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Hitchcock and Gothic

The Hitchcock has created horror through the lives of birds.The novel Daphne du Maurier  has the theme of mystery how the place of the British government  through the birds directing the meaning of the wording words and concerned people have  mystery of the waking up the concerned amateur way of taking the ways out of the circumstances . The marking Caps issue of the stage is well designed and they are concerned making the knocking out of the working nature of the market working the concerned division of the wonder act divided to the concerned.The purpose of the writing is to create understanding about the influence of Hitchcock on Gothic.

The perfectly designed matter of music to create the emotions of horror has worked well and as the music used in the movie really develops the emotional feelings of terror and horror to the viewer. The plot of working differently defined the versions of making the montage and the newly dressed costumes are well decorated and the sense of music is concerned with eventual nature of making things smoothed. The outgoing of the natural circumstances is well equipped with the maturing circumstances advanced. The attacking to the human population is well arranged to the support of the scenario andto support the deployment version.  I’m going to stop reading here.

The film was among the  one of the successful movie of the time as the narration is well endangered of the concern the making of the film is well defined and as well as it provides help to learn. The dialogue as well as the get up of the characters seems very natural that gives a realistic look to the viewers by addressing the emotional attachment of the viewers through the music that perfectly suits the situation..The desirable film is wondered and valued because of the balance in the action, the body language, the dialogue with the scenarios supporting music. The Hitchcock Rebecca is successful film as throughout the movie the music raised the feelings among the viewers as the wondering things are happening around them. The desirable scene is on the one scenario version of marking the stanceevaluated.The version of the making the things developed and wonder around the certain nature of the making the concerned departmental scenario developed.

The film is essential parts of the making natural environment for the viewers by involving the measurement dissolution of the pattern the wondering the scenario of the dilemma constraints of the suspense of the concerned dissolution involvement marking the stances working of the stances worked deployment scene adopted version concerned measurement deployment. The motif nature of circumstances verdict dilution reefed to marking the exact conversation deployment. The concern is development the things back the space to give natural feelings.  The working elusion dissolved rendered making of the mix.  The meanings are working of the newer talent discussing the dilemma of the concerned. The consignment involvement revealed to the basics in the measurement of the scene.     

The reviews are bad of stating the nature the narrator’s task as that was not been performed well. Mrs de Winter is an evolutional character in the movie. The novel and the film have a different core of the marking of the good scenario that is concerned with tasking of the apprehensivedimension of the nature and dwelling the version of the circumstances in the measurement and developed the natural construction into the agenda version drastically subject and version of the nature concerned. The marking are of the scene nature making the deployment of the concerned making the version to another level wording things concerned measurement nature. The dialogue of Mrs De winter were perfectly suited to his characterand to give an impressions to the viewers but here the music role was prominent to justify and to support the scenario effectively.

The ghost in the story appears in somehow realistic styleby making things grow. They have come to England which when caning the neutral making the version of the concerned making the dilemma of the nature and bird having the attacks on human concerned development version. The stance is of the emerging ghost. The plot is nearly good but according to the critic the plot is really dull and making of the version of the sense of marking endanger birds.

Mrs. Danvers is the housekeeper at the Manderaley and eventually developing the plotter. Her nick name is Danny originates to the death of the previous mistress and marking the nature of the concerned. The newer Mrs. De winters are a central character of the movie. This character is trying to take the place of the Rebecca and built up the scenario of the concerned measurement of the marking the tasks of the wonder valuation changing the dilemma.  They kept secret Davners and ultimately found the illness. The plots are of making the nature development of the task. The making of the film is at the better instance.  Dialogues are of the saying that I watched you go down and a year ago.

The musher is responsive along with the meaningful nature of and theconcern management verdict policy concluded with the instrumental verdict of the dilemma of the case scenario addiction of numerous paper work diluted with the nature of concern. The production is the enormous valuation revealed to the mandatory concern. The dilemma is the plot in which the story is told within the maximum approach verification. The authentic nature is to describing the major wording of the nation measurement conflict. The describing making the session of the above maintained valued level of the making allowed district making the concerned by the marking certain level of the mystery of the verdict always citation measurement.  

The Secret are saving characters which have the wonders of working as the secret not telling character. Twentieth century would be extensive because of the marking the natural apprehensivesection of the overall deciding to not explaining the disease too. This much secret keeping the character to be looking bad and indulging in the circumstances wondering the measurement of the wonders notes explaining concern development. The Concerned dilemma is the secret character wondering the making the version of evolution measurement concerning divisors of the concerned character involved in the making of the measurement concerned development in the scenario.

The premium nature of the concerned deployment of marking the nature is dissolved by the customs and the verdict of the hedging of the concerned employment dissolution that involved extra ordinarily visiting the circumstances developed making the construction deployed of the making of the market scenario development of the nature construction measurement evolved basically measurement of the concerned measurement discussion perfection deployment involved concerning the concerned.    

Both the writers of the novel presents the feminist touch of the natural consistency of the marking the version of delaying the plotter the concerned measurement will be checked by the consultancy of the working measures. The heroes of the female will be wondering the measurement of the basic concern is development of the characters. The female heroes are well known to the describing nature of the amateur and making the things working the nature of the making the concerned departmental scene improvement.

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16 year olds to vote

Introduction:

There is need to recognize the importance of casting a vote, right to caste vote is an important aspect, which should be disused, everybody in the nation or country, should have the same right, there is a need to allow the right to vote to the 16 years old. Government need to identify the importance of teenagers, they should also given the rights, support should be given to the 16 year age, voting age should be lower to 16. The young vote caster in the age of 16 and 17, will caste the meaningful vote. A research shows that, government has discussed a lot on it that the young teenagers should be allowed to caste vote or not, however, there are political issues. The right to caste vote if given to the 16 and 17 years of teenager, then they will be empowered and their knowledge will be increases, they can better take the decision, and the habit to cast votes will be developed in them in their formative years. Moreover, the teenagers in 16 years are not mature enough to decide what is good for them; they might follow their parents or the one who influence them that the vote should be given to this person. 

Arguments For:

There are many advantages for the society and for the 16 and 17 teenagers, if they are allowed to caste the vote, first that voting right at 16 years old will have significance effect in our culture, the young citizen will be motivated and they will support the government that their government is accommodating and encouraging them.  When they know, they are going to caste the vote they will feel responsibility at their part, and they will pay the tax. It is also the matter of equality and fairness, when they know they are getting equal rights as others, they will not miss the chance to caste the vote (Fairvote, 2016). 

The positive impact on the families will take place, when there are 16 and 17 years old at the home or households are involved in the civic life, this can turnout their parents and others, of all ages to caste the vote, the early teenagers will influence the family members and people around them. The young voter can also access that who is right person for them; it can establish the long-life habit, it van make them sound decision-makers, they needed to be involved with the civic and social matters so their quality participation should be a part of democracy. 

Teaching and giving opportunities at the early ages can make them capable enough, to respect their politics, they will take part in the news, they will stay updated with everyday changing in the politics, and they will evolved with the political matters from the 16 and 17 years. Before leaving the school, they will be well aware of polices and society that what needed to be improved or changed. They will be involved with the politics for the later life, the parents and government need to engaged them in voting, the voters will be increased in this way, and right person for the state will be selected by the nation, 16 is the better age to begin with the vote. When youth will participate, it will generate the much gain from the 16 years of age. It will generate the positive impacts and can capable the voters to decide what is good for them, at the early ages (Vote16sf, 2015). 

Arguments against:

According to the World health organization, the mental capacity of the teenagers are not fully developed, they just do, what they are guided to do. They brain of 16 and 17 years of age are not fully mature, there is a need of guidance to them. In the case of vote, they should not allow to give the vote due to some reasons. They can wait for two years, after the age of 18 they will be given the right, they may be deprived by the group of people, or someone may influence them to give the vote to this or that party. Anybody can target this age group easily by offering them some things they desired off, they could easily influenced, as they are not fully matured (Berry & Kippin, 2014). 

The two years of life from the 16 to 18, can make them capable to understand the government, and the civic parties, children of this age group are lazy. They can learn about the government and after this, they will be mature to cast a vote, according to the choice, the children at 16 years are not much competent or capable to take decisions, they are emotional and live in a fantasy world. They want to change the world; they want to see everything, according to what they desired, they can smart in taking decisions but not as fully grown adult, like they will be in 18. At the age of 16, they are pressurized by the peer, they even do not pay attention to the households matters, they are not aware of the taxes and property, so how they could decide the political parties and the benefits. 

Conclusion:

The children of 16 years of age are not mature enough as they can deprive, people and political parties can take advantage of this age group, they are not capable enough to take the decisions, and they cannot choose what is good and bad for them. However, the early teenage voters can participate with the parents in choosing the best leader, if they are given right to cast votes, then they will feel responsibility at their part, and may be try to increase their knowledge regarding political matters, voting right can make them active and involved them in civic life. 

Works Cited

Berry, Richard and Sean Kippin. “Should the UK lower the voting age to 16?” (2014): 1-36.

Fairvote. Lower the Voting Age. 2016. 2 May 2016 <http://www.fairvote.org/lower_the_voting_age#why_should_we_lower_the_voting_age_to_16>.

Vote16sf. 7 reasons why 16 and 17 year olds should vote. Nov 2015. 2 May 2016 <https://vote16sf.wordpress.com/>.

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Politics Classical Ideologies

Essay

This article discusses the issue of contemporary politics in its broadest term. Also, for that purpose, the rigorous analysis is done to discuss the issue. First of all, we will define liberalism, it is defined as the political philosophy and the worldview which is founded on the ideas of equality as well as liberty.omn the other hand, classical liberalism put its focus on the role of liberty whereas the social liberty emphasis on the importance of equality. In the twelfth century, when there were ideologies as well as viewpoint which were related to the free political institutions as well as the tolerance of the religion and also the support coming from the role of government for the purpose of regulating the capitalism and also for the construction of the welfare state. According to the liberals, they believe in the actions of the government for achieving the equal equity and opportunity for all the people. It was considered the duty of the government to remove all the social ills and also to protect the civil liberties as well as human rights and individuals. It was believed that it is the role of the government that it must guarantee that there are no ones in need of something.

The libertarian party in the United States of America is known as the libertarian political party, which is busy in promoting the laissez-faire capitalism, civil liberties, and non-interventionism capitalism in the economy and it is promoting welfare in the society. There are many candidates for the purpose of the US presidential candidate seat. All of them have a different purpose to serve. Like Barack Obama have chosen the democratic rule. Similarly, for the purpose of Libertarian, Gray Johnson has chosen the Liberalism party. In one of his meetings, he shares his point of views with the Americans that how will they be able the freedom of choice. He will help in maximizing the economy. He will put focus on political freedom, and there will be the primacy of the political judgment and voluntary association.

The libertarian party was formed in December 1971. The-founding party was encouraged in part because of the Vietnam War and the end of the gold standard. The party is mostly concerned about the classical liberal platform.Gray Johnson who is the part’s presidential nominee in 2012 and 1026 also states in his important me things that Libertarian party is more culturally liberal than Democrats are. However, he also stated that it is more vocally conservative than Republicans are. In the current fiscal policy positions, the taxes are lowered, the national debts are reduced, IRS is abolished, people are allowed to opt out of the social security and it also eliminate the welfare state through utilizing the private charities. in the current cultural policy positions, the aims are to probity the illegal drugs, same sex marriages are supported, the capital punishments are ended, and there is also a support from the gun ownership rights. There are many libertarians who had believe that the drinking age should also be lowered to 18 (Ball, Dagger, & O’Neill, 2016).

411,250 voters are being registered for the libertarian in the 27 states. The LP in the USA is the third largest nationally organized party. It was also the first electro vote  which was also cast for the women for Vice President in the presidential selection of the USA.It is also true that the LP has never won the angry seat in the Congress of the USA. The electoral success has been seen in the state ligatures context.

The party goals are, seeking the liberty in which individuals will live their life and no one is forced to sacristies their values for the benefits of the others. The goals are to set the world free, and we must take the stand for this purpose the statement of the principle is that we, the member of the Libertarian party are challenging the sect of the invincible state and we defends the individual rights. It is the ideology of the party to bind the party with the core principles. The libertarian party is also supporting the CAFTA, NAFTA and the other trade agreements like that and it supports e eit of the USA from the NATO and WTO. Gray Johnson as the Libertarian has achieved 1,275,821 votes being the candidate of the US presidential election in the 2012 and got the third position.

On comparison to the other presidential candidate, then Hillary Clinton would be the name to choose. Gray Johnson is a libertarian party whereas the Clinton is supporting the Democratic Party. If Johnson is the former governor of the New Mexico, then the latter is the former secretary of the state. Talking about their comparison regarding individual rights, then gray Johnson is seen to be more conservative than Hillary Clinton. Gray Johnson is seen as more conservative than Hillary Clinton on the part of domestic issues is. Regarding economic issues, then Gray Johnson is more conservative than Hillary Clinton. Talking about the international and defense issues then Hillary Clinton has seen as more conservative than Gray Johnson. Clinton has longer running camping, and it is longer than the average Democratic Party candidate is in 2016.

The Liberal party has not been won in the USA because if it happened then, it would affect the politicians in a bad way. Once it happens, people will not listen to the government anymore. People will do whatever they want destroying the culture in a bad way. There will be no following of the rules and policies made by the government. They maximize their happiness on the expense of others.

Reference:

Ball, T., Dagger, R., & O’Neill, D. I. (2016). Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal. Taylor & Francis,.

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landsea tours

Company Background:

The Landsea Tours was founded in 1985 by Scott Mason. Scott is an entrepreneur who saw a chance to capitalize on the growing sightseeing market in Vancouver. He started by giving fun tours on a mini-coach. Since then, the company has been growing and had a big break through the enthusiasm of a young co-op student called Kevin Pearce. Pearce helped rebrand the company, and is now the current President and co-owner. Landsea Tours is one of the market leaders in the booing sightseeing market which is vital to Vancouver’s economy.

Our Mission and Vision statements;

· Vision: Landsea Tours elite team provides a year-round premium boutique sightseeing experiences. We strive to be the innovators and the company of choice in Vancouver/s tourism industry

· Mission: exceed expectations by providing world-class service excellence. Sightseeing the way, it should be

Landsea Tours competes in a very diverse market, as they provide services for a range of people. From luxury buses to ordinary coaches, they provide full day, multi-day and half day tours to ten destinations for both locals and tourists. Vancouver is a very big city with about 647,000 people who are all potential customers. In 2015, the city of Vancouver had 2.1 million visitors from the U.S, 940 000 from the Asia-Pacific region and 424,000 from Europe. Landsea Tours is also the only company that provides sea to sky tours, and this gives them an edge over the competition.

Westcoast Sightseeing offers similar tours of Vancouver as well as guided tours to the same destinations as Landsea, and are regarded as their most fierce competition. They also have similar social media ratings, and are licensed by Gray Line, a Denver-based tour company that offers sightseeing tours all over the world. The Vancouver Trolley Company and Star Limousine are both indirect competitors of Landsea Tours, as they offer similar services. The industry has very low barriers to entry, and there are frequent new entrants.

Landsea Tours brand is to pride themselves on being cleaner and more fuel-efficient than their competition. The company has been awarded Silver Certification from Green Tourism Canada and is Climate Smart certified. They also pride themselves on carefully selecting their guides through an extensive hiring process. Landsea hires based on personality and teach employees the skills they need. Above all, they look for people who genuinely care about their visitors’ vacation experience. This is evident in the fact that new employees spend five weeks in training, including two-and-a-half weeks of driver training to complete commercial driver licensing requirements. On social media, Landsea has a relatively small but engaged network and they are also rated highly by TripAdvisor.

Landsea’s target market can be segmented as follows;

1. Authentic experiences: These are people looking for authentic, tangible engagement with the destinations, with a particular interest in understanding the history of the places they visit. They are 55+ older. A significantly higher proportion of these visitors (17%) are from short-haul markets within BC, Alberta, and Washington State (most using their own vehicle) and 20% of these visitors are from long-haul North American markets like Ontario and California. Their top sources for trip planning are: airline websites, hotels and attractions. They seek good value and like tours that show the highlights but focus on nature

2. Cultural Explorers: They are “defined by their love of constant travel and continuous search for opportunities to embrace and discover cultures. They are younger than the ‘authentic experiences’ and are usually mostly aged 35-45. They don’t want to feel like tourists; they enjoy shared authentic experiences and don’t require pampering or luxury. Their primary trip planning sources are: websites of airlines, hotels, attractions or other services at destination; travel guides and books; and websites of regional or city tourism offices.

Competitive Analysis:

Target Audience:

· Landsea Tours & Adventures: Landsea is serving pleasant service to their customers since last 30 years and continuously doing so. They have a kind of niche market but to be the first position they have to take care of their customers. Landsea is targeting on the people from small age group to old age group people who is seeking to do adventures on their vacations. The activities that Landsea is doing are a proper package for children, young age group to old age group.

· Westcoast sightseeing is a competitor of Landsea. They are also offering same facilities except sea to sky trip. They are also targeting same age group as Landsea. Westcoast is a Denver based company that offers sightseeing tours all over the world.

· The Vancouver Trolly company is indirect competitor of Landsea. They are not offering lots of activities but they have low price range of offers. Landsea and this company sell each other’s products. This company target audience is limited but they are charging less compare to Landsea.

· Star Limousine is an indirect competitor of Landsea charters. This company offers VIP facilities and people who want first class facilities they can get it from Star Limousine Company. They have high range of charters which attract lots of customers.

Promotion Vehicle Used:

· Landsea Tours and Adventures: Promotion is the main part of the any business and Landsea needs to do more promotion because they have limited marketing budget. Landsea has partnership with the hotel concierges from last so many years. Concierges is number one driver for business, they are recommending Landsea to their customers for charters and trips which helps them a lot to grow their business.

· Company is doing promotion by social media, news papers, partnership, trade promotions bus adverts, sharing customers experience to the customers.

· Landsea has their website called “Landsea Tours and Adventures”. Landsea has top ranking position on “Vancouvertours.com” where most of the people visit this website.

· Viator is the biggest wholesaler for Landsea. Viator is owned by TripAdvisor and it has largest amount of customer reachability. Around 11 million travelers visit this site and have more than 3000 partners. So the Landsea tours booked by largest ravel website. (LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES, 2017)

Westcoast sightseeing: Westcoast sightseeing is the competitor of the Landsea and this company is also a partner with the hotel Concierge.

· Westcoast sightseeing is doing marketing by broachers, social media, news papers, blogs, and many more.

· They have partnership with Tourism Industry BC, North Shore Tourism, Tourism Richmond, and Tourism Vancouver.

· They are very active on social media like twitter, Facebook, instagram, Google+. Compare to Landsea they are more active. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Vancouver Trolly Company: Vancouver Trolly Company is partner with hotel Concierge. This company is indirect competitor of Landsea.

· Vancouver Trolly Company has less appearance on social media. They are available on Facebook, Twitter only.

· They have top ratings on Viator and the rating was stated on 2011.

· Vancouver Trolly does the marketing by broachers, partnership, and social media. They charge less to the customers compare to others. (Trolley, 2017)

Star Limousine: Star Limousine is providing first class amenities service to their customers. They have wide range of luxurious vehicles. Recently they have introduced TESLA cars for their customers who want to enjoy the ride without burning fossil fuels.

· Star Limousine is located in so many places. They have wide range of network in Canada. They are doing marketing by showing their brand image to their customer by social media, customer’s feedback, and many more.

· They have partnership with so many hotel and motels. they are partnered with Tourism Vancouver, Whistler British Columbia, NLA, and The Vancouver Board of Trade. (Limousine, 2012)

Slogan and positioning:

1. Landsea Tours and Adventures: “Guided By Passion”. (Adventures, 2017)

2. Westcoast sightseeing: “Let’s explore together”. (Sightseeing., 2017)

3. Vancouver Trolly Company: “The Fun Begins The Minute You Board!”.

“THE TROLLEY WAS A MUCH BETTER OPTION THAN A LIMO!” (Trolley, 2017)

4. Star Limousine: “Exceeding Expectation”. (Limousine, 2012)

Brand Strength and Weakness:

Landsea Tours and Adventures:

Strengths:

1. Landsea has a wide range of activities for the tourist.

2. They have great facilities like hotel pickup and drop off.

3. They train their employees very well and they spend at least $5000 for training one employee which shows their affection.

4. Landsea is partnered with hotels and Viator which can enhance their network around the world.

5. They have wide range of charters. They have buses, cars, as well electric cars and each one cost them around $150,000. This shows that they are using premium product for their customer. (LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES, 2017)

Weaknesses:

1. They don’t have Hop on-Hop off tours.

2. They have little bit high cost of trips compare to their competitors.

3. They are less active on social media.

4. Compare to their competitors Landsea has less attractive website. (LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES, 2017)

Westcoast sightseeing:

Strengths:

1. They are also offering same adventure as Landsea and even more.

2. They have good appearance on social media

3. They are offering hop on-hop off facilities.

4. They have good website compare to Landsea. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Weaknesses:

1. They don’t have good vehicle as Landsea has.

2. Hey have less rating on their website compare to Landsea. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Vancouver Trolly Company:

Strengths:

1. Offers hop on-hop off facilities to the customers.

2. They have affordable offers compare to their competitors. (Trolley, 2017)

Weaknesses:

1. They are not active on social media.

2. Their website is not so attractive

3. Their marketing strategy weak compare to their competitors. (Trolley, 2017)

Star Limousine:

Strengths:

1. They have awesome cars and offer luxury to their customers.

2. They have wide range of market and they are located in different parts of the Canada.

3. Offering service to their customers from last so many years. (Limousine, 2012)

Weaknesses:

1. They charging more compare to their competitors.

2. They don’t offer other adventures offer like their competitors do.

3. They are the only transportation mode. (Limousine, 2012)

USP (Unique Selling Point):

Landsea Tours & Adventures: Landsea is one of the best companies for the tourists. Landsea USP is their wide range of offers for anyone. They have best employees to take care of you, best vehicles, and their affection towards their company. (Adventures, 2017)

Westcoast sightseeing: Westcoast is the direct competitor of Landsea and they offer same as compare to Landsea. But their unique selling point is their appearance on social media and on website. (Sightseeing., 2017)

Vancouver Trolly Company: Vancouver Trolly has less appearance on social media but they are offering good activities to their customer and their unique selling point is their low price range. (Trolley, 2017)

Star Limousine: Star Limousine is offering first class charters to their customer but they charge higher compare to their competitors. Their unique selling point is their appearance in the market as a luxury car brand company who offers extreme comfort travel ride. (Limousine, 2012)

OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION:

For the clients most viable areas of opportunity from a positioning perspective there are five forces of competitive position analysis. They are:

· Supplier power

· Buyer power

· Rivalry competitors

· Threat of entrants

· Threat of substitute products or services

1. Supplier power

It is an evaluation of how the providers increase the costs. The costs are driven depending on the quantity of provider basic information, different feature in their item size and quality of the provider and cost of changing from one provider then onto the next.

2. Buyer power

It is an evaluation of how simple the purchaser makes the costs down. The costs are reduced down by the quantity of purchaser in the market, significance of every individual purchaser to the association and cost to the purchaser of changing starting with one provider then onto the next.

3. Rivalry among existing competitors

This depends on the capacity of adversaries in the market. Various sponsors, offering various things and also organizations, reduce the feature appeal.

4. Threat of new entrants

Beneficial markets pull in new hopefuls, which crumble benefit. Until tenants have very strong limits to entry, then the advantages will have reduction for the forceful price. Alternatively the control and impose appraisal procedures makes the government a sixth power for few organizations.

5. Threat of substitute products or services

Whenever similar substitute items exist in the market, it improves the chances of clients changing to options in light of cost increments. This declares both the energy of providers and the market.

Points of parity:

Points of parity are the difference in points between the competitors over your brand that you need to prevent. This is the place where you need to show you as a good competitor, so that you can ignore the advantage and focus on your points of difference.

In some cases points of parity are called as table stakes, these are the points you simply need to enter in to a market. Other times, points of parity are the advantages that competitors have that are valued by the customers.

Segmentation & target Audience:

In Canada, there is an extensive research made into visitor profiles in nation. There are some experiences of travel which are developed and those are marketed and sold by the government.

There are some travellers who are eventually look for destinations and also shows more interest of knowing the history of the places. Also, there are very much interested in travel to learn and experience.

The primary target audience are:

· Authentic Experiences: These travellers are mainly concentrating on understanding the history of the places which they tend to visit. They can gain some knowledge and experience while travelling to the new places. This type of travellers can mainly have seen in the age of above 55, in those 9% from the global countries travellers and 12% from the Canadian travelers.17% of visitors are from the short-haul markets and 20 % of visitors are from long haul markets. Mainly these types of travellers are open minded and independent. They prefer the integrating of local culture. They can learn everything about the place they visit. They can also have the improvement of understanding the others.

· Cultural Explorers: These types of travellers can be defined by their love of constant travel. They can have the habit of discover and can immerse themselves in the culture, people and the places they can visit. Young age grouper mainly follows this type of travelling. The age may be 35-45. They cannot be like tourists; they can enjoy the experience which is authenticated. They didn’t expect any luxury things in the travelling. The sources they used for travelling are air lines, hotels and other services. The cultural explorers are open minded and easy going. Also, they are more energetic, risk taker. They have constant exploration i.e. they always plan for the next outing.

Market Segmentation

Market Segmentation: It is a process of dividing a broad business market; it consists of both extension and potential consumers into subgroup of segments based on their characteristics.

Strategic approach to Segmentation

Number of SegmentsSegmentation StrategyComments
ZERONo strategyThere is no segmentation
OneThis segmentation is focus strategyIt focuses on a Small, tightly defined target market
Two or moreIt is a differentiated strategyThey focus on two or more targeted targets which they define

Segmentation

Segmentation baseExplanations
DemographicThose are individuals and aged above 18+.And couples, age from 25-34
GeographicThis type of travelers from different countries and remaining from the Canada.
PsychographicsThis type of experience travelers is having desire to find the new places to travel and they travel for free time to get away their stress.
BehaviouralThis type of travelers seen the adventures and cultural experiences.

Communication Objectives:

1 Marketing objectives:   To develop our Marketing plan

. Proposals of where the business should be, helping customers to set their business objectives and         illumination of the chances to seek after.

. Division, Focusing on and Situating

. Laying out proposals with respect to marking to help separate and recognize your organization.

. Observing and Control

. Budget plans 

. Assets

Marketing strategy: A marketing strategy is about formulating your company’s marketing direction. A marketing strategy will ask a number of business questions seeking to provide answers covering:

.   build up the brand awareness.

.   increase in market sales.

.   start new products and sales. 

.  new markets international or locally  

. increase profit 

Developing smart objectives:

. specific

.  time

.  realistic 

 .  Achievable

1. Create Brand Awareness: Making brand care is to light up your planned intrigue assemble about your picture of your thing or organization. Making brand care does not so much apply to another brand, yet rather often applies to a present brand which may endeavor to invade new markets. The brand message can be passed on through a couple of sorts of correspondence stations, for instance, standard mail, radio, TV publicizing, natural advancing.

2. Define a Fulfilling Need for Your Product/Service: In the broad exchanges framework part of your moving strategy, you will design the innovative structure for planning your connection, thing, or relationship in the proposed intrigue groups psyche to induce them to use your thing/ideal position.

Some of the methods that fulfilling need for their products. Few of them are 

• Low interest rates 

• A buy one get one free

• Reasonable price

• Provide a money-back guarantee

         3. Encourage Action from Your Target Audience: While engaging your planned intrigue gathering may have all the earmarks of resembling initiating them to make a get, it goes further. It’s totally veritable that using a get one, get one FREE offer is bolster, in any case, if you simply broadcast using one correspondence channel and only for a brief period, for example a one week time span, you will see a drop in purchaser interest and purchases.

References: Adventures, L. T. (2017). Tour of the Week. Retrieved from https://vancouvertours.com/ LANDSEA TOURS & ADVENTURES (February 12, 2017). Limousine, S. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.starlimousine.com/index.php Sightseeing., W. (2017). Westcoast Sightseeing. Retrieved from https://westcoastsightseeing.com/ Trolley, V. (2017). THE VANCOUVER TROLLEY COMPANY. Retrieved from http://www.vancouvertrolley.com/ Whittle, E. (2017, February 12). Landsea-Tours-Vanier 2016 Case Study. Retrieved September 28, 2017, fromhttps://www.fanshaweonline.ca/d2l/le/content/824561/viewContent/5406596/View http://newkind.com/how-to-position-technology-brand-points-parity/ https://www.cgma.org/resources/tools/essential-tools/porters-five-forces.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_segmentation#Bases_for_segmenting_consumer_markets https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_segmentation http://www.winmarketing.co.uk/marketing-strategy/marketing-objectives/ https://www.marketingbinder.com/writing-marketing-communication-objectives/

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cv1 coffee makers

MAKING COFFEE WITH CV1 COFFEE MAKER 7

Making Coffee with CV1 Coffee Maker

Student

School

Making Coffee with CV1 Coffee Maker

The CV1 Coffee Maker is an excellent convenient, and compact, 8″H x 4.5″W x W x 8”D, coffee maker, it’s reliable, single serve, with a personal cup brewer, which uses a disposable brew basket and filter. The CV1 Coffee Maker comes out of the box ready to use, it has an automatic shut off when coffee is ready (Courtesy Products (n.d.).

The instructions will guide anyone from an expert coffee drinker/maker or beginners to use this machine.

All the items listed below are necessary to complete a single cup of coffee. (See Figure 1), and the diagram illustrates the coffee maker components (See Figure 2).

Figure 1 – Coffee Maker/Brew Basket & Filter/Condiments & Coffee Cup

Figure 2 – Coffee Maker Components

Follow the step by step instructions below to using the CVI Coffee Maker.

Step 1. Remove your CV1 from the box and plug in electrical socket (See Figure 2).

Figure 2 – Coffee Maker Plugged In

Step 2. Open Brew Basket and Filter and slide it into the Brew Basket compartment. (See Figure 3)

Figure 3 – Coffee, Brew Basket Filter and Brew Basket Compartment

Step 3. To filter the coffee through the Brew Basket filter, open door located on the top of the coffee maker, fill the coffee cup with water and pour into the water compartment and close the water compartment door. (See Figure 4). Comment by Darlene: Omit. Each step should begin with a verb.

Figure 4 – Filling the Water Compartment for Brewing

Step 4. The Coffee Maker is ready for Brewing. Place the cup under the Brew Basket compartment and push the On/Off button down and wait for the coffee to fill your cup. (See Figure 5).

Figure 5 – Coffee Cup in place and Push Down On/Off Button

Step 5. Mix in the condiment and have a delicious cup of coffee. (See Figure 6).

Figure 6 – Brewed Cup of Coffee and Condiments. Enjoy!

Coffee Maker will automatically turn off once the brewing is completed.

References:

Courtesy Products (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.courtesyproducts.com/order.php?view=item&cview=category&ItemID=484

Feedback/Instructions

This is a good start, and the way you organized the document generally works. The topic is perfect for the assignment.

When it comes to writing instructions, remember that you don’t have much leeway in how you’ll phrase each step: each one should begin with a verb and end with a period. Likewise, you’ll format the graphics following the APA Style guidelines. I find this resource super useful when incorporating photographs or drawings, which can also be applied to screenshots, should you decide to include some in this paper or in the future (just scroll toward the bottom): https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/apa_tables_and_figures_2.html.

For this project, you’re also required to figure out a way to break down the process into 2-3 separate phases with smaller steps “nested” within.

Check out my comments in the margins and let me know if you have any questions!

Best,

Sneza

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outline of wyoming

Outlining a statute facilitates your understanding of the specific conduct that is regulated by the statute. It also provides details on how a court case resolves ambiguities and applies statutes to particular legal issues.

The first step in outlining a statute involves determining the elements, results, and exceptions of the statute in question. If the elements are linked with the word and, they must all be met to trigger the results. If elements are linked with the word or, only one of the elements must be established. If all of the elements are relevant but only some are needed, then the statute contains a factors test. A commonly known factors test is when child custody is determined by what is in the best interest of the child. The court considers factors such as: the fitness of the parent, the relationship between child and parent, living accommodations, placement of siblings, educational opportunities, religious education, etc. The result is what will happen when the elements of the statute are met. Exceptions occur when an additional element is established and the usual result does not follow.

Once you have outlined a relevant statute, you can use the LexisNexis Academic database to consult the Interpretive Notes and Decisions that follow federal statutes and the Notes section that follows state statutes. They will direct you to cases that interpret specific elements of the relevant statute.

The following are two examples of a statute and an outline of that statute:

Dog Bite Statute

If a dog or other animal, without provocation, attacks or injures any person who is peacefully conducting himself in any place where he may lawfully be, the owner of such dog or other animal is liable in damages to such person for the full amount of the injury sustained.

Dog Bite Statute Outline

  • Elements
    • If dog or other animal
    • Without provocation
    • Attacks or injures
    • Person
    • Peacefully conducting himself
    • In lawful location



  • Results
    • Owner of dog or animal is liable for damages for all injuries sustained



  • Exceptions
    • None

Escape from Prison Statute

If any person committed to prison shall break and escape there from or shall escape or leave without authority any building, camp, or place in which he is placed or directed to go or in which he is allowed to be, he shall be deemed guilty of an escape and shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not to exceed 5 years, to commence immediately upon the expiration of the term of his previous sentence.

Escape from Prison Statute Outline

  • Elements
    • Person committed to prison
    • Break, escape, or leave without authority
    • Any building, camp, or place
    • Where he is placed, directed to go, or allowed to be



  • Results
    • Guilty of escape
    • Prison term not to exceed 5 years to follow previous sentence



  • Exceptions
    • None

To prepare for this assignment:

  • Review the assigned pages of Chapter 3 in your course text, Principles of Legal Research. Focus on sources of and research methods for locating statutes.
  • Locate one court interpretation of the Wyoming blackmail statute.
  • Use the LexisNexis Academic database in the Walden Library and search for Wyo. Stat. § 6-2-402 using the following sources under the Federal & State Codes section of the Legal tab:
    • WY-Wyoming Statutes Annotated, Constitution
    • Search: 6-2-402
    • Select a court interpretation in the Notes section that follows the statute
  • Review the Wyoming blackmail statute.
  • Outline the statute using the examples provided above for guidance.

The assignment: (1–2 pages)

  • Outline the Wyoming blackmail statute. List the elements, results, and exceptions of the statute.
  • Provide a brief explanation of the statute.
  • Analyze and explain at least one court interpretation of the Wyoming blackmail statute.

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list only for those resources not included in the Learning Resources for this course.

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how many formula units are in the unit cell shown for li2s?

The crystal structure of lithium sulfide (Li2S) is pictured here. (Intro 1 figure) The edge length of the unit cell is 5.88*10^2^2 pm.

i guess it is FCC ( face cenred cubic)

1–

What are the coordination numbers of and Li^+ and S^2- in the lithium sulfide crystal shown? Enter the values in order of Li^+ and S^2-, respectively.

Ans… i though it shld be 4,4 .. but it says ” Face ions are shared between two unit cells.”…

plz someone

2- How many formula units are in the unit cell shown for Li2S ?

Ans- i gues it shld be 1 but it says –
The formula represents one formula unit. How many sets of are in the unit cell?

0 0 791
asked by Dr Bob plz help
Jan 24, 2009
I don’t have the book and can’t see the picture. I can’t find anything on the Internet so I’m passing on this one. I’ve also looked in all the references I have at home and can’t find anything on Li2S.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Jan 24, 2009
The Number of Formula Units is 4, but I don’t know why, I just happened to guess it and it marked it as correct for me.
As for part 1, I don’t know 🙁

0 0
posted by Mrs C
Jan 25, 2009
It’s 4,8. Easy, you just count the lines, but note that the S(2-) is on the surface, so it’s surrounded by the Li+ of the adjacent unit cell as well as its own.

0 0
posted by Dash
Jan 26, 2009
What is the density of Li2S in grams per cubic centimeter? this was the 3rd part of this question :/

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Jan 27, 2009

The density of lithium sulfide is 1.5g/cm^3

0 0
posted by friend
Jan 27, 2009
the number of formula units is 4: there are 4 Sulfur atoms in the unit cell (8* 1/8 + 6* 1/2) and 8 Lithium atoms (all contained within the unit cell)

0 0
posted by SJ
Jan 27, 2012

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what was the speed vai of puck a before the collision?

On a frictionless horizontal air table, puck A (with mass 0.255 kg ) is moving toward puck B (with mass 0.365 kg ), which is initially at rest. After the collision, puck A has velocity 0.118 m/s to the left, and puck B has velocity 0.649 m/s to the right.
What was the speed vAi of puck A before the collision?

0 0 179
asked by Amanda
Dec 3, 2015
This is the same as the one with the skaters, just different numbers
momentum before = .255 v + .365 * 0
momentum after = .255 (-.118) + .365*.649

momentum after = momentum before, solve for v

0 0
posted by Damon
Dec 3, 2015

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what is the heat of combustion of ethane, c2h6, in kilojoules per mole of ethane?

(Another) Physics Homework Help? The two blocks in the figure are sliding down the incline. What is the tension in the massless string?
20,214 results
physics
(Another) Physics Homework Help? The two blocks in the figure are sliding down the incline. What is the tension in the massless string?

asked by vidya on October 24, 2008
Physics
I am doing my physics homework and am stuck on this one problem. can anyone help me please? Two blocks are connected by a massless string and are held in position by another massless string along a frictionless incline (as shown in the figure). Let M1 =

asked by Kaity on January 30, 2012
physics
Find the acceleration of the two blocks sliding down the incline in the figure below. (Take m1 = 1.1 kg and m2 = 1.8 kg. Indicate the direction with the sign of your answer

asked by joy on February 23, 2018
Ff
The coefficient of static friction between the m = 3.50 kg crate and the 35.0° incline of Figure P4.41 is 0.340. What minimum force must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline? Your response

asked by Avery on March 1, 2012
physics
A block slides down a 10 angled incline at a constant speed. what is the coefficient of sliding friction between the blocks surface and the incline?

asked by kim on November 8, 2008

physics
Find the acceleration of the two blocks sliding down the incline in the figure below. (Take m1 = 1.1 kg and m2 = 1.8 kg. Indicate the direction with the sign of your answer Link to figure, copy and paste part by part Part1: //d2vlcm61l7u1fs.cloudfront.

asked by joy on February 27, 2018
RE: Physics
If an incline has a difference in height from one end to the other of 17.8 cm and has a length along the incline of 1.19 m, what is the angle that the incline makes with the horizontal reference surface? Physics – Damon, Saturday, February 15, 2014 at

asked by Christina on February 15, 2014
Physics
A 59.1 N/m spring is unstretched next to the 90 degree angle of an incline, and the system is released from rest. The mass of the block on the incline is m1 = 21.4 kg. (Neglect the mass of the pulley). If the coefficient of kinetic friction between m1 (the

asked by Jack Johnson on October 22, 2012
Physics
A box is sliding down an incline tilted at an angle of 2.14° above horizontal. The box is sliding down the incline at a speed of 5.15 m/s. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the incline is 0.387. How far does the box slide down the

asked by Jen on June 25, 2015
Physics
A crate begins sliding down a frictionless incline of 25.0o. If the objects begins sliding from rest and takes 1.50 sec to slide down the incline, what is the speed of the crate as it leaves the incline? How long is the incline?

asked by Tyler on April 15, 2014
Physics
The coefficient of static friction between the m = 3.75-kg crate and the 35.0° incline of the figure below is 0.320. What minimum force vector F must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?

asked by Ryan on March 10, 2015
Physics
The coefficient of static friction between the m = 3.20-kg crate and the 35.0° incline of the figure below is 0.260. What minimum force vector F must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?

asked by James on March 4, 2014
Physics
The coefficient of static friction between the 2.90 kg crate and the 35.0° incline of Figure P4.41 is 0.260. What minimum force F must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?

asked by David on October 7, 2013
physics
The coefficient of static friction between the 2.3 kg crate and the 35.0° incline of Figure P4.47 is 0.241. What minimum force, F, must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?

asked by Anonymous on October 5, 2012
physic
The coefficient of static friction between the m = 3.20 kg crate and the 35.0° incline of the figure below is 0.340. What minimum force must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?

asked by Chan on October 16, 2009

physics newtons laws 3
The coefficient of static friction between the m = 3.20 kg crate and the 35.0° incline of Figure P4.41 is 0.260. What minimum force must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?

asked by luc on October 18, 2009
physics
The coefficient of static friction between the 2.3 kg crate and the 35.0° incline of Figure P4.47 is 0.241. What minimum force, F, must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?

asked by Anonymous on October 5, 2012
Physics
www.webassign.net/sercp9/4-p-047-alt.gifThe coefficient of static friction between the m = 3.60−kg crate and the 35.0° incline of the figure below is 0.330. What minimum force F must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the

asked by Cameron on October 3, 2018
Physics
Two blocks of masses m1 = 4.4 kg and m2 = 4.8 kg are connected by a string as shown in the figure above. Block 1 moves at a constant velocity down the incline 30 degrees) block two is not at incline it is straight. they are attached with a string. a) Find

asked by Micheal on July 13, 2014
Physics
Two blocks of masses m1 = 4.4 kg and m2 = 4.8 kg are connected by a string as shown in the figure above. Block 1 moves at a constant velocity down the incline 30 degrees) block two is not at incline it is straight. they are attached with a string. a) Find

asked by Micheal on July 13, 2014
physics
home / study / science / physics / questions and answers / a block of mass 3kg s sliding along the frictionless … Question A block of mass 3kg s sliding along the frictionless horizontal surface with a speed of 2m/s. 1. What is the kinetic energy of the

asked by anna on April 27, 2016
physics
In the figure, two blocks are connected over a pulley. The mass of block A is 7.9 kg and the coefficient of kinetic friction between A and the incline is 0.18. Angle θ of the incline is 41°. Block A slides down the incline at constant speed. What is the

asked by krals on March 17, 2016
Physics
Two blocks are tied together with a string as shown in the diagram.(There is a block on a horizontal incline, its mass is 1.0kg, there is a rope connecting that block to a pulley which then connects to another block that is 2.0kg. The angle of the incline

asked by Mercedes on October 22, 2010
physics
A 0.50-kg block, starting at rest, slides down a 30.0° incline with kinetic friction coefficient 0.30 (the figure below). After sliding 84 cm down the incline, it slides across a frictionless horizontal surface and encounters a spring (k = 33 N/m). (a)

asked by Angel on February 29, 2012
physics
A 0.50-kg block, starting at rest, slides down a 30.0° incline with kinetic friction coefficient 0.30 (the figure below). After sliding 84 cm down the incline, it slides across a frictionless horizontal surface and encounters a spring (k = 33 N/m). (a)

asked by Angel on February 28, 2012

physics please help :/
A 0.50-kg block, starting at rest, slides down a 30.0° incline with kinetic friction coefficient 0.30 (the figure below). After sliding 84 cm down the incline, it slides across a frictionless horizontal surface and encounters a spring (k = 33 N/m). (a)

asked by Angel on March 1, 2012
Physics
The spring shown in the figure is compressed 59cm and used to launch a 100 kg physics student. The track is frictionless until it starts up the incline. The student’s coefficient of kinetic friction on the 30∘ incline is 0.14 . k= 80,000 N/m m=100 kg uk=

asked by Dib on November 8, 2014
physics
A crate weighs 820N and rests on a 34degree incline. You can keep it from sliding down the incline by pushing on it with a force of 240N applied parallel to the incline. 1)Calculate the coefficient of static friction between the crate and the incline.

asked by Anonymous on September 26, 2010
Physics
In the figure below, two blocks are connected over a pulley. The mass of block A is 12 kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction between A and the incline is 0.22. Angle θ is 30°. Block A slides down the incline at constant speed. What is the mass of

asked by Ben on February 21, 2011
bowie
A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 21.8° with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.170. The initial speed of the box at the bottom of the incline is 3.48 m/s.

asked by trish on December 16, 2015
Physics
A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 12.0° with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.180. The initial speed of the box at the bottom of the incline is 1.30 m/s.

asked by Peter on October 21, 2011
Physics!
HELP!!! A box rest on an incline making a 34 angle with the horizontal. It is found that a parallel force to the incline of at least 240 N can prevent the box from sliding down the incline. If the weight of the box is 800 N, find the coefficient of static

asked by Randy on October 7, 2017
physics
A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 21.8° with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.170. The initial speed of the box at the bottom of the incline is 3.48 m/s.

asked by trish on December 16, 2015
PHYSICS
A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 21.8° with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.170. The initial speed of the box at the bottom of the incline is 3.48 m/s.

asked by James on December 16, 2015
Physics
A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 13.0° with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.180. The initial speed of the box at the bottom of the incline is 1.80 m/s.

asked by Anonymous on October 29, 2012

Physics
A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 17.0° with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.180. The initial speed of the box at the bottom of the incline is 1.40 m/s.

asked by NHS on September 17, 2007
physics
A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 21.8° with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.170. The initial speed of the box at the bottom of the incline is 3.48 m/s.

asked by trish on December 16, 2015
physics
blocks 1 and 2 of masses 2 kg and 4kg, respectively, are connected by a light string, as shown above. These blocks are further connected to a block of mass 3kg by another light string that passes overr a pully of negligible mass and friction. Blocks 1 and

asked by b on November 13, 2012
11th grade
A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 16.0° with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.180. The initial speed of the box at the bottom of the incline is 1.30m/s.

asked by shan lalani on September 20, 2010
Physics
Consider a version of the atwood machine in which the masses are frictionless incline. The mass sliding on incline 1, m1, is 1.5 kg, and the angle of this incline is 62 deg. If the mass on the second incline, m2, is 2.5 kg, what is the angle 2 so that the

asked by rachel on December 28, 2010
physics
hello! I have been having a lot of trouble with one physics problem that I have for homework: any help would be greatly appreciated! ‘A block of mass 12 kg starts from rest and slides a distance of 8 m down an inclined plane making an angle of 40 with the

asked by Ty on November 25, 2007
Physics
A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 15.0 degrees with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.180. The initial speed of the box and the surface of the incline is

asked by Matoro on December 8, 2012
bobpursley
ok im doing my physics homework and we have to submit the answers online. i keep getting these questions wrong and i only have one more try can someone please tell me how to work it? a 2.5 kg otter starts from rest at the top of a muddy incline 94.6 cm

asked by Claudia on October 15, 2008
physics
Two blocks of masses m and 2m are held in equilibrium on a frictionless incline as in the figure. In terms of m and θ, find the following.

asked by kay on September 28, 2013
Physics
Two blocks M1 and M2 are connected by a massless string that passes over a massless pulley as shown in the figure. M1 has a mass of 8.25 kg and rests on an incline of 73.5°. M2 rests on an incline of 15.5°. Find the mass of block M2 so that the system is

asked by meg on October 14, 2015

science
In the figure, blocks A and B have weights of 49 N and 32 N, respectively. Determine the minimum weight of block C to keep A from sliding, if the coefficient of static friction between A and the table is 0.20.

asked by xxxxxxx on January 6, 2016
Physics(Please help)
1) A box is sliding up an incline that makes an angle of 14.0 ° with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface of the incline is 0.176. The initial speed of the box at the bottom of the incline is 3.72

asked by Hannah on May 29, 2012
physics… last one
Two blocks, A and B (with mass 50 kg and 100 kg, respectively), are connected by a string, as shown in Figure P5.63. The pulley is frictionless and of negligible mass. The coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the incline is µk = 0.23.

asked by clueless on November 10, 2010
physics
Two blocks, A and B (with mass 50 kg and 100 kg, respectively), are connected by a string, as shown in the figure below. The pulley is frictionless and of negligible mass. The coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the incline is µk = 0.24.

asked by Chan on October 26, 2009
physics
Two blocks, A and B (with mass 50 kg and 100 kg, respectively), are connected by a string, as shown in the figure below. The pulley is frictionless and of negligible mass. The coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the incline is μk = 0.28.

asked by tom on March 15, 2012
physics
Two blocks, A and B (with mass 50 kg and 100 kg, respectively), are connected by a string, as shown in Figure P5.64. The pulley is frictionless and of negligible mass. The coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the incline is µk = 0.25.

asked by megan on March 3, 2011
Math, Physics
Two blocks with indicated masses are connected by a cable of negligible mass over a pulley with radius 45cm. The block on the incline is sliding without friction and experiences a constant acceleration of 2 m/sec^2. Determine the mass of the pulley

asked by Sterling on June 23, 2013
Physics Urgent!
Please help! This is due in three hours and I don’t know how to do these! 1.A block accelerates at 3.1 m/s2 down a plane inclined at an angle 24.0◦. Find μk between the block and the inclined plane. The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 . 2.Two

asked by Mikayla on November 3, 2016
physics
The coefficient of static friction between the 3.0 kg crate and the 31° incline shown below is 0.300. What is the magnitude of the minimum force, F, that must be applied to the crate perpendicularly to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down

asked by sammy on October 23, 2011
Physics
The coefficient of static friction between the 3.00 -kg crate and the 35 degree incline is .300. What minimum force must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline.

asked by Jas on September 26, 2011

science
The coefficient of static friction between 3.00 kg crate and the 35.0 incline is 0.300.what minimum force F must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline

asked by kathy on September 13, 2017
Physics
The coefficient of static friction between the m = 2.95-kg crate and the 35.0° incline is 0.345. What minimum force must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?

asked by Lala on October 26, 2011
Physics
The coefficient of static friction between the 3.78 kg crate and the 38° incline is 0.306. What minimum force must be applied to the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline? The acceleration of gravity is 9.8

asked by Elizabeth on October 3, 2010
physics
ok im doing my physics homework and we have to submit the answers online. i keep getting these questions wrong and i only have one more try can someone please tell me how to work it? a 2.5 kg otter starts from rest at the top of a muddy incline 94.6 cm

asked by Claudia on October 15, 2008
Physics
Two blocks with masses M1=8.50kg and M2=1.40kg are attached by a thin string which goes over a frictionless, massless pulley. M1 slides on an incline and there is friction between M1 and the incline. The incline is at an angle of 23.0 degrees from

asked by Sam Cole on June 18, 2013
Physics
A physics student stands on the edge of a cliff 2x meters. He throws his physics homework straight up in the air. Derive an expression to calculate the time taken by the homework to come back to the student.

asked by Tyler on September 30, 2017
physics help
I know that the answer to this problem is (0.2237232293) and to begin it by making a force body diagram, but I need help setting up the equation(s). Thanks! A box rest on an incline making a 30 angle with the horizontal. It is found that a parallel force

asked by jessica on October 3, 2014
physics
Two blocks each with weight w are held in place on a frictionless incline. In terms of w ans the angle theda of the incline, calculate the tension in a) the rope connecting the blocks; b) the rope that connects block A to the wall? a) it was wsin(theda) b)

asked by Chris on November 16, 2006
physics
A person who weighs 80kg sliding down a 30 degree incline with a coefficient of friction of .20 A person who weighs 80 kg sliding down a 20 degree incline with a coefficient of friction of .20 A person who weighs 40 kg sliding down a 20 degree incline with

asked by G on July 7, 2015
physics
Two blocks are tied together with a string as shown in the diagram.(There is a block on a horizontal incline, its mass is 1.0kg, there is a rope connecting that block to a pulley which then connects to another block that is 2.0kg. The angle of the incline

asked by mercedes on October 22, 2010

Physics
A 1.5kg block starts to slide up a 25 degrees incline with an initial speed of 3m/s.It stopes after sliding 0.4m and slides back down.Assuming the friction force impeding its motion to be constant. 1).How large is the friction force? 2)What is the blocks

asked by Pierre on February 10, 2019
Physics
Two blocks (one of which is on a ramp) are attached via a string looped over a pulley. The block on the incline has a mass of 5.0 kg; the block hanging downward (suspended by the pulley) has a mass of 7.0 kg. Assume the usual things (non-stretchy massless

asked by Sam on October 6, 2011
Physics
Two blocks (one of which is on a ramp) are attached via a string looped over a pulley. The block on the incline has a mass of 5.0 kg; the block hanging downward (suspended by the pulley) has a mass of 7.0 kg. Assume the usual things (non-stretchy massless

asked by Sam on October 6, 2011
physics
Two blocks (one of which is on a ramp) are attached via a string looped over a pulley. The block on the incline has a mass of 5.0 kg; the block hanging downward (suspended by the pulley) has a mass of 7.0 kg. Assume the usual things (non-stretchy massless

asked by Sam on October 6, 2011
physics
Two blocks (one of which is on a ramp) are attached via a string looped over a pulley. The block on the incline has a mass of 5.0 kg; the block hanging downward (suspended by the pulley) has a mass of 7.0 kg. Assume the usual things (non-stretchy massless

asked by Sam on October 6, 2011
Physics-Mechaincs
A force of 23.52 N pushes and pulls to blocks as shown in the figure below. The vertical contact surfaces between the two blocks are frictionless. The contact between the blocks and the horizontal surface has a coefficient of friction of 0.29. The

asked by Genevieve on September 24, 2010
physicsssss
two blocks are connected over a pulley. The mass of block A is 10 kg and the coefficient of kinetic friction between A and the incline is 0.24. Angle èof the incline is 30°. Block A slides down the incline at constant speed. What is the mass of block B?

asked by ashley on October 3, 2010
Physics
Two blocks are connected by a string, The smooth inclined surface makes an angle of 35 degrees with the horizontal, and the block on the incline has a mass of 5.7kg. The mass of the hanging block is m=3.2kg. Find the direction and magnitude of the hanging

asked by Priscilla on March 13, 2012
physics
Block A (mass 40 kg) and block B (mass 80 kg) are connected by a string of negligible mass as shown in the figure. The pulley is frictionless and has a negligible mass. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the incline is μk = 0.27

asked by Diego on November 30, 2012
physics
Block A (mass 40 kg) and block B (mass 80 kg) are connected by a string of negligible mass as shown in the figure. The pulley is frictionless and has a negligible mass. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the incline is μk = 0.27

asked by Diane on November 30, 2012

AP Physics
Block A (mass 40 kg) and block B (mass 80 kg) are connected by a string of negligible mass as shown in the figure. The pulley is frictionless and has a negligible mass. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the incline is μk = 0.27

asked by Ashley on November 29, 2016
physics
Two blocks connected by a cord passing over a small, frictionless pulley rest on frictionless planes: a) What is the acceleration of the blocks? b) What is the tension in the cord? c) Which way will the system move when the blocks are released from rest?

asked by ATT on March 16, 2018
Re: PHYSICS
“Relative” is an important word. Block L of mass mL = 1.90 kg and block R of mass mR = 0.500 kg are held in place with a compressed spring between them. When the blocks are released, the spring sends them sliding across a frictionless floor. (The spring

asked by COFFEE on February 27, 2007
physics
A small block with mass 0.308 kg is sliding down a frictionless ramp that is inclined at an angle of 53.1° above the horizontal. Assume g = 9.80 m/s2. (a) As the object slides down the incline, what is the magnitude of the normal force that the surface of

asked by Mike on February 2, 2015
Physics
Q. A mass is sliding down an incline. As the angle for the incline increases, the magnitude of the component of weight perpendicular to incline:- Increases Decreases Increase then decrease Decrease then increase

asked by SAGAR on July 4, 2016
Physics
Two blocks are connected over a massless, frictionless pulley. The mass of block 2 is 8.00 kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction between block 2 and the incline is 0.250. The angle θ of the incline is 28.0°. Block 2 slides down the incline at

asked by Aron on September 30, 2016
Physics
Two blocks are attached by a thin inextensi- ble string over a frictionless, massless pulley. There is a frictional force between the block on the incline and the incline. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . 13 kg 13 kg μ T 1.1 m/s 0 m/s2 39◦

asked by Letisha on November 12, 2009
physics
A string going over a massless frictionless pulley connects two blocks of masses 4.4 kg and 11 kg. As shown on the picture below, the 4.4 kg block lies on a 23◦ incline; the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is μ = 0.29.

asked by Sarah on March 6, 2014
Physics
Block A, with a mass of 10 kg, rests on a 36.9° incline. It is attached to a string that is parallel to the incline and passes over a massless, frictionless pulley at the top. Block B, also with a mass of 10 kg, is attached to the dangling end of the

asked by ANON on November 27, 2016
Physics
The block pictured below is sliding upward on the incline with theta=25. the coefficient of friction between the block and the incline is 0.15. of the block has a speed of 5 m/s at the bottom of the incline, how far upward will it slide before it stops?

asked by Alex Baker on October 30, 2012

Physics
Any help pleeeze!! I’m totally lost on these!! 1. A 14 g coin slides upward on a surface that is inclined at an angle of 16° above the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the coin and the surface is 0.23; the coefficient of static

asked by L.A. on May 20, 2007
general physics
A string going over a massless frictionless pulley connects two blocks of masses 5.9 kg and 9.5 kg. the 5.9 kg block lies on a 31 ◦ incline; the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is µ = 0.22. The 9.5 kg block is hanging

asked by David on February 20, 2016
Physics
The coefficient of static friction between the 3.00 kg crate and the 35.0 degree incline is .300. What minimum force must be applied to the crate from sliding down the incline?

asked by Dee on September 28, 2011
sciencce
a block slides down an angle 10 incline at a constant speed. what is the coefficient of sliding friction between the block’s surface and the incline?

asked by kim on November 8, 2008
Physics
In the configuration shown (10m incline for m1 and 8m vertical length for m2 with a spring under it, both masses are linked by a rope and a pulley at the top), the 52.0 N/m spring is unstretched, and the system is released from rest. The mass of the block

asked by Alphonse on October 25, 2012
Physics
In the configuration shown (10m incline for m1 and 8m vertical length for m2 with a spring under it, both masses are linked by a rope and a pulley at the top), the 52.0 N/m spring is unstretched, and the system is released from rest. The mass of the block

asked by Alphonse on October 25, 2012
physics
Problem A5: In the figure above, the two blocks are on frictionless inclines and are in static equilibrium. The block on the left has a mass of 48 Kg, and the block on the right has a mass of n3 Kg. If the left incline has a length of n1 meters, and the

asked by frank on January 10, 2012
What is the heat of combustion of ethane, C2H6, in kilojoules per mole of ethane?
11,889 results
chemistry
What is the heat of combustion of ethane, C2H6, in kilojoules per mole of ethane?

asked by superman on January 27, 2013
Chemistry
What is the heat of combustion of ethane, C2H6, in kilojoules per mole of ethane?

asked by Jessica on June 19, 2013
Chemistry
Ethane, C2H6, has a molar heat of vaporization of 15kJ/mole. How many kilojoules or energy are required to vaporize 5 g of ethane?

asked by Ambra on May 1, 2012
chemistry

  1. the volume of an idea gas is 2.06L at standard temperature and pressure. Calculate the volume at 1.75 atm and 27CELCIUS. 2. Ethane, C2h6 has a molar heat of vaporization of 15kj/mole. How many kilojoules or energy are required to vaporize 5 g of ethane?

asked by stephanie on December 1, 2009
Chemistry
Ethane, C2H6 has a molar heat of vaporization of 15 kj/moles. How many kilojoules of energy are required to vaporize 5 grams of Ethane?

asked by Persia on July 21, 2008

Chemistry
Enthalpy I’m given that the heat of reaction for the combustion of ethane is -1560kJ/mol. I need to figure out how much heat is produced from 18g of ethane. 2 C2H6 + 7 O2 –> 4 CO2 + 6 H2O Okay so I’m rough on Thermo right now, so I gave it my best shot.

asked by Justin on November 8, 2015
Chemistry
Enthalpy I’m given that the heat of reaction for the combustion of ethane is -1560kJ/mol. I need to figure out how much heat is produced from 18g of ethane. 2 C2H6 + 7 O2 –> 4 CO2 + 6 H2O Okay so I’m rough on Thermo right now, so I gave it my best shot.

asked by Justin on November 8, 2015
Chemistry
Enthalpy I’m given that the heat of reaction for the combustion of ethane is -1560kJ/mol. I need to figure out how much heat is produced from 18g of ethane. 2 C2H6 + 7 O2 –> 4 CO2 + 6 H2O Okay so I’m rough on Thermo right now, so I gave it my best shot.

asked by Justin on November 8, 2015
chemistry
ethane,C2H6 burns in oxygen. A. what are the products of the reaction? B. write the balanced equation for the reaction. C. what mass of O2, in grams is required for complete combustion of 13.6 of ethane? D. what is the total mass of products expected from

asked by adriane on October 7, 2013
Chemistry
For the complete combustion of 1.000 mole of ethane gas at 298K and 1 atm pressure, change in H= -1560 kJ/mol. What will be the heat released when 4.42g of ethane is combusted under these conditions?

asked by Kristi on October 25, 2014
chemistry
During the combustion of ethane, C2H6(g), 40.4 grams of liquid are collected . How many liters of ethane, measured at 3.55 atm and 33 C, were burned?

asked by Devin B on August 31, 2011
Chemistry
The combustion of ethane: 2 C2H6 (g) + 7 O2 (g) —> 4 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (g) At the same temperature and pressure, what is the maximum volume in liters of carbon dioxide that can be obtained from 15.9 L of ethane and 52.3 L of oxygen?

asked by Helpless on November 6, 2012
Chemistry
Please show me how to work! Ethane, C2H6(g) can be made by reaction of hydrogen gas with acetylene, C2H2(g). the standard enthalpies of formation of ethane and acetylene are -84.68 and +226.73 kJ mol-1, respectively. what is the reaction enthalpy for the

asked by Sam on October 20, 2012
Chemistry
If the molar enthalpy of combustion of ethane is -1.56 MJ/mol, how much heat is produced in the burning of; a) 5.0 mol of ethane b) 45 g of ethane

asked by HAte Chemistry 🙁 on November 9, 2017
Chemistry
Calculate the weight of ethane, C2H6 (MWT = 30g/mole), required to produce a pressure of 1520 mm at 20 degrees C when contained in a 9.00 liter vessel. How many moles of ethane is it?

asked by Darryl on December 14, 2010

Chemistry
The combustion of ethane (C2H6) produces carbon dioxide and steam: 2C2H6+702 yields 4CO2 +6H2O How many moles of CO2 are produced when 5.30 mol of ethane are burned in an excess of oxygen?

asked by Mary on September 22, 2013
Science
The amount of heat released when 2.8g of ethane is completely burnt in excess of oxygen is 200kj what will be the heat of combustion of ethane? Answer plz…

asked by Anonymous on June 21, 2018
Chemistry
Guys. I have another chemistry question that I am unsure with. I would appreciate it if you could help me with working out. Thanks. A sample of ethane, C2H6, contains 9.6 * 10 ^ 22 atoms. How many mole of ethane is present in the sample? Why do I need to

asked by Mole help! on June 17, 2015
chemistry
a.) Write the balanced complete combustion reaction for ethane (C2H6), producing CO2 and water vapour. Make sure to include phases. Also, make sure that the stoichiometric coefficients are whole numbers and are not fractions. b.) What is the enthalpy of

asked by BILLY on October 3, 2014
Chemistry
use the data from this table of thermodynamic properties to calculate the maximum amount of work that can be obtained from the combustion of 1.00 moles of ethane, CH3CH3(g), at 25 °C and standard conditions. on the chart is said ethane(C2H6) is -84.0. In

asked by Alexis on April 28, 2014
Chemistry
If 10.5 g of hydrogen,H2, were mixed with 6.51 g of acetylene, C2H2, and allowed to react according to the following equation, what is the theoretical yield of ethane, C2H6, produced? If 7.00 g of ethane, C2H6, were recovered at the end of the reaction,

asked by C.M. on April 28, 2013
Chemistry
If 10.5 g of hydrogen, H2, were mixed with 6.51 g of acetylene, C2H2, and allowed to react according to the following equation, what is the theoretical yield of ethane,C2H6 produced? If 7.00g of ethane, C2H6 were recovered at the end of the reaction , what

asked by Anonymous on April 24, 2013
chem 30
When 7.5 g of ethane was completely burned, all the heat produced was used to heat 1.50 kg of water. If the temperature of water rose from 20EC to 80EC, the heat of combustion of ethane is

asked by elaine on January 24, 2016
Chemistry
Ethane (C2H6) burns with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. A sample of ethane was burned completely and the water that formed had a mass of 1.61g. How much ethane, in moles and in grams, was in the sample?

asked by Shabear on November 10, 2010
Chemistry
Ethane (C2H6) burns with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. A sample of ethane was burned completely and the water that formed had a mass of 1.61g. How much ethane, in moles and in grams, was in the sample?

asked by Shabear on November 10, 2010

Chemistry
If 10.5 g of hydrogen, H2, were mixed with 6.51 g of acetylene, C2H2, and allowed to react according to the following equation, what is the theoretical yield of ethane, C2H6, produced? If 7.00 g of ethane, C2H6, were recovered at the end of the reaction,

asked by C.M. on April 26, 2013
Biology 12
The question is asking to calculate the overall energy change in the combustion of ethane (C2H6). This is what I have done: The balanced equation: C2H6 + 6 O2 –> 2 CO2 + 3 H2O (6) 411 + 346 + (6) 494 –> (2) 799 + (3) 459 2466 + 346 + 2964 –> 1598 + 1377

asked by Vikki on March 11, 2015
chemistry
132gram o2 is required for a combustion of 28 liter mixture of ethane and ethene (at NTP) than find out mole fraction of ethane and ethene in the mixture?

asked by rekha on August 12, 2015
Chemistry
How to write the equation for the combustion of ethane C2H6?

asked by Rene on October 5, 2013
chemistry
Organic hydrogenation reactions, in which H2 and an “unsaturated” organic compound combine, are used in the food, fuel, and polymer industries. In the simplest case, ethene (C2H4) and H2 form ethane (C2H6). If 132 kJ is given off per mole of C2H4 reacting,

asked by mara on October 23, 2015
chem 211
Organic hydrogenation reactions, in which H2 and an “unsaturated” organic compound combine, are used in the food, fuel, and polymer industries. In the simplest case, ethene (C2H4) and H2 form ethane (C2H6). If 144 kJ is given off per mole of C2H4 reacting,

asked by beti on October 18, 2013
Chemistry
Organic hydrogenation reactions, in which H2 and an “unsaturated” organic compound combine, are used in the food, fuel, and polymer industries. In the simplest case, ethene (C2H4) and H2 form ethane (C2H6). If 124 kJ is given off per mole of C2H4 reacting,

asked by HELP ! on October 22, 2010
Chemistry
Organic hydrogenation reactions, in which H2 and an “unsaturated” organic compound combine, are used in the food, fuel, and polymer industries. In the simplest case, ethene (C2H4) and H2 form ethane (C2H6). If 124 kJ is given off per mole of C2H4 reacting,

asked by Jo on October 19, 2010
Chemistry
During its combustion, ethane combines with oxygen to give carbon dioxide and water. A sample of ethane was burned completely and the water that formed has a mass of 1.61 grams. How many grams of ethane were in the sample?

asked by Margaleta on August 18, 2015
chemistry
When a 6.79-g mixture of methane, CH4, and ethane, C2H6, is burned in oxygen at constant pressure, 369 kJ of heat is liberated. What is the percentage by mass of CH4 in the mixture? The standard enthalpies of combustion for CH4 and C2H6 are -890.3 kJ mol-1

asked by abby on March 1, 2014

chemistry
When the equation for combustion for ethane is balanced using integer coefficients, the ΔH for the reaction = -2834 kJ. How many grams of ethane must be burned in order to heat 277.3 grams of water from 54.0°C to the boiling point and then boil all of it

asked by Riese on April 16, 2015
Chemistry
Calculate the enthalpy change per gram for the combustion of ethane (C2H6(g)).

asked by Billy on December 4, 2010
Chemistry
Consider the combustion of ethane: 2C2H6(g)+7O2(g)–>4CO2(g)+6H2O(g) If the ethane is burning at the rate of 0.7 mol/L × s, at what rates are and being produced?

asked by Jack on May 14, 2015
Chemistry
Ethane (C2H6) reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. Assuming there is an excess of oxygen, calculate the mass of CO2 and H2O produced from 1.25 g of ethane

asked by Kelly on January 11, 2012
chemistry
2C2H6+702=4CO2+6H20 how many grams of oxygen are required to completely burn60.0g ethane (C2H6) show work Using the above equation how many Lof 02 are required to burn 20.0Lof ethane thank u soo much this is for a test

asked by megan on May 1, 2012
chemistry
if 15 grams of ethane gas c2h6, reacts with 128 g oxygen un a combustion reaction, how many moles of water can be produced?

asked by jen on January 31, 2016
Chemistry
Ethane, C2H6, forms ·CH3 radicals at 700.°C in a first-order reaction, for which k = 1.98 h-1. (a) What is the half-life for the reaction? (b) Calculate the time needed for the amount of ethane to fall from 1.00 10-3 mol to 2.48 10-4 mol in a 500. mL

asked by Sara on June 28, 2013
CHEMISTRY: URGENT
30cm^3 of a mixture of methane and ethane were mixed with 100cm^3 of oxygen at ordinary temperature and pressure and exploded. After cooling the residual gases occupied 61.5cm^3. Find the percentage by volume of each gas in the mixture, methane (CH4) and

asked by LC on October 29, 2012
CHEMISTRY
A 8.90-g sample of ethane, C2H6, is mixed with 18.8 atm of O2 (an excess) in a 1.50 L combustion chamber at 130.0°C. The combustion reaction to CO2 and H2O is initiated and the vessel is cooled back to 130.0°C. What is the final pressure in the

asked by Matt on January 17, 2008
science/ chemistry
Over 80 000 vehicles per day pass the site and the traffic is frequently congested. The surrounding area is described as forming a street canyon. The temperature at the site had reached 25 °C by 08:00, when the ethane concentration was recorded as 7.09

asked by Nicolas on September 14, 2008

CHEM
a mixture of 10cm3 of methane and 10cm3 of enthane was sparked with an excess of oxygen. after coolin to room temp, the residual gas was passed through aq KOH. what volume of gas was absorbed by the alkali ? Write the equations for CH4 + O2 and C2H6 + O2.

asked by Pet on May 29, 2007
Chemistry
In the dehydrogenation of ethane two reactions take place: C2H6 => C2H4 + H2 C2H6 + H2 => 2CH4 The mass distribution of the product is: 27% C2H6; 33% C2H4; 13% H2; 27% CH4. 1. What was the conversion of C2H6 to CH4? 2. What was the yield of C2H4 expressed

asked by Hoang on November 24, 2016
Chemistry
Calculate enthalpy of reaction C2H4 + H2 gives C2H6.enthalpy of combustion of ethene, H2,and ethane are -1410,-286,-15.60kj/mol respectively

asked by Shaika on November 7, 2016
Chemistry
What volume of oxygen gas is needed for the complete combustion of 4.00 L of ethane gas, C2H6? Assume that the temperature and pressure of the reactants are the same.

asked by Lauren on May 7, 2016
chemistry
I need help with a,b,and c. I tried to balance it but im having a little trouble Ethane gas, C2H6, burns in air and produces carbon dioxide and water vapor. a)write a balanced equation for this reaction. I know this isnt balanced but is this what im

asked by beth25 on March 25, 2007
Chemistry
Calculate the heat generated by the complete combustion of 15.0g of ethane.

asked by Mrs MM on February 8, 2012
chemistry
when a 8.77g mixture of methane, and ethane is burned in oxygen at constant pressure, 476.6kJ of heat is liberated. What is the percentage by mass of CH4 in the mixture? The standard enthalpies of combustion for CH4 and C2H6 are -890.3kJ/mol and

asked by Anonymous on November 22, 2010
Chemistry
How many molecules of ethane (C2H6) are present in 0.249 g of C2H6? Enter answer in scientific notation.

asked by Tessa on February 19, 2013
chemisrty
a. At low temperatures, 1,1,2, trichloro ethane is not free to rotate about the carbon-carbon bond. It will be stuck in its lowest energy position. Is 1,1,2, trichloro ethane a chiral molecule when trapped in this position? 1,1,2, trichloro ethane is

asked by Anonymous on June 1, 2013
Chem
Consider the following equation in chemical equilibrium C2H4(g) C2H6(g) + 137 kJ What happens to the ethane (C2H6) when the temperature of the system is increased

asked by David on July 30, 2016

Chmistry
For the following reaction, 4.35 grams of hydrogen gas are allowed to react with with 10.3 grams of ethylene (C2H4). hydrogen (g) + ethylene (C2H4) (g) ethane (C2H6) (g) What is the maximum amount of ethane (C2H6) that can be formed? grams What is the

asked by Austin Jekins on December 4, 2010
chemistry
How many molecules of ethane (C2H6) are present in 0.524 g of C2H6?

asked by matt on January 28, 2011
Chemistry
Given the reaction 2C2H6 + 7O2 → 4CO2 + 6H2O ∆H = -1416 kJ/mol C2H6 a. How many liters of Carbon Dioxide would be produced if 16.00 L of ethane, (C2H6), were burnt (all at STP)? b. How many liters of water vapor would also be produced? c. How many

asked by Shenette on December 16, 2012
Chmistry
For the following reaction, 4.35 grams of hydrogen gas are allowed to react with with 10.3 grams of ethylene (C2H4). hydrogen (g) + ethylene (C2H4) (g) ethane (C2H6) (g) What is the maximum amount of ethane (C2H6) that can be formed? grams What is the

asked by Austin Jekins on December 4, 2010
Chemistry
The combustion of how many moles of ethane would be required to heat 838 grams of water from 25.0 to 93.0 degrees C? Assume liquid water is formed during the combustion.

asked by k on November 2, 2012
chemistry
A closed container has a mixture of methane, CH4, ethane C2H6, and propane C3H8. If 12.5 g of methane, 36.0 g of ethane, and 14.0 g of propane have a total pressure of 890. mm Hg, what is the partial pressure of each of the gases in the container?

asked by josh on April 15, 2012
Chemistry
1) A quantity of 85 mL of .900 M HCl is mixed with 85 mL of .900 M KOH in a constant-pressure calorimeter that has a heat capacity of 325 J/C. If the initial temperatures of both solutions are the same at 18.24 degrees C, what is the final temperature of

asked by Vince on November 18, 2014
Chemistry
How many moles of ethane does it take to produce 8112 KJ in the reaction 2 C2H6 + 7O2 yields 4 CO2 + 6 H2O + 3120 KJ? I got 8112 kJ x 2 moles ethane/3120 kJ (5.2 moles).

asked by Narasaq on June 3, 2009
chemistry
Determine the mass of carbon(iv)oxide produced on burning 104g of ethane (c2 H2 ) C= 12, h= 1, o=16. 2(2 H2 + 502 4 co2 +2H2 0 12×2+1 ×2 4 ×(12+16 ×2) 26g 176g Amount = molar mass. 104/26 =4 mols.of ethane 2mol c2 H2 4 4 mol 11=x x=(4 ×4)/2 =8 mole

asked by gozie on October 24, 2018
fountain of knowledge international academy
A metal x with relative atomic mass of 56forms an oxide with formul X2O3 .How many grams of the metals will combine with 10g of oxygen Ethane burns completely in oxygen according to the equations below C2H6+7¡2O2~2CO +3H2O what is the amount in moles of

asked by Blessing on October 17, 2016

chem/plz/check work studying for a final
what is the volume occupied by 16.0g ethane gas (C2H6) at 720 Torr and 18C? V=nRT/P conversion of mol: 16.0g C2H6 X 1mol C2H6/30.07g C2H6= .53mol C2H6 V= .53 mol(0.0821 Latm/molK)(291)K / 720 Torr (1 atm/760Torr) V= 13.5 L

asked by julia on December 16, 2010
chem/plz/check work studying for a final
what is the volume occupied by 16.0g ethane gas (C2H6) at 720 Torr and 18C? V=nRT/P conversion of mol: 16.0g C2H6 X 1mol C2H6/30.07g C2H6= .53mol C2H6 V= .53 mol(0.0821 Latm/molK)(291)K / 720 Torr (1 atm/760Torr) V= 13.5 L

asked by julia on December 16, 2010
Chemistry
Ethane gas, or dicarbon hexahydride, undergoes combustion to produce carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. A.) What mass of the un named reactant is required to react with moles of ethane? B.) How many molecules of the porduct, with the smaller percent

asked by Anonymous on May 9, 2011
Chemistry
Ethane gas, or dicarbon hexahydride, undergoes combustion to produce carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. A.) What mass of the un named reactant is required to react with 2.20 moles of ethane? B.) How many molecules of the porduct, with the smaller percent

asked by Anonymous on May 9, 2011
College Chemistry

  1. What is the change in internal energy (in J) of a system that absorbs 0.677 kJ of heat from its surroundings and has 0.438 kcal of work done on it? 2. A 30.5 g sample of an alloy at 94.0°C is placed into 48.7 g water at 20.3°C in an insulated coffee

asked by Nevaeh on October 20, 2010
chemistry
The combustion of ethane produces carbon dioxide and water. If 27.6 g C2H6 are burned in the presence of excess air (O2) and 76.7 g of carbon dioxide are produced, what is the percent yield?

asked by Alexander on November 8, 2017
Chemistry 111
Gaseous ethane will react with gaseous oxygen to produce gaseous carbon dioxide and gaseous water . Suppose 17. g of ethane is mixed with 107. g of oxygen. Calculate the minimum mass of ethane that could be left over by the chemical reaction. Be sure your

asked by Greg on October 22, 2014
AP Chemistry help!!!!!
How does the boiling point of ethane (CH3CH3) compare with that of ethanol (CH3CH2OH)? 1. The boiling point of ethane is higher because it has stronger London dispersion forces. 2. The boiling point of ethane is higher because it has stronger dipole-dipole

asked by Stephen on August 18, 2016
Chemistry
Write a balanced equation for the combustion of gaseous ethane (C2H6) a minority component of natural gas, in which it combines with gaseous oxygen to form gaseous carbon dioxide and gaseous water.

asked by Christine on November 6, 2012
Chemistry
A chemical reaction yields 3 moles of lithium hydroxide (LiOH). How many grams of lithium hydroxide are present? 24 g 48 g 72 g When ethane (C2H6) burns, it produces carbon dioxide and water: 2C2H6 (g) + 7O2 (g) 4CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) How many moles of water

asked by jimm on April 8, 2015

Chemistry
If 5.27 mol of ethane (C2H6) undergo combus-tion according to the unbalanced equation C2H6 + O2 −! CO2 + H2O, how much oxygen is required? Answer in units of mol. Thanks!

asked by Randy on January 18, 2010
Chemistry
The decomposition of ethane, C2H6, is a first-order reaction. It is found that it takes 212 seconds to decompose 0.00839 M C2H6 to 0.00768 M. What is the rate of decomposition (in mol/L-h) when [C2H6] = 0.00422 M? A. 6.43 x 10^-3 mol/L-h B. 6.34 x 10^-5

asked by Saoirse on September 10, 2017
Chemistry
The density of ethane, C2H6, at 25 oC and 1.10 atm is _.

asked by Helpless on November 6, 2012
Chemistry
Three gases (8.00 g of methane, CH4, 18.0 g of ethane, C2H6, and an unknown amount of propane, C3H8) were added to the same 10.0-L container. At 23.0 ∘C, the total pressure in the container is 4.40 atm . Calculate the partial pressure of each gas in the

asked by Niles on July 11, 2018
chemistry
Three gases (8.00 g of methane, CH4, 18.0 g of ethane, C2H6, and an unknown amount of propane, C3H8) were added to the same 10.0-L container. At 23.0 ∘C, the total pressure in the container is 5.20 atm . Calculate the partial pressure of each gas in the

asked by sargun on September 29, 2017
chemistry
Three gases (8.00 g of methane, CH4, 18.0 g of ethane, C2H6, and an unknown amount of propane, C3H8) were added to the same 10.0-L container. At 23.0 ∘C, the total pressure in the container is 4.50atm . Calculate the partial pressure of each gas in the

asked by liz on May 1, 2015
physics
If 842 J of heat is needed to increase the temperature of ethane gas (C2H6) in a 15 litre container from 237 K to 400 K, how much gas is in the container

asked by serena on November 18, 2010
chem
A 1L flask is filled with 1.25 g of argon at 25 degrees celcium. A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.45 atm. What is the partial pressure of argon in the flask? Chemistry – DrBob222, Tuesday, October 5, 2010 at

asked by kris on October 24, 2013
chemistry:URGENT
How to convert (a)ethane to propanone (b)propanone to ethane (c)isobutane to propanone (d)methane to benzene (e)benzene to methane (f)ethyne to methane (g)propanone to benzene (h)ethene to propene (i)Propan-2-ol to Propan-1-ol

asked by sashank on March 1, 2010
chemistry
What is the combustion of ethane (dicarbon hexahydride)

asked by eduardo on February 10, 2014

chemistry
C2H6 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O How many g of carbon dioxide are produced at the same time as 360g of water vapor in the burning of ethane

asked by stephen on March 3, 2013
Chemistry
If 10.5 g of hydrogen, H2, were mixed with 6.51 g of acetylene, C2H2, and allowed to react according to the following equation, what is the theoretical yield of ethane,C2H6 produced.

asked by Anonymous on April 24, 2013
Chemistry
What are the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy for the hydrogenation of ethene (C2H4) to ethane (C2H6) at 25 degrees. Is this a spontaneous process and how can you tell?

asked by anonymous on April 22, 2012
Chemistry
Please also, help me set up this problem. Acetylene, C2H2, can be converted to ethane, C2H6, by a process known as hydrogenation. The reaction is C2H2(g)+2H2(g)⇌C2H6(g). Given the following data at standard conditions (all pressures equal to 1 atm and

asked by Lindsey on November 16, 2014
AP Chemistry
The reaction of the molecules to produce ethane is C2H4(g) + H2(g) → C2H6(g). A mechanism for this reaction is shown below: (The figures show how the ethene molecule with two hydrogen molecules attached ‘binds’ to

asked by Sophie on April 1, 2018
Chemistry
Give the molecular formula for the following: 1)Methoxy methane 2) Methoxy Ethane 3) Ethoxy ethane

asked by Gary on May 24, 2015
Chemistry
I. C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) ΔHf = −394 kJ II. H2(g) + O2(g) → H2O(l) ΔHf = −242 kJ III. 2C(s) + 3H2(g) → C2H6(g) ΔH =−84 kJ The combustion of C2H6 is shown by the following equation: C2H6(g) + O2(g) → 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l) Which option correctly

asked by Summer on April 9, 2018
chemistry
Hello, a few questions: Thanks so much! 1. The heat capacities of titanium and water are 0.522 J g-1 K-1 and 4.184 J g-1 K-1, respectively. What is the final temperature of the titanium-water mixture if a 175.0-g sample of titanium, initially at 90.0oC, is

asked by abby on March 1, 2014
CHEMISTRY
calculate the weight of co2 by complete combustion of 1.5 \g of ethane

asked by ATHARV Singh on October 2, 2016
Chemistry
Acetylene, C2H2, can be converted to ethane, C2H6, by a process known as hydrogenation. The reaction is: C2H2(g) + 2H2(g) === C2H6(g) Given the following, what is the Kp for the reaction? C2H2(g): 209.2 ΔG˚f (kJ/mol) H2(g): 0 ΔG˚f (kJ/mol) C2H6(g):

asked by Ezra on March 31, 2013

science/ chemistry
Ethane (C2H6) is one of the many products of combustion of iso-octane, an important component of petrol. After release into the atmosphere, it is attacked by the hydroxyl radical, HO•, leading to its oxidation in the cycle of reactions when in a NOx-rich

asked by Nicolas on September 14, 2008
chemistry
Ethane(a minor constituent of natural gas) burns in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. How many moles of oxygen are needed to react with one moles of ethane?

asked by micha on April 19, 2017
Chemistry
How many ethane molecules are there in 0.0300 mole of methane

asked by Bryce on October 25, 2012
college chemistry
When ethane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. When 10 molecules of ethane react with 20 molecules of oxygen, what is the composition of the FINAL mixture?

asked by maribel on July 12, 2012
chem– delta H
In your search for fuel to use after the reserves of gasoline dry up, you decided to analyze different compounds (2 hydrocarbons & an alcohol) by combustion. You independently combust methane (CH4), ethane (CH3CH3), and ethanol (CH3CH2OH) at 298 K and 1

asked by Emma on October 23, 2013

Categories
Assignment Help best paper writing service essay writing services write my paper for me

at one point in a pipeline the water’s speed is 3.00m/s and the gauge pressure is 5.00×104pa.

At one point in a pipeline, the water’s speed is 3.00 and the gauge pressure is 4.00×104 . Find the gauge pressure at a second point in the line 11.0 lower than the first if the pipe diameter at the second point is twice that at the first.
I’ve been trying to use Bernoulli’s equasion to find the gauge pressure, but it’s not working for me.

0 0 302
asked by Steph
Jan 30, 2010
You need to provide units (dimensions) for pressure and speed and height or we can’t help you. Numbers are not enough. 1 mile is not 1 inch.

You are correct in using the Bernoulli equation. You also need to use the continuity equation: V * Area = constant.

When the pipe diameter gets twice as large, the velocity becomes 1/4 of the previous value.

P + (1/2) (rho) V^2 + (rho) g H = constant

(rho is the density of water, in the appropriate units)

The change in H (height) and V will tell you the change in gauge pressure. It will be higher where the velocity is less and the elevation lower.

0 0
posted by drwls
Jan 30, 2010
Sorry about the lack of units…but your input helped me to solve it. I wasn’t figuring the velocity correctly for the lower portion of the tube! Thanks so much!!

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posted by Steph
Jan 30, 2010

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arrange the following compounds in order of increasing acidity.

Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acidity. a. H2O, H3O-, Ho- == HO-, H2O, H3O- b. NH3
21,075 results
Organic Chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acidity. a. H2O, H3O-, Ho- == HO-, H2O, H3O- b. NH3

asked by Rhea on August 4, 2014
Chemistry(Please check)
Which of the following equations correspond to the Ka2 for phosphoric acid? note: the double equal sign (==) means equilibrium. a) HPO42- (aq) + H2O (l) == H3O+(aq) + PO43-(aq) b) PO43- (aq) + H2O (l) == HPO42-(aq) + OH–(aq) c) H3PO4 (aq) + H2O (l) ==

asked by Hannah on April 1, 2012
Chem
Which equation represents what happens when a small amount of strong base is added to the buffer? OH- + A- A2- + H2O OH- + HA A- + H2O H3O+ + A- HA + H2O H3O+ + HA H2A+ + H2O

asked by Kyleigh on May 5, 2018
Chemistry
Arrange each group of compounds/ions in order of increasing pH. 1. Li2CO3 , OH^- , NH4Br , NaCl 2. CH4 , HBr , H2O , F^- Lastly, I’d like to check if my answers for the following three questions were listed correctly in order of pH levels increasing. 3.

asked by TP on March 31, 2018
O.CHEM -> PLEASE CHECK!!
Arrange the compounds in the order of increasing boiling point ***(LOWEST first): 1) H3C-O-CH3 2) H2O 3) CH3CH2OH 4) CH3CH2SH I think the order should be: #1, 4, 3, 2 Arrange the following in order of increasing rate of reactivity with conc.HBr ***(LEAST

asked by K on March 12, 2008

chem
Section: Ionization expressions, Weak Bases Using the equilibrium constants listed in your book, arrange the following .1 M aqueous solutions in order of increasing pH. a)NaNO2 b)HCl c)NaF d)Zn(H2O)3(OH)(NO3) Here’s what I have so far: a) NaNO2 –> Na+ +

asked by Chris on April 28, 2007
Chemistry
The question says write a reaction for the ionization of the following compound in water. Identify the acid, the base, the conjugate acid, and the conjugate base in each of them. 1. H2SO4 2. KOH 3. CH3COOH 4. NH3 5. HNO3 My guesses are: H2SO4 + H2O -> H3O+

asked by Samantha on May 31, 2009
Chemistry
1.The pH of a 0.10 mol/L aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 is not 7.00. The equation that best accounts for this observation is: a. Fe3+(aq) + 3H2O(l)Fe(OH)3(aq) + 3H+(aq) b. NO3-(aq) + H2O(l) HNO3(aq) + OH-(aq) c. Fe(H2O)63+(aq) + H2O(l)Fe(H2O)5(OH)2+(aq) +

asked by Anonymous on January 10, 2018
chemistry
Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CCl4, CH4, CH2Cl2 – Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CF4, CH4, CH2F2 – Water, H2O, is a liquid at room temperature. Hydrogen selenide, H2Se, is a

asked by adex on March 18, 2013
Chemistry
(a)What is the bond order of the diatomic molecule BN? (b) Is BN paramagnetic? (c) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond energy: B2, N2, BN. (d) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond length: B2, N2, BN.

asked by b on November 18, 2012
chemistry
Which reactants in the reactions below are acting as Br©ªnsted-Lowry bases? NH4 +(aq) + OH−(aq) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) H2PO4 −(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HPO4 2−(aq) is the answer H2O and the H3O+

asked by Jin on July 6, 2010
Chemistry
Rank the following solutions in order of increasing acidity. 1 M phenol 1 M boric acid 1 M cyanic acid 1 M formic acid 1 M hydrochloric acid 2. Rank the following solutions in order of increasing basicity. 1 M C3H5O3Na 1 M KF 1 M KOCN 1 M KOCl All I know

asked by Neha on October 23, 2011
chemistry
list the following substances in order of increasing molar entropy at 25’c. H2O(l), H2O(g), H2O(s), C(s), Ar (g) Explain your reasoning

asked by harry on February 12, 2013
chemistry
Which of the following chemical reactions represents a neutralization reaction? A. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + H2O B. HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl C. NH3 + H2O NH4++ OH- D. CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3O+

asked by jessie on September 12, 2016
chemistry
The term “Ka for the ammonium ion” describes the equilibrium constant for which of the following reactions? 1. NH3 + H2O ⇀↽ NH4 + + OH− 2. NH+ 4 + OH− ⇀↽ NH3 + H2O 3. NH3 + H3O + ⇀↽ NH+ 4 + H2O 4. NH+ 4 + H2O ⇀↽ NH3 + H3O + 5. The

asked by Anonymous on February 7, 2015

chemistry
Reverse the reactions. Label the acids and bases on the left-hand side of each of the reversed equations? 1. HCl + NH3 => NH4+ + Cl- 2.NH3 + H2O => NH4+ +OH- 3. HCl +H2O => H3O+ +Cl- 4. H3PO4 +H20 => HPO4^-2 +H3O+ 5.H2PO4- +H2O => HPO4^-2 +H3O+

asked by Alex on May 2, 2013
Chemistry, reactions w/ water
Write the equation for the reaction of each of the following with water. a) HCl b) CH3COOH c) NaOH d) NH3 Are these correct? a. HCl (aq) + H2O (l) –> H3O+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) b. CH3COOH (aq) + H2O (l) –> CH3COO- (aq) + H3O+ (aq) c. NaOH (aq) + H2O (l) –>

asked by Marissa on May 6, 2008
Chemistry

  1. Which of the following chemical reactions is most likely to have the largest equilibrium constant K? CH3COO- (aq) + H2O(l) = CH3COOH(aq) + OH-(aq) HCl(aq) + H2O(l) = H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) = CH3COO- (aq) + H3O+(aq) H3PO4(aq) + NH3(aq) =

asked by Jameson on May 5, 2018
Chemisty !!
(a) Why do the densities of most liquids increase as they are cooled and solidified? How does water differ in this regard? (b) Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing surface tension at a given temperature, and explain your ranking. CH3CH3,

asked by Xiang ! on September 2, 2013
CHEMISTRY
Rank the following complex ions in order of increasing wavelength of light absorbed. (Use the appropriate symbol to separate substances in the list.) Co(H2O)63+, Co(CN)63-, CoI63-, Co(en)33+

asked by Sarah on March 19, 2012
CHEMISTRY
Rank the following complex ions in order of increasing wavelength of light absorbed. (Use the appropriate symbol to separate substances in the list.) Co(H2O)63+, Co(CN)63-, CoI63-, Co(en)33+

asked by Sarah on March 21, 2012
Chemistry – Order of Bond Polarity
Hi I am having a bit of trouble with this question CCl4 is confusing me: Qu)Rank the following compounds in order of bond polarity; HF, CH4, H2O, H2S, CCl4 Asw)lowest to highest bond polarity: CH4, CCl4, H2S, H2O, HF Is this correct? Thanks!

asked by Anonymous on May 11, 2016
CHEMISTRY
IDENTIFY THE CONJUGATE ACID-BASE PAIR IN THE FOLLOWING REACTIONS. A) HSO4^- + SO3^2- HSO3^- + SO4^2- B) S^2- + H20 HS^- + OH^- C) CN^- + H3O^+ HCN + H2O D) H2SE + H2O HSE^- + H3O^+

asked by HELPPPPP on October 15, 2011
chemistry
Calculate the value of [H3O+] in a 0.01 M HOBr solution. Ka = 2.5E-9 I’m having a problem with just writing the equilibrium expression. do you add H2O to the HOBr? HOBr + H2O H3O+ + OBr- but then you could say that because HOBr = .01 M, then 0Br- = .01 M,

asked by Audrey on November 23, 2010
Chemistry
Use the Bronsted-Lowry definitions to identify the two conjugate acid-base pairs in the following acid-base reaction: H20 + H20 H30^+ + OH^- Let’s see what you think on this after the previous post. Just remember, the acid is the one that HAS the H and the

asked by Raj on May 26, 2007

Chemistry
In the reaction Ca(H2O)+2 6 + H2O ! Ca(H2O)5(OH)+ + H3O+ the calcium compound on the left acts accord- ing to the Bronsted-Lowry theory as 1. a base. 2. an acid. 3. a salt. 4. a solvent.

asked by Anonymous on March 22, 2011
Biochemistry 105

  1. Arrange the following molecules in the order of increasing polarity. a. (PH3, HCl, H2O, CCl4) b. (NH3, HF, H2O, HBr)

asked by Sophia on February 12, 2017
chemistry
Acetic acid, CH3CO2H, is the active ingredient in vinegar. It’s often abbreviated “HOAc”. Vinegar is acidic because acetic acid makes H3O+ when it partially ionizes in water: HOAc(aq) + H2O H3O+(aq) + OAc–(aq) Suppose that you have a solution of

asked by hannah on March 19, 2013
Relative Acidities
Rank the given compounds on their relative acidity. Here was the order I thought it was but it turned out to be wrong. (i based it based off of sp being most acidic and sp3 being least acidic) STRONGEST HC(triple bond)C-CH3 H2C=CH2 CH3NH2 H2O CH4–>

asked by Allie on February 16, 2011
chemistry

  1. Which of the two reactions, A or B is a neutralization reaction? Explain why. A. HBr + H2O = Br- = H3O+ B. HClO + NaOH = NaClO + H2O 26. A. Look at the reaction again. when this reaction is reversed. Br- + H3O+ = HBr = H2O what substance is the acid,

asked by Sierra on September 16, 2014
Chemistry
Question 9 Unsaved What is the rate law for the following reaction, if the order of the reaction is m, an unknown? H2O2(aq) → H2O(l) + ½O2(g) a. k [H2O2]m b.k [H2O]m [O2]1/2 c.k [H2O] m /[H2O][O2 d.k[H2O] m [O2]m Thanks in advance. The k and m are meant

asked by Ramon on March 23, 2018
Chemistry – Le Chatelier’s Principle
Hi, I have a question regarding the following chemical equilibrium equation: 2CrO4^2- + 2H3O^+ Cr2O7^2- + 3H2O The question is: how would you manipulate the above equation to produce more Cr2O7^2- ions without adding any Chromium based compounds? I

asked by Constantine on March 9, 2014
chemistry
Write an equilibrium expression for each chemical equation involving one or more solid or liquid reactants or products. HCHO2(aq)+H2O(l)⇌H3O+(aq)+CHO−2(aq) Use A for [HCHO2], B for [H2O], C for [H3O+], D for [CHO−2].

asked by Anon on December 3, 2014
Chemistry
Rank the following 4 compounds in order of lowest to highest freezing point. Enter the formulas in the spaces provided. For example, enter CH4 as CH4. H2O MgO CH4 H2S

asked by Whats Good on November 19, 2011
Chemistry
Using the concentration of CH3COOH (0.8326M) and the equilibrium concentration of H3O+ (3.2×10-3), complete the reaction table for vinegar. Then calculate the acidity constant. Reaction table is given Ch3COOH + H2O –CH3COO- + H3O+ Initial. Change

asked by Danielle on October 15, 2015

Chemistry 102
For a question like “calculate the pH of an aq.solution that is 1.0 M CH3COOH and 1.0 M CH3COONa, how do you know to write the equation like this: CH3COOH + H2O => H3O+ + CH3COO- and not like H3O+ + CH3COO- => CH3COOH + H2O for the ICE chart. This would

asked by Nick on May 3, 2010
chemistry
Using the concentration of CH3COOH (0.8326M) and the equilibrium concentration of H3O+ (OJ = 31.6×10^-6 and milk = 3.16×10^-8), complete the reaction table for vinegar. Then calculate the acidity constant. Please show all work in solving the problem.

asked by Lisa on April 1, 2012
chemistry
rank the following ionic compounds in order of increasing lattice energy NaF, Csl, CaO

asked by re on March 3, 2011
Chemistry
rank the compounds below in order of increasing vapor pressure at 298 K? A) c3h6 B) c4h8 C) c5h10

asked by Vanessa on December 12, 2016
science ap chemistry
What is the equilibrium expression for the following acid dissociation reaction? CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3O+ A. [CH3COO-][H3O+]/[CH3COOH][H3O] B. [CH3COOH][H2O]/[CH3COO-][H3O+] C. [CH3COOH]/[CH3COO-][H3O-] D. [CH3COO-][H3O+]/[CH3COOH]

asked by jessie on September 10, 2016
chemistry
What is the equilibrium expression for the following acid dissociation reaction? CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3O+ A. [CH3COO-][H3O+]/[CH3COOH][H3O] B. [CH3COOH][H2O]/[CH3COO-][H3O+] C. [CH3COOH]/[CH3COO-][H3O-] D. [CH3COO-][H3O+]/[CH3COOH]

asked by jessie on August 22, 2016
acid base chem
I’m reviewing my notes for a test tomorrow, and I found that I have a question concerning acids that under go multiple protonizations. I know the molarity [or moles, if that’s being calculated] of H3O+ of the first protonization can be found using the Ka,

asked by Krystal on May 20, 2007
Chemistry
i need help. Calculate the pH of a 0.24 M CoCl3 solution. The Ka value for Co(H2O)63+ is 1.0 10-5. how do u do these with like the Cl there? Responses Chemistry – DrBob222, Monday, February 16, 2009 at 12:35am Just ignore the Cl^-. Co(H2O)6Cl3 ==>

asked by Lindsey on February 16, 2009
Chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acid strength (1 = weakest, 4 = strongest) HCOOH CH2ClCOOH CHCl2COOH CH3COOH

asked by Matt on November 20, 2007
chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acid strength (1 = weakest, 4 = strongest) HClO HClO3 HClO2 HClO4

asked by mark on November 18, 2007

CHEMISTRY
Consider a 58.4 g sample of H2O(g) at 125°C. What phase or phases are present when -162 kJ of energy is removed from this sample? Specific heat capacities: ice, 2.1 J g-1 °C-1; liquid, 4.2 J g-1 °C-1; steam, 2.0 J g-1 °C-1, ΔHvap = 40.7 kJ/mol, ΔHfus

asked by Sarah on November 17, 2012
Chemistry
Calculate the end point pH, when 25 mL of 0.01 mol/L HCl solution reacts exactly with 25 mL of 0.1 mol/L NH4OH solution. NH3 Kb = 1.8 x 10^-5 This will be the pH of NH4Cl solution. NH4+ + HOH ==> NH3 + H3O^+ Ka = Kw/Kb = (NH3)(H3O^+)/(NH4^+). Solve for

asked by Raj on May 31, 2007
Chemistry — Please Help!!
Find the pH of a mixture of .150 M HF(aq) solution and 0.100 M HClO2(aq) HF + H2O F- + H3O+ Ka= 3.510^-4 So I will show my attempt below… [HF] [F-] [H3O+] I .150 0 0 C -x +x +x E .15-x x x Ka= [F-][H3O+]/[HF] 3.510^-4= x^2/(.150-x) assume x is small so

asked by Erin on April 26, 2010
Chemistry
Hi I have two questions and I was hoping someone could help me with them. 1. Classify the following compounds as ionic or covalent a. MgCl2 b. Na2S c. H2O d. H2S 2. Which compound in each pair exhibits the stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonding? a. H2S

asked by Alekya on August 2, 2007
intro to chem
disolving sucrose, NaCl< and calcium chloried affect the boiling point of frezing point of water. Assuming that you have 0.1m solution of all these 3 compounds: a)rank then in order of decreasing freezing point. b) rank in order of increasing boiling point

asked by julia on October 27, 2010
Chemistry
Order in the increasing value of their polarity? HF NH3 H2O CO2 here i used the scale and got their numbers. HF>H2O>CO2>NH3 am i correct?

asked by Josh on August 17, 2017
chemistry
predict the order of increasing acidity of the compounds. Give a brief explanation why. Butanoic acid-Nexanoic acid-Benzoic acid-Acetic acid. thx

asked by david on November 6, 2010
chem
For the following reactions, name the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases. Then name the conjugate acid and bases. H3O+(aq) + CN-(aq) HCN(aq) + H2O I’m really confused on this whole concept even thought it’s not really difficult. I said: acids: H3O+ bases: CN-

asked by Chris on April 27, 2007
Chem Oxidation-Reduction Titrations
H2O2→ O2 + 2H+ + 2e- OCl- + 2H+ + 2e-→ H2O+ Cl- H2O2(aq) + OCl-(aq) → H2O(l) + Cl- (aq) + O2(g)Assign oxidation numbers to the following atoms: O in H2O2 ; Cl in OCl- ______The oxidizing agent for this RedOx rxn is_______. The

asked by B on February 8, 2018
Enthalpy Change Calculations
Find the heat of reaction (ΔH) for each of the following chemical reactions and note whether each reaction is exothermic or endothermic. 1. H2O(l) -> H2O(g) This is what I have so far: H2(g) + ½ O2(g) -> H2O(l) ΔH = -286.0 kJ/mol H2(g) + ½ O2(g) ->

asked by Emily on August 5, 2015

CHM
Need help please Which of the following equations has the coefficients 2,1,1,2 when it is balanced? Fe2O3 + HClO4 → Fe(ClO4)3 + H2O Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4 → Ca3(PO4)2 + H2O KOH + H2SO4 → K2SO4 + H2O Ba(OH)2 + P4O10 → Ba3(PO4)2 + H2O Al2O3 + H2SeO4 →

asked by Aliyah on October 10, 2012
chemistry
Find the mass of water (H2O) needed to react with 150 grams of potassium (K) 2K(s) + 2 H2O (g)-2KOH +H2(g) How do I get the number of moles in H2O? Desperate to understand this. I got K= 150g./39.0983=3.84 mols of K. Then would it be 3.84(2mols H2O/7.68)

asked by Teresa on October 27, 2014
chemistry
the autoionization of water, as represented by the equation below, is known to be endothermic. What can be correctly said of what occurs as the temperature of water is raised?(please explain) H2O(l)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)

asked by Anonymous on April 22, 2014
chemistry
Which of the following is a precipitation reaction? I. 2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) → 2 MgO (s) II. SO3 (g) + 2 H2O (l) → H3O+ (aq) + HSO4- (aq) III. Pb2+ (aq) + CrO42- (aq) → PbCrO4 (s) IV. 2 H2O (g) → 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) V. Ag+ (aq) + 2 NH3 (aq) →

asked by sos on September 23, 2013
chemistry
intermolecular forces Rank the following substance from highest melting point to lowest melting point. My teacher gave a list of compounds: H2O, NO2,F2,CI2 and to have a high melting point means that you need a stronger IMF. Rank the following substances

asked by jen on March 17, 2009
CHEMISTRY
What are the ka and kb reactions of NaHSO3 ? I tried it out and thought it would be ka= HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l)= H+(aq) + SO3-(aq) kb= HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l)= H3O+(aq)+ OH-(aq) Would that be right? or is it wrong? please can you take a look at it . Thanks.

asked by Nia on October 20, 2011
CHEMISTRY
What are the ka and kb reactions of NaHSO3 ? I tried it out and thought it would be ka= HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l)= H+(aq) + SO3-(aq) kb= HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l)= H3O+(aq)+ OH-(aq) Would that be right? or is it wrong? please can you take a look at it . Thanks.

asked by Nia on October 20, 2011
CHEMISTRY
Identify the conjugate base in the following reaction. H2O (l) + HCO31- (aq) ¨ H3O+ (aq) + CO32- (aq)? Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acid in the following reaction. H2O (l) + HCO31- (aq) ¨ H3O+ (aq) + CO32- (aq)

asked by AL on December 3, 2014
chemistry
In the following options which one is maximum/highly exothermic reaction..? 1)SrO+h2o 2)BaO+h2o 3)CaO+h2o 4)MgO+h2o Pls…. Need it real quick

asked by piyush on April 27, 2013
Dr.Bob
A 100.0 mL sample of 0.05 M NH3 is titrated with 0.10 M HCl. Determine the pH of the solution after the addition of 50.0 mL HCl. Here is my work: NH3 + H3O+ –> NH4+ + H2O Before Addition: NH3= 0.005 mol H3O= 0 mol NH4+ = 0 mol Addition: NH3 = 0.005 mol

asked by Nevaeh on April 16, 2016

chemistry
What is the molarity of H3O+ in a 4.97×10-2 M NH4Cl solution that hydrolyzes according to the equation. NH4+(aq) + H2O(l) = H3O+(aq) + NH3(aq)

asked by uci student on May 4, 2010
chemistry
What is the molarity of H3O+ in a 5.33×10^-4 M NH2NH3Cl solution that hydrolyzes according to the equation. NH2NH3^+(aq) + H2O(l) = H3O^+(aq) + NH2NH2(aq)

asked by Diem on May 5, 2010
general chemistry
I’ve been trying to solve these for while now, and i keep getting them wrong…. please help!! A solution of NH4Cl hydrolyzes according to the equation. If the [NH3] in the solution after hydrolysis is 0.00000508 M, calculate the equilibrium concentration

asked by carly on November 5, 2010
Chemistry
How do you find the Ka1 and Ka2 of oxalic acid when it is in a solution that is 1.05 M H2C2O4 and has a pH of 0.67. [C2O4^2-] = 5.3×10^-5 M. I have tried using an ICE table for both reactions, as oxalic acid is a diprotic acid, but I am having trouble

asked by Erika on November 1, 2015
chem 2
indictae the reactant that is a bronsted lowry acid. HCN(aq) +H2O (l)—> H3O+(aq)=CN-(aq) HCN CN- H20 H30 i think it is HCN the weak acid substance which acts as a proton (H+) donor and CN the weak base? You are right. The HCN donates the proton (to H2O)

asked by jane on April 30, 2007
Chemistry
Consider 2 separate solutions, one of a weak acid HA and one of HCL. Assume that you started with 10 molecules of each. Draw a picture of what each solution looks like at equilibrium. Ok to my very limited knowledge on this subject so far, a weak acid at

asked by kevin on October 11, 2011
chemistry
what is the pH of a solution that is .15 M in HOCl and .25 M NaOCl after .05 mol HCl/L has been bubbled into the solution? this is what I did: HOCl + H2O —-> H3O+ + OCl- .15 .25 -.05 +.05 ————————— .1 .30 3.5E-8=[H3O][.3]/[.1] H3O=

asked by Audrey on November 23, 2010
chem
Rank these in order of increasing freezing points: C2H6O, NaCl, NaSO4, C12H22O11 I suggest that you look them up. You will have to make an assumption at the isomer of the organic compounds that is intended, but it will not make a difference to the ranking.

asked by Helen on April 18, 2007
Chemistry
Find the mass of water (H2O) needed to react with 150 grams of potassium (K) 2K(s) + 2 H2O (g)-2KOH +H2(g) How do I get the number of moles in H2O? Desperate to understand this. I got K= 150g./39.0983=3.84 mols of K. Then would it be 3.84(2mols H2O/7.68)

asked by Teresa on October 27, 2014
Chemistry
If we were asked to order SO2,H2O,CuO and CaO considering their acidity, how do we find what is more acidic from CaO and CuO?

asked by Shenaya on July 27, 2017

Chemistry URGENT/DR BOB
Can someone may sure that I balanced the following groups of equations correctly. Write an equation to show how acetic acid reacts with water to produce ions in solution. C2H4O2 + H2O >>>>>>> H3O + C2H3O Write an equation for the neutralization of HCl and

asked by jazz on April 23, 2014
chemistry
Choose the groups of molecules below in which all the molecules have a net dipole moment. a. SiHCl3, O2, H2O b. HF, H2ClCH2, H2O c. HF, CH3Cl, H2O d. CCl4, HCl, NH3 e. HF, H2O, N2

asked by janet on January 24, 2008
Chemistry
Which of the following processes is endothermic? a) H2O (g) –> H2O (l) b) 3O2 (g) + 2CH3OH(g) –> 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) c) H2O (s) –> H2O (l) d) O2(g) + 2H2(g) –> 2H2O(g) I a guessing b, since energy has to go into the reaction for water to go from a solid

asked by Anon on March 24, 2017
chemistry
what is the Molarity (M) of a 0.87m aqueous solution of ammonia, NH3? The density of the solution is 0.823 g/mL. Answer: 0.71 M So I have: 0.823 g H2O+NH3/1 ml H2O+NH3 17.034 g NH3/1 mol 18.016 g H2O/1 mol 0.87 mol NH3/1 kg H2O I’ve tried this several ways

asked by molality—>molarity on July 10, 2011
CHEMISTRY
which one of the following reactions represents the balanced chemical equation for the formation of water from hydrogen gas and oxygen gas? a. 2H(g) + O(g) a H2O(I) b. H2(g) +o(g) a H2O(I) c. 2 H2(g) + O2(g) a 2 H2O(I) d. 2 H(g) + 1/2 O2(g) a H2O(I)

asked by GRACE on May 9, 2010
Chemistry
The aquation of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) in acid solution takes place according to the equation: Fe(phen)32++ 3 H3O++ 3 H2O →Fe(H2O)62++ 3 phenH+. If the activation energy, Ea, is 126 kJ/mol and the rate constant at 30°C is 9.8 × 10-3 min-1,

asked by Derek on December 2, 2014
Chemistry
Hi there, can someone please help me with this chemistry problem? Write the equation for the acid-base reaction that takes place when nitric acid (HNO3) dissolves in H2O. (Include the phase of each substance.) I got HNO3(aq) + H2O –> H3O+(aq) + NO3−(aq)

asked by Amy on December 18, 2017
Chemistry
Can someone please help me with these chemistry questions…I just don’t get it! 1. Using the following elements, rank them in order of increasing melting points, based on the periodic trend for melting point: Sr, Mg, Be, Ba? Would it be Be, Mg, Sr, Ba or

asked by Taylor on September 16, 2009
Chem 2
You are instructed to create 600. mL of a 0.56 M phosphate buffer with a pH of 7.6. You have phosphoric acid and the sodium salts NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, and Na3PO4 available. (Enter all numerical answers to three significant figures.) H3PO4(s) + H2O(l)

asked by Mia Ismaili on October 26, 2016
Chemistry

  1. What will happen if I add water to a FeSCN+2 solution? FeSCN+2(aq) + H2O(l) ???? 2. Will the equilibrium shift to the left or right? The FeCNS++ is red colored. I think adding water will simply dilute the red color. Won’t it react in any way? Small

asked by Fiona on May 1, 2007

chem
Are these correct? Rank the following species in order of increasing acidity. Explain your reasons of ordering them as you do. NH3 ,H2SO4, CH3OH, CH3COOH CH3COOH > H2SO4> CH3OH >NH3 Rank the following species in order of increasing basicity. Explain your

asked by manny on August 20, 2007
college chem
You are instructed to create 400. mL of a 0.40 M phosphate buffer with a pH of 6.9. You have phosphoric acid and the sodium salts NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, and Na3PO4 available. (Enter all numerical answers to three significant figures.) H3PO4(s) + H2O(l)

asked by leah on June 23, 2014
chem
Predict the order of the increasing vapor pressure for the following compounds: FCH2CH2F FCH2CH2OH HOCH2CH2OH Result:the order its written that the oreder it’s increasing but im not sure

asked by Ron on June 11, 2007
chemistry
Diborane (B2H6) is a highly reactive boron hydride, which was once considered as a possible rocket fuel for the U.S. space program. Calculate ∆H for the synthesis of diborane from its elements, according to the equation 2 B (s) + 3 H2 (g) → B2H6 (g)

asked by Lisa on January 25, 2015
Chemistry
You are instructed to create 500. mL of a 0.25 M phosphate buffer with a pH of 7.7. You have phosphoric acid and the sodium salts NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, and Na3PO4 available. (Enter all numerical answers to three significant figures.) H3PO4(s) + H2O(l)

asked by Sarah on March 6, 2019
Chemistry- HW Check
I have seven homework problems. I did them but I wasn’t sure if I did them correctly. Did I do them correct? Thank you! Give the reaction that describes how the hydrazine, N2H4(aq), / hydrazinium ion, N2H51+(aq), buffer reacts with a strong base such as

asked by Maegan G on November 15, 2011
Chemistry
Oxalic acid, found in the leaves of rhubarb and other plants, is a diprotic acid. H2C2O4 + H2O ↔ H3O+ + HC2O4- Ka1= ? HC2O4- + H2O ↔ H3O+ + C2O42- Ka2 = ? An aqueous solution that is 1.05 M H2C2O4 has pH = 0.67. The free oxalate ion concentration in

asked by Ashley on November 15, 2016
chem
In a solution prepared by mixing CH3OH with H2O the major species pesent are 1. a. CH3+, OH, and H2O 2. b. CH3O, H+, and H2O 3. c. CH3OH and H2O 4. d. CH3OH, H+, and OH I know i have to get an equation having trouble doing that!! please help!!

asked by Mark on April 24, 2010
chemistry
According to the following thermochemical equation, what mass of H2O (in g) must form in order to produce 975 kJ of energy? SiO2(s) + 4 HF(g) → SiF4(g) + 2 H2O(l), ΔH°rxn = -184 kJ

asked by Amber on June 14, 2011
Chemistry Logic
How can I tell a conjugate base from a regular base and a conjugate acid from a regular acid? For example, in: H2O + HONH3 (reversible arrows) HONH2 + H3O+ What is the acid, base, conjugate base, conjugate acid? Is there no base and conjugate base since

asked by Taasha on August 3, 2007

chemistry
Acid dissociation constant for HNO3+H2O-H3O+ +NO3= I have [H3O+][NO1-3]/[HNO3] Do I have this right?

asked by Sarah on November 22, 2011
chemistry
Consider the exothermic reaction CoCl42-(aq) + 6 H2O(l) Co(H2O)62+(aq) + 4 Cl -(aq). Will the equilibrium concentration of CoCl42- increase or decrease when the following changes occur? a) HCl is added. (b) Co(NO3)2 is added. both of those compounds are

asked by Robbin on April 19, 2011
Chemistry
I don’t really understand why unit analysis works. I found a simple example on a website (I can post the link in a comment if you want). It says, For example, convert 18 grams of water to moles. The molar mass of water is 18 g/mol; therefore : 18g H2O x 1

asked by A Canadian on February 7, 2013
Chemistry
Complete the following equilibrium reactions that are pertinent to an aqueous solution of Ag2CO3. Physical states, s, l, g, and aq, are optional. So far I worked it out to be: Ag2CO3(s) 2Ag^+ + CO3^(2-) H2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) H3O^(1+) + (HCO3)^(-) HCO3^(-)(aq)

asked by Craig on April 6, 2016
chemistry
Identify the acid/conjugate base and base/conjugate acid pairs for the following reactions H2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HCO3 -(aq) C5H5N(aq) + H2O(l) C5H5NH+(aq) + OH-(aq

asked by jake on April 28, 2011

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hub.totalsem

Mike Meyers’

CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and

Troubleshooting Networks

Third Edition

(Exam N10-005)

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Mike Meyers’

CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and

Troubleshooting Networks

Third Edition

(Exam N10-005)

Mike Meyers

New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan

New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

BaseTech

Copyright © 2012 by the McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of publisher, with the exception that the program listings may be entered, stored, and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication.

ISBN: 978-0-07-179981-2

MHID: 0-07-179981-8

The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-178911-0, MHID: 0-07-178911-1.

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McGraw-Hill is an independent entity from CompTIA®. This publication and digital content may be used in assisting students to prepare for the CompTIA Network+ exam. Neither CompTIA nor McGraw-Hill warrants that use of this publication and digital content will ensure passing any exam. CompTIA and CompTIA Network+ are trademarks or registered trademarks of CompTIA in the United States and/or other countries. All other trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners.

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THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/ or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

E-book conversion by codeMantra

Version 2.0www.coyotepoint.com

About the Author■■ Michael Meyers is the industry’s leading authority on CompTIA Network+ certifica- tion. He is the president and founder of Total Seminars, LLC, a major provider of PC and network repair seminars for thousands of organizations throughout the world, and a member of CompTIA.

Mike has written numerous popular textbooks, including the best-selling Mike Meyers’ CompTIA A+® Guide to Managing & Troubleshooting PCs, Mike Meyers’ CompTIA A+® Guide to Essentials, and Mike Meyers’ CompTIA A+® Guide to Operating Systems.

About the Contributor Scott Jernigan wields a mighty red pen as Editor in Chief for Total Seminars. With a Master of Arts degree in Medieval History, Scott feels as much at home in the musty archives of London as he does in the warm CRT glow of Total Seminars’ Houston head- quarters. After fleeing a purely academic life, he dove headfirst into IT, working as an instructor, editor, and writer.

Scott has written, edited, and contributed to dozens of books on computer liter- acy, hardware, operating systems, networking, and certification, including Computer Literacy—Your Ticket to IC3 Certification, and co-authoring with Mike Meyers the All-in- One CompTIA Strata® IT Fundamentals Exam Guide.

Scott has taught computer classes all over the United States, including stints at the United Nations in New York and the FBI Academy in Quantico. Practicing what he preaches, Scott is a CompTIA A+ and CompTIA Network+ certified technician, a Microsoft Certified Professional, a Microsoft Office User Specialist, and Certiport Inter- net and Computing Core Certified.

About the Technical Editor Jonathan S. Weissman earned his master’s degree in Computer and Information Science from Brooklyn College (CUNY), and holds nineteen industry certifications, including Cisco CCNA, CompTIA Security+, CompTIA i-Net+, CompTIA Network+, CompTIA A+, CompTIA Linux+, Novell CNE, Novell CNA, Microsoft Office Master, Microsoft MCAS Word, Microsoft MCAS PowerPoint, Microsoft MCAS Excel, Microsoft MCAS Access, Microsoft MCAS Outlook, and Microsoft MCAS Vista.

Jonathan is a tenured Assistant Professor of Computing Sciences at Finger Lakes Community College, in Canandaigua, NY, and also teaches graduate and under- graduate computer science courses at nearby Rochester Institute of Technology. In addi- tion, Jonathan does computer, network, and security consulting for area businesses and individuals.

Between FLCC and RIT, Jonathan has taught nearly two dozen different computer science courses, including networking, security, administration, forensics, program- ming, operating systems, hardware, and software.

Students evaluating his teaching emphasize that he simplifies their understanding of difficult topics, while at the same time makes the class interesting and entertaining.

Jonathan completely designed and configured FLCC’s newest Networking & Secu- rity Lab. Serving as IT Program Coordinator, he rewrote FLCC’s Information Technol- ogy course requirements for the degree, keeping it current with the changes in industry over the years.

This textbook is just one of the many that Jonathan has edited for thoroughness and accuracy.

BaseTech

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vii

Acknowledgments■■ I’d like to acknowledge the many people who contributed their talents to make this book possible:

To Tim Green, my acquisitions editor at McGraw-Hill: Didn’t think I’d get the book out this quickly, did you? Thanks for your superb support and encouragement, as always.

To my in-house Editor-in-Chief, Scott Jernigan: Didn’t think we’d get the book out that fast, did you? How many 85s do you have now? Pelape still smokes them all in DPS.

To Jonathan Weissman, technical editor: Holy crap, you kicked my butt. Thanks for making my book dramatically better than it has ever been.

To LeeAnn Pickrell, copy editor: u made me write good, thx. To Michael Smyer, Total Seminars’ resident tech guru and photogra-

pher: Glad to see you staying focused. And your photos rocked as always! To Ford Pierson, graphics maven and editor: Superb conceptual art?

Check! Great editing? Check! Beating the boss in Unreal Tournament over and over again? Check, unfortunately.

To Aaron Verber, editor extraordinaire: Your quiet toils in the dark cor- ner of the office have once again paid outstanding dividends!

To Dudley Lehmer, my partner at Total Seminars: As always, thanks for keeping the ship afloat while I got to play on this book!

To Stephanie Evans, acquisitions coordinator at McGraw-Hill: You are my favorite South African ambassador since the Springboks. Thanks for keeping track of everything and (gently) smacking Scott when he forgot things.

To Molly Sharp and Jody McKenzie, project editors: It was a joy to work with you, Molly, and again with you, Jody. I couldn’t have asked for a better team! (Didn’t think I could resist making the pun, did you?)

To Andrea Fox, proofreader: You did a super job, thank you To Tom and Molly Sharp, compositors: The layout was excellent,

thanks!

To Staci Lynne ■■ Davis, vegan chef and

punk rocker: Thanks for showing me your world

and, in the process, expanding mine.

BaseTech

Key Terms, identified in red, point out important vocabulary and definitions that you need to know.

Tech Tip sidebars provide inside information from experienced IT professionals.

Cross Check questions develop reasoning skills: ask, compare, contrast, and explain.

Engaging and Motivational— Using a conversational style and proven instructional approach, the author explains technical concepts in a clear, interesting way using real-world examples.

Makes Learning Fun!— Rich, colorful text and enhanced illustrations bring technical subjects to life.

10BaseT also introduced the networking world to the RJ-45 connector (Figure 4.9). Each pin on the RJ-45 connects to a single wire inside the cable; this enables de- vices to put voltage on the indi- vidual wires within the cable. The pins on the RJ-45 are numbered from 1 to 8, as shown in Figure 4.10.

The 10BaseT standard designates some of these numbered wires for specific purposes. As mentioned earlier, although the cable has four pairs, 10BaseT uses only two of the pairs. 10BaseT devices use pins 1 and 2 to send data, and pins 3 and 6 to receive data. Even though one pair of wires sends data and another receives data, a 10BaseT device cannot send and receive simul- taneously. The rules of CSMA/CD still apply: only one device can use the segment contained in the hub without causing a collision. Later versions of Ethernet will change this rule.

An RJ-45 connector is usually called a crimp, and the act (some folks call it an art) of installing a crimp onto the end of a piece of UTP cable is called crimping. The tool used to secure a crimp onto the end of a cable is a crimper. Each wire inside a UTP cable must connect to the proper pin inside the crimp. Manufacturers color-code each wire within a piece of four-pair UTP to assist in properly matching the ends. Each pair of wires consists of a solid- colored wire and a striped wire: blue/blue-white, orange/orange-white, brown/brown-white, and green/green-white (Figure 4.11).

The Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA) defines the industry standard for correct crimping of four-pair UTP for 10BaseT networks. Two standards currently exist: TIA/ EIA 568A and TIA/EIA 568B. Figure 4.12 shows the TIA/EIA 568A and TIA/ EIA 568B color-code standards. Note that the wire pairs used by 10BaseT (1 and 2; 3 and 6) come from the same color pairs (green/green-white and orange/orange-white). Following an established color-code scheme, such as TIA/EIA 568A, ensures that the wires match up correctly at each end of the cable.

66 Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks

Cross Check Check Your CATs!

You’ve already seen CAT levels in Chapter 3, “Cabling and Topology,” so check your memory and review the different speeds of the various CAT levels. Could 10BaseT use CAT 2? Could it use CAT 6? What types of devices can use CAT 1?

• Figure 4.9 Two views of an RJ-45 connector

• Figure 4.10 The pins on an RJ-45 connector are numbered 1 through 8.

• Figure 4.11 Color-coded pairs

The real name for RJ-45 is “8 Position 8 Contact (8P8C) modular plug.” The name RJ-45 is so dominant, however, that nobody but the nerdiest of nerds calls it by its real name. Stick to RJ-45.

AbouT ThIs book

Proven Learning Method Keeps You on Track Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks is structured to give you comprehensive knowledge of computer skills and technologies. The textbook’s active learning methodology guides you beyond mere recall and—through thought-provoking activities, labs, and sidebars—helps you develop critical-thinking, diagnostic, and communication skills.

Information technology (IT) offers many career paths, leading to occupations in such fields as PC repair, network administration, telecommunications, Web development, graphic design, and desktop support. To become competent in any IT field, however, you need

certain basic computer skills. Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks builds a foundation for success in the IT field by introducing you to fundamental technology concepts and giving you essential computer skills.

Important Technology skills ■

10BaseT also introduced the networking world to the RJ-45 connector (Figure 4.9). Each pin on the RJ-45 connects to a single wire inside the cable; this enables de- vices to put voltage on the indi- vidual wires within the cable. The pins on the RJ-45 are numbered from 1 to 8, as shown in Figure 4.10.

The 10BaseT standard designates some of these numbered wires for specific purposes. As mentioned earlier, although the cable has four pairs, 10BaseT uses only two of the pairs. 10BaseT devices use pins 1 and 2 to send data, and pins 3 and 6 to receive data. Even though one pair of wires sends data and another receives data, a 10BaseT device cannot send and receive simul- taneously. The rules of CSMA/CD still apply: only one device can use the segment contained in the hub without causing a collision. Later versions of Ethernet will change this rule.

An RJ-45 connector is usually called a crimp, and the act (some folks call it an art) of installing a crimp onto the end of a piece of UTP cable is called crimping. The tool used to secure a crimp onto the end of a cable is a crimper. Each wire inside a UTP cable must connect to the proper pin inside the crimp. Manufacturers color-code each wire within a piece of four-pair UTP to assist in properly matching the ends. Each pair of wires consists of a solid- colored wire and a striped wire: blue/blue-white, orange/orange-white, brown/brown-white, and green/green-white (Figure 4.11).

The Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA) defines the industry standard for correct crimping of four-pair UTP for 10BaseT networks. Two standards currently exist: TIA/ EIA 568A and TIA/EIA 568B. Figure 4.12 shows the TIA/EIA 568A and TIA/ EIA 568B color-code standards. Note that the wire pairs used by 10BaseT (1 and 2; 3 and 6) come from the same color pairs (green/green-white and orange/orange-white). Following an established color-code scheme, such as TIA/EIA 568A, ensures that the wires match up correctly at each end of the cable.

66 Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks

Cross Check Check Your CATs!

You’ve already seen CAT levels in Chapter 3, “Cabling and Topology,” so check your memory and review the different speeds of the various CAT levels. Could 10BaseT use CAT 2? Could it use CAT 6? What types of devices can use CAT 1?

• Figure 4.9 Two views of an RJ-45 connector

• Figure 4.10 The pins on an RJ-45 connector are numbered 1 through 8.

• Figure 4.11 Color-coded pairs

The real name for RJ-45 is “8 Position 8 Contact (8P8C) modular plug.” The name RJ-45 is so dominant, however, that nobody but the nerdiest of nerds calls it by its real name. Stick to RJ-45.

10BaseT also introduced the networking world to the RJ-45 connector (Figure 4.9). Each pin on the RJ-45 connects to a single wire inside the cable; this enables de- vices to put voltage on the indi- vidual wires within the cable. The pins on the RJ-45 are numbered from 1 to 8, as shown in Figure 4.10.

The 10BaseT standard designates some of these numbered wires for specific purposes. As mentioned earlier, although the cable has four pairs, 10BaseT uses only two of the pairs. 10BaseT devices use pins 1 and 2 to send data, and pins 3 and 6 to receive data. Even though one pair of wires sends data and another receives data, a 10BaseT device cannot send and receive simul- taneously. The rules of CSMA/CD still apply: only one device can use the segment contained in the hub without causing a collision. Later versions of Ethernet will change this rule.

An RJ-45 connector is usually called a crimp, and the act (some folks call it an art) of installing a crimp onto the end of a piece of UTP cable is called crimping. The tool used to secure a crimp onto the end of a cable is a crimper. Each wire inside a UTP cable must connect to the proper pin inside the crimp. Manufacturers color-code each wire within a piece of four-pair UTP to assist in properly matching the ends. Each pair of wires consists of a solid- colored wire and a striped wire: blue/blue-white, orange/orange-white, brown/brown-white, and green/green-white (Figure 4.11).

The Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA) defines the industry standard for correct crimping of four-pair UTP for 10BaseT networks. Two standards currently exist: TIA/ EIA 568A and TIA/EIA 568B. Figure 4.12 shows the TIA/EIA 568A and TIA/ EIA 568B color-code standards. Note that the wire pairs used by 10BaseT (1 and 2; 3 and 6) come from the same color pairs (green/green-white and orange/orange-white). Following an established color-code scheme, such as TIA/EIA 568A, ensures that the wires match up correctly at each end of the cable.

66 Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks

Cross Check Check Your CATs!

You’ve already seen CAT levels in Chapter 3, “Cabling and Topology,” so check your memory and review the different speeds of the various CAT levels. Could 10BaseT use CAT 2? Could it use CAT 6? What types of devices can use CAT 1?

• Figure 4.9 Two views of an RJ-45 connector

• Figure 4.10 The pins on an RJ-45 connector are numbered 1 through 8.

• Figure 4.11 Color-coded pairs

The real name for RJ-45 is “8 Position 8 Contact (8P8C) modular plug.” The name RJ-45 is so dominant, however, that nobody but the nerdiest of nerds calls it by its real name. Stick to RJ-45.

/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / fm blind folio ix

consider that type of NIC. The spe- cific process by which a NIC uses electricity to send and receive data is exceedingly complicated, but luck- ily for you, not necessary to under- stand. Instead, just think of a charge on the wire as a one, and no charge as a zero. A chunk of data moving in pulses across a wire might look something like Figure 2.13.

If you put an oscilloscope on the wire to measure voltage, you’d see something like Figure 2.14. An oscilloscope is a powerful micro- scope that enables you to see elec- trical pulses.

Now, remembering that the pulses represent bi- nary data, visualize instead a string of ones and zeroes moving across the wire (Figure 2.15).

Once you understand how data moves along the wire, the next question becomes this: how does the net- work get the right data to the right system? All networks transmit data by breaking whatever is moving across the physical layer (files, print jobs, Web pages, and so forth) into discrete chunks called frames. A frame is basically a container for a chunk of data moving across a network. The NIC creates and sends, as well as receives and reads, these frames.

I like to visualize an imaginary table inside every NIC that acts as a frame creation and reading station. I see frames as those pneumatic canis- ters you see when you go to a drive-in teller at a bank. A little guy inside the network card—named Nick, naturally!—builds these pneumatic canisters (the frames) on the table, and then shoots them out on the wire to the hub (Figure 2.16).

Chapter 2: Building a Network with the OSI Model 15

Try This! What’s Your MAC Address?

You can readily determine your MAC address on a Windows computer from the command line. This works in all modern versions of Windows.

1. In Windows 2000/XP, click Start | Run. Enter the command CMD and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

2. In Windows Vista, click Start, enter CMD in the Start Search text box, and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

3. At the command prompt, type the command IPCONFIG /ALL and press the ENTER key.

• Figure 2.13 Data moving along a wire

• Figure 2.14 Oscilloscope of data

• Figure 2.15 Data as ones and zeroes

• Figure 2.16 Inside the NIC

A number of different frame types are used in different net- works. All NICs on the same net- work must use the same frame type or they will not be able to communicate with other NICs.

Each chapter includes Learning Objectives ■ that set measurable goals for chapter-by-chapter progress

Illustrations ■ that give you a clear picture of the technologies

Tutorials ■ that teach you to perform essential tasks and procedures hands-on

Try This!, Cross Check ■ , and Tech Tip sidebars that encourage you to practice and apply concepts in real-world settings

Notes, Tips ■ , and Warnings that guide you through difficult areas

Chapter Summaries ■ and Key Terms Lists that provide you with an easy way to review important concepts and vocabulary

Challenging End-of-Chapter Tests ■ that include vocabulary-building exercises, multiple-choice questions, essay questions, and on-the-job lab projects

This pedagogically rich book is designed to make learning easy and enjoyable and to help you develop the skills and critical-thinking abilities that will enable you to adapt to different job situations and troubleshoot problems.

Mike Meyers’ proven ability to explain concepts in a clear, direct, even humorous way makes this book interesting, motivational, and fun.

Effective Learning Tools ■

Proven Learning Method Keeps You on Track Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+® Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks is structured to give you comprehensive knowledge of computer skills and technologies. The textbook’s active learning methodology guides you beyond mere recall and—through thought-provoking activities, labs, and sidebars—helps you develop critical-thinking, diagnostic, and communication skills.

Try This! exercises apply core skills in a new setting.

Chapter Review sections provide concept summaries, key terms lists, and lots of questions and projects.

Key Terms Lists presents the important terms identified in the chapter.

Offers Practical Experience— Tutorials and lab assignments develop essential hands-on skills and put concepts in real-world contexts.

Robust Learning Tools— Summaries, key terms lists, quizzes, essay questions, and lab projects help you practice skills and measure progress.

Notes,Tips, and Warnings create a road map for success.

consider that type of NIC. The spe- cific process by which a NIC uses electricity to send and receive data is exceedingly complicated, but luck- ily for you, not necessary to under- stand. Instead, just think of a charge on the wire as a one, and no charge as a zero. A chunk of data moving in pulses across a wire might look something like Figure 2.13.

If you put an oscilloscope on the wire to measure voltage, you’d see something like Figure 2.14. An oscilloscope is a powerful micro- scope that enables you to see elec- trical pulses.

Now, remembering that the pulses represent bi- nary data, visualize instead a string of ones and zeroes moving across the wire (Figure 2.15).

Once you understand how data moves along the wire, the next question becomes this: how does the net- work get the right data to the right system? All networks transmit data by breaking whatever is moving across the physical layer (files, print jobs, Web pages, and so forth) into discrete chunks called frames. A frame is basically a container for a chunk of data moving across a network. The NIC creates and sends, as well as receives and reads, these frames.

I like to visualize an imaginary table inside every NIC that acts as a frame creation and reading station. I see frames as those pneumatic canis- ters you see when you go to a drive-in teller at a bank. A little guy inside the network card—named Nick, naturally!—builds these pneumatic canisters (the frames) on the table, and then shoots them out on the wire to the hub (Figure 2.16).

Chapter 2: Building a Network with the OSI Model 15

Try This! What’s Your MAC Address?

You can readily determine your MAC address on a Windows computer from the command line. This works in all modern versions of Windows.

1. In Windows 2000/XP, click Start | Run. Enter the command CMD and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

2. In Windows Vista, click Start, enter CMD in the Start Search text box, and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

3. At the command prompt, type the command IPCONFIG /ALL and press the ENTER key.

• Figure 2.13 Data moving along a wire

• Figure 2.14 Oscilloscope of data

• Figure 2.15 Data as ones and zeroes

• Figure 2.16 Inside the NIC

A number of different frame types are used in different net- works. All NICs on the same net- work must use the same frame type or they will not be able to communicate with other NICs.

consider that type of NIC. The spe- cific process by which a NIC uses electricity to send and receive data is exceedingly complicated, but luck- ily for you, not necessary to under- stand. Instead, just think of a charge on the wire as a one, and no charge as a zero. A chunk of data moving in pulses across a wire might look something like Figure 2.13.

If you put an oscilloscope on the wire to measure voltage, you’d see something like Figure 2.14. An oscilloscope is a powerful micro- scope that enables you to see elec- trical pulses.

Now, remembering that the pulses represent bi- nary data, visualize instead a string of ones and zeroes moving across the wire (Figure 2.15).

Once you understand how data moves along the wire, the next question becomes this: how does the net- work get the right data to the right system? All networks transmit data by breaking whatever is moving across the physical layer (files, print jobs, Web pages, and so forth) into discrete chunks called frames. A frame is basically a container for a chunk of data moving across a network. The NIC creates and sends, as well as receives and reads, these frames.

I like to visualize an imaginary table inside every NIC that acts as a frame creation and reading station. I see frames as those pneumatic canis- ters you see when you go to a drive-in teller at a bank. A little guy inside the network card—named Nick, naturally!—builds these pneumatic canisters (the frames) on the table, and then shoots them out on the wire to the hub (Figure 2.16).

Chapter 2: Building a Network with the OSI Model 15

Try This! What’s Your MAC Address?

You can readily determine your MAC address on a Windows computer from the command line. This works in all modern versions of Windows.

1. In Windows 2000/XP, click Start | Run. Enter the command CMD and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

2. In Windows Vista, click Start, enter CMD in the Start Search text box, and press the ENTER key to get to a command prompt.

3. At the command prompt, type the command IPCONFIG /ALL and press the ENTER key.

• Figure 2.13 Data moving along a wire

• Figure 2.14 Oscilloscope of data

• Figure 2.15 Data as ones and zeroes

• Figure 2.16 Inside the NIC

A number of different frame types are used in different net- works. All NICs on the same net- work must use the same frame type or they will not be able to communicate with other NICs.

BaseTech

x

/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Front Matter

Contents at a Glance

CoNTENTs AT A GLANCE

Chapter 1 ■ CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 1

Chapter 2 ■ Network Models 8

Chapter 3 ■ Cabling and Topology 44

Chapter 4 ■ Ethernet Basics 66

Chapter 5 ■ Modern Ethernet 90

Chapter 6 ■ Installing a Physical Network 106

Chapter 7 ■ TCP/IP Basics 144

Chapter 8 ■ The Wonderful World of Routing 182

Chapter 9 ■ TCP/IP Applications 224

Chapter 10 ■ Network Naming 258

Chapter 11 ■ Securing TCP/IP 294

Chapter 12 ■ Advanced Networking Devices 330

Chapter 13 ■ IPv6 356

Chapter 14 ■ Remote Connectivity 380

Chapter 15 ■ Wireless Networking 424

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xi Contents at a Glance

Chapter 16 ■ Protecting Your Network 458

Chapter 17 ■ Virtualization 484

Chapter 18 ■ Network Management 504

Chapter 19 ■ Building a SOHO Network 534

Chapter 20 ■ Network Troubleshooting 554

Appendix A ■ Objectives Map: CompTIA Network+ 580

Appendix b ■ About the Download 592

■ Glossary 596

■ Index 632

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/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Front Matter

Contents

About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum. . . . xix Instructor and Student Website. . . . . . . . . . xxv

Chapter 1 ■■CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 1 Who Needs CompTIA Network+?

I Just Want to Learn about Networks! . . . . . 1 What Is CompTIA Network+ Certification? . . . 1

What Is CompTIA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Current CompTIA Network+

Certification Exam Release. . . . . . . . . . 2 How Do I Become CompTIA

Network+ Certified? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 What Is the Exam Like? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

How Do I Take the Test?. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 How Much Does the Test Cost? . . . . . . . . . 4

How to Pass the CompTIA Network+ Exam . . . 5 Obligate Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Set Aside the Right Amount of Study Time . . 5 Study for the Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Chapter 2 ■■Network Models 8 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Working with Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Biography of a Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Network Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

The OSI Seven-Layer Model in Action. . . . . . . 11 Welcome to MHTechEd!. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Let’s Get Physical—Network Hardware

and Layers 1–2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The NIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Two Aspects of NICs . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Beyond the Single Wire—Network Software and Layers 3–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

IP—Playing on Layer 3, the Network Layer . . . 24 Packets Within Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Assembly and Disassembly—Layer 4,

the Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Talking on a Network—Layer 5, the Session Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Standardized Formats, or Why Layer 6, Presentation, Has No Friends . . . . . . . . 30

Network Applications—Layer 7, the Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

The TCP/IP Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 The Link Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The Internet Layer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Frames, Packets, and Segments, Oh My! . . . . 37 The Tech’s Troubleshooting Tool . . . . . . . . . 38

Chapter 2 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Chapter 3 ■■Cabling and Topology 44 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Bus and Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Hybrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Mesh and Point-to-Multipoint . . . . . . . . . 47 Point-to-Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Parameters of a Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Twisted Pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Fiber-Optic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Other Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Fire Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Networking Industry Standards—IEEE . . . . . . 58 Chapter 3 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Chapter 4 ■■Ethernet Basics 66 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Organizing the Data: Ethernet Frames . . . . . . 68

CSMA/CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

CoNTENTs

BaseTech

xiii Contents

Early Ethernet Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 10BaseT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 10BaseFL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Extending and Enhancing Ethernet Networks . . 78 Connecting Ethernet Segments . . . . . . . . . 78 Switched Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Troubleshooting Hubs and Switches . . . . . . 84

Chapter 4 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Chapter 5 ■■Modern Ethernet 90 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 100-Megabit Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

100BaseT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 100BaseFX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Gigabit Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 1000BaseCX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 1000BaseSX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 1000BaseLX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 New Fiber Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Implementing Multiple Types of Gigabit

Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 10 Gigabit Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Fiber-based 10 GbE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Copper-based 10 GbE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 10 GbE Physical Connections . . . . . . . . . . 99 Backbones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Know Your Ethernets!. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Chapter 5 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Chapter 6 ■■Installing a Physical Network 106 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Understanding Structured Cabling . . . . . . . 107

Cable Basics—A Star Is Born . . . . . . . . . 108 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Structured Cable Network Components . . . 109 Structured Cable—Beyond the Star. . . . . . 116

Installing Structured Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Getting a Floor Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Mapping the Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Determining the Location of the

Telecommunications Room . . . . . . . . . 120 Pulling Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Making Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Testing the Cable Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

NICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Buying NICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Link Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Diagnostics and Repair of Physical Cabling . . 134 Diagnosing Physical Problems . . . . . . . . 134 Check Your Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Check the NIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Cable Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Problems in the Telecommunications Room . . 136 Toners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Chapter 6 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

Chapter 7 ■■TCP/IP Basics 144 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Standardizing Networking Technology . . . . . 145 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 The TCP/IP Protocol Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Internet Layer Protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Transport Layer Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Application Layer Protocols . . . . . . . . . . 149

IP in Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 IP Addresses in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Class IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

CIDR and Subnetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Subnetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 CIDR: Subnetting in the Real World . . . . . 169

Using IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Static IP Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Dynamic IP Addressing. . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Special IP Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Chapter 7 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

Chapter 8 ■■The Wonderful World of Routing 182 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 How Routers Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Routing Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Freedom from Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Network Address Translation . . . . . . . . . 191

Dynamic Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Routing Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Distance Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Link State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 EIGRP—the Lone Hybrid . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Dynamic Routing Makes the Internet . . . . 209

Working with Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Connecting to Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Basic Router Configuration . . . . . . . . . . 215 Router Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

Chapter 8 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

xiv

/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Front Matter

Contents

Chapter 9 ■■TCP/IP Applications 224 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Transport Layer and Network Layer

Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 How People Communicate . . . . . . . . . . 225

Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 ICMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 IGMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

The Power of Port Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Registered Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Connection Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Rules for Determining Good vs.

Bad Communications . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Common TCP/IP Applications. . . . . . . . . . 236

The World Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 E-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Internet Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Chapter 9 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Chapter 10 ■■Network Naming 258 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

How DNS Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Name Spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Troubleshooting DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

WINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Configuring WINS Clients . . . . . . . . . . 283 Troubleshooting WINS . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

Diagnosing TCP/IP Networks . . . . . . . . . . 284 Chapter 10 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

Chapter 11 ■■Securing TCP/IP 294 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Making TCP/IP Secure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

Encryption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Nonrepudiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

TCP/IP Security Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Authentication Standards . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Encryption Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Combining Authentication and Encryption . . 319

Secure TCP/IP Applications . . . . . . . . . . . 320 HTTPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 SCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 SFTP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 LDAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 NTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

Chapter 11 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

Chapter 12 ■■Advanced Networking Devices 330 Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Topologies . . . 331 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

Client/Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Peer-to-Peer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Today. . . . . 333

Virtual Private Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 PPTP VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 L2TP VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 SSL VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

Virtual LANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Trunking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Configuring a VLAN-capable Switch. . . . . 339 Virtual Trunk Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 InterVLAN Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

Multilayer Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 QoS and Traffic Shaping . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Network Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

Chapter 12 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

Chapter 13 ■■IPv6 356 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 IPv6 Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

IPv6 Address Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Link-Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 IPv6 Subnet Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 The End of Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Global Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

Using IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Enabling IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 NAT in IPv6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 DHCP in IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 DNS in IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

Moving to IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 IPv4 and IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 IPv6 Is Here, Really! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

Chapter 13 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

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xv Contents

Chapter 14 ■■Remote Connectivity 380 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Telephony and Beyond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

The Dawn of Long Distance. . . . . . . . . . 382 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

Digital Telephony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Copper Carriers: T1 and T3 . . . . . . . . . . 387 Fiber Carriers: SONET/SDH and OC . . . . 391 Packet Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Real-World WAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Alternative to Telephony WAN . . . . . . . . 396

The Last Mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Dial-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 DSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Cable Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Cellular WAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 BPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Which Connection? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

Using Remote Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Dial-Up to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Private Dial-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Dedicated Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Remote Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

Chapter 14 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417

Chapter 15 ■■Wireless Networking 424 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Wi-Fi Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

802.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 802.11b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 802.11a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 802.11g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 802.11n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Wireless Networking Security . . . . . . . . 434 Power over Ethernet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

Implementing Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Performing a Site Survey . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Installing the Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Setting Up an Ad Hoc Network. . . . . . . . 439 Setting Up an Infrastructure Network . . . . 439 Extending the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Verify the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

Troubleshooting Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 Hardware Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . 448 Software Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . 449

Connectivity Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . 449 Configuration Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . 450

Chapter 15 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

Chapter 16 ■■Protecting Your Network 458 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Common Threats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

System Crash/Hardware Failure . . . . . . . 459 Administrative Access Control . . . . . . . . 459 Malware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 Social Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Man in the Middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Denial of Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Physical Intrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 Attacks on Wireless Connections . . . . . . . 465

Securing User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Controlling User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . 468

Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Hiding the IPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 Port Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 Packet Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 MAC Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Personal Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Network Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 Vulnerability Scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . 477

Chapter 16 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

Chapter 17 ■■Virtualization 484 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 What Is Virtualization? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485

Meet the Hypervisor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Emulation vs. Virtualization . . . . . . . . . 486 Sample Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 Why Do We Virtualize? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492

Power Saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 Hardware Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . 493 System Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 System Duplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494

Virtualization in Modern Networks . . . . . . . 494 Virtual Machine Managers . . . . . . . . . . 496 Hypervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Virtual Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Virtual PBX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Network as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

Chapter 17 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

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Contents

Chapter 18 ■■Network Management 504 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Network Configuration Management . . . . . . 505

Configuration Management Documentation . . 505 Change Management Documentation . . . . 511

Monitoring Performance and Connectivity . . . 512 Performance Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 Logs and Network Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . 518

Network Performance Optimization . . . . . . 519 Caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Controlling Data Throughput. . . . . . . . . 520 Keeping Resources Available . . . . . . . . . 522

Chapter 18 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528

Chapter 19 ■■Building a SOHO Network 534 Historical/Conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Designing a SOHO Network . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Building the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536

Define the Network Needs. . . . . . . . . . . 536 Network Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 Compatibility Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Internal Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 External Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 ISPs and MTUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 Peripherals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548

Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 Chapter 19 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550

Chapter 20 ■■Network Troubleshooting 554 Test Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Troubleshooting Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555

Hardware Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Software Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558

The Troubleshooting Process . . . . . . . . . . . 564 Identify the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 Establish a Theory of Probable Cause . . . . . 567

Test the Theory to Determine Cause . . . . . 567 Establish a Plan of Action and Identify

Potential Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Implement and Test the Solution or

Escalate as Necessary . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Verify Full System Functionality and

Implement Preventative Measures . . . . . 569 Document Findings, Actions, and

Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569 Troubleshooting Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . 569

“I Can’t Log In!” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 “I Can’t Get to This Web Site!” . . . . . . . . 570 “Our Web Server Is Sluggish!” . . . . . . . . 571 “I Can’t See Anything on the Network!” . . . 571 “It’s Time to Escalate!” . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 Troubleshooting Is Fun! . . . . . . . . . . . . 574

Chapter 20 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575

Appendix A ■■Objectives Map: CompTIA

Network+ 580

Appendix B ■■About the Download 592

System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592 Installing and Running Total Tester . . . . . . . 592 About Total Tester 593

Mike Meyers’ Video Training 593 Mike’s Cool Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594

Boson’s NetSim Network Simulator . . . . . . . 594 Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595

Boson Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . 595

■■Glossary 596

■■Index 632

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Playing Mike Meyers’ Videos 593 . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

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xvii Preface

I was a teacher long before I was ever an author. I started writing computer books for the simple reason that no one wrote the kind of books I wanted to read. The books were either too simple (Chapter 1, “Using Your Mouse”) or too complex (Chapter 1, “TTL Logic and Transistors”) and none of them provided a motivation for me to learn the information. I guessed that there were geeky readers just like me who wanted to know why they needed to know the information in a computer book.

Good books motivate the reader to learn what he or she is reading. If a book discusses binary arithmetic but doesn’t explain why I need to learn it, for example, that’s not a good book. Tell me that understanding binary makes it easier to understand how an IP address works or why we’re about to run out of IP addresses and how IPv6 can help, then I get excited, no mat- ter how geeky the topic. If I don’t have a good reason, a good motivation to do something, then I’m simply not going to do it (which explains why I haven’t jumped out of an airplane!).

In this book, I teach you why you need to understand the wide world of networking. You’ll learn everything you need to start building, configuring, and supporting networks. In the process, you’ll gain the knowledge you need to pass the CompTIA Network+ certification exam.

Enjoy, my fellow geek.

PrEfACE

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xix CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

CompTIA APProvEd QuALITy CurrICuLuM

CompTIA Network+■■ The CompTIA Network+ certification ensures that the successful candidate has the important knowledge and skills necessary to manage, maintain, troubleshoot, install, operate, and configure basic network infrastructure; describe networking technologies; basic design principles; and adhere to wiring standards and use testing tools.

It Pays to Get Certified■■ In a digital world, digital literacy is an essential survival skill. Certification proves you have the knowledge and skill to solve business problems in virtually any business environment. Certifications are highly valued cre- dentials that qualify you for jobs, increased compensation, and promotion.

CompTIA Network+ certification is held by many IT staffers across many organizations. 21% of IT staff within a random sampling of U.S. orga- nizations within a cross section of industry verticals hold CompTIA Net- work+ certification.

The CompTIA Network+ credential—proves knowledge of ■ networking features and functions and is the leading vendor-neutral certification for networking professionals.

Starting salary—the average starting salary of network engineers can ■ be up to $70,000.

Career pathway—CompTIA Network+ is the first step in starting a ■ networking career, and is recognized by Microsoft as part of their MS program. Other corporations, such as Novell, Cisco, and HP also recognize CompTIA Network+ as part of their certification tracks.

More than 325,000 individuals worldwide are CompTIA Network+ ■ certified.

Mandated/recommended by organizations worldwide—Apple, ■ Cisco, HP, Ricoh, the U.S. State Department, and U.S. government contractors such as EDS, General Dynamics, and Northrop Grumman recommend or mandate CompTIA Network+.

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CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

How Certification Helps Your Career

CompTIA Career Pathway CompTIA offers a number of credentials that form a foundation for your career in technology and that allow you to pursue specific areas of concentration. Depend- ing on the path you choose, CompTIA certifications help you build upon your skills and knowledge, supporting learning throughout your career.

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xxi CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

Steps to Getting Certified and ■■ Staying Certified

Review exam objectives.1. Review the certification objectives to make sure you know what is covered in the exam: www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/examobjectives.aspx

Practice for the exam.2. After you have studied for the certification, take a free assessment and sample test to get an idea what type of questions might be on the exam: www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/practicetests.aspx

Purchase an exam voucher.3. Purchase exam vouchers on the CompTIA Marketplace, which is located at: www.comptiastore.com

Take the test!4. Select a certification exam provider, and schedule a time to take your exam. You can find exam providers at the following link: www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/testingcenters.aspx

Stay certified!5. Continuing education is required. Effective January 1, 2011, CompTIA Network+ certifications are valid for three years from the date of certification. There are a number of ways the certification can be renewed. For more information go to: http:// certification.comptia.org/getCertified/steps_to_certification/ stayCertified.aspx

Join the Professional Community■■ The free online IT Pro Community provides valuable content to students and professionals. Join the IT Pro Community:

http://itpro.comptia.org

Career IT job resources include:

Where to start in IT ■

Career assessments ■

Salary trends ■

U.S. job board ■

Join the IT Pro Community and get access to:

Forums on networking, security, computing, and cutting-edge ■ technologies

Access to blogs written by industry experts ■www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/examobjectives.aspxwww.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/practicetests.aspxwww.comptiastore.comwww.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/testingcenters.aspxhttp://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/steps_to_certification/stayCertified.aspxhttp://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/steps_to_certification/stayCertified.aspxhttp://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/steps_to_certification/stayCertified.aspxhttp://itpro.comptia.org

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CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

Current information on cutting edge technologies ■

Access to various industry resource links and articles related to IT ■ and IT careers

APPRO V E D Q U A L I T Y C O

N T EN

T Content Seal of Quality■■

This courseware bears the seal of CompTIA Approved Quality Content. This seal signifies this content covers 100 percent of the exam objectives and implements important instructional design principles. CompTIA rec- ommends multiple learning tools to help increase coverage of the learning objectives.

Why CompTIA?■■ Global recognition ■ CompTIA is recognized globally as the leading IT nonprofit trade association and has enormous credibility. Plus, CompTIA’s certifications are vendor-neutral and offer proof of foundational knowledge that translates across technologies.

Valued by hiring managers ■ Hiring managers value CompTIA certification because it is vendor- and technology-independent validation of your technical skills.

Recommended or required by government and businesses ■ Many government organizations and corporations (for example, Dell, Sharp, Ricoh, the U.S. Department of Defense, and many more) either recommend or require technical staff to be CompTIA certified.

Three CompTIA certifications ranked in the top 10 ■ In a study by DICE of 17,000 technology professionals, certifications helped command higher salaries at all experience levels.

BaseTech

CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum

How to Obtain More Information■■ Visit CompTIA online ■ Go to www.comptia.org to learn more about getting CompTIA certified.

Contact CompTIA ■ Please call 866-835-8020, ext. 5 or e-mail questions@comptia.org.

Join the IT Pro Community ■ Go to http://itpro.comptia.org to join the IT community to get relevant career information.

Connect with CompTIA ■ Find us on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and YouTube.

CAQC Disclaimer■■ The logo of the CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum (CAQC) program and the status of this or other training material as “Approved” under the CompTIA Approved Quality Curriculum program signifies that, in Comp- TIA’s opinion, such training material covers the content of CompTIA’s related certification exam.

The contents of this training material were created for the CompTIA Network+ exam covering CompTIA certification objectives that were cur- rent as of the date of publication.

CompTIA has not reviewed or approved the accuracy of the contents of this training material and specifically disclaims any warranties of mer- chantability or fitness for a particular purpose. CompTIA makes no guaran- tee concerning the success of persons using any such “Approved” or other training material in order to prepare for any CompTIA certification exam.

xxiiiwww.comptia.orghttp://itpro.comptia.org

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Instructor and Student Web Site

INsTruCTor ANd sTudENT WEb sITE

For instructor and student resources, please visit:

www.meyersnetplus.com

Students will find chapter quizzes that will help them learn more about troubleshooting and fixing networks, and teachers can access the support materials outlined below.

Additional Resources for Teachers■■ McGraw-Hill Connect, a Web-based learning platform, connects instructors with their support materials and students with chapter assessments. The Connect Online Learning Center provides resources for teachers in a format that follows the organization of the textbook.

This site includes the following:

Answer keys to the end-of-chapter activities in the textbook ■

Instructor’s Manual that contains learning objectives, classroom ■ preparation notes, instructor tips, and a lecture outline for each chapter

Answer keys to the Mike Meyers’ Lab Manual activities (available ■ separately)

Access to test bank files and software that allow you to generate ■ a wide array of paper- or network-based tests, and that feature automatic grading. The test bank includes:

Hundreds of practice questions and a wide variety of question ■ types categorized by exam objective, enabling you to customize each test to maximize student progress

Test bank files available on EZ Test Online and as downloads ■ from the Online Learning Center in these formats: Blackboard, Web CT, EZ Test, and Word

Engaging PowerPoint slides on the lecture topics that include full- ■ color artwork from the book

Please contact your McGraw-Hill sales representative for details.

xxv

BaseTechwww.meyersnetplus.com

1 chapter

/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Chapter 1

“Networking is an essential part

of building wealth.”

—Armstrong WilliAms

CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell

In this chapter, you will learn how to

Describe the importance of ■■ CompTIA Network+ certification

Illustrate the structure and ■■ contents of the CompTIA Network+ certification exam

Plan a strategy to prepare for ■■ the exam

By picking up this book, you’ve shown an interest in learning about networking. But be forewarned. The term networking describes a vast field of study, far too large for any single certification, book, or training course to

cover. Do you want to configure routers and switches for a living? Do you want

to administer a large Windows network at a company? Do you want to install

wide area network connections? Do you want to set up Web servers? Do you

want to secure networks against attacks?

If you’re considering a CompTIA Network+ certification, you probably don’t

yet know exactly what aspect of networking you want to pursue, and that’s

okay! You’re going to love preparing for the CompTIA Network+ certification.

Attaining CompTIA Network+ certification provides you with three

fantastic benefits. First, you get a superb overview of networking that helps

you decide what part of the industry you’d like to pursue. Second, it acts as

a prerequisite toward other, more advanced certifications. Third, the amount

of eye-opening information you’ll gain just makes getting CompTIA Network+

certified plain old fun.

1 chapter

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Chapter 1: CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 1

CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell

Nothing comes close to providing a better overview of networking than CompTIA Network+. The certification covers local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), the Internet, security, cabling, and applica- tions in a wide-but-not-too-deep fashion that showcases the many different parts of a network and hopefully tempts you to investigate the aspects that intrigue you by looking into follow-up certifications.

The process of attaining CompTIA Network+ certification will give you a solid foundation in the whole field of networking. Mastering the compe- tencies will help fill in gaps in your knowledge and provide an ongoing series of “a-ha!” moments of grasping the big picture that make being a tech so much fun.

Ready to learn a lot, grab a great certification, and have fun doing it? Then welcome to CompTIA Network+ certification!

Who Needs CompTIA Network+? ■■ I Just Want to Learn about Networks!

Whoa up there, amigo! Are you one of those folks who either has never heard of the CompTIA Network+ exam or just doesn’t have any real inter- est in certification? Is your goal only to get a solid handle on the idea of networking and a jump start on the basics? Are you looking for that “magic bullet” book that you can read from beginning to end and then start install- ing and troubleshooting a network? Do you want to know what’s involved with running network cabling in your walls or getting your new wireless network working? Are you tired of not knowing enough about what TCP/ IP is and how it works? If these types of questions are running through your mind, then rest easy—you have the right book. Like every book with the Mike Meyers name, you’ll get solid concepts without pedantic details or broad, meaningless overviews. You’ll look at real-world networking as performed by real techs. This is a book that understands your needs and goes well beyond the scope of a single certification.

If the CompTIA Network+ exam isn’t for you, you can skip the rest of this chapter, shift your brain into learn mode, and dive into Chapter 2. But then, if you’re going to have the knowledge, why not get the certification?

What Is CompTIA Network+ ■■ Certification?

CompTIA Network+ certification is an industry-wide, vendor-neutral certi- fication program developed and sponsored by the Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA). The CompTIA Network+ certification shows that you have a basic competency in the physical support of net- working systems and knowledge of the conceptual aspects of networking.

Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks 2

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To date, many hundreds of thousands of technicians have become CompTIA Network+ certified.

CompTIA Network+ certification enjoys wide recognition throughout the IT industry. At first, it rode in on the coattails of the successful CompTIA A+ certification program, but it now stands on its own in the network- ing industry and is considered the obvious next step after CompTIA A+ certification.

What Is CompTIA? CompTIA is a nonprofit, industry trade association based in Oakbrook Ter- race, Illinois, on the outskirts of Chicago. Tens of thousands of computer resellers, value-added resellers, distributors, manufacturers, and training companies from all over the world are members of CompTIA.

CompTIA was founded in 1982. The following year, CompTIA began offering the CompTIA A+ certification exam. CompTIA A+ certification is now widely recognized as a de facto requirement for entrance into the PC industry. Because the CompTIA A+ exam covers networking only lightly, CompTIA decided to establish a vendor-neutral test covering basic net- working skills. So, in April 1999, CompTIA unveiled the CompTIA Net- work+ certification exam.

CompTIA provides certifications for a variety of areas in the computer industry, offers opportunities for its members to interact, and represents its members’ interests to government bodies. CompTIA certifications include CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+, and CompTIA Security+, to name a few. Check out the CompTIA Web site at www.comptia.org for details on other certifications.

CompTIA is huge. Virtually every company of consequence in the IT industry is a member of CompTIA: Microsoft, Dell, Cisco… Name an IT company and it’s probably a member of CompTIA.

The Current CompTIA Network+ Certification Exam Release CompTIA constantly works to provide exams that cover the latest technolo- gies and, as part of that effort, periodically updates its certification objec- tives, domains, and exam questions. This book covers all you need to know to pass the N10-005 CompTIA Network+ exam released in 2011.

How Do I Become CompTIA Network+ Certified? To become CompTIA Network+ certified, you simply pass one computer- based, multiple-choice exam. There are no prerequisites for taking the CompTIA Network+ exam, and no networking experience is needed. You’re not required to take a training course or buy any training materials. The only requirements are that you pay a testing fee to an authorized test- ing facility and then sit for the exam. Upon completion of the exam, you will immediately know whether you passed or failed.www.comptia.org

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Chapter 1: CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 3

Once you pass, you become CompTIA Network+ certified for three years. After three years, you’ll need to renew your certification by retaking the current exam or completing approved Continuing Education activities. By completing these activities, you earn credits that (along with an annual fee) allow you to keep your CompTIA Network+ certification. For a full list of approved activities, check out CompTIA’s Web site (www.comptia.org) and search for CompTIA Continuing Education Program.

Now for the details: CompTIA recommends that you have at least nine to twelve months of networking experience and CompTIA A+ knowl- edge, but this is not a requirement. Note the word “recommend.” You may not need experience or CompTIA A+ knowledge, but they help! The CompTIA A+ certification competencies have a degree of overlap with the CompTIA Network+ competencies, such as types of connectors and how networks work.

As for experience, keep in mind that CompTIA Network+ is mostly a practical exam. Those who have been out there supporting real networks will find many of the questions reminiscent of the types of problems they have seen on LANs. The bottom line is that you’ll probably have a much easier time on the CompTIA Network+ exam if you have some CompTIA A+ experience under your belt.

What Is the Exam Like?■■ The CompTIA Network+ exam contains 100 questions, and you have 90 minutes to complete the exam. To pass, you must score at least 720 on a scale of 100–900, at the time of this writing. Check the CompTIA Web site when you get close to testing to determine the current scale: http://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/certifications/network.aspx

The exam questions are divided into five areas that CompTIA calls domains. This table lists the CompTIA Network+ domains and the percent- age of the exam that each represents.

CompTIA Network+ Domain Percentage

1.0 Network Technologies 21%

2.0 Network Installation and Configuration 23%

3.0 Network Media and Topologies 17%

4.0 Network Management 20%

5.0 Network Security 19%

The CompTIA Network+ exam is extremely practical. Questions often present real-life scenarios and ask you to determine the best solution. The CompTIA Network+ exam loves troubleshooting. Let me repeat: many of the test objectives deal with direct, real-world troubleshooting. Be prepared to troubleshoot both hardware and software failures and to answer both “What do you do next?” and “What is most likely the problem?” types of questions.

A qualified CompTIA Network+ certification candidate can install and configure a PC to connect to a network. This includes installing andwww.comptia.orghttp://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/certifications/network.aspx

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testing a network card, configuring drivers, and loading all network soft- ware. The exam will test you on the different topologies, standards, and cabling.

Expect conceptual questions about the Open Systems Interconnec- tion (OSI) seven-layer model. If you’ve never heard of the OSI seven-layer model, don’t worry! This book will teach you all you need to know. While this model rarely comes into play during the daily grind of supporting a network, you need to know the functions and protocols for each layer to pass the CompTIA Network+ exam. You can also expect questions on most of the protocol suites, with heavy emphasis on the TCP/IP suite.

How Do I Take the Test? To take the test, you must go to an authorized testing center. You cannot take the test over the Internet. Prometric and Pearson VUE administer the actual CompTIA Network+ exam. You’ll find thousands of Prometric and Pearson VUE testing centers scattered across the United States and Canada, as well as in over 75 other countries around the world. You may take the exam at any testing center. To locate a testing center and schedule an exam, call Prometric at 888-895-6116 or Pearson VUE at 877-551-7587. You can also visit their Web sites at www.prometric.com and www.vue.com.

How Much Does the Test Cost? CompTIA fixes the price, no matter what testing center you use. The cost of the exam depends on whether you work for a CompTIA member. At press time, the cost for non-CompTIA members is US$246.

If your employer is a CompTIA member, you can save money by obtain- ing an exam voucher. In fact, even if you don’t work for a CompTIA member, you can purchase a voucher from member companies and take advantage of significant member savings. You simply buy the voucher and then use the voucher to pay for the exam. Vouchers are delivered to you on paper and electronically via e-mail. The voucher number is the important thing. That number is your exam payment, so protect it from fellow students until you’re ready to schedule your exam.

If you’re in the United States or Canada, you can visit www.totalsem .com or call 800-446-6004 to purchase vouchers. As I always say, “You don’t have to buy your voucher from us, but for goodness’ sake, get one from somebody!” Why pay full price when you have a discount alternative?

You must pay for the exam when you schedule, whether online or by phone. If you’re scheduling by phone, be prepared to hold for a while. Have your Social Security number (or the international equivalent) ready and either a credit card or a voucher number when you call or begin the online scheduling process. If you require any special accommodations, both Pro- metric and Pearson VUE will be able to assist you, although your selection of testing locations may be a bit more limited.

International prices vary; see the CompTIA Web site for international pricing. Of course, prices are subject to change without notice, so always check the CompTIA Web site for current pricing!

CompTIA occasionally makes changes to the content of the exam, as well as the score necessary to pass it. Always check the Web site of my company, Total Seminars (www.totalsem.com), before scheduling your exam.

Although you can’t take the exam over the Internet, both Prometric and Pearson VUE provide easy online registration. Go to www.prometric.com or www.vue.com to register online.www.totalsem.comwww.prometric.comwww.vue.comwww.prometric.comwww.vue.comwww.totalsem.comwww.totalsem.com

BaseTech / Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Chapter 1

Chapter 1: CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 5

How to Pass the CompTIA ■■ Network+ Exam

The single most important thing to remember about the CompTIA Net- work+ certification exam is that CompTIA designed it to test the knowl- edge of a technician with as little as nine months of experience—so keep it simple! Think in terms of practical knowledge. Read this book, answer the questions at the end of each chapter, take the practice exams on the media accompanying this book, review any topics you missed, and you’ll pass with flying colors.

Is it safe to assume that it’s probably been a while since you’ve taken an exam? Consequently, has it been a while since you’ve had to study for an exam? If you’re nodding your head yes, you’ll probably want to read the next sections. They lay out a proven strategy to help you study for the CompTIA Network+ exam and pass it. Try it. It works.

Obligate Yourself The first step you should take is to schedule the exam. Ever heard the old adage that heat and pressure make diamonds? Well, if you don’t give your- self a little “heat,” you might procrastinate and unnecessarily delay taking the exam. Even worse, you may end up not taking the exam at all. Do your- self a favor. Determine how much time you need to study (see the next sec- tion), and then call Prometric or Pearson VUE and schedule the exam, giving yourself the time you need to study—and adding a few extra days for safety. Afterward, sit back and let your anxieties wash over you. Suddenly, turning off the television and cracking open the book will become a lot easier! Keep in mind that Prometric and Pearson VUE let you schedule an exam only a few weeks in advance, at most. If you schedule an exam and can’t make it, you must reschedule at least a day in advance or lose your money.

Set Aside the Right Amount of Study Time After helping thousands of techs get their CompTIA Network+ certifica- tion, we at Total Seminars have developed a pretty good feel for the amount of study time needed to pass the CompTIA Network+ exam. Table 1.1 will help you plan how much study time you must devote to the exam. Keep in mind that these are averages. If you’re not a great student or if you’re a little on the nervous side, add another 10 percent. Equally, if you’re the type who can learn an entire semester of geometry in one night, reduce the numbers by 10 percent. To use this table, just circle the values that are most accurate for you and add them up to get the number of study hours.

A complete neophyte will need at least 120 hours of study time. An experienced network technician already CompTIA A+ certified should only need about 24 hours.

Study habits also come into play here. A person with solid study habits (you know who you are) can reduce the number by 15 percent. People with poor study habits should increase that number by 20 percent.

The total hours of study time you need is __________________.

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Table 1.1 Determining How Much Study Time You Need Amount of Experience

Type of Experience None Once or Twice

On Occasion

Quite a Bit

Installing a SOHO wireless network 4 2 1 1

Installing an advanced wireless network (802.1X, RADIUS, etc.) 2 2 1 1

Installing structured cabling 3 2 1 1

Configuring a home router 5 3 2 1

Configuring a Cisco router 4 2 1 1

Configuring a software firewall 3 2 1 1

Configuring a hardware firewall 2 2 1 1

Configuring an IPv4 client 8 4 2 1

Configuring an IPv6 client 3 3 2 1

Working with a SOHO WAN connection (DSL, cable) 2 2 1 0

Working with an advanced WAN connection (Tx, OCx, ATM) 3 3 2 2

Configuring a DNS server 2 2 2 1

Configuring a DHCP server 2 1 1 0

Configuring a Web application server (HTTP, FTP, SSH, etc.) 4 4 2 1

Configuring a VLAN 3 3 2 1

Configuring a VPN 3 3 2 1 Configuring a dynamic routing protocol (RIP, EIGRP, OSPF) 2 2 1 1

Study for the Test Now that you have a feel for how long it’s going to take to study for the exam, you need a strategy for studying. The following has proven to be an excellent game plan for cramming the knowledge from the study materials into your head.

This strategy has two alternate paths. The first path is designed for highly experienced technicians who have a strong knowledge of PCs and networking and want to concentrate on just what’s on the exam. Let’s call this group the Fast Track group. The second path, and the one I’d strongly recommend, is geared toward people like me: the ones who want to know why things work, those who want to wrap their arms completely around a concept, as opposed to regurgitating answers just to pass the CompTIA Network+ exam. Let’s call this group the Brainiacs.

To provide for both types of learners, I have broken down most of the chapters into two parts:

Historical/Conceptual ■ Although not on the CompTIA Network+ exam, this knowledge will help you understand more clearly what is on the CompTIA Network+ exam.

Test Specific ■ These topics clearly fit under the CompTIA Network+ certification domains.

The beginning of each of these areas is clearly marked with a large ban- ner that looks like the following.

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Chapter 1: CompTIA Network+ in a Nutshell 7

Historical/Conceptual If you consider yourself a Fast Tracker, skip everything but the Test Spe- cific section in each chapter. After reading the Test Specific sections, jump immediately to the Chapter Review questions, which concentrate on infor- mation in the Test Specific sections. If you run into problems, review the Historical/Conceptual sections in that chapter. After going through every chapter as described, take the free practice exams on the media that accom- panies the book. First, take them in practice mode, and then switch to final mode. Once you start scoring in the 80–85 percent range, go take the test!

Brainiacs should first read the book—the whole book. Read it as though you’re reading a novel, starting on Page 1 and going all the way through. Don’t skip around on the first read-through, even if you are a highly expe- rienced tech. Because there are terms and concepts that build on each other, skipping around might confuse you, and you’ll just end up closing the book and firing up your favorite PC game. Your goal on this first read is to under- stand concepts—to understand the whys, not just the hows.

Having a network available while you read through the book helps a lot. This gives you a chance to see various concepts, hardware, and configu- ration screens in action as you read about them in the book. Nothing beats doing it yourself to reinforce a concept or piece of knowledge!

You will notice a lot of historical information—the Historical/ Conceptual sections—that you may be tempted to skip. Don’t! Understanding how some of the older stuff worked or how something works conceptually will help you appreciate the reason behind current networking features and equipment, as well as how they function.

After you have completed the first read-through, cozy up for a second. This time, try to knock out one chapter per sitting. Concentrate on the Test Specific sections. Get a highlighter and mark the phrases and sentences that make major points. Take a hard look at the pictures and tables, noting how they illustrate the concepts. Then, answer the end of chapter questions. Repeat this process until you not only get all the questions right, but also understand why they are correct!

Once you have read and studied the material in the book, check your knowledge by taking the practice exams included on the media accompa- nying the book. The exams can be taken in practice mode or final mode. In practice mode, you are allowed to check references in the book (if you want) before you answer each question, and each question is graded immediately. In final mode, you must answer all the questions before you are given a test score. In each case, you can review a results summary that tells you which questions you missed, what the right answer is, and where to study further.

Use the results of the exams to see where you need to bone up, and then study some more and try them again. Continue retaking the exams and reviewing the topics you missed until you are consistently scoring in the 80–85 percent range. When you’ve reached that point, you are ready to pass the CompTIA Network+ exam!

If you have any problems or questions, or if you just want to argue about something, feel free to send an e-mail to me atmichaelm@totalsem.com or to my editor, Scott Jernigan, at scottj@totalsem.com.

For additional information about the CompTIA Network+ exam, con- tact CompTIA directly at its Web site: www.comptia.org.

Good luck! —Mike Meyers

We have active and helpful discussion groups at www .totalsem.com/forums. You need to register to participate (though not to read posts), but that’s only to keep the spammers at bay. The forums provide an excellent resource for answers, suggestions, and just socializing with other folks studying for the exam.

Be aware that you may need to return to previous chapters to get the Historical/Conceptual information you need for a later chapter.www.totalsem.com/forumswww.totalsem.com/forumswww.comptia.org

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Network Models

“First we thought the PC was a

calculator. Then we found out how

to turn numbers into letters with

ASCII—and we thought it was

a typewriter. Then we discovered

graphics, and we thought it was

a television. With the World

Wide Web, we’ve realized it’s a

brochure.”

—Douglas aDams

In this chapter, you will learn how to

Describe how models such as the ■■ OSI seven-layer model and the TCP/IP model help technicians understand and troubleshoot networks

Explain the major functions of ■■ networks with the OSI seven-layer model

Describe the major functions of ■■ networks with the TCP/IP model

The CompTIA Network+ certification challenges you to understand virtually every aspect of networking—not a small task. Luckily for you, we use two methods to conceptualize the many parts of a network: the Open Systems

Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer model and the Transmission Control

Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model.

These models act as guidelines and break down how a network functions

into discrete parts called layers. If you want to get into networking—and

if you want to pass the CompTIA Network+ certification exam—you must

understand both the OSI seven-layer model and the TCP/IP model in great

detail.

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Chapter 2: Network Models 9

These models provide two tools that make them critical for networking techs. First, the OSI and TCP/IP models provide powerful mental tools for diag- nosing problems. Understand- ing the models enables a tech to determine quickly at what layer a problem can occur and helps him or her zero in on a solution with- out wasting a lot of time on false leads. Second, these models also provide a common language to describe networks—a way for us to communicate with each other about the functions of a network. Figure 2.1 shows a sample Cisco Systems Web page about configuring routing—a topic this book covers in detail later. A router operates at Layer 3 of the OSI seven-layer model, for example, so you’ll hear techs (and Web sites) refer to it as a “Layer 3 switch.”

This chapter looks first at models in general and how models help conceptualize and troubleshoot networks. We’ll then go into both the OSI seven-layer model and the TCP/IP model to see how they help clarify net- work architecture for techs.

Figure 2.1 • Using the OSI terminology—Layer 3—in a typical setup screen

The term “Layer 3 switch” has evolved over time and refers today to a variety of complex network boxes that I’ll cover later in the book.

Cross Check Cisco and Certifications

Cisco Systems, Inc. is famous for making many of the “boxes” that interconnect networks all over the world. It’s not too far of a stretch to say that Cisco helps power a huge portion of the Internet. These boxes are complicated to configure, requiring a high degree of techni- cal knowledge.

To address this need, Cisco offers a series of certifications. One of the entry-level certifications, for example, is the Cisco Certified Net- work Associate (CCNA). Go to Cisco’s certification Web site and com- pare their objectives with what you learned about CompTIA Network+ in Chapter 1. Ask yourself this question: could you study for CCNA and CompTIA Network+ simultaneously?

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Historical/Conceptual

Working with Models■■ Networking is hard. It takes a lot of pieces, both hardware and software, to get anything done. Just making Google appear in your Web browser requires millions of hours in research, development, and manufacturing. Whenever we encounter highly complex technologies, we need to sim- plify the overall process (making Google show up in your browser) by breaking it into discrete, simple, individual processes. We do this using models.

Modeling is critical to the networking world. We use models to under- stand and communicate with other techs about networks. Most beginning network techs, however, might have a very different idea of what model- ing means.

Biography of a Model What does the word “model” mean to you? Does the word make you think of a beautiful woman walking down a catwalk at a fashion show or

some hunky guy showing off the latest style of blue jeans on a huge billboard? Maybe it makes you think of a plastic model airplane? What about those com- puter models that try to predict weather? We use the term “model” in a number of ways, but each use shares certain common themes.

All models are a sim- plified representation of the real thing. The human

model ignores the many different types of body shapes, using only a single “optimal” figure. The model airplane lacks functional engines or the internal framework, and the computerized weather model might disregard subtle differences in wind temperatures or geology (Figure 2.2).

Additionally, a model must have at least all the major functions of the real item, but what constitutes a major rather than a minor function is open to opinion. Figure 2.3 shows a different level of detail for a model. Does it contain all the major components of an airplane? There’s room for argument that perhaps the model should have landing gear to go along with the propeller, wings, and tail.

Figure 2.2 • Types of models (images from left to right courtesy of NOAA, Mike Schinkel, and Michael Smyer)

Figure 2.3 • Simple model airplane

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Chapter 2: Network Models 11

Network Models Network models face similar challenges. What functions define all net- works? What details can you omit without rendering the model inaccurate? Does the model retain its usefulness when describing a network that does not employ all the layers?

In the early days of networking, different manufacturers made unique types of networks that functioned fairly well. But each network had its own cabling, hardware, drivers, naming conventions, applications, and many other unique features. Back then, a single manufacturer provided every- thing for a customer whenever you purchased a network solution: cabling, NICs, hubs, drivers, and all the software in one complete and expensive package. Although these networks worked fine as stand-alone networks, the proprietary nature of the hardware and software made it difficult—to put it mildly—to connect networks of multiple manufacturers. To intercon- nect networks and improve networking as a whole, someone needed to create a guide, a model that described the functions of a network, so that people who made hardware and software could work together to make networks that worked together well.

The granddaddy of network models came from the International Orga- nization for Standardization, known as ISO. Their model, known as the OSI seven-layer model, works for almost every type of network, even extremely old and long-obsolete ones. On the other hand, the TCP/IP model only works for networks that use the now-dominant TCP/IP protocol suite. (Don’t worry about what TCP/IP means yet—most of this book’s job is to explain that in great detail.) Since most of the world uses TCP/IP, the TCP/ IP model supplanted the OSI model in many cases, though most discussion that involves the word “Layers” refers to the OSI model. A good tech can talk the talk of both models, and they are objectives on the CompTIA Net- work+ exam, so let’s learn both.

The best way to learn the OSI and TCP/IP models is to see them in action. For this reason, I’ll introduce you to a small network that needs to copy a file from one computer to another. This example goes through each of the OSI and TCP/IP layers needed to copy that file, and I explain each step and why it is necessary. By the end of the chapter, you should have a definite handle on using either of these models as a tool to conceptualize networks. You’ll continue to build on this knowledge throughout the book and turn your OSI and TCP/IP model knowledge into a powerful troubleshooting tool.

I’ll begin by discussing the OSI seven-layer model. After seeing this small network through the lens of the OSI seven-layer model, we’ll repeat the process with the TCP/IP model.

The OSI Seven-Layer Model ■■ in Action

Each layer in the OSI seven-layer model defines an important function in computer networking, and the protocols that operate at that layer offer solutions to those functions. Protocols are sets of clearly defined rules,

ISO may look like a misspelled acronym, but it’s actually a word, derived from the Greek word isos, which means “equal.” The International Organization for Standardization sets standards that promote equality among network designers and manufacturers, thus ISO.

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regulations, standards, and procedures that enable hardware and software developers to make devices and applications that function properly at a particular level. The OSI seven-layer model encourages modular design in networking, meaning that each layer has as little to do with the opera- tion of other layers as possible. Think of it as an automobile assembly line. The guy painting the car doesn’t care about the gal putting doors on the car—he expects the assembly line process to make sure the cars he paints have doors. Each layer on the model trusts that the other layers on the model do their jobs.

The OSI seven layers are:

Layer 7 ■ Application

Layer 6 ■ Presentation

Layer 5 ■ Session

Layer 4 ■ Transport

Layer 3 ■ Network

Layer 2 ■ Data Link

Layer 1 ■ Physical

The OSI seven layers are not laws of physics—anybody who wants to design a network can do it any way he or she wants. Although many protocols fit neatly into one of the seven layers, others do not.

Now that you know the names of the layers, let’s see what each layer does. The best way to understand the OSI layers is to see them in action. Let’s see them at work at the fictional company of MHTechEd, Inc.

Welcome to MHTechEd! Mike’s High-Tech Educational Supply Store and Post Office, or MHTechEd for short, has a small network of PCs running Windows, a situation typi- cal of many small businesses today. Windows runs just fine on a PC uncon- nected to a network, but it also comes with all the network software it needs to connect to a network. All the computers in the MHTechEd net- work are connected by special network cabling.

As in most offices, virtually everyone at MHTechEd has his or her own PC. Figure 2.4 shows two workers, Janelle and Dana, who han- dle all the administrative functions at MHTechEd. Because of the kinds of work they do, these two often need to exchange data between their two PCs. At the moment, Janelle has just completed a new employee handbook in Microsoft Word, and she wants Dana to check it for accuracy. Janelle could transfer a copy of the file to Dana’s com- puter by the tried-and-true Sneakernet method— saving the file on a thumb drive and walking it over to her—but thanks to the wonders of com- puter networking, she doesn’t even have to turn around in her chair. Let’s watch in detail each

Be sure to memorize both the name and the number of each OSI layer. Network techs use OSI terms such as “Layer 4” and “Transport layer” synonymously. Students have long used mnemonics for memorizing such lists. One of my favorites for the OSI seven-layer model is “Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away.” Yum!

This section is a conceptual overview of the hardware and software functions of a network. Your network may have different hardware or software, but it will share the same functions!

Figure 2.4 • Janelle and Dana, hard at work

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Chapter 2: Network Models 13

piece of the process that gives Dana direct access to Janelle’s computer, so she can copy the Word document from Janelle’s system to her own.

Long before Janelle ever saved the Word document on her system— when the systems were first installed—someone who knew what they were doing set up and configured all the systems at MHTechEd to be part of a common network. All this setup activity resulted in multiple layers of hardware and software that can work together behind the scenes to get that Word document from Janelle’s system to Dana’s. Let’s examine the differ- ent pieces of the network, and then return to the process of Dana grabbing that Word document.

Test Specific

Let’s Get Physical—Network ■■ Hardware and Layers 1–2

Clearly the network needs a physical channel through which it can move bits of data between systems. Most networks use a cable like the one shown in Figure 2.5. This cable, known in the networking industry as unshielded twisted pair (UTP), usually contains four pairs of wires that can transmit and receive data.

Another key piece of hardware the network uses is a special box-like device called a hub (Figure 2.6), often tucked away in a closet or an equip- ment room. Each system on the network has its own cable that runs to the hub. Think of the hub as being like one of those old-time telephone switch- boards, where operators created connections between persons who called in wanting to reach other telephone users.

Readers with some networking experience know that hubs don’t exist in modern networks, having been replaced with much better devices called switches. But the CompTIA Network+ exam expects you to know what hubs are; plus hubs make this modeling discussion simpler. I’ll get to switches soon enough.

Figure 2.6 • Typical hubFigure 2.5 • UTP cabling

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Layer 1 of the OSI model defines the method of moving data between computers, so the cabling and hubs are part of the Physical layer (Layer 1). Anything that moves data from one system to another, such as copper cabling, fiber optics, even radio waves, is part of the OSI Physical layer. Layer 1 doesn’t care what data goes through; it just moves the data from one system to another sys- tem. Figure 2.7 shows the MHTechEd network in the OSI seven-layer model thus far. Note that each system has the full range of layers, so data from Janelle’s computer can flow to Dana’s computer.

The real magic of a network starts with the net- work interface card, or NIC (pronounced “nick”), which serves as the interface between the PC and the network. While NICs come in a wide array of shapes and sizes, the ones at MHTechEd look like Figure 2.8.

On older systems, a NIC truly was a separate card that snapped into a handy expansion slot, which is why they were called network interface cards. Even though they’re now built into the motherboard, they are still called NICs.

When installed in a PC, the NIC looks like Figure 2.9. Note the cable running from the back of the NIC into the wall; inside that wall is another cable running all the way back to the hub.

Cabling and hubs define the Physical layer of the network, and NICs provide the interface to the PC. Figure 2.10 shows a diagram of the network cabling system. I’ll build on this diagram as I delve deeper into the network process.

You might be tempted to categorize the NIC as part of the Physical layer at this point, and you’d have a valid argument. The NIC clearly is necessary for the physical connection to take place. The CompTIA Network+ exam and many authors put the NIC in OSI Layer 2, the Data Link layer, though, so clearly something else is happening inside the NIC. Let’s take a closer look.

Figure 2.8 • Typical NIC

Figure 2.9 • NIC with cable connecting the PC to the wall jack Figure 2.10 • The MHTechEd network

Dana

Figure 2.7 • The network so far, with the Physical layer hardware installed

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Chapter 2: Network Models 15

The NIC To understand networks, you must understand how NICs work. The net- work must provide a mechanism that gives each system a unique identi- fier—like a telephone number—so data is delivered to the right system. That’s one of the NIC’s most important jobs. Inside every NIC, burned onto some type of ROM chip, is special firmware containing a unique identifier with a 48-bit value called the media access control address, or MAC address.

No two NICs ever share the same MAC address—ever. Any com- pany that makes NICs must contact the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and request a block of MAC addresses, which the company then burns into the ROMs on its NICs. Many NIC makers also print the MAC address on the surface of each NIC, as shown in Figure 2.11. Note that the NIC shown here displays the MAC address in hexadecimal notation. Count the number of hex characters—because each hex character represents 4 bits, it takes 12 hex characters to represent 48 bits.

The MAC address in Figure 2.11 is 004005-607D49, although in print, we represent the MAC address as 00–40–05–60–7D–49. The first six digits, in this example 00–40–05, represent the number of the NIC manufacturer. Once the IEEE issues those six hex digits to a manu- facturer—often referred to as the organizationally unique identifier (OUI)—no other manufacturer may use them. The last six digits, in this example 60–7D–49, are the manufacturer’s unique serial number for that NIC; this portion of the MAC is often referred to as the device ID.

Would you like to see the MAC address for your NIC? If you have a Windows system, type ipconfig /all from a command prompt to display the MAC address (Figure 2.12). Note that ipconfig calls the MAC address the physical address, which is an important distinction, as you’ll see a bit later in the chapter.

Figure 2.12 • Output from ipconfig /all

Figure 2.11 • MAC address

MAC-48 and EUI-48 The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) forms MAC addresses from a numbering name space originally called MAC-48, which simply means that the MAC address will be 48 bits, with the first 24 bits defining the OUI, just as described here. The current term for this numbering name space is EUI-48. EUI stands for Extended Unique Identifier. (IEEE apparently went with the new term because they could trademark it.)

Most techs just call them MAC addresses, as you should, but you might see MAC-48 or EUI-48 on the CompTIA Network+ exam.

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Okay, so every NIC in the world has a unique MAC address, but how is it used? Ah, that’s where the fun begins! Recall that computer data is binary, which means it’s made up of streams of ones and zeroes. NICs send and receive this binary data as pulses of electricity, light, or radio waves. The NICs that use electricity to send and receive data are the most common, so let’s consider that type of NIC. The specific process by which a NIC uses electricity to send and receive data is exceedingly complicated but, luckily for you, not necessary to understand. Instead, just think of a charge on the wire as a one and no charge as a zero. A chunk of data moving in pulses across a wire might look something like Figure 2.13.

If you put an oscilloscope on the wire to measure voltage, you’d see something like Figure 2.14. An oscilloscope is a powerful tool that enables you to see electrical pulses.

Now, remembering that the pulses represent binary data, visualize instead a string of ones and zeroes moving across the wire (Figure 2.15).

Once you understand how data moves along the wire, the next question is how does the network get the right data to the right system? All networks transmit data by breaking whatever is moving across

the Physical layer (files, print jobs, Web pages, and so forth) into discrete chunks called frames. A frame is basically a container for a chunk of data moving across a network. The NIC creates and sends, as well as receives and reads, these frames.

I like to visualize an imaginary table inside every NIC that acts as a frame creation and reading station. I see frames as those pneumatic canis- ters you see when you go to a drive-in teller at a bank. A little guy inside the network card—named Nic, naturally!—builds these pneumatic canis- ters (the frames) on the table and then shoots them out on the wire to the hub (Figure 2.16).

Figure 2.16 • Inside the NIC

Figure 2.13 • Data moving along a wire

Figure 2.14 • Oscilloscope of data

Figure 2.15 • Data as ones and zeroes

A number of different frame types are used in different networks. All NICs on the same network must use the same frame type, or they will not be able to communicate with other NICs.

Try This! What’s Your MAC Address?

You can readily determine your MAC address on a Windows computer from the command line. This works in all modern versions of Windows.

In Windows 2000/XP, click Start | Run. Enter 1. the command cmd and press the enter key to get to a command prompt.

In Windows Vista/7, click Start, enter2. cmd in the Start Search text box, and press the enter key to get to a command prompt.

At the command prompt, type the command3. ipconfig /all and press the enter key.

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Here’s where the MAC address becomes important. Figure 2.17 shows a representation of a generic frame. Even though a frame is a string of ones and zeroes, we often draw frames as a series of rectangles, each rectangle representing a part of the string of ones and zeroes. You will see this type of frame repre- sentation used quite often, so you should become comfortable with it (even though I still prefer to see frames as pneumatic canisters). Note that the frame begins with the MAC address of the NIC to which the data is to be sent, followed by the MAC address of the sending NIC. Then comes the data, fol- lowed by a special bit of checking information called the frame check sequence (FCS). The FCS uses a type of binary math called a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) that the receiving NIC uses to verify that the data arrived intact.

So, what’s inside the data part of the frame? You neither know nor care. The data may be a part of a file, a piece of a print job, or part of a Web page. NICs aren’t concerned with content! The NIC simply takes whatever data is passed to it via its device driver and addresses it for the correct system. Special software will take care of what data gets sent and what happens to that data when it arrives. This is the beauty of imagining frames as little pneumatic canisters (Figure 2.18). A canister can carry anything from dirt to diamonds—the NIC doesn’t care one bit (pardon the pun).

Like a canister, a frame can hold only a certain amount of data. Different networks use different sizes of frames, but a single frame holds about 1500 bytes of data.

This raises a new question: what happens when the data to be sent is larger than the frame size? Well, the sending system’s software must chop the data up into nice, frame-sized chunks, which it then hands to the NIC for sending. As the receiving system begins to accept the incoming frames, the receiving system’s software recombines the data chunks as they come in from the network. I’ll show how this disassembling and reassembling is done in a moment—first, let’s see how the frames get to the right system!

When a system sends a frame out on the network, the frame goes into the hub. The hub, in turn, makes an exact copy of that frame, sending a copy of the original frame to every other system on the network. The inter- esting part of this process is when the copy of the frame comes into all the other systems. I like to visualize a frame sliding onto the receiving NIC’s “frame assembly table,” where the electronics of the NIC inspect it. Here’s where the magic takes place: only the NIC to which the frame is addressed will process that frame—the other NICs sim- ply erase it when they see that it is not addressed to their MAC address. This is important to appreciate: every frame sent on a network is received by every NIC, but only the NIC with the match- ing MAC address will process that particular frame (Figure 2.19).

Figure 2.18 • Frame as a canister

Tech Tip

FCS in Depth Most FCSs are only 4 bytes long, yet the average frame carries around 1500 bytes of data. How can 4 bytes tell you if all 1500 bytes in the data are correct? That’s the magic of the math of the CRC. Without going into the grinding details, think of the CRC as just the remainder of a division problem. (Remember learning remainders from division back in elementary school?) The NIC sending the frame does a little math to make the CRC. Using binary arithmetic, it works a division problem on the data using a divisor called a key. The result of this division is the CRC. When the frame gets to the receiving NIC, it divides the data by the same key. If the receiving NIC’s answer is the same as the CRC, it knows the data is good.

Data Sender’s

MAC address Recipient’s

MAC address FCS

Figure 2.17 • Generic frame

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Figure 2.19 • Incoming frame!

Getting the Data on the Line The process of getting data onto the wire and then picking that data off the wire is amazingly complicated. For instance, what happens to keep two NICs from speaking at the same time? Because all the data sent by one NIC is read by every other NIC on the network, only one system may speak at a time. Networks use frames to restrict the amount of data a NIC can send at once, giving all NICs a chance to send data over the network in a reasonable span of time. Dealing with this and many other issues requires sophisti- cated electronics, but the NICs handle these issues completely on their own without our help. Thankfully, the folks who design NICs worry about all these details, so we don’t have to!

Getting to Know You Using the MAC address is a great way to move data around, but this pro- cess raises an important question. How does a sending NIC know the MAC address of the NIC to which it’s sending the data? In most cases, the send- ing system already knows the destination MAC address because the NICs had probably communicated earlier, and each system stores that data. If it doesn’t already know the MAC address, a NIC may send a broadcast onto the network to ask for it. The MAC address of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF is the broadcast address—if a NIC sends a frame using the broadcast address, every single NIC on the network will process that frame. That broadcast frame’s data will contain a request for a system’s MAC address. Without knowing the MAC address to begin with, the requesting computer will use an IP address or host name to pick the target computer out of the crowd. The system with the MAC address your system is seeking will read the request in the broadcast packet and respond with its MAC address.

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The Complete Frame Movement Now that you’ve seen all the pieces used to send and receive frames, let’s put these pieces together and see how a frame gets from one system to another. The basic send/receive process is as follows.

First, the sending system’s network operating system (NOS) software— such as Windows 7—hands some data to its NIC. The NIC builds a frame to transport that data to the receiving NIC (Figure 2.20).

Figure 2.20 • Building the frame

After the NIC creates the frame, it adds the FCS, and then dumps it and the data into the frame (Figure 2.21).

FC S

Figure 2.21 • Adding the data and FCS to the frame

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Next, the NIC puts both the destination MAC address and its own MAC address onto the frame. It waits until no other NIC is using the cable, and then sends the frame through the cable to the network (Figure 2.22).

Figure 2.22 • Sending the frame

The frame propagates down the wire into the hub, which creates copies of the frame and sends it to every other system on the network. Every NIC receives the frame and checks the MAC address. If a NIC finds that a frame is addressed to it, it processes the frame (Figure 2.23); if the frame is not addressed to it, the NIC erases it.

Figure 2.23 • Reading an incoming frame

So, what happens to the data when it gets to the correct NIC? First, the receiving NIC uses the FCS to verify that the data is valid. If it is, the

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receiving NIC strips off all the framing information and sends the data to the software—the network operating system—for processing. The receiv- ing NIC doesn’t care what the software does with the data; its job stops the moment it passes on the data to the software.

Any device that deals with a MAC address is part of the OSI Data Link layer, or Layer 2 of the OSI model. Let’s update the OSI model to include details about the Data Link layer (Figure 2.24).

Figure 2.24 • Layer 1 and Layer 2 are now properly applied to the network.

Note that the cabling and the hub are located in the Physical layer. The NIC is in the Data Link layer, but spans two sublayers.

The Two Aspects of NICs Consider how data moves in and out of a NIC. On one end, frames move into and out of the NIC’s network cable connection. On the other end, data moves back and forth between the NIC and the network operating system software. The many steps a NIC performs to keep this data moving—send- ing and receiving frames over the wire, creating outgoing frames, reading incoming frames, and attaching MAC addresses—are classically broken down into two distinct jobs.

The first job is called the Logical Link Control (LLC). The LLC is the aspect of the NIC that talks to the operating system, places data coming from the software into frames, and creates the CRC on each frame. The LLC is also responsible for dealing with incoming frames: processing those that are addressed to this NIC and erasing frames addressed to other machines on the network.

The second job is called the Media Access Control (MAC), and I bet you can guess what it does! That’s right—it remembers the NIC’s own MAC address and attaches MAC addresses to the frames. Recall that each frame the LLC creates must include both the sender’s and recipient’s MAC addresses. The MAC also ensures that the frames, now complete with their MAC addresses, are then sent along the network cabling. Figure 2.25 shows the Data Link layer in detail.

The CompTIA Network+ exam tests you on the details of the OSI seven-layer model, so remember that the Data Link layer is the only layer that has any sublayers.

The Data Link layer provides a service called Data Link Control (DLC). The only reason to mention this is there’s an ancient printing protocol with the same name. DLC might show up as an incorrect answer on the exam.

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Figure 2.25 • LLC and MAC, the two parts of the Data Link layer

Tech Tip

NIC and Layers Most networking materials that describe the OSI seven-layer model put NICs squarely into the Data Link layer of the model. It’s at the MAC sublayer, after all, that data gets encapsulated into a frame, destination and source MAC addresses get added to that frame, and error checking occurs. What bothers most students with placing NICs solely in the Data Link layer is the obvious other duty of the NIC—putting the ones and zeroes on the network cable. How much more physical can you get?

Many teachers will finesse this issue by defining the Physical layer in its logical sense—that it defines the rules for the ones and zeroes—and then ignore the fact that the data sent on the cable has to come from something. The first question when you hear a statement like that—at least to me—is, “What component does the sending?” It’s the NIC, of course, the only device capable of sending and receiving the physical signal.

Network cards, therefore, operate at both Layer 2 and Layer 1 of the OSI seven-layer model. If cornered to answer one or the other, however, go with the more common answer, Layer 2.

Beyond the Single Wire—Network ■■ Software and Layers 3–7

Getting data from one system to another in a simple network (defined as one in which all the computers connect to one hub) takes relatively little effort on the part of the NICs. But one problem with simple networks is that computers need to broadcast to get MAC addresses. It works for small networks, but what happens when the network gets big, like the size of the

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entire Internet? Can you imagine millions of computers all broadcasting? No data could get through.

Equally important, data flows over the Internet using many technolo- gies, not just Ethernet. These technologies, such as SONET, ATM, and oth- ers, don’t know what to do with Ethernet MAC addresses. When networks get large, you can’t use the MAC addresses anymore.

Large networks need a logical addressing method, like a postal code or telephone numbering scheme, that ignores the hardware and enables you to break up the entire large network into smaller networks called subnets. Figure 2.26 shows two ways to set up a network. On the left, all the com- puters connect to a single hub. On the right, however, the LAN is separated into two five-computer subnets.

Figure 2.26 • Large LAN complete (left) and broken up into two subnets (right)

To move past the physical MAC addresses and start using logical addressing requires some special software called a network protocol. Net- work protocols exist in every operating system. A network protocol not only has to create unique identifiers for each system, but also must create a set of communication rules for issues like how to handle data chopped up into multiple packets and how to ensure those packets get from one subnet to another. Let’s take a moment to learn a bit about the most famous network protocol—TCP/IP—and its unique universal addressing system.

To be accurate, TCP/IP is really several network protocols designed to work together—but two protocols, TCP and IP, do so much work that the folks who invented all these protocols named the whole thing TCP/IP. TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, and IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP is the network protocol I need to discuss first; rest assured, however, I’ll cover TCP in plenty of detail later.

MAC addresses are also known as physical addresses.

TCP/IP dominates the networking universe. Almost every network in existence uses TCP/IP. Because it is more specific, a simpler model called the TCP/IP model was created to describe it. You’ll learn all about this model later in the chapter.

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IP—Playing on Layer 3, the Network Layer At the Network layer, Layer 3, packets get created and addressed so they can go from one network to another. The Internet Protocol is the primary logical addressing protocol for TCP/IP. IP makes sure that a piece of data gets to where it needs to go on the network. It does this by giving each device on the network a unique numeric identifier called an IP address. An IP address is known as a logical address to distinguish it from the physical address, the MAC address of the NIC.

Every network protocol uses some type of naming convention, but no two protocols use the same convention. IP uses a rather unique dotted decimal notation (sometimes referred to as a dotted-octet numbering sys- tem) based on four 8-bit numbers. Each 8-bit number ranges from 0 to 255, and the four numbers are separated by periods. (If you don’t see how 8-bit numbers can range from 0 to 255, don’t worry—by the end of this book, you’ll understand these naming conventions in more detail than you ever believed possible!) A typical IP address might look like this:

192.168.4.232

No two systems on the same network share the same IP address; if two machines accidentally receive the same address, they won’t be able to send or receive data. These IP addresses don’t just magically appear—they must be configured by the end user (or the network administrator).

Take a look at Figure 2.26. What makes logical addressing powerful is the magic box—called a router—that connects each of the subnets. Routers use the IP address, not the MAC address, to forward data. This enables networks to connect across data lines that don’t use Ethernet, like the tele- phone network. Each network type (such as Ethernet, SONET, ATM, and others that we’ll discuss later in the book) uses a unique frame. Figure 2.27 shows a typical router.

Figure 2.27 • Typical small router

Try to avoid using redundant expressions. Even though many techs will say “IP protocol,” for example, you know that “IP” stands for “Internet Protocol.” It wouldn’t be right to say “Internet Protocol protocol” in English, so it doesn’t work in network speak either.

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What’s important here is for you to appreciate that in a TCP/IP net- work, each system has two unique identifiers: the MAC address and the IP address. The MAC address (the physical address) is literally burned into the chips on the NIC, whereas the IP address (the logical address) is simply stored in the system’s software. MAC addresses come with the NIC, so you don’t configure MAC addresses, whereas you must configure IP addresses using software. Figure 2.28 shows the MHTechEd network diagram again; this time with the MAC and IP addresses displayed for each system.

Figure 2.28 • MHTechEd addressing

Packets Within Frames For a TCP/IP network to send data successfully, the data must be wrapped up in two distinct containers. A frame of some type enables the data to move from one device to another. Inside that frame is both an IP-specific container that enables routers to determine where to send data—regardless of the physical connection type—and the data itself. In TCP/IP, that inner container is called a packet.

Figure 2.29 shows a typical IP packet; notice the similarity to the frames you saw earlier.

Destination IP address

Source IP address

Data

Figure 2.29 • IP packet

This is a highly simplified IP packet. I am not including lots of little parts of the IP packet in this diagram because they are not important to what you need to understand right now—but don’t worry, you’ll see them later in the book!

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But IP packets don’t leave their PC home without any clothes on! Each IP packet is handed to the NIC, which then encloses the IP packet in a regular frame, creating, in essence, a packet within a frame. I like to visualize the packet as an envelope, with the envelope in the pneu- matic canister frame (Figure 2.30). A more conventional drawing would look like Figure 2.31.

When you send data from one com- puter to another on a TCP/IP network such as the Internet, that data can go through many routers before it reaches its destination. Each router strips off the incoming frame, determines where to send the data according to the IP address in the packet, creates a new frame, and then sends the packet within a frame on its merry way. The new frame type will be the appropriate technology for what- ever connection technology connects to the next router. That could be a cable or DSL network connection, for example (Figure 2.32). The IP packet, on the other hand, remains unchanged.

Once the packet reaches the destination subnet’s router, that router will strip off the incoming frame—no matter what type—look at the destination IP address, and then add a frame with the appropriate destination MAC address that matches the destination IP address.

Frame Header

Packet Header FCS

Data

Packet

Frame

Figure 2.31 • IP packet in a frame

Keep in mind that not all networks are Ethernet networks. Ethernet may dominate, but IP packets fit in all sorts of other connectivity options. For example, cable modems use a type of frame called DOCSIS. T1 lines use a frame called DS1. The beauty of IP packets is that they can travel unchanged in each of these and many others. For more about these technologies, check out Chapter 14.

Figure 2.30 • IP packet in a frame (as a canister)

Frame stripped

Incoming frame

New frame added

New frame out

Figure 2.32 • Router removing network frame and adding one for the outgoing connection

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The receiving NIC strips away the Ethernet frame and passes the remaining packet off to the software. The networking software built into your operating system handles all the rest of the work. The NIC’s driver software is the interconnection between the hardware and the software. The NIC driver knows how to communicate with the NIC to send and receive frames, but it can’t do anything with the packet. Instead, the NIC driver hands the packet off to other programs that know how to deal with all the separate packets and turn them into Web pages, e-mail messages, files, and so forth.

The Network layer (Layer 3) is the last layer that deals directly with hardware. All the other layers of the OSI seven-layer model work strictly within software.

Assembly and Disassembly—Layer 4, the Transport Layer Because most chunks of data are much larger than a single packet, they must be chopped up before they can be sent across a network. When a serv- ing computer receives a request for some data, it must be able to chop the requested data into chunks that will fit into a packet (and eventually into the NIC’s frame), organize the packets for the benefit of the receiving sys- tem, and hand them to the NIC for sending. The receiving system must be able to recognize a series of incoming packets as one data transmission, reassemble the packets correctly based on information included in the packets by the sending system, and verify that all the packets for that piece of data arrived in good shape.

This part is relatively simple—the transport protocol breaks up the data into packets and gives each packet some type of sequence number. I like to compare this process to the one that my favorite international shipping company uses. I receive boxes from UPS almost every day; in fact, some days I receive many, many boxes from UPS. To make sure I get all the boxes for one shipment, UPS puts a numbering system, like the one shown in Figure 2.33, on the label of each box. A computer sending data on a network does the same thing. Embedded into the data of each packet is a sequencing number. By reading the sequencing numbers, the receiving system knows both the total number of packets and how to put them back together.

Figure 2.33 • Labeling the boxes

I’m using the term “packets” here to refer to a generic container. Because the OSI model can be applied to many different network protocols, the terminology for this container changes. Almost all protocols split up data at the Transport layer and add sequencing numbers so the receiving computer can put them together in logical order. What happens at that point depends on the protocol suite. In TCP/IP, for example, the precisely named IP packet is created at the Network layer and other container types are created at the Transport layer.

I’ll go into a lot more detail on this in the TCP/IP model section later in this book. That model, rather than the OSI model, makes more sense for TCP/IP network descriptions.

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The MHTechEd network just keeps getting more and more complex, doesn’t it? And the Word document still hasn’t been copied, has it? Don’t worry; you’re almost there—just a few more pieces to go!

Layer 4, the Transport layer of the OSI seven-layer model, has a big job: it’s the assembler/disassembler software. As part of its job, the Transport layer also initializes requests for packets that weren’t received in good order (Figure 2.34).

Figure 2.34 • OSI updated

Talking on a Network—Layer 5, the Session Layer

Now that you understand that the system uses software to assemble and disassemble data packets, what’s next? In a network, any one system may be talking to many other systems at any given moment. For example, Janelle’s PC has a printer used by all the MHTechEd systems, so there’s a better than average chance that, as Dana tries to access the Word document, another sys- tem will be sending a print job to Janelle’s PC (Figure 2.35).

Janelle’s system must direct these incoming files, print jobs, Web pages, and so on, to the right pro- grams (Figure 2.36). Additionally, the operating system must enable one system to make a connection to another system to verify that the other system can handle whatever

A lot of things happen on a TCP/IP network at the Transport layer. I’m simplifying here because the TCP/IP model does a way better job explaining each thing than does the OSI model.

Figure 2.35 • Handling multiple inputs

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operation the initiating system wants to perform. If Bill’s system wants to send a print job to Janelle’s printer, it first contacts Janelle’s system to ensure that it is ready to handle the print job. The session software handles this part of networking, connecting applications to applications.

Figure 2.36 • Each request becomes a session.

Layer 5, the Session layer of the OSI seven-layer model, handles all the sessions for a system (Figure 2.37). The Session layer initiates sessions, accepts incoming sessions, and opens and closes existing sessions. The Session layer also keeps track of computer naming conventions, such as calling your computer SYSTEM01 or some other type of name that makes more sense than an IP or MAC address.

Figure 2.37 • OSI updated

Try This! See Your Sessions

How many sessions does a typical system have run- ning at one time? Well, if you have a TCP/IP network (and who doesn’t these days), you can run the netstat program from a command prompt to see all of them. Open a com- mand prompt and type the following:

netstat -a

Then press the enter key to see your sessions. Don’t worry about trying to inter- pret what you see—Chapter 9 covers netstat in detail. For now, simply appreciate that each line in the netstat output is a session. Count them!

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Standardized Formats, or Why Layer 6, Presentation, Has No Friends One of the most powerful aspects of a network lies in the fact that it works with (almost) any operating system. Today’s networks easily connect, for

example, a Macintosh system to a Windows PC, despite the fact that these different operating sys- tems use different formats for many types of data. Different data formats used to drive us crazy back in the days before word processors (like Micro- soft Word) could import or export a thousand other word processor formats (Figure 2.38).

This issue motivated folks to create stan- dardized formats that anyone—at least with the right program—could read from any type of computer. Specialized file formats, such as Adobe’s popular Portable Document Format (PDF) for documents and PostScript for print- ing, provide standard formats that any system, regardless of operating system, can read, write, and edit ( Figure 2.39).

Figure 2.39 • Everyone recognizes PDF files!

Layer 6, the Presentation layer of the OSI seven-layer model, handles the conversion of data into formats that are readable by the system. Of all the OSI layers, the high level of file format standardization has made the Presentation layer the least important and least used (Figure 2.40).

Figure 2.38 • Different data formats were often unreadable between systems.

Tech Tip

Acrobat as Open Standard Adobe released the PDF standard to ISO in 2007 and PDF became the ISO 32000 open standard. Adobe Reader remains the premier application for reading PDF documents. Note that Adobe seems to be phasing out the Acrobat branding of PDF documents, but many techs still call PDF “Adobe Acrobat format.”

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Figure 2.40 • OSI updated

Network Applications—Layer 7, the Application Layer The last and most visible part of any network is the software applications that use it. If you want to copy a file residing on another system in your net- work, you need an application like Network in Windows 7 (or My Network Places in earlier versions of Windows) that enables you to access files on remote systems. If you want to view Web pages, you need a Web browser like Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. The people who use a network experience it through an application. A user who knows nothing about all the other parts of a network may still know how to open an e-mail applica- tion to retrieve mail (Figure 2.41).

Figure 2.41 • Network applications at work

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Applications may include a number of additional functions, such as encryption, user authentication, and tools to control the look of the data. But these functions are specific to the given applications. In other words, if you want to put a password on your Word document, you must use the password functions in Word to do so.

The Application layer is Layer 7 in the OSI seven-layer model. Keep in mind that the Application layer doesn’t refer to the applications themselves. It refers to the code built into all operating systems that enables network- aware applications. All operating systems have Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that programmers can use to make their programs network aware (Figure 2.42). An API, in general, provides a standard way for pro- grammers to enhance or extend an application’s capabilities.

Figure 2.42 • OSI updated

The TCP/IP Model■■ The OSI model was developed as a reaction to a world of hundreds, if not thousands, of different protocols made by different manufacturers that needed to play together. The ISO declared the OSI seven-layer model as the tool for manufacturers of networking equipment to find common ground between multiple protocols, enabling them to create standards for interop- erability of networking software and hardware.

The OSI model is extremely popular and very well-known to all net- working techs. Today’s world, however, is a TCP/IP world. The complexity of the OSI model doesn’t make sense in a world with one protocol suite. Given its dominance, the aptly named TCP/IP model shares equal popular- ity with the venerable OSI model.

The TCP/IP model consists of four layers:

Application ■

Transport ■

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Internet ■

Link/Network Interface ■

It’s important to appreciate that the TCP/IP model doesn’t have a standards body to define the layers. Because of this, there are a surprising number of variations on the TCP/IP model.

A great example of this lack of standardization is the Link layer. Without a standardizing body, we can’t even agree on the name. While “Link layer” is extremely common, the term “Network Interface layer” is equally popular. A good tech knows both of these terms and understands that they are interchangeable. Notice also that, unlike the OSI model, the TCP/IP model does not identify each layer with a number.

CompTIA has chosen one popular version of the TCP/IP model for the CompTIA Network+ competencies and exam. That’s the version you’ll learn right here. It’s concise, having only four layers, and many important companies, like Cisco and Microsoft, use it, although with a few varia- tions in names as just described. The TCP/IP model gives each protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite a clear home in one of the four layers.

The clarity of the TCP/IP model shows the flaws in the OSI model. The OSI model couldn’t perfectly describe all the TCP/IP protocols. In fact, the OSI model couldn’t perfectly describe any of the now defunct alternative protocols, such as IPX/SPX and NetBIOS/NetBEUI. Network nerds have gotten into fistfights over a particular protocol’s exact location in the OSI model.

The TCP/IP model fixes this ambiguity, at least for TCP/IP. Because of its tight protocol-to-layer integration, the TCP/IP model is a descriptive model, whereas the OSI seven-layer model is a prescriptive model.

The Link Layer The TCP/IP model lumps together the OSI model’s Layer 1 and Layer 2 into a single layer called the Link layer (or Network Interface layer), as seen in Figure 2.43. It’s not that the Physical and Data Link layers are unimportant to TCP/IP, but the TCP/ IP protocol suite really begins at Layer 3 of the OSI model. In essence, TCP/IP techs count on other techs to handle the physical connections in their networks. All of the pieces that you learned in the OSI model (cabling, hubs, physical addresses, and NICs) sit squarely in the Link layer.

A nice way to separate layers in the TCP/IP model is to think about packets and frames. Any part of the network that deals with complete frames is in the Link layer. The moment the frame information is stripped away from an IP packet, we move out of the Link layer and into the Internet layer.

Transport

Internet

Link

Transport

Session

Presentation Application

Application

Network

Data Link

Physical

Figure 2.43 • TCP/IP Link layer compared to OSI Layers 1 and 2

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The Internet Layer The Internet layer should really be called the “IP packet” layer (Figure 2.44). Any device or protocol that deals with pure IP packets—getting an IP packet to its destination—sits in the Internet layer. IP addressing itself is also part of the Internet layer, as are routers and the magic they perform to get IP packets to the next router. IP packets are created at this layer.

The Internet layer doesn’t care about the type of data an IP packet carries, nor does it care whether the data gets there in good order or not. Those jobs are for the next layer: the Transport layer.

The Transport Layer The Transport layer combines features of the OSI Transport and Session layers with a dash of Appli- cation layer just for flavor (Figure 2.45). While the TCP/IP model is certainly involved with the assem- bly and disassembly of data, it also defines other functions, such as connection-oriented and connec- tionless communication.

Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless Communication Some protocols, like the popular Post Office Protocol (POP) used for sending e-mail messages, require that the e-mail client and server verify that they have a good connection before a message is sent (Figure 2.46). This makes sense because you don’t want your e-mail message to be a corrupted mess when it arrives.

Figure 2.46 • Connection between e-mail client and server

Application

Transport

Link

Internet

Session

Transport

Application

Presentation

Data Link

Physical

Network

Figure 2.44 • TCP/IP Internet layer compared to OSI Layer 3

Transport

Session

Application

Link

Transport

Application

Presentation

Data Link

Physical

Network Internet

Figure 2.45 • TCP/IP Transport layer compared to OSI Layers 4, 5, and part of 7

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Chapter 2: Network Models 35

Alternatively, a number of TCP/IP protocols simply send data without first waiting to verify that the receiving system is ready (Figure 2.47). When using Voice over IP (VoIP), for example, the call is made without verifying first whether another device is there.

Figure 2.47 • Connectionless communication

The connection-oriented protocol is called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The connectionless protocol is called User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Everything you can do on the Internet, from Web browsing to Skype phone calls to playing World of Warcraft, is predetermined to be either connection-oriented or connectionless. It’s simply a matter of knowing your applications.

Segments Within Packets To see the Transport layer in action, strip away the IP addresses from an IP packet. What’s left is a chunk of data in yet another container called a TCP segment. TCP segments have many other fields that ensure the data gets to its destination in good order. These fields have names such as Checksum, Flags, and Acknowledgement. Chapter 7 goes into more detail on TCP seg- ments, but, for now, just know that TCP segments have fields that ensure the connection-oriented communication works properly. Figure 2.48 shows a typical (although simplified) TCP segment.

Destination port

Source port

Sequence number

Checksum Flags Acknowledgement Data

Figure 2.48 • TCP segment

Data comes from the Application layer applications. The Transport layer breaks that data into chunks, adding port numbers and sequence numbers, creating the TCP segment. The Transport layer then hands the TCP segment to the Internet layer that, in turn, creates the IP packet.

Most traffic on a TCP/IP network uses TCP at the Transport layer, but like Yoda said, “There is another,” and that’s UDP. UDP also gets data from

Chapter 7 covers TCP, UDP, and all sorts of other protocols in detail.

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the Application layer programs and adds port and sequencing numbers to create a container called a UDP datagram. A UDP datagram lacks most of the extra fields found in TCP segments, simply because UDP doesn’t care if the receiving computer gets its data. Figure 2.49 shows a UDP datagram.

Destination port

Source port

Sequence number

Checksum Data

Figure 2.49 • UDP datagram

The Application Layer The TCP/IP Application layer combines features of the top three layers of the OSI model (Figure 2.50). Every application, especially connection- oriented applications, must know how to initiate, control, and disconnect from a remote system. No single method exists for doing this. Each TCP/IP application uses its own method.

Transport

Internet

Link

Transport

Session

Presentation Application

Application

Network

Data Link

Physical

Figure 2.50 • TCP/IP Application layer compared to OSI layers 5–7

TCP/IP uses a unique port numbering system that gives each applica- tion a unique number between 1 and 65535. Some of these port numbers are very famous. The protocol that makes Web pages work, HTTP, uses port 80, for example.

Although we can say that the OSI model’s Presentation layer fits inside the TCP/IP model’s Application layer, no application requires any particu- lar form of presentation as seen in the OSI model. Standard formats are part and parcel with TCP/IP protocols. For example, all e-mail messages use an extremely strict format called MIME. All e-mail servers and clients read MIME without exception.

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Chapter 2: Network Models 37

In the OSI model, we describe the API—the smarts that make applica- tions network-aware—as being part of the Application layer. While this is still true for the TCP/IP model, all applications designed for TCP/IP are, by definition, network-aware. There is no such thing as a “TCP/IP word pro- cessor” or a “TCP/IP image editor” that requires the added ability to know how to talk to a network—all TCP/IP applications can talk to the network, as long as they are part of a network. And every TCP/IP application must be a part of a network to function: Web browsers, e-mail clients, multiplayer games, and so on.

Don’t think that the TCP/IP model is any simpler than the OSI model just because it only uses four layers. With the arguable exception of the Pre- sentation layer, everything you saw in the OSI model is also found in the TCP/IP model (Figure 2.51).

Transport

Internet

Link

Transport

Session

Presentation Application

Application

Network

Data Link

Physical

I work at the Application layer.

And, not surprisingly, the other Application

layer.

I work on both of the Transport layers.

Figure 2.51 • OSI model and TCP/IP model side by side

Frames, Packets, and Segments, Oh My! The TCP/IP model shows its power in its ability to describe what happens at each layer to the data that goes from one computer to another. The Application layer programs create the data. The Transport layer breaks the data into chunks, putting those chunks into TCP segments or UDP datagrams. The Internet layer adds the IP addressing and creates the IP packets. The Link layer wraps the IP packet into a frame, with the MAC address information and a frame check sequence (FCS). Now the data is ready to hit the wire (or airwaves, if you’re in a café). Figure 2-52 shows all this encapsulating goodness relative to the TCP/IP model.

Application data

Segment/ datagram

Packet

FrameIP Packet

Segment

Header Data

Data

Header

Header

Figure 2.52 • Data encapsulation in TCP/IP

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For the exam, remember at what layer each encapsulation happens. Table 2.1 shows the layers and the corresponding data structure.

Table 2.1 TCP/IP Model Layers and Corresponding Data Structures TCP/IP Model Layer Data Structure

Link Frame

Internet IP packet

Transport TCP segment/UDP datagram Application (The data starts and ends here)

The Tech’s Troubleshooting Tool The OSI seven-layer model and TCP/IP model provide you with a way to conceptualize a network to determine what could cause a specific prob- lem when the inevitable problems occur. Good techs always use a model to troubleshoot their networks.

If Jane can’t print to the networked printer, for example, a model can help solve the problem. If her NIC shows activity, then, using the OSI model, you can set aside both the Physical layer (Layer 1) and Data Link layer (Layer 2). If you’re a TCP/IP model tech, you can look at the same symptoms and eliminate the Link layer. In either case, you’ll find yourself moving up the layer ladder to the OSI model’s Network layer (Layer 3) or the TCP/IP model’s Internet layer. If her computer has a proper IP address, then you can set that layer aside too, and you can move on up to check other layers to solve the problem.

Understanding both the OSI and TCP/IP models is important. Sure, they’re on the CompTIA Network+ exam, but more importantly, they are your primary diagnostic tool for troubleshooting networks and a commu- nication tool for talking to your fellow techs.

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39 Chapter 2: Network Models

Chapter 2 Review■■

Chapter Summary ■

After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, you should understand the following about networking.

Describe how models such as the OSI seven-layer model and the TCP/IP model help technicians understand and troubleshoot networks

Modeling is critical to the networking world. You ■ use models to understand and communicate with other techs about networks.

All models are a simplified representation of the ■ real thing. The human model ignores the many different types of body shapes, using only a single “optimal” figure. The model airplane lacks functional engines or the internal framework, and the computerized weather model might disregard subtle differences in wind temperatures or geology.

In the early days of networking, different ■ manufacturers made unique types of networks that functioned fairly well. But each network had its own cabling, hardware, drivers, naming conventions, applications, and many other unique features. To interconnect networks and improve networking as a whole, someone needed to create a guide—a model that described the functions of a network—so people who made hardware and software could work together to make networks that worked together well.

The OSI seven-layer model defines the role played ■ by each protocol. The OSI model also provides a common jargon that network techs can use to describe the function of any network protocol.

The TCP/IP four-layer model applies only to ■ networks that use the TCP/IP protocol suite, such as the Internet.

Explain the major functions of networks with the OSI seven-layer model.

OSI Layer 1, the Physical layer, includes anything ■ that moves data from one system to another, such as cabling or radio waves.

OSI Layer 2, the Data Link layer, defines the rules ■ for accessing and using the Physical layer. The

Data Link layer is divided into two sublayers: Media Access Control (MAC) and Logical Link Control (LLC).

The MAC sublayer controls access to the Physical ■ layer, or shared media. It encapsulates (creates the frames for) data sent from the system, adding source and destination MAC addresses and error-checking information; it also decapsulates (removes the MAC addresses and CRC from) data received by the system.

The LLC sublayer provides an interface with ■ the Network layer protocols. It is responsible for the ordered delivery of frames, including retransmission of missing or corrupt packets, and for flow control (moderating data flow so one system doesn’t overwhelm the other). Any device that deals with a MAC address is part of the Data Link layer.

OSI Layer 3, the Network layer, is the last layer to ■ work directly with hardware. It adds the unique identifiers (such as IP addresses) to the packets that enable routers to make sure the packets get to the correct system without worrying about the type of hardware used for transmission. Anything having to do with logical addressing works at the Network layer.

A network protocol creates unique identifiers ■ for each system and also creates a set of communication rules for issues such as how to handle data chopped up into multiple packets and how to make sure those packets get from one subnet to another.

OSI Layer 4, the Transport layer, breaks up data ■ received from the upper layers into smaller pieces for transport and adds sequencing numbers to make sure the receiving computer can reassemble the data properly.

Session software at OSI Layer 5 handles the ■ process of differentiating between various types of connections on a PC. The Session layer initiates sessions, accepts incoming sessions, and opens and closes existing sessions. You can use the netstat program to view existing sessions.

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OSI Layer 6, the Presentation layer, presents ■ data from the sending system in a form that the applications on the receiving system can understand. Standardized data formats, such as PDF, enable computers running on different platforms to share data across a network; the result is that the Presentation layer is the least important and least used of the seven layers.

OSI Layer 7, the Application layer, defines a set of ■ tools that programs can use to access the network. Application layer programs provide services to the programs that the users see.

Describe the major functions of networks with the TCP/IP model

The TCP/IP Link layer (or Network Interface ■ layer) covers the first two layers of the OSI model—the physical components like hubs and cables as well as network frames.

The TCP/IP Internet layer works just like the OSI ■ model’s Network layer. Anything involved with IP, including packets, addressing, and routing, happens at this layer.

The TCP/IP Transport layer is similar to the OSI ■ model’s Transport layer, except that the TCP/ IP version differentiates between connection- oriented communication and connectionless communication.

In TCP/IP, the Transport layer takes data from ■ the applications, splits the data into chunks called TCP segments or UDP datagrams, depending on the protocol used, and adds port and sequence numbers. The segments and datagrams get handed down to the Internet layer for IP to further encapsulate the data.

The TCP/IP Application layer combines the top ■ three layers of the OSI model into one super layer. The session component works similarly to the OSI model’s Session layer. There is no presentation component that compares to the OSI model’s Presentation layer, however. The TCP/IP Application layer is like the OSI model’s version, except that TCP/IP connectivity is implied and not a separate program or function.

Key Terms ■

Application layer (32) broadcast address (18) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) (17) Data Link layer (21) device ID (15) frame (16) frame check sequence (FCS) (17) hub (13) Internet layer (34) Internet Protocol (23, 24) IP address (24) Link layer (33) logical address (24) Logical Link Control (LLC) (21) MAC address (15) Media Access Control (MAC) (21) network interface card (14) Network Interface layer (33) Network layer, Layer 3 (24) network protocol (23)

NIC (14) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer

model (8) organizationally unique identifier (OUI) (15) packet (25) physical address (15) Physical layer (14) Presentation layer (30) protocols (11) router (24) Session layer (29) session software (29) subnets (23) TCP segment (35) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) (23) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

(TCP/IP) model (8) Transport layer (28) UDP datagram (36) unshielded twisted pair (UTP) (13) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) (35)

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41 Chapter 2: Network Models

Key Term Quiz ■

Use the Key Terms list to complete the sentences that follow. Not all terms will be used.

The _______________ is an example of software 1. that creates packets for moving data across networks.

Most often, the _______________ provides the 2. physical connection between the PC and the network.

Using the _______________ enables a computer 3. to send a packet that every other PC on the network will process.

You can connect two very different networks by 4. using a(n) _______________.

Every NIC has a hard-coded identifier called a(n) 5. _______________.

The _______________ provides an excellent tool 6. for conceptualizing how a TCP/IP network works. (Select the best answer.)

On a sending machine, data gets broken up 7. at the _______________ of the OSI seven-layer model.

NICs encapsulate data into a(n) _______________ 8. for sending that data over a network.

A(n) _______________ enables multiple machines 9. to connect over a network.

The _______________ provides the key interface 10. between the Physical and Network layers.

Multiple-Choice Quiz ■

Which of the following OSI layers converts the 1. ones and zeroes to electrical signals and places these signals on the cable?

Physical layerA.

Transport layerB.

Network layerC.

Data Link layerD.

The term “unshielded twisted pair” describes 2. which of the following network components?

CableA.

HubB.

RouterC.

NICD.

From the options that follow, select the one 3. that best describes the contents of a typical (simplified) network frame.

Sender’s MAC address, recipient’s MAC A. address, data, FCS

Recipient’s MAC address, sender’s MAC B. address, data, FCS

Recipient’s IP address, sender’s IP address, C. data, FCS

Recipient’s e-mail address, sender’s e-mail D. address, data, FCS

Which of the following is most likely to be a 4. MAC address assigned to a NIC?

192.168.1.121A.

24.17.232.7BB.

23.4F.17.8A.4C.10C.

713.555.1212D.

Which layer of the TCP/IP model involves 5. routing?

Link layerA.

Transport layerB.

Internet layerC.

Application layerD.

How much data can a typical frame contain?6.

500 bytesA.

1500 bytesB.

1500 kilobytesC.

1 megabyteD.

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Which of the following best describes an IP 7. address?

A unique dotted decimal notation burned A. into every NIC

A unique 48-bit identifying number burned B. into every NIC

A dotted decimal notation assigned to a NIC C. by software

A 48-bit identifying number assigned to a D. NIC by software

Which layer of the OSI model makes sure the 8. data is in a readable format for the Application layer?

Application layerA.

Presentation layerB.

Session layerC.

Transport layerD.

At which layer of the TCP/IP model are UDP 9. datagrams created?

Link/Network InterfaceA.

InternetB.

TransportC.

ApplicationD.

Which protocol creates the final IP packet?10.

NICA.

IPB.

TCPC.

UDPD.

Which TCP/IP layer includes Layers 5–7 from 11. the OSI seven-layer model?

Application layerA.

Transport layerB.

Internet layerC.

Link layerD.

What component of Layer 2 of the OSI seven-12. layer model is responsible for the ordered delivery of frames, including retransmission of missing or corrupt packets?

MAC sublayerA.

LLC sublayerB.

CRC sublayerC.

Data Link sublayerD.

Which components work at Layer 1 of the OSI 13. seven-layer model? (Select two.)

CablesA.

HubB.

Network protocolC.

Session softwareD.

Andalyn says complete 48-bit MAC addresses 14. are allocated to NIC manufacturers from the IEEE. Buster says the IEEE only assigns the first 24 bits to manufacturers. Carlos says the IEEE assigns only the last 24 bits to manufacturers. Who is correct?

Only Andalyn is correct.A.

Only Buster is correct.B.

Only Carlos is correct.C.

No one is correct.D.

If a sending system does not know the MAC 15. address of the intended recipient system, it sends a broadcast frame with what MAC address?

192.168.0.0A.

FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FFB.

11-11-11-11-11-11C.

00-00-00-00-00-00D.

Essay Quiz ■ Some new techs at your office are confused by 1. the differences between a NIC’s frame and an IP packet. Write a short essay describing the two encapsulations, including the components that do the encapsulating.

Your boss has received a set of files with the file 2. extension .WP and is worried because he’s never seen that extension before. He wants people to have access to the information in those files from anywhere in the network. Write a short memo describing how Microsoft Word can handle these files, including a discussion of how that fits with the OSI seven-layer model.

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43 Chapter 2: Network Models

Lab Projects

Lab Project 2.1 •

Examine your classroom network. What components does it have? How would you classify those components according to the OSI seven-layer model?

Lab Projects

Lab Project 2.2 •

Create a mnemonic phrase to help you remember the OSI seven-layer model. With two layers beginning with the letter P, how will you differentiate in your mnemonic between Presentation and Physical? How will you incorporate the two sublayers of the Data Link layer?

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3 chapter Cabling and Topology

“It’s from someone who says

she’s a fan of my work on low-

dimensional topology. And she’s

a fan of my . . . hair.”

—Charlie eppes, Numb3rs

In this chapter, you will learn how to

Explain the different types of ■■ network topologies

Describe the different types of ■■ network cabling

Describe the IEEE networking ■■ standards

Every network must provide some method to get data from one system to another. In most cases, this method consists of some type of cabling (usually copper or fiber-optic) running between systems, although many

networks skip wires and use wireless methods to move data. Stringing those

cables brings up a number of critical issues you need to understand to work on a

network. How do all these cables connect the computers? Does every computer

on the network run a cable to a central point? Does a single cable snake through

the ceiling, with all the computers on the network connected to it? These

questions need answering! Furthermore, manufacturers need standards so they

can make networking equipment that works well together. While we’re talking

about standards, what about the cabling itself? What type of cable? What

quality of copper? How thick should it be? Who defines the standards for cables

so they all work in the network?

This chapter answers these questions in three parts. First, you will learn

about network topology—the way that cables and other pieces of hardware

connect to one another. Second, you will tour the most common standardized

cable types used in networking. Third, you will discover the IEEE committees

that create network technology standards.

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Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology 45

Test Specific

Topology■■ Computer networks employ many different topologies, or ways of connect- ing computers together. This section looks at both the historical topologies— bus, ring, and star—and the modern topologies—hybrid, mesh, point-to- multipoint, and point-to-point.

Bus and Ring The first generation of wired networks used one of two topologies, both shown in Figure 3.1. A bus topology uses a single cable that con- nects all of the computers in a line. A ring topology connects all computers on the network with a ring of cable.

Note that topologies are diagrams, much like an electrical circuit diagram. Real network cabling doesn’t go in perfect circles or perfect straight lines. Figure 3.2 shows a bus topology network that illustrates how the cable might appear in the real world.

Data flows differently between bus and ring networks, creating different problems and solutions. In bus topol- ogy networks, data from each computer simply goes out on the whole bus. A network using a bus topology needs termination at each end of the cable to prevent a signal sent from one com- puter from reflecting at the ends of the cable, quickly bringing the network down (Figure 3.3).

Figure 3.1 • Bus and ring topologies

Figure 3.2 • Real-world bus topology

Figure 3.3 • Terminated bus topology

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In a ring topology network, in contrast, data traffic moves in a circle from one computer to the next in the same direction (Figure 3.4). With no end to the cable, ring networks require no termination.

Bus and ring topology networks work well but suffer from the same problem: the entire network stops working if the cable breaks at any point. The broken ends on a bus topology network aren’t terminated, causing reflection between computers that are still connected. A break in a ring topology network simply breaks the circuit, stopping the data flow ( Figure 3.5).

Figure 3.4 • Ring topology moving in a certain direction Figure 3.5 • Nobody is talking!

Star The star topology uses a central connection box for all the computers on the network (Figure 3.6). Star topol- ogy has a huge benefit over ring and bus topologies by offering fault tolerance—if one of the cables breaks, all of the other computers can still communicate. Bus and ring topology networks were popular and inex- pensive to implement, however, so the old-style star topology networks weren’t very successful. Network hardware designers couldn’t easily redesign their existing networks to use a star topology.

Figure 3.6 • Star topology

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Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology 47

Hybrids Even though network designers couldn’t easily use a star topology, the benefits of star topologies were overwhelming, motivating smart people to come up with a way to use star topologies without requiring a major redesign—and the way they did so was ingenious. The ring topology net- work designers struck first by taking the entire ring and shrinking it into a small box, as shown in Figure 3.7.

This was quickly followed by the bus topology folks who, in turn, shrunk their bus (better known as the segment) into their own box ( Figure 3.8).

Figure 3.7 • Shrinking the ring

The most successful of the star ring topology networks was called Token Ring, manufactured by IBM.

Figure 3.8 • Shrinking the segment

Physically, they looked like a star, but if you examined it as an electronic schematic, the signals acted like a ring or a bus. Clearly the old definition of topology needed a little clarification. When we talk about topology today, we separate how the cables physically look (the physical topology) from how the signals travel electronically (the signaling topology or logical topology).

Any form of networking technology that combines a physical topology with a signaling topology is called a hybrid topology. Hybrid topologies have come and gone since the earliest days of networking. Only two hybrid topologies, star-ring topology and star-bus topology, ever saw any amount of popularity. Eventually star-ring lost market share, and star-bus reigned as the undisputed king of topologies.

Mesh and Point-to-Multipoint Topologies aren’t just for wired networks. Wireless networks also need topologies to get data from one machine to another, but using radio waves instead of cables involves somewhat different topologies. Almost all wire- less networks use one of two different topologies: a mesh topology or a point-to-multipoint topology (Figure 3.9).

Most techs refer to the signaling topology as the logical topology today. That’s how you’ll see it on the CompTIA Network+ exam as well.

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Figure 3.9 • Mesh and point-to-multipoint topologies

Mesh In a mesh topology network, every computer connects to every other com- puter via two or more routes. Some of the routes between two computers may require traversing through another member of the mesh network.

There are two types of meshed topologies: partially meshed and fully meshed (Figure 3.10). In a partially meshed topology network, at least two machines have redundant connections. Every machine doesn’t have to con- nect to every other machine. In a fully meshed topology network, every com- puter connects directly to every other computer.

Figure 3.10 • Partially and fully meshed topologies

If you’re looking at Figure 3.10 and thinking that a mesh topology looks amazingly resilient and robust, it is—at least on paper. Because every

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Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology 49

computer connects to every other computer on the fully meshed network, even if half the PCs crash, the network still functions as well as ever (for the survivors). In a practical sense, however, implementing a fully meshed topology for a wired network would be an expensive mess. Even a tiny fully meshed network with 10 PCs, for example, would need 45 separate and distinct pieces of cable to connect every PC to every other PC. What a mesh mess! Because of this, mesh topologies have never been practical for a wired network.

Make sure you know the formula to calculate the number of connec- tions needed to create a fully meshed network, given a certain number of computers. Here’s the formula:

y = number of computers

Number of connections = y(y – 1)/2

So, if you have six computers, you need 6(6 – 1)/2 = 30/2 = 15 connections to create a fully meshed network.

Point-to-Multipoint In a point-to-multipoint topology, a single system acts as a common source through which all members of the point-to-multipoint network converse. If you compare a star topology to a slightly rearranged point-to-multipoint topology, you might be tempted to say they’re the same thing. Granted, they’re similar, but look at Figure 3.11. See what’s in the middle? The subtle but important difference is that a point-to-multipoint topology requires an intelligent device in the center, whereas the device in the center of a star topology has little more to do than send or provide a path for a signal down all the connections.

Figure 3.11 • Comparing star and point-to-multipoint topologies

You’ll sometimes find mesh or point-to-multipoint topology used in wired networks, but they’re rare. These two topologies are far more com- monly seen in wireless networks.

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Point-to-Point In a point-to-point topology network, two computers connect directly together with no need for a central device of any kind. You’ll find point-to-point topologies implemented in both wired and wireless networks (Figure 3.12).

Parameters of a Topology Although a topology describes the method by which systems in a network connect, the topology alone doesn’t describe all of the features necessary to enable those networks. The term bus topology, for example, describes a net- work that consists of some number of machines connected to the network via a single linear piece of cable. Notice that this definition leaves a lot of questions unanswered. What is the cable made of? How long can it be? How do the machines decide which machine should send data at a specific moment? A network based on a bus topology can answer these questions in a number of different ways—but it’s not the job of the topology to define issues like these. A functioning network needs a more detailed standard.

Over the years, particular manufacturers and standards bodies have created several specific network technologies based on different topologies. A network technology is a practical application of a topology and other criti- cal technologies that provides a method to get data from one computer to another on a network. These network technologies have names like 10BaseT, 1000BaseF, and 10GBaseLX. You will learn all about these in the next two chapters.

Cabling■■ The majority of networked systems link together using some type of cabling. Different types of networks over the years have used a number of different types of cables—and you need to learn about all these cables to succeed on the CompTIA Network+ exam! This section explores both the cabling types used in older networks and those found in today’s networks.

All cables used in the networking industry can be categorized in three distinct groups: coaxial (coax), twisted pair, and fiber-optic. Let’s look at all three.

Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable contains a central conductor wire surrounded by an insulating material, which, in turn, is surrounded by a braided metal shield. The cable is referred to as coaxial (coax for short) because the center wire and the braided metal shield share a common axis or centerline (Figure 3.13).

Coaxial cable shields data transmissions from electromag- netic interference (EMI). Many devices in the typical office environment generate magnetic fields, including lights, fans,

Figure 3.12 • Point-to-point topology

Make sure you know all your topologies: bus, ring, star, hybrid, mesh, point-to- multipoint, and point-to-point.

Figure 3.13 • Cutaway view of coaxial cable

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copy machines, and refrigerators. When a metal wire encounters these magnetic fields, electrical current is generated along the wire. This extra current—EMI—can shut down a network because it is easily misinterpreted as a signal by devices like NICs. To prevent EMI from affecting the network, the outer mesh layer of a coaxial cable shields the center wire (on which the data is transmitted) from interference (Figure 3.14).

Early bus topology networks used coaxial cable to connect computers together. Back in the day, the most popular cable used special bayonet-style connectors called BNC connectors (Figure 3.15). Even earlier bus networks used thick cable that required vampire connections—sometimes called vampire taps—that literally pierced the cable.

Figure 3.14 • Coaxial cable showing braided metal shielding

Figure 3.15 • BNC connector on coaxial cable

You’ll find coaxial cable used today primarily to enable a cable modem to connect to an Internet service provider (ISP). Connecting a computer to the cable modem enables that computer to access the Internet. This cable is the same type used to connect televisions to cable boxes or to satellite receivers. These cables use an F-connector that screws on, making for a secure connec- tion (Figure 3.16).

Figure 3.16 • F-type connector on coaxial cable

Coaxial cabling is also very popular with satellite, over-the- air antennas, and even some home video devices. This book covers cable and other Internet connectivity options in great detail in Chapter 14.

Tech Tip

What’s in a Name? Techs all around the globe argue over the meaning of BNC. A solid percentage says with authority that it stands for “British Naval Connector.” An opposing percentage says with equal authority that it stands for “Bayonet Neill-Concelman,” after the stick-and-twist style of connecting and the purported inventors of the connector. The jury is still out, though this week I’m leaning toward Neill and Concelman and their bayonet- style connector.

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Cable modems connect using either RG-6 or, rarely, RG-59. RG-59 was used primarily for cable television rather than networking. Its thinness and the introduction of digital cable motivated the move to the more robust RG-6, the predominant cabling used today (Figure 3.17).

All coax cables have a Radio Grade (RG) rating. The U.S. military devel- oped these ratings to provide a quick reference for the different types of coax. The only important measure of coax cabling is its Ohm rating, a relative measure of the resistance (or more precisely, characteristic impedance) on the cable. You may run across other coax cables that don’t have acceptable Ohm ratings, although they look just like network-rated coax. Fortunately, most coax cable types display their Ohm ratings on the cables themselves (see Figure 3.18). Both RG-6 and RG-59 cables are rated at 75 Ohms.

The Ohm rating of a particular piece of cable describes the impedance of that cable. Impedance describes a set of characteristics that define how much a cable resists the flow of electricity. This isn’t simple resistance, though. Impedance also factors in things like how long it takes the wire to get a full charge—the wire’s capacitance—and more.

Figure 3.17 • RG-6 cable Figure 3.18 • Ohm rating (on an older, RG-58 cable used for networking)

Given the popularity of cable for television and Internet in homes today, you’ll run into situations where people need to take a single coaxial cable and split it. Coaxial handles this quite nicely with coaxial splitters like the one shown in Figure 3.19. You can also connect two coaxial cables together easily using a barrel connector when you need to add some distance to a connection (Figure 3.20).

Figure 3.19 • Coaxial splitter Figure 3.20 • Barrel connector

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Twisted Pair The most common type of cabling used in networks consists of twisted pairs of cables, bundled together into a common jacket. Twisted-pair cabling for networks is composed of multiple pairs of wires, twisted around each other at specific intervals. The twists reduce interference, called crosstalk: the more twists, the less crosstalk. Networks use two types of twisted-pair cabling: shielded twisted pair and unshielded twisted pair.

Shielded Twisted Pair Shielded twisted pair (STP), as its name implies, consists of twisted pairs of wires surrounded by shielding to protect them from EMI. STP is pretty rare, primarily because there’s so little need for STP’s shielding. The shielding only really matters in locations with excessive electronic noise, such as a shop floor with lots of lights, electric motors, or other machin- ery that could cause problems for other cables. Figure 3.21 shows the most common STP type: the venerable IBM Type 1 cable used in Token Ring network technology.

Unshielded Twisted Pair Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is by far the most common type of network cabling used today. UTP consists of twisted pairs of wires surrounded by a plastic jacket (Figure 3.22). This jacket does not provide any protection from EMI, so when install- ing UTP cabling, you must be careful to avoid interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and so forth. UTP costs much less than STP but, in most cases, performs just as well.

Although more sensitive to interference than coaxial or STP cable, UTP cabling provides an inexpensive and flexible means to cable networks. UTP cable isn’t exclusive to networks. Many other technologies (such as telephone systems) employ the same cabling. This makes working with UTP a bit of a challenge. Imagine going up into a ceil- ing and seeing two sets of UTP cables: how would you determine which is for the telephones and which is for the network? Not to worry—a number of installation standards and tools exist to help those who work with UTP answer these types of questions.

Have you ever picked up a telephone and heard a distinct crackling noise? That’s an example of crosstalk.

Figure 3.21 • Shielded twisted pair

Figure 3.22 • Unshielded twisted pair

Cross Check OSI Seven-Layer and TCP/IP Model

You’ve seen UTP cabling before when Dana accessed documents on Janelle’s PC at MHTechEd. Refer to Chapter 2, and cross-check your memory. At what layer of the OSI seven-layer model would you put UTP cabling? For that matter, at what layer would you put network topology? How about on the TCP/IP model?

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Not all UTP cables are the same! UTP cabling has a number of varia- tions, such as the number of twists per foot. To help network installers get the right cable for the right network technology, the cabling industry has developed a variety of grades called category (CAT) ratings. CAT ratings are officially rated in megahertz (MHz), indicating the highest frequency the cable can handle. Table 3.1 shows the most common categories along with their status with the TIA/EIA (see the Tech Tip for more information).

Table 3.1 CAT Ratings for UTP CAT Rating Max Frequency Max Bandwidth Status with TIA/EIA

CAT 1 < 1 MHz Analog phone lines only

No longer recognized

CAT 2 4 MHz 4 Mbps No longer recognized

CAT 3 16 MHz 16 Mbps Recognized

CAT 4 20 MHz 20 Mbps No longer recognized

CAT 5 100 MHz 100 Mbps No longer recognized

CAT 5e 100 MHz 1000 Mbps Recognized CAT 6 250 MHz 10000 Mbps Recognized

UTP cables are rated to handle a certain frequency or cycles per second, such as 100 MHz or 1000 MHz. You could take the frequency number in the early days of networking and translate that into the maximum throughput for a cable. Each cycle per second (or hertz) basically accounted for one bit of data per second. A 10 million cycle per second (10 MHz) cable, for example, could handle 10 million bits per second (10 Mbps). The maximum amount of data that goes through the cable per second is called the bandwidth.

For current networks, developers have implemented bandwidth-efficient encoding schemes, which means they can squeeze more bits into the same signal as long as the cable can handle it. Thus, the CAT 5e cable can handle a throughput of up to 1000 Mbps, even though it’s rated to handle a fre- quency of only up to 100 MHz.

Because most networks can run at speeds of up to 1000 MHz, most new cabling installations use Category 5e (CAT 5e) cabling, although a large number of installations use CAT 6 to future-proof the network. CAT 5e cabling currently costs much less than CAT 6, although as CAT 6 gains

in popularity, it’s slowly drop- ping in price.

Make sure you can look at UTP and know its CAT rating. There are two places to look. First, UTP is typically sold in boxed reels, and the manufacturer will clearly mark the CAT level on the box (Figure 3.23). Second, look on the cable itself. The category level of a piece of cable is usually printed on the cable (Figure 3.24).

The CompTIA Network+ exam is only interested in CAT 3, CAT 5, CAT 5e, and CAT 6 cables.

Tech Tip

Industry Standards Bodies Several international groups set the standards for cabling and networking in general. Ready for alphabet soup? At or near the top is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is both the official U.S. representative to the ISO and a major international player. ANSI checks the standards and accredits other groups, such as the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA). The TIA and EIA together set the standards for UTP cabling, among many other things.

Try This! Shopping Spree!

Just how common has CAT 6 become in your neighborhood? Take a run down to your local hardware store or office supply store and shop for UTP cabling. Do they carry CAT 6? CAT 5? CAT 7? What’s the dif- ference in price? If it’s not much more expensive to go with the better cable, the expected shift in networking standards has occurred and you might want to upgrade your network.

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Anyone who’s plugged in a telephone has probably already dealt with the registered jack (RJ) connectors used with UTP cable. Telephones use RJ-11 connectors, designed to support up to two pairs of wires. Networks use the four-pair RJ-45 connectors (Figure 3.25).

Fiber-Optic Fiber-optic cable transmits light rather than electricity, making it attractive for both high-EMI areas and long-distance transmissions. Whereas a sin- gle copper cable cannot carry data more than a few hundred meters at best, a single piece of fiber-optic cabling will operate, depending on the implementation, for distances of up to tens of kilometers. A fiber-optic cable has four components: the glass fiber itself (the core); the cladding, which is the part that makes the light reflect down the fiber; buffer material to give strength, and the insulating jacket (Figure 3.26).

Fiber-optic cabling is manufactured with many different diameters of core and cladding. In a convenient bit of standardization, cable manufacturers use a two- number designator to define fiber-optic cables according to their core and cladding measurements. The most common fiber-optic cable size is 62.5/125 µm. Almost all network technologies that use fiber-optic cable require

Figure 3.23 • CAT level marked on box of UTP

Figure 3.24 • CAT level on UTP

Figure 3.25 • RJ-11 (left) and RJ-45 (right) connectors

Figure 3.26 • Cross section of fiber-optic cabling

Tech Tip

CAT 6a If you have a need for speed, the latest finalized update to the venerable UTP cable is Category 6a. This update doubles the bandwidth of CAT 6 to 500 MHz to accommodate 10-Gbps speeds up to 100 meters. Take that, fiber! (The 100-meter limitation, by the way, refers to the Ethernet standard, the major implementation of UTP in the networking world. Chapter 4 covers Ethernet in great detail.)

Other standards are in the works, however, so by the time you read this paragraph, CAT 6a might be old news. CAT 7 (600 MHz), CAT 7a (1000 MHz), and CAT 8 (1200 MHz) are just around the corner.

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pairs of fibers. One fiber is used for sending, the other for receiving. In response to the demand for two-pair cabling, manufacturers often con- nect two fibers together like a lamp cord to create the popular duplex fiber-optic cabling (Figure 3.27).

Fiber cables are pretty tiny! Light can be sent down a fiber-optic cable as regular light or as laser light. The two types of light require totally different fiber-optic cables. Most network technologies that use fiber optics use LEDs (light emitting diodes) to send light signals. A fiber-optic cable that uses LEDs is known as multimode fiber (MMF).

A fiber-optic cable that uses lasers is known as single- mode fiber (SMF). Using laser light and single-mode fiber- optic cables prevents a problem unique to multimode fiber optics called modal distortion (signals sent at the same time don’t arrive at the same time because the paths differ slightly in length) and enables a network to achieve phenomenally high transfer rates over incredibly long distances.

Fiber optics also define the wavelength of light used, measured in nanometers (nm). Almost all multimode cables transmit 850-nm wavelengths, whereas single-mode trans- mits either 1310 or 1550 nm, depending on the laser.

Fiber-optic cables come in a broad choice of connector types. There are over one hundred different connectors, but the three you need to know for the CompTIA Net- work+ exam are ST, SC, and LC (Figure 3.28). LC is unique because it is a duplex connector, designed to accept two fiber cables.

Figure 3.28 • From left to right: ST, SC, and LC fiber-optic connectors

Other Cables Fiber-optic and UTP make up almost all network cabling, but a few other types of cabling may serve from time to time as alternatives to these two: the ancient serial and parallel cables from the earliest days of PCs and the modern high-speed serial connection, better known as FireWire. These cables are only used with quick-and-dirty temporary connections, but they do work, so they bear at least a quick mention.

For those of you unfamiliar with it, the odd little u-shaped symbol describing fiber cable size (µ) stands for micro, or 1/1,000,000.

Figure 3.27 • Duplex fiber-optic cable

Tech Tip

What’s in a Name? Most technicians call common fiber-optic connectors by their initials—such as ST, SC, or LC—perhaps because there’s no consensus about what words go with those initials. ST probably stands for straight tip, although some call it snap twist. But SC and LC? How about subscriber connector, standard connector, or Siemon connector for the former, and local connector or Lucent connector for the latter?

If you want to remember the connectors for the exam, try these: stick and twist for the bayonet- style ST connectors; stick and click for the straight push-in SC connectors; and little connector for the . . . little . . . LC connector.

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Classic Serial Serial cabling predates both networking and the personal com- puter. RS-232, the recommended standard (RS) upon which all serial communication takes place on your PC, dates from 1969 and hasn’t substantially changed in around 40 years. When IBM invented the PC way back in 1980, serial connections were just about the only standard input/output technology available, so IBM included two serial ports on every PC. The most common serial port is a 9-pin, male D-subminiature (or DB-9) connector, as shown in Figure 3.29.

Serial ports offer a poor option for networking, with very slow data rates—only about 56,000 bps—and only point-to-point con- nections. In all probability, copying something on a flash drive and just walking over to the other system is faster, but serial network- ing does work if needed. Serial ports are quickly fading away, however, and you no longer see them on new PCs.

Parallel Parallel connections are as ancient as serial ports. Parallel can run up to around 2 Mbps, although when used for networking, they tend to be much slower. Parallel is also limited to point-to-point topology but uses a 25-pin female—rather than male—DB type connector (Figure 3.30). The IEEE 1284 committee sets the standards for parallel communication. (See the section “Networking Industry Standards—IEEE,” later in this chapter.)

FireWire FireWire (based on the IEEE 1394 standard) is the only viable alternative cabling option to fiber-optic or UTP. FireWire is also restricted to point-to- point connections, but it’s very fast (currently the standard is up to 800 Mbps). FireWire has its own unique connector (Figure 3.31).

Figure 3.31 • FireWire connector

Figure 3.29 • Serial port

Figure 3.30 • Parallel connector

Concentrate on UTP—that’s where the hardest CompTIA Network+ exam questions come into play. Don’t forget to give coax, STP, and fiber-optic a quick pass, and make sure you understand the reasons for picking one type of cabling over another. Even though the CompTIA Network+ exam does not test too hard on cabling, this is important information that you will use in the real networking world.

You cannot network computers using FireWire in Windows Vista or Windows 7.

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Fire Ratings Did you ever see the movie The Towering Inferno? Don’t worry if you missed it—The Towering Inferno was one of the better disaster movies of the 1970s, although it was no Airplane! Anyway, Steve McQueen stars as the fireman who saves the day when a skyscraper goes up in flames because of poor-quality electrical cabling. The burning insulation on the wires ultimately spreads the fire to every part of the building. Although no cables made today contain truly flammable insulation, the insulation is made from plastic, and if you get any plastic hot enough, it will create smoke and noxious fumes. The risk of burning insulation isn’t fire—it’s smoke and fumes.

To reduce the risk of your network cables burning and creating nox- ious fumes and smoke, Underwriters Laboratories and the National Elec- trical Code (NEC) joined forces to develop cabling fire ratings. The two most common fire ratings are PVC and plenum. Cable with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) rating has no significant fire protection. If you burn a PVC cable, it creates lots of smoke and noxious fumes. Burning plenum-rated cable creates much less smoke and fumes, but plenum-rated cable—often referred to simply as “plenum”—costs about three to five times as much as PVC-rated cable. Most city ordinances require the use of plenum cable for network installations. The bottom line? Get plenum!

The space between the acoustical tile ceiling in an office building and the actual concrete ceiling above is called the plenum—hence the name for the proper fire rating of cabling to use in that space. A third type of fire rating, known as riser, designates the proper cabling to use for vertical runs between floors of a building. Riser-rated cable provides less protec- tion than plenum cable, though, so most installations today use plenum for runs between floors.

Networking Industry ■■ Standards—IEEE

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defines industry- wide standards that promote the use and implementation of technol- ogy. In February 1980, a new committee called the 802 Working Group took over from the private sector the job of defining network standards. The IEEE 802 committee defines frames, speeds, distances, and types of cabling to use in a network environment. Concentrating on cables, the IEEE recognizes that no single cabling solution can work in all situations and, therefore, provides a variety of cabling standards.

IEEE committees define standards for a wide variety of electronics. The names of these committees are often used to refer to the standards they publish. The IEEE 1284 committee, for example, sets standards for parallel communication. Have you ever seen a printer cable marked “IEEE

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1284–compliant,” as in Figure 3.32? This means the manufacturer followed the rules set by the IEEE 1284 committee. Another committee you may have heard of is the IEEE 1394 committee, which controls the FireWire standard.

The IEEE 802 committee sets the standards for net- working. Although the original plan was to define a single, universal standard for networking, it quickly became apparent that no single solution would work for all needs. The 802 committee split into smaller subcommittees, with names such as IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.5. Table 3.2 shows the currently recog- nized IEEE 802 subcommittees and their areas of jurisdiction. I’ve included the inactive subcommittees for reference. The missing numbers, such as 802.4 and 802.12, were used for committees long-ago disbanded. Each sub- committee is officially called a Working Group, except the few listed as a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) in the table.

Some of these committees deal with technologies that didn’t quite make it, and the committees associated with those standards, such as IEEE 802.4, Token Bus, have become dormant. When preparing for the CompTIA Network+ exam, concentrate on the IEEE 802.3 and 802.11 stan- dards. You will see these again in later chapters.

Table 3.2 IEEE 802 Subcommittees IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Overview & Architecture

IEEE 802.1 Higher Layer LAN Protocols

802.1s Multiple Spanning Trees

802.1 Rapid Reconfiguration of Spanning Tree

802.1x Port Based Network Access Control

IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC); now inactive

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet

802.3ae 10 Gigabit Ethernet

IEEE 802.5 Token Ring; now inactive

IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN); specifications, such as Wi-Fi

IEEE 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)

IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access (BWA); specifications for implementing Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (Wireless MANs); referred to also as WiMAX

IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)

IEEE 802.18 Radio Regulatory Technical Advisory Group

IEEE 802.19 Coexistence Technical Advisory Group

IEEE 802.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA)

IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover IEEE 802.22 Wireless Regional Area Networks

Memorize the 802.3 and 802.11 standards. Ignore the rest.

Fire Ratings Did you ever see the movie The Towering Inferno? Don’t worry if you missed it—The Towering Inferno was one of the better disaster movies of the 1970s, although it was no Airplane! Anyway, Steve McQueen stars as the fireman who saves the day when a skyscraper goes up in flames because of poor-quality electrical cabling. The burning insulation on the wires ultimately spreads the fire to every part of the building. Although no cables made today contain truly flammable insulation, the insulation is made from plastic, and if you get any plastic hot enough, it will create smoke and noxious fumes. The risk of burning insulation isn’t fire—it’s smoke and fumes.

To reduce the risk of your network cables burning and creating nox- ious fumes and smoke, Underwriters Laboratories and the National Elec- trical Code (NEC) joined forces to develop cabling fire ratings. The two most common fire ratings are PVC and plenum. Cable with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) rating has no significant fire protection. If you burn a PVC cable, it creates lots of smoke and noxious fumes. Burning plenum-rated cable creates much less smoke and fumes, but plenum-rated cable—often referred to simply as “plenum”—costs about three to five times as much as PVC-rated cable. Most city ordinances require the use of plenum cable for network installations. The bottom line? Get plenum!

The space between the acoustical tile ceiling in an office building and the actual concrete ceiling above is called the plenum—hence the name for the proper fire rating of cabling to use in that space. A third type of fire rating, known as riser, designates the proper cabling to use for vertical runs between floors of a building. Riser-rated cable provides less protec- tion than plenum cable, though, so most installations today use plenum for runs between floors.

Networking Industry ■■ Standards—IEEE

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defines industry- wide standards that promote the use and implementation of technol- ogy. In February 1980, a new committee called the 802 Working Group took over from the private sector the job of defining network standards. The IEEE 802 committee defines frames, speeds, distances, and types of cabling to use in a network environment. Concentrating on cables, the IEEE recognizes that no single cabling solution can work in all situations and, therefore, provides a variety of cabling standards.

IEEE committees define standards for a wide variety of electronics. The names of these committees are often used to refer to the standards they publish. The IEEE 1284 committee, for example, sets standards for parallel communication. Have you ever seen a printer cable marked “IEEE

Figure 3.32 • Parallel cable marked IEEE 1284–compliant

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Chapter 3 Review■■

Chapter Summary ■

After reading this chapter and completing the exer- cises, you should understand the following about cabling and topology.

Explain the different types of network topologies

A network’s ■ topology describes how computers connect to each other in that network. The most common network topologies are called bus, ring, star, and mesh.

In a bus topology, all computers connect to ■ the network via a main line. The cable must be terminated at both ends to prevent signal reflections.

In a ring topology, all computers on the network ■ attach to a ring of cable. A single break in the cable stops the flow of data through the entire network.

In a star topology, the computers on the network ■ connect to a central wiring point, which provides fault tolerance.

Modern networks use one of two hybrid ■ topologies: star-bus or star-ring. Star-bus is overwhelmingly the most common topology used today.

In a mesh topology, each computer has a ■ dedicated line to every other computer. Mesh networks can be further categorized as partially meshed or fully meshed, both of which require a significant amount of physical cable. Network techs are able to determine the amount of cable segments needed with a mathematical formula.

In a point-to-multipoint topology, a single ■ system acts as a common source through which all members of the network converse.

Mesh and point-to-multipoint topologies are ■ common among wireless networks.

In a point-to-point topology, two computers ■ connect directly together.

Describe the different types of network cabling

Coaxial cable, or coax, shields data transmissions ■ from EMI. Coax was widely used in early bus networks and used BNC connectors. Today, coax is used mainly to connect a cable modem to an ISP.

Coax cables have an RG rating, with RG-6 being ■ the predominant coax today.

Twisted pair, which comes shielded or ■ unshielded, is the most common type of networking cable today. UTP is less expensive and more popular than STP, though it doesn’t offer any protection from EMI.

UTP is categorized by its CAT rating, with ■ CAT 5, CAT 5e, and CAT 6 being the most commonly used today.

Telephones use RJ-11 connectors, whereas UTP ■ uses RJ-45 connectors.

Fiber-optic cabling transmits light instead of the ■ electricity used in CAT cable or coax. It is thin and more expensive, yet less flexible and more delicate, than other types of network cabling.

There are two types of fiber-optic cable based ■ on what type of light is used. LEDs require multimode cable, whereas lasers generally require single-mode cable.

All fiber-optic cable has three parts: the fiber ■ itself; the cladding, which covers the fiber and helps it reflect down the fiber; and the outer insulating jacket. Additionally, there are over one hundred types of connectors for fiber-optic cable, but ST, SC, and LC are the most common for computer networking.

Plenum-rated UTP is required by most cities for ■ network installations.

Serial cables adhering to the RS-232 standard ■ and parallel cables adhering to the IEEE-1284 standard may be used to network two computers

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directly together. You can also use IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connections for direct connection, although not with Windows Vista or Windows 7.

Describe the IEEE networking standards

Networking standards are established and ■ promoted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

The IEEE 802 committee defines frames, ■ speeds, distances, and types of cabling to use in networks. IEEE 802 is split into several subcommittees, including IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11.

The IEEE 1284 committee defines the standards ■ for parallel communications, whereas the IEEE 1394 committee defines the standards for FireWire High-Performance Serial Bus.

Key Terms ■

bandwidth (54) BNC connectors (51) bus topology (45) category (CAT) ratings (54) cladding (55) coaxial cable (50) core (55) crosstalk (53) electromagnetic interference (EMI) (50) fault tolerance (46) fiber-optic cable (55) fully meshed topology (48) hybrid topology (47) IEEE 1284 (57) IEEE 1394 (57) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

(IEEE) (58) insulating jacket (55) logical topology (47) mesh topology (48) modal distortion (56) multimode fiber (MMF) (56)

network topology (44) Ohm rating (52) partially meshed topology (48) physical topology (47) plenum (58) point-to-multipoint topology (49) point-to-point topology (50) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (58) Radio Grade (RG) rating (52) ring topology (45) riser (58) RJ-11 (55) RJ-45 (55) RS-232 (57) segment (47) shielded twisted pair (STP) (53) signaling topology (47) single-mode fiber (SMF) (56) star-bus topology (47) star-ring topology (47) star topology (46) unshielded twisted pair (UTP) (53)

Key Term Quiz ■ Use the Key Terms list to complete the sentences that follow. Not all terms will be used.

The _______________ is a network topology that 1. relies on a main line of network coaxial cabling.

The _______________ of a cable will determine 2. its speed.

A(n) _______________ provides more fault 3. tolerance than any other basic network topology.

When your network has all computers connected 4. to a centrally located wiring closet, you have a physical _______________ network.

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_______________ networks use more than one 5. type of basic network topology.

CAT 5e cable is a type of _______________ 6. wiring.

Coaxial cable uses a braided metal shield to 7. protect data from _______________.

Network cabling can use either light or electricity 8. to transmit data. The faster of these types uses light along _______________.

_______________-grade UTP must be installed 9. in ceilings, whereas _______________-grade UTP is often used to connect one floor to another vertically in a building.

The twisting of the cables in UTP and STP 10. reduces _______________.

Multiple-Choice Quiz ■

Which of the following are standard network 1. topologies? (Select three.)

BusA.

StarB.

RingC.

Dual-ringD.

John was carrying on at the water cooler the 2. other day, trying to show off his knowledge of networking. He claimed that the company had installed special cabling to handle the problems of crosstalk on the network. What kind of cabling did the company install?

CoaxialA.

Shielded coaxialB.

Unshielded twisted pairC.

Fiber-opticD.

Jill needs to run some UTP cable from one 3. office to another. She found a box of cable in the closet and wants to make sure it’s CAT 5 or better. How can she tell the CAT level of the cable? (Select two.)

Check the box.A.

Scan for markings on the cable.B.

Check the color of the cable—gray means C. CAT 5, yellow means CAT 6e, and so on.

Check the ends of the cable.D.

What topology provides the most fault 4. tolerance?

BusA.

RingB.

Star-busC.

MeshD.

What organization is responsible for 5. establishing and promoting networking standards?

Institute of Electrical and Electronics A. Engineers (IEEE)

International Networking Standards B. Organization (INSO)

Federal Communications Commission C. (FCC)

International Telecommunications D. Association (ITA)

What aspects of network cabling do the IEEE 6. committees establish? (Select three.)

Frame sizeA.

SpeedB.

Color of sheathingC.

Cable typesD.

BaseTech

63 Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology

What types of coax cabling have been used in 7. computer networking? (Select three.)

RG-8A.

RG-45B.

RG-58C.

RG-62D.

What applications are best suited for fiber-8. optic cabling? (Select two.)

Short distancesA.

Wireless networksB.

High-EMI areasC.

Long distancesD.

What are the main components of fiber-optic 9. cabling? (Select three.)

CladdingA.

Insulating jacketB.

Copper coreC.

FiberD.

What is the most popular size fiber-optic 10. cabling?

62.5/125 µmA.

125/62.5 µmB.

50/125 µmC.

125/50 µmD.

Most fiber-optic installations use LEDs to send 11. light signals and are known as what?

Single-modeA.

MultimodeB.

Complex modeC.

Duplex modeD.

Why must the main cable in a bus topology be 12. terminated at both ends?

To allow the signal to be amplified so it can A. reach both ends of the network

To prevent the signal from dropping off the B. network before reaching all computers

To prevent the signal from bouncing back C. and forth

To convert the signal to the proper format D. for a bus network

Where are you most likely to encounter a mesh 13. network?

On any network using fiber-optic cableA.

On any network using plenum cableB.

On wireless networksC.

On wired networksD.

You are asked by your boss to research 14. upgrading all the network cable in your office building. The building manager requires the safest possible cabling type in case of fire, and your boss wants to future- proof the network so cabling doesn’t need to be replaced when network technologies faster than 1 Gbps are available. You decide to use CAT 5e plenum cabling throughout the building. Which objective have you satisfied?

Neither the building manager’s nor your A. boss’s requirements have been met.

Only the building manager’s requirement B. has been met.

Only your boss’s requirement has C. been met.

Both the building manager’s and your D. boss’s requirements have been met.

Which committee is responsible for wireless 15. networking standards?

IEEE 802.2A.

IEEE 802.3B.

IEEE 802.5C.

IEEE 802.11D.

64 Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks

/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Chapter 3

Lab Project 3.1 •

Lab ProjectsLab Projects

This lab project requires you to demonstrate knowledge of the four basic network topologies. Obtain four blank pieces of paper. Proceed to draw six boxes on each page to represent six computers—neatness counts!

At the top of each sheet, write one of the following: bus topology, mesh topology, ring topology, or star topology. Then draw lines to represent the physical network cabling required by each network topology.

Lab Project 3.2 •

In your studies of network cabling for the CompTIA Network+ certification exam, you realize you could use a simplified chart to study from and memorize. Build a reference study chart that describes the features of

network cabling. Create your completed chart using a spreadsheet program, or simply a sheet of paper, with the column headings and names shown in the following table. If you wish, you can start by writing your notes here.

Essay Quiz ■ You work in the computer training department 1. at your company. A newly developed mobile training program is being planned. The plan requires setting up five training computers in a particular department you use to train on weekly. Write a short essay that describes which network topology would be quickest to set up and tear down for this type of onsite training.

Your boss has decided to have cable run to 2. every computer in the office, but doesn’t know which type to use. In an effort to help bring the company into the 21st century, write a short

essay comparing the merits of UTP and fiber- optic cabling.

The NICs on your company’s computers all 3. have dual 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps capability, yet users complain that the network is slow. Write a brief essay that explains what could be the cause of the problem.

Your company has hired a group of new 4. network techs, and you’ve been tasked to do their training session on networking standards organizations. Write a brief essay detailing the IEEE and its various committees.

BaseTech

65 Chapter 3: Cabling and Topology

Cable Type Description Benefits Drawbacks

CAT 5

CAT 5e

CAT 6

Fiber-optic

Lab Project 3.3 •

In this lab project, you will demonstrate knowledge of the different IEEE committees that are most prevalent today. Use the Internet to research each of these subcommittees:

IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.5, and IEEE 802.11. Give an example of where each type of technology might best be used.

4 chapter

66

/ Mike Meyers’ CompTIA Network+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting Networks, Third Edition / Meyers / 911-1 / Chapter 4

Ethernet Basics

“In theory there is no difference

between theory and practice. In

practice there is.”

—Yogi Berra

In this chapter, you will learn how to

Define and describe Ethernet■■

Explain early Ethernet ■■ implementations

Describe ways to extend and ■■ enhance Ethernet networks

In the beginning, there were no networks. Computers were isolated, solitary islands of information in a teeming sea of proto-geeks who used clubs and wore fur pocket protectors. Okay, maybe it wasn’t that bad, but if you wanted to

move a file from one machine to another—and proto-geeks were as much into

that as modern geeks—you had to use Sneakernet, which meant you saved the

file on a disk, laced up your tennis shoes, and hiked over to the other system.

All that walking no doubt produced lots of health benefits, but frankly, proto-

geeks weren’t all that into health benefits—they were into speed, power, and

technological coolness in general. (Sound familiar?) It’s no wonder, then, that

geeks everywhere agreed on the need to replace Sneakernet with a faster and

more efficient method of sharing data. The method they came up with is the

subject of this chapter.

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what can readers infer from the following quote from act v scene 3 of romeo and juliet

  1. What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet?
    6,150 results
    English
  2. What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Romeo: O, be gone! By heaven, I love thee better than myself; For I come hither arm’d against myself: Stay not, be gone;–live, and hereafter say, A madman’s

asked by Kendra on March 13, 2015
English
Please help me with these question about Romeo and Juliet!!! They really are confusing me!! 1. In act 4 scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet, Paris tells Friar Laurence, “Immoderately she weeps for Tybalt’s death, / and therefore have I little talked of love.” What

asked by Becca on April 7, 2016
English
What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Romeo: O, be gone! By heaven I love thee better than myself; For I come hither arm’d against myself Stay no, be gone; live, and hereafter say, A madman’s mercy bid

asked by BUBBLES on May 18, 2016
English
8.What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Prince: A gloomy peace this morning with it brings; The sun for sorrow will not show his head. Go hence, to have more talk of these sad things; Some shall be

asked by Cassandra on May 22, 2017
Romeo and Juliet
What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Montague: O thou untaught! what manners is in this, To press before thy father to a grave? a. Montague believes that sons who act disobediently die early deaths b.

asked by Kaai97 on April 15, 2016

Romeo and Juliet
What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Montague: O thou untaught! what manners is in this, To press before thy father to a grave? a. Montague believes that sons who act disobediently die early deaths b.

asked by Kaai97 on April 14, 2016
English
What quote from Romeo and Juliet Act 3, Scene 5 illustrates Shakespeare’s use of comic relief?

asked by Steve on March 29, 2015
English 9
. Read the following line from Romeo’s monologue in Act II, Scene 2 of Romeo and Juliet, where Shakespeare employs personification: Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief, That thou her maid art far more fair

asked by Jana on March 13, 2015
English
I have a Romeo & Juliet essay to be handed in 5 days from now. I mainly have to write about ‘Act 3 Scene 1’. The structure paper tells me to ‘Comment on the way Shakespeare contrasts the mood of this scene with the romantic atmosphere of the previous scene

asked by Leanne on April 22, 2007
Romeo and Juliet
Read the following line from Romeo’s monologue in Act II, Scene 2 of Romeo and Juliet: But soft! What light through yonder window breaks? What is Romeo saying in this passage? a. Romeo has broken the window even though he threw a rock softly. b. Juliet is

asked by Kaai97 on April 15, 2016
english
ROMEO AND JULIET what are juliets feelings towards romeo in act 3 scene 2 from lines 1-35?

asked by ali on February 21, 2012
English
IN THE BOOK OF SHAKESPEARE NAMED ROMEO AND JULIET. in act3 scene 1, which character seem to want peace and which one seem to want to fight most? What does mercutio mean when he says,”I have it, and soundly, too.Your houses”(scene1, line 104)? what

asked by Ted on May 17, 2010
English
Act 1 Scene 1 .. Romeo & Juliet I don’t know the answer to two of my questions for Romeo and Juliet the first one . . . Although Rome and Juliet is a tragedy, much of the play is quite comic. Outline briefly the comic elements in this scene. To whatextent

asked by Becca on February 13, 2007
English
PLEASE HELP!!! Please check my answers!! I’m not sure about a few of them, but i marked the answers that I think are correct. 1. In Act IV of Romeo and Juliet, what is Friar Lawrence’s advice to Juliet concerning her parents’ wishes that she marry

asked by Becca on March 17, 2016
English
Please someone explain these to me!!! I’ve put in the answers that i think are right but i don’t understand these very well. 1. Identify the type of irony found i Act IV, scene 1, of romeo and juliet, when paris meets juliet at friar lawrence’s cell and

asked by Starcatcher on March 17, 2016

Shakespear
Read the exchange between Romeo and Nurse in Act II, scene iv of Romeo and Juliet. Romeo: Bid her devise Some means to come to shrift this afternoon; And there she shall at Friar Laurence’ cell, Be shriv’d and married. Here is for thy pains. Nurse: No,

asked by Danny G on March 21, 2015
Romeo and Juliet Help!!!
Could someone please help me I can’t find the answer anywhere! thanks for you help! Why does Romeo’s answer to Tybalts insults upset Mercutio? What does he think Romeo is doing? (By the way this is all in act 3 scene 1)

asked by Alex on March 26, 2009
ELA- foreshadowing
what lines are foreshadowing I fear, too early: for my mind misgives Some consequence yet hanging in the stars Shall bitterly begin his fearful date With this night’s revels and expire the term Of a despised life closed in my breast By some vile forfeit of

asked by ADAM on December 15, 2011
What is a good quote for Romeo and Juliet?
What is a good quote for me to explain that it is important to think before you act? In the play, Romeo and Juliet? Thanks -Allyson I was thinking of something between Romeo and Juliet themselves, it would be helpful in my essay. I’ve already searched

asked by Allyson on May 11, 2011
English
1.) Identify the type of figurative language in the sentences below (taken from Act IV, scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet). Paris: “Poor soul, thy face is much abus’d with tears.” Juliet: “The tears have got small victory by that;/ For it was bad enough before

asked by Help. on March 7, 2016
English(Romeo and Juliet)
Capulet asks Nurse where Juliet has gone in the beginning of Act IV, scene 2. The Nurse indicates that she went to Friar Lawrence for confession purposes. Capulet responds by saying, “Well, he may chance to do some good in her. A peevish self-willed

asked by Anna on February 2, 2012
Romeo and Juliet Quick Question
Could you tell me in Act 1 Scene 5 what does Romeo compare Juliet to.

asked by Romeo on March 10, 2009
english
i need shaekspear translation for Romeo&Juliet act 3 scene 1

asked by hhhgggh on May 18, 2009
romeo and juliet
for my history project, I need to rewrite one scene from Romeo and Juliet. but it has to be modern. say, Juliet can text Romeo, or talk with him on messenger, and so on. which scene should I choose and any ideas how I can change it?

asked by rose marie on March 9, 2010
English
Write an essay explaining why you think The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet remains so popular. What is it about the characters of The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet that makes it so easy for young people to identify with them? Make at least two references to

asked by Talha on March 21, 2014

Romeo and Juliet
During act 2 and scene 2 what imagery comparisons does Romeo describe about Juliet. I need 3.

asked by Thai on October 10, 2007
english
romeo and Juliet Act 1 scene 3 questions: 1. what impression does the audience get of Juliet in this scene? 2.what impression does the audience get of Juliet’s nurse on this scene? 3.Explain the extended metaphor used by Lady Capulet (lines 80-95) what is

asked by patrik on February 26, 2012
english
I found 2 foil character in ROMEO AND JULIET can need one more please with (act and scene and line)thank for your help.

asked by marie on October 17, 2010
english
In Romeo and Juliet, what is the significance of the death of Paris in Act V, scene iii?

asked by Tiffany on May 28, 2008
english
i have to act out the first half of act3 scene 5 in romeo and juliet and i have to have some props. does anybody have any ideas for what i could use?

asked by christina on February 25, 2008
quote from Misanthrope
Hello, I can’t find this qoute in the Misanthrope “Still in a letter, appearances may decieve, this may not be as bad as you believe, I can’t find it in the book. thanks http://www.bibliomania.com/0/6/4/1967/frameset.html This website has the entire play

asked by cameron on February 12, 2007
Romeo and Juliet
Why does the nurse agree to help juliet marry romeo? By the way it’s in act 2 scene 5. I can’t find the answer. Thanks for your help

asked by Anonymous on March 23, 2009
English
I need help in identifying literary terms in Much Ado About Nothing by Shakespere. The literary terms must be from Act 5 Scene 1 page 163 Prince: “see see, here comes the man we went to seek.” to Act 5 scene 1 page 167 Benedick: “Fare you well…, and till

asked by Anonymous on June 17, 2008
memorization
does anybody have any tips on memorizing things? i have to memorize one of juleit’s speeches in romeo and juliet in act 2 scene 1. Please help!!

asked by anonymous on March 26, 2008
English
Is the “sober-suited matron” in Romeo and Juliet(Act 3,Scene 2,line 11)a metaphor? If it is, what is it being compared to?

asked by Emily on June 3, 2010

English
In Romeo and Juliet, what is ironic about Lord Capulet’s praise of Friar Lawrence in Act 4 Scene 2?

asked by Emily on November 29, 2012
Romeo and Juliet Quote Help
Could someone please help me with this quote I read the rest of act 2 today and I was wondering what this quote means: Mercutio: ” Alas poor Romeo, he is already dead: stabbed with a white wench’s black eye; run through the ear with a love song; the very

asked by Jamie:) on April 1, 2009
Romeo and Juliet quotation help!
I’m reading act 2 of Romeo and Juliet and I have no idea what the quote, “that which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet” means. Could someone please help me thanks:) J-J:)

asked by Jamie:) on March 31, 2009
ENGLISH
I don’t get this from Act 2 Scene 3 What are your feelings about Friar Lawrence’s involvement? Do you think he is right or wrong? Why? Use two quotes to support your answers. ITS FROM ROMEO AND JULIET

asked by LISA on January 5, 2012
English
When Romeo learns of Juliet’s “death” (Act 5 Scene 1), he plans to be join her and goes to an apothecary to buy poison. The question I have is why did he choose to use poison on HIMSELF rather than a dagger, to join Juliet? Ie. What was Shakespeare’s

asked by Kendry on May 26, 2010
English

  1. After he is wounded in Act III, Scene 1, Mercutio says to Romeo, “Why the devil came you between us? I was hurt your arm.” Which of the following is the best paraphrase of Mercutio’s words? a. I am so badly wounded that I feel I will die. b. Why did you

asked by Julie on March 10, 2017
Romeo and Juliet
What event do Benvolio’s lines from the opening of Act III, Scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet, hint at, or foreshadow? And, if we meet, we shall not ‘scape a brawl, For now, these hot days, is the mad blood stirring. a. the conversation the young men have later

asked by Kaai97 on April 14, 2016
Language Arts – Romeo and Juliet – Please Check
I need help with the following: 11. Read these lines from the prologue of Romeo and Juliet. “Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands

asked by Brady on March 11, 2015
Language Arts – Please Check Answers
Please help me with the following questions: 1. Read the excerpt from Act II, scene v of Romeo and Juliet. Friar Laurence: These violent delights have violent ends, And in their triumph die, like fire and powder, Which, as they kiss consume: the sweetest

asked by Brady on April 28, 2015
english
in romeo and juliet, descibe juliet’s state of mind in act 4,scene one

asked by Ted on May 19, 2010

reading
compare and contrast Romeo and Juliet Soliloquies in act 2. what differences are revealed about their understanding of romantic relationships Juliet is a little more cautious than Romeo. She laments the fact that Romeo is a Montague and wonders how she

asked by yasminb on May 13, 2014
Romeo and Juliet
Read Capulet’s speech from Act IV, Scene 2, as he plans for the wedding: Tush, I will stir about, And all things shall be well, I warrant thee, wife. Go thou to Juliet, help to deck up her. I’ll not to bed tonight. Let me alone. I’ll play the housewife

asked by Kaai97 on April 15, 2016
English
Provide quotations in the book with the scene number, about how Romeo is a serious person, and lacks sense of humor. Romeo and Juliet

asked by B4 on November 11, 2016
English.
O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy father and refuse thy name, Or if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love, And I’ll no longer be a Capulet. Can someone help me change this into a greeting card quote ?

asked by Thi on March 16, 2015
Romeo and Juliet
Could you please help me with this thanks. In act 1 scene 5 Romeo and Juliet say speeches that form a sonnet. Could you give me a link that will give me a translation of what they are saying. Thanks for your time

asked by Lala on March 11, 2009
Language arts unit 3 lesson 5 second read
If you have answers to 1-5 that would be great. 1. In act 1, scene 5, Scrooge sees himself as a child at school. What is revealed about his childhood in this scene? 2. In act one scene two Scrooge’s nephew stops by to wish Scrooge a Merry Christmas and to

asked by Abd on April 11, 2016
English
Read Capulet’s speech from Act IV, scene 2 , as he plans for the wedding: Tush , I will stir about , And all things shall be well , I warrant thee , wife: Go thou to Juliet , help to deck up her; I’ll not to bed to- night ; let me alone; I’ll play

asked by Mike on March 9, 2016
ENGLISH
Read Capulet’s speech from Act IV, scene 2 , as he plans for the wedding: Tush , I will stir about , And all things shall be well , I warrant thee , wife: Go thou to Juliet , help to deck up her; I’ll not to bed to- night ; let me alone; I’ll play

asked by HELLO WORLD<> on March 25, 2015
English Lit.
romeo and juliet: why is act 1 scene 5 an important part in the novel, basing on themes, lots of quotes, P-E-E-L (point, evidence, explain, link),and how is it relevant to these days? p.s – i would like to have an B grade answer to this please

asked by Baybee Cintia on March 25, 2009
Shakespeare
How would I use ellipses in Shakspearean quotes? I know that after every line you put a / but I want to omit like half a speech and get to the end. How would I do this? This is what I want to use: “You call me misbeliever, cutthroat dog/ And you spit

asked by Lena on May 6, 2009

english
What quote from Romeo and Juliet Act 3, Scene 5 illustrates Shakespeare’s use of comic relief? A) Lady Capulet: Marry, my child, early next Thursday morn/The gallant, young, and noble gentleman,/The County Paris, at Saint Peter’s Church,/Shall happily make

asked by Cassandra on May 23, 2017
english
What quote from Romeo and Juliet Act 3, Scene 5 illustrates Shakespeare’s use of comic relief? A) Lady Capulet: Marry, my child, early next Thursday morn/The gallant, young, and noble gentleman,/The County Paris, at Saint Peter’s Church,/Shall happily make

asked by Cassandra on May 23, 2017
english/ Romeo and Juliet
anyone know an oxymoron in Romeo and Juliet in Act1? sorry for such a random question…. thxs act 1 scene i line 170 Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!

asked by Emily on May 1, 2007
english
act 1 secne 4 romeo and rosaline act 2 secne 1 Mercutio is foil for romeo act 1 secne 1 benvolio and tybalt

asked by marie on October 17, 2010
ENGLISH GCSE
i need to write 5 bullet points about act 1 scene 1 and act 1 scene 3. what websites would be good to look on that explains it simply. thankyou guys!

asked by HONEY BEE on October 1, 2010
english
We first meet juliet (act 1 scene 3) she has a conversation with her mother about marriage. discuss this. what do we learn about juliet from this? ROMEO AND JULIET

asked by jane on February 13, 2012
Romeo and Juliet
Read the following line from Act IV, Scene 5 of Romeo and Juliet, when Capulet speaks of Juliet’s death: Death, that hath ta’en her hence to make me wail, Ties up my tongue and will not let me speak. What effect does Shakespeare’s use of personification

asked by Kaai97 on April 15, 2016
Hamlet!
What is the dramatic purpose of Scene IV? sorry Act 4 scene 4 This scene reminds Hamlet of his purpose. “Act IV, scene iv restores the focus of the play to the theme of human action. Hamlet’s encounter with the Norwegian captain serves to remind the

asked by Justin on November 17, 2006
Romeo and Juliet
In Act IV, Scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet, Paris tells Friar Lawrence, “Immoderately she weeps for Tybalt’s death, And therefore have I little talked of love.” What makes Paris’s comment an example of dramatic irony? a. Juliet is saddened by the death of

asked by Kaai97 on April 15, 2016
ELA
“It is only with the heart that one can see rightly” and my interpretation of this quote is that If you truly believe in yourself, you can make the right decisions. I need help to relate this quote to ROmeo and Juliet with an appropriate literary element.

asked by LISA on January 16, 2012

English
Doing an assignment on act 4 scene 1-2 of Romeo and Juliet’s symbols I have to use these symbols and find an object for each one that reflects it it needs evidence too Here are the symbols and thanks for all your help Love Foolishness of the feud Extremes

asked by Haley on March 17, 2012
Romeo and Juliet (Check answers pplz hurry)
Could you please check these answers from Act 1 (Review it’s only 5 questions) 1.What warning does the Prince issue to the Capulets and Montagues? Answer: The Prince warns to the Capulet’s and Montague’s is if anyone fights they will be put to death. 2.

asked by lala on March 12, 2009
English
Romeo and Juliet! Explain and evaluate the literary device- I have chosen the quote “Indeed, I never shall be satisfied With Romeo, till I behold him—dead— Is my poor heart for a kinsman vexed. Madam, if you could find out but a man to bear a poison,

asked by Um on February 14, 2018
English
In Act 2 scene 4, lear is finally confronted by the betrayal of his daughters.Lear is stripped bare and reduced to a helpless old man and it also marks he start of his descent in to madness. How does Shakespeare do so in Act 2 Scene 4???

asked by Kelli on November 2, 2008
English
Some readers argue that the adults in this play– Friar Lawrence and Juliet’s nurce— do an incredibly BAD job of mentoring and providing guidance to romeo and juliet; in fact, some people believe that without these meddling adults, Romeo and Juliet would

asked by Darcy on May 2, 2013
LA
When did William Shakespeare live? A. in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century b. in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century c.in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century Answer A 2. Which is NOT one of the differences between

asked by Shawn on February 19, 2015
English
Reading Bethune. Need help asap please! When Frances and Bethune quarrel in Act 1 Scene 2, Frances calls Bethune a hypocrite? How does Bethune defend himself from her accusation? In Bethune’s opinion, who are the real hypocrites in the medical profession?

asked by Tala on December 7, 2016
English – Hamlet
My teacher has asked me to identify and explain how Shakespeare creates atmosphere in Act 1, Scene i. I think he creates atmosphere by making the readers to think what will happen to Prince Hamlet and the ghost? I’m not really sure how to answer this

asked by … on September 5, 2007
Romeo and Juliet
Which word means the same as valiant is used in these lines from Act I, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Lady Capulet: Well, think of marriage now: younger than you, Here in Verona, ladies of esteem, Are made already mothers: by my count I was your mother much

asked by Kaai97 on April 14, 2016
Language
together now, Barbara Jordan’s main purpose is to a)persuade readers that a tolerant society is best created by working on a small scale.•• b)inform readers of the civil rights movement in the United States. c)praise the work of the leaders of the

asked by Estephania on January 11, 2016

literature
Two quotes dealing with puns in act one and two in Romeo and Juliet.And a 3-5 analysis. Best look in the text for these items. Here’s a link in case you left your book at school: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/romeo_juliet/index.html Once you have some ideas,

asked by michelle on April 24, 2007
reading
the scene before this one in the play is scene 3, act 1, scene 2, act 1 or act 2, scene 1 in the play from almost sisters

asked by Gabby ( 5 grade) on April 15, 2012
English
Where is Romeo in act IV of Romeo and Juliet? He is hiding in Friar Lawrence’s cell. He is in exile in Mantua. He is in exile in Verona. I don’t know:/

asked by SkatingDJ on March 10, 2016
English
Where is Romeo during Act IV of Romeo and Juliet? A: Hiding in Friar Lawerence’s Cell B: He is in Exile in Mantua C: He is in Exile in Verona I choose B is this correct? Thank you

asked by Marylyn on March 17, 2016
English
In Act IV, of Romeo and Juliet, Why do Juliet’s parents think she is crying? 1:Because Romeo wash banished 2: Tybalt is dead 3: Because she did not want to marry Paris I think it is 2 is this correct? Thank you

asked by Marylyn on March 17, 2016
Literature

  1. The Kellers allow Annie and Helen to live alone for two weeks because they a. believe that their interference creates too many obstacles b. trust Annie to care for Helen as they would c. fear that Helen will otherwise have to enter an institution d.

asked by mysterychicken on January 3, 2010
12 english, romeo and juliet
can someone help me out in anyway possiable, it says create a modern scene with two to four characters based on a theme in a ROMEO AND JULIET. Devise a new situation, new setting, and new character names, but be faithful both to the theme from ROMEO AND

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Romeo and Juliet; Act 1 Scene 5 Chorus Now old desire doth in his death-bed lie, and young affection gapes to be his heir; That fair for which love groan’d for and would die, With tender Juliet match’d is now not fair. Now romeo is belov’d, and loves

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hat does headstrong mean as it is used in the following lines from Act IV, scene 2 of Romeo and Juliet [ Enter Juliet ] Capulet : How now , my headstrong! Where have you been gadding?” Juliet: Where I have learn’d me to repent the sin Of disobedient

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Can someone link me sites where they have information on the two below? 1. In Act IV, Scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet, Juliet cries, ”O, bid me leap, rather than marry Paris . . . And I will do it without fear or doubt.” Both Romeo and Juliet seek out Friar

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“up to 80% of doctors endorse this project” uses which rhetorical device?

With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking

Christopher Foster Ashford University

James Hardy Ashford University

Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo Ashford University

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James Hardy, Christopher Foster, and Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo

With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking

Editor in Chief, AVP: Steve Wainwright

Executive Editor: Anna Lustig

Development Editor: Rebecca Paynter

Assistant Editor: Jessica Sarra

Editorial Assistant: Lukas Schulze

Production Editor: Catherine Morris

Media Production: Amanda Nixon, LSF Editorial

Copy Editor: Lauri Scherer, LSF Editorial

Photo Researcher: Amanda Nixon, LSF Editorial

Cover Design: Bambang Suparman Ibrahim

Printing Services: Bordeaux

Production Services: Lachina

Permission Editor: D’Stair Permissions Agency

Cover Image: juuce/iStock and espiegle/iStock

ISBN-10: 1621785661

ISBN-13: 978-1-62178-566-8

Copyright © 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

All rights reserved.

GRANT OF PERMISSION TO PRINT: The copyright owner of this material hereby grants the holder of this

publication the right to print these materials for personal use. The holder of this material may print the materials

herein for personal use only. Any print, reprint, reproduction or distribution of these materials for commercial use

without the express written consent of the copyright owner constitutes a violation of the U.S. Copyright Act,

17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810, as amended.

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Brief Contents

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter 2: The Argument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

Chapter 3: Deductive Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

Chapter 4: Propositional Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Chapter 5: Inductive Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Chapter 6: Deduction and Induction: Putting It All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Chapter 7: Informal Fallacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

Chapter 8: Persuasion and Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

Chapter 9: Logic in Real Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

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About the Authors xiii Acknowledgments xv Preface xvii

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Logic 1

1 .1 What Is Critical Thinking? 2 The Importance of Critical Thinking 3 Becoming a Critical Thinker 6

1 .2 Three Misconceptions About Logic 7 Logic Is for Robots 7 Logic Does Not Need to Be Learned 9 Logic Is Too Hard 10

1 .3 What Is Logic? 11 The Study of Arguments 11 A Tool for Arriving at Warranted Judgments 12 Formal Versus Informal Logic 14

1 .4 Arguments Outside of Logic 14 Arguments in Ordinary Language 14 Rhetorical Arguments 15 Revisiting Arguments in Logic 16

1 .5 The Importance of Language in Logic 17

1 .6 Logic and Philosophy 19 The Goal of Philosophy 20 Philosophy and Logical Reasoning 20

Summary and Resources 21

Contents

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Chapter 2 The Argument 25

2 .1 Arguments in Logic 26 Claims 29 The Standard Argument Form 31

2 .2 Putting Arguments in the Standard Form 33 Find the Conclusion First 34 Find the Premises Next 36 The Necessity of Paraphrasing 38 Thinking Analytically 39

2 .3 Representing Arguments Graphically 42 Representing Reasons That Support a Conclusion 42 Representing Counterarguments 45 Diagramming Efficiently 46

2 .4 Classifying Arguments 47 Deductive Arguments 48 Inductive Arguments 49 Arguments Versus Explanations 50

Summary and Resources 53

Chapter 3 Deductive Reasoning 59

3 .1 Basic Concepts in Deductive Reasoning 60 Validity 60 Soundness 62 Deduction 63

3 .2 Evaluating Deductive Arguments 66 Representing Logical Form 66 Using the Counterexample Method 68

3 .3 Types of Deductive Arguments 70 Mathematical Arguments 70 Arguments From Definitions 71 Categorical Arguments 72 Propositional Arguments 72

3 .4 Categorical Logic: Introducing Categorical Statements 73 Clarifying Particular Statements 76

Contents

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Contents

Clarifying Universal Statements 76 Accounting for Conversational Implication 78

3 .5 Categorical Logic: Venn Diagrams as Pictures of Meaning 80 Drawing Venn Diagrams 81 Drawing Immediate Inferences 84

3 .6 Categorical Logic: Categorical Syllogisms 91 Terms 91 Distribution 91 Rules for Validity 93 Venn Diagram Tests for Validity 94

3 .7 Categorical Logic: Types of Categorical Arguments 111 Sorites 111 Enthymemes 112 Validity in Complex Arguments 113

Summary and Resources 115

Chapter 4 Propositional Logic 119

4 .1 Basic Concepts in Propositional Logic 120 The Value of Formal Logic 121 Statement Forms 122

4 .2 Logical Operators 123 Conjunction 124 Disjunction 126 Negation 128 Conditional 129

4 .3 Symbolizing Complex Statements 133 Truth Tables With Complex Statements 135 Truth Tables With Three Letters 137

4 .4 Using Truth Tables to Test for Validity 140 Examples With Arguments With Two Letters 141 Examples With Arguments With Three Letters 144

4 .5 Some Famous Propositional Argument Forms 149 Common Valid Forms 149 Common Invalid Forms 152

Summary and Resources 158

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Contents

Chapter 5 Inductive Reasoning 165

5 .1 Basic Concepts in Inductive Reasoning 166 Inductive Strength 167 Inductive Cogency 170

5 .2 Statistical Arguments: Statistical Syllogisms 171 Form 172 Weak Statistical Syllogisms 173

5 .3 Statistical Arguments: Inductive Generalizations 174 Representativeness 175 Confidence Level 179 Applying This Knowledge 180

5 .4 Causal Relationships: The Meaning of Cause 181 Sufficient Conditions 181 Necessary Conditions 182 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 183 Other Types of Causes 184 Correlational Relationships 184

5 .5 Causal Arguments: Mill’s Methods 186 Method of Agreement 187 Method of Difference 188 Joint Method of Agreement and Difference 189 Method of Concomitant Variation 190

5 .6 Arguments From Authority 192

5 .7 Arguments From Analogy 193 Evaluating Arguments From Analogy 194 Analogies in Moral Reasoning 197 Other Uses of Analogies 198

Summary and Resources 203

Chapter 6 Deduction and Induction: Putting It All Together 207

6 .1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction 208

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Contents

6 .2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction 211 Availability 211 Robustness 212 Persuasiveness 214

6 .3 Combining Induction and Deduction 216

6 .4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method 218 Step 1: Formulate a Hypothesis 219 Step 2: Deduce a Consequence From the Hypothesis 219 Step 3: Test Whether the Consequence Occurs 220 Step 4: Reject the Hypothesis If the Consequence Does Not Occur 220

6 .5 Inference to the Best Explanation 225 Form 228 Virtue of Simplicity 229 How to Assess an Explanation 231 A Limitation 232

Summary and Resources 236

Chapter 7 Informal Fallacies 239

7 .1 Fallacies of Support 241 Begging the Question 241 Circular Reasoning 242 Hasty Generalizations and Biased Samples 243 Appeal to Ignorance and Shifting the Burden of Proof 245 Appeal to Inadequate Authority 246 False Dilemma 248 False Cause 249

7 .2 Fallacies of Relevance 251 Red Herring and Non Sequitur 251 Appeal to Emotion 252 Appeal to Popular Opinion 255 Appeal to Tradition 256 Ad Hominem and Poisoning the Well 257

7 .3 Fallacies of Clarity 261 The Slippery Slope 261 Equivocations 262 The Straw Man 264

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Contents

Fallacy of Accident 267 Fallacies of Composition and Division 268

Summary and Resources 273

Chapter 8 Persuasion and Rhetoric 279

8 .1 Obstacles to Critical Thinking: The Self 280 Stereotypes 280 Cognitive Biases 282

8 .2 Obstacles to Critical Thinking: Rhetorical Devices 289 Weasel Words 290 Euphemisms and Dysphemisms 291 Proof Surrogates 293 Hyperbole 294 Innuendo and Paralipsis 295

8 .3 The Media and Mediated Information 300 Manipulating Images 301 Advertising 302 Other Types of Mediated Information 306

8 .4 Evaluating the Source: Who to Believe 308 Reputation and Authorship 309 Accuracy and Currency 312 Interested Parties 312

Summary and Resources 314

Chapter 9 Logic in Real Life 319

9 .1 The Argumentative Essay 320 The Problem 321 The Thesis 322 The Premises 323

9 .2 Strengthening the Argumentative Essay 327 Clarification and Support 327 The Objection 329 The Rebuttal 330 Closing Your Essay 331

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Contents

9 .3 Practical Arguments: Building Arguments for Everyday Use 333 The Claim 333 The Data 334 The Warrant 334 Comparing the Models 335

9 .4 Confronting Disagreement 338 Applying the Principle of Accuracy 339 Applying the Principle of Charity 340 Balancing the Principles of Accuracy and Charity 341 Practicing Effective Criticism 342

9 .5 Case Study: Interpretation and Criticism in Practice 346 Examining the Initial Argument 347 Examining the Objection 347 Examining the Wording 348 Drawing a Conclusion 349

9 .6 Other Applications of Logic 349 Symbolic Logic 350 Computer Science 350 Artificial Intelligence 350 Engineering 351 Politics (Speech Writing) 351

Summary and Resources 351

Glossary 355

References 363

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James Hardy, Ashford University Dr. James Hardy is part of the core faculty of the Humanities & Science department at Ashford University. He obtained a PhD in philosophy from Indiana University, a master’s degree in philosophy from the University of Washington, and bachelor’s degrees in philosophy and psy- chology from Utah State University. He has taught philosophy at multiple universities since 1998 and has had the opportunity to teach across the general education spectrum, including courses in algebra, speech, English, and physics. Dr. Hardy’s favorite part of teaching is watch- ing students get excited about learning, helping them achieve their dreams, and seeing their excitement as new worlds of knowledge open up to them.

Dr. Hardy loves spending time outdoors hiking, backpacking, and canoeing—especially when he can do so with family members. He has lived all over the United States and has always found beauty and natural wonders wherever he has lived. The only time he is happier than when he is in nature is when he is spending time with his family.

Christopher Foster, Ashford University Dr. Christopher Foster is lead faculty of the Humanities & Science department at Ashford University. He holds a PhD in philosophy with a specialization in logic and language and a master’s degree in philosophy from the University of Kansas (KU). His undergraduate work was completed at the University of California–Davis, where he earned bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and philosophy. Dr. Foster began his career as a graduate teaching assistant at KU and went on to teach at Brigham Young University and Utah Valley University. Dr. Foster has a passion for philosophy and believes that digging deeply into life’s ultimate questions is often the best way to improve students’ critical thinking and writing skills. He lives in Orem, Utah, with his wife, Cherie, and two daughters, Avery and Adia.

Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo, Ashford University Dr. Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo is part of the core faculty of the Humanities & Science department at Ashford University. She earned a PhD in philosophy from the University at Buffalo, special- izing in ontology, ethics, and philosophy of economics. Her previous studies are in philosophy at the University of California–Berkeley and economics at California State University–East Bay. Dr. Zúñiga y Postigo’s present research interests include examinations of the effect in our experiences of moral, aesthetic, and economic phenomena; and value in the Brentano School, the Menger School, and the Göttingen Circle scholars. Teaching philosophy is one her greatest passions. She especially enjoys teaching informal logic, because it empowers students with a tool for distinguishing truth from the mere appearance of truth, thereby making it possible for them to achieve fulfilling lives with greater efficacy.

About the Authors

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The authors would like to acknowledge the people who made significant contributions to the development of this text: Anna Lustig, executive editor; Rebecca Paynter, development edi- tor; Jessica Sarra, assistant editor; Lukas Schulze, editorial assistant; Catherine Morris, pro- duction editor; Amanda Nixon, media production; and Lauri Scherer and LSF Editorial, copy editors. Additional thanks go to Justin Harrison and Marc Joseph for their work creating and accuracy checking the ancillary materials for this text.

The authors would also like to thank the following reviewers, as well as other anonymous reviewers, for their valuable feedback and insight:

Justin Harrison, Ashford University

Mark Hébert, Austin College

Marc Joseph, Mills College

Stephen Krogh, Ashford University

Renee Levant, Ashford University

Andrew Magrath, Kent State University

Zachary Martin, Florida State University

John McAteer, Ashford University

Bradley Thames, Ashford University

Finally, but not least importantly, the authors would like to acknowledge their respective spouses—Teresa Hardy, Cherie Farnes, and Jacob Arfwedson—for their loving understand- ing of the long hours that this project demanded, as well as all characters in popular culture (for example, Sherlock Holmes, Mr. Spock, and Dr. House) who have kept logic present in everyday conversations. The rewards of our work are enriched by the former and reassured by the latter.

Acknowledgments

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With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking examines the specific ways we use language to reason about things. The study of logic improves our ability to think. It forces us to pay closer attention to the way language is used (and misused). It helps make us better at providing good reasons for our decisions. With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking seeks to help you examine and develop these abilities in order to improve them and to avoid being per- suaded by the faulty reasoning of others.

Textbook Features With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking includes a number of features to help students understand key concepts and think critically:

Everyday Logic boxes give students the opportunity to see principles applied to a variety of real-world scenarios.

A Closer Look boxes give students the chance to explore more in-depth concepts and issues in critical thinking.

Figures illustrate a variety of concepts in easy-to-understand ways.

Practice Problems provide an opportunity for students to exercise the knowledge they have learned in each chapter.

Knowledge Checks test preconceptions about and comprehension of each chapter’s top- ics and lead to a personalized reading plan based on these results.

Moral of the Story boxes and Chapter Summaries review the key ideas and takeaways in each chapter.

Interactive Features in the e-book allow students to engage with the content on a more dynamic level. Animated scenarios in Logic in Action show students how logic might be used in real life. Consider This interactions invite students to think about various issues in more depth. Interactive exercises in Connecting the Dots give students further opportuni- ties to practice what they have learned.

Key Terms list and define important vocabulary discussed in the chapter, offering an opportunity for a final review of chapter concepts. In the e-book, students can click on the term to reveal the definition and quiz themselves in the process.

Preface

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1

1An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Logic

Hemera Technologies/Ablestock.com/Thinkstock

Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Explain the importance of critical thinking and logic.

2. Describe the relationship between critical thinking and logic.

3. Explain why logical reasoning is a natural human attribute that we all have to develop as a skill.

4. Identify logic as a subject matter applicable to many other disciplines and everyday life.

5. Distinguish the various uses of the word argument that do not pertain to logic.

6. Articulate the importance of language in logical reasoning.

7. Describe the connection between logic and philosophy.

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Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

This book will introduce you to the tools and practices of critical thinking. Since the main tool for critical thinking is logical reasoning, the better part of this book will be devoted to discuss- ing logic and how to use it effectively to become a critical thinker.

We will start by examining the practical importance of critical thinking and the virtues it requires us to nurture. Then we will explore what logic is and how the tools of logic can help us lead easier and happier lives. We will also briefly review a critical concept in logic—the argument—and discuss the importance of language in making good judgments. We will con- clude with a snapshot of the historical roots of logic in philosophy.

1.1 What Is Critical Thinking? What is critical thinking? What is a critical thinker? Why do you need a guide to think criti- cally? These are good questions, but ones that are seldom asked. Sometimes people are afraid to ask questions because they think that doing so will make them seem ignorant to others. But admitting you do not know something is actually the only way to learn new things and better understand what others are trying to tell you.

There are differing views about what critical thinking is. For the most part, people take bits and pieces of these views and carry on with their often imprecise—and sometimes conflicting— assumptions of what critical thinking may be. However, one of the ideas we will discuss in this book is the fundamental importance of seeking truth. To this end, let us unpack the term critical thinking to better understand its meaning.

First, the word thinking can describe any number of cognitive activities, and there is certainly more than one way to think. We can think analytically, creatively, strategically, and so on (Sousa, 2011). When we think analytically, we take the whole that we are examining—this could be a term, a situation, a scientific phenomenon—and attempt to identify its components. The next step is to examine each component individually and understand how it fits with the other com- ponents. For example, we are currently examining the meaning of each of the words in the term critical thinking so we can have a better understanding of what they mean together as a whole.

Analytical thinking is the kind of thinking mostly used in academia, science, and law (includ- ing crime scene investigation). In ordinary life, however, you engage in analytical thinking more often than you imagine. For example, think of a time when you felt puzzled by some- one else’s comment. You might have tried to recall the original situation and then parsed out the language employed, the context, the mood of the speaker, and the subject of the com- ment. Identifying the different parts and looking at how each is related to the other, and how together they contribute to the whole, is an act of analytical thinking.

When we think creatively, we are not focused on relationships between parts and their wholes, as we are when we think analytically. Rather, we try to free our minds from any boundaries such as rules or conventions. Instead, our tools are imagination and innovation. Suppose you are cooking, and you do not have all the ingredients called for in your recipe. If you start thinking creatively, you will begin to look for things in your refrigerator and pantry that can substitute for the missing ingredients. But in order to do this, you must let go of the recipe’s expected outcome and conceive of a new direction.

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Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

When we think strategically, our focus is to first lay out a master plan of action and then break it down into smaller goals that are organized in such a way as to support our outcomes. For exam- ple, undertaking a job search involves strategic planning. You must identify due dates for applications, request let- ters of recommendations, prepare your résumé and cover letters, and so on. Thinking strategically likely extends to many activities in your life, whether you are going grocery shopping or planning a wedding.

What, then, does it mean to think criti- cally? In this case the word critical has nothing to do with criticizing others in a negative way or being surly or cynical.

Rather, it refers to the habit of carefully evaluating ideas and beliefs, both those we hear from others and those we formulate on our own, and only accepting those that meet certain stan- dards. While critical thinking can be viewed from a number of different perspectives, we will define critical thinking as the activity of careful assessment and self-assessment in the process of forming judgments. This means that when we think critically, we become the vigilant guard- ians of the quality of our thinking.

Simply put, the “critical” in critical thinking refers to a healthy dose of suspicion. This means that critical thinkers do not simply accept what they read or hear from others—even if the information comes from loved ones or is accompanied by plausible-sounding statistics. Instead, critical thinkers check the sources of information. If none are given or the sources are weak or unreliable, they research the information for themselves. Perhaps most importantly, critical thinkers are guided by logical reasoning.

As a critical thinker, always ask yourself what is unclear, not understood, or unknown. This is the first step in critical thinking because you cannot make good judgments about things that you do not understand or know.

The Importance of Critical Thinking Why should you care about critical thinking? What can it offer you? Suppose you must make an important decision—about your future career, the person with whom you might want to spend the rest of your life, your financial investments, or some other critical matter. What considerations might come to mind? Perhaps you would wonder whether you need to think about it at all or whether you should just, as the old saying goes, “follow your heart.” In doing so, you are already clarifying the nature of your decision: purely rational, purely emotional, or a combination of both.

Ferlistockphoto/iStock/Thinkstock

Critical thinking involves carefully assessing information and its sources.

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Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

In following this process you are already starting to think critically. First you started by asking questions. Once you examine the answers, you would then assess whether this information is sufficient, and perhaps proceed to research further information from reli- able sources. Note that in all of these steps, you are making distinctions: You would distinguish between relevant and irrelevant questions, and from the relevant questions, you would distin- guish the clear and precise ones from the others. You also would distinguish the answers that are helpful from those that are not. And finally, you would separate out the good sources for your research, leaving aside the weak and biased ones.

Making distinctions also determines the path that your examination will follow, and herein lies the connection between critical thinking and logic. If you decide you should examine the best reasons that support each of the possible options available, then this choice takes you in the direction of logic. One part of logical reasoning is the weighing of evidence. When making an important decision, you will need to identify which factors you consider favorable and which you consider unfavorable. You can then see which option has the strongest evidence in its favor (see Everyday Logic: Evidence, Beliefs, and Good Thinking for a discussion of the importance of evidence).

Consider the following scenario. You are 1 year away from graduating with a degree in busi- ness. However, you have a nagging feeling that you are not cut out for business. Based on your research, a business major is practical and can lead to many possibilities for well-paid employment. But you have discovered that you do not enjoy the application or the analysis of quantitative methods—something that seems to be central to most jobs in business. What should you do?

Many would seek advice from trusted people in their lives—people who know them well and thus theoretically might suggest the best option for them. But even those closest to us can offer conflicting advice. A practical parent may point out that it would be wasteful and possibly risky to switch to another major with only 1 more year to go. A reflective friend may point out that the years spent studying business could be considered simply part of a journey of self-discovery, an investment of time that warded off years of unhappiness after gradua- tion. In these types of situations, critical thinking and logical reasoning can help you sort out competing considerations and avoid making a haphazard decision.

We all find ourselves at a crossroads at various times in our lives, and whatever path we choose will determine the direction our lives will take. Some rely on their emotions to help them make their decisions. Granted, it is difficult to deny the power of emotions. We recall more vividly those moments or things in our lives that have had the strongest emotional

shironosov/iStock/Thinkstock

Can you recall a time when you acted or made a decision while you were experiencing strong emotions? Relying on our emotions to make decisions undermines our ability to develop confidence in our rational judgments. Moreover, emotional decisions cannot typically be justified and often lead to regret.

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Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

impact: a favorite toy, a first love, a painful loss. Many interpret gut feelings as revelations of what they need to do. It is thus easy to assume that emotions can lead us to truth. Indeed, emotions can reveal phenomena that may be otherwise inaccessible. Empathy, for example, permits us to share or recognize the emotions that others are experiencing (Stein, 1989).

The problem is that, on their own, emotions are not reliable sources of information. Emotions can lead you only toward what feels right or what feels wrong—but cannot guarantee that what feels right or wrong is indeed the right or wrong thing to do. For example, acting self- ishly, stealing, and lying are all actions that can bring about good feelings because they satisfy our self-serving interests. By contrast, asking for forgiveness or forgiving someone can feel wrong because these actions can unleash feelings of embarrassment, humiliation, and vulner- ability. Sometimes emotions can work against our best interests. For example, we are often fooled by false displays of goodwill and even affection, and we often fall for the emotional appeal of a politician’s rhetoric.

The best alternative is the route marked by logical reasoning, the principal tool for developing critical thinking. The purpose of this book is to help you learn this valuable tool. You may be wondering, “What’s in it for me?” For starters, you are bound to gain the peace of mind that comes from knowing that your decisions are not based solely on a whim or a feeling but have the support of the firmer ground of reason. Despite the compelling nature of your own emo- tional barometer, you may always wonder whether you made the right choice, and you may not find out until it is too late. Moreover, the emotional route for decision making will not help you develop confidence in your own judgments in the face of uncertainty.

In contrast, armed with the skill of logical reasoning, you can lead a life that you choose and not a life that just happens to you. This power alone can make the difference between a happy and an unhappy life. Mastering critical thinking results in practical gains—such as the ability to defend your views without feeling intimidated or inadequate and to protect yourself from manipulation or deception. This is what’s in it for you, and this is only the beginning.

Everyday Logic: Evidence, Beliefs, and Good Thinking

It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone to believe anything on insufficient evidence. —W. K. Clifford (1879, p. 186)

British philosopher and mathematician W. K. Clifford’s claim—that it is unethical to believe anything if you do not have sufficient evidence for it—elicited a pronounced response from the philosophical community. Many argued that Clifford’s claim was too strong and that it is acceptable to believe things for which we lack the requisite evidence. Whether or not one absolutely agrees with Clifford, he raises a good point. Every day, millions of people make deci- sions based on insufficient evidence. They claim that things are true or false without putting in the time, effort, and research necessary to make those claims with justification.

You have probably witnessed an argument in which people continue to make the same claims until they either begin to become upset or merely continue to restate their positions without adding anything new to the discussion. These situations often devolve and end with state- ments such as, “Well, I guess we will just agree to disagree” or “You are entitled to your opin- ion, and I am entitled to mine, and we will just have to leave it at that.” However, upon further reflection we have to ask ourselves, “Are people really entitled to have any opinion they want?”

(continued)

har85668_01_c01_001-024.indd 5 4/9/15 11:19 AM

Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

From the perspective of critical thinking, the answer is no. Although people are legally entitled to their beliefs and opinions, it would be intellectually irresponsible of them to feel entitled to an opinion that is unsupported by logical reasoning and evidence; people making this claim are conflating freedom of speech with freedom of opinion. A simple example will illustrate this point. Suppose someone believes that the moon is composed of green cheese. Although he is legally entitled to his belief that the moon is made of green cheese, he is not rationally entitled to that belief, since there are many reasons to believe and much evidence to show that the moon is not composed of green cheese.

Good thinkers constantly question their beliefs and examine multiple sources of evidence to ensure their beliefs are true. Of course, people often hold beliefs that seem warranted but are later found not to be true, such as that the earth is flat, that it is acceptable to paint baby cribs with lead paint, and so on. However, a good thinker is one who is willing to change his or her views when those views are proved to be false. There are certain criteria that must be met for us to claim that someone is entitled to a specific opinion or position on an issue.

There are other examples where the distinction is not so clear. For instance, some people believe that women should be subservient to men. They hold this belief for many reasons, but the pre- dominant one is because specific religions claim this is the case. Does the fact that a religious text claims that women should serve men provide sufficient evidence for one to believe this claim? Many people believe it does not. However, many who interpret their religious texts in this man- ner would claim that these texts do provide sufficient evidence for such claims.

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identify the initial amount a and the growth factor b in the exponential function.

Can somebody please check my answers?

  1. Identify the initial amount a and the growth factor b in the exponential function.

g(x)=14*2^x
a)a=14, b=x
b)a=14, b=2 <<<<
c)a=28, b=1
d)a=28, b=x

  1. Identify the initial amount a and the growth factor b in the exponential function.

f(t)=1.4^t
a)a=1, b=0.4
b)a=1.4, b=0<<<<
c)a=1.4, b=t
d)a=1, b=1.4

3.Find the balance in the account after a given period.
$4000 principal earning 6% compounded annually, after 5 years.

a)$6,726.28
b)$5,352.90<<<<
c)$5,395.40
d)$7,716.74

6.Identify the initial amount a and the growth factor b in the exponential function.

y=5*0.5^x

a)a=5, b=x
b)a=0.5, b=5
c)a=5, b=0.5<<<<<
d)a=0.5, b=x

  1. State whether the equation represents exponential growth, exponential decay or neither.

y=5.8(3/7)^x
a) Exponential growth
b) Exponential decay<<<<<
c) Neither

2 1 3,503
asked by Sage
Feb 16, 2016

1 ok

2 initial amount is 1.4^0=1

3 ok

6 ok

7 ok

I’m surprised you blew it on #2; the others indicate good understanding.

What do you think b=0 would indicate?

0 6
posted by Steve
Feb 16, 2016
As soon as I posted this I realized I put the wrong one :/
Thank you for checking my work!

6 1
posted by Sage
Feb 16, 2016
1B 2D 3B 4B 5A 6C 7B 8B 9B 10D 11B 12C 100% Correct

48 1
posted by Zolita
Feb 22, 2017
zolita is right

14 1
posted by Kylie
Feb 25, 2017

Zolita is 100% right if you are in connections.

  1. B.
  2. D.
  3. B.
  4. B.
  5. A.
  6. C.
  7. B.
  8. B.
  9. B.
  10. D.
  11. B.
  12. C.

These answers are all correct in Pre-AP (and possibly on-level too) Algebra in connections academy.

25 0
posted by AnswerKing
Mar 1, 2017
i can confirm that zolita and answer king are correct!

7 1
posted by :))
Mar 27, 2017
Oui, AnswerKing and Zolita are correct!

2 1
posted by Velvet
Jan 23, 2018
yep! 12/12 100%!

3 1
posted by raychelz
Jan 24, 2018
Yes, the answers provided by Zolita and answerking are correct.

4 1
posted by non
Jan 29, 2018

OMG ZOLITA IS SOOOO CORRECT I GOT 12/12 DEFINETLT SUPER GREATFUL!

4 1
posted by HAHA
Jan 30, 2018
Thank you so much Zolitaaaaa

3 0
posted by croutons
Feb 3, 2018
Thanksss Zolita 100%:)

3 0
posted by Dat Farm Girl
Feb 7, 2018
hey anyone want to be freinds im in connections in washington connections sucks so i have no freinds if u want to talk my email is isaiahtubbs02@gmail. com

1 1
posted by isaiah_lange13
Feb 13, 2018

  1. B.
  2. D.
  3. B.
  4. B.
  5. A.
  6. C.
  7. B.
  8. B.
  9. B.
  10. D.
  11. B.
  12. C.
    U3L7 Exponential Growth and Decay 1 2
    posted by DingDong
    Feb 20, 2018

Thanksss Zolita!!! 🙂

0 0
posted by that emo girl!
Feb 28, 2018
Thanks Zolita!

0 0
posted by I THE SMART
Oct 14, 2018
Lol still right 2019 thanks Zolita

2 1
posted by Anonymous
Jan 25, 2019
She is still right

1 1
posted by Ha Ha Ha
Feb 3, 2019
Thankk youuuuuuuuuuu

1 0
posted by Chenlings
Feb 13, 2019

Thanks zoilta

0 0
posted by xxsupreme_masterxx
Feb 13, 2019
Thanks DingDong and Zolta

0 0
posted by Kelly
Feb 14, 2019
@Zolita is correct!

0 0
posted by
Feb 18, 2019
yup zolita is =>

that was right get it?

0 0
posted by @n0nym0u$
Mar 6, 2019

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name five essential components of a reflex arc

WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT 1: REFLEXES

Submission Instructions

Please complete your answers to the lab questions on this form. Please complete your answers, and SAVE the file in a location which you will be able to find again. Then, attach and submit the completed form to the Week 3 Laboratory dropbox in the Ashford University classroom. 

Post-Lab Questions

1. What is the pupillary response of the right eye when a light was shone into the pupil?

2. What is the consensual response? (The response of the left eye).

3. What branch of the nervous system controls this response?

4. Can this response be inhibited?

5. Define what a reflex is.

6. Name five essential components of a reflex arc.

WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT 2: TESTING CRANIAL NERVE FUNCTIONS

Result Tables

Table 2: Cranial Nerve Function Testing

Cranial Nerve

Test

Result

Post-Lab Questions

1. What do your cranial nerve test results tell you?

2. When might these tests be used in a clinical setting?

3. What cranial nerve may not be functioning properly if a patient cannot detect taste on the anterior tongue?

4. What cranial nerve may not be functioning properly if a patient can move his/her eyes medial, superior, and inferior, but not lateral?

WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT 3: TESTING TOUCH, TEMPERATURE, AND PAIN

Result Tables

Table 3: Blind Coin Differentiation

Coin

Observation

Guess

Quarter

Dime

Nickel

Penny

Post-Lab Questions

1. Describe the difference between the four US coins.

2. Was the participant able to distinguish between these coins?

3. Which coin was the easiest to identify by touch? Which was the most difficult to distinguish by touch?

4. Why is the detection of temperature important to maintaining overall health?

5. Did the participant notice any difference between the amounts of pain reception in the different areas tested?

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argon is compressed in a polytropic process with n=1.2

ME 3310/5310 Thermodynamics I – Summer 2015 WRIGHT STATE UNIVERSITY

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

Homework #3 Assigned 5/28/2015

Due 6/18/2015

Worth 90 Points Problems involving Specific Heats, ∆u, ∆h Problem 4-57 (10 pnts) – Consider the cases of neon and argon behaving as Ideal gases so that their specific heats are functions of temperature only. The temperature of the neon gas is increases from 20 °C to 180 °C. (a) Calculate the change in the specific internal energy of the neon, in kJ/kg. (b) Repeat this calculation for argon. Why is the value for neon larger than that of argon? Answers: (a) neon: 98.9 kJ/kg, (b) argon: 50.0 kJ/kg Bob Problem 1 (10 pnts) – Consider the cases of argon and neon behaving as Ideal gases so that their specific heats are functions of temperature only. (a) Calculate the change in the specific enthalpy of argon, in kJ/kg, when it is cooled from 400 °C to 100 °C during a constant pressure process. (b) Repeat this calculation for neon. Why is the value for neon larger than that of argon? Answers: (a) argon: 156.1 kJ/kg, (b) neon: 309.0 kJ/kg Bob Problem 2 (5 pnts) – A granite block is heated from 50 °F to 80 °F. The change in internal energy of the granite block is ∆U = 145.8 Btu. Determine the mass of the block (lbm). Use an average specific heat value for granite obtained from the tables in the text. Answer: 20 lbm Problem 4-60 (10 pnts) – Consider hydrogen (H2) behaving as an Ideal gas so that its specific heats are functions of only temperature. Determine the specific internal energy change ∆u of hydrogen, in kJ/kg, as it is heated from 200 to 800 K, using (a) the empirical specific heat equation as a function of temperature (Table A-2c), (b) the cv value at the average temperature (Table A-2b), and (c) the cv value at room temperature (Table A-2a). Answers: (a) 6194 kJ/kg, (b) 6233 kJ/kg, (c) 6110 kJ/kg Moving Boundary Work and Polytropic Process Problems Problem 4-23 (5 pnts) – A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0.25 kg of nitrogen gas at 130 kPa and 180 °C. The nitrogen gas is now expanded isothermally to a pressure of 80 kPa (the gas System performs moving boundary work ON the piston). First, derive the following expression for the “pdV” moving boundary work:

pdV 2out 1 1 1

V W p V ln

V  

=    

Next, compute the value for the moving boundary work done BY the System ON the piston during this process. Assume that the nitrogen behaves as an Ideal gas during the entire process. Answer: 16.3 kJ

Problem 4-7 (15 pnts) Modified – A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0.07 m3 of nitrogen gas at 130 kPa and 120 °C. The nitrogen gas is now expanded polytropically to a state of 100 kPa and 100 ° C (the gas System performs moving boundary work ON the piston). (a) First, determine the polytropic exponent, n. Second, derive the following expression for the “pdV” moving boundary work:

pdV 2 2 1 1out p V p V

W n 1 −

= −

(c) Finally, compute the value for the moving boundary work done BY the System ON the piston during this process. Assume that the nitrogen behaves as an Ideal gas during the entire process. Hint: To find the polytropic exponent, n, first compute the volume at state 2 (0.08637 m3). Next, write down the general expression for a polytropic process from State 1 to State 2. Take the natural logarithm of both sides of this equation and solve for n, algebraically. Then plug numbers into the equation to compute the value of n….if you don’t follow these steps you are more likely to make a mistake. Answer: (a) n = 1.249, (c) Moving “pdV” Boundary Work = 1.86 kJ. Bob Problem 3 (20 pnts) – A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0.07 m3 of nitrogen gas at 130 kPa and 120 °C. The nitrogen gas is now expanded polytropically to a pressure of 100 kPa with a polytropic exponent having a value equal to the specific heat ratio (this process is called an isentropic expansion—we will learn this in Chapter 7). Assume that the nitrogen behaves as an Ideal gas. Hint: the specific heat ratios for gases can be found in Table A-2a

(a) Derive the following expression for the final temperature at State 2:

2 2 2

p V T

mR =

where m is the mass of the System and R is the specific gas constant for nitrogen.

(b) Use the polytropic relations to derive the following expression for the volume at State 2,

1 k

1 2 1

2

p V V

p  

=    

,

and compute this volume using the given information.

(c) Compute the mass of the System and then compute the final temperature, T2, in Celsius.

(d) Compute the “pdV” moving boundary work output done BY the System ON the piston.

Answers: (b) 0.08443 m3, (c) 0.07802 kg, 91.6 °C, (d) 1.64 kJ

Bob Problem 4 (15 pnts) – Argon gas is compressed in a polytropic process having n=1.2 from 120 kPa and 30 °C to 1200 kPa in a piston-cylinder device. The mass of argon is 0.4377 g and the initial volume of the piston-cylinder is 230 cm3. (a) Compute the final State temperature, T2, of the argon (°C), (b) compute the “pdV” moving boundary work done BY the piston ON the System (J) during this process, and (c) compute the final State volume (cm3). Assume that the argon always behaves as an Ideal gas. Answers: (a) 171.7 °C, (b) 64.53 J, (c) 33.8 cm3

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ch2o formal charge

Formal charges on CH2O and H2SO3 I was taught thus way valence electrons subtracted from addition of dots plus bonds For CH2O Carbon 4-(0 3) = 1 . Oxygen 6-(4 1)
10,905 results
Chem
Formal charges on CH2O and H2SO3 I was taught thus way valence electrons subtracted from addition of dots plus bonds For CH2O Carbon 4-(0+3) = + 1 . Oxygen 6-(4+1) = – 1 For H2SO3 I am having issues figuring out the dots and bonds

asked by Feather on November 19, 2014
Chemistry
What is the name of the structure and the formal charges? All unshared valence electrons are shown. :O:: | H3C-N-CH3 | CH3

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In our text book, the formula for finding the formal charge of an element in a compound is c(sub f) = X – (Y + Z/2) where x = the number of valence electrons y= the number of unshared electrons owned by the atom z= the number of bonding electrons shared by

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chemistry
Draw the Lewis structure of NO2- Assign formal charges to each atom in the O3 molecule shown below. Be sure to click the +/- button below (it will turn yellow when activated) before clicking on the molecule. .. .. .. :O–O==O .. .. Based on formal charges,

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Chemistry
How many valence electrons does molybdenum have? (give only 1 answer) Go to this site and look for the electrons available in the outside shells. Click on element #42 and scroll down the menu on the left side until you come to electron configuration.

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bonding types of compounds
which is an example of a covalent compound? a.some electrons in carbon dioxide function as valence electrons in both carbon and oxygen. b.ions in a bar iron are surrounded by a large number of valence electrons. c.silver ions are surrounded by a sea of

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chemistry
For each, give the total number of electrons, the number of valence electrons, and the number of the energy level that holds the valence electrons. Br-35 electrons–7 valence–4th level Kr-36 electrons–8 valence–4th level As-33 electrons–5 valence–4th

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Which statement correctly describes a covalent bond? The atoms’ valence electrons combine to form a network of bonds. Valence electrons are transferred from one atom to the other. The atoms’ valence electrons are shared between the atoms. All of the atoms’

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chemistry
Hello, I have a question regarding the valence electrons of transition metals. I am aware of quantum numbers etc and how the s orbital gets filled before the d orbital but my question is that is if was asked to lets say group some elements according to

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Science!
Which is most likely to be part of an ionic bond? A. An atom with no valence electrons B. An atom with one valence electron C. An atom with two valence electrons D. An atom with three valence electrons Is the answer B?

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chemistry
Draw a lewis structure for BrO4- in which all atoms have the lowest formal changes. Indicate the values of nonzero formal charges and include lonepair electrons.

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Science

  1. groups/ family of elements are ones which: A. Have the same number of electrons in the valence/ outer engery level B. Have exactly 8 electrons in the valence shell outer energy level C. Have the same number of protons in the nucleus 2. A period

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Science
Which statements show how a chemical bond is formed? (Select all that apply.) a. The valance electrons of an atom are emitted from an atom’s orbital. b. The valence electrons of a metal transfer to the valence shell of a nonmetal to stabilize both atoms.

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Chemistry
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Science ~CHECK MY WORK PLEASE~
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How many valence electrons must a calcium atom lose to get 8 valence electrons? It must lose two electrons (the outside two “valence” electrons), then the next inner shell will have eight.

asked by Anonymous on March 13, 2007
Chemistry-Bonding
Classify the following bonds as ionic, covalent, or neither (O, atomic number 8; F, atomic number 9; Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic number 17; U, atomic number 92). a.) O with F b.) Ca with Cl _ c.) Na with Na _ d.) U with Cl

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Science
Which is most likely to be part of an ionic bond? A. An atom with no valence electrons B. An atom with one valence electron C. An atom with two valence electrons D. An atom with three valence electrons I think it is B.

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Which is most likely to be part of an ionic bond? A. an atom with no valence electrons B. an atom with one valence electron C. an atom with two valence electrons D. an atom with three valence electrons

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Which is most likely to be part of an ionic bond? A. An atom with no valence electrons B. An atom with one valence electron C. An atom with two valence electrons D. An atom with three valence electrons

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Atoms tend to gain, share, lose valence electrons until each atom has the same number of valence electrons as the __. my answer: nucleus

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Chemistry
Does the Octet rule say that atoms like to have 8 structural electrons, or eight valence electrons. I’m pretty sure it’s valence, but I just wanted to check.

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science
the question says assume the valencies of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon in the compounds are 1, 3 and 4 from this i must draw a structural formulae for hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen that are consistant with these valencies. please help H : C::: N: Does

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chemistry
state noble gas whose electron configuration is attained in a lewis structure for hydrogen cyanide and noble gas attained in lewis structure for cyanogen? I have answered this several times but at times it really wasn’t an answer. I am not familiar with

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Chemistry
Here are the effective nuclear charges, Zeff, for the valence electrons of four different atoms. 1.30, 1.95, 2.60, 3.25 In order, these values could belong to what list of elements? Sr, Ca, Mg, Be Be, Mg, Ca, Sr C, B, Be, Li (or) Li, Be, B, C Here are the

asked by marie darling on April 1, 2013
Chemistry
I don’t understand what valence electrons and core electrons are. Ex: Se = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4 What makes 4s2 and 4p4 valence electrons and the rest core

asked by Monique on September 4, 2011
Chemistry
Which atom has the smallest valence p atomic orbital? -Carbon -Nitrogen -Sulfur Why? A. That atom has the highest electronegativity. B. That atom has the fewest number of electrons. C. That atom does not have electrons in p orbitals. D. The valence

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Chemistry

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Chemistry
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Chemistry
How do you find the number of valence electrons in a molecule? Do I need to use the Lewis structure diagram to find out? Please help! I need to the total number of valence electrons for SiH4, H2SO4, CCl4, BF3 and I don’t know how!

asked by Anonymous on February 10, 2010
Chemistry
ELement A has a valence electronic structure of ns2np1. Element B has the valence electronic structure of ns2np5. Write a formula for the compound that would be formed from elements A and B. Element A has three electrons to lose to make the last shell

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Lithium is the atom which has three protons in its nucleus and three electrons circling the nucleus.(it usuallly has 3 nuetrons as well,but they r not important in this problem.)Two of the electrons circle the nucleus at a distance 1.8* 10^-11 m (app.)The

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Easy Chemistry
How many valence electrons does molybdenum have? it depends, it can either have valence electrons of 6,5,4,3,2.

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What is true about valence electrons? They are those electrons that are closest to the nucleus They are those electrons that are neutrally charged They are those electrons that are found in the nucleus They are those electrons that are furthest from the

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  1. An element has the configuration [He]2s^2. a. Which element is it?- Beryllium b. Is it metal or nonmetal?- metal c. How many valence (or outer shell) electrons does it have?- 2 valence electrons. Is this correct? Thanks -MC

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Core electrons shield what from the pull of the nucleus? A. Identical electrons B. Valence electrons C. Neutrons D. Protons I was thinking d or a.

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How many valence shell electrons are there in a ground state silicon atom? Am i suppose to just count the electrons after the core electrons?

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1)For an atom of carbon how many valence electrons are “s” electrons? 2 2) How many are “p” electrons? 4 3)How many (total) electrons in carbon are paired? 2 4) How many are unpaired? 1 Are these correct.

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A 0.0583 mol sample of formaldehyde vapour, CH2O, was placed in a heated 0.359 L vessel and some of it decomposed. The reaction is CH2O(g)—> H2(g) + CO(g). At equilibrium, the CH2O concentration was 0.0449 M. What is the value of Kc for this reaction? my

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chemistry
Everything is neutral. Touch a table, a chair, a desk, a tree, and you don’t get a shock. Compounds are neutral. So Al2O3 must be neutral. Al has a valence of +3. Oxygen has a valence of -2. Now, let’s add the charges. 2 Al @ +3 each is +6. 3 O @ -2 each

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Physical Science
Based on a data table of their preliminary observations, which is shown below, complete the final column entitled: “Number of Valence Electrons” and then answer the questions that follow. Element Name Symbol Group Number Alkalininium A 1 Earthium E 2

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What are the equilibrium concentrations of H2SO3, H+, HSO3−, and SO32−in a 0.050 M solution of sulfurous acid H2SO3 at 25 oC? For H2SO3 at 25 oC, Ka1 = 1.5×10−2 and Ka2 = 1.0×10−7

asked by ston on February 25, 2013
chem
What are the equilibrium concentrations of H2SO3, H+, HSO3−, and SO32−in a 0.050 M solution of sulfurous acid H2SO3 at 25 oC? For H2SO3 at 25 oC, Ka1 = 1.5×10−2 and Ka2 = 1.0×10−7

asked by ston on February 25, 2013
CHEMISTRY
What is the geometric structure of the water molecule? How many pairs of valence electrons are there on the oxygen atom in the water molecule? I know oxygen has 6 valence electrons (since it is in group 6 on the periodic table), but would it have 8 (4

asked by ~anonymous on April 22, 2010
Chemistry
For a molecule of fluorous acid, the atoms are arranged as HOFO. What is the formal charge on each of the atoms? Enter the formal charges in the same order as the atoms are listed. (I searched everything online to find the shape of HOFO but could not find

asked by Rita on December 5, 2010
Chemistry
Which statement explains how the octet rule influences the way covalent bonds are modeled? The octet rule states atoms are least stable with a full valence shell. Covalently bonded atoms following this rule are each shown with eight valence electrons.

asked by Quinn on November 8, 2018
chemistry
Which of the statements correctly describes the reactivity of noble gases, according to the octet rule? They have eight electrons in their valence shell, so noble gases are very unreactive. They have eight electrons in their valence shell, so noble gases

asked by please help on August 29, 2017
Chemistry
Draw Lewis dot structures, including appropriate resonance forms, and assign formal charges to each of those structures, for the molecule urea, with chemical formula NH2CONH2. You should find at least 3 such structures, some of which will have formal

asked by Emma on October 25, 2009
chemistry
elements below, indicate how each elements’ valence electrons act in a chemical reaction. Insert an L if an element loses electrons, a G if the element gains electrons, an E if the element can either lose or gain electrons, and a U if the element is

asked by malia on August 30, 2017

Chemistry (Check)
Thanks but can you check another one for me The Valence electrons largely determine the blank of an element and are usually the only electrons used in blank. T have the first one as chemical properties, whats the second blank chemical properties would work

asked by Bryan on November 15, 2006
chemistry
Which of the following are excited in ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy? A. Valence electrons B. Core electrons C. X-rays

asked by Morgan on December 17, 2014
Chemistry
Which of the following are excited in ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy? A. Valence electrons B. Core electrons C. X-rays

asked by Morgan on January 28, 2015
ap chemistry
Consider the specific heats CH2O(s) = 2.09 J/g ¡¤◦ C. CH2O(§¤) =4.18 J/g ¡¤◦ C. CH2O(g) = 2.03 J/g ¡¤◦ C. The heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g and the heat of vaporization for water is 2260 J/g. Calculate the amount of heat absorbed when

asked by gabriella on October 22, 2013
chemistry
Core electrons shield what from the pull of the nucleus? A. Valence electrons B. Neutrons C. Protons I think the answer is a

asked by Morgan on January 28, 2015
Chemistry
Noble gases are the least reactive because they have a perfect 8 valence electrons. Or is it because they do not have any unpaired electrons like the rest of the elements.

asked by Joey on July 3, 2015
Science
Why does my hair stand on end when I take off my hat on a cold, dry day? Everything you see is made up of atoms. They contain even smaller particles, called protons and electrons. Protons have positive electrical charges and they never move. Electrons have

asked by HERSHEYS on April 19, 2007
Chemistry
what is the charge on a typical ion for group 1A? how can i figure out the answear to a question like this.. then group 7A,6A,2A Group 1A has one electron in the outer orbit, it is lost on ionization, and the charge on the metal ion is +1. Group 7a has

asked by Bryan on January 2, 2007
Biology
These are true and false questions and I want to be sure of my answers. Please someone check. Thanks: The eight-element periodicity found in the Periodic Table is related to the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of the atoms that make up

asked by Cad on September 3, 2011
Biology
These are true and false questions and I want to be sure of my answers. Please someone check. Thanks: The eight-element periodicity found in the Periodic Table is related to the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of the atoms that make up

asked by Cad on September 3, 2011

Chemistry
Calculate pH and concentration of H2SO3, H2SO3- and SO32- in NaHSO3 c=0,05M. Ka1= 1,2310^(-2) Ka2= 6,610^(-8) Results attached are: a) [H2SO3]= 1,04×10-4 M, [SO32-]=1,3×10-4 M, [HSO3-]= 0,05 M but i keep getting different numbers.

asked by Anna on January 7, 2016
chemistry
Using the equation Zeff=Z−S and assuming that core electrons contribute 1.00 and valence electrons contribute 0.00 to the screening constant, S, calculate Zeff for the 2p electrons in both ions.

asked by hiphop on April 9, 2014
chemistry
Which of the following is true? A. Group 1 elements are more reactive than the group 2 elements because they have more valence to lose. B.Lithium is the least reactive element in group, because its valence electron is held more tightly than the others in

asked by Emiko on September 13, 2014
Chemistry
How many nonbonding electrons does phosphorus have? is it 5 valence electrons

asked by Ciaria on March 3, 2015
science
How does the structure if an atom relate to how electric charges form? I don’t quite understand the question. All electrons and protons have charges. The charges do not “form”, they are already there. They are part of every atom. The attraction between

asked by Jesie on January 12, 2007
Physical Science
Compare the number of valence electrons an oxygen, O, atom has with the number of valence electrons a selenium, Se, atom has. Are oxygen and selenium in the same period or group?

asked by Janisha on November 29, 2008
Science
compare the number of valence electrons an oxygen, O, atom has with the number of valence electrons a selenium, Se, atom has. are oxygen and selenium in the same period or group?

asked by Ally on January 23, 2011
Physical science
Compare the number of valence electrons an oxygen atom has with the number of valence electrons a selenium atom has. Are oxygen and selenium in the same period or group?

asked by Anonymous on February 9, 2011
Physical science
Compare the number of valence electrons an oxygen atom has with the number of valence electrons a selenium atom has. Are oxygen and selenium in the same period or group?

asked by Anonymous on February 9, 2011
Chemistry…kinda simple
What are the valence electrons in the following? PH4+ (phosphonium) HCN (hydrogen cynide) NO3- CN- H3O+ NH4Cl i know its kinda simple but i just can’t really seem to grasp it Thanks in advance! I don’t understand the question. Do you mean how many

asked by Mallory on January 14, 2007

CHEM
I just have one more question regarding electron configurations for the following ions: Mo^3+ V^3+ I cannot understand why my answers are not working. Not listing as ground-state configs, but as full e- configs: shouldn’t Mo^3+ be: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6,

asked by K on November 13, 2007
Physics(semiconductors)
Is electron and hole flow the same in a diode?is the following explanation correct .if not then please provide the correct one When diode is forward biased,the forward current is the sum of electron current and hole current.this current is diffusion

asked by Plz help!! on October 12, 2016
Chemistry
In the Lewis structure for SF4, there are: a. 12 electrons surrounding the S. b. 10 electrons surrounding the S c. a total of 42 valence electrons. d. Both a and c are correct. e. None of the above are correct

asked by catherine on September 10, 2010
chem
There are eight markers in a full set, but Flora and Frank each only have seven markers.Flora is missing the red marker, and Frank is missing the blue marker.What can they do so that each has a full set of markers? * steal the ones they need share with

asked by the truth (2018) on October 24, 2018
Chem
assuming that core electrons contribute 1.00 and valence electrons contribute nothing to the screening constant, S, calculate Zeff for Cl and K.

asked by Mrs. Brisco on November 1, 2013
science
Electrons that have the highest energy are _. A. nuclear electrons B. part of the nucleus C. closest to the nucleus D. valence electrons Im not going to say an answer becuse I have no clue what it is and I dont want to get accused of guessing so do you

asked by I would love some help! on February 1, 2018
chemistry
how do u draw the lewis structure for something like CO -2 over 3. do u add 2 electrons on to the oxygen when yur finding the number of valence electrons cuz that’s wat i thought u did but then i got all those questions wrong so wat do u do

asked by michelle on October 4, 2007
Physics
A current of 4 A flows in a copper wire 10 mm in diameter. The density of valence electrons in copper is roughly 9 × 1028 m−3. Find the drift speed of these electrons. Answer in units of m/s.

asked by Aj on November 1, 2012
Chemistry
Which of the following statements is true regarding a covalent bond in CO? Valence electrons are transferred to the oxygen atom. The bond length is less than the sum of the two atomic radii. Bonding electrons are stationary in the CO molecule. all of the

asked by Lue on April 17, 2014
chemistry
Identify the monoatomic ion that has the following properties. a. 11 protons and 10 total electrons Na+ b. 9 protons and 8 valence electrons F- c. 47 protons and 46 total electrons Ag+ d. 28 protons and 26 total electrons Ni2+

asked by kr on February 6, 2012

chemistry
for the reaction, determine the number of transferring electrons so then i can pug into G=-nFE I’m assigning charges to each of the elements H2O2(aq) + 2ClO2(g) → O2(g) + 2HClO2(aq) (+1,-1) + (+4,-2) (0) (+1,+1,-2) since O changes from -1 to 0, so it

asked by eng(check my answer please) on June 3, 2010
chemistry
for the reaction, determine the number of transferring electrons so then i can pug into G=-nFE I’m assigning charges to each of the elements H2O2(aq) + 2ClO2(g) → O2(g) + 2HClO2(aq) (+1,-1) + (+4,-2) (0) (+1,+1,-2) since O changes from -1 to 0, so it

asked by eng on June 3, 2010
Chemistry
Anthracene is a yellow, crystalline solid found in coal tar. Complete this structure for anthracene, C14H10, by adding bonds and hydrogen atoms as necessary. What type of hybrid orbitals are utilized by carbon in anthracene? >>sp3 How many σ bonds and π

asked by Dan on November 22, 2015
Science -CHECK MY WORK-
a.) How can you describe the location of vanadium (V, atomic number 23) on the periodic table? Choose all that apply. 1. period 5, group 4 2. period 4, group 5 3. lanthanum series 4. nonmetals 5. transition metals b.) What is true about the element calcium

asked by Jessica on January 28, 2014
chemistry
What does electron affinity depend on? A. Both the effective nuclear charge and the number of shells in the atom containing electrons B. Attraction between the protons and neutrons C. Only the effective nuclear charge D. Attraction between the valence

asked by Morgan on December 11, 2014
Chemisty
Using the equation Zeff = Z – S and assuming that core electrons contribute 1.00 and valence electrons contribute 0.00 to the screening constant, S, calculate Zeff for the 2p electrons in F^- and Na^+ Repeat this calculation using Slater’s rules to

asked by Jerica on April 5, 2010
science
below are about 21 questions from my final study guide. I was given a 563 question study guide for my final and obviously I did not understand every question. So basically I did not understand 4% of the questions which is pretty good. Just any help with

asked by JAKE on February 28, 2008
HELP!! Chemistry
Draw a Lewis structure for SO(subscript 2) in which all atoms obey the octet rule. Show formal charges. Draw a Lewis structure for SO(subscript 2) in which all the atoms have a formal charge of zero. Explicitly showing zero charges is optional.

asked by anonymous on April 8, 2013
chemistry
Which of the following statements correctly describes energy levels? A. Electrons can never move to a higher or lower energy level. B. In its outermost energy level, oxygen has 4 valence electrons C. The second energy level holds a maximum of eight

asked by Emiko on September 2, 2014
chemistry
which of the following statements correctly describes energy levels? A. Electrons can never move to a higher or lower energy level. B. In its outermost energy level, oxygen has 4 valence electrons C. The Second energy level holds a maximum of eight

asked by Hideko on September 6, 2014

chemistry
Which of following statements correctly describes energy levels? A. Electrons can never move to a higher or lower energy level. B.In it’s outermost energy level, oxygen has 4 valence electrons. C. The second energy level holds a maximum of eight electrons.

asked by Yui on August 23, 2014
Chemistry
How many valence electrons does Mo+3 have?

asked by James on April 8, 2011
History
How did Christianity help enslaved people resist? It taught them how to read and write. It taught them the value of following rules. It taught them that the wealthy were usually kind. It taught them that bad circumstances could be overcome. D right ?

asked by Pls help on May 12, 2017
Science
How are valence electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond? They gave me the answer as…They are shared with another atom (or atoms). However, i thought they shared electrons not atoms…it confused me

asked by Shannon on January 13, 2008
Chemistry
1) What is the atomic # for selenium? 34 2) Write the full electron configuration for selenium following the (n+l) rule? I am not sure what is meant by n+l 3) write the electron configuration, grouping electrons by their “n” values. [Ar]3d10 4s2 4p4 Are

asked by Hannah on November 1, 2011

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a student was given a solid containing a mixture of nitrate salts

A student mixed two clear liquids together in a beaker and a solid precipitate formed. His data is shown in the table below. Liquid reactant A = 10 g Liquid
21,557 results
science
A student mixed two clear liquids together in a beaker and a solid precipitate formed. His data is shown in the table below. Liquid reactant A = 10 g Liquid reactant B = 17 g Beaker + solid product= 32 g What is the mass of the beaker? A. 5 g B. 10 g C. 15

asked by Oscar on March 30, 2015
Science
A student mixed two clear liquids together in a beaker and a solid precipitate formed. His data is shown in the table below. Liquid reactant A = 10 g Liquid reactant B = 17 g Beaker + solid product= 32 g What is the mass of the beaker? A. 5 g B. 10 g C. 15

asked by Callie on November 6, 2014
Science HELP
A student mixed two clear liquids together in a beaker and a solid precipitate formed. His data is shown in the table below. Liquid reactant A = 10 g Liquid reactant B = 17 g Beaker + solid product= 32 g What is the mass of the beaker? A. 5 g B. 10 g C. 15

asked by Callie on November 6, 2014
Science
A student mixed two clear liquids together in a beaker and a solid precipitate formed. His data is shown in the table below. Liquid reactant A 10 g Liquid reactant B 17 g Beaker + solid product 32 g What is the mass of the beaker? A. 5 g B. 10 g C. 15 g D.

asked by Anonymous on February 6, 2019
Science Help!
A student mixed two clear liquids together in a beaker. A solid and a new liquid formed. The student forgot to write down the mass of one of the reactansts. The rest of the data are shown in the table below. Table Mass (g) Liquid reactant A/ unknown Liquid

asked by Callie on November 12, 2014

Science
A student mixed two clear liquids together in a beaker. A gas and a new liquid formed. The gas escaped, so the student was unable to measure its mass. She guessed that its mass was no more than 10.0 [LW1] grams. Her data is shown in the table below. Mass

asked by Baby_Banana on February 6, 2018
Chemistry
A student was given a solid containing a mixture of nitrate salts. The sample completely dissolved in water, and upon addition of dilute HCl, no precipitate formed. The pH was lowered to about 1 and H2S was bubbled through the solution. No precipitate

asked by Neeta on April 10, 2014
Chemistry
When a clear aqueous solution of calcium chloride (CaCl2) is mixed with a clear aqueous solution of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), a white solid precipitate forms. What happens to the mass of the mixture after the solid precipitate forms? Choose the best

asked by Lily on September 25, 2012
Science

  1. Which of the following changes gives no evidence that a chemical reaction has taken place? A cube of solid forms a puddle of liquid. A certain liquid is added to a solid, and bubbles of gas form. Two liquids are mixed, and a precipitate forms. Heating a

asked by SpiersTheAmazingHd on March 26, 2013
Chemistry
Suppose u place a beaker containing a solution in a refrigerator , an hr later a white solid is found on thr bottom of thr beaker. What happened. Why? I think a precipitate formed, but can any1 explain briefly so i can understand better? Thanks

asked by Mia on February 23, 2013
Some Chemistry Questions
I got three questions. If you were making a tool used to handle live electrical wires, which class of materials would you most likely use? ***Semimetals Metalloids Nonmetals Metals Which of the following changes gives no evidence that a chemical reaction

asked by Leet Speaker on February 29, 2016
Chemistry – Science (Dr. Bob222)
At 25 degree C, a student adds 0.400 g of solid phosphoric acid to a beaker containing 500.0ml of water. After the solid is completely dissolved the student adds 20.0ml of a 0.995M sodium hydroxide. What is the pOH of the solution in the beaker?

asked by Adrik on April 13, 2014
science
The two insulated beakers contain equal amounts of identical liquids. The temperature of Beaker A is 85°C. The temperature of Beaker B is 40°C. A metal rod connects the beakers. Five minutes later, the temperature of Beaker A is 75°C and the temperature

asked by Isabel on March 21, 2015
Science
If you have a beaker that contains 100ml at 40 degrees and a beaker that contains 200ml at 25 degrees. After a while the temperature of both liquids have decreased. In terms of energy describe what has happened to the liquids.

asked by Liam lowe on January 22, 2015
chemistry
When aqueous solutions of iron (III) sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3) and sodkum hydroxide were mixed, a precipitate formed. What is the precipitate?

asked by Ama on November 25, 2012

Chemistry
24.0 mL of 2.4 M silver nitrate is mixed with 32.0 mL of 2.0 M sodium chloride. ( I wrote the balanced equation as AgNo3+NaCl -> NaNo3 + AgCl ) A) Identify the precipitate formed by name and formula. – I wrote AgCl (silver chloride) B) Calculate the mass

asked by Sara on March 2, 2016
Chemistry
A student is given a 5.000g sample to analyze composed of tin metal with a small amount of a zinc impurity. The student dissolves the metal in concentrated nitric acid, allows the reaction to continue to completion, and heats the mixture to leave 6.341g of

asked by Nicholas on September 18, 2017
chem 100
Super confusing question im not sure how to approach a. Determine the concentration of lead ion in solution (the molar solubility) if PbI2(s) is in equilibrium with water. Ksp = 9.8*10-9 b. From part a, it should be clear that if Pb2+(aq) and I-(aq) are

asked by Mall on May 21, 2015
chemistry
what happens when solids, liquids, and gases are heated/cooled? Most expand if heated; contract if cooled. Solids, if heated high enough will melt and the liquid may occupy less volume than the solid. Likewise, liquids, if heated high enough, will boil and

asked by carter on October 9, 2006
Sci
when a large amount of FeCl3 is dissolved in water, a clear solution is formed at the beginning but eventually a precipitate is formed. Why? Explain with chemical equation.

asked by T on March 2, 2013
Chemistry
What is the formula of the precipitate formed from the precipitation reaction of Pb(NO3)2 and NaI? QUESTION 2 When aqueous solutions of (NH4)3PO4 and KOH are mixed, what precipitate(s) will form? K3PO4 NH4OH no precipitate will form NH4OH and K3PO4

asked by Tatiyana on September 27, 2017
chemistry
When calcium chloride and ammonium phosphate are mixed, an insoluble precipitate of calcium phosphate forms and falls out of solution. After careful analysis of the purified precipitate, 8.16 * 10^25 atoms of calcium are found in the solid. How many other

asked by Yasmin on December 11, 2014
Chemistry need help please!!!!
Write the formula of the anion present (i.e. anions are charged; do not write compounds) in these unknowns as indicated by these test results. 1) An unknown solution was treated with ammonium hydroxide and then with barium chloride. A precipitate formed.

asked by Kristian on October 20, 2014
chemistry 20 MC questions
1- The equipment needed to carry out a titration is: A) hot plate, pipet, and filter paper B) heat source, test tube, and filter paper C) heat source, pipet, and burette D) erlenmeyer flask, pipet, and burette 2- A student correctly predicted that 10.0 g

asked by memo on October 22, 2012
Chemistry
When an aqueous solution of lithium chloride is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate a precipitate forms a new salt is formed a gas is evolved an acid and base are formed no reaction occurs I either thought it was a precipitate forms or no

asked by Lauren on December 11, 2007

chemistry
A student is given 3 beakers: Beaker 1- 50.0 ml of a solution produced by dissolving 6.00 grams of a weak monoprotic acid ,HX, in enough water to produce 1 liter of solution. The empirical formula of HX is CH2O. The solution contains 3 drops of

asked by ashley on February 12, 2012
Chemistry
If a solution containing 52.044 g of mercury(II) chlorate is allowed to react completely with a solution containing 15.488 g of sodium sulfate, how many grams of solid precipitate will be formed? How many grams of the reactant in excess will remain after

asked by Chelsea on October 13, 2013
chemistry
You have four beakers labeled A, B, C, and D. In beaker A, you place 100 grams of silver nitrate and enough water to make 50 mL of solution. In beaker D, you place 100 grams of KCl and enough water to make 100 mL of solution. You also pour 100 mL of water

asked by brandi on April 24, 2008
Org. Chem.
what is the precipitate formed when HCl is added? I believe the answer is NaCl, but I am not sure and this precipitate only formed in the first NaOH extract, as precipitate was essentially nonexistent in the 2nd extract? Below is what was done in the

asked by CM on September 21, 2009
chemistry
a chemist puts 50g of chemical a in beaker 1 and 25 g of chemical b in beaker 2 she places bot beaker into a larger container. as the chemicals evaporated the gas react into a white solid what mass of solid will form if chemicals react

asked by Anonymous on April 12, 2015
Chemistry
A solution contains one or more of the following ions: silver, barium, and Copper (II). CY 105 student adds sodium chloride to a small sample of the solution of the unknown and a white precipitate is formed. He/she filters out the precipitate and then add

asked by Allison on March 10, 2015
Chemistry
If very small concentrations of NaCl and AgNO3 are mixed, no precipitate forms. However, if large concentrations are mixed, a white precipitate forms. Can someone tell me a method for testing the hypothesis that “insoluble” salts would dissolve to some

asked by Sarah on February 12, 2012
Chemistry
If very small concentrations of NaCl and AgNO3 are mixed, no precipitate forms. However, if large concentrations are mixed, a white precipitate forms. Can someone tell me a method for testing the hypothesis that “insoluble” salts would dissolve to some

asked by Sarah on February 26, 2012
Chemistry
Two beakers were used in an experiment each with 100g of water at 30 degrees C. To the first beaker, 90g of NaNO3 was added. To the second beaker, 90g of KNO3 was added. (a)Which beaker had the salt precipitate out (settle to the bottom) and how much? (b)

asked by Toni Jones on April 28, 2008
science — pls check my work!!!
hi, pls check my work asap! 1. A _ has a definite shape and a definite volume. (1 point) solid*** liquid gas molecule 2. Why is a gas able to flow? (1 point) Its particles have melted and can move around.Its particles have high viscosity and can move

asked by TTR+S<3 on February 8, 2014

Chemistry
Calculate the mass of the precipitate formed when 2.27 L of 0.0820 M Ba(OH)2 are mixed with 3.06 L of 0.0664 M Na2SO4.

asked by David on August 13, 2016
chemistry
Several reactions are carried out using AgBr, a cream-colored silver salt for which the value of the solubility product constant, Ksp, is 5.0 x 10-13 at 298 K. a) Calculate the value of [Ag+] in 50.0 mL of a saturated solution of AgBr at 298 K. b) A 50.0

asked by jack on March 13, 2015
science
The two insulated beakers contain equal amounts of identical liquids. The temperature of Beaker A is 80°C. The temperature of Beaker B is 50°C. A copper rod connects the beakers. The system is then left alone for several hours. What would you expect to

asked by Isabel on March 21, 2015
science
The two insulated beakers contain equal amounts of identical liquids. The temperature of Beaker A is 80°C. The temperature of Beaker B is 50°C. A copper rod connects the beakers. The system is then left alone for several hours. What would you expect to

asked by Isabel on March 21, 2015
science
The two insulated beakers contain equal amounts of identical liquids. The temperature of Beaker A is 80°C. The temperature of Beaker B is 50°C. A copper rod connects the beakers. The system is then left alone for several hours. What would you expect to

asked by Isabel on March 21, 2015
ap chemistry
When 50.0 mL of a 0.010 M CuNO3 solution is mixed with 150.0 mL of a 0.010 M NaCl solution, a precipitate forms (Ksp = 1.9 x 10^-7). a) Determine all final ion concentrations b) Determine the mass of the precipitate formed. How do i do this?

asked by alex on March 28, 2012
chemistry
Let’s say for example I have 5g of copper in a beaker. Mass would be 5g + mass of beaker. If I add any given amount of water to the beaker containing the copper, that will change the mass of the beaker containing the copper. Am I correct so far? So then if

asked by J on November 5, 2014
chem 161
What mass of precipitate will be formed when 25 mL of 0.532 M silver nitrate is mixed with 25 mL of 0.333 M NaCl?

asked by N on May 6, 2016
science
Two insulated beakers contain different amounts of identical liquids. Beaker A contains twice as much liquid as Beaker B. The temperature of Beaker A is 80°C. The temperature of Beaker B is 40°C. An aluminum rod connects the beakers, and the system is

asked by Isabel on March 21, 2015
Chem
When an aqueous solution of lithium chloride is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate __. A. a precipitate form B. a new salf is formed C. a gas is evolved D. an acid and base are formed E. no reaction occurs

asked by Taylor on October 24, 2007

re-chem please
if i had a beaker with .0001M of Cu solution and copper solid (anode) and another beaker with 1M Cu solution and Cu solid (cathode), how would i calculate the half reactions of these two? would the two equations be: cu2+(aq) –> Cu(s) + 2e- and ?

asked by sarah on January 26, 2009
Chemistry
Consider the densities of the liquid substances listed. a) How will substance X, a solid, with density of 0.87 g/cm^3, behave when placed in each of the other pure liquids? b) Sketch and label a test tube containing substances A,B,C, and X. Assume that the

asked by Bobbie on September 9, 2009
Chemistry
Ag2S is an insoluable black solid. Would more solid dissolve, or precipitate once the following are added to the solution. 1. KS—–I know [S] increases, shift to reactants side, precipitate 2. HClO 3. LiOH 4. NH4OH

asked by Jake on June 20, 2012
Chemistry
What mass of calcium citrate, Ca3(C6 H5 O7)2, would a tablet manufacturer need to use to provide the same amount of Ca that you found in your tablet? (show calculations) The mass of Calcium for the experiment was .7374g We assumed that any solid that

asked by Chris on October 17, 2016
Chemistry
So I mixed 25 mL of 0.002 M KSCN and 25 mL of water in a beaker. The solution was clear with no precipitants. But then it says the ions present in KSCN are: so i put K+,S2- , CN- is that right?

asked by Ana on November 28, 2010
chemistry please
if i had a beaker with .0001M of Cu solution and copper solid (anode) and another beaker with 1M Cu solution and Cu solid (cathode), how would i calculate the half reactions of these two?

asked by sarah on January 26, 2009
chemistry
I have no idea how to go about this question, please help! A clumsy chemist accidentally pours 100 mL of a 0.004 M Na2SO4 solution into a beaker containing 500 mL of 0.050 M CaCl2. Will a precipitate be formed? Explain your reasoning and/or show all

asked by ryan on February 1, 2015
AP Chemistry
A precipitate is formed by adding 20.0 ml of 0.200M of sodium phosphate to 30.0 ml of 0.50M Copper sulfate. b.) what mass of solid will be formed? c.) Calculate the concentration of each ion in the solution after the precipitation is complete. See the

asked by Jenna on January 5, 2007
chemistry
Complete and balance each of the following equations. K2SO4(aq)+BaBr2(aq)→ Would it be K2SO4(aq)+BaBr2(aq)→K2Br2 +SO4Ba? Express your answer as a chemical equation. Enter no reaction if no precipitate is formed. (How can we know if a solid is formed in

asked by Luis on September 30, 2014
Science
Please Check my Work:pls check my work asap! 1. A _ has a definite shape and a definite volume. (1 point) 1. solid (My Choice) 2. liquid 3. gas 4. molecule 2. Why is a gas able to flow? (1 point) 1. Its particles have melted and can move around. 2. Its

asked by A.J on April 8, 2014

Chemistry
Will the following reactions mixed together cause a precipitate reaction, released gas reaction, or no reaction. Ba(NO3)2 mixed with NaCl Ba(NO3)2 mixed with HCl Ba(NO3)2 mixed with Na2CO3 Ba(NO3)2 mixed withNa3SO4 also Ba(NO3)2 is soluble and a solid and

asked by Summer on July 28, 2014
physics
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Physics
During an all-night cram session, a student heats up a 0.332 liter (0.332 x 10- 3 m3) glass (Pyrex) beaker of cold coffee. Initially, the temperature is 19.0 °C, and the beaker is filled to the brim. A short time later when the student returns, the

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So we did an experiment where we mixed Cacl2 and NaCl and then found the mass of the precipitate. Then we compared it to reference data on a standard curve to see the mass of Na2Co3 reacting to produce the CaCo3. So what I’m stuck on is this: Suppose the

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The general statement: “like dissolves like” means: identical compounds will dissolve to form a solution. one stronger component must beak down the weaker component. liquids will only dissolve in liquids. solid will dissolve in liquids. the components of a

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The density of liquid “A” is 1.80gm/ml, liquid “B” is 1.10 gm/ml and liquid “C” is 1.40 gm/ml. If theses liquids are immiscible in each other and a piece of solid with a specific gravity of 0.80 is placed in a container of all these liquids, what will

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journal entries based on the bank reconciliation are required in the depositor’s accounts for

study objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

1 Define fraud and internal control.

2 Identify the principles of internal control activities.

3 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash receipts.

4 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash disbursements.

5 Prepare a bank reconciliation.

6 Explain the reporting of cash.

7 Discuss the basic principles of cash management.

8 Identify the primary elements of a cash budget.

chapter

FRAUD, INTERNAL CONTROL, AND CASH

7

334

● Scan Study Objectives

● Read Feature Story

● Scan Preview

● Read Text and Answer p. 346 p. 349 p. 358 p. 363

● Work Using the Decision Toolkit

● Review Summary of Study Objectives

● Work Comprehensive p. 369

● Answer Self-Test Questions

● Complete Assignments

● Go to WileyPLUS for practice and tutorials

● Read A Look at IFRS p. 393

● the navigator

Do it!

Do it!

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 334

feature story

335

If you’re ever looking for a cappuccino in Moose Jaw,

Saskatchewan, stop by Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee

and More, located on Main Street. Staff there serve,

on average, 650 cups of coffee a day, including both

regular and specialty coffees, not to mention soups,

Italian sandwiches, and a wide assortment of gourmet

cheesecakes.

“We’ve got high school stu-

dents who come here, and students

from the community college,”

says owner/manager Stephanie

Mintenko, who has run the place since opening it in

1995. “We have customers who are retired, and oth-

ers who are working people and have only 30 minutes

for lunch. We have to be pretty quick.”

That means that the cashiers have to be efficient.

Like most businesses where purchases are low-cost

and high-volume, cash control has to be simple.

“We have an electronic cash register, but it’s not

the fancy new kind where you just punch in the item,”

explains Ms. Mintenko. “You have to punch in the

prices.” The machine does keep track of sales in sev-

eral categories, however. Cashiers punch a button to

indicate whether each item is a beverage, a meal, or

a charge for the cafe’s Internet connections. An in-

ternal tape in the machine keeps a record of all trans-

actions; the customer receives a receipt only upon

request.

There is only one cash register. “Up to three of us

might operate it on any given shift, including myself,”

says Ms. Mintenko.

She and her staff do two

“cashouts” each day—one with the

shift change at 5:00 p.m. and one

when the shop closes at 10:00

p.m. At each cashout, they count the cash in the reg-

ister drawer. That amount, minus the cash change car-

ried forward (the float), should match the shift total on

the register tape. If there’s a discrepancy, they do an-

other count. Then, if necessary, “we go through the

whole tape to find the mistake,” she explains. “It usu-

ally turns out to be someone who punched in $18 in-

stead of $1.80, or something like that.”

Ms. Mintenko sends all the cash tapes and float

totals to a bookkeeper, who double-checks everything

and provides regular reports. “We try to keep the ac-

counting simple, so we can concentrate on making

great coffee and food.”

● SOX Boosts the Role of Human Resources (p. 345) ● Big Theft at Small Companies (p. 345) ● How Employees Steal (p. 351) ● Madoff’s Ponzi Scheme (p. 357)

INSIDE CHAPTER 7 . . .

M I N D I N G TH E MON EY I N MOOS E JAW

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 335

Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

As the story about recording cash sales at Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee and More indicates, control of cash is important to ensure that fraud does not occur. Companies also need controls to safeguard other types of assets. For example, Stephanie’s undoubtedly has controls to prevent the theft of food and supplies, and con- trols to prevent the theft of tableware and dishes from its kitchen.

In this chapter, we explain the essential features of an internal control system and how it prevents fraud. We also describe how those controls apply to a specific asset—cash. The applications include some controls with which you may be already familiar, such as the use of a bank.

The content and organization of Chapter 7 are as follows.

preview of chapter 7

• Fraud • The Sarbanes-Oxley

Act • Internal control • Principles of internal

control activities • Limitations

Fraud and Internal Control

• Cash receipts controls • Cash disbursements

controls

Cash Controls

• Bank statements • Reconciling the bank

account

Use of a Bank

• Cash equivalents • Restricted cash

Reporting Cash

• Basic principles

Managing and Monitoring Cash

336

Fraud and Internal Control The Feature Story describes many of the internal control procedures used by Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee and More. These procedures are necessary to dis- courage employees from fraudulent activities.

FRAUD

A fraud is a dishonest act by an employee that results in personal benefit to the employee at a cost to the employer. Examples of fraud reported in the financial press include:

• A bookkeeper in a small company diverted $750,000 of bill payments to a personal bank account over a three-year period.

• A shipping clerk with 28 years of service shipped $125,000 of merchandise to himself.

• A computer operator embezzled $21 million from Wells Fargo Bank over a two-year period.

• A church treasurer “borrowed” $150,000 of church funds to finance a friend’s business dealings.

Why does fraud occur? The three main factors that contribute to fraudulent activity are depicted by the fraud triangle in Illustration 7-1.

The most important element of the fraud triangle is opportunity. For an employee to commit fraud, the workplace environment must provide opportu- nities that an employee can exploit. Opportunities occur when the workplace lacks sufficient controls to deter and detect fraud. For example, inadequate

1 Define fraud and internal control.

study objective

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 336

monitoring of employee actions can create opportunities for theft and can embolden employees because they believe they will not be caught.

A second factor that contributes to fraud is financial pres- sure. Employees sometimes commit fraud because of personal fi- nancial problems caused by too much debt. Or they might com- mit fraud because they want to lead a lifestyle that they cannot afford on their current salary.

The third factor that contributes to fraud is rationalization. In order to justify their fraud, employees rationalize their dishon- est actions. For example, employees sometimes justify fraud because they be- lieve they are underpaid while the employer is making lots of money. These em- ployees feel justified in stealing because they believe they deserve to be paid more.

THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT

What can be done to prevent or to detect fraud? After numerous corporate scan- dals came to light in the early 2000s, Congress addressed this issue by passing the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). Under SOX, all publicly traded U.S. corporations are required to maintain an adequate system of internal control. Corporate executives and boards of directors must ensure that these controls are reliable and effective. In addition, independent outside auditors must attest to the adequacy of the internal control system. Companies that fail to comply are subject to fines, and company officers can be imprisoned. SOX also created the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) to establish auditing standards and regulate auditor activity.

One poll found that 60% of investors believe that SOX helps safeguard their stock investments. Many say they would be unlikely to invest in a company that fails to follow SOX requirements. Although some corporate executives have criticized the time and expense involved in following the SOX require- ments, SOX appears to be working well. For example, the chief accounting of- ficer of Eli Lily noted that SOX triggered a comprehensive review of how the company documents controls. This review uncovered redundancies and pointed out controls that needed to be added. In short, it added up to time and money well spent. And the finance chief at General Electric noted, “We have seen value in SOX. It helps build investors’ trust and gives them more confidence.”1

INTERNAL CONTROL

Internal control consists of all the related methods and measures adopted within an organization to safeguard its assets, enhance the reliability of its ac- counting records, increase efficiency of operations, and ensure compliance with laws and regulations. Internal control systems have five primary components as listed below.2

• A control environment. It is the responsibility of top management to make it clear that the organization values integrity and that unethical activity will not be tolerated. This component is often referred to as the “tone at the top.”

Illustration 7-1 Fraud triangle

Fraud and Internal Control 337

Opportunity

Financial Pressure

Rationalization

1“Corporate Regulation Must Be Working—There’s a Backlash,” Wall Street Journal (June 16, 2004), p. C1; and Judith Burns, “Is Sarbanes-Oxley Working?” Wall Street Journal (June 21, 2004), pp. R8–R9. 2The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, “Internal Control— Integrated Framework,” www.coso.org/publications/executive_summary_integrated_framework.htm (accessed March 2008).

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338 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

• Risk assessment. Companies must identify and analyze the various factors that create risk for the business and must determine how to manage these risks.

• Control activities. To reduce the occurrence of fraud, management must design policies and procedures to address the specific risks faced by the company.

• Information and communication. The internal control system must cap- ture and communicate all pertinent information both down and up the or- ganization, as well as communicate information to appropriate external parties.

• Monitoring. Internal control systems must be monitored periodically for their adequacy. Significant deficiencies need to be reported to top manage- ment and/or the board of directors.

PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL CONTROL ACTIVITIES

Each of the five components of an internal control system is important. Here, we will focus on one component, the control activities. The reason? These ac- tivities are the backbone of the company’s efforts to address the risks it faces, such as fraud. The specific control activities used by a company will vary, de- pending on management’s assessment of the risks faced. This assessment is heav- ily influenced by the size and nature of the company.

The six principles of control activities are as follows.

• Establishment of responsibility • Segregation of duties • Documentation procedures • Physical controls • Independent internal verification • Human resource controls

We explain these principles in the following sections. You should recognize that they apply to most companies and are relevant to both manual and computer- ized accounting systems.

Establishment of Responsibility An essential principle of internal control is to assign responsibility to specific employees. Control is most effective when only one person is responsible for a given task.

To illustrate, assume that the cash on hand at the end of the day in a Safe- way supermarket is $10 short of the cash rung up on the cash register. If only one person has operated the register, the shift manager can quickly determine responsibility for the shortage. If two or more individuals have worked the reg- ister, it may be impossible to determine who is responsible for the error. In the Feature Story, the principle of establishing responsibility does not appear to be strictly applied by Stephanie’s, since three people operate the cash register on any given shift.

Establishing responsibility often requires limiting access only to authorized personnel, and then identifying those personnel. For example, the automated systems used by many companies have mechanisms such as identifying pass- codes that keep track of who made a journal entry, who rang up a sale, or who entered an inventory storeroom at a particular time. Use of identifying passcodes enables the company to establish responsibility by identifying the particular em- ployee who carried out the activity.

2 Identify the principles of internal control activities.

It’s your shift now. I’m turning in my cash drawer

and heading home.

Transfer of cash drawers

study objective

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 338

Segregation of Duties Segregation of duties is indispensable in an internal control system. There are two common applications of this principle:

1. Different individuals should be responsible for related activities.

2. The responsibility for record-keeping for an asset should be separate from the physical custody of that asset.

The rationale for segregation of duties is this: The work of one employee should, without a duplication of effort, provide a reliable basis for evalu- ating the work of another employee. For example, the personnel that design and program computerized systems should not be assigned duties related to day- to-day use of the system. Otherwise, they could design the system to benefit them personally and conceal the fraud through day-to-day use.

SEGREGATION OF RELATED ACTIVITIES. Making one individual responsible for related activities increases the potential for errors and irregularities.

For example, companies should assign related purchasing activities to differ- ent individuals. Related purchasing activities include ordering merchandise, or- der approval, receiving goods, authorizing payment, and paying for goods or services. Various frauds are possible when one person handles related purchas- ing activities. For example:

• If a purchasing agent is allowed to order goods without supervisory approval, the likelihood of the agent receiving kickbacks from suppliers increases.

• If an employee who orders goods also handles receipt of the goods and in- voice, as well as payment authorization, he or she might authorize payment for a fictitious invoice.

These abuses are less likely to occur when companies divide the purchasing tasks. Similarly, companies should assign related sales activities to different individ-

uals. Related selling activities include making a sale, shipping (or delivering) the goods to the customer, billing the customer, and receiving payment. Various frauds are possible when one person handles related sales transactions. For example:

• If a salesperson can make a sale without obtaining supervisory approval, he or she might make sales at unauthorized prices to increase sales commissions.

Fraud and Internal Control 339

Maureen Frugali was a training supervisor for claims processing at Colossal Healthcare. As a standard part of the claims processing training program, Maureen created fictitious claims for use by trainees. These fictitious claims were then sent to the accounts payable department. After the training claims had been processed, she was to notify Accounts Payable of all ficti- tious claims, so that they would not be paid. However, she did not inform Accounts Payable about every fictitious claim. She created some fictitious claims for entities that she controlled (that is, she would receive the payment), and she let Accounts Payable pay her.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $11 million

THE MISSING CONTROL Establishment of responsibility. The healthcare company did not adequately restrict the responsibility for authoring and approving claims transactions. The training supervisor should not have been authorized to create claims in the company’s “live” system.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 61–70.

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340 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

• A shipping clerk who also has access to accounting records could ship goods to himself.

• A billing clerk who handles billing and cash receipts could understate the amount billed for sales made to friends and relatives.

These abuses are less likely to occur when companies divide the sales tasks: the salespeople make the sale; the shipping department ships the goods on the basis of the sales order; and the billing department prepares the sales invoice after comparing the sales order with the report of goods shipped.

SEGREGATION OF RECORD-KEEPING FROM PHYSICAL CUSTODY. The accountant should have neither physical custody of the asset nor access to it. Likewise, the custodian of the asset should not maintain or have access to the accounting records. The custodian of the asset is not likely to convert the asset to per- sonal use when one employee maintains the record of the asset, and a dif- ferent employee has physical custody of the asset. The separation of account- ing responsibility from the custody of assets is especially important for cash and inventories because these assets are very vulnerable to fraud.

Lawrence Fairbanks, the assistant vice-chancellor of communications at Aesop University, was allowed to make purchases of under $2,500 for his department without external approval. Unfortunately, he also sometimes bought items for himself, such as expensive antiques and other collectibles. How did he do it? He replaced the vendor invoices he received with fake vendor invoices that he created. The fake invoices had descriptions that were more consis- tent with communications department purchases. He submitted these fake invoices to the accounting department as the basis for their journal entries and to the accounts payable department as the basis for payment.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $475,000

THE MISSING CONTROL Segregation of duties. The university had not properly segregated related purchasing activities. Lawrence was ordering items, receiving the items, and receiving the invoice. By receiving the invoice, he had control over the documents that were used to account for the purchase and thus was able to substitute a fake invoice.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 3–15.

Angela Bauer was an accounts payable clerk for Aggasiz Construction Company. She pre- pared and issued checks to vendors and reconciled bank statements. She perpetrated a fraud in this way: She wrote checks for costs that the company had not actually incurred (e.g., fake taxes). A supervisor then approved and signed the checks. Before issuing the check, though, Angela would “white-out” the payee line on the check and change it to personal accounts that she controlled. She was able to conceal the theft because she also reconciled the bank account. That is, nobody else ever saw that the checks had been altered.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $570,000

Segregation of duties (Accountability for assets)

Assistant cashier B Maintains custody of cash on hand

Accounting employee A Maintains cash

balances per books

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 340

Documentation Procedures Documents provide evidence that transactions and events have occurred. At Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee and More, the cash register tape is the restaurant’s documentation for the sale and the amount of cash received. Similarly, a ship- ping document indicates that the goods have been shipped, and a sales invoice indicates that the company has billed the customer for the goods. By requiring signatures (or initials) on the documents, the company can identify the individ- ual(s) responsible for the transaction or event. Companies should document transactions when the transaction occurs.

Companies should establish procedures for documents. First, whenever pos- sible, companies should use prenumbered documents, and all documents should be accounted for. Prenumbering helps to prevent a transaction from being recorded more than once, or conversely, from not being recorded at all. Second, the control system should require that employees promptly forward source documents for accounting entries to the accounting department. This control measure helps to ensure timely recording of the transaction and contributes directly to the accuracy and reliability of the accounting records.

Fraud and Internal Control 341

THE MISSING CONTROL Segregation of duties. Aggasiz Construction Company did not properly segregate record- keeping from physical custody. Angela had physical custody of the blank checks, which essentially was control of the cash. She also had record-keeping responsibility because she prepared the bank reconciliation.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 100–107.

To support their reimbursement requests for travel costs incurred, employees at Mod Fashions Corporation’s design center were required to submit receipts. The receipts could include the detailed bill provided for a meal, or the credit card receipt provided when the credit card pay- ment is made, or a copy of the employee’s monthly credit card bill that listed the item. A num- ber of the designers who frequently traveled together came up with a fraud scheme: They submitted claims for the same expenses. For example, if they had a meal together that cost $200, one person submitted the detailed meal bill, another submitted the credit card receipt, and a third submitted a monthly credit card bill showing the meal as a line item. Thus, all three received a $200 reimbursement.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $75,000

THE MISSING CONTROL Documentation procedures. Mod Fashions should require the original, detailed receipt. It should not accept photocopies, and it should not accept credit card statements. In addition, documentation procedures could be further improved by requiring the use of a corporate credit card (rather than personal credit card) for all business expenses.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 79–90.

Physical Controls Use of physical controls is essential. Physical controls relate to the safeguarding of assets and enhance the accuracy and reliability of the accounting records. Illustration 7-2 (page 342) shows examples of these controls.

125 Main Street Chelsea, IL 60915

Chelsea Video No. 0123

No. 0124

No. 0125

No. 0126

No. 0127

Firm Name

Attention of

Address

S O L D

T O

City State Zip

Date 5/8/12 Salesperson Malone Invoice No. 731 Invoice Date 5/4/12

Catalogue No. Description Quantity Price Amount

A2547Z45 Production Model Circuits (Inoperative)

1 300 $300

Approved Reid

Highpoint Electronic

Susan Malone, Sales Representative

27 Circle Drive

Harding MI 48281

Prenumbered invoices

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342 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Illustration 7-2 Physical controls

Physical Controls

Alarms to prevent break-ins

Locked warehouses and storage cabinets for inventories and records

Safes, vaults, and safety deposit boxes for cash and business papers

Television monitors and garment sensors to deter theft

Computer facilities with pass key access or fingerprint or eyeball scans

Time clocks for recording time worked

At Centerstone Health, a large insurance company, the mailroom each day received insurance applications from prospective customers. Mailroom employees scanned the applications into electronic documents before the applications were processed. Once the applications are scanned they can be accessed online by authorized employees.

Insurance agents at Centerstone Health earn commissions based upon successful appli- cations. The sales agent’s name is listed on the application. However, roughly 15% of the applications are from customers who did not work with a sales agent. Two friends—Alex, an employee in record keeping, and Parviz, a sales agent—thought up a way to perpetrate a fraud. Alex identified scanned applications that did not list a sales agent. After business hours, he entered the mailroom and found the hardcopy applications that did not show a sales agent. He wrote in Parviz’s name as the sales agent and then rescanned the application for process- ing. Parviz received the commission, which the friends then split.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $240,000

THE MISSING CONTROL Physical controls. Centerstone Health lacked two basic physical controls that could have pre- vented this fraud. First, the mailroom should have been locked during nonbusiness hours, and access during business hours should have been tightly controlled. Second, the scanned appli- cations supposedly could be accessed only by authorized employees using their password. However, the password for each employee was the same as the employee’s user ID. Since employee user ID numbers were available to all other employees, all employees knew all other employees’ passwords. Thus, Alex could enter the system using another employee’s password and access the scanned applications.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 316–326.

Independent Internal Verification Most internal control systems provide for independent internal verification. This principle involves the review of data prepared by employees. To obtain max- imum benefit from independent internal verification:

1. Companies should verify records periodically or on a surprise basis.

2. An employee who is independent of the personnel responsible for the infor- mation should make the verification.

3. Discrepancies and exceptions should be reported to a management level that can take appropriate corrective action.

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Independent internal verification is especially useful in comparing recorded transactions with existing assets. The reconciliation of the cash register tape with the cash in the register at Stephanie’s Gourmet Coffee and More is an example of this internal control principle. Another common example is the reconciliation of a company’s cash balance per books with the cash balance per bank and the verification of the perpetual inventory records through a count of physical in- ventory. Illustration 7-3 shows the relationship between this principle and the segregation of duties principle.

Large companies often assign independent internal verification to internal au- ditors. Internal auditors are company employees who continuously evaluate the effectiveness of the company’s internal control systems. They review the activities of departments and individuals to determine whether prescribed internal controls are being followed. They also recommend improvements when needed. In fact, most fraud is discovered by the company through internal mechanisms such as existing internal controls and internal audits. For example, the fraud at World- Com, involving billions of dollars, was uncovered by an internal auditor.

Fraud and Internal Control 343

Illustration 7-3 Comparison of segregation of duties principle with independent internal verification principle

Accounting Employee Maintains cash

balances per books

Assistant Treasurer Makes monthly comparisons; reports

any unreconcilable differences to treasurer

Assistant Cashier Maintains custody of cash on hand

Segregation of Duties

Independent Internal Verification

Bobbi Jean Donnelly, the office manager for Mod Fashions Corporation’s design center, was responsible for preparing the design center budget and reviewing expense reports submitted by design center employees. Her desire to upgrade her wardrobe got the better of her, and she enacted a fraud that involved filing expense-reimbursement requests for her own per- sonal clothing purchases. She was able to conceal the fraud because she was responsible for reviewing all expense reports, including her own. In addition, she sometimes was given ulti- mate responsibility for signing off on the expense reports when her boss was “too busy.” Also, because she controlled the budget, when she submitted her expenses, she coded them to budget items that she knew were running under budget, so that they would not catch any- one’s attention.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $275,000

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344 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Human Resource Controls Human resource control activities include the following.

1. Bond employees who handle cash. Bonding involves obtaining insurance protection against theft by employees. It contributes to the safeguarding of cash in two ways: First, the insurance company carefully screens all individ- uals before adding them to the policy and may reject risky applicants. Sec- ond, bonded employees know that the insurance company will vigorously prosecute all offenders.

2. Rotate employees’ duties and require employees to take vacations. These measures deter employees from attempting thefts since they will not be able to permanently conceal their improper actions. Many banks, for ex- ample, have discovered employee thefts when the employee was on vacation or assigned to a new position.

3. Conduct thorough background checks. Many believe that the most impor- tant and inexpensive measure any business can take to reduce employee theft and fraud is for the human resources department to conduct thorough back- ground checks. Two tips: (1) Check to see whether job applicants actually grad- uated from the schools they list. (2) Never use the telephone numbers for pre- vious employers given on the reference sheet; always look them up yourself.

THE MISSING CONTROL Independent internal verification. Bobbi Jean’s boss should have verified her expense reports. When asked what he thought her expenses for a year were, the boss said about $10,000. At $115,000 per year, her actual expenses were more than ten times what would have been expected. However, because he was “too busy” to verify her expense reports or to review the budget, he never noticed.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 79–90.

Ellen Lowry was the desk manager and Josephine Rodriquez was the head of housekeeping at the Excelsior Inn, a luxury hotel. The two best friends were so dedicated to their jobs that they never took vacations, and they frequently filled in for other employees. In fact, Ms. Rodriquez, whose job as head of housekeeping did not include cleaning rooms, often cleaned rooms her- self, “just to help the staff keep up.” These two “dedicated” employees, working as a team, found a way to earn a little more cash. Ellen, the desk manager, provided significant discounts to guests who paid with cash. She kept the cash and did not register the guest in the hotel’s computer- ized system. Instead, she took the room out of circulation “due to routine maintenance.” Because the room did not show up as being used, it did not receive a normal housekeeping assignment. Instead, Josephine, the head of housekeeping, cleaned the rooms during the guests’ stay.

ANATOMY OF A FRAU D

Total take: $95,000

THE MISSING CONTROL Human resource controls. Ellen, the desk manager, had been fired by a previous employer after being accused of fraud. If the Excelsior Inn had conducted a thorough background check, it would not have hired her. The hotel fraud was detected when Ellen missed work for a few days due to illness. A system of mandatory vacations and rotating days off would have increased the chances of detecting the fraud before it became so large.

Source: Adapted from Wells, Fraud Casebook (2007), pp. 145–155.

If I take a vacation they will know that I’ve been stealing.

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LIMITATIONS OF INTERNAL CONTROL

Companies generally design their systems of internal control to provide reason- able assurance of proper safeguarding of assets and reliability of the accounting records. The concept of reasonable assurance rests on the premise that the costs of establishing control procedures should not exceed their expected benefit.

To illustrate, consider shoplifting losses in retail stores. Stores could elimi- nate such losses by having a security guard stop and search customers as they leave the store. But store managers have concluded that the negative effects of such a procedure cannot be justified. Instead, stores have attempted to control shoplifting losses by less costly procedures: They post signs saying, “We reserve the right to inspect all packages” and “All shoplifters will be prosecuted.” They use hidden TV cameras and store detectives to monitor customer activity, and they install sensor equipment at exits.

The human element is an important factor in every system of internal con- trol. A good system can become ineffective as a result of employee fatigue, care- lessness, or indifference. For example, a receiving clerk may not bother to count goods received and may just “fudge” the counts. Occasionally, two or more in- dividuals may work together to get around prescribed controls. Such collusion can significantly reduce the effectiveness of a system, eliminating the protection offered by segregation of duties. No system of internal control is perfect.

The size of the business also may impose limitations on internal control. A small company, for example, may find it difficult to segregate duties or to pro- vide for independent internal verification.

Fraud and Internal Control 345

SOX Boosts the Role of Human Resources

Under SOX, a company needs to keep track of employees’ degrees and cer- tifications to ensure that employees continue to meet the specified requirements of a job. Also, to ensure proper employee supervision and proper separation of duties, companies must develop and monitor an organizational chart. When one corporation went through this exercise it found that out of 17,000 employees, there were 400 people who did not report to anyone, and they had 35 people who reported to each other. In addition, SOX also mandates that, if an employee complains of an unfair firing and mentions financial issues at the company, HR must refer the case to the company audit committee and pos- sibly to its legal counsel.

Accounting Across the Organization

? Why would unsupervised employees or employees who report to each other rep-resent potential internal control threats? (See page 392.)

Helpful Hint Controls may vary with the risk level of the activity. For example, management may consider cash to be high risk and maintaining inventories in the stockroom as lower risk. Thus, management would have stricter controls for cash.

Big Theft at Small Companies

A study by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners indicates that busi- nesses with fewer than 100 employees are most at risk for employee theft. In fact, 38% of frauds occurred at companies with fewer than 100 employees. The median loss at small companies was $200,000, which was higher than the median fraud at companies with more than 10,000 employees ($147,000). A $200,000 loss can threaten the very existence of a small company.

Source: 2008 Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse, Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, www.acfe.com/documents/2008-rttn.pdf, p. 26.

Ethics Insight

? Why are small companies more susceptible to employee theft? (See page 392.)

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 345

Cash Controls Cash is the one asset that is readily convertible into any other type of asset. It also is easily concealed and transported, and is highly desired. Because of these characteristics, cash is the asset most susceptible to fraudulent activities. In addition, because of the large volume of cash transactions, numerous errors may occur in executing and recording them. To safeguard cash and to ensure the ac- curacy of the accounting records for cash, effective internal control over cash is critical.

CASH RECEIPTS CONTROLS

Illustration 7-4 shows how the internal control principles explained earlier apply to cash receipts transactions. As you might expect, companies vary con- siderably in how they apply these principles. To illustrate internal control over

DECISION TOOLKIT DECISION CHECKPOINTS TOOL TO USE FOR DECISION HOW TO EVALUATE RESULTS

Are the company’s financial statements supported by adequate internal controls?

Auditor’s report, management discussion and analysis, articles in financial press

The principles of internal control activities are (1) establishment of responsibility, (2) segregation of duties, (3) documentation procedures, (4) physical controls, (5) independent internal verification, and (6) human resource controls.

If any indication is given that these or other controls are lacking, use the financial statements with caution.

INFO NEEDED FOR DECISION

346 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

CONTROL ACTIVITIES

before you go on… Do it!

Identify which control activity is violated in each of the following situ- ations, and explain how the situation creates an opportunity for a fraud.

1. The person with primary responsibility for reconciling the bank account is also the company’s accountant and makes all bank deposits.

2. Wellstone Company’s treasurer received an award for distinguished service because he had not taken a vacation in 30 years.

3. In order to save money on order slips, and to reduce time spent keeping track of order slips, a local bar/restaurant does not buy prenumbered order slips.

Solution

Action Plan

• Familiarize yourself with each of the control activities listed on page 338.

• Understand the nature of the frauds that each control activity is intended to address.

1. Violates the control activity of segregation of duties. Record-keeping should be sepa- rate from physical custody. As a consequence, the employee could embezzle cash and make journal entries to hide the theft.

2. Violates the control activity of human resource controls. Key employees, such as a treasurer, should be required to take vacations. The treasurer, who manages the com- pany’s cash, might embezzle cash and use his position to conceal the theft.

3. Violates the control activity of documentation procedures. If pre-numbered documents are not used, then it is virtually impossible to account for the documents. As a conse- quence, an employee could write up a dinner sale, receive the cash from the customer, and then throw away the order slip and keep the cash.

Related exercise material: BE7-1, BE7-2, BE7-3, 7-1, E7-1, and E7-2.Do it!

3 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash receipts.

study objective

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 346

cash receipts, we will examine control activities for a retail store with both over- the-counter and mail receipts.

Over-the-Counter Receipts In retail businesses, control of over-the-counter receipts centers on cash regis- ters that are visible to customers. A cash sale is rung-up on a cash register with the amount clearly visible to the customer. This activity prevents the cashier from ringing up a lower amount and pocketing the difference. The customer receives an itemized cash register receipt slip and is expected to count the change re- ceived. The cash register’s tape is locked in the register until a supervisor re- moves it. This tape accumulates the daily transactions and totals.

At the end of the clerk’s shift, the clerk counts the cash and sends the cash and the count to the cashier. The cashier counts the cash, prepares a deposit slip, and deposits the cash at the bank. The cashier also sends a duplicate of the deposit slip to the accounting department to indicate cash received. The super- visor removes the cash register tape and sends it to the accounting department as the basis for a journal entry to record the cash received. The tape is com- pared to the deposit slip for any discrepancies. Illustration 7-5 (page 348) sum- marizes this process.

This system for handling cash receipts uses an important internal control principle—segregation of record-keeping from physical custody. The supervisor has access to the cash register tape, but not to the cash. The clerk and the cashier have access to the cash, but not to the register tape. In addition, the cash reg- ister tape provides documentation and enables independent internal verification with the deposit slip. Use of these three principles of internal control (segrega- tion of record-keeping from physical custody, documentation, and independent internal verification) provides an effective system of internal control. Any at- tempt at fraudulent activity should be detected unless there is collusion among the employees.

Cash Controls 347

Cash Receipts Controls

Physical Controls

Store cash in safes and bank vaults; limit access to storage areas; use cash registers

Documentation Procedures

Use remittance advice (mail receipts), cash register tapes, and deposit slips

125 Main Street Chelsea, IL 60915

Beyer Video No. 0123

No. 0124

No. 0125

No. 0126

No. 0127

Firm Name

Attention of

Address

S O L D

T O

City State Zip

Date 5/8/12 Salesperson Malone Invoice No. 731 Invoice Date 5/4/12

Catalogue No. Description Quantity Price Amount

A2547Z45 Production Model Circuits (Inoperative)

1 $300

z Reid

Sellers

Susan Malone, Sales Representative

27 Circle Drive

Harding MI 48281

300

Independent Internal

Verification Supervisors count cash receipts daily; treasurer compares total receipts to bank deposits daily

Human Resource Controls

Bond personnel who handle cash; require employees to take vacations; conduct background checks

Different individuals receive cash, record cash receipts, and hold the cash

Segregation of Duties

Establishment of Responsibility

Only designated personnel are authorized to handle cash receipts (cashiers)

Illustration 7-4 Application of internal control principles to cash receipts

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348 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

In some instances, the amount deposited at the bank will not agree with the cash recorded in the accounting records based on the cash register tape. These differences often result because the clerk hands incorrect change back to the retail customer. In this case, the difference between the actual cash and the amount reported on the cash register tape is reported in a Cash Over and Short account. For example, suppose that the cash register tape indicated sales of $6,956.20 but the amount of cash was only $6,946.10. A cash shortfall of $10.10 exists. To account for this cash shortfall and related cash, the company makes the following entry.

Cash 6,946.10 Cash Over and Short 10.10

Sales Revenue 6,956.20 (To record cash shortfall)

Cash Over and Short is an income statement item. It is reported as miscel- laneous expense when there is a cash shortfall, and as miscellaneous revenue when there is an overage. Clearly, the amount should be small. Any material amounts in this account should be investigated.

Mail Receipts All mail receipts should be opened in the presence of at least two mail clerks. These receipts are generally in the form of checks. A mail clerk should endorse each check “For Deposit Only.” This restrictive endorsement reduces the likelihood that

Deposit slip

Deposit slip

Clerk Rings up sales, counts cash

Sends cash and count to cashier

Counts cash, prepares deposit slips

Sends cash and deposit slip to bank

Cashier

Bank

Supervisor Removes locked cash register tape

Sends cash register tape to accounting dept.

Accounting Department Agrees register tape to deposit slip

and records journal entry

Sends deposit slip copy to accounting

Illustration 7-5 Control of over-the-counter receipts

Helpful Hint Flowcharts such as this one enhance the understanding of the flow of documents, the processing steps, and the internal control procedures.

Cash Flows �6,946.10

A SEL= +

�6,946.10 �10.10

�6,956.20

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 348

someone could divert the check to personal use. Banks will not give an individual cash when presented with a check that has this type of endorsement.

The mail-receipt clerks prepare, in triplicate, a list of the checks received each day. This list shows the name of the check issuer, the purpose of the payment, and the amount of the check. Each mail clerk signs the list to establish responsibility for the data. The original copy of the list, along with the checks, is then sent to the cashier’s department. A copy of the list is sent to the accounting department for recording in the accounting records. The clerks also keep a copy.

This process provides excellent internal control for the company. By employ- ing two clerks, the chance of fraud is reduced; each clerk knows he or she is be- ing observed by the other clerk(s). To engage in fraud, they would have to col- lude. The customers who submit payments also provide control, because they will contact the company with a complaint if they are not properly credited for payment. Because the cashier has access to cash but not the records, and the accounting department has access to records but not cash, neither can engage in undetected fraud.

CASH DISBURSEMENTS CONTROLS

Companies disburse cash for a variety of reasons, such as to pay expenses and liabilities or to purchase assets. Generally, internal control over cash disburse- ments is more effective when companies pay by check, rather than by cash. One exception is for incidental amounts that are paid out of petty cash.3

Companies generally issue checks only after following specified control pro- cedures. Illustration 7-6 (page 350) shows how principles of internal control ap- ply to cash disbursements.

Voucher System Controls Most medium and large companies use vouchers as part of their internal con- trol over cash disbursements. A voucher system is a network of approvals by authorized individuals, acting independently, to ensure that all disbursements by check are proper.

Cash Controls 349

Action Plan

• Differentiate among the internal control principles of (1) establishment of responsibility, (2) physical controls, and (3) independent internal verification.

• Design an effective system of internal control over cash receipts.

L. R. Cortez is concerned about the control over cash receipts in his fast-food restaurant, Big Cheese. The restaurant has two cash registers. At no time do more than two employees take customer orders and ring up sales. Work shifts for em- ployees range from 4 to 8 hours. Cortez asks your help in installing a good system of in- ternal control over cash receipts.

Solution

Cortez should assign a cash register to each employee at the start of each work shift, with register totals set at zero. Each employee should be instructed to use only the assigned register and to ring up all sales. Each customer should be given a receipt. At the end of the shift, the employee should do a cash count. A separate employee should compare the cash count with the register tape, to be sure they agree. In addition, Cortez should install an automated system that would enable the company to compare orders rung up on the register to orders processed by the kitchen.

CONTROL OVER CASH RECEIPTS

before you go on…

Do it!

Related exercise material: BE7-4, BE7-5, 7-2, and E7-3.Do it!

4 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash disbursements.

3We explain the operation of a petty cash fund in the appendix to this chapter on pages 366–368.

study objective

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350 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

The system begins with the authorization to incur a cost or expense. It ends with the issuance of a check for the liability incurred. A voucher is an author- ization form prepared for each expenditure in a voucher system. Companies re- quire vouchers for all types of cash disbursements except those from petty cash.

The starting point in preparing a voucher is to fill in the appropriate infor- mation about the liability on the face of the voucher. The vendor’s invoice pro- vides most of the needed information. Then, an employee in accounts payable records the voucher (in a journal called a voucher register) and files it accord- ing to the date on which it is to be paid. The company issues and sends a check on that date, and stamps the voucher “paid.” The paid voucher is sent to the ac- counting department for recording (in a journal called the check register). A voucher system involves two journal entries, one to record the liability when the voucher is issued and a second to pay the liability that relates to the voucher.

The use of a voucher system improves internal control over cash disburse- ments. First, the authorization process inherent in a voucher system establishes responsibility. Each individual has responsibility to review the underlying doc- umentation to ensure that it is correct. In addition, the voucher system keeps track of the documents that back up each transaction. By keeping these docu- ments in one place, a supervisor can independently verify the authenticity of

Establishment of Responsibility Only designated personnel are authorized to sign checks (treasurer) and approve vendors

Different individuals approve and make payments; check signers do not record disbursements

Segregation of Duties

Documentation Procedures

Use prenumbered checks and account for them in sequence; each check must have an approved invoice; require employees to use corporate credit cards for reimbursable expenses; stamp invoices “paid.”

Physical Controls

Store blank checks in safes, with limited access; print check amounts by machine in indelible ink

Human Resource Controls

Independent Internal

Verification Compare checks to invoices; reconcile bank statement monthly

Cash Disbursements Controls

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 408

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 407

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 406

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 405

6489 00032 385700991

Smith Company 123 Cherry Lane Anytown, Montana

PAY to

No. 404

Payments Due S M Tu W Th F S

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28

23 29 30

12 9

TR EA

SU RE

R

Payments Due S M Tu W Th F S

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28

23 29 30

12 9

TR EA

SU RE

R

Bond personnel who handle cash; require employees to take vacations; conduct background checks

Illustration 7-6 Application of internal control principles to cash disbursements

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 350

each transaction. Consider, for example, the case of Aesop University presented on page 340. Aesop did not use a voucher system for transactions under $2,500. As a consequence, there was no independent verification of the documents, which enabled the employee to submit fake invoices to hide his unauthorized purchases.

Petty Cash Fund As you learned earlier in the chapter, better internal control over cash disburse- ments is possible when companies make payments by check. However, using checks to pay such small amounts as those for postage due, employee working lunches, and taxi fares is both impractical and a nuisance. A common way of handling such payments, while maintaining satisfactory control, is to use a petty cash fund. A petty cash fund is a cash fund used to pay relatively small amounts. We explain the operation of a petty cash fund in the appendix at the end of this chapter.

Control Features: Use of a Bank The use of a bank contributes significantly to good internal control over cash. A company can safeguard its cash by using a bank as a depository and clearinghouse for checks received and checks written. The use of a bank check- ing account minimizes the amount of currency that must be kept on hand. It also facilitates control of cash because a double record is maintained of all bank transactions—one by the business and the other by the bank. The asset account

Ethics Note Internal control over a petty cash fund is strengthened by: (1) having a supervisor make surprise counts of the fund to confirm whether the paid petty cash receipts and fund cash equal the fund amount, and (2) canceling or mutilating the paid petty cash receipts so they cannot be resubmitted for reimbursement.

Control Features: Use of a Bank 351

How Employees Steal

A recent study by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners found that two-thirds of all employee thefts involved a fraudulent disbursement by an employee. The most common form (28.3% of cases) was fraudulent billing schemes. In these, the employee causes the company to issue a payment to the employee by submitting a bill for nonexistent goods or services, purchases of personal goods by the employee, or in- flated invoices. The following graph shows various types of fraudulent disbursements and the median loss from each.

Ethics Insight

? How can companies reduce the likelihood of fraudulent disbursements? (See page 392.)

23.9%

10%0% 20% 30% 40% 50% 90%

9.3%

Billing ($100,000)

Payroll ($49,000)

Breakdown of Fraudulent Disbursements

C at

eg o

ry (

M ed

ia n

L o

ss )

14.7% Check tampering

($138,000)

13.2% Expense reimbursement

($25,000)

Source: 2008 Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse, Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, www.acfe.com/documents/2008_rttn.pdf, p. 13.

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352 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Cash maintained by the company is the “flip-side” of the bank’s liability account for that company. A bank reconciliation is the process of comparing the bank’s bal- ance with the company’s balance, and explaining the differences to make them agree.

Many companies have more than one bank account. For efficiency of oper- ations and better control, national retailers like Wal-Mart and Target often have regional bank accounts. Similarly, a company such as ExxonMobil with more than 100,000 employees may have a payroll bank account as well as one or more general bank accounts. In addition, a company may maintain several bank ac- counts in order to have more than one source for short-term loans.

BANK STATEMENTS

Each month, the company receives from the bank a bank statement showing its bank transactions and balances.4 For example, the statement for Laird Com- pany in Illustration 7-7 shows the following: (1) checks paid and other debits that reduce the balance in the depositor’s account, (2) deposits and other credits that increase the balance in the depositor’s account, and (3) the account balance after each day’s transactions.

4Our presentation assumes that a company makes all adjustments at the end of the month. In practice, a company may also make journal entries during the month as it receives information from the bank regarding its account.

Illustration 7-7 Bank statement

National Bank & Trust Midland, Michigan 48654 Member FDIC

ACCOUNT STATEMENT

LAIRD COMPANY 77 WEST CENTRAL AVENUE MIDLAND, MICHIGAN 48654

Statement Date/Credit Line Closing Date

April 30, 2012

457923

ACCOUNT NUMBER

Balance Last Statement

Deposits and Credits Checks and Debits Balance This StatementNo. Total Amount No. Total Amount

13,256.90 20 34,805.10 26 32,154.55 15,907.45

CHECKS AND DEBITS DEPOSITS AND CREDITS DAILY BALANCE

Date No. Amount

4–2 4–5 4–4 4–3 4–8 4–7 4–8 4–11 4–12

4–29 4–29 4–30 4–30

435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443

NSF 459 DM 461

644.95 3,260.00 1,185.79

776.65 1,781.70 1,487.90 2,420.00 1,585.60 1,226.00

425.60 1,080.30

30.00 620.15

Date Amount

4–2 4–3 4–5 4–7 4–8 4–9 CM 4–11 4–12 4–13

4–27 4–29 4–30

4,276.85 2,137.50 1,350.47

982.46 1,320.28 1,035.00 2,720.00

757.41 1,218.56

1,545.57 2,929.45 2,128.60

Date Amount

4–2 4–3 4–4 4–5 4–7 4–8 4–9 4–11 4–12

4–27 4–29 4–30

16,888.80 18,249.65 17,063.86 15,154.33 14,648.89 11,767.47 12,802.47 13,936.87 13,468.28

13,005.45 14,429.00 15,907.45

Symbols: CM DM

Credit Memo Debit Memo

EC INT

Error Correction Interest Earned

NSF SC

Not Sufficient Funds Service Charge

Reconcile Your Account Promptly

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Remember that bank statements are prepared from the bank’s perspective. For example, every deposit the bank receives is an increase in the bank’s liabil- ities (an account payable to the depositor). Therefore, in Illustration 7-7, Na- tional Bank and Trust credits to Laird Company every deposit it received from Laird. The reverse occurs when the bank “pays” a check issued by Laird Com- pany on its checking account balance: Payment reduces the bank’s liability and is therefore debited to Laird’s account with the bank.

The bank statement lists in numerical sequence all paid checks along with the date the check was paid and its amount. Upon paying a check, the bank stamps the check “paid”; a paid check is sometimes referred to as a canceled check. In addition, the bank includes with the bank statement memoranda ex- plaining other debits and credits it made to the depositor’s account.

A check that is not paid by a bank because of insufficient funds in a bank account is called an NSF check (not sufficient funds). The bank uses a debit memorandum when a previously deposited customer’s check “bounces” because of insufficient funds. In such a case, the customer’s bank marks the check NSF (not sufficient funds) and returns it to the depositor’s bank. The bank then deb- its (decreases) the depositor’s account, as shown by the symbol NSF in Illustra- tion 7-7, and sends the NSF check and debit memorandum to the depositor as notification of the charge. The NSF check creates an account receivable for the depositor and reduces cash in the bank account.

RECONCILING THE BANK ACCOUNT

Because the bank and the company maintain independent records of the com- pany’s checking account, you might assume that the respective balances will always agree. In fact, the two balances are seldom the same at any given time, and both balances differ from the “correct or true” balance. Therefore, it is necessary to make the balance per books and the balance per bank agree with the correct or true amount—a process called reconciling the bank account. The need for reconciliation has two causes:

1. Time lags that prevent one of the parties from recording the transaction in the same period.

2. Errors by either party in recording transactions.

Time lags occur frequently. For example, several days may elapse between the time a company pays by check and the date the bank pays the check. Sim- ilarly, when a company uses the bank’s night depository to make its deposits, there will be a difference of one day between the time the company records the receipts and the time the bank does so. A time lag also occurs whenever the bank mails a debit or credit memorandum to the company.

The incidence of errors depends on the effectiveness of the internal controls maintained by the company and the bank. Bank errors are infrequent. However, either party could accidentally record a $450 check as $45 or $540. In addition, the bank might mistakenly charge a check drawn by C. D. Berg to the account of C. D. Burg.

Reconciliation Procedure In reconciling the bank account, it is customary to reconcile the balance per books and balance per bank to their adjusted (correct or true) cash balances. To obtain maximum benefit from a bank reconciliation, an employee who has no other responsibilities related to cash should prepare the reconciliation. When companies do not follow the internal control principle of independent in- ternal verification in preparing the reconciliation, cash embezzlements may es- cape unnoticed. For example, in the Anatomy of a Fraud box at the bottom of page 340, a bank reconciliation by someone other than Angela Bauer might have exposed her embezzlement.

Helpful Hint Essentially, the bank statement is a copy of the bank’s records sent to the customer for periodic review.

Control Features: Use of a Bank 353

5 Prepare a bank reconciliation.

study objective

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354 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Illustration 7-8 shows the reconciliation process. The starting point in prepar- ing the reconciliation is to enter the balance per bank statement and balance per books on a schedule. The following steps should reveal all the reconciling items that cause the difference between the two balances.

Helpful Hint Deposits in transit and outstanding checks are reconciling items because of time lags.

Illustration 7-8 Bank reconciliation adjustments

Bank errors

Deposits in transit

Outstanding checks

Notes collected by banks

Check printing or other service charges

Company errors

NSF (bounced) checks

Adjustments to the bank balance

Correct Cash Amount

Cash Balances

Adjustments to the book balance

Per Bank Statement Per Books

“Oops” “Oops”

Step 1. Deposits in transit. Compare the individual deposits on the bank state- ment with the deposits in transit from the preceding bank reconcilia- tion and with the deposits per company records or copies of duplicate deposit slips. Deposits recorded by the depositor that have not been recorded by the bank represent deposits in transit. Add these deposits to the balance per bank.

Step 2. Outstanding checks. Compare the paid checks shown on the bank statement or the paid checks returned with the bank statement with (a) checks outstanding from the preceding bank reconciliation, and (b) checks issued by the company as recorded in the cash payments jour- nal. Issued checks recorded by the company that have not been paid by the bank represent outstanding checks. Deduct outstanding checks from the balance per the bank.

Step 3. Errors. Note any errors discovered in the previous steps and list them in the appropriate section of the reconciliation schedule. For example,

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if the company mistakenly recorded as $159 a paid check correctly writ- ten for $195, the company would deduct the error of $36 from the bal- ance per books. All errors made by the depositor are reconciling items in determining the adjusted cash balance per books. In contrast, all er- rors made by the bank are reconciling items in determining the ad- justed cash balance per the bank.

Step 4. Bank memoranda. Trace bank memoranda to the depositor’s records. The company lists in the appropriate section of the reconciliation sched- ule any unrecorded memoranda. For example, the company would deduct from the balance per books a $5 debit memorandum for bank service charges. Similarly, it would add to the balance per books a $32 credit memorandum for interest earned.

Bank Reconciliation Illustrated Illustration 7-7 presented the bank statement for Laird Company. It shows a bal- ance per bank of $15,907.45 on April 30, 2012. On this date the balance of cash per books is $11,589.45. From the foregoing steps, Laird determines the follow- ing reconciling items.

Step 1. Deposits in transit: April 30 deposit (received by bank on May 1). $2,201.40

Step 2. Outstanding checks: No. 453, $3,000.00; No. 457, $1,401.30; No. 460, $1,502.70. 5,904.00

Step 3. Errors: Check No. 443 was correctly written by Laird for $1,226.00 and was correctly paid by the bank. However, Laird recorded the check as $1,262.00. 36.00

Step 4. Bank memoranda: (a) Debit—NSF check from J. R. Baron for $425.60 425.60 (b) Debit—Printing company checks charge, $30 30.00 (c) Credit—Collection of note receivable for $1,000 plus

interest earned $50, less bank collection fee $15 1,035.00

Illustration 7-9 shows Laird’s bank reconciliation.

Helpful Hint Note in the bank statement that the bank has paid checks No. 459 and 461, but check No. 460 is not listed. Thus, this check is outstanding. If a complete bank statement were provided, checks No. 453 and 457 also would not be listed. Laird obtains the amounts for these three checks from its cash payments records.

Control Features: Use of a Bank 355

Illustration 7-9 Bank reconciliationLAIRD COMPANY

Bank Reconciliation April 30, 2012

Cash balance per bank statement $ 15,907.45 Add: Deposits in transit 2,201.40

18,108.85

Less: Outstanding checks No. 453 $3,000.00 No. 457 1,401.30 No. 460 1,502.70 5,904.00

Adjusted cash balance per bank $12,204.85

Cash balance per books $ 11,589.45 Add: Collection of note receivable for

$1,000 plus interest earned $50, less collection fee $15 $1,035.00

Error in recording check No. 443 36.00 1,071.00

12,660.45

Less: NSF check 425.60 Bank service charge 30.00 455.60

Adjusted cash balance per books $12,204.85

Alternative Terminology The terms adjusted cash balance, true cash balance, and correct cash balance are used interchangeably.

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356 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Entries from Bank Reconciliation The depositor (that is, the company) next must record each reconciling item used to determine the adjusted cash balance per books. If the company does not journalize and post these items, the Cash account will not show the correct balance. The adjusting entries for the Laird Company bank reconciliation on April 30 are as follows.

COLLECTION OF NOTE RECEIVABLE. This entry involves four accounts. Assuming that the interest of $50 has not been recorded and the collection fee is charged to Miscellaneous Expense, the entry is:

BOOK ERROR. An examination of the cash disbursements journal shows that check No. 443 was a payment on account to Andrea Company, a supplier. The correcting entry is:

NSF CHECK. As indicated earlier, an NSF check becomes an accounts receivable to the depositor. The entry is:

BANK SERVICE CHARGES. Companies typically debit to Miscellaneous Expense the check printing charges (DM) and other bank service charges (SC) because they are usually small in amount. Laird’s entry is:

Helpful Hint These entries are adjusting entries. In prior chapters, we considered Cash an account that did not require adjustment because we had not yet explained a bank reconciliation.

Apr. 30 Cash 1,035 Miscellaneous Expense 15

Notes Receivable 1,000 Interest Revenue 50

(To record collection of note receivable by bank)

A SEL= +

�1,035 �15 Exp

�1,000 �50 Rev

Cash Flows �1,035

Apr. 30 Cash 36 Accounts Payable—Andrea Company 36

(To correct error in recording check No. 443)

A SEL= +

�36 �36

Cash Flows �36

Apr. 30 Accounts Receivable—J. R. Baron 425.60 Cash 425.60

(To record NSF check)

A SEL= +

�425.60 �425.60

Cash Flows �425.60

Apr. 30 Miscellaneous Expense 30 Cash 30

(To record charge for printing company checks)

A SEL= +

�30 Exp �30

Cash Flows �30

The foregoing entries could also be combined into one compound entry. After Laird posts the entries, the Cash account will appear as in Illustration

7-10. The adjusted cash balance in the ledger should agree with the adjusted cash balance per books in the bank reconciliation in Illustration 7-9 (page 355).

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What entries does the bank make? If the company discovers any bank er- rors in preparing the reconciliation, it should notify the bank so the bank can make the necessary corrections on its records. The bank does not make any en- tries for deposits in transit or outstanding checks. Only when these items reach the bank will the bank record these items.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) System It is not surprising that companies and banks have developed approaches to trans- fer funds among parties without the use of paper (deposit tickets, checks, etc.). Such procedures, called electronic funds transfers (EFTs), are disbursement sys- tems that use wire, telephone, or computers to transfer cash from one location to another. Use of EFT is quite common. For example, many employees receive no formal payroll checks from their employers. Instead, employers send electronic payroll data to the appropriate banks. Also, individuals now frequently make reg- ular payments such as those for house, car, and utilities by EFT.

EFT transactions normally result in better internal control since no cash or checks are handled by company employees. This does not mean that opportu- nities for fraud are eliminated. In fact, the same basic principles related to in- ternal control apply to EFT transactions. For example, without proper segrega- tion of duties and authorizations, an employee might be able to redirect electronic payments into a personal bank account and conceal the theft with fraudulent accounting entries.

Control Features: Use of a Bank 357

Illustration 7-10 Adjusted balance in Cash account

Cash

Apr. 30 Bal. 11,589.45 Apr. 30 425.60

30 1,035.00 30 30.00

30 36.00

Apr. 30 Bal. 12,204.85

Madoff’s Ponzi Scheme

No recent fraud has generated more interest and rage than the one perpe- trated by Bernard Madoff. Madoff was an elite New York investment fund manager who was highly regarded by securities regulators. Investors flocked to him because he de- livered very steady returns of between 10% and 15%, no matter whether the market was going up or going down. However, for many years, Madoff did not actually invest the cash that people gave to him. Instead, he was running a Ponzi scheme: He paid re- turns to existing investors using cash received from new investors. As long as the size of his investment fund continued to grow from new investments at a rate that exceeded the amounts that he needed to pay out in returns, Madoff was able to operate his fraud smoothly. To conceal his misdeeds, he fabricated false investment statements that were provided to investors. In addition, Madoff hired an auditor that never verified the accu- racy of the investment records but automatically issued unqualified opinions each year. Although a competing fund manager warned the SEC a number of times over a nearly 10-year period that he thought Madoff was engaged in fraud, the SEC never aggres- sively investigated the allegations. Investors, many of which were charitable organiza- tions, lost more than $18 billion. Madoff was sentenced to a jail term of 150 years.

Investor Insight

? How was Madoff able to conceal such a giant fraud? (See page 392.)

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358 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Reporting Cash Cash consists of coins, currency (paper money), checks, money orders, and money on hand or on deposit in a bank or similar depository. Checks that are dated later than the current date (post-dated checks) are not included in cash. Companies re- port cash in two different statements: the balance sheet and the statement of cash flows. The balance sheet reports the amount of cash available at a given point in time. The statement of cash flows shows the sources and uses of cash during a period of time. The cash flow statement was introduced in Chapters 1 and 2 and will be discussed in much detail in Chapter 12. In this section, we discuss some important points regarding the presentation of cash in the balance sheet.

When presented in a balance sheet, cash on hand, cash in banks, and petty cash are often combined and reported simply as Cash. Because it is the most liquid asset owned by the company, cash is listed first in the current assets sec- tion of the balance sheet.

CASH EQUIVALENTS

Many companies use the designation “Cash and cash equivalents” in reporting cash. (See Illustration 7-11 for an example.) Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are both:

1. Readily convertible to known amounts of cash, and

2. So near their maturity that their market value is relatively insensitive to changes in interest rates.

BANK RECONCILIATION

before you go on… Do it!

Sally Kist owns Linen Kist Fabrics. Sally asks you to explain how she should treat the following reconciling items when reconciling the company’s bank ac- count: (1) a debit memorandum for an NSF check, (2) a credit memorandum for a note collected by the bank, (3) outstanding checks, and (4) a deposit in transit.

Solution

Action Plan

• Understand the purpose of a bank reconciliation.

• Identify time lags and explain how they cause reconciling items.

Sally should treat the reconciling items as follows.

(1) NSF check: Deduct from balance per books. (2) Collection of note: Add to balance per books. (3) Outstanding checks: Deduct from balance per bank. (4) Deposit in transit: Add to balance per bank.

Related exercise material: BE7-8, BE7-9, BE7-10, BE7-11, 7-3, E7-6, E7-7, E7-8, E7-9, E7-10, and E7-11.

Do it!

6 Explain the reporting of cash.

DELTA AIR LINES, INC. Balance Sheet (partial) December 31, 2009

(in millions)

Assets

Current assets Cash and cash equivalents $4,607 Short-term investments 71 Restricted cash 423 Accounts receivable and other, net 1,360 Parts inventories 327 Prepaid expenses and other 953

Total current assets $7,741

Illustration 7-11 Balance sheet presentation of cash

study objective

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Examples of cash equivalents are Treasury bills, commercial paper (short-term corporate notes), and money market funds. All typically are purchased with cash that is in excess of immediate needs.

Occasionally a company will have a net negative balance in its bank account. In this case, the company should report the negative balance among current li- abilities. For example, farm equipment manufacturer Ag-Chem recently reported “Checks outstanding in excess of cash balances” of $2,145,000 among its cur- rent liabilities.

RESTRICTED CASH

A company may have restricted cash, cash that is not available for general use but rather is restricted for a special purpose. For example, landfill companies are often required to maintain a fund of restricted cash to ensure they will have adequate resources to cover closing and clean-up costs at the end of a landfill site’s useful life. McKesson Corp. recently reported restricted cash of $962 mil- lion to be paid out as the result of investor lawsuits.

Cash restricted in use should be reported separately on the balance sheet as restricted cash. If the company expects to use the restricted cash within the next year, it reports the amount as a current asset. When this is not the case, it re- ports the restricted funds as a noncurrent asset.

Illustration 7-11 shows restricted cash reported in the financial statements of Delta Air Lines. The company is required to maintain restricted cash as col- lateral to support insurance obligations related to workers’ compensation claims. Delta does not have access to these funds for general use, and so it must report them separately, rather than as part of cash and cash equivalents.

Managing and Monitoring Cash 359

Ethics Note Recently, some companies were forced to restate their financial statements because they had too broadly interpreted which types of investments could be treated as cash equivalents. By reporting these items as cash equivalents, the companies made themselves look more liquid.

DECISION TOOLKIT DECISION CHECKPOINTS TOOL TO USE FOR DECISION HOW TO EVALUATE RESULTS

Is all of the company’s cash available for general use?

Balance sheet and notes to financial statements

Does the company report any cash as being restricted?

A restriction on the use of cash limits management’s ability to use those resources for general obligations. This might be considered when assessing liquidity.

INFO NEEDED FOR DECISION

Managing and Monitoring Cash Many companies struggle, not because they fail to generate sales, but because they can’t manage their cash. A real-life example of this is a clothing manufac- turing company owned by Sharon McCollick. McCollick gave up a stable, high- paying marketing job with Intel Corporation to start her own company. Soon she had more orders from stores such as JC Penney and Dayton Hudson (now Target) than she could fill. Yet she found herself on the brink of financial disas- ter, owing three mortgage payments on her house and $2,000 to the IRS. Her company could generate sales, but it was not collecting cash fast enough to sup- port its operations. The bottom line is that a business must have cash.5

A merchandising company’s operating cycle is generally shorter than that of a manufacturing company. Illustration 7-12 (page 360) shows the cash to cash operating cycle of a merchandising operation.

5Adapted from T. Petzinger, Jr., “The Front Lines—Sharon McCollick Got Mad and Tore Down a Bank’s Barriers,” Wall Street Journal (May 19, 1995), p. B1.

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360 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

To understand cash management, consider the operating cycle of Sharon McCollick’s clothing manufacturing company. First, it purchases cloth. Let’s as- sume that it purchases the cloth on credit provided by the supplier, so the com- pany owes its supplier money. Next, employees convert the cloth to clothing. Now the company also owes its employees money. Next, it sells the clothing to retailers, on credit. McCollick’s company will have no money to repay suppliers or employees until it receives payments from customers. In a manufacturing op- eration there may be a significant lag between the original purchase of raw ma- terials and the ultimate receipt of cash from customers.

Managing the often-precarious balance created by the ebb and flow of cash during the operating cycle is one of a company’s greatest challenges. The objective is to ensure that a company has sufficient cash to meet payments as they come due, yet minimize the amount of non-revenue-generating cash on hand.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CASH MANAGEMENT

Management of cash is the responsibility of the company treasurer. Any com- pany can improve its chances of having adequate cash by following five basic principles of cash management.

1. Increase the speed of receivables collection. Money owed Sharon McCollick by her customers is money that she can’t use. The more quickly customers pay her, the more quickly she can use those funds. Thus, rather than have an average collection period of 30 days, she may want an average collection period of 15 days. However, she must carefully weigh any attempt to force her customers to pay earlier against the possibility that she may anger or alienate customers. Perhaps her competitors are willing to provide a 30-day grace period. As noted in Chapter 5, one common way to encourage customers to pay more quickly is to offer cash discounts for early payment under such terms as 2/10, n/30.

2. Keep inventory levels low. Maintaining a large inventory of cloth and fin- ished clothing is costly. It ties up large amounts of cash, as well as ware- house space. Increasingly, companies are using techniques to reduce the inventory on hand, thus conserving their cash. Of course, if Sharon McCollick has inadequate inventory, she will lose sales. The proper level of inventory is an important decision.

3. Monitor payment of liabilities. Sharon McCollick should monitor when her bills are due, so she avoids paying bills too early. Let’s say her supplier

Sell Inventory

Merchandising Company

Cash

InventoryAccountsReceivable

Receive Cash Buy Inventory

PCPC

MENU

Brien’s itunes playlist

Sgt. Pepper’s L. H.C.B.

All I Want is A Life

What Gonna Do Wia Cowboy?

When My Ship Comes In

T VT VT V

Illustration 7-12 Operating cycle of a merchandising company

7 Discuss the basic principles of cash management.

study objective

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allows 30 days for payment. If she pays in 10 days, she has lost the use of that cash for 20 days. Therefore, she should use the full payment period. But, she should not pay late. This could damage her credit rating (and future borrowing ability). Also, late payments to suppliers can damage important supplier relationships and may even threaten a supplier’s viability. Sharon McCollick’s company also should conserve cash by taking cash discounts of- fered by suppliers, when possible.

4. Plan the timing of major expenditures. To maintain operations or to grow, all companies must make major expenditures. These often require some form of outside financing. In order to increase the likelihood of obtaining outside financing, McCollick should carefully consider the timing of major expendi- tures in light of her company’s operating cycle. If at all possible, she should make any major expenditure when the company normally has excess cash— usually during the off-season.

5. Invest idle cash. Cash on hand earns nothing. An important part of the trea- surer’s job is to ensure that the company invests any excess cash, even if it is only overnight. Many businesses, such as Sharon McCollick’s clothing com- pany, are seasonal. During her slow season, when she has excess cash, she should invest it.

To avoid a cash crisis, however, it is very important that investments of idle cash be highly liquid and risk-free. A liquid investment is one with a market in which someone is always willing to buy or sell the invest- ment. A risk-free investment means there is no concern that the party will default on its promise to pay its principal and interest. For example, us- ing excess cash to purchase stock in a small company because you heard that it was probably going to increase in value in the near term is totally inappropriate. First, the stock of small companies is often illiquid. Sec- ond, if the stock suddenly decreases in value, you might be forced to sell the stock at a loss in order to pay your bills as they come due. The most common form of liquid investments is interest-paying U.S. government securities.

Illustration 7-13 summarizes these five principles of cash management.

Managing and Monitoring Cash 361

International Note International sales complicate cash management. For example, if Nike must repay a Japanese supplier 30 days from today in Japanese yen, Nike will be concerned about how the exchange rate of U.S. dollars for yen might change during those 30 days. Often, corporate treasurers make investments known as hedges to lock in an exchange rate to reduce the com- pany’s exposure to exchange-rate fluctuation.

1. Increase the speed of receivables collection

3. Monitor payment of liabilities 5. Invest idle cash

2. Keep inventory low

4. Plan timing of major expenditures

Expand factory

$ high

$ low

$ low

Payments due

Warehou se

Payments Due S M Tu W Th F S

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28

23 29 30

12 9

T Bill

Illustration 7-13 Five principles of sound cash management

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362 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

KEEPING AN EYE ON CASH

Because cash is so vital to a company, planning the company’s cash needs is a key business activity. It enables the company to plan ahead to cover possible cash shortfalls and to make investments of idle funds. The cash budget shows anticipated cash flows, usually over a one- to two-year period. In this section, we introduce the basics of cash budgeting. More advanced discussion of cash budgets and budgets in general is provided in managerial accounting texts.

As shown below, the cash budget contains three sections—cash receipts, cash disbursements, and financing—and the beginning and ending cash balances.

The Cash receipts section includes expected receipts from the company’s principal source(s) of cash, such as cash sales and collections from customers on credit sales. This section also shows anticipated receipts of interest and div- idends, and proceeds from planned sales of investments, plant assets, and the company’s capital stock.

The Cash disbursements section shows expected payments for inventory, labor, overhead, and selling and administrative expenses. It also includes pro- jected payments for income taxes, dividends, investments, and plant assets. Note that it does not include depreciation since depreciation expense does not use cash.

The Financing section shows expected borrowings and repayments of bor- rowed funds plus interest. Financing is needed when there is a cash deficiency or when the cash balance is less than management’s minimum required balance.

Companies must prepare multi-period cash budgets in sequence because the ending cash balance of one period becomes the beginning cash balance for the next period. In practice, companies often prepare cash budgets for the next 12 months on a monthly basis.

To minimize detail, we will assume that Hayes Company prepares an annual cash budget by quarters. Preparing a cash budget requires making some assump- tions. For example, Hayes makes assumptions regarding collection of accounts receivable, sales of securities, payments for materials and salaries, and purchases of property, plant, and equipment. The accuracy of the cash budget is very de- pendent on the accuracy of these assumptions.

On the next page, we present the cash budget for Hayes Company. The budget indicates that the company will need $3,000 of financing in the second quarter to maintain a minimum cash balance of $15,000. Since there is an excess of available cash over disbursements of $22,500 at the end of the third quarter, Hayes will repay the borrowing, plus $100 interest, in that quarter.

A cash budget contributes to more effective cash management. For ex- ample, it can show when a company will need additional financing, well before the actual need arises. Conversely, it can indicate when the company will have excess cash available for investments or other purposes.

8 Identify the primary elements of a cash budget.

ANY COMPANY Cash Budget

Beginning cash balance $X,XXX Add: Cash receipts (itemized) X,XXX

Total available cash X,XXX Less: Cash disbursements (itemized) X,XXX

Excess (deficiency) of available cash over cash disbursements X,XXX

Financing Add: Borrowings X,XXX Less: Repayments X,XXX

Ending cash balance $X,XXX

study objective

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Managing and Monitoring Cash 363

HAYES COMPANY Cash Budget

For the Year Ending December 31, 2012

Quarter

1 2 3 4

Beginning cash balance $ 38,000 $ 25,500 $ 15,000 $ 19,400 Add: Cash receipts

Collections from customers 168,000 198,000 228,000 258,000 Sale of securities 2,000 0 0 0

Total receipts 170,000 198,000 228,000 258,000

Total available cash 208,000 223,500 243,000 277,400 Less: Cash disbursements

Inventory 23,200 27,200 31,200 35,200 Salaries 62,000 72,000 82,000 92,000 Selling and administrative

expenses (excluding depreciation) 94,300 99,300 104,300 109,300

Purchase of truck 0 10,000 0 0 Income tax expense 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000

Total disbursements 182,500 211,500 220,500 239,500

Excess (deficiency) of available cash over disbursements 25,500 12,000 22,500 37,900

Financing Add: Borrowings 0 3,000 0 0 Less: Repayments—plus $100

interest 0 0 3,100 0

Ending cash balance $ 25,500 $ 15,000 $ 19,400 $ 37,900

DECISION TOOLKIT DECISION CHECKPOINTS TOOL TO USE FOR DECISION HOW TO EVALUATE RESULTS

Will the company be able to meet its projected cash needs?

Cash budget (typically available only to management)

The cash budget shows projected sources and uses of cash. If cash uses exceed internal cash sources, then the company must look for outside sources.

Two issues: (1) Are management’s projections reasonable? (2) If outside sources are needed, are they available?

INFO NEEDED FOR DECISION

CASH BUDGET

before you go on…

Do it! Martian Company’s management wants to maintain a minimum

monthly cash balance of $15,000. At the beginning of March, the cash balance is $16,500; expected cash receipts for March are $210,000; and cash disbursements are expected to be $220,000. How much cash, if any, must Martian borrow to maintain the desired min- imum monthly balance?

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 363

364 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

Solution

Beginning cash balance $ 16,500 Add: Cash receipts for March 210,000

Total available cash 226,500 Less: Cash disbursements for March 220,000

Excess of available cash over cash disbursements 6,500 Financing

Add: Borrowings 8,500

Ending cash balance $ 15,000

To maintain the desired minimum cash balance of $15,000, Martian Company must borrow $8,500 of cash.

Related exercise material: BE7-13, 7-4, and E7-14.Do it!

Action Plan

• Add the beginning cash balance to receipts to determine total available cash.

• Subtract disbursements to determine excess or deficiency.

• Compare excess or deficiency with desired minimum cash to determine borrowing needs.

Presented below is hypothetical financial information for Mattel Corporation. In- cluded in this information is financial statement data from the year ended Decem- ber 31, 2011, which should be used to evaluate Mattel’s cash position.

Selected Financial Information Year Ended December 31, 2011

(in millions)

Net cash provided by operations $325 Capital expenditures 162 Dividends paid 80 Total expenses 680 Depreciation expense 40 Cash balance 206

Also provided are projected data which are management’s best estimate of its sources and uses of cash during 2012. This information should be used to prepare a cash budget for 2012.

Projected Sources and Uses of Cash (in millions)

Beginning cash balance $206 Cash receipts from sales of product 355 Cash receipts from sale of short-term investments 20 Cash payments for inventory 357 Cash payments for selling and administrative costs 201 Cash payments for property, plant, and equipment 45 Cash payments for taxes 17

Mattel Corporation’s management believes it should maintain a balance of $200 mil- lion cash.

Instructions

(a) Using the hypothetical projected sources and uses of cash information presented above, prepare a cash budget for 2012 for Mattel Corporation.

(b) Comment on the company’s cash adequacy, and discuss steps that might be taken to improve its cash position.

USING THE DECISION TOOLKIT

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 364

Summary of Study Objectives 365

Solution

(a) MATTEL CORPORATION Cash Budget

For the Year 2012 (in millions)

Beginning cash balance $206 Add: Cash receipts

From sales of product $355 From sale of short-term investments 20 375

Total available cash 581 Less: Cash disbursements

Payments for inventory 357 Payments for selling and administrative costs 201 Payments for property, plant, and equipment 45 Payments for taxes 17

Total disbursements 620

Excess (deficiency) of available cash over disbursements (39) Financing

Add: Borrowings 239

Ending cash balance $200

(b) Using these hypothetical data, Mattel’s cash position appears adequate. For 2012, Mattel is projecting a cash shortfall. This is not necessarily of concern, but it should be investigated. Given that its primary line of business is toys, and that most toys are sold during December, we would expect Mattel’s cash position to vary significantly during the course of the year. After the holiday season, it prob- ably has a lot of excess cash. Earlier in the year, when it is making and selling its product but has not yet been paid, it may need to borrow to meet any tem- porary cash shortfalls.

If Mattel’s management is concerned with its cash position, it could take the following steps: (1) Offer its customers cash discounts for early payment, such as 2/10, n/30. (2) Implement inventory management techniques to reduce the need for large inventories of such things as the plastics used to make its toys. (3) Carefully time payments to suppliers by keeping track of when payments are due, so as not to pay too early. (4) If it has plans for major expenditures, time those expenditures to coincide with its seasonal period of excess cash.

Summary of Study Objectives 1 Define fraud and internal control. A fraud is a dishon-

est act by an employee that results in personal bene- fit to the employee at a cost to the employer. The fraud triangle refers to the three factors that contribute to fraudulent activity by employees: opportunity, finan- cial pressure, and rationalization. Internal control consists of all the related methods and measures adopted within an organization to safeguard its assets, enhance the reliability of its accounting records, in- crease efficiency of operations, and ensure compliance with laws and regulations.

2 Identify the principles of internal control activities. The principles of internal control are: establishment of responsibility; segregation of duties; documentation procedures; physical controls; independent internal verification; and human resource controls.

3 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash receipts. Internal controls over cash receipts in- clude: (a) designating only personnel such as cashiers to handle cash; (b) assigning the duties of receiving cash, recording cash, and having custody of cash to different individuals; (c) obtaining remittance advices for mail receipts, cash register tapes for over-the- counter receipts, and deposit slips for bank deposits; (d) using company safes and bank vaults to store cash with access limited to authorized personnel, and using cash registers in executing over-the-counter receipts; (e) making independent daily counts of register re- ceipts and daily comparisons of total receipts with total deposits; and (f) conducting background checks and bonding personnel who handle cash, as well as requiring them to take vacations.

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 9/2/10 1:42 PM Page 365

366 chapter 7 Fraud, Internal Control, and Cash

4 Explain the applications of internal control principles to cash disbursements. Internal controls over cash dis- bursements include: (a) having only specified individ- uals such as the treasurer authorized to sign checks; (b) assigning the duties of approving items for payment, paying the items, and recording the payment to dif- ferent individuals; (c) using prenumbered checks and accounting for all checks, with each check supported by an approved invoice; after payment, stamping each approved invoice “paid”; (d) storing blank checks in a safe or vault with access restricted to authorized per- sonnel, and using a machine with indelible ink to imprint amounts on checks; (e) comparing each check with the approved invoice before issuing the check, and making monthly reconciliations of bank and book balances; and (f) bonding personnel who handle cash, requiring employees to take vacations, and conduct- ing background checks.

5 Prepare a bank reconciliation. In reconciling the bank account, it is customary to reconcile the balance per books and the balance per bank to their adjusted balance. The steps reconciling the Cash account are to

determine deposits in transit, outstanding checks, errors by the depositor or the bank, and unrecorded bank memoranda.

6 Explain the reporting of cash. Cash is listed first in the current assets section of the balance sheet. Compa- nies often report cash together with cash equivalents. Cash restricted for a special purpose is reported separately as a current asset or as a noncurrent asset, depending on when the company expects to use the cash.

7 Discuss the basic principles of cash management. The basic principles of cash management include: (a) in- crease the speed of receivables collection, (b) keep inventory levels low, (c) monitor the timing of payment of liabilities, (d) plan timing of major expenditures, and (e) invest idle cash.

8 Identify the primary elements of a cash budget. The three main elements of a cash budget are the cash receipts section, cash disbursements section, and financing section.

Are the company’s financial statements supported by adequate internal controls?

Auditor’s report, management discussion and analysis, articles in financial press

The principles of internal control activities are (1) establishment of responsibility, (2) segregation of duties, (3) documentation procedures, (4) physical controls, (5) independent internal verification, and (6) human resource controls.

If any indication is given that these or other controls are lacking, use the financial statements with caution.

Is all of the company’s cash available for general use?

Balance sheet and notes to financial statements

Does the company report any cash as being restricted?

A restriction on the use of cash limits management’s ability to use those resources for general obligations. This might be considered when assessing liquidity.

Will the company be able to meet its projected cash needs?

Cash budget (typically available only to management)

The cash budget shows projected sources and uses of cash. If cash uses exceed internal cash sources, then the company must look for outside sources.

Two issues: (1) Are management’s projections reasonable? (2) If outside sources are needed, are they available?

DECISION CHECKPOINTS TOOL TO USE FOR DECISION HOW TO EVALUATE RESULTSINFO NEEDED FOR DECISION

DECISION TOOLKIT A SUMMARY

The operation of a petty cash fund involves (1) establishing the fund, (2) mak- ing payments from the fund, and (3) replenishing the fund.

appendix 7A

Operation of the Petty Cash Fund study objective 9 Explain the operation of a petty cash fund.

c07Fraud,InternalControl,andCash.qxd 8/16/10 2:19 PM Page 366

Ethics Note Petty cash funds are authorized and legitimate. In contrast, “slush” funds are unauthorized and hidden (under the table).

Helpful Hint From the standpoint of internal control, the receipt satisfies two principles: (1) establishing responsibility (signature of custodian), and (2) documentation procedures.

Helpful Hint Replenishing involves three internal control pro- cedures: segregation of duties, documentation procedures, and independent internal verification.

Appendix 7A: Operation of the Petty Cash Fund 367

ESTABLISHING THE PETTY CASH FUND

Two essential steps in establishing a petty cash fund are: (1) appointing a petty cash custodian who will be responsible for the fund, and (2) determining the size of the fund. Ordinarily, a company expects the amount in the fund to cover anticipated disbursements for a three- to four-week period.

When the company establishes the petty cash fund, it issues a check payable to the petty cash custodian for the stipulated amount. If Laird Com- pany decides to establish a $100 fund on March 1, the entry in general jour- nal form is:

Mar. 1 Petty Cash 100 Cash 100

(To establish a petty cash fund)

The fund custodian cashes the check and places the proceeds in a locked petty cash box or drawer. Most petty cash funds are established on a fixed-amount basis. Moreover, the company will make no additional entries to the Petty Cash account unless the stipulated amount of the fund is changed. For example, if Laird Company decides on July 1 to increase the size of the fund to $250, it would debit Petty Cash $150 and credit Cash $150.

MAKING PAYMENTS FROM PETTY CASH

The custodian of the petty cash fund has the authority to make payments from the fund that conform to prescribed management policies. Usually, management limits the size of expenditures that come from petty cash and does not permit use of the fund for certain types of transactions (such as making short-term loans to employees).

Each payment from the fund must be documented on a prenumbered petty cash receipt (or petty cash voucher). The signatures of both the custodian and the individual receiving payment are required on the receipt. If other support- ing documents such as a freight bill or invoice are available, they should be at- tached to the petty cash receipt.

The custodian keeps the receipts in the petty cash box until the fund is re- plenished. As a result, the sum of the petty cash receipts and money in the fund should equal the established total at all times. This means that management can make surprise counts at any time by an independent person, such as an inter- nal auditor, to determine the correctness of the fund.

The company does not make an accounting entry to record a payment at the time it is taken from petty cash. It is considered both inexpedient and unneces- sary to do so. Instead, the company recognizes the accounting effects of each payment when the fund is replenished.

REPLENISHING THE PETTY CASH FUND

When the money in the petty cash fund reaches a minimum level, the company replenishes the fund. The petty cash custodian initiates a request for reimburse- ment. This individual prepares a schedule (or summary) of the payments that have been made and sends the schedule, supported by petty cash receipts and other documentation, to the treasurer’s office. The receipts and supporting documents are examined in the treasurer’s office to verify that they were proper payments from the fund. The treasurer then approves the request, and a check is prepared to restore the fund to its established amount. At the same time, all supporting documentation is stamped “paid” so that it cannot be submitted again for payment.

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umuc library one search

WRTG 393 students,

This discussion thread is designed to help you become familiar with OneSearch.  OneSearch is a service that is available through UMUC’s Library and Information Services website.  It allows a user to locate scholarly articles, trade journal articles and other resources through a single search engine.

Please watch Library Tutorial #1.  You can access it in Content for Week 2:

Then answer the following questions and complete these tasks:

1. What topic are you considering for your White Paper (WA #4)? 

2. Find one article on this topic by using the strategies mentioned in library tutorial #1.  Then list the source in APA format and write a summary/critique of 150-200 words.

After completing those two tasks, please watch Library Tutorial #2, “Subject Search in UMUC OneSearch.”  You can access it in Content for Week 2.

Then answer the following question and complete these tasks:

3. Now that you’ve perused various articles on a topic using OneSearch, has your topic changed or become more focused in any way?  If so, please describe how it has changed.  If not, please tell us what your topic is again.

4. Find another article on your topic for your white paper, this time using subject terms, as Library Tutorial #2 describes.  List the subject terms you used.

5. List the source in APA format and write your summary/critique of 150-200 words.

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CHAPTER 6 Supply, Demand, and Government Policies

Economists have two roles. As scientists, they develop and test theories to explain the world around them. As policy advisers, they use their theories to help change the world for the better. The focus of the preceding two chapters has been scientific. We have seen how supply and demand determine the price of a good and the quantity of the good sold. We have also seen how various events shift supply and demand and thereby change the equilibrium price and quantity. And we have developed the concept of elasticity to gauge the size of these changes.

   This chapter offers our first look at policy. Here we analyze various types of government policy using only the tools of supply and demand. As you will see, the analysis yields some surprising insights. Policies often have effects that their architects did not intend or anticipate.

   We begin by considering policies that directly control prices. For example, rent-control laws dictate a maximum rent that landlords may charge tenants. Minimum-wage laws dictate the lowest wage that firms may pay workers. Price controls are usually enacted when policymakers believe that the market price of a good or service is unfair to buyers or sellers. Yet, as we will see, these policies can generate inequities of their own.

   After discussing price controls, we consider the impact of taxes. Policymakers use taxes to raise revenue for public purposes and to influence market outcomes. Although the prevalence of taxes in our economy is obvious, their effects are not. For example, when the government levies a tax on the amount that firms pay their workers, do the firms or the workers bear the burden of the tax? The answer is not at all clear—until we apply the powerful tools of supply and demand.

6-1 Controls on Prices

To see how price controls affect market outcomes, let’s look once again at the market for ice cream. As we saw in  Chapter 4 , if ice cream is sold in a competitive market free of government regulation, the price of ice cream adjusts to balance supply and demand: At the equilibrium price, the quantity of ice cream that buyers want to buy exactly equals the quantity that sellers want to sell. To be concrete, let’s suppose that the equilibrium price is $3 per cone.

   Some people may not be happy with the outcome of this free-market process. The American Association of Ice-Cream Eaters complains that the $3 price is too high for everyone to enjoy a cone a day (their recommended daily allowance). Meanwhile, the National Organization of Ice-Cream Makers complains that the $3 price—the result of “cutthroat competition”—is too low and is depressing the incomes of its members. Each of these groups lobbies the government to pass laws that alter the market outcome by directly controlling the price of an ice-cream cone.

   Because buyers of any good always want a lower price while sellers want a higher price, the interests of the two groups conflict. If the Ice-Cream Eaters are successful in their lobbying, the government imposes a legal maximum on the price at which ice-cream cones can be sold. Because the price is not allowed to rise above this level, the legislated maximum is called a  price ceiling . By contrast, if the Ice-Cream Makers are successful, the government imposes a legal minimum on the price. Because the price cannot fall below this level, the legislated minimum is called a  price floor . Let us consider the effects of these policies in turn.

price ceiling

a legal maximum on the price at which a good can be sold

price floor

a legal minimum on the price at which a good can be sold

6-1a How Price Ceilings Affect Market Outcomes

When the government, moved by the complaints and campaign contributions of the Ice-Cream Eaters, imposes a price ceiling on the market for ice cream, two outcomes are possible. In panel (a) of  Figure 1 , the government imposes a price ceiling of $4 per cone. In this case, because the price that balances supply and demand ($3) is below the ceiling, the price ceiling is not binding. Market forces naturally move the economy to the equilibrium, and the price ceiling has no effect on the price or the quantity sold.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 1  shows the other, more interesting, possibility. In this case, the government imposes a price ceiling of $2 per cone. Because the equilibrium price of $3 is above the price ceiling, the ceiling is a binding constraint on the market. The forces of supply and demand tend to move the price toward the equilibrium price, but when the market price hits the ceiling, it cannot, by law, rise any further. Thus, the market price equals the price ceiling. At this price, the quantityof ice cream demanded (125 cones in  Figure 1 ) exceeds the quantity supplied (75 cones). There is a shortage: 50 people who want to buy ice cream at the going price are unable to do so.

FIGURE 1 A Market with a Price Ceiling

In panel (a), the government imposes a price ceiling of $4. Because the price ceiling is above the equilibrium price of $3, the price ceiling has no effect, and the market can reach the equilibrium of supply and demand. In this equilibrium, quantity supplied and quantity demanded both equal 100 cones. In panel (b), the government imposes a price ceiling of $2. Because the price ceiling is below the equilibrium price of $3, the market price equals $2. At this price, 125 cones are demanded and only 75 are supplied, so there is a shortage of 50 cones.

   In response to this shortage, some mechanism for rationing ice cream will naturally develop. The mechanism could be long lines: Buyers who are willing to arrive early and wait in line get a cone, but those unwilling to wait do not. Alternatively, sellers could ration ice-cream cones according to their own personal biases, selling them only to friends, relatives, or members of their own racial or ethnic group. Notice that even though the price ceiling was motivated by a desire to help buyers of ice cream, not all buyers benefit from the policy. Some buyers do get to pay a lower price, although they may have to wait in line to do so, but other buyers cannot get any ice cream at all.

   This example in the market for ice cream shows a general result: When the government imposes a binding price ceiling on a competitive market, a shortage of the good arises, and sellers must ration the scarce goods among the large number of potential buyers. The rationing mechanisms that develop under price ceilings are rarely desirable. Long lines are inefficient because they waste buyers’ time. Discrimination according to seller bias is both inefficient (because the good does not necessarily go to the buyer who values it most highly) and potentially unfair. By contrast, the rationing mechanism in a free, competitive market is both efficient and impersonal. When the market for ice cream reaches its equilibrium, anyone who wants to pay the market price can get a cone. Free markets ration goods with prices.

case study: Lines at the Gas Pump

As we discussed in  Chapter 5 , in 1973 the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised the price of crude oil in world oil markets. Because crude oil is the major input used to make gasoline, the higher oil prices reduced the supply of gasoline. Long lines at gas stations became commonplace, and motorists often had to wait for hours to buy only a few gallons of gas.

   What was responsible for the long gas lines? Most people blame OPEC. Surely, if OPEC had not raised the price of crude oil, the shortage of gasoline would not have occurred. Yet economists blame U.S. government regulations that limited the price oil companies could charge for gasoline.

    Figure 2  shows what happened. As shown in panel (a), before OPEC raised the price of crude oil, the equilibrium price of gasoline, P1, was below the price ceiling. The price regulation, therefore, had no effect. When the price of crude oil rose, however, the situation changed. The increase in the price of crude oil raised the cost of producing gasoline, and this reduced the supply of gasoline. As panel (b) shows, the supply curve shifted to the left from S1 to S2. In an unregulated market, this shift in supply would have raised the equilibrium price of gasoline from P1 to P2, and no shortage would have resulted. Instead, the price ceiling prevented the price from rising to the equilibrium level. At the price ceiling, producers were willing to sell QS, and consumers were willing to buy QD. Thus, the shift in supply caused a severe shortage at the regulated price.

FIGURE 2 The Market for Gasoline with a Price Ceiling

Panel (a) shows the gasoline market when the price ceiling is not binding because the equilibrium price, P1, is below the ceiling. Panel (b) shows the gasoline market after an increase in the price of crude oil (an input into making gasoline) shifts the supply curve to the left from S1 to S2. In an unregulated market, the price would have risen from P1 to P2. The price ceiling, however, prevents this from happening. At the binding price ceiling, consumers are willing to buy QD, but producers of gasoline are willing to sell only QS. The difference between quantity demanded and quantity supplied, QDQS, measures the gasoline shortage.

   Eventually, the laws regulating the price of gasoline were repealed. Lawmakers came to understand that they were partly responsible for the many hours Americans lost waiting in line to buy gasoline. Today, when the price of crude oil changes, the price of gasoline can adjust to bring supply and demand into equilibrium.

case study: Rent Control in the Short Run and the Long Run

One common example of a price ceiling is rent control. In many cities, the local government places a ceiling on rents that landlords may charge their tenants. The goal of this policy is to help the poor by making housing more affordable. Economists often criticize rent control, arguing that it is a highly inefficient way to help the poor raise their standard of living. One economist called rent control “the best way to destroy a city, other than bombing.”

   The adverse effects of rent control are less apparent to the general population because these effects occur over many years. In the short run, landlords have a fixed number of apartments to rent, and they cannot adjust this number quickly as market conditions change. Moreover, the number of people searching for housing in a city may not be highly responsive to rents in the short run because people take time to adjust their housing arrangements. Therefore, the short-run supply and demand for housing are relatively inelastic.

   Panel (a) of  Figure 3  shows the short-run effects of rent control on the housing market. As with any binding price ceiling, rent control causes a shortage. Yet because supply and demand are inelastic in the short run, the initial shortage caused by rent control is small. The primary effect in the short run is to reduce rents.

FIGURE 3 Rent Control in the Short Run and in the Long Run

Panel (a) shows the short-run effects of rent control: Because the supply and demand curves for apartments are relatively inelastic, the price ceiling imposed by a rent-control law causes only a small shortage of housing. Panel (b) shows the long-run effects of rent control: Because the supply and demand curves for apartments are more elastic, rent control causes a large shortage.

   The long-run story is very different because the buyers and sellers of rental housing respond more to market conditions as time passes. On the supply side, landlords respond to low rents by not building new apartments and by failing to maintain existing ones. On the demand side, low rents encourage people to find their own apartments (rather than living with their parents or sharing apartments with roommates) and induce more people to move into a city. Therefore, both supply and demand are more elastic in the long run.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 3  illustrates the housing market in the long run. When rent control depresses rents below the equilibrium level, the quantity of apartments supplied falls substantially, and the quantity of apartments demanded rises substantially. The result is a large shortage of housing.

   In cities with rent control, landlords use various mechanisms to ration housing. Some landlords keep long waiting lists. Others give a preference to tenants without children. Still others discriminate on the basis of race. Sometimes apartments are allocated to those willing to offer under-the-table payments to building superintendents. In essence, these bribes bring the total price of an apartment closer to the equilibrium price.

   To understand fully the effects of rent control, we have to remember one of the Ten Principles of Economics from  Chapter 1 : People respond to incentives. In free markets, landlords try to keep their buildings clean and safe because desirable apartments command higher prices. By contrast, when rent control creates shortages and waiting lists, landlords lose their incentive to respond to tenants’ concerns. Why should a landlord spend money to maintain and improve the property when people are waiting to get in as it is? In the end, tenants get lower rents, but they also get lower-quality housing.

   Policymakers often react to the effects of rent control by imposing additional regulations. For example, various laws make racial discrimination in housing illegal and require landlords to provide minimally adequate living conditions. These laws, however, are difficult and costly to enforce. By contrast, when rent control is eliminated and a market for housing is regulated by the forces of competition, such laws are less necessary. In a free market, the price of housing adjusts to eliminate the shortages that give rise to undesirable landlord behavior.

6-1b How Price Floors Affect Market Outcomes

To examine the effects of another kind of government price control, let’s return to the market for ice cream. Imagine now that the government is persuaded by the pleas of the National Organization of Ice-Cream Makers whose members feel the $3 equilibrium price is too low. In this case, the government might institute a price floor. Price floors, like price ceilings, are an attempt by the government to maintain prices at other than equilibrium levels. Whereas a price ceiling places a legal maximum on prices, a price floor places a legal minimum.

   When the government imposes a price floor on the ice-cream market, two outcomes are possible. If the government imposes a price floor of $2 per cone when the equilibrium price is $3, we obtain the outcome in panel (a) of  Figure 4 . In this case, because the equilibrium price is above the floor, the price floor is not binding. Market forces naturally move the economy to the equilibrium, and the price floor has no effect.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 4  shows what happens when the government imposes a price floor of $4 per cone. In this case, because the equilibrium price of $3 is below the floor, the price floor is a binding constraint on the market. The forces of supply and demand tend to move the price toward the equilibrium price, but when the market price hits the floor, it can fall no further. The market price equals the price floor. At this floor, the quantity of ice cream supplied (120 cones) exceeds the quantity demanded (80 cones). Some people who want to sell ice cream at the going price are unable to. Thus, a binding price floor causes a surplus.

FIGURE 4 A Market with a Price Floor

In panel (a), the government imposes a price floor of $2. Because this is below the equilibrium price of $3, the price floor has no effect. The market price adjusts to balance supply and demand. At the equilibrium, quantity supplied and quantity demanded both equal 100 cones. In panel (b), the government imposes a price floor of $4, which is above the equilibrium price of $3. Therefore, the market price equals $4. Because 120 cones are supplied at this price and only 80 are demanded, there is a surplus of 40 cones.

   Just as the shortages resulting from price ceilings can lead to undesirable rationing mechanisms, so can the surpluses resulting from price floors. The sellers who appeal to the personal biases of the buyers, perhaps due to racial or familial ties, may be better able to sell their goods than those who do not. By contrast, in a free market, the price serves as the rationing mechanism, and sellers can sell all they want at the equilibrium price.

case study: The Minimum Wage

An important example of a price floor is the minimum wage. Minimum- wage laws dictate the lowest price for labor that any employer may pay. The U.S. Congress first instituted a minimum wage with the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to ensure workers a minimally adequate standard of living. In 2012, the minimum wage according to federal law was $7.25 per hour. (Some states mandate minimum wages above the federal level.) Most European nations have minimum-wage laws as well, sometimes significantly higher than in the United States. For example, average income in France is 27 percent lower than it is in the United States, but the French minimum wage is 9.40 euros per hour, which is about $12 per hour.

   To examine the effects of a minimum wage, we must consider the market for labor. Panel (a) of Figure 5  shows the labor market, which, like all markets, is subject to the forces of supply and demand. Workers determine the supply of labor, and firms determine the demand. If the government doesn’t intervene, the wage normally adjusts to balance labor supply and labor demand.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 5  shows the labor market with a minimum wage. If the minimum wage is above the equilibrium level, as it is here, the quantity of labor supplied exceeds the quantity demanded. The result is unemployment. Thus, the minimum wage raises the incomes of those workers who have jobs, but it lowers the incomes of workers who cannot find jobs.

   To fully understand the minimum wage, keep in mind that the economy contains not a single labor market but many labor markets for different types of workers. The impact of the minimum wage depends on the skill and experience of the worker. Highly skilled and experienced workers are not affected because their equilibrium wages are well above the minimum. For these workers, the minimum wage is not binding.

   The minimum wage has its greatest impact on the market for teenage labor. The equilibrium wages of teenagers are low because teenagers are among the least skilled and least experienced members of the labor force. In addition, teenagers are often willing to accept a lower wage in exchange for on-the-job training. (Some teenagers are willing to work as “interns” for no pay at all. Because internships pay nothing, however, the minimum wage does not apply to them. If it did, these jobs might not exist.) As a result, the minimum wage is binding more often for teenagers than for other members of the labor force.

FIGURE 5 How the Minimum Wage Affects the Labor Market

Panel (a) shows a labor market in which the wage adjusts to balance labor supply and labor demand. Panel (b) shows the impact of a binding minimum wage. Because the minimum wage is a price floor, it causes a surplus: The quantity of labor supplied exceeds the quantity demanded. The result is unemployment.

   Many economists have studied how minimum-wage laws affect the teenage labor market. These researchers compare the changes in the minimum wage over time with the changes in teenage employment. Although there is some debate about how much the minimum wage affects employment, the typical study finds that a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage depresses teenage employment between 1 and 3 percent. In interpreting this estimate, note that a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage does not raise the average wage of teenagers by 10 percent. A change in the law does not directly affect those teenagers who are already paid well above the minimum, and enforcement of minimum-wage laws is not perfect. Thus, the estimated drop in employment of 1 to 3 percent is significant.

   In addition to altering the quantity of labor demanded, the minimum wage alters the quantity supplied. Because the minimum wage raises the wage that teenagers can earn, it increases the number of teenagers who choose to look for jobs. Studies have found that a higher minimum wage influences which teenagers are employed. When the minimum wage rises, some teenagers who are still attending high school choose to drop out and take jobs. These new dropouts displace other teenagers who had already dropped out of school and who now become unemployed.

   The minimum wage is a frequent topic of debate. Economists are about evenly divided on the issue. In a 2006 survey of Ph.D. economists, 47 percent favored eliminating the minimum wage, while 14 percent would maintain it at its current level and 38 percent would increase it.

   Advocates of the minimum wage view the policy as one way to raise the income of the working poor. They correctly point out that workers who earn the minimum wage can afford only a meager standard of living. In 2012, for instance, when the minimum wage was $7.25 per hour, two adults working 40 hours a week for every week of the year at minimum-wage jobs had a total annual income of only $30,160, which was less than two-thirds of the median family income in the United States. Many advocates of the minimum wage admit that it has some adverse effects, including unemployment, but they believe that these effects are small and that, all things considered, a higher minimum wage makes the poor better off.

   Opponents of the minimum wage contend that it is not the best way to combat poverty. They note that a high minimum wage causes unemployment, encourages teenagers to drop out of school, and prevents some unskilled workers from getting the on-the-job training they need. Moreover, opponents of the minimum wage point out that it is a poorly targeted policy. Not all minimum-wage workers are heads of households trying to help their families escape poverty. In fact, fewer than a third of minimum-wage earners are in families with incomes below the poverty line. Many are teenagers from middle-class homes working at part-time jobs for extra spending money.

6-1c Evaluating Price Controls

One of the Ten Principles of Economics discussed in  Chapter 1  is that markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. This principle explains why economists usually oppose price ceilings and price floors. To economists, prices are not the outcome of some haphazard process. Prices, they contend, are the result of the millions of business and consumer decisions that lie behind the supply and demand curves. Prices have the crucial job of balancing supply and demand and, thereby, coordinating economic activity. When policymakers set prices by legal decree, they obscure the signals that normally guide the allocation of society’s resources.

IN THE NEWS: Venezuela versus the Market

This is what happens when political leaders replace market prices with their own.

With Venezuelan Food Shortages, Some Blame Price Controls

By William Neuman

CARACAS , Venezuela — By 6:30 a.m., a full hour and a half before the store would open, about two dozen people were already in line. They waited patiently, not for the latest iPhone, but for something far more basic: groceries.

   “Whatever I can get,” said Katherine Huga, 23, a mother of two, describing her shopping list. She gave a shrug of resignation. “You buy what they have.”

   Venezuela is one of the world’s top oil producers at a time of soaring energy prices, yet shortages of staples like milk, meat and toilet paper are a chronic part of life here, often turning grocery shopping into a hit or miss proposition.

   Some residents arrange their calendars around the once-a-week deliveries made to government-subsidized stores like this one, lining up before dawn to buy a single frozen chicken before the stock runs out. Or a couple of bags of flour. Or a bottle of cooking oil.

   The shortages affect both the poor and the well-off, in surprising ways. A supermarket in the upscale La Castellana neighborhood recently had plenty of chicken and cheese—even quail eggs—but not a single roll of toilet paper. Only a few bags of coffee remained on a bottom shelf.

   Asked where a shopper could get milk on a day when that, too, was out of stock, a manager said with sarcasm, “At Chávez’s house.”

   At the heart of the debate is President Hugo Chávez’s socialist-inspired government, which imposes strict price controls that are intended to make a range of foods and other goods more affordable for the poor. They are often the very products that are the hardest to find.

   “Venezuela is too rich a country to have this,” Nery Reyes, 55, a restaurant worker, said outside a government-subsidized store in the working-class Santa Rosalía neighborhood. “I’m wasting my day here standing in line to buy one chicken and some rice.”

   Venezuela was long one of the most prosperous countries in the region, with sophisticated manufacturing, vibrant agriculture and strong businesses, making it hard for many residents to accept such widespread scarcities. But amid the prosperity, the gap between rich and poor was extreme, a problem that Mr. Chávez and his ministers say they are trying to eliminate.

   They blame unfettered capitalism for the country’s economic ills and argue that controls are needed to keep prices in check in a country where inflation rose to 27.6 percent last year, one of the highest rates in the world. They say companies cause shortages on purpose, holding products off the market to push up prices. This month, the government required price cuts on fruit juice, toothpaste, disposable diapers and more than a dozen other products.

   “We are not asking them to lose money, just that they make money in a rational way, that they don’t rob the people,” Mr. Chávez said recently.

   But many economists call it a classic case of a government causing a problem rather than solving it. Prices are set so low, they say, that companies and producers cannot make a profit. So farmers grow less food, manufacturers cut back production and retailers stock less inventory. Moreover, some of the shortages are in industries, like dairy and coffee, where the government has seized private companies and is now running them, saying it is in the national interest.

   In January, according to a scarcity index compiled by the Central Bank of Venezuela, the difficulty of finding basic goods on store shelves was at its worst level since 2008. While that measure has eased considerably, many products can still be hard to come by.

   Datanálisis, a polling firm that regularly tracks scarcities, said that powdered milk, a staple here, could not be found in 42 percent of the stores its researchers visited in early March. Liquid milk can be even harder to find.

   Other products in short supply last month, according to Datanálisis, included beef, chicken, vegetable oil and sugar. The polling firm also says that the problem is most extreme in the government-subsidized stores that were created to provide affordable food to the poor….

   Francisco Rodríguez, an economist with Bank of America Merrill Lynch who studies the Venezuelan economy, said the government might score some political points with the new round of price controls. But over time, he argued, they will spell trouble for the economy.

   “In the medium to long term, this is going to be a disaster,” Mr. Rodriguez said.

   The price controls also mean that products missing from store shelves usually show up on the black market at much higher prices, a source of outrage for many. For government supporters, that is proof of speculation. Others say it is the consequence of a misguided policy….

   If there is one product that Venezuela should be able to produce in abundance it is coffee, a major crop here for centuries. Until 2009, Venezuela was a coffee exporter, but it began importing large amounts of it three years ago to make up for a decline in production.

   Farmers and coffee roasters say the problem is simple: retail price controls keep prices close to or below what it costs farmers to grow and harvest the coffee. As a result, many do not invest in new plantings or fertilizer, or they cut back on the amount of land used to grow coffee. Making matters worse, the recent harvest was poor in many areas.

   A group representing small- to medium-size roasters said last month that there was no domestic coffee left on the wholesale market—the earliest time of year that industry leaders could remember such supplies running out. The group announced a deal with the government to buy imported beans to keep coffee on store shelves.

   Similar problems have played out with other agricultural products under price controls, like lags in production and rising imports for beef, milk and corn.

   Waiting in line to buy chicken and other staples, Jenny Montero, 30, recalled how she could not find cooking oil last fall and had to switch from the fried food she prefers to soups and stews.

   “It was good for me,” she said drily, pushing her 14-month-old daughter in a stroller. “I lost several pounds.”

Source: New York Times, April 20, 2012.

   Another one of the Ten Principles of Economics is that governments can sometimes improve market outcomes. Indeed, policymakers are led to control prices because they view the market’s outcome as unfair. Price controls are often aimed at helping the poor. For instance, rent-control laws try to make housing affordable for everyone, and minimum-wage laws try to help people escape poverty.

   Yet price controls often hurt those they are trying to help. Rent control may keep rents low, but it also discourages landlords from maintaining their buildings and makes housing hard to find. Minimum-wage laws may raise the incomes of some workers, but they also cause other workers to be unemployed.

   Helping those in need can be accomplished in ways other than controlling prices. For instance, the government can make housing more affordable by paying a fraction of the rent for poor families. Unlike rent control, such rent subsidies do not reduce the quantity of housing supplied and, therefore, do not lead to housing shortages. Similarly, wage subsidies raise the living standards of the working poor without discouraging firms from hiring them. An example of a wage subsidy is the earned income tax credit, a government program that supplements the incomes of low-wage workers.

   Although these alternative policies are often better than price controls, they are not perfect. Rent and wage subsidies cost the government money and, therefore, require higher taxes. As we see in the next section, taxation has costs of its own.

Quick Quiz Define price ceiling and price floor and give an example of each. Which leads to a shortage? Which leads to a surplus? Why?

6-2 Taxes

All governments—from the federal government in Washington, D.C., to the local governments in small towns—use taxes to raise revenue for public projects, such as roads, schools, and national defense. Because taxes are such an important policy instrument, and because they affect our lives in many ways, we return to the study of taxes several times throughout this book. In this section, we begin our study of how taxes affect the economy.

   To set the stage for our analysis, imagine that a local government decides to hold an annual ice-cream celebration—with a parade, fireworks, and speeches by town officials. To raise revenue to pay for the event, the town decides to place a $0.50 tax on the sale of ice-cream cones. When the plan is announced, our two lobbying groups swing into action. The American Association of Ice-Cream Eaters claims that consumers of ice cream are having trouble making ends meet, and it argues that sellers of ice cream should pay the tax. The National Organization of Ice-Cream Makers claims that its members are struggling to survive in a competitive market, and it argues that buyersof ice cream should pay the tax. The town mayor, hoping to reach a compromise, suggests that half the tax be paid by the buyers and half be paid by the sellers.

   To analyze these proposals, we need to address a simple but subtle question: When the government levies a tax on a good, who actually bears the burden of the tax? The people buying the good? The people selling the good? Or if buyers and sellers share the tax burden, what determines how the burden is divided? Can the government simply legislate the division of the burden, as the mayor is suggesting, or is the division determined by more fundamental market forces? The term tax incidence  refers to how the burden of a tax is distributed among the various people who make up the economy. As we will see, some surprising lessons about tax incidence can be learned by applying the tools of supply and demand.

tax incidence

the manner in which the burden of a tax is shared among participants in a market

6-2a How Taxes on Sellers Affect Market Outcomes

We begin by considering a tax levied on sellers of a good. Suppose the local government passes a law requiring sellers of ice-cream cones to send $0.50 to the government for each cone they sell. How does this law affect the buyers and sellers of ice cream? To answer this question, we can follow the three steps in  Chapter 4  for analyzing supply and demand: (1) We decide whether the law affects the supply curve or demand curve. (2) We decide which way the curve shifts. (3) We examine how the shift affects the equilibrium price and quantity.

Step One The immediate impact of the tax is on the sellers of ice cream. Because the tax is not levied on buyers, the quantity of ice cream demanded at any given price is the same; thus, the demand curve does not change. By contrast, the tax on sellers makes the ice-cream business less profitable at any given price, so it shifts the supply curve.

Step Two Because the tax on sellers raises the cost of producing and selling ice cream, it reduces the quantity supplied at every price. The supply curve shifts to the left (or, equivalently, upward).

   In addition to determining the direction in which the supply curve moves, we can also be precise about the size of the shift. For any market price of ice cream, the effective price to sellers—the amount they get to keep after paying the tax—is $0.50 lower. For example, if the market price of a cone happened to be $2.00, the effective price received by sellers would be $1.50. Whatever the market price, sellers will supply a quantity of ice cream as if the price were $0.50 lower than it is. Put differently, to induce sellers to supply any given quantity, the market price must now be $0.50 higher to compensate for the effect of the tax. Thus, as shown in  Figure 6 , the supply curve shiftsupward from S1 to S2 by the exact size of the tax ($0.50).

FIGURE 6 A Tax on Sellers

When a tax of $0.50 is levied on sellers, the supply curve shifts up by $0.50 from S1 to S2. The equilibrium quantity falls from 100 to 90 cones. The price that buyers pay rises from $3.00 to $3.30. The price that sellers receive (after paying the tax) falls from $3.00 to $2.80. Even though the tax is levied on sellers, buyers and sellers share the burden of the tax.

Step Three Having determined how the supply curve shifts, we can now compare the initial and the new equilibriums.  Figure 6  shows that the equilibrium price of ice cream rises from $3.00 to $3.30, and the equilibrium quantity falls from 100 to 90 cones. Because sellers sell less and buyers buy less in the new equilibrium, the tax reduces the size of the ice-cream market.

Implications We can now return to the question of tax incidence: Who pays the tax? Although sellers send the entire tax to the government, buyers and sellers share the burden. Because the market price rises from $3.00 to $3.30 when the tax is introduced, buyers pay $0.30 more for each ice-cream cone than they did without the tax. Thus, the tax makes buyers worse off. Sellers get a higher price ($3.30) from buyers than they did previously, but what they get to keep after paying the tax is only $2.80 ($3.30 − $0.50 = $2.80), compared with $3.00 before the tax was implemented. Thus, the tax also makes sellers worse off.

   To sum up, this analysis yields two lessons:

· • Taxes discourage market activity. When a good is taxed, the quantity of the good sold is smaller in the new equilibrium.

· • Buyers and sellers share the burden of taxes. In the new equilibrium, buyers pay more for the good, and sellers receive less.

6-2b How Taxes on Buyers Affect Market Outcomes

Now consider a tax levied on buyers of a good. Suppose that our local government passes a law requiring buyers of ice-cream cones to send $0.50 to the government for each ice-cream cone they buy. What are the effects of this law? Again, we apply our three steps.

Step One The initial impact of the tax is on the demand for ice cream. The supply curve is not affected because, for any given price of ice cream, sellers have the same incentive to provide ice cream to the market. By contrast, buyers now have to pay a tax to the government (as well as the price to the sellers) whenever they buy ice cream. Thus, the tax shifts the demand curve for ice cream.

Step Two We next determine the direction of the shift. Because the tax on buyers makes buying ice cream less attractive, buyers demand a smaller quantity of ice cream at every price. As a result, the demand curve shifts to the left (or, equivalently, downward), as shown in  Figure 7 .

   Once again, we can be precise about the size of the shift. Because of the $0.50 tax levied on buyers, the effective price to buyers is now $0.50 higher than the market price (whatever the market price happens to be). For example, if the market price of a cone happened to be $2.00, the effective price to buyers would be $2.50. Because buyers look at their total cost including the tax, they demand a quantity of ice cream as if the market price were $0.50 higher than it actually is. In other words, to induce buyers to demand any given quantity, the market price must now be $0.50 lower to make up for the effect of the tax. Thus, the tax shifts the demand curve downward from D1to D2 by the exact size of the tax ($0.50).

Step Three Having determined how the demand curve shifts, we can now see the effect of the tax by comparing the initial equilibrium and the new equilibrium. You can see in  Figure 7  that the equilibrium price of ice cream falls from $3.00 to $2.80, and the equilibrium quantity falls from 100 to 90 cones. Once again, the tax on ice cream reduces the size of the ice-cream market. And once again, buyers and sellers share the burden of the tax. Sellers get a lower price for their product; buyers pay a lower market price to sellers than they did previously, but the effective price (including the tax buyers have to pay) rises from $3.00 to $3.30.

FIGURE 7 A Tax on Buyers

When a tax of $0.50 is levied on buyers, the demand curve shifts down by $0.50 from D1 to D2. The equilibrium quantity falls from 100 to 90 cones. The price that sellers receive falls from $3.00 to $2.80. The price that buyers pay (including the tax) rises from $3.00 to $3.30. Even though the tax is levied on buyers, buyers and sellers share the burden of the tax.

Implications If you compare  Figures 6  and  7 , you will notice a surprising conclusion: Taxes levied on sellers and taxes levied on buyers are equivalent. In both cases, the tax places a wedge between the price that buyers pay and the price that sellers receive. The wedge between the buyers’ price and the sellers’ price is the same, regardless of whether the tax is levied on buyers or sellers. In either case, the wedge shifts the relative position of the supply and demand curves. In the new equilibrium, buyers and sellers share the burden of the tax. The only difference between a tax levied on sellers and a tax levied on buyers is who sends the money to the government.

   The equivalence of these two taxes is easy to understand if we imagine that the government collects the $0.50 ice-cream tax in a bowl on the counter of each ice-cream store. When the government levies the tax on sellers, the seller is required to place $0.50 in the bowl after the sale of each cone. When the government levies the tax on buyers, the buyer is required to place $0.50 in the bowl every time a cone is bought. Whether the $0.50 goes directly from the buyer’s pocket into the bowl, or indirectly from the buyer’s pocket into the seller’s hand and then into the bowl, does not matter. Once the market reaches its new equilibrium, buyers and sellers share the burden, regardless of how the tax is levied.

case study: Can Congress Distribute the Burden of a Payroll Tax?

If you have ever received a paycheck, you probably noticed that taxes were deducted from the amount you earned. One of these taxes is called FICA, an acronym for the Federal Insurance Contributions Act. The federal government uses the revenue from the FICA tax to pay for Social Security and Medicare, the income support and healthcare programs for the elderly. FICA is an example of a payroll tax, which is a tax on the wages that firms pay their workers. In 2013, the total FICA tax for the typical worker was 15.3 percent of earnings.

   Who do you think bears the burden of this payroll tax—firms or workers? When Congress passed this legislation, it tried to mandate a division of the tax burden. According to the law, half of the tax is paid by firms, and half is paid by workers. That is, half of the tax is paid out of firms’ revenues, and half is deducted from workers’ paychecks. The amount that shows up as a deduction on your pay stub is the worker contribution.

   Our analysis of tax incidence, however, shows that lawmakers cannot so easily dictate the distribution of a tax burden. To illustrate, we can analyze a payroll tax as merely a tax on a good, where the good is labor and the price is the wage. The key feature of the payroll tax is that it places a wedge between the wage that firms pay and the wage that workers receive.  Figure 8  shows the outcome. When a payroll tax is enacted, the wage received by workers falls, and the wage paid by firms rises. In the end, workers and firms share the burden of the tax, much as the legislation requires. Yet this division of the tax burden between workers and firms has nothing to do with the legislated division: The division of the burden in  Figure 8  is not necessarily 50-50, and the same outcome would prevail if the law levied the entire tax on workers or if it levied the entire tax on firms.

   This example shows that the most basic lesson of tax incidence is often overlooked in public debate. Lawmakers can decide whether a tax comes from the buyer’s pocket or from the seller’s, but they cannot legislate the true burden of a tax. Rather, tax incidence depends on the forces of supply and demand.

FIGURE 8 A Payroll Tax

A payroll tax places a wedge between the wage that workers receive and the wage that firms pay. Comparing wages with and without the tax, you can see that workers and firms share the tax burden. This division of the tax burden between workers and firms does not depend on whether the government levies the tax on workers, levies the tax on firms, or divides the tax equally between the two groups.

6-2c Elasticity and Tax Incidence

When a good is taxed, buyers and sellers of the good share the burden of the tax. But how exactly is the tax burden divided? Only rarely will it be shared equally. To see how the burden is divided, consider the impact of taxation in the two markets in  Figure 9 . In both cases, the figure shows the initial demand curve, the initial supply curve, and a tax that drives a wedge between the amount paid by buyers and the amount received by sellers. (Not drawn in either panel of the figure is the new supply or demand curve. Which curve shifts depends on whether the tax is levied on buyers or sellers. As we have seen, this is irrelevant for the incidence of the tax.) The difference in the two panels is the relative elasticity of supply and demand.

   Panel (a) of  Figure 9  shows a tax in a market with very elastic supply and relatively inelastic demand. That is, sellers are very responsive to changes in the price of the good (so the supply curve is relatively flat), whereas buyers are not very responsive (so the demand curve is relatively steep). When a tax is imposed on a market with these elasticities, the price received by sellers does not fall much, so sellers bear only a small burden. By contrast, the price paid by buyers rises substantially, indicating that buyers bear most of the burden of the tax.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 9  shows a tax in a market with relatively inelastic supply and very elastic demand. In this case, sellers are not very responsive to changes in the price (so the supply curve is steeper), whereas buyers are very responsive (so the demand curve is flatter). The figure shows that when a tax is imposed, the price paid by buyers does not rise much, but the price received by sellers falls substantially. Thus, sellers bear most of the burden of the tax.

   The two panels of  Figure 9  show a general lesson about how the burden of a tax is divided: A tax burden falls more heavily on the side of the market that is less elastic. Why is this true? In essence, the elasticity measures the willingness of buyers or sellers to leave the market when conditions become unfavorable. A small elasticity of demand means that buyers do not have good alternatives to consuming this particular good. A small elasticity of supply means that sellers do not have good alternatives to producing this particular good. When the good is taxed, the side of the market with fewer good alternatives is less willing to leave the market and must, therefore, bear more of the burden of the tax.

FIGURE 9 How the Burden of a Tax Is Divided

In panel (a), the supply curve is elastic, and the demand curve is inelastic. In this case, the price received by sellers falls only slightly, while the price paid by buyers rises substantially. Thus, buyers bear most of the burden of the tax. In panel (b), the supply curve is inelastic, and the demand curve is elastic. In this case, the price received by sellers falls substantially, while the price paid by buyers rises only slightly. Thus, sellers bear most of the burden of the tax.

   We can apply this logic to the payroll tax discussed in the previous case study. Most labor economists believe that the supply of labor is much less elastic than the demand. This means that workers, rather than firms, bear most of the burden of the payroll tax. In other words, the distribution of the tax burden is far from the 50-50 split that lawmakers intended.

case study: Who Pays the Luxury Tax?

In 1990, Congress adopted a new luxury tax on items such as yachts, private airplanes, furs, jewelry, and expensive cars. The goal of the tax was to raise revenue from those who could most easily afford to pay. Because only the rich could afford to buy such extravagances, taxing luxuries seemed a logical way of taxing the rich.

   Yet, when the forces of supply and demand took over, the outcome was quite different from the one Congress intended. Consider, for example, the market for yachts. The demand for yachts is quite elastic. A millionaire can easily not buy a yacht; he can use the money to buy a bigger house, take a European vacation, or leave a larger bequest to his heirs. By contrast, the supply of yachts is relatively inelastic, at least in the short run. Yacht factories are not easily converted to alternative uses, and workers who build yachts are not eager to change careers in response to changing market conditions.

   Our analysis makes a clear prediction in this case. With elastic demand and inelastic supply, the burden of a tax falls largely on the suppliers. That is, a tax on yachts places a burden largely on the firms and workers who build yachts because they end up getting a significantly lower price for their product. The workers, however, are not wealthy. Thus, the burden of a luxury tax falls more on the middle class than on the rich.

   The mistaken assumptions about the incidence of the luxury tax quickly became apparent after the tax went into effect. Suppliers of luxuries made their congressional representatives well aware of the economic hardship they experienced, and Congress repealed most of the luxury tax in 1993.

“If this boat were any more expensive, we’d be playing golf.”

Quick Quiz In a supply-and-demand diagram, show how a tax on car buyers of $1,000 per car affects the quantity of cars sold and the price of cars. In another diagram, show how a tax on car sellers of $1,000 per car affects the quantity of cars sold and the price of cars. In both of your diagrams, show the change in the price paid by car buyers and the change in the price received by car sellers.

6-3 Conclusion

The economy is governed by two kinds of laws: the laws of supply and demand and the laws enacted by governments. In this chapter, we have begun to see how these laws interact. Price controls and taxes are common in various markets in the economy, and their effects are frequently debated in the press and among policymakers. Even a little bit of economic knowledge can go a long way toward understanding and evaluating these policies.

   In subsequent chapters, we analyze many government policies in greater detail. We examine the effects of taxation more fully and consider a broader range of policies than we considered here. Yet the basic lessons of this chapter will not change: When analyzing government policies, supply and demand are the first and most useful tools of analysis.

Summary

· • A price ceiling is a legal maximum on the price of a good or service. An example is rent control. If the price ceiling is below the equilibrium price, then the price ceiling is binding, and the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied. Because of the resulting shortage, sellers must in some way ration the good or service among buyers.

· • A price floor is a legal minimum on the price of a good or service. An example is the minimum wage. If the price floor is above the equilibrium price, then the price floor is binding, and the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded. Because of the resulting surplus, buyers’ demands for the good or service must in some way be rationed among sellers.

· • When the government levies a tax on a good, the equilibrium quantity of the good falls. That is, a tax on a market shrinks the size of the market.

· • A tax on a good places a wedge between the price paid by buyers and the price received by sellers. When the market moves to the new equilibrium, buyers pay more for the good and sellers receive less for it. In this sense, buyers and sellers share the tax burden. The incidence of a tax (that is, the division of the tax burden) does not depend on whether the tax is levied on buyers or sellers.

· • The incidence of a tax depends on the price elasticities of supply and demand. Most of the burden falls on the side of the market that is less elastic because that side of the market cannot respond as easily to the tax by changing the quantity bought or sold.

Key Concepts

price ceiling p. 112

price floor p. 112

tax incidence p. 122

Questions for Review

· 1. Give an example of a price ceiling and an example of a price floor.

· 2. Which causes a shortage of a good—a price ceiling or a price floor? Justify your answer with a graph.

· 3. What mechanisms allocate resources when the price of a good is not allowed to bring supply and demand into equilibrium?

· 4. Explain why economists usually oppose controls on prices.

· 5. Suppose the government removes a tax on buyers of a good and levies a tax of the same size on sellers of the good. How does this change in tax policy affect the price that buyers pay sellers for this good, the amount buyers are out of pocket (including any tax payments they make), the amount sellers receive (net of any tax payments they make), and the quantity of the good sold?

· 6. How does a tax on a good affect the price paid by buyers, the price received by sellers, and the quantity sold?

· 7. What determines how the burden of a tax is divided between buyers and sellers? Why?

Quick Check Multiple Choice

· 1. When the government imposes a binding price floor, it causes

· a. the supply curve to shift to the left.

· b. the demand curve to shift to the right.

· c. a shortage of the good to develop.

· d. a surplus of the good to develop.

· 2. In a market with a binding price ceiling, an increase in the ceiling will ___________ the quantity supplied, ___________ the quantity demanded, and reduce the ___________.

· a. increase, decrease, surplus

· b. decrease, increase, surplus

· c. increase, decrease, shortage

· d. decrease, increase, shortage

· 3. A $1 per unit tax levied on consumers of a good is equivalent to

· a. a $1 per unit tax levied on producers of the good.

· b. a $1 per unit subsidy paid to producers of the good.

· c. a price floor that raises the good’s price by $1 per unit.

· d. a price ceiling that raises the good’s price by $1 per unit.

· 4. Which of the following would increase quantity supplied, decrease quantity demanded, and increase the price that consumers pay?

· a. the imposition of a binding price floor

· b. the removal of a binding price floor

· c. the passage of a tax levied on producers

· d. the repeal of a tax levied on producers

· 5. Which of the following would increase quantity supplied, increase quantity demanded, and decrease the price that consumers pay?

· a. the imposition of a binding price floor

· b. the removal of a binding price floor

· c. the passage of a tax levied on producers

· d. the repeal of a tax levied on producers

· 6. When a good is taxed, the burden of the tax falls mainly on consumers if

· a. the tax is levied on consumers.

· b. the tax is levied on producers.

· c. supply is inelastic, and demand is elastic.

· d. supply is elastic, and demand is inelastic.

Problems and Applications

· 1. Lovers of classical music persuade Congress to impose a price ceiling of $40 per concert ticket. As a result of this policy, do more or fewer people attend classical music concerts? Explain.

· 2. The government has decided that the free-market price of cheese is too low.

· a. Suppose the government imposes a binding price floor in the cheese market. Draw a supply-and-demand diagram to show the effect of this policy on the price of cheese and the quantity of cheese sold. Is there a shortage or surplus of cheese?

· b. Producers of cheese complain that the price floor has reduced their total revenue. Is this possible? Explain.

· c. In response to cheese producers’ complaints, the government agrees to purchase all the surplus cheese at the price floor. Compared to the basic price floor, who benefits from this new policy? Who loses?

· 3. A recent study found that the demand and supply schedules for Frisbees are as follows:

Price per FrisbeeQuantity DemandedQuantity Supplied
$111 million Frisbees15 million Frisbees
10212
949
866
783
6101

· a. What are the equilibrium price and quantity of Frisbees?

· b. Frisbee manufacturers persuade the government that Frisbee production improves scientists’ understanding of aerodynamics and thus is important for national security. A concerned Congress votes to impose a price floor $2 above the equilibrium price. What is the new market price? How many Frisbees are sold?

· c. Irate college students march on Washington and demand a reduction in the price of Frisbees. An even more concerned Congress votes to repeal the price floor and impose a price ceiling $1 below the former price floor. What is the new market price? How many Frisbees are sold?

· 4. Suppose the federal government requires beer drinkers to pay a $2 tax on each case of beer purchased. (In fact, both the federal and state governments impose beer taxes of some sort.)

· a. Draw a supply-and-demand diagram of the market for beer without the tax. Show the price paid by consumers, the price received by producers, and the quantity of beer sold. What is the difference between the price paid by consumers and the price received by producers?

· b. Now draw a supply-and-demand diagram for the beer market with the tax. Show the price paid by consumers, the price received by producers, and the quantity of beer sold. What is the difference between the price paid by consumers and the price received by producers? Has the quantity of beer sold increased or decreased?

· 5. A senator wants to raise tax revenue and make workers better off. A staff member proposes raising the payroll tax paid by firms and using part of the extra revenue to reduce the payroll tax paid by workers. Would this accomplish the senator’s goal? Explain.

· 6. If the government places a $500 tax on luxury cars, will the price paid by consumers rise by more than $500, less than $500, or exactly $500? Explain.

· 7. Congress and the president decide that the United States should reduce air pollution by reducing its use of gasoline. They impose a $0.50 tax on each gallon of gasoline sold.

· a. Should they impose this tax on producers or consumers? Explain carefully using a supply-and-demand diagram.

· b. If the demand for gasoline were more elastic, would this tax be more effective or less effective in reducing the quantity of gasoline consumed? Explain with both words and a diagram.

· c. Are consumers of gasoline helped or hurt by this tax? Why?

· d. Are workers in the oil industry helped or hurt by this tax? Why?

· 8. A case study in this chapter discusses the federal minimum-wage law.

· a. Suppose the minimum wage is above the equilibrium wage in the market for unskilled labor. Using a supply-and-demand diagram of the market for unskilled labor, show the market wage, the number of workers who are employed, and the number of workers who are unemployed. Also show the total wage payments to unskilled workers.

· b. Now suppose the secretary of labor proposes an increase in the minimum wage. What effect would this increase have on employment? Does the change in employment depend on the elasticity of demand, the elasticity of supply, both elasticities, or neither?

· c. What effect would this increase in the minimum wage have on unemployment? Does the change in unemployment depend on the elasticity of demand, the elasticity of supply, both elasticities, or neither?

· d. If the demand for unskilled labor were inelastic, would the proposed increase in the minimum wage raise or lower total wage payments to unskilled workers? Would your answer change if the demand for unskilled labor were elastic?

· 9. At Fenway Park, home of the Boston Red Sox, seating is limited to 39,000. Hence, the number of tickets issued is fixed at that figure. Seeing a golden opportunity to raise revenue, the City of Boston levies a per ticket tax of $5 to be paid by the ticket buyer. Boston sports fans, a famously civic-minded lot, dutifully send in the $5 per ticket. Draw a well-labeled graph showing the impact of the tax. On whom does the tax burden fall—the team’s owners, the fans, or both? Why?

· 10. A subsidy is the opposite of a tax. With a $0.50 tax on the buyers of ice-cream cones, the government collects $0.50 for each cone purchased; with a $0.50 subsidy for the buyers of ice-cream cones, the government pays buyers $0.50 for each cone purchased.

· a. Show the effect of a $0.50 per cone subsidy on the demand curve for ice-cream cones, the effective price paid by consumers, the effective price received by sellers, and the quantity of cones sold.

· b. Do consumers gain or lose from this policy? Do producers gain or lose? Does the government gain or lose?