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Shareholders Vs Stakeholders model

Shareholders theory was introduced in 1970 by Milton Friedman. According to shareholders theory, Corporation has one responsibility that is to use resources for pursuing activities to increase its profits. Corporations should compete with other competitors without using any fraudulent activities. The aim of this model is to maximize the interest of the shareholders keeping in limits of social values and norms. This is one of the dominant theory and used by many businesses. This has been observed in the United States of American that many executives of different organizations consider their tasks or intentions for the welfare of the employees (Smith, 2003).

 On the other hand, stakeholder’s theory was introduced in 1988 by Edward Freeman. Stakeholders are people that provide supports to the business. Examples of stakeholders include employees, suppliers, customers, shareholders, community, and an environment. According to this theory, Corporation has the duty of balancing the interest of shareholders and stakeholders. There is a continuous debate on implementing one out of two theories from them. These two models of corporate governance have different assumptions (Stout, 2012, p. 19).

 Assumption of shareholders theory

 The first assumption of shareholders theory is that environmental, the social and human cost of operating business internalized only as per to the extent demand by law. As per this assumption, this model can provide the best return to the society after maximizing shareholders interest. According to this assumption, Corporation should work to maximize revenue and minimize a cost of production with minimization of risk. 

 One approach to reducing cost is to externalize the cost through means like pollution etc. To increase revenue, goods are provided at higher costs to the society. The second assumption of this theory is that self-interest worked as the prime motivator for human beings. As per this assumption, people of the organization would work in their self-interest to increase the Corporation’s efficiency and society’s value. As per this underlying assumption, every individual can maximize the value of the society by acting within in the self-interest rationally. The third assumption of this model is that a firm is the nexus of contract works on these contracts to maximize profitability.  Furthermore, the US law contains the respect of the shareholders, as their response, share, interest, support and analysis are necessary for sustainability. The behavior of the shareholders of the company should be considered to sustain them. The executive intends to provide immense options and values to shareholders. However, it may create  hurdles for the stakeholders (Smith, 2003).  

Assumption of stakeholder’s theory

            There are different assumptions underlying this model of Corporate Governance. The first assumption in instrumental theory is that managing stakeholder leads towards greater profits. This theory provides a positive relationship between stakeholder’s satisfaction and profitability of the company. Normative aspect of the theory also contains assumptions. Stakeholder’s theory assumes that all stakeholders have intrinsic value for the Corporation and one stakeholder does not have interest priority over the other stakeholder. On the other hand, the stakeholder consideration and integration with the shareholders is necessary to create the value of the company. Its enables the stakeholders to have active participation in the decision making process tpo create the values of the company of the brand (Smith, 2003).

Advantages and Disadvantages of shareholder model

 There are different advantages of shareholders model. Satisfaction of shareholders may leads towards better profitability because shareholders are investors and their satisfaction is necessary for the success of an organization. It provides better profits and growth chances in future. There are different disadvantages like those that are focusing only on profit maximization are not good for Corporation.

 Corporations are responsible for providing their role in communities. Working only on profit can effect on customers. Corporation can also reduce their loyal customers. Another disadvantage of this model is that it disturbs stakeholders like suppliers and community. With the passage of time, the government is taking more concern of the social responsibilities and ethical operations. 

Advantages and disadvantages of stakeholder theory

 One advantage of this model is that it cares all stakeholders. It is important to provide importance to all stakeholders for better growth. One important benefit of this theory is that it considers all members external and internal in the progress and better growth. Stakeholder’s theory provides value and creates value for the entire organization. A Much well-reputed organization like Coca-Cola, Starbucks has implemented this theory for better growth. Due to the application of this theory, they can improve their presence in the customers. One of a disadvantage with this theory is its underlying assumptions. This theory may also affect on shareholders satisfaction (Freeman, Harrison, Wicks, Parmar, & Colle, 2010, pp. 128-129).

            Due to the consideration of stakeholders, the management of the company can contain the delayed decisions. This can create the problems for both, the management and the shareholders to take the immediate actions against the competitors (Smith, 2003).

Best model

 In the 21st century, the best model is Stakeholders model of corporate governance. In this today’s global economy, stakeholder’s theory can provide better financial benefits to the Corporation. It is not advisable to satisfy only shareholders. Wealth can be generated by considering all stakeholders. No doubt, customers play important role in every organization. Customers are also as important as shareholders are. Customers create value in the form of high profits. For better performance, an interest of customers is also very important. Apple Inc has focused on its customers to create value in its organization. This is the best model for the business corporations, as stakeholders can lead the company towards the suitability and success for a long run, even in the intense competition.

 Other stakeholders like suppliers and employees are also very important. These are considered only in stakeholder theory. This is the reason why companies like Google, Apple, are investing in their employees. Environmental laws are becoming stricter, and ethics and sustainability are important. This is only possible in stakeholder’s model. Employee’s laws are also demanding implication of stakeholder’s model (Rani & Mishra, 2009, pp. 36-37).

            It is concluded that both models are prevailing in the Corporations as Corporate governance models. Shareholders theory only prefers profit maximization on the other hand stakeholders theory prefers all stakeholders. Advantages of stakeholder’s theory are value creation. In this century, stakeholder’s theory should be preferred.

References

Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., Wicks, A. C., Parmar, B. L., & Colle, S. d. (2010). Stakeholder Theory: The State of the Art. Cambridge University Press.

Rani, D. G., & Mishra, R. K. (2009). Corporate Governance. Excel Books India,.

Smith, H. J. (2003). The Shareholders vs. Stakeholders Debate. MITSloan Management Review , 44 (4), 85-90.

Stout, L. (2012). The Shareholder Value Myth: How Putting Shareholders First Harms Investors, Corporations, and the Public. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

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which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon

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asked by Amelia on November 7, 2012
PHYSICS PLEASE HELP
Suppose a distant world with surface gravity of 7.12 m/s2 has an atmospheric pressure of 7.48 104 Pa at the surface. (a) What force is exerted by the atmosphere on a disk-shaped region 2.00 m in radius at the surface of a methane ocean?____________N (b)

asked by AMY on November 8, 2012
chemistry
A sample of methane gas, CH4, was collected over water at 25.0ºC and 800 torr. The volume of the wet gas is 4.36 L. What will be the volume of the dry methane at standard pressure? Voldry methane=_______L

asked by Anonymous on April 10, 2011
chemistry
A ten gallon methane tank contains 1.243 mol of methane at 74°F. Express the volume of tank in liters, the amount of methane in the tank in grams, and the tempature of the tank in kelvin.

asked by Kalyn on February 10, 2011
dijla
if you change the indicator of standardization Hcl with Na2co3 methyl red methyl orange titration corset not why?

asked by yasser on December 5, 2012
Organic Chemistry
How do I draw the condensed formula for: 1. 2-methyl-2-pentene 2. 5-methyl-1-hexene 3. 2,2,4,5-tetramethylhexane 4. propanoic acid 5. 2-pentyne

asked by Cinnamon on September 30, 2007
Chemistry
What volume of “wet” methane would have to be collected at 20.0 oC and 760.0 torr to be sure the sample contained 2.00 x 102 ml of dry methane at the same temperature and pressure ? My Work: All I have so far is that I use P1V1=P2V2 but I don’t know

asked by Joe on September 7, 2015
chemistry 12
If the pH of a solution is 3.5, what colour will be shown by each of the following indicators in the solution? a)Methyl Violet b) methyl red c) Methyl orange d) phenolphthalein My answers: a) Yellow to Blue b) Red to Yellow c) Red to Yellow d) close to a

asked by Sarah on October 13, 2011
chemistry
Combustion analysis of a hydrocarbon produced 33.01 g {\rm CO}_2 and 27.04 g {\rm H}_2{\rm O}. Calculate the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon. Express your answer as a chemical formula.

asked by david on March 17, 2014

Environmental Issues
My science teacher says that cattle flatulence is destroying the ozone layer. If this is true, what can we do to regulate the flatulence output of cattle in order to preserve the ozone? http://www.guardian.co.uk/climatechange/story/0,12374,905360,00.html

asked by Joey on May 10, 2007
chemistry
Calculate the volume of natural gas (methane) required to bring 2.6 L of water to a boil. Assume the initial temperature of the water is 21 C, and the methane is at 1 bar and 25 C. Assume that methane is an ideal gas, the specific heat capacity of water to

asked by Katie on December 4, 2011
Chemistry
Calculate the volume of natural gas (methane) required to bring 3.9 L of water to a boil. Assume the initial temperature of the water is 39 C, and the methane is at 1 bar and 25 C. Assume that methane is an ideal gas, the specific heat capacity of water to

asked by LaurenB on December 2, 2011
chemistry
what are some examples of covalent bonds and what are some examples of ionic bonds? Electrons are shared in covalent bonds. Electrons are exchanged in ionic bonds. Typical ionic compounds are NaCl, MgCl2, LiI, etc. Typical covalent compounds are CH4,

asked by Leeann on January 29, 2007
AP Chemistry
a 5.15g sample of a hydrocarbon is burned in oxygen, producing 15.6g of carbon dioxide and 8.45g of water. Assuming an excess of oxygen, what is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon?

asked by Ariday on September 13, 2011

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____ is a common indicator of a dos attack.

QUESTION 1

1. 1.     The field of MIS deals with ____ issues as well as technical issues.

Development 
 Use and Behavior       
    Impact 
  Specifications

2 points   

QUESTION 2

1. 1.     The main parts of the FRAME for analysis of IS are:

Purpose, Boundary, Environment    
Management, Organization, Technology    
  Initiation, Development, Implementation    
   Market, Design, Sale

2 points   

QUESTION 3

1. Time shifting refers to business operating 24/7 rather than 9am-5pm.

 True

 False

2 points   

QUESTION 4

1. 1.     In private business, how much of business expenditures has been spent on IT?

about 90%  
  about 20-30%    
 about 14-33%    
  about 55-72%

2 points   

QUESTION 5

1. 1.     ESS stands for ____. 

 Event-Based Systems Support 
 Environmental Support Systems
  External System Selections 
 Executive Support Systems

2 points   

QUESTION 6

1. 1.     The 6 Business Objectives do NOT include:

 Operational Excellence 
 Decision Making 
 Information Display 
 Survival

2 points   

QUESTION 7

1. 1.     According to behavior science, IT can ________ organizations by broadening the distribution of information.   

  enhance 
  push 
  change 
  flatten

2 points   

QUESTION 8

1. 1.     The ________Chain Model highlights adding to competitive advantage, for example with Information Systems.  

 Value 
 Supply 
 Critical 
 Food

2 points   

QUESTION 9

1. 1.     An example of how IS can enhance a business is _______.

 computerize billing 
 increase efficiency 
 promote sales 
 develop database

2 points   

QUESTION 10

1. 1.     One way to organize IS functions is to ___.

 have a separate department under central control 
 put representatives in department with central control 
 decentralize but report to CIO 
 All of the above

2 points   

QUESTION 11

1. 1.     Under Porter’s Competitive Forces Model, _________ is a force effecting strategic position.

 executives 
 database managers 
 customers
  employees

2 points   

QUESTION 12

1. 1.     Although it has several interpretations, _______________ once suggested that the power of microprocessors doubles every 18 months. 

 Law of Mass Storage 
 Shannon’s Law 
 Moore’s Law 
 Metcalfe’s Law

2 points   

QUESTION 13

1. 1.     Corporate networks and the web mainly use the single, common, worldwide standard protocol called ____. 

  DOS 
TCP/IP 
 WAN 
 LAN

2 points   

QUESTION 14

1. The most widely adopted collaboration system in small and medium businesses using Microsoft products and networks is _____.

SharePoint
 Google Wave
 Lotus Notes
Wikipedia

2 points   

QUESTION 15

1. In an ESS, information is often delivered through a _____, which uses a web interface to present interpreted, personalized business content. 

 DSS 
 portal 
 supply chain 
 spreadsheet

2 points   

QUESTION 16

1. 1.     The widely known open source software (Linux) that was posted in 1991 was created by:

 Linus Torvald 
 James Gosling 
 Gordon Moore 
 Robert Metcalfe

2 points   

QUESTION 17

1. 1.     In 1965, which computer machine thrived with the introduction of the IBM 360 operating system: 

 vacuum tube computer 
 mainframe 
 mini-computer
  personal computer

2 points   

QUESTION 18

1. 1.     _________ are independent computer programs that copy themselves from computer to computer on their own.

  computer viruses 
 trojan horses 
 worms 
 spyware

2 points   

QUESTION 19

1. 1.     In an denial of service (DoS) attack, hackers flood a network or Web server with thousands of________.   

 zombies 
 phishes 
 HIPAAs 
 false requests

2 points   

QUESTION 20

1. 1.     The three main LAN topologies are star, bus, and ______. 

 packet-switching
 ring 
 client-server 
 MAN

2 points   

QUESTION 21

1. 1.     The ________networking standard is useful for creating small PANs.  

 Wi-Fi 
 Wireless NIC 
Bluetooth 
 Wi-Max

2 points   

QUESTION 22

1. Cloud Computingconsists of four types of service: (1) Cloud infrastructure as a service; (2) Cloud platform as a service; (3) Cloud software as a service; (4) Cloud applications as self-service with rapid elasticity.

 True

 False

2 points   

QUESTION 23

1. 1.     Returns to scale increase with network growth according to ___ who claimed in 1970 that the value of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of members. [Note: so what about the web today!??!]

 Linus Torvald 
 James Gosling 
 Gordon Moore 
 Robert Metcalfe

2 points   

QUESTION 24

1. 1.     The _______ measures the number of customers who stop using or purchasing products or services; important indicator of the growth or decline of a customer base.      

      operational CRM   
 analytical CRM    
 churn rate     
 data warehouse

2 points   

QUESTION 25

1. 1.     Sites like Kaboodle, ThisNext, and StyleHive provide the  ____ e-commerce experience.

tweeting  
 social shopping    
 podcasting       
 syndicating

2 points   

QUESTION 26

1. In backward chaining, the expert system inference engine begins with the information entered by the user and searches the knowledge base to reach conclusion.

 True

 False

2 points   

QUESTION 27

1. 1.     ______ decisions are those in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, or insight into a problem.       

  operational management       
 structured      
 semi-structured     
 unstructured

2 points   

QUESTION 28

1. 1.     A good _____ provides both a single view of customers to improve sales and marketing, and a single view of the company by customers no matter how many touch points. 

 CRM 
  SAP
 ERM 
  PRM

2 points   

QUESTION 29

1. 1.     Which is the kind of knowledge that resides in the minds of employees but has not been documented?  

 tacit  
  explicit   
 wisdom   
 organizational learning

2 points   

QUESTION 30

1. 1.     Major League Baseball (MLB) has set up  _____ online to provide a high tech connection to fans and improve sales of tickets and other items.       

  soft data     
  hard data   
 retail outlets    
 web sites

2 points   

QUESTION 31

1. 1.     ___ uses data, tools, and systems to enhance collaboration between a company and its selling partners.    

 CRM     
 ERM     
  PRM    
 CLTV

2 points   

QUESTION 32

1. 1.    

1.     A ___ displays two or more dimensions of data in a convenient format using spreadsheet information.    

  group dictionary  
 pivot table    
 GIS       
 GDSS       

2 points   

QUESTION 33

1. 1.     _____ are the most successful solutions or problem-solving methods in an industry for consistently and effectively achieving a business objective.    

 best practices     
 enterprise systems    
 supply chains     
 SAP

2 points   

QUESTION 34

1. 1.     The underlying problems in group decision making have been the length and number of ___.   

 group dictionaries  
 meetings    
 questionnaires        
  GDSS tools

2 points   

QUESTION 35

1. 1.     In _____ chaining strategies for Expert Systems, the inference engine begins with information entered by users and searches the knowledge base.

 backward  
 forward   
 value 
supply

2 points   

QUESTION 36

1. 1.     ___ testing consists of testing each program separately and tries to make sure programs are error free, but that is unrealistic.   

 Unit  
 System   
 Acceptance  
 Iterative

2 points   

QUESTION 37

1. 1.     Under ____ it is the responsibility of all people and functions in an organization to watch out for quality.  

 Six Sigma  
 BPR    
 PRM   
 TQM

2 points   

QUESTION 38

1. 1.     ____ models of management suggest that the actual behavior of managers is less systematic and reflective, but more informal and reactive.  

 classical  
 behavioral 
 structured
  reengineering

2 points   

QUESTION 39

1. Scope refers to the specific work that is to be included in a project, which project managers can always control so easily as they make sure that customers avoid “scope creep” and ensure that work is never expanded during a project. 

 True

 False

2 points   

QUESTION 40

1. The rate of profit that an investment is supposed to earn is the ____. 

 ROI   
 NPV   
 IRR  
 CSF

2 points   

QUESTION 41

1. 1.     A ___ chart visually represents the timing and duration of different tasks in a project. 

 ERD 
 Gantt   
 PERT  
 CSF

2 points   

QUESTION 42

1. 1.     Taking actions on the basis of personal or narrow characteristics is known as ___ and rejects the concept of a global culture.  

 semi-structured decision making  
 unstructured decision making   
 particularism  
  Phishing

2 points   

QUESTION 43

1. 1.       ___________________ is one way businesses are using information technology to improve processes, that is, by applying tools to analyze current processes, design new processes, and/or optimize processes.

Total quality management 
Business process management
Rationalization of procedures
 Automation

2 points   

QUESTION 44

1. 1.     The open source programming language Linux is based on ___.      

 UNIX  
 Java   
 C     
 C++

2 points   

QUESTION 45

1. Customer Relationship Management systems help large firms achieve customer _____ by capturing and analyzing data, interacting with customers, and promoting loyalty through service as if a small firm.

value
intimacy
churn
lifetime value
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how are capital resources used in production

How are capital resources used in production

0 0 2,184
asked by Anonymous
Nov 21, 2016
http://www.stlouisfed.org/education/economic-lowdown-podcast-series/episode-2-factors-of-production

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Nov 21, 2016
Hi ms sue what is the answer to the question
A; they allow producers better access to world markets ? B; they make it possible to employ more skilled labores ? C ; they provide tools that make production more efficient ? D ; they purchase raw materials needed for production

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Nov 21, 2016
What did you learn from the website linked above?

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Nov 21, 2016
Can u help me

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Nov 21, 2016

I tried to help you by showing you where to find the answer.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Nov 21, 2016
It doesnt say the answer in their

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Nov 21, 2016
How are capital resources used in production
A:They allow producers better access to world markets.
B:They make it possible to employ more skilled laborers C:They provide tools that make production more efficient
D:They purchase the raw material needed for production

I think its d and for the other ones I think they are
2:c
3:b
4:d
5:a
6:d
7:a and d
8:b

0 7
posted by please help!!
Mar 27, 2017
Pls help is a lying jerk. He got me a 2 out of 9

1 4
posted by Clarissa
Mar 29, 2017
It might be best to just use what you know…so yup

0 2
posted by None
Mar 29, 2017

100% promised.

  1. C
  2. B
  3. C
  4. C
  5. A
  6. B
  7. A and F
  8. A
    Please help! Got me 2/8 44 1
    posted by Helping you
    Apr 3, 2017
    I PUT MY FULL TRUST IN HELPING YOU AND I GOT A 9/9 100% THANK YOU 8 0
    posted by YES
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    Ty helping you 100% 2 0
    posted by Ally
    Apr 13, 2017
    Helping you Is 100% correct! you can trust him! 2 0
    posted by A helping hand
    Apr 19, 2017
    “helping you” is right i got 100% i just finished that quiz 2 0
    posted by i gotchu
    Apr 27, 2017

I praise you I needed a good grade and you gave me a great grade.

1 0
posted by THANKYOU helping hand
Oct 31, 2017
Helping you is 100% correct

0 0
posted by Megan
Nov 27, 2017
Thank you helping you !

0 0
posted by TokyoGhoul
Mar 15, 2018

  1. C
  2. B
  3. C
  4. C
  5. A
  6. B
  7. A and F
  8. A 2 1
    posted by Pansexual forlife
    Apr 12, 2018
    thanks @Helping You 100% rigth 0 0
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helping you is right

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@helping you Is trust worth 100%

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Helping u is correct

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helping you is 100% please is a 2/8 and I don’t know why he/she put that up there but it makes me mad so thanks to helping you

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posted by thanks
May 3, 2018

  1. C
  2. B
  3. C
  4. C
  5. A
  6. B
  7. A and F
  8. A 1 0
    posted by NinjaHyper
    May 17, 2018

Where are the backup notes to support the answers though

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posted by UltraIronSpiderman8
Aug 27, 2018
is this for 45.0070001 social studies

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posted by UltraIronSpiderman8
Aug 27, 2018
of course it is

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posted by No lane No Game
Aug 27, 2018
is it for real dough

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posted by No lane No Game
Aug 28, 2018
who here plays fortnite

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Aug 28, 2018

everybody who said please help gave them the right answer ,,,,, your life is a lie

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posted by your life is a lie
Sep 3, 2018
Please help need all answers

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posted by Jaiden
Dec 4, 2018
Helping you is correct 😱🤡🤜👌🕶🎓

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posted by Anonymous
Dec 19, 2018
You guys know Plz said they THOUGHT those were the answer, right? They never said “100%” or “8/8” or anything like that.

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posted by ·
Feb 12, 2019

  1. C
  2. B
  3. C
  4. C
  5. A
  6. B
  7. A,F
  8. A 0 0
    posted by Hal
    Mar 30, 2019

@helping you is 100% correct

0 0
posted by Loacal gay girl🏳️‍🌈
Apr 2, 2019
The correct answers are:
1.C
2.B
3.A
4.B
5.A,F
6.A
7.A
8.B
9.Essay you have to do it!
I just took the test! I hope it hopes!

0 0
posted by Wrong
Apr 4, 2019
1.c
2.b
3.c
4.c
5.a
6.b
7.a,g
8.a

0 0
posted by connexus
Apr 8, 2019
I play fornite

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posted by dont ask me
Apr 10, 2019
Thank you all I trusted you and I got 100%

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posted by Blasted pigeon
Apr 11, 2019

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which line models the data points better and why

  1. Which line models the data points better and why?

blue, because the data points are all close to the line

red, because it goes through one of the points

i think that is A

0 1 3,773
asked by batman
Mar 22, 2013
I agree.

1 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Mar 22, 2013
thx

0 0
posted by batman
Mar 22, 2013
yw

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Mar 22, 2013
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1.B
2.C
3.B
4.C
5.C
6.A

  1. The trend of the scatter plot is increasing, because the scatter plot is going higher. 63 3
    posted by Roman
    Mar 9, 2017

Roman is right! 100%

4 0
posted by 1
Mar 13, 2017
Roman is right. trust roman answers if your doing lesson 8 modeling data with lines

3 1
posted by CCA
Mar 23, 2017
Roman is so right i got a 6 out of 6

3 1
posted by jackie
Mar 29, 2017
number 7 is incorrect it would be A ( the population is decreasing over time)

3 3
posted by linda
Mar 31, 2017
roman is correct for 7th grade connexus i got %100

1 1
posted by marx
Mar 31, 2017

Thanks so much

0 1
posted by Jessica
Apr 26, 2017
Thank you so much, Roman!

0 0
posted by Bonnie Key
May 22, 2017
Updated Answers there has recently been an additional question so here are the answers now.
1)B
2)C
3)B
4)C
5)C
6)A
7)A
8)The trend of the scatter plot is increasing, because the scatter plot is going higher.
100% garunteed

16 1
posted by ::::
Feb 6, 2018
As of 2018, there are only 7 questions and all of Roman’s answers are correct including #7. Thank you!

0 1
posted by fellow peer
Feb 15, 2018
@Roman is correct. Just make sure to write the description for the last question on your own. & use your own words.

3 0
posted by LittleNoot
Feb 16, 2018

thank you roman

0 0
posted by Taylor
Feb 16, 2018
roman is right math check answers is wrong

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 19, 2018
:::: Is correct just took the quiz for the 8 questions!

2 0
posted by VKOOKIE IS REAL
Mar 5, 2018
Hes right bc i had 8 questions

0 0
posted by ::: is right for meee !!! Connexus
Mar 23, 2018
Roman is correct. For me, I only had 7 questions.
1) B
2) C
3) B
4) C
5) C
6) A
7) The trend is a positive trend. You know this because the line goes up from left to right. (That’s what my answer was and my teacher gave me all points of credit)

4 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 12, 2018

I only have 5 questions

0 0
posted by Susanna
Apr 24, 2018
Same Susanna

0 0
posted by Smfh
May 3, 2018
I have 6 questions, one of them is a writing one

0 0
posted by PearsonConnexus
May 10, 2018
@:::: is correct I got a 100%!! thx

0 0
posted by Shay
Feb 25, 2019

  1. B
  2. C
  3. B
  4. C
  5. C
  6. A
  7. Trend is positive..scatter plot going higher left to right. 1 0
    posted by Hal
    Mar 2, 2019

As of 3/7/2019 ::: is correct for 8th grade Lesson 8: Modeling Data with Lines. They may change up the answers (because they suck and only do it with math) so don’t be mad at me when that time comes. Goodluck guys.

3 1
posted by KpopIsAwful
Mar 7, 2019
AS OF 3/26/19 THE ANSWERS ARE:
B C B C C A AND I AM STILL WAITING FOR THE 7TH TO BE GRADED. FOR CONNEXUS STUDENTS. BE HAPPY!

0 0
posted by Ruthie
Mar 26, 2019
Roman is indeed 100% correct!

0 0
posted by $mirmofficee
Apr 3, 2019

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rank the following compounds according to their boiling point.

Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing boiling point: KCI CO2 CH2O
41,966 results
chem
Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing boiling point: KCI CO2 CH2O

asked by Natash on December 7, 2008
intro to chem
disolving sucrose, NaCl< and calcium chloried affect the boiling point of frezing point of water. Assuming that you have 0.1m solution of all these 3 compounds: a)rank then in order of decreasing freezing point. b) rank in order of increasing boiling point

asked by julia on October 27, 2010
chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing boiling point: sodium fluoride ( \rm NaF ), methane ( \rm CH_4 ), fluoromethane ( \rm CH_3F )

asked by nurul on August 21, 2011
chemistry
Given the compounds H2S, NH3, and SO2. Determine the order o boiling points. Rank them from highest to lowest boiling point. Give an explanation for your ranking by the electronegativity data a by type of intermolecular force.

asked by regina on December 5, 2010
Chemisty !!
(a) Why do the densities of most liquids increase as they are cooled and solidified? How does water differ in this regard? (b) Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing surface tension at a given temperature, and explain your ranking. CH3CH3,

asked by Xiang ! on September 2, 2013

chemistry
Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CCl4, CH4, CH2Cl2 – Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CF4, CH4, CH2F2 – Water, H2O, is a liquid at room temperature. Hydrogen selenide, H2Se, is a

asked by adex on March 18, 2013
chemistry
The alkanes are a homologous series of compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen that have the general formula . Members of this series include butane (), 2,2-dimethylpentane (), hexane (), and heptane (). The boiling points of some members of this

asked by isthiscorrect on January 24, 2009
Chemistry
(a)What is the bond order of the diatomic molecule BN? (b) Is BN paramagnetic? (c) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond energy: B2, N2, BN. (d) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond length: B2, N2, BN.

asked by b on November 18, 2012
Chemistry
Arrange the compounds in order of increasing boiling point. A) CH4 B)CH3CH3 C) CH3CH2Cl D) CH3CH2OH I know High Intermolecular force = High boiling point! My question is if A, B & C are dipole-dipole, and D is hydrogen bonding.. how can i determine

asked by Tc on July 2, 2011
Chemisty
I do not know how to rank the polarity between these, i have also included the boiling point in degrees C but it still does not help. The only thing that i think is that D is the least polar because it is symmetrical, and i think A is the most but I’m not

asked by Polarity on August 12, 2014
O.CHEM -> PLEASE CHECK!!
Arrange the compounds in the order of increasing boiling point ***(LOWEST first): 1) H3C-O-CH3 2) H2O 3) CH3CH2OH 4) CH3CH2SH I think the order should be: #1, 4, 3, 2 Arrange the following in order of increasing rate of reactivity with conc.HBr ***(LEAST

asked by K on March 12, 2008
chemistry
1) Rank the elements, aluminum, sodium and phosphorus, in order of decreasing conductivity. 2) Rank the elements aluminum, gallium, and boron in order of decreasing conductivity

asked by Adam on November 15, 2009
Physical Science
Hello, Can some one please tell me if B is the correct answer? Thank You Which one of the following groups of chemical compounds is composed entirely of organic compounds? A. C2H4O, CH2O, CaSO4, C3H5(OH)3 B. C6H6, C2H5OH, C6H5CH3, C3H5(NO3)3 C. C2H2, CH4,

asked by Mandi on March 6, 2008
chem
Rank the following species according to the decreasing energy needed to raise the temperature of 10.0g of the substance by 25.0 degrees celsius Rank from most to least energy needed. Rank these in order of the question. copper aluminum cast iron silver

asked by mira on February 1, 2013
Chemistry
Rank the following in order by increasing boiling point and explain why? CH3Cl Rn CH4 CH3-CH2-OH

asked by MMPM on March 8, 2011

Organic Chemistry
Ooops sorry! Please rank the following compounds in DECREASING order of their reactivity toward the SN2 reaction with sodium ethoxide in ethanol. a. methyl chloride b. isopropylbromide c. t-butyliodide d. methyl iodide e. ethyl chloride I have an answer,

asked by Please help on October 25, 2010
chemistry
Arrange the following in order of decreasing stability. A blank molecular orbital diagram (Part A 1 figure) has been provided to help you. Rank the fluorine species from most to least stable. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. F2, F2+, F2-

asked by defferan on November 19, 2008
Organic Chem
Rank these conformational isomers in order of decreasing potential energy? Highest on the left and lowest on the right. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. Here is a link to the picture of the problem: ht+tp+:/+/bit+.ly/+8ZHeDA Remove the ‘+’ sign

asked by Random User on April 19, 2010
chemistry
what is the new boiling point for a solution prepared from 1.40 mol of KCI 1.00kg of water?

asked by lkra on October 8, 2011
chemistry
intermolecular forces Rank the following substance from highest melting point to lowest melting point. My teacher gave a list of compounds: H2O, NO2,F2,CI2 and to have a high melting point means that you need a stronger IMF. Rank the following substances

asked by jen on March 17, 2009
Chemistry
Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing Boiling point: CH4, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3Cl

asked by Naaz on January 6, 2016
chemistry
Place these hydrocarbons in order of decreasing boiling point: paraffin : methane: octane: isooctane: ( also known as 2,2,4 trimethylpentane) octadecane:

asked by ashely on December 6, 2009
chemistry
Which of the following statements about boiling points are true? A. The boiling point of 0.1 m NaF(aq) is lower than the boiling point of 0.1 m methanol(aq). B. The boiling point of a 0.5 m aqueous solution of LiOH is the same as the boiling point of a 0.5

asked by Anonymous on April 18, 2013
Chemistry
Please rank the following compounds in DECREASING order of their reactivity toward the SN2 reaction with sodium ethoxide in ethanol. a. methyl chloride (CH3Cl) b. isopropylbromide ((CH3)2CHBr) c. t-butyliodide (CH3)3Cl) d. methyl iodide (CH3I) e. ethyl

asked by Please help on October 25, 2010
Chemistry
Diethyl ether has a boiling point of 34.5C, and 1-butanol has a boiling point of 117C. Both of these compounds have the same numbers and types of atoms. Explain the difference in their boiling points. The answer I found was that: only 1-butanol can form

asked by Sara on December 6, 2010

college chemistry
Comparing the boiling points of: A) C3H8 B) C5H12 C) C2H5OH and identify the folowing statements as either True or False: Dispersion forces only for (A) Boiling point (C) > Boiling point (A) (B) exhibits hydrogen bonding Boiling point (C) < Boiling point

asked by Stefanie on November 11, 2010
some science
a filter tip or a cigarette acts as both a filter and a condenser. which of the following cannot be removed, assuming the filter tip is 100% efficient? a. carbon monoxide, boiling point -191 degrees. b. nicotine, boiling point 247 degrees. c. tar, boiling

asked by holly on December 22, 2006
Chemistry (Inorganic)
Given the two substances Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) and Urea ([NO2]2CO), why is it that urea has a lower boiling point? I thought that the nitrate would because urea has the double bond which makes it more stable. Urea is covalently bonded. NaNO3 is an ionic

asked by Vic on July 29, 2007
chemistry (college final)
How to determine which of the compounds will have the lowest boiling point vs the highest boiling point?

asked by Sarah (C) on May 1, 2011
Chemistry
Why use Methyl tert-butyl ether in the organic chemistry lab when separating compounds? separating WHAT compounds and how? as a solvent? It has a low boiling point and isn’t very reactive, generally, but there may be other specific reasons depending upon

asked by Ba on November 21, 2006
Chemistry
Which of the following statements about boiling points are false: A. the boiling point of 0.1 m KF(aq) is lower than the boiling point of 0.1 m ethanol(aq) B. the boiling point of a 0.5 m aqueous solution of NaOH is the same as the boiling point of a 0.5 m

asked by Timothy on September 8, 2010
Organic Chemistry
The compounds below are contained in a mixed sample. Rank the compounds in order of elitism if separated using a silica gel column rank them from what elutes first to what elutes last. Benzoic acid, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, tert-butylcyclohexane, and

asked by Arianna on February 10, 2017
Chemistry
Rank the following atoms in order of decreasing electronegativity, putting the most electronegative first: F, Ne, O, N, C

asked by Nevaeh on September 27, 2016
Chemistry
Rank the ions in order of decreasing size. Sr2+, Ba2+, Cs Cs>Ba>Sr

asked by Sally on November 9, 2007
Chemistry
Predict which compound will have the higher boiling point and explain how you made your choice by including intermolecular forces. 1. H2O or CH2O 2. CS2 or CH4

asked by Natalie on May 12, 2014

Chemistry pretty urgent!!!!!!!
Chemical bonding question! The partial Lewis structure that follows (Figure 1) is for a hydrocarbon molecule. In the full Lewis structure, each carbon atom satisfies the octet rule, and there are no unshared electron pairs in the molecule. The

asked by G-Dogg on November 4, 2014
Chemistry
Rank the following molecules in order of increasing boiling point. NH3, CaCl2, Ar, CO, HF This is what I have, am I correct or on the right track? CaCl2, HF, NH3, CO, Ar

asked by Stacie on March 29, 2013
Chem
Rank thefollowing elements in order of decreasing atomic radius. N, B, Be, Li? I thought it was N, B, Be, Li

asked by Anna on November 14, 2011
Chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of their solubility in water. (most soluble = 1 — least soluble = 4)–Note that for the same solubility rank the same (a tie). (CH3)2CHOH HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH CH3CH2OH (CH3)3COH

asked by Maddie on March 14, 2013
chem
Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing boiling point. butanal 1-butanol diethylamine tartaric acid butane butanoic acid and can you please explain why?

asked by Emily on March 28, 2016
chemistry
ionic componuds tend to have higher boiling points than covalent compounds . both ammonia NH3 and methane CH4 are covalent compounds but yet the boiling point of ammonia 130C is higher than methane. what might account for this difference please help thank

asked by teri on April 1, 2009
Chemistry
Which of the following is NOT true? (A) CH2O Has a relatively high boiling point due to hydrogen bonding. (b) BaCl2 is an example of an ionic sold. (c) Ionic solids are poor conductors of heat and electicity. (d) The melting point of Fe is higher than

asked by Bouforyou on February 10, 2010
chemistry cp
rank the following compiunds in order of increasing boiling points. a. CO b. C2H6 c. NH3

asked by susie on March 25, 2015
Chemistry
Which reaction is NOT a redox reaction? CH4+2O2=CO2+2H2O 2Na+CI2=2NaCI AgNO3+NaCI=AgCI+NaNO3 KCIO3=KCI+3/2O2 I chose, KCIO3=KCI+3/2O2. Is this correct?

asked by Summer on April 11, 2018
Chemistry
Im not sure where to factor in the two longer compounds for this problem. “Rank the given compounds based ontheir relative acidities” HF H2C–CH2 NH3 CH4 HC—CCH3 This is the order i thought it was, but this isnt right apparently… (— means triple

asked by Tokey on October 13, 2010

Chemistry
Rank the following 4 compounds in order of lowest to highest freezing point. Enter the formulas in the spaces provided. For example, enter CH4 as CH4. H2O MgO CH4 H2S

asked by Whats Good on November 19, 2011
Chemistry
Rank in order of decreasing average molecular speed at 21 degrees celsius: Ne, HBr, SO2, NF3, CO

asked by Emory on November 2, 2009
Chemistry
The boiling points of the following compounds increase in the order in which they are listed below: CH4 < H2S < NH3 Discuss the theoretical considerations involved and use them to account for this order.

asked by Ariana on March 23, 2011
Chemistry
Rank the carbon-carbon bonds in order of decreasing bond length. Rank carbon-carbon bonds from highest bond length to lowest. To rank bonds as equivalent, overlap them. 1,2,3

asked by Caitlin on October 11, 2011
Chemistry
What effect does lowering the pressure on the surface of water have on the boiling point? It increases the boiling point It decreases the boiling point the boiling point remains the same

asked by Megan on April 28, 2010
chemistry
rank the following ionic compounds in order of increasing lattice energy NaF, Csl, CaO

asked by re on March 3, 2011
Chemistry
rank the compounds below in order of increasing vapor pressure at 298 K? A) c3h6 B) c4h8 C) c5h10

asked by Vanessa on December 12, 2016
Chemistry
Arrange the following aqueous solutions in order of increasing boiling point, explain your answer: 0.120 m glucose (C6H12O6), 0.05 m LiBr, 0.05 m Zn(NO3)2. Using data the boiling point constants given in the test book, calculate the boiling points of each

asked by m on February 15, 2013
Delaware State University
Arrange these gases in order of decreasing standard molar entropy: Rank from largest to smallest. Kr,Cl2,SO3

asked by Pastor on April 12, 2015
chemistry
A 0.0583 mol sample of formaldehyde vapour, CH2O, was placed in a heated 0.359 L vessel and some of it decomposed. The reaction is CH2O(g)—> H2(g) + CO(g). At equilibrium, the CH2O concentration was 0.0449 M. What is the value of Kc for this reaction? my

asked by alex on April 20, 2013

O.Chem -> PLEASE CHECK!!
Please check these out for me, if I am correct: Match the following statements with SN1 or SN2 reactions: 1) The order of reactivity in alkyl halides is methyl>primary>secondary>tertiary 2) There is an intermediate carbocation 3) The rate-limiting step

asked by K on March 12, 2008
chem
If pentane,hexane and hexanol are heated evenly at different altitudes, rank them according to the order in which you would expect them to begin boiling.

asked by alisha on March 29, 2009
Chemistry 130
Can someone please help me with these questions? 1 (7). Rank the following in order of increasing radius based on their positions on the periodic table: S, S-2, Cl a. S, S-2, Cl b. S-2, Cl, S c. Cl, S, S-2 d. Cl, S-2, S e. S, Cl, S-2 6 (16). Methane burns

asked by Jessie on September 8, 2009
Chemistry
Regarding “hydrogen” bonding How come the compounds CH2O and CH3OCH3 do not exhibit hydrogen bonding, as opposed to compounds like CH3CH2OH and CH3NH2? It’s indicated in my solutions manual that the two compounds that don’t exhibit hydrogen bonding can be

asked by Anonymous on June 3, 2013
Chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acid strength (1 = weakest, 4 = strongest) HCOOH CH2ClCOOH CHCl2COOH CH3COOH

asked by Matt on November 20, 2007
chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acid strength (1 = weakest, 4 = strongest) HClO HClO3 HClO2 HClO4

asked by mark on November 18, 2007
OChem

  1. if and when boiling points can be used to determine the purity of organic compounds. 2. if and when boiling points can be used to identify organic compounds. 3. when can fractional distillation be used to separate organic compounds

asked by Mia on September 23, 2012
chemistry
Some properties of the two compounds are listed below: Melting point- Compound X= -114C Compound Y= -138C Boiling Point- Compound X= 78C Compound Y= -22C Net Dipole?- Compound X= Yes Compound Y= Yes Functional group: Compound X Alcohol Compound Y=

asked by LeePyeonggang on February 10, 2010
O.Chemistry PLEASE CHECK!!!!
Please check these out for me, if I am correct: Match the following statements with SN1 or SN2 reactions: 1) The order of reactivity in alkyl halides is methyl>primary>secondary>tertiary 2) There is an intermediate carbocation 3) The rate-limiting step

asked by K on March 14, 2008
Chemistry..Please Help

  1. The vapor pressure of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, at 0C is 134mmHg. The normal boiling point of dichloromethane is 40C. Calculate its molar heat of vaporization The answer is in kilojoules per mole. I know i use the Clausius-Clapeyron equation but i don’t

asked by Saira on January 18, 2009

Science
Which of the following equations is balanced correctly? A. 3 H20 = H2 + 3 O2 B.2 C2H2 + 5 O2 = 4 CO2 + 2 H2O C.Cl2 + 2 KBr = KCI + Br2 D. 2 C3H3 + O2 = 2 CO2 + H2O

asked by Candy on October 31, 2017
chemistry
You remember Dr. Laude saying something about how adding salt to water increases the boiling point. If you have 1 cup (8 fl. oz. = 250 mL = 250 g) of H2O, how much NaCl should you add in order to raise the boiling point to 105C?

asked by jalyn on February 9, 2011
Chemistry
Rank these from lowest boiling point to highest. CH4 CH3CH2CO2CH2CH3 CH3(CH2)2C=ONH2 CH3COOH

asked by Stacy on December 5, 2014
Chemistry 130
Will someone let me know if I did these correct? 1. Rank the following in order of increasing radius based on their positions on the periodic table: S, S-2, Cl a. S, S-2, Cl b. S-2, Cl, S c. Cl, S, S-2 d. Cl, S-2, S e. S, Cl, S-2 I believe it’s C. Cl, S,

asked by Jessie on September 8, 2009
ap chemistry
Consider the specific heats CH2O(s) = 2.09 J/g ¡¤◦ C. CH2O(§¤) =4.18 J/g ¡¤◦ C. CH2O(g) = 2.03 J/g ¡¤◦ C. The heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g and the heat of vaporization for water is 2260 J/g. Calculate the amount of heat absorbed when

asked by gabriella on October 22, 2013
chem
The accepted density of the sugar solution is 1.392 g/mL . Based on the average value of each data set, rank the data sets in decreasing order of accuracy.

asked by Anonymous on September 20, 2015
chemistry
Based upon the intermolecular forces present, rank the following substances according to the expected boiling point for the substance: MgF2, H2O, HCl, N2

asked by sara on April 3, 2014
chemistry
Based on molecular mass and boiling point of the five compounds in the table below, which should have the high? est dipole moment: first # molecular mass 2nd: boiling point compound 1 244 203 compound 2 346 255 compound 3 250 138 compound 4 246 146

asked by ben on December 13, 2010
Chem II
When you are given a list of compounds that all have the same 0.2 m and the question which has the highest boiling point, how do you figure this?

asked by Ken on June 6, 2008
gen chemistry
Which of the following compounds has the highest boiling point? HI H2Te H2O AsH3

asked by ada on April 19, 2010

heat
At what point will liquid alcohol change to vapor? Boiling Melting Fusing Freezing The boiling point is the point above which the liquid state does not exist. Evaporation can occur from the liquid state at lower temperatures as well, but there will be no

asked by alf on August 3, 2005
Chemistry
Iron forms a series of compounds of the type Fex(CO)y. If you heat any of these compounds in air , they decompose to Fe2O3 and CO2 gas. After heating a 0.142g sample of Fe(CO)y, You isolate the CO2 in a 1.50 L flask at 25 Degrees celsius. The pressure is

asked by Anonymous on October 23, 2017
Chemistry
When CH3OH at its normal boiling point, does its entropy increase or decrease? Explain. – My opinion The entropy decreases because there is less order due to the less randomness of gas particles favoured when such an element is boiled not at normal boiling

asked by Liam on November 27, 2015
Chemistry
Can someone please help me with these chemistry questions…I just don’t get it! 1. Using the following elements, rank them in order of increasing melting points, based on the periodic trend for melting point: Sr, Mg, Be, Ba? Would it be Be, Mg, Sr, Ba or

asked by Taylor on September 16, 2009
pH levels
Rank the following solutions in order of decreasing [H3O^+]. .10 M HC2H3C2 .10 M HC6H5O .10 M HF ,10 M HBr I think the correct order is: HBr>HF>HC2H3C2>HC6H5O am i right?

asked by Kyle on March 21, 2010
Chemistry
Arrange the following compounds in order of decreasing ease of elution from a column of silica gel: a) 2-octanol; b) 1,3-dichlorobenzene; c) tert-butylcyclohexane; d) benzoic acid

asked by Jeff on February 4, 2015
Chemistry
Arrange the following compounds in order of decreasing ease of elution from a column of silica gel: a) 2-octanol; b) 1,3-dichlorobenzene; c) tert-butylcyclohexane; d) benzoic acid

asked by Ryan on February 5, 2015
Chemistry
Rank the following fertilizers in decreasing order of mass percentage of nitrogen: NH3 NH4NO3 (NH4)2HPO4 KNO3 (NH4)H2PO4 (NH4)2SO4

asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2011
Chemistry- DrBob222
I completed this question like you told me to. Are the answers correct? Is my method for finding the molecular formula correct? 2.4g of a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen gave on combustion, 3.52g of CO2 and 1.44g of H2O. The relative molecular mass

asked by Ava on October 22, 2013
CHEM 2: Boiling Point
Which Aqueous solution has the highest normal boiling point? a.) 0.1 m NaCl b.) 0.1 m C2H5OH c.) 0.1 m CaCl2 d.) They all have the same boiling point. I think that the answer is D, the all have the same boiling point. Is this correct? Because Delta T=

asked by kay on June 12, 2016

Chemistry
Order the following considering their boiling point in an aqueous solution. 1) pentan-2-one 2) pentan-2-ol 3) 2-aminopropanoic acid The answer key says the order (increasing) is, 1 < 2 < 3 and states 1 only have weak permanent dipole dipole forces and Van

asked by Shenaya on July 28, 2017
chem 11
Chloroform, CHCl3, has a boiling point of 62 oC, whereas methane, CH4, has a much lower boiling point of -164 oC. Using diagrams, explain the difference between the two boiling points.

asked by iris on January 4, 2017
Chem II
When you are given the question: Arrange the following aqueous solutions in order of increasing boiling points. 0.050 m Mg(NO3)2; 0.100 m ethanol; and 0.090 m NaCl. I know the formula for boiling point, but I don’t know where to get the Kb. Am I headed in

asked by Ken on June 6, 2008
chemistry
Rank from decreasing to increasing the effect the functional groups have on the melting point of compound x: -OH or -COOH i think its COOH

asked by un on December 2, 2008
geochemistry
Been trying to balance this equation for a while, but can’t get the right answer. any help would be apperciated! CH2O (aq) + NO3 – —> N2 + HCO3 – + CO2(g)

asked by jason on March 14, 2013
chem class
which of the following has the highest boiling point? a)C2Cl6 b)C2Br6 c)C2H6 d)C2F6 e)C2I6 i know its e, but why is that the answer? are all questions about boiling points similar? or they they have to do with intermolecular forces? i have a test soon on

asked by RiChy on September 16, 2010
Chemistry
Rank the following in order of decreasing vapor pressure, and briefly explain the observed trend in vapor pressure: Acetic Acid Isobutane Acetamide Propanal

asked by Sarah on December 8, 2015
Chemistry
When comparing the boiling points of two compounds,one is a gas and the other is a liquid,is there anything like the liquid will have a lower boiling point than the solid? The molecular mass of the liquid is lower than the solid and they have the same type

asked by Shenaya on July 31, 2017
chem
Rank these in order of increasing freezing points: C2H6O, NaCl, NaSO4, C12H22O11 I suggest that you look them up. You will have to make an assumption at the isomer of the organic compounds that is intended, but it will not make a difference to the ranking.

asked by Helen on April 18, 2007
Chemistry
The boiling point of a solution increases directly as a function of the number of moles of solute present in a given mass of solution. This relationship is expressed mathematically by the following equation. ΔTb = Kb·m ΔTb is the boiling-point elevation

asked by Anne on January 16, 2018

Chemistry
calculate the freezing and boiling points of each of the following solutions. (a) 0.37 m glucose in ethanol freezing point I got -1.2e2 but its wrong_°C boiling point _____I got 1.1e2 but its wrong:(°C (b) 15.0 g of decane, C10H22, in

asked by Rebekah on March 24, 2011
Chemistry
A metal, , of atomic weight 96 reacts with fluorine to form a salt that can be represented as . In order to determine and therefore the formula of the salt, a boiling point elevation experiment is performed. A 9.18- sample of the salt is dissolved in 100.0

asked by Robin on February 20, 2011
Chemistry
A metal, , of atomic weight 96 reacts with fluorine to form a salt that can be represented as . In order to determine and therefore the formula of the salt, a boiling point elevation experiment is performed. A 9.18- sample of the salt is dissolved in 100.0

asked by Robin on February 20, 2011
Organic Chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acidity. a. H2O, H3O-, Ho- == HO-, H2O, H3O- b. NH3

asked by Rhea on August 4, 2014
chemistry
the boiling point of diphenyl ether is 259 degrees C. It dissolves many nonpolar compounds but it is a poor solvent for crystallization.Why?

asked by Anonymous on October 6, 2010

Categories
do my assignment essays for sale homework help how to write an admission essay

rank these bonds from most ionic to most covalent in character.

Rank these bonds from most ionic to Most covalent in character Br-F Ca-F F-F Cl-F K-F
5,731 results
Middle ga state
Rank these bonds from most ionic to Most covalent in character Br-F Ca-F F-F Cl-F K-F

asked by Jill on November 24, 2015
SCIENCE
What type of bonding holds the compound, sodium cyanide, together? The CN bond is covalent. The Na to CN bond is, in most minds, an ionic bond. The electronegativity of C is about 2.1 and that of Na is about 1; therefore, with a difference of about 1 it is

asked by MARK on February 7, 2007
chemistry
what are some examples of covalent bonds and what are some examples of ionic bonds? Electrons are shared in covalent bonds. Electrons are exchanged in ionic bonds. Typical ionic compounds are NaCl, MgCl2, LiI, etc. Typical covalent compounds are CH4,

asked by Leeann on January 29, 2007
Chemistry
I was wondering if somebody could help me with this… Classify the following substances as covalent molecules or ionic compounds: a. MgO e. LiCl b. NI3 f. SF4 c. CuS g. XeF4 d. NO2 h. CsF How do you know if they are covalent or ionic bonds? Metal +

asked by Isabel on October 24, 2006
Chemistry
Magnesium nitrate contains chemical bonds that are ? 1. Covalent Only 2. Ionic Only 3. Both Covalent And Ionic 4. Neither Covalent Nor Ionic The answer is 3, but I don’t know why. How does NO3 even bond?

asked by danny123 on November 11, 2010

SCIENCE
Please see if I have the right answer. The three atoms in a water molecule are held together by oxygen bonds, covalent bond, surface tension, hydrogen bonds, or gravity. I think it’s covalent bonds. Am I right? Water molecules, even inflowing water, can

asked by Pat on December 8, 2006
Chemistry
Are the bonds for these substances correct? Sodium chloride – ionic Sucrose – covalent Copper – metallic Calcium chloride – ionic Carbon – covalent Mercury – ionic Naphthalene – covalent Are any of these substances not strictly ionic, covalent, or

asked by Anonymous on January 13, 2016
Chemistry
Rank the bonds between the listed atoms from most ionic to most covalent: -AlO -CN -SCl -KF

asked by Anonymous on March 5, 2017
chemistry
classify the compound as having ionic, polar covalent, or pure covalent bonds. Sb2P5 I know that a metal and nonmetal form an ionic bond, and two nonmetals form covalent bonds. The trouble I am having is that Sb is a metalliod and when it forms with a

asked by Kara on December 9, 2008
science
A substance in a solid at room temperature. It is unable to conduct electricity as a solid but can conduct electricity as a liquid. This compound melts at 755 degrees celsius. Would you expect this compound to have ionic bonds, metallic bonds, or covalent

asked by JAKE on February 28, 2008
chemistry
a) Define the following terms: • Electronegativity • Bond polarity • Ionization energy b) What is the difference between ionic bonds, covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds? Give two examples of each c) Draw Lewis structures for each of the

asked by chansa on June 7, 2016
biology
which of the following statements are true there are 2 polar covalent bonds in water there are 3 ionic bonds in water there is 1 ionic and 1 covalent bond in water electrons are less attracted to oxygen than hydrogen

asked by brenda on August 28, 2009
Chemistry
Ionic bonds and covalent bonds: Ionic Bond(s) for: K&S -> K2S N&Be -> Be3N2 Al&P -> AlP Covalent Bond(s) for: C&F -> CF4 S&O -> OS Cl&Se -> SeCl4

asked by -Untamed- on October 13, 2011
chemistry
Compare the three types of bonds based on valence electrons. Explain why S-H bond lengths are longer than O-H bond lengths. Which element has a greater bond energy, oxygen or nitrogen and why. Determine if the following compounds are likely to have ionic

asked by mido on December 13, 2010
Chemistry
__ are similar to covalent bonds in that they hold atoms together. They are different from covalent bonds in that they _ . A. Ionic bonds; hold atoms together within a molecule B. Intermolecular forces; require less energy to break C.

asked by Cortney on March 18, 2015

Chemistry
How do i figure this? State whether the following compound contain polar covalent bonds, non-polar covalent bonds, or ionic bonds, based on their electronegativities. 1)KF_________ Look up the electronegativity values for K and F and make your decision. We

asked by Bryan on December 17, 2006
Chemistry
Are binary compounds ionic or covalent? If they are covalent? If they are covalent, I thought they don’t form bonds that way, since they share electrons.

asked by Emily on March 15, 2011
Science

  1. An atom that loses or gains electrons is called a(n)_. isotope proton neutron ion* 2.Which subatomic particles are most involved in chemical bonding? protons electrons* neutrons isotopes 3.The main types of chemical bonds are. ionic, covalent,

asked by Sam on September 7, 2017
water molecules
water molecules separate positive and negative ions from one another by forming covalent bonds, ionic bonds valence shells hydration shells It forms a solution. Since solution isn’t one of the answers, hydratin shells is the next best answer. OR, you can

asked by maxie on January 17, 2007
chem
Ionic bonds and covalent bonds, which one is the stronger. My present teacher said that covalent bond is the strongest one. I learned ionic interaction is the strongest and many chem. books say so. Now i am confused. Is my present teacher right. Please

asked by bun on October 5, 2010
chemistry
Two students Mac & Cheese, were arguing about covalent and ionic bonds. Mac says that covalent bonds could be compared to a good marriage. Do you think one has a better comparison than the other or are both of them equally right ?

asked by Brionna on November 1, 2011
Chemistry (please check)
1)Which of the following compounds has the largest lattice energy: LiF LiCl NaF NaCl 2)Which of the following compounds has the most ionic character in its bonding: CaBr2 GeBr4 KBr GaBr3 3)Using the electronegativity table on page 364 of your text, which

asked by Abi on April 15, 2011
science
plse help me with this How are valance electrons involved in the formation of covalent bonds? How do atoms in covalent bonds become slightly negative or slightly positive? explain how attractions between molocules could cause water to have a higher

asked by Amy on November 3, 2008
a&p
How would you contrast single convalent bonds, double covalent bonds, ionic bonds?

asked by tameka on February 2, 2013
chemistry
benzoic acid: covalent magnesium chloride: ionic petrolatum: covalent potassium iodide: ionic sodium sulfate: ionic sucrose: covalent

asked by JayJay on January 16, 2008

science
what are the role of the electrons in ionic bonds,covalent bonds and metallic bonds

asked by kayla on December 3, 2008
10th grade
Which bond type is soluble in alcohol? Metallic, ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent bonds? Which bond type has hard, brittle crystals? (I think the second is ionic, but not positive.)

asked by GO OU!!! on December 17, 2008
Chemistry
How do electrons interact in non polar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and ionic bonds?

asked by Anonymous on January 23, 2012
chemistry
How electrons interact in non-polar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and ionic bonds?

asked by Kelso on January 23, 2012
Chemistry
Are binary compounds ionic or covalent? If they are covalent, I thought they don’t form bonds that way, since they share electrons.

asked by Emily on March 15, 2011
Chemistry
For following problems 1 to 5, classify the bonds as: a) non-polar covalent b) polar covalent c) ionic d) metallic e) super covalent 1.) O-Cl 2.) Li-Br 3.) N-N 4.) N-H 5.) C-S

asked by Jay on December 6, 2010
Science help!
Compounds with high melting points have _. covalent bonds metallic bonds ionic bonds no chemical bonds 4. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of minerals? crystalline structure formed by inorganic processes definite chemical composition

asked by Anonymous on October 5, 2014
chemistry
Check? Answers On bottom. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent bond When an atom gains or loses valence electrons and becomes charged, it is known as

asked by Victoria on December 13, 2012
Chemistry
Check? Answers On bottom. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent bond When an atom gains or loses valence electrons and becomes charged, it is known as

asked by Victoria on December 13, 2012
chemistry
Check? Answers On bottom. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent bond When an atom gains or loses valence electrons and becomes charged, it is known as

asked by Victoria on December 13, 2012

ionic or covalent
can you check for me? Calcium Chloride: covalent Citric Acid: ionic Phenyl Salicylate: covalent Potassium Iodide: ionic Sodium Chloride: covalent Sucrose: ionic Thanks so much!!!! You must have some reason for picking ionic or covalent. How did you arrive

asked by Hodgkin on June 19, 2006
CHM
Predict whether the following bonds are ionic, covalent, or polar covalent based on the bonding atoms electronegativities: N2 The Al-O bond in Al2O3 MgO CuS

asked by Lisa on December 3, 2012
Chemistry
The foreces of attraction between molecules of I2 are: covalent bonds ionic bonds dipole-dipole attractions london forces hydrogen bonds

asked by Lauren on February 25, 2008
chemistry
in a 300-500 word essay distinguish between an ionic bond, a covalent bond, hydrogen bond, a single bond, a double bond, and a triple bond. Explain the behavior of the electrons in each type of bond. Give examples of compounds that result from both ionic

asked by GKMB on May 13, 2010
Chemistry
Can anyone help me check my classifications of these into metallic, ionic, molecular or covalent network, and if I am wrong tell me why Aluminum – Mettalic Ascorbic acid – ionic Graphite – covalent Paraffin – molecular Palmitic acid – ionic Sodium chloride

asked by Richard on February 20, 2018
Chemistry
Can someone check to see if my answers look ok. For the following crystals, explain how their melting points are related to the bonding forces and the crystal structure: a)Copper,Cu Copper has metallic bonds between atoms. It can occur as isometric cubic

asked by Nancy on January 21, 2008
Chemistry
what is an example of a substance that has both ionic &covalent bonds & where are these bonds formed.

asked by jess on February 13, 2011
chemistry
What are the differences between ionic bonds and covalent bonds?

asked by Jackie on March 1, 2011
science!
What is the usual state of matter for covalent compounds? Ionic compounds? What is the smallest particle for each? What types of particles are formed by covalent bonds?

asked by Twilight lover on March 3, 2009
Chemestry
Question 1) Consider the following reaction of calcium hydride (CaH2) with molten sodium metal:CaH2(s) + 2 Na(l) -> 2 NaH(s) + Ca(l) Identify the species being oxidized and the species being reduced? Question 2) Give the names to the binary compounds

asked by Ashley on July 27, 2015

Chemistry
What is the charatteristic of covalent bonding meaining what happens and then what is the result from what happened (like does it form a molecule, compund, etc. . . Same thing for ionic bodnging The ionic part is discussed below. Look for a chemistry post

asked by direct in Effect on November 30, 2006
chemistry
i need to deduce the type of bonding that holds sodium cyanide together and write a balanced equation for sodium cyanide dissolving in water any help would be appreciated sarah Na^+ + :C:::N:^- Na to CN bond is ionic (more or less). C-N bond is covalent.

asked by sarah on March 1, 2007
Chemistry-Bonding
Classify the following bonds as ionic, covalent, or neither (O, atomic number 8; F, atomic number 9; Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic number 17; U, atomic number 92). a.) O with F b.) Ca with Cl _ c.) Na with Na _ d.) U with Cl

asked by Mary on November 13, 2009
chem
so i took a sat ii subject practice test and the question was true/false/ ionic bonds are the strongest bonds. answer was true but what about NETWORK COVALENT?

asked by Kerrie on May 1, 2009
ap biology
Molecules that result from this bond do not dissociate in water because its atoms are not charged and, therefore, not attracted to the negative or positive ends of the water molecule. H-bond ionic bond nonpolar covalent bond polar covalent bond I am

asked by HEY on August 17, 2007
chemistry
a)Rank the following 3 tetrachloride compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), methane (CH4), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) b) Which molecule ( KI or LiF ) has the higher boiling point? c)Select the single most important

asked by 3091 on August 24, 2014
Chemistry
What is the strongest intermolecular force exhibited in each? Covalent molecules, Ionic compounds, polar covalent molecules. This is my answer: Covalent: London forces Ionic: Ion-dipole Polar Covalent: Dipole- Dipole Is this correct?

asked by Jessie on September 22, 2011
Chemistry
Hi! Can you tell me if I chose the right options for my chemistry homework? My answers are at the bottom. 1. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent

asked by Tiffany on November 2, 2014
chemistry – DrBob?
Hi! Can you tell me if I chose the right options for my chemistry homework? My answers are at the bottom. 1. Electrostatic interaction is important for which type of bond? A. ionic bond B. triple covalent bond C. single covalent bond D. double covalent

asked by Tiffany on November 2, 2014
chemistry
Many ionic compounds have high melting points because a lot of energy is required to break the strong ionic bonds. So after breaking the ionic bonds, the ionic compound becomes a liquid. How do you explain why the ionic compound also has high boiling

asked by jess on April 4, 2009

boooring chemistry!!:(
Why do the halogens easily form ionic and covalent bonds? Can someone explain this to me?! 🙁

asked by marie(: on June 21, 2011
Biology
. The covalent bonds between the monomers of an enzyme macromolecule are A. glycosidic bonds. B. peptide bonds. C. phosphodiester bonds. D. ester bonds. I thimk it is B

asked by Dulce on July 13, 2014
Chemistry
Which of the following compounds contains both ionic and covalent bonds? SiO2 LiCN LiI PCl3

asked by Jordan on January 15, 2016
Chemistry
Which compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds? (1)HBr (2)CBr4 (3)NaBr (4)NaOH

asked by Anonymous on December 2, 2010
anonymous
what atoms usually form coordinate covalent bonds i couldn’t find this anywhere also i just want to make sure is the electronegativity difference range for polar covalent bonds .4 – 2.1 paulings?

asked by lyne on June 7, 2009
Science
How two neutral objects may become positively and negatively charges? How is atomic mass established? Which atoms will form covalent bonds and which atoms will form ionic bonds?

asked by Trissy on January 14, 2008
chemistry
Which bond type is soluble in alcohol? Metallic, ionic, polar covaletn, or nonpolar covalent bonds? Which bond type has hard, brittle crystals? (I think the second is ionic, but not positive.)

asked by GO OU!!! on December 17, 2008
organic chemisrtry
How do melting points differ for ionic compounds versus those that contain only covalent bonds? Why is this so (explain)?

asked by CHRIS on September 4, 2012
Science
How can u predict if a bond will be ionic, covalent or polar covalent? i know that its the difference between electronegativities, but i cant seem to find the numbers it has to be between for each. I’m also getting confused because isnt covalent the same

asked by Sam on January 28, 2010
Chemistry
What is the strongest intermolecular force exhibited in each? Covalent molecules, Ionic compounds, polar covalent molecules. This is my answer: Covalent- dipole-dipole forces Ionic- ion-dipole forces Polar Covalent- electrostatic forces Is this correct?

asked by Jessie on September 22, 2011

Chemistry
Rank the carbon-carbon bonds in order of decreasing bond length. Rank carbon-carbon bonds from highest bond length to lowest. To rank bonds as equivalent, overlap them. 1,2,3

asked by Caitlin on October 11, 2011
Chemistry
So I am trying to understand in molecular terms the solubility of NaCl in water. So there are intramolecular forces that are mostly ionic between the ions, creating this partial positive, partial negative substance. And the intermolecular forces are also

asked by Serena on May 8, 2014
chemistry
Describe the role of each of the following types of bonds in a polyamide: a) covalent bonds b) amide bonds c) hydrogen bonds

asked by Mark on May 10, 2008
Chemistry pretty urgent!!!!!!!
Chemical bonding question! The partial Lewis structure that follows (Figure 1) is for a hydrocarbon molecule. In the full Lewis structure, each carbon atom satisfies the octet rule, and there are no unshared electron pairs in the molecule. The

asked by G-Dogg on November 4, 2014
chemistry
The strongest intermolecular forces present in a sample of pure I2 are A. covalent bonds. B. covalent network bonds. C. metallic bonds. D. dipole–dipole forces. E. London forces.

asked by Jake on December 9, 2010
chem
thanks Is sodium nitrate polar or nonpolar and how do I figure this out? thanks You need to consult your text or your notes to see what you teacher calls ionic and what s/he calls covalent. Generally, a difference in electronegativity (you can look up the

asked by Filmore on April 19, 2007
Science
Compounds with high melting points have _ a. Covalent bonds b. Metallic Bonds c. Ionic bonds* d. No chemical bonds How could you determine if a sample of gold is pure? Compare the sample’s density with that of pure gold.* Compare the sample’s color

asked by P on September 29, 2016
chemistry
Indicate the number of covalent bonds that each nonmetal atom is expected to form. a. Se is expected to form 2 covalent bonds. b. H is expected to form 1 covalent bonds. c. Br is expected to form 1 covalent bonds. d. N is expected to form 3 covalent bonds.

asked by krystal on March 1, 2012
bonds!
What evidence suggests that ionic bonds are strong? Ionic compounds have high melting points. Covalent compounds have relatively low melting points.

asked by bobby brown on June 17, 2006
Chemistry PLZ HELP!!!!!
Tell whether the bonds between the following atoms are polar covalent or pure covalent bonds. a. Si-Si b. H-O c. C-H d. C-O e. Cl-F f. Cl-Cl g. N-H h. O-O

asked by Maci on April 7, 2012

Chemistry;Check?!
Can you check these? Strong attractive forces that keep atoms connected together are called _. A. valence electrons B. chemical bonds C. cations D. anions Which of the following is NOT a type of bonding that occurs between atoms? A. covalent bonding B.

asked by Victoria on December 14, 2012
Chemistry
In a methane molecule (CH4) there are 4 single covalent bonds. In an octane molecule (C8H18) there are 25 single covalent bonds. How does the number of bonds affect the dispersion forces in samples of methane and octane? Which compound is a gas at room

asked by Taylor on March 17, 2009
Chem
Can someone please check this for me? It’s ranking the following bonds in order of increasing ionic bond character. Cl-Cl C-H H-Cl Mg-C H-O Na-Cl Ca-O Cs-F I’m not sure where Fe-O, and Fe-C fall. Thanks -MC

asked by mysterychicken on February 19, 2014
Chemistry (Check)
True, False, or Sometimes true 1)A bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electron is called a polyatomic covalent bond.(True) 2)Carbon forms four single covalent bonds with other atoms. (Fales) True, False, or Sometimes true 1)A bond in which one

asked by Bryan on December 15, 2006
CHEMISTRY
1.What is the relationship between polarity of a molecule and boiling point? 2.How does a hydrogen bond’s strength compare to normal chemical bonds. such as covalent and ionic bonds? 3.Why don’t fish freeze to death when the water above them freezes in a

asked by Amy on January 15, 2015
Chemistry
Water’s unique properties allow it to- a.dissolve aqueous solutions b.dissolve ionic and nonpolar covalent molecules c.dissolve ionic and polar covalent molecules d.dissolve ionic, covalent and metallic molecules is it c, because i know water is polar?

asked by Boberto on April 5, 2016
Chemistry
My ONLY three questions I need help on! I did the other 50 something already!(: Why are covalent bonds weak in the presence of heat but strong in the presence of water? What are the 5 rules for ionic bonding? Give an example of a compound that is

asked by marie(: on August 24, 2011
chemistry
Predict the number of covalent bonds formed by each nonmetal atom. a. N—–3 bonds b. Cl—–1 bond c. S—–2 bonds

asked by krystal on February 8, 2012
science
below are about 21 questions from my final study guide. I was given a 563 question study guide for my final and obviously I did not understand every question. So basically I did not understand 4% of the questions which is pretty good. Just any help with

asked by JAKE on February 28, 2008
Chemistry
Describe how covalent and ionic bonds differ with regard to bond strength and how is bond length related to stability ane energy?

asked by MF on January 2, 2010

Chemistry
What are some examples of covalent bonds? What are covalent bonds made of? Thanks.

asked by Brianne on March 4, 2009
chemistry
Which of the following consists of positive and negative ions bound together and held in place in a crystalline solid? A. Covalent bonds B. Ionic compounds C. Molecular compounds D. Molecules I say B

asked by shana on November 10, 2012
Chemistry
The dipole moment (μ) of HBr (a polar covalent molecule) is 0.851D (debye), and its percent ionic character is 12.6% . Estimate the bond length of the H−Br bond in picometers.

asked by Summer on November 18, 2013
Chemistry
The dipole moment (μ) of HBr (a polar covalent molecule) is 0.851D (debye), and its percent ionic character is 12.6% . Estimate the bond length of the H−Br bond in picometers.

asked by Summer on November 18, 2013
Chemistry
The dipole moment (mu) of HBr (a polar covalent molecule) is 0.851 D (debye), and its percent ionic character is 12.6 %. Estimate the bond length of the H-Br bond in picometers.

asked by Caitlin on October 7, 2011
chemistry
What kinds of elements form covalent bonds? What kinds of elements form ionic bonds? explain please help

asked by Anonymous on August 27, 2017
chemistry (go-over)
is this always true that the compound NH3 contains two double covalent bonds? and that the chemical formulas of molecular compounds show the number and type of atoms in each molecule. No. NH3 has no double bonds. It contains three covalent bonds, one

asked by Dennis on January 3, 2007
Chemistry
Why are the molecules of hydrocarbons nonpolar? The intermolecular attractions are strong. The electron pair is shared almost equally in all the bonds. All the bonds are single covalent bonds*** Van der Waals forces overcome polarity

asked by Abby on June 1, 2016
Science 6
during the process of photosynthesis, plants convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. Covalent bonds hold the glucose molecules together. the energy stored in these covalent bonds is called? A:nuclear energy. B:thermal energy. C:electrical energy.

asked by Jaden on February 23, 2017
Solid State Chemistry
Which molecule ( KI or LiF ) has the higher boiling point? Select the single most important reason below to justify your choice should have the higher melting point Both molecules are nonpolar but the higher melting includes hydrogen bonding Both molecules

asked by KS on December 20, 2013

A&P
Compare ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonding, and fully describe an example of each. Is this right and I need help with an example of a covalent bond. Ionic bond is formed from one metal and one non metal. It is a solid at room temperate. In an ionic bond

asked by Danielle on November 14, 2010
chm
Which of the following is a covalent compound composed of nonpolar covalent bonds? Answer >>H2 H2O CF4 CH4 NaF

asked by jj on February 26, 2013
physics
What is a covalent bond?what type of substance form covalent bonds?

asked by keria on January 21, 2012
Chemistry
Which substance ( HBr or HF ) has the higher boiling point? Its HF but chose one of the most appropriate reason. 1. Both substances are nonpolar but the higher boiling includes hydrogen bonding 2. Both substances are nonpolar but the higher boiling is more

asked by ss01 on October 12, 2013
CHEMISTRY HELP NOW PLZ!
which of the following coordination compounds will most likely form a precipitate when treated with an aquesous solution of silver(l) nitrate? A) [Cr(NH3)2CL3] B) [Cr(NH3)6]Cl3 C) [Cr(NH3)Cl]SO4 D) Na3[Cr(CN)6] E) Na[CrCl6] i think its either a or b but i

asked by gina on April 21, 2007

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option is to choice as deference is to

  1. A major difference between today’s Hispanic and past European immigrants is that— (1 point)
    for Hispanics, the old country is only two hours away.
    European immigrants were all light-skinned.
    Hispanics are willing to take jobs Americans don’t want.
    European immigrants did not come in such large numbers.

Choose the word or phrase that best completes the analogy.

  1. Option is to choice as deference is to— (1 point)
    rudeness.
    respect.
    difference.
    alternative.
    Choose the progressive or emphatic verb tense that is used in the sentence below.
  2. The Cougars had been winning until the third quarter of the game. (1 point)
    present perfect progressive
    past perfect progressive
    past progressive
  3. Which of the following informational texts would be the most helpful if you wanted to gain perspective into how an historical event affected a particular type of person? (1 point)
    a journal written by a person who experienced the event
    an essay by an expert on that event
    a newspaper article about the event
    a speech given by a leader at the time of the event

My answers:
1.b
2.d
3.a
4.b

0 0 376
asked by Angela
May 13, 2012
Congratulations! All of your answers are WRONG!

0 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
May 13, 2012
A
B
B
A

0 0
posted by Lacey
May 13, 2012
caaba

0 0
posted by WriteTeacher
Mar 20, 2013
Lacey was right!(:

0 0
posted by Helper
May 11, 2013

Ms. Sue, that was RUDE!

1 0
posted by Stacey
May 28, 2013
Wow… Ms. Sue, you have the attitude of my old French teacher; in which she got fired and her teaching license removed :)…

1 0
posted by Patricia
May 29, 2013
Lacey is right!!

0 0
posted by Scarlett
Jul 27, 2013
She TRIED and she was looking to see if her answers were correct, which they were not so someone gave her the right answers, she learned from this. Your ignorance was not needed nor is it wanted. Btw getting an education is succeeding and learning, which is what this was! Seems like you’re the one that needs to get their education.

0 0
posted by Emily
May 20, 2015
bob you’re

0 0
posted by john
Jun 17, 2015

Damn Ms. Sue got a stick up her !@#$%^& Go see a doctor and get that surgically removed

1 0
posted by Damnu
May 3, 2016
I once again find another example of How patheticly useless Ms.Sue can be

1 0
posted by Wut
May 5, 2016
Oh my… so rude!
If you have the updated version on the story “Familiar Strangers” the Answers are still A, B, B, A!

0 0
posted by Rach
May 18, 2016
You have to disrespect kids to feel good about yourself. What does that say about you ms.sue

1 0
posted by Smd
Jun 2, 2016
no wonder why you arnt married

1 0
posted by Smd
Jun 2, 2016

First all of you who are talking bad about Ms. Sue look just as bad as her. Yeah she is rude but you don’t have to make yourselves look bad too.
Also I just took this and got 100% the answers are:

  1. The act of new immigrants moving to America from closer countries….
  2. Respect

3.Past Perfect Progressive

  1. A journal written by a person…

Also if you are in honors there was a 5th question:
“True or false:
Apropos means suitable”
The answer is true.
Hope that helps 😀
~SilentRebel :3

0 1
posted by SilentRebel
Jun 5, 2016
SilentRebel is correct,

I just took the Quick Check, the answers are in fact:

  1. The act of new immigrants moving to America from closer countries….
  2. Respect

3.Past Perfect Progressive

  1. A journal written by a person…

Thanks SilentRebel!!!
P.S. Listen to SilentRebel, she has a very great point, although what was said was rude, let it go, and learn from your mistakes!!!

~The Helpful Tutor
“I Help Everyone No matter how tough it may be…”

0 0
posted by The Helpful Tutor
Mar 7, 2017
New update with a fifth question:

  1. Apropos means suitable. (1 point)
    True
    1/1 point 0 0
    posted by hlsml
    Mar 13, 2017
    SilentRebel is correct 🙂 0 0
    posted by anon
    May 25, 2017
    go to ms sues most recent ansers you will be suprised 1 0
    posted by if any of you think thats the rudest ms sue is llok at this
    Dec 19, 2017

he was just trying to figure out the questions ms. sue

2 0
posted by stud

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which of the following options is an equivalent function to f(x) = 4(3)2x?

Which of the following options is an equivalent function to f(x) = 4(3)2x?
A.f(x)= 36x
B.f(x)= 4(9)x
C.f(x)= 144x
D.f(x)= 4(6x)

0 0 374
asked by May
Nov 4, 2015
if you are doing exponents please write superscripts with an arrow up

4^3 = 444 = 64

2^(2*3) = 2^6

0 0
posted by Damon
Nov 4, 2015
It is exponents

0 0
posted by April
Nov 4, 2015
But what is the exponent ?
Please use standard notation.

0 0
posted by Damon
Nov 4, 2015
Which of the following options is an equivalent function to f(x) = 4(3^2x?
A.f(x)= 36^x
B.f(x)= 4(9)^x
C.f(x)= 144^x
D.f(x)= 4(6x)
I think that’s how you put the exponents in standard notation

0 0
posted by April
Nov 4, 2015

The answer is b

2 0
posted by April
Nov 4, 2015
3^(2x) = (3^2)^x = 9^x
so
4 * 3^(2x) = 4 * 9^x

agree B but watch notation carefully 🙂

1 0
posted by Damon
Nov 4, 2015

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which of the following is a complex sentence?

  1. Which of the following is a complex sentence that contains a dependent adverbial clause?
    15,185 results
    English
    Select the term that correctly identifies each sentence or underlined part of a sentence. 1. James Joyce was a great master of stream of consciousness. (1 point) *simple sentence compound sentence complex sentence compound-complex sentence 2. Joyce,

asked by Anonymous on December 14, 2015
Language Arts

  1. Identify the term that correctly identifies the sentence. After all, I have always been a night owl, and I prefer moonlight to sunlight. A. Simple Sentence. B. Compound Sentence. C. Complex Sentence. D. Compound-Complex Sentence.*** 19. Identify the

asked by Haley on December 6, 2016
English

  1. James Joyce was a great master of stream of consciousness. simple sentence*** compound sentence complex sentence compound-complex sentence 2. Joyce’s, however, owed much to French novelist who had used the technique much earlier. simple sentence

asked by Anonymous on December 28, 2017
Language Arts~!

  • Trying to laugh as quietly as possible,* Lucas snuck out of the kitchen. prepositional phrase gerund phrase participial phrase appositive phrase * Singing loudly in the shower* is what Jessica loves to do every morning. gerund phrase participial phrase

asked by Gabby on January 16, 2014
Language Arts

  • Trying to laugh as quietly as possible,* Lucas snuck out of the kitchen. prepositional phrase gerund phrase participial phrase appositive phrase * Singing loudly in the shower* is what Jessica loves to do every morning. gerund phrase participial phrase

asked by Princess Anna on January 12, 2014

english
Identify the underlined words in each sentence. 7. (Because chickens peck at each other,) someone invented chicken glasses. independent clause adverbial clause complex sentence adjectival clause 10. The Great Dane, (a large dog,)leapt over the fence.

asked by Anonymous on December 6, 2012
Language Arts
I just need someone to double check my work. 🙂 Here are my answers: 1. C 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. B 7. A 8. A Here are the questions: Choose the option that correctly identifies the ( underlined words ) in each sentence. 1. (Stretching for 210 miles), the

asked by Missy on January 4, 2013
Reading
Choose the option that correctly identifies the words in () in each sentence. 5. (Stretching for 210 miles) , the Thames is in England. (1 point) prepositional phrase gerund phrase participial phrase appositive phrase 6. (Eating flesh with razor-sharp

asked by Lily on December 7, 2012
english
can some body give me a example of a clause sentence Eric or Bear or whoever — http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/clauses.htm If you have one independent clause, you also have a sentence if you punctuate it properly. If you have one dependent clause,

asked by bear on July 11, 2007
Langauge arts

  1. Climbing so slowly they seem immobile is how sloths spend their days. (1 point) prepositional phrase gerund phrase participial phrase appositive phrase 7. Sam and Dean were shocked to find they both enjoyed playing soccer. (1 point) subordinate clause

asked by anonymous on January 22, 2014
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
“The data indicate that 40 percent of the land that Israel plans to keep in any future deal with the Palestinians is private.” Which kind of sentences is it?simple?complex?compound?complex compound? How can I define the part of speechs of each word in this

asked by Katrina on November 22, 2006
ENG help please julie
I am revieing for a test these ar the ones I can’t figure out? **the choice simple – complex or compund 1. even the air must have smelled different that long ago. 2. if you could travel in time, would you go to the time of the dinosaurs? 3. To scientists,

asked by liz on October 31, 2006
English
The woman “who won the cookie competition” is my mother. A. subordinate clause B. adjective clause C. independent clause D. adverbial clause B I was in a hurry so I ate “a cold bowl of cereal” as I walked out the door. A. misplaced modifier B. noun clause

asked by Anonymous on January 17, 2014
Help me, plz
This is my last question(s) of the day. [Singing loudly in the shower] is what Jessica loves to do every morning. gerund phrase participial phrase*** appositive phrase prepositional phrase Meat [that is produced organically] is often quite expensive.

asked by Princess Anna on January 13, 2014
Grammar-clauses
I put the underlined parts of the sentences in parentheses. William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury is a novel (that uses the technique of stream of consciousness). independent clause adverbial clause adjectival clause (my answer) noun clause It takes

asked by Anon on December 11, 2012

english
One of the following sentences contains an independent clause and a dependent clause, which makes it a complex sentence. Which is the complex sentence? A. I hesitated a moment, but her smile gave me courage. B. I came home; I saw an envelope in the

asked by heather on January 30, 2013
english
One of the following sentences contains an independent clause and a dependent clause, which makes it a complex sentence. Which is the complex sentence? A. I hesitated a moment, but her smile gave me courage. B. I came home; I saw an envelope in the

asked by heather on January 30, 2013
english
One of the following sentences contains an independent clause and a dependent clause, which makes it a complex sentence. Which is the complex sentence? A. I came home; I saw an envelope in the mailbox. B. After the rain ended, the sky became blue. C. Jenny

asked by Anonymous on September 16, 2014
english

  1. One of the following sentences contains an independent clause and a dependent clause, which makes it a complex sentence. Which is the complex sentence? A. I came home; I saw an envelope in the mailbox. [B. After the rain ended, the sky became blue.] C.

asked by jake on January 4, 2012
English
One of the following sentences contains an independent clause and a dependent clause, which makes it a complex sentence. Which is the complex sentence? A. I came home; I saw an envelope in the mailbox. B. After the rain ended, the sky became blue. C. I

asked by Cherokee on June 14, 2013
Language Help

  1. Identify the correct statement. When a complex sentence begins with a dependent clause, put a comma after the clause.(My answer) When a complex sentence begins with an independent clause, put a comma after the clause. In a compound sentence, put a comma

asked by YOLO on April 12, 2015
English
A dependent clause and an independent clause joined together form a: A. compound sentence. B. simple sentence. C. compound-complex sentence. D. complex sentence. D

asked by Angela on April 14, 2014
Grammar
2.Which of the following sentences contain NC’s and which contain adverbial clauses? a.Liz accepted [that she would never be a great opera singer. ](Noun Clause) b.I’ll participate provided [that you listen to me.] (Noun Clause) c.We waited [until the

asked by Nora on April 14, 2009
LA-check my answers.
Singing loudly in the shower is what Jessica loves to do every morning. gerund phrase participial phrase appositive phrase *** prepositional phrase The janitor told Principal Johnson he put the cleaning materials where he always left it. independent clause

asked by Princess Anna on January 13, 2014
Correction – Grammar
2.Which of the following sentences contain Noun Clauses and which contain adverbial clauses? a.Liz accepted [that she would never be a great opera singer.] (Noun Clause) b.I’ll participate provided [that you listen to me.] (Noun Clause) c.We waited

asked by Nora on April 14, 2009

grammar
Scientists report (1) that creatures living in the deep sea are in danger of starving to death. Millions of undiscovered species live, in the deep sea. Creatures in the seabed are suffering from growing food shortages. Which may be a result of rising sea

asked by matt on February 6, 2013
english
Scientists report (1) THAT CREATURES LIVING IN THE DEEP SEA ARE IN DANGER OF STARVING TO DEATH. Millions of undiscovered species live, in the deep sea. Creatures in the seabed are suffering from growing food shortages. Which may be a result of rising sea

asked by matt on February 6, 2013
Language Arts
Identify the correct statement. A) When a complex sentence begins with a dependent clause, put a comma after the clause. B) When a complex sentence begins with an independent clause, put a comma after the clause. C) In a compound sentence, put a comma

asked by Jasmine on April 16, 2014
ENGL
These three questions I am having difficulty in solving. Can you help me here. Question 1 – a) Whenever children in the United States turn on the tv, B) they are more likely to encounter violence on the screen. A is an independent clause. A is a dependent

asked by David on March 3, 2011
Sentence Structure : English
Can you please tell me if this is a simple, compound, complex or compound-complex sentence. And can you please tell me why it is the one it is like if it’s because there are two dependent clauses or whatever the case may be. The sentence is : Zhang Jie

asked by Kelsey on April 2, 2007
English
Scientists report (1) that creatures living in the deep sea are in danger of starving to death. The underlined part of sentence 1 is what kind of clause? adverbial clause adjectival clause noun clause Independent clause My answer is independent because if

asked by Steve on March 19, 2017
types of sentence
can anyone tell me which of the following is a complex sentence??? 1.But the journey of the coal driver is a reminder that often beneath the juggernaut of the Chinese economy are three guys squeezed into the cab of a filthy truck hauling coal, a trip

asked by Katrina on September 20, 2006
ELA – English
What kind is the second clause in the sentence below: my friend cooper needs to go to the orthodontists office on wednesday because one of his brackets is loose * independent adjective dependent adverb dependent noun dependent no second clause I am sure it

asked by him on February 4, 2017
Language Arts
Im not really sure about these. But i just put what i think, correct if im wrong? (Stretching for 210 miles,) the Thames is in England. a. Prepositional phrase b. gerund phrase c. participial phrase

asked by Brittany Bevard on January 13, 2014
5th grade LA
Insert commas where they belong. Provide a short reason. 2. Ever since you asked my opinion about the soccer field battle I’ve been mulling the situation over trying to determine a logical consequence. A: Ever since you asked my opinion about the soccer

asked by Jared on September 27, 2017

Language need help
I love telling people about Jodi Picoult, (whose books are always bestsellers.) a. Subordinate clause b. Adjectival clause c. Independent clause*** d. Adverbial clause I was in a hurry so i ate (a cold dish of cereal) as i was walking out the door. a.

asked by Brittany Bevard on January 13, 2014
English: clauses
we have to to identify the dependent clause in this sentance and then tell wether the clause is an adverb, adjective, or noun clause. “Who knows what the future will bring?” In this sentance i know where the dependent clause starts but other than that i’m

asked by Lesley on February 19, 2007
English
In the following compound-complex sentence, add parentheses around the (dependent clause) and underline each independent clause. 2. The story was very good because the campers heard strange hoots and noises, and everyone was soon shivering.

asked by Sarah Ranger on March 6, 2013
help?
If something is stately, it is impressive. informal. common. tacky. To needle a person is to press him or her into taking a particular action. make that person try to locate a very small object. speak sharply to him or her. Exotic tourist places are

asked by Princess Anna on December 23, 2013
writing…grammar
Hello, Which sentence contains a dangling modifier? 1. When the storm began to abate, we went home. 2. By the light of the moon, I tripped over a rock. 3. The dog that is man’s best friend is cat’s worst enemy. I don’t see any dangling modifiers in here.

asked by Mandi on July 15, 2007
English
My homework is about identifying independent and dependent clauses The sentence in () marks is the clause they’re asking for. 1. The narrator’s mother worked on her inventions at night, (after her husband fell asleep) – Dependent Clause 2. She would work

asked by Sophia on January 14, 2016
Language Arts
Choose the option that correctly identifies the (underlined) words in each sentence. I love telling people about Jodi Picoult, (whose books are always bestsellers.) a. subordinate clause b. adjectival clause c. independent clause d. adverbial clause *I

asked by Anonymous on January 13, 2014
language art
1.Chris was being OBNOXIOUS when he -told Mrs.Kelly it was a great day for a race. -insulted Gina’s new haircut. -kept the little kids’ ball from going into the street. -returned Mr.Cho’s keys. 2.If something is STATELY, it is -impressive -informal -common

asked by Chrissy on December 18, 2013
Language Arts
Identify which sentence this is: The woman who one the cookie competition is my mother. Subordinate Clause Adjectival Clause Independent Clause Adverbial Clause I would say it’s Subordinate.

asked by Mary on January 23, 2014
Grammar
I have 10 more sentences that I just need to be shown if I am right or wrong on. I have to identify again whether the sentence has a dependent clause or independent clause. 1. The dog was at the clinic for three hours while the splinter was being removed.

asked by Patrick on October 15, 2015

English
Scientists report (1) THAT CREATURES LIVING IN THE DEEP SEA ARE IN DANGER OF STARVING TO DEATH. Millions of undiscovered species live, in the deep sea. Creatures in the seabed are suffering from growing food shortages. Which may be a result of rising sea

asked by Danii on March 1, 2013
English 12th

  1. A fable’s moral may be explicitly stated, or it may simply be implied. (1 point) A) independent clause B) adverbial clause C) adjectival clause D) noun clause 2. If you look at most cultures, you will find evidence of fables passed down through oral

asked by Vi on December 12, 2017
More Language Arts
Identify what the sentence is: The bicycle path winds through the city that is 40 miles long a.Simple sentence b.Noun clause c.Misplace modifier* d.Adverbial clause

asked by Mary on January 23, 2014
english

  1. In which sentence are the italicized words a dangling modifier? (A dangling modifier is a phrase that doesn’t modify the noun that’s near it.) A. Arriving ten minutes late, the store was closed for the night. B. Flying beneath the cloud, the pilot could

asked by me on May 7, 2009
writeacher help
Can you give me a example of a compound-complex sen. w/2 dependent clauses?=\ http://books.google.com/books?id=yhQAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA205&dq=%22compound+complex%22+sentence+with+dependent+clauses And there are several examples here in this very old song (from

asked by SANCA on May 14, 2007
English
The noise from the ducks in the pond was soothing. I have to Underline each independent clause and subordinate clause twice then tell if the sentence is simple, compound, complex, compound-complex 1.The noise from the ducks was soothing=indep clause in the

asked by Hayden on December 1, 2010
WRITING
Can you give me a example of a compound-complex sen. with two dependent clauses? http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/clauses.htm This webpage discusses various types of clauses and how they fit together into different kinds of sentences. A

asked by SANCA on May 14, 2007
English
Choose the term that best describes the underline term. 1. The toy “that Fido loves to chew” is made by hand. a. noun clause b. direct clause c. adverb clause d. adjective clause** Choose the term that describes the sentence shown. 1. If you fail to plan,

asked by Aubree (Answer Check) on December 17, 2016
English

  1. How is a compound sentence formed? A. By joining a simple sentence with a dependent clause B. By joining two simple sentences with a comma and a coordinate conjunction C. By joining two independent clauses and one dependent clause D. By joining a

asked by Sarah on November 20, 2014
English
complex sentence connects two equal ideas. connects two simple sentences. contains a clause that is dependent on the main sentence. contains two independent clauses. I am think c

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2014

English
On following sentence the first clause is a dependent clause. The second clause is an independent clause which can stand by itself. Before President Roosevelt died, President Truman did not know that the United States was developing atomic weapons. I say

asked by Karen on October 27, 2014
english

  1. How could you combine the following two sentences into one compound sentence? The rabbit jumped into the bushes. The dog followed it. A. After the rabbit jumped into the bushes, the dog followed it. B. The dog and the rabbit jumped into the bushes. C.

asked by me on May 7, 2009
English
Which of the following is a complex sentence that contains a dependent adverbial clause? 1) Mark expects the photo to arrive on Tuesday. 2)Marks expects the photo to arrive late. 3) Mark expects the photo to arrive in damaged condition. 4) Mark expects the

asked by Maya on December 3, 2007
English
Which writing mistake is demonstrated in the sentence below? I have trouble concentrating sometimes. Especially when I can hear people talking. a. run-on sentence b. adverbial clause fragment c. adjectival clause fragment d. misplaced modifier ****

asked by Anonymous on November 5, 2018
people
What i learned about bedbugs made me want to never sleep again. Adverbial Clause Misplaced modifier noun clause compound sentence i think it is C

asked by Rodco on January 22, 2014
LAL!
are these complex sentence. if it is complex, and are the subordinate clause right are these right? the subordinate clause are in capital letters 1-IN THE 1950S the giants were the national league team from new york.( COMPLEX) 2- fans argued all the time

asked by Sara! on May 12, 2010
Englsih
Identify the bolded portion of the following sentence. JACOB HAD TO BUY A NEW CELL PHONE after dropping his old one in the pool. A. Adverb clause B. Adjective clause C. Subordinate clause D. Independent clause I think it is a Subordinate clause Identify

asked by Cassie on January 31, 2014
english

  1. How is a compound sentence formed? A. By joining a simple sentence with a dependent clause B. By joining a dependent and independent clause with a conjunction [C. By joining two independent clauses and one dependent clause] D. By joining two simple

asked by jake on January 4, 2012
english

  1. Which of the following is a complex sentence that contains a dependent adverbial clause? A. Mark expects the photo to arrive late. B. Mark expects the photo to arrive in damaged condition. [C. Mark expects the photo to arrive when the letter arrives.]

asked by jake on January 4, 2012
ENGLISH

  1. Which of the following is a complex sentence that contains a dependent adverbial clause? A. Mark expects the photo to arrive late. B. Mark expects the photo to arrive in damaged condition. C. Mark expects the photo to arrive when the letter arrives. D.

asked by Anonymous on January 19, 2013

Quick english help
Please check & see if I classified these sentences as simple, complex, or compound correctly! 1. His tie is going to choke him unless we can get it off. (Is this a complex sentence?) 2. She laughed so hard until the teacher told her to stop. (Is this a

asked by Anonymous on December 14, 2014
English

  1. Read the sentence from paragraph 1 below. It looms menacingly over the road from the roof of a farmhouse, a flying reptile with a seven-foot wingspan. Which of the following correctly describes this sentence? A. Simple sentence B. Complex sentence C.

asked by Cassie on March 29, 2013
English – Sentences/Clauses
Hello, could you please help me with a few questions I have with English? Directions: Classify this sentence as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex. 1. She thought she saw a stranger, but he turned out to be her neighbor who was back from

asked by Amy on January 13, 2012
English
Can Someone help me on figuring out how to distinguish one clause from another and explain or give me a resource to use that would help. And also give an example of each. Thanks! Adverbial Clause Adjectival Clause Noun Clause Independent Clause

asked by Oreos on December 1, 2016
english
I have to write complex sentences with some hard words like contentious, diffident, and gregarious for example. Anyone know of a web site that may help??? When I looked up the word diffident, I found the meaning. Because diffident describes how I write

asked by shari on August 11, 2007
English
The basket (that she is holding) is made from palm fronds. independent clause adjective clause adverb clause noun clause If you fail to plan, you plan to fail. simple complex compound compound-complex John was late to dinner and I was late to the movies.

asked by Person on January 7, 2018
English
My middle name, Abigail, is the name THAT I LIKE BEST. a. independent clause b. adverbial clause c. adjectival clause**** d. noun clause

asked by Anonymous on November 23, 2018
English
A sentence that consists of two or more main clauses and no subordinate clause is a: A. compound sentence. B. compound-complex sentence. C. complex sentence. D. simple sentence A

asked by Angela on April 14, 2014
English – Ms. Sue
I guess that Ashley wasn’t popular in our town. independent clause adverbial clause adjectival clause noun clause Ms. Sue the website you gave me didn’t talk about these clauses can you give me a clue how to figure them out – I have 5 questions with

asked by Deborah on November 7, 2012
Grammar
7When you finish your homework, please take the dog for a walk. The part of the sentence that is underlined is When you finish your homework. I believe that this is a dependent clause because it cannot stand alone and When is a dependent marker. 8. After

asked by Patrick on October 15, 2015

English
1.The varsity team will play as soon as the junior varsity is finished. 2.Thirty laps is the most that I have ever swum. 3.My sister was going to take me to dinner, but her car wouldn’t start. Identify each independent clause in each sentence and each

asked by Hayden on December 1, 2010
english
I need help to make sure that Identified the independent clause in each sentence and the dependent clause in the sentence. 1. The Inca Empire which controlled the Amdes Mountains, survived.This would be the IC fewer than 100 years is the DP clause. 2. The

asked by Jennifer on October 23, 2015
English
That creatures living in the deep sea are in danger of starving to death? Answers are Adverbial clause Adjectival clause Noun Independent clause Thanks is it Independent clause

asked by snow on March 10, 2014
English
The most popular girl’s name when I was born was Ashley. identify what “when I was born” is considered…. independent clause adverbial clause adjectival clause noun clause I think it is A

asked by Deborah on November 7, 2012
english
1.Identify the reason for the comma(s) in the following sentence: When you have the opportunity to interview for a job, you can improve your chances for consideration by dressing for success. a.To join two independent clauses (along with a conjunction)

asked by Cynthia on December 10, 2012
Lang. Arts
It comes with padded shoes that soften the landing. A.noun clause B.adverbial clause C.misplaced modifier D.adjectival clause I think it is D…?

asked by Cassie on March 19, 2013
lang arts

  1. The young girl was not pressured by what (other children said.) noun clause adverbial clause misplaced modifier adjectival clause

asked by Anonymous on December 14, 2012
English

  1. I am sure that she was angry with him. 2. I am sure she was angry with him. 3. I am certain that she was angry with him. 4. It is sure/certain that he was pleased with the gift. —————————————– Can we use both ‘sure’ and

asked by rfvv on June 21, 2017
English
The most popular girl’s name when I was born was Ashley. (“when I was born” is underlined) a, independent clause b. adverbial clause c. adjectival clause **** d. noun clause

asked by Anonymous on November 23, 2018
EW! GRAMMAR!
Can someone help me find GOOD pratice tests for Prepositional phrases, Participial phrases, gerunds phrases, infinitive, appositive, adjective phrase, adverb phrases, main clause, subordinate clause, complex clause and compound complex clause Thanks!

asked by Chopsticks on February 17, 2009

Successful College Writing
I am having a tough time with this one question. Which of the following sentences contains a dependent clause? 1. The red sports car that was parked under the tree belongs to Alan. 2. Jared eagerly climbed into the boxing ring; he was on his back and out

asked by Anonymous on September 7, 2009
english
What is the simple subject and simple predicate of the following sentence? As I skiied down the hill,the wind bit at my face. http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/subject.htm Scroll down for the section to help you determine the difference between the simple

asked by arielle on October 24, 2006
7th grade language arts Ms. Sue please

  1. Which of the following describes the underlined part of this sentence from “LAFFF”? In spite of all I could do, my grades were nothing compared to Peter’s. (1 point) simple sentence compound sentence independent clause dependent clause 6. Which of the

asked by Delilah on February 4, 2013
English-Grammar
The underlined words (I put them in parantheses) are an example of a(n) _. (When the earth, moon, and sun are in line), an eclipse occurs. A. adverbial clause B. adjectival clause C. noun clause My answer is C.

asked by anon on November 19, 2012
English
My name, Cynthia, is from a Greek word for moon. a. simple sentence ** b. compound sentence c. complex sentence d. compound-complex sentence I was not surprised when I learned that. a. simple sentence *** b. compound sentence c. complex sentence d.

asked by Anonymous on November 23, 2018
Grammar
I have another three sentence in grammar that I just need to know if I am right or wrong on. 1. Christa left home at 4:00a.m. since she had to drive to Atlanta for a meeting. since she had to drive to Atlanta for a meeting is the part that is underlined. I

asked by Patrick on October 15, 2015
english
Although there were fewer than 200 soldiers in Pizarro’s group, they defeated an empire of about 12,000,000. Is the dependent clause adjectival or adverbial.

asked by SIB on June 2, 2008
English
Write two examples of complex sentences, the first having the dependent clause appearring at the start, and the second with the independent clause appearing first. Write the sentences so they talk about having tacos for lunch.

asked by Chris on October 27, 2011
language arts(CHECK ANSWERS)
1.select the dependen clause that best completes the sentence below. jeff and his parents went to a nice Italian restaurant________. A.located down town near the river. B.even though his mother prefers Chinese food.(I PICK THIS) C.after his piano recital

asked by Matt on January 24, 2014
english/help me
Ralph,who is a student,also has a part-time job. 1)What is the independent clause in this sentence? who is a student,also has a part-time job. 2)What kind of dependent clause is( who is a student) in this sentence? Is it a noun, adjective,or adverb clause?

asked by joe on May 1, 2012

language arts check answers
I know I got 2 of these right so can you tell me which 2 are right ?? labeled 1.select the dependen clause that best completes the sentence below. jeff and his parents went to a nice Italian restaurant________. A.located down town near the river. B.even

asked by Matt on January 24, 2014
english
Ralph,who is a student,also has a part-time job. 1)What is the independent clause in this sentence? also has a part-time 2)What kind of dependent clause is( who is a student) in this sentence? Is it a noun, adjective,or adverb clause? -a noun

asked by joe on May 1, 2012
language arts(CHECK ANSWERS)
PLEASE CHECK MY ANSWERS /.,. 1.select the dependen clause that best completes the sentence below. jeff and his parents went to a nice Italian restaurant________. A.located down town near the river.(I PICK THIS) B.even though his mother prefers Chinese

asked by Matt on January 24, 2014
English
in the sentence “Tarao loaded the groceries into the cart.” Is the clause adjectival, adverbial, or noun?

asked by Meg on September 15, 2009
need help with homework question
which of the following is a complex sentence that contains`a dependent adverbial clause? a. mark expects the photo to arrive on tuesday. b.markexpects th photo to arrive late. c.mark expects the photo to arrive in damaged condition. d.mark expects the

asked by jennifer on November 21, 2006

Categories
essay writing services essays for sale essays online

“up to 80% of doctors endorse this project” uses which rhetorical device?

With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking

Christopher Foster Ashford University

James Hardy Ashford University

Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo Ashford University

har85668_00_fm_i-xviii.indd 1 4/9/15 1:42 PM

James Hardy, Christopher Foster, and Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo

With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking

Editor in Chief, AVP: Steve Wainwright

Executive Editor: Anna Lustig

Development Editor: Rebecca Paynter

Assistant Editor: Jessica Sarra

Editorial Assistant: Lukas Schulze

Production Editor: Catherine Morris

Media Production: Amanda Nixon, LSF Editorial

Copy Editor: Lauri Scherer, LSF Editorial

Photo Researcher: Amanda Nixon, LSF Editorial

Cover Design: Bambang Suparman Ibrahim

Printing Services: Bordeaux

Production Services: Lachina

Permission Editor: D’Stair Permissions Agency

Cover Image: juuce/iStock and espiegle/iStock

ISBN-10: 1621785661

ISBN-13: 978-1-62178-566-8

Copyright © 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

All rights reserved.

GRANT OF PERMISSION TO PRINT: The copyright owner of this material hereby grants the holder of this

publication the right to print these materials for personal use. The holder of this material may print the materials

herein for personal use only. Any print, reprint, reproduction or distribution of these materials for commercial use

without the express written consent of the copyright owner constitutes a violation of the U.S. Copyright Act,

17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810, as amended.

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Brief Contents

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter 2: The Argument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

Chapter 3: Deductive Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

Chapter 4: Propositional Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Chapter 5: Inductive Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Chapter 6: Deduction and Induction: Putting It All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Chapter 7: Informal Fallacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

Chapter 8: Persuasion and Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

Chapter 9: Logic in Real Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

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About the Authors xiii Acknowledgments xv Preface xvii

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Logic 1

1 .1 What Is Critical Thinking? 2 The Importance of Critical Thinking 3 Becoming a Critical Thinker 6

1 .2 Three Misconceptions About Logic 7 Logic Is for Robots 7 Logic Does Not Need to Be Learned 9 Logic Is Too Hard 10

1 .3 What Is Logic? 11 The Study of Arguments 11 A Tool for Arriving at Warranted Judgments 12 Formal Versus Informal Logic 14

1 .4 Arguments Outside of Logic 14 Arguments in Ordinary Language 14 Rhetorical Arguments 15 Revisiting Arguments in Logic 16

1 .5 The Importance of Language in Logic 17

1 .6 Logic and Philosophy 19 The Goal of Philosophy 20 Philosophy and Logical Reasoning 20

Summary and Resources 21

Contents

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Chapter 2 The Argument 25

2 .1 Arguments in Logic 26 Claims 29 The Standard Argument Form 31

2 .2 Putting Arguments in the Standard Form 33 Find the Conclusion First 34 Find the Premises Next 36 The Necessity of Paraphrasing 38 Thinking Analytically 39

2 .3 Representing Arguments Graphically 42 Representing Reasons That Support a Conclusion 42 Representing Counterarguments 45 Diagramming Efficiently 46

2 .4 Classifying Arguments 47 Deductive Arguments 48 Inductive Arguments 49 Arguments Versus Explanations 50

Summary and Resources 53

Chapter 3 Deductive Reasoning 59

3 .1 Basic Concepts in Deductive Reasoning 60 Validity 60 Soundness 62 Deduction 63

3 .2 Evaluating Deductive Arguments 66 Representing Logical Form 66 Using the Counterexample Method 68

3 .3 Types of Deductive Arguments 70 Mathematical Arguments 70 Arguments From Definitions 71 Categorical Arguments 72 Propositional Arguments 72

3 .4 Categorical Logic: Introducing Categorical Statements 73 Clarifying Particular Statements 76

Contents

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Contents

Clarifying Universal Statements 76 Accounting for Conversational Implication 78

3 .5 Categorical Logic: Venn Diagrams as Pictures of Meaning 80 Drawing Venn Diagrams 81 Drawing Immediate Inferences 84

3 .6 Categorical Logic: Categorical Syllogisms 91 Terms 91 Distribution 91 Rules for Validity 93 Venn Diagram Tests for Validity 94

3 .7 Categorical Logic: Types of Categorical Arguments 111 Sorites 111 Enthymemes 112 Validity in Complex Arguments 113

Summary and Resources 115

Chapter 4 Propositional Logic 119

4 .1 Basic Concepts in Propositional Logic 120 The Value of Formal Logic 121 Statement Forms 122

4 .2 Logical Operators 123 Conjunction 124 Disjunction 126 Negation 128 Conditional 129

4 .3 Symbolizing Complex Statements 133 Truth Tables With Complex Statements 135 Truth Tables With Three Letters 137

4 .4 Using Truth Tables to Test for Validity 140 Examples With Arguments With Two Letters 141 Examples With Arguments With Three Letters 144

4 .5 Some Famous Propositional Argument Forms 149 Common Valid Forms 149 Common Invalid Forms 152

Summary and Resources 158

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Contents

Chapter 5 Inductive Reasoning 165

5 .1 Basic Concepts in Inductive Reasoning 166 Inductive Strength 167 Inductive Cogency 170

5 .2 Statistical Arguments: Statistical Syllogisms 171 Form 172 Weak Statistical Syllogisms 173

5 .3 Statistical Arguments: Inductive Generalizations 174 Representativeness 175 Confidence Level 179 Applying This Knowledge 180

5 .4 Causal Relationships: The Meaning of Cause 181 Sufficient Conditions 181 Necessary Conditions 182 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 183 Other Types of Causes 184 Correlational Relationships 184

5 .5 Causal Arguments: Mill’s Methods 186 Method of Agreement 187 Method of Difference 188 Joint Method of Agreement and Difference 189 Method of Concomitant Variation 190

5 .6 Arguments From Authority 192

5 .7 Arguments From Analogy 193 Evaluating Arguments From Analogy 194 Analogies in Moral Reasoning 197 Other Uses of Analogies 198

Summary and Resources 203

Chapter 6 Deduction and Induction: Putting It All Together 207

6 .1 Contrasting Deduction and Induction 208

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Contents

6 .2 Choosing Between Induction and Deduction 211 Availability 211 Robustness 212 Persuasiveness 214

6 .3 Combining Induction and Deduction 216

6 .4 Reasoning About Science: The Hypothetico–Deductive Method 218 Step 1: Formulate a Hypothesis 219 Step 2: Deduce a Consequence From the Hypothesis 219 Step 3: Test Whether the Consequence Occurs 220 Step 4: Reject the Hypothesis If the Consequence Does Not Occur 220

6 .5 Inference to the Best Explanation 225 Form 228 Virtue of Simplicity 229 How to Assess an Explanation 231 A Limitation 232

Summary and Resources 236

Chapter 7 Informal Fallacies 239

7 .1 Fallacies of Support 241 Begging the Question 241 Circular Reasoning 242 Hasty Generalizations and Biased Samples 243 Appeal to Ignorance and Shifting the Burden of Proof 245 Appeal to Inadequate Authority 246 False Dilemma 248 False Cause 249

7 .2 Fallacies of Relevance 251 Red Herring and Non Sequitur 251 Appeal to Emotion 252 Appeal to Popular Opinion 255 Appeal to Tradition 256 Ad Hominem and Poisoning the Well 257

7 .3 Fallacies of Clarity 261 The Slippery Slope 261 Equivocations 262 The Straw Man 264

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Contents

Fallacy of Accident 267 Fallacies of Composition and Division 268

Summary and Resources 273

Chapter 8 Persuasion and Rhetoric 279

8 .1 Obstacles to Critical Thinking: The Self 280 Stereotypes 280 Cognitive Biases 282

8 .2 Obstacles to Critical Thinking: Rhetorical Devices 289 Weasel Words 290 Euphemisms and Dysphemisms 291 Proof Surrogates 293 Hyperbole 294 Innuendo and Paralipsis 295

8 .3 The Media and Mediated Information 300 Manipulating Images 301 Advertising 302 Other Types of Mediated Information 306

8 .4 Evaluating the Source: Who to Believe 308 Reputation and Authorship 309 Accuracy and Currency 312 Interested Parties 312

Summary and Resources 314

Chapter 9 Logic in Real Life 319

9 .1 The Argumentative Essay 320 The Problem 321 The Thesis 322 The Premises 323

9 .2 Strengthening the Argumentative Essay 327 Clarification and Support 327 The Objection 329 The Rebuttal 330 Closing Your Essay 331

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Contents

9 .3 Practical Arguments: Building Arguments for Everyday Use 333 The Claim 333 The Data 334 The Warrant 334 Comparing the Models 335

9 .4 Confronting Disagreement 338 Applying the Principle of Accuracy 339 Applying the Principle of Charity 340 Balancing the Principles of Accuracy and Charity 341 Practicing Effective Criticism 342

9 .5 Case Study: Interpretation and Criticism in Practice 346 Examining the Initial Argument 347 Examining the Objection 347 Examining the Wording 348 Drawing a Conclusion 349

9 .6 Other Applications of Logic 349 Symbolic Logic 350 Computer Science 350 Artificial Intelligence 350 Engineering 351 Politics (Speech Writing) 351

Summary and Resources 351

Glossary 355

References 363

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James Hardy, Ashford University Dr. James Hardy is part of the core faculty of the Humanities & Science department at Ashford University. He obtained a PhD in philosophy from Indiana University, a master’s degree in philosophy from the University of Washington, and bachelor’s degrees in philosophy and psy- chology from Utah State University. He has taught philosophy at multiple universities since 1998 and has had the opportunity to teach across the general education spectrum, including courses in algebra, speech, English, and physics. Dr. Hardy’s favorite part of teaching is watch- ing students get excited about learning, helping them achieve their dreams, and seeing their excitement as new worlds of knowledge open up to them.

Dr. Hardy loves spending time outdoors hiking, backpacking, and canoeing—especially when he can do so with family members. He has lived all over the United States and has always found beauty and natural wonders wherever he has lived. The only time he is happier than when he is in nature is when he is spending time with his family.

Christopher Foster, Ashford University Dr. Christopher Foster is lead faculty of the Humanities & Science department at Ashford University. He holds a PhD in philosophy with a specialization in logic and language and a master’s degree in philosophy from the University of Kansas (KU). His undergraduate work was completed at the University of California–Davis, where he earned bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and philosophy. Dr. Foster began his career as a graduate teaching assistant at KU and went on to teach at Brigham Young University and Utah Valley University. Dr. Foster has a passion for philosophy and believes that digging deeply into life’s ultimate questions is often the best way to improve students’ critical thinking and writing skills. He lives in Orem, Utah, with his wife, Cherie, and two daughters, Avery and Adia.

Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo, Ashford University Dr. Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo is part of the core faculty of the Humanities & Science department at Ashford University. She earned a PhD in philosophy from the University at Buffalo, special- izing in ontology, ethics, and philosophy of economics. Her previous studies are in philosophy at the University of California–Berkeley and economics at California State University–East Bay. Dr. Zúñiga y Postigo’s present research interests include examinations of the effect in our experiences of moral, aesthetic, and economic phenomena; and value in the Brentano School, the Menger School, and the Göttingen Circle scholars. Teaching philosophy is one her greatest passions. She especially enjoys teaching informal logic, because it empowers students with a tool for distinguishing truth from the mere appearance of truth, thereby making it possible for them to achieve fulfilling lives with greater efficacy.

About the Authors

har85668_00_fm_i-xviii.indd 13 4/9/15 1:42 PM

The authors would like to acknowledge the people who made significant contributions to the development of this text: Anna Lustig, executive editor; Rebecca Paynter, development edi- tor; Jessica Sarra, assistant editor; Lukas Schulze, editorial assistant; Catherine Morris, pro- duction editor; Amanda Nixon, media production; and Lauri Scherer and LSF Editorial, copy editors. Additional thanks go to Justin Harrison and Marc Joseph for their work creating and accuracy checking the ancillary materials for this text.

The authors would also like to thank the following reviewers, as well as other anonymous reviewers, for their valuable feedback and insight:

Justin Harrison, Ashford University

Mark Hébert, Austin College

Marc Joseph, Mills College

Stephen Krogh, Ashford University

Renee Levant, Ashford University

Andrew Magrath, Kent State University

Zachary Martin, Florida State University

John McAteer, Ashford University

Bradley Thames, Ashford University

Finally, but not least importantly, the authors would like to acknowledge their respective spouses—Teresa Hardy, Cherie Farnes, and Jacob Arfwedson—for their loving understand- ing of the long hours that this project demanded, as well as all characters in popular culture (for example, Sherlock Holmes, Mr. Spock, and Dr. House) who have kept logic present in everyday conversations. The rewards of our work are enriched by the former and reassured by the latter.

Acknowledgments

har85668_00_fm_i-xviii.indd 15 4/9/15 1:42 PM

With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking examines the specific ways we use language to reason about things. The study of logic improves our ability to think. It forces us to pay closer attention to the way language is used (and misused). It helps make us better at providing good reasons for our decisions. With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking seeks to help you examine and develop these abilities in order to improve them and to avoid being per- suaded by the faulty reasoning of others.

Textbook Features With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking includes a number of features to help students understand key concepts and think critically:

Everyday Logic boxes give students the opportunity to see principles applied to a variety of real-world scenarios.

A Closer Look boxes give students the chance to explore more in-depth concepts and issues in critical thinking.

Figures illustrate a variety of concepts in easy-to-understand ways.

Practice Problems provide an opportunity for students to exercise the knowledge they have learned in each chapter.

Knowledge Checks test preconceptions about and comprehension of each chapter’s top- ics and lead to a personalized reading plan based on these results.

Moral of the Story boxes and Chapter Summaries review the key ideas and takeaways in each chapter.

Interactive Features in the e-book allow students to engage with the content on a more dynamic level. Animated scenarios in Logic in Action show students how logic might be used in real life. Consider This interactions invite students to think about various issues in more depth. Interactive exercises in Connecting the Dots give students further opportuni- ties to practice what they have learned.

Key Terms list and define important vocabulary discussed in the chapter, offering an opportunity for a final review of chapter concepts. In the e-book, students can click on the term to reveal the definition and quiz themselves in the process.

Preface

har85668_00_fm_i-xviii.indd 17 4/9/15 1:42 PM

1

1An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Logic

Hemera Technologies/Ablestock.com/Thinkstock

Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Explain the importance of critical thinking and logic.

2. Describe the relationship between critical thinking and logic.

3. Explain why logical reasoning is a natural human attribute that we all have to develop as a skill.

4. Identify logic as a subject matter applicable to many other disciplines and everyday life.

5. Distinguish the various uses of the word argument that do not pertain to logic.

6. Articulate the importance of language in logical reasoning.

7. Describe the connection between logic and philosophy.

har85668_01_c01_001-024.indd 1 4/9/15 11:19 AM

Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

This book will introduce you to the tools and practices of critical thinking. Since the main tool for critical thinking is logical reasoning, the better part of this book will be devoted to discuss- ing logic and how to use it effectively to become a critical thinker.

We will start by examining the practical importance of critical thinking and the virtues it requires us to nurture. Then we will explore what logic is and how the tools of logic can help us lead easier and happier lives. We will also briefly review a critical concept in logic—the argument—and discuss the importance of language in making good judgments. We will con- clude with a snapshot of the historical roots of logic in philosophy.

1.1 What Is Critical Thinking? What is critical thinking? What is a critical thinker? Why do you need a guide to think criti- cally? These are good questions, but ones that are seldom asked. Sometimes people are afraid to ask questions because they think that doing so will make them seem ignorant to others. But admitting you do not know something is actually the only way to learn new things and better understand what others are trying to tell you.

There are differing views about what critical thinking is. For the most part, people take bits and pieces of these views and carry on with their often imprecise—and sometimes conflicting— assumptions of what critical thinking may be. However, one of the ideas we will discuss in this book is the fundamental importance of seeking truth. To this end, let us unpack the term critical thinking to better understand its meaning.

First, the word thinking can describe any number of cognitive activities, and there is certainly more than one way to think. We can think analytically, creatively, strategically, and so on (Sousa, 2011). When we think analytically, we take the whole that we are examining—this could be a term, a situation, a scientific phenomenon—and attempt to identify its components. The next step is to examine each component individually and understand how it fits with the other com- ponents. For example, we are currently examining the meaning of each of the words in the term critical thinking so we can have a better understanding of what they mean together as a whole.

Analytical thinking is the kind of thinking mostly used in academia, science, and law (includ- ing crime scene investigation). In ordinary life, however, you engage in analytical thinking more often than you imagine. For example, think of a time when you felt puzzled by some- one else’s comment. You might have tried to recall the original situation and then parsed out the language employed, the context, the mood of the speaker, and the subject of the com- ment. Identifying the different parts and looking at how each is related to the other, and how together they contribute to the whole, is an act of analytical thinking.

When we think creatively, we are not focused on relationships between parts and their wholes, as we are when we think analytically. Rather, we try to free our minds from any boundaries such as rules or conventions. Instead, our tools are imagination and innovation. Suppose you are cooking, and you do not have all the ingredients called for in your recipe. If you start thinking creatively, you will begin to look for things in your refrigerator and pantry that can substitute for the missing ingredients. But in order to do this, you must let go of the recipe’s expected outcome and conceive of a new direction.

har85668_01_c01_001-024.indd 2 4/9/15 11:19 AM

Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

When we think strategically, our focus is to first lay out a master plan of action and then break it down into smaller goals that are organized in such a way as to support our outcomes. For exam- ple, undertaking a job search involves strategic planning. You must identify due dates for applications, request let- ters of recommendations, prepare your résumé and cover letters, and so on. Thinking strategically likely extends to many activities in your life, whether you are going grocery shopping or planning a wedding.

What, then, does it mean to think criti- cally? In this case the word critical has nothing to do with criticizing others in a negative way or being surly or cynical.

Rather, it refers to the habit of carefully evaluating ideas and beliefs, both those we hear from others and those we formulate on our own, and only accepting those that meet certain stan- dards. While critical thinking can be viewed from a number of different perspectives, we will define critical thinking as the activity of careful assessment and self-assessment in the process of forming judgments. This means that when we think critically, we become the vigilant guard- ians of the quality of our thinking.

Simply put, the “critical” in critical thinking refers to a healthy dose of suspicion. This means that critical thinkers do not simply accept what they read or hear from others—even if the information comes from loved ones or is accompanied by plausible-sounding statistics. Instead, critical thinkers check the sources of information. If none are given or the sources are weak or unreliable, they research the information for themselves. Perhaps most importantly, critical thinkers are guided by logical reasoning.

As a critical thinker, always ask yourself what is unclear, not understood, or unknown. This is the first step in critical thinking because you cannot make good judgments about things that you do not understand or know.

The Importance of Critical Thinking Why should you care about critical thinking? What can it offer you? Suppose you must make an important decision—about your future career, the person with whom you might want to spend the rest of your life, your financial investments, or some other critical matter. What considerations might come to mind? Perhaps you would wonder whether you need to think about it at all or whether you should just, as the old saying goes, “follow your heart.” In doing so, you are already clarifying the nature of your decision: purely rational, purely emotional, or a combination of both.

Ferlistockphoto/iStock/Thinkstock

Critical thinking involves carefully assessing information and its sources.

har85668_01_c01_001-024.indd 3 4/9/15 11:19 AM

Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

In following this process you are already starting to think critically. First you started by asking questions. Once you examine the answers, you would then assess whether this information is sufficient, and perhaps proceed to research further information from reli- able sources. Note that in all of these steps, you are making distinctions: You would distinguish between relevant and irrelevant questions, and from the relevant questions, you would distin- guish the clear and precise ones from the others. You also would distinguish the answers that are helpful from those that are not. And finally, you would separate out the good sources for your research, leaving aside the weak and biased ones.

Making distinctions also determines the path that your examination will follow, and herein lies the connection between critical thinking and logic. If you decide you should examine the best reasons that support each of the possible options available, then this choice takes you in the direction of logic. One part of logical reasoning is the weighing of evidence. When making an important decision, you will need to identify which factors you consider favorable and which you consider unfavorable. You can then see which option has the strongest evidence in its favor (see Everyday Logic: Evidence, Beliefs, and Good Thinking for a discussion of the importance of evidence).

Consider the following scenario. You are 1 year away from graduating with a degree in busi- ness. However, you have a nagging feeling that you are not cut out for business. Based on your research, a business major is practical and can lead to many possibilities for well-paid employment. But you have discovered that you do not enjoy the application or the analysis of quantitative methods—something that seems to be central to most jobs in business. What should you do?

Many would seek advice from trusted people in their lives—people who know them well and thus theoretically might suggest the best option for them. But even those closest to us can offer conflicting advice. A practical parent may point out that it would be wasteful and possibly risky to switch to another major with only 1 more year to go. A reflective friend may point out that the years spent studying business could be considered simply part of a journey of self-discovery, an investment of time that warded off years of unhappiness after gradua- tion. In these types of situations, critical thinking and logical reasoning can help you sort out competing considerations and avoid making a haphazard decision.

We all find ourselves at a crossroads at various times in our lives, and whatever path we choose will determine the direction our lives will take. Some rely on their emotions to help them make their decisions. Granted, it is difficult to deny the power of emotions. We recall more vividly those moments or things in our lives that have had the strongest emotional

shironosov/iStock/Thinkstock

Can you recall a time when you acted or made a decision while you were experiencing strong emotions? Relying on our emotions to make decisions undermines our ability to develop confidence in our rational judgments. Moreover, emotional decisions cannot typically be justified and often lead to regret.

har85668_01_c01_001-024.indd 4 4/9/15 11:19 AM

Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

impact: a favorite toy, a first love, a painful loss. Many interpret gut feelings as revelations of what they need to do. It is thus easy to assume that emotions can lead us to truth. Indeed, emotions can reveal phenomena that may be otherwise inaccessible. Empathy, for example, permits us to share or recognize the emotions that others are experiencing (Stein, 1989).

The problem is that, on their own, emotions are not reliable sources of information. Emotions can lead you only toward what feels right or what feels wrong—but cannot guarantee that what feels right or wrong is indeed the right or wrong thing to do. For example, acting self- ishly, stealing, and lying are all actions that can bring about good feelings because they satisfy our self-serving interests. By contrast, asking for forgiveness or forgiving someone can feel wrong because these actions can unleash feelings of embarrassment, humiliation, and vulner- ability. Sometimes emotions can work against our best interests. For example, we are often fooled by false displays of goodwill and even affection, and we often fall for the emotional appeal of a politician’s rhetoric.

The best alternative is the route marked by logical reasoning, the principal tool for developing critical thinking. The purpose of this book is to help you learn this valuable tool. You may be wondering, “What’s in it for me?” For starters, you are bound to gain the peace of mind that comes from knowing that your decisions are not based solely on a whim or a feeling but have the support of the firmer ground of reason. Despite the compelling nature of your own emo- tional barometer, you may always wonder whether you made the right choice, and you may not find out until it is too late. Moreover, the emotional route for decision making will not help you develop confidence in your own judgments in the face of uncertainty.

In contrast, armed with the skill of logical reasoning, you can lead a life that you choose and not a life that just happens to you. This power alone can make the difference between a happy and an unhappy life. Mastering critical thinking results in practical gains—such as the ability to defend your views without feeling intimidated or inadequate and to protect yourself from manipulation or deception. This is what’s in it for you, and this is only the beginning.

Everyday Logic: Evidence, Beliefs, and Good Thinking

It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone to believe anything on insufficient evidence. —W. K. Clifford (1879, p. 186)

British philosopher and mathematician W. K. Clifford’s claim—that it is unethical to believe anything if you do not have sufficient evidence for it—elicited a pronounced response from the philosophical community. Many argued that Clifford’s claim was too strong and that it is acceptable to believe things for which we lack the requisite evidence. Whether or not one absolutely agrees with Clifford, he raises a good point. Every day, millions of people make deci- sions based on insufficient evidence. They claim that things are true or false without putting in the time, effort, and research necessary to make those claims with justification.

You have probably witnessed an argument in which people continue to make the same claims until they either begin to become upset or merely continue to restate their positions without adding anything new to the discussion. These situations often devolve and end with state- ments such as, “Well, I guess we will just agree to disagree” or “You are entitled to your opin- ion, and I am entitled to mine, and we will just have to leave it at that.” However, upon further reflection we have to ask ourselves, “Are people really entitled to have any opinion they want?”

(continued)

har85668_01_c01_001-024.indd 5 4/9/15 11:19 AM

Section 1.1 What Is Critical Thinking?

From the perspective of critical thinking, the answer is no. Although people are legally entitled to their beliefs and opinions, it would be intellectually irresponsible of them to feel entitled to an opinion that is unsupported by logical reasoning and evidence; people making this claim are conflating freedom of speech with freedom of opinion. A simple example will illustrate this point. Suppose someone believes that the moon is composed of green cheese. Although he is legally entitled to his belief that the moon is made of green cheese, he is not rationally entitled to that belief, since there are many reasons to believe and much evidence to show that the moon is not composed of green cheese.

Good thinkers constantly question their beliefs and examine multiple sources of evidence to ensure their beliefs are true. Of course, people often hold beliefs that seem warranted but are later found not to be true, such as that the earth is flat, that it is acceptable to paint baby cribs with lead paint, and so on. However, a good thinker is one who is willing to change his or her views when those views are proved to be false. There are certain criteria that must be met for us to claim that someone is entitled to a specific opinion or position on an issue.

There are other examples where the distinction is not so clear. For instance, some people believe that women should be subservient to men. They hold this belief for many reasons, but the pre- dominant one is because specific religions claim this is the case. Does the fact that a religious text claims that women should serve men provide sufficient evidence for one to believe this claim? Many people believe it does not. However, many who interpret their religious texts in this man- ner would claim that these texts do provide sufficient evidence for such claims.

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what is the tension in the rope if the box is at rest?

A horizontal rope is tied to a 45.0kg box on frictionless ice. What is the tension in the rope if:

A) The box is at rest?
B) The box moves at a steady vx = 4.40m/s ?
C) The box vx = 4.40m/s and ax = 4.60m/s2 ?

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a. zero, acceleration is zero
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c. tension=45*4.6

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strategic plan part ii: swott analysis

Running head: STRATEGIC PLAN PART I: PROPOSAL OF NEW DIVISION 1

STRATEGIC PLAN PART I: PROPOSAL OF NEW DIVISION 7

Strategic Plan Part I: Proposal of New Division

Deidra Daniel

University of Phoenix

June 18, 2018

Strategic Plan Part I: Proposal of New Division

Companies form multiple new divisions in order to market different products and services. Whereas some business organizations and or corporations create new divisions due to geographic location, types of products and services they are dealing with, and market demographics, majority create autonomous business divisions with an aim to have a competitive advantage over their rivals. As Keefer notes, adding a separate division in an existing company allows an enterprise to grow without significantly having to transform its existing corporate structure (2018). Sweet Beverages Limited is a soft drink company whose contribution to environmental conservation in the past has not been substantial. As a result, the company has experienced decline in the beverage industry especially with the entry of competitors who are keen on maintaining a clean environment. In this respect, SB needs to form a new division in order to reshape its approach to package its beverage products. The goal of the new division is to help the company to collect and recycle 100 percent of all of its packaging by 2025. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new division for the SB Ltd and explain the significance of the division’s environmental-oriented vision, mission and values while determining the business model for the new section.

The new division at the Sweet Beverages Ltd should be known as the Waste Free Planet and is intended to spearhead an organizational effort to ensure a clean environment, a world free from waste. Most company’s in the soft drink business use plastic containers to package their soft drink products (Hopewell, Dvorak, & Kosior, 2009). This means, the environment is bound to be affected particularly when customers dispose the cans haphazardly after drinking their favorite contents. Evidently, a sizeable number of people care less about their surroundings and will often clutter the environment with waste even when clear disposal measures have been put in place by the local authorities (Ferreira, Cabral, da Cruz, Simoes, & Margues, 2016). Such people are valuable customers for the SB and it is upon the company to come up with a strategy to help them rid their surroundings off waste. Besides, the fact that the environment in most parts of the world is cluttered with used SB-branded plastic packaging cans has enormously affected the company thus decreasing sales over the time. This is because SB is viewed as an environmentally insensitive beverage dealer.

As mentioned above, the mission of the Waste Free Planet section, thus, should be to drive an effort to ensure a clean environment and a waste-free world in general. The service for the WFP subdivision of the wider SB Company is waste recycling. Specifically, the department should encourage its customers to drop used cans in SB-branded waste collection bins placed in strategic points in various urban centers across the world. The division will, then, collect and ferry the plastic cans to the company’s manufacturing sites for recycling and packaging. The recycled packaging service will be one of its kind in the SB business. It is worth of note that such should begin with the understanding that beverage as well as food containers are an essential part of people’s contemporary living (Aamio & Hamalaien, 2008). Nevertheless, something ought to be done so that packaging waste can be reduced on a global scale (Business Wire, 2018). One of the SB’s most worthy competitors, the Coca-Cola, has already started a similar program to reduce waste (Business Wire, 2018). In this respect, SB should also recognize that the world has packaging challenges and every firm has a responsibility to help in finding innovative solutions for the problems such as the environmental one. WFP is therefore an innovative customer-focused division that will help the SB to play such a role efficiently.

As mentioned earlier, companies form new divisions in order to have competitive advantage. For any company desiring to get a competitive edge in the market, it must ensure that it has satisfactorily addressed customer needs. The WFP division ought to aim at the same thing. Basically, cans and or bottles, whether plastic or glass, should not harm the planet. Beverage consumers around the world care more about the planet and that is one of the needs that business companies ought to acknowledge and meet (Ferreira et al, 2016). In this regard, the WFT section intends to demonstrate to the consumers that Sweet Beverages also cares for the planet, specifically their (customers) environment. The division will achieve this goal by demonstrating to the consumers that a litter-free planet is possible in line with their expectations (Business Wire, 2018). Another customer need that matches with the WFP’s core objective is related to health and wellbeing. Many people expect to buy and consume beverages and food in a serene environment. This is in recognition that contaminated settings pose health risks to individuals particularly when they take their drinks or food in them. By recycling packaging containers, the WFP division will have provided a serene environment for its consumers to buy and drink, freely, the SB’s products anywhere without the fear of health risks.

Encouraging consumers on the need to recycle packaging will not only meet consumer needs but also help the company to achieve competitive advantage (Hopewell et al, 2009). As usual, not many companies have invested in recycled packaging. Bearing in mind many soft drink enterprises have not embraced such a sustainable method of packaging their products, the SB will have an added advantage in the market. Foremost, it is important to note that recycled packaging is cheaper than making new packaging containers (Hopewell et al, 2009). This means, the company will maximize on profits unlike its competitors who will still be manufacturing new packaging containers for their products. Cheaper recycled packaging will translate in reduced prices on the Sweet Beverages products. In consequence, this will attract more customers towards the company due to the discounted prices. As the demand for affordable and quality beverages packaged in better built recycled cans soars, the SB Company will make more sales and rake in profits than majority of its competitors in the market.

The division’s overall vision is to invest in packaging as well as in the planet. By investing in recycled packaging, the company will aim to achieve its packaging goal which is to collect and recycle 100 percent of its recyclable containers by 2025. Evidently, the company will develop better and attractive bottles, either by recycling or through plant-based resin (Hopewell et al, 2009). In the end, the SB Company will, by 2025, set a new world standard for beverage packaging since most of its packaging containers are recyclable. Meanwhile, the SB’s effort to invest in the planet will guarantee a safe and liter-free planet. Specifically, the soft drink maker should invest both resources and skills towards the 100 percent collection and recycling target. Specifically, money and expertise in marketing will be needed to aid consumers in understanding what is to be recycled, how and where to do it (Business Wire, 2018). The WFP section must support collection of cans for recycling throughout the industry. This is to say, even packaging for the SB’s competitors should be collected and recycled.

The Sweet Beverages’ Waste Free Planet division will be a major step for the company’s overall efforts in environmental sustainability. Actually, this initiative aligns not only with the SB’s business mission but also its sustainability concerns. The company aims to serve its customers in an exceptional way, meeting their beverage-drinking needs always and anywhere throughout the world. Ecologically, the SB purposes to create a clean environmental that ensures all people, both loyal and potential customers, lead healthy lives, their localities notwithstanding. Similarly, the WFP business objective is to serve SB’s customers and meet their daily soft drink needs in a sustainable way. Already, the company has achieved most of its sustainable goals and objectives. For instance, the SB has accomplished and long surpassed its water replenishment objectives ahead of time. Recycled packaging will add on to the company’s wider strategy to expand by playing a significant role in ensuring the planet is clean.

Summing up, the Sweet Beverages Ltd must work with all the relevant stakeholders to ensure the success of the Waste Free Planet’s tasks. Nonetheless, it is the division itself that ought to be at the forefront in ensuring its mission as well as its vision and values are in the context of culture, social corporate responsibility and ethics within the communities where the company conducts its business operations. Obviously, the division must work with the local communities and involve them fully in every bit of the program. That way the WFP department will be in a position to learn about communities’ cultures and practices and align its responsibilities with them. Besides, the new section must work closely with partners, customers and other stakeholders in order to address and promote CSR and uphold ethical principles in its business obligations.

References

Aamio, T., & Hamalainen, A. (2008). Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry. Resources Conservation and Recycling, 52(4), 612-621.

Business Wire. (2018). The Coca-Cola company announces new global vision to help create a world without waste. Retrieved fromhttps://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180119005104/en/Coca-Cola-Company- Announces-New-Global-Vision-Create

Ferreira, S., Cabral, M., da Cruz, N. F., Simoes, P., & Marques, R. C. (2016). The costs and benefits of packaging waste management systems in Europe: The perspective of local a thorities. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 60(5), 336-7.

Hopewell, J., Dvorak, R., & Kosior, E. (2009). Plastic recycling: Challenges and opportunities. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 364(1526), 2115-2126.

Keefer, A. (2018). Adding a division to a business. Retrieved from smallbusi- ness.chron.com/adding-division-business-36250.html

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when constructing inscribed polygons and parallel lines, how are the steps similar?

When constructing inscribed polygons and parallel lines, how are the steps different?

A. A protractor is used to take measurements
B. Four right angles are created.
C. A compass is used to copy an angle.
D. There are no similarities.

I think it’s C? What do you think?

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find an expression for t1, the tension in cable 1, that does not depend on t2.

A chandelier with mass m is attached to the ceiling of a large concert hall by two cables. Because the ceiling is covered with intricate architectural decorations (not indicated in the figure, which uses a humbler depiction), the workers who hung the chandelier couldn’t attach the cables to the ceiling directly above the chandelier. Instead, they attached the cables to the ceiling near the walls. Cable 1 has tension T1 and makes an angle of θ1 with the ceiling. Cable 2 has tension T2 and makes an angle of θ2 with the ceiling.

Find an expression for T1, the tension in cable 1, that does not depend on T2.
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables m, θ1, and θ2, as well as the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity g. You must use parentheses around θ1 and θ2, when they are used as arguments to any trigonometric functions in your answer.

I understand the formula to plug all of the information into but I am having trouble canceling out T2 and Ive been working on this problem for two days now any help appreciated!

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what negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west

  1. What negative impact did gold and silver mining have on the west?
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    Social Studies
  2. What negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west? I think it would be Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing. Is this right?

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American History
what negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west A) Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long-term residents B) Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing C) Mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by yogirlsman on January 24, 2018
History
What negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the West? A. Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long-term residents. B. Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing. C. Mining camps were sources of many contagious

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social studies
what negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the west? A. Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long-term residents B. ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing. C. mining camps were sources of many contagious

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Social Studies
What negative impact did gold and silver mining have in the south? a)Tent cities near the mines fostered criminals as long term residents b)Ghost towns were left behind after the mines stopped producing c)Mining camps were sources of many contagious

asked by Anonymous on January 19, 2018

Math
A safety deposit box contains three ancient Roman coins: #1 both sides are silver #2 both sides are gold #3 one side is silver, the other gold You are blindfolded, then you pick a coin, then toss it so that it lands on the floor. At this point, the sample

asked by William Marand on March 28, 2019
chemistry
silver has density of 10.5 g/cm3 and gold has a density of 193.g/cm3 which liquid is denser silver and gold are liquids? That’s news to me. You’re given the ratios for density, which ratio is greater 10.5gm/cm^3 or 193gm/cm^3? It appears gold is over 18

asked by delonte on September 10, 2006
Chemistry 101
A crown is determine to weigh 2.65 kg. When this crown is submerged in a full basin of water, the overflow is found to be 145 mL. Is the crown pure gold or a gold-silver alloy? The density of silver is 10.5 g/mL and gold that of gold is 19.3 g/mL. Show

asked by Lilly on January 20, 2016
Chemistry 101
A crown is determine to weigh 2.65 kg. When this crown is submerged in a full basin of water, the overflow is found to be 145 mL. Is the crown pure gold or a gold-silver alloy? The density of silver is 10.5 g/mL and gold that of gold is 19.3 g/mL

asked by Lilly on January 18, 2016
math
Use the information below to write and simplify an expression to find the total weight of the medals won by the top medal-winning nations in the 2012 London Olympic Games. The three types of medals have different weights. U.S.A. Gold=46 Silver=29 Bronze=29

asked by Sam on February 24, 2015
math
An arcade uses 3 different colored tokens for their game machines. For $20 you can purchase any of the following mixtures of tokens: 14 gold, 20 silver, and 24 bronze; OR, 20 gold, 15 silver, and 19 bronze; OR, 30 gold, 5 silver, and 13 bronze. What is the

asked by laurie on October 28, 2011
Chemistry 101
If gold sells today for 1625 per ounce, and a large mining truck hauls 400 tons of gold ore, what is the value of the gold in each truck if each ton of gold ore contains 1.0 ounces of gold? Use dimensional analysis.

asked by Lilly on February 25, 2016
Chemistry 101
If gold sells today for 1625 per ounce, and a large mining truck hauls 400 tons of gold ore, what is the value of the gold in each truck if each ton of gold ore contains 1.0 ounces of gold? Use dimensional analysis.

asked by Lilly on February 25, 2016
social studies
why does gold sink to the bottom of the pan? other than prospectors who else made money from the gold rush? why did some people in boomtowns become wealthy without mining for gold?

asked by Celest on April 17, 2012
chemistry
Archimedes used density along with mass and volume of alloys (mixtures) of gold and silver to determine the percent of gold (and also silver) in these alloys by simple, non-destructive measurements. Prove that the mass of gold in a given mass of silver

asked by mitchell on September 26, 2011

finance (risk premium)
The risk premium is likely to be highest for A. U.S. government bonds B. corporate bonds C. gold mining expedition D. either B or C I like C the gold mining expedition I that correct??

asked by Jason on July 25, 2008
History
16.)What was an effect of the California Gold Rush in 1849? A.)Many people discovered gold, became rich, and established multiple mining towns in California.*** B.)The president authorized the forced removal of the Sioux tribes in California where gold was

asked by #FreeGucci on February 24, 2016
Math Concentration
Joe has a ring weighing 10 grams made of an alloy of 13% silver and the rest gold. He decides to melt down the rings and add enough silver to reduce the gold content to 69%. How many grams of silver should he add? My set up is: 10 (.13 + .87) = 10 (.13 + X

asked by missy on June 26, 2011
algebra
Joe has a ring weighing 15 grams made of an alloy of 20 silver and the rest gold. He decides to melt down the rings and add enough silver to reduce the gold content to 67 . How many grams of silver should he add?

asked by Amy Love on September 27, 2011
Physics(class) /Math (problem)
Joe has a ring weighing 16 grams made of an alloy of 20% silver and the rest gold. He decides to melt down the rings and add enough silver to reduce the gold content to 69% . How many grams of silver should he add?

asked by Toulouse on October 4, 2012
chemistry
Follow the steps provided in the simulation to add water to the graduated cylinder, select one of the three samples (copper, silver, or gold), set its mass to the values given in the statements below, find its volume, and calculate its density. To save

asked by fatimah on September 21, 2011
math
a bag has 5 silver 3 gold and 2 brass buttons . what is the probability of choosing a silver then a gold button with replacement

asked by barbie on June 15, 2012
social studies
Andrew Jackson’s specie circular of 1836 stipulated that after August 15 only _ would be accepted in payment for public lands. A. gold B. gold and silver C. special banknotes D. silver

asked by Anonymous on April 3, 2015
Globalization
Various project are handled by internal financial institution on a year basis. It is your task to give one gold one sliver and one bronze medal to each chose project. Name and detailed description of the project. type of medal (gold,sliver or bronze).

asked by Lynda on June 29, 2018
Social Studies

  1. Which of the following are true about railroad expansion in the late 19th century? Choose all that apply. It led to new managerial forms and techniques It accelerated the growth of new territories It was financed by the government It grew to

asked by 🙁 on January 28, 2019

Chemistry
Consider a piece of gold jewelry that weighs 9.81 g and has a volume of 0.670 cm3. The jewelry contains only gold and silver, which have densities of 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3, respectively. Assuming that the total volume of the jewelry is the sum of the

asked by Anonymous on August 18, 2013
science
Consider a piece of gold jewelry that weighs 9.35 g and has a volume of 0.690 cm3 . The jewelry contains only gold and silver, which have densities of 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3, respectively. If the total volume of the jewelry is the sum of the volumes of

asked by Mikel on July 15, 2017
Science
What time of reactions is Silver + gold(III)> silver nitrate + gold

asked by Aj on April 20, 2011
Social Studies
Which of the following was an effect of the discovery of gold and silver on western devolpment? It causes a sharp decrease in the population of eastern cities There was no longer a need for the railroad *The value of gold and silver decreased It

asked by Moesha on February 14, 2017
Geography
Due to the violent & complex origins of the Andies, many rich & precious metals and minerals were found in the Andies. The inital economic wealth of many Adean coutries came from mining gold, silver, tin, copper, and iron. How can this cause conflict with

asked by Hannah on September 10, 2010
History
Which accurately describes Bartolomeu Dias’s impact on future European explorers? europeans learned about the Inca empire of Peru and the city of Machu Picchu European realized they could establish their own trade route to India by sea travel europeans

asked by malia on October 19, 2017
cinquain poem
For social studies we had to make our own 4 topic of cinquain poems. I asked some people and not many knew this type of poem, but one person said it all seem good except for the last lines. Do you think I did the format corret? Thanks for your help

asked by liz on October 8, 2013
Pre-Calc
Gold weighs 19.3 grams per cubic centimeter (cc), and silver weighs 10.5 grams per cc. A. Write a formula for the weight of one cc of a mizture of silver and gold in terms of the volume of gold in the cc. B. If one cc of mizture weighs 12.7 grams, what is

asked by Tritanianna on November 11, 2009
probability self study
each of three identical jewelry boxes has two drawers. in each drawer of the first box there is a gold watch. in each drawer of the second box there is a silver watch. in one drawer of the third box there is a gold watch while in the other there is a

asked by Woody on May 19, 2015
Physics
Archimedes purportedly used his principle to verify that the king’s crown was pure gold, by weighing the crown while it was submerged in water. Suppose the crown’s actual weight was 14.0 N. The densities of gold, silver, and water are 19.3 g/cm^3, 10.5

asked by Victor on December 3, 2012

U.S.History
please check Most pioneers who settled west of the Appalachins were a. families looking for good land b. miners looking for gold and silver c. missionaries seeking converts d. bankers from New York and Boston A

asked by y912f on February 10, 2009
algebra
A chemist has x grams of an alloy that is 20% silver and 10% gold, and y grams of an alloy that is 25% silver and 30% gold. Express the number of grams of gold in the two allows in terms of x and y.

asked by jadine on January 5, 2015
Social Studies
What did West Africans trade to North Africans in exchange for salt? A camels (my answer) B gold C silver D masks Am I correct?

asked by LinkHasTheTriforce on June 15, 2016
chemestry
a coin is composed of gold and silver. the 5.00g coin is dissolved in nitric acid and the solution treated with NaCl to precipitate out 2.35g of AgCl. Gold chlorides do not precipitate under the same conditions. What is the composition of silver (by mass)

asked by Help please! on September 29, 2011
social studies
How is silver harvested in Australia? Silver is not “harvested.” It’s “mined.” http://www.google.com/search?q=australia+mining+silver&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7SUNA

asked by Emma on May 31, 2007
pre calc
A jeweler wants to make a 1 ounce ring composed of gold and silver, using $200 worth of metal. If gold costs $6000 per ounce and silver is $50 per ounce, how much of eat metal should she use?

asked by Jody on September 15, 2014
Algebra 1
In 2000, the internatonal price of gold was $270 per ounce, and the price of silver was $5 per ounce. How much silver could be mixed with 9 oz of gold to obtain a mixture that costs $164 per ounce?

asked by Kris on October 16, 2011
English
Which accurately describes the experience of gold seeker traveling to the Klondike? a. most gold seekers travel the whole distance by water b. about half of the gold seekers complete the journey to the Klondike*** c. all gold seeker were aided by the

asked by Kaai97 on October 28, 2015
Finance
Using Monte Carlo simulation, calculate the price of a 1-year European option to give up 100 ounces of silver in exchange for 1 ounce of gold. The current prices of gold and silver are $380 and $4, respectively; the risk-free interest rate is 10% per

asked by Justin on April 25, 2011
U.S.History
not so sure about this Most African American Exodusters migrated west to a. work as sharecroppers on bonanza farms b. escape racial violence in the South c. find relatives who had fled during the Civil War d. prospect for gold and silver

asked by y912f on February 19, 2009

permutations in math
suppose 15 countries compete in an olympic event. gold, and silver,and bronze medals are awarded. how many different arrangements of winners are there if no country wins more than one medal in this event? show the work. thanks. 15 countries can get the

asked by dillon on April 9, 2007
Chemistry
The coinage metals — copper, silver, and gold — crystallize in a cubic closest packed structure. Use the density of gold (19.3 g/cm3) and its molar mass (197 g/mol) to calculate an approximate atomic radius for gold. Work So Far:

asked by Caroline on February 3, 2015
chemistry
a gold nugget and a silver nugget have a combined mass of 14.9g. The two nuggets are heated to 62C and dropped into 15.0mL of H2O at 23.5C. When thermal equilibrium is reached, the temperature of the H2O is 25.0C. Calculate the mass of each nugget. Denisty

asked by Jule on November 19, 2015
finance (risk premium)
The risk premium is likely to be highest for? A. U.S. government bonds B. corporate bonds C. gold mining expedition D. either B or C I like C. I think th risk premium the rate added to the risk free rate would be highest for a gold mining expedition.

asked by Jason on July 26, 2008
English

  1. Coins were made from gold and silver. 2. Coins were made with gold and silver. 3. Coins were made of gold and silver. =============== Which expressions are correct? Are they all correct? Which ones are commonly used?

asked by rfvv on June 3, 2015
physics
gold and silver have densities of 19.3 and 10.5 grams per cubic centimer, respectively. If you have eual volumes of each, which one will have the larger mass? I am thinking the gold. how do i prove it? Thank you

asked by Loui on April 24, 2011
U.S. History
How did the mining industry and the growth of ranching and farming contribute to the development of the West? A: The mining industry lured thousands of people into areas previously ignored as wilderness. The growth of ranching and farming also brought

asked by Victoria on October 7, 2015
micro economics
1) Assume that the gold-mining industry is competitive. a) Illustrate a long-run equilibrium using diagrams for the gold market and for the a representative gold mine. b) Suppose that an increase in jewellery demand induces a a surge for in the demand for

asked by Silvia on April 5, 2012
algebra
a jeweler purchased 5 oz of a gold alloy and 20 oz of a silver alloy for a total cost of $540. The next day at the same price per ounce, the jeweler purchased 4 oz of th egold alloy and 25 oz of the silver alloy for a total cost of $450. Find the cost per

asked by julie on April 29, 2011
Math
A bag contains 3 gold marbles, 10 silver marbles, and 21 black marbles. Someone offers to play this game: You randomly select on marble from the bag. If it is gold, you win $3. If it is silver, you win $2. If it is black, you lose $1.

asked by Anonymous on April 19, 2016

history
what is a good website to describe a boom town in the west in the 1800s. a website of what they do there and what occurs during a typical day of mining.. including techniques of mining, description of the town, the mines, and the town’s inhabitants… also

asked by justin on September 23, 2013
help with physics
A gold wire and a silver wire have the same dimensions. At what temperature will the silver wire have the same resistance that the gold wire has at 20°C?

asked by lindsey on March 4, 2013
Physics
A gold wire and a silver wire have the same dimensions. At what temperature will the silver wire have the same resistance that the gold wire has at 20°C?

asked by lindsey on February 28, 2013
chemistry
A 9.35 gram of ring with it’s volume of 0.654 cm3 is an alloy of gold and with density of gold and silver respectively 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3 assume there is no change in volume when pure metals are mixed. calculate volume of gold?

asked by Anonymous on November 7, 2016
chemistry
A 9.35 gram of ring with it’s volume of 0.654 cm3 is an alloy of gold and with density of gold and silver respectively 19.3 g/cm3 and 10.5 g/cm3 assume there is no change in volume when pure metals are mixed. The volume of gold is?

asked by sami on November 7, 2016
Chemistry
A piece of metal alloy (a solution of metals) is made of gold and silver. It is 20% by mass silver. An irregularly shaped piece of this alloy contains 0.356 lb of gold. When the alloy is added to a graduated cylinder that contains 31.55 mL of alcohol, the

asked by Mom on October 9, 2011
Math
The amounts by weight of gold, silver and lead in three alloys of these metals are in the ratio 1:5:3 in the first alloy, 2:3:4 in the second and 5:2:2 in the third. How many kg of the first alloy must be used to obtain 10kg of an alloy containing equal

asked by Anne B. on July 27, 2015
Chemistry
Gold is alloyed with other metals to increase its hardness in making jewelry. Consider a piece of gold jewelry that weighs 9.85 g and has a colume of 0.675 cm cubed. The jewelry contains only gold and silver, which have densities of 19.3 g/cm cubed and

asked by william on July 25, 2005
Chemistry
I need help I do not know how to set up this problem. Calculate the energy to heat three cubes gold aluminum and silver from 15 Celsius to 25 degrees Celsius. Density gold:0.129 J/g degrees C Density aluminum: .896 J/g degrees C Density silver: .235 J/g

asked by Amber on September 23, 2015
Math
MEDALS WON BY THE OLYMPIC US IN THE OLYMPIC GAMES. TOTAL=2407 GOLD=974 SILVER=772 BRONZE=661 FRACTION FOR GOLD IS 974 OVER 2407 FRACTION FOR SILVER AND BRONZE PUT TOGETHER IS 1433 OVER 2407 HERE IS THE QUESTON!!! LOOK AT THE FRACTON ABOVE. WHAT IS THEIR

asked by Mackenzie on March 9, 2008

physics
When the temperature of a thin silver [α = 19 × 10-6 (C°)-1] rod is increased, the length of the rod increases by 3.6 × 10-3 cm. Another rod is identical in all respects, except that it is made from gold [α = 14 × 10-6 (C°)-1]. By how much ΔL does

asked by Micah on February 13, 2017
Math
A bag is filled with 200 silver coins and 123 gold coins. What is the theoretical probability of NOT pulling out a silver coin? I keep gettin this wrong .How can i do this ?

asked by Rose on February 28, 2018
Social studies
What resulted in the loss of the continental dollar Foreign countries demanded repayment of their war loans from the government Trade became complicated because states printed their own currencies Congress began to sell sections of land in the northwest

asked by Online girl on September 12, 2016
Social studies
What resulted from the loss in value of continental dollar A) foreign countries demanded repayment of their word loans for the government B) trade became complicated because states printed their own currency C) Congress began to sell their sections of land

asked by jennifer trejos on October 5, 2017
English

  1. They made coins from gold and silver. 2. They made coins of gold and silver. 3. They made coins out of gold and silver. (Which ones are grammatical?)

asked by rfvv on May 11, 2014
Math – Algebra
Von’s arcade uses 3 different colored tokens for its game machines. For 500, you can purchase any of the following combinations of tokens: 8 gold, 18 silver, and 7 bronze tokens; 8 gold, 14 silver, and 13 bronze tokens; or 16 gold, 6 silver, and 9 bronze

asked by Ashley Kate on January 4, 2014
Social Studies
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Anonymous on October 28, 2016
Social Studies
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Anonymous on October 28, 2016
SS
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Check please on November 14, 2016
More SS just a couple more to go…
What natural resource attracted other nations to trade with West and Central Africa beginning around AD 750? A. copper B. silver C. gold** D. salt Which of the following is an example of how people have adapted to the environment of West and Central

asked by Haley on November 6, 2017

Earth Science
Silver has a density of 10.5 g/cm cubed, and gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm cubed. Which would have the greater mass, 5cm cubed of silver or 5 cm cubed of gold?

asked by Bern on January 17, 2014
algebra
If the value of 10 ounces of gold is d dollars and an ounce of gold is equivalent to s ounces of silver, what is the value, in dollars, of 3 ounces of silver.

asked by wing on September 17, 2016
Social Studies
How did mining help the west grow?

asked by Hailey on December 8, 2012
policial science
I have to do an interview so can you guys help me out answering these questions? I need atleast 2 person’s oppionion 1- do you agree with the Bush Administration policy of spreading Democracy you and the world. 2- Do you how Bush agree w. handling the war

asked by DeeDee on January 6, 2007
ELA
Read the social studies article about the gold rush below. Then list the prepositional phrases on the lines. Underline the object of the preposition in each phrase In 1849, gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in California. Thousands of settlers headed

asked by Andrew on January 30, 2012
English

  1. Coins were made from gold and silver. 2. Coins were made of gold and silver. —————— Which one is grammatical?

asked by rfvv on May 9, 2014
Georgia studies
_ is the primary mining area for gold in Georgia. 1. Cartersville 2. Augusta 3. Dahlonega 4. Richmond **** ?

asked by Haruhi on September 26, 2016
Business
What are the aspects of the external environment of a gold mining company in South Africa? What about internal?

asked by Please help on September 17, 2008
IPC
The specific heat of gold is 0.031 calories/gram°C and the specific heat of silver is 0.057 calories/gram°C. If equal amounts of each metal are exposed to equal heating, which will heat up faster? The answers are: 1) The silver will heat up almost twice

asked by Katy on October 13, 2010
Expected Value
A bag contains 2 gold marbles, 7 silver marbles, and 23 black marbles. Someone offers to play this game: You randomly select one marble from the bag. If it is gold, you win $4. If it is silver, you win $2. If it is black, you lose $1. What is your expected

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Expected Value
A bag contains 1 gold marbles, 10 silver marbles, and 29 black marbles. Someone offers to play this game: You randomly select one marble from the bag. If it is gold, you win $4. If it is silver, you win $2. If it is black, you lose $1. What is your

asked by tatiana on September 25, 2016
Chemistry
How many grams silver is added to 13 grams gold to produce 85% gold alloy?

asked by Anonymous on September 25, 2015
Chemistry
How many grams silver is added to 13 grams gold to produce 85% gold alloy?

asked by Anonymous on September 25, 2015
Chemistry
How many grams silver is added to 13 grams gold to produce 85% gold alloy?

asked by Brenna on September 25, 2015
science
what is the karat count of gold in a bracelet that contains 15 grams of gold and 5 grams of silver

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His 103 World Civilization I
Provide a brief summary of the impact of the Mongol conquests. What, in your opinion, were the two most negative and most positive things that came out of the Mongol conquests of the 13th and 14th centuries, and why? Overall, would you call their impact on

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Chem
when a 328 mg sample of gold and chlorine was treated with silver nitrate, Cl was converted to AgCl producing 464 mg of silver chloride. what is the empirical formula? AuCl + Ag(NO3) -> AgCl + Au(NO3)

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chemistry
total mass 9.85 grms and total volume 0.65 cm ^3 . The jewlry contain only gold and silver which has densities 19.3 g/cm^3 amd 10.5 g/cm^3.calculate the % of mass of gold in jewellery

asked by manisha on February 12, 2011
Chemistry
Silver has a density of 10.5 g/cm3 and gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3. Which would have a greater mass, 5 cm3 of silver or 5 cm3 of gold

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US History
Last 4 for the day! 19. Most pioneers who settled west of the Appalachians were a. families looking for good land b. miners looking for gold and silver c. missionaries seeking converts d. bankers from New York and Boston A? 20. What message did Protestant

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Literature
“Slowly, silently, now the moon Walks the night in her silver shoon This way, and that, she peers, and sees Silver fruit upon silver trees; One by one the casements catch Her beams beneath the silvery thatch; Couched in his kennel, like a log, With paws of

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The wealth of East African city-states was based on A. Gold mining. B. Trade. C. Farming D. Control of natural resources. Is it A?

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At a track meet, competitors could win gold, silver or bronze medals. Kennedy High Schools track team won a total of 18 medals. Three of the medals were gold. There were twice as many bronze medals as silver medals. How many bronze medals did the track

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mylmu connect

ELEC-698 SS: Wireless Sensor Networks, EECS, LMU Spring 2016

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LAB ASSIGNMENT 7

Single-Hop Network for Sensing Luminosity Objective:

• To program two wireless sensor nodes that measure luminosity and send the measurements to a sink in a single-hop manner

Required Hardware:

• MIB520 USB Interface Board • 3 IRIS Wireless Sensor Nodes • 2 MD100CB Sensor Boards • 4 AA Batteries • USB Cable • PC

Required Software:

• Linux Ubuntu • Eclipse SDK • TinyOS

Procedure:

1. Set up the development system as instructed in steps 1 through 9 of lab assignment 1. 2. Create a TinyOS project to implement your SensingLuminosity application as instructed in step

10 of lab assignment 1. The name of your project should be SensingLuminosityYourFirstName (e.g., the instructor’s project title would be SensingLuminosityGustavo).

3. Create the source files of your project as indicated in step 11 of lab assignment 1. The names of the module and configuration files should be as follows:

• Module file: “SensingLuminosityC” • Configuration file: “SensingLuminosityAppC” • Header file: “SensingLuminosity” • Makefile

The source code of the previous three files can be found in the last pages of this document. The source code of the module file SensingLuminosityC is not complete. You need to complete it as explained in the next step.

4. The module controls the operation of the application. It starts the radio at boot time, and it starts a periodic timer when the radio has been initialized. A measurement of the luminosity is requested every time the timer fires, and once all the measurements that can fit in one packet have been obtained, the packet is transmitted. The code is not complete in the events Timer.fired() and ReadLuminosity.readDone(error_t error, uint16_t sample). The missing code is supposed to request the luminosity measurements and store the completed measurements respectively. You need to review all the source code in the module and configuration files in order to be able to complete the source code. Tip: You can access the TinyOS source files in the TinyOS libraries to find out how you can request and process a completed measurement. The TinyOS project, which includes the

ELEC-698 SS: Wireless Sensor Networks, EECS, LMU Spring 2016

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libraries, is available at https://github.com/tinyos/tinyos-main. You can use the search tool. For example, you can search for “interface Read” and “DemoSensorC”.

5. To program the wireless sensor nodes, the two ports assigned to the MIB520 board need to be set with read and write attributes as instructed in step 15 of lab assignment 1. Important: You will need to repeat this step anytime you disconnect and connect the MIB520 board back to the PC.

6. Now, install the project on two nodes using the node IDs assigned by the instructor and verify

that they work as expected using the Oscilloscope application as indicated in step 7. Also, you need to make the constant AM_LUMINOSITY different from that one of your classmates. Otherwise, your Oscilloscope will show measurements of not only your project but those of other students who have the same AM_LUMINOSITY value. You should AM_LUMINOSITY equal to one of the node IDs assigned to you in lab assignment 3 plus 0x90. Important: You need to connect the MDA100CB sensor board to the node after you program it and before you turn it on. The sensor board has the photoresistor to measure luminosity.

7. Install the BaseStation application in one of your nodes. 8. Download into your src folder the following two files available on MyLMU Connect:

• Oscilloscope.h • java.zip

Make sure all values in Oscilloscope.h match the corresponding values in SensingLuminosity.h. Pay special attention to AM_OSCILLOSCOPE in Oscilloscope.h. It needs to be equal to AM_LUMINOSITY in SensingLuminosity.h. Uncompress the file java.zip. Uncompressing java.zip generates a folder called java. Using the Ubuntu file manager, go to the uncompressed java folder and right click on the file called run. Select the option Properties. A window will open. Go to the tab called Permissions and make sure that the checkbox called Execute is checked. Close the properties window. Now go back to the terminal window and open a new tab by clicking on File -> Open Tab. Go to the uncompressed java folder. Compile the Oscilloscope application by executing the following two commands:

• make clean • make

To run the Oscilloscope application, you need to run the SerialForwarder first. The SerialForwarder is a server application that is part of TinyOS. You should connect it to the Base Station with the command below. Once connected to the Base Station, client applications can connect to the SerialForwarder. All client applications that connect, will receive a copy of the stream of packets that the BaseStation listens to. In this lab assignment, you will connect only one client. This is the Oscilloscope application. Open a new tab in your terminal window as indicated previously and execute the following command (the Base Station must be connected):

• java net.tinyos.sf.SerialForwarder –comm serial@/dev/ttyUSB1:iris Finally, go back to the tab for the Oscilloscope and execute the following command:

• ./run 9. Verify that the nodes are measuring luminosity with the Oscilloscope. First, you need to set the

vertical scale of the Oscilloscope from 0 to 4000, and then cover the photoresistor with your hand and check whether the measurements drop. The previous upper limit of 4000 may need to be changed depending on the amount of light in the laboratory.

10. Take a snapshot of the Oscilloscope application showing variations on the luminosity of the two sensor nodes. Take a picture with your cellphone showing how you changed the amount of lighthttps://github.com/tinyos/tinyos-main

ELEC-698 SS: Wireless Sensor Networks, EECS, LMU Spring 2016

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on the photo resistor. You need to include these pictures in the section on experimental evaluation of your report.

11. Obtain the signature from the instructor to show that all steps where completed successfully.

______________________________________________________ Instructor’s Signature Date

12. Shut down the system as follows:

• Close all open files in Eclipse • Close all open folders of your project in Eclipse • Close your project in Eclipse • Exit Eclipse: File -> Exit • Exit the terminal window: enter the command exit • Close any other programs such as file manager, Internet browser, etc. • Press the Ubuntu button at the right top of the screen • Select the Shut down option

Report: The lab report needs to include the following sections: title, abstract, introduction (i.e., problem statement and relevance of the problem), system description (i.e., what hardware and software are used, how they connect and interact, and what can be done with the whole system), proposed solution (e.g., flow chart) including source code and its explanation, experimental evaluation, and conclusions. The report needs to be submitted in the IEEE format, available at http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/authors/author_templates.html The title should be “Lab Assignment 7: Single-Hop Network for Sensing Luminosity” The introduction needs to:

• summarize the objective of the assignment in one paragraph • explain in one paragraph why you think it is important to learn how to meet that objective, i.e.,

what do you think you are learning from this assignment? how is it useful? • give an outline of the report in one paragraph; for example, the outline could start with “This

report is organized as follows. In Section II, a description of the hardware and software used is provided. Section III describes the solution that was implemented to install the nesC application …”

The system description needs to describe the architecture of the system including software and hardware. You need to explain the purpose of each hardware and software element and the purpose of the system as a whole. Make sure you include the MDA100CB sensor board in your explanation. The proposed solution needs to explain in your own words the C and nesC code in the header, module, and configuration files. Also, all the steps followed to install and verify the correct operation of the code need to be explained in your own words. These steps correspond to those of the procedure listed in this assignment. Therefore, you need to explain each step in your own words.http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/authors/author_templates.html

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The experimental evaluation needs to explain how you evaluated experimentally that the objective stated in the introduction was actually met. This explanation needs to include all the steps you followed. Finally, you need to report what the results were. You should show proof of the results. In this case, you should include the pictures you took when you ran the Oscilloscope application. The conclusions should be a one-paragraph summary of the whole lab assignment. The abstract should be a one-paragraph summary of the following sections: objective of the assignment, system description, proposed solution, experimental evaluation. Finally, you need to attach to your report the signed lab guide in order to show that you completed the whole procedure in the lab.

ELEC-698 SS: Wireless Sensor Networks, EECS, LMU Spring 2016

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SensingLuminosityC.nc #include “Timer.h” #include “SensingLuminosity.h” module SensingLuminosityC{

uses{ interface Boot; interface Leds; interface Timer<TMilli>; interface Read<uint16_t> as ReadLuminosity; interface SplitControl as RadioControl; interface AMSend; interface Receive; } } implementation{ message_t mymessage; bool busy; mydataformat_t mydata; uint8_t currentsamplenum; bool dontcount; void report_problem() { call Leds.led2Toggle(); } void report_transmission() { call Leds.led0Toggle(); } void report_reception() { call Leds.led1Toggle(); } task void sendpacket() { if (sizeof(mydata) > call AMSend.maxPayloadLength()) { report_problem(); } else { memcpy(call AMSend.getPayload(&mymessage, sizeof(mydata)),

&mydata, sizeof(mydata)); if (call AMSend.send(AM_LUMINOSITY, &mymessage, sizeof(mydata)) == SUCCESS) { busy = TRUE; } } } event void Boot.booted(){ mydata.samplingperiod = DEFAULT_PERIOD; mydata.nodeid = TOS_NODE_ID; if (call RadioControl.start() != SUCCESS){ report_problem(); } } event void RadioControl.startDone(error_t error){ if (error != SUCCESS){ report_problem(); } else { call Timer.startPeriodic(mydata.samplingperiod); currentsamplenum = 0; } } event void RadioControl.stopDone(error_t error){}

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SensingLuminosityC.nc (cont.) event void Timer.fired() { if (currentsamplenum < NUMSAMPLES) { // Request a measurement of the luminosity, and if the request is not granted, // report the problem using the function report_problem(). } else { if (!busy) { post sendpacket(); } currentsamplenum = 0; if (!dontcount) { mydata.count++; } dontcount = FALSE; } } event void ReadLuminosity.readDone(error_t error, uint16_t sample) { // Check whether the measurement was done successfully. If it was not, make the sample // equal to the highest possible number it can take on and report the problem using the // function report_problem(). If it was, store the measurement in the corresponding // location. currentsamplenum++; } event void AMSend.sendDone(message_t * txmessage, error_t error) { if (error != SUCCESS) { report_problem(); } else { report_transmission(); } busy = FALSE; } event message_t * Receive.receive(message_t * rxmessage, void * payload, uint8_t payloadsize) { mydataformat_t * rxpayload = payload; if (rxpayload->nodeid == NODE_ID1 || rxpayload->nodeid == NODE_ID2) { report_reception(); if (rxpayload->version > mydata.version) { mydata.version = rxpayload->version; mydata.samplingperiod = rxpayload->samplingperiod; call Timer.startPeriodic(mydata.samplingperiod); } if (rxpayload->count > mydata.count) { mydata.count = rxpayload->count; dontcount = TRUE; } } return rxmessage; } }

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SensingLuminosityAppC.nc #include “SensingLuminosity.h” configuration SensingLuminosityAppC{ } implementation{ components SensingLuminosityC, MainC, ActiveMessageC, LedsC, new TimerMilliC() as Timer, new DemoSensorC() as PhotoSensor, new AMSenderC(AM_LUMINOSITY), new AMReceiverC(AM_LUMINOSITY); SensingLuminosityC.Boot -> MainC; SensingLuminosityC.RadioControl -> ActiveMessageC; SensingLuminosityC.AMSend -> AMSenderC; SensingLuminosityC.Receive -> AMReceiverC; SensingLuminosityC.Timer -> Timer; SensingLuminosityC.ReadLuminosity -> PhotoSensor; SensingLuminosityC.Leds -> LedsC; }

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SensingLuminosity.h #ifndef SENSING_LUMINOSITY_H #define SENSING_LUMINOSITY_H enum { NUMSAMPLES = 5, DEFAULT_PERIOD = 64, AM_LUMINOSITY = 0x93, NODE_ID1 = 1, NODE_ID2 = 2, BASESTATION_ID = 0 }; typedef nx_struct mydataformat { nx_uint16_t version; nx_uint16_t samplingperiod; nx_uint16_t nodeid; nx_uint16_t count; nx_uint16_t samples[NUMSAMPLES]; } mydataformat_t; #endif /* SENSING_LUMINOSITY_H */

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Makefile COMPONENT=SensingLuminosityAppC SENSORBOARD=mda100 include $(MAKERULES)

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how much work is done on the gas in the process shown in the figure ?

70 J of work are done on the gas in the process shown in the figure. What is V_f in cm^3 ? I have a graph but I can’t post it here. My values are W=70J P=200kPa which is 200000Pa
52,704 results
General Chemistry
The work done when a gas is compressed in a cylinder like that shown in Figure 6.5 is 351 J. During this process, there is a heat transfer of 269 J from the gas to the surroundings. Calculate the energy change for this process. Not sure how to do this

asked by Shayla on June 15, 2010
physics
A sample of ideal gas is expanded to twice its original volume of 1.00 m3 in a quasi-static process for which P = áV2, with á = 2.50 atm/m6, as shown in the figure. How much work is done by the expanding gas? i tried using the eq:

asked by tom on October 15, 2008
Chemistry
A gas is confined to a cylinder under constant atmospheric pressure, as illustrated in the following figure. When the gas undergoes a particular chemical reaction, it absorbs 824J of heat from its surroundings and has 0.62kJ of P−V work done on it by its

asked by Yuki on October 2, 2013
PHYSICS
Identify the following gas compression descriptions as adiabatic, isothermal or isobaric. a. As the gas compresses, the internal energy ÄU, decreases when the temperature decreases; the work done on the gas is greater than the heat removed from the gas:

asked by GRISSELL on March 3, 2012
Physics
An ideal gas in a rigid container (constant volume) has its pressure cut in half slowly. In the process, 265 kJ of heat left the gas. (a) How much work was done during the process? (b) What was the change in internal energy of the gas during this process?

asked by Andrea on October 6, 2010

Physics
A heat engine carries 2.60 mol of an ideal monatomic gas around the cycle shown in the figure. Process 1-2 takes place at constant volume and takes the gas from 300 K to 600 K, process 2-3 is adiabatic and takes the gas from 600 K to 455 K, and process 3-1

asked by Anonymous on April 19, 2015
physics
Please see if I am doing this problem right. A mixture of gasoline vapor and air is placed in an engine cylinder. The piston has an area of 7.4 X 10^-3 m^2 and is displaced inward by 7.2 X 10^-2 M. If 9.5 X 10^5 Pa of pressure is placed on the piston, how

asked by Anonymous on February 4, 2007
help me please physics
A monatomic ideal gas expands from point A to point B along the path shown in the drawing. (a) Determine the work done by the gas. J (b) The temperature of the gas at point A is 198 K. What is its temperature at point B? K (c) How much heat has been added

asked by tom on December 10, 2010
Physics
A heat engine has the three step cycle shown above. Starting from point A, 1 L (liter) of ideal gas expands in the isobaric (constant pressure) process A to B at P = 2 atm. B to C is isovolumetric process at V = 5 L, and C to A is an isothermal (constant

asked by Jason on May 7, 2010
science
A gas is confined to a cylinder under constant atmospheric pressure, as illustrated in the figure below. When 0.46 kJ of heat is added to the gas, it expands and does 186 J of work on the surroundings. What are the values of ÄH and ÄE for this process?

asked by Samantha on December 17, 2012
Physics
Suppose that 4.7 moles of a monatomic ideal gas (atomic mass = 8.5 × 10^-27 kg) are heated from 300K to 500K at a constant volume of 0.47 m^3. It may help you to recall that CVCV = 12.47 J/K/mole and CPCP = 20.79 J/K/mole for a monatomic ideal gas, and

asked by Billy on February 9, 2016
CHM
A 0.0800-kilogram sample of a gas is heated from 25°C to 225°C. During this process, 340 J of work is done by the gas and its internal energy increases by 8450 J. How much heat is transferred to the gas? What is the specific heat of the gas for this

asked by chandra on May 6, 2017
Physics
70 J of work are done on the gas in the process shown in the figure. What is V_f in cm^3 ? I have a graph but I can’t post it here. My values are W=70J P=200kPa which is 200000Pa I used the formula W=P(deltaV) then to get deltaV you do: deltaV= W(P) so i

asked by Ana on December 12, 2009
Physics
8.31 Wh (watthours) heat is transmitted to 1 mole single atomic ideal gas. The gas temperature is 27°C and the pressure is constant during the process (slow process). What is the temperature? What is the change of the internal energy of the gas? What is

asked by Buma on October 23, 2017
Physics P
8.31 Wh (watthours) heat is transmitted to 1 mole single atomic ideal gas. The gas temperature is 27°C and the pressure is constant during the process (slow process). What is the temperature? What is the change of the internal energy of the gas? What is

asked by Buma on October 23, 2017

thermal heat
Consider the following. (a) Find the work done by an ideal gas as it expands from point A to point B along the path shown in the figure. MJ (b) How much work is done by the gas if it compressed from B to A along the same path? MJ

asked by Annette on April 29, 2013
CHEMISTRY
Consider the following cyclic process carried out in two steps on a gas. Step 1: 41. J of heat is added to the gas, and 20. J of expansion work is performed. Step 2: 60. J of heat is removed from the gas as the gas is compressed back to the initial state.

asked by Sarah on April 30, 2012
chem
Consider the following cyclic process carried out in two steps on a gas. Step 1: 48 J of heat is added to the gas, and 20. J of expansion work is performed. Step 2: 70. J of heat is removed from the gas as the gas is compressed back to the initial state.

asked by mel on December 2, 2007
chemistry
A sample of argon of mass 10.4 g occupies 2100 ml at 30 oC . (i) Calculate the work done by the gas when it expands isothermally against a constant external pressure of 31.1kPa until its volume has increased by 483.1ml. (ii) Calculate the work done by the

asked by sand on January 11, 2012
Physics
FIGURE: h t t p : / / g o o . g l / a 7 j C F The figure is a PV diagram for a reversible heat engine in which 1.0 mol of argon, a nearly ideal monatomic gas, is initially at STP (point a). Points b and c are on an isotherm at T = 423 K. Process ab is at

asked by Schnitzel on December 1, 2010
Physics
FIGURE: h t t p : / / g o o . g l / a 7 j C F The figure is a PV diagram for a reversible heat engine in which 1.0 mol of argon, a nearly ideal monatomic gas, is initially at STP (point a). Points b and c are on an isotherm at T = 423 K. Process ab is at

asked by Elgoog on December 1, 2010
physics
Two blocks are connected by a very light string passing over a massless and frictionless pulley (the figure ). Traveling at constant speed, the 20.0- block moves 70.0 to the right and the 12.0- block moves 70.0 downward.During this process, how much work

asked by john on July 1, 2010
physics
Please help. If you need the figure, let know how I can show you and I will do it. A particle moves in the xy plane (see the figure below) from the origin to a point having coordinates x = 7.00 m and y = 4.00 m under the influence of a force given by F =

asked by joy on March 13, 2018
Physics
The temperature of a monatomic ideal gas remains constant during a process in which 4500 J of heat flows out of the gas. How much work (including the proper + or – sign) is done on the gas? J

asked by Pierre on April 19, 2008
chemistry
a gas sample heated in a cylinder uses 650kJ of heat. a piston that compresses this gas does 800kJ of work. What is the change in internal energy, ^E of the gas during this process?

asked by harry on February 12, 2013

physics
A monoatomic ideal gas has Cp= 5R/2 a) four moles of the gas undergoes a process in which the temperature of the gas increases from 300 K to 500 K while the pressure is kept constant at 2.00 x 105 Pa. What is the change in the internal energy of the gas?

asked by Julie on April 24, 2017
Physics difficult… chris help again plz.
A heat engine has the three step cycle shown above. Starting from point A, 1 L (liter) of ideal gas expands in the isobaric (constant pressure) process A to B at P = 2 atm. B to C is isovolumetric process at V = 5 L, and C to A is an isothermal (constant

asked by Jason on May 8, 2010
Physics
A heat engine has the three step cycle shown above. Starting from point A, 1 L (liter) of ideal gas expands in the isobaric (constant pressure) process A to B at P = 2 atm. B to C is isovolumetric process at V = 5 L, and C to A is an isothermal (constant

asked by Jason on May 8, 2010
Physics
A tank with a constant volume of 3.44 m3 contains 14 moles of a monatomic ideal gas. The gas is initially at a temperature of 300 K. An electric heater is used to transfer 52600 J of energy into the gas. It may help you to recall that CVCV = 12.47 J/K/mole

asked by Leul on February 9, 2016
Physcis
Consider the figure below where a cylinder of an ideal gas is closed by an 16 kg movable piston of area = 60 cm2. When the gas is heated from 30 0C to 100 0C the piston rises by 20 cm. The piston is then fastened in place and the gas is cooled back to its

asked by Anonymous on June 14, 2016
Chemistry
What is the pressure (in atmospheres) of the gas inside the container connected to an open-end, mercury-filled manometer as shown in the picture? The atmospheric pressure is 0.95atm. l—-l | (G) l | l – — l Hg l Hg *18cm – – — Hg Hg HgHgHgHg what

asked by leo on October 20, 2007
physics
A mixture of gasoline vapor and air is placed in an engine cylinder. The piston has an area of 7.410^-3 m^2 and is displaced inward by 7.210^-2 m. If 9.5*10^5 Pa of pressure is placed on the piston, how much work is done during this process? Is work

asked by anonymous on February 8, 2007
physics
A gas is taken though a single process in which its volume decreases by .25 m^3 as the temp of the gas rises 2deg C. Which of the following people are more likely to have reached the correct conclusion? a. Bob ids this process as adiabatic b. Jill ids this

asked by Christina on November 12, 2010
Physics
A gas is compressed at a constant pressure of 0.800 atm from 6.00 L to 1.00 L. In the process, 380 J of energy leaves the gas by heat. (a) What is the work done on the gas? (b) What is the change in its internal energy?

asked by Sam on November 26, 2012
Physics
During a certain thermodynamic process a sample of gas expands and cools, reducing its internal energy by 3690 J, while no heat is added or taken away. How much work is done during this process?

asked by Ivan on February 19, 2012

Chemistry
What is the pressure (in atmospheres) of the gas inside the container connected to an open-end, mercury-filled manometer as shown in the picture? The atmospheric pressure is 0.95atm. l—-l | (G) l | l – — l Hg l Hg *18cm – – — Hg Hg HgHgHgHg what

asked by leo on October 21, 2007
physics
A one mole sample of an ideal monatomic gas at 400 K undergoes an isovolumetric process acquring 550 J of energy by heat. Next it undergoes an isobaric process during which is loses the same amount of energy by heat. Find the work done on the gas. Assume

asked by Anonymous on June 16, 2016
physics
An ideal gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston on top of it. The piston has a mass of 8,000 g and an area of 5.00 cm2 and is free to slide up and down, keeping the pressure of the gas constant. (a) How much work is done on the gas as the

asked by Annette on April 29, 2013
physics
An ideal gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston on top of it. The piston has a mass of 8,000 g and an area of 5.00 cm2 and is free to slide up and down, keeping the pressure of the gas constant. (a) How much work is done on the gas as the

asked by Annette on April 29, 2013
physics
An ideal gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston on top of it. The piston has a mass of 8,000 g and an area of 5.00 cm2 and is free to slide up and down, keeping the pressure of the gas constant. (a) How much work is done on the gas as the

asked by Annette on April 29, 2013
chemistry
A gas is confined to a container with a massless piston at the top. (Part C figure) A massless wire is attached to the piston. When an external pressure of 2.00 atm is applied to the wire, the gas compresses from 4.90 to 2.45 L. When the external pressure

asked by Lina on March 25, 2011
physics
Suppose you do 100j of work in compressing a gas, if 80j of heat escapes in the process, what is the change in internal energy of the gas?

asked by Anonymous on December 29, 2009
Chemistry for Engineers
A gas is confined to a container with a massless piston at the top. (Part C figure) A massless wire is attached to the piston. When an external pressure of 2.00 atm is applied to the wire, the gas compresses from 4.90 to 2.45 L. When the external pressure

asked by Lina on March 25, 2011
Physics
A cylinder with a movable piston contains 14 moles of a monatomic ideal gas at a pressure of 2.26 × 105 Pa. The gas is initially at a temperature of 300 K. An electric heater adds 52600 J of energy into the gas while the piston moves in such a way that

asked by Billy on February 9, 2016
physics
when 1240 J of heat are added to one mole of an ideal monatomic gas its temperature increases from 273K to 277K. Find the work done by the gas during the process.

asked by tired on November 12, 2013

physics
when 1240 J of heat are added to one mole of an ideal monatomic gas its temperature increases from 273K to 277K. Find the work done by the gas during the process.

asked by tired on November 12, 2013
Chem
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 6635 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by James on October 6, 2013
Chem
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 6635 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by James on October 6, 2013
chemistry
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 8305 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by anon on October 28, 2016
Physics
An ideal gas was slowly compressed at constant temperature to one-half it’s original volume. In the process, 150 kcal of heat was given off. How much work was done by the gas (in joules)?

asked by Austin on February 19, 2019
chemistry
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 8305 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by sam on October 27, 2016
chemistry
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 8905 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by cassie on June 21, 2012
chemistry
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 6365 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by meg on February 23, 2015
chemistry
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 8305 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by sam on October 27, 2016
Heat and properties of matter
An ideal gas unergoes a cycle of processes as shown in d p-v diagram gases, which statement correctly escribe the situation a. The internal energy of the gas increases over one complete cycle b. Over the entire cycle, work is done by the gas. C. The gas

asked by Mutiyat on April 23, 2015

physics question
How much heat had to be put in during the process to increase the internal energy of the gas by 1.50×10^4 J ? Here is the given information and questions that I have already answered: n=.450 R=8.3145 (Point A) p=210^5 v=.010 (Point B) p=510^5 v=.070

asked by marie on December 9, 2007
Thermodynamics again.
For the following problem… I found the second pressure by solving P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2. The Volumes is const so those cancel and then i am able to find the P2. From there i looked at the 1st law and came up with delt U = Qin which = mCvdelta T but that is

asked by jody on June 16, 2007
Physics
A cylinder contains the helium gas with a volume of 0.1 m3 at a pressure of 220 kPa. The gas is compressed to a volume of 0.02 m3. The process is adiabatic and the specific heat ratio of the gas is 1.66. Determine (a) the pressure in the cylinder after

asked by Dia on December 18, 2011
Chemistry
A sample of carbon monoxide gas whose mass is 6.37 g is heated from 25 oC to 192 oC at a constant pressure of 4.12 bar. Calculate q (in J) for this process. I got an answer of ~1110J Calculate w (in J) for this process. I am unsure how to calculate work

asked by David on January 24, 2012
physics
Air is being compressed in a cylinder with a volume of 0.025 m^3 under a constant pressure of 3.0*10^5 Pa and the volume of the air in the cylinder is reduced to 0.020 m^3. a. By how much is the volume of the air reduced? b. How much work is done in the

asked by anonymous on February 19, 2007
physics
The temperature of 6.80 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 12.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by san on November 11, 2010
thermal physics
The temperature of 7.10 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ÄEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ÄK in

asked by chirayu on April 9, 2009
physics
The temperature of 4.60 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by tony on April 21, 2011
physics
The temperature of 7.10 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ÄEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ÄK in

asked by sweety on April 8, 2009
physics
The temperature of 2.10 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 17.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by Anonymous on April 23, 2012

physics
The temperature of 4.60 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by niki on April 22, 2011
physics
The temperature of 7.10 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ÄEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ÄK in

asked by sweety on April 8, 2009
physics
The temperature of 4.60 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by tony on April 21, 2011
chemistry
calculate the internal energy change for each of the following. a. one hundred(100.)joules of work are required to compress a gas. at the same time the gas releases 23 J of heat. b. a piston is compressed from a volume of 8.30 L to 2.80 L against a

asked by kathy on March 11, 2008
physics
We start with 5.00 moles of an ideal monatomic gas with an initial temperature of 123C. The gas expands and, in the process, absorbs an amount of heat equal to 1300J and does an amount of work equal to 2040J. What is the final temperature of the gas? Use

asked by Annie on October 4, 2009
Physics
The process shown on the PV diagram is A P – V graph with a vertical line with an arrow pointing up.The process shown on the PV diagram is: adiabatic. isothermal. isochoric isobaric.

asked by ayala on February 4, 2014
College Physics
The rms speed of the molecules in 1.7 g of hydrogen gas is 1700 m/s. What is the total translational kinetic energy of the gas molecules? What is the thermal energy of the gas? 500 J of work are done to compress the gas while, in the same process, 1700 J

asked by Helly on April 26, 2010
Physics
A gas is sealed in a container with rigid walls that allow heat to flow through them. A thermal process takes place on the gas. What would be the best model for the type of process?

asked by Peter on June 21, 2012
chemistry
A 7.56-g sample of gas is in a balloon that has a volume of 10.5 L. Under an external pressure of 1.05 atm, the balloon expands to a volume of 15.00 L. Then the gas is heated from 0.00 degree C to 25 C. If the specific heat of the gas is 0.909 J/g*C, what

asked by Devin on July 13, 2013
chemistry
How many liters of CO2 gas are contained in a 3.16 liters of a gas mixture which is 8.1% (v/v) CO2? They never gave us the formula or a process to figure this out in class. Will you please help?

asked by Anon on November 13, 2014

Physics
A sample of helium behaves as an ideal gas as it is heated at constant pressure from 273 K to 353 K. If 25.0 J of work is done by the gas during this process, what is the mass of helium present?

asked by Sean on May 13, 2011
Physics
A gas is taken though a single process in which its volume decreases by .25 m^3 as the temp of the gas rises 2deg C. Which of the following people are more likely to have reached the correct conclusion? a. Bob Identifies this process as adiabatic b. Jill

asked by Joel on November 30, 2010
Chemistry
An 80.0 g sample of a gas was heated from 25 degree C to 225 degree C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 7495 J. What is the specific heat of the gas? J/(g∗C)

asked by Nate on October 22, 2013
Physics
A sample of helium behaves as an ideal gas as it is heated at constant pressure from 273 K to 373 K. If 15.0 J of work is done by the gas during this process, what is the mass of helium present? I am not sure what equations to use for this problem….

asked by Katy on May 4, 2010
Physics
What is the gas pressure inside the box shown in the figure? I have a picture but website wouldn’t allow me to post the link for the picture. So I am trying my best to describe it. it is a u-shape tube and it is holding mercury in it. One side has 16cm of

asked by ana on November 15, 2009
physics
A cylinder that has a 40.0 cm radius and is 50.0 cm deep is filled with air at 20.0°C and 1.00 atm shown in figure (a). A 25.0 kg piston is now lowered into the cylinder, compressing the air trapped inside shown in figure (b). Finally, a 71.0 kg man

asked by loli on February 15, 2011
chemistry
300 milimole of perfect gas occupies 13 lit at 320 k ,calculate the work done in joule ,when the gasexpands A)isothermally against a constant pressure of .20 atm Isothermal and reversible process c)Into vaccum until volume of gas is increased by 3 ltr

asked by Dhruvi on December 8, 2016
stat mech
how to solve this problem 3. Five moles of an ideal monatomic gas with an initial temperature of 127 °C expand and, in the process, absorb 1200 J of heat and do 2100 J of work. What is the final temperature of the gas?

asked by acinad on June 23, 2014
Chemistry
Given that W = -PatmΔV, if a gas expands into a vacuum, the sign of W is ? 1. Positive: work is being done on the gas 2. Negative: work is being done on the gas 3. Positive: work is being done by the gas 4. Negative: work is being done by the gas 5. ZERO:

asked by Melodie on June 21, 2016
Physics
There is gas in a gas container. A valve on the container will be opened and a quarter of the gas quantity will be released to the outer range. Due to this process the temperature of the gas will be decreased by 20%. What is the decrease of the gas

asked by Buma on October 22, 2017

Physics
The two ropes shown in the bird’s-eye view of (Figure 1) are used to drag a crate 3.7 m across the floor. How much work is done by the force fk→? How much work is done by the force T1→? How much work is done by the force T2→?

asked by Tommy on July 22, 2015
statistics
An engineering company believes it has developed a faster way to complete the assembly of an industrial machine. The present process takes an average of 6.5 hours to complete and the times it takes to complete the process are approximately normally

asked by amy on November 29, 2011
Physics
A 1250 kg car traveling at 20 m/s suddenly runs out of gas while approaching the valley shown in the figure below. What will be the car’s speed as it coasts into the gas station on the other side of the valley? (Assume that no energy is loss to friction.)

asked by jack on December 10, 2014
Biology
Hi Im just wondering what are the similarites and differences between gas exchange and cellular respiration ? similarities: Both are involved in energy production. Gas x supplies o2 to the mito which creates usable energy for the body. differences;

asked by Jim_R on July 6, 2009
physics
A pendulum clock that works perfectly on Earth is taken to the Moon. (a)Does it run fast or slow there? (b) if the clock is started at 12:00:00 am, what will it read after one Earth day(24hrs)? Assume that the free-fall acceleration on the Moon is 1.63

asked by steph on March 21, 2007
Chemistry
An oil whose density is 0.775g/mL was used in a open-end manometer to measure the pressure of a gas in a flask, as shown in figure (b). If the height of the oil column is 7.68cm and Pbar = 760.0mmHg. What is the pressure of the gas in the flask in mmHg?

asked by Chris on November 18, 2011
Physics
Two massless springs (S1 and S2) are arranged such that one hangs vertically downward and the other is vertically upward, as shown in figure (a). When a 0.275-kg mass is suspended from S1, it stretches by an amount Δx1 = 0.062 m, as shown in figure (b).

asked by Anonymous on October 23, 2014
Chemistry
Consider an ideal gas encloesd in a 1.00 L container at an internal pressure of 10.0 atm. Calculate the work, w, if the gas expands against a constant external pressure of 1.00 atm to a final volume of 20.0 L. w = __ J now calculate the work done if this

asked by Eric on February 9, 2012
Physics
Two equal-volume compartments of a box are joined by a thin wall as shown in the figure. The left compartment is filled with 0.050 mole of helium gas at 403 K, and the right compartment contains 0.025 mole of helium gas at 213 K. The right compartment also

asked by Lyra on February 3, 2014
Chem 1
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 degrees celsius to 225 degrees celsius. During this process, 346j of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 7785j. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by wen on April 1, 2014

thermo
Consider a cylinder containing air at 1200 kPa and 350 C and then, the air is expanded to 140 kPa with a reversible adiabatic process. Calculate the speci c work (kJ=Kg) done by the gas. Assume calorically perfect gas.

asked by john on March 30, 2010
thermo
Consider a cylinder containing air at 1200 kPa and 350 C and then, the air is expanded to 140 kPa with a reversible adiabatic process. Calculate the speci c work (kJ=Kg) done by the gas. Assume calorically perfect gas

asked by john on March 31, 2010
Chemistry
An open-ended mercury manometer is used to measure the pressure exerted by a trapped gas as shown in the figure. Atmospheric pressure is 750. mmHg. What is the pressure (in mmHg or torr) of the trapped gas if h =23 cm? I got 893.462, but that wasn’t right.

asked by Anonymous on December 5, 2012
Physics
The Spinning Figure Skater. The outstretched hands and arms of a figure skater preparing for a spin can be considered a slender rod pivoting about an axis through its center . When his hands and arms are brought in and wrapped around his body to execute

asked by Karla on March 27, 2007
phys hmwk help
A gas is taken though a single process in which its volume decreases by .25 m^3 as the temp of the gas rises 2deg C. Which of the following people are more likely to have reached the correct conclusion? a. Bob ids this process as adiabatic b. Jill ids this

asked by Jarod on November 14, 2010

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a communication medium that is moderate in both information richness and data capacity is:

1. The task of an organization is reflected in its: (Points : 4)
        human resources
       mission or purpose
        input materials
        structure

2. The beliefs and assumptions about people, work, and the organization best reflects the: (Points : 4)
        formal organization
        overt part of an organization
       informal organization
        social surface

3. The specific setting within which organizational behavior is enacted would be called the: (Points : 4)
        situation
        external environment
       organizational context
        group

4. In an open system the transformation or conversion of inputs to outputs is accomplished with: (Points : 4)
       technology
        task
        borrowed financial resources
        robots

5. If a pregnant woman claimed that a manager’s failed office romance caused him to focus more on her work, thus increasing her work demands, could result in a discrimination claim based on: (Points : 4)
        gender plus
        utilitarian romance
       hierarchical romance
        sexual harassment

6. Attention to diversity has particularly increased in recent years because of: (Points : 4)
        the use of telecommunications
        the opportunity for use of lower cost labor in other countries
       the changing demographics of the working population
        legislation

7. According to Hofstede’s research, the country displaying cultural characteristics most similar to the U.S. is: (Points : 4)
        Japan
        Sweden
        Italy
        Canada

8. In an interview situation, the interviewer’s first impression of the interviewee (or target) is likely to be based upon: (Points : 4)
        nonverbal cues of the target
        verbal communication by the target
        the intentions of the target
       the target’s physical appearance

9. Which of the following organizations has perfected software that decodes a caller’s personality using voice recognition in order to match them with an agent with a similar personality? (Points : 4)
        EVR
       ELoyalty
       EPersonalityRecognition
       EPersonalityCallCenter (EPCC)

10. The perceiver’s pattern of thinking or manner in which they assemble and interpret information about another person is: (Points : 4)
        the strength of situational cues
       cognitive structure
        self-concept
        attitude structuring

11. Counterproductive behavior that violates organizational norms and causes harms to others of the organization is known as: (Points : 4)
        OCB
       WDB
        JDI
        MSQ

12. The three major aspects of the source characteristic affecting persuasion include: (Points : 4)
        expertise, credibility, charisma
        credibility, charisma, attractiveness
        expertise, charisma, attractiveness
       expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness

13. Low-Mach persons value: (Points : 4)
       loyal and personal friendships
        the “get it done anyway” mentality
        manipulation of others
        emotional detachment

14. According to Herzberg, which factors are related to job dissatisfaction? (Points : 4)
        motivation factors
       hygiene factors
        lower level needs
        the absence of motivation factors

15. Adam Smith formulated the “invisible hand” and the free market to explain the motivation for individual behavior. The “invisible hand” refers to: (Points : 4)
        psychological determinants of behavior
        unconscious motives
        internal needs
       unseen forces of a free market system

16. The close linkage of _____ to performance under expectancy theory is crucial for enhancing motivation. (Points : 4)
        knowledge and skill
       rewards
        equity
        satisfaction

17. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model begins with _____ needs and ends with _____ needs. (Points : 4)
        security, social
        achievement, power
       power, affiliation
       physiological, self-actualization

18. As a supervisor, you can enhance the performance of your employees by: (Points : 4)
        setting their goals
        closely controlling their behavior
       allowing employees to participate in goal setting
        giving workers easy goals

19. The approach to stress that is based on the concept of homeostasis is known as: (Points : 4)
       physiological
        psychoanalytical
        social psychological
        psychological-cognitive

20. Which of the following persons is most closely associated with the homeostatic and medical approach to stress? (Points : 4)
        Richard Lazarus
        Harry Levinson
       Walter B. Cannon
        Robert Kahn

21. An informational cue indicating the degree to which a person behaves the same way in other situations is known as: (Points : 4)
        consistency
        consensus
       distinctiveness
        inconsistency

22. Americans generally do not like to communicate with one another within their: (Points : 4)
        social distance
        personal distance
       intimate distance
        public distance

23. Richness in a communication message refers to: (Points : 4)
        the amount of data that can be sent via the type of communication medium
        the amount of feeling that is communicated with the message
        the amount of analyzable elements of a message
       the ability of the medium to convey the meaning

24. A communication medium that is moderate in both information richness and data capacity is: (Points : 4)
        the telephone
       electronic mail
        face-to-face discussion
        formal numeric report

25. The element of the communication model that contains the thoughts and feelings the communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver is the: (Points : 4)
        data
        feedback
       message
        information

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a major advantage of the built-in or automatic stabilizers is that they

Econ 214 Exam 2

1. Which of the following will most likely occur in the US as the result of an unexpected rapid growth— an increase in aggregate demand and output in the short run

2. Within the AD/AS model, if consumers increase their savings and cut back on their spending, the real interest rate will decrease and thereby cushion the reduction in consumption spending

3. In the economy were operating at a point in figure 10-9 resource prices would tend to – increase and move the economy toward point c

4. During the 1990s a financial crisis spread throughout Asia causing those economies to drop into recession—both real output and the price level would have fallen.

5. Which of the following is most likely to accompany an unanticipated increase in short-run aggregate supply.- an increase in real GDP

6. At which point in figure 10-2 is the economy at long-run equilibrium- F

7. If improvements in education and training programs increased the productivity of persons in the labor force—both short-run and long-run aggragte supply

8. The short-run effect of a sudden increase in stock prices will be – an increase in both output prices

9. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the view that the economy has a self-corrective- when the economy is in a recession, falling resource prices and declioning interest rate

10. If the economy is simultaneously in long-run and short-run equilibrium which of the following is true? Aggregate quantity demanded is equal to potential output

11. Within the framework of the Keynesian model, which of the following would most likely occur if the federal government increased its spending— the rate of inflation would rise

12. According to Keynesian view, if an economy was operating at long-run equilibrium, an increase in government expenditures would—be inflationary

13. Keynesian analysis indicates that an unexpected decline in aggregate demand will lead to- an increase in inventories and a reduction in output

14. If policy makers believe that an inflationary boom is about to begin, the Keynesian view indicates that they—decrease government spending and/or raise taces

15. The prevailing budget philosophy prior to Keynes called for a balanced budget. Keynes argued that the government—economic recessions

16. A major advantage of built in or automatic stabilizers is that they- required no congressional action to be effective.

17. Within the framework of the Keynesian model, if spending is abnormally low- equilibrium output will be less than the full-employment rate of output

18. When the unemployment rate is low, the impact of additional spending on real output will be smaller than when the unemployment rate is high

19. Unemployment compensation payments rise during a recession and thereby help stimulate consumption

20. Suppose long-run equilibrium is present and the government budget is in balance. Which of the following—a budget deficit

21. The crowding out effect refers to the tendency of – the additional borrowing accompanying larger budget deficits to increase interest rates

22. Reductions in personal income tax rates that increase supply and work effort, can be expected to also increase consumption spending

23. If a reduction in government borrowing leads to lower real interest rates in the US— the dollar will depreciate in the foreign exchange market.

24. If heavy federal borrowing pushes up real interest rates in the Us, which of the following will most likely result? – an inflow of capital and an appreciation in the foreign exchange value of the dollar

25. Which of the following tends to make the size of a shift in aggregate demand resulting from a tax change smaller than would otherwise be the case—the crowding-out effect

26. If the output of the economy is y1 which of the following would a new classical economy—continuation of the current tax and expenditure policies

27. Keynesian critics would aruge that expansion in government debt during a recession would lead to – higher failure interest payments and tax rates

28. Politicians often instruct households to spend in order to help the economy.. this advice overlooks the fact that—you cannot have strong economy if all or most household are spending just about

29. The new classical model implies that a shift to a more expansionary fiscal policy will – exert little or no impact on the real interest rate, aggregate demand and employment

30. Supply –side economies stresses that marginal tax rates exert important incentive effects that influence real output

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umuc library one search

WRTG 393 students,

This discussion thread is designed to help you become familiar with OneSearch.  OneSearch is a service that is available through UMUC’s Library and Information Services website.  It allows a user to locate scholarly articles, trade journal articles and other resources through a single search engine.

Please watch Library Tutorial #1.  You can access it in Content for Week 2:

Then answer the following questions and complete these tasks:

1. What topic are you considering for your White Paper (WA #4)? 

2. Find one article on this topic by using the strategies mentioned in library tutorial #1.  Then list the source in APA format and write a summary/critique of 150-200 words.

After completing those two tasks, please watch Library Tutorial #2, “Subject Search in UMUC OneSearch.”  You can access it in Content for Week 2.

Then answer the following question and complete these tasks:

3. Now that you’ve perused various articles on a topic using OneSearch, has your topic changed or become more focused in any way?  If so, please describe how it has changed.  If not, please tell us what your topic is again.

4. Find another article on your topic for your white paper, this time using subject terms, as Library Tutorial #2 describes.  List the subject terms you used.

5. List the source in APA format and write your summary/critique of 150-200 words.

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cis-2,3-dibromo-2-hexene

Draw the structure for cis-2,3-dibromo-2-hexene.

0 0 528
asked by ima
Apr 28, 2010
We can’t draw structures on the board; however, this may help.
C-C=C-C-C-C
Start counting from the left. On carbon 2 place a Br atom. On carbon 3 place another Br atom ON THE SAME SIDE (place the Br atoms both on top or both on bottom). That is the cis form. Fill for a valence of 4 on the other carbons with H atoms.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Apr 28, 2010
cis-2,3-dibromo-2-hexene

br
| br
h2 | |
/\ /\ | /h3
h3 / \/ \|/
h2

0 1
posted by elizabeth Reyes
Mar 21, 2012
it does get messed up

oh well.

DO your skeleton 6 legs on the second from right to left your right facing computer put double bond

first and last carbon has h3
left carbons 4,5 have h2 and carbon 2, 3 have br facing each other. IF you put them one up and one down you will create trans.

0 0
posted by elizabeth Reyes
Mar 21, 2012

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write the overall balanced equation for the reaction. sn(s)|sn2+(aq)∥no(g)|no−3(aq),h+(aq)|pt(s)

A balanced equation that represents an overall cell reaction is shown. Choose the cell notation which corresponds to the electrochemical cell that is described by this equation. a) Sn2 (aq) 2Cu (aq) → Sn4 (aq) 2Cu(s) b) Pt(s) l Sn2 (aq), Sn4 (aq)
62,672 results
chemistry
A balanced equation that represents an overall cell reaction is shown. Choose the cell notation which corresponds to the electrochemical cell that is described by this equation. 2H2O(l) → 2H2(g) + O2(g) i don’t get why the answer is this. How can OH-

asked by eng on June 3, 2010
chemistry
A balanced equation that represents an overall cell reaction is shown. Choose the cell notation which corresponds to the electrochemical cell that is described by this equation. a) Sn2+(aq) + 2Cu+(aq) → Sn4+(aq) + 2Cu(s) b) Pt(s) l Sn2+(aq), Sn4+(aq) ll

asked by Bob, NEED YOUR HELP on November 15, 2011
Chemistry Cell notations
Enter the balanced chemical equation including states that describes the electrochemical cell that is represented by the cell notation as shown. Pt(s) l H2O(l) l O2(g) l H+(aq) ll H+(aq), Cr2O72-(aq), Cr3+(aq) l Pt(s)

asked by Confused on December 2, 2010
Chemistry
Provide the balanced reaction, the value of K, and E(cell) at equilibrium for the for the electrochemical cell created from the two half-cell reactions below Cr^(3+) + e ==> Cr^(2+) Fe^(2+) + 2e ==> Fe Well, I got the balanced reaction: 2Cr^(2+) + Fe^(2+)

asked by Nora on March 18, 2015
Chemistry – Cell Notation
Enter the balanced chemical equation including states that describes the electrochemical cell that is represented by the cell notation as shown. Pt(s) | F-(aq) | F2(g) || Cl-(aq), AuCl4-(aq) | Au(s) I’m having trouble balancing this… I get AuCl4- + 2F-

asked by Kay on May 26, 2009

cell notation
Given the balanced net ionic equation Zn(s) + 2H^+(aq) Zn^2+(aq) + H2(g) would the cell notation be: Zn|Zn^2+||2H^+|H2 (i’m not sure if hydrogen gas should be in the cell notation)

asked by Sara on May 20, 2015
chemistry
The reaction described by the equation Zn + Hg2Cl2 2Hg +Zn+2 + 2Cl is run on electrochemical cell. The E^0 of the cell at 25 degrees C is 1.03V. In the same cell, [Cl-]=.10 M and [Zn+2] is unknown, and the measured cell voltage is 1.21V. Compute the value

asked by Dylan on April 12, 2012
chemistry
Write the half reaction and balanced equation for: Cl2(g) + H2(g) -> HCl(aq) so I got: 2e- + Cl2(g) -> 2Cl- H2(g) -> 2H+ + 2e- so Hydrogen is oxidized and Chlorine is reduced so for cell notation I put: Pt(s)|H2(g)|H+(aq)||Cl2(g)|Cl-(aq)|Pt(s) but the

asked by Hugh on May 19, 2013
Chemistry
“A voltaic cell is constructed by immersing a strip of sillver metal in a 1.0 MAgNO3 solution and a strip of cadmium metal in a 1.0M Cd(NO3)2 solution. The circuit is completed by a wire and a salt bridge in the usual way. a. Write the balanced overall

asked by todd on March 10, 2011
Gen Chemistry
What is the balanced chemical equation for the galvanic cell reaction expressed using shorthand notation below? Al(s)|Al3+(aq)||Ni2+(aq)|Ni(s)

asked by Bab aba on April 18, 2010
Chemistry
Consider the following electrochemical cell: Al(s) | Al^3+(aq)(0.155 M) || H^(aq) (0.00233 M), MnO4^-(aq)(0.0377 M), Mn^2+(aq) (0.0168 M) | C (graphite) Write a balanced equation for the redox reaction taking place in this cell. i am having trouble with

asked by Anonymous on April 17, 2017
chemistry
write a balanced net ionic equation for the overall reaction represented by the cell notation below. Pt/ Fe2+, Fe3+ // I-/AgI/Ag

asked by Lana on May 12, 2013
Chemistry
Design an electrochemical cell using Pb(s) and Mn(s) and their solutions to answer the following questions. I just want to see if my answers are correct. I drew the cell already. Thanks 1. Give the line notation for this electrochemical cell. Mn(s) ∣

asked by Amanda on March 13, 2010
chemistry

  1. what would happen to the the cell potential in a voltaic cell if the salt bridge lost contact with one of the solutions? 2. would a reaction occur if solid tin was placed in a solution of copper II nitrate? If so, write the balanced net ionic equation

asked by Anonymous on May 19, 2015
Chemistry
Help please!!! Complete the two reduction half reactions for the cell shown at the right, and show the line notation for the cell by dragging labels to the correct position. (The electrode on the left is the anode, and the one on the right is the cathode.)

asked by shanonn on May 6, 2013

Chemistry DR BOB
Under standard conditions of 1 atm and 298.15K, the half-cell reduction potential E,zero for the anode in a voltaic cell is 0.37V. The half-cell reduction potential E,zero for the cathode of the cell is 0.67V. The number of moles, n, of electrons

asked by Brooke on March 16, 2016
Science
Assume that you have a cell that has a Zn^2+ concentration of 0.0335M and Ag^+ concentration of 0.0012M. The cell temperature is 35.0 degrees Celsius. Find the cell potential and give the cell notation of the cell.

asked by Jenna on September 15, 2018
ap chemistry
A voltaic cell made of a Cr electrode in a solution of 1.0 M in Cr 3+ and a gold electrode in a solution that is 1.0 M in Au 3+ . a) Provide the half cell reactions for each of the electrodes. b) Which is the anode and which is the cathode? How did you

asked by megan on April 17, 2012
Chemistry
A voltaic cell is based on the reduction of Ag^+(aq) to Ag(s) and the oxidation of Sn(s) to SN^2+(aq). Write half-reactions for the cell’s anode and cathode, and write a balanced cell reaction.

asked by Amanda on November 9, 2010
CHEMISTRY
The half-cell, Tl | Tl+(1 mol L-1), is connected to a Pt | H+ | H2(1 atm) half-cell in which the concentration of H+ is unknown. The measured cell voltage is 0.0841 V and the Pt | H2 | H+ half-cell is the cathode. Standard reduction potentials are given on

asked by sabrina: Anyone know how to answer this? on November 28, 2012
CHEMISTRY
The half-cell, Tl | Tl+(1 mol L-1), is connected to a Pt | H+ | H2(1 atm) half-cell in which the concentration of H+ is unknown. The measured cell voltage is 0.0841 V and the Pt | H2 | H+ half-cell is the cathode. Standard reduction potentials are given on

asked by sabrina on November 27, 2012
CHEMISTRY
The half-cell, Tl | Tl+(1 mol L-1), is connected to a Pt | H+ | H2(1 atm) half-cell in which the concentration of H+ is unknown. The measured cell voltage is 0.0841 V and the Pt | H2 | H+ half-cell is the cathode. Standard reduction potentials are given on

asked by sabrina: Can someone please help! on November 28, 2012
analytical chemistry
Shown below is a diagram of an electrochemical cell. Write the shorthand, or schematic, notation for this cell

asked by yara on May 4, 2013
chemistry
A certain voltaic cell has a standard cell voltage of 1.22 V, and 3 electrons are transferred in the overall cell reaction. What is the value of the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for this cell reaction at 298K?

asked by will on March 15, 2011
AP CHEMISTRY
A solution is prepared in which a trace or small amount of Fe2+ is added to a much larger amount of solution in which the [OH-] is 1.0 x 10^-2 M. Some Fe(OH)2 precipitates. The value of Ksp for Fe(OH)2 = 8.0 x10^-10. A. Assuming that the hydroxide is 1.0 x

asked by DAN on April 11, 2012

Functions/Logarithims
Energy is needed to transport a substance from outside a living cell to inside the cell. This energy is measured in kilo calories per gram molecule, and is given by E = 1.4 log (C1) / (C2 where C1 represents the concentration of the substance outside the

asked by Steph on March 8, 2012
chemistry
consider the following electrochemical cell: Pt(s) | Hg2^2+ (0.250M), Hg^2+ (0.800M) || MnO4^-(0.650M), H^+ (1.00M), Mn^2+ (0.375M) | Pt(s) Using the half-reaction method, write a balanced chemical equation for the electrochemical cell.

asked by Help Please!!!! on August 26, 2018
college chemistry
A galvanic cell is constructed with a silver-silver chloride electrode, and a nickel strip immersed in a beaker containing 4.97 x 10-2 M solution of NiCl2. Determine the balanced cell reaction and calculate the potential of the cell. in volts, assume a

asked by jasmin on April 13, 2011
chemistry 2
A voltaic cell is constructed with an Ag/Ag+ half-cell and a Pb/Pb2+ half-cell. Measurement shows that thesilver electrode is positive. -Write balanced half-reactions and the overall spontaneous reaction.

asked by anonymous on April 27, 2012
ChemISTRY (WEBWORK)
A student measures the potential for cells containing A+B+and C+ ions and their metals and records his data in the table below: …………. Overall Reaction …………….Potential (V) Cell#1”””’A(s) A+(aq) B+(aq) B(s)””””””0.90

asked by laila on July 14, 2010
Chemistry
A galvanic cell is constructed with a silver-silver chloride electrode, and a nickel strip immersed in a beaker containing 7.44 x 10-2 M solution of NiCl2. Determine the balanced cell reaction and calculate the potential of the cell. Enter in volts.

asked by Kayla on May 2, 2012
Chemistry
Write the equations describing the electrode reactions and the net cell reaction for this electrochemical cell containing tin and silver: Sn(s)|Sn2 (aq)||Ag (aq)|Ag(s) what is the equation for cathode, anode, and net cell reaction

asked by Katie on February 27, 2012
Chemistry
Write the equations describing the electrode reactions and the net cell reaction for this electrochemical cell containing tin and silver: Sn(s)|Sn2 (aq)||Ag (aq)|Ag(s) what is the equation for cathode, anode, and net cell reaction

asked by Katie on February 27, 2012
AP Biology
A biologist measured the amount of DNA in several single diploid cells taken from a culture. He knew that these cells could divide mitotically, but not meiotically. His data is shown below: Cell Number and DNA content in micrograms: Cell 1 (11.1

asked by Anonymous on March 12, 2011
AP CHEMISTRY
A solution is prepared in which a trace or small amount of Fe2+ is added to a much larger amount of solution in which the [OH-] is 1.0 x 10^-2 M. Some Fe(OH)2 precipitates. The value of Ksp for Fe(OH)2 = 8.0 x10^-10. (A) Assuming that the hydroxide is 1.0

asked by DAN on April 11, 2012

Chemistry
Consider the following unbalanced equation. H1+(aq) + Fe(s) H2(g) + Fe2+(aq) What is the balanced oxidation half-reaction? What is the balanced reduction half-reaction? What is the balanced overall cell reaction?

asked by Mel on June 8, 2012
chemisry
Two half cells in a galvanic cell consist of one iron electroide in a solution of iron sulphate and a silver electrode in a silver nitrate solution a) Assume that the cell is operating as a galvanic cell. State the oxidation half reaction, the reduction

asked by Kelsey on August 25, 2010
Chemistry
1) Assume that the reference half-cell is changed to a standard mercury-mercury (II) half-cell. a) What would be the reduction potential of a standard chlorine half-cell. c) What would be the cell potential of a standard chlorine-nickel cell. 2) For each

asked by Anonymous on March 5, 2008
Chemistry
1) Assume that the reference half-cell is changed to a standard mercury-mercury (II) half-cell. a) What would be the reduction potential of a standard chlorine half-cell. c) What would be the cell potential of a standard chlorine-nickel cell. 2) For each

asked by Alex on March 5, 2008
Bio
A biologist measured the amount of DNA in several single diploid cells taken from a culture. He knew that these cells could divide mitotically, but not meiotically. His data is shown below: Cell Number and DNA content in micrograms: Cell 1 (11.1

asked by Katrina on March 6, 2014
AP BIO

  1. A biologist measured the amount of DNA in several single diploid cells taken from a culture. He knew that these cells could divide mitotically, but not meiotically. His data is shown below: Cell Number and DNA content in micrograms: Cell 1 (11.1

asked by Tom on March 14, 2010
AP Chemistry
This is the question I am having trouble with: A voltaic cell consists of a strip of lead metal in a solution of Pb(NO3)2 in one beaker, and in the other beaker a platinum electrode is immersed in a NaCl solution, with Cl2 gas bubbled around the electrode.

asked by Sarah on April 20, 2015
Chemistry
Calculate the cell potential for the following reaction as written at 25.00 °C, given that [Zn2 ] = 0.842 M and [Ni2 ] = 0.0100 M. Standard reduction potentials can be found here. reaction: Zn(s)+Ni^2+(aq)—>Zn^2+(aq)+Ni(s) standard reduction Zn: -.76

asked by Sophie on May 4, 2014
chemistry
Write the equations describing the electrode reactions and the net cell reaction for this electrochemical cell containing indium and cadmium: This is what I have so far: anode: In(s) –> In^3+ + 3e- cathode: Cd^2+ + 2e- –> Cd (s) Need help writing the

asked by Lexi on April 14, 2013
Chemistry
A galvanic cell is composed of these two half-cells, with the standard reduction potentials shown: Cu2+(aq) + 2 e- —->Cu(s) +0.34volt Cd2+(aq) + 2 e- —->Cd(s) -0.40volt What is the standard free energy change for the cell reaction of this galvanic

asked by Zayn on April 16, 2015

chemistry
What is the correct balanced redox reaction for the cell shown below?Fe(s) | Fe2+(aq) || Co2+(aq) Co3+(aq) | Pt

asked by Anonymous on February 1, 2011
chem
consider the cell Pt(s)I H2 (g. 0.100 bar)I H+ (aq, pH= 2.54)IICl^- ( aq, 0.200 MI Hg2Cl2(S)IHg (l)IPt(s) a. write a reduction reaction and nernst equation for each half- cell. For the Hg2Cl2 half reaction, E^0 = 0.268 V b. Find E for the net cell reaction

asked by katya on November 16, 2008
chemistry
Answer the following questions based on the following electrochemical reaction: Al(s) + Cu 2+(aq) Cu(s) + Al3+ (aq) Write the balanced chemical equation for this cell. I’m confused.. how would this be balanced?

asked by shannon Ortiz on April 16, 2017
chemistry
The electrochemical cell described by the cell notation has a standard cell potential of -0.35 V. Calculate the Wmax (kJ) the cell has done if 1893.5 g of MnO42-(aq) (Molar Mass – 118.94 g/mol) forms. Round your answer to 3 significant figures. Pt(s) |

asked by eng on June 4, 2010
chemistry
an electrochemical cell uses Al and Al+3 in one compartment and Ag and Ag+ in the other write a balanced equation for the rxn that will occur spontaneously in this cell would that just be Al + Al+3 + 2e –> Ag + Ag+ ?

asked by erin on January 18, 2009
SCIENCE
The organization of a cell could be compared to a small city. All of the organelles inside of the cell have a specific purpose that helps the cell to function properly. Which BEST represents the function of the cell wall? A) Policeman B) Sanitation worker

asked by PLZ HELP on September 7, 2017
chemistry
A voltaic cell is made with aluminum and zinc electrodes. (For Ag+(aq) + e- → Ag(s), E0 = 0.80 V and for Cu2+(aq) + 2e- → Cu(aq), E0 = 0.34 V)On the diagram below, draw and label: the salt bridge, the electrical connection between the two jars, the

asked by Anonymous on April 27, 2012
Chemistry
A galvanic cell is made with aluminum and zinc electrodes. (For Ag^+(aq)+(e^-)—>Ag(s), E=0.80 V and for Cu^2+(aq)+(2e^-)—>Cu(aq), E=0.34 V) Write the standard cell notation for this cell. Wouldn’t it be silly to use the potentials for copper and silver

asked by Aubrey on June 17, 2007
chemistry
A voltaic cell consists of a standard hydrogen electrode in one half-cell and a Cu/Cu2+ half-cell. Calculate [Cu2+] when E cell is 0.070 V. NOTE::::::::::::::::::::ANSWER IN SCTIENTIFIC NOTATION PLEASE!!! thank you!

asked by Dalton on November 20, 2015
chemistry(check my steps)
The electrochemical cell described by the cell notation has a standard cell potential of -0.35 V. Calculate the Wmax (kJ) the cell has done if 1893.5 g of MnO42-(aq) (Molar Mass – 118.94 g/mol) forms. Round your answer to 3 significant figures. Pt(s) |

asked by eng on June 3, 2010

science
Assignment says label the parts of a plant cell. I’m blind so I’m going to write the names and put their functions. Cell wall, strenghthens the cell. vacuole is where the cell sap is produced. cell membrane is on outside on the cell. It controls what goes

asked by Claire on October 21, 2009
Inorganic chemistry
E naught cell for the following galvanic cell is +0.254V Hg2^2(aq)+2I^-(aq) ==> 2 Hg(l) + I2(s) What is delta G naught for this reaction? Delat G naught = -nFEnaught n = the number of moles of electrons transferred between oxidizing and reducing agents as

asked by Steve on April 14, 2009
science
When a beta particle strikes a living cell, __? A. the beta bounces off B. the cell is not affected C. the cell may cease to function D. it causes the cell to split E. a chain reaction occurs c

asked by pam on September 12, 2010
science
When a beta particle strikes a living cell, __? A. the beta bounces off B. the cell is not affected C. the cell may cease to function D. it causes the cell to split E. a chain reaction occurs c

asked by pam on September 12, 2010
Biology
Multicellular organisms use a variety of communication methods to coordinate cell function. Choose ONE of the following examples below and describe the cell-to-cell communication that occurs, and then describe the types of responses that result from this

asked by nan on March 10, 2016
Biology
Multicellular organisms use a variety of communication methods to coordinate cell function. Choose ONE of the following examples below and describe the cell-to-cell communication that occurs, and then describe the types of responses that result from this

asked by nan on March 4, 2016
College Chemistry
For the reaction that occurs in the voltaic cell Fe(s)|Fe2+(aq)||Cr3+(aq),Cr2+(aq)|Pt(s) use data from Appendix D in the textbook to answer the following questions: a)Determine the equation for the cell reaction b)Determine E0 cell c)Determine ΔG0

asked by Brandon on May 17, 2015
chemistry- electrochemical cell
What makes this an oxidation-reaction? 3Ag2S+2Al(s) -> Al2S3+6 Ag(s)? Write the half-reactions showing the oxidation and reduction reactions. Identify which is the oxidation reaction and which is the reduction reason. What is oxidized in the reaction? What

asked by princess on March 25, 2012
Chemistry
ok i need to figure out how a balanced reaction of a fuel cell would look like. you know a source of hydrogen power. http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell.htm

asked by ana on March 4, 2007
medicine
What is the main difference between a stem cell and a cancer cell? A. A stem cell grows at a faster rate than a cancer cell B. A stem cell obeys signals to stop growth, but a cancer cell doesn’t C. A stem cell is usually external; a cancer cell is usually

asked by Beth on August 7, 2010

grade 12 chemisstry
I have no idea what I’m doing here, please help. 2 half cells in a galvanic cell consist of one iron Fe(s) electorde in a solution of iron (II) sulphate FeSO4(aq)and a silver Ag(s) electrode in a silver nitrate solution, a)state the oxidation half

asked by Sarah H on June 3, 2008
Math
If you were a biologist counting very large numbers of cell as part of your research, give several reasons why you might prefer to record your cell counts in scientific notation instead of standard notation?

asked by Tisy on September 2, 2015
Chemistry
Consider a chromium-silver voltaic cell that is constructed such that one half-cell consists of the chromium, Cr, electrode immersed in a Cr(NO3)3 solution, and the other half-cell consists of the silver, Ag, electrode immersed in a AgNO3 solution. The two

asked by TP on May 12, 2014
AP CHEMISTRY
A voltaic cell is constructed that uses the following half-cell reactions. Cu+(aq) + e− -> Cu(s) I2(s) + 2 e− -> 2 I−(aq) The cell is operated at 298 K with [Cu+ ] = 2.7 M and [I− ] = 2.7 M. (a) Determine E for the cell at these concentrations. (b)

asked by MIKE on April 6, 2012
AP CHEMISTRY
A voltaic cell is constructed that uses the following half-cell reactions. Cu+(aq) + e− -> Cu(s) I2(s) + 2 e− -> 2 I−(aq) The cell is operated at 298 K with [Cu+ ] = 2.7 M and [I− ] = 2.7 M. (a) Determine E for the cell at these concentrations. (b)

asked by DAN on April 14, 2012
AP Chemistry
A voltaic cell is constructed that uses the following half-cell reactions. Cu+(aq) + e- Cu(s) I2(s) + 2 e- 2 I -(aq) The cell is operated at 298 K with [Cu+ ] = 2.3 M and [I – ] = 3.3 M. (a) Determine E for the cell at these concentrations. (b) If [Cu+ ]

asked by Brittany on April 16, 2012
AP Chemistry
A voltaic cell is constructed that uses the following half-cell reactions. Cu+(aq) + e- Cu(s) I2(s) + 2 e- 2 I -(aq) The cell is operated at 298 K with [Cu+ ] = 2.3 M and [I – ] = 3.3 M. (a) Determine E for the cell at these concentrations. (b) If [Cu+ ]

asked by Brittany on April 16, 2012
Chem 152
Given the measured cell potential, E cell is -0.3603 V at 25°C in the following cell, calculate the H+ concentration Pt(s)|H2(g,0.713 atm)|H+(aq, ? M)||Cd2+(aq 1.00 M)|Cd(s) The balanced reduction half-reactions for the cell, and their respective standard

asked by Mo on December 12, 2018
Chemistry/Electrochem
Consider a cell at 299K: line notation Fe-Fe2+(1.39)–Cd2+(2.35)-Cd Given the overall standard reduction potential of the cell is -0.038. What will the concentration of the Cd2+ solution be when the cell is dead?

asked by Andres on October 1, 2012
Chemistry
A chemist wishes to determine the concentration of CrO4-2 ions electrochemically. A cell is constructed consisting of saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and a silver wire coated with Ag2CrO4. The SCE is composed of mercury in contact with a saturated

asked by jake on May 28, 2008

chemistry
Write a balanced chemical equation for the overall cell reaction represented as: a) Ag(s)|Ag^+(aq)||Sn^4+(aq), Sn^2+(aq)|Pt(s) b) Al(s)|Al^3+(aq)||Cu^2+(aq)|Cu(s) c) Pt(s)|Fe^2+(aq), Fe^3+(aq)||MnO4^-(aq),Mn^2+(aq)|Pt(s)

asked by Jazmin on March 1, 2011
chemistry
Write a balanced chemical equation for the overall cell reaction represented as: a) Ag(s)|Ag^+(aq)||Sn^4+(aq), Sn^2+(aq)|Pt(s) b) Al(s)|Al^3+(aq)||Cu^2+(aq)|Cu(s) c) Pt(s)|Fe^2+(aq), Fe^3+(aq)||MnO4^-(aq),Mn^2+(aq)|Pt(s)

asked by Jazmin on March 1, 2011
Chemistry
Pt(s)| Fe^3+ (aq, .1M), Fe^2+ (aq, 1M)|| Fe^3+ (aq, ?M), Fe^2+ (aq, .001M)| Pt(s) A.) Write anode reaction B.) Write cathode reaction D.) If E= .14V for this cell, calculate conc. of Fe^3+ on the right half of the cell E.) What is the max amount of work

asked by lawerence on May 5, 2015
Chemistry II
For the cell Fe(s)©¦Fe2+(aq)¨UO2(g)©¦H+(aq), H2O(l)©¦Pt(s) Indicate a) standard cell potential; b) overall cell reaction c) number of electrons transferred

asked by Rebecca on May 3, 2011
chemistry
A galvanic cell with e o cell = 0.30 v can be constructed using an iron electrode in a 1.0 m fe(no3)2 solution, and either a tin electrode in a 1.0 m sn(no3)2 solution, or a chromium electrode in a 1.0 m cr(no3)3 solution even though sn2+/sn and cr3+/cr

asked by wallace on August 12, 2018
ap chemistry
a cell is based on the following reaction Fe(s)+2Fe+3(aq) —–> 3Fe+2 (aq) E cell= 1.18 V. Calculate the concentration of iron (II), in M, if the cell emf is 1.28 V. when [Fe^(3+)]= 0.5 M the answer is 0.047 M

asked by Anonymous on May 25, 2015
Chemistry
Electrochemisry. Candy Chemist wishes to determine the concentration of CrO4^2- by electrochemical means in solution, and subsequently the Ksp of Ag2CrO4. She sets up one half-cell comprised of the Ag+|Ag couple (E=+0.799V) and a second half-cell in which

asked by KRH on April 28, 2016
chemistry
A voltaic cell is contructed in which a copper wire is placed in a 1.0 M Cu(NO3)2 solution and a strip of gold i placed in a 1.0 M AuNO3 solution. The measured potential of the cell is found to be 1.36V and the copper electrode is negative. The Ered for

asked by Mark on July 17, 2010
chemistry
I did a lab using an electrochemical cell to establish a relationship between cell potential and concentration. I derived two equations from lines of best fit. One is Cell potential of Ag vs. Cu Concentration: y = -0.04520x+0.5515. The other is cell

asked by Morgan on November 10, 2010
chemistry
A chemist wishes to determine the concentration of CrO4-2 ions electrochemically. A cell is constructed consisting of saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and a silver wire coated with Ag2CrO4. The SCE is composed of mercury in contact with a saturated

asked by Tom on May 27, 2008

Chem
The galvanic cell described by the cell notation has a standard emf (electromotive force) of 4.05 V. Calculate the value (kJ) for the ΔG˚ of the cell. Round your answer to 3 significant figures. Mn(s) l Mn2+(aq) ll F2(g) l F-(aq) l Pt(s) St. Red. Pot.

asked by Jess on November 14, 2011
Science 7R Q2
What is the difference between a plant cell and an animal cell? a. plant cell have cell wall a animal cell don’t b. a plant cell have cholroplast and a animal cell don’t c. plant cell have a huge vacuole and a animal cell have a small vacuole d. animal

asked by Laruen on January 16, 2012
Chemistry
The voltaic cell described by the cell notation has a standard emf (electromotive force) of 0.94 V. Calculate the value (J) for the maximum electrical work that the cell can do under standard conditions. Round your answer to 3 significant figures. Pt(s) /

asked by Roger on December 3, 2010
algebra
The size of a certain cell is 2.5 × 10–9 m. Another cell is 1.5 × 103 times larger. How large is the larger cell in scientific notation?

asked by Destiny on August 10, 2011
Chemistry
Consider the voltaic cell illustrated in the figure, which is based on the cell reaction: Zn(s)+Cu^2+(aq) -> Zn^2+(aq)+Cu(s) Under standard conditions, what is the maximum electrical work, in joules, that the cell can accomplish if 52.0g of copper is

asked by Steven on April 16, 2012
Chemistry
Consider the voltaic cell illustrated in the figure, which is based on the cell reaction: Zn(s)+Cu^2+(aq) -> Zn^2+(aq)+Cu(s) Under standard conditions, what is the maximum electrical work, in joules, that the cell can accomplish if 52.0g of copper is

asked by Steven on April 16, 2012
chemistry
A voltaic cell can be built using the reaction between Al metal and O2 from the air. If the Al anode of this cell consists of 65 g of aluminum, how many hours can the cell produce 1.5 A of electricity, assuming an unlimited supply of O2?

asked by maddie on October 18, 2015
SCI
Hypothetically speaking, I placed a cell in a glass of water and after about a day the cell grew in size. Why did the cell grow? Well I was thinking this: The reason the cell grew was because there was a higher concentration of water outside of the cell

asked by Lena on September 23, 2008
Science- Cells
2 adjectives to describe each cell- nerve cell muscle cell bone cell and blood cell

asked by Anonymous on January 28, 2017
science
A student observed two different types of cells under a microscope. She noticed that one cell had many more mitochondria than the other. What can the student predict about the cell with more mitochondria? A. The cell produces more waste. B. The cell makes

asked by Anonymous on February 27, 2012

science
A student observed two different types of cells under a microscope. She noticed that one cell had many more mitochondria than the other. What can the student predict about the cell with more mitochondria? A. The cell produces more waste. B. The cell makes

asked by Anonymous on February 27, 2012
Science
A student observed two different types of cells under a microscope. She noticed that one cell had many more mitochondria than the other. What can the student predict about the cell with more mitochondria? A. The cell produces more waste. B. The cell makes

asked by Mrs. Sue can you please answer this question on February 27, 2012
chemistry- DrBob
summarize part a ( the data i showed you) in a data table containing heading: anode, cathode, overall cell reaction, and cell potential . for each cell combination, write the anode half reaction, the cathode half reaction, the overall reaction in the cell

asked by amy on May 16, 2008
Chem
Calculate the reaction quotient Q,for the cell reaction.The measured cell voltage is given.balane the chemical equation by using the smallest whole number coefficients. (a) Pt(s)Sn4+(aq),Sn2+(aq)||pb2+(aq),pb2+|C(graphite)(s) -E=+1.33V

asked by Prisca on February 10, 2013
Science
A student observed two different types of cells under a microscope. She noticed that one cell had many more mitochondria than the other. What can the student predict about the cell with more mitochondria? A. The cell produces more waste. B. The cell makes

asked by Kate on February 27, 2012

Categories
do my homework essay help essays for sale write my assignment

write the equation for the reaction associated with the ka2 of sulfuric acid, h2so4.

Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO32–.
70,477 results
Chemistry Equation
1) Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. 2)Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO3^(2-).

asked by Mizuhara on October 13, 2014
Chemistry
Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO32–.

asked by Darrin on January 27, 2013
Chemistry
Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO32–.

asked by Jessica on January 27, 2013
chemistry
write the equation of the neutralization of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and write the net ionic equation for the reaction

asked by Doss on October 25, 2011
chemistry
I want to know if someone could let me know if I have written my balanced equations correct for the following questions. Write a balanced equation for the reaction of zinc with sulfuric acid. Zn + H2SO4 >>> Zn(S04) +H2 Write a balanced equation for the

asked by jazz on April 21, 2014

Chemistry
I need some help with writing reactions. I have the following to write out: a. the hydration of copper sulfate b. the reaction of liquid sulfuric acid to form aqueous sulfuric acid c. the reaction of calcium oxide w/ water to form calcium hydroxide For a,

asked by Nikki on October 4, 2009
chemistry
calcium nitrate + sulfuric acid =caso4+? write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states. Ca(NO3)2 + H2SO4 ==> CaSO4 + 2HNO3 You don’t have enough information to provide states. CaSO4 will be a solid so you write CaSO4(s). H2SO4 will

asked by walter on July 30, 2007
Chemistry
In the formation of acid rain, sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen and water in the air to form sulfuric acid. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. 2 SO2 + 1 O2 + 2 H2O –> 2 H2SO4 If 5.45 g SO2 react with excess oxygen and water, how many

asked by ChaCha on February 3, 2008
chem
which one of the following statements about sulfuric acid is correct? A. sulfuric acid is a known muriatic acid B. sulfuric acid is a strong oxidizing agent C. sulfuric acid has little effect on metals D. sulfuric acid is dangerous to living organisms B

asked by alf on August 5, 2005
Chemistry
Write the balanced neutralization reaction between H2SO4 and KOH in aq. solution. .350 L of .410 M H2SO4 is mixed with .300 L of .230 M KOH. What concentration of sulfuric acid remains after neutralization? __ M H2SO4

asked by Chelsea on October 4, 2013
chemistry
write a balanced chemical equation for calcium nitate plus sulfuric acid produces calcium sulphate and ? This is a metathetical reaction, I think more properly called a double displacement reaction now. Just change + and – partners. Ca(NO3)2 + H2SO4 ==>

asked by walter on August 9, 2007
Chemisty
Consider the reaction of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, with sodium hydroxide, NaOH. H2SO4(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) -> 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq). Suppose a beaker contains 35.0mL of 0.175M H2SO4. How many moles of NaOH are needed to react completely with sulfuric acid? Thank

asked by Mandy on October 22, 2014
AP CHEMISTRY
Phosphoric acid is triprotic acid (three ionizable hydrogens). The values of its stepwise ionization constants are Ka1= 7.5E-5, Ka2= 6.2E-8, and Ka3= 4.2E-13 1) Write the chemical equation for the first ionization reaction of phosphoric acid with water

asked by NIKITA on February 15, 2012
chemistry
Sulfuric acid is a strong acid and dissociates in water as shown in Reaction 4. Equation label: (4) Help Please!!!! H2SO4(aq) = 2H+(aq) + SO42-(aq) What is the hydrogen ion concentration, in mol dm−3, when 1.50 g of sulfuric acid is dissolved in water to

asked by jim on February 13, 2013
chemistry
The reaction SO2 + H2O =H2SO4 Is the last step in the commercial production of sulfuric acid . the enthalpy change for this reaction is -227 KJ . In designing a sulfuric acid plant is it necessary to provide for heating or cooling of the reaction mixture ?

asked by mathew on November 12, 2014

CHEMISTRY
18cm^3 of 1.0M H2SO4 just reacted with 24cm^3 of 1.5M NaOH to form sodium sulfate & water. Calculate the amounts in moles of sulfuric acid & sodium hydroxide reacting & write an equation for the reaction.

asked by Janey on October 12, 2013
Chemistry
How many milimetres of 0.114 M sulphuric acid solution provide the sulfuric acid required to react with the sodium hydroxide in 32.3 ml of 0.122 M NaOH according to the following equation? H2SO4 + 2 NAOH —> Na2SO4 + 2 H20 A millimeter is a unit of

asked by Cadi Almond on September 11, 2006
chemistry check
A) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. I got H2SO4 + KOH —> H2OH + KSO4 B) Write the ionic equation for the reaction. H2 + S2O4-2 + K + OH- —> H2 + OH + K2SO4-2 C) Write the net ionic

asked by jon on March 22, 2007
chem
the balance equation for the reaction of aqueous sulfuric acid with aqueous ammonia is 2NH3(aq)+ H2SO4(aq) -> (NH4)2SO4(aq) 1. what volume of 0.250M sulfuric acid solution would be needed to react completely with 18.00mL of 0.350M ammonia solution? 2. what

asked by Jen on April 15, 2014
Chemistry
A chemist needs a 50% of sulfuric acid. She mix 2 liters of 20% of sulfuric acid with a sample of 60% of sulfuric acid. Write a equatoin that models the situation and use it to find how much the 50% of the sulfuric acid she needs to use?

asked by James on February 25, 2016
Honors Chemistry
I need someone to check these questions. I know its a lot of questions. 2NH3 + Ag+ Ag(NH3)2+ a. What is the Lewis acid in this equation? [Ag+] b. What is the Lewis base in this equation? [NH3] Given H2SO4 is sulfuric acid, HNO3 is nitric acid, and H3PO4 is

asked by Elizabeth on May 7, 2012
CHEMISTRY HELP PLEASEEEE
Sulfuric acid is a diprotic acid, strong in the first ionization step and weak in the second (Ka2=1.1X10^-2). Using appropriate calculations, determine whether it is feasible to titrate 10.00mL of 0.1 M H2SO4 to two distinct equivalence points with 0.1 M

asked by Emma on October 18, 2016
Chemistry 400/ Chem 1A
A chemist mixes 5.216 g of potassium permanganate, 2.318 g of ethanol, and excess sulfuric acid. These chemicals react as follows: 4 KMnO4 + 5 C2H5OH + 6 H2SO4 —> 4 MnSO4 + 5 CH3COOH + 2 K2SO4 + 11 H20 What mass of sulfuric acid is consumed in this

asked by Joey on September 15, 2014
Chemistry
Given the balanced neutralization equation: H2SO4+2KOH→K2SO4+2H2O How many moles of potassium hydroxide (KOH) are required to neutralize 4.5 mol of sulfuric acid (H2SO4)? Assume that the sulfuric acid completely dissociates in water. 2 mols of KOH = 1

asked by Mariah on June 30, 2016
chemistry
write a balanced equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium metal

asked by ryan on May 12, 2012

chemistry
Methanol + Butanoic acid + Sulfuric acid = Pinapple Methanol + Salicylic acid + Sulfuric acid = wintergreen Ethanol + Methanoic acid + Sulfuric acid = rum How to write the chemical formulae for each?

asked by Anonymous on April 24, 2008
chemistry
write a balanced formula equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium metal

asked by trista on May 13, 2008
CHem Part 2
Part of the SO2 that is introduced into the atmosphere by combustion of sulfur containing compounds ends up beingh converted to sulfuric acid. 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) —> 2H2SO4 (aq) How much sulfuric acid can be formed from 5 moles of SO2, 2 moles of O2 and an

asked by Kim on November 1, 2006
Chemistry
Write the balanced equation for the double replacement reaction of: Barium chloride and Sulfuric acid

asked by Kristy on March 10, 2012
chemistry
500.0 g of ammonia react with 51.0 moles of sulfuric acid to produce ammonium sulfate. How many moles of excess sulfuric acid are left over after the reaction is complete? 2 NH3 (aq) + H2SO4(aq) → (NH4)2SO4 (aq)

asked by Anonymous on March 22, 2011
chemistry
For the reaction SO3 plus H2O>>H2SO4, how many grams of sulfuric acid can be produced from 200.g of sulfuric trioxide and 100.g of water??

asked by Whittney on March 18, 2008
Organic Chemistry 1
Write an equation for the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with aqueous sulfuric acid to produce carbon dioxide.

asked by Brianna on March 17, 2010
chemistry
Sulfuric acid is dripped onto samples of three metals: silver, =zinc, and aluminium a) Use the activity series to determine whether a reaction will occur with each metal b) Write a chemical equation for each reaction that occurs

asked by Michelle on January 11, 2015
Chemistry URGENT/DR BOB
Can someone may sure that I balanced the following groups of equations correctly. Write an equation to show how acetic acid reacts with water to produce ions in solution. C2H4O2 + H2O >>>>>>> H3O + C2H3O Write an equation for the neutralization of HCl and

asked by jazz on April 23, 2014
Chemistry
Ca3(PO4)2 + 3 H2SO4 -> 3 CaSO4 + 2 H3PO4 What masses of calcium sulfate and phosphoric acid can be produced from the reaction of 1.0 kg calcium phosphate with 1.0 kg concentrated sulfuric acid (98% H2SO4 by mass)?

asked by Anonymous on August 16, 2010

chemistry help
sulfuric acid is a strong acid and dissociates in water as shown in reaction H2SO4(aq)=2H^+(aq)+SO4^2-(aq) what is the hydrogen ion concentration, in mol dm^-3,when 1.50g of sulfuric acid is dissolved in water to give 0.500dm^3 of solution ?show all of

asked by zak on December 30, 2012
chemistry
The equivalent weights of X and Y are _ g/equiv. H+ and g/equiv. –OH, respectively, for the following reaction: Z (Note: Report your answer with 4 significant figures.) X Y Z Answer #1 Answer #2 benzoic acid calcium hydroxide 2 C6H5COOH + Ca(OH)2

asked by Evani on October 22, 2011
chemistry
What mass of sodium hydroxide pellets must be poured into a waste drum containing 20.0 L o 3.0 mol/L sulphuric acid to completely neutralize the waste acid solution? Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. okay, so here is the work I already

asked by julie on December 15, 2014
Chemistry
Write the net ionic equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. I got 2H^+ + 2OH^-1 ==> 2H2O. Is this correct?? Thanks.

asked by Lucy on December 2, 2007
chemistry
In a soda acid fire extinguisher, concentrated sulfuric acid reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate to produce carbon dioxide, sodium sulfate and water. How many moles of sodium hydrogen carbonate are produced from a reaction of 0.4 moles of sulfuric acid?

asked by student_14579 on January 19, 2015
Chemistry II
A 12.00 mL sample of sulfuric acid from an automobile battery requires 34.62 mL of 2.42 M sodium hydroxide solution for complete neutralization. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid? H2SO4 + 2NaOH ==> Na2SO4 + 2H2O molarity NaOH x liters NaOH = mols

asked by Jayd on April 25, 2007
Chemistry 104
The reaction of hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and lead results in the production of lead sulfate in an acidic aqueous solution. Write the balanced equation for this reaction.

asked by Sophie on May 3, 2013
chemistry
Commercially available concentrated sulfuric acid is 18.0 M H2SO4. Calculate the volume (in mL) of concentrated sulfuric acid required to prepare 1.60 L of 0.320 M H2SO4 solution.

asked by Jen on September 21, 2010
Chemistry
But in the answer options: a) -27.4 kJ b) -72.8 kJ c) -78.4 kJ d) -84.6kJ I attempted this problem in the other way.When using the q =mcdT,I added the mass of both water and sulfuric acid. q = (300g +10.65g)(4.184J/g.K)(6.55C) = 8513.43 J Then, I

asked by Meenaakshi on March 22, 2012
chem
In order to neutralize the acid in 10.0 mL of 18.0 mol/L sulfuric acid that was spilled on a laboratory bench, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) was used. The container of baking soda had a mass of 155.00g before this use, and out of curiosity it’s mass was

asked by Jennifer on February 15, 2016

AP Chem
Consider the following unbalanced equation: Ca3(Po4)2+H2SO–>CaSO4+H3PO What masses of calcium sulfate and phosphoric acid can be produced from the reaction of 1.0 kg calcium phosphate with 1.0 kg concentrated sulfuric acid (98% H2SO4 by mass)? I’m so

asked by Robyn on November 4, 2008
chemistry
In the formation of acid rain, sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen and water in the air to form sulfuric acid. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (Type your answer using the format CH4 for CH4.)

asked by skyler on February 2, 2012
chemistry
A student weighed out 1.5g of salicylic acid into a flask and then added 4ml of acetic an hydride to react. He also added 5 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid. Density of acetic an hydride is 1.08g/ml and sulfuric acid is 1.85g/ml (sulfuric acid is a

asked by Anonymous on April 19, 2010
Chemistry
Enough concentrated sulfuric acid solution was added to provide 3 grams of sulfuric acid which dissolved i4 grams of pure fluorapatite. How much excess sulfuric acid was used? (report answer in grams of H2SO4

asked by Mae on March 27, 2016
Chemistry
Calculate the volume of 1.78M sulfuric acid that would be needed to neutralize 62.4 mL of a 2.09 M aqueous ammonia solution. The equation for the reaction is H2SO4(aq) + 2 NH3(aq) —> 2 NH4(aq)+ SO4 ^-2 (aq)

asked by Brea on April 16, 2012
Chemistry
A volume of 40.0 of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the solution if 20.2 of 1.50M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is 2KOH(aq)+H2SO4(aq)—>K2SO4(aq)+2H2O(l)

asked by Lindsey on July 22, 2012
AP Chemistry
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very strong diprotic acid. If 0.036 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 576 mililiter of solution, what is the molarity of H+?

asked by J. A on September 30, 2012
Chemistry
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very diprotic acid. If 0.046 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 638 mililiter of solution,what is the molarity of H+? Answer in units of M.

asked by Cheyenne on September 23, 2010
Chemistry
Determine the volume of 0.240 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is shown below. H2SO4(aq) + 2 KOH(aq)—> K2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) a) 26 mL of 0.240 M H2SO4 b) 143 mL of 0.14 M

asked by Rebekah on March 18, 2011
Chemistry (repost)
Determine the volume of 0.240 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is shown below. H2SO4(aq) + 2 KOH(aq)—> K2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) a) 26 mL of 0.240 M H2SO4 b) 143 mL of 0.14 M

asked by Rebekah on March 19, 2011

chemistry
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very strong diprotic acid. If 0.062 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 200 mililiter of solution, what is the molarity of H+? Answer in units of M

asked by cheri on September 13, 2012
Chemistry
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very strong diprotic acid. If 0.065 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 456 mililiter of solution, what is the molarity of H+? Answer in units of M.

asked by May (PLEASE HELP) on October 11, 2010
Chemistry
A volume of 70.0mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide(KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the solution if 19.2mL of 1.50M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is 2KOH+H2SO4->K2SO4+2H20

asked by Peter on September 18, 2010
Chemistry
Determine the volume of 0.250 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is: H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) = K2SO49aq) + 2H2O(l) Find: 205 mL of 0.130 M H2SO4

asked by Kelsey G on November 30, 2010
Chemistry
Please help !!!! The acid impurity in your unknown was benzoic acid. a) Write an equation for the reaction that occurs during the NaOH extraction. b) Write an equation for the reaction that occurs after the addition of HCL. Thanks.

asked by Amanda on February 8, 2010
Chemistry
Which of the following can we predict from an equilibrium constant for a reaction? 1 The extent of a reaction 2 Whether the reaction is fast or slow 3 Whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 only e. 1 and 3

asked by IBY on May 13, 2010
Chemistry – Density
Automobile batteries contain sulfuric acid. Calculate the number of grams of sulfuric acid in 0.500L of battery acid if the solution has a density of 1.28g/mL and is 38% H2SO4 (small numbers) by mass? Can you please answer this for me? double post.

asked by Tracey on October 5, 2006
Chemistry
When hot and concentrated, sulfuric acid is a fairly strong oxidizing agent. Write a balanced net ionic equation for the oxidation of metallic copper to Cu(II) ion by hot concentrated H2SO4, in which the sulfur is reduced to SO2.

asked by Jen on June 30, 2011
college chem
Two questions where I have to write a balanced net ionic equation. 1. Write a balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of sodium chromate and silver nitrate are mixed 2. Write a balanced net ionic equaion reaction for

asked by kelly on June 2, 2009
chemistry
Sulfuric acid reacts with hydrogen iodide to produce sulfur dioxide, iodine and water. a) write total ionic equation b)write net ionic equation

asked by help please! on April 23, 2010

chemisty
Sulfuric acid reacts with hydrogen iodide to produce sulfur dioxide, iodine and water. a) write total ionic equation b)write net ionic equation

asked by help! on April 22, 2010
Chemistry
Sodium + Sulfuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid + Magnesium Hydroxide a.write the formula b. supply the product c.type of reaction d. balancing

asked by Lance on September 11, 2016
AP Chem
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very strong diprotic acid. If 0.054 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 667 milliliter of solution,what is the molarity of H+? Answer in units of M doing mole/liter doesn’t work

asked by Nick on April 1, 2012
Chem
If 25.0 cm3 of 0.50M sulfuric acid reacted with exactly 12.5 cm3 of sodium hydroxide, calculate the concentration of the alkali. I first balanced the chemical equation between sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. H2SO4 + 2NaOH –> 2H2O + Na2SO4 I converted

asked by Maddy on September 8, 2017
chem help
i just don’t know where to begin/how a) Write a balanced chemical equation for: potassium carbonate + magnesium chloride b) Write a balanced chemical equation for: sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate c) Write a balanced chemical equation for: sodium sulfate

asked by thad on January 15, 2013
Chemistry
Determine the volume of 0.250 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is: H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) = K2SO49aq) + 2H2O(l) Find: 15 mL of 0.250 M H2SO4

asked by Kelsey G on November 30, 2010
Chemistry

  1. A lab tech needs 1.00 L of 0.125 mol/L sulfuric acid solution for a quantitative analysis experiment. A commercial 5.00 mol/L sulfuric acid solution is available from a chemical supply company. Write out what steps he/she would follow to prepare the

asked by AlphaPrimes on April 2, 2016
Chemisty
A 25-mL sample of 0.160M solution of NaOH is titrated with 17 mL of an unknown solution of H2SO4. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid solution? A. 0.004M H2SO4 B. 0.235M H2SO4 C. 0.117M H2SO4 D. 0.002M H2SO4

asked by Elizabeth on February 18, 2014
12th grade chemistry
It is required to titrate ethanol solution .Being available a 0.2mol/l potassium dichromate solution and 4mol/l sulfuric acid solution on the presence of a convenient indicator. a)indicate the glassware used for titration. b)give a brief description of the

asked by andy on July 12, 2016
pcc
A volume of 40.0mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 21.7mL of 1.50 M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is

asked by jose on July 15, 2013

Chemistry
A volume of 80.0mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 21.7mL of 1.50 M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is

asked by carley on February 24, 2014
College Chemistry
A 20.0 Ml sample of sulfuric acid is titrated with 25.0 ML of 1.0 M NaOH solution. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid? H2SO4+ 2NaOH yields Na2SO4 + H2O

asked by Sa ndra on December 6, 2010
Chemistry
How to prepare 50ml 0.04N H2SO4 from solution 0.025N sulfuric acid by adding 0.4N sulfuric acid

asked by Manoj on May 25, 2017
Chemistry
Potassium permanganate reacts with sulfuric acid as per the equation shown below. Indicate the amount of excess reactant after the reaction of 7.24g KMnO4 and 10.32g H2SO4? 4KMnO4+6H2SO4 = 2K2SO4 +4MnSO4 +6H2O + 5O2

asked by Missy on September 14, 2010
Chemistry
sulfuric acid can be prepared by a multistep process summarized as: 2 SO2 + O2 + 2 H2O–> 2 H2SO4 What mass of sulfuric acid could be produced daily by a process using 38 kg per day of sulfuric dioxide with a 70% conversion efficiency (“yield”), assuming

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2017
chemistry
write the formula of each acid and identify each as a diprotic, a triprotic, or a monoprotic acid sulfuric acid,perchloric acid,phosphoric acid,hydrofluoric acid,acetic acid

asked by courtney on May 14, 2011
chemistry 112
A volume of 60.0mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 19.2mL of 1.50 M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is

asked by Sam on October 7, 2014
Chemistry
How many resonance structures do these following acids have? H2CO3-carbonic acid H3PO4-phosphoric acid H2SO4-sulfuric acid HNO3-nitric acid CH3COOH- acetic acid CH2ClCOOH- chloroacetic acid CHCl2COOH- dichloroacetic acid CCl3COOH- trichloroacetic acid

asked by Joseph on November 4, 2014
CHEMISTRY
a) Write the formula for each component in a buffer solution of acetic acid and its’ salt. b) The Ka, for hypochlorous acid, HClO, is 7.2 x l0^–4 at 25°C. What is pKa? Write the equation for the reaction to which Ka applies.

asked by jess on October 26, 2015
Gen Chem 1
A tanker truck carrying 2.01×10^3kg of concentrated sulfuric acid solution tips over and spills its load. The sulfuic acid is 95.0% H2SO4 by mass and has a density of 1.84g/L. Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)is used to neutralize the the sulfuric acid spill. How

asked by Rachel on October 6, 2010

Chem 101
why must we used sulfuric acid H2SO4, in 2KAl(OH)4 + H2SO4->2Al(OH)3(s)+K2SO4 +2H2O and 2Al(OH)(s)+3H2SO4->Al2(SO4)3+6H2O rather than hydrochloric acid,HCl,or nitric acid, HNO3?

asked by Nida McLaurin on July 21, 2013
Chemistry – Density
Automobile batteries contain sulfuric acid. Calculate the number of grams of sulfuric acid in 0.500L of battery acid if the solution has a density of 1.28g/mL and is 38% H2SO4 (small numbers) by mass? Can you please answer this for me? density = 1.28 g/mL

asked by Tracey on October 5, 2006
Chem
How do I go about solving this reaction? H2SO4 + NaCO3 = NaSO4 +CO2 + H2O If 150.0g of sulfuric acid is spilled, what is the minimum number of sodium carbonate that have to be added to complete the reaction?

asked by Sheff on October 30, 2010
Chemistry
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid according to BaO2(s)+ H2SO4(aq)—> BaSO4(s)+ H2O2(aq) How many milliliters of 3.00 M H2SO4(aq) are needed to react completly with 85.1g of BaO2(s)?

asked by Jason on November 22, 2010
chemisty
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid according to BaO2(s)+H2SO4(aq)=BaSO4(s)+H2O2(aq) How many milliliters of 5.00 M H2SO4(aq) are needed to react completely with 30.5 g of BaO2(s)?

asked by Bob on February 28, 2013
Chemistry
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid according to BaO2+H2SO4 -> BaSO4 +H2O2 How many milliliters of 3.50 M H2SO4(aq) are needed to react completely with 12.1 g of BaO2(s)?

asked by Anonymous on October 3, 2012
Chemistry
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid according to BaO2+H2SO4 -> BaSO4 +H2O2 How many milliliters of 3.50 M H2SO4(aq) are needed to react completely with 12.1 g of BaO2(s)?

asked by Anonymous on October 3, 2012
Chemistry
If you mixed water and dilute sulfuric acid, rather than concentrated sulfuric acid, would the exothermic reaction be greater or less than the exothermic reaction that occurs during hydration of a concentrated sulfuric acid? If so, why?

asked by Michelle on March 22, 2009
chem
Determine the volume of 0.240 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is shown below. H2SO4(aq) + 2 KOH(aq)–> K2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) (a) 26 mL of 0.240 M H2SO4 thanks

asked by Abby on March 11, 2011
Chemistry
A volume of 60.0 of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 25.2 mL of 1.50M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is 2KOH+H2SO4–>K2SO4+2H2O. I cant seem to

asked by Paris on June 25, 2011

Chemistry
A volume of 50.0 mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid. What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 19.2 mL of 1.50 M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is 2KOH(aq) +H2SO4(aq)-» K2SO4(aq)+2H2O(l)

asked by Ellen on October 3, 2010
chemistry
Potassium permanganate reacts with sulfuric acid as per the equation shown below. Indicate the excess reactant after the reaction of 7.60 g KMnO4 and 10.32 g H2SO4. 4 KMnO4 (aq) + 6H2SO4 (aq) + 2K2SO4 (aq) + 4MnSO4 (aq)+ 6H2) (l) + 5O2 (g) I have no idea

asked by Some kid on September 19, 2009
Chemistry
Can someone check my answers for me thank you. I have the equation balanced below. 2H2O + K2SO4 –> H2SO4 + 2KOH Ionic equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. 2H+ + SO4^2- + 2K+ + 2OH- –> 2K+ + SO4^2- + 2H2O Net equation

asked by Susie on January 13, 2008
Chemistry
In an acid-base neutralization reaction 28.74 mL of 0.500 M potassium hydroxide reacts with 50.00 mL of sulfuric acid solution. What is the concentration of the H2SO4 solution? Please help with this question, thank you.

asked by Trever on September 19, 2010
chem 1411
What volume (in mL) of a 0.750M solution of hydrochloric acid can produced by the reaction of 25.0g of NaCl with an excess of sulfuric acid? NaCl+H2SO4= HCl+ NaHSO4

asked by JACI WINLOW on October 18, 2016

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CHAPTER 6 Supply, Demand, and Government Policies

Economists have two roles. As scientists, they develop and test theories to explain the world around them. As policy advisers, they use their theories to help change the world for the better. The focus of the preceding two chapters has been scientific. We have seen how supply and demand determine the price of a good and the quantity of the good sold. We have also seen how various events shift supply and demand and thereby change the equilibrium price and quantity. And we have developed the concept of elasticity to gauge the size of these changes.

   This chapter offers our first look at policy. Here we analyze various types of government policy using only the tools of supply and demand. As you will see, the analysis yields some surprising insights. Policies often have effects that their architects did not intend or anticipate.

   We begin by considering policies that directly control prices. For example, rent-control laws dictate a maximum rent that landlords may charge tenants. Minimum-wage laws dictate the lowest wage that firms may pay workers. Price controls are usually enacted when policymakers believe that the market price of a good or service is unfair to buyers or sellers. Yet, as we will see, these policies can generate inequities of their own.

   After discussing price controls, we consider the impact of taxes. Policymakers use taxes to raise revenue for public purposes and to influence market outcomes. Although the prevalence of taxes in our economy is obvious, their effects are not. For example, when the government levies a tax on the amount that firms pay their workers, do the firms or the workers bear the burden of the tax? The answer is not at all clear—until we apply the powerful tools of supply and demand.

6-1 Controls on Prices

To see how price controls affect market outcomes, let’s look once again at the market for ice cream. As we saw in  Chapter 4 , if ice cream is sold in a competitive market free of government regulation, the price of ice cream adjusts to balance supply and demand: At the equilibrium price, the quantity of ice cream that buyers want to buy exactly equals the quantity that sellers want to sell. To be concrete, let’s suppose that the equilibrium price is $3 per cone.

   Some people may not be happy with the outcome of this free-market process. The American Association of Ice-Cream Eaters complains that the $3 price is too high for everyone to enjoy a cone a day (their recommended daily allowance). Meanwhile, the National Organization of Ice-Cream Makers complains that the $3 price—the result of “cutthroat competition”—is too low and is depressing the incomes of its members. Each of these groups lobbies the government to pass laws that alter the market outcome by directly controlling the price of an ice-cream cone.

   Because buyers of any good always want a lower price while sellers want a higher price, the interests of the two groups conflict. If the Ice-Cream Eaters are successful in their lobbying, the government imposes a legal maximum on the price at which ice-cream cones can be sold. Because the price is not allowed to rise above this level, the legislated maximum is called a  price ceiling . By contrast, if the Ice-Cream Makers are successful, the government imposes a legal minimum on the price. Because the price cannot fall below this level, the legislated minimum is called a  price floor . Let us consider the effects of these policies in turn.

price ceiling

a legal maximum on the price at which a good can be sold

price floor

a legal minimum on the price at which a good can be sold

6-1a How Price Ceilings Affect Market Outcomes

When the government, moved by the complaints and campaign contributions of the Ice-Cream Eaters, imposes a price ceiling on the market for ice cream, two outcomes are possible. In panel (a) of  Figure 1 , the government imposes a price ceiling of $4 per cone. In this case, because the price that balances supply and demand ($3) is below the ceiling, the price ceiling is not binding. Market forces naturally move the economy to the equilibrium, and the price ceiling has no effect on the price or the quantity sold.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 1  shows the other, more interesting, possibility. In this case, the government imposes a price ceiling of $2 per cone. Because the equilibrium price of $3 is above the price ceiling, the ceiling is a binding constraint on the market. The forces of supply and demand tend to move the price toward the equilibrium price, but when the market price hits the ceiling, it cannot, by law, rise any further. Thus, the market price equals the price ceiling. At this price, the quantityof ice cream demanded (125 cones in  Figure 1 ) exceeds the quantity supplied (75 cones). There is a shortage: 50 people who want to buy ice cream at the going price are unable to do so.

FIGURE 1 A Market with a Price Ceiling

In panel (a), the government imposes a price ceiling of $4. Because the price ceiling is above the equilibrium price of $3, the price ceiling has no effect, and the market can reach the equilibrium of supply and demand. In this equilibrium, quantity supplied and quantity demanded both equal 100 cones. In panel (b), the government imposes a price ceiling of $2. Because the price ceiling is below the equilibrium price of $3, the market price equals $2. At this price, 125 cones are demanded and only 75 are supplied, so there is a shortage of 50 cones.

   In response to this shortage, some mechanism for rationing ice cream will naturally develop. The mechanism could be long lines: Buyers who are willing to arrive early and wait in line get a cone, but those unwilling to wait do not. Alternatively, sellers could ration ice-cream cones according to their own personal biases, selling them only to friends, relatives, or members of their own racial or ethnic group. Notice that even though the price ceiling was motivated by a desire to help buyers of ice cream, not all buyers benefit from the policy. Some buyers do get to pay a lower price, although they may have to wait in line to do so, but other buyers cannot get any ice cream at all.

   This example in the market for ice cream shows a general result: When the government imposes a binding price ceiling on a competitive market, a shortage of the good arises, and sellers must ration the scarce goods among the large number of potential buyers. The rationing mechanisms that develop under price ceilings are rarely desirable. Long lines are inefficient because they waste buyers’ time. Discrimination according to seller bias is both inefficient (because the good does not necessarily go to the buyer who values it most highly) and potentially unfair. By contrast, the rationing mechanism in a free, competitive market is both efficient and impersonal. When the market for ice cream reaches its equilibrium, anyone who wants to pay the market price can get a cone. Free markets ration goods with prices.

case study: Lines at the Gas Pump

As we discussed in  Chapter 5 , in 1973 the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised the price of crude oil in world oil markets. Because crude oil is the major input used to make gasoline, the higher oil prices reduced the supply of gasoline. Long lines at gas stations became commonplace, and motorists often had to wait for hours to buy only a few gallons of gas.

   What was responsible for the long gas lines? Most people blame OPEC. Surely, if OPEC had not raised the price of crude oil, the shortage of gasoline would not have occurred. Yet economists blame U.S. government regulations that limited the price oil companies could charge for gasoline.

    Figure 2  shows what happened. As shown in panel (a), before OPEC raised the price of crude oil, the equilibrium price of gasoline, P1, was below the price ceiling. The price regulation, therefore, had no effect. When the price of crude oil rose, however, the situation changed. The increase in the price of crude oil raised the cost of producing gasoline, and this reduced the supply of gasoline. As panel (b) shows, the supply curve shifted to the left from S1 to S2. In an unregulated market, this shift in supply would have raised the equilibrium price of gasoline from P1 to P2, and no shortage would have resulted. Instead, the price ceiling prevented the price from rising to the equilibrium level. At the price ceiling, producers were willing to sell QS, and consumers were willing to buy QD. Thus, the shift in supply caused a severe shortage at the regulated price.

FIGURE 2 The Market for Gasoline with a Price Ceiling

Panel (a) shows the gasoline market when the price ceiling is not binding because the equilibrium price, P1, is below the ceiling. Panel (b) shows the gasoline market after an increase in the price of crude oil (an input into making gasoline) shifts the supply curve to the left from S1 to S2. In an unregulated market, the price would have risen from P1 to P2. The price ceiling, however, prevents this from happening. At the binding price ceiling, consumers are willing to buy QD, but producers of gasoline are willing to sell only QS. The difference between quantity demanded and quantity supplied, QDQS, measures the gasoline shortage.

   Eventually, the laws regulating the price of gasoline were repealed. Lawmakers came to understand that they were partly responsible for the many hours Americans lost waiting in line to buy gasoline. Today, when the price of crude oil changes, the price of gasoline can adjust to bring supply and demand into equilibrium.

case study: Rent Control in the Short Run and the Long Run

One common example of a price ceiling is rent control. In many cities, the local government places a ceiling on rents that landlords may charge their tenants. The goal of this policy is to help the poor by making housing more affordable. Economists often criticize rent control, arguing that it is a highly inefficient way to help the poor raise their standard of living. One economist called rent control “the best way to destroy a city, other than bombing.”

   The adverse effects of rent control are less apparent to the general population because these effects occur over many years. In the short run, landlords have a fixed number of apartments to rent, and they cannot adjust this number quickly as market conditions change. Moreover, the number of people searching for housing in a city may not be highly responsive to rents in the short run because people take time to adjust their housing arrangements. Therefore, the short-run supply and demand for housing are relatively inelastic.

   Panel (a) of  Figure 3  shows the short-run effects of rent control on the housing market. As with any binding price ceiling, rent control causes a shortage. Yet because supply and demand are inelastic in the short run, the initial shortage caused by rent control is small. The primary effect in the short run is to reduce rents.

FIGURE 3 Rent Control in the Short Run and in the Long Run

Panel (a) shows the short-run effects of rent control: Because the supply and demand curves for apartments are relatively inelastic, the price ceiling imposed by a rent-control law causes only a small shortage of housing. Panel (b) shows the long-run effects of rent control: Because the supply and demand curves for apartments are more elastic, rent control causes a large shortage.

   The long-run story is very different because the buyers and sellers of rental housing respond more to market conditions as time passes. On the supply side, landlords respond to low rents by not building new apartments and by failing to maintain existing ones. On the demand side, low rents encourage people to find their own apartments (rather than living with their parents or sharing apartments with roommates) and induce more people to move into a city. Therefore, both supply and demand are more elastic in the long run.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 3  illustrates the housing market in the long run. When rent control depresses rents below the equilibrium level, the quantity of apartments supplied falls substantially, and the quantity of apartments demanded rises substantially. The result is a large shortage of housing.

   In cities with rent control, landlords use various mechanisms to ration housing. Some landlords keep long waiting lists. Others give a preference to tenants without children. Still others discriminate on the basis of race. Sometimes apartments are allocated to those willing to offer under-the-table payments to building superintendents. In essence, these bribes bring the total price of an apartment closer to the equilibrium price.

   To understand fully the effects of rent control, we have to remember one of the Ten Principles of Economics from  Chapter 1 : People respond to incentives. In free markets, landlords try to keep their buildings clean and safe because desirable apartments command higher prices. By contrast, when rent control creates shortages and waiting lists, landlords lose their incentive to respond to tenants’ concerns. Why should a landlord spend money to maintain and improve the property when people are waiting to get in as it is? In the end, tenants get lower rents, but they also get lower-quality housing.

   Policymakers often react to the effects of rent control by imposing additional regulations. For example, various laws make racial discrimination in housing illegal and require landlords to provide minimally adequate living conditions. These laws, however, are difficult and costly to enforce. By contrast, when rent control is eliminated and a market for housing is regulated by the forces of competition, such laws are less necessary. In a free market, the price of housing adjusts to eliminate the shortages that give rise to undesirable landlord behavior.

6-1b How Price Floors Affect Market Outcomes

To examine the effects of another kind of government price control, let’s return to the market for ice cream. Imagine now that the government is persuaded by the pleas of the National Organization of Ice-Cream Makers whose members feel the $3 equilibrium price is too low. In this case, the government might institute a price floor. Price floors, like price ceilings, are an attempt by the government to maintain prices at other than equilibrium levels. Whereas a price ceiling places a legal maximum on prices, a price floor places a legal minimum.

   When the government imposes a price floor on the ice-cream market, two outcomes are possible. If the government imposes a price floor of $2 per cone when the equilibrium price is $3, we obtain the outcome in panel (a) of  Figure 4 . In this case, because the equilibrium price is above the floor, the price floor is not binding. Market forces naturally move the economy to the equilibrium, and the price floor has no effect.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 4  shows what happens when the government imposes a price floor of $4 per cone. In this case, because the equilibrium price of $3 is below the floor, the price floor is a binding constraint on the market. The forces of supply and demand tend to move the price toward the equilibrium price, but when the market price hits the floor, it can fall no further. The market price equals the price floor. At this floor, the quantity of ice cream supplied (120 cones) exceeds the quantity demanded (80 cones). Some people who want to sell ice cream at the going price are unable to. Thus, a binding price floor causes a surplus.

FIGURE 4 A Market with a Price Floor

In panel (a), the government imposes a price floor of $2. Because this is below the equilibrium price of $3, the price floor has no effect. The market price adjusts to balance supply and demand. At the equilibrium, quantity supplied and quantity demanded both equal 100 cones. In panel (b), the government imposes a price floor of $4, which is above the equilibrium price of $3. Therefore, the market price equals $4. Because 120 cones are supplied at this price and only 80 are demanded, there is a surplus of 40 cones.

   Just as the shortages resulting from price ceilings can lead to undesirable rationing mechanisms, so can the surpluses resulting from price floors. The sellers who appeal to the personal biases of the buyers, perhaps due to racial or familial ties, may be better able to sell their goods than those who do not. By contrast, in a free market, the price serves as the rationing mechanism, and sellers can sell all they want at the equilibrium price.

case study: The Minimum Wage

An important example of a price floor is the minimum wage. Minimum- wage laws dictate the lowest price for labor that any employer may pay. The U.S. Congress first instituted a minimum wage with the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to ensure workers a minimally adequate standard of living. In 2012, the minimum wage according to federal law was $7.25 per hour. (Some states mandate minimum wages above the federal level.) Most European nations have minimum-wage laws as well, sometimes significantly higher than in the United States. For example, average income in France is 27 percent lower than it is in the United States, but the French minimum wage is 9.40 euros per hour, which is about $12 per hour.

   To examine the effects of a minimum wage, we must consider the market for labor. Panel (a) of Figure 5  shows the labor market, which, like all markets, is subject to the forces of supply and demand. Workers determine the supply of labor, and firms determine the demand. If the government doesn’t intervene, the wage normally adjusts to balance labor supply and labor demand.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 5  shows the labor market with a minimum wage. If the minimum wage is above the equilibrium level, as it is here, the quantity of labor supplied exceeds the quantity demanded. The result is unemployment. Thus, the minimum wage raises the incomes of those workers who have jobs, but it lowers the incomes of workers who cannot find jobs.

   To fully understand the minimum wage, keep in mind that the economy contains not a single labor market but many labor markets for different types of workers. The impact of the minimum wage depends on the skill and experience of the worker. Highly skilled and experienced workers are not affected because their equilibrium wages are well above the minimum. For these workers, the minimum wage is not binding.

   The minimum wage has its greatest impact on the market for teenage labor. The equilibrium wages of teenagers are low because teenagers are among the least skilled and least experienced members of the labor force. In addition, teenagers are often willing to accept a lower wage in exchange for on-the-job training. (Some teenagers are willing to work as “interns” for no pay at all. Because internships pay nothing, however, the minimum wage does not apply to them. If it did, these jobs might not exist.) As a result, the minimum wage is binding more often for teenagers than for other members of the labor force.

FIGURE 5 How the Minimum Wage Affects the Labor Market

Panel (a) shows a labor market in which the wage adjusts to balance labor supply and labor demand. Panel (b) shows the impact of a binding minimum wage. Because the minimum wage is a price floor, it causes a surplus: The quantity of labor supplied exceeds the quantity demanded. The result is unemployment.

   Many economists have studied how minimum-wage laws affect the teenage labor market. These researchers compare the changes in the minimum wage over time with the changes in teenage employment. Although there is some debate about how much the minimum wage affects employment, the typical study finds that a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage depresses teenage employment between 1 and 3 percent. In interpreting this estimate, note that a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage does not raise the average wage of teenagers by 10 percent. A change in the law does not directly affect those teenagers who are already paid well above the minimum, and enforcement of minimum-wage laws is not perfect. Thus, the estimated drop in employment of 1 to 3 percent is significant.

   In addition to altering the quantity of labor demanded, the minimum wage alters the quantity supplied. Because the minimum wage raises the wage that teenagers can earn, it increases the number of teenagers who choose to look for jobs. Studies have found that a higher minimum wage influences which teenagers are employed. When the minimum wage rises, some teenagers who are still attending high school choose to drop out and take jobs. These new dropouts displace other teenagers who had already dropped out of school and who now become unemployed.

   The minimum wage is a frequent topic of debate. Economists are about evenly divided on the issue. In a 2006 survey of Ph.D. economists, 47 percent favored eliminating the minimum wage, while 14 percent would maintain it at its current level and 38 percent would increase it.

   Advocates of the minimum wage view the policy as one way to raise the income of the working poor. They correctly point out that workers who earn the minimum wage can afford only a meager standard of living. In 2012, for instance, when the minimum wage was $7.25 per hour, two adults working 40 hours a week for every week of the year at minimum-wage jobs had a total annual income of only $30,160, which was less than two-thirds of the median family income in the United States. Many advocates of the minimum wage admit that it has some adverse effects, including unemployment, but they believe that these effects are small and that, all things considered, a higher minimum wage makes the poor better off.

   Opponents of the minimum wage contend that it is not the best way to combat poverty. They note that a high minimum wage causes unemployment, encourages teenagers to drop out of school, and prevents some unskilled workers from getting the on-the-job training they need. Moreover, opponents of the minimum wage point out that it is a poorly targeted policy. Not all minimum-wage workers are heads of households trying to help their families escape poverty. In fact, fewer than a third of minimum-wage earners are in families with incomes below the poverty line. Many are teenagers from middle-class homes working at part-time jobs for extra spending money.

6-1c Evaluating Price Controls

One of the Ten Principles of Economics discussed in  Chapter 1  is that markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity. This principle explains why economists usually oppose price ceilings and price floors. To economists, prices are not the outcome of some haphazard process. Prices, they contend, are the result of the millions of business and consumer decisions that lie behind the supply and demand curves. Prices have the crucial job of balancing supply and demand and, thereby, coordinating economic activity. When policymakers set prices by legal decree, they obscure the signals that normally guide the allocation of society’s resources.

IN THE NEWS: Venezuela versus the Market

This is what happens when political leaders replace market prices with their own.

With Venezuelan Food Shortages, Some Blame Price Controls

By William Neuman

CARACAS , Venezuela — By 6:30 a.m., a full hour and a half before the store would open, about two dozen people were already in line. They waited patiently, not for the latest iPhone, but for something far more basic: groceries.

   “Whatever I can get,” said Katherine Huga, 23, a mother of two, describing her shopping list. She gave a shrug of resignation. “You buy what they have.”

   Venezuela is one of the world’s top oil producers at a time of soaring energy prices, yet shortages of staples like milk, meat and toilet paper are a chronic part of life here, often turning grocery shopping into a hit or miss proposition.

   Some residents arrange their calendars around the once-a-week deliveries made to government-subsidized stores like this one, lining up before dawn to buy a single frozen chicken before the stock runs out. Or a couple of bags of flour. Or a bottle of cooking oil.

   The shortages affect both the poor and the well-off, in surprising ways. A supermarket in the upscale La Castellana neighborhood recently had plenty of chicken and cheese—even quail eggs—but not a single roll of toilet paper. Only a few bags of coffee remained on a bottom shelf.

   Asked where a shopper could get milk on a day when that, too, was out of stock, a manager said with sarcasm, “At Chávez’s house.”

   At the heart of the debate is President Hugo Chávez’s socialist-inspired government, which imposes strict price controls that are intended to make a range of foods and other goods more affordable for the poor. They are often the very products that are the hardest to find.

   “Venezuela is too rich a country to have this,” Nery Reyes, 55, a restaurant worker, said outside a government-subsidized store in the working-class Santa Rosalía neighborhood. “I’m wasting my day here standing in line to buy one chicken and some rice.”

   Venezuela was long one of the most prosperous countries in the region, with sophisticated manufacturing, vibrant agriculture and strong businesses, making it hard for many residents to accept such widespread scarcities. But amid the prosperity, the gap between rich and poor was extreme, a problem that Mr. Chávez and his ministers say they are trying to eliminate.

   They blame unfettered capitalism for the country’s economic ills and argue that controls are needed to keep prices in check in a country where inflation rose to 27.6 percent last year, one of the highest rates in the world. They say companies cause shortages on purpose, holding products off the market to push up prices. This month, the government required price cuts on fruit juice, toothpaste, disposable diapers and more than a dozen other products.

   “We are not asking them to lose money, just that they make money in a rational way, that they don’t rob the people,” Mr. Chávez said recently.

   But many economists call it a classic case of a government causing a problem rather than solving it. Prices are set so low, they say, that companies and producers cannot make a profit. So farmers grow less food, manufacturers cut back production and retailers stock less inventory. Moreover, some of the shortages are in industries, like dairy and coffee, where the government has seized private companies and is now running them, saying it is in the national interest.

   In January, according to a scarcity index compiled by the Central Bank of Venezuela, the difficulty of finding basic goods on store shelves was at its worst level since 2008. While that measure has eased considerably, many products can still be hard to come by.

   Datanálisis, a polling firm that regularly tracks scarcities, said that powdered milk, a staple here, could not be found in 42 percent of the stores its researchers visited in early March. Liquid milk can be even harder to find.

   Other products in short supply last month, according to Datanálisis, included beef, chicken, vegetable oil and sugar. The polling firm also says that the problem is most extreme in the government-subsidized stores that were created to provide affordable food to the poor….

   Francisco Rodríguez, an economist with Bank of America Merrill Lynch who studies the Venezuelan economy, said the government might score some political points with the new round of price controls. But over time, he argued, they will spell trouble for the economy.

   “In the medium to long term, this is going to be a disaster,” Mr. Rodriguez said.

   The price controls also mean that products missing from store shelves usually show up on the black market at much higher prices, a source of outrage for many. For government supporters, that is proof of speculation. Others say it is the consequence of a misguided policy….

   If there is one product that Venezuela should be able to produce in abundance it is coffee, a major crop here for centuries. Until 2009, Venezuela was a coffee exporter, but it began importing large amounts of it three years ago to make up for a decline in production.

   Farmers and coffee roasters say the problem is simple: retail price controls keep prices close to or below what it costs farmers to grow and harvest the coffee. As a result, many do not invest in new plantings or fertilizer, or they cut back on the amount of land used to grow coffee. Making matters worse, the recent harvest was poor in many areas.

   A group representing small- to medium-size roasters said last month that there was no domestic coffee left on the wholesale market—the earliest time of year that industry leaders could remember such supplies running out. The group announced a deal with the government to buy imported beans to keep coffee on store shelves.

   Similar problems have played out with other agricultural products under price controls, like lags in production and rising imports for beef, milk and corn.

   Waiting in line to buy chicken and other staples, Jenny Montero, 30, recalled how she could not find cooking oil last fall and had to switch from the fried food she prefers to soups and stews.

   “It was good for me,” she said drily, pushing her 14-month-old daughter in a stroller. “I lost several pounds.”

Source: New York Times, April 20, 2012.

   Another one of the Ten Principles of Economics is that governments can sometimes improve market outcomes. Indeed, policymakers are led to control prices because they view the market’s outcome as unfair. Price controls are often aimed at helping the poor. For instance, rent-control laws try to make housing affordable for everyone, and minimum-wage laws try to help people escape poverty.

   Yet price controls often hurt those they are trying to help. Rent control may keep rents low, but it also discourages landlords from maintaining their buildings and makes housing hard to find. Minimum-wage laws may raise the incomes of some workers, but they also cause other workers to be unemployed.

   Helping those in need can be accomplished in ways other than controlling prices. For instance, the government can make housing more affordable by paying a fraction of the rent for poor families. Unlike rent control, such rent subsidies do not reduce the quantity of housing supplied and, therefore, do not lead to housing shortages. Similarly, wage subsidies raise the living standards of the working poor without discouraging firms from hiring them. An example of a wage subsidy is the earned income tax credit, a government program that supplements the incomes of low-wage workers.

   Although these alternative policies are often better than price controls, they are not perfect. Rent and wage subsidies cost the government money and, therefore, require higher taxes. As we see in the next section, taxation has costs of its own.

Quick Quiz Define price ceiling and price floor and give an example of each. Which leads to a shortage? Which leads to a surplus? Why?

6-2 Taxes

All governments—from the federal government in Washington, D.C., to the local governments in small towns—use taxes to raise revenue for public projects, such as roads, schools, and national defense. Because taxes are such an important policy instrument, and because they affect our lives in many ways, we return to the study of taxes several times throughout this book. In this section, we begin our study of how taxes affect the economy.

   To set the stage for our analysis, imagine that a local government decides to hold an annual ice-cream celebration—with a parade, fireworks, and speeches by town officials. To raise revenue to pay for the event, the town decides to place a $0.50 tax on the sale of ice-cream cones. When the plan is announced, our two lobbying groups swing into action. The American Association of Ice-Cream Eaters claims that consumers of ice cream are having trouble making ends meet, and it argues that sellers of ice cream should pay the tax. The National Organization of Ice-Cream Makers claims that its members are struggling to survive in a competitive market, and it argues that buyersof ice cream should pay the tax. The town mayor, hoping to reach a compromise, suggests that half the tax be paid by the buyers and half be paid by the sellers.

   To analyze these proposals, we need to address a simple but subtle question: When the government levies a tax on a good, who actually bears the burden of the tax? The people buying the good? The people selling the good? Or if buyers and sellers share the tax burden, what determines how the burden is divided? Can the government simply legislate the division of the burden, as the mayor is suggesting, or is the division determined by more fundamental market forces? The term tax incidence  refers to how the burden of a tax is distributed among the various people who make up the economy. As we will see, some surprising lessons about tax incidence can be learned by applying the tools of supply and demand.

tax incidence

the manner in which the burden of a tax is shared among participants in a market

6-2a How Taxes on Sellers Affect Market Outcomes

We begin by considering a tax levied on sellers of a good. Suppose the local government passes a law requiring sellers of ice-cream cones to send $0.50 to the government for each cone they sell. How does this law affect the buyers and sellers of ice cream? To answer this question, we can follow the three steps in  Chapter 4  for analyzing supply and demand: (1) We decide whether the law affects the supply curve or demand curve. (2) We decide which way the curve shifts. (3) We examine how the shift affects the equilibrium price and quantity.

Step One The immediate impact of the tax is on the sellers of ice cream. Because the tax is not levied on buyers, the quantity of ice cream demanded at any given price is the same; thus, the demand curve does not change. By contrast, the tax on sellers makes the ice-cream business less profitable at any given price, so it shifts the supply curve.

Step Two Because the tax on sellers raises the cost of producing and selling ice cream, it reduces the quantity supplied at every price. The supply curve shifts to the left (or, equivalently, upward).

   In addition to determining the direction in which the supply curve moves, we can also be precise about the size of the shift. For any market price of ice cream, the effective price to sellers—the amount they get to keep after paying the tax—is $0.50 lower. For example, if the market price of a cone happened to be $2.00, the effective price received by sellers would be $1.50. Whatever the market price, sellers will supply a quantity of ice cream as if the price were $0.50 lower than it is. Put differently, to induce sellers to supply any given quantity, the market price must now be $0.50 higher to compensate for the effect of the tax. Thus, as shown in  Figure 6 , the supply curve shiftsupward from S1 to S2 by the exact size of the tax ($0.50).

FIGURE 6 A Tax on Sellers

When a tax of $0.50 is levied on sellers, the supply curve shifts up by $0.50 from S1 to S2. The equilibrium quantity falls from 100 to 90 cones. The price that buyers pay rises from $3.00 to $3.30. The price that sellers receive (after paying the tax) falls from $3.00 to $2.80. Even though the tax is levied on sellers, buyers and sellers share the burden of the tax.

Step Three Having determined how the supply curve shifts, we can now compare the initial and the new equilibriums.  Figure 6  shows that the equilibrium price of ice cream rises from $3.00 to $3.30, and the equilibrium quantity falls from 100 to 90 cones. Because sellers sell less and buyers buy less in the new equilibrium, the tax reduces the size of the ice-cream market.

Implications We can now return to the question of tax incidence: Who pays the tax? Although sellers send the entire tax to the government, buyers and sellers share the burden. Because the market price rises from $3.00 to $3.30 when the tax is introduced, buyers pay $0.30 more for each ice-cream cone than they did without the tax. Thus, the tax makes buyers worse off. Sellers get a higher price ($3.30) from buyers than they did previously, but what they get to keep after paying the tax is only $2.80 ($3.30 − $0.50 = $2.80), compared with $3.00 before the tax was implemented. Thus, the tax also makes sellers worse off.

   To sum up, this analysis yields two lessons:

· • Taxes discourage market activity. When a good is taxed, the quantity of the good sold is smaller in the new equilibrium.

· • Buyers and sellers share the burden of taxes. In the new equilibrium, buyers pay more for the good, and sellers receive less.

6-2b How Taxes on Buyers Affect Market Outcomes

Now consider a tax levied on buyers of a good. Suppose that our local government passes a law requiring buyers of ice-cream cones to send $0.50 to the government for each ice-cream cone they buy. What are the effects of this law? Again, we apply our three steps.

Step One The initial impact of the tax is on the demand for ice cream. The supply curve is not affected because, for any given price of ice cream, sellers have the same incentive to provide ice cream to the market. By contrast, buyers now have to pay a tax to the government (as well as the price to the sellers) whenever they buy ice cream. Thus, the tax shifts the demand curve for ice cream.

Step Two We next determine the direction of the shift. Because the tax on buyers makes buying ice cream less attractive, buyers demand a smaller quantity of ice cream at every price. As a result, the demand curve shifts to the left (or, equivalently, downward), as shown in  Figure 7 .

   Once again, we can be precise about the size of the shift. Because of the $0.50 tax levied on buyers, the effective price to buyers is now $0.50 higher than the market price (whatever the market price happens to be). For example, if the market price of a cone happened to be $2.00, the effective price to buyers would be $2.50. Because buyers look at their total cost including the tax, they demand a quantity of ice cream as if the market price were $0.50 higher than it actually is. In other words, to induce buyers to demand any given quantity, the market price must now be $0.50 lower to make up for the effect of the tax. Thus, the tax shifts the demand curve downward from D1to D2 by the exact size of the tax ($0.50).

Step Three Having determined how the demand curve shifts, we can now see the effect of the tax by comparing the initial equilibrium and the new equilibrium. You can see in  Figure 7  that the equilibrium price of ice cream falls from $3.00 to $2.80, and the equilibrium quantity falls from 100 to 90 cones. Once again, the tax on ice cream reduces the size of the ice-cream market. And once again, buyers and sellers share the burden of the tax. Sellers get a lower price for their product; buyers pay a lower market price to sellers than they did previously, but the effective price (including the tax buyers have to pay) rises from $3.00 to $3.30.

FIGURE 7 A Tax on Buyers

When a tax of $0.50 is levied on buyers, the demand curve shifts down by $0.50 from D1 to D2. The equilibrium quantity falls from 100 to 90 cones. The price that sellers receive falls from $3.00 to $2.80. The price that buyers pay (including the tax) rises from $3.00 to $3.30. Even though the tax is levied on buyers, buyers and sellers share the burden of the tax.

Implications If you compare  Figures 6  and  7 , you will notice a surprising conclusion: Taxes levied on sellers and taxes levied on buyers are equivalent. In both cases, the tax places a wedge between the price that buyers pay and the price that sellers receive. The wedge between the buyers’ price and the sellers’ price is the same, regardless of whether the tax is levied on buyers or sellers. In either case, the wedge shifts the relative position of the supply and demand curves. In the new equilibrium, buyers and sellers share the burden of the tax. The only difference between a tax levied on sellers and a tax levied on buyers is who sends the money to the government.

   The equivalence of these two taxes is easy to understand if we imagine that the government collects the $0.50 ice-cream tax in a bowl on the counter of each ice-cream store. When the government levies the tax on sellers, the seller is required to place $0.50 in the bowl after the sale of each cone. When the government levies the tax on buyers, the buyer is required to place $0.50 in the bowl every time a cone is bought. Whether the $0.50 goes directly from the buyer’s pocket into the bowl, or indirectly from the buyer’s pocket into the seller’s hand and then into the bowl, does not matter. Once the market reaches its new equilibrium, buyers and sellers share the burden, regardless of how the tax is levied.

case study: Can Congress Distribute the Burden of a Payroll Tax?

If you have ever received a paycheck, you probably noticed that taxes were deducted from the amount you earned. One of these taxes is called FICA, an acronym for the Federal Insurance Contributions Act. The federal government uses the revenue from the FICA tax to pay for Social Security and Medicare, the income support and healthcare programs for the elderly. FICA is an example of a payroll tax, which is a tax on the wages that firms pay their workers. In 2013, the total FICA tax for the typical worker was 15.3 percent of earnings.

   Who do you think bears the burden of this payroll tax—firms or workers? When Congress passed this legislation, it tried to mandate a division of the tax burden. According to the law, half of the tax is paid by firms, and half is paid by workers. That is, half of the tax is paid out of firms’ revenues, and half is deducted from workers’ paychecks. The amount that shows up as a deduction on your pay stub is the worker contribution.

   Our analysis of tax incidence, however, shows that lawmakers cannot so easily dictate the distribution of a tax burden. To illustrate, we can analyze a payroll tax as merely a tax on a good, where the good is labor and the price is the wage. The key feature of the payroll tax is that it places a wedge between the wage that firms pay and the wage that workers receive.  Figure 8  shows the outcome. When a payroll tax is enacted, the wage received by workers falls, and the wage paid by firms rises. In the end, workers and firms share the burden of the tax, much as the legislation requires. Yet this division of the tax burden between workers and firms has nothing to do with the legislated division: The division of the burden in  Figure 8  is not necessarily 50-50, and the same outcome would prevail if the law levied the entire tax on workers or if it levied the entire tax on firms.

   This example shows that the most basic lesson of tax incidence is often overlooked in public debate. Lawmakers can decide whether a tax comes from the buyer’s pocket or from the seller’s, but they cannot legislate the true burden of a tax. Rather, tax incidence depends on the forces of supply and demand.

FIGURE 8 A Payroll Tax

A payroll tax places a wedge between the wage that workers receive and the wage that firms pay. Comparing wages with and without the tax, you can see that workers and firms share the tax burden. This division of the tax burden between workers and firms does not depend on whether the government levies the tax on workers, levies the tax on firms, or divides the tax equally between the two groups.

6-2c Elasticity and Tax Incidence

When a good is taxed, buyers and sellers of the good share the burden of the tax. But how exactly is the tax burden divided? Only rarely will it be shared equally. To see how the burden is divided, consider the impact of taxation in the two markets in  Figure 9 . In both cases, the figure shows the initial demand curve, the initial supply curve, and a tax that drives a wedge between the amount paid by buyers and the amount received by sellers. (Not drawn in either panel of the figure is the new supply or demand curve. Which curve shifts depends on whether the tax is levied on buyers or sellers. As we have seen, this is irrelevant for the incidence of the tax.) The difference in the two panels is the relative elasticity of supply and demand.

   Panel (a) of  Figure 9  shows a tax in a market with very elastic supply and relatively inelastic demand. That is, sellers are very responsive to changes in the price of the good (so the supply curve is relatively flat), whereas buyers are not very responsive (so the demand curve is relatively steep). When a tax is imposed on a market with these elasticities, the price received by sellers does not fall much, so sellers bear only a small burden. By contrast, the price paid by buyers rises substantially, indicating that buyers bear most of the burden of the tax.

   Panel (b) of  Figure 9  shows a tax in a market with relatively inelastic supply and very elastic demand. In this case, sellers are not very responsive to changes in the price (so the supply curve is steeper), whereas buyers are very responsive (so the demand curve is flatter). The figure shows that when a tax is imposed, the price paid by buyers does not rise much, but the price received by sellers falls substantially. Thus, sellers bear most of the burden of the tax.

   The two panels of  Figure 9  show a general lesson about how the burden of a tax is divided: A tax burden falls more heavily on the side of the market that is less elastic. Why is this true? In essence, the elasticity measures the willingness of buyers or sellers to leave the market when conditions become unfavorable. A small elasticity of demand means that buyers do not have good alternatives to consuming this particular good. A small elasticity of supply means that sellers do not have good alternatives to producing this particular good. When the good is taxed, the side of the market with fewer good alternatives is less willing to leave the market and must, therefore, bear more of the burden of the tax.

FIGURE 9 How the Burden of a Tax Is Divided

In panel (a), the supply curve is elastic, and the demand curve is inelastic. In this case, the price received by sellers falls only slightly, while the price paid by buyers rises substantially. Thus, buyers bear most of the burden of the tax. In panel (b), the supply curve is inelastic, and the demand curve is elastic. In this case, the price received by sellers falls substantially, while the price paid by buyers rises only slightly. Thus, sellers bear most of the burden of the tax.

   We can apply this logic to the payroll tax discussed in the previous case study. Most labor economists believe that the supply of labor is much less elastic than the demand. This means that workers, rather than firms, bear most of the burden of the payroll tax. In other words, the distribution of the tax burden is far from the 50-50 split that lawmakers intended.

case study: Who Pays the Luxury Tax?

In 1990, Congress adopted a new luxury tax on items such as yachts, private airplanes, furs, jewelry, and expensive cars. The goal of the tax was to raise revenue from those who could most easily afford to pay. Because only the rich could afford to buy such extravagances, taxing luxuries seemed a logical way of taxing the rich.

   Yet, when the forces of supply and demand took over, the outcome was quite different from the one Congress intended. Consider, for example, the market for yachts. The demand for yachts is quite elastic. A millionaire can easily not buy a yacht; he can use the money to buy a bigger house, take a European vacation, or leave a larger bequest to his heirs. By contrast, the supply of yachts is relatively inelastic, at least in the short run. Yacht factories are not easily converted to alternative uses, and workers who build yachts are not eager to change careers in response to changing market conditions.

   Our analysis makes a clear prediction in this case. With elastic demand and inelastic supply, the burden of a tax falls largely on the suppliers. That is, a tax on yachts places a burden largely on the firms and workers who build yachts because they end up getting a significantly lower price for their product. The workers, however, are not wealthy. Thus, the burden of a luxury tax falls more on the middle class than on the rich.

   The mistaken assumptions about the incidence of the luxury tax quickly became apparent after the tax went into effect. Suppliers of luxuries made their congressional representatives well aware of the economic hardship they experienced, and Congress repealed most of the luxury tax in 1993.

“If this boat were any more expensive, we’d be playing golf.”

Quick Quiz In a supply-and-demand diagram, show how a tax on car buyers of $1,000 per car affects the quantity of cars sold and the price of cars. In another diagram, show how a tax on car sellers of $1,000 per car affects the quantity of cars sold and the price of cars. In both of your diagrams, show the change in the price paid by car buyers and the change in the price received by car sellers.

6-3 Conclusion

The economy is governed by two kinds of laws: the laws of supply and demand and the laws enacted by governments. In this chapter, we have begun to see how these laws interact. Price controls and taxes are common in various markets in the economy, and their effects are frequently debated in the press and among policymakers. Even a little bit of economic knowledge can go a long way toward understanding and evaluating these policies.

   In subsequent chapters, we analyze many government policies in greater detail. We examine the effects of taxation more fully and consider a broader range of policies than we considered here. Yet the basic lessons of this chapter will not change: When analyzing government policies, supply and demand are the first and most useful tools of analysis.

Summary

· • A price ceiling is a legal maximum on the price of a good or service. An example is rent control. If the price ceiling is below the equilibrium price, then the price ceiling is binding, and the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied. Because of the resulting shortage, sellers must in some way ration the good or service among buyers.

· • A price floor is a legal minimum on the price of a good or service. An example is the minimum wage. If the price floor is above the equilibrium price, then the price floor is binding, and the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded. Because of the resulting surplus, buyers’ demands for the good or service must in some way be rationed among sellers.

· • When the government levies a tax on a good, the equilibrium quantity of the good falls. That is, a tax on a market shrinks the size of the market.

· • A tax on a good places a wedge between the price paid by buyers and the price received by sellers. When the market moves to the new equilibrium, buyers pay more for the good and sellers receive less for it. In this sense, buyers and sellers share the tax burden. The incidence of a tax (that is, the division of the tax burden) does not depend on whether the tax is levied on buyers or sellers.

· • The incidence of a tax depends on the price elasticities of supply and demand. Most of the burden falls on the side of the market that is less elastic because that side of the market cannot respond as easily to the tax by changing the quantity bought or sold.

Key Concepts

price ceiling p. 112

price floor p. 112

tax incidence p. 122

Questions for Review

· 1. Give an example of a price ceiling and an example of a price floor.

· 2. Which causes a shortage of a good—a price ceiling or a price floor? Justify your answer with a graph.

· 3. What mechanisms allocate resources when the price of a good is not allowed to bring supply and demand into equilibrium?

· 4. Explain why economists usually oppose controls on prices.

· 5. Suppose the government removes a tax on buyers of a good and levies a tax of the same size on sellers of the good. How does this change in tax policy affect the price that buyers pay sellers for this good, the amount buyers are out of pocket (including any tax payments they make), the amount sellers receive (net of any tax payments they make), and the quantity of the good sold?

· 6. How does a tax on a good affect the price paid by buyers, the price received by sellers, and the quantity sold?

· 7. What determines how the burden of a tax is divided between buyers and sellers? Why?

Quick Check Multiple Choice

· 1. When the government imposes a binding price floor, it causes

· a. the supply curve to shift to the left.

· b. the demand curve to shift to the right.

· c. a shortage of the good to develop.

· d. a surplus of the good to develop.

· 2. In a market with a binding price ceiling, an increase in the ceiling will ___________ the quantity supplied, ___________ the quantity demanded, and reduce the ___________.

· a. increase, decrease, surplus

· b. decrease, increase, surplus

· c. increase, decrease, shortage

· d. decrease, increase, shortage

· 3. A $1 per unit tax levied on consumers of a good is equivalent to

· a. a $1 per unit tax levied on producers of the good.

· b. a $1 per unit subsidy paid to producers of the good.

· c. a price floor that raises the good’s price by $1 per unit.

· d. a price ceiling that raises the good’s price by $1 per unit.

· 4. Which of the following would increase quantity supplied, decrease quantity demanded, and increase the price that consumers pay?

· a. the imposition of a binding price floor

· b. the removal of a binding price floor

· c. the passage of a tax levied on producers

· d. the repeal of a tax levied on producers

· 5. Which of the following would increase quantity supplied, increase quantity demanded, and decrease the price that consumers pay?

· a. the imposition of a binding price floor

· b. the removal of a binding price floor

· c. the passage of a tax levied on producers

· d. the repeal of a tax levied on producers

· 6. When a good is taxed, the burden of the tax falls mainly on consumers if

· a. the tax is levied on consumers.

· b. the tax is levied on producers.

· c. supply is inelastic, and demand is elastic.

· d. supply is elastic, and demand is inelastic.

Problems and Applications

· 1. Lovers of classical music persuade Congress to impose a price ceiling of $40 per concert ticket. As a result of this policy, do more or fewer people attend classical music concerts? Explain.

· 2. The government has decided that the free-market price of cheese is too low.

· a. Suppose the government imposes a binding price floor in the cheese market. Draw a supply-and-demand diagram to show the effect of this policy on the price of cheese and the quantity of cheese sold. Is there a shortage or surplus of cheese?

· b. Producers of cheese complain that the price floor has reduced their total revenue. Is this possible? Explain.

· c. In response to cheese producers’ complaints, the government agrees to purchase all the surplus cheese at the price floor. Compared to the basic price floor, who benefits from this new policy? Who loses?

· 3. A recent study found that the demand and supply schedules for Frisbees are as follows:

Price per FrisbeeQuantity DemandedQuantity Supplied
$111 million Frisbees15 million Frisbees
10212
949
866
783
6101

· a. What are the equilibrium price and quantity of Frisbees?

· b. Frisbee manufacturers persuade the government that Frisbee production improves scientists’ understanding of aerodynamics and thus is important for national security. A concerned Congress votes to impose a price floor $2 above the equilibrium price. What is the new market price? How many Frisbees are sold?

· c. Irate college students march on Washington and demand a reduction in the price of Frisbees. An even more concerned Congress votes to repeal the price floor and impose a price ceiling $1 below the former price floor. What is the new market price? How many Frisbees are sold?

· 4. Suppose the federal government requires beer drinkers to pay a $2 tax on each case of beer purchased. (In fact, both the federal and state governments impose beer taxes of some sort.)

· a. Draw a supply-and-demand diagram of the market for beer without the tax. Show the price paid by consumers, the price received by producers, and the quantity of beer sold. What is the difference between the price paid by consumers and the price received by producers?

· b. Now draw a supply-and-demand diagram for the beer market with the tax. Show the price paid by consumers, the price received by producers, and the quantity of beer sold. What is the difference between the price paid by consumers and the price received by producers? Has the quantity of beer sold increased or decreased?

· 5. A senator wants to raise tax revenue and make workers better off. A staff member proposes raising the payroll tax paid by firms and using part of the extra revenue to reduce the payroll tax paid by workers. Would this accomplish the senator’s goal? Explain.

· 6. If the government places a $500 tax on luxury cars, will the price paid by consumers rise by more than $500, less than $500, or exactly $500? Explain.

· 7. Congress and the president decide that the United States should reduce air pollution by reducing its use of gasoline. They impose a $0.50 tax on each gallon of gasoline sold.

· a. Should they impose this tax on producers or consumers? Explain carefully using a supply-and-demand diagram.

· b. If the demand for gasoline were more elastic, would this tax be more effective or less effective in reducing the quantity of gasoline consumed? Explain with both words and a diagram.

· c. Are consumers of gasoline helped or hurt by this tax? Why?

· d. Are workers in the oil industry helped or hurt by this tax? Why?

· 8. A case study in this chapter discusses the federal minimum-wage law.

· a. Suppose the minimum wage is above the equilibrium wage in the market for unskilled labor. Using a supply-and-demand diagram of the market for unskilled labor, show the market wage, the number of workers who are employed, and the number of workers who are unemployed. Also show the total wage payments to unskilled workers.

· b. Now suppose the secretary of labor proposes an increase in the minimum wage. What effect would this increase have on employment? Does the change in employment depend on the elasticity of demand, the elasticity of supply, both elasticities, or neither?

· c. What effect would this increase in the minimum wage have on unemployment? Does the change in unemployment depend on the elasticity of demand, the elasticity of supply, both elasticities, or neither?

· d. If the demand for unskilled labor were inelastic, would the proposed increase in the minimum wage raise or lower total wage payments to unskilled workers? Would your answer change if the demand for unskilled labor were elastic?

· 9. At Fenway Park, home of the Boston Red Sox, seating is limited to 39,000. Hence, the number of tickets issued is fixed at that figure. Seeing a golden opportunity to raise revenue, the City of Boston levies a per ticket tax of $5 to be paid by the ticket buyer. Boston sports fans, a famously civic-minded lot, dutifully send in the $5 per ticket. Draw a well-labeled graph showing the impact of the tax. On whom does the tax burden fall—the team’s owners, the fans, or both? Why?

· 10. A subsidy is the opposite of a tax. With a $0.50 tax on the buyers of ice-cream cones, the government collects $0.50 for each cone purchased; with a $0.50 subsidy for the buyers of ice-cream cones, the government pays buyers $0.50 for each cone purchased.

· a. Show the effect of a $0.50 per cone subsidy on the demand curve for ice-cream cones, the effective price paid by consumers, the effective price received by sellers, and the quantity of cones sold.

· b. Do consumers gain or lose from this policy? Do producers gain or lose? Does the government gain or lose?