviewed Bill Gates, he convinced me that the simultaneous emergence of the Internet and the personal computer made for a richer tale. I put this book on hold early in 2009, when I began working on a biography of Steve Jobs. But his story reinforced my interest in how the development of the Internet and computers intertwined, so as soon as I finished that book, I went back to work on this tale of digital-age innovators.

The protocols of the Internet were devised by peer collaboration, and the resulting system seemed to have embedded in its genetic code a propensity to facilitate such collaboration. The power to create and transmit information was fully distributed to each of the nodes, and any attempt to impose controls or a hierarchy could be routed around. Without falling into the teleological fallacy of ascribing intentions or a personality to technology, it’s fair to say that a

43

system of open networks connected to individually controlled computers tended, as the printing press did, to wrest control over the distribution of information from gatekeepers, central authorities, and institutions that employed scriveners and scribes. It became easier for ordinary folks to create and share content.

The collaboration that created the digital age was not just among peers but also between generations. Ideas were handed off from one cohort of innovators to the next. Another theme that emerged from my research was that users repeatedly commandeered digital innovations to create communications and social networking tools. I also became interested in how the quest for artificial intelligence—machines that think on their own—has consistently proved less fruitful than creating ways to forge a partnership or symbiosis between people and machines. In other words, the collaborative creativity that marked the digital age included collaboration between humans and machines.

Finally, I was struck by how the truest creativity of the digital age came from those who were able to connect the arts and sciences. They believed that beauty mattered. “I always thought of myself as a humanities person as a kid, but I liked electronics,” Jobs told me when I embarked on his biography. “Then I read something that one of my heroes, Edwin Land of Polaroid, said about the importance of people who could stand at the intersection of humanities and sciences, and I decided that’s what I wanted to do.” The people who were comfortable at this humanities-technology intersection helped to create the human-machine symbiosis that is at the core of this story.

Like many aspects of the digital age, this idea that innovation resides where art and science connect is not new. Leonardo da Vinci was the exemplar of the creativity that flourishes when the humanities and sciences interact. When Einstein was stymied while working out General Relativity, he would pull out his violin and play Mozart until he could reconnect to what he called the harmony of the spheres.

When it comes to computers, there is one other historical figure, not as well known, who embodied the combination of the arts and sciences. Like her famous father, she understood the romance of poetry. Unlike him, she also saw the romance of math and machinery. And that is where our story begins.

44

Ada, Countess of Lovelace (1815–52), painted by Margaret Sarah Carpenter in 1836.

45

Lord Byron (1788–1824), Ada’s father, in Albanian dress, painted by Thomas Phillips in 1835.

46

Charles Babbage (1791–1871), photograph taken circa 1837.

47

CHAPTER ONE

ADA, COUNTESS OF LOVELACE

POETICAL SCIENCE In May 1833, when she was seventeen, Ada Byron was among the young women presented at the British royal court. Family members had worried about how she would acquit herself, given her high-strung and independent nature, but she ended up behaving, her mother reported, “tolerably well.” Among those Ada met that evening were the Duke of Wellington, whose straightforward manner she admired, and the seventy-nine-year-old French ambassador Talleyrand, who struck her as “an old monkey.”1

The only legitimate child of the poet Lord Byron, Ada had inherited her father’s romantic spirit, a trait that her mother tried to temper by having her tutored in mathematics. The combination produced in Ada a love for what she took to calling “poetical science,” which linked her rebellious imagination to her enchantment with numbers. For many, including her father, the rarefied sensibilities of the Romantic era clashed with the techno-excitement of the Industrial Revolution. But Ada was comfortable at the intersection of both eras.

So it was not surprising that her debut at court, despite the glamour of the occasion, made less impression on her than her attendance a few weeks later at another majestic event of the London season, at which she met Charles Babbage, a forty-one-year-old widowed science and math eminence who had established himself as a luminary on London’s social circuit. “Ada was more pleased with a party she was at on Wednesday than with any of the assemblages in the grand monde,” her mother reported to a friend. “She met there a few scientific people—amongst them Babbage, with whom she was delighted.”2

Babbage’s galvanizing weekly salons, which included up to three hundred guests, brought together lords in swallow-tail coats and ladies in brocade gowns with writers, industrialists, poets, actors, statesmen, explorers, botanists, and other “scientists,” a word that Babbage’s friends had recently coined.3 By bringing scientific scholars into this exalted realm, said one noted geologist, Babbage “successfully asserted the rank in society due to science.”4

The evenings featured dancing, readings, games, and lectures accompanied by an assortment of seafood, meat, fowl, exotic drinks, and iced desserts. The ladies staged tableaux vivants, in which they dressed in costume to re-create famous paintings. Astronomers set up telescopes, researchers displayed their electrical and magnetic contrivances, and Babbage allowed guests to play with his mechanical dolls. The centerpiece of the evenings—and one of Babbage’s many motives for hosting them—was his demonstration of a model portion of his Difference Engine, a mammoth mechanical calculating contraption that he was building in a fireproof structure adjacent to his home. Babbage would display the model with great drama, cranking its arm as it calculated a sequence of numbers and, just as the audience began to get bored, showed how the pattern could suddenly change based on instructions that had been coded into the machine.5 Those who were especially intrigued would be invited through the yard to the former stables, where the complete machine was being constructed.

Babbage’s Difference Engine, which could solve polynomial equations, impressed people in different ways. The Duke of Wellington commented that it could be useful in analyzing the variables a general might face before going into battle.6 Ada’s mother, Lady Byron, marveled

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that it was a “thinking machine.” As for Ada, who would later famously note that machines could never truly think, a friend who went with them to the demonstration reported, “Miss Byron, young as she was, understood its working, and saw the great beauty of the invention.”7

Ada’s love of both poetry and math primed her to see beauty in a computing machine. She was an exemplar of the era of Romantic science, which was characterized by a lyrical enthusiasm for invention and discovery. It was a period that brought “imaginative intensity and excitement to scientific work,” Richard Holmes wrote in The Age of Wonder. “It was driven by a common ideal of intense, even reckless, personal commitment to discovery.”8

In short, it was a time not unlike our own. The advances of the Industrial Revolution, including the steam engine, mechanical loom, and telegraph, transformed the nineteenth century in much the same way that the advances of the Digital Revolution—the computer, microchip, and Internet—have transformed our own. At the heart of both eras were innovators who combined imagination and passion with wondrous technology, a mix that produced Ada’s poetical science and what the twentieth-century poet Richard Brautigan would call “machines of loving grace.”

LORD BYRON Ada inherited her poetic and insubordinate temperament from her father, but he was not the source of her love for machinery. He was, in fact, a Luddite. In his maiden speech in the House of Lords, given in February 1812 when he was twenty-four, Byron defended the followers of Ned Ludd, who were rampaging against mechanical weaving machines. With sarcastic scorn Byron mocked the mill owners of Nottingham, who were pushing a bill that would make destroying automated looms a crime punishable by death. “These machines were to them an advantage, inasmuch as they superseded the necessity of employing a number of workmen, who were left in consequence to starve,” Byron declared. “The rejected workmen, in the blindness of their ignorance, instead of rejoicing at these improvements in arts so beneficial to mankind, conceived themselves to be sacrificed to improvements in mechanism.”

Two weeks later, Byron published the first two cantos of his epic poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, a romanticized account of his wanderings through Portugal, Malta, and Greece, and, as he later remarked, “awoke one morning and found myself famous.” Beautiful, seductive, troubled, brooding, and sexually adventurous, he was living the life of a Byronic hero while creating the archetype in his poetry. He became the toast of literary London and was feted at three parties each day, most memorably a lavish morning dance hosted by Lady Caroline Lamb.

Lady Caroline, though married to a politically powerful aristocrat who was later prime minister, fell madly in love with Byron. He thought she was “too thin,” yet she had an unconventional sexual ambiguity (she liked to dress as a page boy) that he found enticing. They had a turbulent affair, and after it ended she stalked him obsessively. She famously declared him to be “mad, bad, and dangerous to know,” which he was. So was she.

At Lady Caroline’s party, Lord Byron had also noticed a reserved young woman who was, he recalled, “more simply dressed.” Annabella Milbanke, nineteen, was from a wealthy and multi-titled family. The night before the party, she had read Childe Harold and had mixed feelings. “He is rather too much of a mannerist,” she wrote. “He excels most in the delineation of deep feeling.” Upon seeing him across the room at the party, her feelings were conflicted, dangerously so. “I did not seek an introduction to him, for all the women were absurdly courting him, and trying to deserve the lash of his Satire,” she wrote her mother. “I am not desirous of a place in his lays. I made no offering at the shrine of Childe Harold,

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though I shall not refuse the acquaintance if it comes my way.”9 That acquaintance, as it turned out, did come her way. After he was introduced to her

formally, Byron decided that she might make a suitable wife. It was, for him, a rare display of reason over romanticism. Rather than arousing his passions, she seemed to be the sort of woman who might tame those passions and protect him from his excesses—as well as help pay off his burdensome debts. He proposed to her halfheartedly by letter. She sensibly declined. He wandered off to far less appropriate liaisons, including one with his half sister, Augusta Leigh. But after a year, Annabella rekindled the courtship. Byron, falling more deeply in debt while grasping for a way to curb his enthusiasms, saw the rationale if not the romance in the possible relationship. “Nothing but marriage and a speedy one can save me,” he admitted to Annabella’s aunt. “If your niece is obtainable, I should prefer her; if not, the very first woman who does not look as if she would spit in my face.”10 There were times when Lord Byron was not a romantic. He and Annabella were married in January 1815.

Byron initiated the marriage in his Byronic fashion. “Had Lady Byron on the sofa before dinner,” he wrote about his wedding day.11 Their relationship was still active when they visited his half sister two months later, because around then Annabella got pregnant. However, during the visit she began to suspect that her husband’s friendship with Augusta went beyond the fraternal, especially after he lay on a sofa and asked them both to take turns kissing him.12 The marriage started to unravel.

Annabella had been tutored in mathematics, which amused Lord Byron, and during their courtship he had joked about his own disdain for the exactitude of numbers. “I know that two and two make four—and should be glad to prove it too if I could,” he wrote, “though I must say if by any sort of process I could convert two and two into five it would give me much greater pleasure.” Early on, he affectionately dubbed her the “Princess of Parallelograms.” But when the marriage began to sour, he refined that mathematical image: “We are two parallel lines prolonged to infinity side by side but never to meet.” Later, in the first canto of his epic poem Don Juan, he would mock her: “Her favourite science was the mathematical. . . . She was a walking calculation.”

The marriage was not saved by the birth of their daughter on December 10, 1815. She was named Augusta Ada Byron, her first name that of Byron’s too-beloved half sister. When Lady Byron became convinced of her husband’s perfidy, she thereafter called her daughter by her middle name. Five weeks later she packed her belongings into a carriage and fled to her parents’ country home with the infant Ada.

Ada never saw her father again. Lord Byron left the country that April after Lady Byron, in letters so calculating that she earned his sobriquet of “Mathematical Medea,” threatened to expose his alleged incestuous and homosexual affairs as a way to secure a separation agreement that gave her custody of their child.13

The opening of canto 3 of Childe Harold, written a few weeks later, invokes Ada as his muse: Is thy face like thy mother’s, my fair child! Ada! sole daughter of my house and of my heart? When last I saw thy young blue eyes they smiled, And then we parted.

Byron wrote these lines in a villa by Lake Geneva, where he was staying with the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and Shelley’s future wife, Mary. It rained relentlessly. Trapped inside for days, Byron suggested they write horror stories. He produced a fragment of a tale about a vampire, one of the first literary efforts on that subject, but Mary’s story was the one that became a classic: Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. Playing on the ancient Greek myth of the hero who crafted a living man out of clay and snatched fire from the gods for human use, Frankenstein was the story of a scientist who galvanized a man-made assemblage

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into a thinking human. It was a cautionary tale about technology and science. It also raised the question that would become associated with Ada: Can man-made machines ever truly think?

The third canto of Childe Harold ends with Byron’s prediction that Annabella would try to keep Ada from knowing about her father, and so it happened. There was a portrait of Lord Byron at their house, but Lady Byron kept it securely veiled, and Ada never saw it until she was twenty.14

Lord Byron, by contrast, kept a picture of Ada on his desk wherever he wandered, and his letters often requested news or portraits of her. When she was seven, he wrote to Augusta, “I wish you would obtain from Lady B some accounts of Ada’s disposition. . . . Is the girl imaginative? . . . Is she passionate? I hope that the Gods have made her anything save poetical—it is enough to have one such fool in the family.” Lady Byron reported that Ada had an imagination that was “chiefly exercised in connection with her mechanical ingenuity.”15

Around that time, Byron, who had been wandering through Italy, writing and having an assortment of affairs, grew bored and decided to enlist in the Greek struggle for independence from the Ottoman Empire. He sailed for Missolonghi, where he took command of part of the rebel army and prepared to attack a Turkish fortress. But before he could engage in battle, he caught a violent cold that was made worse by his doctor’s decision to treat him by bloodletting. On April 19, 1824, he died. According to his valet, among his final words were “Oh, my poor dear child!—my dear Ada! My God, could I have seen her! Give her my blessing.”16

ADA Lady Byron wanted to make sure that Ada did not turn out like her father, and part of her strategy was to have the girl rigorously study math, as if it were an antidote to poetic imagination. When Ada, at age five, showed a preference for geography, Lady Byron ordered that the subject be replaced by additional arithmetic lessons, and her governess soon proudly reported, “She adds up sums of five or six rows of figures with accuracy.” Despite these efforts, Ada developed some of her father’s propensities. She had an affair as a young teenager with one of her tutors, and when they were caught and the tutor banished, she tried to run away from home to be with him. In addition, she had mood swings that took her from feelings of grandiosity to despair, and she suffered various maladies both physical and psychological.

Ada accepted her mother’s conviction that an immersion in math could help tame her Byronic tendencies. After her dangerous liaison with her tutor, and inspired by Babbage’s Difference Engine, she decided on her own, at eighteen, to begin a new series of lessons. “I must cease to think of living for pleasure or self-gratification,” she wrote her new tutor. “I find that nothing but very close and intense application to subjects of a scientific nature now seems to keep my imagination from running wild. . . . It appears to me that the first thing is to go through a course of Mathematics.” He agreed with the prescription: “You are right in supposing that your chief resource and safeguard at the present is in a course of severe intellectual study. For this purpose there is no subject to be compared to Mathematics.”17 He prescribed Euclidean geometry, followed by a dose of trigonometry and algebra. That should cure anyone, they both thought, from having too many artistic or romantic passions.

Her interest in technology was stoked when her mother took her on a trip through the British industrial midlands to see the new factories and machinery. Ada was particularly impressed with an automated weaving loom that used punch cards to direct the creation of the desired fabric patterns, and she drew a sketch of how it worked. Her father’s famous speech

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in the House of Lords had defended the Luddites who had smashed such looms because of their fear of what technology might inflict on humanity. But Ada waxed poetical about them and saw the connection with what would someday be called computers. “This Machinery reminds me of Babbage and his gem of all mechanism,” she wrote.18

Ada’s interest in applied science was further stimulated when she met one of Britain’s few noted female mathematicians and scientists, Mary Somerville. Somerville had just finished writing one of her great works, On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences, in which she tied together developments in astronomy, optics, electricity, chemistry, physics, botany, and geology.1 Emblematic of the time, it provided a unified sense of the extraordinary endeavors of discovery that were under way. She proclaimed in her opening sentence, “The progress of modern science, especially within the last five years, has been remarkable for a tendency to simplify the laws of nature and to unite detached branches by general principles.”

Somerville became a friend, teacher, inspiration, and mentor to Ada. She met with Ada regularly, sent her math books, devised problems for her to solve, and patiently explained the correct answers. She was also a good friend of Babbage’s, and during the fall of 1834 she and Ada would often visit his Saturday-evening salons. Somerville’s son, Woronzow Greig, aided Ada’s efforts to settle down by suggesting to one of his former classmates at Cambridge that she would make a suitable—or at least interesting—wife.

William King was socially prominent, financially secure, quietly intelligent, and as taciturn as Ada was excitable. Like her, he was a student of science, but his focus was more practical and less poetic: his primary interests were crop rotation theories and advances in livestock breeding techniques. He proposed marriage within a few weeks of meeting Ada, and she accepted. Her mother, with motives that only a psychiatrist could fathom, decided it was imperative to tell William about Ada’s attempted elopement with her tutor. Despite this news, William was willing to proceed with the wedding, which was held in July 1835. “Gracious God, who has so mercifully given you an opportunity of turning aside from the dangerous paths, has given you a friend and guardian,” Lady Byron wrote her daughter, adding that she should use this opportunity to “bid adieu” to all of her “peculiarities, caprices, and self- seeking.”19

The marriage was a match made in rational calculus. For Ada, it offered the chance to adopt a more steady and grounded life. More important, it allowed her to escape dependence on her domineering mother. For William, it meant having a fascinating, eccentric wife from a wealthy and famous family.

Lady Byron’s first cousin Viscount Melbourne (who had the misfortune of having been married to Lady Caroline Lamb, by then deceased) was the prime minister, and he arranged that, in Queen Victoria’s coronation list of honors, William would become the Earl of Lovelace. His wife thus became Ada, Countess of Lovelace. She is therefore properly referred to as Ada or Lady Lovelace, though she is now commonly known as Ada Lovelace.

That Christmas of 1835, Ada received from her mother the family’s life-size portrait of her father. Painted by Thomas Phillips, it showed Lord Byron in romantic profile, gazing at the horizon, dressed in traditional Albanian costume featuring a red velvet jacket, ceremonial sword, and headdress. For years it had hung over Ada’s grandparents’ mantelpiece, but it had been veiled by a green cloth from the day her parents had separated. Now she was trusted not only to see it but to possess it, along with his inkstand and pen.

Her mother did something even more surprising when the Lovelaces’ first child, a son, was born a few months later. Despite her disdain for her late husband’s memory, she agreed that Ada should name the boy Byron, which she did. The following year Ada had a daughter, whom she dutifully named Annabella, after her mother. Ada then came down with yet another mysterious malady, which kept her bedridden for months. She recovered well enough

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to have a third child, a son named Ralph, but her health remained fragile. She had digestive and respiratory problems that were compounded by being treated with laudanum, morphine, and other forms of opium, which led to mood swings and occasional delusions.

Ada was further unsettled by the eruption of a personal drama that was bizarre even by the standards of the Byron family. It involved Medora Leigh, the daughter of Byron’s half sister and occasional lover. According to widely accepted rumors, Medora was Byron’s daughter. She seemed determined to show that darkness ran in the family. She had an affair with a sister’s husband, then ran off with him to France and had two illegitimate children. In a fit of self-righteousness, Lady Byron went to France to rescue Medora, then revealed to Ada the story of her father’s incest.

This “most strange and dreadful history” did not seem to surprise Ada. “I am not in the least astonished,” she wrote her mother. “You merely confirm what I have for years and years felt scarcely a doubt about.”20 Rather than being outraged, she seemed oddly energized by the news. She declared that she could relate to her father’s defiance of authority. Referring to his “misused genius,” she wrote to her mother, “If he has transmitted to me any portion of that genius, I would use it to bring out great truths and principles. I think he has bequeathed this task to me. I have this feeling strongly, and there is a pleasure attending it.”21

Once again Ada took up the study of math in order to settle herself, and she tried to convince Babbage to become her tutor. “I have a peculiar way of learning, and I think it must be a peculiar man to teach me successfully,” she wrote him. Whether due to her opiates or her breeding or both, she developed a somewhat outsize opinion of her own talents and began to describe herself as a genius. In her letter to Babbage, she wrote, “Do not reckon me conceited, . . . but I believe I have the power of going just as far as I like in such pursuits, and where there is so decided a taste, I should almost say a passion, as I have for them, I question if there is not always some portion of natural genius even.”22

Babbage deflected Ada’s request, which was probably wise. It preserved their friendship for an even more important collaboration, and she was able to secure a first-rate math tutor instead: Augustus De Morgan, a patient gentleman who was a pioneer in the field of symbolic logic. He had propounded a concept that Ada would one day employ with great significance, which was that an algebraic equation could apply to things other than numbers. The relations among symbols (for example, that a + b = b + a) could be part of a logic that applied to things that were not numerical.

Ada was never the great mathematician that her canonizers claim, but she was an eager pupil, able to grasp most of the basic concepts of calculus, and with her artistic sensibility she liked to visualize the changing curves and trajectories that the equations were describing. De Morgan encouraged her to focus on the rules for working through equations, but she was more eager to discuss the underlying concepts. Likewise with geometry, she often asked for visual ways to picture problems, such as how the intersections of circles in a sphere divide it into various shapes.

Ada’s ability to appreciate the beauty of mathematics is a gift that eludes many people, including some who think of themselves as intellectual. She realized that math was a lovely language, one that describes the harmonies of the universe and can be poetic at times. Despite her mother’s efforts, she remained her father’s daughter, with a poetic sensibility that allowed her to view an equation as a brushstroke that painted an aspect of nature’s physical splendor, just as she could visualize the “wine-dark sea” or a woman who “walks in beauty, like the night.” But math’s appeal went even deeper; it was spiritual. Math “constitutes the language through which alone we can adequately express the great facts of the natural world,” she said, and it allows us to portray the “changes of mutual relationship” that unfold in creation. It is “the instrument through which the weak mind of man can most effectually read his Creator’s works.”

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This ability to apply imagination to science characterized the Industrial Revolution as well as the computer revolution, for which Ada was to become a patron saint. She was able, as she told Babbage, to understand the connection between poetry and analysis in ways that transcended her father’s talents. “I do not believe that my father was (or ever could have been) such a Poet as I shall be an Analyst; for with me the two go together indissolubly,” she wrote.23

Her reengagement with math, she told her mother, spurred her creativity and led to an “immense development of imagination, so much so that I feel no doubt if I continue my studies I shall in due time be a Poet.”24 The whole concept of imagination, especially as it was applied to technology, intrigued her. “What is imagination?” she asked in an 1841 essay. “It is the Combining faculty. It brings together things, facts, ideas, conceptions in new, original, endless, ever-varying combinations. . . . It is that which penetrates into the unseen worlds around us, the worlds of Science.”25

By then Ada believed she possessed special, even supernatural abilities, what she called “an intuitive perception of hidden things.” Her exalted view of her talents led her to pursue aspirations that were unusual for an aristocratic woman and mother in the early Victorian age. “I believe myself to possess a most singular combination of qualities exactly fitted to make me pre-eminently a discoverer of the hidden realities of nature,” she explained in a letter to her mother in 1841. “I can throw rays from every quarter of the universe into one vast focus.”26

It was while in this frame of mind that she decided to engage again with Charles Babbage, whose salons she had first attended eight years earlier.

CHARLES BABBAGE AND HIS ENGINES From an early age, Charles Babbage had been interested in machines that could perform human tasks. When he was a child, his mother took him to many of the exhibition halls and museums of wonder that were springing up in London in the early 1800s. At one in Hanover Square, a proprietor aptly named Merlin invited him up to the attic workshop where there was a variety of mechanical dolls, known as “automata.” One was a silver female dancer, about a foot tall, whose arms moved with grace and who held in her hand a bird that could wag its tail, flap its wings, and open its beak. The Silver Lady’s ability to display feelings and personality captured the boy’s fancy. “Her eyes were full of imagination,” he recalled. Years later he discovered the Silver Lady at a bankruptcy auction and bought it. It served as an amusement at his evening salons where he celebrated the wonders of technology.

At Cambridge Babbage became friends with a group, including John Herschel and George Peacock, who were disappointed by the way math was taught there. They formed a club, called the Analytical Society, which campaigned to get the university to abandon the calculus notation devised by its alumnus Newton, which relied on dots, and replace it with the one devised by Leibniz, which used dx and dy to represent infinitesimal increments and was thus known as “d” notation. Babbage titled their manifesto “The Principles of pure D-ism in opposition to the Dot-age of the University.”27 He was prickly, but he had a good sense of humor.

One day Babbage was in the Analytical Society’s room working on a table of logarithms that was littered with discrepancies. Herschel asked him what he was thinking. “I wish to God these calculations had been executed by steam,” Babbage answered. To this idea of a mechanical method for tabulating logarithms Herschel replied, “It is quite possible.”28 In 1821 Babbage turned his attention to building such a machine.

Over the years, many had fiddled with making calculating contraptions. In the 1640s, Blaise Pascal, the French mathematician and philosopher, created a mechanical calculator to

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reduce the drudgery of his father’s work as a tax supervisor. It had spoked metal wheels with the digits 0 through 9 on their circumference. To add or subtract numbers, the operator used a stylus to dial a number, as if using a rotary phone, then dialed in the next number; an armature carried or borrowed a 1 when necessary. It became the first calculator to be patented and sold commercially.

Thirty years later, Gottfried Leibniz, the German mathematician and philosopher, tried to improve upon Pascal’s contraption with a “stepped reckoner” that had the capacity to multiply and divide. It had a hand-cranked cylinder with a set of teeth that meshed with counting wheels. But Leibniz ran into a problem that would be a recurring theme of the digital age. Unlike Pascal, an adroit engineer who could combine scientific theories with mechanical genius, Leibniz had little engineering skill and did not surround himself with those who did. So, like many great theorists who lacked practical collaborators, he was unable to produce reliably working versions of his device. Nevertheless, his core concept, known as the Leibniz wheel, would influence calculator design through the time of Babbage.

Babbage knew of the devices of Pascal and Leibniz, but he was trying to do something more complex. He wanted to construct a mechanical method for tabulating logarithms, sines, cosines, and tangents.2 To do so, he adapted an idea that the French mathematician Gaspard de Prony came up with in the 1790s. In order to create logarithm and trigonometry tables, de Prony broke down the operations into very simple steps that involved only addition and subtraction. Then he provided easy instructions so that scores of human laborers, who knew little math, could perform these simple tasks and pass along their answers to the next set of laborers. In other words, he created an assembly line, the great industrial-age innovation that was memorably analyzed by Adam Smith in his description of the division of labor in a pin- making factory. After a trip to Paris in which he heard of de Prony’s method, Babbage wrote, “I conceived all of a sudden the idea of applying the same method to the immense work with which I had been burdened, and to manufacture logarithms as one manufactures pins.”29

Even complex mathematical tasks, Babbage realized, could be broken into steps that came down to calculating “finite differences” through simple adding and subtracting. For example, in order to make a table of squares—12, 22, 32, 42, and so on—you could list the initial numbers in such a sequence: 1, 4, 9, 16. . . . This would be column A. Beside it, in column B, you could figure out the differences between each of these numbers, in this case 3, 5, 7, 9. . . . Column C would list the difference between each of column B’s numbers, which is 2, 2, 2, 2. . . . Once the process was thus simplified, it could be reversed and the tasks parceled out to untutored laborers. One would be in charge of adding 2 to the last number in column B, and then would hand that result to another person, who would add that result to the last number in column A, thus generating the next number in the sequence of squares.

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Replica of the Difference Engine.

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Replica of the Analytical Engine.

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The Jacquard loom.

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Silk portrait of Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752–1834) woven by a Jacquard loom.

Babbage devised a way to mechanize this process, and he named it the Difference Engine. It could tabulate any polynomial function and provide a digital method for approximating the solution to differential equations.

How did it work? The Difference Engine used vertical shafts with disks that could be turned to any numeral. These were attached to cogs that could be cranked in order to add that numeral to (or subtract it from) a disk on an adjacent shaft. The contraption could even “store” the interim results on another shaft. The main complexity was how to “carry” or “borrow” when necessary, as we do with pencils when we calculate 36 + 19 or 42 – 17. Drawing on Pascal’s devices, Babbage came up with a few ingenious contrivances that allowed the cogs and shafts to handle the calculation.

The machine was, in concept, a true marvel. Babbage even figured out a way to get it to create a table of prime numbers up to 10 million. The British government was impressed, at least initially. In 1823 it gave him seed money of £1,700 and would eventually sink more than £17,000, twice the cost of a warship, into the device during the decade Babbage spent trying to build it. But the project ran into two problems. First, Babbage and his hired engineer did not quite have the skills to get the device working. Second, he began dreaming up

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something better.

Babbage’s new idea, which he conceived in 1834, was a general-purpose computer that could carry out a variety of different operations based on programming instructions given to it. It could perform one task, then be made to switch and perform another. It could even tell itself to switch tasks—or alter its “pattern of action,” as Babbage explained—based on its own interim calculations. Babbage named this proposed machine the Analytical Engine. He was one hundred years ahead of his time.

The Analytical Engine was the product of what Ada Lovelace, in her essay on imagination, had called “the Combining Faculty.” Babbage had combined innovations that had cropped up in other fields, a trick of many great inventors. He had originally used a metal drum that was studded with spikes to control how the shafts would turn. But then he studied, as Ada had, the automated loom invented in 1801 by a Frenchman named Joseph-Marie Jacquard, which transformed the silk-weaving industry. Looms create a pattern by using hooks to lift selected warp threads, and then a rod pushes a woof thread underneath. Jacquard invented a method of using cards with holes punched in them to control this process. The holes determined which hooks and rods would be activated for each pass of the weave, thus automating the creation of intricate patterns. Each time the shuttle was thrown to create a new pass of the thread, a new punch card would come into play.

On June 30, 1836, Babbage made an entry into what he called his “Scribbling Books” that would represent a milestone in the prehistory of computers: “Suggested Jacquard’s loom as a substitute for the drums.”30 Using punch cards rather than steel drums meant that an unlimited number of instructions could be input. In addition, the sequence of tasks could be modified, thus making it easier to devise a general-purpose machine that was versatile and reprogrammable.

Babbage bought a portrait of Jacquard and began to display it at his salons. It showed the inventor sitting in an armchair, a loom in the background, holding a pair of calipers over rectangular punch cards. Babbage amused his guests by asking them to guess what it was. Most thought it a superb engraving. He would then reveal that it was actually a finely woven silk tapestry, with twenty-four thousand rows of threads, each controlled by a different punch card. When Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria, came to one of Babbage’s salons, he asked Babbage why he found the tapestry so interesting. Babbage replied, “It will greatly assist in explaining the nature of my calculating machine, the Analytical Engine.”31

Few people, however, saw the beauty of Babbage’s proposed new machine, and the British government had no inclination to fund it. Try as he might, Babbage could generate little notice in either the popular press or scientific journals.

But he did find one believer. Ada Lovelace fully appreciated the concept of a general- purpose machine. More important, she envisioned an attribute that might make it truly amazing: it could potentially process not only numbers but any symbolic notations, including musical and artistic ones. She saw the poetry in such an idea, and she set out to encourage others to see it as well.

She barraged Babbage with letters, some of which verged on cheeky, even though he was twenty-four years her senior. In one, she described the solitaire game using twenty-six marbles, where the goal is to execute jumps so that only one marble remains. She had mastered it but was trying to derive a “mathematical formula . . . on which the solution depends, and which can be put into symbolic language.” Then she asked, “Am I too imaginative for you? I think not.”32

Her goal was to work with Babbage as his publicist and partner in trying to get support to build the Analytical Engine. “I am very anxious to talk to you,” she wrote in early 1841. “I will give you a hint on what. It strikes me that at some future time . . . my head may be made

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by you subservient to some of your purposes and plans. If so, if ever I could be worthy or capable of being used by you, my head will be yours.”33

A year later, a tailor-made opportunity presented itself.

LADY LOVELACE’S NOTES In his quest to find support for his Analytical Engine, Babbage had accepted an invitation to address the Congress of Italian Scientists in Turin. Taking notes was a young military engineer, Captain Luigi Menabrea, who would later serve as prime minister of Italy. With Babbage’s help, Menabrea published a detailed description of the machine, in French, in October 1842.

One of Ada’s friends suggested that she produce a translation of Menabrea’s piece for Scientific Memoirs, a periodical devoted to scientific papers. This was her opportunity to serve Babbage and show her talents. When she finished, she informed Babbage, who was pleased but also somewhat surprised. “I asked why she had not herself written an original paper on a subject with which she was so intimately acquainted,” Babbage said.34 She replied that the thought had not occurred to her. Back then, women generally did not publish scientific papers.

Babbage suggested that she add some notes to Menabrea’s memoir, a project that she embraced with enthusiasm. She began working on a section she called “Notes by the Translator” that ended up totaling 19,136 words, more than twice the length of Menabrea’s original article. Signed “A.A.L.,” for Augusta Ada Lovelace, her “Notes” became more famous than the article and were destined to make her an iconic figure in the history of computing.35

As she worked on the notes at her country estate in Surrey in the summer of 1843, she and Babbage exchanged scores of letters, and in the fall they had numerous meetings after she moved back to her London home. A minor academic specialty and gender-charged debate has grown up around the issue of how much of the thinking was hers rather than his. In his memoirs, Babbage gives her much of the credit: “We discussed together the various illustrations that might be introduced: I suggested several but the selection was entirely her own. So also was the algebraic working out of the different problems, except, indeed, that relating to the numbers of Bernoulli, which I had offered to do to save Lady Lovelace the trouble. This she sent back to me for an amendment, having detected a grave mistake which I had made in the process.”36

In her “Notes,” Ada explored four concepts that would have historical resonance a century later when the computer was finally born. The first was that of a general-purpose machine, one that could not only perform a preset task but could be programmed and reprogrammed to do a limitless and changeable array of tasks. In other words, she envisioned the modern computer. This concept was at the core of her “Note A,” which emphasized the distinction between Babbage’s original Difference Engine and his proposed new Analytical Engine. “The particular function whose integral the Difference Engine was constructed to tabulate is Δ7ux = 0,” she began, explaining that its purpose was the computation of nautical tables. “The Analytical Engine, on the contrary, is not merely adapted for tabulating the results of one particular function and of no other, but for developing and tabulating any function whatever.”

This was done, she wrote, by “the introduction into it of the principle which Jacquard devised for regulating, by means of punched cards, the most complicated patterns in the fabrication of brocaded stuffs.” Even more than Babbage, Ada realized the significance of this. It meant that the machine could be like the type of computer we now take for granted: one that does not merely do a specific arithmetic task but can be a general-purpose machine. She explained:

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The bounds of arithmetic were outstepped the moment the idea of applying cards had occurred. The Analytical Engine does not occupy common ground with mere “calculating machines.” It holds a position wholly its own. In enabling a mechanism to combine together general symbols, in successions of unlimited variety and extent, a uniting link is established between the operations of matter and the abstract mental processes.37

Those sentences are somewhat clotted, but they are worth reading carefully. They describe the essence of modern computers. And Ada enlivened the concept with poetic flourishes. “The Analytical Engine weaves algebraical patterns just as the Jacquard loom weaves flowers and leaves,” she wrote. When Babbage read “Note A,” he was thrilled and made no changes. “Pray do not alter it,” he said.38

Ada’s second noteworthy concept sprang from this description of a general-purpose machine. Its operations, she realized, did not need to be limited to math and numbers. Drawing on De Morgan’s extension of algebra into a formal logic, she noted that a machine such as the Analytical Engine could store, manipulate, process, and act upon anything that could be expressed in symbols: words and logic and music and anything else we might use symbols to convey.

To explain this idea, she carefully defined what a computer operation was: “It may be desirable to explain that by the word ‘operation,’ we mean any process which alters the mutual relation of two or more things, be this relation of what kind it may.” A computer operation, she noted, could alter the relationship not just between numbers but between any symbols that were logically related. “It might act upon other things besides number, were objects found whose mutual fundamental relations could be expressed by those of the abstract science of operations.” The Analytical Engine could, in theory, even perform operations on musical notations: “Supposing, for instance, that the fundamental relations of pitched sounds in the science of harmony and of musical composition were susceptible of such expression and adaptations, the engine might compose elaborate and scientific pieces of music of any degree of complexity.” It was the ultimate Ada-like “poetical science” concept: an elaborate and scientific piece of music composed by a machine! Her father would have shuddered.

This insight would become the core concept of the digital age: any piece of content, data, or information—music, text, pictures, numbers, symbols, sounds, video—could be expressed in digital form and manipulated by machines. Even Babbage failed to see this fully; he focused on numbers. But Ada realized that the digits on the cogs could represent things other than mathematical quantities. Thus did she make the conceptual leap from machines that were mere calculators to ones that we now call computers. Doron Swade, a computer historian who specializes in studying Babbage’s engines, has declared this one of Ada’s historic legacies. “If we are looking and sifting history for that transition, then that transition was made explicitly by Ada in that 1843 paper,” he said.39

Ada’s third contribution, in her final “Note G,” was to figure out in step-by-step detail the workings of what we now call a computer program or algorithm. The example she used was a program to compute Bernoulli numbers,3 an exceedingly complex infinite series that in various guises plays a role in number theory.

To show how the Analytical Engine could generate Bernoulli numbers, Ada described a sequence of operations and then made a chart showing how each would be coded into the machine. Along the way, she helped to devise the concepts of subroutines (a sequence of instructions that performs a specific task, such as computing a cosine or calculating compound interest, and can be dropped into larger programs as needed) and a recursive loop (a sequence of instructions that repeats itself).4 These were made possible by the punch-card mechanism. Seventy-five cards were needed to generate each number, she explained, and then the process became iterative as that number was fed back into the process to generate the next one. “It will be obvious that the very same seventy-five variable cards may be repeated for the computation of every succeeding number,” she wrote. She envisioned a library of commonly used subroutines, something that her intellectual heirs, including women such as

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Grace Hopper at Harvard and Kay McNulty and Jean Jennings at the University of Pennsylvania, would create a century later. In addition, because Babbage’s engine made it possible to jump back and forth within the sequence of instruction cards based on the interim results it had calculated, it laid the foundation for what we now call conditional branching, changing to a different path of instructions if certain conditions are met.

Babbage helped Ada with the Bernoulli calculations, but the letters show her deeply immersed in the details. “I am doggedly attacking and sifting to the very bottom all the ways of deducing the Bernoulli numbers,” she wrote in July, just weeks before her translation and notes were due at the printers. “I am in much dismay at having gotten so amazing a quagmire and botheration with these Numbers that I cannot possibly get the thing done today. . . . I am in a charming state of confusion.”40

When it got worked out, she added a contribution that was primarily her own: a table and diagram showing exactly how the algorithm would be fed into the computer, step by step, including two recursive loops. It was a numbered list of coding instructions that included destination registers, operations, and commentary—something that would be familiar to any C++ coder today. “I have worked incessantly and most successfully all day,” she wrote Babbage. “You will admire the Table and Diagram extremely. They have been made out with extreme care.” From all of the letters it is clear that she did the table herself; the only help came from her husband, who did not understand the math but was willing to methodically trace in ink what she had done in pencil. “Lord L is at this moment kindly inking it all over for me,” she wrote Babbage. “I had to do it in pencil.”41

It was mainly on the basis of this diagram, which accompanied the complex processes for generating Bernoulli numbers, that Ada has been accorded by her fans the accolade of “the world’s first computer programmer.” That is a bit hard to defend. Babbage had already devised, at least in theory, more than twenty explanations of processes that the machine might eventually perform. But none of these was published, and there was no clear description of the way to sequence the operations. Therefore, it is fair to say that the algorithm and detailed programming description for the generation of Bernoulli numbers was the first computer program ever to be published. And the initials at the end were those of Ada Lovelace.

There was one other significant concept that she introduced in her “Notes,” which harked back to the Frankenstein story produced by Mary Shelley after that weekend with Lord Byron. It raised what is still the most fascinating metaphysical topic involving computers, that of artificial intelligence: Can machines think?

Ada believed not. A machine such as Babbage’s could perform operations as instructed, she asserted, but it could not come up with ideas or intentions of its own. “The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything,” she wrote in her “Notes.” “It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. It can follow analysis; but it has no power of anticipating any analytical relations or truths.” A century later this assertion would be dubbed “Lady Lovelace’s Objection” by the computer pioneer Alan Turing (see chapter 3).

Ada wanted her work to be regarded as a serious scientific paper and not merely a public advocacy piece, so at the outset of her “Notes” she stated that she would “offer no opinion” on the government’s reluctance to continue funding Babbage’s endeavors. This did not please Babbage, who proceeded to write a screed attacking the government. He wanted Ada to include it in her “Notes,” without his name on it, as if it were her opinion. She refused. She did not want her work compromised.

Without informing her, Babbage sent his proposed appendage directly to Scientific Memoirs. The editors decided that it should appear separately and suggested that he “manfully” sign his name. Babbage was charming when he wished, but he could also be

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cranky, stubborn, and defiant, like most innovators. The proposed solution infuriated him, and he wrote Ada asking that she withdraw her work. Now it was her turn to become irate. Using a form of address typically used by male friends, “My Dear Babbage,” she wrote that “withdrawing the translation and Notes” would “be dishonorable and unjustifiable.” She concluded the letter, “Be assured that I am your best friend; but that I never can or will support you in acting on principles which I conceive to be not only wrong in themselves, but suicidal.”42

Babbage backed down and agreed to have his piece published separately in another periodical. That day Ada complained to her mother:

I have been harassed and pressed in a most perplexing manner by the conduct of Mr. Babbage. . . . I am sorry to come to the conclusion that he is one of the most impracticable, selfish, and intemperate persons one can have to do with. . . . I declared at once to Babbage that no power should induce me to lend myself to any of his quarrels or to become in any way his organ. . . . He was furious. I imperturbable and unmoved.43

Ada’s response to the dispute was a bizarre sixteen-page letter to Babbage, poured forth in

a frenzy, that vividly displayed her moodiness, exultations, delusions, and passions. She cajoled and berated him, praised and denigrated him. At one point she contrasted their motives. “My own uncompromising principle is to endeavour to love truth and God before fame and glory,” she claimed. “Yours is to love truth and God; but to love fame, glory, honours yet more.” She proclaimed that she saw her own inevitable fame as being of an exalted nature: “I wish to add my might toward expounding and interpreting the Almighty and his laws. . . . I should feel it no small glory if I were able to be one of his most noted prophets.”44

Having laid that groundwork, she offered him a deal: they should forge a business and political partnership. She would apply her connections and persuasive pen to his endeavor to build his Analytical Engine if—and only if—he would let her have control over his business decisions. “I give you the first choice and offer of my services and my intellect,” she wrote. “Do not lightly reject them.” The letter read in parts like a venture capital term sheet or a prenuptial agreement, complete with the possibility of arbitrators. “You will undertake to abide wholly by the judgment of myself (or of any persons whom you may now please to name as referees, whenever we may differ) on all practical matters,” she declared. In return, she promised, she would “lay before you in the course of a year or two explicit and honorable propositions for executing your engine.”45

The letter would seem surprising were it not like so many others that she wrote. It was an example of how her grandiose ambitions sometimes got the best of her. Nevertheless, she deserves respect as a person who, rising above the expectations of her background and gender and defying plagues of family demons, dedicated herself diligently to complex mathematical feats that most of us never would or could attempt. (Bernoulli numbers alone would defeat many of us.) Her impressive mathematical labors and imaginative insights came in the midst of the drama of Medora Leigh and bouts of illness that would cause her to become dependent on opiates that amplified her mood swings. She explained at the end of her letter to Babbage, “My dear friend, if you knew what sad and direful experiences I have had, in ways of which you cannot be aware, you would feel that some weight is due to my feelings.” Then, after a quick detour to raise a small point about using the calculus of finite differences to compute Bernoulli numbers, she apologized that “this letter is sadly blotted” and plaintively asked, “I wonder if you will choose to retain the lady-fairy in your service or not.”46

Ada was convinced that Babbage would accept her offer to become entrepreneurial partners. “He has so strong an idea of the advantage of having my pen as his servant that he will probably yield; though I demand very strong concessions,” she wrote her mother. “If he does consent to what I propose, I shall probably be enabled to keep him out of much hot water and to bring his engine to consummation.”47 Babbage, however, thought it wiser to

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decline. He went to see Ada and “refused all the conditions.”48 Although they never again collaborated on science, their relationship survived. “Babbage and I are I think more friends than ever,” she wrote her mother the next week.49 And Babbage agreed the next month to pay a visit to her country home, sending her a fond letter referring to her as “the Enchantress of Numbers” and “my dear and much admired Interpreter.”

That month, September 1843, her translation and “Notes” finally appeared in Scientific Memoirs. For a while she was able to bask in acclaim from friends and to hope that, like her mentor Mary Somerville, she would be taken seriously in scientific and literary circles. Publication made her finally feel like “a completely professional person,” she wrote to a lawyer. “I really have become as much tied to a profession as you are.”50

It was not to be. Babbage got no more funding for his machines; they were never built, and he died in poverty. As for Lady Lovelace, she never published another scientific paper. Instead her life spiraled downward, and she became addicted to gambling and opiates. She had an affair with a gambling partner who then blackmailed her, forcing her to pawn her family jewels. During the final year of her life, she fought an exceedingly painful battle with uterine cancer accompanied by constant hemorrhaging. When she died in 1852, at age thirty- six, she was buried, in accordance with one of her last requests, in a country grave next to the poet father she never knew, who had died at the same age.

The Industrial Revolution was based on two grand concepts that were profound in their simplicity. Innovators came up with ways to simplify endeavors by breaking them into easy, small tasks that could be accomplished on assembly lines. Then, beginning in the textile industry, inventors found ways to mechanize steps so that they could be performed by machines, many of them powered by steam engines. Babbage, building on ideas from Pascal and Leibniz, tried to apply these two processes to the production of computations, creating a mechanical precursor to the modern computer. His most significant conceptual leap was that such machines did not have to be set to do only one process, but instead could be programmed and reprogrammed through the use of punch cards. Ada saw the beauty and significance of that enchanting notion, and she also described an even more exciting idea that derived from it: such machines could process not only numbers but anything that could be notated in symbols.

Over the years, Ada Lovelace has been celebrated as a feminist icon and a computer pioneer. For example, the U.S. Defense Department named its high-level object-oriented programming language Ada. However, she has also been ridiculed as delusional, flighty, and only a minor contributor to the “Notes” that bear her initials. As she herself wrote in those “Notes,” referring to the Analytical Engine but in words that also describe her fluctuating reputation, “In considering any new subject, there is frequently a tendency, first, to overrate what we find to be already interesting or remarkable; and, secondly, by a sort of natural reaction, to undervalue the true state of the case.”

The reality is that Ada’s contribution was both profound and inspirational. More than Babbage or any other person of her era, she was able to glimpse a future in which machines would become partners of the human imagination, together weaving tapestries as beautiful as those from Jacquard’s loom. Her appreciation for poetical science led her to celebrate a proposed calculating machine that was dismissed by the scientific establishment of her day, and she perceived how the processing power of such a device could be used on any form of information. Thus did Ada, Countess of Lovelace, help sow the seeds for a digital age that would blossom a hundred years later.

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Vannevar Bush (1890–1974), with his Differential Analyzer at MIT.

Alan Turing (1912–54), at the Sherborne School in 1928.

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Claude Shannon (1916–2001) in 1951.

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CHAPTER TWO

THE COMPUTER

Sometimes innovation is a matter of timing. A big idea comes along at just the moment when the technology exists to implement it. For example, the idea of sending a man to the moon was proposed right when the progress of microchips made it possible to put computer guidance systems into the nose cone of a rocket. There are other cases, however, when the timing is out of kilter. Charles Babbage published his paper about a sophisticated computer in 1837, but it took a hundred years to achieve the scores of technological advances needed to build one.

Some of those advances seem almost trivial, but progress comes not only in great leaps but also from hundreds of small steps. Take for example punch cards, like those Babbage saw on Jacquard’s looms and proposed incorporating into his Analytical Engine. Perfecting the use of punch cards for computers came about because Herman Hollerith, an employee of the U.S. Census Bureau, was appalled that it took close to eight years to manually tabulate the 1880 census. He resolved to automate the 1890 count.

Drawing on the way that railway conductors punched holes in various places on a ticket in order to indicate the traits of each passenger (gender, approximate height, age, hair color), Hollerith devised punch cards with twelve rows and twenty-four columns that recorded the salient facts about each person in the census. The cards were then slipped between a grid of mercury cups and a set of spring-loaded pins, which created an electric circuit wherever there was a hole. The machine could tabulate not only the raw totals but also combinations of traits, such as the number of married males or foreign-born females. Using Hollerith’s tabulators, the 1890 census was completed in one year rather than eight. It was the first major use of electrical circuits to process information, and the company that Hollerith founded became in 1924, after a series of mergers and acquisitions, the International Business Machines Corporation, or IBM.

One way to look at innovation is as the accumulation of hundreds of small advances, such as counters and punch-card readers. At places like IBM, which specialize in daily improvements made by teams of engineers, this is the preferred way to understand how innovation really happens. Some of the most important technologies of our era, such as the fracking techniques developed over the past six decades for extracting natural gas, came about because of countless small innovations as well as a few breakthrough leaps.

In the case of computers, there were many such incremental advances made by faceless engineers at places like IBM. But that was not enough. Although the machines that IBM produced in the early twentieth century could compile data, they were not what we would call computers. They weren’t even particularly adroit calculators. They were lame. In addition to those hundreds of minor advances, the birth of the computer age required some larger imaginative leaps from creative visionaries.

DIGITAL BEATS ANALOG The machines devised by Hollerith and Babbage were digital, meaning they calculated using digits: discrete and distinct integers such as 0, 1, 2, 3. In their machines, the integers were

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added and subtracted using cogs and wheels that clicked one digit at a time, like counters. Another approach to computing was to build devices that could mimic or model a physical phenomenon and then make measurements on the analogous model to calculate the relevant results. These were known as analog computers because they worked by analogy. Analog computers do not rely on discrete integers to make their calculations; instead, they use continuous functions. In analog computers, a variable quantity such as electrical voltage, the position of a rope on a pulley, hydraulic pressure, or a measurement of distance is employed as an analog for the corresponding quantities of the problem to be solved. A slide rule is analog; an abacus is digital. Clocks with sweeping hands are analog, and those with displayed numerals are digital.

Around the time that Hollerith was building his digital tabulator, Lord Kelvin and his brother James Thomson, two of England’s most distinguished scientists, were creating an analog machine. It was designed to handle the tedious task of solving differential equations, which would help in the creation of tide charts and of tables showing the firing angles that would generate different trajectories of artillery shells. Beginning in the 1870s, the brothers devised a system that was based on a planimeter, an instrument that can measure the area of a two-dimensional shape, such as the space under a curved line on a piece of paper. The user would trace the outline of the curve with the device, which would calculate the area by using a small sphere that was slowly pushed across the surface of a large rotating disk. By calculating the area under the curve, it could thus solve equations by integration—in other words, it could perform a basic task of calculus. Kelvin and his brother were able to use this method to create a “harmonic synthesizer” that could churn out an annual tide chart in four hours. But they were never able to conquer the mechanical difficulties of linking together many of these devices in order to solve equations with a lot of variables.

That challenge of linking together multiple integrators was not mastered until 1931, when an MIT engineering professor, Vannevar (rhymes with beaver) Bush—remember his name, for he is a key character in this book—was able to build the world’s first analog electrical- mechanical computer. He dubbed his machine a Differential Analyzer. It consisted of six wheel-and-disk integrators, not all that different from Lord Kelvin’s, that were connected by an array of gears, pulleys, and shafts rotated by electric motors. It helped that Bush was at MIT; there were a lot of people around who could assemble and calibrate complex contraptions. The final machine, which was the size of a small bedroom, could solve equations with as many as eighteen independent variables. Over the next decade, versions of Bush’s Differential Analyzer were replicated at the U.S. Army’s Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, and Manchester and Cambridge universities in England. They proved particularly useful in churning out artillery firing tables—and in training and inspiring the next generation of computer pioneers.

Bush’s machine, however, was not destined to be a major advance in computing history because it was an analog device. In fact, it turned out to be the last gasp for analog computing, at least for many decades.

New approaches, technologies, and theories began to emerge in 1937, exactly a hundred years after Babbage first published his paper on the Analytical Engine. It would become an annus mirabilis of the computer age, and the result would be the triumph of four properties, somewhat interrelated, that would define modern computing:

DIGITAL. A fundamental trait of the computer revolution was that it was based on digital, not analog, computers. This occurred for many reasons, as we shall soon see, including simultaneous advances in logic theory, circuits, and electronic on-off switches that made a

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digital rather than an analog approach more fruitful. It would not be until the 2010s that computer scientists, seeking to mimic the human brain, would seriously begin working on ways to revive analog computing.

BINARY. Not only would modern computers be digital, but the digital system they would adopt would be binary, or base-2, meaning that it employs just 0s and 1s rather than all ten digits of our everyday decimal system. Like many mathematical concepts, binary theory was pioneered by Leibniz in the late seventeenth century. During the 1940s, it became increasingly clear that the binary system worked better than other digital forms, including the decimal system, for performing logical operations using circuits composed of on-off switches.

ELECTRONIC. In the mid-1930s, the British engineer Tommy Flowers pioneered the use of vacuum tubes as on-off switches in electronic circuits. Until then, circuits had relied on mechanical and electromechanical switches, such as the clacking electromagnetic relays that were used by phone companies. Vacuum tubes had mainly been employed to amplify signals rather than as on-off switches. By using electronic components such as vacuum tubes, and later transistors and microchips, computers could operate thousands of times faster than machines that had moving electromechanical switches.

GENERAL PURPOSE. Finally, the machines would eventually have the ability to be programmed and reprogrammed—and even reprogram themselves—for a variety of purposes. They would be able to solve not just one form of mathematical calculation, such as differential equations, but could handle a multiplicity of tasks and symbol manipulations, involving words and music and pictures as well as numbers, thus fulfilling the potential that Lady Lovelace had celebrated when describing Babbage’s Analytical Engine.

Innovation occurs when ripe seeds fall on fertile ground. Instead of having a single cause, the great advances of 1937 came from a combination of capabilities, ideas, and needs that coincided in multiple places. As often happens in the annals of invention, especially information technology invention, the time was right and the atmosphere was charged. The development of vacuum tubes for the radio industry paved the way for the creation of electronic digital circuits. That was accompanied by theoretical advances in logic that made circuits more useful. And the march was quickened by the drums of war. As nations began arming for the looming conflict, it became clear that computational power was as important as firepower. Advances fed on one another, occurring almost simultaneously and spontaneously, at Harvard and MIT and Princeton and Bell Labs and an apartment in Berlin and even, most improbably but interestingly, in a basement in Ames, Iowa.

Underpinning all of these advances were some beautiful—Ada might call them poetic— leaps of mathematics. One of these leaps led to the formal concept of a “universal computer,” a general-purpose machine that could be programmed to perform any logical task and simulate the behavior of any other logical machine. It was conjured up as a thought experiment by a brilliant English mathematician with a life story that was both inspiring and tragic.

ALAN TURING Alan Turing had the cold upbringing of a child born on the fraying fringe of the British gentry.1 His family had been graced since 1638 with a baronetcy, which had meandered down the lineage to one of his nephews. But for the younger sons on the family tree, which Turing

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and his father and grandfather were, there was no land and little wealth. Most went into fields such as the clergy, like Alan’s grandfather, and the colonial civil service, like his father, who served as a minor administrator in remote regions of India. Alan was conceived in Chhatrapur, India, and born on June 23, 1912, in London, while his parents were on home leave. When he was only one, his parents went back to India for a few years, and handed him and his older brother off to a retired army colonel and his wife to be raised in a seaside town on the south coast of England. “I am no child psychologist,” his brother, John, later noted, “but I am assured that it is a bad thing for an infant in arms to be uprooted and put into a strange environment.”2

When his mother returned, Alan lived with her for a few years and then, at age thirteen, was sent to boarding school. He rode there on his bicycle, taking two days to cover more than sixty miles, alone. There was a lonely intensity to him, reflected in his love of long-distance running and biking. He also had a trait, so common among innovators, that was charmingly described by his biographer Andrew Hodges: “Alan was slow to learn that indistinct line that separated initiative from disobedience.”3

In a poignant memoir, his mother described the son whom she doted upon:

Alan was broad, strongly built and tall, with a square, determined jaw and unruly brown hair. His deep-set, clear blue eyes were his most remarkable feature. The short, slightly retroussé nose and humorous lines of his mouth gave him a youthful—sometimes a childlike— appearance. So much so that in his late thirties he was still at times mistaken for an undergraduate. In dress and habits he tended to be slovenly. His hair was usually too long, with an overhanging lock which he would toss back with a jerk of his head. . . . He could be abstracted and dreamy, absorbed in his own thoughts which on occasion made him seem unsociable. . . . There were times when his shyness led him into extreme gaucherie. . . . Indeed he surmised that the seclusion of a mediaeval monastery would have suited him very well.4

At the boarding school, Sherborne, he realized that he was homosexual. He became

infatuated with a fair-haired, slender schoolmate, Christopher Morcom, with whom he studied math and discussed philosophy. But in the winter before he was to graduate, Morcom suddenly died of tuberculosis. Turing would later write Morcom’s mother, “I simply worshipped the ground he trod on—a thing which I did not make much attempt to disguise, I am sorry to say.”5 In a letter to his own mother, Turing seemed to take refuge in his faith: “I feel that I shall meet Morcom again somewhere and that there will be work for us to do together there as I believed there was for us to do here. Now that I am left to do it alone, I must not let him down. If I succeed I shall be more fit to join his company than I am now.” But the tragedy ended up eroding Turing’s religious faith. It also turned him even more inward, and he never again found it easy to forge intimate relationships. His housemaster reported to his parents at Easter 1927, “Undeniably he’s not a ‘normal’ boy; not the worse for that, but probably less happy.”6

In his final year at Sherborne, Turing won a scholarship to attend King’s College, Cambridge, where he went in 1931 to read mathematics. One of three books he bought with some prize money was The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, by John von Neumann, a fascinating Hungarian-born mathematician who, as a pioneer of computer design, would have a continuing influence on his life. Turing was particularly interested in the math at the core of quantum physics, which describes how events at the subatomic level are governed by statistical probabilities rather than laws that determine things with certainty. He believed (at least while he was young) that this uncertainty and indeterminacy at the subatomic level permitted humans to exercise free will—a trait that, if true, would seem to distinguish them from machines. In other words, because events at the subatomic level are not predetermined, that opens the way for our thoughts and actions not to be predetermined. As he explained in a letter to Morcom’s mother:

It used to be supposed in science that if everything was known about the Universe at any particular moment then we can predict what it will be through all the future. This idea was really due to the great success of astronomical prediction. More modern science however has come to the conclusion that when we are dealing with atoms and electrons we are quite unable to know the exact state of them; our instruments being made of atoms and electrons themselves. The conception then of being able to know the exact state of the universe then really must break down on the small scale. This means then that the theory which held that as eclipses etc. are predestined so were all our actions breaks down too. We have a

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will which is able to determine the action of the atoms probably in a small portion of the brain, or possibly all over it.7

For the rest of his life, Turing would wrestle with the issue of whether the human mind was fundamentally different from a deterministic machine, and he would gradually come to the conclusion that the distinction was less clear than he had thought.

He also had an instinct that, just as uncertainty pervaded the subatomic realm, there were also mathematical problems that could not be solved mechanically and were destined to be cloaked in indeterminacy. At the time, mathematicians were intensely focused on questions about the completeness and consistency of logical systems, partly due to the influence of David Hilbert, the Göttingen-based genius who, among many other achievements, had come up with the mathematical formulation of the theory of general relativity concurrently with Einstein.

At a 1928 conference, Hilbert posed three fundamental questions about any formal system of mathematics: (1) Was its set of rules complete, so that any statement could be proved (or disproved) using only the rules of the system? (2) Was it consistent, so that no statement could be proved true and also proved false? (3) Was there some procedure that could determine whether a particular statement was provable, rather than allowing the possibility that some statements (such as enduring math riddles like Fermat’s last theorem,5 Goldbach’s conjecture,6 or the Collatz conjecture7) were destined to remain in undecidable limbo? Hilbert thought that the answer to the first two questions was yes, making the third one moot. He put it simply, “There is no such thing as an unsolvable problem.”

Within three years, the Austrian-born logician Kurt Gödel, then twenty-five and living with his mother in Vienna, polished off the first two of these questions with unexpected answers: no and no. In his “incompleteness theorem,” he showed that there existed statements that could be neither proved nor disproved. Among them, to oversimplify a bit, were those that were akin to self-referential statements such as “This statement is unprovable.” If the statement is true, then it decrees that we can’t prove it to be true; if it’s false, that also leads to a logical contradiction. It is somewhat like the ancient Greek “liar’s paradox,” in which the truth of the statement “This statement is false” cannot be determined. (If the statement is true, then it’s also false, and vice versa.)

By coming up with statements that could not be proved or disproved, Gödel showed that any formal system powerful enough to express the usual mathematics was incomplete. He was also able to produce a companion theorem that effectively answered no to Hilbert’s second question.

That left the third of Hilbert’s questions, that of decidability or, as Hilbert called it, the Entscheidungsproblem or “decision problem.” Even though Gödel had come up with statements that could be neither proved nor disproved, perhaps that odd class of statements could somehow be identified and cordoned off, leaving the rest of the system complete and consistent. That would require that we find some method for deciding whether a statement was provable. When the great Cambridge math professor Max Newman taught Turing about Hilbert’s questions, the way he expressed the Entscheidungsproblem was this: Is there a “mechanical process” that can be used to determine whether a particular logical statement is provable?

Turing liked the concept of a “mechanical process.” One day in the summer of 1935, he was out for his usual solitary run along the Ely River, and after a couple of miles he stopped to lie down among the apple trees in Grantchester Meadows to ponder an idea. He would take the notion of a “mechanical process” literally, conjuring up a mechanical process—an imaginary machine—and applying it to the problem.8

The “Logical Computing Machine” that he envisioned (as a thought experiment, not as a real machine to be built) was quite simple at first glance, but it could handle, in theory, any

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mathematical computation. It consisted of an unlimited length of paper tape containing symbols within squares; in the simplest binary example, these symbols could be merely a 1 and a blank. The machine would be able to read the symbols on the tape and perform certain actions based on a “table of instructions” it had been given.9

The table of instructions would tell the machine what to do based on whatever configuration it happened to be in and what symbol, if any, it found in the square. For example, the table of instructions for a particular task might decree that if the machine was in configuration 1 and saw a 1 in the square, then it should move one square to the right and shift into configuration 2. Somewhat surprisingly, to us if not to Turing, such a machine, given the proper table of instructions, could complete any mathematical task, no matter how complex.

How might this imaginary machine answer Hilbert’s third question, the decision problem? Turing approached the problem by refining the concept of “computable numbers.” Any real number that was defined by a mathematical rule could be calculated by the Logical Computing Machine. Even an irrational number such as π could be calculated indefinitely using a finite table of instructions. So could the logarithm of 7, or the square root of 2, or the sequence of Bernoulli numbers that Ada Lovelace had helped produce an algorithm for, or any other number or series, no matter how challenging to compute, as long as its calculation was defined by a finite set of rules. All of these were, in Turing’s parlance, “computable numbers.”

Turing went on to show that noncomputable numbers also existed. This was related to what he called “the halting problem.” There can be no method, he showed, to determine in advance whether any given instruction table combined with any given set of inputs will lead the machine to arrive at an answer or go into some loop and continue chugging away indefinitely, getting nowhere. The insolvability of the halting problem, he showed, meant that Hilbert’s decision problem, the Entscheidungsproblem, was unsolvable. Despite what Hilbert seemed to hope, no mechanical procedure can determine the provability of every mathematical statement. Gödel’s incompleteness theory, the indeterminacy of quantum mechanics, and Turing’s answer to Hilbert’s third challenge all dealt blows to a mechanical, deterministic, predictable universe.

Turing’s paper was published in 1937 with the not so snappy title “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem.” His answer to Hilbert’s third question was useful for the development of mathematical theory. But far more important was the by-product of Turing’s proof: his concept of a Logical Computing Machine, which soon came to be known as a Turing machine. “It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute any computable sequence,” he declared.10 Such a machine would be able to read the instructions of any other machine and carry out whatever task that machine could do. In essence, it embodied the dream of Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace for a completely general-purpose universal machine.

A different and less beautiful solution to the Entscheidungsproblem, with the clunkier name “untyped lambda calculus,” had been published earlier that year by Alonzo Church, a mathematician at Princeton. Turing’s professor Max Newman decided that it would be useful for Turing to go there to study under Church. In his letter of recommendation, Newman described Turing’s enormous potential. He also added a more personal appeal based on Turing’s personality. “He has been working without any supervision or criticism from anyone,” Newman wrote. “This makes it all the more important that he should come into contact as soon as possible with the leading workers on this line, so that he should not develop into a confirmed solitary.”11

Turing did have a tendency toward being a loner. His homosexuality made him feel like an outsider at times; he lived alone and avoided deep personal commitments. At one point he

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proposed marriage to a female colleague, but then felt compelled to tell her that he was gay; she was unfazed and still willing to get married, but he believed it would be a sham and decided not to proceed. Yet he did not become “a confirmed solitary.” He learned to work as part of a team, with collaborators, which was key to allowing his abstract theories to be reflected in real and tangible inventions.

In September 1936, while waiting for his paper to be published, the twenty-four-year-old doctoral candidate sailed to America in steerage class aboard the aging ocean liner RMS Berengaria, lugging with him a prized brass sextant. His office at Princeton was in the Mathematics Department building, which also then housed the Institute for Advanced Study, where Einstein, Gödel, and von Neumann held court. The cultivated and highly sociable von Neumann became particularly interested in Turing’s work, despite their very different personalities.

The seismic shifts and simultaneous advances of 1937 were not directly caused by the publication of Turing’s paper. In fact, it got little notice at first. Turing asked his mother to send out reprints of it to the mathematical philosopher Bertrand Russell and a half dozen other famous scholars, but the only major review was by Alonzo Church, who could afford to be flattering because he had been ahead of Turing in solving Hilbert’s decision problem. Church was not only generous; he introduced the term Turing machine for what Turing had called a Logical Computing Machine. Thus at twenty-four, Turing’s name became indelibly stamped on one of the most important concepts of the digital age.12

CLAUDE SHANNON AND GEORGE STIBITZ AT BELL LABS There was another seminal theoretical breakthrough in 1937, similar to Turing’s in that it was purely a thought experiment. This one was the work of an MIT graduate student named Claude Shannon, who that year turned in the most influential master’s thesis of all time, a paper that Scientific American later dubbed “the Magna Carta of the Information Age.”13

Shannon grew up in a small Michigan town where he built model planes and amateur radios, then went on to major in electrical engineering and math at the University of Michigan. In his senior year he answered a help-wanted listing tacked to a bulletin board, which offered a job at MIT working under Vannevar Bush helping to run the Differential Analyzer. Shannon got the job and was mesmerized by the machine—not so much the rods and pulleys and wheels that formed the analog components as the electromagnetic relay switches that were part of its control circuit. As electrical signals caused them to click open and clack closed, the switches created different circuit patterns.

During the summer of 1937, Shannon took a break from MIT and went to work at Bell Labs, a research facility run by AT&T. Located then in Manhattan on the Hudson River edge of Greenwich Village, it was a haven for turning ideas into inventions. Abstract theories intersected with practical problems there, and in the corridors and cafeterias eccentric theorists mingled with hands-on engineers, gnarly mechanics, and businesslike problem- solvers, encouraging the cross-fertilization of theory with engineering. This made Bell Labs an archetype of one of the most important underpinnings of digital-age innovation, what the Harvard science historian Peter Galison has called a “trading zone.” When these disparate practitioners and theoreticians came together, they learned how to find a common parlance to trade ideas and exchange information.14

At Bell Labs, Shannon saw up close the wonderful power of the phone system’s circuits, which used electrical switches to route calls and balance loads. In his mind, he began connecting the workings of these circuits to another subject he found fascinating, the system of logic formulated ninety years earlier by the British mathematician George Boole. Boole revolutionized logic by finding ways to express logical statements using symbols and

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equations. He gave true propositions the value 1 and false propositions a 0. A set of basic logical operations—such as and, or, not, either/or, and if/then—could then be performed using these propositions, just as if they were math equations.

Shannon figured out that electrical circuits could execute these logical operations using an arrangement of on-off switches. To perform an and function, for example, two switches could be put in sequence, so that both had to be on for electricity to flow. To perform an or function, the switches could be in parallel so that electricity would flow if either of them was on. Slightly more versatile switches called logic gates could streamline the process. In other words, you could design a circuit containing a lot of relays and logic gates that could perform, step by step, a sequence of logical tasks.

(A “relay” is simply a switch that can be opened and shut electrically, such as by using an electromagnet. The ones that clack open and closed are sometimes called electromechanical because they have moving parts. Vacuum tubes and transistors can also be used as switches in an electrical circuit; they are called electronic because they manipulate the flow of electrons but do not require the movement of any physical parts. A “logic gate” is a switch that can handle one or more inputs. For example, in the case of two inputs, an and logic gate switches on if both of the inputs are on, and an or logic gate switches on if either of the inputs is on. Shannon’s insight was that these could be wired together in circuits that could execute the tasks of Boole’s logical algebra.)

When Shannon returned to MIT in the fall, Bush was fascinated by his ideas and urged him to include them in his master’s thesis. Entitled “A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits,” it showed how each of the many functions of Boolean algebra could be executed. “It is possible to perform complex mathematical operations by means of relay circuits,” he summed up at the end.15 This became the basic concept underlying all digital computers.

Shannon’s ideas intrigued Turing because they neatly related to his own just-published concept of a universal machine that could use simple instructions, expressed in binary coding, to tackle problems not only of math but of logic. Also, since logic was related to the way human minds reason, a machine that performed logical tasks could, in theory, mimic the way humans think.

Working at Bell Labs at the same time was a mathematician named George Stibitz, whose job was to figure out ways to handle the increasingly complicated calculations needed by the telephone engineers. The only tools he had were mechanical desktop adding machines, so he set out to invent something better based on Shannon’s insight that electronic circuits could perform mathematical and logical tasks. Late one evening in November, he went to the stockroom and took home some old electromagnetic relays and bulbs. At his kitchen table, he put the parts together with a tobacco tin and a few switches to form a simple logical circuit that could add binary numbers. A lit bulb represented a 1, and an unlit bulb represented a 0. His wife dubbed it the “K-Model,” after the kitchen table. He took it into the office the next day and tried to convince his colleagues that, with enough relays, he could make a calculating machine.

One important mission of Bell Labs was to figure out ways to amplify a phone signal over long distances while filtering out static. The engineers had formulas that dealt with the amplitude and phase of the signal, and the solutions to their equations sometimes involved complex numbers (ones that include an imaginary unit that represents the square root of a negative number). Stibitz was asked by his supervisor if his proposed machine could handle complex numbers. When he said that it could, a team was assigned to help him build it. The Complex Number Calculator, as it was called, was completed in 1939. It had more than four hundred relays, each of which could open and shut twenty times per second. That made it both blindingly fast compared to mechanical calculators and painfully clunky compared to

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the all-electronic vacuum-tube circuits just being invented. Stibitz’s computer was not programmable, but it showed the potential of a circuit of relays to do binary math, process information, and handle logical procedures.16

HOWARD AIKEN Also in 1937 a Harvard doctoral student named Howard Aiken was struggling to do tedious calculations for his physics thesis using an adding machine. When he lobbied the university to build a more sophisticated computer to do the work, his department head mentioned that in the attic of Harvard’s science center were some brass wheels from a century-old device that seemed to be similar to what he wanted. When Aiken explored the attic, he found one of six demonstration models of Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine, which Babbage’s son Henry had made and distributed. Aiken became fascinated by Babbage and moved the set of brass wheels into his office. “Sure enough, we had two of Babbage’s wheels,” he recalled. “Those were the wheels that I had later mounted and put in the body of the computer.”17

That fall, just when Stibitz was cooking up his kitchen-table demonstration, Aiken wrote a twenty-two-page memo to his Harvard superiors and executives at IBM making the case that they should fund a modern version of Babbage’s digital machine. “The desire to economize time and mental effort in arithmetical computations, and to eliminate human liability to error is probably as old as the science of arithmetic itself,” his memo began.18

Aiken had grown up in Indiana under rough circumstances. When he was twelve, he used a fireplace poker to defend his mother against his drunk and abusive father, who then abandoned the family with no money. So young Howard dropped out of ninth grade to support the family by working as a telephone installer, then got a night job with the local power company so that he could attend a tech school during the day. He drove himself to be a success, but in the process he developed into a taskmaster with an explosive temper, someone who was described as resembling an approaching thunderstorm.19

Harvard had mixed feelings about building Aiken’s proposed calculating machine or holding out the possibility that he might be granted tenure for a project that seemed to be more practical than academic. (In parts of the Harvard faculty club, calling someone practical rather than academic was considered an insult.) Supporting Aiken was President James Bryant Conant, who, as chairman of the National Defense Research Committee, was comfortable positioning Harvard as part of a triangle involving academia, industry, and the military. His Physics Department, however, was more purist. Its chairman wrote to Conant in December 1939, saying that the machine was “desirable if money can be found, but not necessarily more desirable than anything else,” and a faculty committee said of Aiken, “It should be made quite clear to him that such activity did not increase his chances of promotion to a professorship.” Eventually Conant prevailed and authorized Aiken to build his machine.20

In April 1941, as IBM was constructing the Mark I to Aiken’s specifications at its lab in Endicott, New York, he left Harvard to serve in the U.S. Navy. For two years he was a teacher, with the rank of lieutenant commander, at the Naval Mine Warfare School in Virginia. One colleague described him as “armed to the teeth with room-length formulas and ivy-covered Harvard theories” and running “smack into a collection of Dixie dumbbells [none of whom] knew calculus from corn pone.”21 Much of his time was spent thinking about the Mark I, and he made occasional visits to Endicott wearing his full dress uniform.22

His tour of duty had one major payoff: at the beginning of 1944, as IBM was getting ready to ship the completed Mark I to Harvard, Aiken was able to convince the Navy to take over authority for the machine and assign him to be the officer in charge. That helped him circumnavigate the academic bureaucracy of Harvard, which was still balky about granting him tenure. The Harvard Computation Laboratory became, for the time being, a naval

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facility, and all of Aiken’s staffers were Navy personnel who wore uniforms to work. He called them his “crew,” they called him “commander,” and the Mark I was referred to as “she,” as if she were a ship.23

The Harvard Mark I borrowed a lot of Babbage’s ideas. It was digital, although not binary; its wheels had ten positions. Along its fifty-foot shaft were seventy-two counters that could store numbers of up to twenty-three digits, and the finished five-ton product was eighty feet long and fifty feet wide. The shaft and other moving parts were turned electrically. But it was slow. Instead of electromagnetic relays, it used mechanical ones that were opened and shut by electric motors. That meant it took about six seconds to do a multiplication problem, compared to one second for Stibitz’s machine. It did, however, have one impressive feature that would become a staple of modern computers: it was fully automatic. Programs and data were entered by paper tape, and it could run for days with no human intervention. That allowed Aiken to refer to it as “Babbage’s dream come true.”24

KONRAD ZUSE Although they didn’t know it, all of these pioneers were being beaten in 1937 by a German engineer working in his parents’ apartment. Konrad Zuse was finishing the prototype for a calculator that was binary and could read instructions from a punched tape. However, at least in its first version, called the Z1, it was a mechanical, not an electrical or electronic, machine.

Like many pioneers in the digital age, Zuse grew up fascinated by both art and engineering. After graduating from a technical college, he got a job as a stress analyst for an aircraft company in Berlin, solving linear equations that incorporated all sorts of load and strength and elasticity factors. Even using mechanical calculators, it was almost impossible for a person to solve in less than a day more than six simultaneous linear equations with six unknowns. If there were twenty-five variables, it could take a year. So Zuse, like so many others, was driven by the desire to mechanize the tedious process of solving mathematical equations. He converted his parents’ living room, in an apartment near Berlin’s Tempelhof Airport, into a workshop.25

In Zuse’s first version, binary digits were stored by using thin metal plates with slots and pins, which he and his friends made using a jigsaw. At first he used punched paper tape to input data and programs, but he soon switched to discarded 35 mm movie film, which not only was sturdier but happened to be cheaper. His Z1 was completed in 1938, and it was able to clank through a few problems, though not very reliably. All the components had been made by hand, and they tended to jam. He was handicapped by not being at a place like Bell Labs or part of a collaboration like Harvard had with IBM, which would have allowed him to team up with engineers who could have supplemented his talents.

The Z1 did, however, show that the logical concept Zuse had designed would work in theory. A college friend who was helping him, Helmut Schreyer, urged that they make a version using electronic vacuum tubes rather than mechanical switches. Had they done so right away, they would have gone down in history as the first inventors of a working modern computer: binary, electronic, and programmable. But Zuse, as well as the experts he consulted at the technical school, balked at the expense of building a device with close to two thousand vacuum tubes.26

So for the Z2 they decided instead to use electromechanical relay switches, acquired secondhand from the phone company, which were tougher and cheaper, although a lot slower. The result was a computer that used relays for the arithmetic unit. However, the memory unit was mechanical, using movable pins in a metal sheet.

In 1939 Zuse began work on a third model, the Z3, that used electromechanical relays both for the arithmetic unit and for the memory and control units. When it was completed in 1941,

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it became the first fully working all-purpose, programmable digital computer. Even though it did not have a way to directly handle conditional jumps and branching in the programs, it could theoretically perform as a universal Turing machine. Its major difference from later computers was that it used clunky electromagnetic relays rather than electronic components such as vacuum tubes or transistors.

Zuse’s friend Schreyer went on to write a doctoral thesis, “The Tube Relay and the Techniques of Its Switching,” that advocated using vacuum tubes for a powerful and fast computer. But when he and Zuse proposed it to the German Army in 1942, the commanders said they were confident that they would win the war before the two years it would take to build such a machine.27 They were more interested in making weapons than computers. As a result, Zuse was pulled away from his computer work and sent back to engineering airplanes. In 1943 his computers and designs were destroyed in the Allied bombing of Berlin.

Zuse and Stibitz, working independently, had both come up with employing relay switches to make circuits that could handle binary computations. How did they develop this idea at the same time when war kept their two teams isolated? The answer is partly that advances in technology and theory made the moment ripe. Along with many other innovators, Zuse and Stibitz were familiar with the use of relays in phone circuits, and it made sense to tie that to binary operations of math and logic. Likewise, Shannon, who was also very familiar with phone circuits, made the related theoretical leap that electronic circuits would be able to perform the logical tasks of Boolean algebra. The idea that digital circuits would be the key to computing was quickly becoming clear to researchers almost everywhere, even in isolated places like central Iowa.

JOHN VINCENT ATANASOFF Far from both Zuse and Stibitz, another inventor was also experimenting with digital circuits in 1937. Toiling in a basement in Iowa, he would make the next historic innovation: building a calculating device that, at least in part, used vacuum tubes. In some ways his machine was less advanced than the others. It wasn’t programmable and multipurpose; instead of being totally electronic, he included some slow mechanical moving elements; and even though he built a model that was able to work in theory, he couldn’t actually get the thing reliably operational. Nevertheless, John Vincent Atanasoff, known to his wife and friends as Vincent, deserves the distinction of being the pioneer who conceived the first partly electronic digital computer, and he did so after he was struck by inspiration during a long impetuous drive one night in December 1937.28

Atanasoff was born in 1903, the eldest of seven children of a Bulgarian immigrant and a woman descended from one of New England’s oldest families. His father worked as an engineer in a New Jersey electric plant run by Thomas Edison, then moved the family to a town in rural Florida south of Tampa. At nine, Vincent helped his father wire their Florida house for electricity, and his father gave him a Dietzgen slide rule. “That slide rule was my meat,” he recalled.29 At an early age, he dove into the study of logarithms with an enthusiasm that seems a bit wacky even as he recounted it in earnest tones: “Can you imagine how a boy of nine, with baseball on his mind, could be transformed by this knowledge? Baseball was reduced to near zero as a stern study was made of logarithms.” Over the summer, he calculated the logarithm of 5 to the base e, then, with his mother’s help (she had once been a math teacher), he learned calculus while still in middle school. His father took him to the phosphate plant where he was an electrical engineer, showing him how the generators worked. Diffident, creative, and brilliant, young Vincent finished high school in two years, getting all A’s in his double load of classes.

At the University of Florida he studied electrical engineering and displayed a practical

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inclination, spending time in the university’s machine shop and foundry. He also remained fascinated by math and as a freshman studied a proof involving binary arithmetic. Creative and self-confident, he graduated with the highest grade point average of his time. He accepted a fellowship to pursue master’s work in math and physics at Iowa State and, even though he later was admitted to Harvard, stuck with his decision to head up to the corn belt town of Ames.

Atanasoff went on to pursue a doctorate in physics at the University of Wisconsin, where he had the same experience as the other computer pioneers, beginning with Babbage. His work, which was on how helium can be polarized by an electric field, involved tedious calculations. As he struggled to solve the math using a desktop adding machine, he dreamed of ways to invent a calculator that could do more of the work. After returning to Iowa State in 1930 as an assistant professor, he decided that his degrees in electrical engineering, math, and physics had equipped him for the task.

There was a consequence to his decision not to stay at Wisconsin or to go to Harvard or a similar large research university. At Iowa State, where no one else was working on ways to build new calculators, Atanasoff was on his own. He could come up with fresh ideas, but he did not have around him people to serve as sounding boards or to help him overcome theoretical or engineering challenges. Unlike most innovators of the digital age, he was a lone inventor, drawing his inspiration during solo car trips and in discussions with one graduate student assistant. In the end, that would prove to be a drawback.

Atanasoff initially considered building an analog device; his love of slide rules led him to try to devise a supersize version using long strips of film. But he realized that the film would have to be hundreds of yards long in order to solve linear algebraic equations accurately enough to suit his needs. He also built a contraption that could shape a mound of paraffin so that it could calculate a partial differential equation. The limitations of these analog devices caused him to focus instead on creating a digital version.

The first problem he tackled was how to store numbers in a machine. He used the term memory to describe this feature: “At the time, I had only a cursory knowledge of the work of Babbage and so did not know he called the same concept ‘store.’ . . . I like his word, and perhaps if I had known, I would have adopted it; I like ‘memory,’ too, with its analogy to the brain.”30

Atanasoff went through a list of possible memory devices: mechanical pins, electromagnetic relays, a small piece of magnetic material that could be polarized by an electric charge, vacuum tubes, and a small electrical condenser. The fastest would be vacuum tubes, but they were expensive. So he opted instead to use what he called condensers—what we now call capacitors—which are small and inexpensive components that can store, at least briefly, an electrical charge. It was an understandable decision, but it meant that the machine would be sluggish and clunky. Even if the adding and subtracting could be done at electronic speeds, the process of taking numbers in and out of the memory unit would slow things down to the speed of the rotating drum.

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George Stibitz (1904–95) circa 1945.

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Konrad Zuse (1910–95) with the Z4 computer in 1944.

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John Atanasoff (1903–95) at Iowa State, circa 1940.

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Reconstruction of Atanasoff’s computer.

Once he had settled on the memory unit, Atanasoff turned his attention to how to construct the arithmetic and logic unit, which he called the “computing mechanism.” He decided it should be fully electronic; that meant using vacuum tubes, even though they were expensive. The tubes would act as on-off switches to perform the function of logic gates in a circuit that could add, subtract, and perform any Boolean function.

That raised a theoretical math issue of the type he had loved since he was a boy: Should his digital system be decimal or binary or rely on some other numerical base? A true enthusiast for number systems, Atanasoff explored many options. “For a short time the base one- hundred was thought to have some promise,” he wrote in an unpublished paper. “This same calculation showed that the base that theoretically gives the highest speed of calculation is e, the natural base.”31 But, balancing theory with practicality, he finally settled on base-2, the binary system. By late 1937, these and other ideas were jangling around in his head, a “hodgepodge” of concepts that wouldn’t “jell.”

Atanasoff loved cars; he liked to buy, if he could, a new one each year, and in December 1937, he had a new Ford with a powerful V8 engine. To relax his mind, he took it for a late- night spin for what would become a noteworthy moment in the history of computing:

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One night in the winter of 1937 my whole body was in torment from trying to solve the problems of the machine. I got in my car and drove at high speeds for a long while so I could control my emotions. It was my habit to do this for a few miles: I could gain control of myself by concentrating on driving. But that night I was excessively tormented, and I kept on going until I had crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois and was 189 miles from where I started.32

He turned off the highway and pulled into a roadhouse tavern. At least in Illinois, unlike in Iowa, he could buy a drink, and he ordered himself a bourbon and soda, then another. “I realized that I was no longer so nervous and my thoughts turned again to computing machines,” he recalled. “I don’t know why my mind worked then when it had not worked previously, but things seemed to be good and cool and quiet.” The waitress was inattentive, so Atanasoff got to process his problem undisturbed.33

He sketched out his ideas on a paper napkin, then began to sort through some practical questions. The most important was how to replenish the charges in the condensers, which would otherwise drain after a minute or two. He came up with the idea of putting them on rotating cylinder drums, about the size of 46-ounce cans of V8 juice, so they would come into contact once a second with brushlike wires and have their charges refreshed. “During this evening in the tavern, I generated within my mind the possibility of the regenerative memory,” he declared. “I called it ‘jogging’ at that time.” With each turn of the rotating cylinder, the wires would jog the memory of the condensers and, when necessary, retrieve data from the condensers and store new data. He also came up with an architecture that would take numbers from two different cylinders of condensers, then use the vacuum-tube circuit to add or subtract them and put the result into memory. After a few hours of figuring everything out, he recalled, “I got in my car and drove home at a slower rate.”34

By May 1939, Atanasoff was ready to begin construction of a prototype. He needed an assistant, preferably a graduate student with engineering experience. “I have your man,” a friend on the faculty told him one day. Thus he struck up a partnership with another son of a self-taught electrical engineer, Clifford Berry.35

The machine was designed and hard-wired with a single purpose: solving simultaneous linear equations. It could handle up to twenty-nine variables. With each step, Atanasoff’s machine would process two equations and eliminate one of the variables, then print the resulting equations on 8 x 11 binary punch cards. This set of cards with the simpler equation would then be fed back into the machine for the process to begin anew, eliminating yet another variable. The process required a bit of time. The machine would (if they could get it to work properly) take almost a week to complete a set of twenty-nine equations. Still, humans doing the same process on desk calculators would require at least ten weeks.

Atanasoff demonstrated a prototype at the end of 1939 and, hoping to get funding to build a full-scale machine, typed up a thirty-five-page proposal, using carbon paper to make a few copies. “It is the main purpose of this paper to present a description and exposition of a computing machine which has been designed principally for the solution of large systems of linear algebraic equations,” he began. As if to fend off criticism that this was a limited purpose for a big machine, Atanasoff specified a long list of problems that required solving such equations: “curve fitting . . . vibrational problems . . . electrical circuit analysis . . . elastic structures.” He concluded with a detailed list of proposed expenditures, which added up to the grand sum of $5,330, which he ended up getting from a private foundation.36 Then he sent one of the carbon copies of his proposal to a Chicago patent lawyer retained by Iowa State, who, in a dereliction of duty that would spawn decades of historical and legal controversy, never got around to filing for any patents.

By September 1942 Atanasoff’s full-scale model was almost finished. It was the size of a desk and contained close to three hundred vacuum tubes. There was, however, a problem: the mechanism for using sparks to burn holes in the punch cards never worked properly, and

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there were no teams of machinists and engineers at Iowa State he could turn to for help. At that point, work stopped. Atanasoff was drafted into the Navy and sent to its ordnance

laboratory in Washington, DC, where he worked on acoustic mines and later attended the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. Shifting his focus from computers to ordnance engineering, he remained an inventor, earning thirty patents, including on a minesweeping device. But his Chicago lawyer never applied for patents on his computer.

Atanasoff’s computer could have been an important milestone, but it was, both literally and figuratively, relegated to the dustbin of history. The almost-working machine was put into storage in the basement of the physics building at Iowa State, and a few years later no one seemed to remember what it did. When the space was needed for other uses in 1948, a graduate student dismantled it, not realizing what it was, and discarded most of the parts.37 Many early histories of the computer age do not even mention Atanasoff.

Even if it had worked properly, his machine had limitations. The vacuum-tube circuit made lightning-fast calculations, but the mechanically rotated memory units slowed down the process enormously. So did the system for burning holes in the punch cards, even when it worked. In order to be truly fast, modern computers would have to be all-electronic, not just partly. Nor was Atanasoff’s model programmable. It was geared to do just one thing: solve linear equations.

Atanasoff’s enduring romantic appeal is that he was a lone tinkerer in a basement, with only his young sidekick Clifford Berry for a companion. But his tale is evidence that we shouldn’t in fact romanticize such loners. Like Babbage, who also toiled in his own little workshop with just an assistant, Atanasoff never got his machine to be fully functional. Had he been at Bell Labs, amid swarms of technicians and engineers and repairmen, or at a big research university, a solution would likely have been found for fixing the card reader as well as the other balky parts of his contraption. Plus, when Atanasoff was called away to the Navy in 1942, there would have been team members left behind to put on the finishing touches, or at least to remember what was being built.

What saved Atanasoff from being a forgotten historical footnote is somewhat ironic, given the resentment he later felt about the event. It was a visit that he had in June 1941 from one of those people who, instead of toiling in isolation, loved visiting places and snatching up ideas and working with teams of people. John Mauchly’s trip to Iowa would later be the subject of costly lawsuits, bitter accusations, and dueling historical narratives. But it is what saved Atanasoff from obscurity and moved the course of computer history forward.

JOHN MAUCHLY In the early twentieth century, the United States developed, as Britain had earlier, a class of gentleman scientists who congregated at wood-paneled explorers’ clubs and other rarefied institutes, where they enjoyed sharing ideas, listening to lectures, and collaborating on projects. John Mauchly was raised in that realm. His father, a physicist, was a research chief in the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Washington-based Carnegie Institution, the nation’s foremost foundation for promoting the advance and sharing of research. His specialty was recording electrical conditions in the atmosphere and relating them to the weather, a collegial endeavor that involved coordinating researchers from Greenland to Peru.38

Growing up in the Washington suburb of Chevy Chase, John was exposed to the area’s growing scientific community. “Chevy Chase seemed to have practically all the scientists in Washington,” he boasted. “The director of the Weights and Measures Division of the Bureau of Standards lived near us. So did the director of its Radio Division.” The head of the Smithsonian was also a neighbor. John spent many weekends using a desktop adding

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machine to do calculations for his dad, and he developed a passion for data-driven meteorology. He also loved electrical circuits. With his young friends in his neighborhood, he laid intercom wires that connected their homes and built remote-control devices to launch fireworks for parties. “When I pressed a button, the fireworks would go off 50 feet away.” At age fourteen he was earning money helping people in the neighborhood fix faulty wiring in their homes.39

While an undergraduate at Johns Hopkins University, Mauchly enrolled in a program for exceptional undergraduates to leap directly into a PhD program in physics. He did his thesis on light band spectroscopy because it combined beauty, experiments, and theory. “You had to know some theory to figure out what the band spectra was all about, but you couldn’t do it unless you had the experimental photographs of that spectrum, and who’s going to get it for you?” he said. “Nobody but you. So I got plenty of training in glass blowing, and drawing vacuums, finding the leaks etc.”40

Mauchly had an engaging personality and a wonderful ability (and desire) to explain things, so it was natural that he would become a professor. Such posts were hard to come by in the Depression, but he managed to land one at Ursinus College, an hour’s drive northwest from Philadelphia. “I was the only person teaching physics there,” he said.41

An essential component of Mauchly’s personality was that he liked to share ideas—usually with a broad grin and a sense of flair—which made him a wildly popular teacher. “He loved to talk and seemed to develop many of his ideas in the give-and-take of conversation,” recalled a colleague. “John loved social occasions, liked to eat good food and drink good liquor. He liked women, attractive young people, the intelligent and the unusual.”42 It was dangerous to ask him a question, because he could discourse earnestly and passionately about almost anything, from theater to literature to physics.

In front of a class he played the showman. To explain momentum he would whirl around with his arms flung out and then pulled in, and to describe the concept of action and reaction he would stand on a homemade skateboard and lurch back and forth, a trick that one year resulted in his falling and breaking an arm. People used to drive miles to hear his end-of-term pre-Christmas lecture, which the college moved to its biggest auditorium to accommodate all the visitors. In it he explained how spectrography and other tools of physics could be used to determine what was inside a package without unwrapping it. According to his wife, “He measured it. He weighed it. He submerged it in water. He poked it with a long needle.”43

Reflecting his boyhood fascination with meteorology, Mauchly’s research focus in the early 1930s was on whether long-range weather patterns were related to solar flares, sunspots, and the rotation of the sun. The scientists at the Carnegie Institution and the U.S. Weather Bureau gave him twenty years of daily data from two hundred stations, and he set to work calculating correlations. He was able (this being the Depression) to buy used desk calculators cheaply from ailing banks and to hire a group of young people, through the New Deal’s National Youth Administration, to do computations at fifty cents an hour.44

Like others whose work required tedious calculations, Mauchly yearned to invent a machine to do them. With his gregarious style, he set about finding out what others were doing and, in the tradition of great innovators, putting together a variety of ideas. In the IBM pavilion at the 1939 New York World’s Fair, he saw an electric calculator that used punch cards, but he realized that relying on cards would be too slow, given the amount of data he had to crunch. He also saw an encryption machine that used vacuum tubes to code messages. Might the tubes be used for other logical circuits? He took his students on a field trip to Swarthmore College to see counting devices that used circuits made with vacuum tubes to measure bursts of cosmic-ray ionization.45 He also took a night course in electronics and began to experiment with his own hand-wired vacuum-tube circuits to see what else they might do.

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At a conference at Dartmouth College in September 1940, Mauchly saw a demonstration by George Stibitz of the Complex Number Calculator he had built at Bell Labs. What made the demonstration exciting was that Stibitz’s computer was sitting at Bell’s building in lower Manhattan, transmitting data over a Teletype line. It was the first computer to be used remotely. For three hours it solved problems submitted by the audience, taking about a minute for each. Among those at the demonstration was Norbert Wiener, a pioneer of information systems, who tried to stump Stibitz’s machine by asking it to divide a number by zero. The machine didn’t fall for the trap. Also present was John von Neumann, the Hungarian polymath who was soon to play a major role with Mauchly in the development of computers.46

When he decided to build a vacuum-tube computer of his own, Mauchly did what good innovators properly do: he drew upon all of the information he had picked up from his travels. Because Ursinus had no research budget, Mauchly paid for tubes out of his own pocket and tried to cadge them from manufacturers. He wrote the Supreme Instruments Corp. asking for components and declaring, “I am intending to construct an electrical calculating machine.”47 He discovered during a visit to RCA that neon tubes could also be used as switches; they were slower but cheaper than vacuum tubes, and he bought a supply at eight cents apiece. “Before November 1940,” his wife later said, “Mauchly had successfully tested certain components of his proposed computer and convinced himself that it was possible to build a cheap, reliable digital device using only electronic elements.” This occurred, she insisted, before he had even heard of Atanasoff.48

In late 1940 he confided in some friends that he hoped to pull together all of this information to make a digital electronic computer. “We are now considering construction of an electrical computing machine,” he wrote that November to a meteorologist he had worked with. “The machine would perform its operations in about 1/200th second, using vacuum tube relays.”49 Even though he was collaborative and picking up information from many people, he began to exhibit a competitive urge to be the first to make a new type of computer. He wrote a former student in December, “For your own private information, I expect to have, in a year or so, when I can get the stuff and put it together, an electronic computing machine. . . . Keep this dark, since I haven’t the equipment this year to carry it out and I would like to ‘be the first.’ ”50

That month, December 1940, Mauchly happened to meet Atanasoff, setting off a series of events followed by years of disputes over Mauchly’s propensity to gather information from different sources and his desire to “be the first.” Atanasoff was attending a meeting at the University of Pennsylvania, and he dropped by a session at which Mauchly proclaimed his hope of building a machine to analyze weather data. Afterward Atanasoff came up to say that he had been building an electronic calculator at Iowa State. Mauchly jotted on his conference program a note that Atanasoff claimed to have devised a machine that could process and store data at a cost of only $2 per digit. (Atanasoff’s machine could handle three thousand digits and cost about $6,000.) Mauchly was amazed. He estimated that the cost of a vacuum-tube computer would be almost $13 per digit. He said he would love to see how it was done, and Atanasoff invited him to come to Iowa.

Throughout the first half of 1941, Mauchly corresponded with Atanasoff and continued to marvel at the low cost he claimed for his machine. “Less than $2 per digit sounds next to impossible, and yet that is what I understood you to say,” he wrote. “Your suggestion about visiting Iowa seemed rather fantastic when first made, but the idea grows on me.” Atanasoff urged him to accept. “As an additional inducement I will explain the $2 per digit business,” he promised.51

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THE MAUCHLY-ATANASOFF VISIT The fateful visit lasted four days in June 1941.52 Mauchly drove from Washington and brought his six-year-old son, Jimmy, arriving late on Friday, June 13, much to the surprise of Atanasoff’s wife, Lura, who had not yet prepared the guest room. “I had to fly around, go to the attic, get extra pillows, and everything,” she later recalled.53 She also made them supper, since the Mauchlys had arrived hungry. The Atanasoffs had three children of their own, but Mauchly seemed to assume that Lura would take care of Jimmy during the visit, so she did, grudgingly. She took a dislike to Mauchly. “I don’t think he’s honest,” she told her husband at one point.54

Atanasoff was eager to show off his partly built machine, even as his wife worried that he was being too trusting. “You must be careful until this is patented,” she warned. Nevertheless, Atanasoff took Mauchly, along with Lura and the children, to the physics building basement the next morning, proudly pulling off a sheet to reveal what he and Berry were cobbling together.

Mauchly was impressed by a few things. The use of condensers in the memory unit was ingenious and cost-effective, as was Atanasoff’s method of replenishing their charge every second or so by putting them on rotating cylinders. Mauchly had thought about using condensers instead of more expensive vacuum tubes, and he appreciated how Atanasoff’s method of “jogging their memory” made it workable. That was the secret behind how the machine could be constructed for $2 per digit. After reading Atanasoff’s thirty-five-page memo detailing the machine, and taking notes, he asked if he could take a carbon copy home. That request Atanasoff denied, both because he had no extras to give away (photocopiers hadn’t been invented) and because he was becoming worried that Mauchly was sucking in too much information.55

But for the most part, Mauchly was uninspired by what he saw in Ames—or at least that is what he insisted in retrospect. The foremost drawback was that Atanasoff’s machine was not fully electronic but instead relied on the mechanical drums of condensers for memory. That made it inexpensive but also very slow. “I thought his machine was very ingenious, but since it was in part mechanical, involving rotating commutators for switching, it was not by any means what I had in mind,” Mauchly remembered. “I no longer became interested in the details.” Later, in his testimony at the trial over the validity of his patents, Mauchly called the semimechanical nature of Atanasoff’s machine “a rather drastic disappointment” and dismissed it as “a mechanical gadget which uses some electronic tubes in operation.”56

The second disappointment, Mauchly contended, was that Atanasoff’s machine was designed for a single purpose and could not be programmed or modified to perform other tasks: “He had not done anything to plan for this machine to be anything but a single set purpose machine and to solve sets of linear equations.”57

So Mauchly left Iowa not with a breakthrough concept for how to build a computer but rather with a handful of smaller insights to add to the basket of ideas he had been collecting, consciously and subconsciously, on his visits to conferences and colleges and fairs. “I came to Iowa with much the same attitude that I went to the World’s Fair and other places,” he testified. “Is there something here which would be useful to aid my computations or anyone else’s?”58

Like most people, Mauchly gleaned insights from a variety of experiences, conversations, and observations—in his case at Swarthmore, Dartmouth, Bell Labs, RCA, the World’s Fair, Iowa State, and elsewhere—then combined them into ideas he considered his own. “A new idea comes suddenly and in a rather intuitive way,” Einstein once said, “but intuition is nothing but the outcome of earlier intellectual experience.” When people take insights from multiple sources and put them together, it’s natural for them to think that the resulting ideas are their own—as in truth they are. All ideas are born that way. So Mauchly considered his

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intuitions and thoughts about how to build a computer to be his own rather than a bag of ideas he had stolen from other people. And despite later legal findings, he was for the most part right, insofar as anyone can be right in thinking that his ideas are his own. That is the way the creative process—if not the patent process—works.

Unlike Atanasoff, Mauchly had the opportunity, and the inclination, to collaborate with a team filled with varied talents. As a result, instead of producing a machine that didn’t quite work and was abandoned in a basement, he and his team would go down in history as the inventors of the first electronic general-purpose computer.

As he was preparing to leave Iowa, Mauchly got a piece of pleasant news. He had been accepted into an electronics course at the University of Pennsylvania, one of the many around the country being funded on an emergency basis by the War Department. It was a chance to learn more about using vacuum tubes in electronic circuits, which he was now convinced was the best way to make computers. It also showed the importance of the military in driving innovation in the digital age.

During this ten-week course in the summer of 1941, Mauchly got the chance to work with a version of the MIT Differential Analyzer, the analog computer designed by Vannevar Bush. The experience amped up his interest in building his own computer. It also made him realize that the resources to do so at a place like Penn were far greater than at Ursinus, so he was thrilled to accept an instructor’s position at the university when it was offered at the end of the summer.

Mauchly conveyed the good news in a letter to Atanasoff, which also contained hints of a plan that unnerved the Iowa professor. “A number of different ideas have come to me recently anent computing circuits—some of which are more or less hybrids, combining your methods with other things, and some of which are nothing like your machine,” Mauchly wrote, truthfully. “The question in my mind is this: is there any objection, from your point of view, to my building some sort of computer which incorporates some of the features of your machine?”59 It’s hard to tell from the letter, or from the subsequent explanations, depositions, and testimony over the ensuing years, whether Mauchly’s innocent tone was sincere or feigned.

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Howard Aiken (1900–1973) at Harvard in 1945.

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John Mauchly (1907–80) circa 1945.

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J. Presper Eckert (1919–95) circa 1945.

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Eckert (touching machine), Mauchly (by pillar), Jean Jennings (in back), and Herman Goldstine (by Jennings) with ENIAC in 1946.

Either way, the letter upset Atanasoff, who had still not succeeded in prodding his lawyer into filing any patent claims. He responded to Mauchly rather brusquely within a few days: “Our attorney has emphasized the need of being careful about the dissemination of information about our device until a patent application is filed. This should not require too long, and, of course, I have no qualms about having informed you about our device, but it does require that we refrain from making public any details for the time being.”60 Amazingly, this exchange still did not provoke Atanasoff or the lawyer to make a filing for patents.

Mauchly proceeded to forge ahead during that fall of 1941 with his own design for a computer, which he correctly believed drew ideas from a wide variety of sources and was very different from what Atanasoff had built. In his summer course, he met the right partner to join him in the endeavor: a graduate student with a perfectionist’s passion for precision engineering, who knew so much about electronics that he served as Mauchly’s lab instructor, even though he was twelve years younger (at twenty-two) and didn’t yet have his PhD.

J. PRESPER ECKERT

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John Adam Presper Eckert Jr., known formally as J. Presper Eckert and informally as Pres, was the only child of a millionaire real estate developer in Philadelphia.61 One of his great- grandfathers, Thomas Mills, invented the machines that made salt water taffy in Atlantic City and, as important, created a business to manufacture and sell them. As a young boy, Eckert was driven by his family’s chauffeur to the William Penn private school, founded in 1689. But his success came not from the privileges of birth but from his own talents. He won a citywide science fair at age twelve by building a guidance system for model boats using magnets and rheostats, and at fourteen he devised an innovative way to use household current to eliminate troublesome batteries for the intercom system in one of his father’s buildings.62

In high school Eckert dazzled his classmates with his inventions, and he made money by building radios, amplifiers, and sound systems. Philadelphia, the city of Benjamin Franklin, was then a great electronics center, and Eckert spent time at the research lab of Philo Farnsworth, one of the inventors of television. Although he was accepted by MIT and wanted to go there, his parents did not wish him to leave. Pretending to have suffered financial setbacks because of the Depression, they pressured him to go to Penn and live at home. He did rebel, however, against their desire that he study business; instead he enrolled in the university’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering because he found the subject more interesting.

Eckert’s social triumph at Penn was creating what he called an “Osculometer” (from the Latin word for mouth), which purported to measure the passion and romantic electricity of a kiss. A couple would hold the handles of the device and then kiss, their lip contact completing an electric circuit. A row of bulbs would light up, the goal being to kiss passionately enough to light up all ten and set off a blast from a foghorn. Smart contestants knew that wet kisses and sweaty palms increased the circuit’s conductivity.63 Eckert also invented a device that used a light-modulating method to record sound on film, for which he successfully applied for a patent at age twenty-one, while still an undergraduate.64

Pres Eckert had his quirks. Filled with nervous energy, he would pace the room, bite his nails, leap around, and occasionally stand atop a desk when he was thinking. He wore a watch chain that wasn’t connected to a watch, and he would twirl it in his hands as if it were rosary beads. He had a quick temper that would flare and then dissolve into charm. His demand for perfection came from his father, who would walk around construction sites carrying a large pack of crayons with which to scrawl instructions, using different colors to indicate which worker was responsible. “He was sort of a perfectionist and made sure you did it right,” his son said. “But he had a lot of charm, really. He got things done most of the time by people wanting to do the stuff.” An engineer’s engineer, Eckert felt that people like himself were necessary complements to physicists such as Mauchly. “A physicist is one who’s concerned with the truth,” he later said. “An engineer is one who’s concerned with getting the job done.”65

ENIAC War mobilizes science. Over the centuries, ever since the ancient Greeks built a catapult and Leonardo da Vinci served as the military engineer for Cesare Borgia, martial needs have propelled advances in technology, and this was especially true in the mid-twentieth century. Many of the paramount technological feats of that era—computers, atomic power, radar, and the Internet—were spawned by the military.

America’s entry into World War II in December 1941 provided the impetus to fund the machine that Mauchly and Eckert were devising. The University of Pennsylvania and the Army’s Ordnance Department at Aberdeen Proving Ground had been tasked with producing the booklets of firing-angle settings needed for the artillery being shipped to Europe. In order

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to be aimed properly, the guns required tables that factored in hundreds of conditions, including temperature, humidity, wind speeds, altitude, and gunpowder varieties.

Creating a table for just one category of shell shot by one gun might require calculating three thousand trajectories from a set of differential equations. The work was often done using one of the Differential Analyzers invented at MIT by Vannevar Bush. The machine’s calculations were combined with the labor of more than 170 people, most of them women, known as “computers,” who tackled equations by punching the keys and cranking the handles of desktop adding machines. Women math majors were recruited from around the nation. But even with all of this effort, it took more than a month to complete just one firing table. By the summer of 1942, it was clear that production was falling further behind every week, rendering some of America’s artillery ineffective.

That August, Mauchly wrote a memo that proposed a way to help the Army meet this challenge. It would change the course of computing. Titled “The Use of High Speed Vacuum Tube Devices for Calculating,” his memo requested funding for the machine that he and Eckert were hoping to build: a digital electronic computer, using circuits with vacuum tubes, that could solve differential equations and perform other mathematical tasks. “A great gain in the speed of calculation can be obtained if the devices which are used employ electronic means,” he argued. He went on to estimate that a missile trajectory could be calculated in “100 seconds.”66

Mauchly’s memo was ignored by Penn’s deans, but it was brought to the attention of the Army officer attached to the university, Lieutenant (soon to be Captain) Herman Goldstine, a twenty-nine-year-old who had been a math professor at the University of Michigan. His mission was to speed up the production of firing tables, and he had dispatched his wife, Adele, also a mathematician, on a cross-country tour to recruit more women to join the battalions of human computers at Penn. Mauchly’s memo convinced him that there was a better way.

The decision of the U.S. War Department to fund the electronic computer came on April 9, 1943. Mauchly and Eckert stayed up all the night before working on their proposal, but they still hadn’t finished it by the time they got into the car for the two-hour ride from Penn to the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, where officials from the Ordnance Department were gathered. As Lieutenant Goldstine drove, they sat in the backseat writing the remaining sections, and when they arrived in Aberdeen, they continued working in a small room while Goldstine went to the review meeting. It was chaired by Oswald Veblen, the president of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, who was advising the military on mathematical projects. Also present was Colonel Leslie Simon, director of the Army’s Ballistic Research Laboratory. Goldstine recalled what happened: “Veblen, after listening for a short while to my presentation and teetering on the back legs of his chair, brought the chair down with a crash, arose, and said, ‘Simon, give Goldstine the money.’ He thereupon left the room and the meeting ended on this happy note.”67

Mauchly and Eckert incorporated their memo into a paper they titled “Report on an Electronic Diff. Analyzer.” Using the abbreviation diff. was cagey; it stood for both differences, which reflected the digital nature of the proposed machine, and differential, which described the equations it would tackle. Soon it was given a more memorable name: ENIAC, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. Even though ENIAC was designed primarily for handling differential equations, which were key to calculating missile trajectories, Mauchly wrote that it could have a “programming device” that would allow it to do other tasks, thus making it more of a general-purpose computer.68

In June 1943 construction of ENIAC began. Mauchly, who retained his teaching duties, served as a consultant and visionary. Goldstine, as the Army’s representative, oversaw the

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operations and budget. And Eckert, with his passion for detail and perfection, was the chief engineer. Eckert became so dedicated to the project that he would sometimes sleep next to the machine. Once, as a joke, two engineers picked up his cot and gently moved him to an identical room one floor up; when he awoke he briefly feared the machine had been stolen.69

Knowing that great conceptions are worth little without precision execution (a lesson Atanasoff learned), Eckert was not shy about micromanaging. He would hover over the other engineers and tell them where to solder a joint or twist a wire. “I took every engineer’s work and checked every calculation of every resistor in the machine to make sure that it was done correctly,” he asserted. He disdained anyone who dismissed an issue as trivial. “Life is made up of a whole concentration of trivial matters,” he once said. “Certainly a computer is nothing but a huge concentration of trivial matters.”70

Eckert and Mauchly served as counterbalances for each other, which made them typical of so many digital-age leadership duos. Eckert drove people with a passion for precision; Mauchly tended to calm them and make them feel loved. “He was always kidding and joking with people,” Eckert recalled. “He was personable.” Eckert, whose technical skills came with a nervous energy and scattershot attention span, badly needed an intellectual sounding board, and Mauchly loved being that. Although he was not an engineer, Mauchly did have the ability to connect scientific theories with engineering practicalities in a way that was inspiring. “We got together and did this thing and I don’t think either of us would have done it by ourselves,” Eckert later conceded.71

ENIAC was digital, but instead of a binary system, using just 0s and 1s, it used a decimal system of ten-digit counters. In that regard, it was not like a modern computer. Other than that, it was more advanced than the machines built by Atanasoff, Zuse, Aiken, and Stibitz. Using what was called conditional branching (a capability described by Ada Lovelace a century earlier), it could hop around in a program based on its interim results, and it could repeat blocks of code, known as subroutines, that performed common tasks. “We had the ability to have subroutines and subroutines of subroutines,” Eckert explained. When Mauchly proposed this functionality, Eckert recalled, “it was an idea that I instantly recognized as the key to this whole thing.”72

After a year of building, around the time of D-Day in June 1944, Mauchly and Eckert were able to test the first two components, amounting to about one-sixth of the planned machine. They started with a simple multiplication problem. When it produced the correct answer, they let out a shout. But it took more than another year, until November 1945, for ENIAC to be fully operational. At that point it was able to perform five thousand additions and subtractions in one second, which was more than a hundred times faster than any previous machine. A hundred feet long and eight feet high, filling the space of what could be a modest three- bedroom apartment, it weighed close to thirty tons and had 17,468 vacuum tubes. By contrast, the Atanasoff-Berry computer, then languishing in a basement in Iowa, was the size of a desk, had only three hundred tubes, and could do merely thirty additions or subtractions per second.

BLETCHLEY PARK Although few outsiders knew it at the time—and would not know for more than three decades—another electronic computer using vacuum tubes had been secretly built at the end of 1943 on the grounds of a redbrick Victorian manor in the town of Bletchley, fifty-four miles northwest of London, where the British had sequestered a team of geniuses and engineers to break the German wartime codes. The computer, known as Colossus, was the first all-electronic, partially programmable computer. Because it was geared for a special

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task, it was not a general-purpose or “Turing-complete” computer, but it did have Alan Turing’s personal fingerprints on it.

Turing had begun to focus on codes and cryptology in the fall of 1936, when he arrived at Princeton just after writing “On Computable Numbers.” He explained his interest in a letter to his mother that October:

I have just discovered a possible application of the kind of thing I am working on at present. It answers the question “What is the most general kind of code or cipher possible,” and at the same time (rather naturally) enables me to construct a lot of particular and interesting codes. One of them is pretty well impossible to decode without the key, and very quick to encode. I expect I could sell them to H.M. Government for quite a substantial sum, but am rather doubtful about the morality of such things. What do you think?73

Over the ensuing year, as he worried about the possibility of war with Germany, Turing

got more interested in cryptology and less interested in trying to make money from it. Working in the machine shop of Princeton’s physics building in late 1937, he constructed the first stages of a coding machine that turned letters into binary numbers and, using electromechanical relay switches, multiplied the resulting numerically encoded message by a huge secret number, making it almost impossible to decrypt.

One of Turing’s mentors in Princeton was John von Neumann, the brilliant physicist and mathematician who had fled his native Hungary and was at the Institute for Advanced Study, which for the time being was located in the building that housed the university’s Mathematics Department. In the spring of 1938, as Turing was finishing his doctoral thesis, von Neumann offered him a job as his assistant. With the war clouds gathering in Europe, the offer was tempting, but it also felt vaguely unpatriotic. Turing decided to return to his fellowship at Cambridge and shortly thereafter joined the British effort to crack the German military codes.

His Majesty’s Government Code and Cypher School was, at the time, located in London and staffed mainly by literary scholars, such as Dillwyn “Dilly” Knox, a classics professor from Cambridge, and Oliver Strachey, a dilettante socialite who played piano and occasionally wrote about India. There were no mathematicians among the eighty staffers until the fall of 1938, when Turing went there. But the following summer, as Britain prepared for war, the department began actively hiring mathematicians, at one point using a contest that involved solving the Daily Telegraph crossword puzzle as a recruitment tool, and it relocated to the drab redbrick town of Bletchley, whose main distinction was being at the juncture where the railway line between Oxford and Cambridge intersected with the one from London to Birmingham. A team from the British intelligence service, posing as “Captain Ridley’s shooting party,” visited the Bletchley Park manor house, a Victorian Gothic monstrosity that its owner wanted to demolish, and discreetly bought it. The code breakers were located in the cottages, stables, and some prefabricated huts that were erected on the grounds.74

Turing was assigned to a team working in Hut 8 that was trying to break the German Enigma code, which was generated by a portable machine with mechanical rotors and electrical circuits. It encrypted military messages by using a cipher that, after every keystroke, changed the formula for substituting letters. That made it so tough to decipher that the British despaired of ever doing so. A break came when Polish intelligence officers created a machine based on a captured German coder that was able to crack some of the Enigma codes. By the time the Poles showed the British their machine, however, it had been rendered ineffective because the Germans had added two more rotors and two more plugboard connections to their Enigma machines.

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how is the supreme court equal to the other branches of government

  1. how is the supreme court equal to the other branches of government?

a. it has the same powers as the legislative branch and executive branch.
b. it enforces the laws along with the president***
c. it creates laws like the legislative branch
d. it interprets the laws and has the final say in federal law.

  1. which of the following is an example of the supreme court using the power of judicial review?

a. deciding the constitutionality of a law.
b. hearing an appellate case
c. asking questions during oral arguments
d. appointing federal judges***

  1. when chief justice John Marshall wrote “A law repugnant to the constitution is void”in the case Marbury V. Madison,what was he claiming?

a. the framers should have taken more care designing the legislative branch.
b. laws unsupported by the constitution are automatically unlawful
c. the supreme court will take over lawmaking duties should it be necessary
d. the supreme court has the right to declare laws of congress unconstitutional

0 0 357
asked by Alice Keign
Dec 12, 2016
My Answers:

  1. b
  2. d
  3. d 0 1
    posted by Alice Keign
    Dec 12, 2016
  4. b – no
  5. d – no
  6. d – no 0 0
    👩‍🏫
    Ms. Sue
    Dec 12, 2016
    Alright, I did more research and changed my answers to:
  7. a
  8. b
  9. b 0 0
    posted by Alice Keign
    Dec 12, 2016
  10. a – no
  11. b – no
  12. b – yes

You’ve used up your two guesses. Please do not post these questions again.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Dec 12, 2016

b for 3 was wrong. This is not the first time I’ve experienced false tutoring from you, Ms. Sue 🙁

0 0
posted by Alice Keign
Dec 12, 2016
I’m sorry. I won’t try to help you again.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Dec 12, 2016
Btw — that answer is an opinion. I don’t know how your text author interprets that quote.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Dec 12, 2016
D
A
D

100% you’re welcome

0 0
posted by Whocares
Jan 16, 2017
@WHOCARES is correct, thanks

0 0
posted by HotChick16
Mar 6, 2017

lol dad

0 0
posted by Colin
Mar 9, 2017
Ms sue , you really can be foul when it comes to helping kids. You should be based around helping kids. Not tell them their wrong and not say why? You’re a horrible tutor. I suggest you find other ways to help kids and not be so scrappy with people. Horrible attitude, ms.

0 0
posted by Tacopaco
Oct 4, 2017
D
A
D is correct

0 0
posted by Fucc y’all
Nov 27, 2017
Supreme Court’s Protections/The Judicial Branch: 1. relative rights 2. freedoms that protect people from government 3. to restrict the power of the national and state governments

Supreme Court on Religious Freedom: 1. financial aid for student lunches in parochial schools / financial aid for vision testing in parochial schools

  1. The prison had failed to show its policy was the least restrictive means of furthering its compelling interest 3. attending church
    Good luck! 0 0
    posted by Ms. Honey
    Oct 13, 2018
    @whocares and fucc you too are right. The answers for The Supreme Court and Other Courts is DAD 0 0
    posted by Ms. Honey
    Oct 13, 2018
Categories
cheap essay writing service dissertation help essay writing help online phd dissertation writing services write my assignment

what is the unit rate for fred’s sub shop

1.What is the unit rate for Fred’s Sub shop?(Will post photo/link in the comments)

A. $10 for 2 subs
B. $5 for 2 sub
C. $1 for 1/5 of a sub
D. $30 for 6 subs

  1. What is the slope-intercept equation for the cost of a sub at Fred’s sub shop?

A. y = 2x
B. y = 10x
C. y = 5x
D. y = 5x + 2

  1. The data in the table are linear. Use the table to find the slope.(Will link in the comments)

A. 3/2
B. -3/2
C. -2/3
D. 2/3

  1. What hill described in the table is the steepest? Explain.(Will link in the comments)

A. Bell Hill: It rises one foot for every 4 feet of horizontal travel.
B. Dixie Hill: It rises two feet for every 1 feet of horizontal travel.
C. Liberty Hill:It rises four feet for every three feet of horizontal travel.
D. Liberty Hill:It rises 3/4 foot for every 1 feet of horizontal travel.

My answers:

  1. A
  2. Not really sure, D?
  3. -3/2?
  4. D? 1 0 3,078
    asked by Savaline
    May 8, 2015
    Okay, I don’t know how to post the photos, but if you have the answers please let me know which are correct and which are wrong! I really would like to boost my grade to a C+ but this stuff confuses me! Ms.Sue? 0 0
    posted by Savaline
    May 8, 2015
    1.B
    2.C That’s all I know. 1 2
    posted by Anonymous
    May 11, 2015
    the answers are 1.B 2.C 3.B 4.D 1 8
    posted by jess
    May 13, 2015
    B
    C
    B
    D 5 9
    posted by Me
    May 20, 2015

Thanks Jess and “Me”!

1 4
posted by Kenxie
May 29, 2015
B
C
B
B

33 0
posted by Correct Answers
Nov 25, 2015
4 is b

8 0
posted by Anonymous
Jan 28, 2016
its D 4 is D GAWH

1 5
posted by Michelle
Feb 4, 2016
You guys are wrong the answers are
1.B
2.C
3.B
4.B
@Correct Answers is right
and so is @Anonymous too
NUmber 4 is b

10 0
posted by hidra
Feb 5, 2016

Hidra is right! I got 100% I knew the answer to 2 of them but I couldn’t find the other ones. Also make sure the last one makes sense to you, so you can get a 100% like me!

1 0
posted by J.E.G
Feb 10, 2016
Hindra was correct. I got 100% thank you very much.

0 0
posted by Correct
Feb 17, 2016
Yes hidra is right 100%!

0 0
posted by Ironman
Mar 11, 2016

4 is d. Trust me on this one.

1 1
posted by Skylar
Mar 20, 2016
Hidra is right I only looked at Jess and Me. I got 75% 😔☹️😤

0 0
posted by Kpop is real
Mar 25, 2016

B
C
B
B
Those are the right answers

4 0
posted by Kpop is real
Mar 25, 2016
4.) is D

0 2
posted by #FreeGucci
Mar 29, 2016
1.B
2.C
3.B
4.D
I’m in connections academy and I just the test and number 4 is D no questions about it 4 IS D.

1 4
posted by Gloria
Mar 30, 2016
Skylar
Is right I got 75% from trusting hidra 4 is D

1 1
posted by Batman
Mar 31, 2016
yeah 4 is d Gloria and Batman are right

0 0
posted by sav
Apr 7, 2016

  1. is B) Sam’s 0 0
    posted by Nina
    Apr 17, 2016
    omg hidra is right I just took the test Graphing Proportional Relationships Lesson 7 Connections Academy.
    B
    C
    B
    B
    100% Guaranteed
    I apologize if you have a different test than me. 2 1
    posted by Rayven M.
    Apr 18, 2016
    B
    C
    B
    B
    All correct 7 0
    posted by Ciera Rue
    Apr 21, 2016
    Number 4 is D for this test.. 0 0
    posted by Anon
    Apr 25, 2016
    guys look two dif questions for #4.
    the question she has is d
    the other question is b. (sam) 0 0
    posted by Anonymous
    Apr 26, 2016

B
C
B
B

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 30, 2016
^^^^^^^

0 0
posted by Gracious Human
May 1, 2016
^^^^^^^^^ Thank you fren

0 0
posted by Just a weeb
May 1, 2016

  1. $5 for 1 sub
  2. y= 5x
  3. 5.5
  4. Sam’s

These are the answers, so if you have the answers placed different, there will be no confusion!

4 0
posted by Anonymous
May 7, 2016
connexus 4 is D
NO dought just deal with it

0 1
posted by yes correct
May 9, 2016

Never mind
it is b just looked at open study b for 4 is correct

0 0
posted by yes correct
May 9, 2016
Numb 4 ia D I just got that one wrong…wow people..maybe they change the last question

0 0
posted by Anonymous
May 10, 2016
B
C
B
B

0 0
posted by yo :
May 10, 2016
It looks like there are 2 different sets of questions and that is what is causing all the confusion…one set of questions the last answer is B and the other set of questions is D…people read the questions originally posted and compare they to your question…numbers one and two are the same as mind but 3 and 4 are different, it was just dumb luck that the answer to number 3 just happened to be B for both questions. The question number 4 above the answer is D…the other question is “The equation for the cost for subs at Anne’s Restaurant is y=4.75x. If the cost for subs at all three sandwich places were graphed, which would have the steepest line?” That answer is B….hopes this clears up the confusion for everyone

1 0
posted by Bashful
May 10, 2016
those who think those are correct are wrong its
1.c
2.c
3.b
4.d

0 0
posted by joshua diin
May 11, 2016

THX EVERYONE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

0 0
posted by fox girl
May 11, 2016
The aswer for this set of questions is 4:D. For the one I had it was B:Sam’s.

0 0
posted by Ellie
May 12, 2016
Trust me it’s

B
C
B
B

1 0
posted by Kade matson
May 13, 2016
dude 4. is D I got a 3/4

0 0
posted by The_Meta13
May 18, 2016
LISTEN EVERYONE the answers for the Connections academy is B C B B I don’t know what everyone else is talking maybe its a different quiz but ALL CONNECTIONS ACADEMY USERS: B C B B

0 0
posted by anonymous
May 18, 2016

THANKS ANONYMOUS
“LISTEN EVERYONE the answers for the Connections academy is B C B B I don’t know what everyone else is talking maybe its a different quiz but ALL CONNECTIONS ACADEMY USERS: B C B B”

0 0
posted by Your Butt
May 20, 2016
connections:
BCBB
Whatever other Online School which was mentioned:
BCBD

1 0
posted by Don’t feel like telling my name
May 25, 2016
for my connections people it is
b
c
b
b

0 0
posted by cellis
Jan 30, 2017
B
C
B
B
Connections Students

0 0
posted by Jay
Jan 31, 2017
For Georgia connections it is
B
C
B
D

0 0
posted by Davye
Feb 1, 2017

Uhh yall can trust me or not, thats yall but the answers are
B
C
B
B
For Lesson 7: Graphing Proportional Relationships CE 2015
Algebra Readiness (Pre-Algebra) B Unit 2: Functions
GettingStartedGettingStartedInstruction

1 0
posted by Brah
Feb 1, 2017
Brah is right. 4 IS NOT d, its B!!!!

0 0
posted by Its Johnny!
Feb 1, 2017
BCBB is right in connections academy

0 0
posted by ttng
Feb 2, 2017
I got a 3/4.
ok the real answers are NOT BCBB.
You do it and you will get a 75%
The real answers are:
1.B
2.C
3.B
4.D
Trust me.

0 0
posted by Ashlin
Feb 7, 2017
IF YOU ARE ON UNIT 3 LESSON 7 GRAPHING PROPORTINAL RELATIONSHIPS IN CONNEXUS THE ANSWERS ARE
B
C
B
D

0 1
posted by Anonymous
Feb 15, 2017

The last one was D thanks a lot for making me fail :l

0 0
posted by Jiskha
Mar 1, 2017
B $5 for 1 sub
C y = 5x
B 5.5
B Sam’s

0 0
posted by Kat
Mar 3, 2017
4 was d not c

0 0
posted by Amanda
Mar 11, 2017
4 is B I got 75% I’m sorry Skylar I love you bro

0 0
posted by Wally West
Mar 21, 2017
Got B for 4

0 0
posted by CherriesAreGood
Apr 4, 2017

Hidra is correct……….

0 0
posted by S.H.E.L.D
Apr 5, 2017
1.)B
2.)C
3.)B
4.)B

ARE RIGHT

0 0
posted by math boss
Apr 14, 2017
I can confirm that the answers are

B
C
B
B

0 0
posted by boss baby
May 2, 2017
Hidra #4 is liberty hill

0 0
posted by Christian
May 17, 2017
B
C
B
B
Is correct, I just took the quick check and its B, C, B, and B.

0 0
posted by Dawn
Jun 8, 2017

DONT BE RETARDED AND GO WITH…
B
C
B
D
YOU WILL GET (3/4) A FREAKING 75%
YOU WANT AN (4/4) A AWESOME 100% GO WITH…
B
C
B
B
THANK YOU!!!!!

1 0
posted by ULTRA INSTINCT
Jan 25, 2018
The following answers are correct for Unit 2:Functions Lesson 7: Graphing Proportional Relationships for connexus students

0 0
posted by Yup
Feb 1, 2018
The following answers are correct for Unit 2:Functions Lesson 7: Graphing Proportional Relationships for connexus students
1.B
2.C
3.B
4.B

0 0
posted by Yup
Feb 1, 2018
1.What is the unit rate for Fred’s Sub shop?

A. $10 for 2 subs
B. $5 for 2 sub
C. $1 for 1/5 of a sub
D. $30 for 6 subs

  1. What is the slope-intercept equation for the cost of a sub at Fred’s sub shop?

A. y = 2x
B. y = 10x
C. y = 5x
D. y = 5x + 2

  1. The data in the table are linear. Use the table to find the slope.

A. 3/2
B. -3/2 *
C. -2/3
D. 2/3

  1. What hill described in the table is the steepest? Explain.

A. Bell Hill: It rises one foot for every 4 feet of horizontal travel.
B. Dixie Hill: It rises two feet for every 1 feet of horizontal travel.
C. Liberty Hill:It rises four feet for every three feet of horizontal travel.
D. Liberty Hill:It rises 3/4 foot for every 1 feet of horizontal travel. *

THE CORRECT ANSWERS ARE:
1)B
2)C
3)B
4)D

THE LAST QUESTION CHANGES, SO PLEASE BE CAREFUL!!

1 0
posted by eggie boy
Feb 1, 2018
It’s
B
C
B
D
Always look further down, and don’t believe people who post again using a different names saying, “100% this persons Answers!!!”.

0 0
posted by Elzbieta Bosak
Feb 12, 2018

BBCD is WRONG, I got 75% at Connections Academy. Thanks for posting wrong answers people.

0 0
posted by Abigail
Feb 14, 2018
REAL ANSWERS

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. B

100% on Connexus

1 0
posted by Connexus
Feb 15, 2018
There is 5 questions tho

1 0
posted by BOIZ
Mar 8, 2018
^^^^^ True

0 0
posted by LittleNoot
Mar 9, 2018
I got a 80 because i had 5 questions not 4 so if you have 5 questions connexus students heres the answers i promise a 100%

1.) B , $ 5 for 1 sub
2.) C , 5x
3.) B , 5.5
4.) B, Sam’s
5.) B , y=4*0

3 0
posted by ElevenMike
Mar 9, 2018

There are 5 questions for this quick check and this year!
(for connexus only)

1.B

2.C

3.B

4.B

5.B

Promise this will give you a 100%

5 0
posted by GrApE
Mar 9, 2018
4 is b

0 0
posted by Hehe
Mar 21, 2018
For conexxus students the last one is D

0 0
posted by ~ify
Mar 29, 2018
4 is b i got a 75 because i trusted the people that said d

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 12, 2018

4 is D for SCCA

0 0
posted by Blahhh
Apr 16, 2018

1.F
2.U
3.C
4.K

200% I promis

4 0
posted by hush my child
Apr 18, 2018

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. B 0 0
    posted by Ching Chong
    Apr 19, 2018
    Thanks Ching Chong 0 0
    posted by Untold Secrets </3
    Apr 30, 2018
    @Ching Chong is 100% right! Thanks!!!! 0 0
    posted by Laura
    May 2, 2018
    GUYS STOP THEY ARE ALL DIFFERENT FOR 4 FOR ME IT WAS B SAM BUT OBV ITS D FOR SOMEONE ELSE STOP ARGUEING 0 1
    posted by the answers are different for the lAst one
    May 13, 2018

people literally go crazy if one answer looked different than the other -_-
I mean, dude, if you get one wrong, it won’t take out 90 percent of your grade

0 0
posted by Cereal…. is life. -Life Cereal
May 15, 2018
its 4 D I got 3/4 for lesson 7 unit 5

0 1
posted by tracy
May 17, 2018
4 IS NOT D IT IS B!!!!!!

1 0
posted by hi
May 21, 2018
its sams

0 0
posted by hi
May 21, 2018
Just took it. If you have 4 questions, the last one is b. VOTE FOR TRUMP!!!!!

0 1
posted by The Russians
May 23, 2018

For California Connections Academy I got 4/4

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. B 3 0
    posted by Help Humanity
    Jun 12, 2018
    B C B B I got 100% 4/4 2 0
    posted by cAt.ExE HaS sTopPeD wORkInG
    Jan 17, 2019
    Just took the assignment, I can confirm that bcbb is right and that anyone putting bcbd is trying to make you get a question wrong. 1 0
    posted by 420blazeit
    Feb 6, 2019
    For OCA, the answers are
    B
    C
    B
    B
    I took the quick check and got the last wrong.
    If you’re not in OCA, then the answers might be
    B
    C
    B
    D 0 0
    posted by ·
    Feb 11, 2019
    B
    C
    B
    B
    B 0 0
    posted by 5 Q
    Feb 12, 2019
  5. B. 0 0
    posted by David S.
    Feb 26, 2019
    B
    C
    B
    B
    100% correct i got 4/4 1 0
    posted by billie eyelish stan
    Mar 4, 2019
    You all are wrong I just did my test right now and 4 is d 0 0
    posted by Anonymous
    Mar 7, 2019
    hmm 0 0
    posted by
    Mar 15, 2019
  6. B
  7. C
  8. B
  9. D 0 0
    posted by Kinsey
    Mar 19, 2019

Truly the answers are…
B
C
B
D
Take them or not I don’t give a @#*$. However hope you get 100%, see ya.

1 1
posted by FMLyay
Mar 20, 2019

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. B 1 0
    posted by Hal
    Apr 11, 2019
    b
    c
    b
    b

those who posted these answers are right, you can trust them

1 0
posted by 요웅화
Apr 17, 2019

Categories
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which one of these statements is not true about australia and new zealand?

Using the following data

  1. CU3+ + 2e- —> Cu+ E1= 1.28V
  2. CU2+ + e- —> Cu+ E2= 0.15V
  3. Cu2+ + 2e- —-> Cu(s) E3= 0.34V
  4. Cu+ + e- —-> Cu (s) E4= 0.52V

calculate the standard reduction potential for the reaction of Cu(III) to Cu(II).

Is it .783 V?

0 0 412
asked by anna
Nov 9, 2014
Cu3+——Cu2+—–Cu+—–Cuo
………..|…0.15.|..0.52..|
|……1.28………|

I hope the spacing comes out well enough that you can make it out. The idea here is that you have the total of voltage from 3+ to 1+ and you have the single leg of Cu2+ to Cu+. What you need to calculate is the other leg of Cu3+ ==> Cu2+.

It’s mostly a little algebra.
Cu3+ +e ==> Cu2+ E = x

Cu2+ + e ==> Cu+ E = 0.15

sum Cu3+ + 2e ==> Cu+ E = 1.28
x + 0.15 = 2*1.28
x = ?

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Nov 9, 2014

Categories
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which of the following options is an equivalent function to f(x) = 4(3)2x?

Which of the following options is an equivalent function to f(x) = 4(3)2x?
A.f(x)= 36x
B.f(x)= 4(9)x
C.f(x)= 144x
D.f(x)= 4(6x)

0 0 374
asked by May
Nov 4, 2015
if you are doing exponents please write superscripts with an arrow up

4^3 = 444 = 64

2^(2*3) = 2^6

0 0
posted by Damon
Nov 4, 2015
It is exponents

0 0
posted by April
Nov 4, 2015
But what is the exponent ?
Please use standard notation.

0 0
posted by Damon
Nov 4, 2015
Which of the following options is an equivalent function to f(x) = 4(3^2x?
A.f(x)= 36^x
B.f(x)= 4(9)^x
C.f(x)= 144^x
D.f(x)= 4(6x)
I think that’s how you put the exponents in standard notation

0 0
posted by April
Nov 4, 2015

The answer is b

2 0
posted by April
Nov 4, 2015
3^(2x) = (3^2)^x = 9^x
so
4 * 3^(2x) = 4 * 9^x

agree B but watch notation carefully 🙂

1 0
posted by Damon
Nov 4, 2015

Categories
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ros soap note

MN552 Advanced Health Assessment

Unit 2 SOAP Note Section I Written Guide

History, Interview, and Genogram Guide

Date of History/Interview: 23rd, September, 2017

Source of history and Reliability: (client)

1. Biographical Data

a. Name (use initials only): Mrs. W.W.

b. Address: George street, House no. 4, California

c. Phone number 305-555-5555

d. Primary language: speaks English

e. Authorized representative: her daughter

f. Age and Date of Birth: 50 y/o, July 15, 1967

g. Place of Birth: San Diego, California

h. Gender: female

i. Race: black

j. Marital Status: divorced

k. Ethnic/Cultural Origin: African

l. Education: master’s in criminology

m. Occupation/Professional: lecturer

n. Health insurance: full medical coverage

2. Chief Complaint (reason for seeking health care):

a. Brief spontaneous statement in client’s own words

“The cough started as a chest cough but it has not been better since my first time visit to the clinic. During the day it doesn’t bother me as much, but during the night I cough a lot. For the last few weeks I have experienced pain in the chest.”

b. Includes when the problem started

“I started coughing like three months ago. I have undergone treatment from regular hospitals but nothing seems to change.”

3. History of Present Illness: A well organized, chronological record of client’s reason for seeking care, from time of onset to present. Please include the 8 critical characteristics using the PQRSTU pneumonic.

P – Provocative or palliative

The client states that in most cases room temperature affects her cough, when she feels cold she coughs more. She is also affected by strong smells like perfumes, and states that she cannot sit directly under a fan or air conditioner because the strong wind promotes her cough.

Q – Quality or quantity

The client feels pain in her chest when she coughs. Her throat is also sore. The cough produces sputum that seems clear.

R – Region or radiation

She only has coughing problem. No other complains.

S – Severity

The severity according to the patient is at 6 out of 10.

T – Timing

She states that when she starts coughing it can last for more than five minutes without stopping. She coughs mostly during the night or when she is irritated by a disturbing smell during the day or even strong wind.

U – Understand Patient’s Perception of the problem

Her fever seems low grade at 100 degrees without chills. After a long conversation with the client she says that she is worried she might have pneumonia. She has not had shortness of breath, she also denies postnasal drip. She has undergone chest X-rays, TB test, and taken many over the counter drugs and home remedies, with no improvement.

4. Past Medical History

a. Medical Hx: major illnesses during life span, injuries, hospitalizations, transfusions, and disabilities.

No other major medical complications, she was diagnosed with diabetes at age 45, present concern is only her cough. hospitalized once for vaginal delivery, no other surgical hx.

b. Childhood Illnesses: Measles, chickenpox, Mumps, strep throat

c. Surgical Hx; dates, outpatient, X-rays.

Vaginal delivery on 02/26/1987, Chest X ray 08/15/2017

d. Obstetric HX:

Only one pregnancy, and one delivery, she gave birth to her daughter who is the only child.no miscarriages or abortion cases.

e. Immunizations: only as a child, immunization like MMR, Varicella, Tetanus, has not received busters as adult, but last visit to the doctor they gave her the flu shot. Patient states that she does not like getting vaccines.

f. Psychiatric Hx: no psychiatric conditions reported.

g. Allergies: allergic to dust

h. Current Medications: Metformin 500mg BID for diabetes type 2.

i. Last Examination Date: 12th March, 2017

No eye problem

No foot problem

There are some cavities

No hearing problem

EKG; normal

Chest X-Ray; diffuse wheezes are present bilaterally with expiration. No crackles or bronchi.

Pap test; no cervical cancer

Mammogram; no signs of breast cancer

Serum cholesterol; cholesterol level is at 200

Stool occult blood; no colon cancer

Prostate; not relevant

PSA; not relevant

UA; not collected

TB skin test; not detected

Sickle- cell; no sickle cell disease

PKU; non-applicable

Hamatocrit; 35% – normal

Genogram Three Generation

Section 2

This section has a family medical history as stated by the patient. Patient states that she is currently divorced from her husband whose whereabouts are unknown, prior to divorce he was in good health. Patient W.W. had one daughter with her ex-husband, she is alive and has history of asthma. Patient narrates that her mother is alive and heathy for her age, her father is deceased, he had a history of heart failure. Her maternal grandmother is alive and overall healthy, just debilitated due to her age, her maternal grandfather had a heart attack and is deceased. Patients grandmother is alive with arthritis, and her paternal grandfather is alive with diabetes. On the Ex-husband family side, she knows in his family in his mother’s side his mother is alive and with diabetes, his father alive and with hypertension, his grandmother had a stroke and is deceased, and his grandfather had committed suicide. On her Ex-husbands fathers side his grandmother alive with diabetes and HTN and his grandfather is alive with prostate issues and diagnosed with BPH.

Categories
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which of the following statements concerning reversing entries is​ true?

Test Bank for Accounting Principles, Eleventh Edition

4 – 3

Completing the Accounting Cycle

CHAPTER 4

COMPLETING THE ACCOUNTING CYCLE

Summary of Questions by Learning Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy

ItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBT
True-False Statements
1.1K9.2K17.4K25.6Csg33.2K
2.1K10.2K18.4C26.6Ksg34.3K
3.1C11.2K19.5C27.6Ksg35.6C
4.1C12.2K20.5K28.6Ksg36.6K
5.1K13.2K21.5C29.6Ksg37.6K
6.1K14.2K22.6Ka30.7K
7.1C15.3C23.6Csg31.1K
8.2K16.3K24.6Csg32.2K
Multiple Choice Questions
38.1K66.2K94.3C122.6AN150.6AP
39.1K67.2K95.3C123.6AN151.6AP
40.1K68.2C96.3C124.6Ka152.7K
41.1C69.2K97.4K125.6Ka153.7K
42.1C70.2K98.4K126.6Csg154.1C
43.1K71.2C99.4K127.6Ksg155.2K
44.1C72.2K100.4K128.6Ksg156.2K
45.1K73.2K101.4K129.6Csg157.3K
46.1K74.2C102.4K130.6Cst158.4K
47.1K75.2C103.4K131.6Ksg159.4K
48.1K76.2C104.4K132.6Kst160.5K
49.1K77.2C105.4K133.6Ksg161.5AN
50.1K78.2C106.5K134.6Kst162.6K
51.1C79.2AN107.5AN135.6Ksg163.6K
52.1K80.2C108.5K136.6Kst,a164.7K
53.1C81.2C109.5C137.6K165.8K
54.1AP82.2C110.5K138.6C166.8K
55.1C83.2C111.5AN139.1AN167.8K
56.2K84.2AN112.5AN140.6AN168.8K
57.2K85.2C113.5AN141.6AN169.8K
58.2K86.2C114.5AN142.6AN170.8K
59.2K87.3K115.5AN143.6AN171.8K
60.2K88.3C116.6AN144.6AN172.8K
61.2K89.3K117.6AN145.6AN173.8K
62.2K90.3K118.6AN146.6K174.8K
63.2K91.3K119.6AN147.6K175.8K
64.2K92.3K120.6AN148.6K
65.2K93.3K121.6AN149.6K

sg This question also appears in the Study Guide.

st This question also appears in a self-test at the student companion website.

a This question covers a topic in an appendix to the chapter.

Summary of Questions by Learning Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy

Brief Exercises
176.2AN179.2K182.5AN185.6AP
177.2AN180.3K183.6AN186.6K
178.2AN181.5AN184.6APa187.7AP
Exercises
188.1C194.1,6AP200.2AP206.5AN212.6AP
189.1C194.2AN201.3C207.5ANa213.7AN
190.1AN196.2AP202.3AN208.5ANa214.7AN
191.1AN197.2AP203.4C209.6APa215.7AN
192.1AN198.2AP204.5AN210.6AN
193.1AN199.2AP205.5AN211.6AP
Completion Statements
216.1K219..2K222.4K225.6K
217.1K220.2K223.6K226.6K
218.2K221.3K224.6K227.6K
Matching
228.1-7K
Short-Answer Essay
229.1K231.6Ka233.7K225.5K
230.2K232.6K234.5K

SUMMARY OF Learning OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE

ItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemType
Learning Objective 1
1.TF7.TF42.MC48.MC54.MC190.Ex217.C
2.TF31.TF43.MC49.MC55.MC191.Ex228.MA
3.TF38.MC44.MC50.MC139.MC192.Ex229.SA
4.TF39.MC45.MC51.MC154.MC193.Ex
5.TF40.MC46.MC52.MC188.Ex194.Ex
6.TF41.MC47.MC53.MC189.Ex216.C
Learning Objective 2
8.TF33.TF63.MC71.MC79.MC155.MC197.Ex
9.TF56.MC64.MC72.MC80.MC156.MC198.Ex
10.TF57.MC65.MC73.MC81.MC176.BE199.Ex
11.TF58.MC66.MC74.MC82.MC177.BE200.Ex
12.TF59.MC67.MC75.MC83.MC178.BE218.C
13.TF60.MC68.MC76.MC84.MC179.BE219/220.C
14.TF61.MC69.MC77.MC85.MC195.Ex228.MA
32.TF62.MC70.MC78.MC86.MC196.Ex230.SA
Learning Objective 3
15.TF87.MC90.MC93.MC96.MC201.Ex228.MA
16.TF88.MC91.MC94.MC157.MC202.Ex
34.TF89.MC92.MC95.MC180.BE221.C

SUMMARY OF Learning OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE

Learning Objective 4
17.TF98.MC101.MC104.MC159.MC228.MA
18.TF99.MC102.MC105.MC203.Ex
97.MC100.MC103.MC158.MC222.C
Learning Objective 5
19.TF107.MC111.MC115.MC182.BE207.Ex235.SA
20.TF108.MC112.MC160.MC204.Ex208.Ex
21.TF109.MC113.MC161.MC205.Ex228.MA
106.MC110.MC114.MC181.BE206.Ex234.SA
Learning Objective 6
22.TF37.TF125.MC135.MC145.MC184.BE225.C
23.TF116.MC126.MC136.MC146.MC185.BE226.C
24.TF117.MC127.MC137.MC147.MC186.BE227.C
25.TF118.MC128.MC138.MC148.MC183.Ex228.MA
26.TF119.MC129.MC149.MC209.Ex231.SA
27.TF120.MC130.MC140.MC150.MC210.Ex232.SA
28.TF121.MC131.MC141.MC151.MC211.Ex
29.TF122.MC132.MC142.MC162.MC212.Ex
35.TF123.MC133.MC143.MC163.MC223.C
36.TF124.MC134.MC144.MC183.BE224.C
Learning Objective a7
a30.TFa153.MCa167.MCa213.Exa215.Ex228.MA
a152.MCa164.MCa187.BEa214.Ex233.SA
Learning Objective a8
a165.MCa167.MCa169.MCa171.MCa173.MCa175.MC
a166.MCa168.MCa170.MCa172.MCa174.MC

Note: TF = True-False BE = Brief Exercise C = Completion

MC = Multiple Choice Ex = Exercise MA = Matching

SA = Short-Answer Essay

CHAPTER Learning OBJECTIVES

1. Prepare a worksheet. The steps in preparing a worksheet follows. (a) Prepare a trial balance on the worksheet, (b) Enter the adjustments in the adjustments columns, (c) Enter adjusted balances in the adjusted trial balance columns, (d) Extend adjusted trial balance amounts to appropriate financial statement columns, and (e) Total the statement columns, compute net income (or net loss), and complete the worksheet.

2. Explain the process of closing the books. Closing the books occurs at the end of an accounting period. The process is to journalize and post closing entries and then underline and balance all accounts. In closing the books, companies make separate entries to close revenues and expenses to Income Summary, Income Summary to Owner’s Capital, and Owner’s Drawings to Owner’s Capital. Only temporary accounts are closed.

3. Describe the content and purpose of a post-closing trial balance. A post-closing trial balance contains the balances in permanent accounts that are carried forward to the next accounting period. The purpose of this trial balance is to prove the equality of these balances.

4. State the required steps in the accounting cycle. The required steps in the accounting cycle are (1) analyze business transactions, (2) journalize the transactions, (3) post to ledger accounts, (4) prepare a trial balance, (5) journalize and post adjusting entries, (6) prepare an adjusted trial balance, (7) prepare financial statements, (8) journalize and post closing entries, and (9) prepare a post-closing trial balance.

5. Explain the approaches to preparing correcting entries. One way to determine the correcting entry is to compare the incorrect entry with the correct entry. After comparison, the company makes a correcting entry to correct the accounts. An alternative to a correcting entry is to reverse the incorrect entry and then prepare the correct entry.

6. Identify the sections of a classified balance sheet. A classified balance sheet categorizes assets as current assets; long-term investments; property, plant, and equipment; and intangibles. Liabilities are classified as either current or long-term. There is also an owner’s (owners’) equity section, which varies with the form of business organization.

a7. Prepare reversing entries. Reversing entries are the opposite of the adjusting entries made in the preceding period. Some companies choose to make reversing entries at the beginning of a new accounting period to simplify the recording of later transactions related to the adjusting entries. In most cases, only accrued adjusting entries are reversed.

TRUE-FALSE STATEMENTS

1. A worksheet is a mandatory form that must be prepared along with an income statement and balance sheet.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

2. If a worksheet is used, financial statements can be prepared before adjusting entries are journalized.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

3. If total credits in the income statement columns of a worksheet exceed total debits, the enterprise has net income.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

4. It is not necessary to prepare formal financial statements if a worksheet has been prepared because financial position and net income are shown on the worksheet.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

5. The adjustments on a worksheet can be posted directly to the accounts in the ledger from the worksheet.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

6. The adjusted trial balance columns of a worksheet are obtained by subtracting the adjustment columns from the trial balance columns.

Ans: F, SO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem LOlving, IMA: FSA

7. The balance of the depreciation expense account will appear in the income statement debit column of a worksheet.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

8. Closing entries are unnecessary if the business plans to continue operating in the future and issue financial statements each year.

Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

9. The owner’s drawings account is closed to the Income Summary account in order to properly determine net income (or loss) for the period.

Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

10. After closing entries have been journalized and posted, all temporary accounts in the ledger should have zero balances.

Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

11. Closing revenue and expense accounts to the Income Summary account is an optional bookkeeping procedure.

Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

12. Closing the drawings account to Owner’s Capital is not necessary if net income is greater than owner’s drawings during the period.

Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

13. The owner’s drawings account is a permanent account whose balance is carried forward to the next accounting period.

Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

14. Closing entries are journalized after adjusting entries have been journalized.

Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

15. The amounts appearing on an income statement should agree with the amounts appearing on the post-closing trial balance.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

16. The post-closing trial balance is entered in the first two columns of a worksheet.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

17. A business entity has only one accounting cycle over its economic existence.

Ans: F, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

18. The accounting cycle begins at the start of a new accounting period.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

19. Both correcting entries and adjusting entries always affect at least one balance sheet account and one income statement account.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

20. Correcting entries are made any time an error is discovered even though it may not be at the end of an accounting period.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

21. An incorrect debit to Accounts Receivable instead of the correct account Notes Receivable does not require a correcting entry because total assets will not be misstated.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

22. In a corporation, Retained Earnings is a part of owners’ equity.

Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

23. A company’s operating cycle and fiscal year are usually the same length of time.

Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

24. Cash and supplies are both classified as current assets.

Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

25. Long-term investments would appear in the property, plant, and equipment section of the balance sheet.

Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

26. A liability is classified as a current liability if the company is to pay it within the forthcoming year.

Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

27. A company’s liquidity is concerned with the relationship between long-term investments and long-term debt.

Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Risk Analysis, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

28. Current assets are customarily the first items listed on a classified balance sheet.

Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

29. The operating cycle of a company is determined by the number of years the company has been operating.

Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

a30. Reversing entries are an optional bookkeeping procedure.

Ans: T, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

31. After a worksheet has been completed, the statement columns contain all data that are required for the preparation of financial statements.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

32. To close net income to owner’s capital, Income Summary is debited and Owner’s Capital is credited.

Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

33. In one closing entry, Owner’s Drawings is credited and Income Summary is debited.

Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

34. The post-closing trial balance will contain only owner’s equity statement accounts and balance sheet accounts.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

35. The operating cycle of a company is the average time required to collect the receivables resulting from producing revenues.

Ans: F, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

36. Current assets are listed in the order of liquidity.

Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

37. Current liabilities are obligations that the company is to pay within the coming year.

Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Answers to True-False Statements

ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.
1.F7.T13.F19.F25.F31.T37.T
2.T8.F14.T20.T26.T32.T
3.T9.F15.F21.F27.F33.F
4.F10.T16.F22.T28.T34.F
5.F11.F17.F23.F29.F35.F
6.F12.F18.T24.Ta30.T36.T

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

38. Preparing a worksheet involves

a. two steps.

b. three steps.

c. four steps.

d. five steps.

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

39. The adjustments entered in the adjustments columns of a worksheet are

a. not journalized.

b. posted to the ledger but not journalized.

c. not journalized until after the financial statements are prepared.

d. journalized before the worksheet is completed.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

40. The information for preparing a trial balance on a worksheet is obtained from

a. financial statements.

b. general ledger accounts.

c. general journal entries.

d. business documents.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

41. After the adjusting entries are journalized and posted to the accounts in the general ledger, the balance of each account should agree with the balance shown on the

a. adjusted trial balance.

b. post-closing trial balance.

c. the general journal.

d. adjustments columns of the worksheet.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

42. If the total debit column exceeds the total credit column of the income statement columns on a worksheet, then the company has

a. earned net income for the period.

b. an error because debits do not equal credits.

c. suffered a net loss for the period.

d. to make an adjusting entry.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

43. A worksheet is a multiple column form that facilitates the

a. identification of events.

b. measurement process.

c. preparation of financial statements.

d. analysis process.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

44. Which of the following companies would be least likely to use a worksheet to facilitate the adjustment process?

a. Large company with numerous accounts

b. Small company with numerous accounts

c. All companies, since worksheets are required under generally accepted accounting principles

d. Small company with few accounts

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

45. A worksheet can be thought of as a(n)

a. permanent accounting record.

b. optional device used by accountants.

c. part of the general ledger.

d. part of the journal.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

46. The account, Supplies, will appear in the following debit columns of the worksheet.

a. Trial balance

b. Adjusted trial balance

c. Balance sheet

d. All of these answer choices are correct

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

47. When constructing a worksheet, accounts are often needed that are not listed in the trial balance already entered on the worksheet from the ledger. Where should these additional accounts be shown on the worksheet?

a. They should be inserted in alphabetical order into the trial balance accounts already given.

b. They should be inserted in chart of account order into the trial balance already given.

c. They should be inserted on the lines immediately below the trial balance totals.

d. They should not be inserted on the trial balance until the next accounting period.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

48. When using a worksheet, adjusting entries are journalized

a. after the worksheet is completed and before financial statements are prepared.

b. before the adjustments are entered on to the worksheet.

c. after the worksheet is completed and after financial statements have been prepared.

d. before the adjusted trial balance is extended to the proper financial statement columns.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

49. Assuming that there is a net loss for the period, debits equal credits in all but which section of the worksheet?

a. Income statement columns

b. Adjustments columns

c. Trial balance columns

d. Adjusted trial balance columns

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

50. Adjusting entries are prepared from

a. source documents.

b. the adjustments columns of the worksheet.

c. the general ledger.

d. last year’s worksheet.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

51. The net income (or loss) for the period

a. is found by computing the difference between the income statement credit column and the balance sheet credit column on the worksheet.

b. cannot be found on the worksheet.

c. is found by computing the difference between the income statement columns of the worksheet.

d. is found by computing the difference between the trial balance totals and the adjusted trial balance totals.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

52. The worksheet does not show

a. net income or loss for the period.

b. revenue and expense account balances.

c. the ending balance in the owner’s capital account.

d. the trial balance before adjustments.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

53. If the total debits exceed total credits in the balance sheet columns of the worksheet, owner’s equity

a. will increase because net income has occurred.

b. will decrease because a net loss has occurred.

c. is in error because a mistake has occurred.

d. will not be affected.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

54. The income statement and balance sheet columns of Iron and Wine Company’s worksheet reflect the following totals:

Income Statement Balance Sheet

Dr. Cr. Dr. Cr.

Totals $72,000 $44,000 $60,000 $88,000

The net income (or loss) for the period is

a. $44,000 income.

b. $28,000 income.

c. $28,000 loss.

d. not determinable.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

55. The income statement and balance sheet columns of Iron and Wine Company’s worksheet reflect the following totals:

Income Statement Balance Sheet

Dr. Cr. Dr. Cr.

Totals $72,000 $48,000 $60,000 $84,000

To enter the net income (or loss) for the period into the above worksheet requires an entry to the

a. income statement debit column and the balance sheet credit column.

b. income statement credit column and the balance sheet debit column.

c. income statement debit column and the income statement credit column.

d. balance sheet debit column and the balance sheet credit column.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

56. Closing entries are necessary for

a. permanent accounts only.

b. temporary accounts only.

c. both permanent and temporary accounts.

d. permanent or real accounts only.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

57. Each of the following accounts is closed to Income Summary except

a. Expenses.

b. Owner’s Drawings.

c. Revenues.

d. All of these are closed to Income Summary.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

58. Closing entries are made

a. in order to terminate the business as an operating entity.

b. so that all assets, liabilities, and owner’s capital accounts will have zero balances when the next accounting period starts.

c. in order to transfer net income (or loss) and owner’s drawings to the owner’s capital account.

d. so that financial statements can be prepared.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

59. Closing entries are

a. an optional step in the accounting cycle.

b. posted to the ledger accounts from the worksheet.

c. made to close permanent or real accounts.

d. journalized in the general journal.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

60. The income summary account

a. is a permanent account.

b. appears on the balance sheet.

c. appears on the income statement.

d. is a temporary account.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

61. If Income Summary has a credit balance after revenues and expenses have been closed into it, the closing entry for Income Summary will include a

a. debit to the owner’s capital account.

b. debit to the owner’s drawings account.

c. credit to the owner’s capital account.

d. credit to the owner’s drawings account.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

62. Closing entries are journalized and posted

a. before the financial statements are prepared.

b. after the financial statements are prepared.

c. at management’s discretion.

d. at the end of each interim accounting period.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

63. Closing entries

a. are prepared before the financial statements.

b. reduce the number of permanent accounts.

c. cause the revenue and expense accounts to have zero balances.

d. summarize the activity in every account.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

64. Which of the following is a true statement about closing the books of a proprietorship?

a. Expenses are closed to the Expense Summary account.

b. Only revenues are closed to the Income Summary account.

c. Revenues and expenses are closed to the Income Summary account.

d. Revenues, expenses, and the owner’s drawings account are closed to the Income Summary account.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

65. Closing entries may be prepared from all of the following except

a. Adjusted balances in the ledger

b. Income statement and balance sheet columns of the worksheet

c. Balance sheet

d. Income and owner’s equity statements

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

66. In order to close the owner’s drawings account, the

a. income summary account should be debited.

b. income summary account should be credited.

c. owner’s capital account should be credited.

d. owner’s capital account should be debited.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

67. In preparing closing entries

a. each revenue account will be credited.

b. each expense account will be credited.

c. the owner’s capital account will be debited if there is net income for the period.

d. the owner’s drawings account will be debited.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

68. The most efficient way to accomplish closing entries is to

a. credit the income summary account for each revenue account balance.

b. debit the income summary account for each expense account balance.

c. credit the owner’s drawings balance directly to the income summary account.

d. credit the income summary account for total revenues and debit the income summary account for total expenses.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

69. The closing entry process consists of closing

a. all asset and liability accounts.

b. out the owner’s capital account.

c. all permanent accounts.

d. all temporary accounts.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

70. The final closing entry to be journalized is typically the entry that closes the

a. revenue accounts.

b. owner’s drawings account.

c. owner’s capital account.

d. expense accounts.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

71. An error has occurred in the closing entry process if

a. revenue and expense accounts have zero balances.

b. the owner’s capital account is credited for the amount of net income.

c. the owner’s drawings account is closed to the owner’s capital account.

d. the balance sheet accounts have zero balances.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

72. The Income Summary account is an important account that is used

a. during interim periods.

b. in preparing adjusting entries.

c. annually in preparing closing entries.

d. annually in preparing correcting entries.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

73. The balance in the income summary account before it is closed will be equal to

a. the net income or loss on the income statement.

b. the beginning balance in the owner’s capital account.

c. the ending balance in the owner’s capital account.

d. zero.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

74. After closing entries are posted, the balance in the owner’s capital account in the ledger will be equal to

a. the beginning owner’s capital reported on the owner’s equity statement.

b. the amount of the owner’s capital reported on the balance sheet.

c. zero.

d. the net income for the period.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

75. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information:

Revenues $7,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $3,000

Rent Expense 1,500

Advertising Expense 800

Supplies Expense 300

Insurance Expense 100

Total expenses 5,700

Net income $1,300

The entry to close the revenue account includes a

a. debit to Income Summary for $1,300.

b. credit to Income Summary for $1,300.

c. debit to Income Summary for $7,000.

d. credit to Income Summary for $7,000.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

76. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information:

Revenues $7,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $3,000

Rent Expense 1,500

Advertising Expense 800

Supplies Expense 300

Insurance Expense 100

Total expenses 5,700

Net income $1,300

The entry to close the expense accounts includes a

a. debit to Income Summary for $1,300.

b. credit to Rent Expense for $1,500.

c. credit to Income Summary for $5,700.

d. debit to Salaries and Wages Expense for $3,000.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

77. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information:

Revenues $7,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $3,000

Rent Expense 1,500

Advertising Expense 800

Supplies Expense 300

Insurance Expense 100

Total expenses 5,700

Net income $1,300

After the revenue and expense accounts have been closed, the balance in Income Summary will be

a. $0.

b. a debit balance of $1,300.

c. a credit balance of $1,300.

d. a credit balance of $7,000.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $7,000 ( $5,700 ( $1,300

78. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information:

Revenues $7,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $3,000

Rent Expense 1,500

Advertising Expense 800

Supplies Expense 300

Insurance Expense 100

Total expenses 5,700

Net income $1,300

The entry to close Income Summary to Owner’s, Capital includes

a. a debit to Revenues for $7,000.

b. credits to Expenses totalling $5,700.

c. a credit to Income Summary for $1,300

d. a credit to Owner’s Capital for $1,300.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

79. The income statement for the month of June, 2014 of Camera Obscura Enterprises contains the following information:

Revenues $7,000

Expenses:

Salries and Wages Expense $3,000

Rent Expense 1,500

Advertising Expense 800

Supplies Expense 300

Insurance Expense 100

Total expenses 5,700

Net income $1,300

At June 1, 2014, Camera Obscura reported owner’s equity of $35,000. The company had no owner drawings during June. At June 30, 2014, the company will report owner’s equity of

a. $29,300.

b. $35,000.

c. $36,300.

d. $42,000.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $35,000 + $1,300 = $36,300

80. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Advertising Expense 10,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $ (7,500)

The entry to close the revenue account includes a

a. debit to Income Summary for $7,500.

b. credit to Income Summary for $7,500.

c. debit to Revenues for $70,000.

d. credit to Revenues for $70,000.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

81. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Advertising Expense 10,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $ (7,500)

The entry to close the expense accounts includes a

a. debit to Income Summary for $7,500.

b. credit to Income Summary for $7,500.

c. debit to Income Summary for $77,500.

d. debit to Utilities Expense for $2,500.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

82. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Advertising Expense 10,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $ (7,500)

After the revenue and expense accounts have been closed, the balance in Income Summary will be

a. $0.

b. a debit balance of $7,500.

c. a credit balance of $7,500.

d. a credit balance of $70,000.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

83. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Advertising Expense 10,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $ (7,500)

The entry to close Income Summary to Owner’s Capital includes

a. a debit to Revenue for $70,000.

b. credits to Expenses totalling $77,500.

c. a credit to Income Summary for $7,500.

d. a credit to Owner’s Capital for $7,500.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

84. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Advertising Expense 10,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $ (7,500)

At January 1, 2014, Fugazi reported owner’s equity of $50,000. Owner drawings for the year totalled $10,000. At December 31, 2014, the company will report owner’s equity of

a. $17,500.

b. $32,500.

c. $40,000.

d. $42,500.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $50,000 ( $10,000 ( $7,500 ( $32,500

85. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Advertising Expense 10,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $ (7,500)

After all closing entries have been posted, the Income Summary account will have a balance of

a. $0.

b. $7,500 debit.

c. $7,500 credit.

d. $77,500 credit.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

86. The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:

Revenues $70,000

Expenses:

Salaries and Wages Expense $45,000

Rent Expense 12,000

Advertising Expense 10,000

Supplies Expense 6,000

Utilities Expense 2,500

Insurance Expense 2,000

Total expenses 77,500

Net income (loss) $ (7,500)

After all closing entries have been posted, the revenue account will have a balance of

a. $0.

b. $70,000 credit.

c. $70,000 debit.

d. $7,500 credit.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

87. A post-closing trial balance is prepared

a. after closing entries have been journalized and posted.

b. before closing entries have been journalized and posted.

c. after closing entries have been journalized but before the entries are posted.

d. before closing entries have been journalized but after the entries are posted.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

88. All of the following statements about the post-closing trial balance are correct except it

a. shows that the accounting equation is in balance.

b. provides evidence that the journalizing and posting of closing entries have been properly completed.

c. contains only permanent accounts.

d. proves that all transactions have been recorded.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

89. A post-closing trial balance will show

a. only permanent account balances.

b. only temporary account balances.

c. zero balances for all accounts.

d. the amount of net income (or loss) for the period.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

90. A post-closing trial balance should be prepared

a. before closing entries are posted to the ledger accounts.

b. after closing entries are posted to the ledger accounts.

c. before adjusting entries are posted to the ledger accounts.

d. only if an error in the accounts is detected.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

91. A post-closing trial balance will show

a. zero balances for all accounts.

b. zero balances for balance sheet accounts.

c. only balance sheet accounts.

d. only income statement accounts.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

92. The purpose of the post-closing trial balance is to

a. prove that no mistakes were made.

b. prove the equality of the balance sheet account balances that are carried forward into the next accounting period.

c. prove the equality of the income statement account balances that are carried forward into the next accounting period.

d. list all the balance sheet accounts in alphabetical order for easy reference.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

93. The balances that appear on the post-closing trial balance will match the

a. income statement account balances after adjustments.

b. balance sheet account balances after closing entries.

c. income statement account balances after closing entries.

d. balance sheet account balances after adjustments.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

94. Which account listed below would be double ruled in the ledger as part of the closing process?

a. Cash

b. Owner’s Capital

c. Owner’s Drawings

d. Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

95. A double rule applied to accounts in the ledger during the closing process implies that

a. the account is a temporary account.

b. the account is a balance sheet account.

c. the account balance is not zero.

d. a mistake has been made, since double ruling is prescribed.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

96. The heading for a post-closing trial balance has a date line that is similar to the one found on

a. a balance sheet.

b. an income statement.

c. an owner’s equity statement.

d. the worksheet.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

97. Which one of the following is usually prepared only at the end of a company’s annual accounting period?

a. Preparing financial statements

b. Journalizing and posting adjusting entries

c. Journalizing and posting closing entries

d. Preparing an adjusted trial balance

Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

98. The step in the accounting cycle that is performed on a periodic basis (i.e., monthly, quarterly) is

a. analyzing transactions.

b. journalizing and posting adjusting entries.

c. preparing a post-closing trial balance.

d. posting to ledger accounts.

Ans: B, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

99. Which one of the following is an optional step in the accounting cycle of a business enterprise?

a. Analyze business transactions

b. Prepare a worksheet

c. Prepare a trial balance

d. Post to the ledger accounts

Ans: B, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

100. The final step in the accounting cycle is to prepare

a. closing entries.

b. financial statements.

c. a post-closing trial balance.

d. adjusting entries.

Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

101. Which of the following steps in the accounting cycle would not generally be performed daily?

a. Journalize transactions

b. Post to ledger accounts

c. Prepare adjusting entries

d. Analyze business transactions

Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

102. Which of the following steps in the accounting cycle may be performed most frequently?

a. Prepare a post-closing trial balance

b. Journalize closing entries

c. Post closing entries

d. Prepare a trial balance

Ans: D, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

103. Which of the following depicts the proper sequence of steps in the accounting cycle?

a. Journalize the transactions, analyze business transactions, prepare a trial balance

b. Prepare a trial balance, prepare financial statements, prepare adjusting entries

c. Prepare a trial balance, prepare adjusting entries, prepare financial statements

d. Prepare a trial balance, post to ledger accounts, post adjusting entries

Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

104. The two optional steps in the accounting cycle are preparing

a. a post-closing trial balance and reversing entries.

b. a worksheet and post-closing trial balances.

c. reversing entries and a worksheet.

d. an adjusted trial balance and a post-closing trial balance.

Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

105. The first required step in the accounting cycle is

a. reversing entries.

b. journalizing transactions in the book of original entry.

c. analyzing transactions.

d. posting transactions.

Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

106. Correcting entries

a. always affect at least one balance sheet account and one income statement account.

b. affect income statement accounts only.

c. affect balance sheet accounts only.

d. may involve any combination of accounts in need of correction.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

107. Merriweather Post Pavillion received a $820 check from a customer for the balance due. The transaction was erroneously recorded as a debit to Cash $280 and a credit to Service Revenue $280. The correcting entry is

a. debit Cash, $820; credit Accounts Receivable, $820.

b. debit Cash, $540 and Accounts Receivable, $280; credit Service Revenue, $820.

c. debit Cash, $540 and Service Revenue, $280; credit Accounts Receivable, $820.

d. debit Accounts Receivable, $820; credit Cash, $560 and Service Revenue, $280.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $820 ( $280 ( $540

108. If errors occur in the recording process, they

a. should be corrected as adjustments at the end of the period.

b. should be corrected as soon as they are discovered.

c. should be corrected when preparing closing entries.

d. cannot be corrected until the next accounting period.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

109. A correcting entry

a. must involve one balance sheet account and one income statement account.

b. is another name for a closing entry.

c. may involve any combination of accounts.

d. is a required step in the accounting cycle.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

110. An unacceptable way to make a correcting entry is to

a. reverse the incorrect entry.

b. erase the incorrect entry.

c. compare the incorrect entry with the correct entry and make a correcting entry to correct the accounts.

d. correct it immediately upon discovery.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

111. Zen Arcade paid the weekly payroll on January 2 by debiting Salaries and Wages Expense for $47,000. The accountant preparing the payroll entry overlooked the fact that Salaries and Wages Expense of $27,000 had been accrued at year end on December 31. The correcting entry is

a. Salaries and Wages Payable 27,000

Cash 27,000

b. Cash 20,000

Salaries and Wages Expense 20,000

c. Salaries and Wages Payable 27,000

Salaries and Wages Expense 27,000

d. Cash 27,000

Salaries and Wages Expense 27,000

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

112. Jawbreaker Company paid $940 on account to a creditor. The transaction was erroneously recorded as a debit to Cash of $490 and a credit to Accounts Receivable, $490. The correcting entry is

a. Accounts Payable 940

Cash 940

b. Accounts Receivable 490

Cash 490

c. Accounts Receivable 490

Accounts Payable 490

d. Accounts Receivable 490

Accounts Payable 940

Cash 1,430

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $940 + $490 ( $1,430

113. A lawyer collected $710 of legal fees in advance. He erroneously debited Cash for $170 and credited Accounts Receivable for $170. The correcting entry is

a. Cash 170

Accounts Receivable 540

Unearned Service Revenue 710

b. Cash 710

Service Revenue 710

c. Cash 540

Accounts Receivable 170

Unearned Service Revenue 710

d. Cash 540

Accounts Receivable 540

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $710 ( $170 = $540

114. On May 25, Yellow House Company received a $650 check from Grizzly Bean for services to be performed in the future. The bookkeeper for Yellow House Company incorrectly debited Cash for $650 and credited Accounts Receivable for $650. The amounts have been posted to the ledger. To correct this entry, the bookkeeper should:

a. debit Cash $650 and credit Unearned Service Revenue $650.

b. debit Accounts Receivable $650 and credit Service Revenue $650.

c. debit Accounts Receivable $650 and credit Cash $650.

d. debit Accounts Receivable $650 and credit Unearned Service Revenue $650.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

115. On March 8, Black Candy Company bought supplies on account from the Arcade Fire Company for $550. Black Candy Company incorrectly debited Equipment for $500 and credited Accounts Payable for $500. The entries have been posted to the ledger. the correcting entry should be:

a. Supplies 550

Accounts Payable 550

b. Supplies 550

Accounts Payable 500

Equipment 50

c. Supplies 550

Equipment 550

d. Supplies 550

Equipment 500

Accounts Payable 50

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $550 ( $500 ( $50

116. The following information is for Sunny Day Real Estate:

Sunny Day Real Estate

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $ 25,000 Accounts Payable $ 60,000

Prepaid Insurance 30,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 15,000

Accounts Receivable 50,000 Mortgage Payable 85,000

Inventory 70,000 Total Liabilities 160,000

Land Held for Investment 85,000

Land 120,000

Building $100,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 370,000

Depreciation (20,000) 80,000

Trademark 70,000 Total Liabilities and

Total Assets $530,000 Owner’s Equity $530,000

The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as current assets is

a. $105,000.

b. $175,000.

c. $190,000.

d. $260,000.

Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $25,000 ( $30,000 ( $50,000 ( $70,000 ( $175,000

117. The following information is for Sunny Day Real Estate:

Sunny Day Real Estate

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $ 25,000 Accounts Payable $ 60,000

Prepaid Insurance 30,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 15,000

Accounts Receivable 50,000 Mortgage Payable 85,000

Inventory 70,000 Total Liabilities 160,000

Land Held for Investment 85,000

Land 120,000

Building $100,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 370,000

Depreciation (20,000) 80,000

Trademark 70,000 Total Liabilities and

Total Assets $530,000 Owner’s Equity $530,000

The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as property, plant, and equipment is

a. $200,000.

b. $220,000.

c. $285,000.

d. $305,000.

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $120,000 ( $80,000 ( $200,000

118. The following information is for Sunny Day Real Estate:

Sunny Day Real Estate

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $ 25,000 Accounts Payable $ 60,000

Prepaid Insurance 30,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 15,000

Accounts Receivable 50,000 Mortgage Payable 85,000

Inventory 70,000 Total Liabilities 160,000

Land Held for Investment 85,000

Land 120,000

Building $100,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 370,000

Depreciation (20,000) 80,000

Trademark 70,000 Total Liabilities and

Total Assets $530,000 Owner’s Equity $530,000

The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as investments is

a. $0.

b. $70,000.

c. $85,000.

d. $155,000.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

119. The following information is for Sunny Day Real Estate:

Sunny Day Real Estate

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $ 25,000 Accounts Payable $ 60,000

Prepaid Insurance 30,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 15,000

Accounts Receivable 50,000 Mortgage Payable 85,000

Inventory 70,000 Total Liabilities 160,000

Land Held for Investment 85,000

Land 120,000

Building $100,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 370,000

Depreciation (20,000) 80,000

Trademark 70,000 Total Liabilities and

Total Assets $530,000 Owner’s Equity $530,000

The total dollar amount of liabilities to be classified as current liabilities is

a. $15,000.

b. $60,000.

c. $75,000.

d. $160,000.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $15,000 ( $75,000

120. The following information is for Bright Eyes Auto Supplies:

Bright Eyes Auto Supplies

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $ 40,000 Accounts Payable $ 130,000

Prepaid Insurance 80,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 50,000

Accounts Receivable 100,000 Mortgage Payable 150,000

Inventory 140,000 Total Liabilities 330,000

Land Held for Investment 180,000

Land 250,000

Building $200,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 740,000

Depreciation (60,000) 140,000

Trademark 140,000 Total Liabilities and

Total Assets $1,070,000 Owner’s Equity $1,070,000

The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as current assets is

a. $140,000.

b. $220,000.

c. $360,000.

d. $500,000.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $40,000 ( $80,000 ( $100,000 ( $140,000 ( $360,000

121. The following information is for Bright Eyes Auto Supplies:

Bright Eyes Auto Supplies

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $ 40,000 Accounts Payable $ 130,000

Prepaid Insurance 80,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 50,000

Accounts Receivable 100,000 Mortgage Payable 150,000

Inventory 140,000 Total Liabilities 330,000

Land Held for Investment 180,000

Land 250,000

Building $200,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 740,000

Depreciation (60,000) 140,000

Trademark 140,000 Total Liabilities and

Total Assets $1,070,000 Owner’s Equity $1,070,000

The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as property, plant, and equipment is

a. $390,000.

b. $450,000.

c. $570,000.

d. $630,000.

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $250,000 ( $140,000 ( $390,000

122. The following information is for Bright Eyes Auto Supplies:

Bright Eyes Auto Supplies

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $ 40,000 Accounts Payable $ 130,000

Prepaid Insurance 80,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 50,000

Accounts Receivable 100,000 Mortgage Payable 150,000

Inventory 140,000 Total Liabilities 330,000

Land Held for Investment 180,000

Land 250,000

Building $200,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 740,000

Depreciation (60,000) 140,000

Trademark 140,000 Total Liabilities and

Total Assets $1,070,000 Owner’s Equity $1,070,000

The total dollar amount of assets to be classified as investments is

a. $0.

b. $140,000.

c. $180,000.

d. $250,000.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

123. The following information is for Bright Eyes Auto Supplies:

Bright Eyes Auto Supplies

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2014

Cash $ 40,000 Accounts Payable $ 130,000

Prepaid Insurance 80,000 Salaries and Wages Payable 50,000

Accounts Receivable 100,000 Mortgage Payable 150,000

Inventory 140,000 Total Liabilities 330,000

Land Held for Investment 180,000

Land 250,000

Building $200,000

Less Accumulated Owner’s Capital 740,000

Depreciation (60,000) 140,000

Trademark 140,000 Total Liabilities and

Total Assets $1,070,000 Owner’s Equity $1,070,000

The total dollar amount of liabilities to be classified as current liabilities is

a. $50,000.

b. $130,000.

c. $180,000.

d. $330,000.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $130,000 ( $50,000 ( $180,000

124. All of the following are property, plant, and equipment except

a. supplies.

b. machinery.

c. land.

d. buildings.

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

125. The first item listed under current liabilities is usually

a. accounts payable.

b. notes payable.

c. salaries and wages payable.

d. taxes payable.

Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

126. Equipment is classified in the balance sheet as

a. a current asset.

b. property, plant, and equipment.

c. an intangible asset.

d. a long-term investment.

Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

127. A current asset is

a. the last asset purchased by a business.

b. an asset which is currently being used to produce a product or service.

c. usually found as a separate classification in the income statement.

d. an asset that a company expects to convert to cash or use up within one year.

Ans: D, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

128. An intangible asset

a. does not have physical substance, yet often is very valuable.

b. is worthless because it has no physical substance.

c. is converted into a tangible asset during the operating cycle.

d. cannot be classified on the balance sheet because it lacks physical substance.

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

129. Liabilities are generally classified on a balance sheet as

a. small liabilities and large liabilities.

b. present liabilities and future liabilities.

c. tangible liabilities and intangible liabilities.

d. current liabilities and long-term liabilities.

Ans: D, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

130. Which of the following would not be classified a long-term liability?

a. Current maturities of long-term debt

b. Bonds payable

c. Mortgage payable

d. Lease liabilities

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

131. Which of the following liabilities are not related to the operating cycle?

a. Salaries and wages payable

b. Accounts payable

c. Utilities payable

d. Bonds payable

Ans: D, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

132. Intangible assets include each of the following except

a. copyrights.

b. goodwill.

c. land improvements.

d. patents.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

133. It is not true that current assets are assets that a company expects to

a. realize in cash within one year.

b. sell within one year.

c. use up within one year.

d. acquire within one year.

Ans: D, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

134. The operating cycle of a company is the average time that is required to go from cash to

a. sales in producing revenues.

b. cash in producing revenues.

c. inventory in producing revenues.

d. accounts receivable in producing revenues.

Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

135. On a classified balance sheet, current assets are customarily listed

a. in alphabetical order.

b. with the largest dollar amounts first.

c. in the order of liquidity.

d. in the order of acquisition.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

136. Intangible assets are

a. listed under current assets on the balance sheet.

b. not listed on the balance sheet because they do not have physical substance.

c. long-lived assets that are often very valuable.

d. listed as a long-term investment on the balance sheet.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

137. The relationship between current assets and current liabilities is important in evaluating a company’s

a. profitability.

b. liquidity.

c. market value.

d. accounting cycle.

Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Risk Analysis, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

138. The most important information needed to determine if companies can pay their current obligations is the

a. net income for this year.

b. projected net income for next year.

c. relationship between current assets and current liabilities.

d. relationship between short-term and long-term liabilities.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Risk Analysis, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

139. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Accounts payable $ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Advertising expense 21,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

Equipment 210,000

What is the company’s net income for the year ending December 31, 2014?

a. $12,000

b. $28,000

c. $42,000

d. $133,000

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $133,000 ( $21,000 ( $12,000 ( $3,000 ( $17,000 ( $32,000 ( $6,000 ( $42,000

140. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Accounts payable $ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Advertising expense 21,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Multiple Choice 140. (Cont.)

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

Equipment 210,000

What is the balance that would be reported for owner’s equity at December 31, 2014?

a. $158,000

b. $144,000

c. $130,000

d. $102,000

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $133,000 ( $21,000 ( $12,000 ( $3,000 ( $17,000 ( $32,000 ( $6,000 ( $42,000( $102,000 ( $42,000 ( $14,000 ( $130,000

141. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Accounts payable $ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Advertising expense 21,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

Equipment 210,000

What are total current assets at December 31, 2014?

a. $26,000

b. $32,000

c. $36,000

d. $42,000

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $11,000 ( $15,000 ( $6,000 ( $4,000 ( $36,000

142. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Accounts payable $ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Advertising expense 21,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Equipment 210,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

What is the book value of the equipment at December 31, 2014?

a. $170,000

b. $182,000

c. $210,000

d. $238,000

Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $210,000 ( $28,000 ( $182,000

143. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Accounts payable $ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Advertising expense 21,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

Equipment 210,000

Multiple Choice 143. (Cont.)

What are total current liabilities at December 31, 2014?

a. $18,000

b. $70,000

c. $88,000

d. $120,000

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $18,000 ( $70,000 ( $88,000

144. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Accounts payable $ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Advertising expense 21,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

Equipment 210,000

What are total long-term liabilities at December 31, 2014?

a. $0

b. $70,000

c. $88,000

d. $90,000

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

145. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

Accounts payable $ 18,000

Accounts receivable 11,000

Accumulated depreciation – equipment 28,000

Advertising expense 21,000

Cash 15,000

Owner’s capital (1/1/14) 102,000

Owner’s drawings 14,000

Depreciation expense 12,000

Equipment 210,000

Insurance expense 3,000

Note payable, due 6/30/15 70,000

Prepaid insurance (12-month policy) 6,000

Rent expense 17,000

Salaries and wages expense 32,000

Service revenue 133,000

Supplies 4,000

Supplies expense 6,000

What is total liabilities and owner’s equity at December 31, 2014?

a. $176,000

b. $218,000

c. $190,000

d. $232,000

Ans: B, LO: 6, Bloom: AN, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $133,000 ( $21,000 ( $12,000 ( $3,000 ( $17,000 ( $32,000 ( $6,000 ( $42,000( $18,000 ( $70,000 ( $88,000( $88,000 ( ($102,000 ( $42,000 ( $14,000) ( $218,000

146. The following items are taken from the financial statements of the Postal Service for the year ending December 31, 2014:

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which of the following must occur for speciation to happen?

  1. which of the following must occur for speciation to take place?
    10,681 results
    science
    1.a population of snails on an island is disrupted during a violent storm. portions of the population are carried by the storm surge to two new islands, while a portion remains on the original island creating three separate populations. conditions on one

asked by kayla(sciences) plz help on October 5, 2015
science

  1. which of the following must occur for speciation to take place? a. a population must be physically separated into groups b. harsh environmental conditions must be imposed on a population c. competition must occur between members of a populations d. some

asked by kayla help plzz on October 6, 2015
science

  1. which of the following must occur for speciation to take place? a. a population must be physically separated into groups b. harsh environmental conditions must be imposed on a population c. competition must occur between members of a populations d. some

asked by kayla help plzz on October 5, 2015
Science
Can you please help me answer just a couple questions A species of flowering plant produces vibrant blue flowers. The flowers attract both pollinators that spread the plant’s pollen and herbivores that feed on the plant. An adaptation occurred through

asked by anonymous on May 18, 2015
theory of evolution
if you guys could check my answers I would be really grateful A species of flowering plant produces vibrant blue flowers. The flowers attract both pollinators that spread the plant’s pollen and herbivores that feed on the plant. An adaptation occurred

asked by anonymous on May 19, 2015

Science
Sorry Ms Sue I forgot to separate them A species of flowering plant produces vibrant blue flowers. The flowers attract both pollinators that spread the plant’s pollen and herbivores that feed on the plant. An adaptation occurred through several generations

asked by anonymous on May 18, 2015
Biology
Can someone explain allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation. I know that allopatric speciation is because of geographic isolation. I don’t understand sympatric speciaiton, though.

asked by Alex on January 23, 2008
Biology
1.) Do you think evolution is still taking place in the Galapagos finches? Why or why not? According to what I’ve learned yes evolution is still taking place in the Galapagos finches. Isolation and gene mutations cause species to evolve into different

asked by Do my answers seem right? on February 2, 2016
biology
How do adaptive radiation, polyploidy, and sexual selection relate to speciation? And what is allopatric and sympatric speciation and how to they relate to the earlier mentioned topics?

asked by Rach on September 2, 2009
Math
8 runners are entered in the 1000-meter run. How many different first, second, and third place finishes could possibly occur? Is the answer 24? No. 8x7x6 = 336 The first place can be any of eight. For each first place possibility, there are seven possible

asked by Tony on December 14, 2006
Environmental Science
I have to determine which kind of natural selection is most likely to begin speciation out of stabalizing, directional and disruptive. I would think Directional, since it favors one extreme which could eventually break away from the norm to the point a new

asked by Regina on April 1, 2011
geo
I need 3 reasons why a huge earthquake wouldnt occur in NYC. I have the following points: 1) New york city doesn’t lay beneath any fault lines I also said that if an earthquake were to occur, the magnitude would be on the lower end of the ritcher scale.

asked by Lena on September 27, 2010
Biology

  1. Two species live in the same area but breed in different parts of their habitat. These species are A) geographically isolated. B) ecologically isolated. C) artificially isolated. D) likely to produce hybrids. 2. A large population of animals is split in

asked by Anon on December 12, 2012
college chemistry

  1. what voltage is necessary to force the following electrolysis reaction to occur? which process would occur at the anode? cathode? assuming the iodine oxidation takes place at a platinumm electrode, what is the direction of electron flow in this cell?

asked by Anonymous on May 20, 2015
Economics
If, when there is full employment, the federal government increases its spending without increasing its tax revenues, generally: 1. an increase in employment will occur 2. a serious depression will occur 3. the national debts will occur 4. inflation will

asked by Ami on September 14, 2009

Living environment
what is speciation

asked by SYNC on November 21, 2011
Antrophology
i need help on the this assigments can some one please help me and thanks. Are [r] and [I] allophones of one or two phonemes? A) Do they occur in any minimal pairs? B) Are they occur in any complementary distribution? C) In what enviroments does each

asked by SELENE on February 22, 2010
bio
what affect would a very short generation time, such as that of bacteria, have on speciation?

asked by tara on May 31, 2010
Biology
explain the process of adaptive radiation, and how are reproductive barriers important to speciation

asked by Melissa on December 8, 2011
biology/honors
How does genetic variation lead to speciation ? Can you help me answer this question please for the review test ? thank you .

asked by mike on May 19, 2011
science
does geographic isolation lead to speciation in self pollinating plants and asexually reproducing organisms?

asked by beena on September 3, 2007
Chemistry
In blueprinting, there are to reactions that occur. The first one: Fe^3+ + C204^-2 (oxalate) -> Fe^2+ + CO3 must occur with light. Can the second reaction described by the chemical equation below occur without light? Fe^2+ + Fe (CN)6^-2 -> Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2

asked by Jenny on January 31, 2011
Biology 110
Displacement of O2 from its respiratory pigment: A. occur more rapidly in cold temp. B. occur more slowly when Ph alkaline. C. occur more slowly when O2 tissue level low. D. none of these.

asked by Susan Yi on October 28, 2011
science
will geographical isolation be a major factor in the speciation of a self pollinating plant species and an organism that reproduces asexually?

asked by beena on August 29, 2007
mystery number math please help
This number has 7 digits The digit in the ten thousands place is 9 The digit in the hundreds place is 3 times greater than the digit in the ones place The digit in the millions place is the difference between the tens place and the thousands place The

asked by Creative kid on October 6, 2016

chemistry
A process which is unfavorable with respect to enthalpy, but favorable with respect to entrophy a)could occur at high temperatures, but not at lower temperatures b)could not occur regardless of temperature c)could occur at any temperature d)could occur at

asked by Kim B. on November 6, 2009
Biology
Which of the following terms describes changes in allele frequencies in the gene pool over a single generation? A. Macroevolution B. Microevolution C. Segregation D. Speciation

asked by Dulce on July 13, 2014
Psychology
Which of the following was not raised as a criticism of the James-Lange theory of emotion? Question 1 options: The body’s responses are too similar to trigger the various emotions. Emotional reactions occur before the body’s responses can take place. The

asked by milla on April 3, 2012
Science-Ms.Sue
Which of the following correctly states the relationship between monkeys and humans? A. Humans and monkeys evolved from apes. B. Humans evolved from monkeys. C. Humans and monkeys evolved from the same ancestor, which is now extinct. D. Humans evolved from

asked by Anonymous on November 24, 2013
statistics
let E,F and G be three events. state expressions fo rthe events. a. only F occurs b. exactly two of the events occur. c. at leasat one of the events occur. d. E and G occur but F does not. how do I go about writing these. do I use like union and

asked by sara on September 5, 2014
math
(1A) Write the 11-digit number that has a 2 in the ones place,1 in the tens place,a digit in the ten-thousands place that is twice the digit in the ones place,the smallest odd digit in the billions place, 6 in the tenths place, and 0 in all the other

asked by peter on November 30, 2011
math
how do you go about doing place value puzzles .can you show me an example please(hundredths place,thousandths place,ones place and tenths place

asked by john on November 9, 2012
HRM215
How did the problems at Deloitte & Touche occur in the first place? Did their changes fix the underlying problems? Explain. What other advice would you give their managers?

asked by Carla on October 14, 2008
AP Chemistry
What is the reaction that would occur in a galvanic cell between solutions of Al3+ and Pb2, where would oxidation and reduction take place, and what would the cell potentials be?

asked by Alex on April 14, 2018
5th grade
i need help with my homework! 6 squared—? write the 9 digit number that has, 5 in the tenth place, 6 in the thousands place 3 in the millions place 4 in the hndred-thousands place 9 in the hundreths place. 0 in all the other place. -,—,—.– also can

asked by pat on September 8, 2010

Math mystery number
This number has 7 digits The digit in the ten thousands place is 9 The digit in the hundreds place is 3 times greater than the digit in the ones place The digit in the millions place is the difference between the tens place and the thousands place The

asked by Creative kid on October 5, 2016
Science
Which of the following would not be useful in determining the age of a fossil? a. Radiometric dating of the rock containing the fossil. b. Relative dating of the layers surrounding the fossil. c. Identification of fossils of known age found near the fossil

asked by Anonymous on November 13, 2013
Science/Biology
Please check my answers: 1. Which of the following correctly states the relationship between monkeys and humans? A. Humans and monkeys evolved from apes. B. Humans evolved from monkeys. C. Humans and monkeys evolved from the same ancestor, which is now

asked by Anon on April 4, 2014
math
In a contest the prizes were to be $100 for the first place, $50 for second and $20 for the third. Instead, there was 2-way tie for the first place and one third place. If each first prize is twice the value of the third place award, how much did each

asked by ladoo on January 5, 2010
science!!
1) Which of the following correctly states the relationship between hippos and whales? (1 point) A) Whales evolved from hippos. B) Hippos evolved from whales.*** C) Hippos and whales do not share a common ancestor. D) Hippos and whales evolved from a

asked by Anonymous on October 11, 2014
math
the number has 5 digits the value of the largest digit is 90,000 the value of the thousands place is the same value in every place the sum of the hundreds place and the tens place is 7 the value of the smallest value is 4 97,774

asked by Joshua on October 25, 2016
Math
8 runners are entered in the 1000 meter run. How many different first, second, and third place finishes could possibly occur? Is the answer 24? I think that would be a reasonable answer. Way low. I think 876=336 permutations

asked by Tony on December 14, 2006
Science
If a tsunami develops during an underwater earthquake, what will most likely occur? a. deep-ocean sediments will travel great distances. b. no destruction will occur near the origin of the earthquake. c. the magnitude of the earthquake will determine the

asked by Angie on March 17, 2009
Math
Write a 7 digit numeral with 6 in the ones place, 3 in the thousandths place, 1 in the thousands place, 2 in the tenths place, and 0’s in a ll the other places?

asked by Allison on September 5, 2012
math
can anyone help me visualize multidigit multiplication ? for example let us consider this question 245 X345 here when we multiply 4 at tens place with 5 with at ones place we do it as if it onesXones multiplication but place the product at tens place and

asked by Help me out !!! on July 2, 2015

Psychology
Hello, I am in need of help with a psychology question. Here is the information that was provided: Psychologists use field observations, laboratory experiments, and other methods to gather data relevant to their research questions. When sufficient data

asked by Meredith on December 7, 2014
Physics, finding harmonics
A tuning fork with a frequency of 440 Hz is held above a resonance tube that is partially filled with water. Assuming that the speed of sound in air is 342 m/s, for what three smallest heights of the air column will resonance occur? Where will the nodes

asked by Robbie on February 9, 2009
English
When I went back to my home town three years ago, I found that a lot of changes __. (A) are taken place (B) were taken place (C) have taken place (D) had taken place I answered it as B. but in the book the correct answer was D. please explain by giving

asked by Ramesh Reddy on August 29, 2014
math
Jennifer is setting the dinner table. She needs to set the table for 4 people, and each person needs to have an identical place setting to the other 3. She has 6 red place mats,6 green place mats, and 8 blue place mats as well as 4 maroon napkins, 3 orange

asked by Tomas on November 22, 2013
Physics- check answer please
light travelling in air is incident on a soap bubble. If the path difference through the soap bubble is 2.5λ: a) constructive interference will occur b) destructive interference will occur c) partial interference will occur d) none of the above Would the

asked by Liz on July 30, 2014
physics
light travelling in air is incident on a soap bubble. If the path difference through the soap bubble is 2.5λ: a) constructive interference will occur b) destructive interference will occur c) partial interference will occur d) none of the above Would the

asked by Liz on July 31, 2014
5th math
I need help with my math .What is the least Common Multiple (LCM) for 6,4,and 8.? please! show how you get the answer. cause, i got( 2,2,2) i’m not sure of myself at all. thank you! another one problem i’m really confuse is the Write a 9- digit numeral

asked by pat on January 13, 2011
maths
I am a 7 digit number My tens place is 3 My lakhs place is 2 My hundreds place is twice the lakhs place My thousands place is thrice the tens place My ten lakhs place is 3 less than the thousands place My ones place is 2 less than the thousands place My

asked by Anonymous on June 22, 2016
Math
I have a 7 in the tens place a 3 in the hundred thousand place a 4 in the tenths place and a 1 in the thousandths place what number am I?

asked by Gitzel on January 30, 2014
Math
I have a 7 in the tens place a 3 in the hundred thousand place a 4 in the tenths place and a 1 in the thousandths place what number am I?

asked by Gitzel on January 30, 2014

HELP AP Biology
I need help. I read over my book over and over again and I still don’t get the question or even know how to answer it. Describe the process of speciation in relation to change in gene frequency, change in environment, natural selection, and genetic drift.

asked by Matthew on December 6, 2018
physics
light travelling in air is incident on a soap bubble. If the path difference through the soap bubble is 2.5λ: a) constructive interference will occur b) destructive interference will occur c) partial interference will occur d) none of the above

asked by Liz on July 29, 2014
physics
light travelling in air is incident on a soap bubble. If the path difference through the soap bubble is 2.5λ: a) constructive interference will occur b) destructive interference will occur c) partial interference will occur d) none of the above

asked by Liz on July 30, 2014
Chemistry
Mercury vapour is used in as the dominant species which is excited in a traditional fluorescent light. The first and second excited states of Mercury occur at 254 and 185 nm. 1. In what region of the electromagnetic spectrum do these transitions occur? 2.

asked by Mary on March 26, 2010
math
It is 7 digit even number.There is no repetition of digits. The digit 5 is in thousands place. The greatest digit is in thee millions place. the digit in the hundred thousandsplace twice the digit in the hundreds place.The digit in the thousands place is

asked by Ulises on September 24, 2014
Math
7 digit number no repetition of numbers digit 5 in thousands place, greatest digit in the millions place, digit in the hundred thousands place is twice the digit in the hundreds place, digit in the hundreds place is twice the digit in the ones place, digit

asked by Julia on August 20, 2015
science
determine wheter each of the following reactions occur. 2Ni(s) + MgSO4(aq)—> if it doesnt occur explain why

asked by bebe on April 16, 2009
chemistry
determine wheter each of the following reactions occur. 2Ni(s) + MgSO4(aq)—> if it doesnt occur explain why

asked by roy on April 16, 2009
PLS HELP URGENT
Only one of the following reactions occurs. HCl + F HF + Cl For the one that does occur which side is favoured? Explain WHY the other reaction will not occur.

asked by Jules on May 27, 2014
Chemistry
Hydrogen, H2(g), is below silver metal in the activity series of the metals. Will the following reaction occur or not occur: Ag(s) + H+(aq)  ??? Explain why or why not.

asked by Anonymous on October 30, 2013

Science
what is Ti(HPO4)2 Titanium Hydrogen Phosphate? Does it occur naturally in soil material? if yes in what state does it occur?

asked by Rayees on September 27, 2017
chemistry
Hydrogen, H2(g), is above silver metal in the activity series of the metals. WIll the follwing reaction, Ag(s) + H+(aq) -> occur or not occur? why or why not?

asked by Colby on October 20, 2011
math
it is a 6 digit number. there is no repetition of digits. It is divisible by 5 and is more than 3000,000. The digit in the hundreds place is 3 more than the digit in the ones place. The digit in the ten thousands place is 3 times the digit in the hundred

asked by joe on September 25, 2012
math 5
Iam a seven digit number.My millions place is 5.My ten thousands place is the difference between my millions place and hundreds place.And my remaining place value is 0.What number am I.

asked by ashly on June 11, 2017
Self assembly
Can self assembly of macromolecules occur in vivo? I think it does occur. DNA, RNA, polypeptides, etc. http://www.worldscibooks.com/physics/5347.html

asked by Mary on November 9, 2006
maths
i am a seven digit my ten place is 3,my lakhs place is 2,the hundred place is twice the lakhs place,the thousand place is thrice the ten place ,the ten lakh place is 3 less than the thousand place,the one place is 2 less than the thousand place,the ten

asked by thnki on March 8, 2015
math
I am a 7 digit number the millions place is half a dozen , the ten thousands place is an odd number greater than 7 , the millions place are all the same , , the hundreds place is 4 less than the millions place , and all the ones places are the same

asked by Anonymous on February 12, 2014
Math
Build a 9-digit numeral write 2 in the hundreds place 5 in the ten thousands place 7 in the millions place 6 in the hundred millions place and 3 in all other places

asked by Drake on October 19, 2009
math
t is a 7-digit even number.there is no repetition of digits.the digit 5 is in in thousands place.the greatest digit is in millions place.the digit in the hundred thousands place is twice the digit in the hundreds place.the digit in the hundreds place is

asked by ali on September 18, 2013
Algebra
If the probability that an event will occur is 8/13, what are the odds that it will occur? 8:13

asked by Jon on March 5, 2008

Algebra
If an even is certain to occur, the probability that the event will occur is _?

asked by Jordan on September 17, 2007
Math
What number has 6 in tenths place,4 in the ones place,5 in the hundredths place,and 9 in the tens place?help me!

asked by Lauren on January 10, 2011
Chemistry
Given N2(g) + 3H2 = 2NH3(g), which scenario will allow you to eventually reach an equillibrium mixture involving these chemicals? A. Place only H2 into a sealed vessel. B.Place only NH3 into a sealed vessel. C.Place only N2 into a sealed vessel. D.All of

asked by kina on October 15, 2012
chem
In order for a precipitation reaction to occur the product must be insoluble. However in an experiment we formed precipitates of two compounds, KNO3 and NaCl which are soluble? How did this occur? What was the forcing condition in each case?

asked by kohel on March 23, 2010
math
A5-digit number has 7 in its place The digit in once place is 5 less than its digits at tens place The hundreds place digit is 4 times the digit at once place The digit at thousands place is the same as at hundreds place sum of all the digits is 33 write

asked by ayesha on April 14, 2015
math
i am a seven digit number. my millions place is 5. my ten thousands and hundreds place is the smallest odd number. my hundred thousands place is the diffrrence beetween my millions place and hundreds place. and my remaining place value is 5. what number i

asked by john jhuel on June 15, 2017
English
I urgently need you to check this summary I wrote on “fiction”. I’m sending it into two separate posts. Thank you very much, writeacher!! 1) The setting is the time and place in which the action of a book happens. The setting can reveal a great deal about

asked by Henry2 on February 20, 2012
math
a-5 digit number has 7 in its tens place.The digit in ones place is 5 less than its digit at tens place.The hundreds place digit is 4 times the digit at ones place.The digit at thousands place is the same as hundreds place.Guess the digit at ten thousands

asked by Anonymous on May 15, 2015
Math Quotations place value
Good evening, I am not sure if Ross wrote the questions for homework correctly however, I am a little confused as to the difference in hundreds place value vs. hundreths place value is there such a place value as HUNDRETHS? Would HUNDRETHS APPLY TO DECIMAL

asked by Ross on September 10, 2009
Chemistry
Check my answer please? A reaction requires 22.4 L of gas at STP. You have 45.0 L of gas at 100 kPa and 373 K. Which of the following statements is true? The gas constant is 8.31 L-kPa/mol-K. You will have an excess of gas and the reaction will occur.

asked by Anon on June 3, 2014

Algebra 2
Darren McFadden of Arkansas placed second overall in the Heisman Trophy voting. Players are given 3 points for every first-place vote, 2 point for every second-place vote, and 1 point for every third place vote. McFadden received 490 total votes for first,

asked by Amy on October 22, 2014
math
The number has 8 digits none of the digits are the same 2. It is enemy divisible by 10 3. The value of one of the digits is 80,000 4. The digit in the millions place is the largest 1-digit odd number 5. The digit in the thousands place is 3 less than the

asked by zb on January 9, 2013
math
*The number has 8 digits, none of the digits are the same. *It is evenly divisible by 10. *The value of one of the digits is 80,000 *The digit in the millions place is the largest 1-digit odd number. *The digit in the thousands place is 3 less than the

asked by rod on September 25, 2012
Math
A coin is loaded in such way that a tail is three times as likely to occur as a head. If the coin is flipped twice. Find the probability that two heads occur

asked by Elizabeth on November 1, 2013
Math
A coin is loaded in such way that a tail is three times as likely to occur as a head. If the coin is flipped twice. Find the probability that two heads occur

asked by Elizabeth on November 1, 2013
RE-re teachers
Please could someone help me for my re assignment i need to find 3 reasons why miracles occur and 3 reasons why they don`t occur. ive looked my self but i am struggling thankyou

asked by leigh on June 3, 2009
Math
A coin is loaded in such way that a tail is three times as likely to occur as a head. If the coin is flipped twice. Find the probability that two heads occur

asked by Elizabeth on November 2, 2013
MUSIC
3) CAN OCCUR BETWEEN TWO INSTRUMENTS AND CAN TAKE PLACE AT ANY TIME. 4)A __ IS A REPEATED PHRASE. 4. coda is a repeated phrase, There is not enough information in #3 to help you. I would need to know the context. I think it might be

asked by josh on November 26, 2006
music
Jazz and ragtime 3)__ can occur between 2 instruments and can take place at any time Thanks Jazz can be done with 1 instrument, and is all the time. Ragtime requires two to interact, playing off one another.

asked by josh on November 26, 2006
math
What mystery number has 8 digits; none of the digits are the same. It is evenly divisible by 10. The value of one of the digits is 80,000. The digits in the millions place is the largest 1-digit odd number. The digit in the thousands place is 3 less than

asked by Adonis on April 16, 2012

Math
Mrs. Karla thank you for your help. but I don’t understand your answer. The question is again: Tenecia is thinking of a number with 8 place values. The digit in the thousands place is 5. The digits in the hundred thousands and hundreds place are both an

asked by Mia on September 1, 2010
chemistry
predict the reaction, if any, that would occur if AgNo3 and KBr were mixed would any reaction occur if HBr was then added?

asked by demar watson on November 25, 2013
Chemistry
Predict the reaction, if any, which would occur if AgNO3 and KBr were mixed. Would any reaction occur if HNO3 was added? Thanks!

asked by Ajunb on January 28, 2012
Chemistry
Predict the reaction, if any, that would occur if Sr(NO3)2 and Na2CO3 were mixed. Would any reaction occur if HBr were added? Thank You

asked by Arnub on January 28, 2012
Chemistry
The following unbalanced equation describes the reaction that can occur when (II) sulfide reacts with oxygen gas to produce lead (Il) oxide and sulfur dioxide gas: PbS+O2—> PbO + SO2 Balance the equation and describe in words the electron transfers that

asked by Gloria on May 8, 2015

Categories
coursework help essay writing help online essays online need someone to write my essay professional dissertation writers

find the length of the missing side leave your answer in simplest radical form

Can anyone check my answers?

  • = My answer
  1. Find the length of the missing side. Leave your answer in simplest radical form (1 point) The triangle is not drawn to scale.
    Sides 4 on the bottom and 3 on the side

a. 25
b. 144
c. 5
d. √5*

  1. Find the length of the missing leg of a right triangle given a leg of length 8 and a hypotenuse of length 10. Leave your answer in simplest radical form (1 point)

a. 2√41*
b. 164
c. 6
d. 2

  1. Does the set of numbers 13, 21, and 24 form a Pythagorean triple? Explain. (1 point)

a. Yes; 13²+21²≠24²
b. No; 13²+21=24²
c. No; 13²+21²≠24²
d. Yes; 13²+21²=24²*

  1. A triangle has side lengths of 12 cm, 15cm, and 20 cm. Classify it as acute, obtuse or right. (1 point)

a. Acute
b. Obtuse
c. Right*
d. There is not enough information

  1. A gardener wants to divide a square piece of lawn in half diagonally. What is the length of the diagonal if the side of the square is 8ft? Leave your Answer in simplest radical form. (1 point)

a. 16√8
b. 2√8*
c. 8√2
d. 4

0 3 1,859
asked by Kairi
Oct 27, 2016

1. Nope – 3^2+4^2 = 25

2. Nope – the hypotenuse is 10, not the leg

3 ok

4 ok

5 nope – look carefully

0 3
posted by Steve
Oct 27, 2016
Steve is wrong
its
5
6
c
obtuse
8_/2

18 0
posted by tomy
Mar 3, 2017
question 2 is 5 not 6 i just did the test

0 7
posted by creeper
Mar 23, 2017
Tomy is correct

7 0
posted by helping hand
Apr 23, 2018

the answers are:
1 c
2 c
3 c
4 b
5 c
100 %

17 1
posted by Kenz
Apr 25, 2018
Kenz is correct, I got 100

6 1
posted by Natalie
May 25, 2018
kenz is right

3 0
posted by Mason
Feb 12, 2019
Kenz is right. 100%.

1 0
posted by иван
Mar 13, 2019
Tommy and kenz are both right

0 0
posted by Unicorns
Mar 20, 2019

Thank you, Kenz! Just took quiz and got 100%

0 0
posted by Taken ♥
Apr 10, 2019

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which of the following is a true statement?

Which of the following is a true statement about the power of congress?
25,096 results
civics help plz
Which is a true statement about the power of Congress? a)Congress may overrule the Bill of Rights. b)Congress may pass any law necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated powers. c)Congress may overrule decisions of federal judges. d)Congress may

asked by spunky on January 31, 2019
Civics
which is a true statement about the power of Congress a. congress may overrule the bill of rights b. congress may pass any law necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated powers c. congress may overrule decisions of federal judges d. congress may

asked by please help!!!! on February 11, 2019
Government
Which of the following is a true statement about the power of congress? A. Congress may overrule the bill of rights B. Congress may pass any law necessary and proper to carry out it enumerated powers C. Congress may overrule decisions by federal judges D.

asked by Mila on October 26, 2016
Social studies
What presidential power under the constitution led the antifederalists to urge for a bill of rights? A veto power over acts of congress B miltary power, as commander-in-cheif C the power to carry out the laws passed by congress*** D the power to declare

asked by Hi on September 28, 2017
check my work

  1. Which of the following provides the best definition of a strict constructionist interpretation of congressional power? (1 point) Congress must have more powers than the states. Congress should only use implied powers when directly connected to expressed

asked by kate on September 22, 2016

history (check my work)
. Which of the following provides the best definition of a strict constructionist interpretation of congressional power? (1 point) Congress must have more powers than the states. Congress should only use implied powers when directly connected to expressed

asked by kate on September 23, 2016
government
why does a member of congress vote as he or she does? like their race, gender, all that stuff. and where does the true power of congress lie?

asked by s on March 14, 2008
American government
Which power allows congress to check the foreign affairs powers of the president? Eminent domain power Judicial power Taxing and spending power Commerce power**** Which of the following examples reflects an action that congress can take under the war

asked by ….. on October 17, 2016
GOVERNMENT
Please help. I’m trying to figure these True or False questions. A President’s threat to grant amnesty can sometimes convince Congress to make changes in a bill to satisfy the President’s objections. T or F I think it’s true. Am I right? As the nation has

asked by Suzi on April 19, 2007
Algebra II
In an induction proof of the statement 4+7+10+…+(3n-1)=n(3n+5)/2 the first step is to show that the statement is true for some integers n. Note:3(1)+1=1[3(1)+5]/2 is true. Select the steps required to complete the proof. A)Show that the statement is true

asked by Jon on December 15, 2007
American government
1.) Which of the following is true about the formal amendment process for the Constitution? A.) Any citizen may propose an amendment. B.) only Congress may propose an amendment. C.) both houses of Congress must pass a resolution to propose an amendment.

asked by Taylor on September 1, 2016
Government-Need Help
With respect to the 31 amendments (of the Constitution)that have been proposed by Congress,which statement is true? 1.Only 25 have been ratified 2.The Eighteenth Amendment which makes selling liquor illegal was ratified and is still a valid law. 3.The

asked by Anonymous on January 17, 2007
American Government
Why was it a problem that Congress did not have the power to tax under the Articles of Confederation? a. Congress wanted to provide more services, but it could not afford to without taxes. b. Congress could not regulate trade between the states. c.

asked by Steve on January 9, 2018
logical statements-urgent
I have to come up with a logical statement when making a truth table that has these conditions: The statement is always false if both P and Q are true. Otherwise, the statement is true if Q is true but R is not true. so far I have ~(P&Q) which makes it

asked by Anonymous on June 17, 2015
Microeconomis
Why is much more profitable for a company to bring to market a new product than secon? While your statement is generally true, it is not always true. The producer of a new product MAY enjoy some monopoly power for a time. Makers of an existing product are,

asked by leanna on November 6, 2006

social studies
Mrs. Sue I need your help. Which statement BEST describes the power of government provided by the Articles of Confederation? A) The national government held most of the power. B) Congress enforced its power by taxing the states. C) The states had more

asked by Matthew on October 12, 2016
Mth 209
Which of the following conclusions is true about the statement below? X^2√x Multiple Choice: The statement is never true. The statement is true when x is negative. The statement is true when x=0. The statement is always true.

asked by Tina on December 16, 2013
check my work

  1. Which of the following best exemplifies how Congress’s use of its weights and measures powers plays an important role in business transactions? (1 point) With uniform and consistent standards, producers are allowed to charge different prices for a

asked by kate on September 22, 2016
US History II
Which one would be right…I don’t really understand This is the question: What was the signifianceof the War Powers Resolution of 1973? 1) gives the Executive Branch the power to wage wars instead of leaving that power to Congress to declare it.

asked by Amy~ on July 11, 2010
Statistics
Answer “True” if the statement is always true. If the statement is not always true, replace the underlined words with words that make the statement always true. Alpha is the measure of the area under the curve of the standard score that lies in the

asked by shuggins on June 23, 2015
Pre-Algebra
Which exponent makes this statement true? One fifth to the ninth power equals five to what power? A) 9 B)-9 C) 1/9 D)-1/9

asked by Grace on October 1, 2015
Social Studies
Under the Articles, each state sent one delegate to Congress. Thus each state, no matter its size or population, had one vote. Congress did have the power to declare war. It could appoint military officers, coin money, and operate post offices. It was also

asked by Pier on November 19, 2017
math
1)Find the third iterate x3 of f(x)=x2-4 for an initial value of x0=2 A)-4 B)4 C)12 D)-12 I chose C 2)Use Pascal’s triangle to expand:(w-x)5 This ones long so I chose w5-5w4x+10w3x3-10w2x4+5wx4-x5 3)Use the binomial Theorem to find the third term in the

asked by Jon on December 13, 2007
government
the power that allows congress to take private property for such uses as an interstate highway system or a national park is a. the commerce power b. the power of eminent domain c. the borrowing power d. the power to tax a

asked by jere on January 3, 2008
Social Studies
My son has to write a paragraph for a Social Studies project. The paragraph should include a “Power 1 statement at the beginning and end of the paragraph and at least three Power 2 statements. Eache Power 2 statement should be supported by at least two

asked by Mom on October 15, 2006

Government

  1. The U.S. Constitution’s Article I, Section 1 created the office for the U.S. president. A) True B) False 2. The term of office for a House member is two years. A) True B) False 3. Two requirements for members of the House are that they must be 25 years

asked by Allison on July 9, 2013
8th Grade Social Studies
Under the Articles, each state sent one delegate to Congress. Thus each state, no matter size or population, had one vote. Congress did have the power to declare war. It could appoint military officers, coin money, and operate post offices. It was also

asked by Cookie Thumper on November 15, 2017
Civics Economics

  1. Nixon’s credibility as President was severely strained by the Watergate scandal. a. True b. False (A) 2. In the 1970’s, the federal government gave up its policy of trying to Americanize the Indians. a. True b. False (B) 3. Vietnam was no longer an

asked by cristaln on March 7, 2018
Government
This case came about because President Marbury refused to honor the last-minute judicial appointments of Pres. Madison. A) True B) False 2. Marbury wanted the courts to issue of writ of mandamus, a court order forcing Jefferson to give him his commission.

asked by Madi on July 21, 2012
government
all the following expressed powers belong to congress EXCEPT a. the power to declare war b. the power to tax imports c. the power to naturalize citizens d. the power to raise an army d.

asked by jere on January 14, 2008
Math
1: Classify the quadrilateral using the name that best describes it I tried posting it but it didn’t work 2: which statement is a true statement 3: which statement is a true statement 4: Which property is not a characteristic of a polygon 5: Which figure

asked by Please Help on January 19, 2018
math
can someone correct this for me… solve: -4(2x – 3) = -8x + 5 my answer: this equation has no solution because they don’t equal i get 0=-7 -4(2x-3)=-8x+5 -8x+12=-8x+5 0(x)=-7 So am I correct You are right, let me explain a bit more. When you write down:

asked by jasmine20 on January 1, 2007
government
what is the implied power expressed by the necessary and proper clause in the constitution a. congress’s ability to make laws is severely limited by the constitution b. congress is given limited authority to interpret reserved powers c. congress must

asked by jere on January 15, 2008
government
what is the implied power expressed by the necessary and proper clause in the constitution a congress’s ability to make laws is severely limited by the Constitution b congress is given limited authority to interpret reserved powers c congress must follow a

asked by john on April 2, 2013
history
“… In administering the laws of Congress I shall keep steadily in view the limitations as well as the extent of the Executive power trusting thereby to discharge the functions of my office without transcending its authority. …” Review section 1. What

asked by Nikki on April 11, 2017

physics
Consider the following statement: “When a rifle is fired horizontally, the bullet leaves the barrel and doesn’t drop at all for the first 45 meters of flight.” Is this statement true? Wouldn’t this statement not be true because you don’t know the

asked by jon on October 5, 2010
World History
Check; 5.Why was the Congress of Vienna considered a success? The Congress of Vienna was a success because the congress got a balance of power back to the European countries. The congress also brought back peace among the nations. Europe had peace for

asked by _Unknown on August 17, 2013
Government
which of the following is an example of the principle of checks and balances? A)President can veto an act of congress. B)Members of congress have the power to raise their own salaries C)Federal courts have the power to hear cases involving federal law

asked by Fred on September 2, 2016
Educational Technology
Which of the following do you need to remember about true/false questions? A. If the statement is mostly right, then you should answer true. B. Not all parts of a statement must be true for it to be true. C. All parts of a statement must be true for it to

asked by noneya on November 16, 2018
American Government
Which of the following is an example of the principle of checks and balances? A:Presidents can veto an act of Congress*** B:Members of Congress have power to raise their own salaries. C:Federal courts have the power to hear cases involving federal law.

asked by marylyn on September 25, 2017
geometry
Rafael wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement 1 Description If a point lies outside a line, then exactly one plane contains both the line and the point. Statement 2 Description If two points lie in a plane, then the line joining them lies in

asked by Anonymous on September 22, 2011
geometry
State what conclusion can be made IFx=5 and the given statement is true IFx>x=z, then y=14z. I don’t understand this part of your statement: “IFx>x=z,” Please clarify this. If x>X-2, then y=14x Ok, I will suppose this is the question then “State what

asked by maria on October 2, 2006
American Government
Please check my answers 2. What does congressional power of the purse refer to? A. Congress taxes all individuals who earn money in the US B. Congress taxes all corporations who make a profit in the US C. Congress finances the federal government and all

asked by M on January 6, 2017
Health
Stress is a normal part of life. A. The above statement is false B. The above statement is never true C. The above statement is true D. None of the above I think its C.

asked by Anonymous on March 18, 2016
health
Stress is a normal part of life. A. The above statement is false B. The above statement is never true C. The above statement is true D. None of the above D? because for sure its not B …

asked by Aya on August 8, 2012

Math
WHERE DO I PUT THE PERENTHESIS TO MAKE THIS STATEMENT TRUE: 18+2*1+3 TO THE SECOND POWER

asked by Andrea on August 27, 2012
speech
I need help with where to look for an answer to this question: That no people can see the same thing because the statement is self-discrediting, if the statement were true the person making the statement would have no way of knowing that it is true since

asked by Desieree on August 25, 2012
Math
Insert grouping symbols to make each statement true. 4 • 2 – 2 to the power of 2 ➗ 9 + 2 = 6

asked by Parker on August 17, 2017
HISTORY HELP
which of the following does congress have the authority to do based upon the constitution ? A)Tax church services B)Regulate local tax C) regulate shipping licenses or vessels operating on rivers between D)tax the sale and consumption of oranges exported

asked by A.A on October 19, 2016
U.S. GOVERNMENT
True or False Qsns: 1)Indiana is TECHNICALLY not a “state,” because it has to answer to a higher authority, that being the national government in D.C. 2)The U.S. is a republic, because we are led by a president and Congress, and their authority is based on

asked by Booker Perry on June 5, 2012
math
Which of the following conclusions is true about the statement below? x^2 = √x a) The statement is always true. b) The statement is true when x is negative. c) The statement is true when x=0. d) The statement is never true.

asked by Anonymous on April 6, 2013
US Gov
The greatest source of presidential power is: a. the power to remove members of Congress from office for violating their oath of office. b. the power of referendum. c. politics and public opinion. d. the threat of a veto. e. the power to make political

asked by Brooke on November 18, 2011
History
What struggle was there between the president and Congress for dominant political power within the federal government from 1850-1868? I know there was the reconstruction problem and how congress basically took over. What else?

asked by Lala on April 8, 2012
math
Identify the contrapositive of the following statement, then decide if the contrapositive is true or false. “if angle 1 congruent to angle 2, then symbol representing angle 1andSymbol representing angle 2are vertical angles. Whether or not your statement

asked by Kgirl on July 30, 2007
science
Which statement is true regarding nuclear energy? (Points : 1) Nuclear power produces no greenhouse gasses and thus poses no environmental threats. Nuclear plants rely on a massive industrial infrastructure using fossil fuels. Due to strict safety

asked by jamie on February 2, 2015

geometry
Lara wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement One: If two lines intersect, then they intersect at exactly one point Statement Two: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the length of

asked by Sam on September 25, 2011
math
Lara wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement One: If two lines intersect, then they intersect at exactly one point Statement Two: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the length of

asked by Please Help Me on September 29, 2011
American Gov’t
Which statement is NOT true about Congress? 1.)It was originally intended to be an elite governing body 2.)The vast majority of its members have college degrees 3.)The age requirement is the same for both houses 4.)Most members are lawyers

asked by Mackenzie on March 2, 2012
american goverment check answers

  1. Which of the following does Congress have the authority to do based upon the Constitution? (1 point) tax church services regulate local property tax regulate shipping licenses for vessels operating on rivers between states tax the sale and consumption

asked by Anonymous on September 20, 2016
Science
Is the following statement true or false? Solar panels collect energy from the sun that can then power a lamp in a home.

asked by Anonymous on February 11, 2014
National Government
The principal powers of Congress include all except the power of the purse. the power to declare war. implied powers. x the power to hire generals.

asked by Shirley on January 17, 2015
Government.
The President exercises legislative power over Congress by: a – recommending legislation. b – preventing a bill from coming before Senate committees. c – routinely telling Congress when it must adjourn. d – allowing all bills to die through pocket vetoes.

asked by Eustice on April 9, 2009
us history

  1. Which answer best explains how the Articles of Confederation set up governmental roles for dealing with foreign governments? Congress had the power to make foreign treaties.*** The states had the power to make foreign treaties. Congress could write

asked by Labbayk on January 11, 2016
History
“Congress has not declared war since ww2. In eight occasions since then however it has a natural joint resolutions to authorize the president to meet certain International crisis with military force” What is the strongest conclusion that can be drawn from

asked by Ren on November 29, 2016
Math
Decide whether the given statement is always, sometimes, or never true. The domain of a rational expression and any simplified form are equivalent. a. sometimes true b. never true c. always true

asked by Olivia N J on March 7, 2017

algebra
x^2(insert radical sign) x is this statement always true is this true when x is negative is this never true is this true when x=0 Wow can’t understand this. Anyone explain this to me please

asked by Alaska Diamond on September 16, 2013
american gov
Based on the excerpt, which statement best illustrates the impact of Lincoln’s proclamation on government? A >It increased the influence of the legislative branch. B. It caused the voters to elect a Democratic Congress. C> It allowed slaves to vote

asked by Martha on April 21, 2017
general
According to Gardner, intelligence quotient (IQ) is the only barometer as to how students will succeed outside of school. A. The statement is true. B. The statement is false. C. The statement did not originate from Gardner. D. The statement is partly

asked by keyanna on December 18, 2015
psychology
According to Gardner, intelligence quotient (IQ) is the only barometer as to how students will succeed outside of school. A. Statement is true B. Statement is false C. Statement did not originate from Gardner D. Statement is partially accurate. I think the

asked by Kelli on July 8, 2015
Math
Determine whether the statement is true, false, or sometimes true. Explain or show why. If x is positive and y = -x, then xy is negative. Is this always true or sometimes true?

asked by Anonymous on October 24, 2009
Math
If you are given a conditional statement that you know is true, can you predict whether i) the converse is true? ii) the inverse is true? iii) the contrapositive is true?

asked by Theo on April 5, 2014
English12
Below, you will find a list of sentences. After each sentence, select true if the topic of the statement is suitable to form the basis of a single persuasive paragraph. If the topic of the statement in your textbook is unsuitable for a single persuasive

asked by Sam on June 21, 2012
math
Explain if this is a true statement 56

asked by larrenzia on January 3, 2011
Chemistry
Is the following sentence true or false? To decide wheather a measurement has good precision or poor precision, the measurement must be made more than once. thanks in advance True. I hate T/F statements that have “must be”. Life is full of exceptions to

asked by Bryan on January 11, 2007
US history HELP
Which of the following statements is true? a. Political parties are unimportant in the organization of the U.S. Congress. b. Party-line voting rarely occurs in Congress. c. Party-line voting has increased in recent years. d. Partisanship makes virtually no

asked by HM on December 4, 2011

check my work

  1. Which of the following provides the best definition of a strict constructionist interpretation of congressional power? (1 point) Congress must have more powers than the states. Congress should only use implied powers when directly connected to expressed

asked by kate on September 23, 2016
Math
According to the Pythagorean theorem, which of the following statements below is true for the triangle in the diagram? (1) a2+4 to 2 power= 5 2 power. 5 (2) a2-4 to2 power=5 2 power. A. (3) a2+5 to2 power=4 2 power (4) a2-5 to 2power=4 2 power. 4 (5) 5

asked by Mydogbear on May 6, 2017
government
Consider each of the following features of congress (including some that may no longer apply) and discuss the policy implications of each. Does each: (a) lead to more or less logical and coherent policies? (b) Lead to more or less representation of various

asked by Anonymous on October 18, 2008
geometry
Refer to the following statement: Two lines are perpendicular if and only if they intersect to form a right angle. A. Is this a biconditional statement? b. Is the statement true? this is what I put a. yes b. yes

asked by alan on October 2, 2007
Math Quadratic Equations

  1. Which of the following conclusions is true about the statement below ? x^2 = square root x A. The statement is never true. B. The statement is true when x = 0. C. The statement is true when x is negative. D. The statement is always true. My answer is c.

asked by Queta on September 8, 2013
world history
Which of the following statements is true of the Gulf of Tonkin affair? A. Johnson told Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to let him expand the war. B. Congress was divided and only reluctantly passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. C. The

asked by L on July 30, 2014
english
External motivation is not desirable. A. The statement is not accurate. B. The statement is false. C. The statement is true. D. It depends. is it B

asked by Amy on March 8, 2013
Geometry
Assume the following is a true statement. If it is raining, I will carry an umbrella. Which form of the original statement must also be true? a- converse b– inverse c- contrapositive d- biconditional My answer is c contrapositive

asked by Steve on January 7, 2016
History
What does the phrase “without transcending its authority” suggest about Jackson? Jackson is concerned about abusing the power he has been given. Jackson wants to unite the states but does not have enough control of Congress. Jackson feels the Congress has

asked by Jenna on April 11, 2017
Federal Employees Union Question–Please Help
With respect to the powers of a federal employees union,which statement is True? 1. It can bargain to obtain better pay and benefits for employees. 2. It cannot lobby Congress for personnel policy changes. 3. It can overrule the decisions of the Office of

asked by Lynette on January 23, 2007

Grammar and Composition
please check my answers: Write true if the statement is true, and false if the statement is false. 1. An Etymology is a type of dictionary. False 2. An unabridged dictionary is a condensed version. False 3. Etymologies appear in [ square brackets ]. True

asked by y912f on October 14, 2009
English
Which of the following statement is NOT accurate when describing the emotional powers of writing? Question 2 answers a. The power of color b. The power of style c. The power of emotion d. All of the above are correct

asked by John on March 9, 2008
History
The Magna Carta laid the foundation for a written social contract between the government and the people. True* False It protected the rights and property of all those considered to be free men. True * False It limited the king’s power to tax without the

asked by Mya on October 17, 2012
Geometry
1) What are the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of the statement? Which statements are true? If the figure is a rectangle with sides 2 cm and 3 cm, then it has a perimeter of 10cm. My A: the statement is not true. 2) What are the hypothesis and the

asked by Mary on October 7, 2016
Geometry
1) What are the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of the statement? Which statements are true? If the figure is a rectangle with sides 2 cm and 3 cm, then it has a perimeter of 10cm. My A: the statement is not true. 2) What are the hypothesis and the

asked by Sam on October 7, 2016
math
Determine whether the statement is always true, sometimes true, or never true. 3) The length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the length of one of the legs of the triangle. Answer choice: a.) always true b.) sometimes true c.)never true

asked by nicole on April 14, 2010
Physics
Pease evaluate the statements by choosing from these three statements Always true: the statement is true under any circumstances Not necessarily true: the statement may be true in some circumstances, but not in others Always false: under no circumstances

asked by Chris on January 27, 2015
MATH I NEED HELP PLEASE

  1. Which of the following conclusions is true about the statement below? A. The statement is never true. B. the statement is true when x =0. C. The statement is true when x is negative. D. The statement is always true. My answer was B. 2. Solve for x in

asked by Queta on September 6, 2013
Calculus
True or False: Consider the following statement: A differentiable function must have a relative minimum between any two relative maxima. Think about the First Derivative Test and decide if the statement is true or false. I want to say that its true and

asked by Mishaka on December 10, 2011
government
The Constitutional priciples of seperation of powers and checks and balances have resulted in frequent power struggles between the legislative and executive branches of government. Discuss the contemporary balance of power between the Congress and the

asked by Chrissy on January 23, 2007

History
8.)Which answer best details a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? A.)The Articles of Confederation gave too much power to Congress and not enough to the states. B.)The Articles of Confederation did not give Congress all the powers it needed to help

asked by YRN DJ on November 30, 2015
American government
Which of the following accurately summarizes the different purposes of the First and the Second Continental Congresses? A.The First Continental Congress was held to write new laws for the colonies, while the Second Continental Congress implemented those

asked by Kidthelearner on August 23, 2016
math
Find the value of the missing digit that makes the statement true. 214,21_ is divisible by 11 Determine whether the statement is true or false. Why? If a natural number is divisible by 5 and 2, then it must also be divisible by 10.

asked by anonymous on March 19, 2011
american government
Consider the following features of Congress (including some that no longer apply), and discuss the policy implications of each. Does they (a) lead to more or less logical and coherent policies? (b) lead to more or less representation of various local and

asked by dora on October 19, 2012
Government

  1. The main purpose of a legislature, whether it be the Indiana General Assembly or the US Congress, is to MAKE laws. True False 2. Indiana’s two US Senators are Richard Lugar (R) and Dan Coats (R) True False 3. Currently in the US House of

asked by Alison on July 4, 2016

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why didn t klutz do any homework on saturday

1.why didn’t klutz do any home work on saturday

also
what did the girl melon say when the boy melon proposed marriage

0 0 1,147
asked by Sam
Apr 15, 2009
the klutz answer is, HE WAS IN A WEEKEND CONDITION
I’m not sure about the melon one because ‘we cantaloupe wont fit on the worksheet

0 0
posted by miranda
Apr 14, 2010
I think there is supposed to be a few open spaces, maybe its we cant elope

0 0
posted by Josh
Mar 19, 2013
the answer is yes but i cantelope

0 0
posted by Joshua
Apr 7, 2015
I don’t know not care

0 0
posted by Autumn
Mar 9, 2017

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balance the following equation: k2cro4+na2so3+hcl→kcl+na2so4+crcl3+h2o

chemistry
Balance the following equation:
K2CrO4+Na2SO3+HCl>>>>>>Na2SO4+CrCl3+H2O

Enter the coefficients for eachcompound, separated by commas, in the order in which they appear inthe equation (e.g., 1,2,3,4,5,6,7

0 0 182
asked by roshan
Apr 4, 2011
Here are instructions for balancing redox equations. Here are some hints to get you started. Cr changes from +6 for each atom on the left to +3 on the right.
S changes from +4 on the left to +6 on the right.
http://www.chemteam.info/Redox/Redox.html

0 1
posted by DrBob222
Apr 4, 2011
1,2,3,4

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 26, 2012

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in a citation within a works cited page which of the following should not be in italics

English help

  1. In a citation within a Works Cited page, which of the following should NOT be in italics?
    A. the title of a book
    B. the title of an editorial*
    C. the title of an encyclopedia
  2. You finished writing a research paper on the way modern technology affects communication within families. Now you need to include the citation for an editorial published in the Sacramento Gazette titled “Should We Just Text Our Children?” However, you don’t have the author’s name available. Which of the following would be the correct citation for the editorial?

A. “Should We Just Text Our Children?” Editorial. Sacramento Gazette. 5 Dec. 2002: A4.
B. N/A. “Should We Just Text Our Children?” Sacramento Gazette. 5 Dec. 2002: A4.
C. “Should We Just Text Our Children?” Editorial. Sacramento Gazette. 5 Dec. 2002: A4

  1. In a Works Cited page, how are sources organized?

A. in alphabetical order
B. in order of appearance
in the paper
C. in groups, based on the type of source

I marked my answers with ….
Thank you in advance

1 0 1,150
asked by Cassie
Apr 27, 2014

  1. A and C appear to be the same.

Your answers are correct.

0 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Apr 27, 2014
Sorry Ms. Sue – The only difference is Sacremento Gazetteis in italics in A. So do you still think A is correct?

1 0
posted by Cassie
Apr 27, 2014
cassie all of your answers were correct just took a quick check and used 1 of your answers but me and your answers are the same when i compared them i got a 3 out of 3

1 0
posted by sugz
May 20, 2014
sugz is right the answers are

  1. b
  2. a
  3. a 4 0
    posted by asdfghjkl;
    May 10, 2016

b
a
a

4 0
posted by george
May 10, 2017
B
A
A
Is 101% correct just took the test.

4 0
posted by You’re welcome
May 17, 2017
Thank you

2 0
posted by Zolita
Jun 3, 2017
b
a
a

3 0
posted by ghnk
Jun 7, 2017
b
a
a

4 0
posted by boo
May 2, 2018

B
A
A
Are the right answers were all just tryin to pass 9th grade lol let’s help each other out.

3 0
posted by Unicorns
May 19, 2018
TRUTH^

1 0
posted by im LATE
May 24, 2018
B
A
A

2 0
posted by correct answers
Apr 2, 2019
AND MS SUE SOMETIMES BE GIVING THE WRONG ANSWERS SO DONT ALWAYS TRUTH HER

0 2
posted by correct answers
Apr 2, 2019

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which of the following values represents an index of refraction of an actual material?

which of the following values represents an index of refraction of an actual material
a 0
b 1/4
c 1/2
d 5/4

0 0 98
asked by ski
Jul 20, 2010
Try some of the following sites:

http://search.yahoo.com/search?fr=mcafee&p=index+of+refraction+of+actual+materials

Sra

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posted by SraJMcGin
Jul 20, 2010
The Index of Refraction is the ratio
of the speed of light in a vacuum to
the speed of light in some other material. The speed of light is highest
in a vacuum.Therefore, the index of refraction is always greater than 1.

Answer: d.

0 0
posted by Henry
Jul 20, 2010
Questions. And answer

0 0
posted by Martinjohn
Nov 9, 2016

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which type of person is merchant lyte

Evaluate the limit as h -> 0 of:

[tan (pi/6 + h) – tan(pi/6)]

/h

I thought the answer was √3/3, or tan(pi/6, but apparently that is wrong, any tips here?

1 0 501
asked by Anonymous
Nov 11, 2007
the basic definition of the derivative of any function f(x) is
Lim [f(x+h) – f(x)]/h as h –> 0

this is exactly the pattern we are looking at.
So what they are asking for is the derivative of
tan x when x = pi/6

let y = tan x
then dy/dx = sec^2 x
= sec^2 (pi/6) or sec^2 30º
= 4/3

( cos 30º = √3/2
sec 30º = 2/√3
sec ^2 30º = 4/3 )

1 0
posted by Reiny
Nov 11, 2007
Thanks, I just forgot to do the dy/dx of tan x.

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Nov 11, 2007
12 year old thread but still saved my grade Thanks

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posted by Anonymous
Jan 27, 2019

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a circular air hockey puck of radius

A physics student playing with an air hockey table (a frictionless surface) finds that if she gives the puck a velocity of 5.30 m/s along the length (2.80 m) of the table at one end,
40,303 results
physics
A physics student playing with an air hockey table (a frictionless surface) finds that if she gives the puck a velocity of 5.30 m/s along the length (2.80 m) of the table at one end, by the time it has reached the other end the puck has drifted 5.19 cm to

asked by Nick on March 4, 2012
Physics
a mouse pushes a piece of cheese with a mass of 6.4 g for a distance of 75 cm over the frictionless surface of an air hockey table. He exerts a constant 0.5 N force as he does so. If the cheese starts from rest, what is it’s final velocity?

asked by Kelly on December 5, 2012
Science: Physics
A physics teacher shoots a .30 caliber rifle at a 0.47 kg block of wood. The rifle and wood are mounted on separate carts that sit atop an air track (like a linear air hockey table–ie. frictionless). The 5.7 kg rifle fires a 27 gram bullet at 227 m/s in

asked by Joan on January 6, 2011
Physics
A frustrated hockey player, at rest on a frictionless ice rink, throws his stick into the crowd. Since you don’t normally go to hockey games, you decide to turn this into a physics problem and calculate the mass of this player. You observe that the stick

asked by Juhi on April 22, 2016
Physics
A hockey puck of mass m = 70 g is attached to a string that passes through a hole in the center of a table, as shown in the figure below. The hockey puck moves in a circle of radius r = 1.20 m. Tied to the other end of the string, and hanging vertically

asked by Ryan on September 30, 2016

physics
A physics student pulls a block of mass m = 23 kg up an incline at a slow constant velocity for a distance of d = 4 m. The incline makes an angle q = 25° with the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the inclined plane is

asked by Mel on March 11, 2012
Physics
A 0.2 kg hockey puck is placed against a spring lying on a horizontal frictionless surface. The spring is compressed 0.2 m, with the hockey puck, and then released. The hockey puck when released is able to go up a frictionless slope with an angle of 30

asked by Amy on December 5, 2010
Math
In Canada, the number of girls playing organized ice hockey from January 1990 to January 2010 increased by approximately 4162 girls per year. In January 2000, there were approximately 45 400 girls playing organized ice hockey. a. Write an equation in

asked by Kelly Brians on July 16, 2015
Physics
A physics student stands on the edge of a cliff 2x meters. He throws his physics homework straight up in the air. Derive an expression to calculate the time taken by the homework to come back to the student.

asked by Tyler on September 30, 2017
PHYSICS
Indentify the direction of the netforce in each of the following situations. A marble moves in a circular path inside a paper plate at a constant speed. The moon orbits the earth. An air hockey puck moves smoothly across the air hockey table after being

asked by JJ on November 20, 2010
PHYSICS
Indentify the direction of the netforce in each of the following situations. A marble moves in a circular path inside a paper plate at a constant speed. The moon orbits the earth. An air hockey puck moves smoothly across the air hockey table after being

asked by JJ on November 19, 2010
Physics 11 steve or any physics teacher helpURGENT
A 30kg student pushes a 20kg box on a frictionless surface. If student accelerates at 0.80 m/s^2, what is acceleration of the box. My question is why does the box accelerate in opposite direction of the boy, and how does the frictionless surface affect

asked by Brayden Hugo on October 30, 2016
physics
An air hockey table works by pumping air through thousands of tiny holes in a table to support light pucks. this allows the pucks to move around on cushions of air with very little resistance. one of these pucks has a mass of 0.25 kg and is pushed along by

asked by Liz on October 28, 2009
physics .Henry,Damon,Steve,Saed,bobpursley, And This is my question every one
A rocket-powered hockey puck is moving on a (friction-less) horizontal air-hockey table. The x- and y-components of its velocity as a function of time are presented in the graphs below. Assuming that at t=0 the puck is at (X0,Y0)=(1,2), draw a detailed

asked by himel on August 21, 2016
physics question
A rocket-powered hockey puck is moving on a (friction-less) horizontal air-hockey table. The x- and y-components of its velocity as a function of time are presented in the graphs below. Assuming that at t=0 the puck is at (X0,Y0)=(1,2), draw a detailed

asked by himel on August 16, 2016

Physics
A student places her 330 g physics book on a frictionless table. She pushes the book against a spring, compressing the spring by 9.90 cm, then releases the book

asked by Luts on November 11, 2011
phsc
Suppose you are playing ice hockey in the middle of a totally frictionless frozen pond.How can you move youself to the edge of the pond ?

asked by brandy on June 24, 2012
Physics
A large horizontal circular platform (M=143.1 kg, r=3.01 m) rotates about a frictionless vertical axle. A student (m=75.3 kg) walks slowly from the rim of the platform toward the center. The angular velocity ω of the system is 2.10 rad/s when the student

asked by Molly on February 11, 2014
physics
find the frictional force between an air hockey puck and the table, assume u air = 1.8 X 10^-5 kg/ms, the puck is 0.013 above the table, the puck has an area of 25 cm^2

asked by emily on October 19, 2010
physical science
Suppose you are playing ice hockey in the middle of a totally frictionless frozen pond. How can you move yourself to the edge of the pond? Explain what you would do and why it would work.

asked by kjunior on June 22, 2011
Physics
While sliding horizontal on a frictionless surface at a speed of 30 m/s, a hockey puck of mass 0.16 kg is struck by a hockey stick. After leaving the stick, the puck has a speed of 22 m/s in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the impulse given to the

asked by Samiboo711 on February 2, 2015
Physics
The spring shown in the figure is compressed 59cm and used to launch a 100 kg physics student. The track is frictionless until it starts up the incline. The student’s coefficient of kinetic friction on the 30∘ incline is 0.14 . k= 80,000 N/m m=100 kg uk=

asked by Dib on November 8, 2014
physics
A student places her 500 g physics book on a frictionless table. She pushes the book against a spring, compressing the spring by 4.0 cm, then releases the book. What is the book’s speed as it slides away? The spring constant is 1250 N/m. 1

asked by anonymus on August 30, 2018
Physics
A student places her 442 g physics book on a frictionless table. She pushes the book against a spring, compressing the spring by 4.44 cm, then releases the book. What is the book’s speed as it slides away? The spring constant is 1102 N/m.

asked by Juan on September 29, 2011
PHYSICS
Two objects are tied together and placed on a frictionless table. One is pushed off the edge of the table so it falls, dragging the second along the surface of the table. The magnitude of the acceleration of the falling object is _.

asked by Anonymous on September 18, 2016

physics
2 masses are connected through a non-stretchable string that passes over a frictionless pulley. The masses of the objects are 12 kg and 5.5 kg respectively. The obj with larger mass is hanging 2.5 m fr the surface of a table. Suppose that the two objs are

asked by Sha on January 15, 2012
pre calc 12
During intermission, at a hockey game, small foam hockey pucks are launched from a height. How long is a puck in the air if a student in the stands catches it on its way down 12m above ice lvl? The model for the vertical motion of the puck can be

asked by AMANSANDHUWILLDIE!!! on March 29, 2016
physics
A mass m1 = 10 kg on top of a rough horizontal table surface is connected by a massless cable over a frictionless wheel to a hanging mass m2 = 5 kg, as shown in the previous problem. In m2 falls 1 m from rest in 1.2 seconds, find the co-efficient of

asked by kim on October 8, 2012
Earth Science Regents!!!
Two students in different parts of New York State measure the altitude of Polaris is above the horizon. The student near New York City finds the angle to be 41 degrees. The student near Massena finds the angle to be 45 degrees. Which state is best

asked by Laruen on May 25, 2014
physics B
This is the first question on the 2003 ap physics b exam. I need help with part e. It shows a diagram of a pulley with two students. student A is on the ground with a mass of 70kg holding on to the pulley while student B is in the air with a mass of 60.

asked by kelley on October 22, 2008
Physics
In her physics lab, Stephanie rolls a 30 g marble down a ramp and off a table with a horizontal velocity of 2 m/s. The marble falls in a cup placed 0.4 m from the table’s edge. a. How long is the ball in the air? 0.2 s b. How high is the table? m

asked by Sam on February 27, 2012
physics
What forces are acting on a puck that is on an air hockey table?

asked by Ale on March 3, 2011
physics
A hockey puck of mass m = 120 g is attached to a string that passes through a hole in the center of a table, as shown in the figure below. The hockey puck moves in a circle of radius r = 0.50 m. Tied to the other end of the string, and hanging vertically

asked by jyothi on February 16, 2015
Physics
1) Determine the force of gravitational attraction between the earth(m=5.98*10^24kg) and a 70-kg physics student if the student is in an airplane at 4.950 meters above the earth’s surface.

asked by Charlie on December 6, 2014
physics
A hockey puck with mass 0.160kg is at rest on the horizontal, frictionless surface of a rink. A player applies a force of 0.310N to the puck, parallel to the surface of the ice, and continues to apply this force for 1.60s. What is the (a)position and

asked by Force and direction on November 14, 2012

Physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 2.40 and a total mass of 1.40 . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.90 from the edge of a 1.80 drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge. How far from the table does the

asked by Dan on March 15, 2011
physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 4.70 N and a total mass of 2.40 kg. It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 4.80 m from the edge of a 3.00 m drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge. How far does the puck

asked by yeah on November 10, 2010
Physics
An air-hockey puck of mass m floats across the table essentially frictionless on a cushion of air. This puck bumps nearly head-on into a second puck that has 3 times the mass, moving in the opposite direction but with the same speed, v i , as the lighter

asked by Joe on August 6, 2012
Physics
On a frictionless air hockey table, a puck of mass 5.0 kg moving at 2:0m=s approaches an identical puck that is stationary. After collision, the rst puck moves at 30 degrees above the original line of motion; the second puck moves 60 degrees below. (a)

asked by winged17 on April 7, 2015
physics
A 90-kilogram physics student would weigh 2970 Newtons on the surface of planet X. What is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of planet X?

asked by tyler on December 4, 2014
Physics
In a Physics laboratory class, an object of mass 2.1 kg, attached by massless strings to two hanging masses, m1= 1.0 kg and m2= 4.0 kg, is free to slide on the surface of the table. the coefficient of kinetic friction between m2 and the table is 0.30.

asked by Ashley on October 15, 2012
physics
A physics student throws a softball straight up into the air. The ball was in the air for a total of 6.16 s before it was caught at its original position. (a) What was the initial velocity of the ball? (b) How high did it rise?

asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2012
physics
A physics student throws a softball straight up into the air. The ball was in the air for a total of 6.16 s before it was caught at its original position. (a) What was the initial velocity of the ball? (b) How high did it rise?

asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2012
PHYSICS
An object is originally moving at 13 m/s at the top of a frictionless, quarter-circular ramp with a radius of R = 13 meters. It then travels on a frictionless horizontal surface, around a frictionless loop of radius r = 2 meters, across another horizontal,

asked by Kelsey on October 27, 2011
Physics (dynamics)
While standing on a horizontal frictionless surface, a 50 kg student pushes against a wall with an average force of 125 N east for 0.110 s. Calculate the velocity of this student at 0.110 s

asked by Anonymous on March 28, 2011

gr10 math
The playing surface in the game of curling is a rectangular sheet of ice with an area of about 225 m^2. The width is about 40m less than the length. Find the approximate dimensions of the playing surface. How would i solve this?

asked by Rebecca on May 31, 2011
physics
A 0.19 kg hockey puck has a velocity of 2.1 m/s toward the east (the +x direction) as it slides over the frictionless surface of an ice hockey rink. What are the (a) magnitude and (b) direction of the constant net force that must act on the puck during a

asked by john on October 1, 2015
Science
Two blocks (one 10kg; other 5 kg) are connected by a string that runs over the surface of a frictionless table. 1. Are the masses moving or stationary? 2. Whats the accelaration of the 10 kg mass 3. whats the acceleration of the 5 kg mass? if the string is

asked by Lee on September 17, 2012
physics
home / study / science / physics / questions and answers / a block of mass 3kg s sliding along the frictionless … Question A block of mass 3kg s sliding along the frictionless horizontal surface with a speed of 2m/s. 1. What is the kinetic energy of the

asked by anna on April 27, 2016
Physics
A hockey puck is observed to be sliding along a flat frictionless surface at a speed of 42 mm/s. There is no net force acting on the puck. Assuming it doesn’t smash into anything, how FAST will the puck be going 2 h later?

asked by Cameron on October 3, 2018
physics
An 7.95 g bullet is fired horizontally into a 9.03 kg block of wood on an air table and is embedded in it. After the collision, the block and bullet slide along the frictionless surface together with a speed of 11.6 cm/s. What was the initial speed of the

asked by Jess on March 20, 2010
Physics
Three objects with masses m1 = 7.4 kg, m2 = 11 kg, and m3 = 18 kg, respectively, are attached by strings over frictionless pulleys (M1 hangs off the left side of the table and M3 hangs off the right side of the table with M2 between them on the table). The

asked by Dug on October 22, 2012
Physics
A physics student sits by the open window on a train moving at 25 m/sec towards the east. Her boyfriend is standing on the station platform, sadly watching her leave. When the train is 150 meters form the station, it emits a whistle at a frequency of 3000

asked by caleb on April 23, 2010
physics
A physics student sits by the open window on a train moving at 25 m/sec towards the east. Her boyfriend is standing on the station platform, sadly watching her leave. When the train is 150 meters form the station, it emits a whistle at a frequency of 3000

asked by Jason on April 21, 2010
Physics
A physics student sits by the open window on a train moving at 25 m/sec towards the east. Her boyfriend is standing on the station platform, sadly watching her leave. When the train is 150 meters form the station, it emits a whistle at a frequency of 3000

asked by caleb on April 22, 2010

Physics 11 urgent Steve, bob, damon pls
A 30 kg student pushes a 20kg box on frictionless surface. If student accelerates at 0.8m/s^2(N),what is acceleration of bix. now why does the box acceerate towards south, if it is being pushed north should it not move north.

asked by IZAAK SiDney Dunkan on October 30, 2016
Math
Find the area of an air hockey table that is 8 1/4 feet by 4 3/8 feet.

asked by Anonymous on October 5, 2016
Physics
a 78kg hockey player standing on frictionless ice throws a 6.0kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 3.0m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by Sarah on April 26, 2012
emmanuel
in a class of 60 student,26 offer mathmatic and 28 offer physics if 8 student do not offer any of the two subject (1)how many student offer both subject. (2)how many student offer mathematic only. (3)how many student offer physics only. (4)how many student

asked by toluwase on January 7, 2016
Physics
Two Students are pulling on a box initially at rest with a mass of 13.5 kg on a frictionless surface. Student #1 is applying a force of 16.5 N to the left while student #2 is apply a force of 3.7 N to the right. Find the velocity of the box after 6 sec

asked by Tinamarie on January 15, 2014
Physics
A hockey puck is sliding on frictionless ice. It slams against a wall and bounces back toward the player with the same speed that it had before hitting the wall. Does the velocity of the hockey puck change in this process?

asked by Robin on September 15, 2011
Physics
A hockey puck is sliding on frictionless ice. It slams against the wall and bounces back toward the player with the same speed that it had before hitting the wall. Does the velocity of the hockey puck change in this process? Explain.

asked by Crystal on April 10, 2013
physics
A student wearing frictionless in-line skates on a horizontal surface is pushed, from rest, by a friend with a constant force of 45 N. How far must the student be pushed, starting from rest, so that her final kinetic energy is 352 J?

asked by bill on December 15, 2014
physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 2.20 and a total mass of 0.700 . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.90 from the edge of a 2.80 drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge.

asked by Bob on September 30, 2011
physics
a block B (m2 = 14 kg) is at rest on top of a table. Block B is connected to block A (m1 = 4.8 kg) and block C (m3 = 17 kg) by two strings that each pass over a frictionless pulley installed at the either end of the table. The horizontal surface of the

asked by Amy on October 30, 2016

Sta 112
This is my question every one . Please help me have it already I had 6 as my answer. In a class of 50 student 28,22,20 of them offer physics,chemistry and biology respectively also 4 of them offer physics and chemistry but not biology,3 offer physics and

asked by Anonymous on January 23, 2016
physics
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 3.6 cm and a weight of 38 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Anonymous on November 22, 2011
physics
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 3.6 cm and a weight of 38 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Anonymous on November 22, 2011
Physics
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 4.8 cm and a weight of 26 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Anonymous on October 4, 2012
Physics HELP
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 4.0 cm and a weight of 30 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Kels on October 4, 2011
English (grammar)
The players were playing hockey

asked by The players on September 5, 2016
Physics
a person pushes on a hockey puck with their stick at an angle so the vertical force is 22N down and the horizontal force is 45N forward. Assume the ice is frictionless. What is the actual force the hockey player transmits to the puck? what is the work done

asked by Anonymous on May 29, 2014
physics
The figure below shows an object of mass M = 1,276 g. It is free to move along a horizontal, frictionless surface. This object is further connected to a second object with a mass of m = 1,362 g by means of a massless string that extends around a massless,

asked by m2a on October 10, 2009
physics
a student has six textbooks, each has a thickness of 3.6cm and a weight of 28 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all of the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by bec on November 6, 2011
PHYSICS
ADDITIONAL INO ADDED AT BOTTOM a spectator at a hockey game is sitting in a seat situated 10.4m above ground leve. if the spectator has a mass of 52.6 kg, calculate her gravitational potential energy relative to: a)ground level Eg=mgh =52.6X9.8X10.4

asked by Sarah on January 31, 2010

physics
A frictionless30degrees incline should provide an acceleration of 4.90m/s2 down the incline. A student with a stopwatch finds that an object, starting from rest, slides down a 15m very smooth incline in exactly 3s. Is the incline frictionless?

asked by julia on October 9, 2012
Physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 2.20 newtons and a total mass of 0.700 kilograms . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.90 meters from the edge of a 2.80 meter drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge.

asked by Steve on September 30, 2011
Stats
A study of the students taking distance learning courses at a university finds that they are mostly older students not living in the university town. Choose a distance learning student at random. Let A be the event that the student is 25 years old or older

asked by Anonymous on April 10, 2012
Math(Scale Factors and Scale Diagrams)
Sarah’s dad found a table hockey game with dimensions 9 1/4 inches by 4 15/16 inches. Unfortunately, this game was only 1/4 the size of the table top hockey game he wanted. Determine the dimensions of the table Sarah’s dad wanted. Please help me with this,

asked by Jenny on June 16, 2016
English
Would you please check if I answered these correctly? a. I just bought CDs by Regina Spektor, John Legend, and Prince. b. I just bought: CDs by Regina Spektor, John Legend, and Prince. I picked B because d suffices fine for this. a. Students, who study

asked by Leesa on October 21, 2009
Physics
A 2.1 kg mass is connected to a spring with spring constant k= 180 N/m and unstretched length 16 cm. The pair are mounted on a frictionless air table, with the free end of the spring attached to a frictionless pivot. The mass is set into circular motion at

asked by Courtney on February 21, 2013
Physics
Suppose you’re eating in a restaurant where the dishes are shared at the table and all placed uniformly on a rotating disk-like surface. Model this surface as a thin disk of radius 33.4 cm. You can’t stop thinking about physics even though you’re out

asked by Santhiya on April 22, 2016
physics
A physics student pulls a block of mass m = 20 kg up an incline at a slow constant velocity for a distance of d = 4.5 m. The incline makes an angle Δ = 30° with the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the inclined plane

asked by sunny on March 8, 2015
Physics
A 50 kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless ice surface throws a ball, mass of 5.0 kg horizontally with a speed of 3.0 m/s. With what speed will the player recoil? • What formula/s should I use?

asked by Lea on August 31, 2015
physics
A 182 block is launched by compressing a spring of constant k=200N/m a distance of 15cm. The spring is mounted horizontally, and the surface directly under it is frictionless. But beyond the equilibrium position of the spring end, the surface has

asked by haji on April 20, 2015

Physics
Hi, just need a little help with this physics question please. A cylindrical tank of water is located 68m deep in water. An air lock at the bottome of the tank allows access. The sailor must wait while the air pressure in the lock is increased until it

asked by Sally on February 19, 2015
physics
A copper rod of length 0.83 m is lying on a frictionless table (see the drawing). Each end of the rod is attached to a fixed wire by an unstretched spring that has a spring constant of k = 73 N/m. A magnetic field with a strength of 0.17 T is oriented

asked by VictorD2 on March 25, 2013
physics
An air puck of mass m1 = 0.45 kg is tied to a string and allowed to revolve in a circle of radius R = 1.0 m on a frictionless horizontal table. The other end of the string passes through a hole in the center of the table, and a mass m2 = 1.10 kg is

asked by melissa on November 30, 2010
physics
A 80- kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless sheet of ice throws a 6.2- kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 2.1 m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by kevin on October 31, 2009
physics
A 72- kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless sheet of ice throws a 5.6- kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 3.9 m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2014
Physics
A hockey puck slides off the edge of a table with the initial velocity of 20m/s. The table height is 2.0 m. What is the accleration of the puck right after it leaves the table?

asked by Jj on November 6, 2011
Physics
A paladin howitzer fires a 46.00 kg projectile towards a 1000 kg metal block resting on a frictionless surface. Just before impact, the projectile is traveling with a horizontal velocity of 529 m/s. After the collision, the embedded projectile and the

asked by Samiboo711 on February 2, 2015
Statistics 2231
12.05 A study of the students taking distance learning courses at a university finds that they are mostly older students not living in the university town. Choose a distance learning student at random. Let A be the event that the student is 25 years old or

asked by Regina on October 6, 2012
Solid mensuration
A wooden sphere 16 inches in diameter is placed on a table. The ball is cut horizontally 4in and 10in above the table surface. Find the surface area of the table remains after two cutting

asked by anonymous on March 10, 2016
physics
A 40 gram bullet is fired horizontally from a gun with a momentum of 2.8 (kg*m/s) and embeds itself into a 300 gram block of wood initially at rest on a wooden horizontal surface. After this collision the wood block slides 15 meters before falling off a

asked by Cass on January 16, 2013

Physics
A 40 gram bullet is fired horizontally from a gun with a momentum of 2.8 (kg*m/s) and embeds itself into a 300 gram block of wood initially at rest on a wooden horizontal surface. After this collision the wood block slides 15 meters before falling off a

asked by Cass on January 16, 2013
physics
Note: The direction of the acceleration ~a of the system is given in the figure. Three masses (17 kg, 21 kg and 67 kg) are connected by strings. The 67 kg mass slides on a horizontal surface of a table top and the 17 kg and 21 kg masses hang over the edge

asked by I dont like physics on November 24, 2015
Physics
An airplane has a mass of 2.8×106 kg , and the air flows past the lower surface of the wings at 81 m/s . Part A: If the wings have a surface area of 1100 m2 , how fast must the air flow over the upper surface of the wing if the plane is to stay in the

asked by Ashley on November 4, 2016
Probability
48% of the students in the school are female and the probability of taking of physics is independent of the gender of the student, what is the probability that a student chosen at random is both a female and taking physics?

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2017
Math
Out of a group of 600 students taking computer,mathematics or physics,there is no student taking both computer and mathematics.Every student takes computer or mathematics.150 take physics and mathematics and 250 take only one of the subjects.Find 1) the

asked by Mitu on December 30, 2015

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a weatherman reports the storm waves

. A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing?
20,457 results
scienice
a weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” what properties of waves is the reporter describing

asked by Anonymous on May 9, 2017
Science
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength*** D.amplitude

asked by jeje on January 21, 2015
Science Help Please
A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 25 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? A. frequency and wavelength B. wavelength and wave speed C. amplitude and wavelength D. amplitude and frequency

asked by frazzled on March 13, 2015
Science

  1. A weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart. “what properties of waves is the reporter describing? Frequency and wavelength Wavelength and wave speed* Amplitude and wavelength Amplitude and frequency 2.

asked by Hailee on April 1, 2015
Science

  1. A weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart. “what properties of waves is the reporter describing? Frequency and wavelength Wavelength and wave speed* Amplitude and wavelength Amplitude and frequency 2.

asked by Andrew on April 16, 2015

Science

  1. A weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart. “what properties of waves is the reporter describing? Frequency and wavelength Wavelength and wave speed* Amplitude and wavelength Amplitude and frequency 2.

asked by Hailee on April 14, 2015
Science

  1. A weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart. “what properties of waves is the reporter describing? Frequency and wavelength Wavelength and wave speed Amplitude and wavelength Amplitude and frequency 2. Sound

asked by Hailee on April 16, 2015
Algebra 1 high school
In deep water, the speed s (in meters per second) of a series of waves and the wavelength L (in meters) of the waves are related by the equation 2(pi)s^2=9.8L. a. Find the speed the the nearest hundredth of a meter per second of a series of waves with the

asked by Help now on August 27, 2013
Physics
Identical points on two harmonic waves with the same wavelength (.65 meters) and frequency are separated by a distance of .15 meters. What is the phase difference between the waves?

asked by Nick on January 26, 2013
Physics
Identical points on two harmonic waves with the same wavelength (0.65 meters) and frequency are the separated by a distance of 0.15 meters. What is the phase difference between the waves?

asked by Kristy on January 27, 2013
Science
Pleasant Beach is two meters above sea level at its highest point. If the ocean waves along the shore increase to a height of five meters, then the elevation of Pleasant Beach will most likely A.decrease to nearly zero meters B.increase to more than two

asked by M on October 22, 2014
Physicis
A rocket initially at rest accelerates at a rate of 99.0 meters/second2. Calculate the distance covered by the rocket if it attains a final velocity of 445 meters/second after 4.50 seconds. A.) 2.50 x 10(2) meters B.) 1.00 x 10(3) meters C.) 5.05 x 10(2)

asked by Raechel on April 26, 2018
physical science
A weight attached to a wire is swung in a circular path. Its speed is 12 meters/sec, and it has a centripetal acceleration of 9.0 meters/sec2. Calculate the diameter of the circle. 1.3 meters 2.6 meters 16 meters 32 meters

asked by pat on June 27, 2011
Science
A Fisherman in a row boat notices that one wave crest passes his fishing line ever 5 seconds. He estimates the distance between the crests to be 1.5 meters and that the crests of the waves are about .5 meters above the troughs. Using this data, determining

asked by Sydney on March 22, 2012
physics
A bicyclist moving at a constant speed takes 10.0 seconds to travel 500 meters down a path inclined 30.0° downward from the horizontal. What is the vertical velocity of this motion?Select one of the options below as your answer: A. 18.3 meters/second B.

asked by Anonymous on May 25, 2012

Science
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength D.amplitude

asked by Tom on May 19, 2015
Science Please Help Me
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength D.amplitude

asked by Sarr3 on June 3, 2014
Science Help Please
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength ***

asked by frazzled on March 13, 2015
Science Help Please
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength ***

asked by frazzled on March 13, 2015
Physics
Two vectors with magnitudes of 6 meters and 8 meters cannot have a resultant of: 48 meters 14 meters 10 meters 2 meters Please explain. I do not understand how to figure this out!

asked by Hannah on August 9, 2009
Physics
The velocities of sound in media P and Q are 300 meters/second and 350 meters/second respectively. If the difference in wavelength of the two waves in those media is 0.5 meters, what distance will the sound travel in 50 vibrations in the medium Q? The

asked by Anon on September 23, 2015
Math (Ms.Sue)
Find the circumference of a circle whose area is 452.16 square meters. (Use 3.1416 as the value of π.) A. 12 meters B. 75.3984 meters C. 24 meters D. 37.6992 meters I don’t know what formula to use for this equation.

asked by Brooklyn on September 15, 2015
Algebra~Scary problem!
A launched rocket has an altitude, in meters, given by the polynomial h+vt-4.9t^2, where h is the height, in meters, from which the launch occurs, at the velocity v in meters per second, and the t is the number of seconds for which the rocket is airborne.

asked by Sahara on May 27, 2008
math-algebra
A launched rocket has an altitude, in meters, given by the polynomial h = vt -4.9t^2, where h is the height, in meters, from which the launch occurs, at velocity v in meters per second, and t is the number of seconds for which the rocket is airborne. If a

asked by Michelle on October 9, 2010
math
a launched rocket has an altitude, in meters, given by the polynimial h+vt-4.9t^2 where h is the height, in meters, from which the launch occurs, at velocity v in meters per second, and t is the number of seconds for which the rocket is airborne. If a

asked by pam on March 21, 2013

math
At the ruins of Caesarea, archaeologists discovered a huge hydraulic concrete block with a volume of 945 cubic meters. The block’s dimensions are x meters high by 12x – 15 meters long by 12x – 21 meters wide. What is the height of the block? I have no idea

asked by Karen on October 9, 2013
Algebra 2
At the ruins of Caesarea, archaeologists discovered a huge hydraulic concrete block with a volume of 945 cubic meters. The block’s dimensions are x meters high by 12x – 15 meters long by 12x – 21 meters wide. What is the height of the block? Can someone

asked by Krystal on October 9, 2013
math
Sandy dropped a basketball from the top of her Mom’soffice building which is 72 meters tall. She discovered that the first bounce bounced 36m on the second bouce the ball bounced 18 meters. if this pattern continues, how high will the ball bounce on the

asked by Preston on January 24, 2007
Algebra
The underside of a concrete bridge forms a parabolic arch that is 32 meters wide at the water level and twelve meters high in the center. The road (top of the bridge) is forty eight meters wide, and the minimum thickness of the concrete is two meters.

asked by Someone that wanna pass on May 12, 2016
Math
A trapezoid has an area of 24 square meters. The lengths of the bases of the trapezoid are 5 meters and 7 meters. What is the height of the trapezoid? (1 point) 4 meters•• 144 meters 2 meters 1 meter Correct this

asked by Tia/Justin on February 19, 2016
Pre-Algebra
Martha is in a hot air balloon that has risen straight up from the launch point. Matthew is standing on the ground, 16 meters away from the launch point. If Martha and Matthew are 20 meters apart, how high has the balloon risen? A. 4 meters B. 12 meters C.

asked by Alice on April 17, 2017
Geometry

  1. What is the surface are of a conical grain storage tank that has a height of 37 meters and a diameter of 16 meters? Round the answer to the nearest square meter. 2,831 square meters 2,664 square meters 1,152 square meters 1,131 square meters

asked by Becky on May 13, 2016
Math
A rectangular room is 4 meters wider than its high and it is 8 meters longer than its wide. the total Ares of the wall is 512 square meters. Find the dimensions of the room.

asked by jochabed on August 21, 2016
Math
A rectangular room is 4 meters wider than its high and it is 8 meters longer than its wide. the total Ares of the wall is 512 square meters. Find the dimensions of the room.

asked by jochabed on August 27, 2016
Calculus
How fast must you release the string of your kite if the kite that you are flying is 40 meters high, 50 meters away from you and moving horizontally away at rate of 30 meters per minute?

asked by Zara on April 25, 2014

science
Mount Everest stands at 8,850 meters high. Every year it grows 1cm. How many meters high will this mountain be in 50,000 years

asked by Cherie on May 15, 2012
physics
A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial velocity? (b) If the

asked by Kristina on February 9, 2016
Physics Help!!!
A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial velocity? (b) If the

asked by tom on February 9, 2016
physics
A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial velocity? (b) If the

asked by tamara on February 8, 2016
physics
A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial velocity? (b) If the

asked by tom on February 8, 2016
physics
A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial velocity? (b) If the

asked by tom on February 9, 2016
math
find the area of prism 5 millimeters 6 meters 13 meters not drama scale. A. 48 meters squared B. 346 meters squared C. 780 meters squared D. 195 meters squared help

asked by Larry vandermark on May 4, 2016
math
find the area of prism 5 millimeters 6 meters 13 meters not drama scale A. 48 meters squared B. 346 meters squared C. 780 meters squared D. 195 meters squared help

asked by Larry vandermark on May 4, 2016
math
find the area of prism 5 millimeters 6 meters 13 meters not drama scale A. 48 meters squared B. 346 meters squared C. 780 meters squared D. 195 meters squared

asked by Larry vandermark on May 4, 2016
math
victor drives 300 meters up a hill that makes an angle of 13 degrees with the horizontal. To the nearest tenth of a meter, what horizontal distance has he covered? 307.9 meters 292.3 meters 69.3 meters 67.5 meters im thinking C, please help

asked by ghosttleaah on March 17, 2016

algebra
A launched rocket has an altitude, in meters,give n by the polynomial h+vt-4.9t^2, where h is the height, in meters, from which the rocket is airborne. If a rocket is launched from the top of the tower 90 meters high with an initial upward speed of 50

asked by rr on May 15, 2012
Science
P: If wave a has an amplitude of 3 meters then inteferes wiht wave b that has an amplitude of 2 meters. the sum of te waves produce wave c with 5 meters Q:what is the wave interaction explain? P

asked by Jacytiopa on October 3, 2010
Geometry
Can you check these multiple choice questions thanks. 1. What is the length of a rectangle that has an area of 20 square meters and a perimeter of 18 meters. A. 10 meters B. 2 meters C. 5 meters D. 9 meters Answer: B 2. Find the minimum perimeter of a

asked by Missy on September 5, 2009
Math
A trapezoid has an area of 24 square meters. The lengths of the bases of the trapezoid are 5 meters and 7 meters. What is the height of the trapezoid? A. 4 meters B. 144 meters** C. 2 meters D. 1 meter

asked by Esther on February 29, 2016
Math plz help one qustion only!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
A trapezoid has an area of 24 square meters. The lengths of the bases of the trapezoid are 5 meters and 7 meters. What is the height of the trapezoid? • 4 meters • 144 meters • 2 meters • 1 meter

asked by Marie on February 4, 2016
Math
A trapezoid has an area of 24 square meters. The lengths of the bases of the trapezoid are 5 meters and 7 meters. What is the height of the trapezoid? • 4 meters • 144 meters • 2 meters • 1 meter

asked by Marie on February 4, 2016
Math
A landowner wishes to construct a fence around a small section of her property. The fence is rectangular and is (3√5)/√7 meters wide and (2√3)/√5 meters long. What is the exact perimeter of the fence? (Recall that the perimeter is the sum of each

asked by Brady on February 11, 2014
physics
A game of tennis… A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial

asked by tom on February 8, 2016
Algebra 1
A ball is thrown upward with an initial velocity of 35 meters per second from a cliff that is 80 meters high. The height of the ball is given by the quadratic equation h = -49t^2 + 35t + 140 where h is in meters and t is the time in seconds since the ball

asked by Sherry on March 7, 2013
Math – Dividing Radicals
A landowner wishes to construct a fence around a small section of her property. The fence is rectangular and is (3√5)/√7 meters wide and (2√3)/√5 meters long. What is the exact perimeter of the fence? (Recall that the perimeter is the sum of each

asked by Brady on February 11, 2014

Physics
While watching ocean waves at the dock of the bay, Otis notices that 10 waves pass beneath him in 30 seconds. He also notices that the crests of successive waves exactly coincide with the posts that are 5 meters apart. What are the period, frequency,

asked by Shannon on March 14, 2011
physics
while watching ocean waves at the dock of the bay. otis notices that 10 waves pass beneath him in 30 seconds. he also notices that the crests of succesive waves exactly coincide with the posts that are 5 meters apart. what are the period frequency

asked by charlie on February 11, 2011
Pre – Cal
) The main cables of a suspension bridge are 20 meters above the road at the towers and 4 meters above the road at the center. The road is 80 meters long. Vertical cables are spaced every 10 meters. The main cables hang in the shape of a parabola. Find the

asked by Nina moreland on December 9, 2015
physics
If a ball is dropped from rest, it will fall 5 m during the first second. How far will it fall during the second second? A. 15 meters B. 10 meters C. 5 meters D. 20 meters the way the question is worded it seems it should be 10meteres but I think it wants

asked by anonymous on March 11, 2014
physic
julianna walked 45 meters east, 45 meters souuth, and 45 meters north. what is her resultant displacement? My answer was 45 meters west. is this correct

asked by julien on October 17, 2009
Science
Which of the following is an accurate statement of an acceleration value, translated from symbols into words? A. 3 meters per second B. 3 meters per second squared C. 3 square meters per second D. 3 meters in 3 seconds

asked by Judy on April 27, 2010
math
A painter needs to cover a triangular region 62 meters by 66 meters by 71 meters. A can of paint covers 70 square meters. How many cans will be needed?

asked by peter on March 31, 2010
Math
A painter needs to cover a triangular region 61 meters by 66 meters by 72 meters. A can of paint covers 70 square meters. How many cans will be needed?

asked by Sarah on May 3, 2009
math
a painter needs to cover a triangular region 60 meters by 68 meters by 71 meters. a can of paint covers 70 square meters. how many cans will be needed?

asked by keke on November 14, 2016
math
A painter needs to cover a triangular region 62 meters by 66 meters by 71 meters. A can of paint covers 70 square meters. How many cans will be needed?

asked by pepe on March 31, 2010

Trigonometry
A painter needs to cover a triangular region 62 meters by 68 meters by 70 meters. A can of paint covers 70 square meters. How many cans will be needed?

asked by Kim on April 24, 2009
algebra
The formula for the height of a fallinis shown below, where h is the height of the object in meters, t is the time in seconds, and k is the height, in meters, from which the object began its fall. h=-4.9f+k If aq rock is droppped from a building that is

asked by curtina blue on September 22, 2010
Science
P: If wave a has an amplitude of 3 meters then inteferes wiht wave b that has an amplitude of 2 meters. the sum of te waves produce wave c with 5 meters Q:what is the wave interaction explain? Also m,ay you explain what destructive inteference is and

asked by Jacytiopa on October 3, 2010
physics
Consider a wave that travels a distance of 3 meters in 1 second with a frequency of 2 hertz. What is its amplitude? A) 4 meters.B) 2 meters.C) Not enough information is given.D) 3 meters.E) 1 meter.

asked by Kristie on April 29, 2012
Earth Space Science
the horizontal distance between a crest to the next trough of an ocean wave is 5 meters. what is the wavelength of the ocean wave? A)2 meters B)5 meters C)10 meters D)20 meters I think its 10 meters but im not so sure, I would like to make sure.

asked by Sierra on March 28, 2015
English
Thank you for your help. I have posted one more time about the use of ‘it.’ 1. The station is 50 meters away. 2. The station is 50 meters. 3. It is 50 meters away. 4. It is 50 meters. 5. The distance is 50 meters away. 6. The distance is 50 meters.

asked by rfvv on October 26, 2016
Math
Write the ratio as a unit rate. 8 meters in 10 seconds. A. 0.8 meter per second B. 1.125 meters per second** C. 2 meters per second D. 80 meters per second

asked by Jack on November 9, 2017
Health
The long continuous tube that is the digestive tract is about __ in length. A. 3 meters B. 9 meters C. 5 meters D. 12 meters

asked by Audra on August 23, 2014
math
Write the ratio has a unit rate 8 meters to 10 seconds 1)0.8 meter per second 2)1.125 meters per second 3)2 meters per second 4)80 meters per second

asked by Abby on January 23, 2015
Math
Write the ratio as a unit rate. 8 meters in 10 seconds A. 0.8 meter per second B. 1.125 meters per second C. 2 meters per second•• D. 80 meters per second

asked by Amanda on January 12, 2016

Pre Cal
A circular Ferris wheel has a radius of 9 meters. The ride rotates a rate of 10 degrees per second. When you get in the ride at the bottom the seat is 2 meters above the ground at its lowest point in meters. How high is the seat after 54 seconds.

asked by Gabriela Garduno on January 22, 2015
physics
A compartment measures 3 meters by 5 meters and is 2.8 meters high. A fire raises the temperature from 20 degrees C to 1000 C. If the starting temperature assuming the compartment remains closed?

asked by Deborah on October 28, 2011
physical science
A car with a mass of 1,200 kilograms is moving around a circular curve at a uniform velocity of 20 meters per second. The centripetal force on the car is 6,000 newtons. What is the radius of the curve? A. 80 meters B. 32 meters C. 16 meters D. 160 meters

asked by Anonymous on February 5, 2008
Math
How do I do imperial to metric conversions?! Metric to imperial is easy but I don’t know how to do it the other way around!!! Please help me! a) 6yd to meters b) 3mi to kilometers c) 80in to meters d) 3.8ft to meters e) 5’3″ to meters (” is foot right?) f)

asked by Whitney R. on July 18, 2014
math
A diver is wroking 30 meters below sea level. Another diver is taking a break on a platform directly above him that is 5 meters above sea level.How far apart are the two divers? a. 5 meters b. 25 meters c. 35 meters d. 40 meters please answer and explain

asked by thomas on April 23, 2014
maths
A roof section of a house is a large triangle. it measures 6.4 meters at the base and is 3.8 meters high. If one liter of paint covers 3 meters square, how many litres are needed to paint this section twice? Answer to the nearest litre.

asked by zeebuddy on August 21, 2014
area
what is the total area of the four walls of a rectangular room 4 meters long by 5.5 meters wide by 3 meters high? is it 4 times 5.5? then times four since there are 4 walls? 88m squared?

asked by Skye on February 14, 2011
physics
1)The resultant wave from the interference of two identical waves traveling in opposite directions is described by the wave function y(x, t) = (2.49 m)sin(0.0458x)cos(5.40t), where x and y are in meters and t is in seconds. a) What is the frequency of the

asked by joy on April 25, 2018
physics
an 8-newton foce is applied to a 4-kg object. what is the rate of acceleration. a.4 meters per second b.8 meters per second c.2 meters per second d.12 meters per second

asked by Gabriella on March 18, 2011
Physics
Two vectors with magnitudes of 6 meters and 8 meters cannot have a resultant of: 48 meters 14 meters 10 meters 2 meters

asked by Ronnie on August 13, 2010

math
the floor area of a rectangular storm shelter is 65 square meters, and its length is 6.5 meteres. What is the width of the storm shelter

asked by william on January 23, 2013
Physics/Formulas
Calculate the SI units of the constants A and B in each of the following equations. Assume that the distance x is in meters (m), the time t is in seconds (s), and the velocity v is in meters per second (m/s). a. x = A + B.t Meters = A + B * seconds b. x =

asked by Paul on August 21, 2013
Math Multiplying Fractions
A swimming pool in the shape of a rectangular prism is 50 meters long 25 meters wide and 3 meters deep. A liter is the same as 0.001 cubic meters. How many liters of water are needed to completely fill the pool? I know how to find the volume which is 3750

asked by Jerald on February 4, 2014
Algebra – Dividing Radicals
A landowner wishes to construct a fence around a small section of her property. The fence is rectangular and is (3√5)/√7 meters wide and (2√3)/√5 meters long. What is the exact perimeter of the fence? (Recall that the perimeter is the sum of each

asked by Brady on February 11, 2014
Math
Peter wants to hang his paintings on a wall that is 2 1/2 meters high and 5 1/2 meters wide. He hangs four paintings, each of which is 1 1/4 meters high and 2/3 meter wide. what area of the wall is NOT covered by paintings?

asked by Derrianna on February 18, 2015
Math
Fay’s rubber ball bounces exactly half the height from which it is dropped. She drops the ball from the top of a building that is 64 meters tall. How high will the ball bounce on its eighth bounce. Could someone explain this? Thank you! Natalie 1/2 of 64=

asked by Natalie on August 16, 2006
Math
An airplane pilot over the Pacific sights an atoll at an angle of depression of 7°. At this time, the horizontal distance from the airplane to the atoll is 3,729 meters. What is the height of the plane to the nearest meter? 458 meters 454 meters 3,667

asked by Tim on April 19, 2016
Math- pplication of Sin and Cos&thier derivative
An oceanographer measured a set of sea waves during a storm and modelled the vertical displacement of waves in meters using the equation h(t)=0.6cos2t+0.8sint, where t is the time in seconds. a) Determine the vertical displacement of the wave when the

asked by Farah on November 20, 2010
Science
Which solution will best allow the movers to achieve their goal? A) Change the width of the ramp from 4 meters to 3 meters. B) Change the length of the ramp from 4 meters to 5 meters. C) Change the height of the ramp from 3 meters to 4 meters. D) Change

asked by Marc on March 3, 2016
5th grade
a parallegram has a height of 4 meters and sides of 5 meters and 7 meters. What is its area in square meters?

asked by samantha on November 3, 2010

calculus
a rocket is launched vertically and travels at 100 meters per second. a tracking radar is 500 meters from the launch site. when the rocket is 800 meters high, how fast must the radar antenna tilt( in radians) in order to track the rocket?

asked by amy on November 19, 2012
geometry
The cargo space of the truck is 2.44 meters wide, 2.76 meters high, and 8.20 meters long. How many cubic meters of cargo space does the truck have?

asked by Anonymous on April 15, 2015