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How to manage Wasteful energy culture

What are some methods that affect and improve culture of wasteful energy that is prevalent in the United States? Amory Lovins suggests that we should develop cultural/social motivations to enact change, but how? Perform a literature search and present some ideas on this topic from two or more of these fields: sociology, behavioral psychology, social economics, and history, other (anything you can find that is relevant). Compare and contrast the suggested solutions and discuss whether you think any of them would actually work.

The wasteful energy is one of the major concern and this concern has becoming more significant as they use of energy has been rapidly increasing. This rapid increase in the use of energy is directly linked to the waste of energy. It is the issue in many ways as the increase in use of energy due to the rapid industrialization is directly linked to the environment. In recent few decades, it has been found that the world temperature is changing that is affecting the entire world due to the global warming. More the energy waste will resulted as more global warming therefore, there is need to give serious concern to find the ways to reduce the energy use as well as to control the energy waste (IBP, 2015).

In this regards, the best ways is to research and development because through the research the real consequences could be revealed about the waste of energy. However there is another other thing because now we are in water and if we will keep on relying on the research and development and do not do anything to tackle the problem, then within time the situation will become more and more critical and we all would have to face the consequences. Therefore, it is the right time to take actions because almost all of us are now well aware about the causes of global warming and its effect on our planet. Therefore, instead of wasting time in just doing research on it would be like wasting of time. However it does not mean to completely cut off from the research and development (Kalogirou, 2016).

In this regards not only the government but every person should be realized that he has the  responsibility to carefully use the resources of energy that are actually a blessing for us but we are manipulating these blessings. In this regards, the awareness programs and interactive seminars would be the most effective ways out to solve the problems.

It is justifiable that the role of innovative technology would be very crucial in this way. There is need to develop the alternate energy resources that should be based on the renewable energy resources. The most important thing is to control the industrial waste of energy. For this aspect, the development of governmental policies would not be the only solution because there is need to provide alternate to the business so that they could not have to face loss and they will happily contribute to reduce the impact of waste energy on our planet. Moreover, there is need to educate people about the effect and consequences of the energy waste as very few of us are well aware of this fact and most of us do not take it seriously as we think that we alone can do nothing. In this situation there is need to motivate people by realizing them that we all are the part of this planet and everyone’s effort means a lot. There is also need to motivate people by not just telling them but encouraging them through interactive education such as the campaign of planting trees and encouraging them to reduce the use of carbon emission cars (̈Urge-Vorsatz & Herrero, 2012).

There is need to promote the organizations that will work on to find other ways of energy in which the energy productivity will be more and the waste will be less. In this regards there is need to understand that vehicles and the transportation sector is one of the major cause of energy waste, therefore after the industries, this sector should be given serious attention. Great efforts have been doing to find the alternate of energy resource that is used in vehicles and many companies have received great success by developing electric vehicles in which the energy waste is greatly controlled. However it is not the solution because electric motors are at its initial stage and there are billions of cars on the road that are using the same carbon emitting engine. In this aspect, the idea of introducing new policies would force the motor owner to modify their engine to alternate fuel engine. However, this would only be possible when there will be an alternate available for them. In the capital of China, Beijing, millions of cars have taken off from the rode by addressing the impact on the environment but they also have given alternate as promoting the local transport. Other governments should also adopt such policies.


IBP, I. (2015). United Arab Emirates Energy Policy, Laws and Regulations Handbook: Strategic Information and Basic Laws (World Business and Investment Library) .

Kalogirou, S. (2016, January 20). Greener, safer, cheaper: which countries are making progress on energy? Retrieved May 06, 2016, from

̈Urge-Vorsatz, D., & Herrero, S. T. (2012). Building synergies between climate change mitigation and energypoverty alleviation. Energy policy , 49, 83-90.

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What does the term Globalization Mean to you?

The term “Globalization” means the process of internationalization in which people can change their ideas, views and thoughts, culture, can trade business and monetary terms according to the policies etc. Globalization affects the countries in different ways for example economically, politically, socially and financially.

With the help of globalization, the people around the world become able to trade their goods and services around the world.  Now businesses are growing around the world, globalization influences the phenomenon of economic business and society as well.  The growth of developed countries is considered as the main cause of the globalization. With the help of globalization, now countries are trying to lower the unemployment crises around the world, which is the major problem of all countries at present. With the help of globalization, now multinational companies are hiring people where the labor cost is low so that they can provide employment to the workers as well as they can be able to earn profits in a large amount. This process helps the developing countries to improve the livelihood as well as the standards of living of the people (Mathews, Ribeiro, & Vega, 2012). It also helps the developing country to get familiar with the new civilization. Globalization is increasing opportunities for the developed countries that they can take advantage of the developing countries for example low labor cost etc. globalization is also playing the role to develop or improve the infrastructures of the countries  (Fujita & Thisse, 2013).

Technological advancement and other factors like free trade activities and worldwide acceptance of markets playing an important role in the process of globalization. Globalization is playing a major role in improving the economic conditions of the country, with the help of free trading that is government is now changing their strict rules and regulation in order so that companies from the other country can come and trade goods and services. 

With the help of globalization now, entrepreneurs are finding new ways and ideas by visiting potential markets in the developing countries so that they can bring in new innovative product or business in the country and can improve the economic condition of the country.  Globalization has promoted good education system around the world. With the help of globalization, different standards have developed for example standards for doing business ethically, standards for labor force and standards for the monetary term for example  standard format for the balance sheet and income statement of a business (Jones, 2013).

To conclude it, globalization is playing an important role in the development of the country. It is helping countries to come and invest in another country; it is promoting a better way of education. Globalization is promoting countries to develop standards that can be followed by every country so that they can improve the way of communication, the way of doing business and the way of getting an education it. On doing this, they can be able to improve the economic condition of the developing countries and peoples’ standards of living.


Fujita, M., & Thisse, J. -F. (2013). Economics of Agglomeration: Cities, Industrial Location, and Globalization. Cambridge University Press.

Jones, G. (2013). Entrepreneurship and Multinationals. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Mathews, G., Ribeiro, G. L., & Vega, C. A. ( 2012). Globalization from Below: The World’s Other Economy. Routledge.

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Economic Globalization Assignment

Two factors contributing to the process of Globalization

Technological advancement in the process of a supply chain, transportation of goods and services and in the process of commutation around the world, played an important role. It also promotes the globalization. Technology is growing day by day, with this technological advancement, the way of doing business or trading is also improving for example; it is the technology that helps the countries to build roads, air plans, watercrafts so that, they can be able to trade their goods and services around the world.

With the help of technology like mobiles phones, laptops, software, applications etc. people can communicate with each other around the world. It is due to the technology revolutionized the business as well as the social life of people around the world. The Internet allows people to connect with each other and share their ideas, views and thoughts with each other. With the help of the internet, people can do their business deals by emailing and doing conference call etc.

Business people are using aircraft to transfer their goods and services to the other countries of the world. People can travel around the world using aircraft so that they can find out a new market in the other countries and can start a new business. It is the technology that now people can transfer money to another country in return for trading goods and services. Moreover, due to technology,  companies are bringing in innovation in their products, for example, mobile phone computers automobiles extra (STEVER & MUROYAMA, 2015).

Moreover, the capital flow of movement contributes its role in the globalization. Now business people can travel around the world o seek the potential market so that they can nest money in that country and to earn profits. For example; Apple Inc. is making their products in the China because Apple after the research find that the labor force cost in China is less than the USA and so they planted their manufacturing process in China where they are manufacturing their iphones on paying low labor cost.

Financial markets also contributing its role in the process of Globalization.  Now people around the world can buy the share of any company listed on the stock exchange of a country. In short, financial markets around the world have given access to the companies so that they can improve the economy of the country as well as the economy of the world (Cetorelli & Goldberg, 2012). In short, it contributes to increasing the GDP rate of a country and contributes/ helps to decrease the global economic crises (dgff.unctad, 2016).


Cetorelli, N., & Goldberg, L. S. (2012). Banking Globalization and Monetary Transmission. Journal of Finance , 1811-1843.

dgff.unctad. (2016, April 6,). GLOBAL CAPITAL FLOW TRENDS. Retrieved May 5, 2016, from

STEVER, H. G., & MUROYAMA, J. H. (2015, September 26,). Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Retrieved May 5, 2016, from

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16-year-olds to vote


There is the need to recognize the importance of casting a vote, a right to cast a vote is an important aspect, which should be disused, everybody in the nation or country, should have the same right, there is a need to allow the right to vote to the 16 years old. The government needs to identify the importance of teenagers it should also give the rights, support to the 16 year age, voting age should be lower to 16. The young vote caster in the age of 16 and 17 will cast the meaningful vote. A research shows that government has discussed a lot about it that the young teenagers should be allowed to cast the vote or not, however, there are political issues. The right to cast the vote if given the 16 and 17 years of the teenager, then they would empower and their knowledge will be increased, they can better take the decision, and the habit of casting votes will be developed in them in their formative years. Moreover, the teenagers in 16 years are not mature enough to decide what is good for them; they might follow their parents or the one who influence them that the vote should be given to this person.

Arguments for:

Argument 1: responsibility

There are many advantages for society and for the 16 and 17 teenagers, if they are allowed to cast the vote, first, that voting right at 16 years old will have significance effect in our culture, the young citizen will be motivated and they will support the government that their government is accommodating and encouraging them. When they know, they are going to cast the vote they should feel the responsibility on their part. They would pay the tax if they realized about the responsibility. It is also matter of equality and fairness when they know they are getting equal rights as others, they will not miss the chance to cast the vote (Fairvote, 2016).

Argument 2: civic life

The positive impact on the families will take place when there are 16 and 17 years old at the home or households are involved in the civic life. This can turnout their parents and others, of all ages to caste the vote, the early teenagers will influence the family members and people around them. The young voter can also access that who is the right person for them; it can establish the long-life habit, it van makes them sound decision-makers, they needed to be involved with the civic and social matters so their quality participation should be a part of democracy.

Moreover, youth under the age of 16, pay taxes, follow the rules and regulations defined by Government so they must have some voting rights. A teen under the 16 age almost pays $9.7 billion dollar taxes on sales independently. Most of the children work to get the education and to pay their tuition fee, in addition to this, they are paying taxes to get the education. They have the right to get voting rights (youth rights).

Argument 3: Aware of polices and society

Teaching and giving opportunities at the early ages can make them capable enough, to respect their politics, they will take part in the news, they will stay updated with everyday changing in the politics, and they will evolved with the political matters from the 16 and 17 years. Before leaving the school, they will be well aware of polices and society that what needed to be improved or changed. They will be involved with the politics for the later life, the parents and government need to engaged them in voting, the voters will be increased in this way, and right person for the state will be selected by the nation, 16 is the better age to begin with the vote (Davis). When youth will participate, it will generate the much gain from the 16 years of age. It will generate the positive impacts and can capable the voters to decide what is good for them, at the early ages (Vote16sf, 2015).

Arguments against:

Argument 1: Mental effectiveness

According to the World health organization, the mental effectiveness of the teenagers are not fully developed, they just do, what they are guided to do. They brain of 16 and 17 years of age are not fully mature, there is a need of guidance to them. In the case an of a vote, they should not allow to give the vote due to some reasons ( They can wait for two years, after the age of 18 they will be given the right, they may be deprived by the group of people, or someone may influence them to give the vote to this or that party. Anybody can target this age group easily by offering them some things they desired off, they could easily influenced, as they are not fully matured (Berry & Kippin, 2014).

Argument 2: Not capable to take decisions

The two years of life from the 16 to 18, can make them capable to understand the government, and the civic parties, children of this age group are lazy. They can learn about the government and after this, they will be mature to cast a vote, according to the choice, the children at 16 years are not much competent or capable to take decisions, they are emotional and live in a fantasy world.

Argument 3: Do not pay attention to the households matters

The two years of life from the 16 to 18, want to change the world; they want to see everything, according to what they desired, they can smart in taking decisions but not as the fully grown adult, like they will be in 18. At the age of 16, they are pressurized by the peer, they even do not pay attention to the households matters, they are not aware of the taxes and property, so how they could decide the political parties and the benefits.

Pros and cons (conclusion):

The children of 16 years of age are not mature enough as they can deprive, people and political parties can take advantage of this age group, they are not capable enough to take the decisions, and they cannot choose what is good and bad for them. However, the early teenage voters can participate with their parents in choosing the best leader, if they are given right to cast votes. On doing this, they will feel responsible and they may try to increase their knowledge regarding political matters, voting right can make them active and involved them in civic life.

Work Cited

Berry, Richard and Sean Kippin. “Should the UK lower the voting age to 16?” (2014): 1-36.

Davis, Aaron C. 16-year-olds in D.C. could vote for president in 2016, under proposal. 3 November 2015. 3 May 2016 <>.

Fairvote. Lower the Voting Age. 2016. 2 May 2016 <>.

Vote16sf. 7 reasons why 16 and 17 year olds should vote. Nov 2015. 2 May 2016 <>. For and against: Lowering voting age. 26 February 2014. 3 May 2016 <>.

Youthrights. Top ten reasons to lower the voting age. 10 April 2016. May 3 2016 <>.

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“What are Incentives? Why are they important? Illustrate and explain examples.”

What are Incentives? Why are they important? Illustrate and explain examples.”

The term “Incentive” in the economy could be a general term; the term, which is important in the different sphere of the life, in economics if one does not know that, what incentives are then one, can never understand that what is economics. However, an American economist says “Economics in it’s entirely is a study of people’s response to incentive.” The term incentive is related to the economies, so it is a clear fact that incentives are central to do the study from the economical point.

Incentives could be defined as the benefits, rewards, or something which motivates you to do something; there could be the own decision and action of a person involves in the term. No one does something, for no reason, however, trade and economies can be related to the term incentive because when, a person or a customer buying anything, he/she have the concepts or the benefits of the product in mind, so every action is done can be called as human nature. Human nature can be described as the wish for something that is always related to the study of economies.

Types of the Economic Incentives

The incentives help the people to behave in a certain way, there are the preferences, desire, and need associated with the incentive, economic incentives can be related to the preferences, economic disincentives can discourage the behavior of the people, taxes can be a good example of disincentives, as the people never feel happy, in paying the taxes. The product and services in the economy can be more expensive, there are the extrinsic incentives and the intrinsic incentive that are also related to the growth of the economy, as both are the accumulation of the wealth.

Extrinsic incentives can be related to the rewards, which are given in the form of the bonuses, output or profit, it is also related to the social status and the power, it depends on the power of the people, however, these incentive are better and can work better as compared to the other incentives. Moreover, the intrinsic incentives are the incentive related to the internal, which can be related to psychological perspectives. Example getting the satisfaction from work, the intrinsic incentives gives motivation to the people, so they feel themselves the important part of the organization, they can be motivated by managers, they can be given the appreciations on the work they have done. 

Financial incentives are the incentives that are more dominant, in the economic field; the employment of any employee is related to the remuneration and the salaries, to win a certain amount of money. The employees of the company may be performed in the better way, example, if there is the idea of the product promotion, then the employee could be called to do the promotion and in that sense the incentive, can be given to him in the form of money. However, to promote those products or the services, the employee will work effectively to win a certain amount of money. 

Moral incentives are also there, which can also motivate the people to do good in the society. However, it could be related to the good and bad of the society; there are the moral actions in the moral incentives. Moreover, people do not do bad to get the moral incentives, and these incentives can be related to the term, welfare evolution, as the people will do the effort to bring the welfare in the society. People do not behave in a bad manner or the things where there are bad consequences so welfare evolution can be bought in the society and organizations can be effected through moral incentives (Acs, Szer, & Autio, 2015).

Importance of Incentives

Incentives can be described as the inducement; they can be related to the demand and supply, cost and benefits and the scarcity. However, there is the need to identify that what rewards should be given to the workers. Intrinsic and extrinsic both rewards are equally important, but there is the need to do the analyses, that how could workers and employees can be satisfied. Incentive programs are the motivational tool, and there could be the higher degree of the productivity, if incentives are given in an effective way, it can increase the earning of the companies, this, economies can also give effective results.

The importance of incentives should be focused; there is the need to promote the teamwork, as the teamwork can only be promoted if the incentives are there, because incentives can promote the collaboration, and everyone can work hard to get those incentives. There will be competition in the team members that who is performing better, and who is taking the maximum advantages of the incentives. However, to boost the moral economically, an incentive can play important role in any field of the economies. The service level can be enhanced and people can be satisfied (Wheelan, 2010).

Reciprocity can also be there in the organization, as the company gets the benefits from the employees and the employees get the benefits from the company, however, people can become rich, and when the people of any country are rich, they spend more in the economy and economy of the country get strengthen. Moreover, there is need to consider all the aspects of the incentives.

Lehman Brothers and Bear Stearns Study

Incentives can be given by the organization or the person, to make the other person happy, however, the organizations give the incentives to the worker, so that there could be the efficiency in their work and they can perform better. When employee know that he is going to evaluate and going to get on what he has performed, his performance can be automatically improved. Moreover, there are the various studies on the incentives and the employee’s performance. A study of 2009 at the universities indicates that companies pay the considerable incentives to the employees and executives to take the risk. Lehman Brothers and Bear Stearns have the top executive teams, and they have earned about $1.4 billion and $1 billion, in the form of the bonuses, cash and equity (Kille, 2010).

They have anticipated that the firms are getting benefits because the employees are happy and it is important to give benefits to the employees so that there could be productivity and profitability in the organization, the companies faced the losses because they did not anticipate the risks. The executives may fail to manage the risk; there is the need to impose the limits in the sales executives. Incentives can be related to the people and change; positive change can be brought in the organization.


In the organizations, there is need to give the incentives on the fairness basis so that employees can be motivated. There should be non-discrimination principle follows in the organizations, there should be no discrimination based on the regional, ethnic, background differences. Here come the responsible of the managers to give the incentives with the fairness, if they want the economic stability and want to run the economic functions smoothly, then there is the need to think of the employees and need to give the incentives based on fairness (Prud’homme & Song, 2016).

However, there should be no biases in the organizations, because if the employees feel the discrimination or they come to know that they are not given the incentives on the fair basis, then they can leave the organization and productivity can be affected. However, all the activities of the companies or industries are related to the economic activities because when the companies or industries get strengthen in the market, the economy of the country can also get strengthen and better results in growth can be there.

Market liberalism and liberalism, regarding to the liberty and equality for the people or employees can also be related to the fairness of the incentives as there is free market economy, and people rights are concerned, so the companies need to protect the human rights, so there could be the ethnicity or culture of market liberalism. In this way, there will be the market growth and people will work effectively, to get the benefits, organizational performance will be increases, and the support will be given to the market economies, and the personal liberty regarding human rights can be focused. To promote the worldwide philosophy of the liberalism, the rights need to be promoted.

Economic Development Incentives

Economic development incentives are the incentives, which is taken by the government from the people of the country, they are may be in the form of tax, such incentives are taken to give the ultimate advantages to the people, however, the local government can also indulge in the programs, related to the economic development incentives.

There are the works in the country or cities; collective action problems are being focused in the countries through indulging the economic development, through taking the incentives, the work is done in the remote areas of the city or country. However, the poor areas or poor populations focused through concerning the economic development incentives. Through focusing on the economic development incentives, there can also be the emphasis on the big push model, as there will be the welfare of the economy. It is the need of the citizens because countries are because there is the increase in the unemployment level, the poverty is there. However, development incentives can play a role in attracting the businesses, so that maximum job opportunities can be there in the country (Bardsley, 2010).

In the end, the main purpose of the economic development incentives is to make the country prosperous, there is focus on changing the condition of the people who are living in the poverty, and however, however, there are the long-term and short-term incentives plans, so that people of the country can be helped in the better way. Infrastructure can be the main target of the economic development incentives, the ultimate benefits if the incentives are there, in the country, for the people. Incentives play an important role in the economy of the country; there can be benefits if the employees in the companies or industries work better for the incentives. However, economic development incentive can also be there, and the country can be improved.


Acs, Z. J., Szer, L., & Autio, E. (2015). Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index 2014. Springer.

Bardsley, N. (2010). Experimental Economics: Rethinking the Rules. Princeton University Press.

Kille, L. W. (2010, April 7). Executive compensation at Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers, 2000-2008. Retrieved October 15, 2016, from

Prud’homme, D., & Song, H. (2016). Economic Impacts of Intellectual Property-Conditioned Government Incentives. Springer.

Wheelan, C. (2010). Introduction to Public Policy. W. W. Norton & Company.

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A Multilayered Strategy and Starbucks

Marketing Mix

Looking at the marketing mix, normally it is said that four parts are involved in it. They are mainly product, price, place and promotion, which are being used by the company. If we discuss then we come to know that the company is playing very smartly and the promotion is good as they have demanded the customers for the pictures and it will be the win-win strategy, as they will be advertised also.

However, the product discussed is the socks and the underwear that needs to be advertised in here. Further, the place they have demanded is anywhere, more specifically any sports surrounds the picture should be. The company is advertising on the facebook to gain the brand name and they are successful as well. Now discussing the price, the product is not so expensive, it can be available to a common person and he can enjoy the benefits. 

Product & Brand Management

If we look at the company’s brand equity, we come to know that they are using the help of facebook majorly in the advertisement and to engage the customers. The customers and the engagements actually make up the brand image in here. They are unable to go in each area and advertise, that is the reason they have used the online tool in here and that is the reason they are using online marketing via facebook so that they could get the access to all over the globe. We can see these specific details in the article that how they started the campaign and requested customers to send their pictures with the company logo so that they could advertise it on the facebook pages. 

Here if we look into the details we come to know that the company actually requested the customers to lower their pants and the reason is that they want to show the world the logo of the company and the main point that how people is using that. We can see that the logo can be seen on the socks and the underwear of the clients and they are showing the products that can be advertised in this way. Here the point for doing this that they want to show the world that people are using their product and that is the reason the company is increasing their customers.

Consumer Behavior – Learning Theories

If I was the marketing in charge for the company then maybe I would use this technique, however, there are some other ideas in my mind also which can be implemented in here in order to increase the brand equity. Looking at the classical conditioning in the mind, I would use that pictures for the learning mechanism for the customers infect. However, the best option could be that not to take off pants and have a click, they can do it without it as well. This needs to be narrow down so that the people who are not willing to do so, they could also participate in this activity. 

There is a strategy in my mind that I would implement in the company that I will had an estimate the number of a customer on an average or the rough estimate. The good thing will be that they will be given a gift from the company and what they need to do is to share it with friends or family and then they will also receive the gift from the company and they will receive some products from the company. By doing this the awareness and brand equity will increase rapidly.

The way of promotion that has been described in here is the branch of instrumental conditioning. The point here is that it deals with the behaviors of the customers and to increase the brand equity the promotion style that has been given actually influence the behaviors of the customers and that is the reason we can say the instrumental conditioning is the best so far.

Innovation & Branding

In my opinion, the new move of the star bucks is great and this needs to be in the market long ago. The reason behind it is that they are the market leaders, with good brand equity and therefore it can be seen this product needs to be in the market from day one. Looking at the category, we can say that maybe it lie in the discontinue category. The reason behind that is it is not an ultimate thing, which needs to be taken care as may be they discontinue this product at all.  

Starbucks is growing so fast and they are the market leaders in here. The point is the big giants never stop in this case. We can see that they are looking to enter into superstores with this product, as the reason is they want to expand and looking for more people to come across and make loyal customers. This innovation will help the people to develop their taste and that is the reason they are looking for the launch.

Looking at the all five Product Characteristics Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Complexity, Trialability and Observability we can see that there is interest of Starbuck in fulfilling these all. The company needs to grab the relative advantage over the other companies who are not introducing this kind of coffee.  The compatibility can also be seen as they have the better name in the market and they are compatible as well. Looking at the complexity yes, there will be specific and complex people who will use this, as they will feel uniqueness in this aspect.

      The Trialability is also used by the company, as may be the try the product and it would be limited time offer. We are more attracted to this product so that we know it will be diminished with time. However, looking at Observability I come to know that the potential customers do observe that there is an innovation in the product and that is the reason they feel positive about the product. This can be seen in here at a large view.   

Looking at the brand name or the brand identity, in my opinion, I would say that it is a good name indeed for the Starbuck. However, it needs to be noted that the brand identity is very important in this aspect but the company has moved so far and doing so good that they are well known in the market all over the globe. Yes, in my opinion, the brand name with appropriate brand identity is important and Starbuck is one of them. 

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landsea tours

Company Background:

The Landsea Tours was founded in 1985 by Scott Mason. Scott is an entrepreneur who saw a chance to capitalize on the growing sightseeing market in Vancouver. He started by giving fun tours on a mini-coach. Since then, the company has been growing and had a big break through the enthusiasm of a young co-op student called Kevin Pearce. Pearce helped rebrand the company, and is now the current President and co-owner. Landsea Tours is one of the market leaders in the booing sightseeing market which is vital to Vancouver’s economy.

Our Mission and Vision statements;

· Vision: Landsea Tours elite team provides a year-round premium boutique sightseeing experiences. We strive to be the innovators and the company of choice in Vancouver/s tourism industry

· Mission: exceed expectations by providing world-class service excellence. Sightseeing the way, it should be

Landsea Tours competes in a very diverse market, as they provide services for a range of people. From luxury buses to ordinary coaches, they provide full day, multi-day and half day tours to ten destinations for both locals and tourists. Vancouver is a very big city with about 647,000 people who are all potential customers. In 2015, the city of Vancouver had 2.1 million visitors from the U.S, 940 000 from the Asia-Pacific region and 424,000 from Europe. Landsea Tours is also the only company that provides sea to sky tours, and this gives them an edge over the competition.

Westcoast Sightseeing offers similar tours of Vancouver as well as guided tours to the same destinations as Landsea, and are regarded as their most fierce competition. They also have similar social media ratings, and are licensed by Gray Line, a Denver-based tour company that offers sightseeing tours all over the world. The Vancouver Trolley Company and Star Limousine are both indirect competitors of Landsea Tours, as they offer similar services. The industry has very low barriers to entry, and there are frequent new entrants.

Landsea Tours brand is to pride themselves on being cleaner and more fuel-efficient than their competition. The company has been awarded Silver Certification from Green Tourism Canada and is Climate Smart certified. They also pride themselves on carefully selecting their guides through an extensive hiring process. Landsea hires based on personality and teach employees the skills they need. Above all, they look for people who genuinely care about their visitors’ vacation experience. This is evident in the fact that new employees spend five weeks in training, including two-and-a-half weeks of driver training to complete commercial driver licensing requirements. On social media, Landsea has a relatively small but engaged network and they are also rated highly by TripAdvisor.

Landsea’s target market can be segmented as follows;

1. Authentic experiences: These are people looking for authentic, tangible engagement with the destinations, with a particular interest in understanding the history of the places they visit. They are 55+ older. A significantly higher proportion of these visitors (17%) are from short-haul markets within BC, Alberta, and Washington State (most using their own vehicle) and 20% of these visitors are from long-haul North American markets like Ontario and California. Their top sources for trip planning are: airline websites, hotels and attractions. They seek good value and like tours that show the highlights but focus on nature

2. Cultural Explorers: They are “defined by their love of constant travel and continuous search for opportunities to embrace and discover cultures. They are younger than the ‘authentic experiences’ and are usually mostly aged 35-45. They don’t want to feel like tourists; they enjoy shared authentic experiences and don’t require pampering or luxury. Their primary trip planning sources are: websites of airlines, hotels, attractions or other services at destination; travel guides and books; and websites of regional or city tourism offices.

Competitive Analysis:

Target Audience:

· Landsea Tours & Adventures: Landsea is serving pleasant service to their customers since last 30 years and continuously doing so. They have a kind of niche market but to be the first position they have to take care of their customers. Landsea is targeting on the people from small age group to old age group people who is seeking to do adventures on their vacations. The activities that Landsea is doing are a proper package for children, young age group to old age group.

· Westcoast sightseeing is a competitor of Landsea. They are also offering same facilities except sea to sky trip. They are also targeting same age group as Landsea. Westcoast is a Denver based company that offers sightseeing tours all over the world.

· The Vancouver Trolly company is indirect competitor of Landsea. They are not offering lots of activities but they have low price range of offers. Landsea and this company sell each other’s products. This company target audience is limited but they are charging less compare to Landsea.

· Star Limousine is an indirect competitor of Landsea charters. This company offers VIP facilities and people who want first class facilities they can get it from Star Limousine Company. They have high range of charters which attract lots of customers.

Promotion Vehicle Used:

· Landsea Tours and Adventures: Promotion is the main part of the any business and Landsea needs to do more promotion because they have limited marketing budget. Landsea has partnership with the hotel concierges from last so many years. Concierges is number one driver for business, they are recommending Landsea to their customers for charters and trips which helps them a lot to grow their business.

· Company is doing promotion by social media, news papers, partnership, trade promotions bus adverts, sharing customers experience to the customers.

· Landsea has their website called “Landsea Tours and Adventures”. Landsea has top ranking position on “” where most of the people visit this website.

· Viator is the biggest wholesaler for Landsea. Viator is owned by TripAdvisor and it has largest amount of customer reachability. Around 11 million travelers visit this site and have more than 3000 partners. So the Landsea tours booked by largest ravel website. (LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES, 2017)

Westcoast sightseeing: Westcoast sightseeing is the competitor of the Landsea and this company is also a partner with the hotel Concierge.

· Westcoast sightseeing is doing marketing by broachers, social media, news papers, blogs, and many more.

· They have partnership with Tourism Industry BC, North Shore Tourism, Tourism Richmond, and Tourism Vancouver.

· They are very active on social media like twitter, Facebook, instagram, Google+. Compare to Landsea they are more active. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Vancouver Trolly Company: Vancouver Trolly Company is partner with hotel Concierge. This company is indirect competitor of Landsea.

· Vancouver Trolly Company has less appearance on social media. They are available on Facebook, Twitter only.

· They have top ratings on Viator and the rating was stated on 2011.

· Vancouver Trolly does the marketing by broachers, partnership, and social media. They charge less to the customers compare to others. (Trolley, 2017)

Star Limousine: Star Limousine is providing first class amenities service to their customers. They have wide range of luxurious vehicles. Recently they have introduced TESLA cars for their customers who want to enjoy the ride without burning fossil fuels.

· Star Limousine is located in so many places. They have wide range of network in Canada. They are doing marketing by showing their brand image to their customer by social media, customer’s feedback, and many more.

· They have partnership with so many hotel and motels. they are partnered with Tourism Vancouver, Whistler British Columbia, NLA, and The Vancouver Board of Trade. (Limousine, 2012)

Slogan and positioning:

1. Landsea Tours and Adventures: “Guided By Passion”. (Adventures, 2017)

2. Westcoast sightseeing: “Let’s explore together”. (Sightseeing., 2017)

3. Vancouver Trolly Company: “The Fun Begins The Minute You Board!”.


4. Star Limousine: “Exceeding Expectation”. (Limousine, 2012)

Brand Strength and Weakness:

Landsea Tours and Adventures:


1. Landsea has a wide range of activities for the tourist.

2. They have great facilities like hotel pickup and drop off.

3. They train their employees very well and they spend at least $5000 for training one employee which shows their affection.

4. Landsea is partnered with hotels and Viator which can enhance their network around the world.

5. They have wide range of charters. They have buses, cars, as well electric cars and each one cost them around $150,000. This shows that they are using premium product for their customer. (LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES, 2017)


1. They don’t have Hop on-Hop off tours.

2. They have little bit high cost of trips compare to their competitors.

3. They are less active on social media.

4. Compare to their competitors Landsea has less attractive website. (LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES, 2017)

Westcoast sightseeing:


1. They are also offering same adventure as Landsea and even more.

2. They have good appearance on social media

3. They are offering hop on-hop off facilities.

4. They have good website compare to Landsea. (Sightseeing., 2017)


1. They don’t have good vehicle as Landsea has.

2. Hey have less rating on their website compare to Landsea. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Vancouver Trolly Company:


1. Offers hop on-hop off facilities to the customers.

2. They have affordable offers compare to their competitors. (Trolley, 2017)


1. They are not active on social media.

2. Their website is not so attractive

3. Their marketing strategy weak compare to their competitors. (Trolley, 2017)

Star Limousine:


1. They have awesome cars and offer luxury to their customers.

2. They have wide range of market and they are located in different parts of the Canada.

3. Offering service to their customers from last so many years. (Limousine, 2012)


1. They charging more compare to their competitors.

2. They don’t offer other adventures offer like their competitors do.

3. They are the only transportation mode. (Limousine, 2012)

USP (Unique Selling Point):

Landsea Tours & Adventures: Landsea is one of the best companies for the tourists. Landsea USP is their wide range of offers for anyone. They have best employees to take care of you, best vehicles, and their affection towards their company. (Adventures, 2017)

Westcoast sightseeing: Westcoast is the direct competitor of Landsea and they offer same as compare to Landsea. But their unique selling point is their appearance on social media and on website. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Vancouver Trolly Company: Vancouver Trolly has less appearance on social media but they are offering good activities to their customer and their unique selling point is their low price range. (Trolley, 2017)

Star Limousine: Star Limousine is offering first class charters to their customer but they charge higher compare to their competitors. Their unique selling point is their appearance in the market as a luxury car brand company who offers extreme comfort travel ride. (Limousine, 2012)


For the clients most viable areas of opportunity from a positioning perspective there are five forces of competitive position analysis. They are:

· Supplier power

· Buyer power

· Rivalry competitors

· Threat of entrants

· Threat of substitute products or services

1. Supplier power

It is an evaluation of how the providers increase the costs. The costs are driven depending on the quantity of provider basic information, different feature in their item size and quality of the provider and cost of changing from one provider then onto the next.

2. Buyer power

It is an evaluation of how simple the purchaser makes the costs down. The costs are reduced down by the quantity of purchaser in the market, significance of every individual purchaser to the association and cost to the purchaser of changing starting with one provider then onto the next.

3. Rivalry among existing competitors

This depends on the capacity of adversaries in the market. Various sponsors, offering various things and also organizations, reduce the feature appeal.

4. Threat of new entrants

Beneficial markets pull in new hopefuls, which crumble benefit. Until tenants have very strong limits to entry, then the advantages will have reduction for the forceful price. Alternatively the control and impose appraisal procedures makes the government a sixth power for few organizations.

5. Threat of substitute products or services

Whenever similar substitute items exist in the market, it improves the chances of clients changing to options in light of cost increments. This declares both the energy of providers and the market.

Points of parity:

Points of parity are the difference in points between the competitors over your brand that you need to prevent. This is the place where you need to show you as a good competitor, so that you can ignore the advantage and focus on your points of difference.

In some cases points of parity are called as table stakes, these are the points you simply need to enter in to a market. Other times, points of parity are the advantages that competitors have that are valued by the customers.

Segmentation & target Audience:

In Canada, there is an extensive research made into visitor profiles in nation. There are some experiences of travel which are developed and those are marketed and sold by the government.

There are some travellers who are eventually look for destinations and also shows more interest of knowing the history of the places. Also, there are very much interested in travel to learn and experience.

The primary target audience are:

· Authentic Experiences: These travellers are mainly concentrating on understanding the history of the places which they tend to visit. They can gain some knowledge and experience while travelling to the new places. This type of travellers can mainly have seen in the age of above 55, in those 9% from the global countries travellers and 12% from the Canadian travelers.17% of visitors are from the short-haul markets and 20 % of visitors are from long haul markets. Mainly these types of travellers are open minded and independent. They prefer the integrating of local culture. They can learn everything about the place they visit. They can also have the improvement of understanding the others.

· Cultural Explorers: These types of travellers can be defined by their love of constant travel. They can have the habit of discover and can immerse themselves in the culture, people and the places they can visit. Young age grouper mainly follows this type of travelling. The age may be 35-45. They cannot be like tourists; they can enjoy the experience which is authenticated. They didn’t expect any luxury things in the travelling. The sources they used for travelling are air lines, hotels and other services. The cultural explorers are open minded and easy going. Also, they are more energetic, risk taker. They have constant exploration i.e. they always plan for the next outing.

Market Segmentation

Market Segmentation: It is a process of dividing a broad business market; it consists of both extension and potential consumers into subgroup of segments based on their characteristics.

Strategic approach to Segmentation

Number of SegmentsSegmentation StrategyComments
ZERONo strategyThere is no segmentation
OneThis segmentation is focus strategyIt focuses on a Small, tightly defined target market
Two or moreIt is a differentiated strategyThey focus on two or more targeted targets which they define


Segmentation baseExplanations
DemographicThose are individuals and aged above 18+.And couples, age from 25-34
GeographicThis type of travelers from different countries and remaining from the Canada.
PsychographicsThis type of experience travelers is having desire to find the new places to travel and they travel for free time to get away their stress.
BehaviouralThis type of travelers seen the adventures and cultural experiences.

Communication Objectives:

1 Marketing objectives:   To develop our Marketing plan

. Proposals of where the business should be, helping customers to set their business objectives and         illumination of the chances to seek after.

. Division, Focusing on and Situating

. Laying out proposals with respect to marking to help separate and recognize your organization.

. Observing and Control

. Budget plans 

. Assets

Marketing strategy: A marketing strategy is about formulating your company’s marketing direction. A marketing strategy will ask a number of business questions seeking to provide answers covering:

.   build up the brand awareness.

.   increase in market sales.

.   start new products and sales. 

.  new markets international or locally  

. increase profit 

Developing smart objectives:

. specific

.  time

.  realistic 

 .  Achievable

1. Create Brand Awareness: Making brand care is to light up your planned intrigue assemble about your picture of your thing or organization. Making brand care does not so much apply to another brand, yet rather often applies to a present brand which may endeavor to invade new markets. The brand message can be passed on through a couple of sorts of correspondence stations, for instance, standard mail, radio, TV publicizing, natural advancing.

2. Define a Fulfilling Need for Your Product/Service: In the broad exchanges framework part of your moving strategy, you will design the innovative structure for planning your connection, thing, or relationship in the proposed intrigue groups psyche to induce them to use your thing/ideal position.

Some of the methods that fulfilling need for their products. Few of them are 

• Low interest rates 

• A buy one get one free

• Reasonable price

• Provide a money-back guarantee

         3. Encourage Action from Your Target Audience: While engaging your planned intrigue gathering may have all the earmarks of resembling initiating them to make a get, it goes further. It’s totally veritable that using a get one, get one FREE offer is bolster, in any case, if you simply broadcast using one correspondence channel and only for a brief period, for example a one week time span, you will see a drop in purchaser interest and purchases.

References: Adventures, L. T. (2017). Tour of the Week. Retrieved from LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES (February 12, 2017). Limousine, S. (2012). Retrieved from Sightseeing., W. (2017). Westcoast Sightseeing. Retrieved from Trolley, V. (2017). THE VANCOUVER TROLLEY COMPANY. Retrieved from Whittle, E. (2017, February 12). Landsea-Tours-Vanier 2016 Case Study. Retrieved September 28, 2017, from

custom essay service essay writing help online essay writing service

the herfindahl index for a pure monopolist is

Multiple Choice: Each of the following questions or incomplete statements is followed by a series of suggested answers or completions.  Select the one best response for each question. (1 point each) [This exam has a maximum possible value of 100 points. 35 of these points come from the multiple choice questions, 12 of these points come from identification questions, and 53 of these points come from the essay questions.]

1. If all excess capacity in a monopolistically competitive industry was eliminated,

A. the industry would become more competitive.

B. there would be a greater diversity (variety) of products available. C. more firms would be necessary to meet the market’s demand for the industry’s product.

D. fewer firms would be necessary to meet the market’s demand for the industry’s product.

2. A monopoly is most likely to emerge and continue to monopolize its market when      A. firms have U-shaped average total cost curves.      B. income elasticity of demand for its product is high.      C. fixed capital costs are small relative to total costs.      D. economies of scale are large relative to market demand.

3. Consumers who clip and redeem discount coupons:

A. cause total revenue to decrease for firms that issue coupons for their products.

B. exhibit a unitary price elasticity of demand since all consumers have the ability to use


C. exhibit the same price elasticity of demand for a given product as consumers who do not

clip and redeem coupons. D. exhibit a more elastic demand for a given product than consumers who do not clip and

redeem coupons. E.  exhibit a more inelastic demand for a given product than consumers who do not clip and

redeem coupons.

4. Critics of social regulation argue that it

A. increases the price level.

B. dampens incentives to invest and innovate.

C. is a relatively greater burden for small firms than for large firms.

D. has all of the above effects.

5. If the CEO of United Airlines plays golf with the CEO of American Airlines and then both

companies increase the prices of their airline tickets by 5% this is most likely a case of

A. a gentleman’s agreement. B. multiproduct pricing. C. cost-plus pricing. D. price leadership.

6. Skilled workers generally earn more than unskilled workers do because

A. the productivity of skilled labor is higher than that of unskilled labor.

B. the supply of skilled labor is greater than the supply of unskilled labor. C. the marginal cost of unskilled labor is higher than that of skilled labor.

D. the demand for unskilled labor is greater than the demand for skilled labor. E. the demand for unskilled labor is more elastic than the demand for skilled labor.

7. The smaller the number of firms in a monopolistically competitive industry and the greater the differentiation degree of product,

A. the greater the divergence between the demand and the marginal revenue curves for the firms in

the industry.

B. the larger will be the monopolistically competitive firm’s fixed costs.

C. the more inelastic is the monopolistically competitive firm’s demand curve.

D. the more elastic is the monopolistically competitive firm’s demand curve.

8. An example of an inclusive type labor organization / association is

A. the United Automobile Workers

B. the Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (electricians)

C. the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) D. both A and B.

E. All of the above.

9. The “wastefulness” of excess capacity is not considered totally bad by economists because

A. advertisers make more income that is then circulated to the rest of the economy via the


B. the monopolistically competitive firm has a negatively sloped demand curve.

C. the monopolistically competitive firm allocates resources more efficiently than firms in other

market structures.

D. excess capacity may allow for a greater diversity of products than would otherwise be available.

10.  Which of the following will create a demand for U.S. dollars in the foreign exchange market?

A. travel abroad by U.S. citizens

B. the desire of foreigners to buy U.S. stocks

C. the desire of U.S. citizens to purchase foreign stocks

D. U.S. imports

11. Firms are most likely to engage in price discrimination when

A. the product being sold can easily be resold.

B. they operate in a purely competitive industry. C. they operate in an industry which experiences excess capacity. D. all consumers in the market have the same price elasticity of demand. E. All of the above

12. The U.S. garment (clothing) workers’ union

A. favors free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers are substitutes.

B. opposes free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers are substitutes.

C. favors free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers complement each


D. opposes free trade because American and foreign clothing and clothing workers complement

each other.

13. Antitrust laws ________ whereas social regulations ________

A. are designed to promote competition; only improve competition in a market.

B. apply to specific firms and specific industries; apply to all firms and all industries.

C. lead to less competition in a market;. improve the quality of and the manner in which products

and services are produced.

D. Both B and C are correct.

E. All of the above are correct.

14. Suppose Ford Motor Company purchased a small steel company. This acquisition would be


A. a horizontal combination/merger/acquisition.

B. a vertical combination/merger/acquisition.

C. a conglomerate combination/merger/acquisition.

D. a trust corporation.

E. illegal under current U.S. anti-trust laws.

15. Price discrimination refers to

A. selling a given product for different prices at two different points in time. B. a firm charging any price which is not equal to minimum average total cost.

C. the selling of a given product at different prices that reflect demand, not cost,


D. the difference between the price a purely competitive seller and a purely monopolistic

seller would charge.

16. Exclusive unions attempt to increase wages by

A. restricting the supply of labor. B. decreasing the demand for the product being produced. C. organizing all workers in the industry and bargaining for a “fair” wage. D. All of the above are techniques used by exclusive unions.

17. If the last worker hired by a firm has a marginal resource (labor) cost of $16 and a marginal revenue product of $12, the firm

A. is maximizing its profits.

B. can increase its profits by hiring additional workers.

C. can increase its profits by hiring fewer workers.

D. faces a perfectly elastic demand for its product.

18. Monopsonistic employers exist in many less developed countries. Other things equal, these monopsonistic employers will pay a

A. lower wage and employ fewer workers than will a purely competitive market.

B. higher wage and employ fewer workers than will a purely competitive market.

C. lower wage but employ a larger number of workers than will a purely competitive market. D. higher wage and employ a larger number of workers than will a purely competitive market.

E. lower wage but employ the same number of workers as will a purely competitive market.

19. Collusion among oligopolistic producers would be easiest to achieve in which of the following cases?

A. A rather large number of firms producing a standardized product. B. A rather large number of firms producing a differentiated product. C. A very small number of firms producing a standardized product.

D. A very small number of firms producing a differentiated product.

20. If a monopolist engages in price discrimination, it will  A. realize a smaller profit because it sells more output at a lower price. B. charge a higher price to individuals who have an inelastic demand and a lower price to individuals who have an elastic demand and thus produce more output and earn a greater

economic profit. C.  charge a higher price to individuals who have an inelastic demand and a lower price to individuals who have an elastic demand and thus produce less output and earn a greater economic profit. D. charge a higher price to individuals who have an elastic demand and a lower price to

individuals who have an inelastic demand and thus produce less output and earn a smaller

economic profit. E. charge a higher price to individuals who have an elastic demand and a lower price to

individuals who have an inelastic demand and thus produce less output and earn a greater economic profit.

21. The kinked-demand curve that exists in oligopoly helps to explain price rigidity (inflexibility) in oligopoly because

A. the model assumes firms are engaging in some form of collusion.

B. any independent price change results in increased revenue to the independently operating

oligopolist. C. demand is elastic above and inelastic below the current market price, thus any

independent price change results in decreased revenue to the independently operating

oligopolist. D. demand is inelastic above and elastic below the current market price, thus any

independent price change results in decreased revenue to the independently operating


E. there is a gap in the marginal cost curve within which changes in marginal revenue will not

affect output or price.

22. Which of the following statements is correct?  A. The pure monopolist will maximize profit by producing at that point on the demand curve

where elasticity is zero. B.  Purely monopolistic sellers earn only normal profits in the long run.

C. The pure monopolist maximizes profits by producing that output at which the differential

between price and average cost is the greatest. D. In seeking the profit-maximizing output the pure monopolist underallocates resources to its

production. E. The pure monopolist maximizes profits by producing that output at which the differential

between marginal revenue and average marginal cost is the greatest.

23. The fair-return price method of regulating monopolies

A. causes monopolists to produce surplus amounts of their products. B. often causes the monopoly to encounter losses.

C. gives the monopolist no incentive to control costs.

D. often requires the government to subsidize the regulated monopoly.

E. causes an overallocation of resources to the monopolist’s product.

24.  A non-discriminating pure monopolist’s demand curve 

A. is perfectly elastic.

B. is perfectly inelastic. C. lies below its marginal revenue curve. D. lies above its marginal revenue curve. E. coincides with its marginal revenue curve.

25. If a pure monopolist is operating at a price-quantity combination on the inelastic segment of its demand curve, in order to increase and maximize profits, it should  A. charge a lower price. B. charge a higher price. C. increase both price and quantity sold. D. retain its current price-quantity combination.

26. Cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because

A. they are illegal everywhere in the world. B. entry barriers are insignificant in oligopolistic industries. C. individual members may find it profitable to “cheat” on the cartel. D. it is profitable for the industry to charge a lower price and produce more output.

E. All of the above.

27. A firm will vertically integrate, if it is primarily trying to accomplish which of the following?

A. to expand and diversify asset holdings

B. to exercise greater market control

C. to increase control over suppliers of its inputs.

D. to increase competition among sellers

28. Assume six firms comprising an industry have market shares of 30%, 30%, 10%, 10%, 10%, and 10% percent. The Herfindahl Index for this industry is A. 80, representing extremely workable competition.

B. 100, representing the idle workable competition.

C. 1,100, representing very workable competition.

D. 2,000, representing less than workable competition.

E. 2,200, representing less than workable competition.

29. If a government regulatory commission wants to establish a socially optimal price for a natural monopoly, it should select a price  A. at which marginal revenue is zero.

B.  at which the marginal cost curve intersects the demand curve. C. at which the average total cost curve intersects the demand curve. D. which corresponds with the equality of marginal cost and marginal revenue.

30. Suppose there are only four manufacturers/sellers of pizza in Bremerville. The largest producer establishes the price for his pizza and the other three firms then set their pizza prices in the same range. This best describes

A. a cartel

B. price leadership.

C. multiproduct pricing.

D. a gentleman’s agreement.

31. Many oil industry analysts argue that when OPEC succeeds in increasing the price of crude oil this

may eventually harm OPEC and also drive the price of oil to lower levels. The analysts believe

this because

A. the demand for oil will increase since the supply of oil has increased.

B. the current high economic profits will draw other producers into the oil industry.

C. some OPEC members may be encouraged to cheat on the cartel’s (OPEC’s) low production


D. both B and C are reasonable answers.

E. All of the above are reasonable answers

32. The table below gives the number of tons of apples and bananas that can be produced in

Country X and Country Y by employing the same amount of productive resources.

Country X100Country Y90

The theory of comparative advantage, which is based on opportunity cost, implies that, under

these conditions, Country X would find it advantageous to

A. export apples and import bananas.

B. export bananas and import apples.

C. export both apples and bananas and import nothing.

D. import both apples and bananas and export nothing.

33. The kinked demand curve of the oligopolist is based on the assumption that

A. independently operating competitors will follow a price decrease but ignore a price increase.

B. independently operating competitors will match both price decreases and increases.

C. independently operating competitors will follow a price increase but ignore a price decrease.

D. there is no product differentiation in the oligopolistic industry.

E. other firms will determine their pricing and output policies in collusion with the given firm.

34. Social regulations

A. increase the prices of goods and services.

B. dampen firms’ incentives to invest and innovate.

C. are a relatively greater burden for small firms than for large firms.

D. have all of the above effects.

35. Assume that the short-run equilibrium for a monopolistically competitive firm yields these results: P = $28.47; ATC = $22.13; and MR = MC = $17.47. Which of the following would be true?

A. Existing firms will be encouraged to leave this industry.

B. This firm could increase profits by decreasing output.

C. This firm could increase profits by increasing output.

D. Additional firms would be attracted into this industry.

E. Per unit loss is $6.34.

(Identification and Essay Question 1 are on the following page)

Identification: In a sentence or two, briefly define or otherwise demonstrate your knowledge of the following concepts. (3 points each)

1. Monopolistic Competition

2. Game Theory

3. Citizen Utility Board

4. Consumer Surplus

ESSAYS: Answer the following 3 questions. Answer all parts to each question, and answer each question as fully and carefully as you can. Use complete sentences and a logical economic thought process in each of your answers. These questions are not so much essay questions as they are a series of short answer questions. Thus, you may feel more comfortable answering each part separately rather than trying to create one single essay answer. (Question 1 = 17 points; question 2 = 18 points; question 3 = 18 points)

1. Many people believe that if monopolies are not regulated, they will charge the highest

price they possibly can. Thus, the thought continues, monopolies must be totally

regulated by the government.

· Is the goal of a purely monopolistic firm to charge the highest price? If so why? If not what is the goal of the purely monopolistic firm and how does it achieve this goal? (3 points)

· How is it possible for the pure monopolist to earn economic profits in the long run? Why do most firms in the monopolistically competitive market structure earn only normal profits or minimal economic profit in the long run? Is it possible for some firms in the monopolistically competitive market structure to earn some economic profit in the long run? Why or why not?

(4 points)

· Of the two methods of government regulation, the socially optimum pricing method provides the more ideal societal results. What ideal results does this pricing method provide and how does it achieve this goal? Why doesn’t government frequently use this method of price regulation (i.e., what are the disadvantages of this pricing method)? (5 points)

· What pricing method does government usually employ when regulating pure monopolies? What results/improvement is the government trying to achieve under this approach?  What are the advantages of this approach compared to the socially optimum price? What are the disadvantages of this approach compared to the socially optimum price? (5 points)

· Explain all of your answers fully and in terms of economics.

(Essay Questions 2 and 3 are on the following page)

2.  There are more U.S. industries that operate in the monopolistically competitive market structure than

there are industries operating in either the pure competitive or pure monopoly.

· “Purely competitive and purely monopolistic industries will tend to be one-price industries. Monopolistic competition, however, is a multiprice industry.” Why are purely competitive industries and purely monopolistic industries one price industries and why are monopolistically competitive industries multiprice industries? Explain Fully. (5 points)

· Firms in oligopolistic industries also tend to sell their product (service) at the same price or in price clusters and tend to alter price infrequently. Using economic concepts, explain fully the reasons why oligopolistic firms tend to charge very similar prices and why they tend to change these prices fairly infrequently. (4 points)

· When oligopolistic firms do change price, all the firms in the industry tend to change their prices at the same time, or within days of one another. What types of agreements might allow oligopolistic firms to act in this collusive manner? Briefly explain each of these types of collusion. (3 points)

· Oligopolistic firms often develop via mergers or acquisitions. What are the three types of mergers or acquisitions that can occur? What is the difference between each of these types of mergers / acquisitions and what objective is (objectives are) firms trying to accomplish with each type of merger? (3 points)

· Which mergers are most often not allowed by the U.S. Justice Department? What measures does the Justice Department use in order to determine whether to allow a merger or not? (3 points)

· Explain all of your answers fully and in terms of economics.

3. Labor unions attempt to increase wages, maintain employment of members, and improve working conditions.

· What are the two basic types of labor unions, and what is the primary method (are the primary methods) used by each in its attempts to increase wages and employment?  What are the results, advantages, and disadvantages of each approach? (5 points)

· What is a monopsonistic labor market? Are the wage and employment results in a monopsonistic labor market different than the wage and employment results in a competitive labor market? Why and how do the results differ? (5 points)

· The percentage of the U.S. labor force that belongs to labor unions has been declining for several decades? What are some of the reasons that labor unions are less prevalent today than they were forty years ago? Explain each briefly. (4 points)

· Labor unions frequently oppose free international trade and support trade restrictions. Why? What are the two major forms of international trade restriction, how do they differ from each other, and why do labor unions support these trade restrictions? (4 points)

Explain all of your answers fully using economic logic and theory.   


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cv1 coffee makers


Making Coffee with CV1 Coffee Maker



Making Coffee with CV1 Coffee Maker

The CV1 Coffee Maker is an excellent convenient, and compact, 8″H x 4.5″W x W x 8”D, coffee maker, it’s reliable, single serve, with a personal cup brewer, which uses a disposable brew basket and filter. The CV1 Coffee Maker comes out of the box ready to use, it has an automatic shut off when coffee is ready (Courtesy Products (n.d.).

The instructions will guide anyone from an expert coffee drinker/maker or beginners to use this machine.

All the items listed below are necessary to complete a single cup of coffee. (See Figure 1), and the diagram illustrates the coffee maker components (See Figure 2).

Figure 1 – Coffee Maker/Brew Basket & Filter/Condiments & Coffee Cup

Figure 2 – Coffee Maker Components

Follow the step by step instructions below to using the CVI Coffee Maker.

Step 1. Remove your CV1 from the box and plug in electrical socket (See Figure 2).

Figure 2 – Coffee Maker Plugged In

Step 2. Open Brew Basket and Filter and slide it into the Brew Basket compartment. (See Figure 3)

Figure 3 – Coffee, Brew Basket Filter and Brew Basket Compartment

Step 3. To filter the coffee through the Brew Basket filter, open door located on the top of the coffee maker, fill the coffee cup with water and pour into the water compartment and close the water compartment door. (See Figure 4). Comment by Darlene: Omit. Each step should begin with a verb.

Figure 4 – Filling the Water Compartment for Brewing

Step 4. The Coffee Maker is ready for Brewing. Place the cup under the Brew Basket compartment and push the On/Off button down and wait for the coffee to fill your cup. (See Figure 5).

Figure 5 – Coffee Cup in place and Push Down On/Off Button

Step 5. Mix in the condiment and have a delicious cup of coffee. (See Figure 6).

Figure 6 – Brewed Cup of Coffee and Condiments. Enjoy!

Coffee Maker will automatically turn off once the brewing is completed.


Courtesy Products (n.d.). Retrieved from


This is a good start, and the way you organized the document generally works. The topic is perfect for the assignment.

When it comes to writing instructions, remember that you don’t have much leeway in how you’ll phrase each step: each one should begin with a verb and end with a period. Likewise, you’ll format the graphics following the APA Style guidelines. I find this resource super useful when incorporating photographs or drawings, which can also be applied to screenshots, should you decide to include some in this paper or in the future (just scroll toward the bottom):

For this project, you’re also required to figure out a way to break down the process into 2-3 separate phases with smaller steps “nested” within.

Check out my comments in the margins and let me know if you have any questions!



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outline of wyoming

Outlining a statute facilitates your understanding of the specific conduct that is regulated by the statute. It also provides details on how a court case resolves ambiguities and applies statutes to particular legal issues.

The first step in outlining a statute involves determining the elements, results, and exceptions of the statute in question. If the elements are linked with the word and, they must all be met to trigger the results. If elements are linked with the word or, only one of the elements must be established. If all of the elements are relevant but only some are needed, then the statute contains a factors test. A commonly known factors test is when child custody is determined by what is in the best interest of the child. The court considers factors such as: the fitness of the parent, the relationship between child and parent, living accommodations, placement of siblings, educational opportunities, religious education, etc. The result is what will happen when the elements of the statute are met. Exceptions occur when an additional element is established and the usual result does not follow.

Once you have outlined a relevant statute, you can use the LexisNexis Academic database to consult the Interpretive Notes and Decisions that follow federal statutes and the Notes section that follows state statutes. They will direct you to cases that interpret specific elements of the relevant statute.

The following are two examples of a statute and an outline of that statute:

Dog Bite Statute

If a dog or other animal, without provocation, attacks or injures any person who is peacefully conducting himself in any place where he may lawfully be, the owner of such dog or other animal is liable in damages to such person for the full amount of the injury sustained.

Dog Bite Statute Outline

  • Elements
    • If dog or other animal
    • Without provocation
    • Attacks or injures
    • Person
    • Peacefully conducting himself
    • In lawful location

  • Results
    • Owner of dog or animal is liable for damages for all injuries sustained

  • Exceptions
    • None

Escape from Prison Statute

If any person committed to prison shall break and escape there from or shall escape or leave without authority any building, camp, or place in which he is placed or directed to go or in which he is allowed to be, he shall be deemed guilty of an escape and shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not to exceed 5 years, to commence immediately upon the expiration of the term of his previous sentence.

Escape from Prison Statute Outline

  • Elements
    • Person committed to prison
    • Break, escape, or leave without authority
    • Any building, camp, or place
    • Where he is placed, directed to go, or allowed to be

  • Results
    • Guilty of escape
    • Prison term not to exceed 5 years to follow previous sentence

  • Exceptions
    • None

To prepare for this assignment:

  • Review the assigned pages of Chapter 3 in your course text, Principles of Legal Research. Focus on sources of and research methods for locating statutes.
  • Locate one court interpretation of the Wyoming blackmail statute.
  • Use the LexisNexis Academic database in the Walden Library and search for Wyo. Stat. § 6-2-402 using the following sources under the Federal & State Codes section of the Legal tab:
    • WY-Wyoming Statutes Annotated, Constitution
    • Search: 6-2-402
    • Select a court interpretation in the Notes section that follows the statute
  • Review the Wyoming blackmail statute.
  • Outline the statute using the examples provided above for guidance.

The assignment: (1–2 pages)

  • Outline the Wyoming blackmail statute. List the elements, results, and exceptions of the statute.
  • Provide a brief explanation of the statute.
  • Analyze and explain at least one court interpretation of the Wyoming blackmail statute.

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list only for those resources not included in the Learning Resources for this course.

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the ____ option button lists formatting options following an insertion of cells, rows, or columns.

with Microsoft®

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1


with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E


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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Townsend, Kris. Skills for success with Office 2010 / by Kris Townsend.

p. cm. ISBN 978-0-13-703257-0 (alk. paper) 1. Microsoft Office. 2. Business—Computer programs. I, Title.

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1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

1 S B N – I 0 : 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 9

I S B N – 1 3 : 9 7 8 – 0 – 1 3 – 7 0 3 2 5 7 – 0

Contents in Brief

Common Features Chapter 1 Common Features ot Office 2010 2

More Skills 26

Word Chapter 1 Create Documents with Word 2010 30

More Skills 54 Chapter 2 Format and Organize Text 64

More Skills 88 Chapter 3 Work with Graphics, Tabs, and Tables 98

More Skills 122 Chapter 4 Apply Special Text, Paragraph and

Document Formats 132 More Skills 156

Excel Chapter 1 Create Workbooks with Excel 2010 166

More Skills 190

Chapter 2 Create Charts 200 More Skills 224

Chapter 3 Manage Multiple Worksheets 234 More Skills 258

Chapter 4 Use Excel Functions and Tables 268 More Skills 292

Access Chapter 1 Work with Databases and

Create Tables 302 More Skills 326

Chapter 2 M a n a g e Datasheets and Create Queries 336 More Skills 360

Chapter 3 Create Forms 370 More Skills 394

Chapter 4 Create Reports 404 More Skills 428

PowerPoint Chapter 1 Getting Started with PowerPoint 2010 438

More Skills 462 Chapter 2 Format a Presentation 472

More Skills 496 Chapter 3 Enhance Presentations with Graphics 506

More Skills 530 Chapter 4 Present Data Using Tables, Charts,

and Animation 540 More Skills 564

Integrated Projects Chapter 1 Integrating Word, Excel, A c c e s s ,

and PowerPoint 574 More Skills 598

Chapter 2 More Integrated Projects for Word, Excel, A c c e s s , and PowerPoint 610 More Skills 634

Glossary 646

Index 654

Contents in Brief iii

Table of Contents

C o m m o n Fea tu res C h a p t e r 1 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s of Office 2 0 1 0 2

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window 6 Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows 8 Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders 10 Skill 4 Print and Save Documents 12 Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As 14 Skill 6 Type and Edit Text 16 Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text 18 Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs 20 Skill 9 Use the Ribbon 22

Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes 24

More Skills More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping

Tool 26 More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help 26 More Skills 13 Organize Files 26 More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live 26

W o r d C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e D o c u m e n t s with Word 2 0 1 0 3 0

Skill 1 Create New Documents and Enter Text 34 Skill 2 Edit Text and Use Keyboard Shortcuts 36 Skill 3 Select Text 38 Skill 4 Insert Text from Other Documents 40 Skill 5 Change Fonts, Font Sizes, and Font Styles 42 Skill 6 Insert and Work with Graphics 44 Skill 7 Check Spelling and Grammar 46 Skill 8 Use the Thesaurus and Set Proofing Options 48 Skill 9 Create Document Footers 50

Skill 10 Work with the Print Page and Save Documents in Other Formats 52

More Skills More Skills 11 Split and Arrange Windows 54 More Skills 12 Insert Symbols 54 More Skills 13 Use Collect and Paste to Create a

Document 54 More Skills 14 Insert Screen Shots into Documents 54

C h a p t e r 2 Format a n d O r g a n i z e Text 6 4 Skill 1 Set Document Margins 68 Skill 2 Align Text and Set Indents 70 Skill 3 Modify Line and Paragraph Spacing 72 Skill 4 Format Text Using Format Painter 74 Skill 5 Find and Replace Text 76 Skill 6 Create Bulleted and Numbered Lists 78 Skill 7 Insert and Format Headers and Footers 80 Skill 8 Insert and Modify Footnotes 82 Skill 9 Add Citations 84

Skill 10 Create Bibliographies 86

More Skills More Skills 11 Record AutoCorrect Entries 88 More Skills 12 Use AutoFormat to Create

Numbered Lists 88 More Skills 13 Format and Customize Lists 88 More Skills 14 Manage Document Properties 88

C h a p t e r 3 Work with G r a p h i c s , Tabs , a n d T a b l e s 9 8

Skill 1 Insert Pictures from Files 102 Skill 2 Resize and Move Pictures 104 Skill 3 Format Pictures Using Styles and

Artistic Effects 106 Skill 4 Set Tab Stops 108 Skill 5 Enter Text with Tab Stops 110 Skill 6 Apply Table Styles 112 Skill 7 Create Tables 114 Skill 8 Add Rows and Columns to Tables H6 Skill 9 Format Text in Table Cells 118

Skill 10 Format Tables 120

iv Table of Contents

More Skills More Skills 11 Insert Text Boxes 122 More Skills 12 Format with WordArt 122 More Skills 13 Create Tables from Existing Lists 122 More Skills 14 Insert Drop Caps 122

C h a p t e r 4 A p p l y S p e c i a l T e x t , P a r a g r a p h , a n d D o c u m e n t F o r m a t s 1 3 2

Skill 1 Create Multiple-Column Text 136 Skill 2 Insert a Column Break 138 Skill 3 Apply and Format Text Effects 140 Skill 4 Use and Create Quick Styles 142 Skill 5 Add Borders and Shading to Paragraphs

and Pages 144 Skill 6 Insert and Format Clip Art Graphics 146 Skill 7 Insert SmartArt Graphics 148 Skill 8 Format SmartArt Graphics 150 Skill 9 Create Labels Using Mail Merge 152

Skill 10 Preview and Print Mail Merge Documents 154

More Skil ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create Resumes from Templates 156 Create Outlines 156 Prepare Documents for Distribution 156 Preview and Save Documents as Web Pages 156

Exce l C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e W o r k b o o k s w i t h

Exce l 2 0 1 0 Skill 1 Create and Save New Workbooks Skill 2 Enter Worksheet Data and Merge and

Center Titles Skill 3 Construct Addition and

Subtraction Formulas Skill 4 Construct Multiplication and

Division Formulas Skill 5 Adjust Column Widths and Apply Cell Styles Skill 6 Use the SUM Function Skill 7 Copy Formulas and Functions

Using the Fill Handle

1 6 6 170

Skill 8 Format, Edit, and Check the Spelling of Data 184 Skill 9 Create Footers and Change Page Settings 186

Skill 10 Display and Print Formulas and Scale Worksheets for Printing

More Skil ls More Skills 11

More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create New Workbooks from Templates Use Range Names in Formulas Change Themes Manage Document Properties

C h a p t e r 2 Skill 1 Skill 2

Skill 3 Skill 4 Skill 5 Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8

Skill 9 Skill 10

C r e a t e C h a r t s Open Existing Workbooks and Align Text Construct and Copy Formulas Containing Absolute Cell References Format Numbers Create Column Charts Format Column Charts Create Pie Charts and Chart Sheets Apply 3-D Effects and Rotate Pie Chart Slices Explode and Color Pie Slices, and Insert Text Boxes Update Charts and Insert WordArt Prepare Chart Sheets for Printing

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13

Insert and Edit Comments Change Chart Types Copy Excel Data to Word Documents

More Skills 14 Fill Series Data into Worksheet Cells


190 190 190 190

2 0 0 204

206 208 210 212 214


218 220 222

224 224



172 C h a p t e r 3 M a n a g e M u l t i p l e W o r k s h e e t s 2 3 4

172 Skill 1 Work with Sheet Tabs 238

174 Skill 2 Enter and Format Dates 240 174 Skill 3 Clear Cell Contents and Formats 242

176 Skill 4 Move, Copy, Paste, and Paste Options 244

178 Skill 5 Work with Grouped Worksheets 246

180 Skill 6 Use Multiple Math Operators in a Formula 248 Skill 7 Format Grouped Worksheets 250

182 Skill 8 Insert and Move Worksheets 252

Table of Contents v

Skill 9 Construct Formulas That Refer to Cells in Other Worksheets 254

Skill 10 Create Clustered Bar Charts 256

More Skills More Skills 11 Create Organization Charts 258 More Skills 12 Create Line Charts 258 More Skills 13 Set and Clear Print Areas 258 More Skills 14 Insert Hyperlinks 258

C h a p t e r 4 U s e Exce l F u n c t i o n s a n d T a b l e s 2 6 8 Skill 1 Use the SUM and AVERAGE Functions 272 Skill 2 Use the MIN and MAX Functions 274 Skill 3 Move Ranges with Functions,

Add Borders, and Rotate Text 276 Skill 4 Use the IF Function 278 Skill 5 Apply Conditional Formatting with

Custom Formats, Data Bars, and Sparklines 280 Skill 6 Use Find and Replace and Insert

the NOW Function 282 Skill 7 Freeze and Unfreeze Panes 284 Skill 8 Create and Sort Excel Tables 286 Skill 9 Use the Search Filter in Excel Tables 288

Skill 10 Convert Tables to Ranges, Hide Rows and Columns, and Format Large Worksheets 290

More Skills More Skills 11 Apply Conditional Color Scales

with Top and Bottom Rules 292 More Skills 12 Use the Payment (PMT) Function 292 More Skills 13 Create PivotTable Reports 292 More Skills 14 Use Goal Seek 292

A c c e s s C h a p t e r 1 Work with D a t a b a s e s

a n d C r e a t e T a b l e s 3 0 2 Skill 1 Open and Organize Existing Databases 306 Skill 2 Enter and Edit Table Data 308 Skill 3 Create Forms and Enter Data 310 Skill 4 Filter Data in Queries 312 Skill 5 Create, Preview, and Print Reports 314 Skill 6 Create Databases and Tables 316

vi Table of Contents

Skill 7 Change Data Types and Other Field Properties 318

Skill 8 Create Tables in Design View 320 Skill 9 Relate Tables 322

Skill 10 Enter Data in Related Tables 324

More Skills More Skills 11 Compact and Repair Databases 326 More Skills 12 Import Data from Excel 326 More Skills 13 Work with the Attachment Data

Type 326 More Skills 14 Work with the Hyperlink

and Yes/No Data Types 326

C h a p t e r 2 M a n a g e D a t a s h e e t s a n d C r e a t e Q u e r i e s 3 3 6

Skill 1 Find and Replace Data 340 Skill 2 Filter and Sort Datasheets 342 Skill 3 Use the Simple Query Wizard 344 Skill 4 Format Datasheets 346 Skill 5 Add Date and Time Criteria 348 Skill 6 Create Queries in Design View 350 Skill 7 Add Calculated Fields to Queries 352 Skill 8 Work with Logical Criteria 354 Skill 9 Add Wildcards to Query Criteria 356

Skill 10 Group and Total Queries 358

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Queries to Other Fie Formats 360 More Skills 12 Find Duplicate Records 360 More Skills 13 Find Unmatched Records 360 More Skills 14 Create Crosstab Queries 360

C h a p t e r 3 C r e a t e Forms 3 7 0 Skill 1 Use the Form Wizard 374 Skill 2 Format Forms in Layout View 376 Skill 3 Use Forms to Modify Data 378 Skill 4 Use the Blank Form Tool 380 Skill 5 Customize Form Layouts 382 Skill 6 Add Input Masks 384 Skill 7 Apply Conditional Formatting 386 Skill 8 Create One-to-Many Forms 388 Skill 9 Enter Data Using One-to-Many Forms 390

Skill 10 Create Forms from Queries 392

More Skills More Skills 11 Validate Fields 394 More Skills 12 Add Combo Boxes to Forms 394 More Skills 13 Create Multiple Item Forms 394 More Skills 14 Create Macros 394

C h a p t e r 4 C r e a t e R e p o r t s 4 0 4 Skill 1 Create Reports and Apply Themes 408 Skill 2 Modify Report Layouts 410 Skill 3 Prepare Reports for Printing 412 Skill 4 Use the Blank Report Tool 414 Skill 5 Group and Sort Reports 416 Skill 6 Format and Filter Reports 418 Skill 7 Create Label Reports 420 Skill 8 Use the Report Wizard 422 Skill 9 Modify Layouts in Design View 424

Skill 10 Add Totals and Labels to Reports 426

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Reports to Word 428 More Skills 12 Export Reports to HTML Documents 428 More Skills 13 Create Parameter Queries 428 More Skills 14 Create Reports for Parameter Queries 428

PowerPo in t C h a p t e r 1 G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h

P o w e r P o i n t 2 0 1 0 4 3 8 Skill 1 Open, View, and Save Presentations 442 Skill 2 Edit and Replace Text in Normal View 444 Skill 3 Format Slide Text 446 Skill 4 Check Spelling and Use the Thesaurus 448 Skill 5 Insert Slides and Modify Slide Layouts 450 Skill 6 Insert and Format Pictures 452 Skill 7 Organize Slides Using Slide Sorter View 454 Skill 8 Apply Slide Transitions and View Slide Shows 456 Skill 9 Insert Headers and Footers

and Print Presentation Handouts 458 Skill 10 Add Notes Pages and Print Notes 460

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Type Text in the Outline Tab 462 More Skills 12 Use Keyboard Shortcuts 462

More Skills 13 Move and Delete Slides in Normal View 462

More Skills 14 Design Presentations for Audience and Location 462

C h a p t e r 2 F o r m a t a P r e s e n t a t i o n 4 7 2 Skill 1 Create New Presentations 476 Skill 2 Change Presentation Themes 478 Skill 3 Apply Font and Color Themes 480 Skill 4 Format Slide Backgrounds with Styles 482 Skill 5 Format Slide Backgrounds with Pictures

and Textures 484 Skill 6 Format Text with WordArt 486 Skill 7 Change Character Spacing and Font Color 488 Skill 8 Modify Bulleted and Numbered Lists 490 Skill 9 Move and Copy Text and Objects 492

Skill 10 Use Format Painter and Clear All Formatting Commands 494

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Edit Slide Master 496 More Skills 12 Save and Apply Presentation

Template 496 More Skills 13 Create Slides from Microsoft Word

Outline 496 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with Contrast 496

C h a p t e r 3 E n h a n c e P r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h G r a p h i c s 5 0 6

Skill 1 Insert Slides from Other Presentations 510 Skill 2 Insert, Size, and Move Clip Art 512 Skill 3 Modify Picture Shapes, Borders, and Effects 514 Skill 4 Insert, Size, and Move Shapes 516 Ski l l5 Add Text to Shapes and Insert Text Boxes 518 Skill 6 Apply Gradient Fills and Group

and Align Graphics 520 Skill 7 Convert Text to SmartArt Graphics

and Add Shapes 522 Skill 8 Modify SmartArt Layouts, Colors, and Styles 524 Skill 9 Insert Video Files 526

Skill 10 Apply Video Styles and Adjust Videos 528

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Compress Pictures 530

Table of Contents vii

More Skills 12 Save Groups as Picture Files 530 More Skills 13 Change Object Order 530 More Skills 14 Design Presentations Using

Appropriate Graphics 530

C h a p t e r 4 P r e s e n t D a t a U s i n g T a b l e s , C h a r t s , a n d A n i m a t i o n 5 4 0

Skill 1 Insert Tables 544 Skill 2 Modify Table Layouts 546 Skill 3 Apply Table Styles 548 Skill 4 Insert Column Charts 550 Skill 5 Edit and Format Charts 552 Skill 6 Insert Pie Charts 554 Skill 7 Apply Animation Entrance

and Emphasis Effects 556 Skill 8 Modify Animation Timing

and Use Animation Painter 558 Skill 9 Remove Animation and Modify Duration 560

Skill 10 Navigate Slide Shows 562

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Prepare Presentations to be Viewed

Using Office PowerPoint Viewer 564 More Skills 12 Insert Hyperlinks in a Presentation 564 More Skills 13 Create Photo Albums 564 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with

Appropriate Animation 564

I n t e g r a t e d Pro jec ts C h a p t e r 1 I n t e g r a t i n g W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s ,

a n d P o w e r P o i n t 5 7 4 Skill 1 Move Text between Word Documents 578 Skill 2 Apply Heading Styles in Word 580 Skill 3 Create a PowerPoint Presentation

from a Word Document 582 Skill 4 Insert and Modify a Shape in PowerPoint 584 Skill 5 Import a Word Table into

an Excel Workbook 586 Skill 6 Insert a Shape from PowerPoint into Word

and Excel 588 Skill 7 Create and Work with an Excel Table 590

viii Table of Contents

Skill 8 Link Data between Office Applications Using O L E

Skill 9 Create Envelopes Using Data from Access Skill 10 Create Name Tags Using Data in Excel

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Insert Subtotals in Excel and

Link Data to a Word Document More Skills 12 Insert Slides from Another

Presentation More Skills 13 Move and Copy Excel Worksheets

and Consolidate Data More Skills 14 Compare Shared Excel Workbooks

C h a p t e r 2

Skill 1 Skill 2 Skill 3 Skill 4

Skill 5

Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8 Skill 9

M o r e I n t e g r a t e d P r o j e c t s f o r W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s , a n d P o w e r P o i n t Create an Access Append Query Export Data from Access into Excel Create an Excel PivotTable Report Create External References between Excel Workbooks Insert a SmartArt Organization Chart into PowerPoint Insert an Excel PivotTable into PowerPoint Insert a PowerPoint Outline in Word and Create a Cover Page and Table of Contents Link and Embed Data from Excel into Word Export Data from Access to an R T F File and Insert the File into Word Insert Objects from PowerPoint into Word Skill 10

kills More Skills 11 Create an Excel PivotChart

and Link the PivotChart to Word More Skills 12 Create a Hyperlink between

PowerPoint, Word, and Excel Files More Skills 13 Insert a Total Row in an Excel Table

and Link the Table to PowerPoint More Skills 14 Compare Word Documents


592 594 596



598 598

6 1 0 614 616 618


622 624

626 628

630 632



634 634


Index 654

About the Authors Kris Townsend is an Information Systems instructor at Spokane Falls Community College in Spokane, Washington. Kris earned a bachelor’s degree in both Education and Business, and a master’s degree in Education. He has also worked as a public school teacher and as a systems analyst. Kris enjoys working with wood, snowboarding, and camping. He commutes to work by bike and enjoys long road rides in the Palouse country south of Spokane.


Robert L. Ferrett recently retired as the Director of the Center for Instructional Computing at Eastern Michigan University, where he provided computer training and support to faculty. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 books on Access, PowerPoint, Excel, Publisher, WordPerfect, Windows, and Word. He has been designing, developing, and delivering computer workshops for more than two decades.

Catherine Hain is an instructor at Central New Mexico Community College in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She teaches computer applications classes in the Business and Information Technology School, both in the classroom and through the distance learning office. Catherine holds a bachelor’s degree in Management and Marketing and a master’s degree in Business Administration.

f t Alicia Vargas is an Associate Professor of Business Information Technology at Pasadena City College in California. She holds a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in Business Education from California State University, Los Angeles and has authored numerous textbooks and training materials on Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.

A Special Thank You Pearson Prentice Hall gratefully acknowledges the contribution made by Shelley Gaskin to the first edition publication of this series—Skills for Success with Office 2007. The series has truly benefited from her dedication toward developing a textbook that aims to help students and instructors.We thank her for her continued support of this series.

About the Authors ix

Contributors We’d like to thank the following people for their work on Skills for Success:

Instructor Resource Authors Erich Adickes Parkland College Sharon Behrens Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Julie Boyles Portland Community College Barbara Edington St. Francis College Ranida Harris Indiana University Southeast Beth Hendrick Lake Sumter Community College Susan Holland Southeast Community College—Nebraska Andrea Leinbach Harrisburg Area Community College Yvonne Leonard Coastal Carolina Community College

Technical Editors Lisa Bucki Kelly Carling Hilda W i r t h Federico Jacksonville University Tom Lightner Missouri State University Elizabeth Lockley Joyce Nielsen

Reviewers Darrell Abbey Cascadia Community College Bridget I . Archer Oakton Community College Laura Aagard Sierra College John Alcorcha MTI College Barry Andrews Miami Dade College Natalie Andrews Miami Dade College Wilma Andrews Virginia Commonwealth University School

of Business Bridget Archer Oakton Community College Tahir Aziz J. Sargeant Reynolds Greg Balinger Miami Dade College Terry Bass University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lisa Beach Santa Rosa Junior College Rocky Belcher Sinclair Community College Nannette Biby Miami Dade College David Billings Guilford Technical Community College Brenda K. Br i t t Fayetteville Technical Community College Alisa Brown Pulaski Technical College Eric Cameron Passaic Community College

x Contributors

Trina Maurer Anthony Nowakowski Ernest Gines Stacey Gee Hollins John Purcell Ann Rowlette Amanda Shelton Steve St. John Joyce Thompson Karen Wisniewski

Georgia Virtual Technical College Buffalo State College Tarrant County College—Southeast St. Louis Community College—Meramec Castleton State College Liberty University J. Sargeant Reynolds Tulsa Community College Lehigh Carbon Community College County College of Morris

Janet Pickard Linda Pogue Steve Rubin Eric Sabbah Jan Snyder Mara Zebest

Chattanooga State Tech Community College Northwest Arkansas Community College California State University—Monterey Bay

Gene Carbonaro Trey Cherry Kim Childs Pualine Chohonis Lennie Coper Tara Cipriano Paulette Comet

Gail W . Cope Susana Contreras de Finch Chris Corbin Janis Cox Tomi Crawford Martin Cronlund Jennifer Day Ralph DeArazoza Carol Decker Loorna DeDuluc Caroline Delcourt

Long Beach City College Edgecombe Community College Bethany University Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Gateway Technical College Community College of Baltimore

Coun ty—Ca to nsville Sinclair Community College College of Southern Nevada Miami Dade College Tri-County Technical College Miami Dade College Anne Arundel Community College Sinclair Community College Miami Dade College Montgomery College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College

Contributors continued

Michael Discello Kevin Duggan Barbara Edington Donna Ehrhart Hilda Wirth Federico Tushnelda Fernandez Arlene Flerchinger Hedy Fossenkemper Kent Foster Penny Foster-Shiver Arlene Franklin George Gabb Barbara Garrell Deb Geoghan Jessica Gilmore Victor Giol Melinda Glander Linda Glassburn Deb Gross Rachelle Hall Marie Hartlein Diane Hartman Betsy Headrick Patrick Healy

Lindsay Henning Kermelle Hensley Diana Hill Rachel Hinton Mary Carole Hollingsworth Stacey Gee Hollins Bill Holmes Steve Holtz Margaret M. Hvatum Joan Ivey Dr. Dianna D. Johnson Kay Johnston Warren T. Jones, Sr. Sally Kaskocsak Renuka Kumar Kathy McKee Hazel Kates Gerald Kearns

Pittsburgh Technical Institute Midlands Technical Community College St. Francis College Genesee Community College Jacksonville University Miami Dade College Chattanooga State Tech Community College Paradise Valley Community College Withrop University Anne Arundel Community College Bucks County Community College Miami Dade College Delaware County Community College Bucks County Community College Highline Community College Miami Dade College Northmetro Technical College Cuyahoga Community College, West Ohio State University Glendale Community College Montgomery County Community College Utah Valley State College Chattanooga State Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Yavapai College Columbus Technical College Chesapeake College Broome Community College GA Perimeter St. Louis Community College—Meramec Chandler-Gilbert Community College University of Minnesota Duluth St. Louis Community College Lanier Technical College North Metro Technical College Columbia Basin College University of Alabama at Birmingham Sinclair Community College Community College of Baltimore County North Metro Technical College Miami Dade College Forsyth Technical Community College

Charles Kellermann

John Kidd Chris Kinnard Kelli Kleindorfer Kurt Kominek Dianne Kotokoff Cynthia Krebs Jean Lacoste Gene Laugh rey David LeBron Kaiyang Liang Linda Lindaman Felix Lopez Nicki Maines Cindy Manning Patri Mays Norma McKenzie Lee McKinley Sandy McCormack Eric Meyer Kathryn Miller

Gloria A. Morgan Kathy Morris Linda Moulton Ryan Murphy Stephanie Murre Wolf Jackie Myers Dell Najera

Scott Nason Paula Neal Bethanne Newman Eloise Newsome

Karen Nunan Ellen Orr Carol Ottaway Denise Passero Americus Pavese James Gordon Patterson Cindra Phillips

Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge

Tarrant County Community College Miami Dade College American Institute of Business NE State Tech Community College Lanier Technical College Utah Valley University Virginia Tech Northern Oklahoma College Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College Miami Dade College Mesa Community College Big Sandy Community and Technical College Paradise Valley Community College El Paso Community College GA Perimeter Monroe Community College Miami Dade College Big Sandy Community and Technical College,

Pike Ville Campus Monroe Community College University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Montgomery County Community College Sinclair Community College Moraine Park Technical College Sinclair Community College El Paso Community College, Valle Verde

Campus Rowan Cabarrus Community College Sinclair Community College Paradise Valley Community College Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Northeast State Technical Community College Seminole Community College Chemeketa Community College Fulton-Montgomery Community College Community College of Baltimore County Paradise Valley Community College Clark State CC


Contributors continued

Janet Pickard Chattanooga State Tech Community College Diane Stark Phoenix College Floyd Pittman Miami Dade College Neil Stenlund Northern Virginia Community College Melissa Prinzing Sierra College Linda Stoudemayer Lamar Institute of Technology Pat Rahmlow Montgomery County Community College Pamela Stovall Forsyth Technical Community College Mary Rasley Lehigh Carbon Community College Linda Switzer Highline Community College Scott Rosen Santa Rosa Junior College Margaret Taylor College of Southern Nevada Ann Rowlette Liberty University Martha Taylor Sinclair Community College Kamaljeet Sanghera George Mason University Michael M. Taylor Seattle Central Community College June Scott County College of Morris Roseann Thomas Fayetteville Tech Community College Janet Sebesy Cuyahoga Community College Ingrid Thompson-Sellers GA Perimeter Jennifer Sedelmeyer Broome Community College Daniel Thomson Keiser University Kelly SellAnne Arundel Community College Astrid Hoy Todd Guilford Technical Community College Teresa Sept College of Southern Idaho Barb Tollinger Sinclair Community College Pat Serrano Scottsdale Community College Cathy Urbanski Chandler Gilbert Community College Amanda Shelton J. Sargeant Reynolds Sue Van Boven Paradise Valley Community College Gary Sibbits St. Louis Community College—Meramec Philip Vavalides Guildford Technical Community College Janet Siert Ellsworth Community College Pete Vetere Montgomery County Community College— Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College West Campus Karen Smith Technical College of the Lowcountry Asteria Villegas Monroe College Robert Smolenski Delaware County Community College Michael Walton Miami Dade College Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College Teri Weston Harford Community College Gary R. Smith Paradise Valley Community College Julie Wheeler Sinclair Community College Patricia Snyder Midlands Technical College Debbie Wood Western Piedmont Community College Pamela Sorensen Santa Rosa Junior College Thomas Yip Passaic Community College Eric Stadnik Santa Rosa Junior College Lindy Young Sierra Community College Mark Stanchfield Rochester Community and Technical College Matt Zullo Wake Technical Community College

xii Contributors

I n s t r u c t o r s – Y o u a s k e d for it s o h e r e it is!

A M i c r o s o f t ® O f f i c e t e x t b o o k t h a t r e c o g n i z e s h o w s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d a y –

Skills for Success with Microsoft

1 Office 2010 Volume 1

10 X 8.5 F o r m a t – Easy for students to read and type at the same time by simply propping the book up on the desk in front of their monitor

Clear ly Out l ined Sk i l l s – Each skill is presented in a single two-page spread so that students can easily follow along

Numbered S t e p s and Bul le ted Tex t – Students don’t read long paragraphs or text, but they will read information presented concisely

Easy-to-Find S t u d e n t Da ta Fi les – Visual key shows students how to locate and interact with their data files

S t a r t H e r e – Students know exactly where to start and what their starting file will look like


G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h W i n d o w s 7 » YOU BK WINDOW 7 ro «CRK M I »F-JF IOM?«L« LOF RUINR-V.*™ PFLNJMN MO»»T*N>WN

MDAU mi mm • J- : >O-L


Your ilartlng » c r e « n will look Ilk* this: S K I L L !

chapter, you will be

S k i l l s L is t – A visual snapshot of what skills they will complete in the chapter

O u t c o m e – Shows students up front what their completed project will look like

You will tdvo your filoi a t :

T J H N M I M H7_S«II| ‘ ‘

S e q u e n t i a l P a g i n a t i o n – Saves you and your students time in locating topics and assignments I


Skills for Success l ock – Tells how much time students

need to complete the chapter

Introduct ion

• KM US TUNTNW *IR*I fie, 01 FGWRN INTO 4 «IR J .: -I—. IT…. I AIULT :;I N..I..: .:


t Written for T o d a y ‘ s S t u d e n t s – skills are taught with numbered steps and bulleted text so students are less likely to skip valuable information T w o – P a g e S p r e a d s – Each skill is

presented on a two-page spread to help students keep up their momentum

* TITTR.TI bim irii mug], TU L>«

_ J

D a t a Files Are a S n a p – Students can now find their files easier than ever before with this visual map

C o l o r e d Text – Clearly shows what a student types

Hands-On – Students start actually working on their skills from Step 1

D o n e ! – Students always know when they’ve completed a skill


Skills for S u c c e s s

UorsSkJh © U M l d t o m i o C k g c n n f M

End-o f -Chapte r M a t e r i a l – Several levels of assessment so you can assign the material that best fits your students’ needs

M o r e S k i l l s – Additional skills included online

K e y T e r m s O n l i n e H e l p Sk i l ls

Midi .. – .! -.. I – :T.

O n l i n e P r o j e c t – Students practice using Microsoft Help online to help prepare them for using the applications on their own

H > u » i « i i HI

•.m • m •

Visual Walk-Through xv

Skills for S u c c e s s

Al l V i d e o s

a n d I n s t r u c t o r m a t e r i a l s

a v a i l a b l e o n t h e I R C D

Instructor Mater ia ls

I n s t r u c t o r ‘ s M a n u a l – Teaching tips and additional resources for each chapter

A s s i g n m e n t S h e e t s – Lists all the assignments for the chapter, you just add in the course information, due dates and points. Providing these to students ensures they will know what is due and when

S c r i p t e d L e c t u r e s – Classroom lectures prepared for you

A n n o t a t e d S o l u t i o n F i l e s – Coupled with the scoring rubrics, these create a grading and scoring system that makes grading so much easier for you

P o w e r P o i n t L e c t u r e s – PowerPoint presentations for each chapter

P r e p a r e d E x a m s – Exams for each chapter and for each application

S c o r i n g R u b r i c s – Can be used either by students to check their work or by you as a quick check-off for the items that need to be corrected

S y l l a b u s T e m p l a t e s – for 8-week, 12-week, and 16-week courses

T e s t B a n k – Includes a variety of test questions for each chapter

C o m p a n i o n W e b S i t e – Online content such as the More Skills Projects, Online Study Guide, Glossary, and Student Data Files are all at

xvi Visual Walk-Through

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

C H A P T E R J Common Features of Office 2010 • The programs in Microsoft Office 2010—Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access—share common

tools that you use in a consistent, easy-to-learn manner.

• Common tasks include opening and saving files, entering and formatting text, and printing your work.

Your starting screen will look like this: SKILLS SKILLS 1 – 1 0 TRAINING Umt Insert Pjgt 1

C M M mailt – 1 1 – * 41 IT



‘ Items’ “Mo:ca; . rtfacmgl H*jding2 ChtDQt

Past 1 ol I Wmdi 0

A t t h e e n d o f t h i s chapter , y o u w i l l be a b l e t o :

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders Skill 4 Print and Save Documents Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As Skill 6 Type and Edit Text Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs Skill 9 Use the Ribbon Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes


More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping Tool More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help More Skills 13 Organize Files More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live


Outcome Using the skills listed to the left will enable you to create documents similar to this:

Visit Aspen Falls! A s p e n F a l l s o v e r l o o k s t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n

a n d is s u r r o u n d e d b y m a n y v i n e y a r d s a n d

w i n e r i e s . O c e a n r e c r e a t i o n is a c c e s s e d

p r i m a r i l y a t D u r a n g o C o u n t y P a r k . T h e

A s p e n L a k e R e c r e a t i o n A r e a p r o v i d e s y e a r

r o u n d f r e s h w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a n d is t h e

c i t y ‘ s l a r g e s t p a r k .

Local Attractions • W i n e C o u n t r y

o W i n e Tas t ing Tou rs

o Winer ies

• W o r d s w o r t h Fel lowship Museum of A r t

• Du rango C o u n t y M u s e u m of H is to ry

• Conven t ion Center

• A r t Galleries

• Gl ider T o u r s

Aspen Fallc Annual Events • Annua l Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale

• A n n u a l W i n e Festival

• C inco de Mayo

• Vintage Car S h o w

• Her i tage D a y Parade

• Harvest Days

• A m a t e u r Bike Races

• Farmer ‘s Market

• Aspen Lake Nature Cruises

• Aspen Falls T r ia th lon

• Tas te of Aspen Falls

• W i n t e r Blues Festival

Contact Y o u r N a m e for more informat ion.

Common Features of Office 2010

You will save your files as: Lastname_Firstname_cfO 1 _Visit 1 Lastname_Firstname_cfO l_Visit2 Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 3

In t h i s c h a p t e r , y o u w i l l c r e a t e d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e A s p e n F a l l s C i t y

H a l l , w h i c h p r o v i d e s e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e c i t i z e n s a n d v i s i t o r s o f

A s p e n F a l l s , C a l i f o r n i a .

C o m m o n Features of Of f ice 2 0 1 0 • Microsoft Office is the most common software used to create and share

personal and business documents.

• Microsoft Office is a suite o f several programs—Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Access, and others—that each have a special purpose.

• Because of the consistent design and layout o f Microsoft Office, when you learn to use one Microsoft Office program, you can use most o f those skil ls when working wi th the other Microsoft Office programs.

• T h e files you create w i t h Microsoft Office need to be named and saved in locations where they can be easily found when you need them.

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

Time to complete all 10 skills – 50 to 90 minutes

Find your student data files here:

Student data files needed for this chapter:

« cf01_Visit

• cf01_Visit_Events

cfOl Visit River


• The Word 2010 program can be launched by clicking the Start button, and then locating and clicking the Microsoft Word 2010 command.

• When you start Word, a new blank document displays in which you can type text.

1. In the lower left corner of the desktop, click the Start button © .

2 . In the lower left corner of the Start menu, click the All Programs command, and then compare your screen with Figure 1 . –

The Microsoft Office folder is located in the All Programs folder. If you have several programs installed on your computer, you may need to scroll to see the Microsoft Office folder.

3 . Click the Microsoft Office folder, and then compare your screen with Figure 2. –

Below the Microsoft Office folder, commands that open various Office 2010 programs display.

4 . From the Start menu, under the Microsoft Office folder, click Microsoft Word 2010, and then wait a few moments for the Microsoft Word window to display.

5 . If necessary, in the upper right corner of the Microsoft Word window, click the Maximize button B| .

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s

6 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter 1


Ptttuin All Programs folder list

(your list will be different)

Microsoft Office folder

Start button Figure 1

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Microsoft Office folder

Office 2 0 1 0 programs (your

list may be different)

«•# Window! f a> and Sun • » Window, Media Center B Window! Media Player

Window! Update •4 XPS Viewer

l l l l l l l l l l Game!


Microsoft Office Aj Microsoft Access 2 0 1 0

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N Microsoft OneNcle 2 0 1 0 0 MKicMfl Outlook 2 0 1 0

i_ Mjcroioft PowerPoint 2 3 1 0 _tj Microsoft Publnher 2 0 1 0 1 Microsoft SharePomt Workspace 21 4 lAcrcsoft Wort 2 0 1 0

Mcrosft Olf.ce 2 0 1 0 Tool!

M lhttp://Olf.ce

SKILL 1: Start Word and Navigate the Word Window

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Group names Paragraph mark and insertion point

Quick Access Toolbar

New blank Word document

Figure 3 Heading 1 thumbnail

Styles group Show/Hide button selected Insertion point and paragraph mark

Heading 1 formatting applied Home tab is active

7 .

8 .

9 .

On the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide button H until it displays in gold indicating that it is active. Compare your screen with Figure 3 .

Above the blank Word document, the Quick Access Toolbar and Ribbon display. At the top of the Ribbon, a row of tab names display. Each Ribbon tab has buttons that you click to perform actions. The buttons are organized into groups that display their names along the bottom of the Ribbon.

In the document, the insertion point— a vertical line that indicates where text will be inserted when you start typing—flashes near the top left corner.

The Show/Hide button is a toggle button— a button used to turn a feature both on and off. The paragraph mark (f) indicates the end of a paragraph and will not print.

In the document, type your first and last names. As you type, notice that the insertion point and paragraph mark move to the right.

On the Home tab, in the Styles group, point to—but do not click—the Heading 1 thumbnail to show the Live Preview—a feature that displays the result of a formatting change if you select it.

Click the Heading 1 thumbnail to apply the formatting change as shown in Figure 4. If the Word Navigation Pane displays on the left side of the Word window, click its Close [*] button.

You have completed Skill 1 of 10

Figure 4 6 J 6 P M

C Z 3 / 2 3 1 2

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 7

• When you open more than one Office program, each program displays in its own window.

• When you want to work with a program in a different window, you need to make it the active window.

1 . Click the Start button © , and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

Your computer may be configured in such a way that you can open Office programs without opening the All Programs folder. The Office 2010 program commands may display as shortcuts in the Start menu’s pinned programs area or the recently used programs area. Your computer’s taskbar or desktop may also display icons that start each program.

2 . From the Start menu, locate and then click Microsoft Excel 2010. Depending on your computer, you may need to double-click—not single click—to launch Excel. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . If necessary, click the Maximize – button mm\<

A new blank worksheet displays in a new window. The first cell—the box formed by the intersection of a row and column—is active as indicated by the thick, black border surrounding the cell. When you type in Excel, the text is entered into the active cell.

The Quick Access Toolbar displays above the spreadsheet. The Excel Ribbon has its own tabs and groups that you use to work with an Excel spreadsheet. Many of these tabs, groups, and buttons are similar to those found in Word.

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Steve Jobs American Sketches

Einstein: His Life and Universe A Benjamin Franklin Reader

Benjamin Franklin: An American Life Kissinger: A Biography

The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made (with Evan Thomas) Pro and Con






First published in Great Britain by Simon & Schuster UK Ltd, 2014 A CBS COMPANY

Copyright © 2014 by Walter Isaacson

This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. No reproduction without permission.

All rights reserved.

The right of Walter Isaacson to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

Simon & Schuster UK Ltd 1st Floor

222 Gray’s Inn Road London WC1X 8HB

Simon & Schuster Australia, Sydney Simon & Schuster India, New Delhi

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Excerpts from “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace” from The Pill Versus the Springhill Mine Disaster by Richard Brautigan. Copyright © 1968 by Richard Brautigan. Reproduced by permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Photo research and editing by Laura Wyss, Wyssphoto, Inc., with the assistance of Elizabeth Seramur, Amy Hikida, and Emily Vinson, and by Jonathan Cox.

Interior design by Ruth Lee-Mui

ISBN: 978-1-47113-879-9 Ebook: 978-1-47113-881-2

The author and publishers have made all reasonable efforts to contact copyright-holders for permission, and apologise for any omissions or errors in the form of credits given. Corrections may be made to future printings.

Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY



Illustrated Timeline Introduction


Ada, Countess of Lovelace CHAPTER 2

The Computer CHAPTER 3

Programming CHAPTER 4

The Transistor CHAPTER 5

The Microchip CHAPTER 6

Video Games CHAPTER 7

The Internet CHAPTER 8

The Personal Computer CHAPTER 9

Software CHAPTER 10

Online CHAPTER 11

The Web CHAPTER 12

Ada Forever

Acknowledgments Notes

Photo Credits










Ada, Countess of Lovelace, publishes “Notes” on Babbage’s Analytical Engine.


George Boole creates a system using algebra for logical reasoning.


The census is tabulated with Herman Hollerith’s punch-card machines.



Vannevar Bush devises the Differential Analyzer, an analog electromechanical computer.


Tommy Flowers pioneers use of vacuum tubes as on-off switches in circuits.



Alan Turing publishes “On Computable Numbers,” describing a universal computer.

Claude Shannon describes how circuits of switches can perform tasks of Boolean algebra.

Bell Labs’ George Stibitz proposes a calculator using an electric circuit.


Howard Aiken proposes construction of large digital computer and discovers parts of Babbage’s Difference Engine at Harvard.

John Vincent Atanasoff puts together concepts for an electronic computer during a long December night’s drive.


William Hewlett and David Packard form company in Palo Alto garage.


Atanasoff finishes model of electronic computer with mechanical storage drums.


Turing arrives at Bletchley Park to work on breaking German codes.


Konrad Zuse completes Z3, a fully functional electromechanical programmable digital computer.


John Mauchly visits Atanasoff in Iowa, sees computer demonstrated.



Atanasoff completes partly working computer with three hundred vacuum tubes, leaves for Navy.


Colossus, a vacuum-tube computer to break German codes, is completed at Bletchley Park.



Harvard Mark I goes into operation.

John von Neumann goes to Penn to work on ENIAC.


Von Neumann writes “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC” describing a stored-program computer.


Six women programmers of ENIAC are sent to Aberdeen for training.

Vannevar Bush publishes “As We May Think,” describing personal computer.

Bush publishes “Science, the Endless Frontier,” proposing government funding of academic and industrial research.

ENIAC is fully operational.


Transistor invented at Bell Labs.


Turing publishes article describing a test for artificial intelligence.



Grace Hopper develops first computer compiler.

Von Neumann completes modern computer at the Institute for Advanced Study.

UNIVAC predicts Eisenhower election victory.



Turing commits suicide.


Texas Instruments introduces silicon transistor and helps launch Regency radio.


Shockley Semiconductor founded.

First artificial intelligence conference.



Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, and others form Fairchild Semiconductor.

Russia launches Sputnik.


Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) announced.


Jack Kilby demonstrates integrated circuit, or microchip.


Noyce and Fairchild colleagues independently invent microchip.


J. C. R. Licklider publishes “Man-Computer Symbiosis.”


Paul Baran at RAND devises packet switching.


President Kennedy proposes sending man to the moon.


MIT hackers create Spacewar game.

Licklider becomes founding director of ARPA’s Information Processing Techniques Office.

Doug Engelbart publishes “Augmenting Human Intellect.”



Licklider proposes an “Intergalactic Computer Network.”

Engelbart and Bill English invent the mouse.



Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters take bus trip across America.


Ted Nelson publishes first article about “hypertext.”


Moore’s Law predicts microchips will double in power each year or so.


Stewart Brand hosts Trips Festival with Ken Kesey.


Bob Taylor convinces ARPA chief Charles Herzfeld to fund ARPANET.

Donald Davies coins the term packet switching.


ARPANET design discussions in Ann Arbor and Gatlinburg.


Larry Roberts sends out request for bids to build the ARPANET’s IMPs.


Noyce and Moore form Intel, hire Andy Grove.

Brand publishes first Whole Earth Catalog.


Engelbart stages the Mother of All Demos with Brand’s help.


First nodes of ARPANET installed.


Don Hoefler begins column for Electronic News called “Silicon Valley USA.”

Demise party for Whole Earth Catalog.

Intel 4004 microprocessor unveiled.


Ray Tomlinson invents email.


Nolan Bushnell creates Pong at Atari with Al Alcorn.




Alan Kay helps to create the Alto at Xerox PARC.

Ethernet developed by Bob Metcalfe at Xerox PARC.

Community Memory shared terminal set up at Leopold’s Records, Berkeley.


Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn complete TCP/IP protocols for the Internet.


Intel 8080 comes out.


Altair personal computer from MITS appears.


Paul Allen and Bill Gates write BASIC for Altair, form Microsoft.

First meeting of Homebrew Computer Club.

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak launch the Apple I.


The Apple II is released.



First Internet Bulletin Board System.


Usenet newsgroups invented.

Jobs visits Xerox PARC.


IBM commissions Microsoft to develop an operating system for PC.


Hayes modem marketed to home users.



Microsoft announces Windows.

Richard Stallman begins developing GNU, a free operating system.




Apple introduces Macintosh.


Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant launch The WELL.

CVC launches Q-Link, which becomes AOL.



Linus Torvalds releases first version of Linux kernel.

Tim Berners-Lee announces World Wide Web.


Marc Andreessen announces Mosaic browser.


Steve Case’s AOL offers direct access to the Internet.


Justin Hall launches Web log and directory.

HotWired and Time Inc.’s Pathfinder become first major magazine publishers on Web.


Ward Cunningham’s Wiki Wiki Web goes online.



IBM’s Deep Blue beats Garry Kasparov in chess.


Larry Page and Sergey Brin launch Google.



Ev Williams launches Blogger.


Jimmy Wales, with Larry Sanger, launches Wikipedia.



IBM’s computer Watson wins Jeopardy!




The computer and the Internet are among the most important inventions of our era, but few people know who created them. They were not conjured up in a garret or garage by solo inventors suitable to be singled out on magazine covers or put into a pantheon with Edison, Bell, and Morse. Instead, most of the innovations of the digital age were done collaboratively. There were a lot of fascinating people involved, some ingenious and a few even geniuses. This is the story of these pioneers, hackers, inventors, and entrepreneurs—who they were, how their minds worked, and what made them so creative. It’s also a narrative of how they collaborated and why their ability to work as teams made them even more creative.

The tale of their teamwork is important because we don’t often focus on how central that skill is to innovation. There are thousands of books celebrating people we biographers portray, or mythologize, as lone inventors. I’ve produced a few myself. Search the phrase “the man who invented” on Amazon and you get 1,860 book results. But we have far fewer tales of collaborative creativity, which is actually more important in understanding how today’s technology revolution was fashioned. It can also be more interesting.

We talk so much about innovation these days that it has become a buzzword, drained of clear meaning. So in this book I set out to report on how innovation actually happens in the real world. How did the most imaginative innovators of our time turn disruptive ideas into realities? I focus on a dozen or so of the most significant breakthroughs of the digital age and the people who made them. What ingredients produced their creative leaps? What skills proved most useful? How did they lead and collaborate? Why did some succeed and others fail?

I also explore the social and cultural forces that provide the atmosphere for innovation. For the birth of the digital age, this included a research ecosystem that was nurtured by government spending and managed by a military-industrial-academic collaboration. Intersecting with that was a loose alliance of community organizers, communal-minded hippies, do-it-yourself hobbyists, and homebrew hackers, most of whom were suspicious of centralized authority.

Histories can be written with a different emphasis on any of these factors. An example is the invention of the Harvard/IBM Mark I, the first big electromechanical computer. One of its programmers, Grace Hopper, wrote a history that focused on its primary creator, Howard Aiken. IBM countered with a history that featured its teams of faceless engineers who contributed the incremental innovations, from counters to card feeders, that went into the machine.

Likewise, what emphasis should be put on great individuals versus on cultural currents has long been a matter of dispute; in the mid-nineteenth century, Thomas Carlyle declared that “the history of the world is but the biography of great men,” and Herbert Spencer responded with a theory that emphasized the role of societal forces. Academics and participants often view this balance differently. “As a professor, I tended to think of history as run by impersonal forces,” Henry Kissinger told reporters during one of his Middle East shuttle missions in the 1970s. “But when you see it in practice, you see the difference personalities make.”1 When it comes to digital-age innovation, as with Middle East peacemaking, a variety


of personal and cultural forces all come into play, and in this book I sought to weave them together.

The Internet was originally built to facilitate collaboration. By contrast, personal computers, especially those meant to be used at home, were devised as tools for individual creativity. For more than a decade, beginning in the early 1970s, the development of networks and that of home computers proceeded separately from one another. They finally began coming together in the late 1980s with the advent of modems, online services, and the Web. Just as combining the steam engine with ingenious machinery drove the Industrial Revolution, the combination of the computer and distributed networks led to a digital revolution that allowed anyone to create, disseminate, and access any information anywhere.

Historians of science are sometimes wary about calling periods of great change revolutions, because they prefer to view progress as evolutionary. “There was no such thing as the Scientific Revolution, and this is a book about it,” is the wry opening sentence of the Harvard professor Steven Shapin’s book on that period. One method that Shapin used to escape his half-joking contradiction is to note how the key players of the period “vigorously expressed the view” that they were part of a revolution. “Our sense of radical change afoot comes substantially from them.”2

Likewise, most of us today share a sense that the digital advances of the past half century are transforming, perhaps even revolutionizing the way we live. I can recall the excitement that each new breakthrough engendered. My father and uncles were electrical engineers, and like many of the characters in this book I grew up with a basement workshop that had circuit boards to be soldered, radios to be opened, tubes to be tested, and boxes of transistors and resistors to be sorted and deployed. As an electronics geek who loved Heathkits and ham radios (WA5JTP), I can remember when vacuum tubes gave way to transistors. At college I learned programming using punch cards and recall when the agony of batch processing was replaced by the ecstasy of hands-on interaction. In the 1980s I thrilled to the static and screech that modems made when they opened for you the weirdly magical realm of online services and bulletin boards, and in the early 1990s I helped to run a digital division at Time and Time Warner that launched new Web and broadband Internet services. As Wordsworth said of the enthusiasts who were present at the beginning of the French Revolution, “Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive.”

I began work on this book more than a decade ago. It grew out of my fascination with the digital-age advances I had witnessed and also from my biography of Benjamin Franklin, who was an innovator, inventor, publisher, postal service pioneer, and all-around information networker and entrepreneur. I wanted to step away from doing biographies, which tend to emphasize the role of singular individuals, and once again do a book like The Wise Men, which I had coauthored with a colleague about the creative teamwork of six friends who shaped America’s cold war policies. My initial plan was to focus on the teams that invented the Internet. But when I interviewed Bill Gates, he convinced me that the simultaneous emergence of the Internet and the personal computer made for a richer tale. I put this book on hold early in 2009, when I began working on a biography of Steve Jobs. But his story reinforced my interest in how the development of the Internet and computers intertwined, so as soon as I finished that book, I went back to work on this tale of digital-age innovators.

The protocols of the Internet were devised by peer collaboration, and the resulting system seemed to have embedded in its genetic code a propensity to facilitate such collaboration. The power to create and transmit information was fully distributed to each of the nodes, and any attempt to impose controls or a hierarchy could be routed around. Without falling into the teleological fallacy of ascribing intentions or a personality to technology, it’s fair to say that a


system of open networks connected to individually controlled computers tended, as the printing press did, to wrest control over the distribution of information from gatekeepers, central authorities, and institutions that employed scriveners and scribes. It became easier for ordinary folks to create and share content.

The collaboration that created the digital age was not just among peers but also between generations. Ideas were handed off from one cohort of innovators to the next. Another theme that emerged from my research was that users repeatedly commandeered digital innovations to create communications and social networking tools. I also became interested in how the quest for artificial intelligence—machines that think on their own—has consistently proved less fruitful than creating ways to forge a partnership or symbiosis between people and machines. In other words, the collaborative creativity that marked the digital age included collaboration between humans and machines.

Finally, I was struck by how the truest creativity of the digital age came from those who were able to connect the arts and sciences. They believed that beauty mattered. “I always thought of myself as a humanities person as a kid, but I liked electronics,” Jobs told me when I embarked on his biography. “Then I read something that one of my heroes, Edwin Land of Polaroid, said about the importance of people who could stand at the intersection of humanities and sciences, and I decided that’s what I wanted to do.” The people who were comfortable at this humanities-technology intersection helped to create the human-machine symbiosis that is at the core of this story.

Like many aspects of the digital age, this idea that innovation resides where art and science connect is not new. Leonardo da Vinci was the exemplar of the creativity that flourishes when the humanities and sciences interact. When Einstein was stymied while working out General Relativity, he would pull out his violin and play Mozart until he could reconnect to what he called the harmony of the spheres.

When it comes to computers, there is one other historical figure, not as well known, who embodied the combination of the arts and sciences. Like her famous father, she understood the romance of poetry. Unlike him, she also saw the romance of math and machinery. And that is where our story begins.


Ada, Countess of Lovelace (1815–52), painted by Margaret Sarah Carpenter in 1836.


Lord Byron (1788–1824), Ada’s father, in Albanian dress, painted by Thomas Phillips in 1835.


Charles Babbage (1791–1871), photograph taken circa 1837.




POETICAL SCIENCE In May 1833, when she was seventeen, Ada Byron was among the young women presented at the British royal court. Family members had worried about how she would acquit herself, given her high-strung and independent nature, but she ended up behaving, her mother reported, “tolerably well.” Among those Ada met that evening were the Duke of Wellington, whose straightforward manner she admired, and the seventy-nine-year-old French ambassador Talleyrand, who struck her as “an old monkey.”1

The only legitimate child of the poet Lord Byron, Ada had inherited her father’s romantic spirit, a trait that her mother tried to temper by having her tutored in mathematics. The combination produced in Ada a love for what she took to calling “poetical science,” which linked her rebellious imagination to her enchantment with numbers. For many, including her father, the rarefied sensibilities of the Romantic era clashed with the techno-excitement of the Industrial Revolution. But Ada was comfortable at the intersection of both eras.

So it was not surprising that her debut at court, despite the glamour of the occasion, made less impression on her than her attendance a few weeks later at another majestic event of the London season, at which she met Charles Babbage, a forty-one-year-old widowed science and math eminence who had established himself as a luminary on London’s social circuit. “Ada was more pleased with a party she was at on Wednesday than with any of the assemblages in the grand monde,” her mother reported to a friend. “She met there a few scientific people—amongst them Babbage, with whom she was delighted.”2

Babbage’s galvanizing weekly salons, which included up to three hundred guests, brought together lords in swallow-tail coats and ladies in brocade gowns with writers, industrialists, poets, actors, statesmen, explorers, botanists, and other “scientists,” a word that Babbage’s friends had recently coined.3 By bringing scientific scholars into this exalted realm, said one noted geologist, Babbage “successfully asserted the rank in society due to science.”4

The evenings featured dancing, readings, games, and lectures accompanied by an assortment of seafood, meat, fowl, exotic drinks, and iced desserts. The ladies staged tableaux vivants, in which they dressed in costume to re-create famous paintings. Astronomers set up telescopes, researchers displayed their electrical and magnetic contrivances, and Babbage allowed guests to play with his mechanical dolls. The centerpiece of the evenings—and one of Babbage’s many motives for hosting them—was his demonstration of a model portion of his Difference Engine, a mammoth mechanical calculating contraption that he was building in a fireproof structure adjacent to his home. Babbage would display the model with great drama, cranking its arm as it calculated a sequence of numbers and, just as the audience began to get bored, showed how the pattern could suddenly change based on instructions that had been coded into the machine.5 Those who were especially intrigued would be invited through the yard to the former stables, where the complete machine was being constructed.

Babbage’s Difference Engine, which could solve polynomial equations, impressed people in different ways. The Duke of Wellington commented that it could be useful in analyzing the variables a general might face before going into battle.6 Ada’s mother, Lady Byron, marveled


that it was a “thinking machine.” As for Ada, who would later famously note that machines could never truly think, a friend who went with them to the demonstration reported, “Miss Byron, young as she was, understood its working, and saw the great beauty of the invention.”7

Ada’s love of both poetry and math primed her to see beauty in a computing machine. She was an exemplar of the era of Romantic science, which was characterized by a lyrical enthusiasm for invention and discovery. It was a period that brought “imaginative intensity and excitement to scientific work,” Richard Holmes wrote in The Age of Wonder. “It was driven by a common ideal of intense, even reckless, personal commitment to discovery.”8

In short, it was a time not unlike our own. The advances of the Industrial Revolution, including the steam engine, mechanical loom, and telegraph, transformed the nineteenth century in much the same way that the advances of the Digital Revolution—the computer, microchip, and Internet—have transformed our own. At the heart of both eras were innovators who combined imagination and passion with wondrous technology, a mix that produced Ada’s poetical science and what the twentieth-century poet Richard Brautigan would call “machines of loving grace.”

LORD BYRON Ada inherited her poetic and insubordinate temperament from her father, but he was not the source of her love for machinery. He was, in fact, a Luddite. In his maiden speech in the House of Lords, given in February 1812 when he was twenty-four, Byron defended the followers of Ned Ludd, who were rampaging against mechanical weaving machines. With sarcastic scorn Byron mocked the mill owners of Nottingham, who were pushing a bill that would make destroying automated looms a crime punishable by death. “These machines were to them an advantage, inasmuch as they superseded the necessity of employing a number of workmen, who were left in consequence to starve,” Byron declared. “The rejected workmen, in the blindness of their ignorance, instead of rejoicing at these improvements in arts so beneficial to mankind, conceived themselves to be sacrificed to improvements in mechanism.”

Two weeks later, Byron published the first two cantos of his epic poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, a romanticized account of his wanderings through Portugal, Malta, and Greece, and, as he later remarked, “awoke one morning and found myself famous.” Beautiful, seductive, troubled, brooding, and sexually adventurous, he was living the life of a Byronic hero while creating the archetype in his poetry. He became the toast of literary London and was feted at three parties each day, most memorably a lavish morning dance hosted by Lady Caroline Lamb.

Lady Caroline, though married to a politically powerful aristocrat who was later prime minister, fell madly in love with Byron. He thought she was “too thin,” yet she had an unconventional sexual ambiguity (she liked to dress as a page boy) that he found enticing. They had a turbulent affair, and after it ended she stalked him obsessively. She famously declared him to be “mad, bad, and dangerous to know,” which he was. So was she.

At Lady Caroline’s party, Lord Byron had also noticed a reserved young woman who was, he recalled, “more simply dressed.” Annabella Milbanke, nineteen, was from a wealthy and multi-titled family. The night before the party, she had read Childe Harold and had mixed feelings. “He is rather too much of a mannerist,” she wrote. “He excels most in the delineation of deep feeling.” Upon seeing him across the room at the party, her feelings were conflicted, dangerously so. “I did not seek an introduction to him, for all the women were absurdly courting him, and trying to deserve the lash of his Satire,” she wrote her mother. “I am not desirous of a place in his lays. I made no offering at the shrine of Childe Harold,


though I shall not refuse the acquaintance if it comes my way.”9 That acquaintance, as it turned out, did come her way. After he was introduced to her

formally, Byron decided that she might make a suitable wife. It was, for him, a rare display of reason over romanticism. Rather than arousing his passions, she seemed to be the sort of woman who might tame those passions and protect him from his excesses—as well as help pay off his burdensome debts. He proposed to her halfheartedly by letter. She sensibly declined. He wandered off to far less appropriate liaisons, including one with his half sister, Augusta Leigh. But after a year, Annabella rekindled the courtship. Byron, falling more deeply in debt while grasping for a way to curb his enthusiasms, saw the rationale if not the romance in the possible relationship. “Nothing but marriage and a speedy one can save me,” he admitted to Annabella’s aunt. “If your niece is obtainable, I should prefer her; if not, the very first woman who does not look as if she would spit in my face.”10 There were times when Lord Byron was not a romantic. He and Annabella were married in January 1815.

Byron initiated the marriage in his Byronic fashion. “Had Lady Byron on the sofa before dinner,” he wrote about his wedding day.11 Their relationship was still active when they visited his half sister two months later, because around then Annabella got pregnant. However, during the visit she began to suspect that her husband’s friendship with Augusta went beyond the fraternal, especially after he lay on a sofa and asked them both to take turns kissing him.12 The marriage started to unravel.

Annabella had been tutored in mathematics, which amused Lord Byron, and during their courtship he had joked about his own disdain for the exactitude of numbers. “I know that two and two make four—and should be glad to prove it too if I could,” he wrote, “though I must say if by any sort of process I could convert two and two into five it would give me much greater pleasure.” Early on, he affectionately dubbed her the “Princess of Parallelograms.” But when the marriage began to sour, he refined that mathematical image: “We are two parallel lines prolonged to infinity side by side but never to meet.” Later, in the first canto of his epic poem Don Juan, he would mock her: “Her favourite science was the mathematical. . . . She was a walking calculation.”

The marriage was not saved by the birth of their daughter on December 10, 1815. She was named Augusta Ada Byron, her first name that of Byron’s too-beloved half sister. When Lady Byron became convinced of her husband’s perfidy, she thereafter called her daughter by her middle name. Five weeks later she packed her belongings into a carriage and fled to her parents’ country home with the infant Ada.

Ada never saw her father again. Lord Byron left the country that April after Lady Byron, in letters so calculating that she earned his sobriquet of “Mathematical Medea,” threatened to expose his alleged incestuous and homosexual affairs as a way to secure a separation agreement that gave her custody of their child.13

The opening of canto 3 of Childe Harold, written a few weeks later, invokes Ada as his muse: Is thy face like thy mother’s, my fair child! Ada! sole daughter of my house and of my heart? When last I saw thy young blue eyes they smiled, And then we parted.

Byron wrote these lines in a villa by Lake Geneva, where he was staying with the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and Shelley’s future wife, Mary. It rained relentlessly. Trapped inside for days, Byron suggested they write horror stories. He produced a fragment of a tale about a vampire, one of the first literary efforts on that subject, but Mary’s story was the one that became a classic: Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. Playing on the ancient Greek myth of the hero who crafted a living man out of clay and snatched fire from the gods for human use, Frankenstein was the story of a scientist who galvanized a man-made assemblage


into a thinking human. It was a cautionary tale about technology and science. It also raised the question that would become associated with Ada: Can man-made machines ever truly think?

The third canto of Childe Harold ends with Byron’s prediction that Annabella would try to keep Ada from knowing about her father, and so it happened. There was a portrait of Lord Byron at their house, but Lady Byron kept it securely veiled, and Ada never saw it until she was twenty.14

Lord Byron, by contrast, kept a picture of Ada on his desk wherever he wandered, and his letters often requested news or portraits of her. When she was seven, he wrote to Augusta, “I wish you would obtain from Lady B some accounts of Ada’s disposition. . . . Is the girl imaginative? . . . Is she passionate? I hope that the Gods have made her anything save poetical—it is enough to have one such fool in the family.” Lady Byron reported that Ada had an imagination that was “chiefly exercised in connection with her mechanical ingenuity.”15

Around that time, Byron, who had been wandering through Italy, writing and having an assortment of affairs, grew bored and decided to enlist in the Greek struggle for independence from the Ottoman Empire. He sailed for Missolonghi, where he took command of part of the rebel army and prepared to attack a Turkish fortress. But before he could engage in battle, he caught a violent cold that was made worse by his doctor’s decision to treat him by bloodletting. On April 19, 1824, he died. According to his valet, among his final words were “Oh, my poor dear child!—my dear Ada! My God, could I have seen her! Give her my blessing.”16

ADA Lady Byron wanted to make sure that Ada did not turn out like her father, and part of her strategy was to have the girl rigorously study math, as if it were an antidote to poetic imagination. When Ada, at age five, showed a preference for geography, Lady Byron ordered that the subject be replaced by additional arithmetic lessons, and her governess soon proudly reported, “She adds up sums of five or six rows of figures with accuracy.” Despite these efforts, Ada developed some of her father’s propensities. She had an affair as a young teenager with one of her tutors, and when they were caught and the tutor banished, she tried to run away from home to be with him. In addition, she had mood swings that took her from feelings of grandiosity to despair, and she suffered various maladies both physical and psychological.

Ada accepted her mother’s conviction that an immersion in math could help tame her Byronic tendencies. After her dangerous liaison with her tutor, and inspired by Babbage’s Difference Engine, she decided on her own, at eighteen, to begin a new series of lessons. “I must cease to think of living for pleasure or self-gratification,” she wrote her new tutor. “I find that nothing but very close and intense application to subjects of a scientific nature now seems to keep my imagination from running wild. . . . It appears to me that the first thing is to go through a course of Mathematics.” He agreed with the prescription: “You are right in supposing that your chief resource and safeguard at the present is in a course of severe intellectual study. For this purpose there is no subject to be compared to Mathematics.”17 He prescribed Euclidean geometry, followed by a dose of trigonometry and algebra. That should cure anyone, they both thought, from having too many artistic or romantic passions.

Her interest in technology was stoked when her mother took her on a trip through the British industrial midlands to see the new factories and machinery. Ada was particularly impressed with an automated weaving loom that used punch cards to direct the creation of the desired fabric patterns, and she drew a sketch of how it worked. Her father’s famous speech


in the House of Lords had defended the Luddites who had smashed such looms because of their fear of what technology might inflict on humanity. But Ada waxed poetical about them and saw the connection with what would someday be called computers. “This Machinery reminds me of Babbage and his gem of all mechanism,” she wrote.18

Ada’s interest in applied science was further stimulated when she met one of Britain’s few noted female mathematicians and scientists, Mary Somerville. Somerville had just finished writing one of her great works, On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences, in which she tied together developments in astronomy, optics, electricity, chemistry, physics, botany, and geology.1 Emblematic of the time, it provided a unified sense of the extraordinary endeavors of discovery that were under way. She proclaimed in her opening sentence, “The progress of modern science, especially within the last five years, has been remarkable for a tendency to simplify the laws of nature and to unite detached branches by general principles.”

Somerville became a friend, teacher, inspiration, and mentor to Ada. She met with Ada regularly, sent her math books, devised problems for her to solve, and patiently explained the correct answers. She was also a good friend of Babbage’s, and during the fall of 1834 she and Ada would often visit his Saturday-evening salons. Somerville’s son, Woronzow Greig, aided Ada’s efforts to settle down by suggesting to one of his former classmates at Cambridge that she would make a suitable—or at least interesting—wife.

William King was socially prominent, financially secure, quietly intelligent, and as taciturn as Ada was excitable. Like her, he was a student of science, but his focus was more practical and less poetic: his primary interests were crop rotation theories and advances in livestock breeding techniques. He proposed marriage within a few weeks of meeting Ada, and she accepted. Her mother, with motives that only a psychiatrist could fathom, decided it was imperative to tell William about Ada’s attempted elopement with her tutor. Despite this news, William was willing to proceed with the wedding, which was held in July 1835. “Gracious God, who has so mercifully given you an opportunity of turning aside from the dangerous paths, has given you a friend and guardian,” Lady Byron wrote her daughter, adding that she should use this opportunity to “bid adieu” to all of her “peculiarities, caprices, and self- seeking.”19

The marriage was a match made in rational calculus. For Ada, it offered the chance to adopt a more steady and grounded life. More important, it allowed her to escape dependence on her domineering mother. For William, it meant having a fascinating, eccentric wife from a wealthy and famous family.

Lady Byron’s first cousin Viscount Melbourne (who had the misfortune of having been married to Lady Caroline Lamb, by then deceased) was the prime minister, and he arranged that, in Queen Victoria’s coronation list of honors, William would become the Earl of Lovelace. His wife thus became Ada, Countess of Lovelace. She is therefore properly referred to as Ada or Lady Lovelace, though she is now commonly known as Ada Lovelace.

That Christmas of 1835, Ada received from her mother the family’s life-size portrait of her father. Painted by Thomas Phillips, it showed Lord Byron in romantic profile, gazing at the horizon, dressed in traditional Albanian costume featuring a red velvet jacket, ceremonial sword, and headdress. For years it had hung over Ada’s grandparents’ mantelpiece, but it had been veiled by a green cloth from the day her parents had separated. Now she was trusted not only to see it but to possess it, along with his inkstand and pen.

Her mother did something even more surprising when the Lovelaces’ first child, a son, was born a few months later. Despite her disdain for her late husband’s memory, she agreed that Ada should name the boy Byron, which she did. The following year Ada had a daughter, whom she dutifully named Annabella, after her mother. Ada then came down with yet another mysterious malady, which kept her bedridden for months. She recovered well enough


to have a third child, a son named Ralph, but her health remained fragile. She had digestive and respiratory problems that were compounded by being treated with laudanum, morphine, and other forms of opium, which led to mood swings and occasional delusions.

Ada was further unsettled by the eruption of a personal drama that was bizarre even by the standards of the Byron family. It involved Medora Leigh, the daughter of Byron’s half sister and occasional lover. According to widely accepted rumors, Medora was Byron’s daughter. She seemed determined to show that darkness ran in the family. She had an affair with a sister’s husband, then ran off with him to France and had two illegitimate children. In a fit of self-righteousness, Lady Byron went to France to rescue Medora, then revealed to Ada the story of her father’s incest.

This “most strange and dreadful history” did not seem to surprise Ada. “I am not in the least astonished,” she wrote her mother. “You merely confirm what I have for years and years felt scarcely a doubt about.”20 Rather than being outraged, she seemed oddly energized by the news. She declared that she could relate to her father’s defiance of authority. Referring to his “misused genius,” she wrote to her mother, “If he has transmitted to me any portion of that genius, I would use it to bring out great truths and principles. I think he has bequeathed this task to me. I have this feeling strongly, and there is a pleasure attending it.”21

Once again Ada took up the study of math in order to settle herself, and she tried to convince Babbage to become her tutor. “I have a peculiar way of learning, and I think it must be a peculiar man to teach me successfully,” she wrote him. Whether due to her opiates or her breeding or both, she developed a somewhat outsize opinion of her own talents and began to describe herself as a genius. In her letter to Babbage, she wrote, “Do not reckon me conceited, . . . but I believe I have the power of going just as far as I like in such pursuits, and where there is so decided a taste, I should almost say a passion, as I have for them, I question if there is not always some portion of natural genius even.”22

Babbage deflected Ada’s request, which was probably wise. It preserved their friendship for an even more important collaboration, and she was able to secure a first-rate math tutor instead: Augustus De Morgan, a patient gentleman who was a pioneer in the field of symbolic logic. He had propounded a concept that Ada would one day employ with great significance, which was that an algebraic equation could apply to things other than numbers. The relations among symbols (for example, that a + b = b + a) could be part of a logic that applied to things that were not numerical.

Ada was never the great mathematician that her canonizers claim, but she was an eager pupil, able to grasp most of the basic concepts of calculus, and with her artistic sensibility she liked to visualize the changing curves and trajectories that the equations were describing. De Morgan encouraged her to focus on the rules for working through equations, but she was more eager to discuss the underlying concepts. Likewise with geometry, she often asked for visual ways to picture problems, such as how the intersections of circles in a sphere divide it into various shapes.

Ada’s ability to appreciate the beauty of mathematics is a gift that eludes many people, including some who think of themselves as intellectual. She realized that math was a lovely language, one that describes the harmonies of the universe and can be poetic at times. Despite her mother’s efforts, she remained her father’s daughter, with a poetic sensibility that allowed her to view an equation as a brushstroke that painted an aspect of nature’s physical splendor, just as she could visualize the “wine-dark sea” or a woman who “walks in beauty, like the night.” But math’s appeal went even deeper; it was spiritual. Math “constitutes the language through which alone we can adequately express the great facts of the natural world,” she said, and it allows us to portray the “changes of mutual relationship” that unfold in creation. It is “the instrument through which the weak mind of man can most effectually read his Creator’s works.”


This ability to apply imagination to science characterized the Industrial Revolution as well as the computer revolution, for which Ada was to become a patron saint. She was able, as she told Babbage, to understand the connection between poetry and analysis in ways that transcended her father’s talents. “I do not believe that my father was (or ever could have been) such a Poet as I shall be an Analyst; for with me the two go together indissolubly,” she wrote.23

Her reengagement with math, she told her mother, spurred her creativity and led to an “immense development of imagination, so much so that I feel no doubt if I continue my studies I shall in due time be a Poet.”24 The whole concept of imagination, especially as it was applied to technology, intrigued her. “What is imagination?” she asked in an 1841 essay. “It is the Combining faculty. It brings together things, facts, ideas, conceptions in new, original, endless, ever-varying combinations. . . . It is that which penetrates into the unseen worlds around us, the worlds of Science.”25

By then Ada believed she possessed special, even supernatural abilities, what she called “an intuitive perception of hidden things.” Her exalted view of her talents led her to pursue aspirations that were unusual for an aristocratic woman and mother in the early Victorian age. “I believe myself to possess a most singular combination of qualities exactly fitted to make me pre-eminently a discoverer of the hidden realities of nature,” she explained in a letter to her mother in 1841. “I can throw rays from every quarter of the universe into one vast focus.”26

It was while in this frame of mind that she decided to engage again with Charles Babbage, whose salons she had first attended eight years earlier.

CHARLES BABBAGE AND HIS ENGINES From an early age, Charles Babbage had been interested in machines that could perform human tasks. When he was a child, his mother took him to many of the exhibition halls and museums of wonder that were springing up in London in the early 1800s. At one in Hanover Square, a proprietor aptly named Merlin invited him up to the attic workshop where there was a variety of mechanical dolls, known as “automata.” One was a silver female dancer, about a foot tall, whose arms moved with grace and who held in her hand a bird that could wag its tail, flap its wings, and open its beak. The Silver Lady’s ability to display feelings and personality captured the boy’s fancy. “Her eyes were full of imagination,” he recalled. Years later he discovered the Silver Lady at a bankruptcy auction and bought it. It served as an amusement at his evening salons where he celebrated the wonders of technology.

At Cambridge Babbage became friends with a group, including John Herschel and George Peacock, who were disappointed by the way math was taught there. They formed a club, called the Analytical Society, which campaigned to get the university to abandon the calculus notation devised by its alumnus Newton, which relied on dots, and replace it with the one devised by Leibniz, which used dx and dy to represent infinitesimal increments and was thus known as “d” notation. Babbage titled their manifesto “The Principles of pure D-ism in opposition to the Dot-age of the University.”27 He was prickly, but he had a good sense of humor.

One day Babbage was in the Analytical Society’s room working on a table of logarithms that was littered with discrepancies. Herschel asked him what he was thinking. “I wish to God these calculations had been executed by steam,” Babbage answered. To this idea of a mechanical method for tabulating logarithms Herschel replied, “It is quite possible.”28 In 1821 Babbage turned his attention to building such a machine.

Over the years, many had fiddled with making calculating contraptions. In the 1640s, Blaise Pascal, the French mathematician and philosopher, created a mechanical calculator to


reduce the drudgery of his father’s work as a tax supervisor. It had spoked metal wheels with the digits 0 through 9 on their circumference. To add or subtract numbers, the operator used a stylus to dial a number, as if using a rotary phone, then dialed in the next number; an armature carried or borrowed a 1 when necessary. It became the first calculator to be patented and sold commercially.

Thirty years later, Gottfried Leibniz, the German mathematician and philosopher, tried to improve upon Pascal’s contraption with a “stepped reckoner” that had the capacity to multiply and divide. It had a hand-cranked cylinder with a set of teeth that meshed with counting wheels. But Leibniz ran into a problem that would be a recurring theme of the digital age. Unlike Pascal, an adroit engineer who could combine scientific theories with mechanical genius, Leibniz had little engineering skill and did not surround himself with those who did. So, like many great theorists who lacked practical collaborators, he was unable to produce reliably working versions of his device. Nevertheless, his core concept, known as the Leibniz wheel, would influence calculator design through the time of Babbage.

Babbage knew of the devices of Pascal and Leibniz, but he was trying to do something more complex. He wanted to construct a mechanical method for tabulating logarithms, sines, cosines, and tangents.2 To do so, he adapted an idea that the French mathematician Gaspard de Prony came up with in the 1790s. In order to create logarithm and trigonometry tables, de Prony broke down the operations into very simple steps that involved only addition and subtraction. Then he provided easy instructions so that scores of human laborers, who knew little math, could perform these simple tasks and pass along their answers to the next set of laborers. In other words, he created an assembly line, the great industrial-age innovation that was memorably analyzed by Adam Smith in his description of the division of labor in a pin- making factory. After a trip to Paris in which he heard of de Prony’s method, Babbage wrote, “I conceived all of a sudden the idea of applying the same method to the immense work with which I had been burdened, and to manufacture logarithms as one manufactures pins.”29

Even complex mathematical tasks, Babbage realized, could be broken into steps that came down to calculating “finite differences” through simple adding and subtracting. For example, in order to make a table of squares—12, 22, 32, 42, and so on—you could list the initial numbers in such a sequence: 1, 4, 9, 16. . . . This would be column A. Beside it, in column B, you could figure out the differences between each of these numbers, in this case 3, 5, 7, 9. . . . Column C would list the difference between each of column B’s numbers, which is 2, 2, 2, 2. . . . Once the process was thus simplified, it could be reversed and the tasks parceled out to untutored laborers. One would be in charge of adding 2 to the last number in column B, and then would hand that result to another person, who would add that result to the last number in column A, thus generating the next number in the sequence of squares.


Replica of the Difference Engine.


Replica of the Analytical Engine.


The Jacquard loom.


Silk portrait of Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752–1834) woven by a Jacquard loom.

Babbage devised a way to mechanize this process, and he named it the Difference Engine. It could tabulate any polynomial function and provide a digital method for approximating the solution to differential equations.

How did it work? The Difference Engine used vertical shafts with disks that could be turned to any numeral. These were attached to cogs that could be cranked in order to add that numeral to (or subtract it from) a disk on an adjacent shaft. The contraption could even “store” the interim results on another shaft. The main complexity was how to “carry” or “borrow” when necessary, as we do with pencils when we calculate 36 + 19 or 42 – 17. Drawing on Pascal’s devices, Babbage came up with a few ingenious contrivances that allowed the cogs and shafts to handle the calculation.

The machine was, in concept, a true marvel. Babbage even figured out a way to get it to create a table of prime numbers up to 10 million. The British government was impressed, at least initially. In 1823 it gave him seed money of £1,700 and would eventually sink more than £17,000, twice the cost of a warship, into the device during the decade Babbage spent trying to build it. But the project ran into two problems. First, Babbage and his hired engineer did not quite have the skills to get the device working. Second, he began dreaming up


something better.

Babbage’s new idea, which he conceived in 1834, was a general-purpose computer that could carry out a variety of different operations based on programming instructions given to it. It could perform one task, then be made to switch and perform another. It could even tell itself to switch tasks—or alter its “pattern of action,” as Babbage explained—based on its own interim calculations. Babbage named this proposed machine the Analytical Engine. He was one hundred years ahead of his time.

The Analytical Engine was the product of what Ada Lovelace, in her essay on imagination, had called “the Combining Faculty.” Babbage had combined innovations that had cropped up in other fields, a trick of many great inventors. He had originally used a metal drum that was studded with spikes to control how the shafts would turn. But then he studied, as Ada had, the automated loom invented in 1801 by a Frenchman named Joseph-Marie Jacquard, which transformed the silk-weaving industry. Looms create a pattern by using hooks to lift selected warp threads, and then a rod pushes a woof thread underneath. Jacquard invented a method of using cards with holes punched in them to control this process. The holes determined which hooks and rods would be activated for each pass of the weave, thus automating the creation of intricate patterns. Each time the shuttle was thrown to create a new pass of the thread, a new punch card would come into play.

On June 30, 1836, Babbage made an entry into what he called his “Scribbling Books” that would represent a milestone in the prehistory of computers: “Suggested Jacquard’s loom as a substitute for the drums.”30 Using punch cards rather than steel drums meant that an unlimited number of instructions could be input. In addition, the sequence of tasks could be modified, thus making it easier to devise a general-purpose machine that was versatile and reprogrammable.

Babbage bought a portrait of Jacquard and began to display it at his salons. It showed the inventor sitting in an armchair, a loom in the background, holding a pair of calipers over rectangular punch cards. Babbage amused his guests by asking them to guess what it was. Most thought it a superb engraving. He would then reveal that it was actually a finely woven silk tapestry, with twenty-four thousand rows of threads, each controlled by a different punch card. When Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria, came to one of Babbage’s salons, he asked Babbage why he found the tapestry so interesting. Babbage replied, “It will greatly assist in explaining the nature of my calculating machine, the Analytical Engine.”31

Few people, however, saw the beauty of Babbage’s proposed new machine, and the British government had no inclination to fund it. Try as he might, Babbage could generate little notice in either the popular press or scientific journals.

But he did find one believer. Ada Lovelace fully appreciated the concept of a general- purpose machine. More important, she envisioned an attribute that might make it truly amazing: it could potentially process not only numbers but any symbolic notations, including musical and artistic ones. She saw the poetry in such an idea, and she set out to encourage others to see it as well.

She barraged Babbage with letters, some of which verged on cheeky, even though he was twenty-four years her senior. In one, she described the solitaire game using twenty-six marbles, where the goal is to execute jumps so that only one marble remains. She had mastered it but was trying to derive a “mathematical formula . . . on which the solution depends, and which can be put into symbolic language.” Then she asked, “Am I too imaginative for you? I think not.”32

Her goal was to work with Babbage as his publicist and partner in trying to get support to build the Analytical Engine. “I am very anxious to talk to you,” she wrote in early 1841. “I will give you a hint on what. It strikes me that at some future time . . . my head may be made


by you subservient to some of your purposes and plans. If so, if ever I could be worthy or capable of being used by you, my head will be yours.”33

A year later, a tailor-made opportunity presented itself.

LADY LOVELACE’S NOTES In his quest to find support for his Analytical Engine, Babbage had accepted an invitation to address the Congress of Italian Scientists in Turin. Taking notes was a young military engineer, Captain Luigi Menabrea, who would later serve as prime minister of Italy. With Babbage’s help, Menabrea published a detailed description of the machine, in French, in October 1842.

One of Ada’s friends suggested that she produce a translation of Menabrea’s piece for Scientific Memoirs, a periodical devoted to scientific papers. This was her opportunity to serve Babbage and show her talents. When she finished, she informed Babbage, who was pleased but also somewhat surprised. “I asked why she had not herself written an original paper on a subject with which she was so intimately acquainted,” Babbage said.34 She replied that the thought had not occurred to her. Back then, women generally did not publish scientific papers.

Babbage suggested that she add some notes to Menabrea’s memoir, a project that she embraced with enthusiasm. She began working on a section she called “Notes by the Translator” that ended up totaling 19,136 words, more than twice the length of Menabrea’s original article. Signed “A.A.L.,” for Augusta Ada Lovelace, her “Notes” became more famous than the article and were destined to make her an iconic figure in the history of computing.35

As she worked on the notes at her country estate in Surrey in the summer of 1843, she and Babbage exchanged scores of letters, and in the fall they had numerous meetings after she moved back to her London home. A minor academic specialty and gender-charged debate has grown up around the issue of how much of the thinking was hers rather than his. In his memoirs, Babbage gives her much of the credit: “We discussed together the various illustrations that might be introduced: I suggested several but the selection was entirely her own. So also was the algebraic working out of the different problems, except, indeed, that relating to the numbers of Bernoulli, which I had offered to do to save Lady Lovelace the trouble. This she sent back to me for an amendment, having detected a grave mistake which I had made in the process.”36

In her “Notes,” Ada explored four concepts that would have historical resonance a century later when the computer was finally born. The first was that of a general-purpose machine, one that could not only perform a preset task but could be programmed and reprogrammed to do a limitless and changeable array of tasks. In other words, she envisioned the modern computer. This concept was at the core of her “Note A,” which emphasized the distinction between Babbage’s original Difference Engine and his proposed new Analytical Engine. “The particular function whose integral the Difference Engine was constructed to tabulate is Δ7ux = 0,” she began, explaining that its purpose was the computation of nautical tables. “The Analytical Engine, on the contrary, is not merely adapted for tabulating the results of one particular function and of no other, but for developing and tabulating any function whatever.”

This was done, she wrote, by “the introduction into it of the principle which Jacquard devised for regulating, by means of punched cards, the most complicated patterns in the fabrication of brocaded stuffs.” Even more than Babbage, Ada realized the significance of this. It meant that the machine could be like the type of computer we now take for granted: one that does not merely do a specific arithmetic task but can be a general-purpose machine. She explained:


The bounds of arithmetic were outstepped the moment the idea of applying cards had occurred. The Analytical Engine does not occupy common ground with mere “calculating machines.” It holds a position wholly its own. In enabling a mechanism to combine together general symbols, in successions of unlimited variety and extent, a uniting link is established between the operations of matter and the abstract mental processes.37

Those sentences are somewhat clotted, but they are worth reading carefully. They describe the essence of modern computers. And Ada enlivened the concept with poetic flourishes. “The Analytical Engine weaves algebraical patterns just as the Jacquard loom weaves flowers and leaves,” she wrote. When Babbage read “Note A,” he was thrilled and made no changes. “Pray do not alter it,” he said.38

Ada’s second noteworthy concept sprang from this description of a general-purpose machine. Its operations, she realized, did not need to be limited to math and numbers. Drawing on De Morgan’s extension of algebra into a formal logic, she noted that a machine such as the Analytical Engine could store, manipulate, process, and act upon anything that could be expressed in symbols: words and logic and music and anything else we might use symbols to convey.

To explain this idea, she carefully defined what a computer operation was: “It may be desirable to explain that by the word ‘operation,’ we mean any process which alters the mutual relation of two or more things, be this relation of what kind it may.” A computer operation, she noted, could alter the relationship not just between numbers but between any symbols that were logically related. “It might act upon other things besides number, were objects found whose mutual fundamental relations could be expressed by those of the abstract science of operations.” The Analytical Engine could, in theory, even perform operations on musical notations: “Supposing, for instance, that the fundamental relations of pitched sounds in the science of harmony and of musical composition were susceptible of such expression and adaptations, the engine might compose elaborate and scientific pieces of music of any degree of complexity.” It was the ultimate Ada-like “poetical science” concept: an elaborate and scientific piece of music composed by a machine! Her father would have shuddered.

This insight would become the core concept of the digital age: any piece of content, data, or information—music, text, pictures, numbers, symbols, sounds, video—could be expressed in digital form and manipulated by machines. Even Babbage failed to see this fully; he focused on numbers. But Ada realized that the digits on the cogs could represent things other than mathematical quantities. Thus did she make the conceptual leap from machines that were mere calculators to ones that we now call computers. Doron Swade, a computer historian who specializes in studying Babbage’s engines, has declared this one of Ada’s historic legacies. “If we are looking and sifting history for that transition, then that transition was made explicitly by Ada in that 1843 paper,” he said.39

Ada’s third contribution, in her final “Note G,” was to figure out in step-by-step detail the workings of what we now call a computer program or algorithm. The example she used was a program to compute Bernoulli numbers,3 an exceedingly complex infinite series that in various guises plays a role in number theory.

To show how the Analytical Engine could generate Bernoulli numbers, Ada described a sequence of operations and then made a chart showing how each would be coded into the machine. Along the way, she helped to devise the concepts of subroutines (a sequence of instructions that performs a specific task, such as computing a cosine or calculating compound interest, and can be dropped into larger programs as needed) and a recursive loop (a sequence of instructions that repeats itself).4 These were made possible by the punch-card mechanism. Seventy-five cards were needed to generate each number, she explained, and then the process became iterative as that number was fed back into the process to generate the next one. “It will be obvious that the very same seventy-five variable cards may be repeated for the computation of every succeeding number,” she wrote. She envisioned a library of commonly used subroutines, something that her intellectual heirs, including women such as


Grace Hopper at Harvard and Kay McNulty and Jean Jennings at the University of Pennsylvania, would create a century later. In addition, because Babbage’s engine made it possible to jump back and forth within the sequence of instruction cards based on the interim results it had calculated, it laid the foundation for what we now call conditional branching, changing to a different path of instructions if certain conditions are met.

Babbage helped Ada with the Bernoulli calculations, but the letters show her deeply immersed in the details. “I am doggedly attacking and sifting to the very bottom all the ways of deducing the Bernoulli numbers,” she wrote in July, just weeks before her translation and notes were due at the printers. “I am in much dismay at having gotten so amazing a quagmire and botheration with these Numbers that I cannot possibly get the thing done today. . . . I am in a charming state of confusion.”40

When it got worked out, she added a contribution that was primarily her own: a table and diagram showing exactly how the algorithm would be fed into the computer, step by step, including two recursive loops. It was a numbered list of coding instructions that included destination registers, operations, and commentary—something that would be familiar to any C++ coder today. “I have worked incessantly and most successfully all day,” she wrote Babbage. “You will admire the Table and Diagram extremely. They have been made out with extreme care.” From all of the letters it is clear that she did the table herself; the only help came from her husband, who did not understand the math but was willing to methodically trace in ink what she had done in pencil. “Lord L is at this moment kindly inking it all over for me,” she wrote Babbage. “I had to do it in pencil.”41

It was mainly on the basis of this diagram, which accompanied the complex processes for generating Bernoulli numbers, that Ada has been accorded by her fans the accolade of “the world’s first computer programmer.” That is a bit hard to defend. Babbage had already devised, at least in theory, more than twenty explanations of processes that the machine might eventually perform. But none of these was published, and there was no clear description of the way to sequence the operations. Therefore, it is fair to say that the algorithm and detailed programming description for the generation of Bernoulli numbers was the first computer program ever to be published. And the initials at the end were those of Ada Lovelace.

There was one other significant concept that she introduced in her “Notes,” which harked back to the Frankenstein story produced by Mary Shelley after that weekend with Lord Byron. It raised what is still the most fascinating metaphysical topic involving computers, that of artificial intelligence: Can machines think?

Ada believed not. A machine such as Babbage’s could perform operations as instructed, she asserted, but it could not come up with ideas or intentions of its own. “The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything,” she wrote in her “Notes.” “It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. It can follow analysis; but it has no power of anticipating any analytical relations or truths.” A century later this assertion would be dubbed “Lady Lovelace’s Objection” by the computer pioneer Alan Turing (see chapter 3).

Ada wanted her work to be regarded as a serious scientific paper and not merely a public advocacy piece, so at the outset of her “Notes” she stated that she would “offer no opinion” on the government’s reluctance to continue funding Babbage’s endeavors. This did not please Babbage, who proceeded to write a screed attacking the government. He wanted Ada to include it in her “Notes,” without his name on it, as if it were her opinion. She refused. She did not want her work compromised.

Without informing her, Babbage sent his proposed appendage directly to Scientific Memoirs. The editors decided that it should appear separately and suggested that he “manfully” sign his name. Babbage was charming when he wished, but he could also be


cranky, stubborn, and defiant, like most innovators. The proposed solution infuriated him, and he wrote Ada asking that she withdraw her work. Now it was her turn to become irate. Using a form of address typically used by male friends, “My Dear Babbage,” she wrote that “withdrawing the translation and Notes” would “be dishonorable and unjustifiable.” She concluded the letter, “Be assured that I am your best friend; but that I never can or will support you in acting on principles which I conceive to be not only wrong in themselves, but suicidal.”42

Babbage backed down and agreed to have his piece published separately in another periodical. That day Ada complained to her mother:

I have been harassed and pressed in a most perplexing manner by the conduct of Mr. Babbage. . . . I am sorry to come to the conclusion that he is one of the most impracticable, selfish, and intemperate persons one can have to do with. . . . I declared at once to Babbage that no power should induce me to lend myself to any of his quarrels or to become in any way his organ. . . . He was furious. I imperturbable and unmoved.43

Ada’s response to the dispute was a bizarre sixteen-page letter to Babbage, poured forth in

a frenzy, that vividly displayed her moodiness, exultations, delusions, and passions. She cajoled and berated him, praised and denigrated him. At one point she contrasted their motives. “My own uncompromising principle is to endeavour to love truth and God before fame and glory,” she claimed. “Yours is to love truth and God; but to love fame, glory, honours yet more.” She proclaimed that she saw her own inevitable fame as being of an exalted nature: “I wish to add my might toward expounding and interpreting the Almighty and his laws. . . . I should feel it no small glory if I were able to be one of his most noted prophets.”44

Having laid that groundwork, she offered him a deal: they should forge a business and political partnership. She would apply her connections and persuasive pen to his endeavor to build his Analytical Engine if—and only if—he would let her have control over his business decisions. “I give you the first choice and offer of my services and my intellect,” she wrote. “Do not lightly reject them.” The letter read in parts like a venture capital term sheet or a prenuptial agreement, complete with the possibility of arbitrators. “You will undertake to abide wholly by the judgment of myself (or of any persons whom you may now please to name as referees, whenever we may differ) on all practical matters,” she declared. In return, she promised, she would “lay before you in the course of a year or two explicit and honorable propositions for executing your engine.”45

The letter would seem surprising were it not like so many others that she wrote. It was an example of how her grandiose ambitions sometimes got the best of her. Nevertheless, she deserves respect as a person who, rising above the expectations of her background and gender and defying plagues of family demons, dedicated herself diligently to complex mathematical feats that most of us never would or could attempt. (Bernoulli numbers alone would defeat many of us.) Her impressive mathematical labors and imaginative insights came in the midst of the drama of Medora Leigh and bouts of illness that would cause her to become dependent on opiates that amplified her mood swings. She explained at the end of her letter to Babbage, “My dear friend, if you knew what sad and direful experiences I have had, in ways of which you cannot be aware, you would feel that some weight is due to my feelings.” Then, after a quick detour to raise a small point about using the calculus of finite differences to compute Bernoulli numbers, she apologized that “this letter is sadly blotted” and plaintively asked, “I wonder if you will choose to retain the lady-fairy in your service or not.”46

Ada was convinced that Babbage would accept her offer to become entrepreneurial partners. “He has so strong an idea of the advantage of having my pen as his servant that he will probably yield; though I demand very strong concessions,” she wrote her mother. “If he does consent to what I propose, I shall probably be enabled to keep him out of much hot water and to bring his engine to consummation.”47 Babbage, however, thought it wiser to


decline. He went to see Ada and “refused all the conditions.”48 Although they never again collaborated on science, their relationship survived. “Babbage and I are I think more friends than ever,” she wrote her mother the next week.49 And Babbage agreed the next month to pay a visit to her country home, sending her a fond letter referring to her as “the Enchantress of Numbers” and “my dear and much admired Interpreter.”

That month, September 1843, her translation and “Notes” finally appeared in Scientific Memoirs. For a while she was able to bask in acclaim from friends and to hope that, like her mentor Mary Somerville, she would be taken seriously in scientific and literary circles. Publication made her finally feel like “a completely professional person,” she wrote to a lawyer. “I really have become as much tied to a profession as you are.”50

It was not to be. Babbage got no more funding for his machines; they were never built, and he died in poverty. As for Lady Lovelace, she never published another scientific paper. Instead her life spiraled downward, and she became addicted to gambling and opiates. She had an affair with a gambling partner who then blackmailed her, forcing her to pawn her family jewels. During the final year of her life, she fought an exceedingly painful battle with uterine cancer accompanied by constant hemorrhaging. When she died in 1852, at age thirty- six, she was buried, in accordance with one of her last requests, in a country grave next to the poet father she never knew, who had died at the same age.

The Industrial Revolution was based on two grand concepts that were profound in their simplicity. Innovators came up with ways to simplify endeavors by breaking them into easy, small tasks that could be accomplished on assembly lines. Then, beginning in the textile industry, inventors found ways to mechanize steps so that they could be performed by machines, many of them powered by steam engines. Babbage, building on ideas from Pascal and Leibniz, tried to apply these two processes to the production of computations, creating a mechanical precursor to the modern computer. His most significant conceptual leap was that such machines did not have to be set to do only one process, but instead could be programmed and reprogrammed through the use of punch cards. Ada saw the beauty and significance of that enchanting notion, and she also described an even more exciting idea that derived from it: such machines could process not only numbers but anything that could be notated in symbols.

Over the years, Ada Lovelace has been celebrated as a feminist icon and a computer pioneer. For example, the U.S. Defense Department named its high-level object-oriented programming language Ada. However, she has also been ridiculed as delusional, flighty, and only a minor contributor to the “Notes” that bear her initials. As she herself wrote in those “Notes,” referring to the Analytical Engine but in words that also describe her fluctuating reputation, “In considering any new subject, there is frequently a tendency, first, to overrate what we find to be already interesting or remarkable; and, secondly, by a sort of natural reaction, to undervalue the true state of the case.”

The reality is that Ada’s contribution was both profound and inspirational. More than Babbage or any other person of her era, she was able to glimpse a future in which machines would become partners of the human imagination, together weaving tapestries as beautiful as those from Jacquard’s loom. Her appreciation for poetical science led her to celebrate a proposed calculating machine that was dismissed by the scientific establishment of her day, and she perceived how the processing power of such a device could be used on any form of information. Thus did Ada, Countess of Lovelace, help sow the seeds for a digital age that would blossom a hundred years later.


Vannevar Bush (1890–1974), with his Differential Analyzer at MIT.

Alan Turing (1912–54), at the Sherborne School in 1928.


Claude Shannon (1916–2001) in 1951.




Sometimes innovation is a matter of timing. A big idea comes along at just the moment when the technology exists to implement it. For example, the idea of sending a man to the moon was proposed right when the progress of microchips made it possible to put computer guidance systems into the nose cone of a rocket. There are other cases, however, when the timing is out of kilter. Charles Babbage published his paper about a sophisticated computer in 1837, but it took a hundred years to achieve the scores of technological advances needed to build one.

Some of those advances seem almost trivial, but progress comes not only in great leaps but also from hundreds of small steps. Take for example punch cards, like those Babbage saw on Jacquard’s looms and proposed incorporating into his Analytical Engine. Perfecting the use of punch cards for computers came about because Herman Hollerith, an employee of the U.S. Census Bureau, was appalled that it took close to eight years to manually tabulate the 1880 census. He resolved to automate the 1890 count.

Drawing on the way that railway conductors punched holes in various places on a ticket in order to indicate the traits of each passenger (gender, approximate height, age, hair color), Hollerith devised punch cards with twelve rows and twenty-four columns that recorded the salient facts about each person in the census. The cards were then slipped between a grid of mercury cups and a set of spring-loaded pins, which created an electric circuit wherever there was a hole. The machine could tabulate not only the raw totals but also combinations of traits, such as the number of married males or foreign-born females. Using Hollerith’s tabulators, the 1890 census was completed in one year rather than eight. It was the first major use of electrical circuits to process information, and the company that Hollerith founded became in 1924, after a series of mergers and acquisitions, the International Business Machines Corporation, or IBM.

One way to look at innovation is as the accumulation of hundreds of small advances, such as counters and punch-card readers. At places like IBM, which specialize in daily improvements made by teams of engineers, this is the preferred way to understand how innovation really happens. Some of the most important technologies of our era, such as the fracking techniques developed over the past six decades for extracting natural gas, came about because of countless small innovations as well as a few breakthrough leaps.

In the case of computers, there were many such incremental advances made by faceless engineers at places like IBM. But that was not enough. Although the machines that IBM produced in the early twentieth century could compile data, they were not what we would call computers. They weren’t even particularly adroit calculators. They were lame. In addition to those hundreds of minor advances, the birth of the computer age required some larger imaginative leaps from creative visionaries.

DIGITAL BEATS ANALOG The machines devised by Hollerith and Babbage were digital, meaning they calculated using digits: discrete and distinct integers such as 0, 1, 2, 3. In their machines, the integers were


added and subtracted using cogs and wheels that clicked one digit at a time, like counters. Another approach to computing was to build devices that could mimic or model a physical phenomenon and then make measurements on the analogous model to calculate the relevant results. These were known as analog computers because they worked by analogy. Analog computers do not rely on discrete integers to make their calculations; instead, they use continuous functions. In analog computers, a variable quantity such as electrical voltage, the position of a rope on a pulley, hydraulic pressure, or a measurement of distance is employed as an analog for the corresponding quantities of the problem to be solved. A slide rule is analog; an abacus is digital. Clocks with sweeping hands are analog, and those with displayed numerals are digital.

Around the time that Hollerith was building his digital tabulator, Lord Kelvin and his brother James Thomson, two of England’s most distinguished scientists, were creating an analog machine. It was designed to handle the tedious task of solving differential equations, which would help in the creation of tide charts and of tables showing the firing angles that would generate different trajectories of artillery shells. Beginning in the 1870s, the brothers devised a system that was based on a planimeter, an instrument that can measure the area of a two-dimensional shape, such as the space under a curved line on a piece of paper. The user would trace the outline of the curve with the device, which would calculate the area by using a small sphere that was slowly pushed across the surface of a large rotating disk. By calculating the area under the curve, it could thus solve equations by integration—in other words, it could perform a basic task of calculus. Kelvin and his brother were able to use this method to create a “harmonic synthesizer” that could churn out an annual tide chart in four hours. But they were never able to conquer the mechanical difficulties of linking together many of these devices in order to solve equations with a lot of variables.

That challenge of linking together multiple integrators was not mastered until 1931, when an MIT engineering professor, Vannevar (rhymes with beaver) Bush—remember his name, for he is a key character in this book—was able to build the world’s first analog electrical- mechanical computer. He dubbed his machine a Differential Analyzer. It consisted of six wheel-and-disk integrators, not all that different from Lord Kelvin’s, that were connected by an array of gears, pulleys, and shafts rotated by electric motors. It helped that Bush was at MIT; there were a lot of people around who could assemble and calibrate complex contraptions. The final machine, which was the size of a small bedroom, could solve equations with as many as eighteen independent variables. Over the next decade, versions of Bush’s Differential Analyzer were replicated at the U.S. Army’s Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, and Manchester and Cambridge universities in England. They proved particularly useful in churning out artillery firing tables—and in training and inspiring the next generation of computer pioneers.

Bush’s machine, however, was not destined to be a major advance in computing history because it was an analog device. In fact, it turned out to be the last gasp for analog computing, at least for many decades.

New approaches, technologies, and theories began to emerge in 1937, exactly a hundred years after Babbage first published his paper on the Analytical Engine. It would become an annus mirabilis of the computer age, and the result would be the triumph of four properties, somewhat interrelated, that would define modern computing:

DIGITAL. A fundamental trait of the computer revolution was that it was based on digital, not analog, computers. This occurred for many reasons, as we shall soon see, including simultaneous advances in logic theory, circuits, and electronic on-off switches that made a


digital rather than an analog approach more fruitful. It would not be until the 2010s that computer scientists, seeking to mimic the human brain, would seriously begin working on ways to revive analog computing.

BINARY. Not only would modern computers be digital, but the digital system they would adopt would be binary, or base-2, meaning that it employs just 0s and 1s rather than all ten digits of our everyday decimal system. Like many mathematical concepts, binary theory was pioneered by Leibniz in the late seventeenth century. During the 1940s, it became increasingly clear that the binary system worked better than other digital forms, including the decimal system, for performing logical operations using circuits composed of on-off switches.

ELECTRONIC. In the mid-1930s, the British engineer Tommy Flowers pioneered the use of vacuum tubes as on-off switches in electronic circuits. Until then, circuits had relied on mechanical and electromechanical switches, such as the clacking electromagnetic relays that were used by phone companies. Vacuum tubes had mainly been employed to amplify signals rather than as on-off switches. By using electronic components such as vacuum tubes, and later transistors and microchips, computers could operate thousands of times faster than machines that had moving electromechanical switches.

GENERAL PURPOSE. Finally, the machines would eventually have the ability to be programmed and reprogrammed—and even reprogram themselves—for a variety of purposes. They would be able to solve not just one form of mathematical calculation, such as differential equations, but could handle a multiplicity of tasks and symbol manipulations, involving words and music and pictures as well as numbers, thus fulfilling the potential that Lady Lovelace had celebrated when describing Babbage’s Analytical Engine.

Innovation occurs when ripe seeds fall on fertile ground. Instead of having a single cause, the great advances of 1937 came from a combination of capabilities, ideas, and needs that coincided in multiple places. As often happens in the annals of invention, especially information technology invention, the time was right and the atmosphere was charged. The development of vacuum tubes for the radio industry paved the way for the creation of electronic digital circuits. That was accompanied by theoretical advances in logic that made circuits more useful. And the march was quickened by the drums of war. As nations began arming for the looming conflict, it became clear that computational power was as important as firepower. Advances fed on one another, occurring almost simultaneously and spontaneously, at Harvard and MIT and Princeton and Bell Labs and an apartment in Berlin and even, most improbably but interestingly, in a basement in Ames, Iowa.

Underpinning all of these advances were some beautiful—Ada might call them poetic— leaps of mathematics. One of these leaps led to the formal concept of a “universal computer,” a general-purpose machine that could be programmed to perform any logical task and simulate the behavior of any other logical machine. It was conjured up as a thought experiment by a brilliant English mathematician with a life story that was both inspiring and tragic.

ALAN TURING Alan Turing had the cold upbringing of a child born on the fraying fringe of the British gentry.1 His family had been graced since 1638 with a baronetcy, which had meandered down the lineage to one of his nephews. But for the younger sons on the family tree, which Turing


and his father and grandfather were, there was no land and little wealth. Most went into fields such as the clergy, like Alan’s grandfather, and the colonial civil service, like his father, who served as a minor administrator in remote regions of India. Alan was conceived in Chhatrapur, India, and born on June 23, 1912, in London, while his parents were on home leave. When he was only one, his parents went back to India for a few years, and handed him and his older brother off to a retired army colonel and his wife to be raised in a seaside town on the south coast of England. “I am no child psychologist,” his brother, John, later noted, “but I am assured that it is a bad thing for an infant in arms to be uprooted and put into a strange environment.”2

When his mother returned, Alan lived with her for a few years and then, at age thirteen, was sent to boarding school. He rode there on his bicycle, taking two days to cover more than sixty miles, alone. There was a lonely intensity to him, reflected in his love of long-distance running and biking. He also had a trait, so common among innovators, that was charmingly described by his biographer Andrew Hodges: “Alan was slow to learn that indistinct line that separated initiative from disobedience.”3

In a poignant memoir, his mother described the son whom she doted upon:

Alan was broad, strongly built and tall, with a square, determined jaw and unruly brown hair. His deep-set, clear blue eyes were his most remarkable feature. The short, slightly retroussé nose and humorous lines of his mouth gave him a youthful—sometimes a childlike— appearance. So much so that in his late thirties he was still at times mistaken for an undergraduate. In dress and habits he tended to be slovenly. His hair was usually too long, with an overhanging lock which he would toss back with a jerk of his head. . . . He could be abstracted and dreamy, absorbed in his own thoughts which on occasion made him seem unsociable. . . . There were times when his shyness led him into extreme gaucherie. . . . Indeed he surmised that the seclusion of a mediaeval monastery would have suited him very well.4

At the boarding school, Sherborne, he realized that he was homosexual. He became

infatuated with a fair-haired, slender schoolmate, Christopher Morcom, with whom he studied math and discussed philosophy. But in the winter before he was to graduate, Morcom suddenly died of tuberculosis. Turing would later write Morcom’s mother, “I simply worshipped the ground he trod on—a thing which I did not make much attempt to disguise, I am sorry to say.”5 In a letter to his own mother, Turing seemed to take refuge in his faith: “I feel that I shall meet Morcom again somewhere and that there will be work for us to do together there as I believed there was for us to do here. Now that I am left to do it alone, I must not let him down. If I succeed I shall be more fit to join his company than I am now.” But the tragedy ended up eroding Turing’s religious faith. It also turned him even more inward, and he never again found it easy to forge intimate relationships. His housemaster reported to his parents at Easter 1927, “Undeniably he’s not a ‘normal’ boy; not the worse for that, but probably less happy.”6

In his final year at Sherborne, Turing won a scholarship to attend King’s College, Cambridge, where he went in 1931 to read mathematics. One of three books he bought with some prize money was The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, by John von Neumann, a fascinating Hungarian-born mathematician who, as a pioneer of computer design, would have a continuing influence on his life. Turing was particularly interested in the math at the core of quantum physics, which describes how events at the subatomic level are governed by statistical probabilities rather than laws that determine things with certainty. He believed (at least while he was young) that this uncertainty and indeterminacy at the subatomic level permitted humans to exercise free will—a trait that, if true, would seem to distinguish them from machines. In other words, because events at the subatomic level are not predetermined, that opens the way for our thoughts and actions not to be predetermined. As he explained in a letter to Morcom’s mother:

It used to be supposed in science that if everything was known about the Universe at any particular moment then we can predict what it will be through all the future. This idea was really due to the great success of astronomical prediction. More modern science however has come to the conclusion that when we are dealing with atoms and electrons we are quite unable to know the exact state of them; our instruments being made of atoms and electrons themselves. The conception then of being able to know the exact state of the universe then really must break down on the small scale. This means then that the theory which held that as eclipses etc. are predestined so were all our actions breaks down too. We have a


will which is able to determine the action of the atoms probably in a small portion of the brain, or possibly all over it.7

For the rest of his life, Turing would wrestle with the issue of whether the human mind was fundamentally different from a deterministic machine, and he would gradually come to the conclusion that the distinction was less clear than he had thought.

He also had an instinct that, just as uncertainty pervaded the subatomic realm, there were also mathematical problems that could not be solved mechanically and were destined to be cloaked in indeterminacy. At the time, mathematicians were intensely focused on questions about the completeness and consistency of logical systems, partly due to the influence of David Hilbert, the Göttingen-based genius who, among many other achievements, had come up with the mathematical formulation of the theory of general relativity concurrently with Einstein.

At a 1928 conference, Hilbert posed three fundamental questions about any formal system of mathematics: (1) Was its set of rules complete, so that any statement could be proved (or disproved) using only the rules of the system? (2) Was it consistent, so that no statement could be proved true and also proved false? (3) Was there some procedure that could determine whether a particular statement was provable, rather than allowing the possibility that some statements (such as enduring math riddles like Fermat’s last theorem,5 Goldbach’s conjecture,6 or the Collatz conjecture7) were destined to remain in undecidable limbo? Hilbert thought that the answer to the first two questions was yes, making the third one moot. He put it simply, “There is no such thing as an unsolvable problem.”

Within three years, the Austrian-born logician Kurt Gödel, then twenty-five and living with his mother in Vienna, polished off the first two of these questions with unexpected answers: no and no. In his “incompleteness theorem,” he showed that there existed statements that could be neither proved nor disproved. Among them, to oversimplify a bit, were those that were akin to self-referential statements such as “This statement is unprovable.” If the statement is true, then it decrees that we can’t prove it to be true; if it’s false, that also leads to a logical contradiction. It is somewhat like the ancient Greek “liar’s paradox,” in which the truth of the statement “This statement is false” cannot be determined. (If the statement is true, then it’s also false, and vice versa.)

By coming up with statements that could not be proved or disproved, Gödel showed that any formal system powerful enough to express the usual mathematics was incomplete. He was also able to produce a companion theorem that effectively answered no to Hilbert’s second question.

That left the third of Hilbert’s questions, that of decidability or, as Hilbert called it, the Entscheidungsproblem or “decision problem.” Even though Gödel had come up with statements that could be neither proved nor disproved, perhaps that odd class of statements could somehow be identified and cordoned off, leaving the rest of the system complete and consistent. That would require that we find some method for deciding whether a statement was provable. When the great Cambridge math professor Max Newman taught Turing about Hilbert’s questions, the way he expressed the Entscheidungsproblem was this: Is there a “mechanical process” that can be used to determine whether a particular logical statement is provable?

Turing liked the concept of a “mechanical process.” One day in the summer of 1935, he was out for his usual solitary run along the Ely River, and after a couple of miles he stopped to lie down among the apple trees in Grantchester Meadows to ponder an idea. He would take the notion of a “mechanical process” literally, conjuring up a mechanical process—an imaginary machine—and applying it to the problem.8

The “Logical Computing Machine” that he envisioned (as a thought experiment, not as a real machine to be built) was quite simple at first glance, but it could handle, in theory, any


mathematical computation. It consisted of an unlimited length of paper tape containing symbols within squares; in the simplest binary example, these symbols could be merely a 1 and a blank. The machine would be able to read the symbols on the tape and perform certain actions based on a “table of instructions” it had been given.9

The table of instructions would tell the machine what to do based on whatever configuration it happened to be in and what symbol, if any, it found in the square. For example, the table of instructions for a particular task might decree that if the machine was in configuration 1 and saw a 1 in the square, then it should move one square to the right and shift into configuration 2. Somewhat surprisingly, to us if not to Turing, such a machine, given the proper table of instructions, could complete any mathematical task, no matter how complex.

How might this imaginary machine answer Hilbert’s third question, the decision problem? Turing approached the problem by refining the concept of “computable numbers.” Any real number that was defined by a mathematical rule could be calculated by the Logical Computing Machine. Even an irrational number such as π could be calculated indefinitely using a finite table of instructions. So could the logarithm of 7, or the square root of 2, or the sequence of Bernoulli numbers that Ada Lovelace had helped produce an algorithm for, or any other number or series, no matter how challenging to compute, as long as its calculation was defined by a finite set of rules. All of these were, in Turing’s parlance, “computable numbers.”

Turing went on to show that noncomputable numbers also existed. This was related to what he called “the halting problem.” There can be no method, he showed, to determine in advance whether any given instruction table combined with any given set of inputs will lead the machine to arrive at an answer or go into some loop and continue chugging away indefinitely, getting nowhere. The insolvability of the halting problem, he showed, meant that Hilbert’s decision problem, the Entscheidungsproblem, was unsolvable. Despite what Hilbert seemed to hope, no mechanical procedure can determine the provability of every mathematical statement. Gödel’s incompleteness theory, the indeterminacy of quantum mechanics, and Turing’s answer to Hilbert’s third challenge all dealt blows to a mechanical, deterministic, predictable universe.

Turing’s paper was published in 1937 with the not so snappy title “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem.” His answer to Hilbert’s third question was useful for the development of mathematical theory. But far more important was the by-product of Turing’s proof: his concept of a Logical Computing Machine, which soon came to be known as a Turing machine. “It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute any computable sequence,” he declared.10 Such a machine would be able to read the instructions of any other machine and carry out whatever task that machine could do. In essence, it embodied the dream of Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace for a completely general-purpose universal machine.

A different and less beautiful solution to the Entscheidungsproblem, with the clunkier name “untyped lambda calculus,” had been published earlier that year by Alonzo Church, a mathematician at Princeton. Turing’s professor Max Newman decided that it would be useful for Turing to go there to study under Church. In his letter of recommendation, Newman described Turing’s enormous potential. He also added a more personal appeal based on Turing’s personality. “He has been working without any supervision or criticism from anyone,” Newman wrote. “This makes it all the more important that he should come into contact as soon as possible with the leading workers on this line, so that he should not develop into a confirmed solitary.”11

Turing did have a tendency toward being a loner. His homosexuality made him feel like an outsider at times; he lived alone and avoided deep personal commitments. At one point he


proposed marriage to a female colleague, but then felt compelled to tell her that he was gay; she was unfazed and still willing to get married, but he believed it would be a sham and decided not to proceed. Yet he did not become “a confirmed solitary.” He learned to work as part of a team, with collaborators, which was key to allowing his abstract theories to be reflected in real and tangible inventions.

In September 1936, while waiting for his paper to be published, the twenty-four-year-old doctoral candidate sailed to America in steerage class aboard the aging ocean liner RMS Berengaria, lugging with him a prized brass sextant. His office at Princeton was in the Mathematics Department building, which also then housed the Institute for Advanced Study, where Einstein, Gödel, and von Neumann held court. The cultivated and highly sociable von Neumann became particularly interested in Turing’s work, despite their very different personalities.

The seismic shifts and simultaneous advances of 1937 were not directly caused by the publication of Turing’s paper. In fact, it got little notice at first. Turing asked his mother to send out reprints of it to the mathematical philosopher Bertrand Russell and a half dozen other famous scholars, but the only major review was by Alonzo Church, who could afford to be flattering because he had been ahead of Turing in solving Hilbert’s decision problem. Church was not only generous; he introduced the term Turing machine for what Turing had called a Logical Computing Machine. Thus at twenty-four, Turing’s name became indelibly stamped on one of the most important concepts of the digital age.12

CLAUDE SHANNON AND GEORGE STIBITZ AT BELL LABS There was another seminal theoretical breakthrough in 1937, similar to Turing’s in that it was purely a thought experiment. This one was the work of an MIT graduate student named Claude Shannon, who that year turned in the most influential master’s thesis of all time, a paper that Scientific American later dubbed “the Magna Carta of the Information Age.”13

Shannon grew up in a small Michigan town where he built model planes and amateur radios, then went on to major in electrical engineering and math at the University of Michigan. In his senior year he answered a help-wanted listing tacked to a bulletin board, which offered a job at MIT working under Vannevar Bush helping to run the Differential Analyzer. Shannon got the job and was mesmerized by the machine—not so much the rods and pulleys and wheels that formed the analog components as the electromagnetic relay switches that were part of its control circuit. As electrical signals caused them to click open and clack closed, the switches created different circuit patterns.

During the summer of 1937, Shannon took a break from MIT and went to work at Bell Labs, a research facility run by AT&T. Located then in Manhattan on the Hudson River edge of Greenwich Village, it was a haven for turning ideas into inventions. Abstract theories intersected with practical problems there, and in the corridors and cafeterias eccentric theorists mingled with hands-on engineers, gnarly mechanics, and businesslike problem- solvers, encouraging the cross-fertilization of theory with engineering. This made Bell Labs an archetype of one of the most important underpinnings of digital-age innovation, what the Harvard science historian Peter Galison has called a “trading zone.” When these disparate practitioners and theoreticians came together, they learned how to find a common parlance to trade ideas and exchange information.14

At Bell Labs, Shannon saw up close the wonderful power of the phone system’s circuits, which used electrical switches to route calls and balance loads. In his mind, he began connecting the workings of these circuits to another subject he found fascinating, the system of logic formulated ninety years earlier by the British mathematician George Boole. Boole revolutionized logic by finding ways to express logical statements using symbols and


equations. He gave true propositions the value 1 and false propositions a 0. A set of basic logical operations—such as and, or, not, either/or, and if/then—could then be performed using these propositions, just as if they were math equations.

Shannon figured out that electrical circuits could execute these logical operations using an arrangement of on-off switches. To perform an and function, for example, two switches could be put in sequence, so that both had to be on for electricity to flow. To perform an or function, the switches could be in parallel so that electricity would flow if either of them was on. Slightly more versatile switches called logic gates could streamline the process. In other words, you could design a circuit containing a lot of relays and logic gates that could perform, step by step, a sequence of logical tasks.

(A “relay” is simply a switch that can be opened and shut electrically, such as by using an electromagnet. The ones that clack open and closed are sometimes called electromechanical because they have moving parts. Vacuum tubes and transistors can also be used as switches in an electrical circuit; they are called electronic because they manipulate the flow of electrons but do not require the movement of any physical parts. A “logic gate” is a switch that can handle one or more inputs. For example, in the case of two inputs, an and logic gate switches on if both of the inputs are on, and an or logic gate switches on if either of the inputs is on. Shannon’s insight was that these could be wired together in circuits that could execute the tasks of Boole’s logical algebra.)

When Shannon returned to MIT in the fall, Bush was fascinated by his ideas and urged him to include them in his master’s thesis. Entitled “A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits,” it showed how each of the many functions of Boolean algebra could be executed. “It is possible to perform complex mathematical operations by means of relay circuits,” he summed up at the end.15 This became the basic concept underlying all digital computers.

Shannon’s ideas intrigued Turing because they neatly related to his own just-published concept of a universal machine that could use simple instructions, expressed in binary coding, to tackle problems not only of math but of logic. Also, since logic was related to the way human minds reason, a machine that performed logical tasks could, in theory, mimic the way humans think.

Working at Bell Labs at the same time was a mathematician named George Stibitz, whose job was to figure out ways to handle the increasingly complicated calculations needed by the telephone engineers. The only tools he had were mechanical desktop adding machines, so he set out to invent something better based on Shannon’s insight that electronic circuits could perform mathematical and logical tasks. Late one evening in November, he went to the stockroom and took home some old electromagnetic relays and bulbs. At his kitchen table, he put the parts together with a tobacco tin and a few switches to form a simple logical circuit that could add binary numbers. A lit bulb represented a 1, and an unlit bulb represented a 0. His wife dubbed it the “K-Model,” after the kitchen table. He took it into the office the next day and tried to convince his colleagues that, with enough relays, he could make a calculating machine.

One important mission of Bell Labs was to figure out ways to amplify a phone signal over long distances while filtering out static. The engineers had formulas that dealt with the amplitude and phase of the signal, and the solutions to their equations sometimes involved complex numbers (ones that include an imaginary unit that represents the square root of a negative number). Stibitz was asked by his supervisor if his proposed machine could handle complex numbers. When he said that it could, a team was assigned to help him build it. The Complex Number Calculator, as it was called, was completed in 1939. It had more than four hundred relays, each of which could open and shut twenty times per second. That made it both blindingly fast compared to mechanical calculators and painfully clunky compared to


the all-electronic vacuum-tube circuits just being invented. Stibitz’s computer was not programmable, but it showed the potential of a circuit of relays to do binary math, process information, and handle logical procedures.16

HOWARD AIKEN Also in 1937 a Harvard doctoral student named Howard Aiken was struggling to do tedious calculations for his physics thesis using an adding machine. When he lobbied the university to build a more sophisticated computer to do the work, his department head mentioned that in the attic of Harvard’s science center were some brass wheels from a century-old device that seemed to be similar to what he wanted. When Aiken explored the attic, he found one of six demonstration models of Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine, which Babbage’s son Henry had made and distributed. Aiken became fascinated by Babbage and moved the set of brass wheels into his office. “Sure enough, we had two of Babbage’s wheels,” he recalled. “Those were the wheels that I had later mounted and put in the body of the computer.”17

That fall, just when Stibitz was cooking up his kitchen-table demonstration, Aiken wrote a twenty-two-page memo to his Harvard superiors and executives at IBM making the case that they should fund a modern version of Babbage’s digital machine. “The desire to economize time and mental effort in arithmetical computations, and to eliminate human liability to error is probably as old as the science of arithmetic itself,” his memo began.18

Aiken had grown up in Indiana under rough circumstances. When he was twelve, he used a fireplace poker to defend his mother against his drunk and abusive father, who then abandoned the family with no money. So young Howard dropped out of ninth grade to support the family by working as a telephone installer, then got a night job with the local power company so that he could attend a tech school during the day. He drove himself to be a success, but in the process he developed into a taskmaster with an explosive temper, someone who was described as resembling an approaching thunderstorm.19

Harvard had mixed feelings about building Aiken’s proposed calculating machine or holding out the possibility that he might be granted tenure for a project that seemed to be more practical than academic. (In parts of the Harvard faculty club, calling someone practical rather than academic was considered an insult.) Supporting Aiken was President James Bryant Conant, who, as chairman of the National Defense Research Committee, was comfortable positioning Harvard as part of a triangle involving academia, industry, and the military. His Physics Department, however, was more purist. Its chairman wrote to Conant in December 1939, saying that the machine was “desirable if money can be found, but not necessarily more desirable than anything else,” and a faculty committee said of Aiken, “It should be made quite clear to him that such activity did not increase his chances of promotion to a professorship.” Eventually Conant prevailed and authorized Aiken to build his machine.20

In April 1941, as IBM was constructing the Mark I to Aiken’s specifications at its lab in Endicott, New York, he left Harvard to serve in the U.S. Navy. For two years he was a teacher, with the rank of lieutenant commander, at the Naval Mine Warfare School in Virginia. One colleague described him as “armed to the teeth with room-length formulas and ivy-covered Harvard theories” and running “smack into a collection of Dixie dumbbells [none of whom] knew calculus from corn pone.”21 Much of his time was spent thinking about the Mark I, and he made occasional visits to Endicott wearing his full dress uniform.22

His tour of duty had one major payoff: at the beginning of 1944, as IBM was getting ready to ship the completed Mark I to Harvard, Aiken was able to convince the Navy to take over authority for the machine and assign him to be the officer in charge. That helped him circumnavigate the academic bureaucracy of Harvard, which was still balky about granting him tenure. The Harvard Computation Laboratory became, for the time being, a naval


facility, and all of Aiken’s staffers were Navy personnel who wore uniforms to work. He called them his “crew,” they called him “commander,” and the Mark I was referred to as “she,” as if she were a ship.23

The Harvard Mark I borrowed a lot of Babbage’s ideas. It was digital, although not binary; its wheels had ten positions. Along its fifty-foot shaft were seventy-two counters that could store numbers of up to twenty-three digits, and the finished five-ton product was eighty feet long and fifty feet wide. The shaft and other moving parts were turned electrically. But it was slow. Instead of electromagnetic relays, it used mechanical ones that were opened and shut by electric motors. That meant it took about six seconds to do a multiplication problem, compared to one second for Stibitz’s machine. It did, however, have one impressive feature that would become a staple of modern computers: it was fully automatic. Programs and data were entered by paper tape, and it could run for days with no human intervention. That allowed Aiken to refer to it as “Babbage’s dream come true.”24

KONRAD ZUSE Although they didn’t know it, all of these pioneers were being beaten in 1937 by a German engineer working in his parents’ apartment. Konrad Zuse was finishing the prototype for a calculator that was binary and could read instructions from a punched tape. However, at least in its first version, called the Z1, it was a mechanical, not an electrical or electronic, machine.

Like many pioneers in the digital age, Zuse grew up fascinated by both art and engineering. After graduating from a technical college, he got a job as a stress analyst for an aircraft company in Berlin, solving linear equations that incorporated all sorts of load and strength and elasticity factors. Even using mechanical calculators, it was almost impossible for a person to solve in less than a day more than six simultaneous linear equations with six unknowns. If there were twenty-five variables, it could take a year. So Zuse, like so many others, was driven by the desire to mechanize the tedious process of solving mathematical equations. He converted his parents’ living room, in an apartment near Berlin’s Tempelhof Airport, into a workshop.25

In Zuse’s first version, binary digits were stored by using thin metal plates with slots and pins, which he and his friends made using a jigsaw. At first he used punched paper tape to input data and programs, but he soon switched to discarded 35 mm movie film, which not only was sturdier but happened to be cheaper. His Z1 was completed in 1938, and it was able to clank through a few problems, though not very reliably. All the components had been made by hand, and they tended to jam. He was handicapped by not being at a place like Bell Labs or part of a collaboration like Harvard had with IBM, which would have allowed him to team up with engineers who could have supplemented his talents.

The Z1 did, however, show that the logical concept Zuse had designed would work in theory. A college friend who was helping him, Helmut Schreyer, urged that they make a version using electronic vacuum tubes rather than mechanical switches. Had they done so right away, they would have gone down in history as the first inventors of a working modern computer: binary, electronic, and programmable. But Zuse, as well as the experts he consulted at the technical school, balked at the expense of building a device with close to two thousand vacuum tubes.26

So for the Z2 they decided instead to use electromechanical relay switches, acquired secondhand from the phone company, which were tougher and cheaper, although a lot slower. The result was a computer that used relays for the arithmetic unit. However, the memory unit was mechanical, using movable pins in a metal sheet.

In 1939 Zuse began work on a third model, the Z3, that used electromechanical relays both for the arithmetic unit and for the memory and control units. When it was completed in 1941,


it became the first fully working all-purpose, programmable digital computer. Even though it did not have a way to directly handle conditional jumps and branching in the programs, it could theoretically perform as a universal Turing machine. Its major difference from later computers was that it used clunky electromagnetic relays rather than electronic components such as vacuum tubes or transistors.

Zuse’s friend Schreyer went on to write a doctoral thesis, “The Tube Relay and the Techniques of Its Switching,” that advocated using vacuum tubes for a powerful and fast computer. But when he and Zuse proposed it to the German Army in 1942, the commanders said they were confident that they would win the war before the two years it would take to build such a machine.27 They were more interested in making weapons than computers. As a result, Zuse was pulled away from his computer work and sent back to engineering airplanes. In 1943 his computers and designs were destroyed in the Allied bombing of Berlin.

Zuse and Stibitz, working independently, had both come up with employing relay switches to make circuits that could handle binary computations. How did they develop this idea at the same time when war kept their two teams isolated? The answer is partly that advances in technology and theory made the moment ripe. Along with many other innovators, Zuse and Stibitz were familiar with the use of relays in phone circuits, and it made sense to tie that to binary operations of math and logic. Likewise, Shannon, who was also very familiar with phone circuits, made the related theoretical leap that electronic circuits would be able to perform the logical tasks of Boolean algebra. The idea that digital circuits would be the key to computing was quickly becoming clear to researchers almost everywhere, even in isolated places like central Iowa.

JOHN VINCENT ATANASOFF Far from both Zuse and Stibitz, another inventor was also experimenting with digital circuits in 1937. Toiling in a basement in Iowa, he would make the next historic innovation: building a calculating device that, at least in part, used vacuum tubes. In some ways his machine was less advanced than the others. It wasn’t programmable and multipurpose; instead of being totally electronic, he included some slow mechanical moving elements; and even though he built a model that was able to work in theory, he couldn’t actually get the thing reliably operational. Nevertheless, John Vincent Atanasoff, known to his wife and friends as Vincent, deserves the distinction of being the pioneer who conceived the first partly electronic digital computer, and he did so after he was struck by inspiration during a long impetuous drive one night in December 1937.28

Atanasoff was born in 1903, the eldest of seven children of a Bulgarian immigrant and a woman descended from one of New England’s oldest families. His father worked as an engineer in a New Jersey electric plant run by Thomas Edison, then moved the family to a town in rural Florida south of Tampa. At nine, Vincent helped his father wire their Florida house for electricity, and his father gave him a Dietzgen slide rule. “That slide rule was my meat,” he recalled.29 At an early age, he dove into the study of logarithms with an enthusiasm that seems a bit wacky even as he recounted it in earnest tones: “Can you imagine how a boy of nine, with baseball on his mind, could be transformed by this knowledge? Baseball was reduced to near zero as a stern study was made of logarithms.” Over the summer, he calculated the logarithm of 5 to the base e, then, with his mother’s help (she had once been a math teacher), he learned calculus while still in middle school. His father took him to the phosphate plant where he was an electrical engineer, showing him how the generators worked. Diffident, creative, and brilliant, young Vincent finished high school in two years, getting all A’s in his double load of classes.

At the University of Florida he studied electrical engineering and displayed a practical


inclination, spending time in the university’s machine shop and foundry. He also remained fascinated by math and as a freshman studied a proof involving binary arithmetic. Creative and self-confident, he graduated with the highest grade point average of his time. He accepted a fellowship to pursue master’s work in math and physics at Iowa State and, even though he later was admitted to Harvard, stuck with his decision to head up to the corn belt town of Ames.

Atanasoff went on to pursue a doctorate in physics at the University of Wisconsin, where he had the same experience as the other computer pioneers, beginning with Babbage. His work, which was on how helium can be polarized by an electric field, involved tedious calculations. As he struggled to solve the math using a desktop adding machine, he dreamed of ways to invent a calculator that could do more of the work. After returning to Iowa State in 1930 as an assistant professor, he decided that his degrees in electrical engineering, math, and physics had equipped him for the task.

There was a consequence to his decision not to stay at Wisconsin or to go to Harvard or a similar large research university. At Iowa State, where no one else was working on ways to build new calculators, Atanasoff was on his own. He could come up with fresh ideas, but he did not have around him people to serve as sounding boards or to help him overcome theoretical or engineering challenges. Unlike most innovators of the digital age, he was a lone inventor, drawing his inspiration during solo car trips and in discussions with one graduate student assistant. In the end, that would prove to be a drawback.

Atanasoff initially considered building an analog device; his love of slide rules led him to try to devise a supersize version using long strips of film. But he realized that the film would have to be hundreds of yards long in order to solve linear algebraic equations accurately enough to suit his needs. He also built a contraption that could shape a mound of paraffin so that it could calculate a partial differential equation. The limitations of these analog devices caused him to focus instead on creating a digital version.

The first problem he tackled was how to store numbers in a machine. He used the term memory to describe this feature: “At the time, I had only a cursory knowledge of the work of Babbage and so did not know he called the same concept ‘store.’ . . . I like his word, and perhaps if I had known, I would have adopted it; I like ‘memory,’ too, with its analogy to the brain.”30

Atanasoff went through a list of possible memory devices: mechanical pins, electromagnetic relays, a small piece of magnetic material that could be polarized by an electric charge, vacuum tubes, and a small electrical condenser. The fastest would be vacuum tubes, but they were expensive. So he opted instead to use what he called condensers—what we now call capacitors—which are small and inexpensive components that can store, at least briefly, an electrical charge. It was an understandable decision, but it meant that the machine would be sluggish and clunky. Even if the adding and subtracting could be done at electronic speeds, the process of taking numbers in and out of the memory unit would slow things down to the speed of the rotating drum.


George Stibitz (1904–95) circa 1945.


Konrad Zuse (1910–95) with the Z4 computer in 1944.


John Atanasoff (1903–95) at Iowa State, circa 1940.


Reconstruction of Atanasoff’s computer.

Once he had settled on the memory unit, Atanasoff turned his attention to how to construct the arithmetic and logic unit, which he called the “computing mechanism.” He decided it should be fully electronic; that meant using vacuum tubes, even though they were expensive. The tubes would act as on-off switches to perform the function of logic gates in a circuit that could add, subtract, and perform any Boolean function.

That raised a theoretical math issue of the type he had loved since he was a boy: Should his digital system be decimal or binary or rely on some other numerical base? A true enthusiast for number systems, Atanasoff explored many options. “For a short time the base one- hundred was thought to have some promise,” he wrote in an unpublished paper. “This same calculation showed that the base that theoretically gives the highest speed of calculation is e, the natural base.”31 But, balancing theory with practicality, he finally settled on base-2, the binary system. By late 1937, these and other ideas were jangling around in his head, a “hodgepodge” of concepts that wouldn’t “jell.”

Atanasoff loved cars; he liked to buy, if he could, a new one each year, and in December 1937, he had a new Ford with a powerful V8 engine. To relax his mind, he took it for a late- night spin for what would become a noteworthy moment in the history of computing:


One night in the winter of 1937 my whole body was in torment from trying to solve the problems of the machine. I got in my car and drove at high speeds for a long while so I could control my emotions. It was my habit to do this for a few miles: I could gain control of myself by concentrating on driving. But that night I was excessively tormented, and I kept on going until I had crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois and was 189 miles from where I started.32

He turned off the highway and pulled into a roadhouse tavern. At least in Illinois, unlike in Iowa, he could buy a drink, and he ordered himself a bourbon and soda, then another. “I realized that I was no longer so nervous and my thoughts turned again to computing machines,” he recalled. “I don’t know why my mind worked then when it had not worked previously, but things seemed to be good and cool and quiet.” The waitress was inattentive, so Atanasoff got to process his problem undisturbed.33

He sketched out his ideas on a paper napkin, then began to sort through some practical questions. The most important was how to replenish the charges in the condensers, which would otherwise drain after a minute or two. He came up with the idea of putting them on rotating cylinder drums, about the size of 46-ounce cans of V8 juice, so they would come into contact once a second with brushlike wires and have their charges refreshed. “During this evening in the tavern, I generated within my mind the possibility of the regenerative memory,” he declared. “I called it ‘jogging’ at that time.” With each turn of the rotating cylinder, the wires would jog the memory of the condensers and, when necessary, retrieve data from the condensers and store new data. He also came up with an architecture that would take numbers from two different cylinders of condensers, then use the vacuum-tube circuit to add or subtract them and put the result into memory. After a few hours of figuring everything out, he recalled, “I got in my car and drove home at a slower rate.”34

By May 1939, Atanasoff was ready to begin construction of a prototype. He needed an assistant, preferably a graduate student with engineering experience. “I have your man,” a friend on the faculty told him one day. Thus he struck up a partnership with another son of a self-taught electrical engineer, Clifford Berry.35

The machine was designed and hard-wired with a single purpose: solving simultaneous linear equations. It could handle up to twenty-nine variables. With each step, Atanasoff’s machine would process two equations and eliminate one of the variables, then print the resulting equations on 8 x 11 binary punch cards. This set of cards with the simpler equation would then be fed back into the machine for the process to begin anew, eliminating yet another variable. The process required a bit of time. The machine would (if they could get it to work properly) take almost a week to complete a set of twenty-nine equations. Still, humans doing the same process on desk calculators would require at least ten weeks.

Atanasoff demonstrated a prototype at the end of 1939 and, hoping to get funding to build a full-scale machine, typed up a thirty-five-page proposal, using carbon paper to make a few copies. “It is the main purpose of this paper to present a description and exposition of a computing machine which has been designed principally for the solution of large systems of linear algebraic equations,” he began. As if to fend off criticism that this was a limited purpose for a big machine, Atanasoff specified a long list of problems that required solving such equations: “curve fitting . . . vibrational problems . . . electrical circuit analysis . . . elastic structures.” He concluded with a detailed list of proposed expenditures, which added up to the grand sum of $5,330, which he ended up getting from a private foundation.36 Then he sent one of the carbon copies of his proposal to a Chicago patent lawyer retained by Iowa State, who, in a dereliction of duty that would spawn decades of historical and legal controversy, never got around to filing for any patents.

By September 1942 Atanasoff’s full-scale model was almost finished. It was the size of a desk and contained close to three hundred vacuum tubes. There was, however, a problem: the mechanism for using sparks to burn holes in the punch cards never worked properly, and


there were no teams of machinists and engineers at Iowa State he could turn to for help. At that point, work stopped. Atanasoff was drafted into the Navy and sent to its ordnance

laboratory in Washington, DC, where he worked on acoustic mines and later attended the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. Shifting his focus from computers to ordnance engineering, he remained an inventor, earning thirty patents, including on a minesweeping device. But his Chicago lawyer never applied for patents on his computer.

Atanasoff’s computer could have been an important milestone, but it was, both literally and figuratively, relegated to the dustbin of history. The almost-working machine was put into storage in the basement of the physics building at Iowa State, and a few years later no one seemed to remember what it did. When the space was needed for other uses in 1948, a graduate student dismantled it, not realizing what it was, and discarded most of the parts.37 Many early histories of the computer age do not even mention Atanasoff.

Even if it had worked properly, his machine had limitations. The vacuum-tube circuit made lightning-fast calculations, but the mechanically rotated memory units slowed down the process enormously. So did the system for burning holes in the punch cards, even when it worked. In order to be truly fast, modern computers would have to be all-electronic, not just partly. Nor was Atanasoff’s model programmable. It was geared to do just one thing: solve linear equations.

Atanasoff’s enduring romantic appeal is that he was a lone tinkerer in a basement, with only his young sidekick Clifford Berry for a companion. But his tale is evidence that we shouldn’t in fact romanticize such loners. Like Babbage, who also toiled in his own little workshop with just an assistant, Atanasoff never got his machine to be fully functional. Had he been at Bell Labs, amid swarms of technicians and engineers and repairmen, or at a big research university, a solution would likely have been found for fixing the card reader as well as the other balky parts of his contraption. Plus, when Atanasoff was called away to the Navy in 1942, there would have been team members left behind to put on the finishing touches, or at least to remember what was being built.

What saved Atanasoff from being a forgotten historical footnote is somewhat ironic, given the resentment he later felt about the event. It was a visit that he had in June 1941 from one of those people who, instead of toiling in isolation, loved visiting places and snatching up ideas and working with teams of people. John Mauchly’s trip to Iowa would later be the subject of costly lawsuits, bitter accusations, and dueling historical narratives. But it is what saved Atanasoff from obscurity and moved the course of computer history forward.

JOHN MAUCHLY In the early twentieth century, the United States developed, as Britain had earlier, a class of gentleman scientists who congregated at wood-paneled explorers’ clubs and other rarefied institutes, where they enjoyed sharing ideas, listening to lectures, and collaborating on projects. John Mauchly was raised in that realm. His father, a physicist, was a research chief in the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Washington-based Carnegie Institution, the nation’s foremost foundation for promoting the advance and sharing of research. His specialty was recording electrical conditions in the atmosphere and relating them to the weather, a collegial endeavor that involved coordinating researchers from Greenland to Peru.38

Growing up in the Washington suburb of Chevy Chase, John was exposed to the area’s growing scientific community. “Chevy Chase seemed to have practically all the scientists in Washington,” he boasted. “The director of the Weights and Measures Division of the Bureau of Standards lived near us. So did the director of its Radio Division.” The head of the Smithsonian was also a neighbor. John spent many weekends using a desktop adding


machine to do calculations for his dad, and he developed a passion for data-driven meteorology. He also loved electrical circuits. With his young friends in his neighborhood, he laid intercom wires that connected their homes and built remote-control devices to launch fireworks for parties. “When I pressed a button, the fireworks would go off 50 feet away.” At age fourteen he was earning money helping people in the neighborhood fix faulty wiring in their homes.39

While an undergraduate at Johns Hopkins University, Mauchly enrolled in a program for exceptional undergraduates to leap directly into a PhD program in physics. He did his thesis on light band spectroscopy because it combined beauty, experiments, and theory. “You had to know some theory to figure out what the band spectra was all about, but you couldn’t do it unless you had the experimental photographs of that spectrum, and who’s going to get it for you?” he said. “Nobody but you. So I got plenty of training in glass blowing, and drawing vacuums, finding the leaks etc.”40

Mauchly had an engaging personality and a wonderful ability (and desire) to explain things, so it was natural that he would become a professor. Such posts were hard to come by in the Depression, but he managed to land one at Ursinus College, an hour’s drive northwest from Philadelphia. “I was the only person teaching physics there,” he said.41

An essential component of Mauchly’s personality was that he liked to share ideas—usually with a broad grin and a sense of flair—which made him a wildly popular teacher. “He loved to talk and seemed to develop many of his ideas in the give-and-take of conversation,” recalled a colleague. “John loved social occasions, liked to eat good food and drink good liquor. He liked women, attractive young people, the intelligent and the unusual.”42 It was dangerous to ask him a question, because he could discourse earnestly and passionately about almost anything, from theater to literature to physics.

In front of a class he played the showman. To explain momentum he would whirl around with his arms flung out and then pulled in, and to describe the concept of action and reaction he would stand on a homemade skateboard and lurch back and forth, a trick that one year resulted in his falling and breaking an arm. People used to drive miles to hear his end-of-term pre-Christmas lecture, which the college moved to its biggest auditorium to accommodate all the visitors. In it he explained how spectrography and other tools of physics could be used to determine what was inside a package without unwrapping it. According to his wife, “He measured it. He weighed it. He submerged it in water. He poked it with a long needle.”43

Reflecting his boyhood fascination with meteorology, Mauchly’s research focus in the early 1930s was on whether long-range weather patterns were related to solar flares, sunspots, and the rotation of the sun. The scientists at the Carnegie Institution and the U.S. Weather Bureau gave him twenty years of daily data from two hundred stations, and he set to work calculating correlations. He was able (this being the Depression) to buy used desk calculators cheaply from ailing banks and to hire a group of young people, through the New Deal’s National Youth Administration, to do computations at fifty cents an hour.44

Like others whose work required tedious calculations, Mauchly yearned to invent a machine to do them. With his gregarious style, he set about finding out what others were doing and, in the tradition of great innovators, putting together a variety of ideas. In the IBM pavilion at the 1939 New York World’s Fair, he saw an electric calculator that used punch cards, but he realized that relying on cards would be too slow, given the amount of data he had to crunch. He also saw an encryption machine that used vacuum tubes to code messages. Might the tubes be used for other logical circuits? He took his students on a field trip to Swarthmore College to see counting devices that used circuits made with vacuum tubes to measure bursts of cosmic-ray ionization.45 He also took a night course in electronics and began to experiment with his own hand-wired vacuum-tube circuits to see what else they might do.


At a conference at Dartmouth College in September 1940, Mauchly saw a demonstration by George Stibitz of the Complex Number Calculator he had built at Bell Labs. What made the demonstration exciting was that Stibitz’s computer was sitting at Bell’s building in lower Manhattan, transmitting data over a Teletype line. It was the first computer to be used remotely. For three hours it solved problems submitted by the audience, taking about a minute for each. Among those at the demonstration was Norbert Wiener, a pioneer of information systems, who tried to stump Stibitz’s machine by asking it to divide a number by zero. The machine didn’t fall for the trap. Also present was John von Neumann, the Hungarian polymath who was soon to play a major role with Mauchly in the development of computers.46

When he decided to build a vacuum-tube computer of his own, Mauchly did what good innovators properly do: he drew upon all of the information he had picked up from his travels. Because Ursinus had no research budget, Mauchly paid for tubes out of his own pocket and tried to cadge them from manufacturers. He wrote the Supreme Instruments Corp. asking for components and declaring, “I am intending to construct an electrical calculating machine.”47 He discovered during a visit to RCA that neon tubes could also be used as switches; they were slower but cheaper than vacuum tubes, and he bought a supply at eight cents apiece. “Before November 1940,” his wife later said, “Mauchly had successfully tested certain components of his proposed computer and convinced himself that it was possible to build a cheap, reliable digital device using only electronic elements.” This occurred, she insisted, before he had even heard of Atanasoff.48

In late 1940 he confided in some friends that he hoped to pull together all of this information to make a digital electronic computer. “We are now considering construction of an electrical computing machine,” he wrote that November to a meteorologist he had worked with. “The machine would perform its operations in about 1/200th second, using vacuum tube relays.”49 Even though he was collaborative and picking up information from many people, he began to exhibit a competitive urge to be the first to make a new type of computer. He wrote a former student in December, “For your own private information, I expect to have, in a year or so, when I can get the stuff and put it together, an electronic computing machine. . . . Keep this dark, since I haven’t the equipment this year to carry it out and I would like to ‘be the first.’ ”50

That month, December 1940, Mauchly happened to meet Atanasoff, setting off a series of events followed by years of disputes over Mauchly’s propensity to gather information from different sources and his desire to “be the first.” Atanasoff was attending a meeting at the University of Pennsylvania, and he dropped by a session at which Mauchly proclaimed his hope of building a machine to analyze weather data. Afterward Atanasoff came up to say that he had been building an electronic calculator at Iowa State. Mauchly jotted on his conference program a note that Atanasoff claimed to have devised a machine that could process and store data at a cost of only $2 per digit. (Atanasoff’s machine could handle three thousand digits and cost about $6,000.) Mauchly was amazed. He estimated that the cost of a vacuum-tube computer would be almost $13 per digit. He said he would love to see how it was done, and Atanasoff invited him to come to Iowa.

Throughout the first half of 1941, Mauchly corresponded with Atanasoff and continued to marvel at the low cost he claimed for his machine. “Less than $2 per digit sounds next to impossible, and yet that is what I understood you to say,” he wrote. “Your suggestion about visiting Iowa seemed rather fantastic when first made, but the idea grows on me.” Atanasoff urged him to accept. “As an additional inducement I will explain the $2 per digit business,” he promised.51


THE MAUCHLY-ATANASOFF VISIT The fateful visit lasted four days in June 1941.52 Mauchly drove from Washington and brought his six-year-old son, Jimmy, arriving late on Friday, June 13, much to the surprise of Atanasoff’s wife, Lura, who had not yet prepared the guest room. “I had to fly around, go to the attic, get extra pillows, and everything,” she later recalled.53 She also made them supper, since the Mauchlys had arrived hungry. The Atanasoffs had three children of their own, but Mauchly seemed to assume that Lura would take care of Jimmy during the visit, so she did, grudgingly. She took a dislike to Mauchly. “I don’t think he’s honest,” she told her husband at one point.54

Atanasoff was eager to show off his partly built machine, even as his wife worried that he was being too trusting. “You must be careful until this is patented,” she warned. Nevertheless, Atanasoff took Mauchly, along with Lura and the children, to the physics building basement the next morning, proudly pulling off a sheet to reveal what he and Berry were cobbling together.

Mauchly was impressed by a few things. The use of condensers in the memory unit was ingenious and cost-effective, as was Atanasoff’s method of replenishing their charge every second or so by putting them on rotating cylinders. Mauchly had thought about using condensers instead of more expensive vacuum tubes, and he appreciated how Atanasoff’s method of “jogging their memory” made it workable. That was the secret behind how the machine could be constructed for $2 per digit. After reading Atanasoff’s thirty-five-page memo detailing the machine, and taking notes, he asked if he could take a carbon copy home. That request Atanasoff denied, both because he had no extras to give away (photocopiers hadn’t been invented) and because he was becoming worried that Mauchly was sucking in too much information.55

But for the most part, Mauchly was uninspired by what he saw in Ames—or at least that is what he insisted in retrospect. The foremost drawback was that Atanasoff’s machine was not fully electronic but instead relied on the mechanical drums of condensers for memory. That made it inexpensive but also very slow. “I thought his machine was very ingenious, but since it was in part mechanical, involving rotating commutators for switching, it was not by any means what I had in mind,” Mauchly remembered. “I no longer became interested in the details.” Later, in his testimony at the trial over the validity of his patents, Mauchly called the semimechanical nature of Atanasoff’s machine “a rather drastic disappointment” and dismissed it as “a mechanical gadget which uses some electronic tubes in operation.”56

The second disappointment, Mauchly contended, was that Atanasoff’s machine was designed for a single purpose and could not be programmed or modified to perform other tasks: “He had not done anything to plan for this machine to be anything but a single set purpose machine and to solve sets of linear equations.”57

So Mauchly left Iowa not with a breakthrough concept for how to build a computer but rather with a handful of smaller insights to add to the basket of ideas he had been collecting, consciously and subconsciously, on his visits to conferences and colleges and fairs. “I came to Iowa with much the same attitude that I went to the World’s Fair and other places,” he testified. “Is there something here which would be useful to aid my computations or anyone else’s?”58

Like most people, Mauchly gleaned insights from a variety of experiences, conversations, and observations—in his case at Swarthmore, Dartmouth, Bell Labs, RCA, the World’s Fair, Iowa State, and elsewhere—then combined them into ideas he considered his own. “A new idea comes suddenly and in a rather intuitive way,” Einstein once said, “but intuition is nothing but the outcome of earlier intellectual experience.” When people take insights from multiple sources and put them together, it’s natural for them to think that the resulting ideas are their own—as in truth they are. All ideas are born that way. So Mauchly considered his


intuitions and thoughts about how to build a computer to be his own rather than a bag of ideas he had stolen from other people. And despite later legal findings, he was for the most part right, insofar as anyone can be right in thinking that his ideas are his own. That is the way the creative process—if not the patent process—works.

Unlike Atanasoff, Mauchly had the opportunity, and the inclination, to collaborate with a team filled with varied talents. As a result, instead of producing a machine that didn’t quite work and was abandoned in a basement, he and his team would go down in history as the inventors of the first electronic general-purpose computer.

As he was preparing to leave Iowa, Mauchly got a piece of pleasant news. He had been accepted into an electronics course at the University of Pennsylvania, one of the many around the country being funded on an emergency basis by the War Department. It was a chance to learn more about using vacuum tubes in electronic circuits, which he was now convinced was the best way to make computers. It also showed the importance of the military in driving innovation in the digital age.

During this ten-week course in the summer of 1941, Mauchly got the chance to work with a version of the MIT Differential Analyzer, the analog computer designed by Vannevar Bush. The experience amped up his interest in building his own computer. It also made him realize that the resources to do so at a place like Penn were far greater than at Ursinus, so he was thrilled to accept an instructor’s position at the university when it was offered at the end of the summer.

Mauchly conveyed the good news in a letter to Atanasoff, which also contained hints of a plan that unnerved the Iowa professor. “A number of different ideas have come to me recently anent computing circuits—some of which are more or less hybrids, combining your methods with other things, and some of which are nothing like your machine,” Mauchly wrote, truthfully. “The question in my mind is this: is there any objection, from your point of view, to my building some sort of computer which incorporates some of the features of your machine?”59 It’s hard to tell from the letter, or from the subsequent explanations, depositions, and testimony over the ensuing years, whether Mauchly’s innocent tone was sincere or feigned.


Howard Aiken (1900–1973) at Harvard in 1945.


John Mauchly (1907–80) circa 1945.


J. Presper Eckert (1919–95) circa 1945.


Eckert (touching machine), Mauchly (by pillar), Jean Jennings (in back), and Herman Goldstine (by Jennings) with ENIAC in 1946.

Either way, the letter upset Atanasoff, who had still not succeeded in prodding his lawyer into filing any patent claims. He responded to Mauchly rather brusquely within a few days: “Our attorney has emphasized the need of being careful about the dissemination of information about our device until a patent application is filed. This should not require too long, and, of course, I have no qualms about having informed you about our device, but it does require that we refrain from making public any details for the time being.”60 Amazingly, this exchange still did not provoke Atanasoff or the lawyer to make a filing for patents.

Mauchly proceeded to forge ahead during that fall of 1941 with his own design for a computer, which he correctly believed drew ideas from a wide variety of sources and was very different from what Atanasoff had built. In his summer course, he met the right partner to join him in the endeavor: a graduate student with a perfectionist’s passion for precision engineering, who knew so much about electronics that he served as Mauchly’s lab instructor, even though he was twelve years younger (at twenty-two) and didn’t yet have his PhD.



John Adam Presper Eckert Jr., known formally as J. Presper Eckert and informally as Pres, was the only child of a millionaire real estate developer in Philadelphia.61 One of his great- grandfathers, Thomas Mills, invented the machines that made salt water taffy in Atlantic City and, as important, created a business to manufacture and sell them. As a young boy, Eckert was driven by his family’s chauffeur to the William Penn private school, founded in 1689. But his success came not from the privileges of birth but from his own talents. He won a citywide science fair at age twelve by building a guidance system for model boats using magnets and rheostats, and at fourteen he devised an innovative way to use household current to eliminate troublesome batteries for the intercom system in one of his father’s buildings.62

In high school Eckert dazzled his classmates with his inventions, and he made money by building radios, amplifiers, and sound systems. Philadelphia, the city of Benjamin Franklin, was then a great electronics center, and Eckert spent time at the research lab of Philo Farnsworth, one of the inventors of television. Although he was accepted by MIT and wanted to go there, his parents did not wish him to leave. Pretending to have suffered financial setbacks because of the Depression, they pressured him to go to Penn and live at home. He did rebel, however, against their desire that he study business; instead he enrolled in the university’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering because he found the subject more interesting.

Eckert’s social triumph at Penn was creating what he called an “Osculometer” (from the Latin word for mouth), which purported to measure the passion and romantic electricity of a kiss. A couple would hold the handles of the device and then kiss, their lip contact completing an electric circuit. A row of bulbs would light up, the goal being to kiss passionately enough to light up all ten and set off a blast from a foghorn. Smart contestants knew that wet kisses and sweaty palms increased the circuit’s conductivity.63 Eckert also invented a device that used a light-modulating method to record sound on film, for which he successfully applied for a patent at age twenty-one, while still an undergraduate.64

Pres Eckert had his quirks. Filled with nervous energy, he would pace the room, bite his nails, leap around, and occasionally stand atop a desk when he was thinking. He wore a watch chain that wasn’t connected to a watch, and he would twirl it in his hands as if it were rosary beads. He had a quick temper that would flare and then dissolve into charm. His demand for perfection came from his father, who would walk around construction sites carrying a large pack of crayons with which to scrawl instructions, using different colors to indicate which worker was responsible. “He was sort of a perfectionist and made sure you did it right,” his son said. “But he had a lot of charm, really. He got things done most of the time by people wanting to do the stuff.” An engineer’s engineer, Eckert felt that people like himself were necessary complements to physicists such as Mauchly. “A physicist is one who’s concerned with the truth,” he later said. “An engineer is one who’s concerned with getting the job done.”65

ENIAC War mobilizes science. Over the centuries, ever since the ancient Greeks built a catapult and Leonardo da Vinci served as the military engineer for Cesare Borgia, martial needs have propelled advances in technology, and this was especially true in the mid-twentieth century. Many of the paramount technological feats of that era—computers, atomic power, radar, and the Internet—were spawned by the military.

America’s entry into World War II in December 1941 provided the impetus to fund the machine that Mauchly and Eckert were devising. The University of Pennsylvania and the Army’s Ordnance Department at Aberdeen Proving Ground had been tasked with producing the booklets of firing-angle settings needed for the artillery being shipped to Europe. In order


to be aimed properly, the guns required tables that factored in hundreds of conditions, including temperature, humidity, wind speeds, altitude, and gunpowder varieties.

Creating a table for just one category of shell shot by one gun might require calculating three thousand trajectories from a set of differential equations. The work was often done using one of the Differential Analyzers invented at MIT by Vannevar Bush. The machine’s calculations were combined with the labor of more than 170 people, most of them women, known as “computers,” who tackled equations by punching the keys and cranking the handles of desktop adding machines. Women math majors were recruited from around the nation. But even with all of this effort, it took more than a month to complete just one firing table. By the summer of 1942, it was clear that production was falling further behind every week, rendering some of America’s artillery ineffective.

That August, Mauchly wrote a memo that proposed a way to help the Army meet this challenge. It would change the course of computing. Titled “The Use of High Speed Vacuum Tube Devices for Calculating,” his memo requested funding for the machine that he and Eckert were hoping to build: a digital electronic computer, using circuits with vacuum tubes, that could solve differential equations and perform other mathematical tasks. “A great gain in the speed of calculation can be obtained if the devices which are used employ electronic means,” he argued. He went on to estimate that a missile trajectory could be calculated in “100 seconds.”66

Mauchly’s memo was ignored by Penn’s deans, but it was brought to the attention of the Army officer attached to the university, Lieutenant (soon to be Captain) Herman Goldstine, a twenty-nine-year-old who had been a math professor at the University of Michigan. His mission was to speed up the production of firing tables, and he had dispatched his wife, Adele, also a mathematician, on a cross-country tour to recruit more women to join the battalions of human computers at Penn. Mauchly’s memo convinced him that there was a better way.

The decision of the U.S. War Department to fund the electronic computer came on April 9, 1943. Mauchly and Eckert stayed up all the night before working on their proposal, but they still hadn’t finished it by the time they got into the car for the two-hour ride from Penn to the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, where officials from the Ordnance Department were gathered. As Lieutenant Goldstine drove, they sat in the backseat writing the remaining sections, and when they arrived in Aberdeen, they continued working in a small room while Goldstine went to the review meeting. It was chaired by Oswald Veblen, the president of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, who was advising the military on mathematical projects. Also present was Colonel Leslie Simon, director of the Army’s Ballistic Research Laboratory. Goldstine recalled what happened: “Veblen, after listening for a short while to my presentation and teetering on the back legs of his chair, brought the chair down with a crash, arose, and said, ‘Simon, give Goldstine the money.’ He thereupon left the room and the meeting ended on this happy note.”67

Mauchly and Eckert incorporated their memo into a paper they titled “Report on an Electronic Diff. Analyzer.” Using the abbreviation diff. was cagey; it stood for both differences, which reflected the digital nature of the proposed machine, and differential, which described the equations it would tackle. Soon it was given a more memorable name: ENIAC, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. Even though ENIAC was designed primarily for handling differential equations, which were key to calculating missile trajectories, Mauchly wrote that it could have a “programming device” that would allow it to do other tasks, thus making it more of a general-purpose computer.68

In June 1943 construction of ENIAC began. Mauchly, who retained his teaching duties, served as a consultant and visionary. Goldstine, as the Army’s representative, oversaw the


operations and budget. And Eckert, with his passion for detail and perfection, was the chief engineer. Eckert became so dedicated to the project that he would sometimes sleep next to the machine. Once, as a joke, two engineers picked up his cot and gently moved him to an identical room one floor up; when he awoke he briefly feared the machine had been stolen.69

Knowing that great conceptions are worth little without precision execution (a lesson Atanasoff learned), Eckert was not shy about micromanaging. He would hover over the other engineers and tell them where to solder a joint or twist a wire. “I took every engineer’s work and checked every calculation of every resistor in the machine to make sure that it was done correctly,” he asserted. He disdained anyone who dismissed an issue as trivial. “Life is made up of a whole concentration of trivial matters,” he once said. “Certainly a computer is nothing but a huge concentration of trivial matters.”70

Eckert and Mauchly served as counterbalances for each other, which made them typical of so many digital-age leadership duos. Eckert drove people with a passion for precision; Mauchly tended to calm them and make them feel loved. “He was always kidding and joking with people,” Eckert recalled. “He was personable.” Eckert, whose technical skills came with a nervous energy and scattershot attention span, badly needed an intellectual sounding board, and Mauchly loved being that. Although he was not an engineer, Mauchly did have the ability to connect scientific theories with engineering practicalities in a way that was inspiring. “We got together and did this thing and I don’t think either of us would have done it by ourselves,” Eckert later conceded.71

ENIAC was digital, but instead of a binary system, using just 0s and 1s, it used a decimal system of ten-digit counters. In that regard, it was not like a modern computer. Other than that, it was more advanced than the machines built by Atanasoff, Zuse, Aiken, and Stibitz. Using what was called conditional branching (a capability described by Ada Lovelace a century earlier), it could hop around in a program based on its interim results, and it could repeat blocks of code, known as subroutines, that performed common tasks. “We had the ability to have subroutines and subroutines of subroutines,” Eckert explained. When Mauchly proposed this functionality, Eckert recalled, “it was an idea that I instantly recognized as the key to this whole thing.”72

After a year of building, around the time of D-Day in June 1944, Mauchly and Eckert were able to test the first two components, amounting to about one-sixth of the planned machine. They started with a simple multiplication problem. When it produced the correct answer, they let out a shout. But it took more than another year, until November 1945, for ENIAC to be fully operational. At that point it was able to perform five thousand additions and subtractions in one second, which was more than a hundred times faster than any previous machine. A hundred feet long and eight feet high, filling the space of what could be a modest three- bedroom apartment, it weighed close to thirty tons and had 17,468 vacuum tubes. By contrast, the Atanasoff-Berry computer, then languishing in a basement in Iowa, was the size of a desk, had only three hundred tubes, and could do merely thirty additions or subtractions per second.

BLETCHLEY PARK Although few outsiders knew it at the time—and would not know for more than three decades—another electronic computer using vacuum tubes had been secretly built at the end of 1943 on the grounds of a redbrick Victorian manor in the town of Bletchley, fifty-four miles northwest of London, where the British had sequestered a team of geniuses and engineers to break the German wartime codes. The computer, known as Colossus, was the first all-electronic, partially programmable computer. Because it was geared for a special


task, it was not a general-purpose or “Turing-complete” computer, but it did have Alan Turing’s personal fingerprints on it.

Turing had begun to focus on codes and cryptology in the fall of 1936, when he arrived at Princeton just after writing “On Computable Numbers.” He explained his interest in a letter to his mother that October:

I have just discovered a possible application of the kind of thing I am working on at present. It answers the question “What is the most general kind of code or cipher possible,” and at the same time (rather naturally) enables me to construct a lot of particular and interesting codes. One of them is pretty well impossible to decode without the key, and very quick to encode. I expect I could sell them to H.M. Government for quite a substantial sum, but am rather doubtful about the morality of such things. What do you think?73

Over the ensuing year, as he worried about the possibility of war with Germany, Turing

got more interested in cryptology and less interested in trying to make money from it. Working in the machine shop of Princeton’s physics building in late 1937, he constructed the first stages of a coding machine that turned letters into binary numbers and, using electromechanical relay switches, multiplied the resulting numerically encoded message by a huge secret number, making it almost impossible to decrypt.

One of Turing’s mentors in Princeton was John von Neumann, the brilliant physicist and mathematician who had fled his native Hungary and was at the Institute for Advanced Study, which for the time being was located in the building that housed the university’s Mathematics Department. In the spring of 1938, as Turing was finishing his doctoral thesis, von Neumann offered him a job as his assistant. With the war clouds gathering in Europe, the offer was tempting, but it also felt vaguely unpatriotic. Turing decided to return to his fellowship at Cambridge and shortly thereafter joined the British effort to crack the German military codes.

His Majesty’s Government Code and Cypher School was, at the time, located in London and staffed mainly by literary scholars, such as Dillwyn “Dilly” Knox, a classics professor from Cambridge, and Oliver Strachey, a dilettante socialite who played piano and occasionally wrote about India. There were no mathematicians among the eighty staffers until the fall of 1938, when Turing went there. But the following summer, as Britain prepared for war, the department began actively hiring mathematicians, at one point using a contest that involved solving the Daily Telegraph crossword puzzle as a recruitment tool, and it relocated to the drab redbrick town of Bletchley, whose main distinction was being at the juncture where the railway line between Oxford and Cambridge intersected with the one from London to Birmingham. A team from the British intelligence service, posing as “Captain Ridley’s shooting party,” visited the Bletchley Park manor house, a Victorian Gothic monstrosity that its owner wanted to demolish, and discreetly bought it. The code breakers were located in the cottages, stables, and some prefabricated huts that were erected on the grounds.74

Turing was assigned to a team working in Hut 8 that was trying to break the German Enigma code, which was generated by a portable machine with mechanical rotors and electrical circuits. It encrypted military messages by using a cipher that, after every keystroke, changed the formula for substituting letters. That made it so tough to decipher that the British despaired of ever doing so. A break came when Polish intelligence officers created a machine based on a captured German coder that was able to crack some of the Enigma codes. By the time the Poles showed the British their machine, however, it had been rendered ineffective because the Germans had added two more rotors and two more plugboard connections to their Enigma machines.

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if4- lewis structure

What is the Lewis structure for IF4-?
3,187 results
What is the Lewis structure for IF4-?

asked by Emma on March 10, 2008
Lewis dot structure of IF4+

asked by Mely on November 6, 2010
Identify the true statement about Lewis structures. Select all the correct answers. 1. Hydrogen is usually surrounded by 4 electrons in a valid Lewis structure. 2. A single bond in a Lewis structure represents 2 electrons. 3. A double bond in a Lewis

asked by on February 26, 2013
For a lab experiment we have to draw the lewis structures of hydrides. 1) Carbon It asks for the formula of hydride. Total # of valence electrons and the lewis structure. Total electrons would be four. I am not sure what the formula would be or how to find

asked by Hannah on November 16, 2011
Chem 1
Why is this phrase, “Lewis Structure” a misnomer? I’ve googled it… and I can’t seem to find an answer. Any suggestions as to where I can read some info on that? Lewis implies ionic bond, structure implies fixed covalent bonds. Screw you, that’s

asked by Rossi on October 25, 2006

Chemistry – oxidation numbers
How do you use a Lewis Structure to find the oxidation state of an element. I have this question using the oxidation rule i got +2, however how do i use it with Lewis structure. QUESTION Use the Lewis structure of a thiosulfate ion to find the oxidation

asked by Farah on May 1, 2011
For the lewis structure of BCl3, does it have a total of 24 valence electrons? Also does it have a total of 4 bonds? If possible can you draw the lewis structure?

asked by Anonymous on November 23, 2012
the number of nonbonding electrons exceeds the number of bonding electrons in the lewis structure of which of the following molecules? I am having a problem with the Lewis structures. HCN NH3 H2O please explain the structure thank you so much

asked by layla on February 25, 2014
What is the formal charge on each of the atoms in the Lewis structure of the PO4 (-3) charge? Draw another possible Lewis structure of the phosphate ion below. Formal charge on P is ? -how do I do this problem.

asked by Sarah on November 13, 2010
Which of the following ions possess a dipole moment? (a) ClF2+ has a dipole moment has no dipole moment cannot be determined (b) ClF2− has a dipole moment has no dipole moment cannot be determined (c) IF4+ has a dipole moment has no dipole moment cannot

asked by anonymous on July 12, 2017
Draw the Lewis structure of NO2- Assign formal charges to each atom in the O3 molecule shown below. Be sure to click the +/- button below (it will turn yellow when activated) before clicking on the molecule. .. .. .. :O–O==O .. .. Based on formal charges,

asked by mandy on November 14, 2008
What is the Lewis dot structure for the HYDRIDE ion? A)H:- B)H+ C)H’ D)H3O+ E)none It’s hard for me to read the dots but I THINK answer a) looks like this? H:- If so that is the Lewis dot structure for the hydride ion

asked by CHEMgurl on April 21, 2007
chemistry(check my answer)
how do resonance structure related to its real structure? resonance structure is just another way to write the lewis dot with different formal charges and bond order

asked by phys on April 8, 2010
Chemisty Please Help
The instructions are, Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the following species. (Assign atomic charges where appropriate.) 1) XeO4 2) CIO^-4 3) PO4^-3 Would I just draw them in a different way or just the regular Lewis Structure?

asked by Mary on July 3, 2013
Give the formal charge on the sulfur atom in a Lewis structure for the sulfate ion in which every atom satisfies the octet rule. Based off my lewis structure, I think the formal charge of the the sulfur atom would be +2. Is that correct?

asked by Anonymous on May 2, 2017

To draw the lewis dot structure of H3COH3, Do I need to rearrange the formula as CH3OCH3? If not, On paper I have O H H C O C H H H I am not sure if this is the right structure.

asked by My name is Earl on April 24, 2016
what is the lewis dot structure for SO4 -2 and the ideal bonds, mollecular structure and hybrid orbitals?

asked by Raj on January 15, 2009
HELP!! Chemistry
Draw a Lewis structure for SO(subscript 2) in which all atoms obey the octet rule. Show formal charges. Draw a Lewis structure for SO(subscript 2) in which all the atoms have a formal charge of zero. Explicitly showing zero charges is optional.

asked by anonymous on April 8, 2013
Use the MO model to predict the structure of ketene (H2CCO). Draw a Lewis structure of the molecule that shows the positions of the orbitals and the atoms in three-dimensional perspective.

asked by Amy on September 12, 2012
Use the MO model to predict the structure of ketene (H2CCO). Draw a Lewis structure of the molecule that shows the positions of the orbitals and the atoms in three-dimensional perspective.

asked by Amy on September 12, 2012
Given assumed valencies: H=1, N=3, & C=4 i am now required to draw the structural formulae of HYDROGEN CYANIDE and CYANOGEN. H:C:::N is the Lewis electron dot structure. If you want to use “sticks” as a bond instead of two electrons, one stick stands for

asked by MARK on February 7, 2007
1) Draw the Lewis structure for CH3NCO, a neutral molecule. 2) Draw the best Lewis structure for NCCH2COCH2CHO, a neutral molecule.

asked by Glow on September 7, 2009
U have to show the partial charges and bond dipoles on my ;lewis structure of CH3Cl For the partial charges would I just have a negetive sign as the superscript of Cl and a positive sign and the superscript of C ? What exactly must I do to show bond

asked by Lena on July 8, 2009
How would I make the VSEPR for potassium iodide (KI) I believe I made the right Lewis Structure, but am confused on what geometry a VSEPR structure would be. Thanks!

asked by Abby on November 30, 2011
Draw the Lewis structure of [NH2]– Draw the Lewis structure of [(CH3)3O]+ Label(or unlabel) the sp-hybridized atoms, sp2-hybridized atoms and sp3-hybridized atoms. Basically I need help determining which of those atoms are the sp, sp2, sp3 hybridized

asked by Anabelle on September 7, 2009

ap chem
There are several oxides of nitrogen; among the most common are N2O, NO, and NO2. 1.Write the Lewis structures for each of these molecules. In each case the oxygens are terminal atoms. 2. Which of these molecules “violate” the octet rule? 3. Draw resonance

asked by Justyna on January 9, 2007
ap chem
The allene molecule has the following Lewis structure: H2C=C=CH2. Are all four hydrogen atoms in the same plane? The allene molecule has the following Lewis structure: H2C=C=CH2. Are all four hydrogen atoms in the same plane? If not, what is the spatial

asked by mary on December 28, 2012
state noble gas whose electron configuration is attained in a lewis structure for hydrogen cyanide and noble gas attained in lewis structure for cyanogen? I have answered this several times but at times it really wasn’t an answer. I am not familiar with

asked by Pedro on March 7, 2007
Hi, I am having troubles with Lewis structure and VSEPR theory of (ClPO3)2-.Do I use 2 bonds for each O and one for Cl, so its tetrahedral, or do I use 2 bonds for one O and one bond for the other two Os(making dative bonds)+ one for Cl and one pair of

asked by michael on July 30, 2008
Lewis structure of [(CH3)3O]+. Be sure to show all atoms, bonds, lone pairs, and formal charges. Convert CH3CH(Cl)CH(OH)CH3 into a skeletal structure. If you could explain it, it would help. Or somehow do some of it here and explain. Im having a lot of

asked by Amy on September 11, 2009
Chemistry pretty urgent!!!!!!!
Chemical bonding question! The partial Lewis structure that follows (Figure 1) is for a hydrocarbon molecule. In the full Lewis structure, each carbon atom satisfies the octet rule, and there are no unshared electron pairs in the molecule. The

asked by G-Dogg on November 4, 2014
What is the lewis structure for(HN3)

asked by kary on November 14, 2010
How do I draw Lewis Structure for BN and CN-

asked by San on August 18, 2011
what is the lewis structure for N-bromosuccinimide?

asked by Mai on March 29, 2014
lewis structure of HOCH2S-

asked by aly on March 13, 2013

how do you do lewis structure? I cannot seem to understand exactly what to do.

asked by Kay on November 10, 2009
what is the lewis dot structure for BN

asked by shay on October 2, 2012
what does the Lewis Dot Structure of Sr(CN)2 look like?

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2014
what is the lewis structure for CH3?

asked by Anonymous on November 8, 2009
THe thiocyanate ion acts as a Lewis base, donating a pair of electrons to the Fe ^ 3+ ion. Both sulfur and nitrogen atoms have lone pair electrons that can potentially be donated. Therefore, ther are two different structures (linkage isomers) that can be

asked by Judy on June 29, 2010
What is the lewis dot structure of IF2-?

asked by Mely on November 6, 2010
What is the lewis dot structure for IBr4-?

asked by Mely on November 6, 2010
Chemistry 121
What is the lewis dot structure of C2H5F?

asked by Claire on October 21, 2011
11th grade Chemistry
How to draw a Lewis dot structure….

asked by Shay on October 27, 2010
11th grade Chemistry
How to draw a Lewis dot structure….

asked by Shay on October 27, 2010

What’s the lewis dot structure for CH2Cl2 ??

asked by billnyetho on December 3, 2012
What is the lewis dot structure for copper?

asked by Valerie on February 21, 2013
what is the chemical name and lewis structure of NO3 -2

asked by Amanda on October 11, 2012
What is the Lewis structure for salicylic acid ?

asked by Jake on November 23, 2015
how do you draw the lewis structure for PBr3?

asked by madison on September 27, 2007
how do I write “Uv light” in lewis structure?

asked by Kathy R on January 31, 2011
what is the lewis dot structure for CH3OH

asked by kelesha on February 2, 2011
Chemistry Lewis Structure
What is the lewis structure for In+? I have tried everything and the answer seems wrong? Please help me

asked by Toni Jones on April 19, 2011
What is the Lewis structure of the Pb2+ion?

asked by Andrinna on November 5, 2011
What is the lewis structure for Propanoic Acid?

asked by Eddie on December 4, 2010

How do you make CIF2 into a Lewis Structure

asked by Lauren on December 5, 2007
organic chemistry
what is the lewis dot structure for H2NO?

asked by anne divo on September 4, 2008
what is the lewis-dot structure for SiCl2Br2?

asked by chaunce on November 14, 2008
what is the hybridization at O with the lewis structure of 2-propanone?

asked by matt on March 13, 2008
Lewis sit structure of CH3OH

asked by sarfaraj on October 9, 2016
Draw the Lewis structure for SiCl2Br2.

asked by Gina Mitcell on November 16, 2009
how do you draw a Lewis structure for lithium chlorine

asked by Anonymous on July 22, 2013
what is the lewis structure of c3h502 and the formal charge?

asked by gigi on August 7, 2012
chemistry lewis structure
please help me i don’t know how to do this! Draw the lewis structure for: SiO3 -2

asked by sari on November 4, 2011
chemistry lewis structure
help me please! dram the lewis structure of CNO – explain me please! thanks

asked by sari on November 4, 2011

How can I draw a lewis dot structure of XeF2O?

asked by Joseoh on October 30, 2016
What is the Lewis dot structure for LiH? Is it simply Li – H?

asked by James on April 2, 2009
I am having figuring out the Lewis Dot Structure of ICl2-? Can anyone help???

asked by Kara on July 17, 2010
What is the lewis dot structure for Fluoride, F1- and Mg2???

asked by lucy on October 20, 2007
If you were to have a lewis dot structure, such as, C2H5OH, where is the O placed? Between a carbon and an H.

asked by Chemwiz on January 22, 2007
How do you draw a lewis dot structure of s3o

asked by Chem on February 22, 2012
How do u make this in a lewis dot structure? C2H3Cl3

asked by Joyce on March 7, 2011
Lewis Structure of Freon (CCI2F2)? And what is shape?

asked by Brock on March 24, 2012
Chemistry – Lewis Structures (check + help)
I am asked to draw lewis strcutures of the following molecules and ions SF6, BrF5, XeF4, PF5 and IF4-. I have to follow a specific format to draw them, below is an example of SF6, where am i going wrong in the table, since i am not getting six bonds, nor

asked by Farah on February 13, 2011
Organic chem
Classify each as a lewis acid or lewis base… A)H20 B)O2- C)Cu2+ D)SO3 E)AlCl3 Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors. Lewis bases are electron pair donors. Look at H2O, for example. .. H:O: .. H This molecule has no “holes” to accept an electron. Would

asked by Adam on October 15, 2010

Explain why it is necessary to form a double bond in the Lewis structure.

asked by Caitlin on October 7, 2011
How do I know the order of placing dots on the lewis structure? Please give an example.

asked by Rucha on November 16, 2015
What is the Lewis dot structure for LiF? Is it Li – F with 2 dots on each side of F?

asked by James on April 2, 2009
Draw the Lewis structure for N2H2, a neutral molecule.

asked by Casey on September 7, 2009
From the lewis structure of AlCl4- where should I place the formal charge? next to Al or Cl?

asked by Sarah on December 5, 2010
how do u set up the lewis structure for H30+? i know the available electrons is 3 but it has a +1 so it makes ir 2??

asked by madison on October 23, 2007
C4 H10 O or diethyl ether or with a formula of CH3CH2OCH2CH3 its stick structure is H H H H ! ! ! ! .. H-C-C-C-C- O-H ! ! ! ! .. H H H H I used the this ! sign as a sign for bond. pls help me to determine the geometry for each central atom in this

asked by chemdummy on October 5, 2012
chemistry, polar or nonpolar
Why is NO3 nonpolar but CIF3 is polar? I looked at the lewis structures, they look similar, but why is one opposite. also, when something is polar or non polar, my teacher said I should see which atom is more electronegativity is higher and draw arrows

asked by Anonymous on January 25, 2009
In the reaction between CV+ and –OH, one species is acting as the Lewis base, the other as the Lewis acid. (Note: A Lewis acid is not necessarily a proton donor. It is, however, always an electron pair acceptor). Which reagent is the Lewis acid? A. CV+

asked by Sara on July 13, 2010
I need some help to draw a Lewis structure for hydrogen cyanide + what is the noble gas?

asked by Dave B on December 18, 2009

11th grade
How do you draw the Lewis Structure for SO4,SF6,NH3 and H2S

asked by Shannon on December 15, 2009
hpw would i draw a lewis structure for a molecule with 3.5 bonds for example NO2???

asked by lyne on April 20, 2009
Draw the lewis structure for: SiO3 -2 CNO- TeO4 -2 F2PPCl2 thanks!

asked by patricio on November 4, 2011

asked by JEFF on January 25, 2012
draw the lewis structure of CP. include ions pairs and charges.

asked by RQ on September 17, 2014
chemistry (helppp me)
what is the bond order for BeF2? according to the lewis structure? ….according to MO diagrams its 0. 16 valence e-

asked by Anonymous on October 29, 2015
Need help identifying organic functional groups of Mifepristone’s lewis structure.

asked by Tiffany on July 20, 2013
the lewis structure for each of the following species except __ contains a triple bond? N3- O2 2+ N2 NO+ HCCH

asked by Anonymous on July 11, 2010
What are the pros and cons of using the lewis structure? What I have so far is that it shows the shape of the compound.

asked by Anonymous on July 6, 2015
How do I draw the lewis structure for [PF5Cl]- i’m getting confused on this one!! Please explain answer Thanks =))

asked by Stacy on December 1, 2010

Write a Lewis structure of OSF4 in which the formal charges of all atoms are zero

asked by mandy on November 14, 2008
Can someone help draw/explain the Lewis Dot Structure for OPBr3. I’ve tried different things, but none of them seem to work.

asked by M on November 19, 2012
I am having issues drawing the lewis structure for this…can anyone explain? CHCCHsubscript2CH0

asked by George on September 9, 2013
what is the lewis structure with lowest formal charges and label the charge of each atom in NO

asked by Missy on September 20, 2010
Chemistry URGENT
Please show how N and O are combined to make NO^+2 in Lewis dot structure. I’m having a hard time. Thanks

asked by Lisa on February 19, 2014

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choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel so far

The giver Choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel so far?
17,095 results
The giver
The giver Choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel so far? A. Memories are important to life B. War should be avoided at all costs C. Friends and family are precious D. Teenagers are curious by nature Is it a?

asked by English on May 19, 2015

  1. Are there any themes that run through more than one of the memoirs in this unit? If so, what are they? List at least two themes that appear in more than one of the memoirs you read, and explain the similarities you noticed in how the author explored

asked by My name on September 14, 2015
L.A. The Giver!
Which of the following passages from the novel support the idea that the Giver is a heroic character? A. I do know that I sat here numb with horror. Wretched with helpessness. B. “Be quiet Jonas,” The Giver commanded in a strange voice. “Watch/” C. The

asked by ASAP!!! HEEEEEEELP on May 6, 2016
The Giver
Which statement provides the best summary of chapter 15? A. Jonas finds the giver in pain and offers to help. B. Jonas experiences tiny pinpricks of snow that touch his body and melt on his tounge. C. The Giver explains to Jonas why the pain and the

asked by Anonymous on May 22, 2015
L A/The Giver
The Giver and Jonas come up with a plan that would allow Jonas to escape. What does the Giver’s refusal to accompany Jonas tell you about the Giver’s character? 1: While the Giver does not like the rules of his community, he feels he must stay to help the

asked by Marylyn on May 20, 2015

write a short story based on the themes shakesphere explored in i have to write the themes of macbeth and explain them or the assignment is something else.i think i have to explain the themes

asked by paul jones on November 2, 2008
What are some Themes in Chapter 15-17 The Giver?

asked by angela on May 5, 2017
The book for this is The Giver. Please check my answers. Which of the following passages from the novel support the idea that the Giver is a heroic character? A. I do know that I sat here numb with horror. Wretched with helplessness. B. “Be quiet Jonas,”

asked by Twenty One Pilots fan on May 9, 2016
English – Essay Writing
I’ve just read the book ‘To Kill a Mockingbird and I have to write an essay on the question “Explain how the themes of prejudice and tolerance are explored in the novel” I’ve started on my essay, but it’s been a long time since I’ve written one. I’ve made

asked by TP on March 25, 2008
english answer check please, 4 questions

  1. To plan your time for a research project, it is best to (1 point) divide the time spent on each step evenly. keep your deadlines flexible. start at the beginning and plan from there.* work backward. 2. Which of the following is not a guideline for

asked by Anonymous on March 15, 2017
English Analysis
Reading The Stranger by the lovely Albert Camus. Just need help understanding this question: -After I listed some themes I explored, my teacher asks: “Given the themes you listed, are any conventions questioned based on the treatment of a given theme?

asked by Albert on October 9, 2012
Archetypes frequently appear in literature with – a- contradictory themes b- general themes c- universal themes d- specific themes my answer is D

asked by Steve on August 3, 2015
which of the following words best describes the cultural context of there community in the novel. the giver

asked by mac and may on May 13, 2016
this is another question for “lord of the flies” i need theme statements for themes. i came up with this for one of them. theme statement: responsibility is necessary for survival. i’m having a hard time coming up with others however i did come up with

asked by Anonymous on September 5, 2006
language arts
The giver Choose the statement that best explains the meaning of the following passage: But now, with twelve coming so soon, and the volunteer hours ending, it didn’t seem to meter. The freedom to choose where to spend those hours always seemed a wonderful

asked by lisa on May 5, 2016

Language arts
The giver Choose the statement that best explains the meaning of the following passage: But now, with twelve coming so soon, and the volunteer hours ending, it didn’t seem to meter. The freedom to choose where to spend those hours always seemed a wonderful

asked by Help on May 15, 2015
Archetypes frequently appear in literature with Contradictory themes General themes Universal themes(My answer) Specific themes Can someone check to see if my answer is correct? Thanks.

asked by AlexanderDennis on September 2, 2014
In the book Giver — the committee of elders consulted the giver for what?

asked by steve on April 22, 2014
Existential psychology has four basic themes. Define the themes. How are those themes different from humanistic theory themes of positive psychology and suffering of existentialism?

asked by adam on December 18, 2015
Human Behavior
Existential psychology has four basic themes. Define the themes. How are those themes different from humanistic theory themes of positive psychology and suffering of existentialism?

asked by james on December 20, 2015
In the Giver, why was the Giver bitter about the COuncil of Elders

asked by Reina A. on November 29, 2010
We are supposed to give a presentation of a certain author, we are supposed to talk about customary themes; but even though I have look it up I can’t understand what it is, can you guys tell me? Thanks in Advance (Broken Link Removed) This site has a good

asked by Claudia on April 23, 2007
Choose a film, as most of you already did, and focus on one theme that resides throughout the film. If you feel ambitious, then you can choose several themes to discuss in your paper; however, make sure you connect the themes to each other (if I signed off

asked by Yasmine on October 25, 2015
Biology 100
Choose one theory spontaneous generation theory or cell theory. Select one statement that corresponds to the theory you want to refute or suppot. I choose cell theory and the one statement that I choose is all living things are made up of cells. Provide

asked by Rayna on November 10, 2009
A student makes the following statement: Chocolate- covered donuts are 10 times better than plain, glazed donuts. Which of the following correctly describes the student’s statement? a-The student’s statement is a quantitative observation. b-The

asked by Anonymous on September 14, 2013

English writing
Please ASAP can someone give me an introductory paragraph on the Truman show and the giver with the title and author and the thesis statement ? Please just an idea I need help

asked by Jessica on December 13, 2012
Read the statement below and choose the word which best describes the writer’s tone. I cannot stand the noisy, destructive woodpeckers anymore! This weekend, we will put down a repellant. defeated angry unhappy disgusted B?

asked by Bri on November 18, 2017
Read the statement below and choose the word which best describes the writer’s tone. Please do eat the last piece of pizza. I haven’t had any yet, but you should definitely have a third piece. sincere gloomy sarcastic humorous A?

asked by Bri on November 17, 2017
Can someone tell me if my statement below is correct? I have to write a paper on The Lottery comparing and constrasting the theme and style. I am not sure if my themes and styles are correct or if I have them mixed up. I have trouble with picking out the

asked by Tim on June 22, 2009
Language arts
List some important ideas that the Giver includes. Why did you choose those ideas? I have no idea what this question means. Thank you for your help

asked by Shawn on May 16, 2018
1: Classify the quadrilateral using the name that best describes it I tried posting it but it didn’t work 2: which statement is a true statement 3: which statement is a true statement 4: Which property is not a characteristic of a polygon 5: Which figure

asked by Please Help on January 19, 2018
The Giver At the beginning of the novel, Jonas describes himself as apprehensive. Why is he apprehensive? 1:An unknown plane is flying overhead 2:The Ceremony of Twelves is coming soon. 3: A loudspeaker orders everyone inside. I pick # 1…is this correct?

asked by Marylyn on May 18, 2015
L.A Ms. Sue? or anybody?

  1. Which of the following aspects of the setting is evidence that the giver is an example of science fiction A. Jonas rides a bike to school every day B. jonas’s father works in a daycare center C. a loudspeaker makes announcements to the community. D.

asked by anonymous on May 11, 2015
ead the statement, and choose the word that best describes the writer’s tone. Please do eat the last piece of pizza. I haven’t had any yet, but you should definitely have a third piece. sarcastic sincere humorous gloomy Would this be sincere?

asked by Caitlyn on November 9, 2018
what are motifs? Motifs are like repeated images or themes that run through a story. In order to get a good idea about them, here are some analyses of motifs and themes in a couple of well known works:

asked by kanisha on December 10, 2006

language arts
1: list some important ideas that the giver includes. why did you choose those ideas? 2: tell how using a reading role helped you understand the book. support your response with at least 2 pieces of evidence from the novel

asked by yeet on May 1, 2018
L.A help please
Read the following passage from the novel. A sergeant yelled at Johnny as he started to limp past them, but when he explained in a piteous whine that his foot had been squashed by a blow from a soldier’s musket and all he wanted was to get home to his

asked by Princess Princess on December 18, 2014
Engish Literature
Chapter Seven explores the role of symbols in conveying literary themes. Themes are abundant in literaryworks (though they are at some times more obvious than at others). Select one short story from the reading assignments (from either Week One or Week

asked by Anonymous on January 23, 2013
English 12
In your understanding is this thesis statement clear enough? What other improvements would you make? The topic is “Theme of Overcoming struggle in the course text” Many themes are presented in: Hamlet, Death of a Salesmen, Life of Pi, the Road, and the

asked by Andy on January 23, 2011
social studies
how were the explorations of francisco pizarro and hernando cortes similar? how were they differnt discribe the lands the french explored in the new world you ahve read about countries that explored and claimed lands in the americans what changes occurred

asked by garrick on November 23, 2009
American History
During the 1820 and 1830 a distinct American culture began to emerge. What philosophies, artists and artists works contributed to this culture? What were the unique American themes explored within these works? Help I don’t know where t begin to answer this

asked by Brenda on May 2, 2013
In the novel The Lord of the Flies, how do the many themes connect? So far the themes I have discovered have to do with society being built on ethics, fear or fear of the unknown, the loss of innocence, the capability of evil in human nature, and the

asked by Kailyn on October 1, 2012
political theory
I don’t have an assignment due, but I’m having trouble understanding the themes that are in the Persian Letters by Montesquieu. Has anyone read them? I’m in college. I’m having trouble understanding the Harem sequence, and these themes: lack of self

asked by bayley on March 3, 2015
grammar check
which is a compound subject? 1) my sister and i saw a dinosaur at the museum. 2) marco polo lived in italy and explored places in china.i choose number 1. identif the complete predicate. thomas edison invented the light bulb, among other things. d)invented

asked by alley on June 14, 2009

  1. The statement, “Paraguay is one of two landlocked South American nations” describes what type of region? a.cultural b.economic c.physical d.political 2. The statement, “Farmers in this area benefit from a long growing season” describes what type of

asked by Courtney on September 9, 2010

Grammar and Composition
here’s an assignment that i have to do: Phone Book Character Select a name from the phonebook that makes an impression on you. Examples: Angelic J. Pureheart What kind of impressions might the name Angelic J. Pureheart give you? Would she be a member of

asked by y912f on November 3, 2009
english 2
i need to write an essay on TO KILL MOCKINGBIRD, and the topic is; “Discuss three themes of the novel. in addition to the more obvious themes of prejudice and injustice that the author develops, other possible themes include: growing up, superstition,

asked by km on April 19, 2011
check geo
What are the most abundant resources in this region? A)soil and coal B)minerals and soil C)water and soil D)minerals and water my choose is b most europeans who came to africa south of sahara between 1400s and 1700s? A)avoided the african interior

asked by henry on September 10, 2009
Thesis statement
How do I write a thesis statement about why I choose Medical Billing and Coding as a career. I have read what a thesis statement is, but my writing is terrible and I just can’t get the understanding of what to include in my thesis statement

asked by Fannie on February 18, 2010
Enlish lit
How do the styles and themes of “Theme for English B” and “Ballad of Birmingham” compare? I read both, but I don’t understand how that could compare in themes of styles. They have both different themes and styles!

asked by AnonJ on May 23, 2014
How do the styles and themes of “Theme for English B” and “Ballad of Birmingham” compare? I read both, but I don’t understand how that could compare in themes of styles. They have both different themes and styles! x2

asked by Janon on May 23, 2014
For each of the following questions, choose the correct answer. Which statement best describes inductive reasoning? A- It uses previously proven or accepted properties to reach a conclusion. B- It uses observation of patterns and past events to reach a

asked by Skye on October 5, 2014
Which verb tense is used in “has explored” in the following sentence? I am pretty sure he has explored that option. past perfect future present perfect present Would this be present?

asked by Caitlyn on December 10, 2018
I have to write a short story based on the themes Shakespeare explored in Macbeth. I have what I want to write about but I need help turning it into a short story. I don’t need any links about short stories please, I know how to look up how to write short

asked by Anonymous on August 19, 2008
I am writing two paragraphs about two themes but I can’t think of two conclusion sentences. The themes are friendship and sacrifice. Help please? Thanks

asked by Emma on September 16, 2012

Language Arts

  1. One would expect people living in utopian society to be A. wealthy B. difficult C. idealistic D. impossible* 2. Which statement best describes a utopian community? A. People band together to share resources and duties equally.* B. Resources are

asked by Dude that smells on May 3, 2017
I am writing my essays and I wrote them but i not know how to start the beginnings of them. this on movie smoke signals. i am writing on themes, but i cant start intro like “in the film .. because someone else be doing that for movie review, so i not know

asked by Mohammad on September 19, 2012
Language arts

  1. One would expect people living in a utopian society to be A. wealthy B. difficult C. idealistic D. impossible 2. Which statement best describes a utopian community? A. People band together to share resources and duties equally. B. Resources are

asked by Check Please on May 4, 2017
How do these themes about male roles appear in the television and movies watch? What messages do these themes provide for men and women about masculinity and femininity?

asked by paula on July 27, 2009
How do the themes about male roles appear in the television and movies that we watch? What messages do these themes provide for men and women about masculinity and femininity?

asked by paula on July 27, 2009
How do these themes about male roles appear in the television and movies watch? What messages do these themes provide for men and women about masculinity and femininity?

asked by joe on July 21, 2009
How do these themes about male roles appear in the television and movies watch? What messages do these themes provide for men and women about masculinity and femininity?

asked by tiffany on July 21, 2009
1.) Choose the term that best describes the underlined phrase Gripping the rail,*** “Lindsey stepped onto the ice”. *** A.) independent clause B.) adjective clause C.) adverb clause D.) noun clause A 2.) Choose the term that best describes the underlined

asked by Answer check on January 13, 2016
Examine the three themes of the renaissance (humanism. the critical spirit and empiricism). In what ways are these themes reflected in the development of american society between 1660 and 1750?

asked by Megan on September 23, 2012
1.Witch statement BEST describes yokohama? 2.Which describes a difference between life in Japan and life in the United States? 3.Which innovation would BEST address a challenge facing modern Japan?

asked by Mclovin on March 24, 2015

Grammar and Composition
‘here’s an assignment that i have to do: Phone Book Character Select a name from the phonebook that makes an impression on you. Examples: Angelic J. Pureheart What kind of impressions might the name Angelic J. Pureheart give you? Would she be a member of

asked by y912f on November 3, 2009
Language Arts
Five themes of geography as they relate to A Light in the Forest. I haven’t read this book, but you might check on the themes section in here: =)

asked by Ryan on January 15, 2007
Read the statement below and choose the word which best describes the writer’s tone. Elie Wiesel was born in Sighet, a Romanian town located in the Carpathian Mountains. He was the third of four children and the only son born to his parents. disbelieving

asked by Bri on November 17, 2017
which of the following describes scientific inquiry?(1 point) A.a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen in experiment. B.facts,figtures,and other evidence gathered through observation. (C).the diverse ways in which scientists study the

asked by chris on August 27, 2014
which of the following describes scientific inquiry?(1 point) A.a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen in experiment. B.facts,figtures,and other evidence gathered through observation. (C).the diverse ways in which scientists study the

asked by chris on August 27, 2014
Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Find the probability. The table describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers. |Non|Light|Heavy|Total Men| 311| 82 | 74 |467 Women| 329| 68 | 60 |457 Total|

asked by Sarah on September 2, 2010
MGT asap
Select one of the following statements from p.221 of Supervision: Key Link to Productivity (8th ed.). Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Explain your reasons. 1. “The supervisor’s primary objective should be to avoid making mistakes in

asked by troyer0269 on November 13, 2008
I need help with this question. I just don’t understand what it’s asking me. Could someone tell me how I should start it, please? Thank you! Writers often communicate their themes by building clues into the story. Choose one story from Collection 4 and

asked by Olivia on January 18, 2012

  1. Behavioral therapy began with ___. (1 point) Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner John Watson* Erik Erikson Read the statement. Choose the correct answer. 2. Watson is most (in)famous for performing experiments on __. (1 point) A baby* a

asked by Anonymous on May 23, 2018
Grammar Please hurry please
Identify the words that correctly complete the following sentence. If none of the choices are correct, choose “none of the above.” In a sentence with a compound verb, each verb (Points : 1) may have a different subject must have the same subject may not

asked by Jenny on August 27, 2013

critical thinking
Categorize each fallacy statement by copying fallacy type from the list below into the Fallacy Type ext box adjacent the fallacy statement. Provide an explanation as to why you think it is that fallacy type in the Why it is this fallacy type text box

asked by ava on February 6, 2010
Which is the least common way for modern writers to convey their themes? a. through explicit statement b. through development of a central conflict c. through the values and motivations of the characters d. through the thoughts of the characters

asked by Jon on October 31, 2012
Song of Myself+English
Has anyone read Song of Myself by Walt Whitman?? I can’t find any themes for it. So hard to understand. Would slavery be a theme? I need atleast 4 themes associated with Song of Myself.

asked by Chopsticks on February 19, 2009
Social Studies
Which statement best summarizes direct democracy? A)Voters have the right to propose and respond to laws through the voting process. B)Voters have the right to choose whether to vote. C)Voters have the right to choose for whom to vote. D)Voters have the

asked by Mike on December 10, 2015
I don’t know what rhetorical devices these themes fall under. I know all these are themes but the themes are harder to figure out . 1. The value of dreams can be both a positive and be both a positive and negative influence. 2. It is important for men and

asked by Notafanofschool on March 8, 2015
cud anyone describe in brief or tell a site that describe the theme of “abroad at a ship’s helm” and “the moon is distant from the sea” please. im not sure if i understood the themes of both the poems. after understanding it i might be able to tell if both

asked by bindiya farswani on December 2, 2009
CRt 205
CRT-205 Week 5 Fallacy Matrix Categorizing Fallacies • Categorize each fallacy statement by copying fallacy type from the list below into the Fallacy Type text box adjacent the fallacy statement. • Provide an explanation as to why you think it is that

asked by angelee on December 5, 2009
What are the 5 themes of geography for los angeles, california? do you have any sites to suggest to find the 5 themes of geography

asked by thalia on May 31, 2014
Core World History
I Choose two themes that would be appropriate for thematic time lines of important events from prehistory to A.D. 1600. The rise and fall of empires all over the world, and scientific discoveries and inventions, what are 5 events for each them that I’ve

asked by Lenae on October 7, 2016
Good Thesis Statement?
Is this a good thesis statement? John Keats’ odes and letters advance the Romantic literary movement through use of three common themes: living life to the fullest, overcoming hardships, and placing passion over reason.

asked by Norah on February 24, 2011

what themes do old man the sea and macbeth have in commmon? tragedy? You can look each one up at and read the “themes, symbols … ” section in each and see what you find. Let us know if you have questions once you have looked up and

asked by james on June 19, 2007
what is a good thesis statement that I can form out of this prompt for A Raisin In The Sun choose one of the following characters. identify and analyze the character’s primary internal conflict and external conflict and how each is resolved . I choose

asked by Notafanofschool on March 11, 2015
algebra 3
what statement best describes the function f(x)=2x^3+2x^2-x?

asked by kevin on May 6, 2010

  1. Which of the following best describes the economy of the 1920s in the United States? (1 point) It was a period of economic hardship. It was a wartime economy. It was a boom time, or a period of great economic growth.**** It was a period that did not see

asked by XenaGonzalez on April 23, 2015
American government check my answer
Statement 1 – Illegal immigrants who have resided in the United States for years should qualify for alternative paths to citizenship. Statement 2 – Diversity in backgrounds and experience creates a society that teaches tolerance and respect. Statement

asked by Anon on May 18, 2017
Lara wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement One: If two lines intersect, then they intersect at exactly one point Statement Two: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the length of

asked by Please Help Me on September 29, 2011
Lara wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement One: If two lines intersect, then they intersect at exactly one point Statement Two: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the length of

asked by Sam on September 25, 2011
Which statement is true about Portuguese exploration? A) The exploration ended after the death of Prince Henry in 1480. B) The Portuguese were attacked and defeated by Muslim traders on the East African coast. C) The Portuguese explored the

asked by mic on December 27, 2016
Georgia’s Government
Which statement BEST describes why constitutions are needed?

asked by Soccer Mom on February 5, 2019
Which statement best describes the composition of magma?

asked by James on February 17, 2014

Social Issues
Which statement best describes the militia theory?

asked by Dakota on February 18, 2016
which statement describes a type of plagiarism.

asked by Britteny on January 5, 2012
Which statement best describes deductive reasoning?

asked by jarrod on October 13, 2015
social studies
Which statement best describes the Louisiana Purchase?

asked by Sam on February 14, 2019
check my work 22 km=m A=2.2 13 oz =_g A= Choose the most reasonable measure of weight. A calculator A=0.5 kg Complete the following statement. 540 s = __ min A= 9min Complete the following statement. 12 ft = __ in. A=144 in.

asked by Terry B on April 6, 2008

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in which of the following situations is a sound wave most likely to travel through air

  1. In which of the following situations is a sound wave most likely to travel through air?

A) An alarm clock rings in a vacuum.
B) A giant star explodes.
C) A grasshopper eats a leaf.
D) An astronaut uses tools in space.

  1. Which of the following factors determines the loudness of a sound?

A) Frequency of the sound.
B) Amplitude of the sound.
C) The temperature of the medium.
D) The density of the medium.

  1. Which of the following affects the speed of sound?

A) The amplitude of the wave.
B) The frequency of the wave.
C) The phase of the medium.
D) The wavelength.

  1. A blind person walks through the neighborhood making loud clicking noises with his tongue. He doesn’t use a walking stick nor does he have a seeing-eye-dog. However, he avoids ever obstacle and is able to navigate his way around the neighborhood safely. What can be inferred from the given information?

A) He is detecting the reflection of sound waves.
B) He is detecting the refraction of sound waves.
C) He is detecting the absorption of sound waves.
D) He is detecting the diffraction of sound waves.

Please help quickly!! Thanks!

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asked by Jasmine
Dec 9, 2013

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posted by Princess Anna
Dec 9, 2013
K, Thanks Anna. That’s what I thought. 😀

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Your welcome 🙂

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1 cant c. cause a grasshopper eat really quiet…

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I am going to see what answers get me 100%….

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lashyla is correct

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lashyla is right

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May 16, 2016
These are the answers I took the test and I got 100%.

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Thank you, I got 100% on the quiz!

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thanks I got 100%

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Apr 26, 2017
ty guys

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posted by a pimp named slick back
May 15, 2017
In which of the following situation is light most likely to be refracted

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Sep 15, 2017

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Sep 20, 2017

I think c am i right?

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Nov 2, 2017

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Nov 2, 2017
THX 100%

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Nov 13, 2017

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posted by Welp
Dec 1, 2017

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posted by Andreas
Mar 14, 2018

the answers are correct. And Andreas, that’s not going to stop anyone from cheating. I commend you for your efforts, though. Nice try.

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Mar 22, 2018
Andrea your cheating cause your on here. Think about it Ñina.

And Boo is right


Thank you Hunny~!

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posted by \/(._.)\/
Mar 28, 2018

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posted by N
Apr 29, 2018
C because every thing else cant make noise because they are deprived ofbair so even though “They eat real quiet” they still make a noise.

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The answers are


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May 3, 2018


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May 9, 2018
The answers are
I just took the test and I got 100%

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posted by Thank you
May 9, 2018
@BOO is correct! Thanks love! 🙂

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May 10, 2018
Lexxy? Lexey?!

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posted by Cereal…. is life. -Life Cereal
May 15, 2018

boo is correct 🙂

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May 21, 2018
Unit 4 Lesson 2

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Nov 6, 2018
thxs hunnies

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Nov 27, 2018

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Feb 11, 2019

  1. C
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A
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    Mar 18, 2019


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Apr 1, 2019
thank u so much LaShyla that helped alot much thanks

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Apr 2, 2019
for connections unit 4 lesson 2


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Apr 9, 2019

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which line models the data points better and why

  1. Which line models the data points better and why?

blue, because the data points are all close to the line

red, because it goes through one of the points

i think that is A

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I agree.

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  1. The trend of the scatter plot is increasing, because the scatter plot is going higher. 63 3
    posted by Roman
    Mar 9, 2017

Roman is right! 100%

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posted by 1
Mar 13, 2017
Roman is right. trust roman answers if your doing lesson 8 modeling data with lines

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posted by CCA
Mar 23, 2017
Roman is so right i got a 6 out of 6

3 1
posted by jackie
Mar 29, 2017
number 7 is incorrect it would be A ( the population is decreasing over time)

3 3
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Mar 31, 2017
roman is correct for 7th grade connexus i got %100

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posted by marx
Mar 31, 2017

Thanks so much

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Apr 26, 2017
Thank you so much, Roman!

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posted by Bonnie Key
May 22, 2017
Updated Answers there has recently been an additional question so here are the answers now.
8)The trend of the scatter plot is increasing, because the scatter plot is going higher.
100% garunteed

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posted by ::::
Feb 6, 2018
As of 2018, there are only 7 questions and all of Roman’s answers are correct including #7. Thank you!

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Feb 15, 2018
@Roman is correct. Just make sure to write the description for the last question on your own. & use your own words.

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Feb 16, 2018

thank you roman

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Feb 16, 2018
roman is right math check answers is wrong

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posted by Anonymous
Feb 19, 2018
:::: Is correct just took the quiz for the 8 questions!

2 0
Mar 5, 2018
Hes right bc i had 8 questions

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posted by ::: is right for meee !!! Connexus
Mar 23, 2018
Roman is correct. For me, I only had 7 questions.
1) B
2) C
3) B
4) C
5) C
6) A
7) The trend is a positive trend. You know this because the line goes up from left to right. (That’s what my answer was and my teacher gave me all points of credit)

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posted by Anonymous
Apr 12, 2018

I only have 5 questions

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Apr 24, 2018
Same Susanna

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posted by Smfh
May 3, 2018
I have 6 questions, one of them is a writing one

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posted by PearsonConnexus
May 10, 2018
@:::: is correct I got a 100%!! thx

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posted by Shay
Feb 25, 2019

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. C
  5. C
  6. A
  7. Trend is positive..scatter plot going higher left to right. 1 0
    posted by Hal
    Mar 2, 2019

As of 3/7/2019 ::: is correct for 8th grade Lesson 8: Modeling Data with Lines. They may change up the answers (because they suck and only do it with math) so don’t be mad at me when that time comes. Goodluck guys.

3 1
posted by KpopIsAwful
Mar 7, 2019

0 0
posted by Ruthie
Mar 26, 2019
Roman is indeed 100% correct!

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Apr 3, 2019

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you are hiking along a trail

Suppose you are hiking along a trail. Make a comparison between your displacement and your distance traveled.
Check all that apply.

-Your displacement must be less than your distance traveled.
-Your displacement must be greater than your distance traveled.

-Your displacement can be greater than your distance traveled.

-Your displacement must be equal to your distance traveled.

-Your displacement can be equal to your distance traveled.

-Your displacement can be less than your distance traveled.

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asked by sarah
Sep 12, 2015
Check the last two.

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Sep 12, 2015
I don’t buy III being correct.

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Sep 13, 2015

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Sep 16, 2015
1 and 2

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Sep 20, 2015

The Last two is Correct.

Your Displacement CAN be equal or less than your distance traveled.

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Sep 2, 2016
c and d

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rank these bonds from most ionic to most covalent in character.

Rank these bonds from most ionic to Most covalent in character Br-F Ca-F F-F Cl-F K-F
5,731 results
Middle ga state
Rank these bonds from most ionic to Most covalent in character Br-F Ca-F F-F Cl-F K-F

asked by Jill on November 24, 2015
What type of bonding holds the compound, sodium cyanide, together? The CN bond is covalent. The Na to CN bond is, in most minds, an ionic bond. The electronegativity of C is about 2.1 and that of Na is about 1; therefore, with a difference of about 1 it is

asked by MARK on February 7, 2007
what are some examples of covalent bonds and what are some examples of ionic bonds? Electrons are shared in covalent bonds. Electrons are exchanged in ionic bonds. Typical ionic compounds are NaCl, MgCl2, LiI, etc. Typical covalent compounds are CH4,

asked by Leeann on January 29, 2007
I was wondering if somebody could help me with this… Classify the following substances as covalent molecules or ionic compounds: a. MgO e. LiCl b. NI3 f. SF4 c. CuS g. XeF4 d. NO2 h. CsF How do you know if they are covalent or ionic bonds? Metal +

asked by Isabel on October 24, 2006
Magnesium nitrate contains chemical bonds that are ? 1. Covalent Only 2. Ionic Only 3. Both Covalent And Ionic 4. Neither Covalent Nor Ionic The answer is 3, but I don’t know why. How does NO3 even bond?

asked by danny123 on November 11, 2010

Please see if I have the right answer. The three atoms in a water molecule are held together by oxygen bonds, covalent bond, surface tension, hydrogen bonds, or gravity. I think it’s covalent bonds. Am I right? Water molecules, even inflowing water, can

asked by Pat on December 8, 2006
Are the bonds for these substances correct? Sodium chloride – ionic Sucrose – covalent Copper – metallic Calcium chloride – ionic Carbon – covalent Mercury – ionic Naphthalene – covalent Are any of these substances not strictly ionic, covalent, or

asked by Anonymous on January 13, 2016
Rank the bonds between the listed atoms from most ionic to most covalent: -AlO -CN -SCl -KF

asked by Anonymous on March 5, 2017
classify the compound as having ionic, polar covalent, or pure covalent bonds. Sb2P5 I know that a metal and nonmetal form an ionic bond, and two nonmetals form covalent bonds. The trouble I am having is that Sb is a metalliod and when it forms with a

asked by Kara on December 9, 2008
A substance in a solid at room temperature. It is unable to conduct electricity as a solid but can conduct electricity as a liquid. This compound melts at 755 degrees celsius. Would you expect this compound to have ionic bonds, metallic bonds, or covalent

asked by JAKE on February 28, 2008
a) Define the following terms: • Electronegativity • Bond polarity • Ionization energy b) What is the difference between ionic bonds, covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds? Give two examples of each c) Draw Lewis structures for each of the

asked by chansa on June 7, 2016
which of the following statements are true there are 2 polar covalent bonds in water there are 3 ionic bonds in water there is 1 ionic and 1 covalent bond in water electrons are less attracted to oxygen than hydrogen

asked by brenda on August 28, 2009
Ionic bonds and covalent bonds: Ionic Bond(s) for: K&S -> K2S N&Be -> Be3N2 Al&P -> AlP Covalent Bond(s) for: C&F -> CF4 S&O -> OS Cl&Se -> SeCl4

asked by -Untamed- on October 13, 2011
Compare the three types of bonds based on valence electrons. Explain why S-H bond lengths are longer than O-H bond lengths. Which element has a greater bond energy, oxygen or nitrogen and why. Determine if the following compounds are likely to have ionic

asked by mido on December 13, 2010
__ are similar to covalent bonds in that they hold atoms together. They are different from covalent bonds in that they _ . A. Ionic bonds; hold atoms together within a molecule B. Intermolecular forces; require less energy to break C.

asked by Cortney on March 18, 2015

How do i figure this? State whether the following compound contain polar covalent bonds, non-polar covalent bonds, or ionic bonds, based on their electronegativities. 1)KF_________ Look up the electronegativity values for K and F and make your decision. We

asked by Bryan on December 17, 2006
Are binary compounds ionic or covalent? If they are covalent? If they are covalent, I thought they don’t form bonds that way, since they share electrons.

asked by Emily on March 15, 2011

  1. An atom that loses or gains electrons is called a(n)_. isotope proton neutron ion* 2.Which subatomic particles are most involved in chemical bonding? protons electrons* neutrons isotopes 3.The main types of chemical bonds are. ionic, covalent,

asked by Sam on September 7, 2017
water molecules
water molecules separate positive and negative ions from one another by forming covalent bonds, ionic bonds valence shells hydration shells It forms a solution. Since solution isn’t one of the answers, hydratin shells is the next best answer. OR, you can

asked by maxie on January 17, 2007
Ionic bonds and covalent bonds, which one is the stronger. My present teacher said that covalent bond is the strongest one. I learned ionic interaction is the strongest and many chem. books say so. Now i am confused. Is my present teacher right. Please

asked by bun on October 5, 2010
Two students Mac & Cheese, were arguing about covalent and ionic bonds. Mac says that covalent bonds could be compared to a good marriage. Do you think one has a better comparison than the other or are both of them equally right ?

asked by Brionna on November 1, 2011
Chemistry (please check)
1)Which of the following compounds has the largest lattice energy: LiF LiCl NaF NaCl 2)Which of the following compounds has the most ionic character in its bonding: CaBr2 GeBr4 KBr GaBr3 3)Using the electronegativity table on page 364 of your text, which

asked by Abi on April 15, 2011
plse help me with this How are valance electrons involved in the formation of covalent bonds? How do atoms in covalent bonds become slightly negative or slightly positive? explain how attractions between molocules could cause water to have a higher

asked by Amy on November 3, 2008
How would you contrast single convalent bonds, double covalent bonds, ionic bonds?

asked by tameka on February 2, 2013
benzoic acid: covalent magnesium chloride: ionic petrolatum: covalent potassium iodide: ionic sodium sulfate: ionic sucrose: covalent

asked by JayJay on January 16, 2008

what are the role of the electrons in ionic bonds,covalent bonds and metallic bonds

asked by kayla on December 3, 2008
10th grade
Which bond type is soluble in alcohol? Metallic, ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent bonds? Which bond type has hard, brittle crystals? (I think the second is ionic, but not positive.)

asked by GO OU!!! on December 17, 2008
How do electrons interact in non polar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and ionic bonds?

asked by Anonymous on January 23, 2012
How electrons interact in non-polar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and ionic bonds?

asked by Kelso on January 23, 2012
Are binary compounds ionic or covalent? If they are covalent, I thought they don’t form bonds that way, since they share electrons.

asked by Emily on March 15, 2011
For following problems 1 to 5, classify the bonds as: a) non-polar covalent b) polar covalent c) ionic d) metallic e) super covalent 1.) O-Cl 2.) Li-Br 3.) N-N 4.) N-H 5.) C-S

asked by Jay on December 6, 2010
Science help!
Compounds with high melting points have _. covalent bonds metallic bonds ionic bonds no chemical bonds 4. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of minerals? crystalline structure formed by inorganic processes definite chemical composition

asked by Anonymous on October 5, 2014
Check? Answers On bottom. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent bond When an atom gains or loses valence electrons and becomes charged, it is known as

asked by Victoria on December 13, 2012
Check? Answers On bottom. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent bond When an atom gains or loses valence electrons and becomes charged, it is known as

asked by Victoria on December 13, 2012
Check? Answers On bottom. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent bond When an atom gains or loses valence electrons and becomes charged, it is known as

asked by Victoria on December 13, 2012

ionic or covalent
can you check for me? Calcium Chloride: covalent Citric Acid: ionic Phenyl Salicylate: covalent Potassium Iodide: ionic Sodium Chloride: covalent Sucrose: ionic Thanks so much!!!! You must have some reason for picking ionic or covalent. How did you arrive

asked by Hodgkin on June 19, 2006
Predict whether the following bonds are ionic, covalent, or polar covalent based on the bonding atoms electronegativities: N2 The Al-O bond in Al2O3 MgO CuS

asked by Lisa on December 3, 2012
The foreces of attraction between molecules of I2 are: covalent bonds ionic bonds dipole-dipole attractions london forces hydrogen bonds

asked by Lauren on February 25, 2008
in a 300-500 word essay distinguish between an ionic bond, a covalent bond, hydrogen bond, a single bond, a double bond, and a triple bond. Explain the behavior of the electrons in each type of bond. Give examples of compounds that result from both ionic

asked by GKMB on May 13, 2010
Can anyone help me check my classifications of these into metallic, ionic, molecular or covalent network, and if I am wrong tell me why Aluminum – Mettalic Ascorbic acid – ionic Graphite – covalent Paraffin – molecular Palmitic acid – ionic Sodium chloride

asked by Richard on February 20, 2018
Can someone check to see if my answers look ok. For the following crystals, explain how their melting points are related to the bonding forces and the crystal structure: a)Copper,Cu Copper has metallic bonds between atoms. It can occur as isometric cubic

asked by Nancy on January 21, 2008
what is an example of a substance that has both ionic &covalent bonds & where are these bonds formed.

asked by jess on February 13, 2011
What are the differences between ionic bonds and covalent bonds?

asked by Jackie on March 1, 2011
What is the usual state of matter for covalent compounds? Ionic compounds? What is the smallest particle for each? What types of particles are formed by covalent bonds?

asked by Twilight lover on March 3, 2009
Question 1) Consider the following reaction of calcium hydride (CaH2) with molten sodium metal:CaH2(s) + 2 Na(l) -> 2 NaH(s) + Ca(l) Identify the species being oxidized and the species being reduced? Question 2) Give the names to the binary compounds

asked by Ashley on July 27, 2015

What is the charatteristic of covalent bonding meaining what happens and then what is the result from what happened (like does it form a molecule, compund, etc. . . Same thing for ionic bodnging The ionic part is discussed below. Look for a chemistry post

asked by direct in Effect on November 30, 2006
i need to deduce the type of bonding that holds sodium cyanide together and write a balanced equation for sodium cyanide dissolving in water any help would be appreciated sarah Na^+ + :C:::N:^- Na to CN bond is ionic (more or less). C-N bond is covalent.

asked by sarah on March 1, 2007
Classify the following bonds as ionic, covalent, or neither (O, atomic number 8; F, atomic number 9; Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic number 17; U, atomic number 92). a.) O with F b.) Ca with Cl _ c.) Na with Na _ d.) U with Cl

asked by Mary on November 13, 2009
so i took a sat ii subject practice test and the question was true/false/ ionic bonds are the strongest bonds. answer was true but what about NETWORK COVALENT?

asked by Kerrie on May 1, 2009
ap biology
Molecules that result from this bond do not dissociate in water because its atoms are not charged and, therefore, not attracted to the negative or positive ends of the water molecule. H-bond ionic bond nonpolar covalent bond polar covalent bond I am

asked by HEY on August 17, 2007
a)Rank the following 3 tetrachloride compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), methane (CH4), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) b) Which molecule ( KI or LiF ) has the higher boiling point? c)Select the single most important

asked by 3091 on August 24, 2014
What is the strongest intermolecular force exhibited in each? Covalent molecules, Ionic compounds, polar covalent molecules. This is my answer: Covalent: London forces Ionic: Ion-dipole Polar Covalent: Dipole- Dipole Is this correct?

asked by Jessie on September 22, 2011
Hi! Can you tell me if I chose the right options for my chemistry homework? My answers are at the bottom. 1. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent

asked by Tiffany on November 2, 2014
chemistry – DrBob?
Hi! Can you tell me if I chose the right options for my chemistry homework? My answers are at the bottom. 1. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent

asked by Tiffany on November 2, 2014
Many ionic compounds have high melting points because a lot of energy is required to break the strong ionic bonds. So after breaking the ionic bonds, the ionic compound becomes a liquid. How do you explain why the ionic compound also has high boiling

asked by jess on April 4, 2009

boooring chemistry!!:(
Why do the halogens easily form ionic and covalent bonds? Can someone explain this to me?! 🙁

asked by marie(: on June 21, 2011
. The covalent bonds between the monomers of an enzyme macromolecule are A. glycosidic bonds. B. peptide bonds. C. phosphodiester bonds. D. ester bonds. I thimk it is B

asked by Dulce on July 13, 2014
Which of the following compounds contains both ionic and covalent bonds? SiO2 LiCN LiI PCl3

asked by Jordan on January 15, 2016
Which compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds? (1)HBr (2)CBr4 (3)NaBr (4)NaOH

asked by Anonymous on December 2, 2010
what atoms usually form coordinate covalent bonds i couldn’t find this anywhere also i just want to make sure is the electronegativity difference range for polar covalent bonds .4 – 2.1 paulings?

asked by lyne on June 7, 2009
How two neutral objects may become positively and negatively charges? How is atomic mass established? Which atoms will form covalent bonds and which atoms will form ionic bonds?

asked by Trissy on January 14, 2008
Which bond type is soluble in alcohol? Metallic, ionic, polar covaletn, or nonpolar covalent bonds? Which bond type has hard, brittle crystals? (I think the second is ionic, but not positive.)

asked by GO OU!!! on December 17, 2008
organic chemisrtry
How do melting points differ for ionic compounds versus those that contain only covalent bonds? Why is this so (explain)?

asked by CHRIS on September 4, 2012
How can u predict if a bond will be ionic, covalent or polar covalent? i know that its the difference between electronegativities, but i cant seem to find the numbers it has to be between for each. I’m also getting confused because isnt covalent the same

asked by Sam on January 28, 2010
What is the strongest intermolecular force exhibited in each? Covalent molecules, Ionic compounds, polar covalent molecules. This is my answer: Covalent- dipole-dipole forces Ionic- ion-dipole forces Polar Covalent- electrostatic forces Is this correct?

asked by Jessie on September 22, 2011

Rank the carbon-carbon bonds in order of decreasing bond length. Rank carbon-carbon bonds from highest bond length to lowest. To rank bonds as equivalent, overlap them. 1,2,3

asked by Caitlin on October 11, 2011
So I am trying to understand in molecular terms the solubility of NaCl in water. So there are intramolecular forces that are mostly ionic between the ions, creating this partial positive, partial negative substance. And the intermolecular forces are also

asked by Serena on May 8, 2014
Describe the role of each of the following types of bonds in a polyamide: a) covalent bonds b) amide bonds c) hydrogen bonds

asked by Mark on May 10, 2008
Chemistry pretty urgent!!!!!!!
Chemical bonding question! The partial Lewis structure that follows (Figure 1) is for a hydrocarbon molecule. In the full Lewis structure, each carbon atom satisfies the octet rule, and there are no unshared electron pairs in the molecule. The

asked by G-Dogg on November 4, 2014
The strongest intermolecular forces present in a sample of pure I2 are A. covalent bonds. B. covalent network bonds. C. metallic bonds. D. dipole–dipole forces. E. London forces.

asked by Jake on December 9, 2010
thanks Is sodium nitrate polar or nonpolar and how do I figure this out? thanks You need to consult your text or your notes to see what you teacher calls ionic and what s/he calls covalent. Generally, a difference in electronegativity (you can look up the

asked by Filmore on April 19, 2007
Compounds with high melting points have _ a. Covalent bonds b. Metallic Bonds c. Ionic bonds* d. No chemical bonds How could you determine if a sample of gold is pure? Compare the sample’s density with that of pure gold.* Compare the sample’s color

asked by P on September 29, 2016
Indicate the number of covalent bonds that each nonmetal atom is expected to form. a. Se is expected to form 2 covalent bonds. b. H is expected to form 1 covalent bonds. c. Br is expected to form 1 covalent bonds. d. N is expected to form 3 covalent bonds.

asked by krystal on March 1, 2012
What evidence suggests that ionic bonds are strong? Ionic compounds have high melting points. Covalent compounds have relatively low melting points.

asked by bobby brown on June 17, 2006
Chemistry PLZ HELP!!!!!
Tell whether the bonds between the following atoms are polar covalent or pure covalent bonds. a. Si-Si b. H-O c. C-H d. C-O e. Cl-F f. Cl-Cl g. N-H h. O-O

asked by Maci on April 7, 2012

Can you check these? Strong attractive forces that keep atoms connected together are called _. A. valence electrons B. chemical bonds C. cations D. anions Which of the following is NOT a type of bonding that occurs between atoms? A. covalent bonding B.

asked by Victoria on December 14, 2012
In a methane molecule (CH4) there are 4 single covalent bonds. In an octane molecule (C8H18) there are 25 single covalent bonds. How does the number of bonds affect the dispersion forces in samples of methane and octane? Which compound is a gas at room

asked by Taylor on March 17, 2009
Can someone please check this for me? It’s ranking the following bonds in order of increasing ionic bond character. Cl-Cl C-H H-Cl Mg-C H-O Na-Cl Ca-O Cs-F I’m not sure where Fe-O, and Fe-C fall. Thanks -MC

asked by mysterychicken on February 19, 2014
Chemistry (Check)
True, False, or Sometimes true 1)A bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electron is called a polyatomic covalent bond.(True) 2)Carbon forms four single covalent bonds with other atoms. (Fales) True, False, or Sometimes true 1)A bond in which one

asked by Bryan on December 15, 2006
1.What is the relationship between polarity of a molecule and boiling point? 2.How does a hydrogen bond’s strength compare to normal chemical bonds. such as covalent and ionic bonds? 3.Why don’t fish freeze to death when the water above them freezes in a

asked by Amy on January 15, 2015
Water’s unique properties allow it to- a.dissolve aqueous solutions b.dissolve ionic and nonpolar covalent molecules c.dissolve ionic and polar covalent molecules d.dissolve ionic, covalent and metallic molecules is it c, because i know water is polar?

asked by Boberto on April 5, 2016
My ONLY three questions I need help on! I did the other 50 something already!(: Why are covalent bonds weak in the presence of heat but strong in the presence of water? What are the 5 rules for ionic bonding? Give an example of a compound that is

asked by marie(: on August 24, 2011
Predict the number of covalent bonds formed by each nonmetal atom. a. N—–3 bonds b. Cl—–1 bond c. S—–2 bonds

asked by krystal on February 8, 2012
below are about 21 questions from my final study guide. I was given a 563 question study guide for my final and obviously I did not understand every question. So basically I did not understand 4% of the questions which is pretty good. Just any help with

asked by JAKE on February 28, 2008
Describe how covalent and ionic bonds differ with regard to bond strength and how is bond length related to stability ane energy?

asked by MF on January 2, 2010

What are some examples of covalent bonds? What are covalent bonds made of? Thanks.

asked by Brianne on March 4, 2009
Which of the following consists of positive and negative ions bound together and held in place in a crystalline solid? A. Covalent bonds B. Ionic compounds C. Molecular compounds D. Molecules I say B

asked by shana on November 10, 2012
The dipole moment (μ) of HBr (a polar covalent molecule) is 0.851D (debye), and its percent ionic character is 12.6% . Estimate the bond length of the H−Br bond in picometers.

asked by Summer on November 18, 2013
The dipole moment (μ) of HBr (a polar covalent molecule) is 0.851D (debye), and its percent ionic character is 12.6% . Estimate the bond length of the H−Br bond in picometers.

asked by Summer on November 18, 2013
The dipole moment (mu) of HBr (a polar covalent molecule) is 0.851 D (debye), and its percent ionic character is 12.6 %. Estimate the bond length of the H-Br bond in picometers.

asked by Caitlin on October 7, 2011
What kinds of elements form covalent bonds? What kinds of elements form ionic bonds? explain please help

asked by Anonymous on August 27, 2017
chemistry (go-over)
is this always true that the compound NH3 contains two double covalent bonds? and that the chemical formulas of molecular compounds show the number and type of atoms in each molecule. No. NH3 has no double bonds. It contains three covalent bonds, one

asked by Dennis on January 3, 2007
Why are the molecules of hydrocarbons nonpolar? The intermolecular attractions are strong. The electron pair is shared almost equally in all the bonds. All the bonds are single covalent bonds*** Van der Waals forces overcome polarity

asked by Abby on June 1, 2016
Science 6
during the process of photosynthesis, plants convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. Covalent bonds hold the glucose molecules together. the energy stored in these covalent bonds is called? A:nuclear energy. B:thermal energy. C:electrical energy.

asked by Jaden on February 23, 2017
Solid State Chemistry
Which molecule ( KI or LiF ) has the higher boiling point? Select the single most important reason below to justify your choice should have the higher melting point Both molecules are nonpolar but the higher melting includes hydrogen bonding Both molecules

asked by KS on December 20, 2013

Compare ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonding, and fully describe an example of each. Is this right and I need help with an example of a covalent bond. Ionic bond is formed from one metal and one non metal. It is a solid at room temperate. In an ionic bond

asked by Danielle on November 14, 2010
Which of the following is a covalent compound composed of nonpolar covalent bonds? Answer >>H2 H2O CF4 CH4 NaF

asked by jj on February 26, 2013
What is a covalent bond?what type of substance form covalent bonds?

asked by keria on January 21, 2012
Which substance ( HBr or HF ) has the higher boiling point? Its HF but chose one of the most appropriate reason. 1. Both substances are nonpolar but the higher boiling includes hydrogen bonding 2. Both substances are nonpolar but the higher boiling is more

asked by ss01 on October 12, 2013
which of the following coordination compounds will most likely form a precipitate when treated with an aquesous solution of silver(l) nitrate? A) [Cr(NH3)2CL3] B) [Cr(NH3)6]Cl3 C) [Cr(NH3)Cl]SO4 D) Na3[Cr(CN)6] E) Na[CrCl6] i think its either a or b but i

asked by gina on April 21, 2007

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which molecule or compound below contains a polar covalent bond?

which molecule or compound below contains a polar covalent bond? why?





0 0 468
asked by natash
May 1, 2008
Draw the Lewis dot structure for each of the molecules. You can eliminate LiI, ZnS and AgCl because they are not covalent (but they are polar). The correct one, of the two remaining, is the one with an unshared pair of electrons.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
May 1, 2008

0 0
posted by S
Mar 10, 2016

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what is the maximum value of p = 24x + 30y, given the constraints on x and y listed below?

graph the system of constraints find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function x y
108,871 results
Algebra 2

  1. By graphing the system of constraints, find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function. 2

asked by Fading on November 8, 2016
graph the system of constraints find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function x+y_0

asked by Lirio on October 17, 2016
algebra 2
Graph the system of constraints and find the value of x and y that maximize the objective function. Constraints {x >= 0 y >= 0 y

asked by Kandy on October 7, 2014
An objective function and a system of linear inequalities representing constraints are given. Graph the system of inequalities representing the constraints. Find the value of the objective function at each corner of the graphed region. Use these values to

asked by ReRe on February 22, 2010
Objective functon
An objective function and a system of linear inequalities representing constraints are given. Graph the system of inequalities representing the constraints. Find the value of the objective function at each corner of the graphed region. Use these values to

asked by Soly on November 17, 2007

By graphing the system of constraints, find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function. 2x+y0 maximum for p=x+2y

asked by Jewell on October 16, 2017
HELP ME WITH THESE 2 PROBLEMS PLEASE….. 1. Objective Quantity: C= 5x+4y Constraints: x < -2 x > -4 y > 1 y < 6 All of the signs have lines under them. 2. Objective Quantity: C= 6x + 2y Constraints: x > 0 x < 5 y > 0 4x-y > 1 Again, all of the signs have

asked by Anonymous on October 11, 2006
College Algebra
Maximize the objective function C = 4x + 5y with the constraints x + y 5, x + 2y 6, x 0, y 0. Your constraints don’t make sense. They need to be equations. Are you leaving out “=” signs? If x=0 and y=0, there no variables and you can’t maximize C

asked by Cheryl on July 26, 2007
Your computer-supply store sells two types of inkjet printers. The first, type A, costs $237 and you make a $22 profit on each one. The second, type B, costs $122 and you make a $19 profit on each one. You can order no more than 120 printers this month,

asked by Greg Martin on September 17, 2012
Find the minimum and maximum values of the objective function subject to the given constraints? Objective Function: C=4x+5y Constraints: x>=0, y>=0, x+y

asked by emily on April 4, 2010
Algebra 2
Name the vertices and then find the values of x and y that minimize the objective function. x >= 2 y >= 0 3x + 2y >= 12 Minimum for C = x + 5y Help with system of constraints please! I’m terrible at this…

asked by Reese on November 19, 2015
algebra 2
by graphing the system of constraints find the values of x and y that minimizes the objective function x+2y>8 x>2 y>0 >=greater than or equal to my answer was 0,10 am i right?

asked by the world forgot on September 29, 2017
Find the minimum value of C = 4x – 3y using the following constraints. constraints to get the vertices. Plug the vertices into the objective function. Remember graph the

asked by pandagang on April 26, 2016
Alg. 2
Maximize the objective function M=6x+3y under the constraints {x ¡Ý 0 y ¡Ü 5 y ¡Ü -x + 10 y ¡Ý.5x – 4}

asked by Larry on July 7, 2008
Algebra (Please check)
PLEASE CHECK MY ANSWERS (: I just want to make sure I am doing this correctly ______________________ Graph the system of constraints and find the value of x and y that maximize the objective function. Constraints: x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 y ≤ (1)/(5)

asked by Greg on September 17, 2012

Find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function P=3x + 2y for the graph. What is the maximum value. step by step please

asked by bowershe on December 10, 2013
Deadline Approaching: Please Help
SIMPLEX METHOD – Table: Nutrient Peanuts Raisins M&Ms Pretzels Calories 855 435 1024 162 Protein 34.57 4.67 9.01 3.87 Fat 72.50 0.67 43.95 1.49 Carbs 31.40 114.74 148.12 33.68 Suppose that you want to make at most 10 cups of trail mix, using all the

asked by Jay on June 6, 2011
math help needed
the bookholder company maunfactures two types of bookcases out of oak and walnut. model 01 requires 5 board feet of oak and 2 board feet of walnut. model 02 requires 4 board feet of oak and 3 board feet of walnut. a profit of $75 is made on each model 01

asked by michael on June 6, 2007
If some one can get me started, I should be able to graph this. MONTGOMERY COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE MAT106 SUMMER, 2007 ASSIGNMENT #1 NAME______________________________ The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The

asked by Jason on May 30, 2007
Algebra Assignment
An apple pie uses 4 cups of apples and 3 cups of flour. An apple cobbler uses 2 cups of apples and 3 cups of flour. You have 16 cups of apples and 15 cups of flour. When you sell these at the Farmer’s Market you make $3.00 profit per apple pie and $2.00

asked by Sam on December 11, 2017
What point maximizes the objective function P = 4x + 3y for the constraints below. What is the maximum value? Constraints: x>=0 y>=0 y=y

asked by Aaron on October 13, 2016
An ad campaign for a new snack chip will be conducted in a limited geographical area and can use TV time, radio time, and newspaper ads. Information about each medium is shown below. Medium CostPerAd # Reached Exposure Quality TV 500 10000 30 Radio 200

asked by Chycaria on June 1, 2009
Algebra (Need help desperately)
I really don’t understand these.. can someone show me the correct way of doing them? (if it helps I will pay over paypal for detailed help or will pay in my services (I am a graphic designer, video editor, and web designer)

asked by Alex Lark on September 17, 2012
The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The Deluxe model requires 3 hours to assemble and ½ hour to paint, and the Economy model requires 2 hours to assemble and 1 hour to paint. The maximum number of assembly hours

asked by Mike on February 25, 2008
The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The Deluxe model requires 3 hours to assemble and ½ hour to paint, and the Economy model requires 2 hours to assemble and 1 hour to paint. The maximum number of assembly hours

asked by Mike on February 25, 2008

Math – Linear Inequalities
The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The Deluxe model requires 3 hours to assemble and ½ hour to paint, and the Economy model requires 2 hours to assemble and 1 hour to paint. The maximum number of assembly hours

asked by Tushar on February 25, 2008
The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The Deluxe model requires 3 hours to assemble and ½ hour to paint, and the Economy model requires 2 hours to assemble and 1 hour to paint. The maximum number of assembly hours

asked by Tushar on February 25, 2008
acc math 2 high school
I need help finding constraints to put this on the graph. the objective function is c=16x+25y. Problem: Your club plans to raisse money by selling two sizes of fruit baskets. The plan is to buy small baskets for $10 and sell them for $16, and to buy large

asked by preston jones on August 8, 2009
Given the following LP model (represented abstractly with decision variables X and Y), find the optimal solution using the ‘graphing’ approach. Minimize 5X + 2Y Subject to: 4X + 2Y >= 80 3X + 4Y = 45 2X – Y >= 0 And non-negativity, of course. Your

asked by Rick on September 22, 2011
The Bookholder Company manufactures two types of bookcases out of oal and walnut. Model 01 requires 5 board feet of oak and 2 board feet of walnut. Model 02 requires 4 board feet of oak and 3 board feet of walnut. A profit of $75 is made on each Model 01

asked by Marie on March 19, 2007
Find the maximum value of the objective function z = 19x + 7y, subject to the following constraints. (See Example 2.) 3x + 2y ≤ 18 6x + 2y ≤ 30   x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0

asked by Sam on February 28, 2018
Find the maximum value of the objective function z=24x+7y subject to the following constraints : 0¡Üx¡Ü10, 0¡Üy¡Ü5,3x+2y¡Ý6.

asked by Anonymous on March 19, 2010
Find the maximum value of the objective function z=24x+7y subject to the following constraints: 1. 0¡Üx¡Ü10, 0¡Üy¡Ü5. 3x + 2y ¡Ý 6

asked by Joe on March 9, 2011
Algebra 2
What point in the feasible region maximizes the objective function ? (3 points) Constraints {x>0 {y>0 {-x+3>y {y

asked by Alexia tucker on November 6, 2017
MathMate – I’m still confused, please see below. Thanks!! SIMPLEX METHOD – Table: Nutrient Peanuts Raisins M&Ms Pretzels Calories 855 435 1024 162 Protein 34.57 4.67 9.01 3.87 Fat 72.50 0.67 43.95 1.49 Carbs 31.40 114.74 148.12 33.68 Suppose that you want

asked by Jay on June 6, 2011

SIMPLEX METHOD – Table: Nutrient Peanuts Raisins M&Ms Pretzels Calories 855 435 1024 162 Protein 34.57 4.67 9.01 3.87 Fat 72.50 0.67 43.95 1.49 Carbs 31.40 114.74 148.12 33.68 Suppose that you want to make at most 10 cups of trail mix, using all the

asked by Jay on June 4, 2011
linear programming
Maximize z = 16x + 8y subject to: 2x + y ≤ 30 x + 2y ≤ 24 x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 Graph the feasibility region. Identify all applicable corner points of the feasibility region. Find the point(s) (x,y) that maximizes the objective function z = 16x + 8y.

asked by nmh on July 8, 2011
Maximize z = 16x + 8y subject to: 2x + y ≤ 30 x + 2y ≤ 24 x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 Graph the feasibility region. Identify all applicable corner points of the feasibility region. Find the point(s) (x,y) that maximizes the objective function z = 16x + 8y.

asked by ANONIMOUS on July 18, 2011

  1. Maximize z = 16x + 8y subject to: 2x + y ≤ 30 x + 2y ≤ 24 x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 Graph the feasibility region. Identify all applicable corner points of the feasibility region. Find the point(s) (x,y) that maximizes the objective function z = 16x + 8y.

asked by ANONIMOUS on July 12, 2011
With regards to question J: The variables x and y are connected by the equation y = x2 – x – 5. Some corresponding values of x and y are given in the table below. x -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 y 15 7 a -3 -5 b -3 1 7 15 (a) Calculate the values of a and b (b)

asked by jun on January 24, 2011
MeanBeats is a company that manufactures and sells electronic musical equipment. Their headphone product line consists of two products, Reverbia and Bscape. MeanBeats sells the headphones to retailers at $600 and $300 per pack for Reverbia and Bscape,

asked by Carla on October 17, 2012
Alegra 2
Explain the use of the objective quantity in linear programming.Give an example of an objective quantity that you would minimize and an example of one that you would maximize

asked by Linda on November 3, 2009
What point in the feasible region maximizes the objective function? Step by step please x¡Ý0 y¡Ý0 Constraints -x+3¡Ýy y¡Ü1/3x+1 objective function C=5x-4y

asked by bowershe on December 10, 2013
Algebra 2 -Linear Programming
Find the values of x and y that maximize or minimize the objective function. x+y < or equal to 8 2x+y < or equal to 10 x> or equal to 0, y > or equal to 0 A. (0,5) Maximum value is 100 B.(1,7) Maximum value is 220 C.(2,6) Maximum value is 280 D. (5,0)

asked by LaH on October 26, 2011
Maximize value Z = 15x + 10y subject to the constraints 3x + 2y ¡Ü ¡Ü 12, 2x + 3y ¡Ü ¡Ü 15, x ¡Ý ¡Ý 0, y ¡Ý ¡Ý 0 is

asked by chirag on September 18, 2016

what point in the feasible region maximizes the objective function? x>0 y>0 constraints -x+3>y y

asked by bowershe on December 10, 2013
Maximize P = 4x + 20y subject to these constraints: 2x + 15y ≤ 700 5x + 10y ≤ 1150 5x + 5y ≤ 1000 4x + 15y ≤ 980 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P occurs when x = ? and y = ? If u1, u2, u3, and u4 represent the slack

asked by John on September 20, 2010
Maximize P = 4x + 20y subject to these constraints: 2x + 15y ≤ 700 5x + 10y ≤ 1150 5x + 5y ≤ 1000 4x + 15y ≤ 980 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P occurs when x = ? and y = ? If u1, u2, u3, and u4 represent the slack

asked by Anonymous on September 20, 2010
Calculus – Functions?

1. A cubic polynomial function f is defined by f(x) = 4x^3 +ax^2 + bx + k where a, b and k are constants. The function f has a local minimum at x = -1, and the graph of f has a point of inflection at x= -2 a.) Find the values of a and b #2. Let h be a

asked by Amy on February 21, 2011
College Algebra
a paper manufacturing company recycles paper, cans and other sheet metal. the profit on the paper is $500 and the profit on the cans is $350 per pound A) write the objective function that models the daily profit B) the manufacture is bound by the following

asked by meri on March 6, 2015
College Algebra
a paper manufacturing company recycles paper, cans and other sheet metal. the profit on the paper is $500 and the profit on the cans is $350 per pound A) write the objective function that models the daily profit B) the manufacture is bound by the following

asked by meri on March 6, 2015
material engineering
thanks. OK, for the design requirements: is the objective: to minimize the mass of cans? are the constraints: thickness of can is specified, and the can should not fail(strong), or what?

asked by hym on March 7, 2011
Maximize P = 16x + 80y subject to these constraints: 2x + 20y ≤ 430 4x + 70y ≤ 1400 8x + 30y ≤ 980 10x + 10y ≤ 1000 4x + 30y ≤ 700 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P occurs when x = ? and y = ? If u1, u2, u3, u4, and u5

asked by John on September 20, 2010
Linear Programming
Maximize P = 16x + 80y subject to these constraints: 2x + 20y ≤ 430 4x + 70y ≤ 1400 8x + 30y ≤ 980 10x + 10y ≤ 1000 4x + 30y ≤ 700 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P occurs when x = ? and y = ? If u1, u2, u3, u4, and u5

asked by JP on September 20, 2010
The Reptile Farm has 400 square feet in which to house a collection of new lizards and frogs. A lizard requires 2 square feet of living space and costs $6 per month to feed. A frog also requires 2 square feet for living space but costs only $1 per month to

asked by Anonymous on August 2, 2018

Calc-slopes & concavity

  1. Let f(x)=x^3-3x+2 a.) Find the equation of the line tangent to the graph of y=f(x) at x=2 b.) For what values of x is the function increasing? c.) For what values of x is the graph concave down?

asked by Andy on January 23, 2011
Algebra 1 (Reiny or Kuai)

  1. Which x-values should I choose to graph these equations (y = x; y = -x + 6) so that they intersect? 2. The school band sells carnations on Valentine’s Day for $2 each. They buy the carnations from a florist for $0.50 each, plus a $16 delivery charge. a.

asked by Please, help me! on December 9, 2013
Intermediate Algebra
Find the maximum value of the objective function and the values of x and y for which it occurs. F = 5x + 2y x + 2y (greater than or equal to) 6 2x + y (greater than or equal to) 6 Both x and y are greater than or equal to 0. I don’t understand how to do

asked by Lauren on January 12, 2009
A television manufacturer makes console and wide-screen televisions. The profit per unit is $125 for the console televisions and $200 for the wide-screen televisions. Write the objective function that describes the total monthly profit. Write a system of

asked by Bob on June 12, 2010
Business, Linear Programming
This post may be a little lengthy, so please bare with me if you can help. The problem is: A cruise liner has 4 classes of accommodations. Following are the # of reservations made, # of reservations available, and cost per room for each class: Super

asked by Matt on April 15, 2007
character education
What is the purpose of critically analyzing opinions? to reject anything that does not agree with your opinion to adopt any experts opinion is valid for you to compare the opinion to the framework of your values B facts : _ :: opinions : _

asked by Bri on November 8, 2017
Algebra 1 (Reiny or Kuai)

  1. The school band sells carnations on Valentine’s Day for $2 each. They buy the carnations from a florist for $0.50 each, plus a $16 delivery charge. a. Write a system of equations to describe the situation. A: y = 2x; y = 0.50x + 16. b. Graph the system.

asked by Please, help me! on December 9, 2013
what point in the feasible region maximizes the objective function x>0 y>0 constraints -x+3+y y,1/3x+1 Object function C+5x_4y

asked by bowershe on December 10, 2013
extreme value of absolute…..
find the extreme values of the function on the interval and where they occur. f(x) = |x-1|-|x-5|, -2

asked by Jen on October 28, 2006

  1. Consider the following. f(x)=8x-10 g(x)=x^2-4x+10 (a) Find the points of intersection of the graphs. ANSWER:(2,6) are the smaller values and (10,70) are the larder values (b) Compute the area of the region below the graph of f and above the graph or g.

asked by Jason on July 20, 2010

f(x)=xe^(-2x) with domain 0< or equal to x< or equal to 10 find all values of x for which the graph of f is increasing and all values of x for which the graph is decreasing give the x and y coordinates if all absolute max and min points

asked by John on November 30, 2010
Consider the graph of the cosine function shown below. y=4 cos (2 x) a. Find the period and amplitude of the cosine function. b. At what values of θ for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π do the maximum value(s), minimum value(s), and zeros occur? so i don’t know how to

asked by sandy on February 4, 2019
materials engineering
for: prismatic non-circular section channel which used for window frames and for ducting for electrical wiring..I need to know : 1-function 2-objective 3-constraints how can we select the materials for this design, and why? what suitable processes for

asked by hym on March 17, 2011
materials engineering
for: prismatic non-circular section channel which used for window frames and for ducting for electrical wiring..I need to know : 1-function 2-objective 3-constraints how can we select the materials for this design, and why? what suitable processes for

asked by hym on March 18, 2011
math.please help!
minimize z= 5x + 9y subject to 6x + y >= 18 2x + 3y >= 30 x= 0 find the corner points, ans subject the objective function to the corner points, finding the minimum value of z giving the constraints. i know the first and second points but i couldn’t figure

asked by sha on July 19, 2010
analyzethe graph of the function Find the x- and y-intercepts. (b) Determine the end behavior: find the power function that the graph of f resembles for large values of |x|. (c) Find the maximum number of turning points. (d) Graph the function Please show

asked by kawn on November 11, 2011
If you can helpme on this problem you are GOD. If f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c, what can you say about the values of a, b, and c if: (A) (1,1) is on the graph of f(x)? (B) (1,1) is the vertex of the graph of f(x)?Hint: The axis of symmetry is x = -b/(2a).The

asked by George on September 2, 2008
Solve this linear programming problem using the simplex method: Maximize P = 21x + 12y + 24z subject to these constraints: 3x + 2y + 3z ≤ 864 15x + 6z ≤ 1296 9x + 8y + 18z ≤ 4608 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, z ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P

asked by John on September 20, 2010
Algebra 2
Problem Solving – A manufacturer of cell phones makes a profit of $25 on a deluxe model and $30 on a standard model. The company wishes to produce at least 80 deluxe models and at least 100 standard models per day. To maintain high quality, the daily

asked by LeLe on December 13, 2009
A certain diet requires no more than 60 units of carbohydrates, at least 45 units of protein, and at least 30 units of fat each day. Each ounce of Supplement A provides 5 units of carbs, 3 units of protein, and 4 units of fat. Each ounce of Supplement B

asked by Autumn on September 25, 2006

math pre calculus
find the following for the function f(x)=(x+5)^2(x-2)^2 a.find the x and y intercepts, b.find the power function that the graph ressembles for large values of x c.determine the maximum number of turning points on the graph of f d.determine the behavior of

asked by laila on March 26, 2013
Evaluate the logarithmic equation for three values of x that are greater than -1, three values of x that are between -2 and -1, and at x = -1. Show your work. Use the resulting ordered pairs to plot the graph; submit the graph via the Dropbox. State the

asked by Marlee on September 8, 2010
Intermediate Algebra
Evaluate the logarithmic equation for three values of x that are greater than -1, three values of x that are between -2 and -1, and at x = -1. Show your work. Use the resulting ordered pairs to plot the graph; submit the graph via the Dropbox. State the

asked by Marnae on September 5, 2010
Evaluate the logarithmic equation for three values of x that are greater than 1, three values of x that are between 0 and 1, and at x=1. Show your work. Use the resulting ordered pairs to plot the graph; submit the graph via the Dropbox. State the equation

asked by Anonymous on September 3, 2010
intermediate algebra
Evaluate the exponential equation for three positive values of x, three negative values of x, and at x=0. Show your work. Use the resulting ordered pairs to plot the graph; submit the graph via the Dropbox. State the equation of the line asymptotic to the

asked by Anonymous on September 3, 2010
a car’s flywheel has a timing mark on it’s outer edge. the height of the timing mark on the rotating flywheel is given by y=3.55sin[x – (pi/4)]. graph one full cycle of this function. I was not taught how to graph a function like this, only the simple y=

asked by tabby on April 10, 2012
university of minnesota
Find the maximum and minimum values of the given objective function on the indicated feasible region. M = 150 − x − y

asked by fatima on November 17, 2014
Find the maximum and minimum values of the given objective function on the indicated feasible region. M = 150 − x − y

asked by fatima on November 17, 2014
Coulld someone take the time and check my answers please. 11) without graphing is the system independent, dependent, or inconsistent? y=-x+5 -3x-3y=-15 (my answer; dependent) 12) your club is baking vanilla and chocolate cakes for a bake sale. they need at

asked by Lee on January 3, 2013
When specifying linear constraints, the modeler must take into account the unit specification of the decision variables so that the units represented by the left side of the constraints are consistent with the units represented by the right side of the

asked by mca on October 11, 2015

Calculus Please Help
I think I have the right answer, but I am not 100% sure how to do the values at (1,-1) and the one below at (0,-1, 1). Please explain how I need to approach how to do these. Thank You! Calculate the partial derivative @f/@x, @f/@y and @f/@x | (1,-1), and

asked by Jennifer on November 13, 2014
Chose the answer that identifies the three cases of pronouns. nominative, possessive, objective

asked by Ana on March 30, 2016

  1. Given the function f defined by f(x) = x^3-x^2-4X+4 a. Find the zeros of f b. Write an equation of the line tangent to the graph of f at x = -1 c. The point (a, b) is on the graph of f and the line tangent to the graph at (a, b) passes through the point

asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2012
Math – Simple rational functions (check)
Consider the function f(x) = x/(x-1) Are there any turning points? Explain how this could help you graph f(x) for large values of x? Ans: turning points is another word for checking the concavity, and therefore i find the second derivative and equate it to

asked by Anonymous on October 29, 2010
The function f(x)= ax^3 – bx +c passes through the origin, f(-1)=4/3 and it has an extreme point at x=1 (i) Find the values of a, b and c. (ii) Sketch the graph (iii) Find the area bounded by the graph of f(x) and the x-axis between the lines x=-1 and x=1

asked by gibbs on April 25, 2013
Math(Please check. Thank You)
1) solve:e^x(x^2-4)=0 e^x=0 and then (x+2)(x-2) so x=2, -2 2) differentiate: y=ln(6x^2 – 3x + 1) 1/(6x^2 – 3x + 1) * 12x-3 3) differentiate: y=e^-3x+2 -3 * e^-3x+2 4) evaluate: 2^4-x=8 2^4-x = 2^3 4-x = 3 -x=-1 so x=1 5) differentiate: x^3 + y^3 -6 =0 3x^2

asked by Hannah on April 30, 2011
The function g is defined for x>0 with g(1)=2, g'(x)=sin(x+1/x), and g”(x)=(1-1/x^2)cos(x+1/x). A. Find all values of x in the interval 0.12

asked by Sarah on May 7, 2015
Algebra (Please help!)
The graph below plots the values of y for different values of x: plot the ordered pairs 1, 1 and 2, 4 and 3, 7 and 4, 9 and 5, 12 and 6, 16 Which correlation coefficient best matches the data plotted on the graph? A. −0.5 B. 0 C. 0.25 D. 0.90 Is it D.

asked by Lidiah on April 17, 2017
Help! I have a test tommorow! I don’t understand (b), (c), (e), and (g). The answers are listed following the each question. Here’s a discription of the graph: There is a graph of a function f consists of a semi circle (-3 to 1 faced downward on the

asked by Anonymous on October 26, 2007
math help pls pls pls
The graph below plots the values of y for different values of x: Plot the ordered pairs 1, 3 and 2, 4 and 3, 9 and 4, 7 and 5, 2 and 6,18 Which correlation coefficient best matches the data plotted on the graph? 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.0 pls help me

asked by Oscar on March 19, 2016

the figure shows the graph of F’, the derivative of a function f. the domain of the function f is the set of all X such that -3< or equal to x

asked by Yoona on November 21, 2011
Let h be a function defined for all x≠0 such that h(4)=-3 and the derivative h is given by h'(x)=(x^2-2)/(x) for all x≠0 a). Find all values of x for which the graph of h has a horizontal tangent, and determine whether h has a local maximum, a local

asked by Darcy on December 2, 2014
a)The curve with equation: 2y^3 + y^2 – y^5 = x^4 – 2x^3 + x^2 has been linked to a bouncing wagon. Use a computer algebra system to graph this curve and discover why. b)At how many points does this curve have horizontal tangent lines? Find the

asked by Chelsea on October 31, 2010
College alg
Analyze the graph of the following function as follows: (a) Find the x- and y-intercepts. (b) Determine the end behavior: find the power function that the graph of f resembles for large values of |x|. (c) Find the maximum number of turning points.

asked by sunny on January 4, 2012
The point of intersection of the graphs of the equations of the system Ax – 4y = 9 4x + By = –1 is (–1, –3). Explain how to find the values of A and B, then find these values.

asked by Algebra PLEASE HELP!! on March 18, 2012

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what does a cladogram show?

What does a cladogram show?
A)comparison of the relative ages of organisms
B)evolutionary relationships between organisms
C)comparison of species that are most similar
D)ecological relationships between organisms***

Which pair below has the most shared derived characteristics?
A)horse, dolphin
B)dolphin, spider
C)cow, horse***
D)spider, cow

Which of the following is NOT used as evidence when constructing cladograms?
A)ecological roles of present-day organisms***
B)DNA sequences of present-day organisms
C)fossils of extinct organisms
D)body characteristics of extinct and present-day organisms

Sorry if i misspelled anything!

0 0 2,430
asked by Universal Almighty
May 26, 2016

  1. Is D 0 0
    posted by Shush
    Oct 13, 2016
    the answers are:
  2. B
  3. C
  4. B
  5. A

These are 100% right for science 8B Unit 1: Natural selection and adaptation Lesson 7: Evolution and biological classification (Connexus)

28 0
posted by Anon
Feb 1, 2017
thx anon 100%

4 0
posted by dude
Feb 1, 2017
anon is right

3 0
posted by 21
Mar 15, 2017


1 2
one is b

2 0
posted by mae
May 17, 2017
im so fresh

0 1
posted by ⌐■_■
Nov 14, 2017
its wrong i just took it and i gave me a 50

1 1
posted by cardi B
Nov 19, 2017
Thanks Anon 100%

2 0
posted by Jack
Jan 24, 2018

Thanks Anon

2 0
posted by Arai
Jan 24, 2018
4/4 thanks anon

2 0
posted by J
Jan 30, 2018
Anon is right for conections

1 0
posted by Hi
Feb 2, 2018
Anon is correct


If you go to connections.

3 0
posted by BOIIIIII
Mar 22, 2018

2 0
posted by bigred
Apr 19, 2018

4/4 thx Anon

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 23, 2018
The funny thing is, teachers can’t sew jiskha for giving answers. btw, it’s not called cheating, it’s called checking your answers. Jiskha is made for HOMEWORK HELP! should I say it louder or are you def, hypocrites?!

Anyways, yeah, it’s homework help, so, ConnexAcad can’t do anything about kids gettin answers! >:D

2 0
posted by Anonymous
May 1, 2018
no its cheating

0 2
posted by urmom
May 1, 2018

1 0
posted by EINSTIEN
May 2, 2018
Honestly I understand that teachers will get upset but like weren’t you the student once haven’t ever looked something up maybe even once to get your grade a little higher. Because this ish can be hard sometimes ok

3 0
posted by Jezziedut
May 21, 2018

what dose a cladogram show?

0 0
posted by meseret
May 29, 2018
@Anon is 100% correct! 🙂

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. A

Your Welcome! 🙂

3 0
posted by lun 2.0
May 29, 2018

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. A 3 0
    posted by Hal
    Oct 18, 2018
    are these for lesson 7 Evolution and Biological Classification?
    i need to confirm this… if these are for other quiz, plz speak up now. 0 0
    posted by Warrior Cat Lover
    Nov 28, 2018
    nobody?…. alright then, i will confirm this myself….. 0 0
    posted by Warrior Cat Lover
    Nov 28, 2018

yup this is correct, 4/4 (100%) 🙂

2 0
posted by Warrior Cat Lover
Nov 28, 2018

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the two blocks in the figure(figure 1) are sliding down the incline.

physics pre-ap
A(n) 1100 kg car is parked on a 4 incline. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . Find the force of friction keeping the car from sliding down the incline. Answer in units of N

asked by madison on November 15, 2012
A block is at rest on the incline shown in the figure. The coefficients of static and kinetic friction are µs = 0.4 and µk = 0.34, respectively. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s. What is the largest angle which the incline can have so that the mass

asked by king on September 22, 2015
sorry i have about 5 questions on this homework packet that i just can’t figure out…. hope you can help me A bowling ball (mass = 7.2 kg, radius = 0.12 m) and a billiard ball (mass = 0.41 kg, radius = 0.028 m) may each be treated as uniform spheres. What

asked by kelly on September 12, 2010

A string going over a massless frictionless pulley connects two blocks of masses 6.4 kg and 13 kg. As shown on the picture below, the 6.4 kg block lies on a 32◦ incline; the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is μ= 0.3.

asked by mallak on February 21, 2014
A string going over a massless frictionless pulley connects two blocks of masses 6.4 kg and 13 kg. As shown on the picture below, the 6.4 kg block lies on a 32◦ incline; the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is μ= 0.3.

asked by Emeera on March 6, 2014
A 19.62 kg block is sliding down a 34.52 degree incline at a constant velocity. What is the mu k of kinetic friction between the incline and the block?

asked by zack on January 15, 2016
Alex is exploring a cave that has a slight incline and is iced over, forcing her to use ice cleats to explore it. After climbing 50 m into the cave, she finds what she is looking for and she takes out her ice pick and hammer to begin removing the stones.

asked by bri on November 29, 2015
Two blocks, A and B (with mass 50 kg and 100 kg, respectively), are connected by a string. (one mass is on the incline, the other is hanging from the pullye) The pulley is frictionless and of negligible mass. The coefficient of kinetic friction between

asked by Kelsey on March 10, 2010

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for the following battery: cd(s) | cdcl2(aq) || cl–(aq) | cl2(l) | c(s)

For the following battery: Cd(s) | CdCl2(aq) || Cl–(aq) | Cl2(l) | C(s)

(a) Write the reduction half-reaction occuring at the C(s) electrode. (Include physical states of reactants and products.)

C(s) electrode:?

(c) Calculate the mass of Cl2 consumed if the battery delivers a constant current of 589 A for 82.0 min. ?

Please help! thank you!

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May 6, 2013

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write chemical formulas for the compounds formed by the following positive and negative ions.

Write chemical formulas for the compounds formed by the following positive and negative ions: Ba2 and NO3-, Al3 and Co3, and K and PO43-
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Write chemical formulas for the compounds formed by the following positive and negative ions: Ba2+ and NO3-, Al3+ and Co3, and K+ and PO43-

asked by Kelly on July 30, 2016
Please I need help. Many,but not all, compounds are made up of positive and negative ions. Three positive ions A^+, B^2+ and C^3+ could form a total of six different compounds with negative ions, Y^2- and Z^3-. Derive the formulae for six compounds and

asked by Shane on August 28, 2014
Chemistry Plz hurrry
What are charateristic of a ionic bond and a chemical bond? An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond that involves gain or loss of valence (outer shell) electrons in order to attain stability. That is not what I am looking for but thanks anyway An ionic

asked by Smooches on November 30, 2006
Write the binary formulas for the compounds formed from the following ions: Na+, Cl-

asked by Danny M on October 25, 2007
Ion charge & formulas of ionic compunds-DrBob222
These are the other questions: I’ll start from Number 1. 1. I have to write down the symbol for the following ions: a- sodium = Na b- chloride = CL c- sulfate = S d- ammonium = ? would it be NH4? e- chromium (II) = Cr f- chromium(III) = Cr 2. write the

asked by Sara on April 20, 2010

write the formulas and give the names of the compounds formed by the following ions a) Cr^2+ and F^- b) Ni^2+ and O^2 and c) Fe^3+ and O^2-

asked by john on March 2, 2008
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by NH4+ with the following anions: NO3−, HCO3−, SO42−, HPO42−. Express your answers as chemical formulas separated by commas. Use the given order of anions.

asked by Morgan on October 3, 2016
What is the largest number of ions in any of your formulas? What is the total positive charge and the total negative charge in each formula with this many ions? Give two examples of these formulas.

asked by maath on September 23, 2018
Aqueous Solution
Write the positive and negative ions that result when the following compounds are dissolved in aqueous solution: Na2S (aq): (NH4)2CO3 (aq): K2SO4 (aq):

asked by Annette W on March 17, 2013
aqueous solution
Write the positive and negative ions that result when the following compounds are dissolved in aqueous solution: Na2S (aq): (NH4)2CO3 (aq): K2SO4 (aq):

asked by Annette W on March 21, 2013
Which of the following consists of positive and negative ions bound together and held in place in a crystalline solid? A. Covalent bonds B. Ionic compounds C. Molecular compounds D. Molecules I say B

asked by shana on November 10, 2012

  1. An isotope is an atom of an element that varies in mass number due to variation in the number of: A. atoms. B. protons. C. neutrons. D. electrons. is it C 2, A covalent bond is: A. the attraction that one atom has for another atom. B. the attraction

asked by Amy on July 10, 2013
Intro Chemistry
If a sample of BaSO3 is found to contain 1.73 · 1018 SO32- ions how many moles of Ba2+ ions are present? Express your answer in scientific notation. The following information is given: Molar Mass (g/mol) BaSO3 217.39 Ba2+ ion 137.33 SO32- ion 80.063

asked by echem on March 13, 2010
I’m doing online homework and the follow question has come up: Write the formulas of the compounds formed by Pb4+ with the following anions: NO3−, ClO3−, SO32−, H2PO4−. Express your answers as chemical formulas separated by commas. Use the given

asked by CeeCee on October 1, 2016
Chemistry (CHEM)
Can someone explain the electrical conductivity of melted and of aqueous solutions of ionic compounds. An explain it using the characteristics of ionic compounds. ThankS A Whole lot.. In Advance I suggest you go to the site recommended by Ms.Sue. Here is a

asked by Brittany on November 14, 2006

Write the balanced equation for the hydration of CuSO4. Indicate the physical states using the abbreviations (s), (l), or (g) for solid, liquid, or gas, respectively. Use (aq) to indicate the aqueous phase. Indicate appropriate charges on negative and

asked by rose on November 1, 2013
Critical thinking
Could someone please help me I do not know how to figure these problems out: write the names for the compounds as ionic, polar covalent, or non-polar covalent. SO3/CaO/I2… write the names for the compounds with these chemical formulas: Ag2SO4/ Lif/ CS2/

asked by Chelsea on May 5, 2008
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by NH4+ with the following anions: CN−, HCO3−, SO42−, HPO42−

asked by Miranda on February 19, 2017
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by Pb4+ with the following anions: CN−, ClO3−, SO42−, H2PO4−.

asked by Grace on March 4, 2016
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by NH4+ with the following anions: CN-, ClO3-, SO42-, H2PO4-

asked by Kim on November 25, 2015
Write balanced chemical equations for all transferals of the compounds from organic to aqueous phases and for all precipitation reactions. **Note: If a compound does not move from one layer to another, no reaction has occurred, and no equation can be

asked by Live on November 13, 2018
Chemistry 120
Write the formulas of the compounds formed by Pb4+ with the following anions: NO3−, HCO3−, SO42−, H2PO4

asked by Anonymous on September 25, 2015

asked by KERRIE on April 19, 2009
list three differences between molecular and ionic compounds, and explain how they relate to the differences in bond types… do i relate to the differences in bond types? List the differences and we’ll talk about how they relate to the bond type. 1.

asked by INEEDHELP!!! on December 6, 2006
write the following absolute value functions as piecewise functions. i really not get how to do this f(x) = |x| i think im supposed to state as positive and negative but i not even know what that x means. i only guessing and saying that for positive it be

asked by Shreya on January 10, 2012

write the following absolute value functions as piecewise functions. i really not get how to do this f(x) = |x| i think im supposed to state as positive and negative but i not even know what that x means. i only guessing and saying that for positive it be

asked by Shreya on January 10, 2012
chemistry cp
The term formula mass is a general term that can be applied to both ionic compounds and molecular compounds because (a) ionic compounds exist as individual molecules (b) molecular formulas are always empirical formulas (c) not all formulas represent

asked by sally on April 7, 2015
Naming Ionic Compounds
Can you please have a look at my questions. Thank you very much in return:-) 1. Will 2 metals develop an ionic compound? Clarify. I don’t think they will, but I don’t know how to explain. I only know that in order to form ionic compounds, the total number

asked by Sara on April 21, 2010
Ionic compounds Scinece

  1. What happens to the change on individual ions when they form ions? 11. Write the names of the two ions in each of the following compounds. (C) Na2O (E) Na3PO4 (G) NH4OH (H) Ca (NO3)2 8. Use the tables of metals, non-metals, and polyatomic ions and the

asked by Joshua on January 22, 2015
chemistry(check my work on anothe rproblem)
When a reaction mixture with a total volume of 1390 mL that is 0.00791 M aqueous Ba2+ was stoichiometrically produced as per the balanced equation, what mass (g) of Ba2+ was required? Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2 HClO4(aq) → Ba(ClO4)2(aq) + 2 H2O(l) .00791×1.39=mole

asked by eng on April 3, 2010
When 0.100 L of 0.200 M K2C2O4 react with 0.150 L of 0.250 M BaBr2, BaC2O4 forms an insoluble precipitate. Calculate the final concentrations of the ions that remain in solution after the reaction. I know how to get the net ionic equation (Ba2+ + C2O4- ->

asked by Anonymoose on October 1, 2018
Chem Help!
Assume that a given solution caontains Ag+or Ba2+ or a mixture of both. A reasonable method for doing a qualitative analysis on this solution might be sketched out as followes (remember || means a precipitate forms and | means a solution remains. It is

asked by Anonymous. on April 6, 2014
Write the formulas of the compounds formed Pb+4 with the following anions:OH-, NO3- , CO3(2-), HSO4- , PO4{3-} . Use the given order of anions.

asked by shay on October 2, 2012
Chemistry – Ionic Compounds
List all possible unit formulas (chemical formulas) that can be constructed by the formation of binary ionic compounds from the following elements. (Separate substances in a list with a comma.) Br (Z = 35), Sr (Z = 38), Ca (Z = 20), Ga (Z = 31), O (Z = 8)

asked by Anonymous on June 11, 2017
Describe the ammonium ion, NH4+, and the sulfate ion, SO42-. What compounds would these ions form with potassium and fluoride ions? Write the formula units for the resulting compounds.

asked by Adimi on June 20, 2016

Write formulas for the binary ionic compounds formed between the following elements: a. Sodium and Iodine b. Calcium and sulfur c. Zinc and Chlorine d. Barium and Fluorine e. Lithium and Oxygen

asked by lynda smith on October 19, 2009
Plz Correct me!! Table salt has the chemical formula NaCl. Table sugar has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Which of the following is true? (1 point) Both compounds are held together by chemical bonds. Both compounds have the same density. Both compounds

asked by Vanessa on January 28, 2016
Table salt has the chemical formula NaCl. Table sugar has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Which of the following is true? (1 point) Both compounds are held together by chemical bonds. Both compounds have the same density. Both compounds react with water.

asked by Vanessa on January 28, 2016
Table salt has the chemical formula NaCl. Table sugar has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Which of the following is true? (1 point) Both compounds are held together by chemical bonds. Both compounds have the same density. Both compounds react with water.

asked by Del Rey on January 28, 2016
Integrated Science
What do positive hydrogen ions produce when they react with water in solution? A).hydroxide ions B).hydronium ions C).a salt D).negative hydrogen ions I believe the answer is A). Is this correct?

asked by Kiley on December 15, 2018
write formulas for the binary ionic compounds formed between the follwing elements a) sodium and iodine b) calcium and sulfur c) zinc and chlorine d) barium and fluorine e) lithium and oxygen

asked by john on February 28, 2008
what is the formulas for the compounds formed by the following : Al and (NO3)1-

asked by BoBo on December 18, 2010
AP Chemistry
The formulas for ethanol and ammonium nitrate are C2H5OH and NH4NO3. In what respects are these formulas and compounds different? Am I supposed to say that there are different elements that make up the compounds?

asked by Jen on September 5, 2011
chemistry 20
A student mixed a solution of aqueous calcium chloride with an aqueous solution of magnesium sulphate. A precipitate formed. 1) Write the balance chemical equation for the reaction including states of matter. Ensure you write the reactants as a dissociated

asked by amber on May 11, 2015
I would really like to understand how to do these problems, because my exam is coming up in a few weeks. I still cannot comprehend how you can tell if a system is is positive or negative according to reaction. For #1, I presume it is E if it is spontaneous

asked by Rainie on March 27, 2014

I would really like to understand how to do these problems, because my exam is coming up in a few weeks. I still cannot comprehend how you can tell if a system is is positive or negative according to reaction. For #1, I presume it is E if it is spontaneous

asked by Rainie on March 28, 2014
science question
Histones interact with DNA at specific loci because DNA has phosphate functional groups. This interaction occurs because histones have a net _ positive charge, which derives from their __ residues, and interact with DNA because of its net _

asked by Sara on July 21, 2006
Two compounds of molecular formula respectively C2H4O and C4H8O produce a yellow orange precipitate by the reaction DNPH. a)is this indication sufficient to write the structural formulas of these two compounds? Explain. b)what identification tests should

asked by angy on July 12, 2016
CH3CHClCH2Cl vs. CH2ClCHClCH3 How would I know if : -The two formulas represent different compounds which are constitutional isomers. -The two formulas represent different compounds that are not isomeric. -The two formulas represent the same compound. ~if

asked by ~christina~ on August 31, 2007
For which element would you expect isotope effects to be of the greatest importance in CHEMICAL processes? a.H b.He c.Li d.B This problem could be interpreted many different ways and come up with different answers, I suppose. In the context of number of

asked by nivi on April 23, 2007
We are adding positive and negative numbers. The question is State positive or negative or it depends along with my answers. Are these correct? Positive + positive: positive Positive + negative: it depends Negative + negative: negative Positive –

asked by Carly on February 12, 2016
Science Question for Lance
Histones interact with DNA at specific loci because DNA has phosphate functional groups. This interaction occurs because histones have a net _ positive charge, which derives from their __ residues, and interact with DNA because of its net _

asked by sara on July 22, 2006
Chemistry-Paramagnetic or Diamagnetic
I did a lab where I was supposed to make “estimates” on transition compounds based on their electron configuration of how the compounds will react positively or negatively and then to experiment the compounds in conjunction with the strong magnets to

asked by Jessie on January 10, 2015
Acids produce (positive or negative) ions in water and bases produce (positive or negative) ions in water. Thanks for helping with this.

asked by Patrice on March 10, 2009
Ion Charge & Formulas of Ionic Compounds
Can you please take a look at my questions. Thank you very much. 1.classify the law of definite proportions. In specific proportions, A type of compound always contains the same elements. Is this good? Any other info would be greatly appreciated. do

asked by Sara on April 20, 2010

Write the chemical formula and number of ions formed when the following electrolyte dissolves in water. Make sure to include appropriate states. K3PO4 = ??? Any help with this is greatly appreciated!

asked by Amanda on February 8, 2014
Can someone help me with these two questions? Thank you! a.) Describe (give instructions) how you would prepare 7.00 L of 0.750 M K2CrO4 from a 2.25 M K2Cro4 stock solution b.) A stock solution containing Ba2+ ions was prepared by dissolving 23.0 grams of

asked by Anonymous on June 11, 2015
What is a special group of compounds that produce H+ ions when dissolved in water? A. Acids B. Ionic compounds C. Molecular compounds D. Polyatomic compounds I think A

asked by Keri on November 10, 2012
Two different chloride compounds of platinum are known, compound X and Y. When 3.45g of compound X is heated, 2.72g of compound Y is formed to 1.99g of platinum metal and some more chlorine gas. Determine the formulas of compounds X and Y.

asked by Chansa on May 4, 2016
Do positive ions or the negative ions cause the change in flame color ? Explain why and give on example.

asked by John on October 23, 2015
do the positive ions or the negative ions cause the change in flame color?

asked by Anonymous on October 27, 2013
When an ionic compound dissolves in water, splitting into its respective ions, the positive ions will be attracted to the _ end of the water molecule. A. neutral B. partially positive C. partially negative

asked by Jarred on August 13, 2010
Samples of three different compounds were analyzed and the masses of each element were determined. Compound Mass Mass N(g) O(g) A 5.6 3.2 B 3.5 8.0 C 1.4 4.0 If you were John Dalton and had never heard of a mole, which of the following would you think were

asked by Davis on August 29, 2011
proofread chemistry
write the formulas for the following compounds Sodium chlorate i put NaCl Lead (II) phosphate i put Pb2P For Magnesium hydrogen carbonate i had no clue! then it stats state the number of electrons lost or gained in forming each of these Ions. I didn’t

asked by John on March 8, 2008
Chemistry(Please check answers)
1) For a reaction delta Go is more negative than delta Ho. What does this mean? a. delta So is zero. b. delta So is negative c. delta So is positive d. delta So is negative if delta Ho is positive. e. delta So is negative if delta Ho is negative. I think

asked by Hannah on April 23, 2012

Sea water conducts electricity. Which statements give the best explanation for this a) Ions are able to move around in sea water b) Electrons can pass from ion to ion in the sea water c) The sea water contains more ions with positve charges than ions with

asked by peter on November 6, 2010
Sodium flouride, NaF, is a basic salt. Write the chemical equation that describes how the salt breaks up into its ions. Write the chemical equation that describes how one of the ions behaves as a base in water to produce OH-.

asked by John on June 27, 2010
chemistry please help ASAP
how do I find two positive ions and two negative ions that are isoelectronic with a) Ar b) Xe

asked by elizabeth on October 11, 2011
chemistry help please ASAP
how do I find two positive ions and two negative ions that are isoelectronic with a) Ar b) Xe

asked by elizabeth on October 11, 2011

  1. Given the chemical formulas of the following compounds, name each compound and state the rules you used to determine each name. • RbF • CuO • (NH4)2C2O4

asked by Taylor on December 19, 2012
In designing a velocity selector that uses uniform perpendicular electric and magnetic fields, you want to select positive ions of charge +5e that are traveling perpendicular to the fields at 8.75 km/s. The magnetic field availabe to you has a magnitude of

asked by J on February 18, 2008
Science-Periodic Table
Where r the elements that form ions with a positive charge located? where r the elements that form ions with a negative charge located? can someone please briefly explain this whole positive and negative charge thing to me. I kind of get it, but the

asked by Sara on April 8, 2010
Honors Chemistry
Can someone check my work please? Thanks :)) 2. Write the formulas for the compounds formed between the following: g. Cu+2 and NO3- (the +2 and – are superscripts, while the 3 is a subscript) ===> I got Cu(NO3)2. h. NH4 and SO4(2-) (the two 4’s are

asked by Emily on October 13, 2009
Dr.Bob222- IChemical formulas&Reactions
When aqueous copper(II)chloride reacts with aqueous ammonium phosphate, soluble ammonium chloride forms and copper(II) phosphate precipitates out of solution. 1. Write the balanced molecular equationfor this reaction. 2. Write the balanced complete ionic

asked by chrissy on January 3, 2007
throughout a time interval, while the speed of a particle increases as it moves along the x-axis, its velocity and acceleration might be: a) positive and negative B) negative and negative c) negative and positive D) negative and zero E) positive and zero

asked by jack on September 2, 2013

In a crystal of salt there are electrons and positive ions. How does the net charge of the electrons compare with the net charge of the ions? 1. Unable to determine 2. Sometimes the net charge of the negative electrons is greater than the net charge of the

asked by Tiffany on February 7, 2013
Can someone please help me with these? Write formulas for the following compounds. copper (III) chlorate lead (II) nitrate Cu(ClO3)3 Pb(NO3)2 Do you know the polyatomic ions? Tell us what you don’t understand about looking at the periodic table and doing

asked by Florencia on February 13, 2007
What are the formulas for lithium bromide? where can i find the formula for cupric nitride,and magnesium chloride also. and what are the formulas for the compounds formed by

asked by Mark on January 7, 2007
why do positive ions and negative ions form?

asked by Tracy on December 10, 2008
what is the name of the ions that are formed when the following compounds dissolve in water. (a) BaBr2 (b) (NH4)2CrO4 (c)HBr

asked by Shane on November 23, 2012
Compare ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonding, and fully describe an example of each. Is this right and I need help with an example of a covalent bond. Ionic bond is formed from one metal and one non metal. It is a solid at room temperate. In an ionic bond

asked by Danielle on November 14, 2010
All alkalis produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. How do we write the chemical equation for aqueous ammonia? I see some textbooks write it as ammonia gas dissolving in water to form ammonium ions and hydroxide ions. NH3(g)+ H2O(l) ==> NH4+(aq) +

asked by janice on April 10, 2009
Teacher gave us homework that I really don’t understand. We must write chemical reactions by which we differentiate alcohols, esters, hydrogenic carbon,carboxylic acid and halogen alkanes from each other. We must not write the same reaction for two

asked by Nina on February 15, 2011
Teacher gave us homework that I really don’t understand. We must write chemical reactions by which we differentiate alcohols, esters, hydrogenic carbon,carboxylic acid and halogen alkanes from each other. We must not write the same reaction for two

asked by Nina on February 16, 2011
how many chloride (CL negative two) ions are needed to balance a positive charge of Barium positive two?

asked by monique on February 21, 2012

Examples of positive, negative and neutral friction? We always learned about friction as either being positive (tires gripping the road, brake friction for stopping etc.) or negative friction (causing wear or heat as in a bearing or engine due to parts

asked by sw on March 16, 2008
IDK these help pls 1. Which of the following is a compound? A. O2 B. NH3 C. H2O+NaCl D. N2 2. What is the difference between compounds and mixtures? A. Compounds contain only one element; mixtures contain two or more elements. B. Compounds contain two or

asked by hawseefoo on October 3, 2018
Adv Chem 12th grade

  1. Given the chemical formulas of the following compounds, name each compound and state the rules you used to determine each name. • RbF • CuO • (NH4)2C2O4 (Note: C2O4– is called oxalate.)

asked by Taylor on December 19, 2012
When the halogens form ionic compounds, what is the ion charge of the halide ions? negative one

asked by Raj on February 15, 2007
what are 4 chemical properties of organic compounds?i know there non polar molecules and they tend to e soluble in non polar solvents,,but my homework says i need 2 more and i don’t know what else..thanks 🙂 Some organic compounds are non-polar and some

asked by tameka on January 3, 2007
Decartes Rule of Signs
Could you explain to me decartes Rule of signs? Here are my questions: Use Decartes Rule of signs to determine the possible number of postive and negative real zeros for the given function. 1. f(x)=-7x^9+x^5-x^2+6 choices are: a. 2 or 0 positive zeros,2 or

asked by Ash on October 9, 2007
Write the compound formulas for each of the following pairs and the name of the compound formed when the elements or radicals combine. Mg+2 + OH-1 K+1 + PO4-3 Cu+2 + S-2 N+5 + O-2 Compounds have zero charge. Therefore, for magnesium hydroxide, the first

asked by jessica on March 19, 2007
in what ratio 0.2M NaCl and 0.1M CaCl2 solutions are to be mixed so that in the resulting solution, the concentration of negative ions is 50% greater than the concentration of positive ions?

asked by jaimi on April 16, 2015
This seems easy and yet i’m skeptical if these are actually supposed to be difficult.. It asks for a lot. It’s seems repetitive.. 1. a falling stone takes .30 seconds to travel past a window 2.2m tall. From what height above the top of the window did the

asked by Abby on December 16, 2015
A sample of 0.6760 g of an unknown compound containing barium ions (Ba2+) is dissolved in water and treated with an excess of Na2SO4. If the mass of the BaSO4 precipitate formed is 0.1405 g, what is the percent by mass of Ba in the original unknown

asked by Michael on September 29, 2010

Write the formula of the ionic compound that forms between a. copper(I) ions and chloride ions—CuCl b. copper(II) ions and hydrogen sulfate ions–Cu(HSO4)2 c. lithium ions and iodide ions–LiI d. cobalt(III) ions and phosphate ions—CoPO4

asked by krystal on February 6, 2012
If I had a question about complex ions and the problem had a “mixture” of two compounds, how would I know if one of the products formed is going to be a solid or liquid? I know there are solubility rules, but is there something else you can use to tell?

asked by Hank on November 22, 2014
what are 4 differences between ionic and covalent bonding? plz help thanks!! i clicked on the link but it doesnt tell me anything See if it works (Broken Link

asked by hannah on March 19, 2007
Grade 12 chemistry
For a chem lab, i was given a table that results when pairs of chemical solutions are mixed.For each set of compounds that formed a precipitate, I had to determine the precipitate. I have done that and now one of the questions i have to answer based on the

asked by Teneal on December 31, 2011
Algebra 1
Write a rule for a nonlinear function such that y is negative when x = 1, positive when x = 2, negative when x = 3, positive when x = 4, and so on. The entire problem confuses me. I have no idea what its even asking besides it wants an equation.

asked by Alexis on October 31, 2014