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landsea tours

Company Background:

The Landsea Tours was founded in 1985 by Scott Mason. Scott is an entrepreneur who saw a chance to capitalize on the growing sightseeing market in Vancouver. He started by giving fun tours on a mini-coach. Since then, the company has been growing and had a big break through the enthusiasm of a young co-op student called Kevin Pearce. Pearce helped rebrand the company, and is now the current President and co-owner. Landsea Tours is one of the market leaders in the booing sightseeing market which is vital to Vancouver’s economy.

Our Mission and Vision statements;

· Vision: Landsea Tours elite team provides a year-round premium boutique sightseeing experiences. We strive to be the innovators and the company of choice in Vancouver/s tourism industry

· Mission: exceed expectations by providing world-class service excellence. Sightseeing the way, it should be

Landsea Tours competes in a very diverse market, as they provide services for a range of people. From luxury buses to ordinary coaches, they provide full day, multi-day and half day tours to ten destinations for both locals and tourists. Vancouver is a very big city with about 647,000 people who are all potential customers. In 2015, the city of Vancouver had 2.1 million visitors from the U.S, 940 000 from the Asia-Pacific region and 424,000 from Europe. Landsea Tours is also the only company that provides sea to sky tours, and this gives them an edge over the competition.

Westcoast Sightseeing offers similar tours of Vancouver as well as guided tours to the same destinations as Landsea, and are regarded as their most fierce competition. They also have similar social media ratings, and are licensed by Gray Line, a Denver-based tour company that offers sightseeing tours all over the world. The Vancouver Trolley Company and Star Limousine are both indirect competitors of Landsea Tours, as they offer similar services. The industry has very low barriers to entry, and there are frequent new entrants.

Landsea Tours brand is to pride themselves on being cleaner and more fuel-efficient than their competition. The company has been awarded Silver Certification from Green Tourism Canada and is Climate Smart certified. They also pride themselves on carefully selecting their guides through an extensive hiring process. Landsea hires based on personality and teach employees the skills they need. Above all, they look for people who genuinely care about their visitors’ vacation experience. This is evident in the fact that new employees spend five weeks in training, including two-and-a-half weeks of driver training to complete commercial driver licensing requirements. On social media, Landsea has a relatively small but engaged network and they are also rated highly by TripAdvisor.

Landsea’s target market can be segmented as follows;

1. Authentic experiences: These are people looking for authentic, tangible engagement with the destinations, with a particular interest in understanding the history of the places they visit. They are 55+ older. A significantly higher proportion of these visitors (17%) are from short-haul markets within BC, Alberta, and Washington State (most using their own vehicle) and 20% of these visitors are from long-haul North American markets like Ontario and California. Their top sources for trip planning are: airline websites, hotels and attractions. They seek good value and like tours that show the highlights but focus on nature

2. Cultural Explorers: They are “defined by their love of constant travel and continuous search for opportunities to embrace and discover cultures. They are younger than the ‘authentic experiences’ and are usually mostly aged 35-45. They don’t want to feel like tourists; they enjoy shared authentic experiences and don’t require pampering or luxury. Their primary trip planning sources are: websites of airlines, hotels, attractions or other services at destination; travel guides and books; and websites of regional or city tourism offices.

Competitive Analysis:

Target Audience:

· Landsea Tours & Adventures: Landsea is serving pleasant service to their customers since last 30 years and continuously doing so. They have a kind of niche market but to be the first position they have to take care of their customers. Landsea is targeting on the people from small age group to old age group people who is seeking to do adventures on their vacations. The activities that Landsea is doing are a proper package for children, young age group to old age group.

· Westcoast sightseeing is a competitor of Landsea. They are also offering same facilities except sea to sky trip. They are also targeting same age group as Landsea. Westcoast is a Denver based company that offers sightseeing tours all over the world.

· The Vancouver Trolly company is indirect competitor of Landsea. They are not offering lots of activities but they have low price range of offers. Landsea and this company sell each other’s products. This company target audience is limited but they are charging less compare to Landsea.

· Star Limousine is an indirect competitor of Landsea charters. This company offers VIP facilities and people who want first class facilities they can get it from Star Limousine Company. They have high range of charters which attract lots of customers.

Promotion Vehicle Used:

· Landsea Tours and Adventures: Promotion is the main part of the any business and Landsea needs to do more promotion because they have limited marketing budget. Landsea has partnership with the hotel concierges from last so many years. Concierges is number one driver for business, they are recommending Landsea to their customers for charters and trips which helps them a lot to grow their business.

· Company is doing promotion by social media, news papers, partnership, trade promotions bus adverts, sharing customers experience to the customers.

· Landsea has their website called “Landsea Tours and Adventures”. Landsea has top ranking position on “Vancouvertours.com” where most of the people visit this website.

· Viator is the biggest wholesaler for Landsea. Viator is owned by TripAdvisor and it has largest amount of customer reachability. Around 11 million travelers visit this site and have more than 3000 partners. So the Landsea tours booked by largest ravel website. (LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES, 2017)

Westcoast sightseeing: Westcoast sightseeing is the competitor of the Landsea and this company is also a partner with the hotel Concierge.

· Westcoast sightseeing is doing marketing by broachers, social media, news papers, blogs, and many more.

· They have partnership with Tourism Industry BC, North Shore Tourism, Tourism Richmond, and Tourism Vancouver.

· They are very active on social media like twitter, Facebook, instagram, Google+. Compare to Landsea they are more active. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Vancouver Trolly Company: Vancouver Trolly Company is partner with hotel Concierge. This company is indirect competitor of Landsea.

· Vancouver Trolly Company has less appearance on social media. They are available on Facebook, Twitter only.

· They have top ratings on Viator and the rating was stated on 2011.

· Vancouver Trolly does the marketing by broachers, partnership, and social media. They charge less to the customers compare to others. (Trolley, 2017)

Star Limousine: Star Limousine is providing first class amenities service to their customers. They have wide range of luxurious vehicles. Recently they have introduced TESLA cars for their customers who want to enjoy the ride without burning fossil fuels.

· Star Limousine is located in so many places. They have wide range of network in Canada. They are doing marketing by showing their brand image to their customer by social media, customer’s feedback, and many more.

· They have partnership with so many hotel and motels. they are partnered with Tourism Vancouver, Whistler British Columbia, NLA, and The Vancouver Board of Trade. (Limousine, 2012)

Slogan and positioning:

1. Landsea Tours and Adventures: “Guided By Passion”. (Adventures, 2017)

2. Westcoast sightseeing: “Let’s explore together”. (Sightseeing., 2017)

3. Vancouver Trolly Company: “The Fun Begins The Minute You Board!”.

“THE TROLLEY WAS A MUCH BETTER OPTION THAN A LIMO!” (Trolley, 2017)

4. Star Limousine: “Exceeding Expectation”. (Limousine, 2012)

Brand Strength and Weakness:

Landsea Tours and Adventures:

Strengths:

1. Landsea has a wide range of activities for the tourist.

2. They have great facilities like hotel pickup and drop off.

3. They train their employees very well and they spend at least $5000 for training one employee which shows their affection.

4. Landsea is partnered with hotels and Viator which can enhance their network around the world.

5. They have wide range of charters. They have buses, cars, as well electric cars and each one cost them around $150,000. This shows that they are using premium product for their customer. (LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES, 2017)

Weaknesses:

1. They don’t have Hop on-Hop off tours.

2. They have little bit high cost of trips compare to their competitors.

3. They are less active on social media.

4. Compare to their competitors Landsea has less attractive website. (LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES, 2017)

Westcoast sightseeing:

Strengths:

1. They are also offering same adventure as Landsea and even more.

2. They have good appearance on social media

3. They are offering hop on-hop off facilities.

4. They have good website compare to Landsea. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Weaknesses:

1. They don’t have good vehicle as Landsea has.

2. Hey have less rating on their website compare to Landsea. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Vancouver Trolly Company:

Strengths:

1. Offers hop on-hop off facilities to the customers.

2. They have affordable offers compare to their competitors. (Trolley, 2017)

Weaknesses:

1. They are not active on social media.

2. Their website is not so attractive

3. Their marketing strategy weak compare to their competitors. (Trolley, 2017)

Star Limousine:

Strengths:

1. They have awesome cars and offer luxury to their customers.

2. They have wide range of market and they are located in different parts of the Canada.

3. Offering service to their customers from last so many years. (Limousine, 2012)

Weaknesses:

1. They charging more compare to their competitors.

2. They don’t offer other adventures offer like their competitors do.

3. They are the only transportation mode. (Limousine, 2012)

USP (Unique Selling Point):

Landsea Tours & Adventures: Landsea is one of the best companies for the tourists. Landsea USP is their wide range of offers for anyone. They have best employees to take care of you, best vehicles, and their affection towards their company. (Adventures, 2017)

Westcoast sightseeing: Westcoast is the direct competitor of Landsea and they offer same as compare to Landsea. But their unique selling point is their appearance on social media and on website. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Vancouver Trolly Company: Vancouver Trolly has less appearance on social media but they are offering good activities to their customer and their unique selling point is their low price range. (Trolley, 2017)

Star Limousine: Star Limousine is offering first class charters to their customer but they charge higher compare to their competitors. Their unique selling point is their appearance in the market as a luxury car brand company who offers extreme comfort travel ride. (Limousine, 2012)

OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION:

For the clients most viable areas of opportunity from a positioning perspective there are five forces of competitive position analysis. They are:

· Supplier power

· Buyer power

· Rivalry competitors

· Threat of entrants

· Threat of substitute products or services

1. Supplier power

It is an evaluation of how the providers increase the costs. The costs are driven depending on the quantity of provider basic information, different feature in their item size and quality of the provider and cost of changing from one provider then onto the next.

2. Buyer power

It is an evaluation of how simple the purchaser makes the costs down. The costs are reduced down by the quantity of purchaser in the market, significance of every individual purchaser to the association and cost to the purchaser of changing starting with one provider then onto the next.

3. Rivalry among existing competitors

This depends on the capacity of adversaries in the market. Various sponsors, offering various things and also organizations, reduce the feature appeal.

4. Threat of new entrants

Beneficial markets pull in new hopefuls, which crumble benefit. Until tenants have very strong limits to entry, then the advantages will have reduction for the forceful price. Alternatively the control and impose appraisal procedures makes the government a sixth power for few organizations.

5. Threat of substitute products or services

Whenever similar substitute items exist in the market, it improves the chances of clients changing to options in light of cost increments. This declares both the energy of providers and the market.

Points of parity:

Points of parity are the difference in points between the competitors over your brand that you need to prevent. This is the place where you need to show you as a good competitor, so that you can ignore the advantage and focus on your points of difference.

In some cases points of parity are called as table stakes, these are the points you simply need to enter in to a market. Other times, points of parity are the advantages that competitors have that are valued by the customers.

Segmentation & target Audience:

In Canada, there is an extensive research made into visitor profiles in nation. There are some experiences of travel which are developed and those are marketed and sold by the government.

There are some travellers who are eventually look for destinations and also shows more interest of knowing the history of the places. Also, there are very much interested in travel to learn and experience.

The primary target audience are:

· Authentic Experiences: These travellers are mainly concentrating on understanding the history of the places which they tend to visit. They can gain some knowledge and experience while travelling to the new places. This type of travellers can mainly have seen in the age of above 55, in those 9% from the global countries travellers and 12% from the Canadian travelers.17% of visitors are from the short-haul markets and 20 % of visitors are from long haul markets. Mainly these types of travellers are open minded and independent. They prefer the integrating of local culture. They can learn everything about the place they visit. They can also have the improvement of understanding the others.

· Cultural Explorers: These types of travellers can be defined by their love of constant travel. They can have the habit of discover and can immerse themselves in the culture, people and the places they can visit. Young age grouper mainly follows this type of travelling. The age may be 35-45. They cannot be like tourists; they can enjoy the experience which is authenticated. They didn’t expect any luxury things in the travelling. The sources they used for travelling are air lines, hotels and other services. The cultural explorers are open minded and easy going. Also, they are more energetic, risk taker. They have constant exploration i.e. they always plan for the next outing.

Market Segmentation

Market Segmentation: It is a process of dividing a broad business market; it consists of both extension and potential consumers into subgroup of segments based on their characteristics.

Strategic approach to Segmentation

Number of SegmentsSegmentation StrategyComments
ZERONo strategyThere is no segmentation
OneThis segmentation is focus strategyIt focuses on a Small, tightly defined target market
Two or moreIt is a differentiated strategyThey focus on two or more targeted targets which they define

Segmentation

Segmentation baseExplanations
DemographicThose are individuals and aged above 18+.And couples, age from 25-34
GeographicThis type of travelers from different countries and remaining from the Canada.
PsychographicsThis type of experience travelers is having desire to find the new places to travel and they travel for free time to get away their stress.
BehaviouralThis type of travelers seen the adventures and cultural experiences.

Communication Objectives:

1 Marketing objectives:   To develop our Marketing plan

. Proposals of where the business should be, helping customers to set their business objectives and         illumination of the chances to seek after.

. Division, Focusing on and Situating

. Laying out proposals with respect to marking to help separate and recognize your organization.

. Observing and Control

. Budget plans 

. Assets

Marketing strategy: A marketing strategy is about formulating your company’s marketing direction. A marketing strategy will ask a number of business questions seeking to provide answers covering:

.   build up the brand awareness.

.   increase in market sales.

.   start new products and sales. 

.  new markets international or locally  

. increase profit 

Developing smart objectives:

. specific

.  time

.  realistic 

 .  Achievable

1. Create Brand Awareness: Making brand care is to light up your planned intrigue assemble about your picture of your thing or organization. Making brand care does not so much apply to another brand, yet rather often applies to a present brand which may endeavor to invade new markets. The brand message can be passed on through a couple of sorts of correspondence stations, for instance, standard mail, radio, TV publicizing, natural advancing.

2. Define a Fulfilling Need for Your Product/Service: In the broad exchanges framework part of your moving strategy, you will design the innovative structure for planning your connection, thing, or relationship in the proposed intrigue groups psyche to induce them to use your thing/ideal position.

Some of the methods that fulfilling need for their products. Few of them are 

• Low interest rates 

• A buy one get one free

• Reasonable price

• Provide a money-back guarantee

         3. Encourage Action from Your Target Audience: While engaging your planned intrigue gathering may have all the earmarks of resembling initiating them to make a get, it goes further. It’s totally veritable that using a get one, get one FREE offer is bolster, in any case, if you simply broadcast using one correspondence channel and only for a brief period, for example a one week time span, you will see a drop in purchaser interest and purchases.

References: Adventures, L. T. (2017). Tour of the Week. Retrieved from https://vancouvertours.com/ LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES (February 12, 2017). Limousine, S. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.starlimousine.com/index.php Sightseeing., W. (2017). Westcoast Sightseeing. Retrieved from https://westcoastsightseeing.com/ Trolley, V. (2017). THE VANCOUVER TROLLEY COMPANY. Retrieved from http://www.vancouvertrolley.com/ Whittle, E. (2017, February 12). Landsea-Tours-Vanier 2016 Case Study. Retrieved September 28, 2017, fromhttps://www.fanshaweonline.ca/d2l/le/content/824561/viewContent/5406596/View http://newkind.com/how-to-position-technology-brand-points-parity/ https://www.cgma.org/resources/tools/essential-tools/porters-five-forces.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_segmentation#Bases_for_segmenting_consumer_markets https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_segmentation http://www.winmarketing.co.uk/marketing-strategy/marketing-objectives/ https://www.marketingbinder.com/writing-marketing-communication-objectives/

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cv1 coffee makers

MAKING COFFEE WITH CV1 COFFEE MAKER 7

Making Coffee with CV1 Coffee Maker

Student

School

Making Coffee with CV1 Coffee Maker

The CV1 Coffee Maker is an excellent convenient, and compact, 8″H x 4.5″W x W x 8”D, coffee maker, it’s reliable, single serve, with a personal cup brewer, which uses a disposable brew basket and filter. The CV1 Coffee Maker comes out of the box ready to use, it has an automatic shut off when coffee is ready (Courtesy Products (n.d.).

The instructions will guide anyone from an expert coffee drinker/maker or beginners to use this machine.

All the items listed below are necessary to complete a single cup of coffee. (See Figure 1), and the diagram illustrates the coffee maker components (See Figure 2).

Figure 1 – Coffee Maker/Brew Basket & Filter/Condiments & Coffee Cup

Figure 2 – Coffee Maker Components

Follow the step by step instructions below to using the CVI Coffee Maker.

Step 1. Remove your CV1 from the box and plug in electrical socket (See Figure 2).

Figure 2 – Coffee Maker Plugged In

Step 2. Open Brew Basket and Filter and slide it into the Brew Basket compartment. (See Figure 3)

Figure 3 – Coffee, Brew Basket Filter and Brew Basket Compartment

Step 3. To filter the coffee through the Brew Basket filter, open door located on the top of the coffee maker, fill the coffee cup with water and pour into the water compartment and close the water compartment door. (See Figure 4). Comment by Darlene: Omit. Each step should begin with a verb.

Figure 4 – Filling the Water Compartment for Brewing

Step 4. The Coffee Maker is ready for Brewing. Place the cup under the Brew Basket compartment and push the On/Off button down and wait for the coffee to fill your cup. (See Figure 5).

Figure 5 – Coffee Cup in place and Push Down On/Off Button

Step 5. Mix in the condiment and have a delicious cup of coffee. (See Figure 6).

Figure 6 – Brewed Cup of Coffee and Condiments. Enjoy!

Coffee Maker will automatically turn off once the brewing is completed.

References:

Courtesy Products (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.courtesyproducts.com/order.php?view=item&cview=category&ItemID=484

Feedback/Instructions

This is a good start, and the way you organized the document generally works. The topic is perfect for the assignment.

When it comes to writing instructions, remember that you don’t have much leeway in how you’ll phrase each step: each one should begin with a verb and end with a period. Likewise, you’ll format the graphics following the APA Style guidelines. I find this resource super useful when incorporating photographs or drawings, which can also be applied to screenshots, should you decide to include some in this paper or in the future (just scroll toward the bottom): https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/apa_tables_and_figures_2.html.

For this project, you’re also required to figure out a way to break down the process into 2-3 separate phases with smaller steps “nested” within.

Check out my comments in the margins and let me know if you have any questions!

Best,

Sneza

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outline of wyoming

Outlining a statute facilitates your understanding of the specific conduct that is regulated by the statute. It also provides details on how a court case resolves ambiguities and applies statutes to particular legal issues.

The first step in outlining a statute involves determining the elements, results, and exceptions of the statute in question. If the elements are linked with the word and, they must all be met to trigger the results. If elements are linked with the word or, only one of the elements must be established. If all of the elements are relevant but only some are needed, then the statute contains a factors test. A commonly known factors test is when child custody is determined by what is in the best interest of the child. The court considers factors such as: the fitness of the parent, the relationship between child and parent, living accommodations, placement of siblings, educational opportunities, religious education, etc. The result is what will happen when the elements of the statute are met. Exceptions occur when an additional element is established and the usual result does not follow.

Once you have outlined a relevant statute, you can use the LexisNexis Academic database to consult the Interpretive Notes and Decisions that follow federal statutes and the Notes section that follows state statutes. They will direct you to cases that interpret specific elements of the relevant statute.

The following are two examples of a statute and an outline of that statute:

Dog Bite Statute

If a dog or other animal, without provocation, attacks or injures any person who is peacefully conducting himself in any place where he may lawfully be, the owner of such dog or other animal is liable in damages to such person for the full amount of the injury sustained.

Dog Bite Statute Outline

  • Elements
    • If dog or other animal
    • Without provocation
    • Attacks or injures
    • Person
    • Peacefully conducting himself
    • In lawful location



  • Results
    • Owner of dog or animal is liable for damages for all injuries sustained



  • Exceptions
    • None

Escape from Prison Statute

If any person committed to prison shall break and escape there from or shall escape or leave without authority any building, camp, or place in which he is placed or directed to go or in which he is allowed to be, he shall be deemed guilty of an escape and shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not to exceed 5 years, to commence immediately upon the expiration of the term of his previous sentence.

Escape from Prison Statute Outline

  • Elements
    • Person committed to prison
    • Break, escape, or leave without authority
    • Any building, camp, or place
    • Where he is placed, directed to go, or allowed to be



  • Results
    • Guilty of escape
    • Prison term not to exceed 5 years to follow previous sentence



  • Exceptions
    • None

To prepare for this assignment:

  • Review the assigned pages of Chapter 3 in your course text, Principles of Legal Research. Focus on sources of and research methods for locating statutes.
  • Locate one court interpretation of the Wyoming blackmail statute.
  • Use the LexisNexis Academic database in the Walden Library and search for Wyo. Stat. § 6-2-402 using the following sources under the Federal & State Codes section of the Legal tab:
    • WY-Wyoming Statutes Annotated, Constitution
    • Search: 6-2-402
    • Select a court interpretation in the Notes section that follows the statute
  • Review the Wyoming blackmail statute.
  • Outline the statute using the examples provided above for guidance.

The assignment: (1–2 pages)

  • Outline the Wyoming blackmail statute. List the elements, results, and exceptions of the statute.
  • Provide a brief explanation of the statute.
  • Analyze and explain at least one court interpretation of the Wyoming blackmail statute.

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list only for those resources not included in the Learning Resources for this course.

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the ____ option button lists formatting options following an insertion of cells, rows, or columns.

with Microsoft®

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

PEARSON T O W N S E N D FERRETT HAIN VARGAS

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E

T O W N S E N D I FERRETT I H A I N I VARGAS

Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Townsend, Kris. Skills for success with Office 2010 / by Kris Townsend.

p. cm. ISBN 978-0-13-703257-0 (alk. paper) 1. Microsoft Office. 2. Business—Computer programs. I, Title.

HF5548.4.M525T692 201 I 005.5—dc22 2010016531

Editor in Chief: Michael Payne AVP/Executive Acquisitions Editor: Stephanie Wall Product Development Manager: Eileen Bien Calabro Editorial Project Manager: Virginia Gitariglia Development Editor: Nancy Lamm Editorial Assistant: Nicole Sam AVP/Director of Online Programs, Media: Richard Keaveny AVP/Dircctor of Product Development, Media: Lisa Strife Editor—Digital Learning & Assessment: Paul Gentile Product Development Manager, Media: Calhi Projitko Media Project Manager, Editorial: Alana Coles Media Project Manager, Production: John Cassar Director of Marketing: Kate Valentine Senior Marketing Manager: Tori Olscn Alves Marketing Coordinator SI/<<I« Osterlitz

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Contents in Brief

Common Features Chapter 1 Common Features ot Office 2010 2

More Skills 26

Word Chapter 1 Create Documents with Word 2010 30

More Skills 54 Chapter 2 Format and Organize Text 64

More Skills 88 Chapter 3 Work with Graphics, Tabs, and Tables 98

More Skills 122 Chapter 4 Apply Special Text, Paragraph and

Document Formats 132 More Skills 156

Excel Chapter 1 Create Workbooks with Excel 2010 166

More Skills 190

Chapter 2 Create Charts 200 More Skills 224

Chapter 3 Manage Multiple Worksheets 234 More Skills 258

Chapter 4 Use Excel Functions and Tables 268 More Skills 292

Access Chapter 1 Work with Databases and

Create Tables 302 More Skills 326

Chapter 2 M a n a g e Datasheets and Create Queries 336 More Skills 360

Chapter 3 Create Forms 370 More Skills 394

Chapter 4 Create Reports 404 More Skills 428

PowerPoint Chapter 1 Getting Started with PowerPoint 2010 438

More Skills 462 Chapter 2 Format a Presentation 472

More Skills 496 Chapter 3 Enhance Presentations with Graphics 506

More Skills 530 Chapter 4 Present Data Using Tables, Charts,

and Animation 540 More Skills 564

Integrated Projects Chapter 1 Integrating Word, Excel, A c c e s s ,

and PowerPoint 574 More Skills 598

Chapter 2 More Integrated Projects for Word, Excel, A c c e s s , and PowerPoint 610 More Skills 634

Glossary 646

Index 654

Contents in Brief iii

Table of Contents

C o m m o n Fea tu res C h a p t e r 1 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s of Office 2 0 1 0 2

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window 6 Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows 8 Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders 10 Skill 4 Print and Save Documents 12 Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As 14 Skill 6 Type and Edit Text 16 Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text 18 Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs 20 Skill 9 Use the Ribbon 22

Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes 24

More Skills More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping

Tool 26 More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help 26 More Skills 13 Organize Files 26 More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live 26

W o r d C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e D o c u m e n t s with Word 2 0 1 0 3 0

Skill 1 Create New Documents and Enter Text 34 Skill 2 Edit Text and Use Keyboard Shortcuts 36 Skill 3 Select Text 38 Skill 4 Insert Text from Other Documents 40 Skill 5 Change Fonts, Font Sizes, and Font Styles 42 Skill 6 Insert and Work with Graphics 44 Skill 7 Check Spelling and Grammar 46 Skill 8 Use the Thesaurus and Set Proofing Options 48 Skill 9 Create Document Footers 50

Skill 10 Work with the Print Page and Save Documents in Other Formats 52

More Skills More Skills 11 Split and Arrange Windows 54 More Skills 12 Insert Symbols 54 More Skills 13 Use Collect and Paste to Create a

Document 54 More Skills 14 Insert Screen Shots into Documents 54

C h a p t e r 2 Format a n d O r g a n i z e Text 6 4 Skill 1 Set Document Margins 68 Skill 2 Align Text and Set Indents 70 Skill 3 Modify Line and Paragraph Spacing 72 Skill 4 Format Text Using Format Painter 74 Skill 5 Find and Replace Text 76 Skill 6 Create Bulleted and Numbered Lists 78 Skill 7 Insert and Format Headers and Footers 80 Skill 8 Insert and Modify Footnotes 82 Skill 9 Add Citations 84

Skill 10 Create Bibliographies 86

More Skills More Skills 11 Record AutoCorrect Entries 88 More Skills 12 Use AutoFormat to Create

Numbered Lists 88 More Skills 13 Format and Customize Lists 88 More Skills 14 Manage Document Properties 88

C h a p t e r 3 Work with G r a p h i c s , Tabs , a n d T a b l e s 9 8

Skill 1 Insert Pictures from Files 102 Skill 2 Resize and Move Pictures 104 Skill 3 Format Pictures Using Styles and

Artistic Effects 106 Skill 4 Set Tab Stops 108 Skill 5 Enter Text with Tab Stops 110 Skill 6 Apply Table Styles 112 Skill 7 Create Tables 114 Skill 8 Add Rows and Columns to Tables H6 Skill 9 Format Text in Table Cells 118

Skill 10 Format Tables 120

iv Table of Contents

More Skills More Skills 11 Insert Text Boxes 122 More Skills 12 Format with WordArt 122 More Skills 13 Create Tables from Existing Lists 122 More Skills 14 Insert Drop Caps 122

C h a p t e r 4 A p p l y S p e c i a l T e x t , P a r a g r a p h , a n d D o c u m e n t F o r m a t s 1 3 2

Skill 1 Create Multiple-Column Text 136 Skill 2 Insert a Column Break 138 Skill 3 Apply and Format Text Effects 140 Skill 4 Use and Create Quick Styles 142 Skill 5 Add Borders and Shading to Paragraphs

and Pages 144 Skill 6 Insert and Format Clip Art Graphics 146 Skill 7 Insert SmartArt Graphics 148 Skill 8 Format SmartArt Graphics 150 Skill 9 Create Labels Using Mail Merge 152

Skill 10 Preview and Print Mail Merge Documents 154

More Skil ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create Resumes from Templates 156 Create Outlines 156 Prepare Documents for Distribution 156 Preview and Save Documents as Web Pages 156

Exce l C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e W o r k b o o k s w i t h

Exce l 2 0 1 0 Skill 1 Create and Save New Workbooks Skill 2 Enter Worksheet Data and Merge and

Center Titles Skill 3 Construct Addition and

Subtraction Formulas Skill 4 Construct Multiplication and

Division Formulas Skill 5 Adjust Column Widths and Apply Cell Styles Skill 6 Use the SUM Function Skill 7 Copy Formulas and Functions

Using the Fill Handle

1 6 6 170

Skill 8 Format, Edit, and Check the Spelling of Data 184 Skill 9 Create Footers and Change Page Settings 186

Skill 10 Display and Print Formulas and Scale Worksheets for Printing

More Skil ls More Skills 11

More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create New Workbooks from Templates Use Range Names in Formulas Change Themes Manage Document Properties

C h a p t e r 2 Skill 1 Skill 2

Skill 3 Skill 4 Skill 5 Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8

Skill 9 Skill 10

C r e a t e C h a r t s Open Existing Workbooks and Align Text Construct and Copy Formulas Containing Absolute Cell References Format Numbers Create Column Charts Format Column Charts Create Pie Charts and Chart Sheets Apply 3-D Effects and Rotate Pie Chart Slices Explode and Color Pie Slices, and Insert Text Boxes Update Charts and Insert WordArt Prepare Chart Sheets for Printing

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13

Insert and Edit Comments Change Chart Types Copy Excel Data to Word Documents

More Skills 14 Fill Series Data into Worksheet Cells

188

190 190 190 190

2 0 0 204

206 208 210 212 214

216

218 220 222

224 224

224

224

172 C h a p t e r 3 M a n a g e M u l t i p l e W o r k s h e e t s 2 3 4

172 Skill 1 Work with Sheet Tabs 238

174 Skill 2 Enter and Format Dates 240 174 Skill 3 Clear Cell Contents and Formats 242

176 Skill 4 Move, Copy, Paste, and Paste Options 244

178 Skill 5 Work with Grouped Worksheets 246

180 Skill 6 Use Multiple Math Operators in a Formula 248 Skill 7 Format Grouped Worksheets 250

182 Skill 8 Insert and Move Worksheets 252

Table of Contents v

Skill 9 Construct Formulas That Refer to Cells in Other Worksheets 254

Skill 10 Create Clustered Bar Charts 256

More Skills More Skills 11 Create Organization Charts 258 More Skills 12 Create Line Charts 258 More Skills 13 Set and Clear Print Areas 258 More Skills 14 Insert Hyperlinks 258

C h a p t e r 4 U s e Exce l F u n c t i o n s a n d T a b l e s 2 6 8 Skill 1 Use the SUM and AVERAGE Functions 272 Skill 2 Use the MIN and MAX Functions 274 Skill 3 Move Ranges with Functions,

Add Borders, and Rotate Text 276 Skill 4 Use the IF Function 278 Skill 5 Apply Conditional Formatting with

Custom Formats, Data Bars, and Sparklines 280 Skill 6 Use Find and Replace and Insert

the NOW Function 282 Skill 7 Freeze and Unfreeze Panes 284 Skill 8 Create and Sort Excel Tables 286 Skill 9 Use the Search Filter in Excel Tables 288

Skill 10 Convert Tables to Ranges, Hide Rows and Columns, and Format Large Worksheets 290

More Skills More Skills 11 Apply Conditional Color Scales

with Top and Bottom Rules 292 More Skills 12 Use the Payment (PMT) Function 292 More Skills 13 Create PivotTable Reports 292 More Skills 14 Use Goal Seek 292

A c c e s s C h a p t e r 1 Work with D a t a b a s e s

a n d C r e a t e T a b l e s 3 0 2 Skill 1 Open and Organize Existing Databases 306 Skill 2 Enter and Edit Table Data 308 Skill 3 Create Forms and Enter Data 310 Skill 4 Filter Data in Queries 312 Skill 5 Create, Preview, and Print Reports 314 Skill 6 Create Databases and Tables 316

vi Table of Contents

Skill 7 Change Data Types and Other Field Properties 318

Skill 8 Create Tables in Design View 320 Skill 9 Relate Tables 322

Skill 10 Enter Data in Related Tables 324

More Skills More Skills 11 Compact and Repair Databases 326 More Skills 12 Import Data from Excel 326 More Skills 13 Work with the Attachment Data

Type 326 More Skills 14 Work with the Hyperlink

and Yes/No Data Types 326

C h a p t e r 2 M a n a g e D a t a s h e e t s a n d C r e a t e Q u e r i e s 3 3 6

Skill 1 Find and Replace Data 340 Skill 2 Filter and Sort Datasheets 342 Skill 3 Use the Simple Query Wizard 344 Skill 4 Format Datasheets 346 Skill 5 Add Date and Time Criteria 348 Skill 6 Create Queries in Design View 350 Skill 7 Add Calculated Fields to Queries 352 Skill 8 Work with Logical Criteria 354 Skill 9 Add Wildcards to Query Criteria 356

Skill 10 Group and Total Queries 358

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Queries to Other Fie Formats 360 More Skills 12 Find Duplicate Records 360 More Skills 13 Find Unmatched Records 360 More Skills 14 Create Crosstab Queries 360

C h a p t e r 3 C r e a t e Forms 3 7 0 Skill 1 Use the Form Wizard 374 Skill 2 Format Forms in Layout View 376 Skill 3 Use Forms to Modify Data 378 Skill 4 Use the Blank Form Tool 380 Skill 5 Customize Form Layouts 382 Skill 6 Add Input Masks 384 Skill 7 Apply Conditional Formatting 386 Skill 8 Create One-to-Many Forms 388 Skill 9 Enter Data Using One-to-Many Forms 390

Skill 10 Create Forms from Queries 392

More Skills More Skills 11 Validate Fields 394 More Skills 12 Add Combo Boxes to Forms 394 More Skills 13 Create Multiple Item Forms 394 More Skills 14 Create Macros 394

C h a p t e r 4 C r e a t e R e p o r t s 4 0 4 Skill 1 Create Reports and Apply Themes 408 Skill 2 Modify Report Layouts 410 Skill 3 Prepare Reports for Printing 412 Skill 4 Use the Blank Report Tool 414 Skill 5 Group and Sort Reports 416 Skill 6 Format and Filter Reports 418 Skill 7 Create Label Reports 420 Skill 8 Use the Report Wizard 422 Skill 9 Modify Layouts in Design View 424

Skill 10 Add Totals and Labels to Reports 426

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Reports to Word 428 More Skills 12 Export Reports to HTML Documents 428 More Skills 13 Create Parameter Queries 428 More Skills 14 Create Reports for Parameter Queries 428

PowerPo in t C h a p t e r 1 G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h

P o w e r P o i n t 2 0 1 0 4 3 8 Skill 1 Open, View, and Save Presentations 442 Skill 2 Edit and Replace Text in Normal View 444 Skill 3 Format Slide Text 446 Skill 4 Check Spelling and Use the Thesaurus 448 Skill 5 Insert Slides and Modify Slide Layouts 450 Skill 6 Insert and Format Pictures 452 Skill 7 Organize Slides Using Slide Sorter View 454 Skill 8 Apply Slide Transitions and View Slide Shows 456 Skill 9 Insert Headers and Footers

and Print Presentation Handouts 458 Skill 10 Add Notes Pages and Print Notes 460

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Type Text in the Outline Tab 462 More Skills 12 Use Keyboard Shortcuts 462

More Skills 13 Move and Delete Slides in Normal View 462

More Skills 14 Design Presentations for Audience and Location 462

C h a p t e r 2 F o r m a t a P r e s e n t a t i o n 4 7 2 Skill 1 Create New Presentations 476 Skill 2 Change Presentation Themes 478 Skill 3 Apply Font and Color Themes 480 Skill 4 Format Slide Backgrounds with Styles 482 Skill 5 Format Slide Backgrounds with Pictures

and Textures 484 Skill 6 Format Text with WordArt 486 Skill 7 Change Character Spacing and Font Color 488 Skill 8 Modify Bulleted and Numbered Lists 490 Skill 9 Move and Copy Text and Objects 492

Skill 10 Use Format Painter and Clear All Formatting Commands 494

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Edit Slide Master 496 More Skills 12 Save and Apply Presentation

Template 496 More Skills 13 Create Slides from Microsoft Word

Outline 496 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with Contrast 496

C h a p t e r 3 E n h a n c e P r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h G r a p h i c s 5 0 6

Skill 1 Insert Slides from Other Presentations 510 Skill 2 Insert, Size, and Move Clip Art 512 Skill 3 Modify Picture Shapes, Borders, and Effects 514 Skill 4 Insert, Size, and Move Shapes 516 Ski l l5 Add Text to Shapes and Insert Text Boxes 518 Skill 6 Apply Gradient Fills and Group

and Align Graphics 520 Skill 7 Convert Text to SmartArt Graphics

and Add Shapes 522 Skill 8 Modify SmartArt Layouts, Colors, and Styles 524 Skill 9 Insert Video Files 526

Skill 10 Apply Video Styles and Adjust Videos 528

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Compress Pictures 530

Table of Contents vii

More Skills 12 Save Groups as Picture Files 530 More Skills 13 Change Object Order 530 More Skills 14 Design Presentations Using

Appropriate Graphics 530

C h a p t e r 4 P r e s e n t D a t a U s i n g T a b l e s , C h a r t s , a n d A n i m a t i o n 5 4 0

Skill 1 Insert Tables 544 Skill 2 Modify Table Layouts 546 Skill 3 Apply Table Styles 548 Skill 4 Insert Column Charts 550 Skill 5 Edit and Format Charts 552 Skill 6 Insert Pie Charts 554 Skill 7 Apply Animation Entrance

and Emphasis Effects 556 Skill 8 Modify Animation Timing

and Use Animation Painter 558 Skill 9 Remove Animation and Modify Duration 560

Skill 10 Navigate Slide Shows 562

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Prepare Presentations to be Viewed

Using Office PowerPoint Viewer 564 More Skills 12 Insert Hyperlinks in a Presentation 564 More Skills 13 Create Photo Albums 564 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with

Appropriate Animation 564

I n t e g r a t e d Pro jec ts C h a p t e r 1 I n t e g r a t i n g W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s ,

a n d P o w e r P o i n t 5 7 4 Skill 1 Move Text between Word Documents 578 Skill 2 Apply Heading Styles in Word 580 Skill 3 Create a PowerPoint Presentation

from a Word Document 582 Skill 4 Insert and Modify a Shape in PowerPoint 584 Skill 5 Import a Word Table into

an Excel Workbook 586 Skill 6 Insert a Shape from PowerPoint into Word

and Excel 588 Skill 7 Create and Work with an Excel Table 590

viii Table of Contents

Skill 8 Link Data between Office Applications Using O L E

Skill 9 Create Envelopes Using Data from Access Skill 10 Create Name Tags Using Data in Excel

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Insert Subtotals in Excel and

Link Data to a Word Document More Skills 12 Insert Slides from Another

Presentation More Skills 13 Move and Copy Excel Worksheets

and Consolidate Data More Skills 14 Compare Shared Excel Workbooks

C h a p t e r 2

Skill 1 Skill 2 Skill 3 Skill 4

Skill 5

Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8 Skill 9

M o r e I n t e g r a t e d P r o j e c t s f o r W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s , a n d P o w e r P o i n t Create an Access Append Query Export Data from Access into Excel Create an Excel PivotTable Report Create External References between Excel Workbooks Insert a SmartArt Organization Chart into PowerPoint Insert an Excel PivotTable into PowerPoint Insert a PowerPoint Outline in Word and Create a Cover Page and Table of Contents Link and Embed Data from Excel into Word Export Data from Access to an R T F File and Insert the File into Word Insert Objects from PowerPoint into Word Skill 10

kills More Skills 11 Create an Excel PivotChart

and Link the PivotChart to Word More Skills 12 Create a Hyperlink between

PowerPoint, Word, and Excel Files More Skills 13 Insert a Total Row in an Excel Table

and Link the Table to PowerPoint More Skills 14 Compare Word Documents

Glossary

592 594 596

598

598

598 598

6 1 0 614 616 618

620

622 624

626 628

630 632

634

634

634 634

646

Index 654

About the Authors Kris Townsend is an Information Systems instructor at Spokane Falls Community College in Spokane, Washington. Kris earned a bachelor’s degree in both Education and Business, and a master’s degree in Education. He has also worked as a public school teacher and as a systems analyst. Kris enjoys working with wood, snowboarding, and camping. He commutes to work by bike and enjoys long road rides in the Palouse country south of Spokane.

1

Robert L. Ferrett recently retired as the Director of the Center for Instructional Computing at Eastern Michigan University, where he provided computer training and support to faculty. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 books on Access, PowerPoint, Excel, Publisher, WordPerfect, Windows, and Word. He has been designing, developing, and delivering computer workshops for more than two decades.

Catherine Hain is an instructor at Central New Mexico Community College in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She teaches computer applications classes in the Business and Information Technology School, both in the classroom and through the distance learning office. Catherine holds a bachelor’s degree in Management and Marketing and a master’s degree in Business Administration.

f t Alicia Vargas is an Associate Professor of Business Information Technology at Pasadena City College in California. She holds a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in Business Education from California State University, Los Angeles and has authored numerous textbooks and training materials on Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.

A Special Thank You Pearson Prentice Hall gratefully acknowledges the contribution made by Shelley Gaskin to the first edition publication of this series—Skills for Success with Office 2007. The series has truly benefited from her dedication toward developing a textbook that aims to help students and instructors.We thank her for her continued support of this series.

About the Authors ix

Contributors We’d like to thank the following people for their work on Skills for Success:

Instructor Resource Authors Erich Adickes Parkland College Sharon Behrens Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Julie Boyles Portland Community College Barbara Edington St. Francis College Ranida Harris Indiana University Southeast Beth Hendrick Lake Sumter Community College Susan Holland Southeast Community College—Nebraska Andrea Leinbach Harrisburg Area Community College Yvonne Leonard Coastal Carolina Community College

Technical Editors Lisa Bucki Kelly Carling Hilda W i r t h Federico Jacksonville University Tom Lightner Missouri State University Elizabeth Lockley Joyce Nielsen

Reviewers Darrell Abbey Cascadia Community College Bridget I . Archer Oakton Community College Laura Aagard Sierra College John Alcorcha MTI College Barry Andrews Miami Dade College Natalie Andrews Miami Dade College Wilma Andrews Virginia Commonwealth University School

of Business Bridget Archer Oakton Community College Tahir Aziz J. Sargeant Reynolds Greg Balinger Miami Dade College Terry Bass University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lisa Beach Santa Rosa Junior College Rocky Belcher Sinclair Community College Nannette Biby Miami Dade College David Billings Guilford Technical Community College Brenda K. Br i t t Fayetteville Technical Community College Alisa Brown Pulaski Technical College Eric Cameron Passaic Community College

x Contributors

Trina Maurer Anthony Nowakowski Ernest Gines Stacey Gee Hollins John Purcell Ann Rowlette Amanda Shelton Steve St. John Joyce Thompson Karen Wisniewski

Georgia Virtual Technical College Buffalo State College Tarrant County College—Southeast St. Louis Community College—Meramec Castleton State College Liberty University J. Sargeant Reynolds Tulsa Community College Lehigh Carbon Community College County College of Morris

Janet Pickard Linda Pogue Steve Rubin Eric Sabbah Jan Snyder Mara Zebest

Chattanooga State Tech Community College Northwest Arkansas Community College California State University—Monterey Bay

Gene Carbonaro Trey Cherry Kim Childs Pualine Chohonis Lennie Coper Tara Cipriano Paulette Comet

Gail W . Cope Susana Contreras de Finch Chris Corbin Janis Cox Tomi Crawford Martin Cronlund Jennifer Day Ralph DeArazoza Carol Decker Loorna DeDuluc Caroline Delcourt

Long Beach City College Edgecombe Community College Bethany University Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Gateway Technical College Community College of Baltimore

Coun ty—Ca to nsville Sinclair Community College College of Southern Nevada Miami Dade College Tri-County Technical College Miami Dade College Anne Arundel Community College Sinclair Community College Miami Dade College Montgomery College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College

Contributors continued

Michael Discello Kevin Duggan Barbara Edington Donna Ehrhart Hilda Wirth Federico Tushnelda Fernandez Arlene Flerchinger Hedy Fossenkemper Kent Foster Penny Foster-Shiver Arlene Franklin George Gabb Barbara Garrell Deb Geoghan Jessica Gilmore Victor Giol Melinda Glander Linda Glassburn Deb Gross Rachelle Hall Marie Hartlein Diane Hartman Betsy Headrick Patrick Healy

Lindsay Henning Kermelle Hensley Diana Hill Rachel Hinton Mary Carole Hollingsworth Stacey Gee Hollins Bill Holmes Steve Holtz Margaret M. Hvatum Joan Ivey Dr. Dianna D. Johnson Kay Johnston Warren T. Jones, Sr. Sally Kaskocsak Renuka Kumar Kathy McKee Hazel Kates Gerald Kearns

Pittsburgh Technical Institute Midlands Technical Community College St. Francis College Genesee Community College Jacksonville University Miami Dade College Chattanooga State Tech Community College Paradise Valley Community College Withrop University Anne Arundel Community College Bucks County Community College Miami Dade College Delaware County Community College Bucks County Community College Highline Community College Miami Dade College Northmetro Technical College Cuyahoga Community College, West Ohio State University Glendale Community College Montgomery County Community College Utah Valley State College Chattanooga State Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Yavapai College Columbus Technical College Chesapeake College Broome Community College GA Perimeter St. Louis Community College—Meramec Chandler-Gilbert Community College University of Minnesota Duluth St. Louis Community College Lanier Technical College North Metro Technical College Columbia Basin College University of Alabama at Birmingham Sinclair Community College Community College of Baltimore County North Metro Technical College Miami Dade College Forsyth Technical Community College

Charles Kellermann

John Kidd Chris Kinnard Kelli Kleindorfer Kurt Kominek Dianne Kotokoff Cynthia Krebs Jean Lacoste Gene Laugh rey David LeBron Kaiyang Liang Linda Lindaman Felix Lopez Nicki Maines Cindy Manning Patri Mays Norma McKenzie Lee McKinley Sandy McCormack Eric Meyer Kathryn Miller

Gloria A. Morgan Kathy Morris Linda Moulton Ryan Murphy Stephanie Murre Wolf Jackie Myers Dell Najera

Scott Nason Paula Neal Bethanne Newman Eloise Newsome

Karen Nunan Ellen Orr Carol Ottaway Denise Passero Americus Pavese James Gordon Patterson Cindra Phillips

Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge

Tarrant County Community College Miami Dade College American Institute of Business NE State Tech Community College Lanier Technical College Utah Valley University Virginia Tech Northern Oklahoma College Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College Miami Dade College Mesa Community College Big Sandy Community and Technical College Paradise Valley Community College El Paso Community College GA Perimeter Monroe Community College Miami Dade College Big Sandy Community and Technical College,

Pike Ville Campus Monroe Community College University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Montgomery County Community College Sinclair Community College Moraine Park Technical College Sinclair Community College El Paso Community College, Valle Verde

Campus Rowan Cabarrus Community College Sinclair Community College Paradise Valley Community College Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Northeast State Technical Community College Seminole Community College Chemeketa Community College Fulton-Montgomery Community College Community College of Baltimore County Paradise Valley Community College Clark State CC

Contributors

Contributors continued

Janet Pickard Chattanooga State Tech Community College Diane Stark Phoenix College Floyd Pittman Miami Dade College Neil Stenlund Northern Virginia Community College Melissa Prinzing Sierra College Linda Stoudemayer Lamar Institute of Technology Pat Rahmlow Montgomery County Community College Pamela Stovall Forsyth Technical Community College Mary Rasley Lehigh Carbon Community College Linda Switzer Highline Community College Scott Rosen Santa Rosa Junior College Margaret Taylor College of Southern Nevada Ann Rowlette Liberty University Martha Taylor Sinclair Community College Kamaljeet Sanghera George Mason University Michael M. Taylor Seattle Central Community College June Scott County College of Morris Roseann Thomas Fayetteville Tech Community College Janet Sebesy Cuyahoga Community College Ingrid Thompson-Sellers GA Perimeter Jennifer Sedelmeyer Broome Community College Daniel Thomson Keiser University Kelly SellAnne Arundel Community College Astrid Hoy Todd Guilford Technical Community College Teresa Sept College of Southern Idaho Barb Tollinger Sinclair Community College Pat Serrano Scottsdale Community College Cathy Urbanski Chandler Gilbert Community College Amanda Shelton J. Sargeant Reynolds Sue Van Boven Paradise Valley Community College Gary Sibbits St. Louis Community College—Meramec Philip Vavalides Guildford Technical Community College Janet Siert Ellsworth Community College Pete Vetere Montgomery County Community College— Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College West Campus Karen Smith Technical College of the Lowcountry Asteria Villegas Monroe College Robert Smolenski Delaware County Community College Michael Walton Miami Dade College Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College Teri Weston Harford Community College Gary R. Smith Paradise Valley Community College Julie Wheeler Sinclair Community College Patricia Snyder Midlands Technical College Debbie Wood Western Piedmont Community College Pamela Sorensen Santa Rosa Junior College Thomas Yip Passaic Community College Eric Stadnik Santa Rosa Junior College Lindy Young Sierra Community College Mark Stanchfield Rochester Community and Technical College Matt Zullo Wake Technical Community College

xii Contributors

I n s t r u c t o r s – Y o u a s k e d for it s o h e r e it is!

A M i c r o s o f t ® O f f i c e t e x t b o o k t h a t r e c o g n i z e s h o w s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d a y –

Skills for Success with Microsoft

1 Office 2010 Volume 1

10 X 8.5 F o r m a t – Easy for students to read and type at the same time by simply propping the book up on the desk in front of their monitor

Clear ly Out l ined Sk i l l s – Each skill is presented in a single two-page spread so that students can easily follow along

Numbered S t e p s and Bul le ted Tex t – Students don’t read long paragraphs or text, but they will read information presented concisely

Easy-to-Find S t u d e n t Da ta Fi les – Visual key shows students how to locate and interact with their data files

S t a r t H e r e – Students know exactly where to start and what their starting file will look like

C H A P T E R

G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h W i n d o w s 7 » YOU BK WINDOW 7 ro «CRK M I »F-JF IOM?«L« LOF RUINR-V.*™ PFLNJMN MO»»T*N>WN

MDAU mi mm • J- : >O-L

» IR WIND H I • >\XI OIJJAIZ* TOUR *»RK BV CNUR-J FILCI ir\i PUNNJ THOW tU« WIS FOLDCRI IHJIYAU

Your ilartlng » c r e « n will look Ilk* this: S K I L L !

chapter, you will be

S k i l l s L is t – A visual snapshot of what skills they will complete in the chapter

O u t c o m e – Shows students up front what their completed project will look like

You will tdvo your filoi a t :

T J H N M I M H7_S«II| ‘ ‘

S e q u e n t i a l P a g i n a t i o n – Saves you and your students time in locating topics and assignments I

VISUAL WALK-THROUGH XIII

Skills for Success l ock – Tells how much time students

need to complete the chapter

Introduct ion

• KM US TUNTNW *IR*I fie, 01 FGWRN INTO 4 «IR J .: -I—. IT…. I AIULT :;I N..I..: .:

• MIMIJ-»TT*IIHDR»«U««IJI;UIF.:M*NJFOU« |*:R-P<TKF* T > ffirt IN NUJX ITXFFL R»»I« IN RI«J

t Written for T o d a y ‘ s S t u d e n t s – skills are taught with numbered steps and bulleted text so students are less likely to skip valuable information T w o – P a g e S p r e a d s – Each skill is

presented on a two-page spread to help students keep up their momentum

* TITTR.TI bim irii mug], TU L>«

_ J

D a t a Files Are a S n a p – Students can now find their files easier than ever before with this visual map

C o l o r e d Text – Clearly shows what a student types

Hands-On – Students start actually working on their skills from Step 1

D o n e ! – Students always know when they’ve completed a skill

XIV VISUAL WALK-THROUGH

Skills for S u c c e s s

UorsSkJh © U M l d t o m i o C k g c n n f M

End-o f -Chapte r M a t e r i a l – Several levels of assessment so you can assign the material that best fits your students’ needs

M o r e S k i l l s – Additional skills included online

K e y T e r m s O n l i n e H e l p Sk i l ls

Midi .. – .! -.. I – :T.

O n l i n e P r o j e c t – Students practice using Microsoft Help online to help prepare them for using the applications on their own

H > u » i « i i HI

•.m • m •

Visual Walk-Through xv

Skills for S u c c e s s

Al l V i d e o s

a n d I n s t r u c t o r m a t e r i a l s

a v a i l a b l e o n t h e I R C D

Instructor Mater ia ls

I n s t r u c t o r ‘ s M a n u a l – Teaching tips and additional resources for each chapter

A s s i g n m e n t S h e e t s – Lists all the assignments for the chapter, you just add in the course information, due dates and points. Providing these to students ensures they will know what is due and when

S c r i p t e d L e c t u r e s – Classroom lectures prepared for you

A n n o t a t e d S o l u t i o n F i l e s – Coupled with the scoring rubrics, these create a grading and scoring system that makes grading so much easier for you

P o w e r P o i n t L e c t u r e s – PowerPoint presentations for each chapter

P r e p a r e d E x a m s – Exams for each chapter and for each application

S c o r i n g R u b r i c s – Can be used either by students to check their work or by you as a quick check-off for the items that need to be corrected

S y l l a b u s T e m p l a t e s – for 8-week, 12-week, and 16-week courses

T e s t B a n k – Includes a variety of test questions for each chapter

C o m p a n i o n W e b S i t e – Online content such as the More Skills Projects, Online Study Guide, Glossary, and Student Data Files are all at www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

xvi Visual Walk-Throughhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

C H A P T E R J Common Features of Office 2010 • The programs in Microsoft Office 2010—Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access—share common

tools that you use in a consistent, easy-to-learn manner.

• Common tasks include opening and saving files, entering and formatting text, and printing your work.

Your starting screen will look like this: SKILLS SKILLS 1 – 1 0 TRAINING Umt Insert Pjgt 1

C M M mailt – 1 1 – * 41 IT

«3f»or>

AaBtccJK AaBbCcIK A A B B G .-YABBCC

‘ Items’ “Mo:ca; . rtfacmgl H*jding2 ChtDQt

Past 1 ol I Wmdi 0

A t t h e e n d o f t h i s chapter , y o u w i l l be a b l e t o :

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders Skill 4 Print and Save Documents Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As Skill 6 Type and Edit Text Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs Skill 9 Use the Ribbon Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes

MORE SKILLS

More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping Tool More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help More Skills 13 Organize Files More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live

2 C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 | C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1

Outcome Using the skills listed to the left will enable you to create documents similar to this:

Visit Aspen Falls! A s p e n F a l l s o v e r l o o k s t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n

a n d is s u r r o u n d e d b y m a n y v i n e y a r d s a n d

w i n e r i e s . O c e a n r e c r e a t i o n is a c c e s s e d

p r i m a r i l y a t D u r a n g o C o u n t y P a r k . T h e

A s p e n L a k e R e c r e a t i o n A r e a p r o v i d e s y e a r

r o u n d f r e s h w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a n d is t h e

c i t y ‘ s l a r g e s t p a r k .

Local Attractions • W i n e C o u n t r y

o W i n e Tas t ing Tou rs

o Winer ies

• W o r d s w o r t h Fel lowship Museum of A r t

• Du rango C o u n t y M u s e u m of H is to ry

• Conven t ion Center

• A r t Galleries

• Gl ider T o u r s

Aspen Fallc Annual Events • Annua l Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale

• A n n u a l W i n e Festival

• C inco de Mayo

• Vintage Car S h o w

• Her i tage D a y Parade

• Harvest Days

• A m a t e u r Bike Races

• Farmer ‘s Market

• Aspen Lake Nature Cruises

• Aspen Falls T r ia th lon

• Tas te of Aspen Falls

• W i n t e r Blues Festival

Contact Y o u r N a m e for more informat ion.

Common Features of Office 2010

You will save your files as: Lastname_Firstname_cfO 1 _Visit 1 Lastname_Firstname_cfO l_Visit2 Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 3

In t h i s c h a p t e r , y o u w i l l c r e a t e d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e A s p e n F a l l s C i t y

H a l l , w h i c h p r o v i d e s e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e c i t i z e n s a n d v i s i t o r s o f

A s p e n F a l l s , C a l i f o r n i a .

C o m m o n Features of Of f ice 2 0 1 0 • Microsoft Office is the most common software used to create and share

personal and business documents.

• Microsoft Office is a suite o f several programs—Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Access, and others—that each have a special purpose.

• Because of the consistent design and layout o f Microsoft Office, when you learn to use one Microsoft Office program, you can use most o f those skil ls when working wi th the other Microsoft Office programs.

• T h e files you create w i t h Microsoft Office need to be named and saved in locations where they can be easily found when you need them.

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

Time to complete all 10 skills – 50 to 90 minutes

Find your student data files here:

Student data files needed for this chapter:

« cf01_Visit

• cf01_Visit_Events

cfOl Visit River

C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 5

• The Word 2010 program can be launched by clicking the Start button, and then locating and clicking the Microsoft Word 2010 command.

• When you start Word, a new blank document displays in which you can type text.

1. In the lower left corner of the desktop, click the Start button © .

2 . In the lower left corner of the Start menu, click the All Programs command, and then compare your screen with Figure 1 . –

The Microsoft Office folder is located in the All Programs folder. If you have several programs installed on your computer, you may need to scroll to see the Microsoft Office folder.

3 . Click the Microsoft Office folder, and then compare your screen with Figure 2. –

Below the Microsoft Office folder, commands that open various Office 2010 programs display.

4 . From the Start menu, under the Microsoft Office folder, click Microsoft Word 2010, and then wait a few moments for the Microsoft Word window to display.

5 . If necessary, in the upper right corner of the Microsoft Word window, click the Maximize button B| .

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s

6 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter 1

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Ptttuin All Programs folder list

(your list will be different)

Microsoft Office folder

Start button Figure 1

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Microsoft Office folder

Office 2 0 1 0 programs (your

list may be different)

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Window! Update •4 XPS Viewer

l l l l l l l l l l Game!

Maintenance

Microsoft Office Aj Microsoft Access 2 0 1 0

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Mcrosft Olf.ce 2 0 1 0 Tool!

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SKILL 1: Start Word and Navigate the Word Window

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Group names Paragraph mark and insertion point

Quick Access Toolbar

New blank Word document

Figure 3 Heading 1 thumbnail

Styles group Show/Hide button selected Insertion point and paragraph mark

Heading 1 formatting applied Home tab is active

7 .

8 .

9 .

On the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide button H until it displays in gold indicating that it is active. Compare your screen with Figure 3 .

Above the blank Word document, the Quick Access Toolbar and Ribbon display. At the top of the Ribbon, a row of tab names display. Each Ribbon tab has buttons that you click to perform actions. The buttons are organized into groups that display their names along the bottom of the Ribbon.

In the document, the insertion point— a vertical line that indicates where text will be inserted when you start typing—flashes near the top left corner.

The Show/Hide button is a toggle button— a button used to turn a feature both on and off. The paragraph mark (f) indicates the end of a paragraph and will not print.

In the document, type your first and last names. As you type, notice that the insertion point and paragraph mark move to the right.

On the Home tab, in the Styles group, point to—but do not click—the Heading 1 thumbnail to show the Live Preview—a feature that displays the result of a formatting change if you select it.

Click the Heading 1 thumbnail to apply the formatting change as shown in Figure 4. If the Word Navigation Pane displays on the left side of the Word window, click its Close [*] button.

You have completed Skill 1 of 10

Figure 4 6 J 6 P M

C Z 3 / 2 3 1 2

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 7

• When you open more than one Office program, each program displays in its own window.

• When you want to work with a program in a different window, you need to make it the active window.

1 . Click the Start button © , and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

Your computer may be configured in such a way that you can open Office programs without opening the All Programs folder. The Office 2010 program commands may display as shortcuts in the Start menu’s pinned programs area or the recently used programs area. Your computer’s taskbar or desktop may also display icons that start each program.

2 . From the Start menu, locate and then click Microsoft Excel 2010. Depending on your computer, you may need to double-click—not single click—to launch Excel. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . If necessary, click the Maximize – button mm\<

A new blank worksheet displays in a new window. The first cell—the box formed by the intersection of a row and column—is active as indicated by the thick, black border surrounding the cell. When you type in Excel, the text is entered into the active cell.

The Quick Access Toolbar displays above the spreadsheet. The Excel Ribbon has its own tabs and groups that you use to work with an Excel spreadsheet. Many of these tabs, groups, and buttons are similar to those found in Word.

Categories
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you are hiking along a trail

Suppose you are hiking along a trail. Make a comparison between your displacement and your distance traveled.
Check all that apply.

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rank these bonds from most ionic to most covalent in character.

Rank these bonds from most ionic to Most covalent in character Br-F Ca-F F-F Cl-F K-F
5,731 results
Middle ga state
Rank these bonds from most ionic to Most covalent in character Br-F Ca-F F-F Cl-F K-F

asked by Jill on November 24, 2015
SCIENCE
What type of bonding holds the compound, sodium cyanide, together? The CN bond is covalent. The Na to CN bond is, in most minds, an ionic bond. The electronegativity of C is about 2.1 and that of Na is about 1; therefore, with a difference of about 1 it is

asked by MARK on February 7, 2007
chemistry
what are some examples of covalent bonds and what are some examples of ionic bonds? Electrons are shared in covalent bonds. Electrons are exchanged in ionic bonds. Typical ionic compounds are NaCl, MgCl2, LiI, etc. Typical covalent compounds are CH4,

asked by Leeann on January 29, 2007
Chemistry
I was wondering if somebody could help me with this… Classify the following substances as covalent molecules or ionic compounds: a. MgO e. LiCl b. NI3 f. SF4 c. CuS g. XeF4 d. NO2 h. CsF How do you know if they are covalent or ionic bonds? Metal +

asked by Isabel on October 24, 2006
Chemistry
Magnesium nitrate contains chemical bonds that are ? 1. Covalent Only 2. Ionic Only 3. Both Covalent And Ionic 4. Neither Covalent Nor Ionic The answer is 3, but I don’t know why. How does NO3 even bond?

asked by danny123 on November 11, 2010

SCIENCE
Please see if I have the right answer. The three atoms in a water molecule are held together by oxygen bonds, covalent bond, surface tension, hydrogen bonds, or gravity. I think it’s covalent bonds. Am I right? Water molecules, even inflowing water, can

asked by Pat on December 8, 2006
Chemistry
Are the bonds for these substances correct? Sodium chloride – ionic Sucrose – covalent Copper – metallic Calcium chloride – ionic Carbon – covalent Mercury – ionic Naphthalene – covalent Are any of these substances not strictly ionic, covalent, or

asked by Anonymous on January 13, 2016
Chemistry
Rank the bonds between the listed atoms from most ionic to most covalent: -AlO -CN -SCl -KF

asked by Anonymous on March 5, 2017
chemistry
classify the compound as having ionic, polar covalent, or pure covalent bonds. Sb2P5 I know that a metal and nonmetal form an ionic bond, and two nonmetals form covalent bonds. The trouble I am having is that Sb is a metalliod and when it forms with a

asked by Kara on December 9, 2008
science
A substance in a solid at room temperature. It is unable to conduct electricity as a solid but can conduct electricity as a liquid. This compound melts at 755 degrees celsius. Would you expect this compound to have ionic bonds, metallic bonds, or covalent

asked by JAKE on February 28, 2008
chemistry
a) Define the following terms: • Electronegativity • Bond polarity • Ionization energy b) What is the difference between ionic bonds, covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds? Give two examples of each c) Draw Lewis structures for each of the

asked by chansa on June 7, 2016
biology
which of the following statements are true there are 2 polar covalent bonds in water there are 3 ionic bonds in water there is 1 ionic and 1 covalent bond in water electrons are less attracted to oxygen than hydrogen

asked by brenda on August 28, 2009
Chemistry
Ionic bonds and covalent bonds: Ionic Bond(s) for: K&S -> K2S N&Be -> Be3N2 Al&P -> AlP Covalent Bond(s) for: C&F -> CF4 S&O -> OS Cl&Se -> SeCl4

asked by -Untamed- on October 13, 2011
chemistry
Compare the three types of bonds based on valence electrons. Explain why S-H bond lengths are longer than O-H bond lengths. Which element has a greater bond energy, oxygen or nitrogen and why. Determine if the following compounds are likely to have ionic

asked by mido on December 13, 2010
Chemistry
__ are similar to covalent bonds in that they hold atoms together. They are different from covalent bonds in that they _ . A. Ionic bonds; hold atoms together within a molecule B. Intermolecular forces; require less energy to break C.

asked by Cortney on March 18, 2015

Chemistry
How do i figure this? State whether the following compound contain polar covalent bonds, non-polar covalent bonds, or ionic bonds, based on their electronegativities. 1)KF_________ Look up the electronegativity values for K and F and make your decision. We

asked by Bryan on December 17, 2006
Chemistry
Are binary compounds ionic or covalent? If they are covalent? If they are covalent, I thought they don’t form bonds that way, since they share electrons.

asked by Emily on March 15, 2011
Science

  1. An atom that loses or gains electrons is called a(n)_. isotope proton neutron ion* 2.Which subatomic particles are most involved in chemical bonding? protons electrons* neutrons isotopes 3.The main types of chemical bonds are. ionic, covalent,

asked by Sam on September 7, 2017
water molecules
water molecules separate positive and negative ions from one another by forming covalent bonds, ionic bonds valence shells hydration shells It forms a solution. Since solution isn’t one of the answers, hydratin shells is the next best answer. OR, you can

asked by maxie on January 17, 2007
chem
Ionic bonds and covalent bonds, which one is the stronger. My present teacher said that covalent bond is the strongest one. I learned ionic interaction is the strongest and many chem. books say so. Now i am confused. Is my present teacher right. Please

asked by bun on October 5, 2010
chemistry
Two students Mac & Cheese, were arguing about covalent and ionic bonds. Mac says that covalent bonds could be compared to a good marriage. Do you think one has a better comparison than the other or are both of them equally right ?

asked by Brionna on November 1, 2011
Chemistry (please check)
1)Which of the following compounds has the largest lattice energy: LiF LiCl NaF NaCl 2)Which of the following compounds has the most ionic character in its bonding: CaBr2 GeBr4 KBr GaBr3 3)Using the electronegativity table on page 364 of your text, which

asked by Abi on April 15, 2011
science
plse help me with this How are valance electrons involved in the formation of covalent bonds? How do atoms in covalent bonds become slightly negative or slightly positive? explain how attractions between molocules could cause water to have a higher

asked by Amy on November 3, 2008
a&p
How would you contrast single convalent bonds, double covalent bonds, ionic bonds?

asked by tameka on February 2, 2013
chemistry
benzoic acid: covalent magnesium chloride: ionic petrolatum: covalent potassium iodide: ionic sodium sulfate: ionic sucrose: covalent

asked by JayJay on January 16, 2008

science
what are the role of the electrons in ionic bonds,covalent bonds and metallic bonds

asked by kayla on December 3, 2008
10th grade
Which bond type is soluble in alcohol? Metallic, ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent bonds? Which bond type has hard, brittle crystals? (I think the second is ionic, but not positive.)

asked by GO OU!!! on December 17, 2008
Chemistry
How do electrons interact in non polar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and ionic bonds?

asked by Anonymous on January 23, 2012
chemistry
How electrons interact in non-polar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and ionic bonds?

asked by Kelso on January 23, 2012
Chemistry
Are binary compounds ionic or covalent? If they are covalent, I thought they don’t form bonds that way, since they share electrons.

asked by Emily on March 15, 2011
Chemistry
For following problems 1 to 5, classify the bonds as: a) non-polar covalent b) polar covalent c) ionic d) metallic e) super covalent 1.) O-Cl 2.) Li-Br 3.) N-N 4.) N-H 5.) C-S

asked by Jay on December 6, 2010
Science help!
Compounds with high melting points have _. covalent bonds metallic bonds ionic bonds no chemical bonds 4. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of minerals? crystalline structure formed by inorganic processes definite chemical composition

asked by Anonymous on October 5, 2014
chemistry
Check? Answers On bottom. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent bond When an atom gains or loses valence electrons and becomes charged, it is known as

asked by Victoria on December 13, 2012
Chemistry
Check? Answers On bottom. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent bond When an atom gains or loses valence electrons and becomes charged, it is known as

asked by Victoria on December 13, 2012
chemistry
Check? Answers On bottom. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent bond When an atom gains or loses valence electrons and becomes charged, it is known as

asked by Victoria on December 13, 2012

ionic or covalent
can you check for me? Calcium Chloride: covalent Citric Acid: ionic Phenyl Salicylate: covalent Potassium Iodide: ionic Sodium Chloride: covalent Sucrose: ionic Thanks so much!!!! You must have some reason for picking ionic or covalent. How did you arrive

asked by Hodgkin on June 19, 2006
CHM
Predict whether the following bonds are ionic, covalent, or polar covalent based on the bonding atoms electronegativities: N2 The Al-O bond in Al2O3 MgO CuS

asked by Lisa on December 3, 2012
Chemistry
The foreces of attraction between molecules of I2 are: covalent bonds ionic bonds dipole-dipole attractions london forces hydrogen bonds

asked by Lauren on February 25, 2008
chemistry
in a 300-500 word essay distinguish between an ionic bond, a covalent bond, hydrogen bond, a single bond, a double bond, and a triple bond. Explain the behavior of the electrons in each type of bond. Give examples of compounds that result from both ionic

asked by GKMB on May 13, 2010
Chemistry
Can anyone help me check my classifications of these into metallic, ionic, molecular or covalent network, and if I am wrong tell me why Aluminum – Mettalic Ascorbic acid – ionic Graphite – covalent Paraffin – molecular Palmitic acid – ionic Sodium chloride

asked by Richard on February 20, 2018
Chemistry
Can someone check to see if my answers look ok. For the following crystals, explain how their melting points are related to the bonding forces and the crystal structure: a)Copper,Cu Copper has metallic bonds between atoms. It can occur as isometric cubic

asked by Nancy on January 21, 2008
Chemistry
what is an example of a substance that has both ionic &covalent bonds & where are these bonds formed.

asked by jess on February 13, 2011
chemistry
What are the differences between ionic bonds and covalent bonds?

asked by Jackie on March 1, 2011
science!
What is the usual state of matter for covalent compounds? Ionic compounds? What is the smallest particle for each? What types of particles are formed by covalent bonds?

asked by Twilight lover on March 3, 2009
Chemestry
Question 1) Consider the following reaction of calcium hydride (CaH2) with molten sodium metal:CaH2(s) + 2 Na(l) -> 2 NaH(s) + Ca(l) Identify the species being oxidized and the species being reduced? Question 2) Give the names to the binary compounds

asked by Ashley on July 27, 2015

Chemistry
What is the charatteristic of covalent bonding meaining what happens and then what is the result from what happened (like does it form a molecule, compund, etc. . . Same thing for ionic bodnging The ionic part is discussed below. Look for a chemistry post

asked by direct in Effect on November 30, 2006
chemistry
i need to deduce the type of bonding that holds sodium cyanide together and write a balanced equation for sodium cyanide dissolving in water any help would be appreciated sarah Na^+ + :C:::N:^- Na to CN bond is ionic (more or less). C-N bond is covalent.

asked by sarah on March 1, 2007
Chemistry-Bonding
Classify the following bonds as ionic, covalent, or neither (O, atomic number 8; F, atomic number 9; Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic number 17; U, atomic number 92). a.) O with F b.) Ca with Cl _ c.) Na with Na _ d.) U with Cl

asked by Mary on November 13, 2009
chem
so i took a sat ii subject practice test and the question was true/false/ ionic bonds are the strongest bonds. answer was true but what about NETWORK COVALENT?

asked by Kerrie on May 1, 2009
ap biology
Molecules that result from this bond do not dissociate in water because its atoms are not charged and, therefore, not attracted to the negative or positive ends of the water molecule. H-bond ionic bond nonpolar covalent bond polar covalent bond I am

asked by HEY on August 17, 2007
chemistry
a)Rank the following 3 tetrachloride compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), methane (CH4), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) b) Which molecule ( KI or LiF ) has the higher boiling point? c)Select the single most important

asked by 3091 on August 24, 2014
Chemistry
What is the strongest intermolecular force exhibited in each? Covalent molecules, Ionic compounds, polar covalent molecules. This is my answer: Covalent: London forces Ionic: Ion-dipole Polar Covalent: Dipole- Dipole Is this correct?

asked by Jessie on September 22, 2011
Chemistry
Hi! Can you tell me if I chose the right options for my chemistry homework? My answers are at the bottom. 1. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent

asked by Tiffany on November 2, 2014
chemistry – DrBob?
Hi! Can you tell me if I chose the right options for my chemistry homework? My answers are at the bottom. 1. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent

asked by Tiffany on November 2, 2014
chemistry
Many ionic compounds have high melting points because a lot of energy is required to break the strong ionic bonds. So after breaking the ionic bonds, the ionic compound becomes a liquid. How do you explain why the ionic compound also has high boiling

asked by jess on April 4, 2009

boooring chemistry!!:(
Why do the halogens easily form ionic and covalent bonds? Can someone explain this to me?! 🙁

asked by marie(: on June 21, 2011
Biology
. The covalent bonds between the monomers of an enzyme macromolecule are A. glycosidic bonds. B. peptide bonds. C. phosphodiester bonds. D. ester bonds. I thimk it is B

asked by Dulce on July 13, 2014
Chemistry
Which of the following compounds contains both ionic and covalent bonds? SiO2 LiCN LiI PCl3

asked by Jordan on January 15, 2016
Chemistry
Which compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds? (1)HBr (2)CBr4 (3)NaBr (4)NaOH

asked by Anonymous on December 2, 2010
anonymous
what atoms usually form coordinate covalent bonds i couldn’t find this anywhere also i just want to make sure is the electronegativity difference range for polar covalent bonds .4 – 2.1 paulings?

asked by lyne on June 7, 2009
Science
How two neutral objects may become positively and negatively charges? How is atomic mass established? Which atoms will form covalent bonds and which atoms will form ionic bonds?

asked by Trissy on January 14, 2008
chemistry
Which bond type is soluble in alcohol? Metallic, ionic, polar covaletn, or nonpolar covalent bonds? Which bond type has hard, brittle crystals? (I think the second is ionic, but not positive.)

asked by GO OU!!! on December 17, 2008
organic chemisrtry
How do melting points differ for ionic compounds versus those that contain only covalent bonds? Why is this so (explain)?

asked by CHRIS on September 4, 2012
Science
How can u predict if a bond will be ionic, covalent or polar covalent? i know that its the difference between electronegativities, but i cant seem to find the numbers it has to be between for each. I’m also getting confused because isnt covalent the same

asked by Sam on January 28, 2010
Chemistry
What is the strongest intermolecular force exhibited in each? Covalent molecules, Ionic compounds, polar covalent molecules. This is my answer: Covalent- dipole-dipole forces Ionic- ion-dipole forces Polar Covalent- electrostatic forces Is this correct?

asked by Jessie on September 22, 2011

Chemistry
Rank the carbon-carbon bonds in order of decreasing bond length. Rank carbon-carbon bonds from highest bond length to lowest. To rank bonds as equivalent, overlap them. 1,2,3

asked by Caitlin on October 11, 2011
Chemistry
So I am trying to understand in molecular terms the solubility of NaCl in water. So there are intramolecular forces that are mostly ionic between the ions, creating this partial positive, partial negative substance. And the intermolecular forces are also

asked by Serena on May 8, 2014
chemistry
Describe the role of each of the following types of bonds in a polyamide: a) covalent bonds b) amide bonds c) hydrogen bonds

asked by Mark on May 10, 2008
Chemistry pretty urgent!!!!!!!
Chemical bonding question! The partial Lewis structure that follows (Figure 1) is for a hydrocarbon molecule. In the full Lewis structure, each carbon atom satisfies the octet rule, and there are no unshared electron pairs in the molecule. The

asked by G-Dogg on November 4, 2014
chemistry
The strongest intermolecular forces present in a sample of pure I2 are A. covalent bonds. B. covalent network bonds. C. metallic bonds. D. dipole–dipole forces. E. London forces.

asked by Jake on December 9, 2010
chem
thanks Is sodium nitrate polar or nonpolar and how do I figure this out? thanks You need to consult your text or your notes to see what you teacher calls ionic and what s/he calls covalent. Generally, a difference in electronegativity (you can look up the

asked by Filmore on April 19, 2007
Science
Compounds with high melting points have _ a. Covalent bonds b. Metallic Bonds c. Ionic bonds* d. No chemical bonds How could you determine if a sample of gold is pure? Compare the sample’s density with that of pure gold.* Compare the sample’s color

asked by P on September 29, 2016
chemistry
Indicate the number of covalent bonds that each nonmetal atom is expected to form. a. Se is expected to form 2 covalent bonds. b. H is expected to form 1 covalent bonds. c. Br is expected to form 1 covalent bonds. d. N is expected to form 3 covalent bonds.

asked by krystal on March 1, 2012
bonds!
What evidence suggests that ionic bonds are strong? Ionic compounds have high melting points. Covalent compounds have relatively low melting points.

asked by bobby brown on June 17, 2006
Chemistry PLZ HELP!!!!!
Tell whether the bonds between the following atoms are polar covalent or pure covalent bonds. a. Si-Si b. H-O c. C-H d. C-O e. Cl-F f. Cl-Cl g. N-H h. O-O

asked by Maci on April 7, 2012

Chemistry;Check?!
Can you check these? Strong attractive forces that keep atoms connected together are called _. A. valence electrons B. chemical bonds C. cations D. anions Which of the following is NOT a type of bonding that occurs between atoms? A. covalent bonding B.

asked by Victoria on December 14, 2012
Chemistry
In a methane molecule (CH4) there are 4 single covalent bonds. In an octane molecule (C8H18) there are 25 single covalent bonds. How does the number of bonds affect the dispersion forces in samples of methane and octane? Which compound is a gas at room

asked by Taylor on March 17, 2009
Chem
Can someone please check this for me? It’s ranking the following bonds in order of increasing ionic bond character. Cl-Cl C-H H-Cl Mg-C H-O Na-Cl Ca-O Cs-F I’m not sure where Fe-O, and Fe-C fall. Thanks -MC

asked by mysterychicken on February 19, 2014
Chemistry (Check)
True, False, or Sometimes true 1)A bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electron is called a polyatomic covalent bond.(True) 2)Carbon forms four single covalent bonds with other atoms. (Fales) True, False, or Sometimes true 1)A bond in which one

asked by Bryan on December 15, 2006
CHEMISTRY
1.What is the relationship between polarity of a molecule and boiling point? 2.How does a hydrogen bond’s strength compare to normal chemical bonds. such as covalent and ionic bonds? 3.Why don’t fish freeze to death when the water above them freezes in a

asked by Amy on January 15, 2015
Chemistry
Water’s unique properties allow it to- a.dissolve aqueous solutions b.dissolve ionic and nonpolar covalent molecules c.dissolve ionic and polar covalent molecules d.dissolve ionic, covalent and metallic molecules is it c, because i know water is polar?

asked by Boberto on April 5, 2016
Chemistry
My ONLY three questions I need help on! I did the other 50 something already!(: Why are covalent bonds weak in the presence of heat but strong in the presence of water? What are the 5 rules for ionic bonding? Give an example of a compound that is

asked by marie(: on August 24, 2011
chemistry
Predict the number of covalent bonds formed by each nonmetal atom. a. N—–3 bonds b. Cl—–1 bond c. S—–2 bonds

asked by krystal on February 8, 2012
science
below are about 21 questions from my final study guide. I was given a 563 question study guide for my final and obviously I did not understand every question. So basically I did not understand 4% of the questions which is pretty good. Just any help with

asked by JAKE on February 28, 2008
Chemistry
Describe how covalent and ionic bonds differ with regard to bond strength and how is bond length related to stability ane energy?

asked by MF on January 2, 2010

Chemistry
What are some examples of covalent bonds? What are covalent bonds made of? Thanks.

asked by Brianne on March 4, 2009
chemistry
Which of the following consists of positive and negative ions bound together and held in place in a crystalline solid? A. Covalent bonds B. Ionic compounds C. Molecular compounds D. Molecules I say B

asked by shana on November 10, 2012
Chemistry
The dipole moment (μ) of HBr (a polar covalent molecule) is 0.851D (debye), and its percent ionic character is 12.6% . Estimate the bond length of the H−Br bond in picometers.

asked by Summer on November 18, 2013
Chemistry
The dipole moment (μ) of HBr (a polar covalent molecule) is 0.851D (debye), and its percent ionic character is 12.6% . Estimate the bond length of the H−Br bond in picometers.

asked by Summer on November 18, 2013
Chemistry
The dipole moment (mu) of HBr (a polar covalent molecule) is 0.851 D (debye), and its percent ionic character is 12.6 %. Estimate the bond length of the H-Br bond in picometers.

asked by Caitlin on October 7, 2011
chemistry
What kinds of elements form covalent bonds? What kinds of elements form ionic bonds? explain please help

asked by Anonymous on August 27, 2017
chemistry (go-over)
is this always true that the compound NH3 contains two double covalent bonds? and that the chemical formulas of molecular compounds show the number and type of atoms in each molecule. No. NH3 has no double bonds. It contains three covalent bonds, one

asked by Dennis on January 3, 2007
Chemistry
Why are the molecules of hydrocarbons nonpolar? The intermolecular attractions are strong. The electron pair is shared almost equally in all the bonds. All the bonds are single covalent bonds*** Van der Waals forces overcome polarity

asked by Abby on June 1, 2016
Science 6
during the process of photosynthesis, plants convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. Covalent bonds hold the glucose molecules together. the energy stored in these covalent bonds is called? A:nuclear energy. B:thermal energy. C:electrical energy.

asked by Jaden on February 23, 2017
Solid State Chemistry
Which molecule ( KI or LiF ) has the higher boiling point? Select the single most important reason below to justify your choice should have the higher melting point Both molecules are nonpolar but the higher melting includes hydrogen bonding Both molecules

asked by KS on December 20, 2013

A&P
Compare ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonding, and fully describe an example of each. Is this right and I need help with an example of a covalent bond. Ionic bond is formed from one metal and one non metal. It is a solid at room temperate. In an ionic bond

asked by Danielle on November 14, 2010
chm
Which of the following is a covalent compound composed of nonpolar covalent bonds? Answer >>H2 H2O CF4 CH4 NaF

asked by jj on February 26, 2013
physics
What is a covalent bond?what type of substance form covalent bonds?

asked by keria on January 21, 2012
Chemistry
Which substance ( HBr or HF ) has the higher boiling point? Its HF but chose one of the most appropriate reason. 1. Both substances are nonpolar but the higher boiling includes hydrogen bonding 2. Both substances are nonpolar but the higher boiling is more

asked by ss01 on October 12, 2013
CHEMISTRY HELP NOW PLZ!
which of the following coordination compounds will most likely form a precipitate when treated with an aquesous solution of silver(l) nitrate? A) [Cr(NH3)2CL3] B) [Cr(NH3)6]Cl3 C) [Cr(NH3)Cl]SO4 D) Na3[Cr(CN)6] E) Na[CrCl6] i think its either a or b but i

asked by gina on April 21, 2007

Categories
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what does a cladogram show?

What does a cladogram show?
A)comparison of the relative ages of organisms
B)evolutionary relationships between organisms
C)comparison of species that are most similar
D)ecological relationships between organisms***

Which pair below has the most shared derived characteristics?
A)horse, dolphin
B)dolphin, spider
C)cow, horse***
D)spider, cow

Which of the following is NOT used as evidence when constructing cladograms?
A)ecological roles of present-day organisms***
B)DNA sequences of present-day organisms
C)fossils of extinct organisms
D)body characteristics of extinct and present-day organisms

Sorry if i misspelled anything!

0 0 2,430
asked by Universal Almighty
May 26, 2016
3/4

  1. Is D 0 0
    posted by Shush
    Oct 13, 2016
    the answers are:
  2. B
  3. C
  4. B
  5. A

These are 100% right for science 8B Unit 1: Natural selection and adaptation Lesson 7: Evolution and biological classification (Connexus)

28 0
posted by Anon
Feb 1, 2017
thx anon 100%

4 0
posted by dude
Feb 1, 2017
anon is right

3 0
posted by 21
Mar 15, 2017

B

1 2
one is b

2 0
posted by mae
May 17, 2017
im so fresh

0 1
posted by ⌐■_■
Nov 14, 2017
its wrong i just took it and i gave me a 50

1 1
posted by cardi B
Nov 19, 2017
Thanks Anon 100%

2 0
posted by Jack
Jan 24, 2018

Thanks Anon

2 0
posted by Arai
Jan 24, 2018
4/4 thanks anon

2 0
posted by J
Jan 30, 2018
Anon is right for conections

1 0
posted by Hi
Feb 2, 2018
Anon is correct

1.B
2.C
3.B
4.A

If you go to connections.

3 0
posted by BOIIIIII
Mar 22, 2018
B
C
B
A

2 0
posted by bigred
Apr 19, 2018

4/4 thx Anon

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 23, 2018
The funny thing is, teachers can’t sew jiskha for giving answers. btw, it’s not called cheating, it’s called checking your answers. Jiskha is made for HOMEWORK HELP! should I say it louder or are you def, hypocrites?!

Anyways, yeah, it’s homework help, so, ConnexAcad can’t do anything about kids gettin answers! >:D

2 0
posted by Anonymous
May 1, 2018
no its cheating

0 2
posted by urmom
May 1, 2018
B
C
B
A

1 0
posted by EINSTIEN
May 2, 2018
Honestly I understand that teachers will get upset but like weren’t you the student once haven’t ever looked something up maybe even once to get your grade a little higher. Because this ish can be hard sometimes ok

3 0
posted by Jezziedut
May 21, 2018

what dose a cladogram show?

0 0
posted by meseret
May 29, 2018
@Anon is 100% correct! 🙂

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. A

Your Welcome! 🙂

3 0
posted by lun 2.0
May 29, 2018

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. A 3 0
    posted by Hal
    Oct 18, 2018
    are these for lesson 7 Evolution and Biological Classification?
    i need to confirm this… if these are for other quiz, plz speak up now. 0 0
    posted by Warrior Cat Lover
    Nov 28, 2018
    nobody?…. alright then, i will confirm this myself….. 0 0
    posted by Warrior Cat Lover
    Nov 28, 2018

yup this is correct, 4/4 (100%) 🙂

2 0
posted by Warrior Cat Lover
Nov 28, 2018

Categories
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which was the most important effect of the bessemer process

  1. which is the most important effect of the Bessmer Process? 0 0 3,453
    asked by kat
    Feb 16, 2017
    http://www.american-historama.org/1850-1860-secession-era/bessemer-process.htm 1 3
    👩‍🏫
    Ms. Sue
    Feb 16, 2017
    the answers are
    1.C
    2.B
    3.D
    4.A
    😉 77 3
    posted by hw helper
    Feb 27, 2017
    hw helper is correct 6 0
    posted by Rory
    Mar 1, 2017
    omg Hw helper thank you so much my hero 6 1
    posted by hw Helper 678
    Mar 7, 2017

Thx you so much got a 100%!!!!!

2 0
posted by oOoo
Mar 7, 2017
c
b
d
a

9 3
posted by boo
Mar 20, 2017
The answers are correct…better be…

1 1
posted by Irtemed Rednaxela Nella
Mar 21, 2017
They are correct
C-It made steel cheaper
B-To outcompete rival businesses
D-Individual business owners set prices to compete for business
A-They formed monopolies or trusts

12 1
posted by .. 0_o ..
Mar 22, 2017
looks like all 3 sets of answers are correct (:

2 0
posted by idk
Feb 6, 2018

it is C B D A

4 1
posted by Harper
Feb 26, 2018
All 4 are correct thanks hw helper

2 0
posted by Caylee
Feb 26, 2018
Thanks boo!

1 0
posted by TwentyOneOtters
Mar 12, 2018
@hw helper is correct! & so is everyone else with the same answers!

1 0
posted by NootAfraid
Apr 13, 2018
On Page 1 of Unit 5 Lesson 3 For connexus students who watch Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D the flipped video has turned me into a conspiracy theorist because one of the pictures look like the Triskelion symbol.

0 0
posted by Anonymous Child Of Connexus
Apr 13, 2018

lol i got an F

3 4
posted by itsyoboi
Dec 11, 2018
let me confirm this for you all. One second…

Verifying Answers….

1 0
posted by Warrior Cat Lover
Dec 15, 2018
4/4 (100%). Great Job

1 0
posted by Warrior Cat Lover
Dec 15, 2018
still correct in 2019 yo

4 0
posted by cherry
Feb 8, 2019

Categories
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calculate the average molar bond enthalpy of the carbon-bromine bond in a cbr4 molecule.

Given that
∆Hº(Br(g)) = 111.9 kJ/mol
∆Hº(C(g)) = 716.7 kJ/mol
∆Hº(CBr4(g)) = 29.4 kJ/mol
calculate the average molar bond enthalpy of the carbon-bromine bond in a CBr4 molecule.

0 0 284
asked by Kristen
Jan 23, 2013
I believe its products – reactants, but I am not sure. maybe Dr. Bob222 will come along and give you the right answer.

29.4- 828.6=-819.2kj/mol

Exothermic reaction.

0 1
posted by Devron
Jan 24, 2013

Categories
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hub.totalsem

Mike Meyers’

CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and

Troubleshooting Networks

Third Edition

(Exam N10-005)

This page intentionally left blank

Mike Meyers’

CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and

Troubleshooting Networks

Third Edition

(Exam N10-005)

Mike Meyers

New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan

New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

BaseTech

Copyright © 2012 by the McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of publisher, with the exception that the program listings may be entered, stored, and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication.

ISBN: 978-0-07-179981-2

MHID: 0-07-179981-8

The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-178911-0, MHID: 0-07-178911-1.

All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefi t of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps.

McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. To contact a representative please e-mail us at bulksales@mcgraw-hill.com.

McGraw-Hill is an independent entity from CompTIA®. This publication and digital content may be used in assisting students to prepare for the CompTIA Network+ exam. Neither CompTIA nor McGraw-Hill warrants that use of this publication and digital content will ensure passing any exam. CompTIA and CompTIA Network+ are trademarks or registered trademarks of CompTIA in the United States and/or other countries. All other trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners.

Fluke images printed with permission of Fluke Corporation, ©Fluke Corp. Intel image printed with permission of Intel Corporation, ©Intel Corp. TRENDnet images printed with permission of Trendnet Media, ©TRENDnet. Equalizer E650GX image printed by permission of Coyote Point Systems, ©Coyote Point Systems, Inc. www.coyotepoint.com. NetGear image printed with permission of NetGear, ©NETGEAR, Inc. Hewlett-Packard images printed with permission of HP, ©Hewlett-Packard CLEAR image printed with permission of CLEAR, ©CLEAR

TERMS OF USE

This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGrawHill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms.

THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/ or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

E-book conversion by codeMantra

Version 2.0www.coyotepoint.com

About the Author■■ Michael Meyers is the industry’s leading authority on CompTIA Network+ certifica- tion. He is the president and founder of Total Seminars, LLC, a major provider of PC and network repair seminars for thousands of organizations throughout the world, and a member of CompTIA.

Mike has written numerous popular textbooks, including the best-selling Mike Meyers’ CompTIA A+® Guide to Managing & Troubleshooting PCs, Mike Meyers’ CompTIA A+® Guide to Essentials, and Mike Meyers’ CompTIA A+® Guide to Operating Systems.

About the Contributor Scott Jernigan wields a mighty red pen as Editor in Chief for Total Seminars. With a Master of Arts degree in Medieval History, Scott feels as much at home in the musty archives of London as he does in the warm CRT glow of Total Seminars’ Houston head- quarters. After fleeing a purely academic life, he dove headfirst into IT, working as an instructor, editor, and writer.

Scott has written, edited, and contributed to dozens of books on computer liter- acy, hardware, operating systems, networking, and certification, including Computer Literacy—Your Ticket to IC3 Certification, and co-authoring with Mike Meyers the All-in- One CompTIA Strata® IT Fundamentals Exam Guide.

Scott has taught computer classes all over the United States, including stints at the United Nations in New York and the FBI Academy in Quantico. Practicing what he preaches, Scott is a CompTIA A+ and CompTIA Network+ certified technician, a Microsoft Certified Professional, a Microsoft Office User Specialist, and Certiport Inter- net and Computing Core Certified.

About the Technical Editor Jonathan S. Weissman earned his master’s degree in Computer and Information Science from Brooklyn College (CUNY), and holds nineteen industry certifications, including Cisco CCNA, CompTIA Security+, CompTIA i-Net+, CompTIA Network+, CompTIA A+, CompTIA Linux+, Novell CNE, Novell CNA, Microsoft Office Master, Microsoft MCAS Word, Microsoft MCAS PowerPoint, Microsoft MCAS Excel, Microsoft MCAS Access, Microsoft MCAS Outlook, and Microsoft MCAS Vista.

Jonathan is a tenured Assistant Professor of Computing Sciences at Finger Lakes Community College, in Canandaigua, NY, and also teaches graduate and under- graduate computer science courses at nearby Rochester Institute of Technology. In addi- tion, Jonathan does computer, network, and security consulting for area businesses and individuals.

Between FLCC and RIT, Jonathan has taught nearly two dozen different computer science courses, including networking, security, administration, forensics, program- ming, operating systems, hardware, and software.

Students evaluating his teaching emphasize that he simplifies their understanding of difficult topics, while at the same time makes the class interesting and entertaining.

Jonathan completely designed and configured FLCC’s newest Networking & Secu- rity Lab. Serving as IT Program Coordinator, he rewrote FLCC’s Information Technol- ogy course requirements for the degree, keeping it current with the changes in industry over the years.

This textbook is just one of the many that Jonathan has edited for thoroughness and accuracy.

BaseTech

This page intentionally left blank

vii

Acknowledgments■■ I’d like to acknowledge the many people who contributed their talents to make this book possible:

To Tim Green, my acquisitions editor at McGraw-Hill: Didn’t think I’d get the book out this quickly, did you? Thanks for your superb support and encouragement, as always.

To my in-house Editor-in-Chief, Scott Jernigan: Didn’t think we’d get the book out that fast, did you? How many 85s do you have now? Pelape still smokes them all in DPS.

To Jonathan Weissman, technical editor: Holy crap, you kicked my butt. Thanks for making my book dramatically better than it has ever been.

To LeeAnn Pickrell, copy editor: u made me write good, thx. To Michael Smyer, Total Seminars’ resident tech guru and photogra-

pher: Glad to see you staying focused. And your photos rocked as always! To Ford Pierson, graphics maven and editor: Superb conceptual art?

Check! Great editing? Check! Beating the boss in Unreal Tournament over and over again? Check, unfortunately.

To Aaron Verber, editor extraordinaire: Your quiet toils in the dark cor- ner of the office have once again paid outstanding dividends!

To Dudley Lehmer, my partner at Total Seminars: As always, thanks for keeping the ship afloat while I got to play on this book!

To Stephanie Evans, acquisitions coordinator at McGraw-Hill: You are my favorite South African ambassador since the Springboks. Thanks for keeping track of everything and (gently) smacking Scott when he forgot things.

To Molly Sharp and Jody McKenzie, project editors: It was a joy to work with you, Molly, and again with you, Jody. I couldn’t have asked for a better team! (Didn’t think I could resist making the pun, did you?)

To Andrea Fox, proofreader: You did a super job, thank you To Tom and Molly Sharp, compositors: The layout was excellent,

thanks!

To Staci Lynne ■■ Davis, vegan chef and

punk rocker: Thanks for showing me your world

and, in the process, expanding mine.

BaseTech

Key Terms, identified in red, point out important vocabulary and definitions that you need to know.

Tech Tip sidebars provide inside information from experienced IT professionals.

Cross Check questions develop reasoning skills: ask, compare, contrast, and explain.

Engaging and Motivational— Using a conversational style and proven instructional approach, the author explains technical concepts in a clear, interesting way using real-world examples.

Makes Learning Fun!— Rich, colorful text and enhanced illustrations bring technical subjects to life.

10BaseT also introduced the networking world to the RJ-45 connector (Figure 4.9). Each pin on the RJ-45 connects to a single wire inside the cable; this enables de- vices to put voltage on the indi- vidual wires within the cable. The pins on the RJ-45 are numbered from 1 to 8, as shown in Figure 4.10.

The 10BaseT standard designates some of these numbered wires for specific purposes. As mentioned earlier, although the cable has four pairs, 10BaseT uses only two of the pairs. 10BaseT devices use pins 1 and 2 to send data, and pins 3 and 6 to receive data. Even though one pair of wires sends data and another receives data, a 10BaseT device cannot send and receive simul- taneously. The rules of CSMA/CD still apply: only one device can use the segment contained in the hub without causing a collision. Later versions of Ethernet will change this rule.

An RJ-45 connector is usually called a crimp, and the act (some folks call it an art) of installing a crimp onto the end of a piece of UTP cable is called crimping. The tool used to secure a crimp onto the end of a cable is a crimper. Each wire inside a UTP cable must connect to the proper pin inside the crimp. Manufacturers color-code each wire within a piece of four-pair UTP to assist in properly matching the ends. Each pair of wires consists of a solid- colored wire and a striped wire: blue/blue-white, orange/orange-white, brown/brown-white, and green/green-white (Figure 4.11).

The Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA) defines the industry standard for correct crimping of four-pair UTP for 10BaseT networks. Two standards currently exist: TIA/ EIA 568A and TIA/EIA 568B. Figure 4.12 shows the TIA/EIA 568A and TIA/ EIA 568B color-code standards. Note that the wire pairs used by 10BaseT (1 and 2; 3 and 6) come from the same color pairs (green/green-white and orange/orange-white). Following an established color-code scheme, such as TIA/EIA 568A, ensures that the wires match up correctly at each end of the cable.

66 Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks

Cross Check Check Your CATs!

You’ve already seen CAT levels in Chapter 3, “Cabling and Topology,” so check your memory and review the different speeds of the various CAT levels. Could 10BaseT use CAT 2? Could it use CAT 6? What types of devices can use CAT 1?

• Figure 4.9 Two views of an RJ-45 connector

• Figure 4.10 The pins on an RJ-45 connector are numbered 1 through 8.

• Figure 4.11 Color-coded pairs

The real name for RJ-45 is “8 Position 8 Contact (8P8C) modular plug.” The name RJ-45 is so dominant, however, that nobody but the nerdiest of nerds calls it by its real name. Stick to RJ-45.

AbouT ThIs book

Proven Learning Method Keeps You on Track Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks is structured to give you comprehensive knowledge of computer skills and technologies. The textbook’s active learning methodology guides you beyond mere recall and—through thought-provoking activities, labs, and sidebars—helps you develop critical-thinking, diagnostic, and communication skills.

Information technology (IT) offers many career paths, leading to occupations in such fields as PC repair, network administration, telecommunications, Web development, graphic design, and desktop support. To become competent in any IT field, however, you need

certain basic computer skills. Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks builds a foundation for success in the IT field by introducing you to fundamental technology concepts and giving you essential computer skills.

Important Technology skills ■

10BaseT also introduced the networking world to the RJ-45 connector (Figure 4.9). Each pin on the RJ-45 connects to a single wire inside the cable; this enables de- vices to put voltage on the indi- vidual wires within the cable. The pins on the RJ-45 are numbered from 1 to 8, as shown in Figure 4.10.

The 10BaseT standard designates some of these numbered wires for specific purposes. As mentioned earlier, although the cable has four pairs, 10BaseT uses only two of the pairs. 10BaseT devices use pins 1 and 2 to send data, and pins 3 and 6 to receive data. Even though one pair of wires sends data and another receives data, a 10BaseT device cannot send and receive simul- taneously. The rules of CSMA/CD still apply: only one device can use the segment contained in the hub without causing a collision. Later versions of Ethernet will change this rule.

An RJ-45 connector is usually called a crimp, and the act (some folks call it an art) of installing a crimp onto the end of a piece of UTP cable is called crimping. The tool used to secure a crimp onto the end of a cable is a crimper. Each wire inside a UTP cable must connect to the proper pin inside the crimp. Manufacturers color-code each wire within a piece of four-pair UTP to assist in properly matching the ends. Each pair of wires consists of a solid- colored wire and a striped wire: blue/blue-white, orange/orange-white, brown/brown-white, and green/green-white (Figure 4.11).

The Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA) defines the industry standard for correct crimping of four-pair UTP for 10BaseT networks. Two standards currently exist: TIA/ EIA 568A and TIA/EIA 568B. Figure 4.12 shows the TIA/EIA 568A and TIA/ EIA 568B color-code standards. Note that the wire pairs used by 10BaseT (1 and 2; 3 and 6) come from the same color pairs (green/green-white and orange/orange-white). Following an established color-code scheme, such as TIA/EIA 568A, ensures that the wires match up correctly at each end of the cable.

66 Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks

Cross Check Check Your CATs!

You’ve already seen CAT levels in Chapter 3, “Cabling and Topology,” so check your memory and review the different speeds of the various CAT levels. Could 10BaseT use CAT 2? Could it use CAT 6? What types of devices can use CAT 1?

• Figure 4.9 Two views of an RJ-45 connector

• Figure 4.10 The pins on an RJ-45 connector are numbered 1 through 8.

• Figure 4.11 Color-coded pairs

The real name for RJ-45 is “8 Position 8 Contact (8P8C) modular plug.” The name RJ-45 is so dominant, however, that nobody but the nerdiest of nerds calls it by its real name. Stick to RJ-45.

10BaseT also introduced the networking world to the RJ-45 connector (Figure 4.9). Each pin on the RJ-45 connects to a single wire inside the cable; this enables de- vices to put voltage on the indi- vidual wires within the cable. The pins on the RJ-45 are numbered from 1 to 8, as shown in Figure 4.10.

The 10BaseT standard designates some of these numbered wires for specific purposes. As mentioned earlier, although the cable has four pairs, 10BaseT uses only two of the pairs. 10BaseT devices use pins 1 and 2 to send data, and pins 3 and 6 to receive data. Even though one pair of wires sends data and another receives data, a 10BaseT device cannot send and receive simul- taneously. The rules of CSMA/CD still apply: only one device can use the segment contained in the hub without causing a collision. Later versions of Ethernet will change this rule.

An RJ-45 connector is usually called a crimp, and the act (some folks call it an art) of installing a crimp onto the end of a piece of UTP cable is called crimping. The tool used to secure a crimp onto the end of a cable is a crimper. Each wire inside a UTP cable must connect to the proper pin inside the crimp. Manufacturers color-code each wire within a piece of four-pair UTP to assist in properly matching the ends. Each pair of wires consists of a solid- colored wire and a striped wire: blue/blue-white, orange/orange-white, brown/brown-white, and green/green-white (Figure 4.11).

The Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA) defines the industry standard for correct crimping of four-pair UTP for 10BaseT networks. Two standards currently exist: TIA/ EIA 568A and TIA/EIA 568B. Figure 4.12 shows the TIA/EIA 568A and TIA/ EIA 568B color-code standards. Note that the wire pairs used by 10BaseT (1 and 2; 3 and 6) come from the same color pairs (green/green-white and orange/orange-white). Following an established color-code scheme, such as TIA/EIA 568A, ensures that the wires match up correctly at each end of the cable.

66 Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks

Cross Check Check Your CATs!

You’ve already seen CAT levels in Chapter 3, “Cabling and Topology,” so check your memory and review the different speeds of the various CAT levels. Could 10BaseT use CAT 2? Could it use CAT 6? What types of devices can use CAT 1?

• Figure 4.9 Two views of an RJ-45 connector

• Figure 4.10 The pins on an RJ-45 connector are numbered 1 through 8.

• Figure 4.11 Color-coded pairs

The real name for RJ-45 is “8 Position 8 Contact (8P8C) modular plug.” The name RJ-45 is so dominant, however, that nobody but the nerdiest of nerds calls it by its real name. Stick to RJ-45.

/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / fm blind folio ix

consider that type of NIC. The spe- cific process by which a NIC uses electricity to send and receive data is exceedingly complicated, but luck- ily for you, not necessary to under- stand. Instead, just think of a charge on the wire as a one, and no charge as a zero. A chunk of data moving in pulses across a wire might look something like Figure 2.13.

If you put an oscilloscope on the wire to measure voltage, you’d see something like Figure 2.14. An oscilloscope is a powerful micro- scope that enables you to see elec- trical pulses.

Now, remembering that the pulses represent bi- nary data, visualize instead a string of ones and zeroes moving across the wire (Figure 2.15).

Once you understand how data moves along the wire, the next question becomes this: how does the net- work get the right data to the right system? All networks transmit data by breaking whatever is moving across the physical layer (files, print jobs, Web pages, and so forth) into discrete chunks called frames. A frame is basically a container for a chunk of data moving across a network. The NIC creates and sends, as well as receives and reads, these frames.

I like to visualize an imaginary table inside every NIC that acts as a frame creation and reading station. I see frames as those pneumatic canis- ters you see when you go to a drive-in teller at a bank. A little guy inside the network card—named Nick, naturally!—builds these pneumatic canisters (the frames) on the table, and then shoots them out on the wire to the hub (Figure 2.16).

Chapter 2: Building a Network with the OSI Model 15

Try This! What’s Your MAC Address?

You can readily determine your MAC address on a Windows computer from the command line. This works in all modern versions of Windows.

1. In Windows 2000/XP, click Start | Run. Enter the command CMD and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

2. In Windows Vista, click Start, enter CMD in the Start Search text box, and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

3. At the command prompt, type the command IPCONFIG /ALL and press the ENTER key.

• Figure 2.13 Data moving along a wire

• Figure 2.14 Oscilloscope of data

• Figure 2.15 Data as ones and zeroes

• Figure 2.16 Inside the NIC

A number of different frame types are used in different net- works. All NICs on the same net- work must use the same frame type or they will not be able to communicate with other NICs.

Each chapter includes Learning Objectives ■ that set measurable goals for chapter-by-chapter progress

Illustrations ■ that give you a clear picture of the technologies

Tutorials ■ that teach you to perform essential tasks and procedures hands-on

Try This!, Cross Check ■ , and Tech Tip sidebars that encourage you to practice and apply concepts in real-world settings

Notes, Tips ■ , and Warnings that guide you through difficult areas

Chapter Summaries ■ and Key Terms Lists that provide you with an easy way to review important concepts and vocabulary

Challenging End-of-Chapter Tests ■ that include vocabulary-building exercises, multiple-choice questions, essay questions, and on-the-job lab projects

This pedagogically rich book is designed to make learning easy and enjoyable and to help you develop the skills and critical-thinking abilities that will enable you to adapt to different job situations and troubleshoot problems.

Mike Meyers’ proven ability to explain concepts in a clear, direct, even humorous way makes this book interesting, motivational, and fun.

Effective Learning Tools ■

Proven Learning Method Keeps You on Track Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks is structured to give you comprehensive knowledge of computer skills and technologies. The textbook’s active learning methodology guides you beyond mere recall and—through thought-provoking activities, labs, and sidebars—helps you develop critical-thinking, diagnostic, and communication skills.

Try This! exercises apply core skills in a new setting.

Chapter Review sections provide concept summaries, key terms lists, and lots of questions and projects.

Key Terms Lists presents the important terms identified in the chapter.

Offers Practical Experience— Tutorials and lab assignments develop essential hands-on skills and put concepts in real-world contexts.

Robust Learning Tools— Summaries, key terms lists, quizzes, essay questions, and lab projects help you practice skills and measure progress.

Notes,Tips, and Warnings create a road map for success.

consider that type of NIC. The spe- cific process by which a NIC uses electricity to send and receive data is exceedingly complicated, but luck- ily for you, not necessary to under- stand. Instead, just think of a charge on the wire as a one, and no charge as a zero. A chunk of data moving in pulses across a wire might look something like Figure 2.13.

If you put an oscilloscope on the wire to measure voltage, you’d see something like Figure 2.14. An oscilloscope is a powerful micro- scope that enables you to see elec- trical pulses.

Now, remembering that the pulses represent bi- nary data, visualize instead a string of ones and zeroes moving across the wire (Figure 2.15).

Once you understand how data moves along the wire, the next question becomes this: how does the net- work get the right data to the right system? All networks transmit data by breaking whatever is moving across the physical layer (files, print jobs, Web pages, and so forth) into discrete chunks called frames. A frame is basically a container for a chunk of data moving across a network. The NIC creates and sends, as well as receives and reads, these frames.

I like to visualize an imaginary table inside every NIC that acts as a frame creation and reading station. I see frames as those pneumatic canis- ters you see when you go to a drive-in teller at a bank. A little guy inside the network card—named Nick, naturally!—builds these pneumatic canisters (the frames) on the table, and then shoots them out on the wire to the hub (Figure 2.16).

Chapter 2: Building a Network with the OSI Model 15

Try This! What’s Your MAC Address?

You can readily determine your MAC address on a Windows computer from the command line. This works in all modern versions of Windows.

1. In Windows 2000/XP, click Start | Run. Enter the command CMD and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

2. In Windows Vista, click Start, enter CMD in the Start Search text box, and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

3. At the command prompt, type the command IPCONFIG /ALL and press the ENTER key.

• Figure 2.13 Data moving along a wire

• Figure 2.14 Oscilloscope of data

• Figure 2.15 Data as ones and zeroes

• Figure 2.16 Inside the NIC

A number of different frame types are used in different net- works. All NICs on the same net- work must use the same frame type or they will not be able to communicate with other NICs.

consider that type of NIC. The spe- cific process by which a NIC uses electricity to send and receive data is exceedingly complicated, but luck- ily for you, not necessary to under- stand. Instead, just think of a charge on the wire as a one, and no charge as a zero. A chunk of data moving in pulses across a wire might look something like Figure 2.13.

If you put an oscilloscope on the wire to measure voltage, you’d see something like Figure 2.14. An oscilloscope is a powerful micro- scope that enables you to see elec- trical pulses.

Now, remembering that the pulses represent bi- nary data, visualize instead a string of ones and zeroes moving across the wire (Figure 2.15).

Once you understand how data moves along the wire, the next question becomes this: how does the net- work get the right data to the right system? All networks transmit data by breaking whatever is moving across the physical layer (files, print jobs, Web pages, and so forth) into discrete chunks called frames. A frame is basically a container for a chunk of data moving across a network. The NIC creates and sends, as well as receives and reads, these frames.

I like to visualize an imaginary table inside every NIC that acts as a frame creation and reading station. I see frames as those pneumatic canis- ters you see when you go to a drive-in teller at a bank. A little guy inside the network card—named Nick, naturally!—builds these pneumatic canisters (the frames) on the table, and then shoots them out on the wire to the hub (Figure 2.16).

Chapter 2: Building a Network with the OSI Model 15

Try This! What’s Your MAC Address?

You can readily determine your MAC address on a Windows computer from the command line. This works in all modern versions of Windows.

1. In Windows 2000/XP, click Start | Run. Enter the command CMD and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

2. In Windows Vista, click Start, enter CMD in the Start Search text box, and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

3. At the command prompt, type the command IPCONFIG /ALL and press the ENTER key.

• Figure 2.13 Data moving along a wire

• Figure 2.14 Oscilloscope of data

• Figure 2.15 Data as ones and zeroes

• Figure 2.16 Inside the NIC

A number of different frame types are used in different net- works. All NICs on the same net- work must use the same frame type or they will not be able to communicate with other NICs.

BaseTech

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/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Front Matter

Contents at a Glance

CoNTENTs AT A GLANCE

Chapter 1 ■ CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 1

Chapter 2 ■ Network Models 8

Chapter 3 ■ Cabling and Topology 44

Chapter 4 ■ Ethernet Basics 66

Chapter 5 ■ Modern Ethernet 90

Chapter 6 ■ Installing a Physical Network 106

Chapter 7 ■ TCP/IP Basics 144

Chapter 8 ■ The Wonderful World of Routing 182

Chapter 9 ■ TCP/IP Applications 224

Chapter 10 ■ Network Naming 258

Chapter 11 ■ Securing TCP/IP 294

Chapter 12 ■ Advanced Networking Devices 330

Chapter 13 ■ IPv6 356

Chapter 14 ■ Remote Connectivity 380

Chapter 15 ■ Wireless Networking 424

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Chapter 16 ■ Protecting Your Network 458

Chapter 17 ■ Virtualization 484

Chapter 18 ■ Network Management 504

Chapter 19 ■ Building a SOHO Network 534

Chapter 20 ■ Network Troubleshooting 554

Appendix A ■ Objectives Map: CompTIA Network+ 580

Appendix b ■ About the Download 592

■ Glossary 596

■ Index 632

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/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Front Matter

Contents

About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum. . . . xix Instructor and Student Website. . . . . . . . . . xxv

Chapter 1 ■■CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 1 Who Needs CompTIA Network+?

I Just Want to Learn about Networks! . . . . . 1 What Is CompTIA Network+ Certification? . . . 1

What Is CompTIA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Current CompTIA Network+

Certification Exam Release. . . . . . . . . . 2 How Do I Become CompTIA

Network+ Certified? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 What Is the Exam Like? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

How Do I Take the Test?. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 How Much Does the Test Cost? . . . . . . . . . 4

How to Pass the CompTIA Network+ Exam . . . 5 Obligate Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Set Aside the Right Amount of Study Time . . 5 Study for the Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Chapter 2 ■■Network Models 8 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Working with Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Biography of a Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Network Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

The OSI Seven-Layer Model in Action. . . . . . . 11 Welcome to MHTechEd!. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Let’s Get Physical—Network Hardware

and Layers 1–2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The NIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Two Aspects of NICs . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Beyond the Single Wire—Network Software and Layers 3–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

IP—Playing on Layer 3, the Network Layer . . . 24 Packets Within Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Assembly and Disassembly—Layer 4,

the Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Talking on a Network—Layer 5, the Session Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Standardized Formats, or Why Layer 6, Presentation, Has No Friends . . . . . . . . 30

Network Applications—Layer 7, the Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

The TCP/IP Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 The Link Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The Internet Layer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Frames, Packets, and Segments, Oh My! . . . . 37 The Tech’s Troubleshooting Tool . . . . . . . . . 38

Chapter 2 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Chapter 3 ■■Cabling and Topology 44 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Bus and Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Hybrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Mesh and Point-to-Multipoint . . . . . . . . . 47 Point-to-Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Parameters of a Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Twisted Pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Fiber-Optic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Other Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Fire Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Networking Industry Standards—IEEE . . . . . . 58 Chapter 3 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Chapter 4 ■■Ethernet Basics 66 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Organizing the Data: Ethernet Frames . . . . . . 68

CSMA/CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

CoNTENTs

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Early Ethernet Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 10BaseT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 10BaseFL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Extending and Enhancing Ethernet Networks . . 78 Connecting Ethernet Segments . . . . . . . . . 78 Switched Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Troubleshooting Hubs and Switches . . . . . . 84

Chapter 4 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Chapter 5 ■■Modern Ethernet 90 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 100-Megabit Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

100BaseT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 100BaseFX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Gigabit Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 1000BaseCX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 1000BaseSX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 1000BaseLX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 New Fiber Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Implementing Multiple Types of Gigabit

Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 10 Gigabit Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Fiber-based 10 GbE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Copper-based 10 GbE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 10 GbE Physical Connections . . . . . . . . . . 99 Backbones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Know Your Ethernets!. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Chapter 5 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Chapter 6 ■■Installing a Physical Network 106 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Understanding Structured Cabling . . . . . . . 107

Cable Basics—A Star Is Born . . . . . . . . . 108 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Structured Cable Network Components . . . 109 Structured Cable—Beyond the Star. . . . . . 116

Installing Structured Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Getting a Floor Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Mapping the Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Determining the Location of the

Telecommunications Room . . . . . . . . . 120 Pulling Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Making Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Testing the Cable Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

NICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Buying NICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Link Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Diagnostics and Repair of Physical Cabling . . 134 Diagnosing Physical Problems . . . . . . . . 134 Check Your Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Check the NIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Cable Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Problems in the Telecommunications Room . . 136 Toners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Chapter 6 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

Chapter 7 ■■TCP/IP Basics 144 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Standardizing Networking Technology . . . . . 145 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 The TCP/IP Protocol Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Internet Layer Protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Transport Layer Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Application Layer Protocols . . . . . . . . . . 149

IP in Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 IP Addresses in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Class IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

CIDR and Subnetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Subnetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 CIDR: Subnetting in the Real World . . . . . 169

Using IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Static IP Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Dynamic IP Addressing. . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Special IP Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Chapter 7 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

Chapter 8 ■■The Wonderful World of Routing 182 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 How Routers Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Routing Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Freedom from Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Network Address Translation . . . . . . . . . 191

Dynamic Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Routing Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Distance Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Link State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 EIGRP—the Lone Hybrid . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Dynamic Routing Makes the Internet . . . . 209

Working with Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Connecting to Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Basic Router Configuration . . . . . . . . . . 215 Router Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

Chapter 8 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

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/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Front Matter

Contents

Chapter 9 ■■TCP/IP Applications 224 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Transport Layer and Network Layer

Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 How People Communicate . . . . . . . . . . 225

Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 ICMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 IGMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

The Power of Port Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Registered Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Connection Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Rules for Determining Good vs.

Bad Communications . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Common TCP/IP Applications. . . . . . . . . . 236

The World Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 E-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Internet Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Chapter 9 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Chapter 10 ■■Network Naming 258 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

How DNS Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Name Spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Troubleshooting DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

WINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Configuring WINS Clients . . . . . . . . . . 283 Troubleshooting WINS . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

Diagnosing TCP/IP Networks . . . . . . . . . . 284 Chapter 10 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

Chapter 11 ■■Securing TCP/IP 294 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Making TCP/IP Secure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

Encryption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Nonrepudiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

TCP/IP Security Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Authentication Standards . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Encryption Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Combining Authentication and Encryption . . 319

Secure TCP/IP Applications . . . . . . . . . . . 320 HTTPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 SCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 SFTP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 LDAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 NTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

Chapter 11 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

Chapter 12 ■■Advanced Networking Devices 330 Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Topologies . . . 331 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

Client/Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Peer-to-Peer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Today. . . . . 333

Virtual Private Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 PPTP VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 L2TP VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 SSL VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

Virtual LANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Trunking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Configuring a VLAN-capable Switch. . . . . 339 Virtual Trunk Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 InterVLAN Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

Multilayer Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 QoS and Traffic Shaping . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Network Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

Chapter 12 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

Chapter 13 ■■IPv6 356 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 IPv6 Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

IPv6 Address Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Link-Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 IPv6 Subnet Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 The End of Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Global Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

Using IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Enabling IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 NAT in IPv6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 DHCP in IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 DNS in IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

Moving to IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 IPv4 and IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 IPv6 Is Here, Really! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

Chapter 13 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

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xv Contents

Chapter 14 ■■Remote Connectivity 380 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Telephony and Beyond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

The Dawn of Long Distance. . . . . . . . . . 382 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

Digital Telephony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Copper Carriers: T1 and T3 . . . . . . . . . . 387 Fiber Carriers: SONET/SDH and OC . . . . 391 Packet Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Real-World WAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Alternative to Telephony WAN . . . . . . . . 396

The Last Mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Dial-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 DSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Cable Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Cellular WAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 BPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Which Connection? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

Using Remote Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Dial-Up to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Private Dial-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Dedicated Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Remote Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

Chapter 14 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417

Chapter 15 ■■Wireless Networking 424 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Wi-Fi Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

802.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 802.11b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 802.11a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 802.11g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 802.11n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Wireless Networking Security . . . . . . . . 434 Power over Ethernet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

Implementing Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Performing a Site Survey . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Installing the Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Setting Up an Ad Hoc Network. . . . . . . . 439 Setting Up an Infrastructure Network . . . . 439 Extending the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Verify the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

Troubleshooting Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 Hardware Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . 448 Software Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . 449

Connectivity Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . 449 Configuration Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . 450

Chapter 15 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

Chapter 16 ■■Protecting Your Network 458 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Common Threats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

System Crash/Hardware Failure . . . . . . . 459 Administrative Access Control . . . . . . . . 459 Malware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 Social Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Man in the Middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Denial of Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Physical Intrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 Attacks on Wireless Connections . . . . . . . 465

Securing User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Controlling User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . 468

Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Hiding the IPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 Port Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 Packet Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 MAC Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Personal Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Network Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 Vulnerability Scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . 477

Chapter 16 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

Chapter 17 ■■Virtualization 484 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 What Is Virtualization? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485

Meet the Hypervisor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Emulation vs. Virtualization . . . . . . . . . 486 Sample Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 Why Do We Virtualize? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492

Power Saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 Hardware Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . 493 System Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 System Duplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494

Virtualization in Modern Networks . . . . . . . 494 Virtual Machine Managers . . . . . . . . . . 496 Hypervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Virtual Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Virtual PBX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Network as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

Chapter 17 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

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Contents

Chapter 18 ■■Network Management 504 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Network Configuration Management . . . . . . 505

Configuration Management Documentation . . 505 Change Management Documentation . . . . 511

Monitoring Performance and Connectivity . . . 512 Performance Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 Logs and Network Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . 518

Network Performance Optimization . . . . . . 519 Caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Controlling Data Throughput. . . . . . . . . 520 Keeping Resources Available . . . . . . . . . 522

Chapter 18 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528

Chapter 19 ■■Building a SOHO Network 534 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Designing a SOHO Network . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Building the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536

Define the Network Needs. . . . . . . . . . . 536 Network Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 Compatibility Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Internal Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 External Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 ISPs and MTUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 Peripherals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548

Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 Chapter 19 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550

Chapter 20 ■■Network Troubleshooting 554 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Troubleshooting Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555

Hardware Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Software Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558

The Troubleshooting Process . . . . . . . . . . . 564 Identify the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 Establish a Theory of Probable Cause . . . . . 567

Test the Theory to Determine Cause . . . . . 567 Establish a Plan of Action and Identify

Potential Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Implement and Test the Solution or

Escalate as Necessary . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Verify Full System Functionality and

Implement Preventative Measures . . . . . 569 Document Findings, Actions, and

Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569 Troubleshooting Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . 569

“I Can’t Log In!” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 “I Can’t Get to This Web Site!” . . . . . . . . 570 “Our Web Server Is Sluggish!” . . . . . . . . 571 “I Can’t See Anything on the Network!” . . . 571 “It’s Time to Escalate!” . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 Troubleshooting Is Fun! . . . . . . . . . . . . 574

Chapter 20 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575

Appendix A ■■Objectives Map: CompTIA

Network+ 580

Appendix B ■■About the Download 592

System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592 Installing and Running Total Tester . . . . . . . 592 About Total Tester 593

Mike Meyers’ Video Training 593 Mike’s Cool Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594

Boson’s NetSim Network Simulator . . . . . . . 594 Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595

Boson Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . 595

■■Glossary 596

■■Index 632

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Playing Mike Meyers’ Videos 593 . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

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xvii Preface

I was a teacher long before I was ever an author. I started writing computer books for the simple reason that no one wrote the kind of books I wanted to read. The books were either too simple (Chapter 1, “Using Your Mouse”) or too complex (Chapter 1, “TTL Logic and Transistors”) and none of them provided a motivation for me to learn the information. I guessed that there were geeky readers just like me who wanted to know why they needed to know the information in a computer book.

Good books motivate the reader to learn what he or she is reading. If a book discusses binary arithmetic but doesn’t explain why I need to learn it, for example, that’s not a good book. Tell me that understanding binary makes it easier to understand how an IP address works or why we’re about to run out of IP addresses and how IPv6 can help, then I get excited, no mat- ter how geeky the topic. If I don’t have a good reason, a good motivation to do something, then I’m simply not going to do it (which explains why I haven’t jumped out of an airplane!).

In this book, I teach you why you need to understand the wide world of networking. You’ll learn everything you need to start building, configuring, and supporting networks. In the process, you’ll gain the knowledge you need to pass the CompTIA Network+ certification exam.

Enjoy, my fellow geek.

PrEfACE

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xix CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

CompTIA APProvEd QuALITy CurrICuLuM

CompTIA Network+■■ The CompTIA Network+ certification ensures that the successful candidate has the important knowledge and skills necessary to manage, maintain, troubleshoot, install, operate, and configure basic network infrastructure; describe networking technologies; basic design principles; and adhere to wiring standards and use testing tools.

It Pays to Get Certified■■ In a digital world, digital literacy is an essential survival skill. Certification proves you have the knowledge and skill to solve business problems in virtually any business environment. Certifications are highly valued cre- dentials that qualify you for jobs, increased compensation, and promotion.

CompTIA Network+ certification is held by many IT staffers across many organizations. 21% of IT staff within a random sampling of U.S. orga- nizations within a cross section of industry verticals hold CompTIA Net- work+ certification.

The CompTIA Network+ credential—proves knowledge of ■ networking features and functions and is the leading vendor-neutral certification for networking professionals.

Starting salary—the average starting salary of network engineers can ■ be up to $70,000.

Career pathway—CompTIA Network+ is the first step in starting a ■ networking career, and is recognized by Microsoft as part of their MS program. Other corporations, such as Novell, Cisco, and HP also recognize CompTIA Network+ as part of their certification tracks.

More than 325,000 individuals worldwide are CompTIA Network+ ■ certified.

Mandated/recommended by organizations worldwide—Apple, ■ Cisco, HP, Ricoh, the U.S. State Department, and U.S. government contractors such as EDS, General Dynamics, and Northrop Grumman recommend or mandate CompTIA Network+.

BaseTech

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CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

How Certification Helps Your Career

CompTIA Career Pathway CompTIA offers a number of credentials that form a foundation for your career in technology and that allow you to pursue specific areas of concentration. Depend- ing on the path you choose, CompTIA certifications help you build upon your skills and knowledge, supporting learning throughout your career.

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xxi CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

Steps to Getting Certified and ■■ Staying Certified

Review exam objectives.1. Review the certification objectives to make sure you know what is covered in the exam: www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/examobjectives.aspx

Practice for the exam.2. After you have studied for the certification, take a free assessment and sample test to get an idea what type of questions might be on the exam: www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/practicetests.aspx

Purchase an exam voucher.3. Purchase exam vouchers on the CompTIA Marketplace, which is located at: www.comptiastore.com

Take the test!4. Select a certification exam provider, and schedule a time to take your exam. You can find exam providers at the following link: www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/testingcenters.aspx

Stay certified!5. Continuing education is required. Effective January 1, 2011, CompTIA Network+ certifications are valid for three years from the date of certification. There are a number of ways the certification can be renewed. For more information go to: http:// certification.comptia.org/getCertified/steps_to_certification/ stayCertified.aspx

Join the Professional Community■■ The free online IT Pro Community provides valuable content to students and professionals. Join the IT Pro Community:

http://itpro.comptia.org

Career IT job resources include:

Where to start in IT ■

Career assessments ■

Salary trends ■

U.S. job board ■

Join the IT Pro Community and get access to:

Forums on networking, security, computing, and cutting-edge ■ technologies

Access to blogs written by industry experts ■www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/examobjectives.aspxwww.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/practicetests.aspxwww.comptiastore.comwww.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/testingcenters.aspxhttp://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/steps_to_certification/stayCertified.aspxhttp://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/steps_to_certification/stayCertified.aspxhttp://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/steps_to_certification/stayCertified.aspxhttp://itpro.comptia.org

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CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

Current information on cutting edge technologies ■

Access to various industry resource links and articles related to IT ■ and IT careers

APPRO V E D Q U A L I T Y C O

N T EN

T Content Seal of Quality■■

This courseware bears the seal of CompTIA Approved Quality Content. This seal signifies this content covers 100 percent of the exam objectives and implements important instructional design principles. CompTIA rec- ommends multiple learning tools to help increase coverage of the learning objectives.

Why CompTIA?■■ Global recognition ■ CompTIA is recognized globally as the leading IT nonprofit trade association and has enormous credibility. Plus, CompTIA’s certifications are vendor-neutral and offer proof of foundational knowledge that translates across technologies.

Valued by hiring managers ■ Hiring managers value CompTIA certification because it is vendor- and technology-independent validation of your technical skills.

Recommended or required by government and businesses ■ Many government organizations and corporations (for example, Dell, Sharp, Ricoh, the U.S. Department of Defense, and many more) either recommend or require technical staff to be CompTIA certified.

Three CompTIA certifications ranked in the top 10 ■ In a study by DICE of 17,000 technology professionals, certifications helped command higher salaries at all experience levels.

BaseTech

CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

How to Obtain More Information■■ Visit CompTIA online ■ Go to www.comptia.org to learn more about getting CompTIA certified.

Contact CompTIA ■ Please call 866-835-8020, ext. 5 or e-mail questions@comptia.org.

Join the IT Pro Community ■ Go to http://itpro.comptia.org to join the IT community to get relevant career information.

Connect with CompTIA ■ Find us on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and YouTube.

CAQC Disclaimer■■ The logo of the CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum (CAQC) program and the status of this or other training material as “Approved” under the CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum program signifies that, in Comp- TIA’s opinion, such training material covers the content of CompTIA’s related certification exam.

The contents of this training material were created for the CompTIA Network+ exam covering CompTIA certification objectives that were cur- rent as of the date of publication.

CompTIA has not reviewed or approved the accuracy of the contents of this training material and specifically disclaims any warranties of mer- chantability or fitness for a particular purpose. CompTIA makes no guaran- tee concerning the success of persons using any such “Approved” or other training material in order to prepare for any CompTIA certification exam.

xxiiiwww.comptia.orghttp://itpro.comptia.org

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Instructor and Student Web Site

INsTruCTor ANd sTudENT WEb sITE

For instructor and student resources, please visit:

www.meyersnetplus.com

Students will find chapter quizzes that will help them learn more about troubleshooting and fixing networks, and teachers can access the support materials outlined below.

Additional Resources for Teachers■■ McGraw-Hill Connect, a Web-based learning platform, connects instructors with their support materials and students with chapter assessments. The Connect Online Learning Center provides resources for teachers in a format that follows the organization of the textbook.

This site includes the following:

Answer keys to the end-of-chapter activities in the textbook ■

Instructor’s Manual that contains learning objectives, classroom ■ preparation notes, instructor tips, and a lecture outline for each chapter

Answer keys to the Mike Meyers’ Lab Manual activities (available ■ separately)

Access to test bank files and software that allow you to generate ■ a wide array of paper- or network-based tests, and that feature automatic grading. The test bank includes:

Hundreds of practice questions and a wide variety of question ■ types categorized by exam objective, enabling you to customize each test to maximize student progress

Test bank files available on EZ Test Online and as downloads ■ from the Online Learning Center in these formats: Blackboard, Web CT, EZ Test, and Word

Engaging PowerPoint slides on the lecture topics that include full- ■ color artwork from the book

Please contact your McGraw-Hill sales representative for details.

xxv

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1 chapter

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“Networking is an essential part

of building wealth.”

—Armstrong WilliAms

CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell

In this chapter, you will learn how to

Describe the importance of ■■ CompTIA Network+ certification

Illustrate the structure and ■■ contents of the CompTIA Network+ certification exam

Plan a strategy to prepare for ■■ the exam

By picking up this book, you’ve shown an interest in learning about networking. But be forewarned. The term networking describes a vast field of study, far too large for any single certification, book, or training course to

cover. Do you want to configure routers and switches for a living? Do you want

to administer a large Windows network at a company? Do you want to install

wide area network connections? Do you want to set up Web servers? Do you

want to secure networks against attacks?

If you’re considering a CompTIA Network+ certification, you probably don’t

yet know exactly what aspect of networking you want to pursue, and that’s

okay! You’re going to love preparing for the CompTIA Network+ certification.

Attaining CompTIA Network+ certification provides you with three

fantastic benefits. First, you get a superb overview of networking that helps

you decide what part of the industry you’d like to pursue. Second, it acts as

a prerequisite toward other, more advanced certifications. Third, the amount

of eye-opening information you’ll gain just makes getting CompTIA Network+

certified plain old fun.

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Chapter 1: CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 1

CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell

Nothing comes close to providing a better overview of networking than CompTIA Network+. The certification covers local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), the Internet, security, cabling, and applica- tions in a wide-but-not-too-deep fashion that showcases the many different parts of a network and hopefully tempts you to investigate the aspects that intrigue you by looking into follow-up certifications.

The process of attaining CompTIA Network+ certification will give you a solid foundation in the whole field of networking. Mastering the compe- tencies will help fill in gaps in your knowledge and provide an ongoing series of “a-ha!” moments of grasping the big picture that make being a tech so much fun.

Ready to learn a lot, grab a great certification, and have fun doing it? Then welcome to CompTIA Network+ certification!

Who Needs CompTIA Network+? ■■ I Just Want to Learn about Networks!

Whoa up there, amigo! Are you one of those folks who either has never heard of the CompTIA Network+ exam or just doesn’t have any real inter- est in certification? Is your goal only to get a solid handle on the idea of networking and a jump start on the basics? Are you looking for that “magic bullet” book that you can read from beginning to end and then start install- ing and troubleshooting a network? Do you want to know what’s involved with running network cabling in your walls or getting your new wireless network working? Are you tired of not knowing enough about what TCP/ IP is and how it works? If these types of questions are running through your mind, then rest easy—you have the right book. Like every book with the Mike Meyers name, you’ll get solid concepts without pedantic details or broad, meaningless overviews. You’ll look at real-world networking as performed by real techs. This is a book that understands your needs and goes well beyond the scope of a single certification.

If the CompTIA Network+ exam isn’t for you, you can skip the rest of this chapter, shift your brain into learn mode, and dive into Chapter 2. But then, if you’re going to have the knowledge, why not get the certification?

What Is CompTIA Network+ ■■ Certification?

CompTIA Network+ certification is an industry-wide, vendor-neutral certi- fication program developed and sponsored by the Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA). The CompTIA Network+ certification shows that you have a basic competency in the physical support of net- working systems and knowledge of the conceptual aspects of networking.

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To date, many hundreds of thousands of technicians have become CompTIA Network+ certified.

CompTIA Network+ certification enjoys wide recognition throughout the IT industry. At first, it rode in on the coattails of the successful CompTIA A+ certification program, but it now stands on its own in the network- ing industry and is considered the obvious next step after CompTIA A+ certification.

What Is CompTIA? CompTIA is a nonprofit, industry trade association based in Oakbrook Ter- race, Illinois, on the outskirts of Chicago. Tens of thousands of computer resellers, value-added resellers, distributors, manufacturers, and training companies from all over the world are members of CompTIA.

CompTIA was founded in 1982. The following year, CompTIA began offering the CompTIA A+ certification exam. CompTIA A+ certification is now widely recognized as a de facto requirement for entrance into the PC industry. Because the CompTIA A+ exam covers networking only lightly, CompTIA decided to establish a vendor-neutral test covering basic net- working skills. So, in April 1999, CompTIA unveiled the CompTIA Net- work+ certification exam.

CompTIA provides certifications for a variety of areas in the computer industry, offers opportunities for its members to interact, and represents its members’ interests to government bodies. CompTIA certifications include CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+, and CompTIA Security+, to name a few. Check out the CompTIA Web site at www.comptia.org for details on other certifications.

CompTIA is huge. Virtually every company of consequence in the IT industry is a member of CompTIA: Microsoft, Dell, Cisco… Name an IT company and it’s probably a member of CompTIA.

The Current CompTIA Network+ Certification Exam Release CompTIA constantly works to provide exams that cover the latest technolo- gies and, as part of that effort, periodically updates its certification objec- tives, domains, and exam questions. This book covers all you need to know to pass the N10-005 CompTIA Network+ exam released in 2011.

How Do I Become CompTIA Network+ Certified? To become CompTIA Network+ certified, you simply pass one computer- based, multiple-choice exam. There are no prerequisites for taking the CompTIA Network+ exam, and no networking experience is needed. You’re not required to take a training course or buy any training materials. The only requirements are that you pay a testing fee to an authorized test- ing facility and then sit for the exam. Upon completion of the exam, you will immediately know whether you passed or failed.www.comptia.org

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Chapter 1: CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 3

Once you pass, you become CompTIA Network+ certified for three years. After three years, you’ll need to renew your certification by retaking the current exam or completing approved Continuing Education activities. By completing these activities, you earn credits that (along with an annual fee) allow you to keep your CompTIA Network+ certification. For a full list of approved activities, check out CompTIA’s Web site (www.comptia.org) and search for CompTIA Continuing Education Program.

Now for the details: CompTIA recommends that you have at least nine to twelve months of networking experience and CompTIA A+ knowl- edge, but this is not a requirement. Note the word “recommend.” You may not need experience or CompTIA A+ knowledge, but they help! The CompTIA A+ certification competencies have a degree of overlap with the CompTIA Network+ competencies, such as types of connectors and how networks work.

As for experience, keep in mind that CompTIA Network+ is mostly a practical exam. Those who have been out there supporting real networks will find many of the questions reminiscent of the types of problems they have seen on LANs. The bottom line is that you’ll probably have a much easier time on the CompTIA Network+ exam if you have some CompTIA A+ experience under your belt.

What Is the Exam Like?■■ The CompTIA Network+ exam contains 100 questions, and you have 90 minutes to complete the exam. To pass, you must score at least 720 on a scale of 100–900, at the time of this writing. Check the CompTIA Web site when you get close to testing to determine the current scale: http://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/certifications/network.aspx

The exam questions are divided into five areas that CompTIA calls domains. This table lists the CompTIA Network+ domains and the percent- age of the exam that each represents.

CompTIA Network+ Domain Percentage

1.0 Network Technologies 21%

2.0 Network Installation and Configuration 23%

3.0 Network Media and Topologies 17%

4.0 Network Management 20%

5.0 Network Security 19%

The CompTIA Network+ exam is extremely practical. Questions often present real-life scenarios and ask you to determine the best solution. The CompTIA Network+ exam loves troubleshooting. Let me repeat: many of the test objectives deal with direct, real-world troubleshooting. Be prepared to troubleshoot both hardware and software failures and to answer both “What do you do next?” and “What is most likely the problem?” types of questions.

A qualified CompTIA Network+ certification candidate can install and configure a PC to connect to a network. This includes installing andwww.comptia.orghttp://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/certifications/network.aspx

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testing a network card, configuring drivers, and loading all network soft- ware. The exam will test you on the different topologies, standards, and cabling.

Expect conceptual questions about the Open Systems Interconnec- tion (OSI) seven-layer model. If you’ve never heard of the OSI seven-layer model, don’t worry! This book will teach you all you need to know. While this model rarely comes into play during the daily grind of supporting a network, you need to know the functions and protocols for each layer to pass the CompTIA Network+ exam. You can also expect questions on most of the protocol suites, with heavy emphasis on the TCP/IP suite.

How Do I Take the Test? To take the test, you must go to an authorized testing center. You cannot take the test over the Internet. Prometric and Pearson VUE administer the actual CompTIA Network+ exam. You’ll find thousands of Prometric and Pearson VUE testing centers scattered across the United States and Canada, as well as in over 75 other countries around the world. You may take the exam at any testing center. To locate a testing center and schedule an exam, call Prometric at 888-895-6116 or Pearson VUE at 877-551-7587. You can also visit their Web sites at www.prometric.com and www.vue.com.

How Much Does the Test Cost? CompTIA fixes the price, no matter what testing center you use. The cost of the exam depends on whether you work for a CompTIA member. At press time, the cost for non-CompTIA members is US$246.

If your employer is a CompTIA member, you can save money by obtain- ing an exam voucher. In fact, even if you don’t work for a CompTIA member, you can purchase a voucher from member companies and take advantage of significant member savings. You simply buy the voucher and then use the voucher to pay for the exam. Vouchers are delivered to you on paper and electronically via e-mail. The voucher number is the important thing. That number is your exam payment, so protect it from fellow students until you’re ready to schedule your exam.

If you’re in the United States or Canada, you can visit www.totalsem .com or call 800-446-6004 to purchase vouchers. As I always say, “You don’t have to buy your voucher from us, but for goodness’ sake, get one from somebody!” Why pay full price when you have a discount alternative?

You must pay for the exam when you schedule, whether online or by phone. If you’re scheduling by phone, be prepared to hold for a while. Have your Social Security number (or the international equivalent) ready and either a credit card or a voucher number when you call or begin the online scheduling process. If you require any special accommodations, both Pro- metric and Pearson VUE will be able to assist you, although your selection of testing locations may be a bit more limited.

International prices vary; see the CompTIA Web site for international pricing. Of course, prices are subject to change without notice, so always check the CompTIA Web site for current pricing!

CompTIA occasionally makes changes to the content of the exam, as well as the score necessary to pass it. Always check the Web site of my company, Total Seminars (www.totalsem.com), before scheduling your exam.

Although you can’t take the exam over the Internet, both Prometric and Pearson VUE provide easy online registration. Go to www.prometric.com or www.vue.com to register online.www.totalsem.comwww.prometric.comwww.vue.comwww.prometric.comwww.vue.comwww.totalsem.comwww.totalsem.com

BaseTech / Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Chapter 1

Chapter 1: CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 5

How to Pass the CompTIA ■■ Network+ Exam

The single most important thing to remember about the CompTIA Net- work+ certification exam is that CompTIA designed it to test the knowl- edge of a technician with as little as nine months of experience—so keep it simple! Think in terms of practical knowledge. Read this book, answer the questions at the end of each chapter, take the practice exams on the media accompanying this book, review any topics you missed, and you’ll pass with flying colors.

Is it safe to assume that it’s probably been a while since you’ve taken an exam? Consequently, has it been a while since you’ve had to study for an exam? If you’re nodding your head yes, you’ll probably want to read the next sections. They lay out a proven strategy to help you study for the CompTIA Network+ exam and pass it. Try it. It works.

Obligate Yourself The first step you should take is to schedule the exam. Ever heard the old adage that heat and pressure make diamonds? Well, if you don’t give your- self a little “heat,” you might procrastinate and unnecessarily delay taking the exam. Even worse, you may end up not taking the exam at all. Do your- self a favor. Determine how much time you need to study (see the next sec- tion), and then call Prometric or Pearson VUE and schedule the exam, giving yourself the time you need to study—and adding a few extra days for safety. Afterward, sit back and let your anxieties wash over you. Suddenly, turning off the television and cracking open the book will become a lot easier! Keep in mind that Prometric and Pearson VUE let you schedule an exam only a few weeks in advance, at most. If you schedule an exam and can’t make it, you must reschedule at least a day in advance or lose your money.

Set Aside the Right Amount of Study Time After helping thousands of techs get their CompTIA Network+ certifica- tion, we at Total Seminars have developed a pretty good feel for the amount of study time needed to pass the CompTIA Network+ exam. Table 1.1 will help you plan how much study time you must devote to the exam. Keep in mind that these are averages. If you’re not a great student or if you’re a little on the nervous side, add another 10 percent. Equally, if you’re the type who can learn an entire semester of geometry in one night, reduce the numbers by 10 percent. To use this table, just circle the values that are most accurate for you and add them up to get the number of study hours.

A complete neophyte will need at least 120 hours of study time. An experienced network technician already CompTIA A+ certified should only need about 24 hours.

Study habits also come into play here. A person with solid study habits (you know who you are) can reduce the number by 15 percent. People with poor study habits should increase that number by 20 percent.

The total hours of study time you need is __________________.

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Table 1.1 Determining How Much Study Time You Need Amount of Experience

Type of Experience None Once or Twice

On Occasion

Quite a Bit

Installing a SOHO wireless network 4 2 1 1

Installing an advanced wireless network (802.1X, RADIUS, etc.) 2 2 1 1

Installing structured cabling 3 2 1 1

Configuring a home router 5 3 2 1

Configuring a Cisco router 4 2 1 1

Configuring a software firewall 3 2 1 1

Configuring a hardware firewall 2 2 1 1

Configuring an IPv4 client 8 4 2 1

Configuring an IPv6 client 3 3 2 1

Working with a SOHO WAN connection (DSL, cable) 2 2 1 0

Working with an advanced WAN connection (Tx, OCx, ATM) 3 3 2 2

Configuring a DNS server 2 2 2 1

Configuring a DHCP server 2 1 1 0

Configuring a Web application server (HTTP, FTP, SSH, etc.) 4 4 2 1

Configuring a VLAN 3 3 2 1

Configuring a VPN 3 3 2 1 Configuring a dynamic routing protocol (RIP, EIGRP, OSPF) 2 2 1 1

Study for the Test Now that you have a feel for how long it’s going to take to study for the exam, you need a strategy for studying. The following has proven to be an excellent game plan for cramming the knowledge from the study materials into your head.

This strategy has two alternate paths. The first path is designed for highly experienced technicians who have a strong knowledge of PCs and networking and want to concentrate on just what’s on the exam. Let’s call this group the Fast Track group. The second path, and the one I’d strongly recommend, is geared toward people like me: the ones who want to know why things work, those who want to wrap their arms completely around a concept, as opposed to regurgitating answers just to pass the CompTIA Network+ exam. Let’s call this group the Brainiacs.

To provide for both types of learners, I have broken down most of the chapters into two parts:

Historical/Conceptual ■ Although not on the CompTIA Network+ exam, this knowledge will help you understand more clearly what is on the CompTIA Network+ exam.

Test Specific ■ These topics clearly fit under the CompTIA Network+ certification domains.

The beginning of each of these areas is clearly marked with a large ban- ner that looks like the following.

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Chapter 1: CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 7

Historical/Conceptual If you consider yourself a Fast Tracker, skip everything but the Test Spe- cific section in each chapter. After reading the Test Specific sections, jump immediately to the Chapter Review questions, which concentrate on infor- mation in the Test Specific sections. If you run into problems, review the Historical/Conceptual sections in that chapter. After going through every chapter as described, take the free practice exams on the media that accom- panies the book. First, take them in practice mode, and then switch to final mode. Once you start scoring in the 80–85 percent range, go take the test!

Brainiacs should first read the book—the whole book. Read it as though you’re reading a novel, starting on Page 1 and going all the way through. Don’t skip around on the first read-through, even if you are a highly expe- rienced tech. Because there are terms and concepts that build on each other, skipping around might confuse you, and you’ll just end up closing the book and firing up your favorite PC game. Your goal on this first read is to under- stand concepts—to understand the whys, not just the hows.

Having a network available while you read through the book helps a lot. This gives you a chance to see various concepts, hardware, and configu- ration screens in action as you read about them in the book. Nothing beats doing it yourself to reinforce a concept or piece of knowledge!

You will notice a lot of historical information—the Historical/ Conceptual sections—that you may be tempted to skip. Don’t! Understanding how some of the older stuff worked or how something works conceptually will help you appreciate the reason behind current networking features and equipment, as well as how they function.

After you have completed the first read-through, cozy up for a second. This time, try to knock out one chapter per sitting. Concentrate on the Test Specific sections. Get a highlighter and mark the phrases and sentences that make major points. Take a hard look at the pictures and tables, noting how they illustrate the concepts. Then, answer the end of chapter questions. Repeat this process until you not only get all the questions right, but also understand why they are correct!

Once you have read and studied the material in the book, check your knowledge by taking the practice exams included on the media accompa- nying the book. The exams can be taken in practice mode or final mode. In practice mode, you are allowed to check references in the book (if you want) before you answer each question, and each question is graded immediately. In final mode, you must answer all the questions before you are given a test score. In each case, you can review a results summary that tells you which questions you missed, what the right answer is, and where to study further.

Use the results of the exams to see where you need to bone up, and then study some more and try them again. Continue retaking the exams and reviewing the topics you missed until you are consistently scoring in the 80–85 percent range. When you’ve reached that point, you are ready to pass the CompTIA Network+ exam!

If you have any problems or questions, or if you just want to argue about something, feel free to send an e-mail to me atmichaelm@totalsem.com or to my editor, Scott Jernigan, at scottj@totalsem.com.

For additional information about the CompTIA Network+ exam, con- tact CompTIA directly at its Web site: www.comptia.org.

Good luck! —Mike Meyers

We have active and helpful discussion groups at www .totalsem.com/forums. You need to register to participate (though not to read posts), but that’s only to keep the spammers at bay. The forums provide an excellent resource for answers, suggestions, and just socializing with other folks studying for the exam.

Be aware that you may need to return to previous chapters to get the Historical/Conceptual information you need for a later chapter.www.totalsem.com/forumswww.totalsem.com/forumswww.comptia.org

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Network Models

“First we thought the PC was a

calculator. Then we found out how

to turn numbers into letters with

ASCII—and we thought it was

a typewriter. Then we discovered

graphics, and we thought it was

a television. With the World

Wide Web, we’ve realized it’s a

brochure.”

—Douglas aDams

In this chapter, you will learn how to

Describe how models such as the ■■ OSI seven-layer model and the TCP/IP model help technicians understand and troubleshoot networks

Explain the major functions of ■■ networks with the OSI seven-layer model

Describe the major functions of ■■ networks with the TCP/IP model

The CompTIA Network+ certification challenges you to understand virtually every aspect of networking—not a small task. Luckily for you, we use two methods to conceptualize the many parts of a network: the Open Systems

Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer model and the Transmission Control

Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model.

These models act as guidelines and break down how a network functions

into discrete parts called layers. If you want to get into networking—and

if you want to pass the CompTIA Network+ certification exam—you must

understand both the OSI seven-layer model and the TCP/IP model in great

detail.

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Chapter 2: Network Models 9

These models provide two tools that make them critical for networking techs. First, the OSI and TCP/IP models provide powerful mental tools for diag- nosing problems. Understand- ing the models enables a tech to determine quickly at what layer a problem can occur and helps him or her zero in on a solution with- out wasting a lot of time on false leads. Second, these models also provide a common language to describe networks—a way for us to communicate with each other about the functions of a network. Figure 2.1 shows a sample Cisco Systems Web page about configuring routing—a topic this book covers in detail later. A router operates at Layer 3 of the OSI seven-layer model, for example, so you’ll hear techs (and Web sites) refer to it as a “Layer 3 switch.”

This chapter looks first at models in general and how models help conceptualize and troubleshoot networks. We’ll then go into both the OSI seven-layer model and the TCP/IP model to see how they help clarify net- work architecture for techs.

Figure 2.1 • Using the OSI terminology—Layer 3—in a typical setup screen

The term “Layer 3 switch” has evolved over time and refers today to a variety of complex network boxes that I’ll cover later in the book.

Cross Check Cisco and Certifications

Cisco Systems, Inc. is famous for making many of the “boxes” that interconnect networks all over the world. It’s not too far of a stretch to say that Cisco helps power a huge portion of the Internet. These boxes are complicated to configure, requiring a high degree of techni- cal knowledge.

To address this need, Cisco offers a series of certifications. One of the entry-level certifications, for example, is the Cisco Certified Net- work Associate (CCNA). Go to Cisco’s certification Web site and com- pare their objectives with what you learned about CompTIA Network+ in Chapter 1. Ask yourself this question: could you study for CCNA and CompTIA Network+ simultaneously?

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Historical/Conceptual

Working with Models■■ Networking is hard. It takes a lot of pieces, both hardware and software, to get anything done. Just making Google appear in your Web browser requires millions of hours in research, development, and manufacturing. Whenever we encounter highly complex technologies, we need to sim- plify the overall process (making Google show up in your browser) by breaking it into discrete, simple, individual processes. We do this using models.

Modeling is critical to the networking world. We use models to under- stand and communicate with other techs about networks. Most beginning network techs, however, might have a very different idea of what model- ing means.

Biography of a Model What does the word “model” mean to you? Does the word make you think of a beautiful woman walking down a catwalk at a fashion show or

some hunky guy showing off the latest style of blue jeans on a huge billboard? Maybe it makes you think of a plastic model airplane? What about those com- puter models that try to predict weather? We use the term “model” in a number of ways, but each use shares certain common themes.

All models are a sim- plified representation of the real thing. The human

model ignores the many different types of body shapes, using only a single “optimal” figure. The model airplane lacks functional engines or the internal framework, and the computerized weather model might disregard subtle differences in wind temperatures or geology (Figure 2.2).

Additionally, a model must have at least all the major functions of the real item, but what constitutes a major rather than a minor function is open to opinion. Figure 2.3 shows a different level of detail for a model. Does it contain all the major components of an airplane? There’s room for argument that perhaps the model should have landing gear to go along with the propeller, wings, and tail.

Figure 2.2 • Types of models (images from left to right courtesy of NOAA, Mike Schinkel, and Michael Smyer)

Figure 2.3 • Simple model airplane

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Chapter 2: Network Models 11

Network Models Network models face similar challenges. What functions define all net- works? What details can you omit without rendering the model inaccurate? Does the model retain its usefulness when describing a network that does not employ all the layers?

In the early days of networking, different manufacturers made unique types of networks that functioned fairly well. But each network had its own cabling, hardware, drivers, naming conventions, applications, and many other unique features. Back then, a single manufacturer provided every- thing for a customer whenever you purchased a network solution: cabling, NICs, hubs, drivers, and all the software in one complete and expensive package. Although these networks worked fine as stand-alone networks, the proprietary nature of the hardware and software made it difficult—to put it mildly—to connect networks of multiple manufacturers. To intercon- nect networks and improve networking as a whole, someone needed to create a guide, a model that described the functions of a network, so that people who made hardware and software could work together to make networks that worked together well.

The granddaddy of network models came from the International Orga- nization for Standardization, known as ISO. Their model, known as the OSI seven-layer model, works for almost every type of network, even extremely old and long-obsolete ones. On the other hand, the TCP/IP model only works for networks that use the now-dominant TCP/IP protocol suite. (Don’t worry about what TCP/IP means yet—most of this book’s job is to explain that in great detail.) Since most of the world uses TCP/IP, the TCP/ IP model supplanted the OSI model in many cases, though most discussion that involves the word “Layers” refers to the OSI model. A good tech can talk the talk of both models, and they are objectives on the CompTIA Net- work+ exam, so let’s learn both.

The best way to learn the OSI and TCP/IP models is to see them in action. For this reason, I’ll introduce you to a small network that needs to copy a file from one computer to another. This example goes through each of the OSI and TCP/IP layers needed to copy that file, and I explain each step and why it is necessary. By the end of the chapter, you should have a definite handle on using either of these models as a tool to conceptualize networks. You’ll continue to build on this knowledge throughout the book and turn your OSI and TCP/IP model knowledge into a powerful troubleshooting tool.

I’ll begin by discussing the OSI seven-layer model. After seeing this small network through the lens of the OSI seven-layer model, we’ll repeat the process with the TCP/IP model.

The OSI Seven-Layer Model ■■ in Action

Each layer in the OSI seven-layer model defines an important function in computer networking, and the protocols that operate at that layer offer solutions to those functions. Protocols are sets of clearly defined rules,

ISO may look like a misspelled acronym, but it’s actually a word, derived from the Greek word isos, which means “equal.” The International Organization for Standardization sets standards that promote equality among network designers and manufacturers, thus ISO.

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regulations, standards, and procedures that enable hardware and software developers to make devices and applications that function properly at a particular level. The OSI seven-layer model encourages modular design in networking, meaning that each layer has as little to do with the opera- tion of other layers as possible. Think of it as an automobile assembly line. The guy painting the car doesn’t care about the gal putting doors on the car—he expects the assembly line process to make sure the cars he paints have doors. Each layer on the model trusts that the other layers on the model do their jobs.

The OSI seven layers are:

Layer 7 ■ Application

Layer 6 ■ Presentation

Layer 5 ■ Session

Layer 4 ■ Transport

Layer 3 ■ Network

Layer 2 ■ Data Link

Layer 1 ■ Physical

The OSI seven layers are not laws of physics—anybody who wants to design a network can do it any way he or she wants. Although many protocols fit neatly into one of the seven layers, others do not.

Now that you know the names of the layers, let’s see what each layer does. The best way to understand the OSI layers is to see them in action. Let’s see them at work at the fictional company of MHTechEd, Inc.

Welcome to MHTechEd! Mike’s High-Tech Educational Supply Store and Post Office, or MHTechEd for short, has a small network of PCs running Windows, a situation typi- cal of many small businesses today. Windows runs just fine on a PC uncon- nected to a network, but it also comes with all the network software it needs to connect to a network. All the computers in the MHTechEd net- work are connected by special network cabling.

As in most offices, virtually everyone at MHTechEd has his or her own PC. Figure 2.4 shows two workers, Janelle and Dana, who han- dle all the administrative functions at MHTechEd. Because of the kinds of work they do, these two often need to exchange data between their two PCs. At the moment, Janelle has just completed a new employee handbook in Microsoft Word, and she wants Dana to check it for accuracy. Janelle could transfer a copy of the file to Dana’s com- puter by the tried-and-true Sneakernet method— saving the file on a thumb drive and walking it over to her—but thanks to the wonders of com- puter networking, she doesn’t even have to turn around in her chair. Let’s watch in detail each

Be sure to memorize both the name and the number of each OSI layer. Network techs use OSI terms such as “Layer 4” and “Transport layer” synonymously. Students have long used mnemonics for memorizing such lists. One of my favorites for the OSI seven-layer model is “Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away.” Yum!

This section is a conceptual overview of the hardware and software functions of a network. Your network may have different hardware or software, but it will share the same functions!

Figure 2.4 • Janelle and Dana, hard at work

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Chapter 2: Network Models 13

piece of the process that gives Dana direct access to Janelle’s computer, so she can copy the Word document from Janelle’s system to her own.

Long before Janelle ever saved the Word document on her system— when the systems were first installed—someone who knew what they were doing set up and configured all the systems at MHTechEd to be part of a common network. All this setup activity resulted in multiple layers of hardware and software that can work together behind the scenes to get that Word document from Janelle’s system to Dana’s. Let’s examine the differ- ent pieces of the network, and then return to the process of Dana grabbing that Word document.

Test Specific

Let’s Get Physical—Network ■■ Hardware and Layers 1–2

Clearly the network needs a physical channel through which it can move bits of data between systems. Most networks use a cable like the one shown in Figure 2.5. This cable, known in the networking industry as unshielded twisted pair (UTP), usually contains four pairs of wires that can transmit and receive data.

Another key piece of hardware the network uses is a special box-like device called a hub (Figure 2.6), often tucked away in a closet or an equip- ment room. Each system on the network has its own cable that runs to the hub. Think of the hub as being like one of those old-time telephone switch- boards, where operators created connections between persons who called in wanting to reach other telephone users.

Readers with some networking experience know that hubs don’t exist in modern networks, having been replaced with much better devices called switches. But the CompTIA Network+ exam expects you to know what hubs are; plus hubs make this modeling discussion simpler. I’ll get to switches soon enough.

Figure 2.6 • Typical hubFigure 2.5 • UTP cabling

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Layer 1 of the OSI model defines the method of moving data between computers, so the cabling and hubs are part of the Physical layer (Layer 1). Anything that moves data from one system to another, such as copper cabling, fiber optics, even radio waves, is part of the OSI Physical layer. Layer 1 doesn’t care what data goes through; it just moves the data from one system to another sys- tem. Figure 2.7 shows the MHTechEd network in the OSI seven-layer model thus far. Note that each system has the full range of layers, so data from Janelle’s computer can flow to Dana’s computer.

The real magic of a network starts with the net- work interface card, or NIC (pronounced “nick”), which serves as the interface between the PC and the network. While NICs come in a wide array of shapes and sizes, the ones at MHTechEd look like Figure 2.8.

On older systems, a NIC truly was a separate card that snapped into a handy expansion slot, which is why they were called network interface cards. Even though they’re now built into the motherboard, they are still called NICs.

When installed in a PC, the NIC looks like Figure 2.9. Note the cable running from the back of the NIC into the wall; inside that wall is another cable running all the way back to the hub.

Cabling and hubs define the Physical layer of the network, and NICs provide the interface to the PC. Figure 2.10 shows a diagram of the network cabling system. I’ll build on this diagram as I delve deeper into the network process.

You might be tempted to categorize the NIC as part of the Physical layer at this point, and you’d have a valid argument. The NIC clearly is necessary for the physical connection to take place. The CompTIA Network+ exam and many authors put the NIC in OSI Layer 2, the Data Link layer, though, so clearly something else is happening inside the NIC. Let’s take a closer look.

Figure 2.8 • Typical NIC

Figure 2.9 • NIC with cable connecting the PC to the wall jack Figure 2.10 • The MHTechEd network

Dana

Figure 2.7 • The network so far, with the Physical layer hardware installed

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Chapter 2: Network Models 15

The NIC To understand networks, you must understand how NICs work. The net- work must provide a mechanism that gives each system a unique identi- fier—like a telephone number—so data is delivered to the right system. That’s one of the NIC’s most important jobs. Inside every NIC, burned onto some type of ROM chip, is special firmware containing a unique identifier with a 48-bit value called the media access control address, or MAC address.

No two NICs ever share the same MAC address—ever. Any com- pany that makes NICs must contact the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and request a block of MAC addresses, which the company then burns into the ROMs on its NICs. Many NIC makers also print the MAC address on the surface of each NIC, as shown in Figure 2.11. Note that the NIC shown here displays the MAC address in hexadecimal notation. Count the number of hex characters—because each hex character represents 4 bits, it takes 12 hex characters to represent 48 bits.

The MAC address in Figure 2.11 is 004005-607D49, although in print, we represent the MAC address as 00–40–05–60–7D–49. The first six digits, in this example 00–40–05, represent the number of the NIC manufacturer. Once the IEEE issues those six hex digits to a manu- facturer—often referred to as the organizationally unique identifier (OUI)—no other manufacturer may use them. The last six digits, in this example 60–7D–49, are the manufacturer’s unique serial number for that NIC; this portion of the MAC is often referred to as the device ID.

Would you like to see the MAC address for your NIC? If you have a Windows system, type ipconfig /all from a command prompt to display the MAC address (Figure 2.12). Note that ipconfig calls the MAC address the physical address, which is an important distinction, as you’ll see a bit later in the chapter.

Figure 2.12 • Output from ipconfig /all

Figure 2.11 • MAC address

MAC-48 and EUI-48 The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) forms MAC addresses from a numbering name space originally called MAC-48, which simply means that the MAC address will be 48 bits, with the first 24 bits defining the OUI, just as described here. The current term for this numbering name space is EUI-48. EUI stands for Extended Unique Identifier. (IEEE apparently went with the new term because they could trademark it.)

Most techs just call them MAC addresses, as you should, but you might see MAC-48 or EUI-48 on the CompTIA Network+ exam.

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Okay, so every NIC in the world has a unique MAC address, but how is it used? Ah, that’s where the fun begins! Recall that computer data is binary, which means it’s made up of streams of ones and zeroes. NICs send and receive this binary data as pulses of electricity, light, or radio waves. The NICs that use electricity to send and receive data are the most common, so let’s consider that type of NIC. The specific process by which a NIC uses electricity to send and receive data is exceedingly complicated but, luckily for you, not necessary to understand. Instead, just think of a charge on the wire as a one and no charge as a zero. A chunk of data moving in pulses across a wire might look something like Figure 2.13.

If you put an oscilloscope on the wire to measure voltage, you’d see something like Figure 2.14. An oscilloscope is a powerful tool that enables you to see electrical pulses.

Now, remembering that the pulses represent binary data, visualize instead a string of ones and zeroes moving across the wire (Figure 2.15).

Once you understand how data moves along the wire, the next question is how does the network get the right data to the right system? All networks transmit data by breaking whatever is moving across

the Physical layer (files, print jobs, Web pages, and so forth) into discrete chunks called frames. A frame is basically a container for a chunk of data moving across a network. The NIC creates and sends, as well as receives and reads, these frames.

I like to visualize an imaginary table inside every NIC that acts as a frame creation and reading station. I see frames as those pneumatic canis- ters you see when you go to a drive-in teller at a bank. A little guy inside the network card—named Nic, naturally!—builds these pneumatic canis- ters (the frames) on the table and then shoots them out on the wire to the hub (Figure 2.16).

Figure 2.16 • Inside the NIC

Figure 2.13 • Data moving along a wire

Figure 2.14 • Oscilloscope of data

Figure 2.15 • Data as ones and zeroes

A number of different frame types are used in different networks. All NICs on the same network must use the same frame type, or they will not be able to communicate with other NICs.

Try This! What’s Your MAC Address?

You can readily determine your MAC address on a Windows computer from the command line. This works in all modern versions of Windows.

In Windows 2000/XP, click Start | Run. Enter 1. the command cmd and press the enter key to get to a command prompt.

In Windows Vista/7, click Start, enter2. cmd in the Start Search text box, and press the enter key to get to a command prompt.

At the command prompt, type the command3. ipconfig /all and press the enter key.

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Here’s where the MAC address becomes important. Figure 2.17 shows a representation of a generic frame. Even though a frame is a string of ones and zeroes, we often draw frames as a series of rectangles, each rectangle representing a part of the string of ones and zeroes. You will see this type of frame repre- sentation used quite often, so you should become comfortable with it (even though I still prefer to see frames as pneumatic canisters). Note that the frame begins with the MAC address of the NIC to which the data is to be sent, followed by the MAC address of the sending NIC. Then comes the data, fol- lowed by a special bit of checking information called the frame check sequence (FCS). The FCS uses a type of binary math called a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) that the receiving NIC uses to verify that the data arrived intact.

So, what’s inside the data part of the frame? You neither know nor care. The data may be a part of a file, a piece of a print job, or part of a Web page. NICs aren’t concerned with content! The NIC simply takes whatever data is passed to it via its device driver and addresses it for the correct system. Special software will take care of what data gets sent and what happens to that data when it arrives. This is the beauty of imagining frames as little pneumatic canisters (Figure 2.18). A canister can carry anything from dirt to diamonds—the NIC doesn’t care one bit (pardon the pun).

Like a canister, a frame can hold only a certain amount of data. Different networks use different sizes of frames, but a single frame holds about 1500 bytes of data.

This raises a new question: what happens when the data to be sent is larger than the frame size? Well, the sending system’s software must chop the data up into nice, frame-sized chunks, which it then hands to the NIC for sending. As the receiving system begins to accept the incoming frames, the receiving system’s software recombines the data chunks as they come in from the network. I’ll show how this disassembling and reassembling is done in a moment—first, let’s see how the frames get to the right system!

When a system sends a frame out on the network, the frame goes into the hub. The hub, in turn, makes an exact copy of that frame, sending a copy of the original frame to every other system on the network. The inter- esting part of this process is when the copy of the frame comes into all the other systems. I like to visualize a frame sliding onto the receiving NIC’s “frame assembly table,” where the electronics of the NIC inspect it. Here’s where the magic takes place: only the NIC to which the frame is addressed will process that frame—the other NICs sim- ply erase it when they see that it is not addressed to their MAC address. This is important to appreciate: every frame sent on a network is received by every NIC, but only the NIC with the match- ing MAC address will process that particular frame (Figure 2.19).

Figure 2.18 • Frame as a canister

Tech Tip

FCS in Depth Most FCSs are only 4 bytes long, yet the average frame carries around 1500 bytes of data. How can 4 bytes tell you if all 1500 bytes in the data are correct? That’s the magic of the math of the CRC. Without going into the grinding details, think of the CRC as just the remainder of a division problem. (Remember learning remainders from division back in elementary school?) The NIC sending the frame does a little math to make the CRC. Using binary arithmetic, it works a division problem on the data using a divisor called a key. The result of this division is the CRC. When the frame gets to the receiving NIC, it divides the data by the same key. If the receiving NIC’s answer is the same as the CRC, it knows the data is good.

Data Sender’s

MAC address Recipient’s

MAC address FCS

Figure 2.17 • Generic frame

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Figure 2.19 • Incoming frame!

Getting the Data on the Line The process of getting data onto the wire and then picking that data off the wire is amazingly complicated. For instance, what happens to keep two NICs from speaking at the same time? Because all the data sent by one NIC is read by every other NIC on the network, only one system may speak at a time. Networks use frames to restrict the amount of data a NIC can send at once, giving all NICs a chance to send data over the network in a reasonable span of time. Dealing with this and many other issues requires sophisti- cated electronics, but the NICs handle these issues completely on their own without our help. Thankfully, the folks who design NICs worry about all these details, so we don’t have to!

Getting to Know You Using the MAC address is a great way to move data around, but this pro- cess raises an important question. How does a sending NIC know the MAC address of the NIC to which it’s sending the data? In most cases, the send- ing system already knows the destination MAC address because the NICs had probably communicated earlier, and each system stores that data. If it doesn’t already know the MAC address, a NIC may send a broadcast onto the network to ask for it. The MAC address of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF is the broadcast address—if a NIC sends a frame using the broadcast address, every single NIC on the network will process that frame. That broadcast frame’s data will contain a request for a system’s MAC address. Without knowing the MAC address to begin with, the requesting computer will use an IP address or host name to pick the target computer out of the crowd. The system with the MAC address your system is seeking will read the request in the broadcast packet and respond with its MAC address.

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The Complete Frame Movement Now that you’ve seen all the pieces used to send and receive frames, let’s put these pieces together and see how a frame gets from one system to another. The basic send/receive process is as follows.

First, the sending system’s network operating system (NOS) software— such as Windows 7—hands some data to its NIC. The NIC builds a frame to transport that data to the receiving NIC (Figure 2.20).

Figure 2.20 • Building the frame

After the NIC creates the frame, it adds the FCS, and then dumps it and the data into the frame (Figure 2.21).

FC S

Figure 2.21 • Adding the data and FCS to the frame

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Next, the NIC puts both the destination MAC address and its own MAC address onto the frame. It waits until no other NIC is using the cable, and then sends the frame through the cable to the network (Figure 2.22).

Figure 2.22 • Sending the frame

The frame propagates down the wire into the hub, which creates copies of the frame and sends it to every other system on the network. Every NIC receives the frame and checks the MAC address. If a NIC finds that a frame is addressed to it, it processes the frame (Figure 2.23); if the frame is not addressed to it, the NIC erases it.

Figure 2.23 • Reading an incoming frame

So, what happens to the data when it gets to the correct NIC? First, the receiving NIC uses the FCS to verify that the data is valid. If it is, the

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receiving NIC strips off all the framing information and sends the data to the software—the network operating system—for processing. The receiv- ing NIC doesn’t care what the software does with the data; its job stops the moment it passes on the data to the software.

Any device that deals with a MAC address is part of the OSI Data Link layer, or Layer 2 of the OSI model. Let’s update the OSI model to include details about the Data Link layer (Figure 2.24).

Figure 2.24 • Layer 1 and Layer 2 are now properly applied to the network.

Note that the cabling and the hub are located in the Physical layer. The NIC is in the Data Link layer, but spans two sublayers.

The Two Aspects of NICs Consider how data moves in and out of a NIC. On one end, frames move into and out of the NIC’s network cable connection. On the other end, data moves back and forth between the NIC and the network operating system software. The many steps a NIC performs to keep this data moving—send- ing and receiving frames over the wire, creating outgoing frames, reading incoming frames, and attaching MAC addresses—are classically broken down into two distinct jobs.

The first job is called the Logical Link Control (LLC). The LLC is the aspect of the NIC that talks to the operating system, places data coming from the software into frames, and creates the CRC on each frame. The LLC is also responsible for dealing with incoming frames: processing those that are addressed to this NIC and erasing frames addressed to other machines on the network.

The second job is called the Media Access Control (MAC), and I bet you can guess what it does! That’s right—it remembers the NIC’s own MAC address and attaches MAC addresses to the frames. Recall that each frame the LLC creates must include both the sender’s and recipient’s MAC addresses. The MAC also ensures that the frames, now complete with their MAC addresses, are then sent along the network cabling. Figure 2.25 shows the Data Link layer in detail.

The CompTIA Network+ exam tests you on the details of the OSI seven-layer model, so remember that the Data Link layer is the only layer that has any sublayers.

The Data Link layer provides a service called Data Link Control (DLC). The only reason to mention this is there’s an ancient printing protocol with the same name. DLC might show up as an incorrect answer on the exam.

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Figure 2.25 • LLC and MAC, the two parts of the Data Link layer

Tech Tip

NIC and Layers Most networking materials that describe the OSI seven-layer model put NICs squarely into the Data Link layer of the model. It’s at the MAC sublayer, after all, that data gets encapsulated into a frame, destination and source MAC addresses get added to that frame, and error checking occurs. What bothers most students with placing NICs solely in the Data Link layer is the obvious other duty of the NIC—putting the ones and zeroes on the network cable. How much more physical can you get?

Many teachers will finesse this issue by defining the Physical layer in its logical sense—that it defines the rules for the ones and zeroes—and then ignore the fact that the data sent on the cable has to come from something. The first question when you hear a statement like that—at least to me—is, “What component does the sending?” It’s the NIC, of course, the only device capable of sending and receiving the physical signal.

Network cards, therefore, operate at both Layer 2 and Layer 1 of the OSI seven-layer model. If cornered to answer one or the other, however, go with the more common answer, Layer 2.

Beyond the Single Wire—Network ■■ Software and Layers 3–7

Getting data from one system to another in a simple network (defined as one in which all the computers connect to one hub) takes relatively little effort on the part of the NICs. But one problem with simple networks is that computers need to broadcast to get MAC addresses. It works for small networks, but what happens when the network gets big, like the size of the

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entire Internet? Can you imagine millions of computers all broadcasting? No data could get through.

Equally important, data flows over the Internet using many technolo- gies, not just Ethernet. These technologies, such as SONET, ATM, and oth- ers, don’t know what to do with Ethernet MAC addresses. When networks get large, you can’t use the MAC addresses anymore.

Large networks need a logical addressing method, like a postal code or telephone numbering scheme, that ignores the hardware and enables you to break up the entire large network into smaller networks called subnets. Figure 2.26 shows two ways to set up a network. On the left, all the com- puters connect to a single hub. On the right, however, the LAN is separated into two five-computer subnets.

Figure 2.26 • Large LAN complete (left) and broken up into two subnets (right)

To move past the physical MAC addresses and start using logical addressing requires some special software called a network protocol. Net- work protocols exist in every operating system. A network protocol not only has to create unique identifiers for each system, but also must create a set of communication rules for issues like how to handle data chopped up into multiple packets and how to ensure those packets get from one subnet to another. Let’s take a moment to learn a bit about the most famous network protocol—TCP/IP—and its unique universal addressing system.

To be accurate, TCP/IP is really several network protocols designed to work together—but two protocols, TCP and IP, do so much work that the folks who invented all these protocols named the whole thing TCP/IP. TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, and IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP is the network protocol I need to discuss first; rest assured, however, I’ll cover TCP in plenty of detail later.

MAC addresses are also known as physical addresses.

TCP/IP dominates the networking universe. Almost every network in existence uses TCP/IP. Because it is more specific, a simpler model called the TCP/IP model was created to describe it. You’ll learn all about this model later in the chapter.

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IP—Playing on Layer 3, the Network Layer At the Network layer, Layer 3, packets get created and addressed so they can go from one network to another. The Internet Protocol is the primary logical addressing protocol for TCP/IP. IP makes sure that a piece of data gets to where it needs to go on the network. It does this by giving each device on the network a unique numeric identifier called an IP address. An IP address is known as a logical address to distinguish it from the physical address, the MAC address of the NIC.

Every network protocol uses some type of naming convention, but no two protocols use the same convention. IP uses a rather unique dotted decimal notation (sometimes referred to as a dotted-octet numbering sys- tem) based on four 8-bit numbers. Each 8-bit number ranges from 0 to 255, and the four numbers are separated by periods. (If you don’t see how 8-bit numbers can range from 0 to 255, don’t worry—by the end of this book, you’ll understand these naming conventions in more detail than you ever believed possible!) A typical IP address might look like this:

192.168.4.232

No two systems on the same network share the same IP address; if two machines accidentally receive the same address, they won’t be able to send or receive data. These IP addresses don’t just magically appear—they must be configured by the end user (or the network administrator).

Take a look at Figure 2.26. What makes logical addressing powerful is the magic box—called a router—that connects each of the subnets. Routers use the IP address, not the MAC address, to forward data. This enables networks to connect across data lines that don’t use Ethernet, like the tele- phone network. Each network type (such as Ethernet, SONET, ATM, and others that we’ll discuss later in the book) uses a unique frame. Figure 2.27 shows a typical router.

Figure 2.27 • Typical small router

Try to avoid using redundant expressions. Even though many techs will say “IP protocol,” for example, you know that “IP” stands for “Internet Protocol.” It wouldn’t be right to say “Internet Protocol protocol” in English, so it doesn’t work in network speak either.

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What’s important here is for you to appreciate that in a TCP/IP net- work, each system has two unique identifiers: the MAC address and the IP address. The MAC address (the physical address) is literally burned into the chips on the NIC, whereas the IP address (the logical address) is simply stored in the system’s software. MAC addresses come with the NIC, so you don’t configure MAC addresses, whereas you must configure IP addresses using software. Figure 2.28 shows the MHTechEd network diagram again; this time with the MAC and IP addresses displayed for each system.

Figure 2.28 • MHTechEd addressing

Packets Within Frames For a TCP/IP network to send data successfully, the data must be wrapped up in two distinct containers. A frame of some type enables the data to move from one device to another. Inside that frame is both an IP-specific container that enables routers to determine where to send data—regardless of the physical connection type—and the data itself. In TCP/IP, that inner container is called a packet.

Figure 2.29 shows a typical IP packet; notice the similarity to the frames you saw earlier.

Destination IP address

Source IP address

Data

Figure 2.29 • IP packet

This is a highly simplified IP packet. I am not including lots of little parts of the IP packet in this diagram because they are not important to what you need to understand right now—but don’t worry, you’ll see them later in the book!

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But IP packets don’t leave their PC home without any clothes on! Each IP packet is handed to the NIC, which then encloses the IP packet in a regular frame, creating, in essence, a packet within a frame. I like to visualize the packet as an envelope, with the envelope in the pneu- matic canister frame (Figure 2.30). A more conventional drawing would look like Figure 2.31.

When you send data from one com- puter to another on a TCP/IP network such as the Internet, that data can go through many routers before it reaches its destination. Each router strips off the incoming frame, determines where to send the data according to the IP address in the packet, creates a new frame, and then sends the packet within a frame on its merry way. The new frame type will be the appropriate technology for what- ever connection technology connects to the next router. That could be a cable or DSL network connection, for example (Figure 2.32). The IP packet, on the other hand, remains unchanged.

Once the packet reaches the destination subnet’s router, that router will strip off the incoming frame—no matter what type—look at the destination IP address, and then add a frame with the appropriate destination MAC address that matches the destination IP address.

Frame Header

Packet Header FCS

Data

Packet

Frame

Figure 2.31 • IP packet in a frame

Keep in mind that not all networks are Ethernet networks. Ethernet may dominate, but IP packets fit in all sorts of other connectivity options. For example, cable modems use a type of frame called DOCSIS. T1 lines use a frame called DS1. The beauty of IP packets is that they can travel unchanged in each of these and many others. For more about these technologies, check out Chapter 14.

Figure 2.30 • IP packet in a frame (as a canister)

Frame stripped

Incoming frame

New frame added

New frame out

Figure 2.32 • Router removing network frame and adding one for the outgoing connection

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The receiving NIC strips away the Ethernet frame and passes the remaining packet off to the software. The networking software built into your operating system handles all the rest of the work. The NIC’s driver software is the interconnection between the hardware and the software. The NIC driver knows how to communicate with the NIC to send and receive frames, but it can’t do anything with the packet. Instead, the NIC driver hands the packet off to other programs that know how to deal with all the separate packets and turn them into Web pages, e-mail messages, files, and so forth.

The Network layer (Layer 3) is the last layer that deals directly with hardware. All the other layers of the OSI seven-layer model work strictly within software.

Assembly and Disassembly—Layer 4, the Transport Layer Because most chunks of data are much larger than a single packet, they must be chopped up before they can be sent across a network. When a serv- ing computer receives a request for some data, it must be able to chop the requested data into chunks that will fit into a packet (and eventually into the NIC’s frame), organize the packets for the benefit of the receiving sys- tem, and hand them to the NIC for sending. The receiving system must be able to recognize a series of incoming packets as one data transmission, reassemble the packets correctly based on information included in the packets by the sending system, and verify that all the packets for that piece of data arrived in good shape.

This part is relatively simple—the transport protocol breaks up the data into packets and gives each packet some type of sequence number. I like to compare this process to the one that my favorite international shipping company uses. I receive boxes from UPS almost every day; in fact, some days I receive many, many boxes from UPS. To make sure I get all the boxes for one shipment, UPS puts a numbering system, like the one shown in Figure 2.33, on the label of each box. A computer sending data on a network does the same thing. Embedded into the data of each packet is a sequencing number. By reading the sequencing numbers, the receiving system knows both the total number of packets and how to put them back together.

Figure 2.33 • Labeling the boxes

I’m using the term “packets” here to refer to a generic container. Because the OSI model can be applied to many different network protocols, the terminology for this container changes. Almost all protocols split up data at the Transport layer and add sequencing numbers so the receiving computer can put them together in logical order. What happens at that point depends on the protocol suite. In TCP/IP, for example, the precisely named IP packet is created at the Network layer and other container types are created at the Transport layer.

I’ll go into a lot more detail on this in the TCP/IP model section later in this book. That model, rather than the OSI model, makes more sense for TCP/IP network descriptions.

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The MHTechEd network just keeps getting more and more complex, doesn’t it? And the Word document still hasn’t been copied, has it? Don’t worry; you’re almost there—just a few more pieces to go!

Layer 4, the Transport layer of the OSI seven-layer model, has a big job: it’s the assembler/disassembler software. As part of its job, the Transport layer also initializes requests for packets that weren’t received in good order (Figure 2.34).

Figure 2.34 • OSI updated

Talking on a Network—Layer 5, the Session Layer

Now that you understand that the system uses software to assemble and disassemble data packets, what’s next? In a network, any one system may be talking to many other systems at any given moment. For example, Janelle’s PC has a printer used by all the MHTechEd systems, so there’s a better than average chance that, as Dana tries to access the Word document, another sys- tem will be sending a print job to Janelle’s PC (Figure 2.35).

Janelle’s system must direct these incoming files, print jobs, Web pages, and so on, to the right pro- grams (Figure 2.36). Additionally, the operating system must enable one system to make a connection to another system to verify that the other system can handle whatever

A lot of things happen on a TCP/IP network at the Transport layer. I’m simplifying here because the TCP/IP model does a way better job explaining each thing than does the OSI model.

Figure 2.35 • Handling multiple inputs

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operation the initiating system wants to perform. If Bill’s system wants to send a print job to Janelle’s printer, it first contacts Janelle’s system to ensure that it is ready to handle the print job. The session software handles this part of networking, connecting applications to applications.

Figure 2.36 • Each request becomes a session.

Layer 5, the Session layer of the OSI seven-layer model, handles all the sessions for a system (Figure 2.37). The Session layer initiates sessions, accepts incoming sessions, and opens and closes existing sessions. The Session layer also keeps track of computer naming conventions, such as calling your computer SYSTEM01 or some other type of name that makes more sense than an IP or MAC address.

Figure 2.37 • OSI updated

Try This! See Your Sessions

How many sessions does a typical system have run- ning at one time? Well, if you have a TCP/IP network (and who doesn’t these days), you can run the netstat program from a command prompt to see all of them. Open a com- mand prompt and type the following:

netstat -a

Then press the enter key to see your sessions. Don’t worry about trying to inter- pret what you see—Chapter 9 covers netstat in detail. For now, simply appreciate that each line in the netstat output is a session. Count them!

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Standardized Formats, or Why Layer 6, Presentation, Has No Friends One of the most powerful aspects of a network lies in the fact that it works with (almost) any operating system. Today’s networks easily connect, for

example, a Macintosh system to a Windows PC, despite the fact that these different operating sys- tems use different formats for many types of data. Different data formats used to drive us crazy back in the days before word processors (like Micro- soft Word) could import or export a thousand other word processor formats (Figure 2.38).

This issue motivated folks to create stan- dardized formats that anyone—at least with the right program—could read from any type of computer. Specialized file formats, such as Adobe’s popular Portable Document Format (PDF) for documents and PostScript for print- ing, provide standard formats that any system, regardless of operating system, can read, write, and edit ( Figure 2.39).

Figure 2.39 • Everyone recognizes PDF files!

Layer 6, the Presentation layer of the OSI seven-layer model, handles the conversion of data into formats that are readable by the system. Of all the OSI layers, the high level of file format standardization has made the Presentation layer the least important and least used (Figure 2.40).

Figure 2.38 • Different data formats were often unreadable between systems.

Tech Tip

Acrobat as Open Standard Adobe released the PDF standard to ISO in 2007 and PDF became the ISO 32000 open standard. Adobe Reader remains the premier application for reading PDF documents. Note that Adobe seems to be phasing out the Acrobat branding of PDF documents, but many techs still call PDF “Adobe Acrobat format.”

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Figure 2.40 • OSI updated

Network Applications—Layer 7, the Application Layer The last and most visible part of any network is the software applications that use it. If you want to copy a file residing on another system in your net- work, you need an application like Network in Windows 7 (or My Network Places in earlier versions of Windows) that enables you to access files on remote systems. If you want to view Web pages, you need a Web browser like Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. The people who use a network experience it through an application. A user who knows nothing about all the other parts of a network may still know how to open an e-mail applica- tion to retrieve mail (Figure 2.41).

Figure 2.41 • Network applications at work

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Applications may include a number of additional functions, such as encryption, user authentication, and tools to control the look of the data. But these functions are specific to the given applications. In other words, if you want to put a password on your Word document, you must use the password functions in Word to do so.

The Application layer is Layer 7 in the OSI seven-layer model. Keep in mind that the Application layer doesn’t refer to the applications themselves. It refers to the code built into all operating systems that enables network- aware applications. All operating systems have Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that programmers can use to make their programs network aware (Figure 2.42). An API, in general, provides a standard way for pro- grammers to enhance or extend an application’s capabilities.

Figure 2.42 • OSI updated

The TCP/IP Model■■ The OSI model was developed as a reaction to a world of hundreds, if not thousands, of different protocols made by different manufacturers that needed to play together. The ISO declared the OSI seven-layer model as the tool for manufacturers of networking equipment to find common ground between multiple protocols, enabling them to create standards for interop- erability of networking software and hardware.

The OSI model is extremely popular and very well-known to all net- working techs. Today’s world, however, is a TCP/IP world. The complexity of the OSI model doesn’t make sense in a world with one protocol suite. Given its dominance, the aptly named TCP/IP model shares equal popular- ity with the venerable OSI model.

The TCP/IP model consists of four layers:

Application ■

Transport ■

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Internet ■

Link/Network Interface ■

It’s important to appreciate that the TCP/IP model doesn’t have a standards body to define the layers. Because of this, there are a surprising number of variations on the TCP/IP model.

A great example of this lack of standardization is the Link layer. Without a standardizing body, we can’t even agree on the name. While “Link layer” is extremely common, the term “Network Interface layer” is equally popular. A good tech knows both of these terms and understands that they are interchangeable. Notice also that, unlike the OSI model, the TCP/IP model does not identify each layer with a number.

CompTIA has chosen one popular version of the TCP/IP model for the CompTIA Network+ competencies and exam. That’s the version you’ll learn right here. It’s concise, having only four layers, and many important companies, like Cisco and Microsoft, use it, although with a few varia- tions in names as just described. The TCP/IP model gives each protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite a clear home in one of the four layers.

The clarity of the TCP/IP model shows the flaws in the OSI model. The OSI model couldn’t perfectly describe all the TCP/IP protocols. In fact, the OSI model couldn’t perfectly describe any of the now defunct alternative protocols, such as IPX/SPX and NetBIOS/NetBEUI. Network nerds have gotten into fistfights over a particular protocol’s exact location in the OSI model.

The TCP/IP model fixes this ambiguity, at least for TCP/IP. Because of its tight protocol-to-layer integration, the TCP/IP model is a descriptive model, whereas the OSI seven-layer model is a prescriptive model.

The Link Layer The TCP/IP model lumps together the OSI model’s Layer 1 and Layer 2 into a single layer called the Link layer (or Network Interface layer), as seen in Figure 2.43. It’s not that the Physical and Data Link layers are unimportant to TCP/IP, but the TCP/ IP protocol suite really begins at Layer 3 of the OSI model. In essence, TCP/IP techs count on other techs to handle the physical connections in their networks. All of the pieces that you learned in the OSI model (cabling, hubs, physical addresses, and NICs) sit squarely in the Link layer.

A nice way to separate layers in the TCP/IP model is to think about packets and frames. Any part of the network that deals with complete frames is in the Link layer. The moment the frame information is stripped away from an IP packet, we move out of the Link layer and into the Internet layer.

Transport

Internet

Link

Transport

Session

Presentation Application

Application

Network

Data Link

Physical

Figure 2.43 • TCP/IP Link layer compared to OSI Layers 1 and 2

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The Internet Layer The Internet layer should really be called the “IP packet” layer (Figure 2.44). Any device or protocol that deals with pure IP packets—getting an IP packet to its destination—sits in the Internet layer. IP addressing itself is also part of the Internet layer, as are routers and the magic they perform to get IP packets to the next router. IP packets are created at this layer.

The Internet layer doesn’t care about the type of data an IP packet carries, nor does it care whether the data gets there in good order or not. Those jobs are for the next layer: the Transport layer.

The Transport Layer The Transport layer combines features of the OSI Transport and Session layers with a dash of Appli- cation layer just for flavor (Figure 2.45). While the TCP/IP model is certainly involved with the assem- bly and disassembly of data, it also defines other functions, such as connection-oriented and connec- tionless communication.

Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless Communication Some protocols, like the popular Post Office Protocol (POP) used for sending e-mail messages, require that the e-mail client and server verify that they have a good connection before a message is sent (Figure 2.46). This makes sense because you don’t want your e-mail message to be a corrupted mess when it arrives.

Figure 2.46 • Connection between e-mail client and server

Application

Transport

Link

Internet

Session

Transport

Application

Presentation

Data Link

Physical

Network

Figure 2.44 • TCP/IP Internet layer compared to OSI Layer 3

Transport

Session

Application

Link

Transport

Application

Presentation

Data Link

Physical

Network Internet

Figure 2.45 • TCP/IP Transport layer compared to OSI Layers 4, 5, and part of 7

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Chapter 2: Network Models 35

Alternatively, a number of TCP/IP protocols simply send data without first waiting to verify that the receiving system is ready (Figure 2.47). When using Voice over IP (VoIP), for example, the call is made without verifying first whether another device is there.

Figure 2.47 • Connectionless communication

The connection-oriented protocol is called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The connectionless protocol is called User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Everything you can do on the Internet, from Web browsing to Skype phone calls to playing World of Warcraft, is predetermined to be either connection-oriented or connectionless. It’s simply a matter of knowing your applications.

Segments Within Packets To see the Transport layer in action, strip away the IP addresses from an IP packet. What’s left is a chunk of data in yet another container called a TCP segment. TCP segments have many other fields that ensure the data gets to its destination in good order. These fields have names such as Checksum, Flags, and Acknowledgement. Chapter 7 goes into more detail on TCP seg- ments, but, for now, just know that TCP segments have fields that ensure the connection-oriented communication works properly. Figure 2.48 shows a typical (although simplified) TCP segment.

Destination port

Source port

Sequence number

Checksum Flags Acknowledgement Data

Figure 2.48 • TCP segment

Data comes from the Application layer applications. The Transport layer breaks that data into chunks, adding port numbers and sequence numbers, creating the TCP segment. The Transport layer then hands the TCP segment to the Internet layer that, in turn, creates the IP packet.

Most traffic on a TCP/IP network uses TCP at the Transport layer, but like Yoda said, “There is another,” and that’s UDP. UDP also gets data from

Chapter 7 covers TCP, UDP, and all sorts of other protocols in detail.

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the Application layer programs and adds port and sequencing numbers to create a container called a UDP datagram. A UDP datagram lacks most of the extra fields found in TCP segments, simply because UDP doesn’t care if the receiving computer gets its data. Figure 2.49 shows a UDP datagram.

Destination port

Source port

Sequence number

Checksum Data

Figure 2.49 • UDP datagram

The Application Layer The TCP/IP Application layer combines features of the top three layers of the OSI model (Figure 2.50). Every application, especially connection- oriented applications, must know how to initiate, control, and disconnect from a remote system. No single method exists for doing this. Each TCP/IP application uses its own method.

Transport

Internet

Link

Transport

Session

Presentation Application

Application

Network

Data Link

Physical

Figure 2.50 • TCP/IP Application layer compared to OSI layers 5–7

TCP/IP uses a unique port numbering system that gives each applica- tion a unique number between 1 and 65535. Some of these port numbers are very famous. The protocol that makes Web pages work, HTTP, uses port 80, for example.

Although we can say that the OSI model’s Presentation layer fits inside the TCP/IP model’s Application layer, no application requires any particu- lar form of presentation as seen in the OSI model. Standard formats are part and parcel with TCP/IP protocols. For example, all e-mail messages use an extremely strict format called MIME. All e-mail servers and clients read MIME without exception.

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Chapter 2: Network Models 37

In the OSI model, we describe the API—the smarts that make applica- tions network-aware—as being part of the Application layer. While this is still true for the TCP/IP model, all applications designed for TCP/IP are, by definition, network-aware. There is no such thing as a “TCP/IP word pro- cessor” or a “TCP/IP image editor” that requires the added ability to know how to talk to a network—all TCP/IP applications can talk to the network, as long as they are part of a network. And every TCP/IP application must be a part of a network to function: Web browsers, e-mail clients, multiplayer games, and so on.

Don’t think that the TCP/IP model is any simpler than the OSI model just because it only uses four layers. With the arguable exception of the Pre- sentation layer, everything you saw in the OSI model is also found in the TCP/IP model (Figure 2.51).

Transport

Internet

Link

Transport

Session

Presentation Application

Application

Network

Data Link

Physical

I work at the Application layer.

And, not surprisingly, the other Application

layer.

I work on both of the Transport layers.

Figure 2.51 • OSI model and TCP/IP model side by side

Frames, Packets, and Segments, Oh My! The TCP/IP model shows its power in its ability to describe what happens at each layer to the data that goes from one computer to another. The Application layer programs create the data. The Transport layer breaks the data into chunks, putting those chunks into TCP segments or UDP datagrams. The Internet layer adds the IP addressing and creates the IP packets. The Link layer wraps the IP packet into a frame, with the MAC address information and a frame check sequence (FCS). Now the data is ready to hit the wire (or airwaves, if you’re in a café). Figure 2-52 shows all this encapsulating goodness relative to the TCP/IP model.

Application data

Segment/ datagram

Packet

FrameIP Packet

Segment

Header Data

Data

Header

Header

Figure 2.52 • Data encapsulation in TCP/IP

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For the exam, remember at what layer each encapsulation happens. Table 2.1 shows the layers and the corresponding data structure.

Table 2.1 TCP/IP Model Layers and Corresponding Data Structures TCP/IP Model Layer Data Structure

Link Frame

Internet IP packet

Transport TCP segment/UDP datagram Application (The data starts and ends here)

The Tech’s Troubleshooting Tool The OSI seven-layer model and TCP/IP model provide you with a way to conceptualize a network to determine what could cause a specific prob- lem when the inevitable problems occur. Good techs always use a model to troubleshoot their networks.

If Jane can’t print to the networked printer, for example, a model can help solve the problem. If her NIC shows activity, then, using the OSI model, you can set aside both the Physical layer (Layer 1) and Data Link layer (Layer 2). If you’re a TCP/IP model tech, you can look at the same symptoms and eliminate the Link layer. In either case, you’ll find yourself moving up the layer ladder to the OSI model’s Network layer (Layer 3) or the TCP/IP model’s Internet layer. If her computer has a proper IP address, then you can set that layer aside too, and you can move on up to check other layers to solve the problem.

Understanding both the OSI and TCP/IP models is important. Sure, they’re on the CompTIA Network+ exam, but more importantly, they are your primary diagnostic tool for troubleshooting networks and a commu- nication tool for talking to your fellow techs.

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39 Chapter 2: Network Models

Chapter 2 Review■■

Chapter Summary ■

After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, you should understand the following about networking.

Describe how models such as the OSI seven-layer model and the TCP/IP model help technicians understand and troubleshoot networks

Modeling is critical to the networking world. You ■ use models to understand and communicate with other techs about networks.

All models are a simplified representation of the ■ real thing. The human model ignores the many different types of body shapes, using only a single “optimal” figure. The model airplane lacks functional engines or the internal framework, and the computerized weather model might disregard subtle differences in wind temperatures or geology.

In the early days of networking, different ■ manufacturers made unique types of networks that functioned fairly well. But each network had its own cabling, hardware, drivers, naming conventions, applications, and many other unique features. To interconnect networks and improve networking as a whole, someone needed to create a guide—a model that described the functions of a network—so people who made hardware and software could work together to make networks that worked together well.

The OSI seven-layer model defines the role played ■ by each protocol. The OSI model also provides a common jargon that network techs can use to describe the function of any network protocol.

The TCP/IP four-layer model applies only to ■ networks that use the TCP/IP protocol suite, such as the Internet.

Explain the major functions of networks with the OSI seven-layer model.

OSI Layer 1, the Physical layer, includes anything ■ that moves data from one system to another, such as cabling or radio waves.

OSI Layer 2, the Data Link layer, defines the rules ■ for accessing and using the Physical layer. The

Data Link layer is divided into two sublayers: Media Access Control (MAC) and Logical Link Control (LLC).

The MAC sublayer controls access to the Physical ■ layer, or shared media. It encapsulates (creates the frames for) data sent from the system, adding source and destination MAC addresses and error-checking information; it also decapsulates (removes the MAC addresses and CRC from) data received by the system.

The LLC sublayer provides an interface with ■ the Network layer protocols. It is responsible for the ordered delivery of frames, including retransmission of missing or corrupt packets, and for flow control (moderating data flow so one system doesn’t overwhelm the other). Any device that deals with a MAC address is part of the Data Link layer.

OSI Layer 3, the Network layer, is the last layer to ■ work directly with hardware. It adds the unique identifiers (such as IP addresses) to the packets that enable routers to make sure the packets get to the correct system without worrying about the type of hardware used for transmission. Anything having to do with logical addressing works at the Network layer.

A network protocol creates unique identifiers ■ for each system and also creates a set of communication rules for issues such as how to handle data chopped up into multiple packets and how to make sure those packets get from one subnet to another.

OSI Layer 4, the Transport layer, breaks up data ■ received from the upper layers into smaller pieces for transport and adds sequencing numbers to make sure the receiving computer can reassemble the data properly.

Session software at OSI Layer 5 handles the ■ process of differentiating between various types of connections on a PC. The Session layer initiates sessions, accepts incoming sessions, and opens and closes existing sessions. You can use the netstat program to view existing sessions.

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OSI Layer 6, the Presentation layer, presents ■ data from the sending system in a form that the applications on the receiving system can understand. Standardized data formats, such as PDF, enable computers running on different platforms to share data across a network; the result is that the Presentation layer is the least important and least used of the seven layers.

OSI Layer 7, the Application layer, defines a set of ■ tools that programs can use to access the network. Application layer programs provide services to the programs that the users see.

Describe the major functions of networks with the TCP/IP model

The TCP/IP Link layer (or Network Interface ■ layer) covers the first two layers of the OSI model—the physical components like hubs and cables as well as network frames.

The TCP/IP Internet layer works just like the OSI ■ model’s Network layer. Anything involved with IP, including packets, addressing, and routing, happens at this layer.

The TCP/IP Transport layer is similar to the OSI ■ model’s Transport layer, except that the TCP/ IP version differentiates between connection- oriented communication and connectionless communication.

In TCP/IP, the Transport layer takes data from ■ the applications, splits the data into chunks called TCP segments or UDP datagrams, depending on the protocol used, and adds port and sequence numbers. The segments and datagrams get handed down to the Internet layer for IP to further encapsulate the data.

The TCP/IP Application layer combines the top ■ three layers of the OSI model into one super layer. The session component works similarly to the OSI model’s Session layer. There is no presentation component that compares to the OSI model’s Presentation layer, however. The TCP/IP Application layer is like the OSI model’s version, except that TCP/IP connectivity is implied and not a separate program or function.

Key Terms ■

Application layer (32) broadcast address (18) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) (17) Data Link layer (21) device ID (15) frame (16) frame check sequence (FCS) (17) hub (13) Internet layer (34) Internet Protocol (23, 24) IP address (24) Link layer (33) logical address (24) Logical Link Control (LLC) (21) MAC address (15) Media Access Control (MAC) (21) network interface card (14) Network Interface layer (33) Network layer, Layer 3 (24) network protocol (23)

NIC (14) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer

model (8) organizationally unique identifier (OUI) (15) packet (25) physical address (15) Physical layer (14) Presentation layer (30) protocols (11) router (24) Session layer (29) session software (29) subnets (23) TCP segment (35) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) (23) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

(TCP/IP) model (8) Transport layer (28) UDP datagram (36) unshielded twisted pair (UTP) (13) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) (35)

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41 Chapter 2: Network Models

Key Term Quiz ■

Use the Key Terms list to complete the sentences that follow. Not all terms will be used.

The _______________ is an example of software 1. that creates packets for moving data across networks.

Most often, the _______________ provides the 2. physical connection between the PC and the network.

Using the _______________ enables a computer 3. to send a packet that every other PC on the network will process.

You can connect two very different networks by 4. using a(n) _______________.

Every NIC has a hard-coded identifier called a(n) 5. _______________.

The _______________ provides an excellent tool 6. for conceptualizing how a TCP/IP network works. (Select the best answer.)

On a sending machine, data gets broken up 7. at the _______________ of the OSI seven-layer model.

NICs encapsulate data into a(n) _______________ 8. for sending that data over a network.

A(n) _______________ enables multiple machines 9. to connect over a network.

The _______________ provides the key interface 10. between the Physical and Network layers.

Multiple-Choice Quiz ■

Which of the following OSI layers converts the 1. ones and zeroes to electrical signals and places these signals on the cable?

Physical layerA.

Transport layerB.

Network layerC.

Data Link layerD.

The term “unshielded twisted pair” describes 2. which of the following network components?

CableA.

HubB.

RouterC.

NICD.

From the options that follow, select the one 3. that best describes the contents of a typical (simplified) network frame.

Sender’s MAC address, recipient’s MAC A. address, data, FCS

Recipient’s MAC address, sender’s MAC B. address, data, FCS

Recipient’s IP address, sender’s IP address, C. data, FCS

Recipient’s e-mail address, sender’s e-mail D. address, data, FCS

Which of the following is most likely to be a 4. MAC address assigned to a NIC?

192.168.1.121A.

24.17.232.7BB.

23.4F.17.8A.4C.10C.

713.555.1212D.

Which layer of the TCP/IP model involves 5. routing?

Link layerA.

Transport layerB.

Internet layerC.

Application layerD.

How much data can a typical frame contain?6.

500 bytesA.

1500 bytesB.

1500 kilobytesC.

1 megabyteD.

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Which of the following best describes an IP 7. address?

A unique dotted decimal notation burned A. into every NIC

A unique 48-bit identifying number burned B. into every NIC

A dotted decimal notation assigned to a NIC C. by software

A 48-bit identifying number assigned to a D. NIC by software

Which layer of the OSI model makes sure the 8. data is in a readable format for the Application layer?

Application layerA.

Presentation layerB.

Session layerC.

Transport layerD.

At which layer of the TCP/IP model are UDP 9. datagrams created?

Link/Network InterfaceA.

InternetB.

TransportC.

ApplicationD.

Which protocol creates the final IP packet?10.

NICA.

IPB.

TCPC.

UDPD.

Which TCP/IP layer includes Layers 5–7 from 11. the OSI seven-layer model?

Application layerA.

Transport layerB.

Internet layerC.

Link layerD.

What component of Layer 2 of the OSI seven-12. layer model is responsible for the ordered delivery of frames, including retransmission of missing or corrupt packets?

MAC sublayerA.

LLC sublayerB.

CRC sublayerC.

Data Link sublayerD.

Which components work at Layer 1 of the OSI 13. seven-layer model? (Select two.)

CablesA.

HubB.

Network protocolC.

Session softwareD.

Andalyn says complete 48-bit MAC addresses 14. are allocated to NIC manufacturers from the IEEE. Buster says the IEEE only assigns the first 24 bits to manufacturers. Carlos says the IEEE assigns only the last 24 bits to manufacturers. Who is correct?

Only Andalyn is correct.A.

Only Buster is correct.B.

Only Carlos is correct.C.

No one is correct.D.

If a sending system does not know the MAC 15. address of the intended recipient system, it sends a broadcast frame with what MAC address?

192.168.0.0A.

FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FFB.

11-11-11-11-11-11C.

00-00-00-00-00-00D.

Essay Quiz ■ Some new techs at your office are confused by 1. the differences between a NIC’s frame and an IP packet. Write a short essay describing the two encapsulations, including the components that do the encapsulating.

Your boss has received a set of files with the file 2. extension .WP and is worried because he’s never seen that extension before. He wants people to have access to the information in those files from anywhere in the network. Write a short memo describing how Microsoft Word can handle these files, including a discussion of how that fits with the OSI seven-layer model.

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43 Chapter 2: Network Models

Lab Projects

Lab Project 2.1 •

Examine your classroom network. What components does it have? How would you classify those components according to the OSI seven-layer model?

Lab Projects

Lab Project 2.2 •

Create a mnemonic phrase to help you remember the OSI seven-layer model. With two layers beginning with the letter P, how will you differentiate in your mnemonic between Presentation and Physical? How will you incorporate the two sublayers of the Data Link layer?

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3 chapter Cabling and Topology

“It’s from someone who says

she’s a fan of my work on low-

dimensional topology. And she’s

a fan of my . . . hair.”

—Charlie eppes, Numb3rs

In this chapter, you will learn how to

Explain the different types of ■■ network topologies

Describe the different types of ■■ network cabling

Describe the IEEE networking ■■ standards

Every network must provide some method to get data from one system to another. In most cases, this method consists of some type of cabling (usually copper or fiber-optic) running between systems, although many

networks skip wires and use wireless methods to move data. Stringing those

cables brings up a number of critical issues you need to understand to work on a

network. How do all these cables connect the computers? Does every computer

on the network run a cable to a central point? Does a single cable snake through

the ceiling, with all the computers on the network connected to it? These

questions need answering! Furthermore, manufacturers need standards so they

can make networking equipment that works well together. While we’re talking

about standards, what about the cabling itself? What type of cable? What

quality of copper? How thick should it be? Who defines the standards for cables

so they all work in the network?

This chapter answers these questions in three parts. First, you will learn

about network topology—the way that cables and other pieces of hardware

connect to one another. Second, you will tour the most common standardized

cable types used in networking. Third, you will discover the IEEE committees

that create network technology standards.

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Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology 45

Test Specific

Topology■■ Computer networks employ many different topologies, or ways of connect- ing computers together. This section looks at both the historical topologies— bus, ring, and star—and the modern topologies—hybrid, mesh, point-to- multipoint, and point-to-point.

Bus and Ring The first generation of wired networks used one of two topologies, both shown in Figure 3.1. A bus topology uses a single cable that con- nects all of the computers in a line. A ring topology connects all computers on the network with a ring of cable.

Note that topologies are diagrams, much like an electrical circuit diagram. Real network cabling doesn’t go in perfect circles or perfect straight lines. Figure 3.2 shows a bus topology network that illustrates how the cable might appear in the real world.

Data flows differently between bus and ring networks, creating different problems and solutions. In bus topol- ogy networks, data from each computer simply goes out on the whole bus. A network using a bus topology needs termination at each end of the cable to prevent a signal sent from one com- puter from reflecting at the ends of the cable, quickly bringing the network down (Figure 3.3).

Figure 3.1 • Bus and ring topologies

Figure 3.2 • Real-world bus topology

Figure 3.3 • Terminated bus topology

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In a ring topology network, in contrast, data traffic moves in a circle from one computer to the next in the same direction (Figure 3.4). With no end to the cable, ring networks require no termination.

Bus and ring topology networks work well but suffer from the same problem: the entire network stops working if the cable breaks at any point. The broken ends on a bus topology network aren’t terminated, causing reflection between computers that are still connected. A break in a ring topology network simply breaks the circuit, stopping the data flow ( Figure 3.5).

Figure 3.4 • Ring topology moving in a certain direction Figure 3.5 • Nobody is talking!

Star The star topology uses a central connection box for all the computers on the network (Figure 3.6). Star topol- ogy has a huge benefit over ring and bus topologies by offering fault tolerance—if one of the cables breaks, all of the other computers can still communicate. Bus and ring topology networks were popular and inex- pensive to implement, however, so the old-style star topology networks weren’t very successful. Network hardware designers couldn’t easily redesign their existing networks to use a star topology.

Figure 3.6 • Star topology

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Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology 47

Hybrids Even though network designers couldn’t easily use a star topology, the benefits of star topologies were overwhelming, motivating smart people to come up with a way to use star topologies without requiring a major redesign—and the way they did so was ingenious. The ring topology net- work designers struck first by taking the entire ring and shrinking it into a small box, as shown in Figure 3.7.

This was quickly followed by the bus topology folks who, in turn, shrunk their bus (better known as the segment) into their own box ( Figure 3.8).

Figure 3.7 • Shrinking the ring

The most successful of the star ring topology networks was called Token Ring, manufactured by IBM.

Figure 3.8 • Shrinking the segment

Physically, they looked like a star, but if you examined it as an electronic schematic, the signals acted like a ring or a bus. Clearly the old definition of topology needed a little clarification. When we talk about topology today, we separate how the cables physically look (the physical topology) from how the signals travel electronically (the signaling topology or logical topology).

Any form of networking technology that combines a physical topology with a signaling topology is called a hybrid topology. Hybrid topologies have come and gone since the earliest days of networking. Only two hybrid topologies, star-ring topology and star-bus topology, ever saw any amount of popularity. Eventually star-ring lost market share, and star-bus reigned as the undisputed king of topologies.

Mesh and Point-to-Multipoint Topologies aren’t just for wired networks. Wireless networks also need topologies to get data from one machine to another, but using radio waves instead of cables involves somewhat different topologies. Almost all wire- less networks use one of two different topologies: a mesh topology or a point-to-multipoint topology (Figure 3.9).

Most techs refer to the signaling topology as the logical topology today. That’s how you’ll see it on the CompTIA Network+ exam as well.

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Figure 3.9 • Mesh and point-to-multipoint topologies

Mesh In a mesh topology network, every computer connects to every other com- puter via two or more routes. Some of the routes between two computers may require traversing through another member of the mesh network.

There are two types of meshed topologies: partially meshed and fully meshed (Figure 3.10). In a partially meshed topology network, at least two machines have redundant connections. Every machine doesn’t have to con- nect to every other machine. In a fully meshed topology network, every com- puter connects directly to every other computer.

Figure 3.10 • Partially and fully meshed topologies

If you’re looking at Figure 3.10 and thinking that a mesh topology looks amazingly resilient and robust, it is—at least on paper. Because every

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Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology 49

computer connects to every other computer on the fully meshed network, even if half the PCs crash, the network still functions as well as ever (for the survivors). In a practical sense, however, implementing a fully meshed topology for a wired network would be an expensive mess. Even a tiny fully meshed network with 10 PCs, for example, would need 45 separate and distinct pieces of cable to connect every PC to every other PC. What a mesh mess! Because of this, mesh topologies have never been practical for a wired network.

Make sure you know the formula to calculate the number of connec- tions needed to create a fully meshed network, given a certain number of computers. Here’s the formula:

y = number of computers

Number of connections = y(y – 1)/2

So, if you have six computers, you need 6(6 – 1)/2 = 30/2 = 15 connections to create a fully meshed network.

Point-to-Multipoint In a point-to-multipoint topology, a single system acts as a common source through which all members of the point-to-multipoint network converse. If you compare a star topology to a slightly rearranged point-to-multipoint topology, you might be tempted to say they’re the same thing. Granted, they’re similar, but look at Figure 3.11. See what’s in the middle? The subtle but important difference is that a point-to-multipoint topology requires an intelligent device in the center, whereas the device in the center of a star topology has little more to do than send or provide a path for a signal down all the connections.

Figure 3.11 • Comparing star and point-to-multipoint topologies

You’ll sometimes find mesh or point-to-multipoint topology used in wired networks, but they’re rare. These two topologies are far more com- monly seen in wireless networks.

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Point-to-Point In a point-to-point topology network, two computers connect directly together with no need for a central device of any kind. You’ll find point-to-point topologies implemented in both wired and wireless networks (Figure 3.12).

Parameters of a Topology Although a topology describes the method by which systems in a network connect, the topology alone doesn’t describe all of the features necessary to enable those networks. The term bus topology, for example, describes a net- work that consists of some number of machines connected to the network via a single linear piece of cable. Notice that this definition leaves a lot of questions unanswered. What is the cable made of? How long can it be? How do the machines decide which machine should send data at a specific moment? A network based on a bus topology can answer these questions in a number of different ways—but it’s not the job of the topology to define issues like these. A functioning network needs a more detailed standard.

Over the years, particular manufacturers and standards bodies have created several specific network technologies based on different topologies. A network technology is a practical application of a topology and other criti- cal technologies that provides a method to get data from one computer to another on a network. These network technologies have names like 10BaseT, 1000BaseF, and 10GBaseLX. You will learn all about these in the next two chapters.

Cabling■■ The majority of networked systems link together using some type of cabling. Different types of networks over the years have used a number of different types of cables—and you need to learn about all these cables to succeed on the CompTIA Network+ exam! This section explores both the cabling types used in older networks and those found in today’s networks.

All cables used in the networking industry can be categorized in three distinct groups: coaxial (coax), twisted pair, and fiber-optic. Let’s look at all three.

Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable contains a central conductor wire surrounded by an insulating material, which, in turn, is surrounded by a braided metal shield. The cable is referred to as coaxial (coax for short) because the center wire and the braided metal shield share a common axis or centerline (Figure 3.13).

Coaxial cable shields data transmissions from electromag- netic interference (EMI). Many devices in the typical office environment generate magnetic fields, including lights, fans,

Figure 3.12 • Point-to-point topology

Make sure you know all your topologies: bus, ring, star, hybrid, mesh, point-to- multipoint, and point-to-point.

Figure 3.13 • Cutaway view of coaxial cable

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copy machines, and refrigerators. When a metal wire encounters these magnetic fields, electrical current is generated along the wire. This extra current—EMI—can shut down a network because it is easily misinterpreted as a signal by devices like NICs. To prevent EMI from affecting the network, the outer mesh layer of a coaxial cable shields the center wire (on which the data is transmitted) from interference (Figure 3.14).

Early bus topology networks used coaxial cable to connect computers together. Back in the day, the most popular cable used special bayonet-style connectors called BNC connectors (Figure 3.15). Even earlier bus networks used thick cable that required vampire connections—sometimes called vampire taps—that literally pierced the cable.

Figure 3.14 • Coaxial cable showing braided metal shielding

Figure 3.15 • BNC connector on coaxial cable

You’ll find coaxial cable used today primarily to enable a cable modem to connect to an Internet service provider (ISP). Connecting a computer to the cable modem enables that computer to access the Internet. This cable is the same type used to connect televisions to cable boxes or to satellite receivers. These cables use an F-connector that screws on, making for a secure connec- tion (Figure 3.16).

Figure 3.16 • F-type connector on coaxial cable

Coaxial cabling is also very popular with satellite, over-the- air antennas, and even some home video devices. This book covers cable and other Internet connectivity options in great detail in Chapter 14.

Tech Tip

What’s in a Name? Techs all around the globe argue over the meaning of BNC. A solid percentage says with authority that it stands for “British Naval Connector.” An opposing percentage says with equal authority that it stands for “Bayonet Neill-Concelman,” after the stick-and-twist style of connecting and the purported inventors of the connector. The jury is still out, though this week I’m leaning toward Neill and Concelman and their bayonet- style connector.

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Cable modems connect using either RG-6 or, rarely, RG-59. RG-59 was used primarily for cable television rather than networking. Its thinness and the introduction of digital cable motivated the move to the more robust RG-6, the predominant cabling used today (Figure 3.17).

All coax cables have a Radio Grade (RG) rating. The U.S. military devel- oped these ratings to provide a quick reference for the different types of coax. The only important measure of coax cabling is its Ohm rating, a relative measure of the resistance (or more precisely, characteristic impedance) on the cable. You may run across other coax cables that don’t have acceptable Ohm ratings, although they look just like network-rated coax. Fortunately, most coax cable types display their Ohm ratings on the cables themselves (see Figure 3.18). Both RG-6 and RG-59 cables are rated at 75 Ohms.

The Ohm rating of a particular piece of cable describes the impedance of that cable. Impedance describes a set of characteristics that define how much a cable resists the flow of electricity. This isn’t simple resistance, though. Impedance also factors in things like how long it takes the wire to get a full charge—the wire’s capacitance—and more.

Figure 3.17 • RG-6 cable Figure 3.18 • Ohm rating (on an older, RG-58 cable used for networking)

Given the popularity of cable for television and Internet in homes today, you’ll run into situations where people need to take a single coaxial cable and split it. Coaxial handles this quite nicely with coaxial splitters like the one shown in Figure 3.19. You can also connect two coaxial cables together easily using a barrel connector when you need to add some distance to a connection (Figure 3.20).

Figure 3.19 • Coaxial splitter Figure 3.20 • Barrel connector

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Twisted Pair The most common type of cabling used in networks consists of twisted pairs of cables, bundled together into a common jacket. Twisted-pair cabling for networks is composed of multiple pairs of wires, twisted around each other at specific intervals. The twists reduce interference, called crosstalk: the more twists, the less crosstalk. Networks use two types of twisted-pair cabling: shielded twisted pair and unshielded twisted pair.

Shielded Twisted Pair Shielded twisted pair (STP), as its name implies, consists of twisted pairs of wires surrounded by shielding to protect them from EMI. STP is pretty rare, primarily because there’s so little need for STP’s shielding. The shielding only really matters in locations with excessive electronic noise, such as a shop floor with lots of lights, electric motors, or other machin- ery that could cause problems for other cables. Figure 3.21 shows the most common STP type: the venerable IBM Type 1 cable used in Token Ring network technology.

Unshielded Twisted Pair Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is by far the most common type of network cabling used today. UTP consists of twisted pairs of wires surrounded by a plastic jacket (Figure 3.22). This jacket does not provide any protection from EMI, so when install- ing UTP cabling, you must be careful to avoid interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and so forth. UTP costs much less than STP but, in most cases, performs just as well.

Although more sensitive to interference than coaxial or STP cable, UTP cabling provides an inexpensive and flexible means to cable networks. UTP cable isn’t exclusive to networks. Many other technologies (such as telephone systems) employ the same cabling. This makes working with UTP a bit of a challenge. Imagine going up into a ceil- ing and seeing two sets of UTP cables: how would you determine which is for the telephones and which is for the network? Not to worry—a number of installation standards and tools exist to help those who work with UTP answer these types of questions.

Have you ever picked up a telephone and heard a distinct crackling noise? That’s an example of crosstalk.

Figure 3.21 • Shielded twisted pair

Figure 3.22 • Unshielded twisted pair

Cross Check OSI Seven-Layer and TCP/IP Model

You’ve seen UTP cabling before when Dana accessed documents on Janelle’s PC at MHTechEd. Refer to Chapter 2, and cross-check your memory. At what layer of the OSI seven-layer model would you put UTP cabling? For that matter, at what layer would you put network topology? How about on the TCP/IP model?

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Not all UTP cables are the same! UTP cabling has a number of varia- tions, such as the number of twists per foot. To help network installers get the right cable for the right network technology, the cabling industry has developed a variety of grades called category (CAT) ratings. CAT ratings are officially rated in megahertz (MHz), indicating the highest frequency the cable can handle. Table 3.1 shows the most common categories along with their status with the TIA/EIA (see the Tech Tip for more information).

Table 3.1 CAT Ratings for UTP CAT Rating Max Frequency Max Bandwidth Status with TIA/EIA

CAT 1 < 1 MHz Analog phone lines only

No longer recognized

CAT 2 4 MHz 4 Mbps No longer recognized

CAT 3 16 MHz 16 Mbps Recognized

CAT 4 20 MHz 20 Mbps No longer recognized

CAT 5 100 MHz 100 Mbps No longer recognized

CAT 5e 100 MHz 1000 Mbps Recognized CAT 6 250 MHz 10000 Mbps Recognized

UTP cables are rated to handle a certain frequency or cycles per second, such as 100 MHz or 1000 MHz. You could take the frequency number in the early days of networking and translate that into the maximum throughput for a cable. Each cycle per second (or hertz) basically accounted for one bit of data per second. A 10 million cycle per second (10 MHz) cable, for example, could handle 10 million bits per second (10 Mbps). The maximum amount of data that goes through the cable per second is called the bandwidth.

For current networks, developers have implemented bandwidth-efficient encoding schemes, which means they can squeeze more bits into the same signal as long as the cable can handle it. Thus, the CAT 5e cable can handle a throughput of up to 1000 Mbps, even though it’s rated to handle a fre- quency of only up to 100 MHz.

Because most networks can run at speeds of up to 1000 MHz, most new cabling installations use Category 5e (CAT 5e) cabling, although a large number of installations use CAT 6 to future-proof the network. CAT 5e cabling currently costs much less than CAT 6, although as CAT 6 gains

in popularity, it’s slowly drop- ping in price.

Make sure you can look at UTP and know its CAT rating. There are two places to look. First, UTP is typically sold in boxed reels, and the manufacturer will clearly mark the CAT level on the box (Figure 3.23). Second, look on the cable itself. The category level of a piece of cable is usually printed on the cable (Figure 3.24).

The CompTIA Network+ exam is only interested in CAT 3, CAT 5, CAT 5e, and CAT 6 cables.

Tech Tip

Industry Standards Bodies Several international groups set the standards for cabling and networking in general. Ready for alphabet soup? At or near the top is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is both the official U.S. representative to the ISO and a major international player. ANSI checks the standards and accredits other groups, such as the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA). The TIA and EIA together set the standards for UTP cabling, among many other things.

Try This! Shopping Spree!

Just how common has CAT 6 become in your neighborhood? Take a run down to your local hardware store or office supply store and shop for UTP cabling. Do they carry CAT 6? CAT 5? CAT 7? What’s the dif- ference in price? If it’s not much more expensive to go with the better cable, the expected shift in networking standards has occurred and you might want to upgrade your network.

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Anyone who’s plugged in a telephone has probably already dealt with the registered jack (RJ) connectors used with UTP cable. Telephones use RJ-11 connectors, designed to support up to two pairs of wires. Networks use the four-pair RJ-45 connectors (Figure 3.25).

Fiber-Optic Fiber-optic cable transmits light rather than electricity, making it attractive for both high-EMI areas and long-distance transmissions. Whereas a sin- gle copper cable cannot carry data more than a few hundred meters at best, a single piece of fiber-optic cabling will operate, depending on the implementation, for distances of up to tens of kilometers. A fiber-optic cable has four components: the glass fiber itself (the core); the cladding, which is the part that makes the light reflect down the fiber; buffer material to give strength, and the insulating jacket (Figure 3.26).

Fiber-optic cabling is manufactured with many different diameters of core and cladding. In a convenient bit of standardization, cable manufacturers use a two- number designator to define fiber-optic cables according to their core and cladding measurements. The most common fiber-optic cable size is 62.5/125 µm. Almost all network technologies that use fiber-optic cable require

Figure 3.23 • CAT level marked on box of UTP

Figure 3.24 • CAT level on UTP

Figure 3.25 • RJ-11 (left) and RJ-45 (right) connectors

Figure 3.26 • Cross section of fiber-optic cabling

Tech Tip

CAT 6a If you have a need for speed, the latest finalized update to the venerable UTP cable is Category 6a. This update doubles the bandwidth of CAT 6 to 500 MHz to accommodate 10-Gbps speeds up to 100 meters. Take that, fiber! (The 100-meter limitation, by the way, refers to the Ethernet standard, the major implementation of UTP in the networking world. Chapter 4 covers Ethernet in great detail.)

Other standards are in the works, however, so by the time you read this paragraph, CAT 6a might be old news. CAT 7 (600 MHz), CAT 7a (1000 MHz), and CAT 8 (1200 MHz) are just around the corner.

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pairs of fibers. One fiber is used for sending, the other for receiving. In response to the demand for two-pair cabling, manufacturers often con- nect two fibers together like a lamp cord to create the popular duplex fiber-optic cabling (Figure 3.27).

Fiber cables are pretty tiny! Light can be sent down a fiber-optic cable as regular light or as laser light. The two types of light require totally different fiber-optic cables. Most network technologies that use fiber optics use LEDs (light emitting diodes) to send light signals. A fiber-optic cable that uses LEDs is known as multimode fiber (MMF).

A fiber-optic cable that uses lasers is known as single- mode fiber (SMF). Using laser light and single-mode fiber- optic cables prevents a problem unique to multimode fiber optics called modal distortion (signals sent at the same time don’t arrive at the same time because the paths differ slightly in length) and enables a network to achieve phenomenally high transfer rates over incredibly long distances.

Fiber optics also define the wavelength of light used, measured in nanometers (nm). Almost all multimode cables transmit 850-nm wavelengths, whereas single-mode trans- mits either 1310 or 1550 nm, depending on the laser.

Fiber-optic cables come in a broad choice of connector types. There are over one hundred different connectors, but the three you need to know for the CompTIA Net- work+ exam are ST, SC, and LC (Figure 3.28). LC is unique because it is a duplex connector, designed to accept two fiber cables.

Figure 3.28 • From left to right: ST, SC, and LC fiber-optic connectors

Other Cables Fiber-optic and UTP make up almost all network cabling, but a few other types of cabling may serve from time to time as alternatives to these two: the ancient serial and parallel cables from the earliest days of PCs and the modern high-speed serial connection, better known as FireWire. These cables are only used with quick-and-dirty temporary connections, but they do work, so they bear at least a quick mention.

For those of you unfamiliar with it, the odd little u-shaped symbol describing fiber cable size (µ) stands for micro, or 1/1,000,000.

Figure 3.27 • Duplex fiber-optic cable

Tech Tip

What’s in a Name? Most technicians call common fiber-optic connectors by their initials—such as ST, SC, or LC—perhaps because there’s no consensus about what words go with those initials. ST probably stands for straight tip, although some call it snap twist. But SC and LC? How about subscriber connector, standard connector, or Siemon connector for the former, and local connector or Lucent connector for the latter?

If you want to remember the connectors for the exam, try these: stick and twist for the bayonet- style ST connectors; stick and click for the straight push-in SC connectors; and little connector for the . . . little . . . LC connector.

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Classic Serial Serial cabling predates both networking and the personal com- puter. RS-232, the recommended standard (RS) upon which all serial communication takes place on your PC, dates from 1969 and hasn’t substantially changed in around 40 years. When IBM invented the PC way back in 1980, serial connections were just about the only standard input/output technology available, so IBM included two serial ports on every PC. The most common serial port is a 9-pin, male D-subminiature (or DB-9) connector, as shown in Figure 3.29.

Serial ports offer a poor option for networking, with very slow data rates—only about 56,000 bps—and only point-to-point con- nections. In all probability, copying something on a flash drive and just walking over to the other system is faster, but serial network- ing does work if needed. Serial ports are quickly fading away, however, and you no longer see them on new PCs.

Parallel Parallel connections are as ancient as serial ports. Parallel can run up to around 2 Mbps, although when used for networking, they tend to be much slower. Parallel is also limited to point-to-point topology but uses a 25-pin female—rather than male—DB type connector (Figure 3.30). The IEEE 1284 committee sets the standards for parallel communication. (See the section “Networking Industry Standards—IEEE,” later in this chapter.)

FireWire FireWire (based on the IEEE 1394 standard) is the only viable alternative cabling option to fiber-optic or UTP. FireWire is also restricted to point-to- point connections, but it’s very fast (currently the standard is up to 800 Mbps). FireWire has its own unique connector (Figure 3.31).

Figure 3.31 • FireWire connector

Figure 3.29 • Serial port

Figure 3.30 • Parallel connector

Concentrate on UTP—that’s where the hardest CompTIA Network+ exam questions come into play. Don’t forget to give coax, STP, and fiber-optic a quick pass, and make sure you understand the reasons for picking one type of cabling over another. Even though the CompTIA Network+ exam does not test too hard on cabling, this is important information that you will use in the real networking world.

You cannot network computers using FireWire in Windows Vista or Windows 7.

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Fire Ratings Did you ever see the movie The Towering Inferno? Don’t worry if you missed it—The Towering Inferno was one of the better disaster movies of the 1970s, although it was no Airplane! Anyway, Steve McQueen stars as the fireman who saves the day when a skyscraper goes up in flames because of poor-quality electrical cabling. The burning insulation on the wires ultimately spreads the fire to every part of the building. Although no cables made today contain truly flammable insulation, the insulation is made from plastic, and if you get any plastic hot enough, it will create smoke and noxious fumes. The risk of burning insulation isn’t fire—it’s smoke and fumes.

To reduce the risk of your network cables burning and creating nox- ious fumes and smoke, Underwriters Laboratories and the National Elec- trical Code (NEC) joined forces to develop cabling fire ratings. The two most common fire ratings are PVC and plenum. Cable with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) rating has no significant fire protection. If you burn a PVC cable, it creates lots of smoke and noxious fumes. Burning plenum-rated cable creates much less smoke and fumes, but plenum-rated cable—often referred to simply as “plenum”—costs about three to five times as much as PVC-rated cable. Most city ordinances require the use of plenum cable for network installations. The bottom line? Get plenum!

The space between the acoustical tile ceiling in an office building and the actual concrete ceiling above is called the plenum—hence the name for the proper fire rating of cabling to use in that space. A third type of fire rating, known as riser, designates the proper cabling to use for vertical runs between floors of a building. Riser-rated cable provides less protec- tion than plenum cable, though, so most installations today use plenum for runs between floors.

Networking Industry ■■ Standards—IEEE

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defines industry- wide standards that promote the use and implementation of technol- ogy. In February 1980, a new committee called the 802 Working Group took over from the private sector the job of defining network standards. The IEEE 802 committee defines frames, speeds, distances, and types of cabling to use in a network environment. Concentrating on cables, the IEEE recognizes that no single cabling solution can work in all situations and, therefore, provides a variety of cabling standards.

IEEE committees define standards for a wide variety of electronics. The names of these committees are often used to refer to the standards they publish. The IEEE 1284 committee, for example, sets standards for parallel communication. Have you ever seen a printer cable marked “IEEE

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1284–compliant,” as in Figure 3.32? This means the manufacturer followed the rules set by the IEEE 1284 committee. Another committee you may have heard of is the IEEE 1394 committee, which controls the FireWire standard.

The IEEE 802 committee sets the standards for net- working. Although the original plan was to define a single, universal standard for networking, it quickly became apparent that no single solution would work for all needs. The 802 committee split into smaller subcommittees, with names such as IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.5. Table 3.2 shows the currently recog- nized IEEE 802 subcommittees and their areas of jurisdiction. I’ve included the inactive subcommittees for reference. The missing numbers, such as 802.4 and 802.12, were used for committees long-ago disbanded. Each sub- committee is officially called a Working Group, except the few listed as a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) in the table.

Some of these committees deal with technologies that didn’t quite make it, and the committees associated with those standards, such as IEEE 802.4, Token Bus, have become dormant. When preparing for the CompTIA Network+ exam, concentrate on the IEEE 802.3 and 802.11 stan- dards. You will see these again in later chapters.

Table 3.2 IEEE 802 Subcommittees IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Overview & Architecture

IEEE 802.1 Higher Layer LAN Protocols

802.1s Multiple Spanning Trees

802.1 Rapid Reconfiguration of Spanning Tree

802.1x Port Based Network Access Control

IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC); now inactive

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet

802.3ae 10 Gigabit Ethernet

IEEE 802.5 Token Ring; now inactive

IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN); specifications, such as Wi-Fi

IEEE 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)

IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access (BWA); specifications for implementing Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (Wireless MANs); referred to also as WiMAX

IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)

IEEE 802.18 Radio Regulatory Technical Advisory Group

IEEE 802.19 Coexistence Technical Advisory Group

IEEE 802.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA)

IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover IEEE 802.22 Wireless Regional Area Networks

Memorize the 802.3 and 802.11 standards. Ignore the rest.

Fire Ratings Did you ever see the movie The Towering Inferno? Don’t worry if you missed it—The Towering Inferno was one of the better disaster movies of the 1970s, although it was no Airplane! Anyway, Steve McQueen stars as the fireman who saves the day when a skyscraper goes up in flames because of poor-quality electrical cabling. The burning insulation on the wires ultimately spreads the fire to every part of the building. Although no cables made today contain truly flammable insulation, the insulation is made from plastic, and if you get any plastic hot enough, it will create smoke and noxious fumes. The risk of burning insulation isn’t fire—it’s smoke and fumes.

To reduce the risk of your network cables burning and creating nox- ious fumes and smoke, Underwriters Laboratories and the National Elec- trical Code (NEC) joined forces to develop cabling fire ratings. The two most common fire ratings are PVC and plenum. Cable with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) rating has no significant fire protection. If you burn a PVC cable, it creates lots of smoke and noxious fumes. Burning plenum-rated cable creates much less smoke and fumes, but plenum-rated cable—often referred to simply as “plenum”—costs about three to five times as much as PVC-rated cable. Most city ordinances require the use of plenum cable for network installations. The bottom line? Get plenum!

The space between the acoustical tile ceiling in an office building and the actual concrete ceiling above is called the plenum—hence the name for the proper fire rating of cabling to use in that space. A third type of fire rating, known as riser, designates the proper cabling to use for vertical runs between floors of a building. Riser-rated cable provides less protec- tion than plenum cable, though, so most installations today use plenum for runs between floors.

Networking Industry ■■ Standards—IEEE

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defines industry- wide standards that promote the use and implementation of technol- ogy. In February 1980, a new committee called the 802 Working Group took over from the private sector the job of defining network standards. The IEEE 802 committee defines frames, speeds, distances, and types of cabling to use in a network environment. Concentrating on cables, the IEEE recognizes that no single cabling solution can work in all situations and, therefore, provides a variety of cabling standards.

IEEE committees define standards for a wide variety of electronics. The names of these committees are often used to refer to the standards they publish. The IEEE 1284 committee, for example, sets standards for parallel communication. Have you ever seen a printer cable marked “IEEE

Figure 3.32 • Parallel cable marked IEEE 1284–compliant

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Chapter 3 Review■■

Chapter Summary ■

After reading this chapter and completing the exer- cises, you should understand the following about cabling and topology.

Explain the different types of network topologies

A network’s ■ topology describes how computers connect to each other in that network. The most common network topologies are called bus, ring, star, and mesh.

In a bus topology, all computers connect to ■ the network via a main line. The cable must be terminated at both ends to prevent signal reflections.

In a ring topology, all computers on the network ■ attach to a ring of cable. A single break in the cable stops the flow of data through the entire network.

In a star topology, the computers on the network ■ connect to a central wiring point, which provides fault tolerance.

Modern networks use one of two hybrid ■ topologies: star-bus or star-ring. Star-bus is overwhelmingly the most common topology used today.

In a mesh topology, each computer has a ■ dedicated line to every other computer. Mesh networks can be further categorized as partially meshed or fully meshed, both of which require a significant amount of physical cable. Network techs are able to determine the amount of cable segments needed with a mathematical formula.

In a point-to-multipoint topology, a single ■ system acts as a common source through which all members of the network converse.

Mesh and point-to-multipoint topologies are ■ common among wireless networks.

In a point-to-point topology, two computers ■ connect directly together.

Describe the different types of network cabling

Coaxial cable, or coax, shields data transmissions ■ from EMI. Coax was widely used in early bus networks and used BNC connectors. Today, coax is used mainly to connect a cable modem to an ISP.

Coax cables have an RG rating, with RG-6 being ■ the predominant coax today.

Twisted pair, which comes shielded or ■ unshielded, is the most common type of networking cable today. UTP is less expensive and more popular than STP, though it doesn’t offer any protection from EMI.

UTP is categorized by its CAT rating, with ■ CAT 5, CAT 5e, and CAT 6 being the most commonly used today.

Telephones use RJ-11 connectors, whereas UTP ■ uses RJ-45 connectors.

Fiber-optic cabling transmits light instead of the ■ electricity used in CAT cable or coax. It is thin and more expensive, yet less flexible and more delicate, than other types of network cabling.

There are two types of fiber-optic cable based ■ on what type of light is used. LEDs require multimode cable, whereas lasers generally require single-mode cable.

All fiber-optic cable has three parts: the fiber ■ itself; the cladding, which covers the fiber and helps it reflect down the fiber; and the outer insulating jacket. Additionally, there are over one hundred types of connectors for fiber-optic cable, but ST, SC, and LC are the most common for computer networking.

Plenum-rated UTP is required by most cities for ■ network installations.

Serial cables adhering to the RS-232 standard ■ and parallel cables adhering to the IEEE-1284 standard may be used to network two computers

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directly together. You can also use IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connections for direct connection, although not with Windows Vista or Windows 7.

Describe the IEEE networking standards

Networking standards are established and ■ promoted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

The IEEE 802 committee defines frames, ■ speeds, distances, and types of cabling to use in networks. IEEE 802 is split into several subcommittees, including IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11.

The IEEE 1284 committee defines the standards ■ for parallel communications, whereas the IEEE 1394 committee defines the standards for FireWire High-Performance Serial Bus.

Key Terms ■

bandwidth (54) BNC connectors (51) bus topology (45) category (CAT) ratings (54) cladding (55) coaxial cable (50) core (55) crosstalk (53) electromagnetic interference (EMI) (50) fault tolerance (46) fiber-optic cable (55) fully meshed topology (48) hybrid topology (47) IEEE 1284 (57) IEEE 1394 (57) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

(IEEE) (58) insulating jacket (55) logical topology (47) mesh topology (48) modal distortion (56) multimode fiber (MMF) (56)

network topology (44) Ohm rating (52) partially meshed topology (48) physical topology (47) plenum (58) point-to-multipoint topology (49) point-to-point topology (50) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (58) Radio Grade (RG) rating (52) ring topology (45) riser (58) RJ-11 (55) RJ-45 (55) RS-232 (57) segment (47) shielded twisted pair (STP) (53) signaling topology (47) single-mode fiber (SMF) (56) star-bus topology (47) star-ring topology (47) star topology (46) unshielded twisted pair (UTP) (53)

Key Term Quiz ■ Use the Key Terms list to complete the sentences that follow. Not all terms will be used.

The _______________ is a network topology that 1. relies on a main line of network coaxial cabling.

The _______________ of a cable will determine 2. its speed.

A(n) _______________ provides more fault 3. tolerance than any other basic network topology.

When your network has all computers connected 4. to a centrally located wiring closet, you have a physical _______________ network.

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_______________ networks use more than one 5. type of basic network topology.

CAT 5e cable is a type of _______________ 6. wiring.

Coaxial cable uses a braided metal shield to 7. protect data from _______________.

Network cabling can use either light or electricity 8. to transmit data. The faster of these types uses light along _______________.

_______________-grade UTP must be installed 9. in ceilings, whereas _______________-grade UTP is often used to connect one floor to another vertically in a building.

The twisting of the cables in UTP and STP 10. reduces _______________.

Multiple-Choice Quiz ■

Which of the following are standard network 1. topologies? (Select three.)

BusA.

StarB.

RingC.

Dual-ringD.

John was carrying on at the water cooler the 2. other day, trying to show off his knowledge of networking. He claimed that the company had installed special cabling to handle the problems of crosstalk on the network. What kind of cabling did the company install?

CoaxialA.

Shielded coaxialB.

Unshielded twisted pairC.

Fiber-opticD.

Jill needs to run some UTP cable from one 3. office to another. She found a box of cable in the closet and wants to make sure it’s CAT 5 or better. How can she tell the CAT level of the cable? (Select two.)

Check the box.A.

Scan for markings on the cable.B.

Check the color of the cable—gray means C. CAT 5, yellow means CAT 6e, and so on.

Check the ends of the cable.D.

What topology provides the most fault 4. tolerance?

BusA.

RingB.

Star-busC.

MeshD.

What organization is responsible for 5. establishing and promoting networking standards?

Institute of Electrical and Electronics A. Engineers (IEEE)

International Networking Standards B. Organization (INSO)

Federal Communications Commission C. (FCC)

International Telecommunications D. Association (ITA)

What aspects of network cabling do the IEEE 6. committees establish? (Select three.)

Frame sizeA.

SpeedB.

Color of sheathingC.

Cable typesD.

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63 Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology

What types of coax cabling have been used in 7. computer networking? (Select three.)

RG-8A.

RG-45B.

RG-58C.

RG-62D.

What applications are best suited for fiber-8. optic cabling? (Select two.)

Short distancesA.

Wireless networksB.

High-EMI areasC.

Long distancesD.

What are the main components of fiber-optic 9. cabling? (Select three.)

CladdingA.

Insulating jacketB.

Copper coreC.

FiberD.

What is the most popular size fiber-optic 10. cabling?

62.5/125 µmA.

125/62.5 µmB.

50/125 µmC.

125/50 µmD.

Most fiber-optic installations use LEDs to send 11. light signals and are known as what?

Single-modeA.

MultimodeB.

Complex modeC.

Duplex modeD.

Why must the main cable in a bus topology be 12. terminated at both ends?

To allow the signal to be amplified so it can A. reach both ends of the network

To prevent the signal from dropping off the B. network before reaching all computers

To prevent the signal from bouncing back C. and forth

To convert the signal to the proper format D. for a bus network

Where are you most likely to encounter a mesh 13. network?

On any network using fiber-optic cableA.

On any network using plenum cableB.

On wireless networksC.

On wired networksD.

You are asked by your boss to research 14. upgrading all the network cable in your office building. The building manager requires the safest possible cabling type in case of fire, and your boss wants to future- proof the network so cabling doesn’t need to be replaced when network technologies faster than 1 Gbps are available. You decide to use CAT 5e plenum cabling throughout the building. Which objective have you satisfied?

Neither the building manager’s nor your A. boss’s requirements have been met.

Only the building manager’s requirement B. has been met.

Only your boss’s requirement has C. been met.

Both the building manager’s and your D. boss’s requirements have been met.

Which committee is responsible for wireless 15. networking standards?

IEEE 802.2A.

IEEE 802.3B.

IEEE 802.5C.

IEEE 802.11D.

64 Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks

/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Chapter 3

Lab Project 3.1 •

Lab ProjectsLab Projects

This lab project requires you to demonstrate knowledge of the four basic network topologies. Obtain four blank pieces of paper. Proceed to draw six boxes on each page to represent six computers—neatness counts!

At the top of each sheet, write one of the following: bus topology, mesh topology, ring topology, or star topology. Then draw lines to represent the physical network cabling required by each network topology.

Lab Project 3.2 •

In your studies of network cabling for the CompTIA Network+ certification exam, you realize you could use a simplified chart to study from and memorize. Build a reference study chart that describes the features of

network cabling. Create your completed chart using a spreadsheet program, or simply a sheet of paper, with the column headings and names shown in the following table. If you wish, you can start by writing your notes here.

Essay Quiz ■ You work in the computer training department 1. at your company. A newly developed mobile training program is being planned. The plan requires setting up five training computers in a particular department you use to train on weekly. Write a short essay that describes which network topology would be quickest to set up and tear down for this type of onsite training.

Your boss has decided to have cable run to 2. every computer in the office, but doesn’t know which type to use. In an effort to help bring the company into the 21st century, write a short

essay comparing the merits of UTP and fiber- optic cabling.

The NICs on your company’s computers all 3. have dual 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps capability, yet users complain that the network is slow. Write a brief essay that explains what could be the cause of the problem.

Your company has hired a group of new 4. network techs, and you’ve been tasked to do their training session on networking standards organizations. Write a brief essay detailing the IEEE and its various committees.

BaseTech

65 Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology

Cable Type Description Benefits Drawbacks

CAT 5

CAT 5e

CAT 6

Fiber-optic

Lab Project 3.3 •

In this lab project, you will demonstrate knowledge of the different IEEE committees that are most prevalent today. Use the Internet to research each of these subcommittees:

IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.5, and IEEE 802.11. Give an example of where each type of technology might best be used.

4 chapter

66

/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Chapter 4

Ethernet Basics

“In theory there is no difference

between theory and practice. In

practice there is.”

—Yogi Berra

In this chapter, you will learn how to

Define and describe Ethernet■■

Explain early Ethernet ■■ implementations

Describe ways to extend and ■■ enhance Ethernet networks

In the beginning, there were no networks. Computers were isolated, solitary islands of information in a teeming sea of proto-geeks who used clubs and wore fur pocket protectors. Okay, maybe it wasn’t that bad, but if you wanted to

move a file from one machine to another—and proto-geeks were as much into

that as modern geeks—you had to use Sneakernet, which meant you saved the

file on a disk, laced up your tennis shoes, and hiked over to the other system.

All that walking no doubt produced lots of health benefits, but frankly, proto-

geeks weren’t all that into health benefits—they were into speed, power, and

technological coolness in general. (Sound familiar?) It’s no wonder, then, that

geeks everywhere agreed on the need to replace Sneakernet with a faster and

more efficient method of sharing data. The method they came up with is the

subject of this chapter.

Categories
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attendance at​ orlando’s newest disneylike​ attraction, lego​ world, has been as​ follows:

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-413042-2 ISBN-10: 0-13-413042-1

9 780134 130422

9 0 0 0 0

OPER ATIONS MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

TWELFTH EDITION

O PER

A T

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S M A

N A

G E

M E

N T

Su stain

ability an d

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TWELFTH EDITION

JAY HEIZER | BARRY RENDER | CHUCK MUNSON

HEIZER RENDER MUNSON

www.pearsonhighered.com

IMPROVING RESULTS A proven way to help individual students achieve

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T W E L F T H E D I T I O N

O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

HEIZER J A Y

RENDER B A R R Y

Jesse H. Jones Professor of Business Administration Texas Lutheran University

Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management Graduate School of Business Rollins College

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

C H U C K

MUNSON Professor of Operations Management Carson College of Business Washington State University

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Heizer, Jay. [Production and operations management] Operations management; sustainability and supply chain management / Jay Heizer, Jesse H. Jones Professor of Business Administration, Texas Lutheran University, Barry Render, Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management, Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Chuck Munson, Professor of Operations Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University. — Twelfth edition. pages cm Original edition published under the Title: Production and operations management. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-13-413042-2 — ISBN 0-13-413042-1 1. Production management. I. Render, Barry. II. Munson, Chuck. III. Title. TS155.H3725 2015 658.5–dc23 2015036857

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-413042-1

ISBN 13: 978-0-13-413042-2

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To Karen Heizer Herrmann, all a sister could ever be

To Donna, Charlie, and Jesse

J.H.

B.R.

To Kim, Christopher, and Mark Munson for their unwavering support, and to Bentonville High School teachers Velma Reed and Cheryl Gregory,

who instilled in me the importance of detail and a love of learning C.M.

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ABOUT THE A U T H O R S

JAY HEIZER

BARRY RENDER

Professor Emeritus, the Jesse H. Jones Chair of Business Administration, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, Texas. He received his B.B.A. and M.B.A. from the University of North Texas and his Ph.D. in Management and Statistics from Arizona State University. He was previously a member of the faculty at the University of Memphis, the University of Oklahoma, Virginia Commonwealth University, and the University of Richmond. He has also held visiting positions at Boston University, George Mason University, the Czech Management Center, and the Otto-Von-Guericke University, Magdeburg.

Dr. Heizer’s industrial experience is extensive. He learned the practical side of operations management as a machinist apprentice at Foringer and Company, as a production planner for Westinghouse Airbrake, and at General Dynamics, where he worked in engineering administration. In addition, he has been actively involved in consulting in the OM and MIS areas for a variety of organizations, includ- ing Philip Morris, Firestone, Dixie Container Corporation, Columbia Industries, and Tenneco. He holds the CPIM certification from APICS—the Association for Operations Management.

Professor Heizer has co-authored 5 books and has published more than 30 arti- cles on a variety of management topics. His papers have appeared in the Academy of Management Journal , Journal of Purchasing , Personnel Psychology , Production & Inventory Control Management , APICS—The Performance Advantage , Journal of Management History , IIE Solutions, and Engineering Management , among others. He has taught operations management courses in undergraduate, graduate, and executive programs.

Professor Emeritus, the Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management, Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. He received his B.S. in Mathematics and Physics at Roosevelt University, and his M.S. in Operations Research and Ph.D. in Quantitative Analysis at the University of Cincinnati. He previously taught at George Washington University, University of New Orleans, Boston University, and George Mason University, where he held the Mason Foundation Professorship in Decision Sciences and was Chair of the Decision Sciences Department. Dr. Render has also worked in the aerospace indus- try for General Electric, McDonnell Douglas, and NASA.

Professor Render has co-authored 10 textbooks for Pearson, including Managerial Decision Modeling with Spreadsheets , Quantitative Analysis for Management , Service Management , Introduction to Management Science , and Cases and Readings in Management Science . Quantitative Analysis for Management, now in its 13th edition, is a leading text in that discipline in the United States and globally. Dr.  Render’s more than 100 articles on a variety of management topics have appeared in Decision Sciences , Production and Operations Management , Interfaces , Information and Management , Journal of Management Information Systems , Socio-Economic Planning Sciences , IIE Solutions , and Operations Management Review , among others.

Dr. Render has been honored as an AACSB Fellow and was twice named a Senior Fulbright Scholar. He was Vice President of the Decision Science Institute Southeast Region and served as Software Review Editor for Decision Line for six years and as Editor of the New York Times Operations Management special issues for five years. For nine years, Dr. Render was President of Management Service Associates of Virginia, Inc., whose technology clients included the FBI, NASA, the U.S. Navy, Fairfax County, Virginia, and C&P Telephone. He is currently Consulting Editor to Pearson Press .

Dr. Render has received Rollins College’s Welsh Award as leading Professor and was selected by Roosevelt University as the recipient of the St. Claire Drake Award for Outstanding Scholarship. Dr. Render also received the Rollins College MBA Student Award for Best Overall Course, and was named Professor of the Year by full-time MBA students.

vi

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Professor of Operations Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. He received his BSBA summa cum laude in finance, along with his MSBA and Ph.D. in operations management, from Washington University in St. Louis. For two years, he served as Associate Dean for Graduate Programs in Business at Washington State. He also worked for three years as a financial analyst for Contel Telephone Corporation.

Professor Munson serves as a senior editor for Production and Operations Management , and he serves on the editorial review board of four other journals . He has published more than 25 articles in such journals as Production and Operations Management , IIE Transactions, Decision Sciences , Naval Research Logistics , European Journal of Operational Research , Journal of the Operational Research Society , and Annals of Operations Research. He is editor of the book The Supply Chain Management Casebook: Comprehensive Coverage and Best Practices in SCM , and he has co-authored the research monograph Quantity Discounts: An Overview and Practical Guide for Buyers and Sellers . He is also coauthor of Managerial Decision Modeling with Spreadsheets (4th edition), published by Pearson.

Dr. Munson has taught operations management core and elective courses at the undergraduate, MBA, and Ph.D. levels at Washington State University. He has also conducted several teaching workshops at international conferences and for Ph.D. students at Washington State University. His major awards include being a Founding Board Member of the Washington State University President’s Teaching Academy (2004); winning the WSU College of Business Outstanding Teaching Award (2001 and 2015), Research Award (2004), and Service Award (2009 and 2013); and being named the WSU MBA Professor of the Year (2000 and 2008).

CHUCK MUNSON

ABOUT THE AUTHORS vii

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PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management 1

Chapter 1 Operations and Productivity 1 Chapter 2 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment 29 Chapter 3 Project Management 59 Chapter 4 Forecasting 105

PART TWO Designing Operations 159

Chapter 5 Design of Goods and Services 159 ◆ Supplement 5 Sustainability in the Supply Chain 193

Chapter 6 Managing Quality 213 ◆ Supplement 6 Statistical Process Control 245

Chapter 7 Process Strategy 279 ◆ Supplement 7 Capacity and Constraint Management 307

Chapter 8 Location Strategies 337 Chapter 9 Layout Strategies 367 Chapter 10 Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement 407

PART THREE Managing Operations 441

Chapter 11 Supply Chain Management 441 ◆ Supplement 11 Supply Chain Management Analytics 471

Chapter 12 Inventory Management 487 Chapter 13 Aggregate Planning and S&OP 529 Chapter 14 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP 563 Chapter 15 Short-Term Scheduling 599 Chapter 16 Lean Operations 635 Chapter 17 Maintenance and Reliability 659

PART FOUR Business Analytics Modules 677

Module A Decision-Making Tools 677 Module B Linear Programming 699 Module C Transportation Models 729 Module D Waiting-Line Models 747 Module E Learning Curves 775 Module F Simulation 791

ONLINE TUTORIALS

1. Statistical Tools for Managers T1-1 2. Acceptance Sampling T2-1 3. The Simplex Method of Linear Programming T3-1 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Transportation Problems T4-1 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling T5-1

Brief Table of Contents

ix

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Table of Contents

About the Authors vi Preface xxiii

Chapter 1 Operations and Productivity 1

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: HARD ROCK CAFE 2 What Is Operations Management? 4 Organizing to Produce Goods and Services 4 The Supply Chain 6 Why Study OM? 6 What Operations Managers Do 7 The Heritage of Operations Management 8 Operations for Goods and Services 11

Growth of Services 11

Service Pay 12

The Productivity Challenge 13 Productivity Measurement 14

Productivity Variables 15

Productivity and the Service Sector 17

Current Challenges in Operations Management 18 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 19 Summary 20 Key Terms 20 Ethical Dilemma 20 Discussion Questions 20 Using Software for Productivity Analysis 21 Solved Problems 21 Problems 22 CASE STUDIES 24

Uber Technologies, Inc. 24

Frito-Lay: Operations Management in Manufacturing Video Case 25

Hard Rock Cafe: Operations Management in Services Video Case 25

Endnotes 26 Rapid Review 27 Self Test 28

Chapter 2 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment 29

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: BOEING 30 A Global View of Operations and Supply

Chains 32 Cultural and Ethical Issues 35

Developing Missions and Strategies 35 Mission 36

Strategy 36

Achieving Competitive Advantage Through Operations 36 Competing on Diff erentiation 37

Competing on Cost 38

Competing on Response 39

Issues in Operations Strategy 40 Strategy Development and Implementation 41

Key Success Factors and Core Competencies 41

Integrating OM with Other Activities 43

Building and Staffi ng the Organization 43

Implementing the 10 Strategic OM Decisions 44

Strategic Planning, Core Competencies, and Outsourcing 44 The Theory of Comparative Advantage 46

Risks of Outsourcing 46

Rating Outsource Providers 47

Global Operations Strategy Options 49 Summary 50 Key Terms 50 Ethical Dilemma 51 Discussion Questions 51 Using Software to Solve Outsourcing

Problems 51 Solved Problems 52 Problems 53 CASE STUDIES 55

Rapid-Lube 55

Strategy at Regal Marine Video Case 55

Hard Rock Cafe’s Global Strategy Video Case 55

Outsourcing Off shore at Darden Video Case 56

Endnotes 56 Rapid Review 57 Self Test 58

Chapter 3 Project Management 59

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: BECHTEL GROUP 60 The Importance of Project Management 62

PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management 1

xi

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xii TABLE OF CONTENTS

Project Planning 62 The Project Manager 63

Work Breakdown Structure 64

Project Scheduling 65 Project Controlling 66 Project Management Techniques: PERT and CPM 67

The Framework of PERT and CPM 67

Network Diagrams and Approaches 68

Activity-on-Node Example 69

Activity-on-Arrow Example 71

Determining the Project Schedule 71 Forward Pass 72

Backward Pass 74

Calculating Slack Time and Identifying the Critical Path(s) 75

Variability in Activity Times 77 Three Time Estimates in PERT 77

Probability of Project Completion 79

Cost-Time Trade-Off s and Project Crashing 82 A Critique of PERT and CPM 85 Using Microsoft Project to Manage Projects 86 Summary 88 Key Terms 88 Ethical Dilemma 89 Discussion Questions 89 Using Software to Solve Project Management

Problems 89 Solved Problems 90 Problems 93 CASE STUDIES 98

Southwestern University: (A) 98

Project Management at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 99

Managing Hard Rock’s Rockfest Video Case 100

Endnotes 102 Rapid Review 103 Self Test 104

Chapter 4 Forecasting 105

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: WALT DISNEY PARKS & RESORTS 106

What is Forecasting? 108 Forecasting Time Horizons 108

Types of Forecasts 109

The Strategic Importance of Forecasting 109 Supply-Chain Management 109

Human Resources 110

Capacity 110

Seven Steps in the Forecasting System 110 Forecasting Approaches 111

Overview of Qualitative Method 111

Overview of Quantitative Methods 112

Time-Series Forecasting 112 Decomposition of a Time Series 112

Naive Approach 113

Moving Averages 114

Exponential Smoothing 116

Measuring Forecast Error 117

Exponential Smoothing with Trend Adjustment 120

Trend Projections 124

Seasonal Variations in Data 126

Cyclical Variations in Data 131

Associative Forecasting Methods: Regression and Correlation Analysis 131 Using Regression Analysis for Forecasting 131

Standard Error of the Estimate 133

Correlation Coeffi cients for Regression Lines 134

Multiple-Regression Analysis 136

Monitoring and Controlling Forecasts 138 Adaptive Smoothing 139

Focus Forecasting 139

Forecasting in the Service Sector 140 Summary 141 Key Terms 141 Ethical Dilemma 141 Discussion Questions 142 Using Software in Forecasting 142 Solved Problems 144 Problems 146 CASE STUDIES 153

Southwestern University: (B) 153

Forecasting Ticket Revenue for Orlando Magic Basketball Games Video Case 154

Forecasting at Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 155

Endnotes 156 Rapid Review 157 Self Test 158

PART TWO Designing Operations 159

Chapter 5 Design of Goods and Services 159

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: REGAL MARINE 160 Goods and Services Selection 162

Product Strategy Options Support Competitive Advantage 163

Product Life Cycles 164

Life Cycle and Strategy 164

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii

Product-by-Value Analysis 165

Generating New Products 165 Product Development 166

Product Development System 166

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 166

Organizing for Product Development 169

Manufacturability and Value Engineering 170

Issues for Product Design 171 Robust Design 171

Modular Design 171

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) 171

Virtual Reality Technology 172

Value Analysis 173

Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 173

Product Development Continuum 173 Purchasing Technology by Acquiring a Firm 174

Joint Ventures 174

Alliances 175

Defi ning a Product 175 Make-or-Buy Decisions 176

Group Technology 177

Documents for Production 178 Product Life-Cycle Management (PLM) 178

Service Design 179 Process–Chain–Network (PCN) Analysis 179

Adding Service Effi ciency 181

Documents for Services 181

Application of Decision Trees to Product Design 182

Transition to Production 184 Summary 184 Key Terms 185 Ethical Dilemma 185 Discussion Questions 185 Solved Problem 186 Problems 186 CASE STUDIES 189

De Mar’s Product Strategy 189

Product Design at Regal Marine Video Case 189

Endnotes 190 Rapid Review 191 Self Test 192

Supplement 5 Sustainability in the Supply Chain 193

Corporate Social Responsibility 194 Sustainability 195

Systems View 195

Commons 195

Triple Bottom Line 195

Design and Production for Sustainability 198 Product Design 198

Production Process 200

Logistics 200

End-of-Life Phase 203

Regulations and Industry Standards 203 International Environmental Policies and Standards 204

Summary 205 Key Terms 205 Discussion Questions 205 Solved Problems 206 Problems 207 CASE STUDIES 208

Building Sustainability at the Orlando Magic’s Amway Center Video Case 208

Green Manufacturing and Sustainability at Frito-Lay Video Case 209

Endnotes 210 Rapid Review 211 Self Test 212

Chapter 6 Managing Quality 213

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ARNOLD PALMER HOSPITAL 214

Quality and Strategy 216 Defi ning Quality 217

Implications of Quality 217

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award 218

ISO 9000 International Quality Standards 218

Cost of Quality (COQ) 218

Ethics and Quality Management 219

Total Quality Management 219 Continuous Improvement 220

Six Sigma 221

Employee Empowerment 222

Benchmarking 222

Just-in-Time (JIT) 224

Taguchi Concepts 224

Knowledge of TQM Tools 225

Tools of TQM 226 Check Sheets 226

Scatter Diagrams 227

Cause-and-Eff ect Diagrams 227

Pareto Charts 227

Flowcharts 228

Histograms 229

Statistical Process Control (SPC) 229

The Role of Inspection 230 When and Where to Inspect 230

Source Inspection 231

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xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS

Service Industry Inspection 232

Inspection of Attributes versus Variables 233

TQM in Services 233 Summary 235 Key Terms 235 Ethical Dilemma 235 Discussion Questions 236 Solved Problems 236 Problems 237 CASE STUDIES 239

Southwestern University: (C) 239

The Culture of Quality at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 240

Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines Video Case 240

Quality at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company Video Case 242

Endnotes 242 Rapid Review 243 Self Test 244

Supplement 6 Statistical Process Control 245

Statistical Process Control (SPC) 246 Control Charts for Variables 248

The Central Limit Theorem 248

Setting Mean Chart Limits ( x -Charts) 250

Setting Range Chart Limits ( R-Charts) 253

Using Mean and Range Charts 254

Control Charts for Attributes 256

Managerial Issues and Control Charts 259

Process Capability 260 Process Capability Ratio ( C p ) 260

Process Capability Index ( C pk ) 261

Acceptance Sampling 262 Operating Characteristic Curve 263

Average Outgoing Quality 264

Summary 265 Key Terms 265 Discussion Questions 265 Using Software for SPC 266 Solved Problems 267 Problems 269 CASE STUDIES 274

Bayfi eld Mud Company 274

Frito-Lay’s Quality-Controlled Potato Chips Video Case 275

Farm to Fork: Quality at Darden Restaurants Video Case 276

Endnotes 276 Rapid Review 277 Self Test 278

Chapter 7 Process Strategy 279

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: HARLEY-DAVIDSON 280 Four Process Strategies 282

Process Focus 282

Repetitive Focus 283

Product Focus 284

Mass Customization Focus 284

Process Comparison 286

Selection of Equipment 288 Process Analysis and Design 288

Flowchart 289

Time-Function Mapping 289

Process Charts 289

Value-Stream Mapping 290

Service Blueprinting 292

Special Considerations for Service Process Design 293

Production Technology 294 Machine Technology 294

Automatic Identifi cation Systems (AISs) and RFID 295

Process Control 295

Vision Systems 296

Robots 296

Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) 296

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) 296

Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) 297

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) 297

Technology in Services 298 Process Redesign 298 Summary 299 Key Terms 299 Ethical Dilemma 300 Discussion Questions 300 Solved Problem 300 Problems 301 CASE STUDIES 302

Rochester Manufacturing’s Process Decision 302

Process Strategy at Wheeled Coach Video Case 302

Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process— Guaranteed! Video Case 303

Process Analysis at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 304

Endnotes 304 Rapid Review 305 Self Test 306

Supplement 7 Capacity and Constraint Management 307

Capacity 308 Design and Eff ective Capacity 309

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xv

Capacity and Strategy 311

Capacity Considerations 311

Managing Demand 312

Service-Sector Demand and Capacity Management 313

Bottleneck Analysis and the Theory of Constraints 314 Theory of Constraints 317

Bottleneck Management 317

Break-Even Analysis 318 Single-Product Case 319

Multiproduct Case 320

Reducing Risk with Incremental Changes 322 Applying Expected Monetary Value (EMV)

to Capacity Decisions 323 Applying Investment Analysis to Strategy-Driven

Investments 324 Investment, Variable Cost, and Cash Flow 324

Net Present Value 324

Summary 326 Key Terms 327 Discussion Questions 327 Using Software for Break-Even Analysis 327 Solved Problems 328 Problems 330 CASE STUDY 333

Capacity Planning at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 333

Endnote 334 Rapid Review 335 Self Test 336

Chapter 8 Location Strategies 337

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: FEDEX 338 The Strategic Importance of Location 340 Factors That Aff ect Location Decisions 341

Labor Productivity 342

Exchange Rates and Currency Risk 342

Costs 342

Political Risk, Values, and Culture 343

Proximity to Markets 343

Proximity to Suppliers 344

Proximity to Competitors (Clustering) 344

Methods of Evaluating Location Alternatives 344 The Factor-Rating Method 345

Locational Cost–Volume Analysis 346

Center-of-Gravity Method 348

Transportation Model 349

Service Location Strategy 350 Geographic Information Systems 351 Summary 353

Key Terms 353 Ethical Dilemma 354 Discussion Questions 354 Using Software to Solve Location Problems 354 Solved Problems 355 Problems 357 CASE STUDIES 362

Southern Recreational Vehicle Company 362

Locating the Next Red Lobster Restaurant Video Case 362

Where to Place the Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 363

Endnote 364 Rapid Review 365 Self Test 366

Chapter 9 Layout Strategies 367

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: McDONALD’S 368 The Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions 370 Types of Layout 370 Offi ce Layout 371 Retail Layout 372

Servicescapes 375

Warehouse and Storage Layouts 375 Cross-Docking 376

Random Stocking 377

Customizing 377

Fixed-Position Layout 377 Process-Oriented Layout 378

Computer Software for Process-Oriented Layouts 382

Work Cells 383 Requirements of Work Cells 383

Staffi ng and Balancing Work Cells 384

The Focused Work Center and the Focused Factory 386

Repetitive and Product-Oriented Layout 386 Assembly-Line Balancing 387

Summary 392 Key Terms 392 Ethical Dilemma 392 Discussion Questions 392 Using Software to Solve Layout Problems 393 Solved Problems 394 Problems 396 CASE STUDIES 402

State Automobile License Renewals 402

Laying Out Arnold Palmer Hospital’s New Facility Video Case 402

Facility Layout at Wheeled Coach Video Case 404

Endnotes 404 Rapid Review 405 Self Test 406

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Chapter 10 Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement 407

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: RUSTY WALLACE’S NASCAR RACING TEAM 408

Human Resource Strategy for Competitive Advantage 410 Constraints on Human Resource Strategy 410

Labor Planning 411 Employment-Stability Policies 411

Work Schedules 411

Job Classifi cations and Work Rules 412

Job Design 412 Labor Specialization 412

Job Expansion 413

Psychological Components of Job Design 413

Self-Directed Teams 414

Motivation and Incentive Systems 415

Ergonomics and the Work Environment 415 Methods Analysis 417 The Visual Workplace 420 Labor Standards 420

Historical Experience 421

Time Studies 421

Predetermined Time Standards 425

Work Sampling 427

Ethics 430 Summary 430 Key Terms 430 Ethical Dilemma 431 Discussion Questions 431 Solved Problems 432 Problems 434 CASE STUDIES 437

Jackson Manufacturing Company 437

The “People” Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines Video Case 437

Hard Rock’s Human Resource Strategy Video Case 438

Endnotes 438 Rapid Review 439 Self Test 440

PART THREE Managing Operations 441

Chapter 11 Supply Chain Management 441

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: DARDEN RESTAURANTS 442 The Supply Chain’s Strategic Importance 444 Sourcing Issues: Make-or-Buy and

Outsourcing 446 Make-or-Buy Decisions 447

Outsourcing 447

Six Sourcing Strategies 447 Many Suppliers 447

Few Suppliers 447

Vertical Integration 448

Joint Ventures 448

Keiretsu Networks 448

Virtual Companies 449

Supply Chain Risk 449 Risks and Mitigation Tactics 450

Security and JIT 451

Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 451 Issues in Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 451

Opportunities in Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 452

Building the Supply Base 454 Supplier Evaluation 454

Supplier Development 454

Negotiations 455

Contracting 455

Centralized Purchasing 455

E-Procurement 456

Logistics Management 456 Shipping Systems 456

Warehousing 457

Third-Party Logistics (3PL) 458

Distribution Management 459 Ethics and Sustainable Supply Chain

Management 460 Supply Chain Management Ethics 460

Establishing Sustainability in Supply Chains 460

Measuring Supply Chain Performance 461 Assets Committed to Inventory 461

Benchmarking the Supply Chain 463

The SCOR Model 463

Summary 464 Key Terms 465 Ethical Dilemma 465 Discussion Questions 465 Solved Problems 465 Problems 466 CASE STUDIES 467

Darden’s Global Supply Chains Video Case 467

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Supply Chain Management at Regal Marine Video Case 467

Arnold Palmer Hospital’s Supply Chain Video Case 468

Endnote 468 Rapid Review 469 Self Test 470

Supplement 11 Supply Chain Management Analytics 471

Techniques for Evaluating Supply Chains 472 Evaluating Disaster Risk in the Supply Chain 472 Managing the Bullwhip Eff ect 474

A Bullwhip Eff ect Measure 475

Supplier Selection Analysis 476 Transportation Mode Analysis 477 Warehouse Storage 478 Summary 479 Discussion Questions 480 Solved Problems 480 Problems 482 Rapid Review 485 Self Test 486

Chapter 12 Inventory Management 487

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: AMAZON.COM 488 The Importance of Inventory 490

Functions of Inventory 490

Types of Inventory 490

Managing Inventory 491 ABC Analysis 491

Record Accuracy 493

Cycle Counting 493

Control of Service Inventories 494

Inventory Models 495 Independent vs. Dependent Demand 495

Holding, Ordering, and Setup Costs 495

Inventory Models for Independent Demand 496 The Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model 496

Minimizing Costs 497

Reorder Points 501

Production Order Quantity Model 502

Quantity Discount Models 505

Probabilistic Models and Safety Stock 508 Other Probabilistic Models 511

Single-Period Model 513 Fixed-Period (P) Systems 514 Summary 515 Key Terms 515 Ethical Dilemma 515

Discussion Questions 515 Using Software to Solve Inventory Problems 516 Solved Problems 517 Problems 520 CASE STUDIES 524

Zhou Bicycle Company 524

Parker Hi-Fi Systems 525

Managing Inventory at Frito-Lay Video Case 525

Inventory Control at Wheeled Coach Video Case 526

Endnotes 526 Rapid Review 527 Self Test 528

Chapter 13 Aggregate Planning and S&OP 529

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: FRITO-LAY 530 The Planning Process 532 Sales and Operations Planning 533 The Nature of Aggregate Planning 534 Aggregate Planning Strategies 535

Capacity Options 535

Demand Options 536

Mixing Options to Develop a Plan 537

Methods for Aggregate Planning 538 Graphical Methods 538

Mathematical Approaches 543

Aggregate Planning in Services 545 Restaurants 546

Hospitals 546

National Chains of Small Service Firms 546

Miscellaneous Services 546

Airline Industry 547

Revenue Management 547 Summary 550 Key Terms 550 Ethical Dilemma 551 Discussion Questions 551 Using Software for Aggregate Planning 552 Solved Problems 554 Problems 555 CASE STUDIES 559

Andrew-Carter, Inc. 559

Using Revenue Management to Set Orlando Magic Ticket Prices Video Case 560

Endnote 560 Rapid Review 561 Self Test 562

Chapter 14 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP 563

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: WHEELED COACH 564 Dependent Demand 566

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Dependent Inventory Model Requirements 566 Master Production Schedule 567

Bills of Material 568

Accurate Inventory Records 570

Purchase Orders Outstanding 570

Lead Times for Components 570

MRP Structure 571 MRP Management 575

MRP Dynamics 575

MRP Limitations 575

Lot-Sizing Techniques 576 Extensions of MRP 580

Material Requirements Planning II (MRP II) 580

Closed-Loop MRP 581

Capacity Planning 581

MRP in Services 583 Distribution Resource Planning (DRP) 584

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 584 ERP in the Service Sector 587

Summary 587 Key Terms 587 Ethical Dilemma 587 Discussion Questions 588 Using Software to Solve MRP Problems 588 Solved Problems 589 Problems 592 CASE STUDIES 595

When 18,500 Orlando Magic Fans Come to Dinner Video Case 595

MRP at Wheeled Coach Video Case 596

Endnotes 596 Rapid Review 597 Self Test 598

Chapter 15 Short-Term Scheduling 599

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ALASKA AIRLINES 600 The Importance of Short-Term Scheduling 602 Scheduling Issues 602

Forward and Backward Scheduling 603

Finite and Infi nite Loading 604

Scheduling Criteria 604

Scheduling Process-Focused Facilities 605 Loading Jobs 605

Input–Output Control 606

Gantt Charts 607

Assignment Method 608

Sequencing Jobs 611 Priority Rules for Sequencing Jobs 611

Critical Ratio 614

Sequencing N Jobs on Two Machines: Johnson’s Rule 615

Limitations of Rule-Based Sequencing Systems 616

Finite Capacity Scheduling (FCS) 617 Scheduling Services 618

Scheduling Service Employees with Cyclical Scheduling 620

Summary 621 Key Terms 621 Ethical Dilemma 621 Discussion Questions 622 Using Software for Short-Term Scheduling 622 Solved Problems 624 Problems 627 CASE STUDIES 630

Old Oregon Wood Store 630

From the Eagles to the Magic: Converting the Amway Center Video Case 631

Scheduling at Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 632

Endnotes 632 Rapid Review 633 Self Test 634

Chapter 16 Lean Operations 635

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION 636

Lean Operations 638 Eliminate Waste 638

Remove Variability 639

Improve Throughput 640

Lean and Just-in-Time 640 Supplier Partnerships 640

Lean Layout 642

Lean Inventory 643

Lean Scheduling 646

Lean Quality 649

Lean and the Toyota Production System 649 Continuous Improvement 649

Respect for People 649

Processes and Standard Work Practice 650

Lean Organizations 650 Building a Lean Organization 650

Lean Sustainability 652

Lean in Services 652 Summary 653 Key Terms 653 Ethical Dilemma 653 Discussion Questions 653 Solved Problem 653 Problems 654

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xix

CASE STUDIES 655 Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines Video Case 655

JIT at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 656

Endnote 656 Rapid Review 657 Self Test 658

Chapter 17 Maintenance and Reliability 659

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ORLANDO UTILITIES COMMISSION 660

The Strategic Importance of Maintenance and Reliability 662

Reliability 663 System Reliability 663

Providing Redundancy 665

Maintenance 667

Implementing Preventive Maintenance 667

Increasing Repair Capabilities 670

Autonomous Maintenance 670

Total Productive Maintenance 671 Summary 671 Key Terms 671 Ethical Dilemma 671 Discussion Questions 671 Using Software to Solve Reliability Problems 672 Solved Problems 672 Problems 672 CASE STUDY 674

Maintenance Drives Profi ts at Frito-Lay Video Case 674

Rapid Review 675 Self Test 676

PART FOUR Business Analytics Modules 677

Module A Decision-Making Tools 677

The Decision Process in Operations 678 Fundamentals of Decision Making 679 Decision Tables 680 Types of Decision-Making Environments 681

Decision Making Under Uncertainty 681

Decision Making Under Risk 682

Decision Making Under Certainty 683

Expected Value of Perfect Information (EVPI) 683

Decision Trees 684 A More Complex Decision Tree 686

The Poker Decision Process 688

Summary 689 Key Terms 689 Discussion Questions 689 Using Software for Decision Models 689 Solved Problems 691 Problems 692 CASE STUDY 696

Warehouse Tenting at the Port of Miami 696

Endnote 696 Rapid Review 697 Self Test 698

Module B Linear Programming 699

Why Use Linear Programming? 700 Requirements of a Linear Programming

Problem 701 Formulating Linear Programming Problems 701

Glickman Electronics Example 701

Graphical Solution to a Linear Programming Problem 702

Graphical Representation of Constraints 702

Iso-Profi t Line Solution Method 703

Corner-Point Solution Method 705

Sensitivity Analysis 705 Sensitivity Report 706

Changes in the Resources or Right-Hand-Side Values 706

Changes in the Objective Function Coeffi cient 707

Solving Minimization Problems 708 Linear Programming Applications 710

Production-Mix Example 710

Diet Problem Example 711

Labor Scheduling Example 712

The Simplex Method of LP 713 Integer and Binary Variables 713

Creating Integer and Binary Variables 713

Linear Programming Applications with Binary Variables 714

A Fixed-Charge Integer Programming Problem 715

Summary 716 Key Terms 716 Discussion Questions 716 Using Software to Solve LP Problems 716 Solved Problems 718 Problems 720 CASE STUDIES 725

Quain Lawn and Garden, Inc. 725

Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines Video Case 726

Endnotes 726 Rapid Review 727 Self Test 728

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xx TABLE OF CONTENTS

Module C Transportation Models 729

Transportation Modeling 730 Developing an Initial Solution 732

The Northwest-Corner Rule 732

The Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method 733

The Stepping-Stone Method 734 Special Issues in Modeling 737

Demand Not Equal to Supply 737

Degeneracy 737

Summary 738 Key Terms 738 Discussion Questions 738 Using Software to Solve Transportation

Problems 738 Solved Problems 740 Problems 741 CASE STUDY 743

Custom Vans, Inc. 743

Rapid Review 745 Self Test 746

Module D Waiting-Line Models 747

Queuing Theory 748 Characteristics of a Waiting-Line System 749

Arrival Characteristics 749

Waiting-Line Characteristics 750

Service Characteristics 751

Measuring a Queue’s Performance 752

Queuing Costs 753 The Variety of Queuing Models 754

Model A (M/M/1): Single-Server Queuing Model with Poisson Arrivals and Exponential Service Times 754

Model B (M/M/S): Multiple-Server Queuing Model 757

Model C (M/D/1): Constant-Service-Time Model 762

Little’s Law 763

Model D (M/M/1 with Finite Source): Finite-Population Model 763

Other Queuing Approaches 765 Summary 765 Key Terms 765 Discussion Questions 765 Using Software to Solve Queuing Problems 766 Solved Problems 766 Problems 768 CASE STUDIES 771

New England Foundry 771

The Winter Park Hotel 772

Endnotes 772 Rapid Review 773 Self Test 774

Module E Learning Curves 775

What Is a Learning Curve? 776 Learning Curves in Services and

Manufacturing 777 Applying the Learning Curve 778

Doubling Approach 778

Formula Approach 779

Learning-Curve Table Approach 779

Strategic Implications of Learning Curves 782 Limitations of Learning Curves 783 Summary 783 Key Term 783 Discussion Questions 783 Using Software for Learning Curves 784 Solved Problems 784 Problems 785 CASE STUDY 787

SMT’s Negotiation with IBM 787

Endnote 788 Rapid Review 789 Self Test 790

Module F Simulation 791

What Is Simulation? 792 Advantages and Disadvantages of Simulation 793 Monte Carlo Simulation 794 Simulation with Two Decision Variables:

An Inventory Example 797 Summary 799 Key Terms 799 Discussion Questions 799 Using Software in Simulation 800 Solved Problems 801 Problems 802 CASE STUDY 805

Alabama Airlines’ Call Center 805

Endnote 806 Rapid Review 807 Self Test 808

Appendix A1 Bibliography B1 Name Index I1 General Index I7

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xxi

ONLINE TUTORIALS

1. Statistical Tools for Managers T1-1

Discrete Probability Distributions T1-2 Expected Value of a Discrete Probability Distribution T1-3

Variance of a Discrete Probability Distribution T1-3

Continuous Probability Distributions T1-4 The Normal Distribution T1-4

Summary T1-7 Key Terms T1-7 Discussion Questions T1-7 Problems T1-7 Bibliography T1-7

2. Acceptance Sampling T2-1

Sampling Plans T2-2 Single Sampling T2-2

Double Sampling T2-2

Sequential Sampling T2-2

Operating Characteristic (OC) Curves T2-2 Producer’s and Consumer’s Risk T2-3 Average Outgoing Quality T2-5 Summary T2-6 Key Terms T2-6 Solved Problem T2-7 Discussion Questions T2-7 Problems T2-7

3. The Simplex Method of Linear Programming T3-1

Converting the Constraints to Equations T3-2 Setting Up the First Simplex Tableau T3-2 Simplex Solution Procedures T3-4 Summary of Simplex Steps for Maximization

Problems T3-6 Artifi cial and Surplus Variables T3-7 Solving Minimization Problems T3-7 Summary T3-8 Key Terms T3-8 Solved Problem T3-8

Discussion Questions T3-8 Problems T3-9

4. The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Transportation Problems T4-1

MODI Method T4-2 How to Use the MODI Method T4-2 Solving the Arizona Plumbing Problem with MODI T4-2

Vogel’s Approximation Method: Another Way to Find an Initial Solution T4-4

Discussion Questions T4-8 Problems T4-8

5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling T5-1

Introduction T5-2 Service Delivery Example: Meals-for-ME T5-2

Objectives of Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-2

Characteristics of Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-3 Classifying Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-3 Solving Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-4

Routing Service Vehicles T5-5 The Traveling Salesman Problem T5-5 Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem T5-8 The Vehicle Routing Problem T5-9 Cluster First, Route Second Approach T5-10

Scheduling Service Vehicles T5-11 The Concurrent Scheduler Approach T5-13

Other Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-13 Summary T5-14 Key Terms T5-15 Discussion Questions T5-15 Problems T5-15 Case Study: Routing and Scheduling of

Phlebotomists T5-17 Bibliography T5-17

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Welcome to your operations management (OM) course. In this book, we present a state-of-the- art view of the operations function. Operations is an exciting area of management that has a profound effect on productivity. Indeed, few other activities have as much impact on the quality of our lives. The goal of this text is to present a broad introduction to the field of operations in a realistic, practical manner. Even if you are not planning on a career in the operations area, you will likely be working with people in operations. Therefore, having a solid understanding of the role of operations in an organization will be of substantial benefit to you. This book will also help you understand how OM affects society and your life. Certainly, you will better understand what goes on behind the scenes when you attend a concert or major sports event; purchase a bag of Frito-Lay potato chips; buy a meal at an Olive Garden or a Hard Rock Cafe; place an order through Amazon.com; board a flight on Alaska Airlines; or enter a hospital for medical care. More than one and a half million readers of our earlier editions seem to have endorsed this premise.

We welcome comments by email from our North American readers and from students using the International edition, the Indian edition, the Arabic edition, and our editions in Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish, Indonesian, and Chinese. Hopefully, you will find this material useful, interest- ing, and even exciting.

New to This Edition We’ve made significant revisions to this edition, and want to share some of the changes with you.

Five New Video Case Studies Featuring Alaska Airlines In this edition, we take you behind the scenes of Alaska Airlines, consistently rated as one of the top carriers in the country. This fascinating organization opened its doors—and planes— so we could examine leading edge OM in the airlines industry. We observe: the quality pro- gram at Alaska Air (Chapter 6); the process analysis behind the airline’s 20-minute baggage retrieval guarantee (Chapter 7); how Alaska empowers its employees (Chapter 10); the air- line’s use of Lean, 5s, kaizen, and Gemba walks (Chapter 16); and the complexities of sched- uling (Module B).

Our prior editions focused on integrated Video Case Studies for the Orlando Magic basketball team, Frito-Lay, Darden Restaurants, Hard Rock Cafe, Arnold Palmer Hospital, Wheeled Coach Ambulances, and Regal Marine. These Video Case Studies appear in this edition as well, along with the five new ones for Alaska Airlines. All of our videos are created by the authors, with the outstanding coauthorship of Beverly Amer at Northern Arizona University, to explicitly match with text content and terminology.

Preface

xxiii

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xxiv PREFACE

Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets We continue to provide two free decision support software programs, Excel OM for Windows and Mac and POM for Windows, to help you and your students solve homework problems and case studies. These excellent packages are found in MyOMLab and at our text’s Student Download Page.

Many instructors also encourage students to develop their own Excel spreadsheet models to tackle OM issues. With this edition, we provide numerous examples at chapter end on how to do so. “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” examples now appear in Chapters 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 13, Supplement 6, Supplement 7, and Modules A, B, and F. We hope these eleven samples will help expand students’ spreadsheet capabilities.

Video Case Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed! Alaska Airlines is unique among the nine major U.S. carriers not only for its extensive flight coverage of remote towns throughout Alaska (it also covers the U.S., Hawaii, and Mexico from its pri- mary hub in Seattle). It is also one of the smallest independent airlines, with 10,300 employees, including 3,000 flight attendants and 1,500 pilots. What makes it really unique, though, is its abil- ity to build state-of-the-art processes, using the latest technology, that yield high customer satisfaction. Indeed, J. D. Power and Associates has ranked Alaska Airlines highest in North America for seven years in a row for customer satisfaction.

Alaska Airlines was the first to sell tickets via the Internet, first to offer Web check-in and print boarding passes online, and first with kiosk check-in. As Wayne Newton, Director of System Operation Control, states, “We are passionate about our pro- cesses. If it’s not measured, it’s not managed.”

One of the processes Alaska is most proud of is its baggage han- dling system. Passengers can check in at kiosks, tag their own bags with bar code stickers, and deliver them to a customer service agent at the carousel, which carries the bags through the vast under- ground system that eventually delivers the bags to a baggage han- dler. En route, each bag passes through TSA automated screening and is manually opened or inspected if it appears suspicious. With the help of bar code readers, conveyer belts automatically sort and transfer bags to their location (called a “pier”) at the tarmac level. A baggage handler then loads the bags onto a cart and takes it to Al

as ka

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in es

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Using Software for Productivity Analysis

This section presents three ways to solve productivity problems with computer software. First, you can create your own Excel spreadsheets to conduct productivity analysis. Second, you can use the Excel OM software that comes with this text. Third, POM for Windows is another program that is available with this text .

Program 1.1

Actions Copy C7 to B7, Copy B14 to C14, Copy C15 to B15, and Copy D14 to D15

Create a row for each of the inputs used for the productivity measure. Put the output in the last row.

=C5*C6

=B10/B7

Enter the values for the old system in column B and the new system in Column C.

Productivity = Output/Input

=(C14-B14)/B14=C10/(C8+C9)

X USING EXCEL OM Excel OM is an Excel “add-in” with 24 Operations Management decision support “Templates.” To access the templates, double- click on the Excel OM tab at the top of the page, then in the menu bar choose the appropriate chapter (in this case Chapter 1 ), from either the “Chapter” or “Alphabetic” tab on the left. Each of Excel OM’s 24 modules includes instructions for that particular module. The instructions can be turned on or off via the “instruction” tab in the menu bar.

P USING POM FOR WINDOWS POM for Windows is decision support software that includes 24 Operations Management modules. The modules are accessed by double-clicking on Module in the menu bar, and then double-clicking on the appropriate (in this case Productivity ) item. Instructions are provided for each module just below the menu bar.

CREATING YOUR OWN EXCEL SPREADSHEETS Program 1.1 illustrates how to build an Excel spreadsheet for the data in Example 2.

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PREFACE xxv

Expanding and Reordering Our Set of Homework Problems We believe that a vast selection of quality homework problems, ranging from easy to challeng- ing (denoted by one to four dots), is critical for both instructors and students. Instructors need a broad selection of problems to choose from for homework, quizzes, and exams—without reus- ing the same set from semester to semester. We take pride in having more problems—by far, with 807—than any other OM text. We added dozens of new problems this edition. The following table illustrates the selection by chapter.

Further, with the majority of our adopters now using the MyOMLab learning system in their classes, we have reorganized all the homework problems—both those appearing in the printed text, as well as the Additional Homework Problems that are available in MyOMLab—by topic heading. We are identifying all problems by topic (see the following example).

The list of all problems by topic also appears at the end of each boxed example, as well as in the Rapid Review that closes each chapter. These handy references should make it easier to assign problems for homework, quizzes, and exams. A rich set of assignable problems and cases makes the learning experience more complete and pedagogically sound.

CHAPTER 5 | DESIGN OF GOODS AND SERVICES 187

Problems 5.4–5.8 relate to Product Development

• • 5.4 Construct a house of quality matrix for a wrist- watch. Be sure to indicate specific customer wants that you think the general public desires. Then complete the matrix to show how an operations manager might identify specific attributes that can be measured and controlled to meet those customer desires.

• • 5.5 Using the house of quality, pick a real product (a good or service) and analyze how an existing organization satis- fies customer requirements.

• • 5.6 Prepare a house of quality for a mousetrap.

• • 5.7 Conduct an interview with a prospective purchaser of a new bicycle and translate the customer’s wants into the specific hows of the firm.

• • • • 5.8 Using the house of quality sequence, as described in Figure 5.4 on page 169, determine how you might deploy resources to achieve the desired quality for a product or service whose production process you understand.

Problems 5.9–5.17 relate to Defining a Product

• • 5.9 Prepare a bill of material for (a) a pair of eyeglasses and its case or (b) a fast-food sandwich (visit a local sandwich

Problems 5.21–5.28 relate to the Application of Decision Trees to Product Design

• • 5.21 The product design group of Iyengar Electric Supplies, Inc., has determined that it needs to design a new series of switches. It must decide on one of three design strategies. The market forecast is for 200,000 units. The better and more sophisticated the design strategy and the more time spent on value engineering, the less will be the variable cost. The chief of engineering design, Dr. W. L. Berry, has decided that the following costs are a good estimate of the initial and variable costs connected with each of the three strategies: a) Low-tech: A low-technology, low-cost process consisting of

hiring several new junior engineers. This option has a fixed cost of $45,000 and variable-cost probabilities of .3 for $.55 each, .4 for $.50, and .3 for $.45.

b) Subcontract: A medium-cost approach using a good outside design staff. This approach would have a fixed cost of $65,000 and variable-cost probabilities of .7 of $.45, .2 of $.40, and .1 of $.35.

c) High-tech: A high-technology approach using the very best of the inside staff and the latest computer-aided design technol- ogy. This approach has a fixed cost of $75,000 and variable- cost probabilities of .9 of $.40 and .1 of $.35.

What is the best decision based on an expected monetary value (EMV) criterion? ( Note: We want the lowest EMV, as we are dealing with costs in this problem.) PX

• • 5.22 MacDonald Products, Inc., of Clarkson, New York, has the option of (a) proceeding immediately with production of

Problem 5.3 is available in MyOMLab.

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Chapter Number of Problems

15 27

16 12

17 24

Module A 32

Module B 42

Module C 18

Module D 39

Module E 33

Module F 25

Chapter Number of Problems

Supplement 7 45

8 34

9 27

10 46

11 8

Supplement 11 20

12 53

13 26

14 32

Chapter Number of Problems

1 18

2 12

3 33

4 59

5 28

Supplement 5 19

6 21

Supplement 6 55

7 17

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Jay, Barry, and Chuck’s OM Blog As a complement to this text, we have created a companion blog, with coordinated features to help teach the OM course. There are teaching tips, highlights of OM items in the news (along with class discussion questions and links), video tips, guest posts by instructors using our text, sample OM syllabi from dozens of colleges, and much more—all arranged by chapter. To learn more about any chapter topics, visit www.heizerrenderOM.wordpress.com . As you prepare your lectures and syllabus, scan our blog for discussion ideas, teaching tips, and classroom exercises.

Lean Operations In previous editions, we sought to explicitly differentiate the concepts of just-in-time, Lean, and Toyota Production System in Chapter 16. However, there is significant overlap and interchangea- bility among those three concepts, so we have revised Chapter 16 to incorporate the three concepts into an overall concept of “Lean.” The chapter suggests that students view Lean as a comprehen- sive integrated operations strategy that sustains competitive advantage and results in increased returns to all stakeholders.

Chapter-by-Chapter Changes To highlight the extent of the revisions in this edition, here are a few of the changes, on a chapter- by-chapter basis.

Chapter 1 : Operations and Productivity We updated Table 1.4 to reflect employment in various sectors and expanded our discussion of Lean operations. Our new case, Uber Technologies, introduces productivity by discussing the dis- ruptive nature of the Uber business model. In addition, there is a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for both labor productivity and multifactor productivity.

Chapter 2 : Operations Strategy in a Global Environment We have updated Figure 2.1 to better reflect changes in the growth of world trade and Figure 2.5 to reflect product life cycle changes. The Minute Lube case has been revised as Rapid Lube. Example 1 (National Architects) has been expanded to clarify factor rating calculations and is also demonstrated with a “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” presentation.

Chapter 3 : Project Management We rewrote and updated the Bechtel Global Company Profile and added a new section on well- defined projects with the “agile” and “waterfall” approaches. There are two new OM in Action boxes: “Agile Project Management at Mastek,” and “Behind the Tour de France.”

Chapter 4 : Forecasting We created a new table comparing the MAD, MSE, and MAPE forecasting error measures. There is also a new OM in Action box called “NYC’s Potholes and Regression Analysis.”

Chapter 5 : Design of Goods and Services We expanded our treatment of concurrent engineering and added two new discussion questions. Solved Problem 5.1 has been revised.

Supplement 5: Sustainability in the Supply Chain We wrote a new introductory section on Corporate Social Responsibility. There is also a new OM in Action box called “Blue Jeans and Sustainability” and 10 new homework problems.

Chapter 6 : Managing Quality We added new material to expand our discussion of Taguchi’s quality loss function. There is a new sec- tion on SERVQUAL, and a new video case study, “Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines,” appears here.

xxvi PREFACE

A01_HEIZ0422_12_SE_FM.indd xxviA01_HEIZ0422_12_SE_FM.indd xxvi 29/12/15 4:08 pm29/12/15 4:08 pmhttp://www.heizerrenderOM.wordpress.com

Supplement 6: Statistical Process Control We added a figure on the relationship between sample size and sampling distribution. We also added raw data to Examples S2 and S3 to illustrate how ranges are computed. There is a new Excel spreadsheet to show students how to make their own c -chart, and we have added three new homework problems.

Chapter 7 : Process Strategy We wrote a new section on machine technology and additive manufacturing. There are two new discussion questions and three new homework problems. Our second new video case study is called “Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed!”

Supplement 7: Capacity and Constraint Management We added a new Table S7.1, which compares and clarifies three capacity measurements, with an example of each. There is a new treatment of expected output and actual output in Example S2. The discussion of bottleneck time versus throughput time has also been expanded. Example S3, capacity analysis with parallel processes, has been revised. We have also added a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for a break-even model. Finally, we updated the Arnold Palmer Hospital capacity planning case with recent data.

Chapter 8 : Location Strategies We added two new OM in Action boxes: “Iowa—Home of Corn and Facebook” and “Denmark’s Meat Cluster.” We changed the notation for the center-of-gravity model to simplify the equa- tion and provided a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” presentation for the center-of- gravity example.

Chapter 9 : Layout Strategies We created a new Muther grid for office relationship charting and added a spread of five layouts showing how offices have evolved over time. There is a new OM in Action box called “Amazon Lets Loose the Robots,” and there is a new graphic example of Proplanner’s Flow Path Calculator. We have included a formula for idle time as a second measure of balance assignment efficiency and added new technology issues to the Arnold Palmer Hospital video case.

Chapter 10 : Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement We added a new OM in Action box, “The Missing Perfect Chair,” and revised the Operations Chart as a service example. Our third new video case study is “The ‘People’ Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines.”

Chapter 11 : Supply Chain Management We added “outsourcing” as a supply chain risk in Table 11.3.

Supplement 11: Supply Chain Management Analytics We added a major section on the topic of Warehouse Storage, with a new model for allocating inven- tory to storage locations. There is a new discussion question and three new homework problems.

Chapter 12 : Inventory Management New Programs 12.1 and 12.2 illustrate “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” for both the production run model and the single-period inventory model. The Excel function NORMSINV is introduced throughout the chapter. The Quantity Discount Model section is totally rewritten to illustrate the feasible solution shortcut. Solved Problem 12.5 is likewise redone with the new approach.

Chapter 13 : Aggregate Planning and S&OP We added a new OM in Action box, “Revenue Management Makes Disney the ‘King’ of the Broadway Jungle.” We also provided a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for the transportation method for aggregate planning, using the Solver approach.

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a negative correlation means that ________.

Question: A negative correlation between a hockey player’s age and the number of minutes he spends in the penalty box indicates that:
the older a player is, the less time he spends in the penalty box.
spending more time on the ice leads hockey players to become skilled at avoiding the referees.
an older player’s greater experience has taught him how to avoid making penalties.
older players make fewer penalties because they have reduced testosterone levels.

  Flag this Question Question 22 pts Gretchen, an adult, takes an intelligence test and it shows she has slightly above average intelligence. Four years later, she has the chance to take the same test again. This time it reports that she is a genius. While she wants to believe the results, she wonders if the inconsistency of results over time might mean the test:
is poorly correlated with intelligence.
has low test–retest reliability.
has high split-half reliability.
has a high coefficient alpha.

  Flag this Question Question 32 pts Researchers who study the process of reading in children have discovered that better readers make smoother eye movements across the page (i.e., there is a positive correlation between reading skill and the smoothness of the eye movements). Which of the following statements is a possible cause of the correlation between smooth eye movements and reading ability?
Having good reading skills allows a child to make smooth eye movements.
All of these options are possible causes of the correlation.
The ability to make smooth eye movements improves reading ability.
Some third factor might cause both smooth eye movements and improved reading ability.

  Flag this Question Question 42 pts What is the correlation between a person’s weight as measured in grams and a person’s weight as measured in pounds?
+1.00
–1.00
0.00
It is impossible to determine from the information provided.

  Flag this Question Question 52 pts The model of possible causal explanations for a correlation is called the:
A-B-C model.
cause-and-effect model.
causal explanation model.
1-2-3 model.

  Flag this Question Question 62 pts “The incidence of depression among college students is negatively correlated with the number of sunny days each year in the locale where they attend college.” This statement means that:
if a depressed student were to move to a locale with more sunny days, her depression would subside.
a student attending college in a locale with very few sunny days will become depressed.
the chances of a college student being depressed tend to increase as the number of sunny days increases.
the chances of a college student being depressed tend to be higher with fewer sunny days.

  Flag this Question Question 72 pts A positive correlation between head size and foot size indicates that:
having large feet causes a person to have a large head.
having a large head causes a person to have large feet.
people with larger feet tend to have smaller heads.
people with larger feet also tend to have larger heads.

  Flag this Question Question 82 pts A perfect linear relationship will yield a Pearson’s r value of:
1.00 or –1.00.
0.
1.00.
–1.00.

  Flag this Question Question 92 pts The best and most widely used measure of reliability is:
the split-half correlation, in which the odd and even numbered items of a measure are correlated to assess internal consistency.
criterion-related reliability.
coefficient alpha, the average of all possible split-half correlations.
the test-retest reliability.

  Flag this Question Question 102 pts Test-retest reliability is determined by:
correlating the odd numbered items of a measure with an individual’s performance on the even numbered items of that same measure.
correlating the odd numbered items of a measure with an individual’s performance on the even numbered items of a different measure.
administering the same measure to two different samples at two different points in time and calculating the correlation between an individual’s performance at the two different times
administering the same measure to the same sample at two different points in time and calculating the correlation between an individual’s performance on the two administrations.

  Flag this Question Question 112 pts The sign of the correlation communicates:
the direction of the association.
the direction and strength of the correlation.
the direction of the causal relationship.
the strength of the correlation.

  Flag this Question Question 122 pts Psychometricians are concerned with:
studying illness and the onset of psychological illness.
developing high quality tests and measures.
statistics and computers.
fixing psychological issues in people.

  Flag this Question Question 132 pts One assumption for using hypothesis testing for Pearson correlation is that one variable should vary equally at each level of the other variable. What is the easiest way to determine whether this assumption has been met?
If the calculation of r is high, then the assumption has been met.
Calculate the cross-products of the deviation scores. If the result is positive, then the assumption has been met.
Conduct a post-hoc test following the calculation of r.
Draw a scatterplot to see whether the range of values is equal across all values of the other variable.

  Flag this Question Question 142 pts Which of the following numbers would represent a perfect correlation?
–1.00
1.00
–1.00 or 1.00
0

  Flag this Question Question 152 pts What kind of correlation would you expect to find between the severity of snowstorms and rates of attendance at college classes?
positive
perfect negative
negative
zero

  Flag this Question Question 162 pts The denominator of the Pearson correlation equation corrects for ________ and ________ issues present in the numerator.
negative values; nonlinear data
sample size; nonnormality
negative values; variability
sample size; variability

  Flag this Question Question 172 pts In a reanalysis of published studies, Twenge and Im (2007) found that for the time period 1958–2001, the need for social approval of people in the United States was negatively correlated with the U.S. violent crime rate during the same period (the correlation coefficient was –0.31). This correlation means that:
as the need for social approval went up, the number of violent crimes also increased.
the need for social approval prevented people from committing violent crimes.
the need for social approval spurred people to commit violent crimes.
as the need for social approval went up, the number of violent crimes decreased.

  Flag this Question Question 182 pts Imagine that you’ve just read the results of a study that finds a positive correlation between gum chewing and life expectancy. Which of the following statements would be a statistically appropriate response to the results of the study?
You bemoan the possibility of living so long that you will have to chew lots of gum.
You become curious about what third variables might cause both increases in gum chewing and increases in life expectancy.
You purchase a lifetime supply of gum because chewing gum is good for your health.
You tell all your friends and family members to chew gum because it is good for their health.

  Flag this Question Question 192 pts If all the points on a scatterplot fall on a single line:
there is a positive correlation between the two variables.
the relation between the variables is perfect.
there is no relation between the variables.
the variables are causally related.

  Flag this Question Question 202 pts What kind of correlation would you expect to find between levels of family income and household spending on consumer goods?
zero
perfect positive
positive
negative

  Flag this Question Question 212 pts The numerator (top half) of the Pearson correlation coefficient formula includes:
the difference between the two sample means.
the sum of the product of the deviations for each variable.
.
the square root of the product of the two sums of squares.

  Flag this Question Question 222 pts Suppose a researcher discovers that length of time spent following a Mediterranean diet is negatively correlated with risk of developing cancer. Which of the statements logically follows from this information?
Eating a Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of developing cancer.
People who ate a Mediterranean diet for more time were more likely to have cancer.
Eating a Mediterranean diet increases the risk of developing cancer.
People who ate a Mediterranean diet for more time were less likely to have cancer.

  Flag this Question Question 232 pts Figure: Student-Faculty Ratio

Reference: Figure 1
(Figure: Student–Faculty Ratio) The relation depicted in the scatterplot is potentially deceptive because of:
poor validity.
poor reliability.
the presence of outliers.
restriction of range.

  Flag this Question Question 242 pts Assume that the correlation coefficient between class attendance and number of problems missed on an exam is (–0.77). Which statement regarding this finding is correct?
There is definitely no causal relationship between the two variables.
The correlation provides definitive information pertaining to causation.
If you attend class regularly, you are more likely to do well on the exam than someone who does not attend class regularly.
If you start attending class more regularly, the number of problems you miss on the next exam is certain to be reduced.

  Flag this Question Question 252 pts The Pearson correlation coefficient is symbolized:
x
r
c
t

  Flag this Question Question 262 pts The ________ quantifies the relationship between two variables.
magnitude of the correlation
sign of the correlation
correlation coefficient
correlation

  Flag this Question Question 272 pts A ________ is a graphical representation of the relation between two variables.
polygon
correlation coefficient
scatterplot
histogram

  Flag this Question Question 282 pts The proportionate reduction in error is a measure of the:
correlation between two variables.
variability of the dependent measure.
amount of variance in the dependent variable explained by the independent variable.
slope of a regression line.

  Flag this Question Question 292 pts With regression we are concerned about variability around the ________, rather than variability around the ________ which would be the case in t tests or ANOVAs.
line of best fit; mean
median; tails of the distribution
mean; outliers
outliers; line of best fit

  Flag this Question Question 302 pts To determine the slope of the line of best fit using the z-score regression information, we compare the values of:
X at zero versus X at 1.0.
X at zero versus Y at zero.
Y at zero versus X at zero.
Y at zero versus Y at 1.0.

  Flag this Question Question 312 pts The regression line is also called the:
prediction estimate.
error of estimate.
line of best fit.
line of central limit.

  Flag this Question Question 322 pts If we have information about the slope of the line of best fit that corresponds to two sets of data about class grades for different instructors, we cannot make comparisons based on these slopes because:
they are based on different populations.
slopes cannot be compared meaningfully.
they are not on a common scale.
the slopes have to share the same sign.

  Flag this Question Question 332 pts Every year it seems as though last season’s baseball rookie of the year fails to live up to expectations for his sophomore season. What might explain this phenomenon?
regression to the mean
standard error of the estimation
overestimation of effect size
proportionate reduction in error

  Flag this Question Question 342 pts Multiple regression predicts scores on a single ________ from scores on more than one ________.
dependent variable; independent variable
scale variable; nominal variable
independent variable; predictor variable
predictor; dependent variable

  Flag this Question Question 352 pts As the standard error of estimate becomes larger, predictions become:
less accurate.
more accurate.
smaller.
larger.

  Flag this Question Question 362 pts Proportionate reduction in error is sometimes called:
coefficient phi.
correlation coefficient.
alpha coefficient.
the coefficient of determination.

  Flag this Question Question 372 pts A researcher calculates a standardized regression coefficient on data from 52 events and computes β as 0.274. Assuming a two-tailed hypothesis test of the relation between these two variables is being conducted with an alpha of 0.05, what are the critical cutoffs?
–0.288 and 0.288
–0.273 and 0.273
–0.361 and 0.361
–0.250 and 0.250

  Flag this Question Question 382 pts The measure of effect size used with regression is:
R2, just like with ANOVA.
the proportionate reduction in error, r2.
the alpha coefficient.
standard error of correlation.

  Flag this Question Question 392 pts Which of the following statistics quantifies the improvement in ability to predict a person’s score when using the regression line rather than the mean?
standard deviation
proportionate reduction in error
standard error of the estimation
slope

  Flag this Question Question 402 pts The standardized regression coefficient is not equal to the correlation coefficient when:
both variables are measured on an interval scale.
there is greater variability in the X variables compared to the Y variable.
the equation includes more than one independent variable.
a negative relationship is present.

  Flag this Question Question 412 pts In a study designed to predict blood cholesterol levels from amount of daily saturated fat in grams (X1) and number of hours of daily exercise (X2), we determine that the slope of X1 is 5, the slope of X2 is –4, and the y intercept is 130. Which of the following formulas is the regression equation for these data?
Ŷ = 130 + 5(X1) – 4(X2)
Ŷ = 130 + 5(X1) + 4(X2)
Ŷ = 130 + 1(X)
Ŷ = 130 – 5(X1) – 4(X2)

  Flag this Question Question 422 pts The standardized regression coefficient expresses the:
likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis with a regression analysis.
relation between the independent and dependent variable in terms of squared units.
strength of the correlation between the two variables that are now incorporated into a regression analysis.
predicted change in the dependent variable in terms of standard deviation units as a result of a 1 standard deviation increase in the independent variable.

  Flag this Question Question 432 pts The standardized regression coefficient is often called a:
normalized regression.
beta weight.
weighted estimate.
estimate of best fit.

  Flag this Question Question 442 pts The regression line is the line that:
minimizes the correlation coefficient.
is the mean of the dependent variable.
minimizes error in predicting scores on the independent variable.
minimizes error in predicting scores on the dependent variable.

  Flag this Question Question 452 pts The standardized regression coefficient expresses a predicted change in the dependent variable in terms of:
error units.
slope.
a 1-unit change in the independent variable.
standard deviations units.

  Flag this Question Question 462 pts We can examine a graph to get a sense of how much error there is in a regression equation. Which of the following describes a graph that reveals there will be a high amount of error when using our regression equation?
Data points cluster very close to the line with several outlier exceptions.
The data points consistently cluster far away from the line of best fit.
Data points cluster close around the line of best fit.
Data points fall directly on the line.

  Flag this Question Question 472 pts In the equation Ŷ = 98 + 4.30(X1) + 7.20(X2), what is the slope?
98
4.30
Both 4.30 and 7.20 are slopes.
7.20

  Flag this Question Question 482 pts In the equation for a regression line, the intercept is the:
predicted value for Y when X is equal to 0.
value for X when Y is equal to 0.
z score of the amount that Y is predicted to increase as X increases.
amount that Y is predicted to increase for a one-unit increase in X.

  Flag this Question Question 492 pts In a study designed to predict blood cholesterol levels from amount of daily saturated fat in grams (X1) and number of hours of daily exercise (X2), we determine that the slope of X1 is 5, the slope of X2 is –4, and the y intercept is 130. If someone reports that she typically eats 10 grams of saturated fat daily and exercises 1 hour daily, what would you predict for the person’s cholesterol level?
184
180
176
150

  Flag this Question Question 502 pts A small standard error of the estimate means that:
your two variables are poorly correlated.
confounding variables may be present.
variability is high in your Y variable.
you are making predictions with great accuracy.

  Flag this Question Question 512 pts The table includes information for creating a regression equation to predict students’ attitude toward statistics from their attitudes toward Britney Spears and beer.

Table: Coefficients(a)

Model  Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
  B Std. Error Beta  
1 (Constant) 4.974 0.590  8.432 0.000
 attbritneyspears 0.264 0.155 0.256 1.701 0.097
 attbeer -0.309 0.122 -0.381 -2.536 0.015
a Dependent variable: attstatistics Reference: Table 1
(Table: Coefficients) What is the y intercept for this problem?
0.590
0.000
4.974
8.432

  Flag this Question Question 522 pts The table includes information for creating a regression equation to predict students’ attitude toward statistics from their attitudes toward Britney Spears and beer.

Table: Coefficients(a)

Model  Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
  B Std. Error Beta  
1 (Constant) 4.974 0.590  8.432 0.000
 attbritneyspears 0.264 0.155 0.256 1.701 0.097
 attbeer -0.309 0.122 -0.381 -2.536 0.015
a Dependent variable: attstatistics Reference: Table 1
(Table: Coefficients) Was either variable a significant predictor for attitude toward statistics?
Attitude toward Britney Spears was a significant predictor but attitude toward beer was not.
No; neither was a signigicant predictor.
Yes; both were significant predictors.
Attitude toward beer was a significant predictor but attitude toward Britney Spears was not.

  Flag this Question Question 532 pts If two variables, independently, can help us predict the outcome of a third variable, we say that they are:
orthogonal.
autonomous.
standardized.
proportionate.

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Try it!

Complete the sentences using the preterite of being or going.

TO GO

Model The travelers went to Peru.  

1. Patricia ________   to Cuzco.

2.You ___________   to Iquitos.

3.Gregorio and I_________________   to Lima.

4. I _______________   to Trujillo.

5. You __________________   to Arequipa.

6.My father___________________   to Lima.

7.Nosotras __________________   to Cuzco.

8. He ________________ to Machu Picchu.

9.You ___________________   to Nazca.

Model You were very kind. 

BE

10. I ______________   very cordial.

11.They   sympathetic _____________ .

12. We _____________   very stupid.

13. She _________________   unfriendly.

14.You _________________   very generous.

15. You ______________ cordial.

16. The people_____________   kind.

17.Tomás and I__________________   very happy.

18. Teachers ______________ good

To complete

Complete these conversations with the correct form of the preterite to be or go. Indicates the infinitive of each verbal form. Follow the model.

Model:

 JUAN Did you go to the movies last night? to go

MARIA No, I did not go to the movies. to go 

Conversation 1

RAÚL Where (1) _________   you on vacation?   ___________

PILAR (2) ____________   to Peru. ___________

RAÚL How (3) _____________   the trip? _____________ 

PILAR (4) ___________   great! Machu Picchu and El Callao are incredible ._______________ 

RAÚL (5) ______________   expensive the trip? ______________

PILAR No, the price (6) ____________   very low. It only cost three thousand dollars. __________

Conversation 2

ISABEL Tina and Vicente (7) _______________   boyfriends, right? _____________________ 

LUCIA Yes, but not now. Last night Tina (8) ________________   to eat with Gregorio and last week they (9) _______________   to the soccer game. _____________     ________________ 

ISABEL Oh yes? Javier and I (10) ____________________   to the game and we did not see them. __________________

Prayers

Make sentences. Use the preterit forms of being and going. Make other changes if necessary.

1. two friends and me / go / Machu Picchu / last summer

2. Holidays / be / wonderful

3.yo / go / to the Manu National Park / also

4. people / be / very nice

5. Where / go / you / on vacation / last year?

Complete the following paragraph with the appropriate forms of the past tense verbs be or go.

 Between 15 and 25 years old, I______________  musician in an orchestra (musician in an orchestra). My colleagues and I _____________   to play (to play) to several countries. The public always_______________   very kind to us. _______________ an unforgettable experience (unforgettable experience) for me. Those______________   the best years of my life.

Try it!

Complete with the indirect object pronoun and the present tense form in each sentence.

Model He loves to travel. 

Fascinate

1.To me ____________ dance.

2. To us______________   sing.

3.To you________________   read.

4.To you________________   run and skate.

5. To them_______________   the planes.

6.To my parents_______________   walk.

7.To you ______________ play tennis.

8. To my __________________espouse and to me to   sleep.

9.To Alberto______________   draw and paint.

10.To all________________ to   say.

11.A Pili__________________   the hats.

Model They are bored by sports. 

Bore

12.To you______________   the movies.

13. To you ____________ the trips.

14.To me ____________   the magazines.

15.To Jorge and Luis_________________   the dogs.

16.To us______________   holidays.

17.To you _________________ baseball.

18.A Marcela ____________________ the books.

19.To my friends_____________________   museums.

20.To her _________________ cycling.

21.To Omar _______________________-   go shopping.

22.To you and me _______________   the dance

To complete

Complete the sentences with all the necessary elements.

1. _________________Adela _______________ (enchant) the music of Tito “El Bambino”.

2.A ___________   me____________   (interest) the music of other countries.

3.To my friends________________   (love) the songs (songs) of Calle 13.

4.To Juan and_______________   Rafael do not _________________   (bother) loud music.

5. _________________nosotros____________   (fascinate) Latin pop groups.

6. _____________ Mr. Ruiz_______________   (interest) plus classical music.

7.A   _______________me________________   (boring) classical music.

8. To _____________   te_______________   (missing) money for the Carlos Santana concert?

9.No. I already bought the ticket and _____________ (stay) five dollars.

10. How much money will you______________   (stay) to _____________?

Complete the sentences using the appropriate indirect object pronoun. Use also the correct form of the verb indicated in the present tense. Follow the model.

Model A Julio loves (to love) being with Sonia. 

1 .To Pedro and Felipe_____________   (love) the action movies, but to Armando_____________   (fascinate) the horror movies.

2. I know that you do not ____________   (like) read and that books _________ (bored).

3.To me __________   (fascinate) the museums, but I know that your friends do not__________   (interest).

4.A Patrick not__________   ( fit ) his tennis shoes, but____________   (missing) money to go shopping.

5 ._________ (interest) wake up in time for classes, but to Luisa _________ (disturb) the alarm clock.

Form correct and logical sentences from the given elements. Make the necessary changes. Follow the model.

Model

you / fascinate / Italian food

You love Italian food. 

6. we / do not stay / money / buy gifts

7.Antonio / love / play (to play) the piano

8.my friends and I / bore / afternoon classes

9. Your father and you / interest / the sciences

10. Margarita / bother / study in summer

But what about?

Complete the sentences logically using but or otherwise.

1. Marcos never wakes up early,    (but) ( otherwise ) he always arrives punctually to class.

2. Lisa and Katarina do not go to bed early     (but) ( otherwise ) very late.

3. Alfonso is smart,     (but) ( otherwise ) he  is sometimes unfriendly.

4. The directors of the school are not Ecuadorian     (but) ( otherwise )  Peruvians.

5. We do not remember to buy shampoo,     (but) (otherwise) we buy soap.

6. Emilia is not a student     (but) (if not) a  teacher.

7. I do not want to get up,     (but) (otherwise)  I have to go to class.

8. Miguel does not shave in the morning     (but) ( otherwise )  at night.

To complete

Complete the sentences using the indefinite (indefinite) and negative words of the list.

something someone nothing

neither … nor any

none not always

also not 

1. Do   you know where there is a good restaurant?

2.No, there is not   around here.

3. Do you want   to eat?

4.No, thanks. I do not want   .

5. And I do not want to eat   .

6. Mr. Sánchez   is a Bolivian   Peruvian   .

7. Carlos   gets up early because he never goes to bed after ten.

8.No   student wants to write five jobs in a week.

9. Lourdes likes white wine, and me   .

10. Did not you see   your sisters yesterday?

Complete the following sentences with the appropriate indefinite or negative words.

 1. As I am the last to bathe, __________________   bathes after me.

2. Luis does not like coffee, Miguel ___________________ likes it.

3. I need to talk to________________.

4. ____________________ of my friends is at home today.

5.Paula wants to go to the movies and I_____________________   I want to go.

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a circular air hockey puck of radius

A physics student playing with an air hockey table (a frictionless surface) finds that if she gives the puck a velocity of 5.30 m/s along the length (2.80 m) of the table at one end,
40,303 results
physics
A physics student playing with an air hockey table (a frictionless surface) finds that if she gives the puck a velocity of 5.30 m/s along the length (2.80 m) of the table at one end, by the time it has reached the other end the puck has drifted 5.19 cm to

asked by Nick on March 4, 2012
Physics
a mouse pushes a piece of cheese with a mass of 6.4 g for a distance of 75 cm over the frictionless surface of an air hockey table. He exerts a constant 0.5 N force as he does so. If the cheese starts from rest, what is it’s final velocity?

asked by Kelly on December 5, 2012
Science: Physics
A physics teacher shoots a .30 caliber rifle at a 0.47 kg block of wood. The rifle and wood are mounted on separate carts that sit atop an air track (like a linear air hockey table–ie. frictionless). The 5.7 kg rifle fires a 27 gram bullet at 227 m/s in

asked by Joan on January 6, 2011
Physics
A frustrated hockey player, at rest on a frictionless ice rink, throws his stick into the crowd. Since you don’t normally go to hockey games, you decide to turn this into a physics problem and calculate the mass of this player. You observe that the stick

asked by Juhi on April 22, 2016
Physics
A hockey puck of mass m = 70 g is attached to a string that passes through a hole in the center of a table, as shown in the figure below. The hockey puck moves in a circle of radius r = 1.20 m. Tied to the other end of the string, and hanging vertically

asked by Ryan on September 30, 2016

physics
A physics student pulls a block of mass m = 23 kg up an incline at a slow constant velocity for a distance of d = 4 m. The incline makes an angle q = 25° with the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the inclined plane is

asked by Mel on March 11, 2012
Physics
A 0.2 kg hockey puck is placed against a spring lying on a horizontal frictionless surface. The spring is compressed 0.2 m, with the hockey puck, and then released. The hockey puck when released is able to go up a frictionless slope with an angle of 30

asked by Amy on December 5, 2010
Math
In Canada, the number of girls playing organized ice hockey from January 1990 to January 2010 increased by approximately 4162 girls per year. In January 2000, there were approximately 45 400 girls playing organized ice hockey. a. Write an equation in

asked by Kelly Brians on July 16, 2015
Physics
A physics student stands on the edge of a cliff 2x meters. He throws his physics homework straight up in the air. Derive an expression to calculate the time taken by the homework to come back to the student.

asked by Tyler on September 30, 2017
PHYSICS
Indentify the direction of the netforce in each of the following situations. A marble moves in a circular path inside a paper plate at a constant speed. The moon orbits the earth. An air hockey puck moves smoothly across the air hockey table after being

asked by JJ on November 20, 2010
PHYSICS
Indentify the direction of the netforce in each of the following situations. A marble moves in a circular path inside a paper plate at a constant speed. The moon orbits the earth. An air hockey puck moves smoothly across the air hockey table after being

asked by JJ on November 19, 2010
Physics 11 steve or any physics teacher helpURGENT
A 30kg student pushes a 20kg box on a frictionless surface. If student accelerates at 0.80 m/s^2, what is acceleration of the box. My question is why does the box accelerate in opposite direction of the boy, and how does the frictionless surface affect

asked by Brayden Hugo on October 30, 2016
physics
An air hockey table works by pumping air through thousands of tiny holes in a table to support light pucks. this allows the pucks to move around on cushions of air with very little resistance. one of these pucks has a mass of 0.25 kg and is pushed along by

asked by Liz on October 28, 2009
physics .Henry,Damon,Steve,Saed,bobpursley, And This is my question every one
A rocket-powered hockey puck is moving on a (friction-less) horizontal air-hockey table. The x- and y-components of its velocity as a function of time are presented in the graphs below. Assuming that at t=0 the puck is at (X0,Y0)=(1,2), draw a detailed

asked by himel on August 21, 2016
physics question
A rocket-powered hockey puck is moving on a (friction-less) horizontal air-hockey table. The x- and y-components of its velocity as a function of time are presented in the graphs below. Assuming that at t=0 the puck is at (X0,Y0)=(1,2), draw a detailed

asked by himel on August 16, 2016

Physics
A student places her 330 g physics book on a frictionless table. She pushes the book against a spring, compressing the spring by 9.90 cm, then releases the book

asked by Luts on November 11, 2011
phsc
Suppose you are playing ice hockey in the middle of a totally frictionless frozen pond.How can you move youself to the edge of the pond ?

asked by brandy on June 24, 2012
Physics
A large horizontal circular platform (M=143.1 kg, r=3.01 m) rotates about a frictionless vertical axle. A student (m=75.3 kg) walks slowly from the rim of the platform toward the center. The angular velocity ω of the system is 2.10 rad/s when the student

asked by Molly on February 11, 2014
physics
find the frictional force between an air hockey puck and the table, assume u air = 1.8 X 10^-5 kg/ms, the puck is 0.013 above the table, the puck has an area of 25 cm^2

asked by emily on October 19, 2010
physical science
Suppose you are playing ice hockey in the middle of a totally frictionless frozen pond. How can you move yourself to the edge of the pond? Explain what you would do and why it would work.

asked by kjunior on June 22, 2011
Physics
While sliding horizontal on a frictionless surface at a speed of 30 m/s, a hockey puck of mass 0.16 kg is struck by a hockey stick. After leaving the stick, the puck has a speed of 22 m/s in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the impulse given to the

asked by Samiboo711 on February 2, 2015
Physics
The spring shown in the figure is compressed 59cm and used to launch a 100 kg physics student. The track is frictionless until it starts up the incline. The student’s coefficient of kinetic friction on the 30∘ incline is 0.14 . k= 80,000 N/m m=100 kg uk=

asked by Dib on November 8, 2014
physics
A student places her 500 g physics book on a frictionless table. She pushes the book against a spring, compressing the spring by 4.0 cm, then releases the book. What is the book’s speed as it slides away? The spring constant is 1250 N/m. 1

asked by anonymus on August 30, 2018
Physics
A student places her 442 g physics book on a frictionless table. She pushes the book against a spring, compressing the spring by 4.44 cm, then releases the book. What is the book’s speed as it slides away? The spring constant is 1102 N/m.

asked by Juan on September 29, 2011
PHYSICS
Two objects are tied together and placed on a frictionless table. One is pushed off the edge of the table so it falls, dragging the second along the surface of the table. The magnitude of the acceleration of the falling object is _.

asked by Anonymous on September 18, 2016

physics
2 masses are connected through a non-stretchable string that passes over a frictionless pulley. The masses of the objects are 12 kg and 5.5 kg respectively. The obj with larger mass is hanging 2.5 m fr the surface of a table. Suppose that the two objs are

asked by Sha on January 15, 2012
pre calc 12
During intermission, at a hockey game, small foam hockey pucks are launched from a height. How long is a puck in the air if a student in the stands catches it on its way down 12m above ice lvl? The model for the vertical motion of the puck can be

asked by AMANSANDHUWILLDIE!!! on March 29, 2016
physics
A mass m1 = 10 kg on top of a rough horizontal table surface is connected by a massless cable over a frictionless wheel to a hanging mass m2 = 5 kg, as shown in the previous problem. In m2 falls 1 m from rest in 1.2 seconds, find the co-efficient of

asked by kim on October 8, 2012
Earth Science Regents!!!
Two students in different parts of New York State measure the altitude of Polaris is above the horizon. The student near New York City finds the angle to be 41 degrees. The student near Massena finds the angle to be 45 degrees. Which state is best

asked by Laruen on May 25, 2014
physics B
This is the first question on the 2003 ap physics b exam. I need help with part e. It shows a diagram of a pulley with two students. student A is on the ground with a mass of 70kg holding on to the pulley while student B is in the air with a mass of 60.

asked by kelley on October 22, 2008
Physics
In her physics lab, Stephanie rolls a 30 g marble down a ramp and off a table with a horizontal velocity of 2 m/s. The marble falls in a cup placed 0.4 m from the table’s edge. a. How long is the ball in the air? 0.2 s b. How high is the table? m

asked by Sam on February 27, 2012
physics
What forces are acting on a puck that is on an air hockey table?

asked by Ale on March 3, 2011
physics
A hockey puck of mass m = 120 g is attached to a string that passes through a hole in the center of a table, as shown in the figure below. The hockey puck moves in a circle of radius r = 0.50 m. Tied to the other end of the string, and hanging vertically

asked by jyothi on February 16, 2015
Physics
1) Determine the force of gravitational attraction between the earth(m=5.98*10^24kg) and a 70-kg physics student if the student is in an airplane at 4.950 meters above the earth’s surface.

asked by Charlie on December 6, 2014
physics
A hockey puck with mass 0.160kg is at rest on the horizontal, frictionless surface of a rink. A player applies a force of 0.310N to the puck, parallel to the surface of the ice, and continues to apply this force for 1.60s. What is the (a)position and

asked by Force and direction on November 14, 2012

Physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 2.40 and a total mass of 1.40 . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.90 from the edge of a 1.80 drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge. How far from the table does the

asked by Dan on March 15, 2011
physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 4.70 N and a total mass of 2.40 kg. It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 4.80 m from the edge of a 3.00 m drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge. How far does the puck

asked by yeah on November 10, 2010
Physics
An air-hockey puck of mass m floats across the table essentially frictionless on a cushion of air. This puck bumps nearly head-on into a second puck that has 3 times the mass, moving in the opposite direction but with the same speed, v i , as the lighter

asked by Joe on August 6, 2012
Physics
On a frictionless air hockey table, a puck of mass 5.0 kg moving at 2:0m=s approaches an identical puck that is stationary. After collision, the rst puck moves at 30 degrees above the original line of motion; the second puck moves 60 degrees below. (a)

asked by winged17 on April 7, 2015
physics
A 90-kilogram physics student would weigh 2970 Newtons on the surface of planet X. What is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of planet X?

asked by tyler on December 4, 2014
Physics
In a Physics laboratory class, an object of mass 2.1 kg, attached by massless strings to two hanging masses, m1= 1.0 kg and m2= 4.0 kg, is free to slide on the surface of the table. the coefficient of kinetic friction between m2 and the table is 0.30.

asked by Ashley on October 15, 2012
physics
A physics student throws a softball straight up into the air. The ball was in the air for a total of 6.16 s before it was caught at its original position. (a) What was the initial velocity of the ball? (b) How high did it rise?

asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2012
physics
A physics student throws a softball straight up into the air. The ball was in the air for a total of 6.16 s before it was caught at its original position. (a) What was the initial velocity of the ball? (b) How high did it rise?

asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2012
PHYSICS
An object is originally moving at 13 m/s at the top of a frictionless, quarter-circular ramp with a radius of R = 13 meters. It then travels on a frictionless horizontal surface, around a frictionless loop of radius r = 2 meters, across another horizontal,

asked by Kelsey on October 27, 2011
Physics (dynamics)
While standing on a horizontal frictionless surface, a 50 kg student pushes against a wall with an average force of 125 N east for 0.110 s. Calculate the velocity of this student at 0.110 s

asked by Anonymous on March 28, 2011

gr10 math
The playing surface in the game of curling is a rectangular sheet of ice with an area of about 225 m^2. The width is about 40m less than the length. Find the approximate dimensions of the playing surface. How would i solve this?

asked by Rebecca on May 31, 2011
physics
A 0.19 kg hockey puck has a velocity of 2.1 m/s toward the east (the +x direction) as it slides over the frictionless surface of an ice hockey rink. What are the (a) magnitude and (b) direction of the constant net force that must act on the puck during a

asked by john on October 1, 2015
Science
Two blocks (one 10kg; other 5 kg) are connected by a string that runs over the surface of a frictionless table. 1. Are the masses moving or stationary? 2. Whats the accelaration of the 10 kg mass 3. whats the acceleration of the 5 kg mass? if the string is

asked by Lee on September 17, 2012
physics
home / study / science / physics / questions and answers / a block of mass 3kg s sliding along the frictionless … Question A block of mass 3kg s sliding along the frictionless horizontal surface with a speed of 2m/s. 1. What is the kinetic energy of the

asked by anna on April 27, 2016
Physics
A hockey puck is observed to be sliding along a flat frictionless surface at a speed of 42 mm/s. There is no net force acting on the puck. Assuming it doesn’t smash into anything, how FAST will the puck be going 2 h later?

asked by Cameron on October 3, 2018
physics
An 7.95 g bullet is fired horizontally into a 9.03 kg block of wood on an air table and is embedded in it. After the collision, the block and bullet slide along the frictionless surface together with a speed of 11.6 cm/s. What was the initial speed of the

asked by Jess on March 20, 2010
Physics
Three objects with masses m1 = 7.4 kg, m2 = 11 kg, and m3 = 18 kg, respectively, are attached by strings over frictionless pulleys (M1 hangs off the left side of the table and M3 hangs off the right side of the table with M2 between them on the table). The

asked by Dug on October 22, 2012
Physics
A physics student sits by the open window on a train moving at 25 m/sec towards the east. Her boyfriend is standing on the station platform, sadly watching her leave. When the train is 150 meters form the station, it emits a whistle at a frequency of 3000

asked by caleb on April 23, 2010
physics
A physics student sits by the open window on a train moving at 25 m/sec towards the east. Her boyfriend is standing on the station platform, sadly watching her leave. When the train is 150 meters form the station, it emits a whistle at a frequency of 3000

asked by Jason on April 21, 2010
Physics
A physics student sits by the open window on a train moving at 25 m/sec towards the east. Her boyfriend is standing on the station platform, sadly watching her leave. When the train is 150 meters form the station, it emits a whistle at a frequency of 3000

asked by caleb on April 22, 2010

Physics 11 urgent Steve, bob, damon pls
A 30 kg student pushes a 20kg box on frictionless surface. If student accelerates at 0.8m/s^2(N),what is acceleration of bix. now why does the box acceerate towards south, if it is being pushed north should it not move north.

asked by IZAAK SiDney Dunkan on October 30, 2016
Math
Find the area of an air hockey table that is 8 1/4 feet by 4 3/8 feet.

asked by Anonymous on October 5, 2016
Physics
a 78kg hockey player standing on frictionless ice throws a 6.0kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 3.0m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by Sarah on April 26, 2012
emmanuel
in a class of 60 student,26 offer mathmatic and 28 offer physics if 8 student do not offer any of the two subject (1)how many student offer both subject. (2)how many student offer mathematic only. (3)how many student offer physics only. (4)how many student

asked by toluwase on January 7, 2016
Physics
Two Students are pulling on a box initially at rest with a mass of 13.5 kg on a frictionless surface. Student #1 is applying a force of 16.5 N to the left while student #2 is apply a force of 3.7 N to the right. Find the velocity of the box after 6 sec

asked by Tinamarie on January 15, 2014
Physics
A hockey puck is sliding on frictionless ice. It slams against a wall and bounces back toward the player with the same speed that it had before hitting the wall. Does the velocity of the hockey puck change in this process?

asked by Robin on September 15, 2011
Physics
A hockey puck is sliding on frictionless ice. It slams against the wall and bounces back toward the player with the same speed that it had before hitting the wall. Does the velocity of the hockey puck change in this process? Explain.

asked by Crystal on April 10, 2013
physics
A student wearing frictionless in-line skates on a horizontal surface is pushed, from rest, by a friend with a constant force of 45 N. How far must the student be pushed, starting from rest, so that her final kinetic energy is 352 J?

asked by bill on December 15, 2014
physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 2.20 and a total mass of 0.700 . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.90 from the edge of a 2.80 drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge.

asked by Bob on September 30, 2011
physics
a block B (m2 = 14 kg) is at rest on top of a table. Block B is connected to block A (m1 = 4.8 kg) and block C (m3 = 17 kg) by two strings that each pass over a frictionless pulley installed at the either end of the table. The horizontal surface of the

asked by Amy on October 30, 2016

Sta 112
This is my question every one . Please help me have it already I had 6 as my answer. In a class of 50 student 28,22,20 of them offer physics,chemistry and biology respectively also 4 of them offer physics and chemistry but not biology,3 offer physics and

asked by Anonymous on January 23, 2016
physics
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 3.6 cm and a weight of 38 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Anonymous on November 22, 2011
physics
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 3.6 cm and a weight of 38 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Anonymous on November 22, 2011
Physics
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 4.8 cm and a weight of 26 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Anonymous on October 4, 2012
Physics HELP
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 4.0 cm and a weight of 30 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Kels on October 4, 2011
English (grammar)
The players were playing hockey

asked by The players on September 5, 2016
Physics
a person pushes on a hockey puck with their stick at an angle so the vertical force is 22N down and the horizontal force is 45N forward. Assume the ice is frictionless. What is the actual force the hockey player transmits to the puck? what is the work done

asked by Anonymous on May 29, 2014
physics
The figure below shows an object of mass M = 1,276 g. It is free to move along a horizontal, frictionless surface. This object is further connected to a second object with a mass of m = 1,362 g by means of a massless string that extends around a massless,

asked by m2a on October 10, 2009
physics
a student has six textbooks, each has a thickness of 3.6cm and a weight of 28 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all of the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by bec on November 6, 2011
PHYSICS
ADDITIONAL INO ADDED AT BOTTOM a spectator at a hockey game is sitting in a seat situated 10.4m above ground leve. if the spectator has a mass of 52.6 kg, calculate her gravitational potential energy relative to: a)ground level Eg=mgh =52.6X9.8X10.4

asked by Sarah on January 31, 2010

physics
A frictionless30degrees incline should provide an acceleration of 4.90m/s2 down the incline. A student with a stopwatch finds that an object, starting from rest, slides down a 15m very smooth incline in exactly 3s. Is the incline frictionless?

asked by julia on October 9, 2012
Physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 2.20 newtons and a total mass of 0.700 kilograms . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.90 meters from the edge of a 2.80 meter drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge.

asked by Steve on September 30, 2011
Stats
A study of the students taking distance learning courses at a university finds that they are mostly older students not living in the university town. Choose a distance learning student at random. Let A be the event that the student is 25 years old or older

asked by Anonymous on April 10, 2012
Math(Scale Factors and Scale Diagrams)
Sarah’s dad found a table hockey game with dimensions 9 1/4 inches by 4 15/16 inches. Unfortunately, this game was only 1/4 the size of the table top hockey game he wanted. Determine the dimensions of the table Sarah’s dad wanted. Please help me with this,

asked by Jenny on June 16, 2016
English
Would you please check if I answered these correctly? a. I just bought CDs by Regina Spektor, John Legend, and Prince. b. I just bought: CDs by Regina Spektor, John Legend, and Prince. I picked B because d suffices fine for this. a. Students, who study

asked by Leesa on October 21, 2009
Physics
A 2.1 kg mass is connected to a spring with spring constant k= 180 N/m and unstretched length 16 cm. The pair are mounted on a frictionless air table, with the free end of the spring attached to a frictionless pivot. The mass is set into circular motion at

asked by Courtney on February 21, 2013
Physics
Suppose you’re eating in a restaurant where the dishes are shared at the table and all placed uniformly on a rotating disk-like surface. Model this surface as a thin disk of radius 33.4 cm. You can’t stop thinking about physics even though you’re out

asked by Santhiya on April 22, 2016
physics
A physics student pulls a block of mass m = 20 kg up an incline at a slow constant velocity for a distance of d = 4.5 m. The incline makes an angle Δ = 30° with the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the inclined plane

asked by sunny on March 8, 2015
Physics
A 50 kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless ice surface throws a ball, mass of 5.0 kg horizontally with a speed of 3.0 m/s. With what speed will the player recoil? • What formula/s should I use?

asked by Lea on August 31, 2015
physics
A 182 block is launched by compressing a spring of constant k=200N/m a distance of 15cm. The spring is mounted horizontally, and the surface directly under it is frictionless. But beyond the equilibrium position of the spring end, the surface has

asked by haji on April 20, 2015

Physics
Hi, just need a little help with this physics question please. A cylindrical tank of water is located 68m deep in water. An air lock at the bottome of the tank allows access. The sailor must wait while the air pressure in the lock is increased until it

asked by Sally on February 19, 2015
physics
A copper rod of length 0.83 m is lying on a frictionless table (see the drawing). Each end of the rod is attached to a fixed wire by an unstretched spring that has a spring constant of k = 73 N/m. A magnetic field with a strength of 0.17 T is oriented

asked by VictorD2 on March 25, 2013
physics
An air puck of mass m1 = 0.45 kg is tied to a string and allowed to revolve in a circle of radius R = 1.0 m on a frictionless horizontal table. The other end of the string passes through a hole in the center of the table, and a mass m2 = 1.10 kg is

asked by melissa on November 30, 2010
physics
A 80- kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless sheet of ice throws a 6.2- kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 2.1 m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by kevin on October 31, 2009
physics
A 72- kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless sheet of ice throws a 5.6- kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 3.9 m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2014
Physics
A hockey puck slides off the edge of a table with the initial velocity of 20m/s. The table height is 2.0 m. What is the accleration of the puck right after it leaves the table?

asked by Jj on November 6, 2011
Physics
A paladin howitzer fires a 46.00 kg projectile towards a 1000 kg metal block resting on a frictionless surface. Just before impact, the projectile is traveling with a horizontal velocity of 529 m/s. After the collision, the embedded projectile and the

asked by Samiboo711 on February 2, 2015
Statistics 2231
12.05 A study of the students taking distance learning courses at a university finds that they are mostly older students not living in the university town. Choose a distance learning student at random. Let A be the event that the student is 25 years old or

asked by Regina on October 6, 2012
Solid mensuration
A wooden sphere 16 inches in diameter is placed on a table. The ball is cut horizontally 4in and 10in above the table surface. Find the surface area of the table remains after two cutting

asked by anonymous on March 10, 2016
physics
A 40 gram bullet is fired horizontally from a gun with a momentum of 2.8 (kg*m/s) and embeds itself into a 300 gram block of wood initially at rest on a wooden horizontal surface. After this collision the wood block slides 15 meters before falling off a

asked by Cass on January 16, 2013

Physics
A 40 gram bullet is fired horizontally from a gun with a momentum of 2.8 (kg*m/s) and embeds itself into a 300 gram block of wood initially at rest on a wooden horizontal surface. After this collision the wood block slides 15 meters before falling off a

asked by Cass on January 16, 2013
physics
Note: The direction of the acceleration ~a of the system is given in the figure. Three masses (17 kg, 21 kg and 67 kg) are connected by strings. The 67 kg mass slides on a horizontal surface of a table top and the 17 kg and 21 kg masses hang over the edge

asked by I dont like physics on November 24, 2015
Physics
An airplane has a mass of 2.8×106 kg , and the air flows past the lower surface of the wings at 81 m/s . Part A: If the wings have a surface area of 1100 m2 , how fast must the air flow over the upper surface of the wing if the plane is to stay in the

asked by Ashley on November 4, 2016
Probability
48% of the students in the school are female and the probability of taking of physics is independent of the gender of the student, what is the probability that a student chosen at random is both a female and taking physics?

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2017
Math
Out of a group of 600 students taking computer,mathematics or physics,there is no student taking both computer and mathematics.Every student takes computer or mathematics.150 take physics and mathematics and 250 take only one of the subjects.Find 1) the

asked by Mitu on December 30, 2015

Categories
buy coursework cheap essay writing service do my assignment essay writing services how to write an admission essay

identify the initial amount a and the growth factor b in the exponential function.

Can somebody please check my answers?

  1. Identify the initial amount a and the growth factor b in the exponential function.

g(x)=14*2^x
a)a=14, b=x
b)a=14, b=2 <<<<
c)a=28, b=1
d)a=28, b=x

  1. Identify the initial amount a and the growth factor b in the exponential function.

f(t)=1.4^t
a)a=1, b=0.4
b)a=1.4, b=0<<<<
c)a=1.4, b=t
d)a=1, b=1.4

3.Find the balance in the account after a given period.
$4000 principal earning 6% compounded annually, after 5 years.

a)$6,726.28
b)$5,352.90<<<<
c)$5,395.40
d)$7,716.74

6.Identify the initial amount a and the growth factor b in the exponential function.

y=5*0.5^x

a)a=5, b=x
b)a=0.5, b=5
c)a=5, b=0.5<<<<<
d)a=0.5, b=x

  1. State whether the equation represents exponential growth, exponential decay or neither.

y=5.8(3/7)^x
a) Exponential growth
b) Exponential decay<<<<<
c) Neither

2 1 3,503
asked by Sage
Feb 16, 2016

1 ok

2 initial amount is 1.4^0=1

3 ok

6 ok

7 ok

I’m surprised you blew it on #2; the others indicate good understanding.

What do you think b=0 would indicate?

0 6
posted by Steve
Feb 16, 2016
As soon as I posted this I realized I put the wrong one :/
Thank you for checking my work!

6 1
posted by Sage
Feb 16, 2016
1B 2D 3B 4B 5A 6C 7B 8B 9B 10D 11B 12C 100% Correct

48 1
posted by Zolita
Feb 22, 2017
zolita is right

14 1
posted by Kylie
Feb 25, 2017

Zolita is 100% right if you are in connections.

  1. B.
  2. D.
  3. B.
  4. B.
  5. A.
  6. C.
  7. B.
  8. B.
  9. B.
  10. D.
  11. B.
  12. C.

These answers are all correct in Pre-AP (and possibly on-level too) Algebra in connections academy.

25 0
posted by AnswerKing
Mar 1, 2017
i can confirm that zolita and answer king are correct!

7 1
posted by :))
Mar 27, 2017
Oui, AnswerKing and Zolita are correct!

2 1
posted by Velvet
Jan 23, 2018
yep! 12/12 100%!

3 1
posted by raychelz
Jan 24, 2018
Yes, the answers provided by Zolita and answerking are correct.

4 1
posted by non
Jan 29, 2018

OMG ZOLITA IS SOOOO CORRECT I GOT 12/12 DEFINETLT SUPER GREATFUL!

4 1
posted by HAHA
Jan 30, 2018
Thank you so much Zolitaaaaa

3 0
posted by croutons
Feb 3, 2018
Thanksss Zolita 100%:)

3 0
posted by Dat Farm Girl
Feb 7, 2018
hey anyone want to be freinds im in connections in washington connections sucks so i have no freinds if u want to talk my email is isaiahtubbs02@gmail. com

1 1
posted by isaiah_lange13
Feb 13, 2018

  1. B.
  2. D.
  3. B.
  4. B.
  5. A.
  6. C.
  7. B.
  8. B.
  9. B.
  10. D.
  11. B.
  12. C.
    U3L7 Exponential Growth and Decay 1 2
    posted by DingDong
    Feb 20, 2018

Thanksss Zolita!!! 🙂

0 0
posted by that emo girl!
Feb 28, 2018
Thanks Zolita!

0 0
posted by I THE SMART
Oct 14, 2018
Lol still right 2019 thanks Zolita

2 1
posted by Anonymous
Jan 25, 2019
She is still right

1 1
posted by Ha Ha Ha
Feb 3, 2019
Thankk youuuuuuuuuuu

1 0
posted by Chenlings
Feb 13, 2019

Thanks zoilta

0 0
posted by xxsupreme_masterxx
Feb 13, 2019
Thanks DingDong and Zolta

0 0
posted by Kelly
Feb 14, 2019
@Zolita is correct!

0 0
posted by
Feb 18, 2019
yup zolita is =>

that was right get it?

0 0
posted by @n0nym0u$
Mar 6, 2019

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name five essential components of a reflex arc

WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT 1: REFLEXES

Submission Instructions

Please complete your answers to the lab questions on this form. Please complete your answers, and SAVE the file in a location which you will be able to find again. Then, attach and submit the completed form to the Week 3 Laboratory dropbox in the Ashford University classroom. 

Post-Lab Questions

1. What is the pupillary response of the right eye when a light was shone into the pupil?

2. What is the consensual response? (The response of the left eye).

3. What branch of the nervous system controls this response?

4. Can this response be inhibited?

5. Define what a reflex is.

6. Name five essential components of a reflex arc.

WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT 2: TESTING CRANIAL NERVE FUNCTIONS

Result Tables

Table 2: Cranial Nerve Function Testing

Cranial Nerve

Test

Result

Post-Lab Questions

1. What do your cranial nerve test results tell you?

2. When might these tests be used in a clinical setting?

3. What cranial nerve may not be functioning properly if a patient cannot detect taste on the anterior tongue?

4. What cranial nerve may not be functioning properly if a patient can move his/her eyes medial, superior, and inferior, but not lateral?

WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT 3: TESTING TOUCH, TEMPERATURE, AND PAIN

Result Tables

Table 3: Blind Coin Differentiation

Coin

Observation

Guess

Quarter

Dime

Nickel

Penny

Post-Lab Questions

1. Describe the difference between the four US coins.

2. Was the participant able to distinguish between these coins?

3. Which coin was the easiest to identify by touch? Which was the most difficult to distinguish by touch?

4. Why is the detection of temperature important to maintaining overall health?

5. Did the participant notice any difference between the amounts of pain reception in the different areas tested?

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a solution of licl in water has xlicl = 0.0500. what is the molality?

A solution of LiCl in water has XLiCl = 0.0800. What is the molality?

0 0 734
asked by jamiya
Sep 18, 2012
XLiCl = 0.08; therefore,
XH2O = 0.92
If we take 1 mol of solution, we have 0.92 mols H2O or 0.92*18 = 16.56g H2O or 0.01656 kg solvent.
m LiCl = mols LiCl/kg solvent or
0.08/0.01656 = ?

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Sep 18, 2012
What is the molality of a solution composed of 38.0 g of cane sugar (C12H22O11) dissolved in 175 g of water?

0 0
posted by Jai
Jun 5, 2013

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identify the sentence in which the underlined verb does not agree with its subject

Identify the sentence in which the underlined verb does not agree with its subject. Everyone on the team (works) together well. Both of them (are looking) forward to the field trip. Neither of the boys is (excited) about playing football.
23,508 results
English
Identify the incorrect word in the sentence. My point was that Sophia’s presentation was better than your’s or mine. A. mine B. Sophia’s C. your’s * D. no error Identify the sentence in which the underlined verb does not agree with its subject. A.

asked by Cassie on May 19, 2015
English
Identify the sentence in which the underlined verb does not agree with its subject. Everyone on the team (works) together well. Both of them (are looking) forward to the field trip. Neither of the boys is (excited) about playing football. One of the girls

asked by Mike on May 19, 2016
english 2
can yall check my answers? 16. identify the sentence in which the underlined pronoun is used incorrectly a. YOU’RE never going to believe what i just heard! b. have you turned in YOU’RE english paper yet?

asked by jessie on January 8, 2019
English
Identify the sentence in which the underlined verb does not agree with its subject. A. Chance and Martina are listening to the radio. B. Most of the television shows are entertaining. C. There are no information to support those ratings. D. France and

asked by Latanya on January 4, 2019
English

  1. Identify the simple subject in the sentence “There are too many people on this elevator.” A. many B. people C. There D. elevator I picked B, because people is the subject and the verb is are. This places the verb before the subject, since the subject of

asked by Cassie on October 28, 2013

English

  1. identify the sentence in which the underlined verb does notagree with its subject A. Both Sarah and Eleana are playing this Saturday (Are playing is underlined) B. Either of the girls are a good choice for a leader (Are is underlined) C. Everyone in

asked by ranee on May 19, 2016
English
Write a sentence that matches the form provided in the description (Sentence with compound subject and action verb.) My Sentence is : The lizard and the cat jumped on the mouse. Now i need a second sentence to match my first sentence (Sentence with a

asked by Katie on April 16, 2010
9th Grade Literature

  1. Which of these is a complete sentence? A. Although the weather is sometimes warm in early March. B. Forecasters predict six more weeks of winter this year.

asked by Zurai on September 6, 2017
READING
UNDERLINE THE VERB OR VERB GROUP IN EACH SENTENCE. THEN WRITE A NEW SENTENCE USING THE VERB OR VERB GROUP YOU UNDERLINED. BRAN, A THIN BROWN SKIN, COVERS RICE. I KNOW (COVERS) IS SUPPOSED TO BE UNDERLINED, BUT I DON’T GET WHAT IT MEANS WHEN IT SAYS “THEN

asked by Celest on February 23, 2012
Grammar Please hurry please
Identify the words that correctly complete the following sentence. If none of the choices are correct, choose “none of the above.” In a sentence with a compound verb, each verb (Points : 1) may have a different subject must have the same subject may not

asked by Jenny on August 27, 2013
UNIVERSITY COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION I
write 9 sentences about financial planning. Each sentence must demonstrate a different verb tense (so, only use each tense once). For each sentence, identify the subject, the verb, and the verb tense demonstrated. In order to receive full credit, you must

asked by dedo on September 2, 2010
English hurry
Identify the words that correctly complete the following sentence. If none of the choices are correct, choose “none of the above.” In a sentence with a compound verb, each verb (Points : 1) may have a different subject must have the same subject may not

asked by dez on August 27, 2013
Subject Verb agreement.
Which of the following sentences does illustrate subject verb agreement? I think it’s this one, but I’m not sure. Tricia, as well as all her colleagues, are being trained on new equiptment. The subject and verb in that sentence agree. Good job. Each

asked by Patty on December 31, 2006
critical thinking
Which of the following is not a primary sentence pattern for asking questions in English? A. Helping verb, subject, main verb B. Subject, action verb, direct object, helping verb C. Adverb, verb, subject D. Adjective/pronoun, subject, interrogative verb my

asked by Saddia on March 22, 2015
critical thinking
Which of the following is not a primary sentence pattern for asking questions in English? A. Helping verb, subject, main verb B. Subject, action verb, direct object, helping verb C. Adverb, verb, subject D. Adjective/pronoun, subject, interrogative verb my

asked by Saddia on March 21, 2015

critical thinking
Which of the following is not a primary sentence pattern for asking questions in English? A. Helping verb, subject, main verb B. Subject, action verb, direct object, helping verb C. Adverb, verb, subject D. Adjective/pronoun, subject, interrogative verb my

asked by Saddia on March 22, 2015
English
1) What is the principal part of the underlined verb in the sentence? I have never beaten my grandfather at chess. A. past B. past participle C. present D. present participle “beaten” is b past participle 2) What is the principal part of the underlined

asked by Rochelle on May 25, 2016
English
When a the subject of sentence has 2 or more nouns or pronouns connected by “or” or “nor,” the verb must agree with the noun or pronoun that appears closest to the verb in the sentence. Would this be true or false?

asked by Diane on June 2, 2011
English
Identify the part of speech or the form of a part of speech in the underlined portion of each sentence. 1. The yellow house down the street from me is for sale. (Down is underlined) a. preposition b. conjunction c. adjective d. adverb I think #1 is A, or

asked by Heather on April 18, 2018
Grammar
When a the subject of sentence has 2 or more nouns or pronouns connected by “or” or “nor,” the verb must agree with the noun or pronoun that appears closest to the verb in the sentence. A) True B) False I answered A

asked by Marie on November 28, 2012
grammar
1.When are you having Jamie’s surprise party? I am not sure if ‘you’ is the complete subject or if it is ‘Jamie’s surprise party’. 2.John and Nicole washes the dishes. A Sentence is correct B. ‘Washes’ should be changed to’wash in order to make the subject

asked by lizzie on July 1, 2011
English grammar
The words here and there have generally been labeled as adverbs even though they indicate place. In sentences beginning with here or there, the subject follows the verb. Ex) There (is / are) two pins on the table. In this sentence ‘two pins’ is the subject

asked by John on December 10, 2007
E.L.A. PLEASE CHECK!
Identify the underlined word in the sentence. Write either D for direct object or I for indirect object. Get that dog and those puppies out of here! Underlined = puppies I think it is Indirect object Identify the underlined word in the sentence. Write

asked by Skye on November 10, 2014
English
Please check my answers and correct me if I’m wrong 1. Identify the sentence in which the underlined verb DOES NOT agree with its subject. A. The trophies (are) ready to be awarded. B. There (is) no reason why he cannot play. C. Most of these math

asked by GummyBears on May 8, 2016
English 1
Sorry, put one more sentence Name verb and subject for the sentence “Compaies usually love these qualities.” Is the subject companies and verb is usually? and for this sentence “He would be a model employee” Would he be the verb and be the verb?

asked by Ana on October 13, 2014

Language Arts

  1. Identify the term that correctly identifies the sentence. After all, I have always been a night owl, and I prefer moonlight to sunlight. A. Simple Sentence. B. Compound Sentence. C. Complex Sentence. D. Compound-Complex Sentence.*** 19. Identify the

asked by Haley on December 6, 2016
language arts
Identify the choice that best describes the underlined word in the sentence. 1. With practice, both Kendra and (Jason) mastered the violin. A. Part of a compound subject. B. Part of a compound predicate C. A direct object Identify the choice that best

asked by Skylar on September 14, 2015
English
1.the subject of the sentence is first person, then the verb must be in what form? third person second person fourth person first person Question 2 Verbs indicate what? location punctuation history time Question 3 Verbs may also indicate what? use date

asked by christopher on April 20, 2010
L.A
In each sentence, if the italicized verb does not agree with the subject, circle the verb and write it correct form. I will capitalize the verb since I don’t know how to italicized. 1.Big Ma and Cassie SHARES the same bedroom. How would I solve this?

asked by Shadow on February 9, 2010
English (Check answers)

  1. Which of the following is a specific word as opposed to a general word? A. Job B. Occupation C. Physician*** D. Profession 2. Choose the topic that best limits the broad subject music. A. Famous pianist B. Modern rap music C. History of the harmonica D.

asked by Catalena on May 25, 2017
English

  1. Which of the following is a specific word as opposed to a general word? A. Job B. Occupation C. Physician*** D. Profession 2. Choose the topic that best limits the broad subject music. A. Famous pianist B. Modern rap music C. History of the harmonica D.

asked by Catalena on May 25, 2017
English
Underline the noun clause in each sentence.Identify it as Do Direct Object,S for Subject,PN for Predicate Nominative,or OP for Obect of Preposition. 1.I do not know where she works after school. i need to know what lets you know which one is which. The

asked by JOphinia on December 13, 2006
Technical writing
In order to have a complete sentence, you need a __. Select one: a. subject, verb, and a complete thought b. subject and verb c. subject, verb, and a prepositional phrase d. subject, verb, and a dependent clause

asked by Michelle on February 16, 2017
English
Select the letter of the sentence in which the mood of the verb is correct in contemporary formal English. A. If she was(underlined) taller, she could be a model. B. It is important that the eggs were(underlined) beaten until they are stiff. C. They

asked by anthony on April 20, 2011
E.L.A. PLEASE CHECK!
Which choice best describes the underlined word or words in each sentence? The inhabitants of the Marshall Islands made complex instruments for navigation by the stars. Underlined is: The inhabitants of the Marshall Islands A- complete subject B- simple

asked by Skye on October 1, 2014

Grammar and Composition

  1. John and Nicole washes the dishes a. sentence structure is correct b. “Washes” should be changed to “wash” in order to make the subject and verb agree c. a verb usually agrees with its subject in number d. sentence needs a helping verb B 2. A kitten or

asked by y912f on October 16, 2009
English, please help
Which sentence below has an underlined action verb? A. The poem “Easter Wings” is written in the form of wings. (“is” is underlined) B. “Paradise Lost” is an allegory. (“is” is underlined) C. In “Meditation 17,” Donne compares man to an island. (“compares”

asked by anthony on March 9, 2011
literature
Identify the part of speech for the underlined word in the sentence: After the tiring game, I quickly went to get ice cream and celebrate our hard-fought victory! victory is the one underlined. Question 4 options: A.)noun B.)verb C.)preposition

asked by Jay on December 20, 2016
Sentence skills

  1. The following sentence is an example of which primary English sentence pattern? The toddler tossed his father the ball. A. Subject+ action verb + direct object B. Pronoun+ subject+ interrogative verb (C. Subject+ action verb+ indirect object+ direct

asked by Jocelynn on February 2, 2016
english
What is the sequence of components in the following sentence? Listless and depressed by vistas of snow and gray skies, Dieter left the cabin and walked toward the frozen pond. A. Subject, modifier, verb B. Subject, verb, modifier C. Modifier, subject, verb

asked by Diana on April 11, 2015
english
What is the simple subject and simple predicate of the following sentence? As I skiied down the hill,the wind bit at my face. http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/subject.htm Scroll down for the section to help you determine the difference between the simple

asked by arielle on October 24, 2006
English
I need to find the subject and the verb in each sentence. If the subject is understood, write (you). Can someone tell me if I am on the right track? 1.Have you ever heard stories about dragons? Subject-dragons, verb-stories 2.Picture a yellow-speckled,

asked by Samantha on September 16, 2007
reading
what is the sequence of components in the following sentence listless and depressed by vistas of snow and grey sky’s, Dieter left the cabin and walked toward the frozen pond . (A).subject modifier verb (B).modifier subject modifier verb (C)modifier subject

asked by kyle on September 10, 2015
PLEASE CHECK! ELA
Which choice best describes the underlined words in this sentence? There goes that antique fire truck from the car show. A- simple subject B- complete subject C- compound subject D- none of the above I think B. Which choice best describes the underlined

asked by Skye on September 29, 2014
English
Underline the subject and verb. Does the verb agree with the subject? In my garden, the first flowers has bloomed. subject:flowers verb: has The verb should read: have

asked by Kimmy on July 28, 2016

E.L.A. PLEASE CHECK!
Which choice best describes the underlined word or words in each sentence? For several decades, satellites around the earth have broadcast signals and monitored weather. Underlined is: satellites A- complete subject B- simple subject C- compound subject D-

asked by Skye on October 1, 2014
english
The letter is written by Max. I have to identify the simple & complete subject and verb in this sentence. Along with the verb. I am very confused.

asked by elizabeth on September 16, 2012
English
.the subject of the sentence is first person, then the verb must be in what form? third person second person fourth person first person Question 2 Verbs indicate what? location punctuation history time Question 3 Verbs may also indicate what? use date

asked by christopher on April 20, 2010
English
Identify the choice that best describes the underlined verb. Bowling is the top participation sport in the U.S. today, with 53 million players. a. Gerund b. Present participle c. Participial phrase d. Infinitive The underlined verb is bowling.

asked by Anonymous on December 4, 2015
mechanics of commun
can you please identify the verb, complete verb phrase, sentence pattern, the subject, indirect object, direct object, complement, infinitive or prepositional phrases or clauses for the sentence, “Ms. Georges and I submitted purchase requisitions.”

asked by wanda on September 21, 2014
ENGLISH 1
INDICATE THE FUNCTION OF THE UNDERLINED NOUNS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. 1. THE CLASS DISCUSSIONS IS ON THE PREVENTION OF DISEASES. THE UNDERLINED IS DISEASES 2. MARIE STEPHEN ADMINISTERED INJECTION TO HER PATIENT. THE UNDERLINED IS INJECTION (Please

asked by KRISTEL on June 10, 2007
English
What is the predicate for this question? One african bird is named the honey guide. The predicate in any sentence is the verb and all that goes with it (adverbs, adverbial clauses and phrases). Usually the subject (and all that goes with it, if anything)

asked by Cheyenne on October 31, 2006
Gramma
The following sentence is grammatically incorrect: Where the lack of a natural prewdatoar in Yellowstone National Park has aresulted in the overpopulation of bison, deer and elk. 1.The sentence is not complet 2.This is a run-on-sentence 3. The subject does

asked by Lady Gia on January 15, 2013
sentence patterns
we need some help.We write tomorrow an exam-sentence patterns.we have already written 3 times this exam but we cannot pass.it is too complicated.we get a sentence which has 3 lines it is very hard to understand a sentence at all.we understand those basic

asked by ken on September 11, 2007
2nd grade
Anybody doing volunteer work look like a hero. edit this sentence so the subject and verb agree

asked by Anonymous on October 22, 2010

E.L.A. PLEASE CHECK!
Which choice best describes the underlined words in this sentence? Red and a strange shade of green were the only colors available. Underlined is: Red _ shade A- simple subject B- complete subject C- compound subject D- none of the above I think it is

asked by Skye on September 30, 2014
E.L.A. PLEASE CHECK!
Which choice best describes the underlined words in the sentence? Use a star chart to identify the stars and planets on a clear night. Underlined: (The whole sentence is underlined) A-simple predicate B- compound predicate C- complete predicate D- none of

asked by Skye on October 1, 2014
Please Please help! English
Which of the following sentences DOES NOT illustrate subject- verb agreement. 1.Each of the players need a locker. 2.He said that the computer is broken. 3.There go the members of the cast. 4.We knew that rivers flow south. 1.Each of the players need a

asked by Anonymous on October 14, 2006
English
Identify the part of speech or the form of a part of speech in the underlined portion of the next sentence. Exhausted and tired, I went home and immediately collapsed on the couch. A. Noun B. Verb C. Adjective D. Adverb immediately is the underlined word D

asked by Angela on April 7, 2014
English
Identify the part of speech for the underlined word He WAS deeply in love with Janine. a.) Action verb b.) Helping verb c.) Linking verb d.) None of the above its either C or D

asked by English verb help on January 13, 2016
grammar
Identify the sentence parts by placing the red abbreviations in their correct locations. Put parentheses around the prepositional phrases. Identify the subject, verb, and any complements (direct object, indirect object, subject complement, objective

asked by Jasmine on September 23, 2015
Language
Identify the choice that best describes the underlined word in the sentence. My friend Jorge can play the guitar and sing. Guitar is underlined. A. Part of a compound subject B. Part of a compound predicate C. A direct object I think it is B…?

asked by Cassie on September 11, 2013
english/check please
label the subject and the verb of each of each clause. Then write whether the sentence is simple or complex. 1)Every afternoon the baseball team practices. subject: the baseball team verb: practices simple sentence 2)When practice is over, the players are

asked by joe on April 30, 2012
8th grade
Fine the complete subject or predicate of the sentence. then identify the simple subject or verb. Examble; The peaks of the undersea mountains rise above the surface of the water and form islands.

asked by keimon on August 12, 2009
3 grade english
choose a verb from the list to replace each underlined word or words. change each verb to the correct tence if necessary. write the sentence. view, leap, enjoy they gave this sentence and they gave this word and they say change each verb. they give this

asked by dw on January 26, 2012

English grammar
A beggar with two children __ taking a rest in the shade. (be) In the sentence, the subject is ‘a beggar’. ‘Two children’ is not the sucbject of this sentence. Bracket ‘with two children’. Then you can notice that you have to use a singular auxiliary

asked by John on December 10, 2007
E.L.A. PLEASE CHECK!
Which choice best describes the underlined word or words in each sentence? The ancient Sumerians, Egyptians, and Chinese each developed a unique system of writing. Underlined is: Sumerians Egyptians Chinese A- simple subject B- compound subject C- complete

asked by Skye on October 1, 2014
English

  1. Identify the action verb in the following sentence. Barry diligently writes to his grandmother every week. writes* diligently every his 17. Identify the linking verb in the following sentence. Michael is very compassionate. is* Michael very

asked by M on September 27, 2016
Grammar
Select the correct statement: A) The predicate of the sentence is that part which says something about the subject, and it always contains a verb. B) The predicate of the sentence is that part which says something about the subject, and it sometimes

asked by Marie on December 12, 2012
English please help!
I really need someone to answer check my answers. If my answers are wrong please tell me what I did wrong. Cross out any prepositional phrases. Underline the subject once and the verb/verb phrase twice. 1.) After class give the teacher your paper.

asked by Littlelady on November 8, 2015
English
Identify the part of the speech for the underlined word. Mr. Manson is running for the senate this fall. (“is” is the underlines word) action verb helping verb linking verb none of the above Is “is” a helping verb or a linking verb? I’m stuck between the

asked by SkatingDJ on January 18, 2016
English
The following sentence is an example of which primary English sentence pattern? The toddler tossed his father the ball. A. Pronoun, subject, interrogative verb B. Subject, action verb, indirect object, direct object. C. Subject, verb, object, object

asked by Cassie on November 9, 2013
English
Use the sentence parts below to create a sentence with a linking verb. Remember, a linking verb is a verb that connects a subject with a word that describes or identifies it. Read the model sentence: Sam appears worried that the dog will bite her. seems

asked by cas on February 28, 2019
English
identify the sentence in which the bolded verb does not agree with its subject. A.) Everyone on the team WORKS together well. B.) Both of them ARE LOOKING forward to the field trip. C.) Neither of the boys IS EXCITED about playing

asked by Cassie on May 21, 2014
writing
Can someone check my answers for me? True or False… 1. TRUE you should use a comma before the word “and.” 2. FALSE The following is a sentence fragment: It no longer flies. 3. TRUE In the following sentence, the ()’d word is used correctly: The

asked by Chris on September 13, 2012

chemistry
Identify the species which obey the octet rule for every atom. (The central atoms are underlined). a. ClO3- (Cl is underlined) b. SO2 (S is underlined) c. NO2+ (N is underlined) d. NO2 (N is underlined) e. ClO- (Cl is underlined)

asked by Vishnu on October 4, 2008
english
Identify the underlined part of speech in the following sentence: Unless you come to class and complete the work, you will learn very little. Answer a. noun b. pronoun c. verb d. adjective e. adverb f. preposition g. conjunction

asked by tymeesha on March 14, 2012
Language Arts
Write S if the underlined word is a subject pronoun. Write O if the word is an object pronoun. 1. They’ll climb up the ladder with us. Us is underlined This is an object pronoun 2. It will make a great clubhouse It is underlined It is a subject pronoun 3.

asked by Patrick on January 25, 2016
English ASAP Please
Which one of the following sentences demostates correct subject-verb or tense agreement? A. Neither my team nor Sandra’s team are in the playoffs. B. One pair of shoes cost four dollars. C. How many times has she told you that same old story? D. The sound

asked by Danielle on June 23, 2006
Language Arts
Write S if the underlined word is a subject pronoun. Write O if the word is an object pronoun. 1.We learned about the Anasazi people. We is underlined and this is a subject pronoun 2. They built a civilization in the Southwest. They is underlined and this

asked by Patrick on January 26, 2016
english
how do i compose a complete sentence that contains a plural subject and one verb. Underline and identify each.

asked by aran on January 17, 2012
english
Identify the subject, object, and verb in this sentence: Paralegals must have good ethics.

asked by amanda on November 9, 2016
English Grammar
If the subjects are joined by ¡°nor¡± or ¡°or,¡± the verb agrees with the closer subject (the last one). 1. Either you or I _ to go there. (be) 2. Neither the prices nor the quality _ changed. (have) (Explanation) In Sentence 1, the

asked by John on December 8, 2007
English
Multiple Choice Choose the meaning of the bold word in each passage. 1. The MAGNITUDE of the disaster is hard to imagine. (1 point) size*** pain debris effect 2. The EPICENTER of the 9.0 magnitude quake was under the Indian Ocean near the west coast of the

asked by Moomilk on October 17, 2017
English 9 grade
HOW COULD I CREATE A SENTENCE USING THREE ADJECTIVES A SUBJECT A HELPING VERB A VERB AND AN OBJECT OR A PREDICATE NOUN?? AND ALSO PUTTING THE SENTENCE IN A SENTENCE DIAGRAM.

asked by marelyn on May 4, 2010

English
Read each sentence. Underline the compound subject compound verb or compound direct object Shakespeare wrote plays and sonnets I underlined plays and sonnets That musician writes and plays his own music I underlined writes and plays People ski and

asked by Jerald on January 24, 2013
english
identify the verb,subject in the sentence.a cloud of fruit flies hovered over the banana

asked by jose on October 7, 2010
Language Arts
Write S if the underlined word is the subject pronoun. Write O if the word is an object pronoun. 1. I would like a treehouse. The word I is underlined. This is a subject pronoun 2. Will you help me with the project? The word me is underlined and this is an

asked by Patrick on January 25, 2016
English 1
What is the verb and subject in this sentence> “His experience with computers and copy machines will be valuable in an office.” For the subject I got his but I can’t figure out the verb!

asked by Ana on October 13, 2014
english
What a most delightful quatrain Jamie has written. In the above sentence i need to identify the subject. I don’t know if its quatrain or Jame. And I also need to tell what the form of the verb is. I think the verb is has written and if so is that

asked by jessy on October 2, 2008
English
Identify the sentence pattern used below. I e-mailed my English Teacher my essay. My answer is subject verb

asked by Aaron on October 8, 2014
Spanish
Verb Distinction Give the correct form of the appropriate verb, saber or conocer, which would be used in writing the following sentences in Spanish. Be sure the verb is written in correct form to agree with the subject of the sentence and also in the

asked by RJ on March 24, 2013
English
Sandy’s throw to first base was short the grey-blue ocean stretched out before him. dianna gave George a cold shoulder at the party assist me with Identify the sentence parts by putting the red abbreviations to their correct locations. Put parentheses

asked by Sherrill on January 28, 2016
english
Decide if the underlined pronoun in the sentences below is used as a subject, a predicate nominative, or an appositive. 15. Both Ben and “he” will graduate at the same time. (1 point) subject *** predicate nominative appositive 16. The driver of that

asked by searcher on January 18, 2017
latin
When I am translating Latin sentances, where should I start. Should I identify what all the words mean or should I find the subject of the sentence or maybe the main verb.

asked by Ryan on October 12, 2008

English

  1. Why is the agreement in the following sentence incorrect? Neither of the cakes are very expensive. The verb should agree with cakes, which is a plural noun. The verb should agree with cakes, which is a singular noun. The verb should agree with neither,

asked by Anonymous on February 1, 2013
english
Identify the subject, object, and verb in this sentence: Paralegals need strong ethics. need is verb paralegals is subject strong is object am i right

asked by ryan on December 13, 2017
GT LA
How does the phrase studying grammar function in sentence 4? Sentence 4: I hated studying grammar when I was in school. A) main verb Eliminate B) direct object C) subject complement D) subject of the sentence. subject My answer: D

asked by Like I’d Tell You. on May 18, 2016
English
The plane came down later than expected. 15. In this sentence, what part of speech is the word down? A. Preposition B. Adjective C. Adverb D. Conjunction I picked C, because the word down modifies the verb came, which makes it an adverb. Is this correct?

asked by Cassie on October 27, 2013
English
Identify the subject, object, and verb in this sentence. Online classes require good time-management skills.

asked by Susie on April 24, 2016

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which of the following excerpts from orpheus and eurydice is an example of hyperbole

1.Which of the following excerpts from Orpheus and Eurydice is an example of hyperbole?
235 results
language arts
Read the following hyperbole from Orpheus and Eurydice: “Rivers stopped flowing along the banks so that they could hear Orpheus, whose music was more harmonious than theirs.” What is the most likely reason that the author included this hyperbole? a)to

asked by sandra on February 19, 2015
English
1.) Which of the following excerpts from Orpheus and Eurydice is an example of hyperbole? a.) …even the ice-hard heart of Hades melted b.) …the music he played tore at the hearts of everyone who followed. c.) …Persephone, her face veiled by the

asked by Ello mates on January 29, 2016
English
1.Which of the following excerpts from Orpheus and Eurydice is an example of hyperbole? A. even the ice hard heart of hades melted B. the music he played tore at the hearts of everone who followed. C persephone her face veiled by the shadows of that

asked by GummyBears on January 24, 2016
English
In Betty Bonham Lie’s retelling of the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, how is the narrator’s description of Orpheus’s music an example of hyperbole? A. The narrator retells old myths about orpheus’s powers B. The narrator exaggerates the effects of orpheus’s

asked by Yes on December 21, 2018
English
one year ago 2. Read the following sentence from Betty Bonham Lies retelling of myth of Orpheus and Eurydice: “Orpheus’s music was so compelling that even the ice-hard heart of Hades melted” What is the effect of the hyperbole in this quote? a.) It

asked by Hello on May 15, 2016

English
What does the following hyperbole from Orpheus and Eurydice accomplish? “How could he live without his wife, the other half of his soul?” a. It emphasizes the strength of Orpheus’s love for his wife.*** b. It shows the Greek view of married people being

asked by Kaai97 on March 9, 2016
English
Read the following quote from Betty Bonham Lies’s retelling of the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. When Orpheus made music, all the world stopped to listen. Wild beasts drew near him, so entranced they put aside their fierceness. Trees gathered around to

asked by Mike on May 18, 2016
English
Which of the following quotes from Orpheus and Eurydice best shows the power of Orpheus’ music? a. “Even before he reached manhood, he was accomplished in all the arts, but especially in poetry and music.” b. “Orpheus drew the most wonderful music from his

asked by Kaai97 on March 9, 2016
English
Which of these sentences from the story is an example of a hyperbole? Orpheus and Eurydice. A.) Soon he saw the River Styx, which separates the Underworld from the world of the living. B.) He was the King of Thrace, the most musical of all the Greek

asked by Dylan on February 22, 2018
English
Which phrase best defines an epic simile? a. a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as if it were something else b. a literary technique that involves differences between meaning and intention c. a work created in imitation of another d. a

asked by Kaai97 on June 11, 2016
English
How does Margaret Atwood draw on source material in The Penelopiad? A: She tells The Odyssey from the view of Penelope’s maids B: She tells The Odyssey from the view of a more modern woman C: She reveals Odysseus’ true feelings about the events in the

asked by SkatingDJ on February 27, 2016
English 9
Which of the following meanings of the vocabulary word broached is used in the following excerpt from Orpheus and Eurydice? In vain, Orpheus tried to follow his bride. But this time the Underworld was firmly closed to him. No other mortal had broached it

asked by Anonymous on September 17, 2017
English
Which of the following meanings of the vocabulary word broached is used in the following excerpt from Orpheus and Eurydice? In vain, Orpheus tried to follow his bride. But this time the Underworld was firmly closed to him. No other mortal had (BROACHED) it

asked by GummyBears16 on January 24, 2016
Hyperbole
Read the oral notes carefully. Then, decide whether each of the following statements contain a hyperbole! Q1. “If I’ve told you this story once, I’ve told it a million times!” a. Hyperbole b. No Hyperbole Ans: a. Hyperbole Q2. “I feel so hungry today.

asked by deyond ng on February 27, 2017
English – help
Which of the following is the antecedent of the pronoun “theirs” in the sentence below? Rivers stopped flowing along the banks so that they could hear Orpheus, whose music was more harmonious than “theirs”. The story is Orpheus and Eurydice and the word we

asked by Cassie on January 22, 2014

English
so for theme of story of few notes for orpheus before i think that the title of story meant message for orpheus but i guess that not be because orpheus way different than jake. jake be so cranky when orpheus be so charming, and caring. i think it be a

asked by Mohammad on February 17, 2012
english

  1. What personality trait does Odysseus reveal when he devises a plan to listen to the Sirens’ song and yet escape destruction? (1 point) irritability loyalty curiosity generosity10. Read the following passage from the Odyssey: Tell me, where was it, now,

asked by fluffy on February 4, 2014
english (check my work)

  1. What personality trait does Odysseus reveal when he devises a plan to listen to the Sirens’ song and yet escape destruction? (1 point) irritability loyalty curiosity generosity10. Read the following passage from the Odyssey: Tell me, where was it, now,

asked by fluffy on February 5, 2014
english

  1. What personality trait does Odysseus reveal when he devises a plan to listen to the Sirens’ song and yet escape destruction? (1 point) irritability loyalty curiosity generosity10. Read the following passage from the Odyssey: Tell me, where was it, now,

asked by love on February 5, 2014
English – Ms. Sue
Hi Ms. Sue I’m Aaron and I’m Mohammad’s friend, I helped Mohammad edit his, and I’m also doing a theme on the story “A few notes for Orpheus” and could gladly use your help. As Mohammad had pointed out before that the title is a musical tribute

asked by Aaron on February 20, 2012
english
what roles are played by the female characters you encountered in this unit? describe some of these females characters, their traits, and the roles they played within the selections you read, especially considering that all of those selections had male

asked by anne on December 19, 2017
Social studies
Identify which principle of government is expressed in each of the seven excerpts from the Declaration of Independence. Excerpts may express more than one principles.

asked by ???? on November 16, 2016
la
wat is a hyperbole Hyperbole is exaggeration or overstatement. Example: I have told you a million times. They are so tiny you could put a million on the head of a pin. http://volweb.utk.edu/school/bedford/harrisms/hyperbole.htm

asked by Is 9+9=10? on March 29, 2007
english
What roles are played by the female characters you encountered in this unit? Describe some of these female characters, their traits, and the roles they played within the selections you read, especially considering that all of those selections had male

asked by erica on February 19, 2019
English 9 – HELP!

  1. The small boat was scudding into the open sea with a full sail. (1 point) getting stuck sinking deeply moving swiftly rocking harshly 2. As an outdoor enthusiast, Kristina abhorred the fact that people left debris along the hiking trail. (1 point)

asked by Abby on March 11, 2014

English
Here the once embattled farmers stood and fired the shot heard round the world. metaphor simile personification hyperbole D hyperbole

asked by christopher on April 21, 2010
english!
what is the effect of a hyperbole in a essay?? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperbole It’s usually used for emphasis — emphasis of the opposite of what is said! =)

asked by henry! on November 27, 2006
English
i know what hyperbole mean that be overexaggeration, but what be Hyperbole litotes?

asked by Mohammad on May 28, 2012
English
i take better quotes from story a few notes for orpheus i need help choosing best 5 ones. all these show theme really well so i not know which 5 to choose. “I was almost glad to hear her. But something must be wrong. She never phoned me.” “Will you come up

asked by Mohammad on February 18, 2012
english
so i am really confused if this is a hyperbole: the tattoo killed him. i am reading the same book as another girl called the barcode tattoo and i am in need of some hyperboles for my project. please tell me if that quote: the tatoo killed him, is an

asked by jamie on November 13, 2010
English
I have to answer these questions but i am confused…please help 🙂 As flies to the wanton boys are we to the gods; they kill us for sport Metaphor Personification Hyperbole Litotes None of these I do not understand the sentence itself 🙁 I wish I had a

asked by Sandara on May 23, 2011
Eng- Hyperbole example
Anyone noe an example of a hyperbole being used in romantic poetry? provide the poem, and the line being used plz. Tnx This Wordsworth poem has an example of hyperbole. http://www.bartleby.com/145/ww260.html

asked by thomas on February 21, 2007
English – Hyperbole
what is it used for, and how and why might it appear in literature? its used to make an obvious exaggeration like “to wait an eternity” “Hyperbole is a figure of speech which is an exaggeration. Persons often use expressions such as “I nearly died

asked by thomas on February 21, 2007
English
Which elements from “Amelia Earhart: Pioneer” show that it is not a tall tale? Select all that apply. A. It talks about an exciting person and events. B. It has a real person, not a larger-than-life character.*** C. It describes real events that could

asked by Anonymous on March 15, 2018
English/Lang. Arts
Which of the following sentences from the article is an example of hyperbole? Here are the examples… A. Ivory-billed woodpeckers still graced the planet. B.According to experts, they need large areas of old-growth forest, including many big, dead trees,

asked by Cassie on February 11, 2013

Literature
Which of the following excerpts is the best example of persuasion through an appeal to reason?

asked by Anonymous on November 22, 2007
Social Studies

  1. Which of the following excerpts is a grievance of the American colonists that was included in Declaration of Independence?

asked by Student on October 20, 2016
English ms. sue
ms. sue one my really good english friend also writing essay on theme of a few notes for orpheus u please be able to help him also get 100 words? he be able to post new question?

asked by Mohammad on February 20, 2012
english/reading.
I can’t find an actual summary of the picture bride by yoshiko uchida. All that comes up are sites with little excerpts of summarys and if you want more of it you have to pay. Can someone please help me?

asked by stacy. on August 19, 2010
to mikh
sorry i read reply so late you read the book “a few notes for orpheus?

asked by Mohammad on February 13, 2012
english
i read this book and if anyone read it, please be able to help me with questions? 1D_SS_CA_A Few Notes For Orpheus . d o c

asked by Mohammad on February 13, 2012
math
About hyperbole

asked by kwanda on June 10, 2017
English
what is a Hyperbole?

asked by Kill Aura on December 22, 2015
Writing
I have to write a page on my take about Oprah Winfrey speech at Howard university. Where can i find a transcript of her speech at Howard? I’ve looked at www.oprah.com, www.howard.edu, and searched www.google.com, but all I find are excerpts. The entire

asked by Devon on May 19, 2007
VOCABULARY STUDIES
WHICH SENTENCE IS AN EXAMPLE OF HYPERBOLE?

asked by AMY on April 2, 2011

english
What’s the full story of Don Quixote, Quixotic, tilting at windmills? I’ve googled it but have only found excerpts and small summaries. I need the details for an allusion card. Thanks much!

asked by claire on September 12, 2012
READING
Is this a hyperbole? They Have the best pie in the world.

asked by AMY on June 24, 2012
English
Help me write a hyperbole poem

asked by Anonymous on January 7, 2017
5th grade reading
Can someone tell me what is the difference between an idiom and a hyperbole?Thanks if you help!:)

asked by Kim on April 17, 2013
English
what be theme of this story? move on with life? don’t look back at past? also i not understand the title of story. i before thought orpheus be someone in story but it not be anyone.

asked by Mohammad on February 14, 2012
READING/LANGUAGE ARTS
I need an example of HYPERBOLE with the word CLOMPED. plzz !

asked by Gigi on March 6, 2013
poetry
how do you write a hyperbole poem? (with instructions)

asked by Ysabel on December 9, 2009
English
The literary device of foreshadowing is used in which of the following excerpts ? Answers are They’re spoiled and we’re spoiled Those screams and they sound familiar I have a feeling it’ll be africa again before then They’re not old enough to do that alone

asked by snow on March 17, 2014
English
the literary device of foreshadowing is used in which of the following excerpts? They’re spoiled and we’re spoiled Those screams — they sound familiar I have a feeling it’ll be Africa again before then They’re not old enough to do that alone, I explained

asked by Steve on March 20, 2017
language arts
are my feet are killing me is a alliteration, personification , or hyperbole?

asked by patrick on December 8, 2011

English
So get in where you fit in go on and shine free your mind is this a hyperbole

asked by Annaa on May 14, 2011
english
ok i just need a good devolved hyperbole (a big exageration)

asked by jimmy on February 20, 2013
english
is when my dad asked me to get the remote from the table near the tv i said it’s too far a hyperbole?

asked by A Dunce who needs an answer on February 20, 2013
english
is when my dad asked me to get the remote from the table near the tv i said it’s too far a hyperbole?

asked by A Dunce who needs an answer on February 20, 2013
english
what is an example of a hyperbole (with the chapter number) in animal farm

asked by jamie on April 17, 2011
English
when jake tell her daughter that her grandfather be really sick, she say “Oh” which be a wounded soung. a moan. orpheus look back and regret in his throat. what this tell about jake daughter? she be innocent?

asked by Mohammad on February 14, 2012
english 10th
what is a metaphor and hyperbole for the book the Bar Code Rebllion

asked by jessica on November 21, 2010
English
for slideshow presentation i want to add another theme caption for story. i not really know how to say it though like follow your heart to positive direction. like i want to take something positive from orpheus story and teach lesson to jake.

asked by Mohammad on February 19, 2012
English
Would ““The chain that bound her here was of iron links…” be a hyperbole? If not, than what literacy device is this?

asked by Jen on March 31, 2017
English-Poetry
do you know any bird poems that have alliteration, personification, imagery, hyperbole, and onomatopoeia?? please help!!!!

asked by Tony on November 2, 2008

English
“Beauty if only skin deep” is an example of ? A. personification. B. hyperbole. C. a generalization. D. a cliche

asked by Kayla on July 16, 2011
english
i read story today it be called ” A few notes for orpheus” anyone read this story before? i need help with questions.

asked by Mohammad on February 13, 2012
Vocab
I’m excited about my vacation. The beach has been calling my name. A. Personification B. Irony C. Hyperbole D. Onomatopoeia A??

asked by Alex on November 12, 2015
english
is the quote “you sit on a throne of lies” from the movie elf a hyperbole or an idiom?

asked by merri on April 18, 2016
Vocab
My mom told me not to worry. We will cross that bridge when we come to it. A. Hyperbole B. Simile C. Metaphor D. Cliche D?

asked by Alex on November 12, 2015
English
Question 19 But time did beckon to the flowers. Herbert metaphor simile personification hyperbole A

asked by christopher on April 21, 2010
english
An exaggeration used to emphasize a point. Question 9 options: Malapropism Irony Imagery Hyperbole

asked by Anonymous on December 1, 2018
English Literature
Which figure of speech does Paz use most frequently in “Two Bodies”? a. metaphor *** b. simile c. hyperbole d. paradox

asked by Anonymous on August 8, 2018
Language arts
…his eyes…were like the mountain sky when rain is pending…” is an example of __ . A) hyperbole B) metaphor C) assonance D) simile

asked by Anonymous on October 16, 2018
English
What kind of figurative language is in “She pulled in her horizon like a great fish-net,”. Is it both a hyperbole and a simile?

asked by danny123 on November 26, 2010

English
1.) Which of the following is the antecedent of the pronoun theirs in the sentence below? Rivers stopped flowing along the banks so that they could hear Orpheus, whose music was more harmonious than theirs a.) Rivers b.) Banks c.) Music C?

asked by Hello friend on January 29, 2016
English
i not get this question which be author come back to his Orpheus allusions with question referrring to jakes dad, “what songs found their out, or had any?” what be jakes hope for his dad?

asked by Mohammad on February 14, 2012
english PLZ HELP
the phrase “tradesman’s wagon were hurrying soundlessly” in line 6 is an example of OPTIONS simile metaphor alliteration hyperbole i’d really appreciate it thank you

asked by roeeeee on January 24, 2019
Descriptive Writing
Colby gave her Romeo a lecture for the mean comment he made about her in front of his friends. Is this a simile, metaphor, personification or hyperbole?

asked by sAMANTHA on September 11, 2008
poetry
I have to write a poem at least 15 lines about how i have accomplised something and these elements have to be in it …. Rhyme,imagery,simile,mataphor,figurativelanguage,slang/hyperbole HELP ME PLEASE!(:

asked by candace on January 11, 2012
LA- Grade 9
“Something invisible, seeking shelter from the cruel and pitiless vacuum of space.” Is an example of: a. metaphor b. personification c. symbolism d. hyperbole Your help is much appreciated !!

asked by Maddison on June 17, 2011
English

  1. Which of these lines contains the clearest example of dialect in poetry? A.) “I’ll get a blessin’ wi’ the lave…” B.) “By the stream & o’er the mead…” C.) “To such a deep delight ‘twould win me…” D.) “But oft, in lonely rooms, and ‘mid the din…”

asked by Cassie on May 14, 2015
AP English Literature
“every nerve I had feared him; and every morsel of flesh on my bones shrank when he came near,” uses all of the literary devices EXCEPT A) parallelism, B) hyperbole, C) paradox, D) personification, E) synecdoche

asked by james on February 13, 2012
English
What literary device is most strongly represented in the following line from “Beowulf?” “Follower and the strongest of the Geats” A. Alliteration B. Hyperbole C. Kenning D. Caesura

asked by Maria on January 12, 2016
English
Question 17 Mortality weighs heavily upon me like an unwilling sleep. Samuel Johnson metaphor simile personification hyperbole my answer B

asked by christopher on April 21, 2010

English
Question 20 Here the once embattled farmers stood and fired the shot heard round the world. metaphor simile personification hyperbole my answer A

asked by christopher on April 21, 2010
English
Question 20 Here the once embattled farmers stood and fired the shot heard round the world. metaphor simile personification hyperbole my answer A

asked by christopher on April 21, 2010
English-Poetry
I need to write a couple using 5 of these words: interfere, intermediate, interpret, recommend, remarkable, adjective, convection cell, weather, climate, or hyperbole

asked by Miranda on December 3, 2009
English-Metaphors
Which of the following excerpts from Frost’s poems is NOT a metaphor? A.Magnified apples appear and disappear / Stem end and blossom end B.Spring is the mischief in me C.My apple trees will never get across / And eat the cones under his pines, I tell him.

asked by Jess on February 8, 2012
English
In Chapter 3 of The Scarlet Letter In describing the momentary revelation of the stranger’s emotion, the narrator employs a. Allusion B. personification C. Simile D. Antithesis C. Hyperbole

asked by Amy on January 14, 2015
English
Which of these excerpts from Ben Jonson’s “Song: To Celia” compares love to intoxication? A. “But thou thereon didst only breathe/And sent’st it back to me.” B. “… As giving it a hope, that there/It could not withered be.” C. “The thirst that from a soul

asked by Steve on October 28, 2017
English
But time did beckon to the flowers. Herbert metaphor simile personification hyperbole my answer simile

asked by christopher on April 21, 2010
English
Can someone please tell me what, if any, figure of speech is used here? “Anyone who calls a spade a spade should be compelled to use one.” Simile Metaphor Personification Analogy Hyperbole None of these

asked by Anonymous on December 20, 2011
English
Which of these excerpts from Beowulf best describes Beowulf reason for attacking grendels mother? A- “whispered together/ and said that hope was gone, that the hero/had lost” B- and holy/god, who sent him victory, gave judgment/for truth and right” C “so

asked by Steve on December 7, 2017
AP English Literature
Can someone please help me? In Jane Eyre in chapter 1 with the quote, “every nerve I had feared him; and every morsel of flesh on my bones shrank when he came near,” all the literary devices illustrate all of the following EXCEPT A) parallelism, B)

asked by james on February 13, 2012

English
“Suddenly there came a tapping, / As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber doors”. Which poetic device does Poe use in these lines? A. consonance B. hyperbole C. metaphor D. onomatopoeia is it A or b.

asked by hi on June 4, 2017
Literature- Urgent!!
Can anyone help me find a hyperbole in the book the lord of the flies, please? I’ve been trying to find one for the past two months! And now, school is about to start. The quotation, page number and a brief summary would be appreciated!!

asked by IB student on August 10, 2012
English
Argue a case for either the usage of hyperbole or understatement. Which do you think is more effective? More humorous? Explain your opinions, citing examples from the texts. Explain what this means and give an example…

asked by vickie on October 10, 2013
English
Which of these excerpts from Beowulf best describes what Beowulf expects the outcome of his battle with the dragon to be? A. thought nothing/ of the bests claws, or wings, or flaming/ Jaws B. soon/ Would leave this brief life, but would take the

asked by Steve on December 7, 2017
reading
nelson mandela speech glory and hope what are some similes, personification allusion, anaphora, pathos,ethos,logical appeals, metaphors,hyperbole,call to action,counter argument,rebuttal,etc

asked by Reina B. on October 30, 2013

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find an expression for t1, the tension in cable 1, that does not depend on t2.

A chandelier with mass m is attached to the ceiling of a large concert hall by two cables. Because the ceiling is covered with intricate architectural decorations (not indicated in the figure, which uses a humbler depiction), the workers who hung the chandelier couldn’t attach the cables to the ceiling directly above the chandelier. Instead, they attached the cables to the ceiling near the walls. Cable 1 has tension T1 and makes an angle of θ1 with the ceiling. Cable 2 has tension T2 and makes an angle of θ2 with the ceiling.

Find an expression for T1, the tension in cable 1, that does not depend on T2.
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables m, θ1, and θ2, as well as the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity g. You must use parentheses around θ1 and θ2, when they are used as arguments to any trigonometric functions in your answer.

I understand the formula to plug all of the information into but I am having trouble canceling out T2 and Ive been working on this problem for two days now any help appreciated!

0 0 173
asked by Skyler
Feb 13, 2015
A store sign of mass 4.57 kg is hung by two wires that each make an angle of θ = 40.7° with the ceiling.

0 0
posted by jon
Oct 26, 2016

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list the steps of the accounting cycle in their proper order.

accounting
List the following steps of the accounting cycle in their proper order
a. Preparing the post closing trial balance
b. postint the journal entries
c. journalizing and posting adjusting entries
d. preparing the adjusted trial balance
e. journalizing and posting closing entries
f. analyzing transactions and events
g. preparing the fianacial statements
preparing the unadjusted trial balance
i. journalizing transactions and events

I got this
1.preparing the finacial statements

  1. preparing the post-closing trial balance
    3.posting the journal entries
  2. journalizing transactions and events
  3. journalizing and posting closing entries
    6.analyzing transactions and events
  4. journalizing and posting adjusting entries
    8.prepaing the unadjusted trial balance
  5. preparing the adjusted trial balance
    any one help me out to see if this is right? 0 0 388
    asked by shelly
    Oct 16, 2007
    F. Analyzing transactions and events.
    I. Journalizing transactions and events.
    B. Posting the journal entries.
    H. Preparing the unadjusted trial balance.
    C. Journalizing and posting adjusting entries.
    D. Preparing the adjusted trial balance.
    G. Preparing the financial statements.
    E. Journalizing and posting closing entries.
    A. Preparing the post-closing trial balance. 0 0
    posted by Mz.Diamond
    Jan 22, 2009
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argon is compressed in a polytropic process with n=1.2

ME 3310/5310 Thermodynamics I – Summer 2015 WRIGHT STATE UNIVERSITY

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

Homework #3 Assigned 5/28/2015

Due 6/18/2015

Worth 90 Points Problems involving Specific Heats, ∆u, ∆h Problem 4-57 (10 pnts) – Consider the cases of neon and argon behaving as Ideal gases so that their specific heats are functions of temperature only. The temperature of the neon gas is increases from 20 °C to 180 °C. (a) Calculate the change in the specific internal energy of the neon, in kJ/kg. (b) Repeat this calculation for argon. Why is the value for neon larger than that of argon? Answers: (a) neon: 98.9 kJ/kg, (b) argon: 50.0 kJ/kg Bob Problem 1 (10 pnts) – Consider the cases of argon and neon behaving as Ideal gases so that their specific heats are functions of temperature only. (a) Calculate the change in the specific enthalpy of argon, in kJ/kg, when it is cooled from 400 °C to 100 °C during a constant pressure process. (b) Repeat this calculation for neon. Why is the value for neon larger than that of argon? Answers: (a) argon: 156.1 kJ/kg, (b) neon: 309.0 kJ/kg Bob Problem 2 (5 pnts) – A granite block is heated from 50 °F to 80 °F. The change in internal energy of the granite block is ∆U = 145.8 Btu. Determine the mass of the block (lbm). Use an average specific heat value for granite obtained from the tables in the text. Answer: 20 lbm Problem 4-60 (10 pnts) – Consider hydrogen (H2) behaving as an Ideal gas so that its specific heats are functions of only temperature. Determine the specific internal energy change ∆u of hydrogen, in kJ/kg, as it is heated from 200 to 800 K, using (a) the empirical specific heat equation as a function of temperature (Table A-2c), (b) the cv value at the average temperature (Table A-2b), and (c) the cv value at room temperature (Table A-2a). Answers: (a) 6194 kJ/kg, (b) 6233 kJ/kg, (c) 6110 kJ/kg Moving Boundary Work and Polytropic Process Problems Problem 4-23 (5 pnts) – A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0.25 kg of nitrogen gas at 130 kPa and 180 °C. The nitrogen gas is now expanded isothermally to a pressure of 80 kPa (the gas System performs moving boundary work ON the piston). First, derive the following expression for the “pdV” moving boundary work:

pdV 2out 1 1 1

V W p V ln

V  

=    

Next, compute the value for the moving boundary work done BY the System ON the piston during this process. Assume that the nitrogen behaves as an Ideal gas during the entire process. Answer: 16.3 kJ

Problem 4-7 (15 pnts) Modified – A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0.07 m3 of nitrogen gas at 130 kPa and 120 °C. The nitrogen gas is now expanded polytropically to a state of 100 kPa and 100 ° C (the gas System performs moving boundary work ON the piston). (a) First, determine the polytropic exponent, n. Second, derive the following expression for the “pdV” moving boundary work:

pdV 2 2 1 1out p V p V

W n 1 −

= −

(c) Finally, compute the value for the moving boundary work done BY the System ON the piston during this process. Assume that the nitrogen behaves as an Ideal gas during the entire process. Hint: To find the polytropic exponent, n, first compute the volume at state 2 (0.08637 m3). Next, write down the general expression for a polytropic process from State 1 to State 2. Take the natural logarithm of both sides of this equation and solve for n, algebraically. Then plug numbers into the equation to compute the value of n….if you don’t follow these steps you are more likely to make a mistake. Answer: (a) n = 1.249, (c) Moving “pdV” Boundary Work = 1.86 kJ. Bob Problem 3 (20 pnts) – A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0.07 m3 of nitrogen gas at 130 kPa and 120 °C. The nitrogen gas is now expanded polytropically to a pressure of 100 kPa with a polytropic exponent having a value equal to the specific heat ratio (this process is called an isentropic expansion—we will learn this in Chapter 7). Assume that the nitrogen behaves as an Ideal gas. Hint: the specific heat ratios for gases can be found in Table A-2a

(a) Derive the following expression for the final temperature at State 2:

2 2 2

p V T

mR =

where m is the mass of the System and R is the specific gas constant for nitrogen.

(b) Use the polytropic relations to derive the following expression for the volume at State 2,

1 k

1 2 1

2

p V V

p  

=    

,

and compute this volume using the given information.

(c) Compute the mass of the System and then compute the final temperature, T2, in Celsius.

(d) Compute the “pdV” moving boundary work output done BY the System ON the piston.

Answers: (b) 0.08443 m3, (c) 0.07802 kg, 91.6 °C, (d) 1.64 kJ

Bob Problem 4 (15 pnts) – Argon gas is compressed in a polytropic process having n=1.2 from 120 kPa and 30 °C to 1200 kPa in a piston-cylinder device. The mass of argon is 0.4377 g and the initial volume of the piston-cylinder is 230 cm3. (a) Compute the final State temperature, T2, of the argon (°C), (b) compute the “pdV” moving boundary work done BY the piston ON the System (J) during this process, and (c) compute the final State volume (cm3). Assume that the argon always behaves as an Ideal gas. Answers: (a) 171.7 °C, (b) 64.53 J, (c) 33.8 cm3

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which of the following best describes science fiction

English 9th grade

  1. Which of the following best describes science fiction?
    Answer:C The characters often face problems related to future tech advancements.
  2. A literary analysis should contain a
    Answer: A thoughtful interpretation of a work
  3. Which sentence below is incorrectly punctuated?
    Answer: B Help me shovel the driveway please?

I studied and got these answers, are they correct?

0 0 342
asked by Lena Cronedy
Oct 24, 2018
It looks as though two are wrong. But it’s hard to tell without seeing the other choices.

0 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Oct 24, 2018
No Lena Cronedy is correct.
C
A
B

0 0
posted by efGg
Nov 27, 2018
C
A
B
is correct

0 0
posted by wrong
Feb 26, 2019

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simplify the rational expression. state any restrictions on the variable.

Simplify the rational expression. State any restrictions on the variable.

(n^4-11n^2+30)/(n ^4 -7n^2+10)

My answer is

n^2-6/n^2-2 except +-sqrt5 and +-sqrt2

0 0 1,113
asked by steve
Feb 6, 2017
(n^4-11n^2+30)/(n ^4 -7n^2+10)
numberator roots:
n^2=11+-sqrt(121-120) /2
=11+-1 /2= 6,5
(n^2-6)(n^2-5)
roots of denominator (by insptection,5,2
(n^2-5)(N^2-2)

so you are left with (n^2-6)/(n^2-2)

you are correct

0 0
👨‍🏫
bobpursley
Feb 6, 2017
Thank you very much

0 0
posted by steve
Feb 6, 2017

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journal entries based on the bank reconciliation are required in the depositor’s accounts for

study objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

1 Define fraud and internal control.

2 Identify the principles of internal control activities.

3 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash receipts.

4 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash disbursements.

5 Prepare a bank reconciliation.

6 Explain the reporting of cash.

7 Discuss the basic principles of cash management.

8 Identify the primary elements of a cash budget.

chapter

FRAUD, INTERNAL CONTROL, AND CASH

7

334

● Scan Study Objectives

● Read Feature Story

● Scan Preview

● Read Text and Answer p. 346 p. 349 p. 358 p. 363

● Work Using the Decision Toolkit

● Review Summary of Study Objectives

● Work Comprehensive p. 369

● Answer Self-Test Questions

● Complete Assignments

● Go to WileyPLUS for practice and tutorials

● Read A Look at IFRS p. 393

● the navigator

Do it!

Do it!

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 334

feature story

335

If you’re ever looking for a cappuccino in Moose Jaw,

Saskatchewan, stop by Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee

and More, located on Main Street. Staff there serve,

on average, 650 cups of coffee a day, including both

regular and specialty coffees, not to mention soups,

Italian sandwiches, and a wide assortment of gourmet

cheesecakes.

“We’ve got high school stu-

dents who come here, and students

from the community college,”

says owner/manager Stephanie

Mintenko, who has run the place since opening it in

1995. “We have customers who are retired, and oth-

ers who are working people and have only 30 minutes

for lunch. We have to be pretty quick.”

That means that the cashiers have to be efficient.

Like most businesses where purchases are low-cost

and high-volume, cash control has to be simple.

“We have an electronic cash register, but it’s not

the fancy new kind where you just punch in the item,”

explains Ms. Mintenko. “You have to punch in the

prices.” The machine does keep track of sales in sev-

eral categories, however. Cashiers punch a button to

indicate whether each item is a beverage, a meal, or

a charge for the cafe’s Internet connections. An in-

ternal tape in the machine keeps a record of all trans-

actions; the customer receives a receipt only upon

request.

There is only one cash register. “Up to three of us

might operate it on any given shift, including myself,”

says Ms. Mintenko.

She and her staff do two

“cashouts” each day—one with the

shift change at 5:00 p.m. and one

when the shop closes at 10:00

p.m. At each cashout, they count the cash in the reg-

ister drawer. That amount, minus the cash change car-

ried forward (the float), should match the shift total on

the register tape. If there’s a discrepancy, they do an-

other count. Then, if necessary, “we go through the

whole tape to find the mistake,” she explains. “It usu-

ally turns out to be someone who punched in $18 in-

stead of $1.80, or something like that.”

Ms. Mintenko sends all the cash tapes and float

totals to a bookkeeper, who double-checks everything

and provides regular reports. “We try to keep the ac-

counting simple, so we can concentrate on making

great coffee and food.”

● SOX Boosts the Role of Human Resources (p. 345) ● Big Theft at Small Companies (p. 345) ● How Employees Steal (p. 351) ● Madoff’s Ponzi Scheme (p. 357)

INSIDE CHAPTER 7 . . .

M I N D I N G TH E MON EY I N MOOS E JAW

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Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

As the story about recording cash sales at Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee and More indicates, control of cash is important to ensure that fraud does not occur. Companies also need controls to safeguard other types of assets. For example, Stephanie’s undoubtedly has controls to prevent the theft of food and supplies, and con- trols to prevent the theft of tableware and dishes from its kitchen.

In this chapter, we explain the essential features of an internal control system and how it prevents fraud. We also describe how those controls apply to a specific asset—cash. The applications include some controls with which you may be already familiar, such as the use of a bank.

The content and organization of Chapter 7 are as follows.

preview of chapter 7

• Fraud • The Sarbanes-Oxley

Act • Internal control • Principles of internal

control activities • Limitations

Fraud and Internal Control

• Cash receipts controls • Cash disbursements

controls

Cash Controls

• Bank statements • Reconciling the bank

account

Use of a Bank

• Cash equivalents • Restricted cash

Reporting Cash

• Basic principles

Managing and Monitoring Cash

336

Fraud and Internal Control The Feature Story describes many of the internal control procedures used by Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee and More. These procedures are necessary to dis- courage employees from fraudulent activities.

FRAUD

A fraud is a dishonest act by an employee that results in personal benefit to the employee at a cost to the employer. Examples of fraud reported in the financial press include:

• A bookkeeper in a small company diverted $750,000 of bill payments to a personal bank account over a three-year period.

• A shipping clerk with 28 years of service shipped $125,000 of merchandise to himself.

• A computer operator embezzled $21 million from Wells Fargo Bank over a two-year period.

• A church treasurer “borrowed” $150,000 of church funds to finance a friend’s business dealings.

Why does fraud occur? The three main factors that contribute to fraudulent activity are depicted by the fraud triangle in Illustration 7-1.

The most important element of the fraud triangle is opportunity. For an employee to commit fraud, the workplace environment must provide opportu- nities that an employee can exploit. Opportunities occur when the workplace lacks sufficient controls to deter and detect fraud. For example, inadequate

1 Define fraud and internal control.

study objective

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 336

monitoring of employee actions can create opportunities for theft and can embolden employees because they believe they will not be caught.

A second factor that contributes to fraud is financial pres- sure. Employees sometimes commit fraud because of personal fi- nancial problems caused by too much debt. Or they might com- mit fraud because they want to lead a lifestyle that they cannot afford on their current salary.

The third factor that contributes to fraud is rationalization. In order to justify their fraud, employees rationalize their dishon- est actions. For example, employees sometimes justify fraud because they be- lieve they are underpaid while the employer is making lots of money. These em- ployees feel justified in stealing because they believe they deserve to be paid more.

THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT

What can be done to prevent or to detect fraud? After numerous corporate scan- dals came to light in the early 2000s, Congress addressed this issue by passing the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). Under SOX, all publicly traded U.S. corporations are required to maintain an adequate system of internal control. Corporate executives and boards of directors must ensure that these controls are reliable and effective. In addition, independent outside auditors must attest to the adequacy of the internal control system. Companies that fail to comply are subject to fines, and company officers can be imprisoned. SOX also created the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) to establish auditing standards and regulate auditor activity.

One poll found that 60% of investors believe that SOX helps safeguard their stock investments. Many say they would be unlikely to invest in a company that fails to follow SOX requirements. Although some corporate executives have criticized the time and expense involved in following the SOX require- ments, SOX appears to be working well. For example, the chief accounting of- ficer of Eli Lily noted that SOX triggered a comprehensive review of how the company documents controls. This review uncovered redundancies and pointed out controls that needed to be added. In short, it added up to time and money well spent. And the finance chief at General Electric noted, “We have seen value in SOX. It helps build investors’ trust and gives them more confidence.”1

INTERNAL CONTROL

Internal control consists of all the related methods and measures adopted within an organization to safeguard its assets, enhance the reliability of its ac- counting records, increase efficiency of operations, and ensure compliance with laws and regulations. Internal control systems have five primary components as listed below.2

• A control environment. It is the responsibility of top management to make it clear that the organization values integrity and that unethical activity will not be tolerated. This component is often referred to as the “tone at the top.”

Illustration 7-1 Fraud triangle

Fraud and Internal Control 337

Opportunity

Financial Pressure

Rationalization

1“Corporate Regulation Must Be Working—There’s a Backlash,” Wall Street Journal (June 16, 2004), p. C1; and Judith Burns, “Is Sarbanes-Oxley Working?” Wall Street Journal (June 21, 2004), pp. R8–R9. 2The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, “Internal Control— Integrated Framework,” www.coso.org/publications/executive_summary_integrated_framework.htm (accessed March 2008).

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338 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

• Risk assessment. Companies must identify and analyze the various factors that create risk for the business and must determine how to manage these risks.

• Control activities. To reduce the occurrence of fraud, management must design policies and procedures to address the specific risks faced by the company.

• Information and communication. The internal control system must cap- ture and communicate all pertinent information both down and up the or- ganization, as well as communicate information to appropriate external parties.

• Monitoring. Internal control systems must be monitored periodically for their adequacy. Significant deficiencies need to be reported to top manage- ment and/or the board of directors.

PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL CONTROL ACTIVITIES

Each of the five components of an internal control system is important. Here, we will focus on one component, the control activities. The reason? These ac- tivities are the backbone of the company’s efforts to address the risks it faces, such as fraud. The specific control activities used by a company will vary, de- pending on management’s assessment of the risks faced. This assessment is heav- ily influenced by the size and nature of the company.

The six principles of control activities are as follows.

• Establishment of responsibility • Segregation of duties • Documentation procedures • Physical controls • Independent internal verification • Human resource controls

We explain these principles in the following sections. You should recognize that they apply to most companies and are relevant to both manual and computer- ized accounting systems.

Establishment of Responsibility An essential principle of internal control is to assign responsibility to specific employees. Control is most effective when only one person is responsible for a given task.

To illustrate, assume that the cash on hand at the end of the day in a Safe- way supermarket is $10 short of the cash rung up on the cash register. If only one person has operated the register, the shift manager can quickly determine responsibility for the shortage. If two or more individuals have worked the reg- ister, it may be impossible to determine who is responsible for the error. In the Feature Story, the principle of establishing responsibility does not appear to be strictly applied by Stephanie’s, since three people operate the cash register on any given shift.

Establishing responsibility often requires limiting access only to authorized personnel, and then identifying those personnel. For example, the automated systems used by many companies have mechanisms such as identifying pass- codes that keep track of who made a journal entry, who rang up a sale, or who entered an inventory storeroom at a particular time. Use of identifying passcodes enables the company to establish responsibility by identifying the particular em- ployee who carried out the activity.

2 Identify the principles of internal control activities.

It’s your shift now. I’m turning in my cash drawer

and heading home.

Transfer of cash drawers

study objective

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Segregation of Duties Segregation of duties is indispensable in an internal control system. There are two common applications of this principle:

1. Different individuals should be responsible for related activities.

2. The responsibility for record-keeping for an asset should be separate from the physical custody of that asset.

The rationale for segregation of duties is this: The work of one employee should, without a duplication of effort, provide a reliable basis for evalu- ating the work of another employee. For example, the personnel that design and program computerized systems should not be assigned duties related to day- to-day use of the system. Otherwise, they could design the system to benefit them personally and conceal the fraud through day-to-day use.

SEGREGATION OF RELATED ACTIVITIES. Making one individual responsible for related activities increases the potential for errors and irregularities.

For example, companies should assign related purchasing activities to differ- ent individuals. Related purchasing activities include ordering merchandise, or- der approval, receiving goods, authorizing payment, and paying for goods or services. Various frauds are possible when one person handles related purchas- ing activities. For example:

• If a purchasing agent is allowed to order goods without supervisory approval, the likelihood of the agent receiving kickbacks from suppliers increases.

• If an employee who orders goods also handles receipt of the goods and in- voice, as well as payment authorization, he or she might authorize payment for a fictitious invoice.

These abuses are less likely to occur when companies divide the purchasing tasks. Similarly, companies should assign related sales activities to different individ-

uals. Related selling activities include making a sale, shipping (or delivering) the goods to the customer, billing the customer, and receiving payment. Various frauds are possible when one person handles related sales transactions. For example:

• If a salesperson can make a sale without obtaining supervisory approval, he or she might make sales at unauthorized prices to increase sales commissions.

Fraud and Internal Control 339

Maureen Frugali was a training supervisor for claims processing at Colossal Healthcare. As a standard part of the claims processing training program, Maureen created fictitious claims for use by trainees. These fictitious claims were then sent to the accounts payable department. After the training claims had been processed, she was to notify Accounts Payable of all ficti- tious claims, so that they would not be paid. However, she did not inform Accounts Payable about every fictitious claim. She created some fictitious claims for entities that she controlled (that is, she would receive the payment), and she let Accounts Payable pay her.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $11 million

THE MISSING CONTROL Establishment of responsibility. The healthcare company did not adequately restrict the responsibility for authoring and approving claims transactions. The training supervisor should not have been authorized to create claims in the company’s “live” system.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 61–70.

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340 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

• A shipping clerk who also has access to accounting records could ship goods to himself.

• A billing clerk who handles billing and cash receipts could understate the amount billed for sales made to friends and relatives.

These abuses are less likely to occur when companies divide the sales tasks: the salespeople make the sale; the shipping department ships the goods on the basis of the sales order; and the billing department prepares the sales invoice after comparing the sales order with the report of goods shipped.

SEGREGATION OF RECORD-KEEPING FROM PHYSICAL CUSTODY. The accountant should have neither physical custody of the asset nor access to it. Likewise, the custodian of the asset should not maintain or have access to the accounting records. The custodian of the asset is not likely to convert the asset to per- sonal use when one employee maintains the record of the asset, and a dif- ferent employee has physical custody of the asset. The separation of account- ing responsibility from the custody of assets is especially important for cash and inventories because these assets are very vulnerable to fraud.

Lawrence Fairbanks, the assistant vice-chancellor of communications at Aesop University, was allowed to make purchases of under $2,500 for his department without external approval. Unfortunately, he also sometimes bought items for himself, such as expensive antiques and other collectibles. How did he do it? He replaced the vendor invoices he received with fake vendor invoices that he created. The fake invoices had descriptions that were more consis- tent with communications department purchases. He submitted these fake invoices to the accounting department as the basis for their journal entries and to the accounts payable department as the basis for payment.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $475,000

THE MISSING CONTROL Segregation of duties. The university had not properly segregated related purchasing activities. Lawrence was ordering items, receiving the items, and receiving the invoice. By receiving the invoice, he had control over the documents that were used to account for the purchase and thus was able to substitute a fake invoice.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 3–15.

Angela Bauer was an accounts payable clerk for Aggasiz Construction Company. She pre- pared and issued checks to vendors and reconciled bank statements. She perpetrated a fraud in this way: She wrote checks for costs that the company had not actually incurred (e.g., fake taxes). A supervisor then approved and signed the checks. Before issuing the check, though, Angela would “white-out” the payee line on the check and change it to personal accounts that she controlled. She was able to conceal the theft because she also reconciled the bank account. That is, nobody else ever saw that the checks had been altered.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $570,000

Segregation of duties (Accountability for assets)

Assistant cashier B Maintains custody of cash on hand

Accounting employee A Maintains cash

balances per books

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 340

Documentation Procedures Documents provide evidence that transactions and events have occurred. At Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee and More, the cash register tape is the restaurant’s documentation for the sale and the amount of cash received. Similarly, a ship- ping document indicates that the goods have been shipped, and a sales invoice indicates that the company has billed the customer for the goods. By requiring signatures (or initials) on the documents, the company can identify the individ- ual(s) responsible for the transaction or event. Companies should document transactions when the transaction occurs.

Companies should establish procedures for documents. First, whenever pos- sible, companies should use prenumbered documents, and all documents should be accounted for. Prenumbering helps to prevent a transaction from being recorded more than once, or conversely, from not being recorded at all. Second, the control system should require that employees promptly forward source documents for accounting entries to the accounting department. This control measure helps to ensure timely recording of the transaction and contributes directly to the accuracy and reliability of the accounting records.

Fraud and Internal Control 341

THE MISSING CONTROL Segregation of duties. Aggasiz Construction Company did not properly segregate record- keeping from physical custody. Angela had physical custody of the blank checks, which essentially was control of the cash. She also had record-keeping responsibility because she prepared the bank reconciliation.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 100–107.

To support their reimbursement requests for travel costs incurred, employees at Mod Fashions Corporation’s design center were required to submit receipts. The receipts could include the detailed bill provided for a meal, or the credit card receipt provided when the credit card pay- ment is made, or a copy of the employee’s monthly credit card bill that listed the item. A num- ber of the designers who frequently traveled together came up with a fraud scheme: They submitted claims for the same expenses. For example, if they had a meal together that cost $200, one person submitted the detailed meal bill, another submitted the credit card receipt, and a third submitted a monthly credit card bill showing the meal as a line item. Thus, all three received a $200 reimbursement.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $75,000

THE MISSING CONTROL Documentation procedures. Mod Fashions should require the original, detailed receipt. It should not accept photocopies, and it should not accept credit card statements. In addition, documentation procedures could be further improved by requiring the use of a corporate credit card (rather than personal credit card) for all business expenses.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 79–90.

Physical Controls Use of physical controls is essential. Physical controls relate to the safeguarding of assets and enhance the accuracy and reliability of the accounting records. Illustration 7-2 (page 342) shows examples of these controls.

125 Main Street Chelsea, IL 60915

Chelsea Video No. 0123

No. 0124

No. 0125

No. 0126

No. 0127

Firm Name

Attention of

Address

S O L D

T O

City State Zip

Date 5/8/12 Salesperson Malone Invoice No. 731 Invoice Date 5/4/12

Catalogue No. Description Quantity Price Amount

A2547Z45 Production Model Circuits (Inoperative)

1 300 $300

Approved Reid

Highpoint Electronic

Susan Malone, Sales Representative

27 Circle Drive

Harding MI 48281

Prenumbered invoices

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342 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Illustration 7-2 Physical controls

Physical Controls

Alarms to prevent break-ins

Locked warehouses and storage cabinets for inventories and records

Safes, vaults, and safety deposit boxes for cash and business papers

Television monitors and garment sensors to deter theft

Computer facilities with pass key access or fingerprint or eyeball scans

Time clocks for recording time worked

At Centerstone Health, a large insurance company, the mailroom each day received insurance applications from prospective customers. Mailroom employees scanned the applications into electronic documents before the applications were processed. Once the applications are scanned they can be accessed online by authorized employees.

Insurance agents at Centerstone Health earn commissions based upon successful appli- cations. The sales agent’s name is listed on the application. However, roughly 15% of the applications are from customers who did not work with a sales agent. Two friends—Alex, an employee in record keeping, and Parviz, a sales agent—thought up a way to perpetrate a fraud. Alex identified scanned applications that did not list a sales agent. After business hours, he entered the mailroom and found the hardcopy applications that did not show a sales agent. He wrote in Parviz’s name as the sales agent and then rescanned the application for process- ing. Parviz received the commission, which the friends then split.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $240,000

THE MISSING CONTROL Physical controls. Centerstone Health lacked two basic physical controls that could have pre- vented this fraud. First, the mailroom should have been locked during nonbusiness hours, and access during business hours should have been tightly controlled. Second, the scanned appli- cations supposedly could be accessed only by authorized employees using their password. However, the password for each employee was the same as the employee’s user ID. Since employee user ID numbers were available to all other employees, all employees knew all other employees’ passwords. Thus, Alex could enter the system using another employee’s password and access the scanned applications.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 316–326.

Independent Internal Verification Most internal control systems provide for independent internal verification. This principle involves the review of data prepared by employees. To obtain max- imum benefit from independent internal verification:

1. Companies should verify records periodically or on a surprise basis.

2. An employee who is independent of the personnel responsible for the infor- mation should make the verification.

3. Discrepancies and exceptions should be reported to a management level that can take appropriate corrective action.

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Independent internal verification is especially useful in comparing recorded transactions with existing assets. The reconciliation of the cash register tape with the cash in the register at Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee and More is an example of this internal control principle. Another common example is the reconciliation of a company’s cash balance per books with the cash balance per bank and the verification of the perpetual inventory records through a count of physical in- ventory. Illustration 7-3 shows the relationship between this principle and the segregation of duties principle.

Large companies often assign independent internal verification to internal au- ditors. Internal auditors are company employees who continuously evaluate the effectiveness of the company’s internal control systems. They review the activities of departments and individuals to determine whether prescribed internal controls are being followed. They also recommend improvements when needed. In fact, most fraud is discovered by the company through internal mechanisms such as existing internal controls and internal audits. For example, the fraud at World- Com, involving billions of dollars, was uncovered by an internal auditor.

Fraud and Internal Control 343

Illustration 7-3 Comparison of segregation of duties principle with independent internal verification principle

Accounting Employee Maintains cash

balances per books

Assistant Treasurer Makes monthly comparisons; reports

any unreconcilable differences to treasurer

Assistant Cashier Maintains custody of cash on hand

Segregation of Duties

Independent Internal Verification

Bobbi Jean Donnelly, the office manager for Mod Fashions Corporation’s design center, was responsible for preparing the design center budget and reviewing expense reports submitted by design center employees. Her desire to upgrade her wardrobe got the better of her, and she enacted a fraud that involved filing expense-reimbursement requests for her own per- sonal clothing purchases. She was able to conceal the fraud because she was responsible for reviewing all expense reports, including her own. In addition, she sometimes was given ulti- mate responsibility for signing off on the expense reports when her boss was “too busy.” Also, because she controlled the budget, when she submitted her expenses, she coded them to budget items that she knew were running under budget, so that they would not catch any- one’s attention.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $275,000

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344 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Human Resource Controls Human resource control activities include the following.

1. Bond employees who handle cash. Bonding involves obtaining insurance protection against theft by employees. It contributes to the safeguarding of cash in two ways: First, the insurance company carefully screens all individ- uals before adding them to the policy and may reject risky applicants. Sec- ond, bonded employees know that the insurance company will vigorously prosecute all offenders.

2. Rotate employees’ duties and require employees to take vacations. These measures deter employees from attempting thefts since they will not be able to permanently conceal their improper actions. Many banks, for ex- ample, have discovered employee thefts when the employee was on vacation or assigned to a new position.

3. Conduct thorough background checks. Many believe that the most impor- tant and inexpensive measure any business can take to reduce employee theft and fraud is for the human resources department to conduct thorough back- ground checks. Two tips: (1) Check to see whether job applicants actually grad- uated from the schools they list. (2) Never use the telephone numbers for pre- vious employers given on the reference sheet; always look them up yourself.

THE MISSING CONTROL Independent internal verification. Bobbi Jean’s boss should have verified her expense reports. When asked what he thought her expenses for a year were, the boss said about $10,000. At $115,000 per year, her actual expenses were more than ten times what would have been expected. However, because he was “too busy” to verify her expense reports or to review the budget, he never noticed.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 79–90.

Ellen Lowry was the desk manager and Josephine Rodriquez was the head of housekeeping at the Excelsior Inn, a luxury hotel. The two best friends were so dedicated to their jobs that they never took vacations, and they frequently filled in for other employees. In fact, Ms. Rodriquez, whose job as head of housekeeping did not include cleaning rooms, often cleaned rooms her- self, “just to help the staff keep up.” These two “dedicated” employees, working as a team, found a way to earn a little more cash. Ellen, the desk manager, provided significant discounts to guests who paid with cash. She kept the cash and did not register the guest in the hotel’s computer- ized system. Instead, she took the room out of circulation “due to routine maintenance.” Because the room did not show up as being used, it did not receive a normal housekeeping assignment. Instead, Josephine, the head of housekeeping, cleaned the rooms during the guests’ stay.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $95,000

THE MISSING CONTROL Human resource controls. Ellen, the desk manager, had been fired by a previous employer after being accused of fraud. If the Excelsior Inn had conducted a thorough background check, it would not have hired her. The hotel fraud was detected when Ellen missed work for a few days due to illness. A system of mandatory vacations and rotating days off would have increased the chances of detecting the fraud before it became so large.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 145–155.

If I take a vacation they will know that I’ve been stealing.

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LIMITATIONS OF INTERNAL CONTROL

Companies generally design their systems of internal control to provide reason- able assurance of proper safeguarding of assets and reliability of the accounting records. The concept of reasonable assurance rests on the premise that the costs of establishing control procedures should not exceed their expected benefit.

To illustrate, consider shoplifting losses in retail stores. Stores could elimi- nate such losses by having a security guard stop and search customers as they leave the store. But store managers have concluded that the negative effects of such a procedure cannot be justified. Instead, stores have attempted to control shoplifting losses by less costly procedures: They post signs saying, “We reserve the right to inspect all packages” and “All shoplifters will be prosecuted.” They use hidden TV cameras and store detectives to monitor customer activity, and they install sensor equipment at exits.

The human element is an important factor in every system of internal con- trol. A good system can become ineffective as a result of employee fatigue, care- lessness, or indifference. For example, a receiving clerk may not bother to count goods received and may just “fudge” the counts. Occasionally, two or more in- dividuals may work together to get around prescribed controls. Such collusion can significantly reduce the effectiveness of a system, eliminating the protection offered by segregation of duties. No system of internal control is perfect.

The size of the business also may impose limitations on internal control. A small company, for example, may find it difficult to segregate duties or to pro- vide for independent internal verification.

Fraud and Internal Control 345

SOX Boosts the Role of Human Resources

Under SOX, a company needs to keep track of employees’ degrees and cer- tifications to ensure that employees continue to meet the specified requirements of a job. Also, to ensure proper employee supervision and proper separation of duties, companies must develop and monitor an organizational chart. When one corporation went through this exercise it found that out of 17,000 employees, there were 400 people who did not report to anyone, and they had 35 people who reported to each other. In addition, SOX also mandates that, if an employee complains of an unfair firing and mentions financial issues at the company, HR must refer the case to the company audit committee and pos- sibly to its legal counsel.

Accounting Across the Organization

? Why would unsupervised employees or employees who report to each other rep-resent potential internal control threats? (See page 392.)

Helpful Hint Controls may vary with the risk level of the activity. For example, management may consider cash to be high risk and maintaining inventories in the stockroom as lower risk. Thus, management would have stricter controls for cash.

Big Theft at Small Companies

A study by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners indicates that busi- nesses with fewer than 100 employees are most at risk for employee theft. In fact, 38% of frauds occurred at companies with fewer than 100 employees. The median loss at small companies was $200,000, which was higher than the median fraud at companies with more than 10,000 employees ($147,000). A $200,000 loss can threaten the very existence of a small company.

Source: 2008 Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse, Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, www.acfe.com/documents/2008-rttn.pdf, p. 26.

Ethics Insight

? Why are small companies more susceptible to employee theft? (See page 392.)

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Cash Controls Cash is the one asset that is readily convertible into any other type of asset. It also is easily concealed and transported, and is highly desired. Because of these characteristics, cash is the asset most susceptible to fraudulent activities. In addition, because of the large volume of cash transactions, numerous errors may occur in executing and recording them. To safeguard cash and to ensure the ac- curacy of the accounting records for cash, effective internal control over cash is critical.

CASH RECEIPTS CONTROLS

Illustration 7-4 shows how the internal control principles explained earlier apply to cash receipts transactions. As you might expect, companies vary con- siderably in how they apply these principles. To illustrate internal control over

DECISION TOOLKIT DECISION CHECKPOINTS TOOL TO USE FOR DECISION HOW TO EVALUATE RESULTS

Are the company’s financial statements supported by adequate internal controls?

Auditor’s report, management discussion and analysis, articles in financial press

The principles of internal control activities are (1) establishment of responsibility, (2) segregation of duties, (3) documentation procedures, (4) physical controls, (5) independent internal verification, and (6) human resource controls.

If any indication is given that these or other controls are lacking, use the financial statements with caution.

INFO NEEDED FOR DECISION

346 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

CONTROL ACTIVITIES

before you go on… Do it!

Identify which control activity is violated in each of the following situ- ations, and explain how the situation creates an opportunity for a fraud.

1. The person with primary responsibility for reconciling the bank account is also the company’s accountant and makes all bank deposits.

2. Wellstone Company’s treasurer received an award for distinguished service because he had not taken a vacation in 30 years.

3. In order to save money on order slips, and to reduce time spent keeping track of order slips, a local bar/restaurant does not buy prenumbered order slips.

Solution

Action Plan

• Familiarize yourself with each of the control activities listed on page 338.

• Understand the nature of the frauds that each control activity is intended to address.

1. Violates the control activity of segregation of duties. Record-keeping should be sepa- rate from physical custody. As a consequence, the employee could embezzle cash and make journal entries to hide the theft.

2. Violates the control activity of human resource controls. Key employees, such as a treasurer, should be required to take vacations. The treasurer, who manages the com- pany’s cash, might embezzle cash and use his position to conceal the theft.

3. Violates the control activity of documentation procedures. If pre-numbered documents are not used, then it is virtually impossible to account for the documents. As a conse- quence, an employee could write up a dinner sale, receive the cash from the customer, and then throw away the order slip and keep the cash.

Related exercise material: BE7-1, BE7-2, BE7-3, 7-1, E7-1, and E7-2.Do it!

3 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash receipts.

study objective

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cash receipts, we will examine control activities for a retail store with both over- the-counter and mail receipts.

Over-the-Counter Receipts In retail businesses, control of over-the-counter receipts centers on cash regis- ters that are visible to customers. A cash sale is rung-up on a cash register with the amount clearly visible to the customer. This activity prevents the cashier from ringing up a lower amount and pocketing the difference. The customer receives an itemized cash register receipt slip and is expected to count the change re- ceived. The cash register’s tape is locked in the register until a supervisor re- moves it. This tape accumulates the daily transactions and totals.

At the end of the clerk’s shift, the clerk counts the cash and sends the cash and the count to the cashier. The cashier counts the cash, prepares a deposit slip, and deposits the cash at the bank. The cashier also sends a duplicate of the deposit slip to the accounting department to indicate cash received. The super- visor removes the cash register tape and sends it to the accounting department as the basis for a journal entry to record the cash received. The tape is com- pared to the deposit slip for any discrepancies. Illustration 7-5 (page 348) sum- marizes this process.

This system for handling cash receipts uses an important internal control principle—segregation of record-keeping from physical custody. The supervisor has access to the cash register tape, but not to the cash. The clerk and the cashier have access to the cash, but not to the register tape. In addition, the cash reg- ister tape provides documentation and enables independent internal verification with the deposit slip. Use of these three principles of internal control (segrega- tion of record-keeping from physical custody, documentation, and independent internal verification) provides an effective system of internal control. Any at- tempt at fraudulent activity should be detected unless there is collusion among the employees.

Cash Controls 347

Cash Receipts Controls

Physical Controls

Store cash in safes and bank vaults; limit access to storage areas; use cash registers

Documentation Procedures

Use remittance advice (mail receipts), cash register tapes, and deposit slips

125 Main Street Chelsea, IL 60915

Beyer Video No. 0123

No. 0124

No. 0125

No. 0126

No. 0127

Firm Name

Attention of

Address

S O L D

T O

City State Zip

Date 5/8/12 Salesperson Malone Invoice No. 731 Invoice Date 5/4/12

Catalogue No. Description Quantity Price Amount

A2547Z45 Production Model Circuits (Inoperative)

1 $300

z Reid

Sellers

Susan Malone, Sales Representative

27 Circle Drive

Harding MI 48281

300

Independent Internal

Verification Supervisors count cash receipts daily; treasurer compares total receipts to bank deposits daily

Human Resource Controls

Bond personnel who handle cash; require employees to take vacations; conduct background checks

Different individuals receive cash, record cash receipts, and hold the cash

Segregation of Duties

Establishment of Responsibility

Only designated personnel are authorized to handle cash receipts (cashiers)

Illustration 7-4 Application of internal control principles to cash receipts

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348 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

In some instances, the amount deposited at the bank will not agree with the cash recorded in the accounting records based on the cash register tape. These differences often result because the clerk hands incorrect change back to the retail customer. In this case, the difference between the actual cash and the amount reported on the cash register tape is reported in a Cash Over and Short account. For example, suppose that the cash register tape indicated sales of $6,956.20 but the amount of cash was only $6,946.10. A cash shortfall of $10.10 exists. To account for this cash shortfall and related cash, the company makes the following entry.

Cash 6,946.10 Cash Over and Short 10.10

Sales Revenue 6,956.20 (To record cash shortfall)

Cash Over and Short is an income statement item. It is reported as miscel- laneous expense when there is a cash shortfall, and as miscellaneous revenue when there is an overage. Clearly, the amount should be small. Any material amounts in this account should be investigated.

Mail Receipts All mail receipts should be opened in the presence of at least two mail clerks. These receipts are generally in the form of checks. A mail clerk should endorse each check “For Deposit Only.” This restrictive endorsement reduces the likelihood that

Deposit slip

Deposit slip

Clerk Rings up sales, counts cash

Sends cash and count to cashier

Counts cash, prepares deposit slips

Sends cash and deposit slip to bank

Cashier

Bank

Supervisor Removes locked cash register tape

Sends cash register tape to accounting dept.

Accounting Department Agrees register tape to deposit slip

and records journal entry

Sends deposit slip copy to accounting

Illustration 7-5 Control of over-the-counter receipts

Helpful Hint Flowcharts such as this one enhance the understanding of the flow of documents, the processing steps, and the internal control procedures.

Cash Flows �6,946.10

A SEL= +

�6,946.10 �10.10

�6,956.20

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someone could divert the check to personal use. Banks will not give an individual cash when presented with a check that has this type of endorsement.

The mail-receipt clerks prepare, in triplicate, a list of the checks received each day. This list shows the name of the check issuer, the purpose of the payment, and the amount of the check. Each mail clerk signs the list to establish responsibility for the data. The original copy of the list, along with the checks, is then sent to the cashier’s department. A copy of the list is sent to the accounting department for recording in the accounting records. The clerks also keep a copy.

This process provides excellent internal control for the company. By employ- ing two clerks, the chance of fraud is reduced; each clerk knows he or she is be- ing observed by the other clerk(s). To engage in fraud, they would have to col- lude. The customers who submit payments also provide control, because they will contact the company with a complaint if they are not properly credited for payment. Because the cashier has access to cash but not the records, and the accounting department has access to records but not cash, neither can engage in undetected fraud.

CASH DISBURSEMENTS CONTROLS

Companies disburse cash for a variety of reasons, such as to pay expenses and liabilities or to purchase assets. Generally, internal control over cash disburse- ments is more effective when companies pay by check, rather than by cash. One exception is for incidental amounts that are paid out of petty cash.3

Companies generally issue checks only after following specified control pro- cedures. Illustration 7-6 (page 350) shows how principles of internal control ap- ply to cash disbursements.

Voucher System Controls Most medium and large companies use vouchers as part of their internal con- trol over cash disbursements. A voucher system is a network of approvals by authorized individuals, acting independently, to ensure that all disbursements by check are proper.

Cash Controls 349

Action Plan

• Differentiate among the internal control principles of (1) establishment of responsibility, (2) physical controls, and (3) independent internal verification.

• Design an effective system of internal control over cash receipts.

L. R. Cortez is concerned about the control over cash receipts in his fast-food restaurant, Big Cheese. The restaurant has two cash registers. At no time do more than two employees take customer orders and ring up sales. Work shifts for em- ployees range from 4 to 8 hours. Cortez asks your help in installing a good system of in- ternal control over cash receipts.

Solution

Cortez should assign a cash register to each employee at the start of each work shift, with register totals set at zero. Each employee should be instructed to use only the assigned register and to ring up all sales. Each customer should be given a receipt. At the end of the shift, the employee should do a cash count. A separate employee should compare the cash count with the register tape, to be sure they agree. In addition, Cortez should install an automated system that would enable the company to compare orders rung up on the register to orders processed by the kitchen.

CONTROL OVER CASH RECEIPTS

before you go on…

Do it!

Related exercise material: BE7-4, BE7-5, 7-2, and E7-3.Do it!

4 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash disbursements.

3We explain the operation of a petty cash fund in the appendix to this chapter on pages 366–368.

study objective

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350 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

The system begins with the authorization to incur a cost or expense. It ends with the issuance of a check for the liability incurred. A voucher is an author- ization form prepared for each expenditure in a voucher system. Companies re- quire vouchers for all types of cash disbursements except those from petty cash.

The starting point in preparing a voucher is to fill in the appropriate infor- mation about the liability on the face of the voucher. The vendor’s invoice pro- vides most of the needed information. Then, an employee in accounts payable records the voucher (in a journal called a voucher register) and files it accord- ing to the date on which it is to be paid. The company issues and sends a check on that date, and stamps the voucher “paid.” The paid voucher is sent to the ac- counting department for recording (in a journal called the check register). A voucher system involves two journal entries, one to record the liability when the voucher is issued and a second to pay the liability that relates to the voucher.

The use of a voucher system improves internal control over cash disburse- ments. First, the authorization process inherent in a voucher system establishes responsibility. Each individual has responsibility to review the underlying doc- umentation to ensure that it is correct. In addition, the voucher system keeps track of the documents that back up each transaction. By keeping these docu- ments in one place, a supervisor can independently verify the authenticity of

Establishment of Responsibility Only designated personnel are authorized to sign checks (treasurer) and approve vendors

Different individuals approve and make payments; check signers do not record disbursements

Segregation of Duties

Documentation Procedures

Use prenumbered checks and account for them in sequence; each check must have an approved invoice; require employees to use corporate credit cards for reimbursable expenses; stamp invoices “paid.”

Physical Controls

Store blank checks in safes, with limited access; print check amounts by machine in indelible ink

Human Resource Controls

Independent Internal

Verification Compare checks to invoices; reconcile bank statement monthly

Cash Disbursements Controls

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 408

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 407

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 406

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 405

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 404

Payments Due S M Tu W Th F S

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28

23 29 30

12 9

TR EA

SU RE

R

Payments Due S M Tu W Th F S

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28

23 29 30

12 9

TR EA

SU RE

R

Bond personnel who handle cash; require employees to take vacations; conduct background checks

Illustration 7-6 Application of internal control principles to cash disbursements

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each transaction. Consider, for example, the case of Aesop University presented on page 340. Aesop did not use a voucher system for transactions under $2,500. As a consequence, there was no independent verification of the documents, which enabled the employee to submit fake invoices to hide his unauthorized purchases.

Petty Cash Fund As you learned earlier in the chapter, better internal control over cash disburse- ments is possible when companies make payments by check. However, using checks to pay such small amounts as those for postage due, employee working lunches, and taxi fares is both impractical and a nuisance. A common way of handling such payments, while maintaining satisfactory control, is to use a petty cash fund. A petty cash fund is a cash fund used to pay relatively small amounts. We explain the operation of a petty cash fund in the appendix at the end of this chapter.

Control Features: Use of a Bank The use of a bank contributes significantly to good internal control over cash. A company can safeguard its cash by using a bank as a depository and clearinghouse for checks received and checks written. The use of a bank check- ing account minimizes the amount of currency that must be kept on hand. It also facilitates control of cash because a double record is maintained of all bank transactions—one by the business and the other by the bank. The asset account

Ethics Note Internal control over a petty cash fund is strengthened by: (1) having a supervisor make surprise counts of the fund to confirm whether the paid petty cash receipts and fund cash equal the fund amount, and (2) canceling or mutilating the paid petty cash receipts so they cannot be resubmitted for reimbursement.

Control Features: Use of a Bank 351

How Employees Steal

A recent study by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners found that two-thirds of all employee thefts involved a fraudulent disbursement by an employee. The most common form (28.3% of cases) was fraudulent billing schemes. In these, the employee causes the company to issue a payment to the employee by submitting a bill for nonexistent goods or services, purchases of personal goods by the employee, or in- flated invoices. The following graph shows various types of fraudulent disbursements and the median loss from each.

Ethics Insight

? How can companies reduce the likelihood of fraudulent disbursements? (See page 392.)

23.9%

10%0% 20% 30% 40% 50% 90%

9.3%

Billing ($100,000)

Payroll ($49,000)

Breakdown of Fraudulent Disbursements

C at

eg o

ry (

M ed

ia n

L o

ss )

14.7% Check tampering

($138,000)

13.2% Expense reimbursement

($25,000)

Source: 2008 Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse, Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, www.acfe.com/documents/2008_rttn.pdf, p. 13.

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352 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Cash maintained by the company is the “flip-side” of the bank’s liability account for that company. A bank reconciliation is the process of comparing the bank’s bal- ance with the company’s balance, and explaining the differences to make them agree.

Many companies have more than one bank account. For efficiency of oper- ations and better control, national retailers like Wal-Mart and Target often have regional bank accounts. Similarly, a company such as ExxonMobil with more than 100,000 employees may have a payroll bank account as well as one or more general bank accounts. In addition, a company may maintain several bank ac- counts in order to have more than one source for short-term loans.

BANK STATEMENTS

Each month, the company receives from the bank a bank statement showing its bank transactions and balances.4 For example, the statement for Laird Com- pany in Illustration 7-7 shows the following: (1) checks paid and other debits that reduce the balance in the depositor’s account, (2) deposits and other credits that increase the balance in the depositor’s account, and (3) the account balance after each day’s transactions.

4Our presentation assumes that a company makes all adjustments at the end of the month. In practice, a company may also make journal entries during the month as it receives information from the bank regarding its account.

Illustration 7-7 Bank statement

National Bank & Trust Midland, Michigan 48654 Member FDIC

ACCOUNT STATEMENT

LAIRD COMPANY 77 WEST CENTRAL AVENUE MIDLAND, MICHIGAN 48654

Statement Date/Credit Line Closing Date

April 30, 2012

457923

ACCOUNT NUMBER

Balance Last Statement

Deposits and Credits Checks and Debits Balance This StatementNo. Total Amount No. Total Amount

13,256.90 20 34,805.10 26 32,154.55 15,907.45

CHECKS AND DEBITS DEPOSITS AND CREDITS DAILY BALANCE

Date No. Amount

4–2 4–5 4–4 4–3 4–8 4–7 4–8 4–11 4–12

4–29 4–29 4–30 4–30

435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443

NSF 459 DM 461

644.95 3,260.00 1,185.79

776.65 1,781.70 1,487.90 2,420.00 1,585.60 1,226.00

425.60 1,080.30

30.00 620.15

Date Amount

4–2 4–3 4–5 4–7 4–8 4–9 CM 4–11 4–12 4–13

4–27 4–29 4–30

4,276.85 2,137.50 1,350.47

982.46 1,320.28 1,035.00 2,720.00

757.41 1,218.56

1,545.57 2,929.45 2,128.60

Date Amount

4–2 4–3 4–4 4–5 4–7 4–8 4–9 4–11 4–12

4–27 4–29 4–30

16,888.80 18,249.65 17,063.86 15,154.33 14,648.89 11,767.47 12,802.47 13,936.87 13,468.28

13,005.45 14,429.00 15,907.45

Symbols: CM DM

Credit Memo Debit Memo

EC INT

Error Correction Interest Earned

NSF SC

Not Sufficient Funds Service Charge

Reconcile Your Account Promptly

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Remember that bank statements are prepared from the bank’s perspective. For example, every deposit the bank receives is an increase in the bank’s liabil- ities (an account payable to the depositor). Therefore, in Illustration 7-7, Na- tional Bank and Trust credits to Laird Company every deposit it received from Laird. The reverse occurs when the bank “pays” a check issued by Laird Com- pany on its checking account balance: Payment reduces the bank’s liability and is therefore debited to Laird’s account with the bank.

The bank statement lists in numerical sequence all paid checks along with the date the check was paid and its amount. Upon paying a check, the bank stamps the check “paid”; a paid check is sometimes referred to as a canceled check. In addition, the bank includes with the bank statement memoranda ex- plaining other debits and credits it made to the depositor’s account.

A check that is not paid by a bank because of insufficient funds in a bank account is called an NSF check (not sufficient funds). The bank uses a debit memorandum when a previously deposited customer’s check “bounces” because of insufficient funds. In such a case, the customer’s bank marks the check NSF (not sufficient funds) and returns it to the depositor’s bank. The bank then deb- its (decreases) the depositor’s account, as shown by the symbol NSF in Illustra- tion 7-7, and sends the NSF check and debit memorandum to the depositor as notification of the charge. The NSF check creates an account receivable for the depositor and reduces cash in the bank account.

RECONCILING THE BANK ACCOUNT

Because the bank and the company maintain independent records of the com- pany’s checking account, you might assume that the respective balances will always agree. In fact, the two balances are seldom the same at any given time, and both balances differ from the “correct or true” balance. Therefore, it is necessary to make the balance per books and the balance per bank agree with the correct or true amount—a process called reconciling the bank account. The need for reconciliation has two causes:

1. Time lags that prevent one of the parties from recording the transaction in the same period.

2. Errors by either party in recording transactions.

Time lags occur frequently. For example, several days may elapse between the time a company pays by check and the date the bank pays the check. Sim- ilarly, when a company uses the bank’s night depository to make its deposits, there will be a difference of one day between the time the company records the receipts and the time the bank does so. A time lag also occurs whenever the bank mails a debit or credit memorandum to the company.

The incidence of errors depends on the effectiveness of the internal controls maintained by the company and the bank. Bank errors are infrequent. However, either party could accidentally record a $450 check as $45 or $540. In addition, the bank might mistakenly charge a check drawn by C. D. Berg to the account of C. D. Burg.

Reconciliation Procedure In reconciling the bank account, it is customary to reconcile the balance per books and balance per bank to their adjusted (correct or true) cash balances. To obtain maximum benefit from a bank reconciliation, an employee who has no other responsibilities related to cash should prepare the reconciliation. When companies do not follow the internal control principle of independent in- ternal verification in preparing the reconciliation, cash embezzlements may es- cape unnoticed. For example, in the Anatomy of a Fraud box at the bottom of page 340, a bank reconciliation by someone other than Angela Bauer might have exposed her embezzlement.

Helpful Hint Essentially, the bank statement is a copy of the bank’s records sent to the customer for periodic review.

Control Features: Use of a Bank 353

5 Prepare a bank reconciliation.

study objective

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354 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Illustration 7-8 shows the reconciliation process. The starting point in prepar- ing the reconciliation is to enter the balance per bank statement and balance per books on a schedule. The following steps should reveal all the reconciling items that cause the difference between the two balances.

Helpful Hint Deposits in transit and outstanding checks are reconciling items because of time lags.

Illustration 7-8 Bank reconciliation adjustments

Bank errors

Deposits in transit

Outstanding checks

Notes collected by banks

Check printing or other service charges

Company errors

NSF (bounced) checks

Adjustments to the bank balance

Correct Cash Amount

Cash Balances

Adjustments to the book balance

Per Bank Statement Per Books

“Oops” “Oops”

Step 1. Deposits in transit. Compare the individual deposits on the bank state- ment with the deposits in transit from the preceding bank reconcilia- tion and with the deposits per company records or copies of duplicate deposit slips. Deposits recorded by the depositor that have not been recorded by the bank represent deposits in transit. Add these deposits to the balance per bank.

Step 2. Outstanding checks. Compare the paid checks shown on the bank statement or the paid checks returned with the bank statement with (a) checks outstanding from the preceding bank reconciliation, and (b) checks issued by the company as recorded in the cash payments jour- nal. Issued checks recorded by the company that have not been paid by the bank represent outstanding checks. Deduct outstanding checks from the balance per the bank.

Step 3. Errors. Note any errors discovered in the previous steps and list them in the appropriate section of the reconciliation schedule. For example,

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if the company mistakenly recorded as $159 a paid check correctly writ- ten for $195, the company would deduct the error of $36 from the bal- ance per books. All errors made by the depositor are reconciling items in determining the adjusted cash balance per books. In contrast, all er- rors made by the bank are reconciling items in determining the ad- justed cash balance per the bank.

Step 4. Bank memoranda. Trace bank memoranda to the depositor’s records. The company lists in the appropriate section of the reconciliation sched- ule any unrecorded memoranda. For example, the company would deduct from the balance per books a $5 debit memorandum for bank service charges. Similarly, it would add to the balance per books a $32 credit memorandum for interest earned.

Bank Reconciliation Illustrated Illustration 7-7 presented the bank statement for Laird Company. It shows a bal- ance per bank of $15,907.45 on April 30, 2012. On this date the balance of cash per books is $11,589.45. From the foregoing steps, Laird determines the follow- ing reconciling items.

Step 1. Deposits in transit: April 30 deposit (received by bank on May 1). $2,201.40

Step 2. Outstanding checks: No. 453, $3,000.00; No. 457, $1,401.30; No. 460, $1,502.70. 5,904.00

Step 3. Errors: Check No. 443 was correctly written by Laird for $1,226.00 and was correctly paid by the bank. However, Laird recorded the check as $1,262.00. 36.00

Step 4. Bank memoranda: (a) Debit—NSF check from J. R. Baron for $425.60 425.60 (b) Debit—Printing company checks charge, $30 30.00 (c) Credit—Collection of note receivable for $1,000 plus

interest earned $50, less bank collection fee $15 1,035.00

Illustration 7-9 shows Laird’s bank reconciliation.

Helpful Hint Note in the bank statement that the bank has paid checks No. 459 and 461, but check No. 460 is not listed. Thus, this check is outstanding. If a complete bank statement were provided, checks No. 453 and 457 also would not be listed. Laird obtains the amounts for these three checks from its cash payments records.

Control Features: Use of a Bank 355

Illustration 7-9 Bank reconciliationLAIRD COMPANY

Bank Reconciliation April 30, 2012

Cash balance per bank statement $ 15,907.45 Add: Deposits in transit 2,201.40

18,108.85

Less: Outstanding checks No. 453 $3,000.00 No. 457 1,401.30 No. 460 1,502.70 5,904.00

Adjusted cash balance per bank $12,204.85

Cash balance per books $ 11,589.45 Add: Collection of note receivable for

$1,000 plus interest earned $50, less collection fee $15 $1,035.00

Error in recording check No. 443 36.00 1,071.00

12,660.45

Less: NSF check 425.60 Bank service charge 30.00 455.60

Adjusted cash balance per books $12,204.85

Alternative Terminology The terms adjusted cash balance, true cash balance, and correct cash balance are used interchangeably.

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356 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Entries from Bank Reconciliation The depositor (that is, the company) next must record each reconciling item used to determine the adjusted cash balance per books. If the company does not journalize and post these items, the Cash account will not show the correct balance. The adjusting entries for the Laird Company bank reconciliation on April 30 are as follows.

COLLECTION OF NOTE RECEIVABLE. This entry involves four accounts. Assuming that the interest of $50 has not been recorded and the collection fee is charged to Miscellaneous Expense, the entry is:

BOOK ERROR. An examination of the cash disbursements journal shows that check No. 443 was a payment on account to Andrea Company, a supplier. The correcting entry is:

NSF CHECK. As indicated earlier, an NSF check becomes an accounts receivable to the depositor. The entry is:

BANK SERVICE CHARGES. Companies typically debit to Miscellaneous Expense the check printing charges (DM) and other bank service charges (SC) because they are usually small in amount. Laird’s entry is:

Helpful Hint These entries are adjusting entries. In prior chapters, we considered Cash an account that did not require adjustment because we had not yet explained a bank reconciliation.

Apr. 30 Cash 1,035 Miscellaneous Expense 15

Notes Receivable 1,000 Interest Revenue 50

(To record collection of note receivable by bank)

A SEL= +

�1,035 �15 Exp

�1,000 �50 Rev

Cash Flows �1,035

Apr. 30 Cash 36 Accounts Payable—Andrea Company 36

(To correct error in recording check No. 443)

A SEL= +

�36 �36

Cash Flows �36

Apr. 30 Accounts Receivable—J. R. Baron 425.60 Cash 425.60

(To record NSF check)

A SEL= +

�425.60 �425.60

Cash Flows �425.60

Apr. 30 Miscellaneous Expense 30 Cash 30

(To record charge for printing company checks)

A SEL= +

�30 Exp �30

Cash Flows �30

The foregoing entries could also be combined into one compound entry. After Laird posts the entries, the Cash account will appear as in Illustration

7-10. The adjusted cash balance in the ledger should agree with the adjusted cash balance per books in the bank reconciliation in Illustration 7-9 (page 355).

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What entries does the bank make? If the company discovers any bank er- rors in preparing the reconciliation, it should notify the bank so the bank can make the necessary corrections on its records. The bank does not make any en- tries for deposits in transit or outstanding checks. Only when these items reach the bank will the bank record these items.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) System It is not surprising that companies and banks have developed approaches to trans- fer funds among parties without the use of paper (deposit tickets, checks, etc.). Such procedures, called electronic funds transfers (EFTs), are disbursement sys- tems that use wire, telephone, or computers to transfer cash from one location to another. Use of EFT is quite common. For example, many employees receive no formal payroll checks from their employers. Instead, employers send electronic payroll data to the appropriate banks. Also, individuals now frequently make reg- ular payments such as those for house, car, and utilities by EFT.

EFT transactions normally result in better internal control since no cash or checks are handled by company employees. This does not mean that opportu- nities for fraud are eliminated. In fact, the same basic principles related to in- ternal control apply to EFT transactions. For example, without proper segrega- tion of duties and authorizations, an employee might be able to redirect electronic payments into a personal bank account and conceal the theft with fraudulent accounting entries.

Control Features: Use of a Bank 357

Illustration 7-10 Adjusted balance in Cash account

Cash

Apr. 30 Bal. 11,589.45 Apr. 30 425.60

30 1,035.00 30 30.00

30 36.00

Apr. 30 Bal. 12,204.85

Madoff’s Ponzi Scheme

No recent fraud has generated more interest and rage than the one perpe- trated by Bernard Madoff. Madoff was an elite New York investment fund manager who was highly regarded by securities regulators. Investors flocked to him because he de- livered very steady returns of between 10% and 15%, no matter whether the market was going up or going down. However, for many years, Madoff did not actually invest the cash that people gave to him. Instead, he was running a Ponzi scheme: He paid re- turns to existing investors using cash received from new investors. As long as the size of his investment fund continued to grow from new investments at a rate that exceeded the amounts that he needed to pay out in returns, Madoff was able to operate his fraud smoothly. To conceal his misdeeds, he fabricated false investment statements that were provided to investors. In addition, Madoff hired an auditor that never verified the accu- racy of the investment records but automatically issued unqualified opinions each year. Although a competing fund manager warned the SEC a number of times over a nearly 10-year period that he thought Madoff was engaged in fraud, the SEC never aggres- sively investigated the allegations. Investors, many of which were charitable organiza- tions, lost more than $18 billion. Madoff was sentenced to a jail term of 150 years.

Investor Insight

? How was Madoff able to conceal such a giant fraud? (See page 392.)

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358 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Reporting Cash Cash consists of coins, currency (paper money), checks, money orders, and money on hand or on deposit in a bank or similar depository. Checks that are dated later than the current date (post-dated checks) are not included in cash. Companies re- port cash in two different statements: the balance sheet and the statement of cash flows. The balance sheet reports the amount of cash available at a given point in time. The statement of cash flows shows the sources and uses of cash during a period of time. The cash flow statement was introduced in Chapters 1 and 2 and will be discussed in much detail in Chapter 12. In this section, we discuss some important points regarding the presentation of cash in the balance sheet.

When presented in a balance sheet, cash on hand, cash in banks, and petty cash are often combined and reported simply as Cash. Because it is the most liquid asset owned by the company, cash is listed first in the current assets sec- tion of the balance sheet.

CASH EQUIVALENTS

Many companies use the designation “Cash and cash equivalents” in reporting cash. (See Illustration 7-11 for an example.) Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are both:

1. Readily convertible to known amounts of cash, and

2. So near their maturity that their market value is relatively insensitive to changes in interest rates.

BANK RECONCILIATION

before you go on… Do it!

Sally Kist owns Linen Kist Fabrics. Sally asks you to explain how she should treat the following reconciling items when reconciling the company’s bank ac- count: (1) a debit memorandum for an NSF check, (2) a credit memorandum for a note collected by the bank, (3) outstanding checks, and (4) a deposit in transit.

Solution

Action Plan

• Understand the purpose of a bank reconciliation.

• Identify time lags and explain how they cause reconciling items.

Sally should treat the reconciling items as follows.

(1) NSF check: Deduct from balance per books. (2) Collection of note: Add to balance per books. (3) Outstanding checks: Deduct from balance per bank. (4) Deposit in transit: Add to balance per bank.

Related exercise material: BE7-8, BE7-9, BE7-10, BE7-11, 7-3, E7-6, E7-7, E7-8, E7-9, E7-10, and E7-11.

Do it!

6 Explain the reporting of cash.

DELTA AIR LINES, INC. Balance Sheet (partial) December 31, 2009

(in millions)

Assets

Current assets Cash and cash equivalents $4,607 Short-term investments 71 Restricted cash 423 Accounts receivable and other, net 1,360 Parts inventories 327 Prepaid expenses and other 953

Total current assets $7,741

Illustration 7-11 Balance sheet presentation of cash

study objective

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Examples of cash equivalents are Treasury bills, commercial paper (short-term corporate notes), and money market funds. All typically are purchased with cash that is in excess of immediate needs.

Occasionally a company will have a net negative balance in its bank account. In this case, the company should report the negative balance among current li- abilities. For example, farm equipment manufacturer Ag-Chem recently reported “Checks outstanding in excess of cash balances” of $2,145,000 among its cur- rent liabilities.

RESTRICTED CASH

A company may have restricted cash, cash that is not available for general use but rather is restricted for a special purpose. For example, landfill companies are often required to maintain a fund of restricted cash to ensure they will have adequate resources to cover closing and clean-up costs at the end of a landfill site’s useful life. McKesson Corp. recently reported restricted cash of $962 mil- lion to be paid out as the result of investor lawsuits.

Cash restricted in use should be reported separately on the balance sheet as restricted cash. If the company expects to use the restricted cash within the next year, it reports the amount as a current asset. When this is not the case, it re- ports the restricted funds as a noncurrent asset.

Illustration 7-11 shows restricted cash reported in the financial statements of Delta Air Lines. The company is required to maintain restricted cash as col- lateral to support insurance obligations related to workers’ compensation claims. Delta does not have access to these funds for general use, and so it must report them separately, rather than as part of cash and cash equivalents.

Managing and Monitoring Cash 359

Ethics Note Recently, some companies were forced to restate their financial statements because they had too broadly interpreted which types of investments could be treated as cash equivalents. By reporting these items as cash equivalents, the companies made themselves look more liquid.

DECISION TOOLKIT DECISION CHECKPOINTS TOOL TO USE FOR DECISION HOW TO EVALUATE RESULTS

Is all of the company’s cash available for general use?

Balance sheet and notes to financial statements

Does the company report any cash as being restricted?

A restriction on the use of cash limits management’s ability to use those resources for general obligations. This might be considered when assessing liquidity.

INFO NEEDED FOR DECISION

Managing and Monitoring Cash Many companies struggle, not because they fail to generate sales, but because they can’t manage their cash. A real-life example of this is a clothing manufac- turing company owned by Sharon McCollick. McCollick gave up a stable, high- paying marketing job with Intel Corporation to start her own company. Soon she had more orders from stores such as JC Penney and Dayton Hudson (now Target) than she could fill. Yet she found herself on the brink of financial disas- ter, owing three mortgage payments on her house and $2,000 to the IRS. Her company could generate sales, but it was not collecting cash fast enough to sup- port its operations. The bottom line is that a business must have cash.5

A merchandising company’s operating cycle is generally shorter than that of a manufacturing company. Illustration 7-12 (page 360) shows the cash to cash operating cycle of a merchandising operation.

5Adapted from T. Petzinger, Jr., “The Front Lines—Sharon McCollick Got Mad and Tore Down a Bank’s Barriers,” Wall Street Journal (May 19, 1995), p. B1.

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360 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

To understand cash management, consider the operating cycle of Sharon McCollick’s clothing manufacturing company. First, it purchases cloth. Let’s as- sume that it purchases the cloth on credit provided by the supplier, so the com- pany owes its supplier money. Next, employees convert the cloth to clothing. Now the company also owes its employees money. Next, it sells the clothing to retailers, on credit. McCollick’s company will have no money to repay suppliers or employees until it receives payments from customers. In a manufacturing op- eration there may be a significant lag between the original purchase of raw ma- terials and the ultimate receipt of cash from customers.

Managing the often-precarious balance created by the ebb and flow of cash during the operating cycle is one of a company’s greatest challenges. The objective is to ensure that a company has sufficient cash to meet payments as they come due, yet minimize the amount of non-revenue-generating cash on hand.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CASH MANAGEMENT

Management of cash is the responsibility of the company treasurer. Any com- pany can improve its chances of having adequate cash by following five basic principles of cash management.

1. Increase the speed of receivables collection. Money owed Sharon McCollick by her customers is money that she can’t use. The more quickly customers pay her, the more quickly she can use those funds. Thus, rather than have an average collection period of 30 days, she may want an average collection period of 15 days. However, she must carefully weigh any attempt to force her customers to pay earlier against the possibility that she may anger or alienate customers. Perhaps her competitors are willing to provide a 30-day grace period. As noted in Chapter 5, one common way to encourage customers to pay more quickly is to offer cash discounts for early payment under such terms as 2/10, n/30.

2. Keep inventory levels low. Maintaining a large inventory of cloth and fin- ished clothing is costly. It ties up large amounts of cash, as well as ware- house space. Increasingly, companies are using techniques to reduce the inventory on hand, thus conserving their cash. Of course, if Sharon McCollick has inadequate inventory, she will lose sales. The proper level of inventory is an important decision.

3. Monitor payment of liabilities. Sharon McCollick should monitor when her bills are due, so she avoids paying bills too early. Let’s say her supplier

Sell Inventory

Merchandising Company

Cash

InventoryAccountsReceivable

Receive Cash Buy Inventory

PCPC

MENU

Brien’s itunes playlist

Sgt. Pepper’s L. H.C.B.

All I Want is A Life

What Gonna Do Wia Cowboy?

When My Ship Comes In

T VT VT V

Illustration 7-12 Operating cycle of a merchandising company

7 Discuss the basic principles of cash management.

study objective

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allows 30 days for payment. If she pays in 10 days, she has lost the use of that cash for 20 days. Therefore, she should use the full payment period. But, she should not pay late. This could damage her credit rating (and future borrowing ability). Also, late payments to suppliers can damage important supplier relationships and may even threaten a supplier’s viability. Sharon McCollick’s company also should conserve cash by taking cash discounts of- fered by suppliers, when possible.

4. Plan the timing of major expenditures. To maintain operations or to grow, all companies must make major expenditures. These often require some form of outside financing. In order to increase the likelihood of obtaining outside financing, McCollick should carefully consider the timing of major expendi- tures in light of her company’s operating cycle. If at all possible, she should make any major expenditure when the company normally has excess cash— usually during the off-season.

5. Invest idle cash. Cash on hand earns nothing. An important part of the trea- surer’s job is to ensure that the company invests any excess cash, even if it is only overnight. Many businesses, such as Sharon McCollick’s clothing com- pany, are seasonal. During her slow season, when she has excess cash, she should invest it.

To avoid a cash crisis, however, it is very important that investments of idle cash be highly liquid and risk-free. A liquid investment is one with a market in which someone is always willing to buy or sell the invest- ment. A risk-free investment means there is no concern that the party will default on its promise to pay its principal and interest. For example, us- ing excess cash to purchase stock in a small company because you heard that it was probably going to increase in value in the near term is totally inappropriate. First, the stock of small companies is often illiquid. Sec- ond, if the stock suddenly decreases in value, you might be forced to sell the stock at a loss in order to pay your bills as they come due. The most common form of liquid investments is interest-paying U.S. government securities.

Illustration 7-13 summarizes these five principles of cash management.

Managing and Monitoring Cash 361

International Note International sales complicate cash management. For example, if Nike must repay a Japanese supplier 30 days from today in Japanese yen, Nike will be concerned about how the exchange rate of U.S. dollars for yen might change during those 30 days. Often, corporate treasurers make investments known as hedges to lock in an exchange rate to reduce the com- pany’s exposure to exchange-rate fluctuation.

1. Increase the speed of receivables collection

3. Monitor payment of liabilities 5. Invest idle cash

2. Keep inventory low

4. Plan timing of major expenditures

Expand factory

$ high

$ low

$ low

Payments due

Warehou se

Payments Due S M Tu W Th F S

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28

23 29 30

12 9

T Bill

Illustration 7-13 Five principles of sound cash management

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362 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

KEEPING AN EYE ON CASH

Because cash is so vital to a company, planning the company’s cash needs is a key business activity. It enables the company to plan ahead to cover possible cash shortfalls and to make investments of idle funds. The cash budget shows anticipated cash flows, usually over a one- to two-year period. In this section, we introduce the basics of cash budgeting. More advanced discussion of cash budgets and budgets in general is provided in managerial accounting texts.

As shown below, the cash budget contains three sections—cash receipts, cash disbursements, and financing—and the beginning and ending cash balances.

The Cash receipts section includes expected receipts from the company’s principal source(s) of cash, such as cash sales and collections from customers on credit sales. This section also shows anticipated receipts of interest and div- idends, and proceeds from planned sales of investments, plant assets, and the company’s capital stock.

The Cash disbursements section shows expected payments for inventory, labor, overhead, and selling and administrative expenses. It also includes pro- jected payments for income taxes, dividends, investments, and plant assets. Note that it does not include depreciation since depreciation expense does not use cash.

The Financing section shows expected borrowings and repayments of bor- rowed funds plus interest. Financing is needed when there is a cash deficiency or when the cash balance is less than management’s minimum required balance.

Companies must prepare multi-period cash budgets in sequence because the ending cash balance of one period becomes the beginning cash balance for the next period. In practice, companies often prepare cash budgets for the next 12 months on a monthly basis.

To minimize detail, we will assume that Hayes Company prepares an annual cash budget by quarters. Preparing a cash budget requires making some assump- tions. For example, Hayes makes assumptions regarding collection of accounts receivable, sales of securities, payments for materials and salaries, and purchases of property, plant, and equipment. The accuracy of the cash budget is very de- pendent on the accuracy of these assumptions.

On the next page, we present the cash budget for Hayes Company. The budget indicates that the company will need $3,000 of financing in the second quarter to maintain a minimum cash balance of $15,000. Since there is an excess of available cash over disbursements of $22,500 at the end of the third quarter, Hayes will repay the borrowing, plus $100 interest, in that quarter.

A cash budget contributes to more effective cash management. For ex- ample, it can show when a company will need additional financing, well before the actual need arises. Conversely, it can indicate when the company will have excess cash available for investments or other purposes.

8 Identify the primary elements of a cash budget.

ANY COMPANY Cash Budget

Beginning cash balance $X,XXX Add: Cash receipts (itemized) X,XXX

Total available cash X,XXX Less: Cash disbursements (itemized) X,XXX

Excess (deficiency) of available cash over cash disbursements X,XXX

Financing Add: Borrowings X,XXX Less: Repayments X,XXX

Ending cash balance $X,XXX

study objective

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Managing and Monitoring Cash 363

HAYES COMPANY Cash Budget

For the Year Ending December 31, 2012

Quarter

1 2 3 4

Beginning cash balance $ 38,000 $ 25,500 $ 15,000 $ 19,400 Add: Cash receipts

Collections from customers 168,000 198,000 228,000 258,000 Sale of securities 2,000 0 0 0

Total receipts 170,000 198,000 228,000 258,000

Total available cash 208,000 223,500 243,000 277,400 Less: Cash disbursements

Inventory 23,200 27,200 31,200 35,200 Salaries 62,000 72,000 82,000 92,000 Selling and administrative

expenses (excluding depreciation) 94,300 99,300 104,300 109,300

Purchase of truck 0 10,000 0 0 Income tax expense 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000

Total disbursements 182,500 211,500 220,500 239,500

Excess (deficiency) of available cash over disbursements 25,500 12,000 22,500 37,900

Financing Add: Borrowings 0 3,000 0 0 Less: Repayments—plus $100

interest 0 0 3,100 0

Ending cash balance $ 25,500 $ 15,000 $ 19,400 $ 37,900

DECISION TOOLKIT DECISION CHECKPOINTS TOOL TO USE FOR DECISION HOW TO EVALUATE RESULTS

Will the company be able to meet its projected cash needs?

Cash budget (typically available only to management)

The cash budget shows projected sources and uses of cash. If cash uses exceed internal cash sources, then the company must look for outside sources.

Two issues: (1) Are management’s projections reasonable? (2) If outside sources are needed, are they available?

INFO NEEDED FOR DECISION

CASH BUDGET

before you go on…

Do it! Martian Company’s management wants to maintain a minimum

monthly cash balance of $15,000. At the beginning of March, the cash balance is $16,500; expected cash receipts for March are $210,000; and cash disbursements are expected to be $220,000. How much cash, if any, must Martian borrow to maintain the desired min- imum monthly balance?

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364 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Solution

Beginning cash balance $ 16,500 Add: Cash receipts for March 210,000

Total available cash 226,500 Less: Cash disbursements for March 220,000

Excess of available cash over cash disbursements 6,500 Financing

Add: Borrowings 8,500

Ending cash balance $ 15,000

To maintain the desired minimum cash balance of $15,000, Martian Company must borrow $8,500 of cash.

Related exercise material: BE7-13, 7-4, and E7-14.Do it!

Action Plan

• Add the beginning cash balance to receipts to determine total available cash.

• Subtract disbursements to determine excess or deficiency.

• Compare excess or deficiency with desired minimum cash to determine borrowing needs.

Presented below is hypothetical financial information for Mattel Corporation. In- cluded in this information is financial statement data from the year ended Decem- ber 31, 2011, which should be used to evaluate Mattel’s cash position.

Selected Financial Information Year Ended December 31, 2011

(in millions)

Net cash provided by operations $325 Capital expenditures 162 Dividends paid 80 Total expenses 680 Depreciation expense 40 Cash balance 206

Also provided are projected data which are management’s best estimate of its sources and uses of cash during 2012. This information should be used to prepare a cash budget for 2012.

Projected Sources and Uses of Cash (in millions)

Beginning cash balance $206 Cash receipts from sales of product 355 Cash receipts from sale of short-term investments 20 Cash payments for inventory 357 Cash payments for selling and administrative costs 201 Cash payments for property, plant, and equipment 45 Cash payments for taxes 17

Mattel Corporation’s management believes it should maintain a balance of $200 mil- lion cash.

Instructions

(a) Using the hypothetical projected sources and uses of cash information presented above, prepare a cash budget for 2012 for Mattel Corporation.

(b) Comment on the company’s cash adequacy, and discuss steps that might be taken to improve its cash position.

USING THE DECISION TOOLKIT

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Summary of Study Objectives 365

Solution

(a) MATTEL CORPORATION Cash Budget

For the Year 2012 (in millions)

Beginning cash balance $206 Add: Cash receipts

From sales of product $355 From sale of short-term investments 20 375

Total available cash 581 Less: Cash disbursements

Payments for inventory 357 Payments for selling and administrative costs 201 Payments for property, plant, and equipment 45 Payments for taxes 17

Total disbursements 620

Excess (deficiency) of available cash over disbursements (39) Financing

Add: Borrowings 239

Ending cash balance $200

(b) Using these hypothetical data, Mattel’s cash position appears adequate. For 2012, Mattel is projecting a cash shortfall. This is not necessarily of concern, but it should be investigated. Given that its primary line of business is toys, and that most toys are sold during December, we would expect Mattel’s cash position to vary significantly during the course of the year. After the holiday season, it prob- ably has a lot of excess cash. Earlier in the year, when it is making and selling its product but has not yet been paid, it may need to borrow to meet any tem- porary cash shortfalls.

If Mattel’s management is concerned with its cash position, it could take the following steps: (1) Offer its customers cash discounts for early payment, such as 2/10, n/30. (2) Implement inventory management techniques to reduce the need for large inventories of such things as the plastics used to make its toys. (3) Carefully time payments to suppliers by keeping track of when payments are due, so as not to pay too early. (4) If it has plans for major expenditures, time those expenditures to coincide with its seasonal period of excess cash.

Summary of Study Objectives 1 Define fraud and internal control. A fraud is a dishon-

est act by an employee that results in personal bene- fit to the employee at a cost to the employer. The fraud triangle refers to the three factors that contribute to fraudulent activity by employees: opportunity, finan- cial pressure, and rationalization. Internal control consists of all the related methods and measures adopted within an organization to safeguard its assets, enhance the reliability of its accounting records, in- crease efficiency of operations, and ensure compliance with laws and regulations.

2 Identify the principles of internal control activities. The principles of internal control are: establishment of responsibility; segregation of duties; documentation procedures; physical controls; independent internal verification; and human resource controls.

3 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash receipts. Internal controls over cash receipts in- clude: (a) designating only personnel such as cashiers to handle cash; (b) assigning the duties of receiving cash, recording cash, and having custody of cash to different individuals; (c) obtaining remittance advices for mail receipts, cash register tapes for over-the- counter receipts, and deposit slips for bank deposits; (d) using company safes and bank vaults to store cash with access limited to authorized personnel, and using cash registers in executing over-the-counter receipts; (e) making independent daily counts of register re- ceipts and daily comparisons of total receipts with total deposits; and (f) conducting background checks and bonding personnel who handle cash, as well as requiring them to take vacations.

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366 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

4 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash disbursements. Internal controls over cash dis- bursements include: (a) having only specified individ- uals such as the treasurer authorized to sign checks; (b) assigning the duties of approving items for payment, paying the items, and recording the payment to dif- ferent individuals; (c) using prenumbered checks and accounting for all checks, with each check supported by an approved invoice; after payment, stamping each approved invoice “paid”; (d) storing blank checks in a safe or vault with access restricted to authorized per- sonnel, and using a machine with indelible ink to imprint amounts on checks; (e) comparing each check with the approved invoice before issuing the check, and making monthly reconciliations of bank and book balances; and (f) bonding personnel who handle cash, requiring employees to take vacations, and conduct- ing background checks.

5 Prepare a bank reconciliation. In reconciling the bank account, it is customary to reconcile the balance per books and the balance per bank to their adjusted balance. The steps reconciling the Cash account are to

determine deposits in transit, outstanding checks, errors by the depositor or the bank, and unrecorded bank memoranda.

6 Explain the reporting of cash. Cash is listed first in the current assets section of the balance sheet. Compa- nies often report cash together with cash equivalents. Cash restricted for a special purpose is reported separately as a current asset or as a noncurrent asset, depending on when the company expects to use the cash.

7 Discuss the basic principles of cash management. The basic principles of cash management include: (a) in- crease the speed of receivables collection, (b) keep inventory levels low, (c) monitor the timing of payment of liabilities, (d) plan timing of major expenditures, and (e) invest idle cash.

8 Identify the primary elements of a cash budget. The three main elements of a cash budget are the cash receipts section, cash disbursements section, and financing section.

Are the company’s financial statements supported by adequate internal controls?

Auditor’s report, management discussion and analysis, articles in financial press

The principles of internal control activities are (1) establishment of responsibility, (2) segregation of duties, (3) documentation procedures, (4) physical controls, (5) independent internal verification, and (6) human resource controls.

If any indication is given that these or other controls are lacking, use the financial statements with caution.

Is all of the company’s cash available for general use?

Balance sheet and notes to financial statements

Does the company report any cash as being restricted?

A restriction on the use of cash limits management’s ability to use those resources for general obligations. This might be considered when assessing liquidity.

Will the company be able to meet its projected cash needs?

Cash budget (typically available only to management)

The cash budget shows projected sources and uses of cash. If cash uses exceed internal cash sources, then the company must look for outside sources.

Two issues: (1) Are management’s projections reasonable? (2) If outside sources are needed, are they available?

DECISION CHECKPOINTS TOOL TO USE FOR DECISION HOW TO EVALUATE RESULTSINFO NEEDED FOR DECISION

DECISION TOOLKIT A SUMMARY

The operation of a petty cash fund involves (1) establishing the fund, (2) mak- ing payments from the fund, and (3) replenishing the fund.

appendix 7A

Operation of the Petty Cash Fund study objective 9 Explain the operation of a petty cash fund.

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Ethics Note Petty cash funds are authorized and legitimate. In contrast, “slush” funds are unauthorized and hidden (under the table).

Helpful Hint From the standpoint of internal control, the receipt satisfies two principles: (1) establishing responsibility (signature of custodian), and (2) documentation procedures.

Helpful Hint Replenishing involves three internal control pro- cedures: segregation of duties, documentation procedures, and independent internal verification.

Appendix 7A: Operation of the Petty Cash Fund 367

ESTABLISHING THE PETTY CASH FUND

Two essential steps in establishing a petty cash fund are: (1) appointing a petty cash custodian who will be responsible for the fund, and (2) determining the size of the fund. Ordinarily, a company expects the amount in the fund to cover anticipated disbursements for a three- to four-week period.

When the company establishes the petty cash fund, it issues a check payable to the petty cash custodian for the stipulated amount. If Laird Com- pany decides to establish a $100 fund on March 1, the entry in general jour- nal form is:

Mar. 1 Petty Cash 100 Cash 100

(To establish a petty cash fund)

The fund custodian cashes the check and places the proceeds in a locked petty cash box or drawer. Most petty cash funds are established on a fixed-amount basis. Moreover, the company will make no additional entries to the Petty Cash account unless the stipulated amount of the fund is changed. For example, if Laird Company decides on July 1 to increase the size of the fund to $250, it would debit Petty Cash $150 and credit Cash $150.

MAKING PAYMENTS FROM PETTY CASH

The custodian of the petty cash fund has the authority to make payments from the fund that conform to prescribed management policies. Usually, management limits the size of expenditures that come from petty cash and does not permit use of the fund for certain types of transactions (such as making short-term loans to employees).

Each payment from the fund must be documented on a prenumbered petty cash receipt (or petty cash voucher). The signatures of both the custodian and the individual receiving payment are required on the receipt. If other support- ing documents such as a freight bill or invoice are available, they should be at- tached to the petty cash receipt.

The custodian keeps the receipts in the petty cash box until the fund is re- plenished. As a result, the sum of the petty cash receipts and money in the fund should equal the established total at all times. This means that management can make surprise counts at any time by an independent person, such as an inter- nal auditor, to determine the correctness of the fund.

The company does not make an accounting entry to record a payment at the time it is taken from petty cash. It is considered both inexpedient and unneces- sary to do so. Instead, the company recognizes the accounting effects of each payment when the fund is replenished.

REPLENISHING THE PETTY CASH FUND

When the money in the petty cash fund reaches a minimum level, the company replenishes the fund. The petty cash custodian initiates a request for reimburse- ment. This individual prepares a schedule (or summary) of the payments that have been made and sends the schedule, supported by petty cash receipts and other documentation, to the treasurer’s office. The receipts and supporting documents are examined in the treasurer’s office to verify that they were proper payments from the fund. The treasurer then approves the request, and a check is prepared to restore the fund to its established amount. At the same time, all supporting documentation is stamped “paid” so that it cannot be submitted again for payment.