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Observational Essay

Observational Essay

            In this paper, it is critically analyzed using the regulatory framework of the observational notes about phenomenon happening in the school as per academic curriculum or the environment. I have selected the person as an English teacher in my school as a subject of this implicit or indirect observational analysis. I have observed for more than ten hours an English teacher of fourth grade as a new work is explored to me about the world or profession of teaching. The subject of psychology has played a great role in my learning process about the teaching. I have come to analysis that the teaching is not an easy task that the world perceives about; however, it involves the sincere passion or dedication.

            For an instance, I have noted that the four aspects of the base for the knowledge. The first one is the knowledge integrated to the content, the knowledge that has the content oriented to the pedagogical framework, the knowledge that has the base form the pedagogical of general theories and the last one is the learning or learners’ ability saturated to the knowledge. These four aspects are very necessary observational phenomena that lift my attention in monitoring closely how the teacher pay attention to every individual student in the environment of class while delivering lecture having the knowledge about the core principles of the subject in which she had command.

            I thoroughly examined how the lessons were portrayed for her to the students while the response of the students in listening to her following the rules, routine activities and the performance in their home tasks. The discussion in the class with the students as characteristics of her personality maintains the situation of peace and authority. The teacher always maintained the healthy environment along with the maintenance of the classroom environment as the ideal place for the students to learn efficiently. The tasks of the students were in front of the desk where the teacher for the clear view or evaluation of the whole classroom. This strategy was as very effective in view of my observations; the posters were the necessary part of the learning material for transferring the ethical lessons into the minds in how they become an active or responsible citizen. For an instance in one poster, the processes or steps of English writing were presented in a so logical framework that the students would look at whenever they need in the writing session.

             The encouragement was also used as a core strategy of teachings from her as the exceptional work tasks from one student is represented or expressed in front of the whole class so the other could follow the example of that work of that particular student. The rapport that the teacher developed in the classroom environment was phenomenal as the friendly relationship was built while taking care of each individual student of her, so that the students could sense the feelings of the utmost care, learning environment and security. Before starting, any novel subject, which could provide the mental stress to the students, would start while asking the question in a manner that the students do not feel the toughness in the learning process. This allows both the teacher and her students to engage with each other for the efficient work or performance of academic curriculum.

            The knowledge about the subject as per the regulatory framework of education pedagogical specific learning process was the first thing that hit into my mind when I started observing the teacher of the fourth grade teaching English. The projects that were given to the students prove that the teacher provides the full liberty to the students in which they would give the access of choose those topics specifically in which they have the grip.

            These topics of their interests or that topic so that they would put the wholehearted attention to the project so that practical implications go hand in hand with the theoretical learning is analyzed. The bond must need to create in my view while looking or observe the lecture delivery or cohesion of that fourth-grade teacher with the students was exclamatory in terms of the answering the relevant question of the students in that process is the most critical part. The initiative must be taken from the side of the teacher so that the students would encourage about the key prospects of the learning academic principles of the curriculum and especially in context the English language in where the teacher has mastery skills or core abilities to take in a professional the whole atmosphere of the classroom.

            The general pedagogical aspect of the content based knowledge is applied to the teaching framework from this fourth grade English teacher for a view of my observational analysis is integrated into the framework that would contain the environment or feeling of the relaxed environment imagining that nothing illogical would perceive. The strategy in the teaching style for that teacher was related in a way that, the students’ bedside feeling the sense of security in learning the new things that would help in the future time of the academic tenure.

             However the sense of the students made into the ownership of acquiring moral training development but also the training I term of moral basic principles was the core objective that this teacher exhibited in her way of interaction within the class. For example a poster was portrayed in the class showcasing that the horse was involved in using the cigarettes, the caption of that picture was stating that if that feels stupid, then what about the case of the stupidity when the human beings day or night involved in damaging their health through the affluent use of the cigarettes.

            The pedagogical content of the knowledge-based learning module was used from that teacher that the work of the student was considered as a little weak in the cadmic performance or results was not express in front of the whole as she o for the outstanding or bright students. The student considers a bit weak was given as special counseling part of the clinical application of the counseling or psychological treatments in order to bring in that student with the race of the other students are having no trouble on the contemporary term.

            The bookshelf in the classroom was maintained in ay that would make utility the leisure or the extra time of them in the most productive manner as the students could able to read the  books in their free time in which they found the primary or the core interests is analyzed explicitly. While doing any sought of the projects or the assignments which are the elementary or the integral part especially for the students in the fourth grade eager to learn the English language.

            The issues were also placed in that bookshelf so that they could have the utility or making tidiness as the core integral part of their personality in the grooming stage in the school. The colors were also placed in the bookshelf in the classroom so that the environment of the classroom is maintained the rich of creativity along with the academic material supporting the students’ ability to learn as fast as possible. In my view during the entire observational analysis that the learning the creativity enriched environment was the core essential part of the learning environment of that specific environment of the classroom.

             In the end, it is concluded that the pedagogical content of knowledge as a core learning module used by the person or the teacher to whom I have been observing as an observational analysis. The attention that the teachers pay to the students, the style of teaching, exploratory way of transferring the lecture or the knowledge in not only academic curriculum or framework but also the moral or practical learning development for the students from the little objects as the classroom environment was a great learning experience proves for me in the end eventually. The teaching is a great profession and demands a lot of respect from all the stakeholders of the community especially from students in which academic engagement would occur at the best of the class.

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Social Science

Abstract

In South Africa, the surge of Rock art is in the limelight. This is necessary to navigate the Rock art, conducted by ancient people to express their behaviors, feelings and intentions towards different things. This is a fact that there are many problems regarding the understanding and description of meanings from these rock art painting and characters. However, this is related to the society, which makes the South Africa Society difference from other societies in the world. The integration of culture and society of South Africa through these rock engravings is necessary to derive the insights from the history and wildlife is well. This is all about to navigate the human behaviors and intentions in the society of the South Africa. However, the perception of different people regarding this art cannot be ignored.

Social Science

Rock Art: South African
South Africa

            The social science relates with the society and relationship among different individuals. This is necessary to examine the social science along with its different branches. The different branches of social science are political science, demography, economics, human geography, sociology, and psychology. This is a fact that people around us behavior or react differently. In a society, this has been seen that every individual have a different perception, preferences, and mentality to deal different things. The study of this behavior is called the social science. In this study, we will discuss the social science along with all its branches to identify the problems, causes, and solutions.

“Every individual in a society contains different perception and behaviors towards different aspects of the society. These behaviors and perceptions can be depicted through paintings, as this is an expressive way to communicate regarding the society needs and trends. In South Africa, It seems pertinent, as immense rock paintings mean to the society.”

 The behavior of humans with animals in South Africa contains the ancient history, which can also be seen on different rocks. This is a fact that people used to hunt and eat animals to satisfy their hunger. Thus, we can say that humans contained brutal behaviors for animals in South Africa. Interestingly, the different paint at different rocks also shows the hunting equipment and blood of animal along with the hunter. This intention depicts the aggression of humans at that time to eat. Also, it also demonstrates the other aspects of society. For Instance, humans use to express their feeling in different walls and rocks. In a society, humans face immense hurdles to express the feelings and behaviors towards any aspects. Thus, the paintings of rock are a symbol of expression (Sciencedaily.com, 2014).

Figure 1: Animal Rock Art

Source: http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/rari/page2.php

 This has been observed that the rock art painting is the oldest practice in the South Africa. People in South Africa pretended, and the animal is well. The psyche behind this behavior is to pretend the wildness and features to animals for the depiction of braveness. These art paintings also depict the behavior of the whole continent. Through the navigation of this art painting at different rocks, we can categorize as northern, southern and central.  Furthermore, there is a perception that there are some paintings on rocks, which are prehistoric. However, most of the pictures are not prehistoric, as we can derive the human behavior, society and animal integration from them.  Also, people have depicted the behaviors towards the society in different war conditions. We can see mounted horses and rifles in the hand of humans in the different art paintings. It depicts the aggression and use of weapons to have the right or restrain other from getting the rights (Wessels, 2015).

Figure 2: Trance Dance Hunting

Source: http://m.inmagine.com/image-ptg02026053-Group-of-painted-warriors-or-hunters%20neolithic-rock-art-at-Arakokem%20Adrar  Tekemberet%20Immidir%20Algeria%20Sahara%20North-Africa.html

            Now, this is a big problem for humans to learn from symbols and metaphors. The Art gives us the insights and history regarding the human behaviors, which are depicted through bulls, marriages, trance dance and curing. Interestingly, people have expressed the things that happened to their lives at that time. However, this is tough to derive the traits regarding the behaviors and traits in the society. Another aspect, which can be derived from the art paintings at the rock, is that they believed in supernatural things (Henry, 2007). For Instance, this has been expressed in the art that people used to contain the rain dance to do the trance to capture the different animals. Now, the problem is that why people use to contain the rain dance despite having the ability to capture the animals through weapons and sharpness. 

            Regarding the pre-colonial San Life in the Southern Africa, the government is looking to take different initiatives for the preservation of these rock art painting, the purpose is to let people aware regarding the ancient culture, behavior and different aspects of society, which are ultimately seen in the current society (Franklin & Strecker, 2008). The use of animals in the painting tells us that the human depended on these animals at that time to live for a long run. They used it for travels, meal, and assistant. Thus, the engravings depict the representational form of animals and relation with the humans, which formed a diverse society in the southern Africa (Jopela, 2010). This is a fact that these engravings are to be conceptualized to integrate with the current society, as the society has been changed on mountains with the passage of time in the South Africa. This is a good solution to this problem that must contain awareness through these rock arts. This can help them to derive the meaning from the symbols and relations of animals with humans in society (Brown & Page, 2016).

Figure 3: Hunting on Animals

Source: https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/saving-the-ancient-rock-art-of-the-sahara–2#/

 Also, the South African Rock is not limited as compared to the other regions. This is a fact immense ranges of engravings are removed from the rocks by humans with the passage of time. However, there are still large numbers of rocks, containing this art to depict the society and the relation or integration with the animals (Deacon, 2006). For Instance, there is a perception that these art paintings on different rocks are not from the Southern African society, as people used to travel at that time and expressed their feeling and society behaviors on the rock. However, another perception is that people used to stay in this area and expressed what they did at that time. Thus, they formed the society during the stay (Langley & Taçon, 2010). Maybe, they did not find any rock or did not integrate with animals in other regions. Thus, the availability of rocks and animals are the real assets of the South African society (Torres, 2016).

            Another problem is regarding the enhancements of tourism. It seems interesting that people from different countries are coming in this region and see the rock art, made by ancient people of the South Africa (O’Sullivan & Downey, 2011). This is good to generate the revenues and eliminate the vicious circle of poverty from the country. However, the main problem is how to encourage this art and depict the meanings of these engravings to those people. This is all about the society and culture integration, being depicted on the rocks (Clottes, 2008). The most important thing is to not to watch the art but also understand the society behavior and integration with other living, nonliving and supernatural things. The solution to this problem is to enhance the study of wildlife in the region and express its impact on society (Bednarik, 2008). Obviously, Africa has more rock art paintings as compared to others. Thus, the more material can be found on the rock for better understanding and depiction.

            Another problem regarding the rock at in South Africa is the unclear characters drawn. This is a fact that people perceive different meaning according to their mentality and current society trends, which contain immense contradictions or confusions. Therefore, the rock art paintings and its worth is in danger, as the clear message has to be directed around the globe. The archeologists have to come forward and navigate different characters with the use of different ancient concepts, theory, and modern equipment. The role of technology underhand these characters of the ancient society cannot be ignored (Pinkowski, 2015).

Figure 4: Characters as Rock Art

Source: http://heritagesa.org/wp/gallery/hasa/

            In the end, this is to conclude that Africa Society should be understood through perfect navigation. The ancient history depicts the different behaviors of humans, elaborated on different rocks in the region. The perception may be different, but there is a need to consider this art to integrate the culture, human behavior and society as whole to come up with the effective outcomes.

References

Bednarik, R. G. (2008). More on Rock Art Removal. The South African Archaeological Bulletin , 63 (187), 82-84.

Brown, V., & Page, T. (2016, July 19). Rock art across Africa is dying, say experts. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/19/africa/rock-art-activism-david-coulson/

Clottes, J. (2008). Rock Art: An Endangered Heritage Worldwide. Journal of Anthropological Research , 64 (1), 1-18.

Deacon, J. (2006). Rock Art Conservation and Tourism. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory , 13 (4), 379-399.

Franklin, N. R., & Strecker, M. (2008). Rock Art Studies – News of the World (Vol. 3). Oxbow Books.

Henry, L. (2007). A History of Removing Rock Art in South Africa. The South African Archaeological Bulletin , 62 (185), 44-48.

Jopela, A. (2010). Towards a condiition monitoring of rock art sites: The case of BNE 1 in the Free State Province, South Africa. The South African Archaeological Bulletin , 65 (191), 58-66.

Langley, M. C., & Taçon, P. S. (2010). The Age of Australian Rock Art: A Review. Australian Archaeology (71), 70-73.

O’Sullivan, M., & Downey, L. (2011). Rock Art. Archaeology Ireland , 25 (4), 15-18.

Pinkowski, J. (2015, July 1). Explore 30,000 Years of African Rock Art. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from mental Floss: http://mentalfloss.com/article/65664/explore-30000-years-african-rock-art

Sciencedaily.com. (2014, November 26). New evidence of ancient rock art across Southeast Asia. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from Science Daily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/11/141126094257.htm

Torres, o. d. (2016, Fenruary 16). Sharp of teeth: crocodiles in the ancient Sahara. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from British Museum: https://blog.britishmuseum.org/category/collection/african-rock-art/

Wessels, M. (2015). San Rock Art. Journal of Southern African Studies , 41 (4), 934.

(Bednarik, 2008) (Clottes, 2008) (Deacon, 2006) (Franklin & Strecker, 2008) (Henry, 2007) (Jopela, 2010) (Langley & Taçon, 2010) (O’Sullivan & Downey, 2011)

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____ is a common indicator of a dos attack.

QUESTION 1

1. 1.     The field of MIS deals with ____ issues as well as technical issues.

Development 
 Use and Behavior       
    Impact 
  Specifications

2 points   

QUESTION 2

1. 1.     The main parts of the FRAME for analysis of IS are:

Purpose, Boundary, Environment    
Management, Organization, Technology    
  Initiation, Development, Implementation    
   Market, Design, Sale

2 points   

QUESTION 3

1. Time shifting refers to business operating 24/7 rather than 9am-5pm.

 True

 False

2 points   

QUESTION 4

1. 1.     In private business, how much of business expenditures has been spent on IT?

about 90%  
  about 20-30%    
 about 14-33%    
  about 55-72%

2 points   

QUESTION 5

1. 1.     ESS stands for ____. 

 Event-Based Systems Support 
 Environmental Support Systems
  External System Selections 
 Executive Support Systems

2 points   

QUESTION 6

1. 1.     The 6 Business Objectives do NOT include:

 Operational Excellence 
 Decision Making 
 Information Display 
 Survival

2 points   

QUESTION 7

1. 1.     According to behavior science, IT can ________ organizations by broadening the distribution of information.   

  enhance 
  push 
  change 
  flatten

2 points   

QUESTION 8

1. 1.     The ________Chain Model highlights adding to competitive advantage, for example with Information Systems.  

 Value 
 Supply 
 Critical 
 Food

2 points   

QUESTION 9

1. 1.     An example of how IS can enhance a business is _______.

 computerize billing 
 increase efficiency 
 promote sales 
 develop database

2 points   

QUESTION 10

1. 1.     One way to organize IS functions is to ___.

 have a separate department under central control 
 put representatives in department with central control 
 decentralize but report to CIO 
 All of the above

2 points   

QUESTION 11

1. 1.     Under Porter’s Competitive Forces Model, _________ is a force effecting strategic position.

 executives 
 database managers 
 customers
  employees

2 points   

QUESTION 12

1. 1.     Although it has several interpretations, _______________ once suggested that the power of microprocessors doubles every 18 months. 

 Law of Mass Storage 
 Shannon’s Law 
 Moore’s Law 
 Metcalfe’s Law

2 points   

QUESTION 13

1. 1.     Corporate networks and the web mainly use the single, common, worldwide standard protocol called ____. 

  DOS 
TCP/IP 
 WAN 
 LAN

2 points   

QUESTION 14

1. The most widely adopted collaboration system in small and medium businesses using Microsoft products and networks is _____.

SharePoint
 Google Wave
 Lotus Notes
Wikipedia

2 points   

QUESTION 15

1. In an ESS, information is often delivered through a _____, which uses a web interface to present interpreted, personalized business content. 

 DSS 
 portal 
 supply chain 
 spreadsheet

2 points   

QUESTION 16

1. 1.     The widely known open source software (Linux) that was posted in 1991 was created by:

 Linus Torvald 
 James Gosling 
 Gordon Moore 
 Robert Metcalfe

2 points   

QUESTION 17

1. 1.     In 1965, which computer machine thrived with the introduction of the IBM 360 operating system: 

 vacuum tube computer 
 mainframe 
 mini-computer
  personal computer

2 points   

QUESTION 18

1. 1.     _________ are independent computer programs that copy themselves from computer to computer on their own.

  computer viruses 
 trojan horses 
 worms 
 spyware

2 points   

QUESTION 19

1. 1.     In an denial of service (DoS) attack, hackers flood a network or Web server with thousands of________.   

 zombies 
 phishes 
 HIPAAs 
 false requests

2 points   

QUESTION 20

1. 1.     The three main LAN topologies are star, bus, and ______. 

 packet-switching
 ring 
 client-server 
 MAN

2 points   

QUESTION 21

1. 1.     The ________networking standard is useful for creating small PANs.  

 Wi-Fi 
 Wireless NIC 
Bluetooth 
 Wi-Max

2 points   

QUESTION 22

1. Cloud Computingconsists of four types of service: (1) Cloud infrastructure as a service; (2) Cloud platform as a service; (3) Cloud software as a service; (4) Cloud applications as self-service with rapid elasticity.

 True

 False

2 points   

QUESTION 23

1. 1.     Returns to scale increase with network growth according to ___ who claimed in 1970 that the value of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of members. [Note: so what about the web today!??!]

 Linus Torvald 
 James Gosling 
 Gordon Moore 
 Robert Metcalfe

2 points   

QUESTION 24

1. 1.     The _______ measures the number of customers who stop using or purchasing products or services; important indicator of the growth or decline of a customer base.      

      operational CRM   
 analytical CRM    
 churn rate     
 data warehouse

2 points   

QUESTION 25

1. 1.     Sites like Kaboodle, ThisNext, and StyleHive provide the  ____ e-commerce experience.

tweeting  
 social shopping    
 podcasting       
 syndicating

2 points   

QUESTION 26

1. In backward chaining, the expert system inference engine begins with the information entered by the user and searches the knowledge base to reach conclusion.

 True

 False

2 points   

QUESTION 27

1. 1.     ______ decisions are those in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, or insight into a problem.       

  operational management       
 structured      
 semi-structured     
 unstructured

2 points   

QUESTION 28

1. 1.     A good _____ provides both a single view of customers to improve sales and marketing, and a single view of the company by customers no matter how many touch points. 

 CRM 
  SAP
 ERM 
  PRM

2 points   

QUESTION 29

1. 1.     Which is the kind of knowledge that resides in the minds of employees but has not been documented?  

 tacit  
  explicit   
 wisdom   
 organizational learning

2 points   

QUESTION 30

1. 1.     Major League Baseball (MLB) has set up  _____ online to provide a high tech connection to fans and improve sales of tickets and other items.       

  soft data     
  hard data   
 retail outlets    
 web sites

2 points   

QUESTION 31

1. 1.     ___ uses data, tools, and systems to enhance collaboration between a company and its selling partners.    

 CRM     
 ERM     
  PRM    
 CLTV

2 points   

QUESTION 32

1. 1.    

1.     A ___ displays two or more dimensions of data in a convenient format using spreadsheet information.    

  group dictionary  
 pivot table    
 GIS       
 GDSS       

2 points   

QUESTION 33

1. 1.     _____ are the most successful solutions or problem-solving methods in an industry for consistently and effectively achieving a business objective.    

 best practices     
 enterprise systems    
 supply chains     
 SAP

2 points   

QUESTION 34

1. 1.     The underlying problems in group decision making have been the length and number of ___.   

 group dictionaries  
 meetings    
 questionnaires        
  GDSS tools

2 points   

QUESTION 35

1. 1.     In _____ chaining strategies for Expert Systems, the inference engine begins with information entered by users and searches the knowledge base.

 backward  
 forward   
 value 
supply

2 points   

QUESTION 36

1. 1.     ___ testing consists of testing each program separately and tries to make sure programs are error free, but that is unrealistic.   

 Unit  
 System   
 Acceptance  
 Iterative

2 points   

QUESTION 37

1. 1.     Under ____ it is the responsibility of all people and functions in an organization to watch out for quality.  

 Six Sigma  
 BPR    
 PRM   
 TQM

2 points   

QUESTION 38

1. 1.     ____ models of management suggest that the actual behavior of managers is less systematic and reflective, but more informal and reactive.  

 classical  
 behavioral 
 structured
  reengineering

2 points   

QUESTION 39

1. Scope refers to the specific work that is to be included in a project, which project managers can always control so easily as they make sure that customers avoid “scope creep” and ensure that work is never expanded during a project. 

 True

 False

2 points   

QUESTION 40

1. The rate of profit that an investment is supposed to earn is the ____. 

 ROI   
 NPV   
 IRR  
 CSF

2 points   

QUESTION 41

1. 1.     A ___ chart visually represents the timing and duration of different tasks in a project. 

 ERD 
 Gantt   
 PERT  
 CSF

2 points   

QUESTION 42

1. 1.     Taking actions on the basis of personal or narrow characteristics is known as ___ and rejects the concept of a global culture.  

 semi-structured decision making  
 unstructured decision making   
 particularism  
  Phishing

2 points   

QUESTION 43

1. 1.       ___________________ is one way businesses are using information technology to improve processes, that is, by applying tools to analyze current processes, design new processes, and/or optimize processes.

Total quality management 
Business process management
Rationalization of procedures
 Automation

2 points   

QUESTION 44

1. 1.     The open source programming language Linux is based on ___.      

 UNIX  
 Java   
 C     
 C++

2 points   

QUESTION 45

1. Customer Relationship Management systems help large firms achieve customer _____ by capturing and analyzing data, interacting with customers, and promoting loyalty through service as if a small firm.

value
intimacy
churn
lifetime value
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if4- lewis structure

What is the Lewis structure for IF4-?
3,187 results
Chemistry
What is the Lewis structure for IF4-?

asked by Emma on March 10, 2008
chemistry
Lewis dot structure of IF4+

asked by Mely on November 6, 2010
Chemistry
Identify the true statement about Lewis structures. Select all the correct answers. 1. Hydrogen is usually surrounded by 4 electrons in a valid Lewis structure. 2. A single bond in a Lewis structure represents 2 electrons. 3. A double bond in a Lewis

asked by will.i.am on February 26, 2013
Chemistry
For a lab experiment we have to draw the lewis structures of hydrides. 1) Carbon It asks for the formula of hydride. Total # of valence electrons and the lewis structure. Total electrons would be four. I am not sure what the formula would be or how to find

asked by Hannah on November 16, 2011
Chem 1
Why is this phrase, “Lewis Structure” a misnomer? I’ve googled it… and I can’t seem to find an answer. Any suggestions as to where I can read some info on that? Lewis implies ionic bond, structure implies fixed covalent bonds. Screw you, that’s

asked by Rossi on October 25, 2006

Chemistry – oxidation numbers
How do you use a Lewis Structure to find the oxidation state of an element. I have this question using the oxidation rule i got +2, however how do i use it with Lewis structure. QUESTION Use the Lewis structure of a thiosulfate ion to find the oxidation

asked by Farah on May 1, 2011
Chemistry..
For the lewis structure of BCl3, does it have a total of 24 valence electrons? Also does it have a total of 4 bonds? If possible can you draw the lewis structure?

asked by Anonymous on November 23, 2012
CHEM
the number of nonbonding electrons exceeds the number of bonding electrons in the lewis structure of which of the following molecules? I am having a problem with the Lewis structures. HCN NH3 H2O please explain the structure thank you so much

asked by layla on February 25, 2014
chemsitry
What is the formal charge on each of the atoms in the Lewis structure of the PO4 (-3) charge? Draw another possible Lewis structure of the phosphate ion below. Formal charge on P is ? -how do I do this problem.

asked by Sarah on November 13, 2010
chemistry
Which of the following ions possess a dipole moment? (a) ClF2+ has a dipole moment has no dipole moment cannot be determined (b) ClF2− has a dipole moment has no dipole moment cannot be determined (c) IF4+ has a dipole moment has no dipole moment cannot

asked by anonymous on July 12, 2017
chemistry
Draw the Lewis structure of NO2- Assign formal charges to each atom in the O3 molecule shown below. Be sure to click the +/- button below (it will turn yellow when activated) before clicking on the molecule. .. .. .. :O–O==O .. .. Based on formal charges,

asked by mandy on November 14, 2008
CHEMISTRY
What is the Lewis dot structure for the HYDRIDE ion? A)H:- B)H+ C)H’ D)H3O+ E)none It’s hard for me to read the dots but I THINK answer a) looks like this? H:- If so that is the Lewis dot structure for the hydride ion

asked by CHEMgurl on April 21, 2007
chemistry(check my answer)
how do resonance structure related to its real structure? resonance structure is just another way to write the lewis dot with different formal charges and bond order

asked by phys on April 8, 2010
Chemisty Please Help
The instructions are, Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the following species. (Assign atomic charges where appropriate.) 1) XeO4 2) CIO^-4 3) PO4^-3 Would I just draw them in a different way or just the regular Lewis Structure?

asked by Mary on July 3, 2013
Chemistry
Give the formal charge on the sulfur atom in a Lewis structure for the sulfate ion in which every atom satisfies the octet rule. Based off my lewis structure, I think the formal charge of the the sulfur atom would be +2. Is that correct?

asked by Anonymous on May 2, 2017

Chemistry
To draw the lewis dot structure of H3COH3, Do I need to rearrange the formula as CH3OCH3? If not, On paper I have O H H C O C H H H I am not sure if this is the right structure.

asked by My name is Earl on April 24, 2016
chemistry
what is the lewis dot structure for SO4 -2 and the ideal bonds, mollecular structure and hybrid orbitals?

asked by Raj on January 15, 2009
HELP!! Chemistry
Draw a Lewis structure for SO(subscript 2) in which all atoms obey the octet rule. Show formal charges. Draw a Lewis structure for SO(subscript 2) in which all the atoms have a formal charge of zero. Explicitly showing zero charges is optional.

asked by anonymous on April 8, 2013
Chemistry
Use the MO model to predict the structure of ketene (H2CCO). Draw a Lewis structure of the molecule that shows the positions of the orbitals and the atoms in three-dimensional perspective.

asked by Amy on September 12, 2012
Chemistry
Use the MO model to predict the structure of ketene (H2CCO). Draw a Lewis structure of the molecule that shows the positions of the orbitals and the atoms in three-dimensional perspective.

asked by Amy on September 12, 2012
CHEMISTRY
Given assumed valencies: H=1, N=3, & C=4 i am now required to draw the structural formulae of HYDROGEN CYANIDE and CYANOGEN. H:C:::N is the Lewis electron dot structure. If you want to use “sticks” as a bond instead of two electrons, one stick stands for

asked by MARK on February 7, 2007
Chem
1) Draw the Lewis structure for CH3NCO, a neutral molecule. 2) Draw the best Lewis structure for NCCH2COCH2CHO, a neutral molecule.

asked by Glow on September 7, 2009
chem
U have to show the partial charges and bond dipoles on my ;lewis structure of CH3Cl For the partial charges would I just have a negetive sign as the superscript of Cl and a positive sign and the superscript of C ? What exactly must I do to show bond

asked by Lena on July 8, 2009
Chemistry
How would I make the VSEPR for potassium iodide (KI) I believe I made the right Lewis Structure, but am confused on what geometry a VSEPR structure would be. Thanks!

asked by Abby on November 30, 2011
science
Draw the Lewis structure of [NH2]– Draw the Lewis structure of [(CH3)3O]+ Label(or unlabel) the sp-hybridized atoms, sp2-hybridized atoms and sp3-hybridized atoms. Basically I need help determining which of those atoms are the sp, sp2, sp3 hybridized

asked by Anabelle on September 7, 2009

ap chem
There are several oxides of nitrogen; among the most common are N2O, NO, and NO2. 1.Write the Lewis structures for each of these molecules. In each case the oxygens are terminal atoms. 2. Which of these molecules “violate” the octet rule? 3. Draw resonance

asked by Justyna on January 9, 2007
ap chem
The allene molecule has the following Lewis structure: H2C=C=CH2. Are all four hydrogen atoms in the same plane? The allene molecule has the following Lewis structure: H2C=C=CH2. Are all four hydrogen atoms in the same plane? If not, what is the spatial

asked by mary on December 28, 2012
chemistry
state noble gas whose electron configuration is attained in a lewis structure for hydrogen cyanide and noble gas attained in lewis structure for cyanogen? I have answered this several times but at times it really wasn’t an answer. I am not familiar with

asked by Pedro on March 7, 2007
chemistry
Hi, I am having troubles with Lewis structure and VSEPR theory of (ClPO3)2-.Do I use 2 bonds for each O and one for Cl, so its tetrahedral, or do I use 2 bonds for one O and one bond for the other two Os(making dative bonds)+ one for Cl and one pair of

asked by michael on July 30, 2008
Chem
Lewis structure of [(CH3)3O]+. Be sure to show all atoms, bonds, lone pairs, and formal charges. Convert CH3CH(Cl)CH(OH)CH3 into a skeletal structure. If you could explain it, it would help. Or somehow do some of it here and explain. Im having a lot of

asked by Amy on September 11, 2009
Chemistry pretty urgent!!!!!!!
Chemical bonding question! The partial Lewis structure that follows (Figure 1) is for a hydrocarbon molecule. In the full Lewis structure, each carbon atom satisfies the octet rule, and there are no unshared electron pairs in the molecule. The

asked by G-Dogg on November 4, 2014
chem
What is the lewis structure for(HN3)

asked by kary on November 14, 2010
chemistry
How do I draw Lewis Structure for BN and CN-

asked by San on August 18, 2011
chemistry
what is the lewis structure for N-bromosuccinimide?

asked by Mai on March 29, 2014
chemistry
lewis structure of HOCH2S-

asked by aly on March 13, 2013

Chemistry
how do you do lewis structure? I cannot seem to understand exactly what to do.

asked by Kay on November 10, 2009
chemistry
what is the lewis dot structure for BN

asked by shay on October 2, 2012
Chemistry
what does the Lewis Dot Structure of Sr(CN)2 look like?

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2014
Chemistry
what is the lewis structure for CH3?

asked by Anonymous on November 8, 2009
chemistry
THe thiocyanate ion acts as a Lewis base, donating a pair of electrons to the Fe ^ 3+ ion. Both sulfur and nitrogen atoms have lone pair electrons that can potentially be donated. Therefore, ther are two different structures (linkage isomers) that can be

asked by Judy on June 29, 2010
chemistry
What is the lewis dot structure of IF2-?

asked by Mely on November 6, 2010
chemistry
What is the lewis dot structure for IBr4-?

asked by Mely on November 6, 2010
Chemistry 121
What is the lewis dot structure of C2H5F?

asked by Claire on October 21, 2011
11th grade Chemistry
How to draw a Lewis dot structure….

asked by Shay on October 27, 2010
11th grade Chemistry
How to draw a Lewis dot structure….

asked by Shay on October 27, 2010

Chemistry
What’s the lewis dot structure for CH2Cl2 ??

asked by billnyetho on December 3, 2012
Chemistry
What is the lewis dot structure for copper?

asked by Valerie on February 21, 2013
chemistry
what is the chemical name and lewis structure of NO3 -2

asked by Amanda on October 11, 2012
Chemistry
What is the Lewis structure for salicylic acid ?

asked by Jake on November 23, 2015
chem
how do you draw the lewis structure for PBr3?

asked by madison on September 27, 2007
chem
how do I write “Uv light” in lewis structure?

asked by Kathy R on January 31, 2011
chemistry
what is the lewis dot structure for CH3OH

asked by kelesha on February 2, 2011
Chemistry Lewis Structure
What is the lewis structure for In+? I have tried everything and the answer seems wrong? Please help me

asked by Toni Jones on April 19, 2011
Chemistry
What is the Lewis structure of the Pb2+ion?

asked by Andrinna on November 5, 2011
Chemistry
What is the lewis structure for Propanoic Acid?

asked by Eddie on December 4, 2010

Chemistry
How do you make CIF2 into a Lewis Structure

asked by Lauren on December 5, 2007
organic chemistry
what is the lewis dot structure for H2NO?

asked by anne divo on September 4, 2008
chemistry
what is the lewis-dot structure for SiCl2Br2?

asked by chaunce on November 14, 2008
chemistry
what is the hybridization at O with the lewis structure of 2-propanone?

asked by matt on March 13, 2008
chemistry
Lewis sit structure of CH3OH

asked by sarfaraj on October 9, 2016
Chemistry
Draw the Lewis structure for SiCl2Br2.

asked by Gina Mitcell on November 16, 2009
Chemistry
how do you draw a Lewis structure for lithium chlorine

asked by Anonymous on July 22, 2013
cfemistry
what is the lewis structure of c3h502 and the formal charge?

asked by gigi on August 7, 2012
chemistry lewis structure
please help me i don’t know how to do this! Draw the lewis structure for: SiO3 -2

asked by sari on November 4, 2011
chemistry lewis structure
help me please! dram the lewis structure of CNO – explain me please! thanks

asked by sari on November 4, 2011

Chemistry
How can I draw a lewis dot structure of XeF2O?

asked by Joseoh on October 30, 2016
Chemistry
What is the Lewis dot structure for LiH? Is it simply Li – H?

asked by James on April 2, 2009
Chemistry
I am having figuring out the Lewis Dot Structure of ICl2-? Can anyone help???

asked by Kara on July 17, 2010
chemistry
What is the lewis dot structure for Fluoride, F1- and Mg2???

asked by lucy on October 20, 2007
Chemistry
If you were to have a lewis dot structure, such as, C2H5OH, where is the O placed? Between a carbon and an H.

asked by Chemwiz on January 22, 2007
Chemistry
How do you draw a lewis dot structure of s3o

asked by Chem on February 22, 2012
Science
How do u make this in a lewis dot structure? C2H3Cl3

asked by Joyce on March 7, 2011
Chemistry
Lewis Structure of Freon (CCI2F2)? And what is shape?

asked by Brock on March 24, 2012
Chemistry – Lewis Structures (check + help)
I am asked to draw lewis strcutures of the following molecules and ions SF6, BrF5, XeF4, PF5 and IF4-. I have to follow a specific format to draw them, below is an example of SF6, where am i going wrong in the table, since i am not getting six bonds, nor

asked by Farah on February 13, 2011
Organic chem
Classify each as a lewis acid or lewis base… A)H20 B)O2- C)Cu2+ D)SO3 E)AlCl3 Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors. Lewis bases are electron pair donors. Look at H2O, for example. .. H:O: .. H This molecule has no “holes” to accept an electron. Would

asked by Adam on October 15, 2010

Chemistry
Explain why it is necessary to form a double bond in the Lewis structure.

asked by Caitlin on October 7, 2011
Chemistry
How do I know the order of placing dots on the lewis structure? Please give an example.

asked by Rucha on November 16, 2015
Chemistry
What is the Lewis dot structure for LiF? Is it Li – F with 2 dots on each side of F?

asked by James on April 2, 2009
Science
Draw the Lewis structure for N2H2, a neutral molecule.

asked by Casey on September 7, 2009
Chemistry
From the lewis structure of AlCl4- where should I place the formal charge? next to Al or Cl?

asked by Sarah on December 5, 2010
chemistry
how do u set up the lewis structure for H30+? i know the available electrons is 3 but it has a +1 so it makes ir 2??

asked by madison on October 23, 2007
chemistry
C4 H10 O or diethyl ether or with a formula of CH3CH2OCH2CH3 its stick structure is H H H H ! ! ! ! .. H-C-C-C-C- O-H ! ! ! ! .. H H H H I used the this ! sign as a sign for bond. pls help me to determine the geometry for each central atom in this

asked by chemdummy on October 5, 2012
chemistry, polar or nonpolar
Why is NO3 nonpolar but CIF3 is polar? I looked at the lewis structures, they look similar, but why is one opposite. also, when something is polar or non polar, my teacher said I should see which atom is more electronegativity is higher and draw arrows

asked by Anonymous on January 25, 2009
chemistry
In the reaction between CV+ and –OH, one species is acting as the Lewis base, the other as the Lewis acid. (Note: A Lewis acid is not necessarily a proton donor. It is, however, always an electron pair acceptor). Which reagent is the Lewis acid? A. CV+

asked by Sara on July 13, 2010
Chemistry
I need some help to draw a Lewis structure for hydrogen cyanide + what is the noble gas?

asked by Dave B on December 18, 2009

11th grade
How do you draw the Lewis Structure for SO4,SF6,NH3 and H2S

asked by Shannon on December 15, 2009
chemistry
hpw would i draw a lewis structure for a molecule with 3.5 bonds for example NO2???

asked by lyne on April 20, 2009
chemistry
Draw the lewis structure for: SiO3 -2 CNO- TeO4 -2 F2PPCl2 thanks!

asked by patricio on November 4, 2011
CHEMISTRY
DRAW LEWIS, KEKULE AND SKELETAL STRUCTURE OF: (CH3)2NCH2CH3

asked by JEFF on January 25, 2012
CHEM
draw the lewis structure of CP. include ions pairs and charges.

asked by RQ on September 17, 2014
chemistry (helppp me)
what is the bond order for BeF2? according to the lewis structure? ….according to MO diagrams its 0. 16 valence e-

asked by Anonymous on October 29, 2015
Chemistry
Need help identifying organic functional groups of Mifepristone’s lewis structure.

asked by Tiffany on July 20, 2013
chemistry
the lewis structure for each of the following species except __ contains a triple bond? N3- O2 2+ N2 NO+ HCCH

asked by Anonymous on July 11, 2010
Chemistry
What are the pros and cons of using the lewis structure? What I have so far is that it shows the shape of the compound.

asked by Anonymous on July 6, 2015
chemistry
How do I draw the lewis structure for [PF5Cl]- i’m getting confused on this one!! Please explain answer Thanks =))

asked by Stacy on December 1, 2010

chemistry
Write a Lewis structure of OSF4 in which the formal charges of all atoms are zero

asked by mandy on November 14, 2008
Chemistry
Can someone help draw/explain the Lewis Dot Structure for OPBr3. I’ve tried different things, but none of them seem to work.

asked by M on November 19, 2012
Chemistry
I am having issues drawing the lewis structure for this…can anyone explain? CHCCHsubscript2CH0

asked by George on September 9, 2013
Chemistry
what is the lewis structure with lowest formal charges and label the charge of each atom in NO

asked by Missy on September 20, 2010
Chemistry URGENT
Please show how N and O are combined to make NO^+2 in Lewis dot structure. I’m having a hard time. Thanks

asked by Lisa on February 19, 2014

Categories
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complete this table of initial and final concentrations.

Complete this table of initial and final concentrations HF(aq) KOH(aq) <-> KF(aq) H20(l) Initial concentrations: HF-2.0M KOH-1.0M KF-0M Final Concentrations?
34,046 results
Chemistry
Complete this table of initial and final concentrations HF(aq) + KOH(aq) KF(aq) + H20(l) Initial concentrations: HF-2.0M KOH-1.0M KF-0M Final Concentrations? how do I set this up to figure out the final concentrations? How can I tell which of the following

asked by Cat on July 16, 2013
Chemistry
Question : ka1 and ka2 values of H2X is given 1(10)^-5 M and 1(10)^-9 M.50cm^3 of 0.2 M KOH and 50 cm^3 of H2X of unknown concentration is mixed together and the pH of the final solution is given as 7. 1)Find the concentration of H2X 2)Find the pH of the

asked by Aanya on May 20, 2017
chemistry
Question : ka1 and ka2 values of H2X is given 1(10)^-5 M and 1(10)^-9 M.50cm^3 of 0.2 M KOH and 50 cm^3 of H2X of unknown concentration is mixed together and the pH of the final solution is given as 7. 1)Find the concentration of H2X 2)Find the pH of the

asked by To Aanya on May 21, 2017
chemistry 12
Equilibrium concentrations (a)(mol/L)// (b)(mol/L)// (c)(mol/L) 0.040 // 0.066 // 1.72×10^-2 0.080 // 0.017 // 8.8×10^-3 0.030 // 0.024 // 4.7×10^-3 My data was collected at 25○C for the reaction A(g) + B(g) = C(g) What i have to do now is involving

asked by Robyn on September 26, 2011
Chemistry(Please check, thank you!)
I completed a lab to find the determination of Kc. I have to find the concentrations of reactants at equilibrium using an ICE table. The equation that were are using is Fe^3+(aq) + SCN^-(aq) -> Fe(SCN)^2+(aq) I have to create 5 ICE tables because we used 5

asked by Hannah on March 4, 2012

Chemistry(Urgent, please check)
I completed a lab to find the determination of Kc. I have to find the concentrations of reactants at equilibrium using an ICE table. The equation that were are using is Fe^3+(aq) + SCN^-(aq) -> Fe(SCN)^2+(aq) I have to create 5 ICE tables because we used 5

asked by Hannah on March 4, 2012
chemistry
For the reaction H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2 HI(g), you have the initial concentrations [H2] = 0.15 and [I2] = 0.05. Keq for the reaction at this temperature is 4.5 x 10-6. Make a reaction table. Include rows for initial concentration, change in concentration, and

asked by Anonymous on April 24, 2012
chemistry
For the reaction H2(g) + I2(g) ¡ê 2 HI(g), you have the initial concentrations [H2] = 0.15 and [I2] = 0.05. Keq for the reaction at this temperature is 4.5 x 10-6. Make a reaction table. Include rows for initial concentration, change in concentration,

asked by Anonymous on May 4, 2012
chemistry
For the reaction H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2 HI(g), you have the initial concentrations [H2] = 0.15 and [I2] = 0.05. Keq for the reaction at this temperature is 4.5 x 10-6. Make a reaction table. Include rows for initial concentration, change in concentration, and

asked by Anonymous on April 23, 2012
Chemistry
The reaction X + Y –> products was studied using the method of initial rates. The initial rate of consumption of X was measured in three different experiments. What is the value of the rate constant, k? *concentrations are in mol/L and initial rates are

asked by Jamie on February 23, 2011
Chemistry(Please check)
I completed a lab to find the determination of Kc. I have to find the concentrations of reactants at equilibrium using an ICE table. The equation that were are using is Fe^3+(aq) + SCN^-(aq) -> Fe(SCN)^2+(aq) I have to create 5 ICE tables because we used 5

asked by Hannah on March 5, 2012
science
The equilibrium constant for the gas phase reaction N2O4 ⇀↽ 2 NO2 at a certain temperature is K = 0.0466. If the initial concentrations are [N2O4] = 1.0 M, [NO2] = 0.0 M, what are the final concentrations of [N2O4] and [NO2], respectively? 1. 1.0 M ;

asked by cora on February 1, 2016
augusta state
What is the final concentration of d at equilibrium if the initial concentrations are a = 1.00 and b = 2.00 ?

asked by e on March 2, 2013
Chemistry12
For the reaction NO2 + NO = N2O3 If at a particular temperature, K was 575 and the equilibrium concentration of N2O3 was 2.5M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of NO2 and NO if they both had the same initial concentrations. I have this information

asked by Moriah on May 31, 2011
AP Chem
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.580 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases.

asked by Bill on January 8, 2012

Chemistry
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.520 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases

asked by Erin on May 5, 2010
Chemistry
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g)\ If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.550 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases.

asked by Amber on March 27, 2011
tommy
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.870 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases.

asked by CHEMISTRY on January 8, 2012
chemistry
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g)= SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.840 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases.

asked by Enrique on January 15, 2009
Chemistry
HA(aq) H+(aq) + A-(aq) K = 5.0 x 10 -9 The initial concentration of HA is 0.30 M What is the final equilibrium concentrations of HA, H+, A-? Show work, solve if you can

asked by Kay on April 12, 2018
Chemistry
The following table contains data for the equilibrium reaction CH3COOH(g)+ C2H5OH(g)↔ CH3COOC2H5(g)+ H2O(g) T = 100oC. Each row in the table represents a different experiment (diffferent intial concentrations). Initial concentration Equilibrium

asked by Ava on September 24, 2009
Chemistry
For the reaction NO2(g) + NO(g) = N2O3(g) If at particular temperature, K was 575 and equilibrium concentration of N2O3(g) was 2.5 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of NO2(g) and NO(g) if they both had the same initial concentrations. i have my

asked by Sara on September 25, 2011
Chemistry
I have a question about buffers. Part A So it starts with 20ml 0.1 sodium acetate and 25ml 0.1 acetic acid. Calculate ph of buffer is 4.74 because the acid and conjugate base have the same molarity correct? So the Ph is just pKa (1.8e-5)? Part B So the

asked by Rio on March 31, 2010
Chemistry
At a particular temperature, K=3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) (reversible arrows) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.500 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases. K=(.5+x)^2/(.5-x^2) solve for

asked by Taasha on July 30, 2007
Chemistry
The following table shows how the initial rate of this reaction depends on the concentrations of the two reactants [NO] [O2] Initial rate 0.0050 0.0050 0.02 0.0050 0.0075 0.03 0.010 0.0075 0.12 Use the data to determine the order of reaction with respect

asked by Autumn on March 31, 2019

Physics
An ideal gas is contained within closed box behind a removable wall. The walls of the container are insulated, so that no heat may be transferred from the system. Initially, the gas has an initial pressure P and an initial temperature T. The gas is then

asked by Sam on July 20, 2014
chemistry
I have gotten the equilibrium concentrations of N202 to be 2M and N02 to be 2M also. After equilibirum is reached, a pistons is used to decrease the flask volume to 3L. Once equilibrium is established find the concentration and moles of each gas. K = 2 How

asked by A on October 9, 2008
College Chemistry 104
A voltaic cell consists of a Pb/Pb2+ half-cell and a Cu/Cu2+ half-cell at 25 C. The initial concentrations of Pb+2 and Cu+2 are 0.0500 M and 1.50 M, respectively. A. What is the initial cell potential? B. What is the cell potential when the concentration

asked by Samm on May 7, 2013
Chemistry
A voltaic cell consists of a Pb/Pb2+ half-cell and a Cu/Cu2+ half-cell at 25 C. The initial concentrations of Pb+2 and Cu+2 are 0.0500 M and 1.50 M, respectively. A. What is the initial cell potential? B. What is the cell potential when the concentration

asked by Samm on May 7, 2013
Physics
A car is traveling at 7.0 m/s when the driver applies the brakes. The car moves 1.5 m before it comes to a complete stop. If the car had been moving at 14 m/s, how far would it have continued to move after the brakes were applied? Assume the braking force

asked by Kayla on November 12, 2016
Chemistry
Experiment 1: A has .20 M, B has .20 M and the initial rate is 2.010^-4M/min Experiment 2: A has .20 M, B has .40 M, and the initial rate is 8.010^-4M/min Experiment 3: A has .40 M, B has .40 M, and the initial rate is 1.6*10^-3M/min Using the data

asked by Finn on August 20, 2015
Chemistry
Voltaic cell. The initial concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ are 1.50 M and 0.100 M. Initial cell potential=.56 V. What are the concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ when the cell potential falls to 0.45 V?

asked by Danielle on July 30, 2010
Chemistry(Please check)
For the reaction, 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) == 2 SO3(g), at 450.0 K (Kelvin) the equilibrium constant, Kc, has a value of 4.62. A system was charged to give these initial concentrations, (SO3) = 0.254 M and (O2) = 0.00855 M, and (SO2) = 0.500 M. In which direction

asked by Hannah on March 3, 2012
College Chemistry
What are the concentrations of Pb2+ and Cu2+ when the cell potential falls to 0.370 V? Given: A voltaic cell consists of a Pb/Pb2+ half-cell and a Cu/Cu2+ half-cell at 25degrees C . The initial concentrations of Pb2+ and Cu2+ are 5.30×10−2 M and 1.60 M,

asked by Maria on June 23, 2012
Chemistry, equilibrium molarity
At a particular temperature, K=3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) (reversible arrows) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.500 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases. This is what I’ve done so

asked by Taasha on July 31, 2007

Chemistry
H2 (g) + I2 (g) 2 HI (g) If the initial concentrations of H2 and I2 are 1.0 M and the initial concentration of HI is 0.5 M (Kc = 54.3 at 430oC). (a) Is the reaction at equilibrium? (b) If not, which way will the reaction proceed?

asked by Troy on May 4, 2014
rate of reaction
What is the initial rate of appearance of SO3(g)? a reaction and table are given: reaction: 2S02(g)+O2 ——-> 2 SO3(g) Table note: i= initial, IRD= initial rate of disappearance; concentrations given in molarity (M) IRD given in M/s. Experiment [SO2]i

asked by j on July 20, 2011
College Chemistry
Determine the concentrations of MgCl2, Mg2+, and Cl- in a solution prepared by dissolving 2.39 x 10^-4g MgCl2 in 2.50L of water. Express all three concentrations in molarity. Also display the concentrations of ionic species in part per million (ppm).

asked by Bailey on September 20, 2016
Chemistry
X2 + Y2 2XY 0.50 mole each of X2 and Y2 are placed in a 1.0 litre vessel and allowed to reach equilibrium at a given temperature. The equilibrium concentrations of XY is found to be 0.025 mol/L. What is the equilibrium cosntant for this reaction? Do I just

asked by Janna on May 15, 2007
Chemistry
2 ml of 1M HCl 0 ml of H2O 3ml of .3M Na2S2O3 How do I find the initial and final concentrations of both HCl and Na2S2O3?

asked by Nicole on January 7, 2013
Chemistry
2A(aq)-> B(aq) +C(aq) Initial concentration of A and B is 1.00 M, with no C. Kc = 0.200 find equilibrium concentrations

asked by Jordan on March 15, 2013
Chemistry
If Kc = 0.143 at 25°C for this reaction, find the equilibrium concentrations of C6H12 and CH3C5H9 if the initial concentrations are 0.200 M and 0.075 M, respectively. a. [C6H12] = 0.041 M, [CH3C5H9] = 0.041 M b. [C6H12] = 0.159 M, [CH3C5H9] = 0.116 M c.

asked by bob on January 30, 2011
Chemistry
Consider the equilibrium 2NOCl (g) 2NO (g) + Cl2 (g). In a 1 L container @ equilibrium there are 1.0 mol NOCL, 0.70 mol NO, and 0.40 mol Cl2. @ constant temperature and volume, 0.10 mol NaCl is added. What are the concentrations in the “new” equilibrium in

asked by Anna on April 13, 2013
chm
The equilibrium constant for the equation 2 H2(g) + CO(g) CH3OH(g) Is 19 at a certain temperature. If there are 3.11 x 10-2 moles of H2 and 5.79 x 10-3 moles of CH3OH at equilibrium in a 6.75 L flask. What is the concentration of CO? At 1280 °C the

asked by vikki on March 16, 2015
Chem
The apparent equilibrium constant for the reaction A + B 2C is Kc= 4.11 at 298.2 K. Given that the initial concentrations of A, B, and C are .10M, .10M, and zero, respectively, find the equilibrium concentrations of A, B, and C. I had this long, drawn out

asked by Chris on April 16, 2007

Chemistry
Kc=1. The initial concentrations are A = 0M, B = 0M, C=10M. A+B –> C calculate the reaction quotient. (c)/(a)(b) = 10/0 .. is the answer zero?

asked by Jenny on February 9, 2011
chemistry
Complete the folling reactions by writing the structures of the expected products & by naming the reactants & products HCl a) CH3COOCH3 + H20 —> ? NaOH b) CH3CH2CH2COOCH2CH2CH3 + H20 —> ? KOH C) HCOOCH2CH3 + H20 —> ?

asked by sarah on May 30, 2010
Chemistry/- Dr.Bob222
A voltaic cell consists of a Zn/Zn2+ half-cell and a Ni/Ni2+ half-cell at 25 C. The initial concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ are 1.50 M and 0.10 M, respectively. a. What is the initial cell potential? My answer: 0.56 B b. What is the cell potential when the

asked by Nevaeh on June 2, 2016
Chemistry
Sulfur dioxide reacts with chlorine at 227 oC: SO2(g) +Cl2(g) ↔ SO2Cl2(g) Kp for this reaction is 5.1 x 10-2 atm-1. Initially, 1.00 g each of SO2 and Cl2 are placed in a 1.00 L reaction vessel. After 15 minutes, the concentration of SO2Cl2 is 45.5

asked by JOhn Boku on February 22, 2015
Physical Science
why does the maximum initial reaction rate cannot be reached at low substrate concentrations.

asked by Ron on August 1, 2011
Chemistry
If the initial concentration of is 0.250 , and the reaction mixture initially contains no products, what are the concentrations of and after 80 ?

asked by Anonymous on February 28, 2010
Chemistry
A battery is constructed based on the oxidation of magnesium and the reduction of Cu^2+. The initial concentrations of Mg^2+ and Cu^2+ are 1.2*10^-4M and 1.5M, respectively, in 1.0-L half-cells. The initial voltage of the battery is 2.83V with the standard

asked by Emma on May 2, 2010
Chemistry
1.984 g of a hydrate of K2CO3 is dissolved in 250. mLs of H2O. 10.0 mLs of this solution is tirade against 0.100 M HCl, producing the following results. Flask 1 – Initial 0, final 9.2 Flask 2 – Initial 9.2, final 18.3 Flask 3 – initial 18.3, final 27.8

asked by Candice on January 12, 2015
Chemistry Problem
At 25 oC, Kc = 0.145 for the following reaction in the solvent CCl4. 2BrCl Br2 + Cl2 A solution was prepared with the following initial concentrations: [BrCl] = 0.0482 M, [Br2]= 0.0307 M, and [Cl2]= 0.0277 M. What will their equilibrium concentrations be?

asked by Peter on March 8, 2013
AP Chem
At 25 oC, Kc = 0.145 for the following reaction in the solvent CCl4. 2BrCl Br2 + Cl2 A solution was prepared with the following initial concentrations: [BrCl] = 0.0482 M, [Br2]= 0.0307 M, and [Cl2]= 0.0277 M. What will their equilibrium concentrations be?

asked by Peter on March 8, 2013

Chem
Hi! I need help with this question: Sulfur dioxide reacts with chlorine at 227 oC: SO2(g) +Cl2(g) ↔ SO2Cl2(g) Kp for this reaction is 5.1 x 10-2 atm-1. Initially, 1.00 g each of SO2 and Cl2 are placed in a 1.00 L reaction vessel. After 15 minutes, the

asked by Anonymous on February 20, 2013
Chemistry
The reaction between NO (nitric oxide) and oxygen is a key step in the formation of acid rain. O2(g) + 2NO(g) → 2NO2(g) A series of experiments were run, each of which starts with a different set of reactant concentrations. From each experiment an

asked by Roman on March 27, 2012
chemistry
If the initial concentration of AB is .250 M, and the reaction mixture initially contains no products, what are the concentrations of A and B after 75s?of XY after 5.0 X10^1s?

asked by Ashton on February 21, 2010
college
1) You are given solutions of HCl and NaOH and must determine their concentrations. You use 37.0mL of NaOH to titrate 100mL of HCl and 13.6 mL of NaOH to titrate 50.0mL of 0.0782 M H2SO4. Find the unknown concentrations. Molarity of NaOH and molarity of

asked by Ashley on October 4, 2010
Chemistry
1) You are given solutions of HCl and NaOH and must determine their concentrations. You use 37.0mL of NaOH to titrate 100mL of HCl and 13.6 mL of NaOH to titrate 50.0mL of 0.0782 M H2SO4. Find the unknown concentrations. Molarity of NaOH and molarity of

asked by Ashley on October 4, 2010
chemistry
For each of the following solutions, calculate the initial pH and the final pH after adding 0.010 mol of HCℓ. a) 500.0 mL of pure water i’m not sure how to do this question.. would the equation be h20+h30 equilibrium arrows h30+h20

asked by help on December 1, 2010
Chemistry
I’m having trouble with the following question, any help would be greatly appreciated. A voltaic cell consists of a Zn/Zn^2+ half-cell and a Ni/Ni^2+ half-cell at 25 C . The initial concentrations of Ni^2+ and Zn^2+ are 1.30 M and 0.100 M , respectively.

asked by Rick on April 17, 2011
chem 12
1.00 mol of N2O4 and 1.00 mol of NO2 are placed in an 800 mL container. Calculate the initial concentrations of each gas. N2O4= 1.25 mol/L NO2=1.25 mol/L When equilibrium is reached, the concentration of NO2 increases by 0.50mol/L. Calculate the

asked by George on February 6, 2016
Chemistry
A mixture of .10 mol of NO, .050 mol of H2 and .10 mol of H20 is placed in a 1 liter vessel at 300 K. The following equilibrium is established. 2 NO + 2 H2 N2 + 2 H20 At equilibrium (N0) = .062 M. What are the equilibrium concentrations of H2 N2 and H20

asked by Thomas on March 29, 2010
Chemistry
A mixture of .10 mol of NO, .050 mol of H2 and .10 mol of H20 is placed in a 1 liter vessel at 300 K. The following equilibrium is established. 2 NO + 2 H2 N2 + 2 H20 At equilibrium (N0) = .062 M. What are the equilibrium concentrations of H2 N2 and H20

asked by Thomas on March 29, 2010

Chemistry
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 19, 2014
CHEMISTRY
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 19, 2014
Chemistry
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 19, 2014
Chemistry
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Nicole on March 19, 2014
CHEMISTRY
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 20, 2014
Rate Law – Chemistry
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 19, 2014
Chemistry II
At a certain temperature, Kc = 33 for the reaction: H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) Assume that the initial concentrations of both H2 and I2 are 6.00 x 10-3 mol/L. Find the concentration of each reactant and product at equilibrium.

asked by Tiffany on February 22, 2011
Chemistry 112
4Nh3(g) +3O2(g)=2N2(g)+6H2O(g) has kp=2.1×10^6 atm. Initial concentration of NH3=2.00 atm, and N2=1.00 atm, with all other concentrations being zero. Compute final concentration of NH3.

asked by Dominique on September 19, 2011
Chemistry
To determine v max and km of Beta-galactosidase for lactose, the same amount of enzyme (1 ug per tube) was incubated with a series of lactose concentrations under conditions where product concentrations remained negligible. At each lactose concentration,

asked by Ahmad M. on September 15, 2013
Science
To determine v max and km of Beta-galactosidase for lactose, the same amount of enzyme (1 ug per tube) was incubated with a series of lactose concentrations under conditions where product concentrations remained negligible. At each lactose concentration,

asked by Ahmad M. on September 15, 2013

Chemistry
To determine v max and km of Beta-galactosidase for lactose, the same amount of enzyme (1 ug per tube) was incubated with a series of lactose concentrations under conditions where product concentrations remained negligible. At each lactose concentration,

asked by Ahmad M. on September 15, 2013
chemistry
In a certain trial, the initial concentrations of Fe3+ and SCN- are both 1.00×10^-3 M and the initial concentration of FeSCN2+ is zero. Suppose that after the reation reaches equilibrium, the concentration of FeSCN2+ was found to be 1.19×10^-4 M. Use this

asked by Elly on June 20, 2011
Chemistry
What volume of 0.01 M NaOH should be required to raise the pH of a litre of 25 mM H2SO4 to 4.0? I started out by attempting to find the initial pH of H2SO4 and determined I need 2.57 units of pH to raise it to 4. I know that somewhere I use the HH

asked by Sara on September 22, 2013
Chemistry
How do I start an ICE table from the following information: BrCl3(g)+ Cl2(l) -> BrCl5(g) where Kp=7.8*10^-6 and there is originally 0.215 atm BrCl3, 725g Cl2, 0.115 atm BrCl5 – Can pressures be used as initial concentrations?

asked by Ken on October 2, 2012
Any chemistry lovers?
A voltaic cell consists of Mn/Mn2+ and Cd/Cd2+ half-cells with the following initial concentrations: [Mn2+] = 0.090 M; [Cd2+] = 0.060 M. A)What is the intital Ecell? B)What is Ecell when [Cd2+} reaches .050M. C) What is [Mn2+] when Ecell reaches 0.055V? D)

asked by stumped on May 4, 2008
CHEMISTRY
Ion Concentrations 1.) A solution is prepared by dissolving 5.00 g of stannic nitrate in enough water to make 250.0 mL of stock solution. A 15.0 mL aliquot (portion) of this stock solution is then removed and added to 75.0 mL of water. Calculate the

asked by Anonymous on October 25, 2013
Science (Chemistry)

  1. A Beer’s Law plot was prepared for the reaction A(aq) + B(aq) AB(aq), plotting absorption over AB(aq) concentration. The linear equation for this plot was y = 78.3x. A solution was prepared by mixing 10.0mL of 0.100M A with 5.00mL of 0.100M B and

asked by Niharika on June 16, 2014
physiology (nernst equation)
If cell depolarises at +50mV, what are the concentrations of K+? I am really confused how to use the nernst equation to get the concentrations. If I set up 58 [Kout]/[Kin] = 50, will that be right? I am not sure how to start this problem.

asked by Anna on March 6, 2007
Physics
A model airplane is flying in a horizontal circle with a constant speed. The initial radius of the circle is R. The boy holding the cord to which the airplane is attached, then decides to increase the length of the cord so that the radius of the circle

asked by Sam on June 8, 2014
Physics
A model airplane is flying in a horizontal circle with a constant speed. The initial radius of the circle is R. The boy holding the cord to which the airplane is attached, then decides to increase the length of the cord so that the radius of the circle

asked by Sam on June 8, 2014

physics
A projectile is fired through the air. It is launched from the ground, and travels without interference from wind or air resistance, landing on a raised platform above the field. Compare the following values: 1-Initial speed vs. final speed: 2-Initial

asked by Din123 on June 23, 2013
general chemistry
Determine the concentrations of Na2CO3, Na , and CO32– in a solution prepared by dissolving 2.57 × 10–4 g Na2CO3 in 1.50 L of water. Express all three concentrations in molarity. Additionally, express the concentrations of the ionic species in parts

asked by Anonymous on November 17, 2015
CHEMISTRY
Determine the concentrations of Na2CO3, Na , and CO32– in a solution prepared by dissolving 2.22 × 10–4 g Na2CO3 in 2.25 L of water. Express all three concentrations in molarity. Additionally, express the concentrations of the ionic species in parts

asked by Hannah on February 26, 2017
Chem
Determine the concentrations of K2SO4, K , and SO42– in a solution prepared by dissolving 2.84 × 10–4 g K2SO4 in 2.25 L of water. Express all three concentrations in molarity. Additionally, express the concentrations of the ionic species in parts per

asked by Jhanvi on February 19, 2013
CHEM
How can I calculate a pH of hypochlorite buffer into LiCLO with only initial concentrations and no Ka value? [CLO-]=.1M [LiCLO]=.1M

asked by Martin on April 13, 2013
ap chem
NH3 + H20 NH4+ + OH- this is aqueous solution. In 0.0180 M nH3, THE [OH-] is 5.60 X 10^-4 M. it is assumed that the volumes are additive. Determine the value of the base ionization constant, kb, for NH3. i am not sure how to approach this problem. i don’t

asked by rav on May 2, 2010
physics
I need help understanding these, please. Thanks! 1. A 2 kg body moves with constant velocity when a force of 10 N is applied. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the table and the body? (Would I use F=m*g for this??) 2. Which of the

asked by Ellie on October 4, 2015
Chemistry
Suppose that 30.0 mL of 0.20 M C6H5COOH(aq) is titrated with 0.30 M KOH(aq). Refer to table 1 and table 2. (a) What is the initial pH of the 0.20 M C6H5COOH(aq)? Using ICE i found to be 2.46 The rest I do not know how to set up or solve… (b) What is the

asked by Val on March 12, 2010
Chemistry
Use the concentrations and volumes of hydrogen peroxide and KI before mixing (Table 1), calculate the post-mixing concentrations. Before mixing: [H2O2] = 0.88M [KI] = 0.500M Table 1: before mixing 1. Vol H2O2 = 4.0 mL, [H2O2] = 0.88M 2. Vol KI = 1.0 mL,

asked by Amanda on February 28, 2017
Chemistry
The reaction 2H2S(g)⇌2H2(g)+S2(g) Kc=1.67×10−7 at 800∘C is carried out with the following initial concentrations: [H2S] = 0.300 M , [H2] =0.300 M , and [S2] = 0.00 M. Find the equilibrium concentration of [S2].

asked by hoooo on November 22, 2015

SCIENCE
THE VALUE OF KC=6.2 AT 750K FOR THE REACTION CO+H20 CO2.IF INITIALLY THE QUANTITIES OF CO AND H2O ARE 2 MOLES IN 1L.WHAT COULD BE THE EQUILIBRIUM CONCENTRATIONS FOR ALL CHEMICALS?

asked by NISHANT on February 25, 2013
chemistry
A solution of 0.178 M KOH(28.3 ml) is mixed with 28.9ml of 0.133 M HCl. Assuming that the final solution is the sum of the initial volumes, caculate: a)the molarity of the K+ cation b)the molatiry of the Cl- anion c)the pH of the final solution d)the pOH

asked by helen on February 8, 2012
chemistry 2
Calculate the relative concentrations of o-ethylbenzoic acid (pKa 3.79) and potassium o-ethylbenzoate that are needed to prepare a pH 4.0 buffer I know to set up hassle equation but when i get .21=log[a-/ha] i get lost because i was not given

asked by amber on July 28, 2013
Chemisrty
Assuming equal concentrations, rank these solutions by pH: hclo4 caoh2 NH3 koh hbro

asked by Carlos on March 5, 2016
college chemistry
For the following reaction: PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) Kc=.058 If the initial concentration of PCl5(g) is .160M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all the components. (use quadratic)

asked by Jerrett on March 24, 2010

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the two blocks in the figure(figure 1) are sliding down the incline.

physics pre-ap
A(n) 1100 kg car is parked on a 4 incline. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . Find the force of friction keeping the car from sliding down the incline. Answer in units of N

asked by madison on November 15, 2012
physics
A block is at rest on the incline shown in the figure. The coefficients of static and kinetic friction are µs = 0.4 and µk = 0.34, respectively. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s. What is the largest angle which the incline can have so that the mass

asked by king on September 22, 2015
physics
sorry i have about 5 questions on this homework packet that i just can’t figure out…. hope you can help me A bowling ball (mass = 7.2 kg, radius = 0.12 m) and a billiard ball (mass = 0.41 kg, radius = 0.028 m) may each be treated as uniform spheres. What

asked by kelly on September 12, 2010

Physics
A string going over a massless frictionless pulley connects two blocks of masses 6.4 kg and 13 kg. As shown on the picture below, the 6.4 kg block lies on a 32◦ incline; the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is μ= 0.3.

asked by mallak on February 21, 2014
Physics
A string going over a massless frictionless pulley connects two blocks of masses 6.4 kg and 13 kg. As shown on the picture below, the 6.4 kg block lies on a 32◦ incline; the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is μ= 0.3.

asked by Emeera on March 6, 2014
physics
A 19.62 kg block is sliding down a 34.52 degree incline at a constant velocity. What is the mu k of kinetic friction between the incline and the block?

asked by zack on January 15, 2016
Physics
Alex is exploring a cave that has a slight incline and is iced over, forcing her to use ice cleats to explore it. After climbing 50 m into the cave, she finds what she is looking for and she takes out her ice pick and hammer to begin removing the stones.

asked by bri on November 29, 2015
physics
Two blocks, A and B (with mass 50 kg and 100 kg, respectively), are connected by a string. (one mass is on the incline, the other is hanging from the pullye) The pulley is frictionless and of negligible mass. The coefficient of kinetic friction between

asked by Kelsey on March 10, 2010

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write an equation showing how this buffer neutralizes added acid (hno3).

I need to know how to write an equation showing how a buffer containing ammonia and ammonium chloride neutralizes added acid of HNO3.
56,355 results
chem
I need to know how to write an equation showing how a buffer containing ammonia and ammonium chloride neutralizes added acid of HNO3.

asked by moe on October 24, 2010
Chemistry
What is the Henderson-Hasselbach equation? Use the equation to determine the ratio of [A-] to [HA] necessary to create an ammonium chloride/ammonia buffer with a pH of 8.50. Describe how to make this buffer given a solution of 0.1 M NH3 (aq) and a bottle

asked by Lindsey on March 4, 2012
chemistry
A buffer is made by dissolving H3PO4 and NaH2PO4 in water. a. write an equation that shows how this buffer neutralizes a small amount of acids. b. write an equation that shows how this buffer neutr?

asked by marcy on November 11, 2011
Chemistry
1.)An ammonia/ammonium buffer solution contains 0.35 M NH3 and 0.72 M NH4+. The Kb value of ammonia is 1.8×10−5. Calculate the pH of this buffer. 2.) Nitrous acid has a Ka of 4.5×10−4. What is the pH of a buffer solution containing 0.15 M HNO2 and

asked by LuigiR on November 25, 2015
Chemistry
I’m trying to write an equation for the reaction of zinc nitrate with aqueous ammonia. I know that zinc hyroxide is produced first but I don’t really know how to write an equation for this. This is what I came up with: Zn(NO3)2 + 2OH- –> Zn(OH)2 + 2NO3-

asked by Alice on March 1, 2010

Chemistry
A buffer solution of pH=9.24 can be prepared by dissolving ammonia and ammonium chloride in water. How many moles of ammonium chloride must be added to 1.0 L of .50 M ammonia to prepare the buffer?

asked by Kate on February 13, 2011
Chemistry
How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 2.10L of a 0.600M solution of ammonia,NH3 , to prepare a buffer solution that has a pH of 9.00? Kb for ammonia is 1.8×10^-5. I just wanted to make sure I dd this write, can you please check my work? Thank

asked by Jessica on October 8, 2011
chemistry
When ammonia gas is burned in oxygen the products formed are water and nitrogen monoxide gas. Write the balanced equation showing this reaction NH4 + O2 –> H2O + NO i am stuck balancing this

asked by lyne on January 23, 2009
chemistry
a 2.00l buffer contains 1.00 mol HNO3 mixed with 1.00mol NaNO2 a. write the relevant ionization equation for this buffer. b. determine its pH c. determine the new pH if 1.00g of NaOH is added to the buffer

asked by michelle on January 1, 2015
chemistry
a 2.00l buffer contains 1.00 mol HNO3 mixed with 1.00mol NaNO2 a. write the relevant ionization equation for this buffer. b. determine its pH c. determine the new pH if 1.00g of NaOH is added to the buffer.

asked by mehek on December 29, 2014
chem
Calculate the ph of a buffer solution that is 0.10M in ammonia and 0.15M in ammonium chloride .kb for ammonia is 1.8*10^-5

asked by lina on May 12, 2010
Math
What is the pH of buffer solution prepared with 0.05 M ammonia & 0.05 M ammonium chloride? The Kb value of ammonia is 1.80 ✖️ 10^-5 at 25C.

asked by Neth on July 20, 2016
Chem
How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 1.80L of 0.200M solution of ammonia,NH3, to prepare a buffer that has a pH of 8.69? Kb for ammonia is 1.8*10^-5

asked by Jennifer on April 18, 2009
AP Chemistry
Consider ammonia, what is the pH of a buffer solution prepared by adding 15.0 g of ammonium chloride to 5.00L of 0.200 M ammonia? ( the K for NH3 is given to me 1.80 x 10 to the power of -5)

asked by Yamani on April 11, 2010
chemistry
A buffer is made by dissolving HC2H3O2 and NaC2H3O2 in water. Write an equation that shows how this buffer neutralizes added acid. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in the answer.

asked by amanda on December 3, 2012

Chemistry
A buffer is made by dissolving H3PO4 and NaH2PO4 in water. 1. Write an equation that shows how this buffer neutralizes added acid. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer. 2. Write an equation that shows how

asked by Mernyshia on October 16, 2015
CHEMISTRY
Write the formulas for the following substances as they would appear in a total ionic equation: a) Aqueous acetic acid b) solid lithium carbonate c) Aqueous ammonia d) Aqueous sodium dihydrogen phosphate I don’t know, do we have to write the formula [like

asked by DAN on May 13, 2012
chem
what is the pH change after the addition of 10mL of 1.0M sodium hydroxide to 90mL of a 1.0M NH3/1.0M NH4^+ buffer? Kb ammonia= 1.8 x 10^-5 i found the pH for the original buffer to be 9.255, but i’m not sure how to go about the rest of the question,

asked by marie on April 16, 2011
calc
hydrogen is being pumped into a spherical balloon at the rate of 250 cubic inches per minute. in a and b, you must provide an equation with their proper numerical factors when showing the relationships inquired A) write an equation showing the relationship

asked by beckii on November 15, 2007
Chemistry (PLZ HELP)

  1. Outline a procedure to prepare an ammonia/ammonium buffer solution. I’m confused how to start it off. This is an outline of how the steps should be: Step One – Calculate the concentration of hydronium ions in the solution that requires buffering. You

asked by Emily on May 24, 2018
anayltical chemistry
I have tried and tried to use the henderson-hasselbalch equation for this problem, but i do not understand how to plug in the data: how much ammonium sulfate should be added to 500mL of .3M ammonia to produce a buffer with a pH of 9.?

asked by joey on November 22, 2010
chemistry
How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 2.00L of a 0.100M solution of ammonia, NH3, to prepare a buffer solution that has a pH of 8.86? Kb for ammonia is 1.8×10−5.

asked by Jennifer on April 22, 2014
Chemistry
Discuss how to prepare 250.0 ml of an ammonium-ammonia buffer (pkb = 4.70), ph = 9 and total concentration of 0.05M using 0.10 M ammonium chloride and 0.10M aqueous ammonia

asked by Elizabeth on November 10, 2010
Science (Chemistry)
How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 1.90 L of a 0.200 M solution of ammonia, NH3, to prepare a buffer solution that has a pH of 8.99? Kb for ammonia is1.8*10^-5. Can anyone help me with this question? I have no idea how to solve it.

asked by Taylor on March 12, 2012
chemistry
Consider a room temperature 0.30M ammonia buffer at pH 9.5. As you raise the temperature of the buffer, would you expect the pH to change? Explain. (Pka of NH4+ is 9.26)

asked by julie on March 7, 2010

chemistry
Consider a room temperature 0.30M ammonia buffer at pH 9.5. As you raise the temperature of the buffer, would you expect the pH to change? Explain. (Pka of NH4+ is 9.26)

asked by julie on March 7, 2010
CHEMISTRY
How many grams of dry need to be added to 1.90 of a 0.800 solution of ammonia, , to prepare a buffer solution that has a of 9.00? Kb for ammonia is 1.8*10^-5.

asked by Abinaya on March 11, 2012
Chemistry
Help required- Urea, CO(NH2)2, is the excreted form of excess nitrogen in most vertebrates. In urinary infections, urease, released by microbial pathogens, degrades urea into CO2 and ammonia in the bladder. a) write a balanced equation of the reaction, b)

asked by AT on May 6, 2012
chemistry
Draw a well diagram of the set up of the aparatus that can be used to show that ammonia gas can burn in oxygen Write the equation for combustion of ammonia In oxygen PLEASE HELP MI TO ANSWER THAT QUESTION IT DEFEATED MI

asked by Taufiki Hazard on April 5, 2017
Chemistry
Ammonia (NH3) react with oxygen (O2) to produce nitrogen monoxide (NO) and water (H2O). Write and balance the chemical equation. How many liter of NO are produced when 2.0 liters of oxygen reacts with ammonia?

asked by Noah on December 10, 2018
chemistry
Choices: True,False. Select all that are True. The pH at the equivalence point of a weak base with a strong acid is expected to be less than 7 because of the presentce of the conjugated acid in the water. One cannot prepare a buffer from a strong acid and

asked by paul on November 26, 2011
Chemistry-confused
All alkalis produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. How do we write the chemical equation for aqueous ammonia? I see some textbooks write it as ammonia gas dissolving in water to form ammonium ions and hydroxide ions. NH3(g)+ H2O(l) ==> NH4+(aq) +

asked by janice on April 10, 2009
joint heirs college, Fola agoro, shomolu Lagos.
CHEMISTRY (1) What is the equation for reaction when calcium oxide and coke are heated in electric furnace (2) what solid remains when the following is heated-(a) lithium trioxonitrate (v), (b) potassium trioxonitrate (v), (c) calcium trioxonitrate (v).

asked by Agunlejika Precious on October 15, 2015
chemistry
an ezyme -catalysed reaction was carried out in a solution buffered with 0.05 M phosphate ph 7.2 . As a result of the reaction ,0.06M of acid was formed. (phosphoric acid has three pka values. The one required for this calculation is pka2=7.2). 1) what was

asked by josh on January 12, 2016
ap chemistry
Ammonia decompose upon intense heating to produce nitrogen and hydrogen elemental products. Write a balanced equation and then use stoichiometry problem solving to determin the mass of nitrogen product that can form if exactly 25.50g of ammonia is fully

asked by anonymous on August 10, 2016

chemistry
Ammonia decomposes upon heating to produce nitrogen and hydrogen elemental products. Write a balanced equation and then use stoichiometry problem solving to determin the mass of nitrogen product that can form if exactly 25.50 grams of ammonia(NH3) is fully

asked by anonymous on August 10, 2016
Chem Help PLEASE!
Asked earlier but got no reply :/ hopefully I get one now cause I’m really stuck and can’t completely my assignment cause of one question.. How many grams of dry NH4Cl need to be added to 1.90 L of a 0.200 M solution of ammonia, NH3, to prepare a buffer

asked by Taylor on March 14, 2012
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
Write the chemical equation showing dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate conjugate acid-base relationship. Identify the acid and base. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted as buffer reacts with an acid and reacts with a base.

asked by Raphael on January 24, 2013
Chemistry
TRUE OR FALSE? 1) A solution that is made out of 1.00mol/L ammonia and 0.50mol/L of ammonium chloride is a basic buffer. 2) The pH at the equivalence point of a weak base with a strong acid is expected to be less than 7 because the acid that is added is

asked by Lorenzo on December 8, 2012

Chemistry
In the lab we synthesised nickel (II) ammine tetraflouroborate using hydrated nickel chloride and ammonia then this solution was added to a slotion of ammonia and ammonium tetraflouroborate,now im struggling to write a fully balanced chemical

asked by Sikhulile on April 23, 2016
Chemistry
In the lab we synthesised nickel (II) ammine tetraflouroborate using hydrated nickel chloride and ammonia then this solution was added to a slotion of ammonia and ammonium tetraflouroborate,now im struggling to write a fully balanced chemical

asked by Sikhulile on April 23, 2016
Chemistry ammonia gas
In an experiment i had a test tube with Ca(NO3)2 solution in it and I added NaOH and a piece of aluminium. After carefully heating the solution ammonia gas was formed Can you help me write the equation for the reaction? I don’t know the other products just

asked by Marysia on October 29, 2008
chemistry
write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that would occur ewhen a base is added to a solution containing H2PO4-/HPO4^2- buffer system can you please help we write this balanced equation. thank you

asked by coco on August 14, 2015
Chemistry
Write balanced net ionic equAtions. D) zinc chloride and excess ammonia E) cupric phosphate and lots of ammonia A) ammonia and excess zinc sulfate

asked by ALISON on April 8, 2012
Chemistry
What volume of hydrogen is necessary to react with five liters of nitrogen to produce ammonia? (assume constant temprature and pressure) Balanced equation- N2 + 3H2= 2NH3 After finding this answer, what volum of ammonia is produced in this reaction? 1.

asked by Kylen on January 28, 2007
Chemistry
You need to prepare 1.0 L of a buffer with a pH of 9.15. The concentration of the acid in the buffer needs to be 0.100 M. You have available to you a 1.00 M NH4Cl solution, a 6.00 M NaOH solution, and a 6.00 M HCl solution. Determine how to make this

asked by Lily on February 25, 2018
Chemistry
Calculate the pH of: a) ammonia, 0.1M, in water b) ammonium chloride, 0.1M, in water c) a buffer solution containing ammonia (0.1M)and ammonium chloride (0.01M) For NH4^+, pKa = 9.25

asked by Abby on September 26, 2008
chemistry(buffer solutions)
Calculate the pH of the buffer solution that would be ormed by mixing 500cm3 of 0.1mol/dm3(aq)ammonia with 500cm3 off 0.1mol/dm3(aq)ammonia chloride.

asked by Heather on May 15, 2017
Chemistry
How would you calculate the pH of the buffer if 1.0mL of 5.0M NaOH is added to 20.0mL of this buffer? Can someone please explain to me how to do B and C step by step so I could understand it clearly? 🙂 Say, for example, that you had prepared a buffer in

asked by Airin on March 5, 2014

Chemistry
How would you calculate the pH of the buffer if 1.0mL of 5.0M NaOH is added to 20.0mL of this buffer? Can someone please explain to me how to do B and C step by step so I could understand it clearly? 🙂 Say, for example, that you had prepared a buffer in

asked by Airin on March 4, 2014
Chemistry
The pH of a buffer can be predicted using the Hendersen-Hasselbach equation: pH=pKa+ log([conjugate base][conjugate acid]) The choice of the conjugate acid-base pair (as you did in the previous questions) determines the pKa value to be used in the H-H

asked by J on November 26, 2015
Science
Hydrogen chloride is added to a buffer solution of ammonia, NH3, and ammonium chloride, NH4Cl. What is the effect on the concentration of ammonia? On the concentration of ammonium chloride?

asked by Nancy on March 11, 2008
chemistry
At standard pressure, ammonia melts at 195 K and boils at 240 K. If a sample of ammonia at standard pressure is cooled from 200 K down to absolute zero, what physical constants are needed to calculate the change in enhtalpy? I) the heat capacity of

asked by please help ! on March 1, 2012
chem
At standard pressure, ammonia melts at 195 K and boils at 240 K. If a sample of ammonia at standard pressure is cooled from 200 K down to absolute zero, what physical constants are needed to calculate the change in enhtalpy? I) the heat capacity of

asked by please help ! on March 1, 2012
Chemistry
What does ammonia have anything to do with bogdan’s rocket building? -can’t find this anywhere if we had to order ammonia we don’t order in pure. it is ordered in clandestine, liquid solution. the ammonia exists in this aq solution in eq. what is the eq

asked by Xi on October 27, 2008
Chemistry
What does ammonia have anything to do with bogdan’s rocket building? -can’t find this anywhere if we had to order ammonia we don’t order in pure. it is ordered in clandestine, liquid solution. the ammonia exists in this aq solution in eq. what is the eq

asked by Xi on October 27, 2008
chemistry
write a formula equation for the following equation:Ammonia reactsa with hydrogen chloride to form ammonium chloride. NH4 + HCl = NH4Cl something like that How about NH3 + HCl ==> NH4Cl (NH4^+ is the ammonium ion. NH3 is ammonia).

asked by Tiara on February 22, 2007
chemistry
If you add 5.0 mL of 0.50 M NaOH solution to 20.0 mL to Buffer C, what is the change in pH of the buffer? (where buffer C is 8.203 g sodium acetate with 100.0 mL of 1.0 M acetic acid) I have calculated the pH of buffer C to be 4.74. Now what? =\

asked by Chelsea on November 7, 2010
CHEMISTRY
I have trouble how to resist pH in buffer solutions ( in acidic buffer , and in basic buffer ) when we add an acid , and a base ! how the reactions in buffer follow Le chatlier’s principle ?

asked by MAD on July 16, 2014

chem
Ammonia reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide and water according to the following equation: 4NH3(g) + 7O2(g) ® 4NO2(g) + 6H2O(g) You react ammonia and oxygen, and at the end of the experiment you find that you produced 27.0 g of water, and have

asked by mich on November 2, 2009
Chemistry
The question is: what is the ratio [NH3/[NH4+] in an ammonia/ammonium chloride buffer solution with pH= 10.00? (pKa for ammonia=9.25) When working the problem, I tried to solve it a bit backwards, in that I plugged in each of the multiple choices I was

asked by Marcus on April 9, 2013
analytical chemistry
How much ammonium sulfate should be added to 500mL of .30M ammonia to make a buffer with a pH 9.0?

asked by joey on November 20, 2010
Chemistry
Calculate the pH of a buffer solution containing 1.0 M ammonia (NH3 ; Kb = 1.8 x 10-5) and 1.0 M ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).

asked by Nick on March 20, 2013
chemistry
What is the change in ph after addition of 10.0 ml of 1.0 m sodium hydroxide to 90.0 ml of a 1.0 m nh3/1.0 m nh4+ buffer? [kb for ammonia is 1.8 x 10-5]?

asked by Sarah on August 18, 2017
Chemistry
Use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the pH of a buffer prepared by adding 10mL of acetic acid to 20mL of 0.10M sodium acetate (Ka= 1.75 x 10^5 for acetic acid). Please showing working out, as am confused as to how to approach this question.

asked by Lois on May 9, 2010
Chemistry
Virtually all the nitric acid manufactured commercially is obtained by the ammonia oxidization process. This involves this first step: Ammonia gas combines with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide and water vapour. a) Write a balanced equation for the

asked by Kayla on January 20, 2015
Chemistry

  1. Outline a procedure to prepare an ammonia/ammonium buffer solution. I’m confused how to start it off.

asked by Emily on May 25, 2018
Chemistry
Which of the following will buffer near pH=9? a. 0.5M sodiumacetate/0.5M acetic acid b. 0.5M ammonium chloride/0.5M ammonia c. 0.5M sodium dihydrogen phosphate/0.5M hydrogen phosphate i think a) 0.5M sodiumacetate/0.5M acetic acid will buffer near pH=9

asked by Cristian on October 17, 2012
chemistry
are this 2 equations the same NIE? and if not how come? Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of ammonia and acetic acid are combined. Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions

asked by savannah on November 17, 2011

Chemistry
Calculate the pH buffer made by combing 50.0 mL of 1.00M ammonia and 50.0mL of ammonium nitrate. Can I use the same formula? If so do I do anything with the mL

asked by Monique on November 11, 2011
CHEMISTRY
a) Write the formula for each component in a buffer solution of acetic acid and its’ salt. b) The Ka, for hypochlorous acid, HClO, is 7.2 x l0^–4 at 25°C. What is pKa? Write the equation for the reaction to which Ka applies.

asked by jess on October 26, 2015
chemistry
A buffer is made by combining 3.50 L of 0.200M butylamine, C4H9NH2 with 7.50L of 0.100M butylammonium chloride, C4H9NH3Cl. Assuming that volumes are additive, calculate the following. A) the pH of the buffer. B) the pH of the buffer after the addition of

asked by Studious on March 1, 2013
chemistry
A buffer is made by combining 3.50 L of 0.200M butylamine, C4H9NH2 with 7.50L of 0.100M butylammonium chloride, C4H9NH3Cl. Assuming that volumes are additive, calculate the following. A) the pH of the buffer. B) the pH of the buffer after the addition of

asked by Studious on March 1, 2013
Chemistry
3 buffers in the human body and what are their conjugate acid-base pairs? I have Bicarbonate Buffer, Phosphate/Ammonia Buffer, and Protein Buffers, where my confusion lies in what would be there conjugate acid base pairs…….

asked by Mandie on November 12, 2011
chemistry
What mass of ammonium chloride must be added to a 0.500 L solution of 0.250 M ammonia to make a buffer with a pH of 9.26? Kb (NH3) = 1.8 × 10–5?

asked by paula on March 28, 2015
chemistry help
What mass of ammonium chloride must be added to a 0.500 L solution of 0.250 M ammonia to make a buffer with a pH of 9.26? Kb (NH3) = 1.8 × 10–5?

asked by paula on March 30, 2015
chemistry
How many grams of solid ammonium chloride should be added to 1.50 L of a 0.224 M ammonia solution to prepare a buffer with a pH of 8.720 ?

asked by Zach on April 3, 2015
Science

  1. You need to conduct an experiment in the laboratory. This requires that you prepare 500 ml of sodium acetate buffer with pH = 4.30. In laboratory you have solution of CH3COOH (pKa = 4.75), and a stock of CH3COONa.3H2O (MW=136.082 g/mol). Using

asked by Biochem on October 29, 2015
Chemistry
Write an equation showing the bicarbonate ion acting as an acid.

asked by Pedro Rodriguez on October 19, 2011

Chemistry
in an experiment, ammonia gas, NH3(g) was bubbled through distilled water. Some of the dissolved ammonia gas, NH3, reacted with the water to form the aqueous ammonia ions, NH4. When red litmus paper was placed in contact with the aqueous solution, the

asked by Joe on March 4, 2013
CHEM 120
What mass of ammonium nitrate must be added to 350 mL OF 0.150 M solution of ammonia to give a buffer having pH of 9.00? (Kb(NH3)= 1.8X10-5

asked by Mxolisi on November 10, 2016
Biochemistry
How would you make 100 mL of a carbonic acid buffer at 0.5 M and pH = 6.0 using 1.0 M NaHCO3 and either 1.0 M NaOH or 1.0 M HCl and water? so far, I have 50 mL NaHCO3. I plugged that into the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation of pH=pKa + log [A-]/HA] and

asked by Kindle on September 11, 2016
Chemistry
Write an equilibrium reaction equation for each of the following buffer mixtures: a)NH3(aq) and NH4Cl(aq) b)HC7H5O2(aq) and NaC7H5O2(aq)

asked by Anonymous on January 7, 2018
Organic Chem
Write a balanced equation showing the reaction of trimyristin and aqueous NaOH

asked by Ruth on October 10, 2011
Biochemistry
A buffer solution is prepared by mixing 2.50 mL of 2.00M sodium acetate with 3.30mL of 0.500M HCl and diluting the buffer with water to a final volume of 500.0mL. pK acetic acid: 4.76 what is ph of buffer? what is final concentration of buffer?

asked by Maria on February 4, 2014
Math
Write an equation for the tangent to the curve y=sinmx at the origin. I got y=mx, is this correct? Please help by showing work! Thanks

asked by Beth on January 3, 2016
chem
Write a chemical equation for Sr(OH)_2(aq) showing how it is a base according to the Arrhenius definition. I came up with Sr(OH)_2 (aq)–> Sr^+(aq) + OH ^- (aq). is this the final answer?

asked by moe on October 4, 2010
Chem
Write equation showing how to 2-phenylethanol could be prepared for each of the following starting materials: a) ethyl 2-phenylethanoate Thank you!

asked by Help! on February 8, 2015
chemistry

  1. The reaction of 50 mL of N2 gas with 150 mL H2 gas to form ammonia via the equation: N 2(g) + 3H2 (g) → 2NH3 (g) will produce a total of mL of ammonia if pressure and temperature are kept constant

asked by Anonymous on August 12, 2014

chemistry
The pKb of ammonia solution, NH3(aq) is 4.76. A buffer solution contains NH4Cl and NH3, has a pH of 9.45, and a total ammonia concentration (all forms) of 0.400 M. What is the concentration of NH4+? (Hint: [NH4+] + [NH3] = 0.400 M)

asked by Anonymous on May 6, 2013
Chemistry
What is the concentration of ammonia in a solution that is .500 M NH4Cl and in which the solubility of Mg(OH)2 is 1.0×10^-3 M? Ksp for Mg(OH)2 is 6.3×10^-10. Write the equilibrium equation and calculate the overall K.

asked by Anonymous on November 18, 2010
chemistry
How do you calculate the pH when the following substances are added to a buffer.(all of the solutions are at .10M conc.) The buffer: 50mL NH3 + 50mL NH4NO3 1) 10mL buffer + 6mL water 2)10mL buffer + 5mL water +1mL HCl 3)10mL buffer + 6mL HCl 4)10mL buffer

asked by Mary on April 14, 2009
college chemistry
How do you calculate the pH difference when the following substances are added to a buffer.(all of the solutions are at .10M conc.) The buffer: 50mL NH3 + 50mL NH4NO3 1) 10mL buffer + 6mL water 2)10mL buffer + 5mL water +1mL HCl 3)10mL buffer + 6mL HCl

asked by Mary on April 13, 2009
Chemistry
9.3mL of ammonia base cleaner requires 12mL of 1M HCL to reach end point. A) what is molarity of ammonia and b) what is percentage of ammonia

asked by John on September 20, 2017

Categories
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which of the following is not an example of plagiarism

Which of the following is not an example of plagiarism?

Cheating••

Stealing

Copying without providing sources

Quoting with source

Correct me

0 1 1,045
asked by Tula
May 8, 2016
No. You’re wrong on this one.

0 0
posted by Reed
May 8, 2016
How about D??

0 0
posted by Tula
May 8, 2016
D is correct. It’s fine to quote with attribution (citation). Plagiarism IS cheating.

1 0
posted by Reed
May 8, 2016
D
A
D
these are the correct answers, will yield 100%.

21 0
posted by 雨
May 9, 2017

D
A
D
these are the correct answers!!!

11 0
posted by SpeedyFastBoiiiii
Oct 11, 2017
Yes for me it was 1.D, 2.A, 3.D.

6 0
posted by Nevaeh & Carmen
Apr 24, 2018
finally, DAD gave us the answers

7 0
posted by PurpleGwen
May 1, 2018
Thank you, Rain.

1 0
posted by 柔
May 1, 2018
they are right D A D

3 0
posted by your dad
Feb 20, 2019

It spells DaD

2 0
posted by Sugar cream pie
Mar 14, 2019
GOOD JOB SON!

3 0
posted by DAD
Mar 28, 2019
LOL

1 0
posted by LOL
Apr 11, 2019
Ur epic dad

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Apr 16, 2019
I hate you dad, why did you have to help me with this?? Yes you did! YOUR NAME IS WRITTEN ALL OVER IT!!!!

0 0
posted by Death
Apr 18, 2019

I DID BECAUSE U NOT MY SUN AND MY SUN IS STOOPID AND U R NOT SO I HELP U

0 0
posted by DAD
Apr 18, 2019
LOL

0 0
posted by Death
Apr 18, 2019

Categories
essays online help me write my essay need someone to write my essay

according to levinson, middle adulthood begins with a

1.        Puberty is controlled by a complex feedback loop involving ____.

a. the thalamus, hypothalamus, and reticular formation                                                                                          b. the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, gonads, and hormones                                                                                           c. the frontal lobe, the hypothalamus, the amygdala, and the brainstem                                                                       d. the cerebral cortex, the gonads, the cerebellum, and the angular gyrus

   2.                  Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):

                        a. always has visible symptoms

                        b. are rarely problematic over long run for the one who caught one

                        c. can always be treated with antibiotics.

                        d. are contracted by millions of young adults in the United States every year         

3.         American adolescents are growing taller than their parents.

a. True

b. False

4.         College development in college is:

a. only a result of being exposed to the right materials.                                                                                                     b. less involved than the development that occurs for people who do not go to college.                                       c. fostered by being exposed to others with different views from oneself.                                                                       d. a matter of changing from relativistic to dualist thinking.

5.         In which area are adolescents most likely to be influenced by their peers, as opposed to their parents?

 a. career goals                        

b. moral principles      

c. educational plans                

d. fashion    

            6.         More than _____ students between the ages of 18 and 24 are accidentally injured each year while under the influence, are assaulted by other students who have been drinking, or are raped by college men who have been drinking.

a.

one thousand

b.

ten thousand

c. fifty thousand

d. one million

7.         Girls are fertile immediately after their first menstrual period.

a. True

b. False

            8.         Jealousy can lessen feelings of affection and heighten feelings of insecurity and depression, leading to a breakup.

                        a. True

                        b. False           

                9.     Reciprocity in relationships:

a. is unimportant for determining longevity of relationships.

b.  involves a two-way giving of admiration and compliments

c. shows weakness in a couple’s relationship.

d. occurs when one partner is comfortable being a “giver” and the other is comfortable being a receiver.”

            10.       Sleep disorders in late adulthood:

a. are less common than in early adulthood.

b. may signal physical or psychological problems.

c. cannot be treated with medication.

d. protect older adults from heart disease and strokes.

            11.       The fastest growing segment of the American population is aged:

                        a. 0-3 years

                        b.15-20 years

                        c. 25-30 years

                        d. 65 years and above

            12.       How does reaction time change as people get older?

                        a. it increases with age.

                        b. it becomes a component of crystallized intelligence

                        c. it is significantly longer during middle adulthood than early adulthood.

                        d. becomes a component of applied intelligence

13.                   In the fantasy stage of Super’s career development theory:

a.

one’s final career is most often chosen.

b.

interest and values are considered as most critical reasons for a match with  career choice.

c.

glamour of the career has little to do with its being chosen.

d.

one’s abilities and chosen career often do not match.

            14.       American culture tends to deny the existence of death. Which of the following is an example of how it does that, according to Kübler-Ross (1969)?

a. People tend to use the word “died” instead of more comfortable terms to refer to a person who has died.

b. How the dead bodies are prepared for viewings.

c. Children are usually encouraged to attend funerals and family events surrounding a death.

d. Medicine encourages physicians to accept death as a part of their job, and to view it with acceptance rather than resistance.

            15.       Chronologically, middle age occurs:

                        a. later today than in the past

                        b. between 30 and 65

            c. after one gets married

            d. between 30 and 50

            16.       During early adulthood:

a.

memory begins to decline rapidly.

b.

memory improves while verbal skills decline.

c.

verbal skills and general knowledge typically improve, while memory may decline gradually.

d.

all cognitive skills decline.

17.       Employers should:

a. avoid hiring middle-aged workers                                                                                                                                           b. understand that middle-aged workers know more and have verbal skills as good as younger adults.       c. are more limited in their ultimate potential in a career.                                                                                               d. recognizes that middle-aged workers will have more need for missed work days than younger-adults.

18.        Girls who mature early have higher self- esteem than those who mature late.

a. True

b. False

            19.       Whole brain death:

a. occurs when the cerebral cortex has no EEG reading.

b. may involve lower brain activity, but no cortical activity.

c. involves an absence of breathing and circulation without life-support machinery.

d. is the definition most frequently used in legal cases where a person’s status is in question

            20.       Research on personality characteristics in middle adulthood found that:

                        a. those who were generative were emotionally unstable                                                                                            b. those who were stagnated were more conscientious                                                                                                      c. there is a relationship between those who were stagnated and neuroticism, but the exact nature of that relationship is unclear                                                                                                                                                               d. those who were generative were less extroverted that those who were not

            21.       Theories of development during middle adulthood:

a. debate whether or not middle adulthood is a distinct event.

b. all include the concept of a midlife crisis.

c. agree that middle adulthood begins at age 35.

d. all suggest that one’s age is the primary determinant of when middle adulthood begins

            22.       Psychological characteristics that are risk factors for heart disease include:

a.

family history

c.

job strain

b.

obesity

d.

high serum cholesterol.

23.       Which person first referred to adolescence as a time of “storm and stress”?

a. Sigmund Freud 

b. G. Stanley Hall

c. Erik Erikson      

 d. Jean Piaget

            24.         All aspects of cognitive skills generally decline in late adulthood. 

                        a. True

                        b. False

            25.       In later adulthood, people have the most difficulty remembering key life events from their teens and early adulthood.

                        a. True

                        b. False

            26.       Ego integrity is the sense that people feel better about themselves because they are better than other people.

                        a. True

                        b. False

            27.         Disengagement theory says that when older adults disengage from society and society disengages from them, they will be dissatisfied with life.

                        a. True

                        b. False

            28.         Middle-aged workers:

a. are less satisfied than they were as young adults.

b. have more expertise and realistic career goals, which may be linked to higher job satisfaction.

c. are less realistic about their careers than they were when they were younger.

d. are less happy since they realize they have not attained their lifelong dreams

            29.         Levinson and colleagues’ theory called “seasons of life”:

                        a. indicated that men had more social constraints affecting them.

                        b. have virtually identical  timing for men and women.

                        c. may be less applicable to today’s women than previously

                        d. found that people in their later 30s and early 40s were often looking to make significant changes in their lives, including new jobs, families and homes.

            30.       Which of the following is true regarding physical development during middle adulthood?

                        a. it is at its peak

                        b. it declines gradually for most people who exercise and eat well

                        c. accident rates are at their peak

                        d. physical decline occurs rapidly regardless of exercise and diet

            31.       Which of the following is not one of the stressful events that those in middle adulthood are more likely to encounter?

                        a. The death of a parent      

                        b. Hospitalization

                        c. Divorce or marital separation

                        d. The beginning of their first career-oriented job

            32.       All middle-aged adults experience the same level of cognitive changes.

                        a. True

                        b. False

            33.       Osteoporosis:

                        a. affects few older adults; it is primarily a problem experienced during early adulthood

                        b. is unrelated to mortality rates

                        c. is a result of severe calcium loss from bones

                        d. a disorder that only affects women

            34.       An intrinsic motive for working is:

                        a. to earn money

                        b. for insurance

                        c. to ensure future security

                        d. to fill days with meaningful activity

35.       According to Erikson, the primary task for adolescents is to develop:

a. industry

b. ego identity

c. trust

d. intimacy

36.       Kübler-Ross’s (1969) stages of death include all of the following except:

a. denial

b. absence

c. bargaining

d. depression

37.       At what age do most homosexual persons “come out” to others?

a. 18   

b. 8

c. 13               

d. 21

38.                   Older adults may be screened and treated less for cancer than younger adults in part because of elder bias.

                        a. True

                        b. False

            39.       Untreated depression in older adults:

a. is okay, since it rarely works to treat their depression.

b. is not recommended since it is important that older adults work through their sadness.

c. may lead to suicide, particularly in older men.

d. will probably lead to chronic physical illnesses, including Alzheimer’s disease

40.                   _____ refers to the fact that people’s intellectual abilities are not absolutely fixed but can be modified under certain conditions at almost any time in life.

a. plasticity                                                                                                                                                                               b. Interindividual identity                                                                                                                                                     c. Multidirectionality                                                                                                                                                                 d. Interindividual variability

            41.       According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, stagnation occurs when:

                        a. people reject their natural drive to have children                                                                                                         b. people no longer increase in salary upgrades as they get older                                                                                  c. adult children move out of their parent’s house                                                                                                               d. a loss of drive to continue advancing in one’s career

42.       Separation of young adults from the family home:

a. occurs at different times and in different circumstances for many                                                                                       b. should always occur by 18 years of age.                                                                                                                         c. is more stressful when the home of origin includes only one parent.                                                                              d. is usually damaging to the parent-child relationship

43.       According to Butler (2002), reminiscence is:

a. a sign of dementia                                                                                                                                                             b. a negative reaction to aging                                                                                                                                            c. uniform in its quality among different individuals                                                                                                        d. a way to make life meaningful

44.       Which of the following statements is an example of “denial”, according to Kübler-Ross (1969)?

a. The diagnosis must be wrong.                                                                                                                                       b. Why is God punishing me?                                                                                                                                                  c. I promise to be good if this illness goes away.                                                                                                                         d. I understand that I am going to die and I am going to prepare for it.

45.       U. S. adolescent males are more concerned about occupational choices than U. S. adolescent females are? 

   a. True                                        

  b. False

46.       How does your author explain the fact that those who cohabit before marriage are more likely to get divorced after marriage?

a. cohabitation weakens marital bonds                                                                                                                              b. Cohabitors may be less committed to marriage because of their nontraditional views                                          c. Cohabitors are less educated than those who get married without cohabiting and thus they are less committed to marriage                                                                                                                                                                        d.none of these; cohabitors are not more likely to get divorced than those who do not cohabit before marriage

47.                   “Lifespan” refers to:

                        a. how long a person will live on average

                        b. the longest a person could expect to live under the best circumstances

                        c. how long a person lives under normal circumstances

                        d. the median age a person will live in a given population at a given time

48.                   Successful retirement:

a. requires mandatory retirement ages.

b. involves financial security.

c. is rare in today’s society.

d. usually occurs even if one is “forced out” of their job.

49.                   Attractiveness is:

a. determined purely by physicality.                                                                                                                                       b. unaffected by the sound of one’s voice.                                                                                                                                 c. determined in part by psychological characteristics.                                                                                                d. often determined by the pheromones that one emits.

50.                   Evidence suggests that one in four women in the U.S. will be raped during her lifetime.

                                    a. True

                        b. False

51.                   Many people remain lonely because they fear being rejected by others.

                                    a. True

                        b. False

52.                   The effects of Alzheimer’s disease range from forgetting recent events to significant confusion to death.

                                    a. True

                        b. False

53.                   Why might children from poorer, non-industrialized countries still be growing taller while those in industrialized countries are not?

a. nutrition in industrialized countries is getting poorer                                                                                              b. medical care in industrialized countries has not yet prompted a growth trend.                                                 c. nutrition continues to improve in non-industrialized countries                                                                             d. technology is allowing for decreases in neonatal illnesses and deaths in non- industrialized countries

54.       It is normal for male adolescents to think of themselves as action heroes and to act as though they are made of steel?

a. True

b. False

55.       Which of the following is not an example of a carcinogen?

a. Chemicals in tobacco

b. viruses

c. ultraviolet radiation

d. metastasis

56.       When a person experiences self-acceptance as a member of their ethnic group, they are in which stage of the development of ethnic identity?

a. ethnic identity search         

b. ethnic identity diffusion

c. unexamined ethnic identity

d. achieved ethnic identity

57.       Living together, or being POSSLQs:

a. is considered a sin by most people today in the U.S.                                                                                                  b. is accepted in American society more today than ever.                                                                                           c. has increased 10-fold since the 1960s in the U.S.                                                                                                      d. requires a legally binding contract that is prepared by an attorney

            58.       Havighurst’s (1972) model of normalcy in middle adulthood leaves no room for:

                        a. gays and lesbians

                        b. people who do not adhere to organized rebellion

            c.         the unemployed

                  d. those who are physically handicapped

59.       Substance abuse is the leading cause of death among male adolescents in the United States.

a. True

b. False

60.       People in college are often at the realistic choice stage of occupational development.

a. True

b. False

61.       Hospice care:

a. takes control over someone’s situation so he/she won’t have to make any decisions.

b. focuses on curing the patient of his/her illness.

c. only works with the dying patient.

d. provides medication to relieve pain and other services to help the patient and his/her family.

62.       Erickson and theorized four forms of identity formation: Identity diffusion, Foreclosure, Moratorium and Identity achievement.

  a. True                                        

  b. False

  63.                 Ageism would be most accurately defined as :

                        a. the process of aging

                        b. the respect people shoe for older adults

                        c. prejudice against people because of their age

                        d. decline in our reproductive capacity

            64.       During middle adulthood, cognitive development involves:

a. some drop in processing speed and lapses in memory.                                                                                                    b. a sharp decline in working memory capacity.                                                                                                                    c. is better than it has ever been for those in developed nations.                                                                                                 d. is best for all people who live in the United States today.

            65.       Havighurst’s (1972) model of developmental tasks during middle adulthood:

a. is based in the television series “Father knows Best”                                                                                                       b. encompasses the lives of diverse individuals                                                                                                                      c. has no relevance to modern life                                                                                                                                       d. describes tasks that are relevant to some, but not all adults

66.       Losing one’s spouse:

a.  is associated with decreased physical and mental health.

b. has little effect on older adults since they expected their partners to die.

c. typically increases the social interaction of the surviving spouse.

d. usually leads to an increase in social activities.

67.       According to Levinson’s “seasons of life” theory, during middle adulthood:

a. people are likely to experience a midlife crisis                                                                                                                  b. people look back at their youth more often than looking ahead to their death                                                          c. people will experience great happiness when they realize that they are approaching the end of their work years.                                                                                                                                                                                    d. menopause is seen as a positive event

            68.       Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development states that the conflict during late adulthood is:

                        a. intimacy vs. isolation 

                        b. identity vs. identity confusion

c.         c. ego integrity vs. despair     

                        d. generativity vs. stagnation

69.       Of those who receive hospice care, the most common location for their death is:

a. in a private residence

b. in a hospital

c. in a nursing home

d. in a hospice inpatient facility

70.       Which of the following is NOT one of the four areas of psychological problems that suicidal adolescents experience?

a. confusion about the self       

b. impulsiveness

c. interpersonal problems    

d. financial difficulties 

71.       Suicide is the leading cause of death among U. S. adolescents.

  a. True                                      

  b. False

            72.       No two people age in the same way or at the same rate. This is called interindividual variability.               

                        a. True

                        b. False

            73.       At what age are women who become pregnant first advised to check for chromosomal abnormalities in their fetus?

                        a. 35 years of age

                        b. 40 years of age

                        c. 45 years of age

                        d. 50 years of age

            74.       Older Americans report being much less happy than younger adults.

                        a. True

                        b. False

            75.       Which of the following is recommended to those who are supporting a dying person?

a. Don’t talk about the impending death.      

b. Don’t touch the person too much.

c. Don’t talk about your own problems

d. Don’t minimize the person’s pain or need to grieve.

            76.       Adaptive thermogenesis is:

a. The rate of those 18- to 24-years of ages who are overweight or obese adulthood.

b. A cluster of symptoms that results from sudden decrease in the use of a drug.

c. One reason why those who are overweight or obese may have difficulty losing weight.

d. The need to take more of a drug to achieve same effect.

77.       Gina and David are both 12 years old. Given what we know about adolescent height and weight growth spurts, which would you, expect to find?

a. David is taller than Gina         

b. Gina is taller than David

c. David weighs more than Gina 

 d. both would be same height and weight as neitherhas enteredinto growth spurts.

78.       According to Peck (1968), ego transcendence:

a. comes when people realize they are going to decline physically.

b. involves helping future generations and leaving a legacy of oneself.

c. is the same thing as self-love.

d. is a result of embracing one’s career and recognizing that retirement is just an   acceptance that one has nothing more to contribute to the world.

79.       In older adults, depression:

a. often goes undiagnosed and untreated.

b. is considered normal.

c. is indistinguishable from sadness.

d. has symptoms that are unique and distinctive from physical conditions.

80.       Current “death education” suggests:

a. Kübler-Ross was wrong about the stages of dying.

b. people should fight death to the end.

c. people should be supported as they go through the stages of death identified by Kübler-Ross.

d. if people resist the stages proposed by Kübler-Ross they should be “urged” to experience them for their own mental well-being.

81.       Adolescents are in constant state of rebellion against their parents.

a. True                                        

b. False

82.       Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis are:

a. immunological disorders experienced mostly by middle-aged men.

b. medications used to treat colon cancer in women.

c. medications used to treat erectile disorder in men.

d. three researchers who study physical aging during middle adulthood.

83.       Which of the following is true regarding how stress affects people during middle adulthood?

a. all people experience stress the same way                                                                                                                         b. those who believe a stressor is global are less likely to be depressed                                                                        c. those who believe they have control are less likely to be depressed                                                                                                                                 d. those who believe that stressful life events cannot be changed are less likely to be depressed

84.       Which of the following is the definition of a secular trend?

a. the onset of puberty occurring earlier than in past generations                                                                                      b. a historical trend towards increasing adult height and earlier puberty                                                                          c. individuals having a longer life span than those in previous generations                                                                          d. a 3 to 5 point increase in a population’s IQ score over several generations.

            85.       Identifying what stresses one out is a good step toward managing one’s stress.

a. True

b. False

86.       Being able to understand both sides of the debate on abortion while maintaining a particular view is an example of relativistic thinking.

a. True

b. False

87.       Life expectancy is:

a.

the same thing as lifespan.

b.

how long a member of a species can live.

c.

the average number of years someone is expected to live.

d.

controlled by genetics alone.

88.       According to Erikson, the key “crisis” of young adulthood is:

a. separating from one’s parents.                                                                                                                                     b. establishment of intimate relationships.                                                                                                                     c. developing a sense of themselves                                                                                                                                d. understanding the sexual nature of one’s relationships with one’s mother

            89.       Which of the following is true regarding hospice care?        

a. It focuses on palliative rather than curative care.

b. It treats the disease, not the patient.

c. It emphasizes quantity of life, not quality.

d. It recommends shortening one’s life in many cases.

            90.       After college graduation, Ricardo has decided to embark on a new phase of his life, following his dream of opening up his own consulting firm. According to Levinson and his colleagues, what is Ricardo following?

                        a. his heart

                        b. his parents’ wishes, which he does not realize are theirs rather than his

                        c. the dream

                        d. the wrong direction

91.       The leading causes of death in middle adulthood:

a. are suicide, accidents, and homicide.

b. the same as during early adulthood.

c. include cancer, heart disease, and accidents.

d. include heart disease, homicide, and suicide.

            92.       Generalized anxiety disorder:

                        a. is rare in older adults

                        b. is considered the same thing as depression

c. may result from the perception that one lacks control over one’s life.

d. is a phobic disorder

93.       Much of the difference in mortality rates from cancer during middle adulthood can be attributed to lack of early detection and treatment.

a. True

b. False

94.       According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development, generativity is:

a. the ability to create power                                                                                                                                                 b. what is needed during early adulthood                                                                                                                                 c. a negative outcome of middle adulthood                                                                                                                        d. the ability to produce something

            95.       Which of the following is true regarding late adulthood, according to Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development?

a. Those who achieved positive responses to earlier crises are more likely to achieve ego integrity during late adulthood.

b. Those who achieved positive responses to earlier crises are less likely to achieve ego integrity during late adulthood.

c. There is no relationship between the responses to earlier crises and achieving ego integrity during late adulthood

d. It is not positive to achieve ego integrity unless one has successfully “overcome” all of the previous developmental crises.

96.       Life expectancy:

a. is related to gender but not race.

b. is related to race but not gender

c. is related to race and gender but not geographic location.

d. is related to race, gender, geographic location, and health-related behavior.

97.       In 1900, _____ people lived past their 65th birthday. Now that number is more like  _____.

a. 1 in 1000; 1 in 100

b. 1 in 100; 1 in 25

c. 1 in 25; 1 in 8

d. 1 in 8; 1 in 5

            98.       According to your author death has many different meanings. It is not, however, a(n) ________ matter.

a. biological

b. legal

c. emotional

d. educational

            99.       The health of people between 40 and 65 years of age:

a.  is the same around the world.

b. has decreased in the last century.

c. is better than it has ever been for those in developed nations.

d. is best for all people who live in the United States today.

100.     Middle Adulthood:

a. is a time of great responsibility, but few positive aspects.

b. has few stressors.

c. is a time when few people are able to cope well with multiple stressors.

d. has positive and negative aspects.

Categories
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what is the tension in the rope if the box is at rest?

A horizontal rope is tied to a 45.0kg box on frictionless ice. What is the tension in the rope if:

A) The box is at rest?
B) The box moves at a steady vx = 4.40m/s ?
C) The box vx = 4.40m/s and ax = 4.60m/s2 ?

0 0 1,042
asked by TlP
May 11, 2014
f=ma

a. zero, acceleration is zero
b.zero, acceleration iszero
c. tension=45*4.6

0 0
posted by bobpursley
May 11, 2014
24N

0 0
posted by Joke
Oct 7, 2015
zero

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 26, 2017
0
2
5

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posted by micah
Feb 20, 2018

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strategic plan part ii: swott analysis

Running head: STRATEGIC PLAN PART I: PROPOSAL OF NEW DIVISION 1

STRATEGIC PLAN PART I: PROPOSAL OF NEW DIVISION 7

Strategic Plan Part I: Proposal of New Division

Deidra Daniel

University of Phoenix

June 18, 2018

Strategic Plan Part I: Proposal of New Division

Companies form multiple new divisions in order to market different products and services. Whereas some business organizations and or corporations create new divisions due to geographic location, types of products and services they are dealing with, and market demographics, majority create autonomous business divisions with an aim to have a competitive advantage over their rivals. As Keefer notes, adding a separate division in an existing company allows an enterprise to grow without significantly having to transform its existing corporate structure (2018). Sweet Beverages Limited is a soft drink company whose contribution to environmental conservation in the past has not been substantial. As a result, the company has experienced decline in the beverage industry especially with the entry of competitors who are keen on maintaining a clean environment. In this respect, SB needs to form a new division in order to reshape its approach to package its beverage products. The goal of the new division is to help the company to collect and recycle 100 percent of all of its packaging by 2025. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new division for the SB Ltd and explain the significance of the division’s environmental-oriented vision, mission and values while determining the business model for the new section.

The new division at the Sweet Beverages Ltd should be known as the Waste Free Planet and is intended to spearhead an organizational effort to ensure a clean environment, a world free from waste. Most company’s in the soft drink business use plastic containers to package their soft drink products (Hopewell, Dvorak, & Kosior, 2009). This means, the environment is bound to be affected particularly when customers dispose the cans haphazardly after drinking their favorite contents. Evidently, a sizeable number of people care less about their surroundings and will often clutter the environment with waste even when clear disposal measures have been put in place by the local authorities (Ferreira, Cabral, da Cruz, Simoes, & Margues, 2016). Such people are valuable customers for the SB and it is upon the company to come up with a strategy to help them rid their surroundings off waste. Besides, the fact that the environment in most parts of the world is cluttered with used SB-branded plastic packaging cans has enormously affected the company thus decreasing sales over the time. This is because SB is viewed as an environmentally insensitive beverage dealer.

As mentioned above, the mission of the Waste Free Planet section, thus, should be to drive an effort to ensure a clean environment and a waste-free world in general. The service for the WFP subdivision of the wider SB Company is waste recycling. Specifically, the department should encourage its customers to drop used cans in SB-branded waste collection bins placed in strategic points in various urban centers across the world. The division will, then, collect and ferry the plastic cans to the company’s manufacturing sites for recycling and packaging. The recycled packaging service will be one of its kind in the SB business. It is worth of note that such should begin with the understanding that beverage as well as food containers are an essential part of people’s contemporary living (Aamio & Hamalaien, 2008). Nevertheless, something ought to be done so that packaging waste can be reduced on a global scale (Business Wire, 2018). One of the SB’s most worthy competitors, the Coca-Cola, has already started a similar program to reduce waste (Business Wire, 2018). In this respect, SB should also recognize that the world has packaging challenges and every firm has a responsibility to help in finding innovative solutions for the problems such as the environmental one. WFP is therefore an innovative customer-focused division that will help the SB to play such a role efficiently.

As mentioned earlier, companies form new divisions in order to have competitive advantage. For any company desiring to get a competitive edge in the market, it must ensure that it has satisfactorily addressed customer needs. The WFP division ought to aim at the same thing. Basically, cans and or bottles, whether plastic or glass, should not harm the planet. Beverage consumers around the world care more about the planet and that is one of the needs that business companies ought to acknowledge and meet (Ferreira et al, 2016). In this regard, the WFT section intends to demonstrate to the consumers that Sweet Beverages also cares for the planet, specifically their (customers) environment. The division will achieve this goal by demonstrating to the consumers that a litter-free planet is possible in line with their expectations (Business Wire, 2018). Another customer need that matches with the WFP’s core objective is related to health and wellbeing. Many people expect to buy and consume beverages and food in a serene environment. This is in recognition that contaminated settings pose health risks to individuals particularly when they take their drinks or food in them. By recycling packaging containers, the WFP division will have provided a serene environment for its consumers to buy and drink, freely, the SB’s products anywhere without the fear of health risks.

Encouraging consumers on the need to recycle packaging will not only meet consumer needs but also help the company to achieve competitive advantage (Hopewell et al, 2009). As usual, not many companies have invested in recycled packaging. Bearing in mind many soft drink enterprises have not embraced such a sustainable method of packaging their products, the SB will have an added advantage in the market. Foremost, it is important to note that recycled packaging is cheaper than making new packaging containers (Hopewell et al, 2009). This means, the company will maximize on profits unlike its competitors who will still be manufacturing new packaging containers for their products. Cheaper recycled packaging will translate in reduced prices on the Sweet Beverages products. In consequence, this will attract more customers towards the company due to the discounted prices. As the demand for affordable and quality beverages packaged in better built recycled cans soars, the SB Company will make more sales and rake in profits than majority of its competitors in the market.

The division’s overall vision is to invest in packaging as well as in the planet. By investing in recycled packaging, the company will aim to achieve its packaging goal which is to collect and recycle 100 percent of its recyclable containers by 2025. Evidently, the company will develop better and attractive bottles, either by recycling or through plant-based resin (Hopewell et al, 2009). In the end, the SB Company will, by 2025, set a new world standard for beverage packaging since most of its packaging containers are recyclable. Meanwhile, the SB’s effort to invest in the planet will guarantee a safe and liter-free planet. Specifically, the soft drink maker should invest both resources and skills towards the 100 percent collection and recycling target. Specifically, money and expertise in marketing will be needed to aid consumers in understanding what is to be recycled, how and where to do it (Business Wire, 2018). The WFP section must support collection of cans for recycling throughout the industry. This is to say, even packaging for the SB’s competitors should be collected and recycled.

The Sweet Beverages’ Waste Free Planet division will be a major step for the company’s overall efforts in environmental sustainability. Actually, this initiative aligns not only with the SB’s business mission but also its sustainability concerns. The company aims to serve its customers in an exceptional way, meeting their beverage-drinking needs always and anywhere throughout the world. Ecologically, the SB purposes to create a clean environmental that ensures all people, both loyal and potential customers, lead healthy lives, their localities notwithstanding. Similarly, the WFP business objective is to serve SB’s customers and meet their daily soft drink needs in a sustainable way. Already, the company has achieved most of its sustainable goals and objectives. For instance, the SB has accomplished and long surpassed its water replenishment objectives ahead of time. Recycled packaging will add on to the company’s wider strategy to expand by playing a significant role in ensuring the planet is clean.

Summing up, the Sweet Beverages Ltd must work with all the relevant stakeholders to ensure the success of the Waste Free Planet’s tasks. Nonetheless, it is the division itself that ought to be at the forefront in ensuring its mission as well as its vision and values are in the context of culture, social corporate responsibility and ethics within the communities where the company conducts its business operations. Obviously, the division must work with the local communities and involve them fully in every bit of the program. That way the WFP department will be in a position to learn about communities’ cultures and practices and align its responsibilities with them. Besides, the new section must work closely with partners, customers and other stakeholders in order to address and promote CSR and uphold ethical principles in its business obligations.

References

Aamio, T., & Hamalainen, A. (2008). Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry. Resources Conservation and Recycling, 52(4), 612-621.

Business Wire. (2018). The Coca-Cola company announces new global vision to help create a world without waste. Retrieved fromhttps://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180119005104/en/Coca-Cola-Company- Announces-New-Global-Vision-Create

Ferreira, S., Cabral, M., da Cruz, N. F., Simoes, P., & Marques, R. C. (2016). The costs and benefits of packaging waste management systems in Europe: The perspective of local a thorities. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 60(5), 336-7.

Hopewell, J., Dvorak, R., & Kosior, E. (2009). Plastic recycling: Challenges and opportunities. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 364(1526), 2115-2126.

Keefer, A. (2018). Adding a division to a business. Retrieved from smallbusi- ness.chron.com/adding-division-business-36250.html

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a solution of licl in water has xlicl = 0.0500. what is the molality?

A solution of LiCl in water has XLiCl = 0.0800. What is the molality?

0 0 734
asked by jamiya
Sep 18, 2012
XLiCl = 0.08; therefore,
XH2O = 0.92
If we take 1 mol of solution, we have 0.92 mols H2O or 0.92*18 = 16.56g H2O or 0.01656 kg solvent.
m LiCl = mols LiCl/kg solvent or
0.08/0.01656 = ?

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Sep 18, 2012
What is the molality of a solution composed of 38.0 g of cane sugar (C12H22O11) dissolved in 175 g of water?

0 0
posted by Jai
Jun 5, 2013

Categories
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holscience

Laboratory Techniques and Measurements Hands-On Labs, Inc. Version 42-0165-00-02

Review the safety materials and wear goggles when

you will need and set aside a safe work space in

Experiment Summary:

learn about the common techniques and laboratory

will also use the laboratory equipment to make measurements such as temperature and density,

1V1 2V2

EXPERIMENT

© Hands-On Labs, Inc. www.HOLscience.com 1

Learning Objectives

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Materials Student Supplied Materials

1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 3 1 1 1

HOL Supplied Materials

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Note: To fully and accurately complete all lab exercises, you will need access to:

Note: The packaging and/or materials in this LabPaq kit may differ slightly from that which is listed above. For an exact listing of materials, refer to the Contents List included in your LabPaq kit.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Background

measurements

Table 1.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Table 2

Length

Length meter

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Figure 1. A. B. C.

Temperature and Time

Temperature

kelvin

A ruler is a tool used to measure length. However, a

an instrument used to rule (create) straight lines. A calibrated ruler is a ruler which contains measurements to measure length along a straight

line.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

F K C F C C

(T – 32)T = T + 273.15 T = (1.8)T + 32 T = 1.8

Figure 2.

second

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Atomic clocks

Volume

Volume 3

3

3

Figure 3. 3

3

Graduated Cylinder, Meniscus, Volumetric Flask, and Graduated Pipet

graduated cylinder

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Figure 4.

meniscus

Figure 5. A.

B.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Figure 6.

The majority of liquids in glass will form a concave shaped meniscus. However, some liquids,

such as mercury, will form a convex meniscus. In the case of a convex meniscus, the volume is read from the top of the curve rather than

the bottom.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

graduated pipets serological pipets

Figure 7.

Figure 8.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Figure 9.

Figure 10. A. B. C.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Archimedes’ method Buoyancy

Figure 11. A. B.

Archimedes, a Greek mathematician and scientist, was

asked by King Hiero II to determine if a crown made for him was composed of pure

gold, or contained a mixture of gold and silver. As Archimedes could not damage the crown, he

It is from this challenge that he developed what is now known as Archimedes’ Principle. Knowing

that density is a physical property that does not change, Archimedes could determine if the density of the crown was equal to the density of

pure gold. As the densities of the crown and pure gold did not match, he concluded that the crown was not made from

pure gold!

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Mass and Density

Mass kilogram

Figure 12.

“weigh”

Density

3

MassDensity = Volume

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Molarity

MolesMolarity = Liter

1 1 2 2 = M V M V

V V

V V V

1 1 2 2 5.6M ( ) = 3.7M 40mL

= 26.43

= x x

M V M V

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Figure 13.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Experimental Error:

Measured Value – Accepted Value Percent Error (%) = 100

Accepted Value

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Exercise 1: Length, Temperature, and Mass

Length Measurements

Note: Record every measurement you make with this ruler to the same decimal place. Remember to do this any time you use this ruler throughout the experiment.

Data Table 1 Lab Report Assistant

Data Table 1

Data Table 1.

Temperature Measurements

Note: The thermometer is shipped in a protective cardboard tube, labeled “thermometer.”

Note: Record every measurement you make with this thermometer to the same decimal place. Remember to do this any time you use this measuring device throughout the experiment.

Data Table 2 Lab Report Assistant.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Note: When measuring the temperatures place the thermometer into the water so that the silver bulb is fully submerged, but not touching any sides of the glass beaker. The measurement is complete when the thermometer remains the same temperature without changing.

Note: When the burner is lit, the flame may be barely visible.

Data Table 2.

Data Table 2.

Data Table 2.

Data Table 2.

Data Table 2.

Data Table 2.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Mass Measurements

Note: There may be a cardboard protector between the scale base and top. If so, remove the cardboard from the scale.

Data Table 3 Lab Report Assistant.

Data Table 3.

Data Table 3

Data Table 3.

Data Table 3.

Questions o o

o

o

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Exercise 2: Volume and Density

Data Table 4 Lab Report Assistant

Data Table 4.

Data Table 4

Data Table 4.

Data Table 4

Data Table 5 Lab Report Assistant.

Data Table 5.

Data Table 5.

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Experiment Laboratory Techniques and Measurements

Data Table 5.

Data Table 6 Lab Report Assistant

Data Table 6.

Data Table 6,

Data Table 6.

Data Table 6.

Data Table 7 Lab Report Assistant.

Figure 14.

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Data Table 7

Data Table 7

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Note: You will use the mass of the dry volumetric flask throughout the experiment.

Figure 15.

Data Table 8

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Data Table 8.

Note: You will need to convert the 25-mL to liters to determine this volume.

Moles in Volumetric Flask (mol)Molarity = Total Volume (L)

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Data Table 9

Data Table 9

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Note: In step 24, transfer the appropriate volume of sugar solution dilutions (4.5 mL, 3 mL, and 6 mL).

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1 1 2 2

1 1 2 2

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Exercise 1: Length, Temperature, and Mass Data Table 1.

Object

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Water

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g/mL % Error

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Object: Mass Width Volume 3 cm3

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Object Mass graduated cylinder graduated cylinder Object Volume

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Object Mass – –

placed Water

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Data Table 8.

Chemical Volumetric Flask

Molar Mass Moles in Volumetric Flask

Total Volume Molarity

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Volume Mass Density – Volume Final Concen-

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Data Table 10.

Molarity vs. Density

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hermann rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.

Personality10

Enduring Issues in Personality

Studying Personality

Psychodynamic Theories • Sigmund Freud • Carl Jung • Alfred Adler • Karen Horney • Erik Erikson

• A Psychodynamic View of Jaylene Smith

• Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories

Humanistic Personality Theories • Carl Rogers • A Humanistic View of

Jaylene Smith

• Evaluating Humanistic Theories

Trait Theories • The Big Five • A Trait View of Jaylene Smith • Evaluating Trait Theories Cognitive–Social Learning Theories • Expectancies, Self-Efficacy,

and Locus of Control

• A Cognitive–Social Learning View of Jaylene Smith

• Evaluating Cognitive–Social Learning Theories

Personality Assessment • The Personal Interview • Direct Observation • Objective Tests • Projective Tests

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Thirty-year-old Jaylene Smith is a talented physician whomeets with a psychologist because she is troubled by cer-tain aspects of her social life. Acquaintances describe Jay in glowing terms, saying she is highly motivated, intelligent, attractive, and charming. But Jay feels terribly insecure and anxious. When the psychologist asked her to pick out some self- descriptive adjectives, she selected “introverted,” “shy,” “inad- equate,” and “unhappy.”

Jay was the firstborn in a family of two boys and one girl. Her father is a quiet, gentle medical researcher. His work often allowed him to study at home, so he had extensive contact with his children when they were young. He loved all his children, but clearly favored Jay. His ambitions and goals for her were extremely high; and as she matured, he responded to her every need and demand almost immediately and with full conviction. Their relationship remains as close today as it was during Jay’s childhood.

Jay’s mother worked long hours away from home as a store manager and consequently saw her children primarily at night and on an occasional free weekend. When she came home, Mrs. Smith was tired and had little energy for “nonessential” interactions with her children. She had always been career ori- ented, but she experienced considerable conflict and frustration trying to reconcile her roles as mother, housekeeper, and finan- cial provider. Mrs. Smith was usually amiable toward all her children but tended to argue more with Jay, until the bickering subsided when Jay was about 6 or 7 years of age. Today, their relationship is cordial but lacks the closeness apparent between Jay and Dr. Smith. Interactions between Dr. and Mrs. Smith were sometimes marred by stormy outbursts over seem- ingly trivial matters. These episodes were always followed by periods of mutual silence lasting for days.

Jay was very jealous of her first brother, born when she was 2 years old. Her parents recall that Jay sometimes staged

335

temper tantrums when the new infant demanded and received a lot of attention (especially from Mrs. Smith). The temper tantrums intensified when Jay’s second brother was born, just 1 year later. As time passed, the brothers formed an alliance to try to undermine Jay’s supreme position with their father. Jay only became closer to her father, and her relationships with her brothers were marked by greater-than-average jealousy and rivalry from early childhood to the present.

Throughout elementary, junior high, and high school, Jay was popular and did well academically. Early on, she decided on a career in medicine. Yet, off and on between the ages of 8 and 17, she had strong feelings of loneliness, depression, insecurity, and confusion—feelings common enough during this age period, but stronger than in most youngsters and very distressing to Jay.

Jay’s college days were a period of great personal growth, but several unsuccessful romantic involvements caused her much pain. The failure to achieve a stable and long-lasting rela- tionship persisted after college and troubled Jay greatly. Although even-tempered in most circumstances, Jay often had an explosive fit of anger that ended each important romantic relationship that she had. “What is wrong with me?” she would ask herself. “Why do I find it impossible to maintain a serious relationship for any length of time?”

In medical school, her conflicts crept into her conscious- ness periodically: “I don’t deserve to be a doctor”; “I won’t pass my exams”; “Who am I, and what do I want from life?”

How can we describe and understand Jaylene Smith’s person- ality? How did she become who she is? Why does she feel insecure and uncertain despite her obvious success? Why do her friends see her as charming and attractive, though she describes herself as introverted and inadequate? These are the kinds of questions that personality psychologists are likely to ask about Jay—and the kinds of questions we will try to answer in this chapter.

ENDURING ISSUES IN PERSONALITY As we explore the topic of personality in this chapter, the enduring issues that interest psychologists emerge at several points. The very concept of personality implies that our behavior differs in significant ways from that of other people (diversity–universality) and that our behavior in part reflects our personality as opposed to the situations in which we find ourselves (person–situation). We will also assess the extent to which personality is a result of inheritance, rather than a reflection of life experiences (nature–nurture). Finally, we will consider the extent to which personality changes as we grow older (stability–change).

STUDYING PERSONALITY What do psychologists mean when they talk about personality?

Many psychologists define personality as an individual’s unique pattern of thoughts, feel- ings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations. There are two important parts to this definition. On the one hand, personality refers to unique differences—those

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E • Define personality. Explain the

difference between describing personality (in particular trait theory) and understanding the causes of personality (psychodynamic, humanistic, and cognitive–social learning theories).

personality An individual’s unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations.

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pleasure principle According to Freud, the way in which the id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct.

336 Chapter 10

aspects that distinguish a person from everyone else. On the other hand, the definition asserts that personality is relatively stable and enduring—that these unique differences per- sist through time and across situations.

Psychologists vary in their approach to the study of personality. Some set out to iden- tify the most important characteristics of personality, whereas others seek to understand why there are differences in personality. Among the latter group, some consider the family to be the most important factor in personality development, whereas others emphasize the importance of influences outside the family. Still others see personality as the product of how we think about ourselves and our experiences. In this chapter, we explore representa- tive theories of these various approaches. We see how each theoretical paradigm sheds light on the personality of Jaylene Smith. Finally, we will evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and will see how psychologists go about assessing personality.

PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES What ideas do all psychodynamic theories have in common?

Psychodynamic theories see behavior as the product of internal psychological forces that often operate outside our conscious awareness. Freud drew on the physics of his day to coin the term psychodynamics: As thermodynamics is the study of heat and mechanical energy and the way that one may be transformed into the other, psychodynamics is the study of psychic energy and the way that it is transformed and expressed in behavior. Although psy- chodynamic theorists disagree about the exact nature of this psychic energy, the following five propositions are central to all psychodynamic theories and have withstood the tests of time (Huprich & Keaschuk, 2006; Westen, 1998):

1. Much of mental life is unconscious; as a result, people may behave in ways that they themselves do not understand.

2. Mental processes (such as emotions, motivations, and thoughts) operate in paral- lel and thus may lead to conflicting feelings.

3. Not only do stable personality patterns begin to form in childhood, but early expe- riences also strongly affect personality development.

4. Our mental representations of ourselves, of others, and of our relationships tend to guide our interactions with other people.

5. Personality development involves learning to regulate sexual and aggressive feel- ings as well as becoming socially interdependent rather than dependent.

Sigmund Freud When Freud proposed that sexual instinct is the basis of behavior, how was he defining “sexual instinct”?

To this day, Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) is the best known and most influential of the psy- chodynamic theorists (Solms, 2004). As we saw in Chapter 1, “The Science of Psychology,” Freud created an entirely new perspective on the study of human behavior. Up to his time, the field of psychology had focused on thoughts and feelings of which we are aware. In a radical departure, Freud stressed the unconscious—the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not normally aware (Zwettler-Otte, 2008). Freud’s ideas form the basis of psychoanalysis, a term that refers both to his particular psychodynamic theory of person- ality and to the form of therapy that he invented.

According to Freud, human behavior is based on unconscious instincts, or drives. Some instincts are aggressive and destructive; others, such as hunger, thirst, self-preservation, and sex, are necessary to the survival of the individual and the species. Freud used the term sexual instinct to refer not just to erotic sexuality, but to the craving for pleasure of all kinds. He used the term libido for the energy generated by the sexual instinct. As we will see, Freud regarded the sexual instinct as the most critical factor in the development of personality.

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S • Describe the five propositions that

are central to all psychodynamic personality theories.

• Describe Freud’s theory of personality, including the concepts of sexual instinct, libido, id, ego, superego, and pleasure principle versus reality principle. Summarize Freud’s stages of development and the consequences of fixation at a particular stage.

• Compare and contrast Freud’s theory, Carl Jung’s theory, Adler’s theory, Horney’s theory, and Erikson’s theory of personality.

• Explain how contemporary psychologists view the contributions and limitations of the psychodynamic perspective.

psychoanalysis The theory of personality Freud developed, as well as the form of therapy he invented.

unconscious In Freud’s theory, all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not and normally cannot become aware.

libido According to Freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct.

id In Freud’s theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression.

reality principle According to Freud, the way in which the ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely and effectively in the real world.

ego Freud’s term for the part of the personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id); now often used as a synonym for “self.”

superego According to Freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and the ego ideal.

ego ideal The part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be.

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Personality 337

How Personality is Structured Freud theorized that personality is formed around three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the only structure present at birth and is completely unconscious. (See Figure 10–1.) Consisting of all the unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression, it operates according to the pleasure principle—that is, it tries to obtain immediate pleasure and to avoid pain. As soon as an instinct arises, the id seeks to gratify it. Because the id is not in contact with the real world, however, it has only two ways of obtaining gratification. One way is by reflex actions, such as coughing, which immediately relieve unpleasant sensations. The other is through fan- tasy, or wish fulfillment: A person forms a mental image of an object or a situation that par- tially satisfies the instinct and relieves the uncomfortable feeling. This kind of thought occurs most often in dreams and daydreams, but it may take other forms. For instance, if someone insults you and you spend the next half hour imagining clever retorts, you are engaging in wish fulfillment.

Mental images of this kind provide fleeting relief, but they cannot fully satisfy most needs. For example, just thinking about being with someone you love is a poor substitute for actually being with that person. Therefore, the id by itself is not very effective at gratifying instincts. It must link to reality if it is to relieve its discomfort. The id’s link to reality is the ego.

Freud conceived of the ego as the psychic mechanism that controls all thinking and reasoning activities. The ego operates partly con- sciously, partly preconsciously, and partly uncon- sciously. (“Preconscious” refers to material that is not currently in awareness but can easily be recalled.) The ego seeks to satisfy the id’s drives in the external world. But instead of acting according to the pleasure principle, the ego oper- ates by the reality principle: By means of intelli- gent reasoning, the ego tries to delay satisfying the id’s desires until it can do so safely and suc- cessfully. For example, if you are thirsty, your ego will attempt to determine how effectively and safely to quench your thirst. (See Figure 10–2.)

A personality consisting only of ego and id would be completely selfish. It would behave effectively, but unsociably. Fully adult behavior is governed not only by reality, but also by the individual’s conscience or by the moral stan- dards developed through interaction with par- ents and society. Freud called this moral watchdog the superego.

The superego is not present at birth. In fact, in Freud’s view young children are amoral and do whatever is pleasurable. As we mature, how- ever, we adopt as our own the judgments of our parents about what is “good” and “bad.” In time, the external restraint applied by our par- ents gives way to our own internal self-restraint. The superego, eventually acting as our conscience, takes over the task of observing and guiding the ego, just as the parents once observed and guided the child. In addition, the superego compares the ego’s actions with an ego ideal of perfection and then rewards or punishes the ego accordingly. Like the ego, the superego works at the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels.

Ideally, our id, ego, and superego work in harmony, with the ego satisfying the demands of the id in a reasonable manner that is approved by the superego. We are then free to love and hate and to express our emotions sensibly and without guilt. When our id is dominant, our instincts are unbridled and we are likely to endanger both ourselves and society. When our superego dominates, our behavior is checked too tightly and we are inclined to judge ourselves too harshly or too quickly, impairing our ability to act on our own behalf and enjoy ourselves.

Figure 10–1 The structural relationship formed by the id, ego, and superego. Freud’s conception of personality is often depicted as an iceberg to illustrate how the vast workings of the mind occur beneath its surface. Notice that the ego is partly conscious, partly unconscious, and partly preconscious; it derives knowledge of the external world through the senses. The superego also works at all three levels. But the id is an enirely uncon- scious structure. Source: Adapted from New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud, 1933. New York: Carlton House.

Unconscious: Well below the surface of awareness

Preconscious: Material that can be easily recalled

Id Pleasure principle Unconscious urges and desires

Ego Self Reality principle

Superego Ego ideal Moral guardian

Conscious: Ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are aware

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How Personality Devel- ops Freud’s theory of personal- ity development focuses on the way in which we satisfy the sexual instinct during the course of life. As infants mature, their libido becomes focused on various sensitive parts of the body during sequential stages of development. If a child is deprived of pleasure (or allowed too much gratification) from the part of the body that dominates a certain stage, some sexual energy may remain permanently tied to that part of the body, instead of moving on in normal sequence to give the individual a fully integrated personality. This is called fixation and, as we shall see, Freud believed that it leads

to immature forms of sexuality and to certain characteristic personality traits. Let’s look more closely at the psychosexual stages that Freud identified and their presumed relation- ship to personality development.

In the oral stage (birth to 18 months), infants, who depend completely on other peo- ple to satisfy their needs, relieve sexual tension by sucking and swallowing; when their baby teeth come in, they obtain oral pleasure from chewing and biting. According to Freud, infants who receive too much oral gratification at this stage grow into overly optimistic and dependent adults; they are likely to lack confidence and to be gullible. Those who receive too little gratification may turn into pessimistic and hostile people later in life who are sar- castic and argumentative.

During the anal stage (roughly 18 months to 31/2 years), the primary source of sexual pleasure shifts from the mouth to the anus. Just about the time children begin to derive plea- sure from holding in and excreting feces, toilet training takes place, and they must learn to regulate this new pleasure in ways that are acceptable to their superego. In Freud’s view, if par- ents are too strict in toilet training, some children throw temper tantrums and may live in self-destructive ways as adults. Others are likely to become obstinate, stingy, and excessively orderly. If parents are too lenient, their children may become messy, unorganized, and sloppy.

When children reach the phallic stage (after age 3), they discover their genitals and develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex while becoming jealous of the same-sex parent. In boys, Freud called this the Oedipus complex, after the character in Greek mythology who killed his father and married his mother. Girls go through a corre- sponding Electra complex, involving possessive love for their father and jealousy toward their mother. Most children eventually resolve these conflicts by identifying with the parent of the same sex. However, Freud contended that fixation at this stage leads to vanity and egotism in adult life, with men boasting of their sexual prowess and treating women with contempt, and with women becoming flirtatious and promiscuous. Phallic fixation may also prompt feelings of low self-esteem, shyness, and worthlessness.

At the end of the phallic period, Freud believed, children lose interest in sexual behav- ior and enter a latency period. During this period, which begins around the age of 5 or 6 and lasts until age 12 or 13, boys play with boys, girls play with girls, and neither sex takes much interest in the other.

At puberty, the individual enters the last psychosexual stage, the genital stage. Sexual impulses reawaken and, ideally, the quest for immediate gratification of these desires yields to mature sexuality in which postponed gratification, a sense of responsibility, and caring for others all play a part.

fixation According to Freud, a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual’s psychosexual development.

oral stage First stage in Freud’s theory of personality development, in which the infant’s erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue.

anal stage Second stage in Freud’s theory of personality development, in which a child’s erotic feelings center on the anus and on elimination.

phallic stage Third stage in Freud’s theory of personality development, in which erotic feelings center on the genitals.

Oedipus complex and Electra complex According to Freud, a child’s sexual attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and jealousy toward the parent of the same sex; generally occurs in the phallic stage.

latency period In Freud’s theory of personality, a period in which the child appears to have no interest in the other sex; occurs after the phallic stage.

genital stage In Freud’s theory of personality development, the final stage of normal adult sexual development, which is usually marked by mature sexuality.

Figure 10–2 How Freud conceived the workings of the pleasure and reality principles. Note that according to the reality principle, the ego uses rational thought to postpone the grati- fication of the id until its desires can be satis- fied safely.

Unpleasure in the id

Release of discomfort by first available

means

External stimulus

Pleasure in the id

Increasing discomfort

in the id

Internal stimulus

External stimulus

Internal stimulus

Unpleasure in the id

Rational thought of ego

Release of discomfort by

safest and best available means

Pleasure in the id

Increasing discomfort

in the id

How the Pleasure Principle Works

How the Reality Principle Works

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Personality 339

Freud is certainly not without his critics. As we will see, even members of Freud’s own psychoanalytic school did not completely endorse his emphasis on sexuality. Contempo- rary psychodynamic theorists tend to put greater emphasis on the ego and its attempts to gain mastery over the world. Finally, some critics have suggested that male and female per- sonality development occur in very different ways, and that Freud’s male-centered theory sheds little if any light on female personality development (Zeedyk & Greemwood, 2008).

Carl Jung How did Carl Jung’s view of the unconscious differ from that of Freud?

Carl Jung (1875–1961) agreed with many of Freud’s tenets, including his emphasis on the role of the unconscious in human behavior, but he expanded the role of the unconscious. Jung contended that libido represents all life forces, not just pleasure-seeking. And where Freud viewed the id as a “cauldron of seething excitations” that the ego has to control, Jung saw the unconscious as the ego’s source of strength and vitality. He also believed that the unconscious consists of the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. The personal unconscious includes our repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undevel- oped ideas, which may enter consciousness if an incident or a sensation triggers their recall.

Diversity–Universality Universal Human Archetypes The collective unconscious, Jung’s most original concept, comprises memories and behav- ior patterns that are inherited from past generations and therefore are shared by all humans. Just as the human body is the product of millions of years of evolution, so too, according to Jung, is the human mind. Over millennia, it has developed “thought forms,” or collective memories, of experiences that people have had in common since prehistoric times. He called these thought forms archetypes. Archetypes appear in our thoughts as mental images. Because all people have mothers, for example, the archetype of “mother” is universally associated with the image of one’s own mother, with Mother Earth, and with a protective presence.

Jung felt that specific archetypes play special roles in shaping personality. The persona (an archetype whose meaning stems from the Latin word for “mask”) is the element of our personality that we project to other people—a shell that grows around our inner self. For some people, the public self so predominates that they lose touch with their inner feelings, leading to personality maladjustments. ■ personal unconscious In Jung’s theory of

personality, one of the two levels of the unconscious; it contains the individual’s repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas.

introverts According to Jung, people who usually focus on their own thoughts and feelings.

extraverts According to Jung, people who usually focus on social life and the external world instead of on their internal experience.

Jung also divided people into two general attitude types—introverts and extraverts. Extraverts turn their attention to the external world. They are “joiners” who take an active interest in other people and in the events going on around them. Introverts are more caught up in their own private worlds. They tend to be unsociable and lack confidence in dealing with other people. Everyone, Jung felt, possesses some aspects of both attitude types, but one is usually dominant.

Jung further divided people into rational individuals, who regulate their actions by thinking and feeling, and irrational individuals, who base their actions on perceptions, whether through the senses (sensation) or through unconscious processes (intuition). Most people exhibit all four psychological functions: thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuit- ing. Jung felt, however, that one or more of these functions is usually dominant. Thus, the thinking person is rational and logical, and decides on the basis of facts. The feeling person is sensitive to his or her surroundings, acts tactfully, and has a balanced sense of values. The sensing type relies primarily on surface perceptions and rarely uses imagination or deeper understanding. And the intuitive type sees beyond obvious solutions and facts to consider future possibilities.

archetypes In Jung’s theory of personality, thought forms common to all human beings, stored in the collective unconscious.

collective unconscious In Jung’s theory of personality, the level of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species.

According to Carl Jung, we all inherit from our ancestors collective memories or “thought forms” that people have had in com- mon since the dawn of human evolution. The image of a motherlike figure with protective, embracing arms is one such primordial thought form that stems from the important, nurturing role of women throughout human history. This thought form is depicted here in this Bulgarian clay figure of a goddess that dates back some six or seven thousand years.

persona According to Jung, our public self, the mask we wear to represent ourselves to others.

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compensation According to Adler, the person’s effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses.

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While Freud emphasized the primacy of the sexual instincts, Jung stressed people’s rational and spiritual qualities. And while Freud considered develop- ment to be shaped in childhood, Jung thought that psychic development comes to fruition only during middle age. Jung brought a sense of historical continuity to his theories, tracing the roots of human personality back through our ancestral past; yet he also contended that a person moves constantly toward self-realization—toward blending all parts of the personality into a harmonious whole.

Alfred Adler What did Alfred Adler believe was the major determinant of personality?

Alfred Adler (1870–1937) disagreed sharply with Freud’s concept of the conflict between the selfish id and the morality-based superego. To Adler, people possess

innate positive motives and they strive for personal and social perfection. One of his earli- est theories grew out of personal experience: As a child, Adler was frail and almost died of pneumonia at the age of 5. This early brush with death led him to believe that personality develops through the individual’s attempt to overcome physical weaknesses, an effort he called compensation.

Adler later modified and broadened his views, contending that people seek to over- come feelings of inferiority that may or may not have a basis in reality. He thought that such feelings often spark positive development and personal growth. Still, some people become so fixated on their feelings of inferiority that they become paralyzed and develop what Adler called an inferiority complex. Later in his life, Adler again shifted his theoretical emphasis in a more positive direction suggesting that people strive both for personal per- fection and for the perfection of the society to which they belong.

The emphasis Adler placed on positive, socially constructive goals and on striving for perfection is in marked contrast to Freud’s pessimistic vision of the selfish person locked into eternal conflict with society. Because of this emphasis, Adler has been hailed by many psychologists as the father of humanistic psychology (Cain, 2002), a topic we will explore in greater depth later in this chapter.

Karen Horney What major contributions did Karen Horney make to the psychodynamic perspective?

Karen Horney (1885–1952), another psychodynamic personality theorist greatly indebted to Freud, nevertheless took issue with some of his most prominent ideas, espe- cially his analysis of women and his emphasis on sexual instincts. Based on her experi- ence as a practicing therapist in Germany and the United States, Horney concluded that environmental and social factors are the most important influences in shaping personal- ity; and among these, the most pivotal are the human relationships we experience as chil- dren (W. B. Smith, 2007).

In Horney’s view, Freud overemphasized the sex drive, resulting in a distorted picture of human relationships. Horney believed that sexuality does figure in the development of personality, but nonsexual factors—such as the need for a sense of basic security and the person’s response to real or imagined threats—play an even larger role. For example, all people share the need to feel loved and nurtured by their parents, regardless of any sexual feelings they might have about them. Conversely, parents’ protective feelings toward their children emerge not only from biological forces but also from the value that society places on the nurturance of children.

A contemporary representation from U.S. cul- ture of the Jungian archetype of the Wise Old Man can be seen in Albus Dumbledore (from the movies based on J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series).

22-time Grammy Award winner Stevie Won- der, who cultivated particularly acute audi- tory abilities, illustrates what Alfred Adler referred to as compensation.

Source: © 2000, Mike Twohy from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.

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Karen Horney, a psychotherapist during the first half of the 20th century, disagreed with Freud’s emphasis on sexual instincts. She considered environmental and social factors, especially the relationships we have as chil- dren, to be the most important influences on personality.

Personality 341

For Horney, anxiety—an individual’s reaction to real or imagined dangers—is a pow- erful motivating force. Whereas Freud believed that anxiety usually emerges from uncon- scious sexual conflicts, Horney stressed that feelings of anxiety also originate in a variety of nonsexual contexts. For example, in childhood anxiety arises because children depend on adults for their very survival. Insecure about receiving continued nurturance and protec- tion, children develop inner protections, or defenses, that provide both satisfaction and security. They experience more anxiety when those defenses are threatened.

In adulthood, anxiety and insecurity can lead to neurotic lifestyles that that may help to deal with emotional problems and ensure safety but only at the expense of personal independence (Horney, 1937). Some people develop an overriding need to give in or sub- mit to others and feel safe only when receiving their protection and guidance. Others deal with basic feelings of insecurity and anxiety by adopting a hostile and domineering man- ner. Still others withdraw from other people, as if saying “If I withdraw, nothing can hurt me.” In contrast, well-adjusted people deal with anxiety without becoming trapped in neu- rotic lifestyles because their childhood environment enabled them to satisfy their basic emotional needs.

inferiority complex In Adler’s theory, the fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional and social paralysis.

Stability–Change Is Biology Destiny? Horney’s conviction that social and cultural forces are far more important than biological ones had a profound effect on her views of human development. For example, in contrast to Freud’s view that personality is largely formed by the end of childhood, Horney believed that adults can continue to develop and change throughout life by coming to understand the source of their basic anxiety and trying to eliminate neurotic anxiety. Horney also opened the way to a more constructive and optimistic understanding of male and female personality. She emphasized that culture, rather than anatomy, determines many of the characteristics that differentiate women from men. For example, if women feel dissatisfied with their gender or men are overly aggressive, the explanation is likely to be found in their social status and social roles, not in their anatomy; and fortunately, social status and social roles can be changed. Indeed, she was a forerunner of contemporary thinkers who believe that we can change culture and society and, in the process, transform human relationships (Gilman, 2001). ■

Erik Erikson, another psychodynamic theorist, also stressed the importance of parent–child relationships for shaping personality. His eight-stage theory of personality develop- ment is still influential today.

Erik Erikson Erikson’s theory focused less on unconscious conflict and more on what factors?

Like Horney, Erik Erikson—a psychodynamic theorist who studied with Freud in Vienna—took a socially oriented view of personality development. While Erikson agreed with much of Freud’s thinking on sexual development and the influence of libidinal needs on personality, he put much greater emphasis on the quality of parent–child relationships. According to Erikson, only if children feel competent and valuable, in their own eyes and in society’s view, will they develop a secure sense of identity. In this way, Erikson shifted the focus of Freud’s personality theory to ego development.

Whereas Freud’s stages of personality development ended with adolescence, Erikson believed that personality continues to develop and change throughout life. But in contrast to Horney, he believed that the various stages of life present a variety of different chal- lenges. Success in dealing with early challenges lays the groundwork for effective adjust- ment at later stages. Conversely, failure to resolve early crises makes later adjustment more difficult. In Chapter 9 (“Life-Span Development”) we explored each of Erikson’s stages in considerable detail. Figure 10–3 provides a concise comparison of Erikson’s and Freud’s stages of personality development.

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A Psychodynamic View of Jaylene Smith How would a psychodynamic theorist view the personality of Jaylene Smith?

According to Freud, personality characteristics such as insecurity, introversion, and feelings of inadequacy and worthlessness often arise from fixation at the phallic stage of develop- ment. Thus, had Freud been Jaylene’s therapist, he would probably have concluded that Jay has not yet effectively resolved her Electra complex. Working from this premise, he would have hypothesized that Jay’s relationship with her father was either very distant and unsat- isfying or unusually close and gratifying. We know, of course, that it was the latter.

In all likelihood, Freud would also have asserted that at around age 5 or 6, Jay had become aware that she could not actually marry her father and do away with her mother, as he would say she wished to do. This possibility might account for the fact that fights between Jay and her mother subsided when Jay was about 6 or 7 years of age. Moreover, we know that shortly thereafter, Jay began to experience “strong feelings of loneliness, depression, insecu- rity, and confusion.” Clearly, something important happened in Jay’s life when she was 6 or 7.

Finally, the continued coolness of Jay’s relationship with her mother and the unusual closeness with her father would probably have confirmed Freud’s suspicion that Jay has still not satisfactorily resolved her Electra complex. Freud would have predicted that Jay would have problems making the progression to mature sexual relationships with other men. Jay, of course, is very much aware that she has problems relating to men, at least when these

relationships get “serious.” And what does Erikson’s theory tell us about

Jaylene Smith’s personality? Recall that for Erikson, one’s success in dealing with later developmental crises depends on how effectively one has resolved earlier crises. Because Jay is having great difficulty in dealing with intimacy (Stage 6), he would have sug- gested that she is still struggling with problems from earlier developmental stages. Erikson would have looked for the source of these problems in the qual- ity of Jay’s relationship with others. We know that her mother subtly communicated her own frustra- tion and dissatisfaction to her children and spent lit- tle time on “nonessential” interactions with them.

Figure 10–3 Erikson’s eight stages of personality development. Each stage involves its own developmental crisis, whose resolution is crucial to adjustment in successive stages. The first five of the eight stages correspond to Freud’s stages of personality development. Source: Figure, “Erickson’s Stages of Personality Development” from Childhood and Society by Erik H. Erikson. Copyright 1950, © 1963 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Renewed 1978, 1991 by Erik H. Erikson. Used by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. and Random House Ltd., UK.

Stage

Oral

Anal

Phallic

Latency

Genital

Young adulthood

Adulthood

Maturity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Basic trust vs.

mistrust

Erikson’s stages of personality development

Fr eu

d ’s

s ta

g es

o f

p er

so n

al it

y d

ev el

o p

m en

t

Autonomy vs. shame,

doubt Initiative

vs. guilt

Industry vs.

inferiority

Identity vs. role

confusion Intimacy

vs. isolation

Generativity vs.

stagnation Ego

integrity vs. despair

Psychoanalysis

Freud’s original theory was based on case studies of his patients; and the lit-erature on psychoanalysis consists mainly of case studies—descriptions ofindividual cases of psychopathology, probable causes, and their treatment. Today, however, psychological science depends increasingly on experimental evidence and biological explanations for mental phenomena. Review the five basic concepts of psychodynamic theory described by Westen on page 336 and think about what kinds of evidence might convince you that they are indeed cor- rect. What evidence would lead you to conclude that they are not in fact correct?

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These feelings and behavior patterns would not have instilled in a child the kind of basic trust and sense of security that Erikson believed are essential to the first stage of develop- ment. In addition, her relationship with her mother and brothers continued to be less than fully satisfactory. It is not surprising, then, that Jay had some difficulty working through subsequent developmental crises. Although she developed a close and caring relationship with her father, Jay was surely aware that his affection partly depended on her fulfilling the dreams, ambitions, and goals that he had for her.

Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories How do modern psychologists view the contributions and limitations of the psychodynamic perspective?

Freud’s emphasis on the fact that we are not always—or even often—aware of the real causes of our behavior has fundamentally changed the way people view themselves and others. Freud’s ideas have also had a lasting impact on history, literature, and the arts (Krugler, 2004). Yet, Freud was a product of his time and place. Critics who contend his theory reflects a sexist view of women have pointed out that he was apparently unable to imagine a con- nection between his female patients’ sense of inferiority and their subordinate position in society. Psychodynamic views have also been criticized as lacking a scientific basis in that they are based largely on retrospective (backward-looking) accounts of a limited sample of individuals who have sought treatment, rather than on research with “healthy” individuals.

Although it is often difficult to translate psychodynamic personality theories into hypotheses that can be tested experimentally (Cloninger, 2003; Holt, 2003), Freud’s theory has received limited confirmation from research (Leichsenring, 2005). For example, people with eating disorders often have oral personalities (J. Perry, Silvera, & Rosenvinge, 2002). Orally fixated people generally eat and drink too much, tend to mention oral images when interpret- ing inkblot tests, and also seem to depend heavily on others, as Freud predicted (Fisher & Greenberg, 1985). Moreover, research confirms an association between specific personality types in childhood and later development of psychological problems. For example, a child with an inhibited temperament is more likely to develop social anxiety disorder as an adult (Gladstone, Parker, Mitchell, Wilhelm, & Malhi, 2005). The effectiveness of psychoanalysis as a therapy has also been cited as evidence in support of Freud’s theories (Leichsenring, 2005). Still, as we shall see in Chapter 13,“Therapies,”psychoanalysis does not seem to be any more or less effective than therapies based on other theories (J. A. Carter, 2006).

Freud’s theories have clearly expanded our understanding of personality, or they would not still be so vigorously debated today, more than 100 years after he proposed them. Whatever their merit as science, psychodynamic theories attempt to explain the root causes of all human behavior. The sheer magnitude of this undertaking helps to account for their lasting attractiveness.

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

Match the following Jungian terms with the appropriate definition. 1. 2.

3.

4. According to Alfred Adler, a person with a fixation on or belief in a negative characteristic has an ___________. They may try to overcome their perceived weakness through ____________.

5. Horney believed that ____________ is a stronger source of emotional disturbance than sexual urges.

persona a. typical mental image or mythical representation collective unconscious b. memories and behavior patterns inherited from

past generations archetype c. aspect of the personality by which one is

known to other people

Answers:1. c.2. b.3. a.4. inferiority complex; compensation.5. anxiety.

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HUMANISTIC PERSONALITY THEORIES What are the major ways that humanistic personality theory differs from psychodynamic theories?

Freud believed that personality grows out of the resolution of unconscious conflicts and developmental crises. Many of his followers—including some who modified his theory and others who broke away from his circle—also embraced this basic viewpoint. But in the the- ory of Alfred Adler, we glimpsed a very different view of human nature. Adler focused on forces that contribute to positive growth and a move toward personal perfection. For these reasons, Adler is sometimes called the first humanistic personality theorist.

Humanistic personality theory emphasizes that we are positively motivated and progress toward higher levels of functioning—in other words, there is more to human exis- tence than dealing with hidden conflicts. Humanistic psychologists believe that life is a process of opening ourselves to the world around us and experiencing joy in living. They stress people’s potential for growth and change as well as the ways they experience their lives right now, rather than dwelling on how they felt or acted in the past. Finally, humanists also believe that given reasonable life conditions, people will develop in desirable directions (Cloninger, 2003; Criswell, 2003). Adler’s concept of striving for perfection laid the ground- work for later humanistic personality theorists such as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. We discussed Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs leading to self-actualization in Chapter 8, “Motivation and Emotion.” We now turn to Rogers’s theory of self-actualization.

Carl Rogers According to Rogers, how can thinking of yourself as self-assured help you to become so?

One of the most prominent humanistic theorists, Carl Rogers (1902–1987), contended that men and women develop their personalities in the service of positive goals. According to Rogers, every organism is born with certain innate capacities, capabilities, or potentialities—“a sort of genetic blueprint, to which substance is added as life progresses” (Maddi, 1989, p. 102).

APPLY YOUR UNDERSTANDING

1. An angry parent imagines hitting a child for misbehaving, but decides instead to discuss the misbehavior with the child and to point out why the behavior was wrong. After hearing the child’s explanation for the behavior, the parent feels guilty for having been so angry. The parent’s anger and fantasy are the result of the ____________; the decision to discuss the problem is the result of the ____________; and the guilt derives from the ____________.

a. ego; superego; id b. id; ego; superego c. ego; id; superego d. id; superego; ego

2. John is a young adult. According to Erikson, the major challenge he faces is ____________, which will be followed in middle adulthood by the crisis of ____________.

a. intimacy vs. isolation; integrity vs. despair b. intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation c. identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation d. identity vs. role confusion; integrity vs. despair e. identity vs. role confusion; initiative vs. guilt

humanistic personality theory Any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning.

Answers:1. b.2. b.

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S • Explain how humanistic personality

theories differ from psychodynamic theories. Distinguish Rogers’ concept of actualizing tendency and self- actualizing tendency, conditional versus unconditional positive regard, and what it means to be a fully functioning person.

• Summarize the contributions and limitations of the humanistic perspective.

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The goal of life, Rogers believed, is to fulfill this genetic blueprint, to become the best of what- ever each of us is inherently capable of becoming. Rogers called this biological push toward fulfillment the actualizing tendency. Although Rogers maintained that the actualizing ten- dency characterizes all organisms—plants, animals, and humans—he noted that human beings also form images of themselves, or self-concepts. Just as we try to fulfill our inborn bio- logical potential, so, too, we attempt to fulfill our self-concept, our conscious sense of who we are and what we want to do with our lives. Rogers called this striving the self-actualizing tendency. If you think of yourself as “intelligent” and “athletic,” for example, you will strive to live up to those images of yourself.

When our self-concept is closely matched with our inborn capacities, we are likely to become what Rogers called a fully functioning person. Such people are self-directed: They decide for themselves what it is they wish to do and to become, even though their choices may not always be sound ones. Fully functioning people are also open to experience—to their own feelings as well as to the world and other people around them—and thus find themselves “increasingly willing to be, with greater accuracy and depth, that self which [they] most truly [are]” (Rogers, 1961, pp. 175–176).

According to Rogers, people tend to become more fully functioning if they are brought up with unconditional positive regard, or the experience of being treated with warmth, respect, acceptance, and love regardless of their own feelings, attitudes, and behaviors. But often parents and other adults offer children what Rogers called conditional positive regard: They value and accept only certain aspects of the child. The acceptance, warmth, and love that the child receives from others then depend on the child’s behaving in certain ways and fulfilling certain conditions. In the process, self-concept comes to resemble the inborn capacity less and less, and the child’s life deviates from the genetic blueprint.

When people lose sight of their inborn potential, they become constricted, rigid, and defensive. They feel threatened and anxious, and experience considerable discomfort and uneasiness. Because their lives are directed toward what other people want and value, they are unlikely to experience much real satisfaction in life. At some point, they may realize that they don’t really know who they are or what they want.

A Humanistic View of Jaylene Smith How would humanistic theorists view the development of Jaylene Smith’s personality?

Humanistic personality theory would focus on the discrepancy between Jay’s self-concept and her inborn capacities. For example, Rogers would point out that Jay is intelligent and achievement-oriented but nevertheless feels that she doesn’t “deserve to be a doctor,” wor- ries about whether she will ever be “truly happy,” and remembers that when she was 13, she never was able to be herself and really express her feelings, even with a good friend. Her unhappiness, fearfulness, loneliness, insecurity, and other dissatisfactions similarly stem from Jay’s inability to become what she “most truly is.” Rogers would suspect that other people in Jay’s life made acceptance and love conditional on her living up to their ideas of what she should become. We know that for most of her life, Jay’s father was her primary source of positive regard. Very possibly, he conditioned his love for Jay on her living up to his goals for her.

Evaluating Humanistic Theories What have humanistic theories contributed to our understanding of personality?

The central tenet of most humanistic personality theories—that the overriding purpose of the human condition is to realize one’s potential—is difficult if not impossible to verify sci- entifically. The resulting lack of scientific evidence and rigor is one of the major criticisms

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actualizing tendency According to Rogers, the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become what it is inherently capable of becoming.

conditional positive regard In Rogers’s theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on another’s behaving in certain ways and on fulfilling certain conditions.

unconditional positive regard In Rogers’s theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of his or her behavior.

self-actualizing tendency According to Rogers, the drive of human beings to fulfill their self-concepts, or the images they have of themselves.

fully functioning person According to Rogers, an individual whose self-concept closely resembles his or her inborn capacities or potentials.

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of these theories. In addition, some critics claim that humanistic theories present an overly optimistic view of human beings and fail to take into account the evil in human nature. Others contend that the humanistic view fosters self-centeredness and narcissism, and reflects Western values of individual achievement rather than universal human potential.

Nonetheless, Maslow and especially Rogers did attempt to test some aspects of their theories scientifically. For example, Rogers studied the discrepancy between the way people perceived themselves and the way they ideally wanted to be. He discovered that people whose real selves differed considerably from their ideal selves were more likely to be unhappy and dissatisfied.

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

Indicate whether the following are true (T) or false (F). 1. ________ Humanistic personality theory emphasizes that we are motivated by conflicts,

whereas psychodynamic personality theory emphasizes positive strivings. 2. ________ The goal of life, Rogers believed, is to become the best person that we can

inherently become. 3. ________ Our self-concept is our inborn biological potential. 4. ________ When people lose sight of their inborn potential, they are unlikely to experience

much satisfaction.

Answers:1. (F).2. (T).3. (F).4. (T).

Answers:1. b.2. d.

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S • Compare and contrast the trait theories

of Cattell and Eysenck and the current five-factor model of personality. Briefly summarize the research evidence on the usefulness and universality of the five-factor model, the stability of personality traits over time and across situations, and the biological basis of personality traits.

• Summarize the contributions and limitations of the trait perspective.

APPLY YOUR UNDERSTANDING

1. Barbara was brought up with unconditional positive regard. According to Rogers, she is likely to

a. be vain and narcissistic. b. feel she is valued regardless of her attitudes and behavior. c. have self-concepts that do not correspond very closely to her inborn capacities. d. Both (b) and (c) are true.

2. Your friend has always known that she wants to be a doctor. When you ask her how she knows that, she says, “That’s just who I am. It’s what I want to do with my life.” Rogers calls the push toward fulfilling this sense of who she is

a. being fully functioning. b. engaging in a compensatory process. c. expressing a high need for achievement. d. the self-actualizing tendency.

TRAIT THEORIES What is the key focus of trait theories?

The personality theories that we have examined so far all emphasize early childhood expe- riences; and all attempt to explain the varieties of human personality. Other personality theorists focus on the present, describing the ways in which already-developed adult per- sonalities differ from one another. These trait theorists assert that people differ according to the degree to which they possess certain personality traits, such as dependency, anxiety, aggressiveness, and sociability. We infer a trait from how a person behaves. If someone con- sistently throws parties, goes to great lengths to make friends, and travels in groups, we might safely conclude that this person possesses a high degree of sociability.

Our language has many words that describe personality traits. Gordon Allport, along with his colleague H. S. Odbert (1936), found nearly 18,000 dictionary entries that might refer to personality traits. However, only about 2,800 of the words on Allport and Odbert’s

personality traits Dimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways.

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list concern the kinds of stable or enduring characteristics that most psychologists would call personality traits; and when synonyms and near-synonyms are removed, the number of possible personality traits drops to around 200—which is still a formidable list. Psycholo- gist Raymond Cattell (1965), using a statistical technique called factor analysis, found that those 200 traits tend to cluster in groups. Thus, a person who is described as persevering or determined is also likely to be thought of as responsible, ordered, attentive, and stable and probably would not be described as frivolous, neglectful, and changeable. On the basis of extensive research, Cattell originally concluded that just 16 traits account for the complex- ity of human personality; later he suggested that it might be necessary to add another 7 traits to the list (Cattell & Kline, 1977).

Other theorists thought that Cattell used too many traits to describe personality. Eysenck (1976) argued that personality could be reduced to three basic dimensions: emotional stabil- ity, introversion–extraversion, and psychoticism. According to Eysenck, emotional stability refers to how well a person controls emotions. On a continuum, individuals at one end of this trait would be seen as poised, calm, and composed, whereas people at the other end might be described as anxious, nervous, and excitable. Introversion–extraversion refers to the degree to which a person is inwardly or outwardly oriented. At one end of this dimension would be the socially outgoing, talkative, and affectionate people, known as extraverts. Introverts— generally described as reserved, silent, shy, and socially withdrawn—would be at the other extreme. Eysenck used the term psychoticism to describe people characterized by insensitivity and uncooperativeness at one end and warmth, tenderness, and helpfulness at the other end.

Nature–Nurture Is Personality Inherited? For Allport, traits—or “dispositions,” as he called them—are literally encoded in the ner- vous system as structures that guide consistent behavior across a wide variety of situations. Allport also believed that while traits describe behaviors that are common to many people, each individual personality comprises a unique constellation of traits. While few psycholo- gists today would deny the influence of the environment in shaping personality, recent evi- dence substantiating the importance of genetic factors to the development of specific personality traits supports Allport’s hunch that at least some personality traits are encoded biologically (Rushton, Bons, & Hur, 2008). ■

The Big Five What five basic traits describe most differences in personality?

As listed in Table 10–1, contemporary trait theorists have boiled down personality traits to five basic dimensions: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and culture (Costa & McCrae, 2006; McCrae et al., 2008). There is a growing consensus today that these Big Five personality dimensions, also known as the five-factor model, capture the most salient dimensions of human personality (Costa & McCrae, 2006; De Raad, 1998), although there is some disagreement about whether the fifth dimension should be called “culture” or “openness to experience” or “intellect.” Recently, each of the Big Five traits has been shown to have at least six facets, or components, as shown in Table 10–1 (DeYoung, Quilty, & Peterson, 2007; Jang, Livesley, McCrae, Angleitner, & Riemann, 1998).

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mylmu connect

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LAB ASSIGNMENT 7

Single-Hop Network for Sensing Luminosity Objective:

• To program two wireless sensor nodes that measure luminosity and send the measurements to a sink in a single-hop manner

Required Hardware:

• MIB520 USB Interface Board • 3 IRIS Wireless Sensor Nodes • 2 MD100CB Sensor Boards • 4 AA Batteries • USB Cable • PC

Required Software:

• Linux Ubuntu • Eclipse SDK • TinyOS

Procedure:

1. Set up the development system as instructed in steps 1 through 9 of lab assignment 1. 2. Create a TinyOS project to implement your SensingLuminosity application as instructed in step

10 of lab assignment 1. The name of your project should be SensingLuminosityYourFirstName (e.g., the instructor’s project title would be SensingLuminosityGustavo).

3. Create the source files of your project as indicated in step 11 of lab assignment 1. The names of the module and configuration files should be as follows:

• Module file: “SensingLuminosityC” • Configuration file: “SensingLuminosityAppC” • Header file: “SensingLuminosity” • Makefile

The source code of the previous three files can be found in the last pages of this document. The source code of the module file SensingLuminosityC is not complete. You need to complete it as explained in the next step.

4. The module controls the operation of the application. It starts the radio at boot time, and it starts a periodic timer when the radio has been initialized. A measurement of the luminosity is requested every time the timer fires, and once all the measurements that can fit in one packet have been obtained, the packet is transmitted. The code is not complete in the events Timer.fired() and ReadLuminosity.readDone(error_t error, uint16_t sample). The missing code is supposed to request the luminosity measurements and store the completed measurements respectively. You need to review all the source code in the module and configuration files in order to be able to complete the source code. Tip: You can access the TinyOS source files in the TinyOS libraries to find out how you can request and process a completed measurement. The TinyOS project, which includes the

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libraries, is available at https://github.com/tinyos/tinyos-main. You can use the search tool. For example, you can search for “interface Read” and “DemoSensorC”.

5. To program the wireless sensor nodes, the two ports assigned to the MIB520 board need to be set with read and write attributes as instructed in step 15 of lab assignment 1. Important: You will need to repeat this step anytime you disconnect and connect the MIB520 board back to the PC.

6. Now, install the project on two nodes using the node IDs assigned by the instructor and verify

that they work as expected using the Oscilloscope application as indicated in step 7. Also, you need to make the constant AM_LUMINOSITY different from that one of your classmates. Otherwise, your Oscilloscope will show measurements of not only your project but those of other students who have the same AM_LUMINOSITY value. You should AM_LUMINOSITY equal to one of the node IDs assigned to you in lab assignment 3 plus 0x90. Important: You need to connect the MDA100CB sensor board to the node after you program it and before you turn it on. The sensor board has the photoresistor to measure luminosity.

7. Install the BaseStation application in one of your nodes. 8. Download into your src folder the following two files available on MyLMU Connect:

• Oscilloscope.h • java.zip

Make sure all values in Oscilloscope.h match the corresponding values in SensingLuminosity.h. Pay special attention to AM_OSCILLOSCOPE in Oscilloscope.h. It needs to be equal to AM_LUMINOSITY in SensingLuminosity.h. Uncompress the file java.zip. Uncompressing java.zip generates a folder called java. Using the Ubuntu file manager, go to the uncompressed java folder and right click on the file called run. Select the option Properties. A window will open. Go to the tab called Permissions and make sure that the checkbox called Execute is checked. Close the properties window. Now go back to the terminal window and open a new tab by clicking on File -> Open Tab. Go to the uncompressed java folder. Compile the Oscilloscope application by executing the following two commands:

• make clean • make

To run the Oscilloscope application, you need to run the SerialForwarder first. The SerialForwarder is a server application that is part of TinyOS. You should connect it to the Base Station with the command below. Once connected to the Base Station, client applications can connect to the SerialForwarder. All client applications that connect, will receive a copy of the stream of packets that the BaseStation listens to. In this lab assignment, you will connect only one client. This is the Oscilloscope application. Open a new tab in your terminal window as indicated previously and execute the following command (the Base Station must be connected):

• java net.tinyos.sf.SerialForwarder –comm serial@/dev/ttyUSB1:iris Finally, go back to the tab for the Oscilloscope and execute the following command:

• ./run 9. Verify that the nodes are measuring luminosity with the Oscilloscope. First, you need to set the

vertical scale of the Oscilloscope from 0 to 4000, and then cover the photoresistor with your hand and check whether the measurements drop. The previous upper limit of 4000 may need to be changed depending on the amount of light in the laboratory.

10. Take a snapshot of the Oscilloscope application showing variations on the luminosity of the two sensor nodes. Take a picture with your cellphone showing how you changed the amount of lighthttps://github.com/tinyos/tinyos-main

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on the photo resistor. You need to include these pictures in the section on experimental evaluation of your report.

11. Obtain the signature from the instructor to show that all steps where completed successfully.

______________________________________________________ Instructor’s Signature Date

12. Shut down the system as follows:

• Close all open files in Eclipse • Close all open folders of your project in Eclipse • Close your project in Eclipse • Exit Eclipse: File -> Exit • Exit the terminal window: enter the command exit • Close any other programs such as file manager, Internet browser, etc. • Press the Ubuntu button at the right top of the screen • Select the Shut down option

Report: The lab report needs to include the following sections: title, abstract, introduction (i.e., problem statement and relevance of the problem), system description (i.e., what hardware and software are used, how they connect and interact, and what can be done with the whole system), proposed solution (e.g., flow chart) including source code and its explanation, experimental evaluation, and conclusions. The report needs to be submitted in the IEEE format, available at http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/authors/author_templates.html The title should be “Lab Assignment 7: Single-Hop Network for Sensing Luminosity” The introduction needs to:

• summarize the objective of the assignment in one paragraph • explain in one paragraph why you think it is important to learn how to meet that objective, i.e.,

what do you think you are learning from this assignment? how is it useful? • give an outline of the report in one paragraph; for example, the outline could start with “This

report is organized as follows. In Section II, a description of the hardware and software used is provided. Section III describes the solution that was implemented to install the nesC application …”

The system description needs to describe the architecture of the system including software and hardware. You need to explain the purpose of each hardware and software element and the purpose of the system as a whole. Make sure you include the MDA100CB sensor board in your explanation. The proposed solution needs to explain in your own words the C and nesC code in the header, module, and configuration files. Also, all the steps followed to install and verify the correct operation of the code need to be explained in your own words. These steps correspond to those of the procedure listed in this assignment. Therefore, you need to explain each step in your own words.http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/authors/author_templates.html

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The experimental evaluation needs to explain how you evaluated experimentally that the objective stated in the introduction was actually met. This explanation needs to include all the steps you followed. Finally, you need to report what the results were. You should show proof of the results. In this case, you should include the pictures you took when you ran the Oscilloscope application. The conclusions should be a one-paragraph summary of the whole lab assignment. The abstract should be a one-paragraph summary of the following sections: objective of the assignment, system description, proposed solution, experimental evaluation. Finally, you need to attach to your report the signed lab guide in order to show that you completed the whole procedure in the lab.

ELEC-698 SS: Wireless Sensor Networks, EECS, LMU Spring 2016

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SensingLuminosityC.nc #include “Timer.h” #include “SensingLuminosity.h” module SensingLuminosityC{

uses{ interface Boot; interface Leds; interface Timer<TMilli>; interface Read<uint16_t> as ReadLuminosity; interface SplitControl as RadioControl; interface AMSend; interface Receive; } } implementation{ message_t mymessage; bool busy; mydataformat_t mydata; uint8_t currentsamplenum; bool dontcount; void report_problem() { call Leds.led2Toggle(); } void report_transmission() { call Leds.led0Toggle(); } void report_reception() { call Leds.led1Toggle(); } task void sendpacket() { if (sizeof(mydata) > call AMSend.maxPayloadLength()) { report_problem(); } else { memcpy(call AMSend.getPayload(&mymessage, sizeof(mydata)),

&mydata, sizeof(mydata)); if (call AMSend.send(AM_LUMINOSITY, &mymessage, sizeof(mydata)) == SUCCESS) { busy = TRUE; } } } event void Boot.booted(){ mydata.samplingperiod = DEFAULT_PERIOD; mydata.nodeid = TOS_NODE_ID; if (call RadioControl.start() != SUCCESS){ report_problem(); } } event void RadioControl.startDone(error_t error){ if (error != SUCCESS){ report_problem(); } else { call Timer.startPeriodic(mydata.samplingperiod); currentsamplenum = 0; } } event void RadioControl.stopDone(error_t error){}

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SensingLuminosityC.nc (cont.) event void Timer.fired() { if (currentsamplenum < NUMSAMPLES) { // Request a measurement of the luminosity, and if the request is not granted, // report the problem using the function report_problem(). } else { if (!busy) { post sendpacket(); } currentsamplenum = 0; if (!dontcount) { mydata.count++; } dontcount = FALSE; } } event void ReadLuminosity.readDone(error_t error, uint16_t sample) { // Check whether the measurement was done successfully. If it was not, make the sample // equal to the highest possible number it can take on and report the problem using the // function report_problem(). If it was, store the measurement in the corresponding // location. currentsamplenum++; } event void AMSend.sendDone(message_t * txmessage, error_t error) { if (error != SUCCESS) { report_problem(); } else { report_transmission(); } busy = FALSE; } event message_t * Receive.receive(message_t * rxmessage, void * payload, uint8_t payloadsize) { mydataformat_t * rxpayload = payload; if (rxpayload->nodeid == NODE_ID1 || rxpayload->nodeid == NODE_ID2) { report_reception(); if (rxpayload->version > mydata.version) { mydata.version = rxpayload->version; mydata.samplingperiod = rxpayload->samplingperiod; call Timer.startPeriodic(mydata.samplingperiod); } if (rxpayload->count > mydata.count) { mydata.count = rxpayload->count; dontcount = TRUE; } } return rxmessage; } }

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SensingLuminosityAppC.nc #include “SensingLuminosity.h” configuration SensingLuminosityAppC{ } implementation{ components SensingLuminosityC, MainC, ActiveMessageC, LedsC, new TimerMilliC() as Timer, new DemoSensorC() as PhotoSensor, new AMSenderC(AM_LUMINOSITY), new AMReceiverC(AM_LUMINOSITY); SensingLuminosityC.Boot -> MainC; SensingLuminosityC.RadioControl -> ActiveMessageC; SensingLuminosityC.AMSend -> AMSenderC; SensingLuminosityC.Receive -> AMReceiverC; SensingLuminosityC.Timer -> Timer; SensingLuminosityC.ReadLuminosity -> PhotoSensor; SensingLuminosityC.Leds -> LedsC; }

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SensingLuminosity.h #ifndef SENSING_LUMINOSITY_H #define SENSING_LUMINOSITY_H enum { NUMSAMPLES = 5, DEFAULT_PERIOD = 64, AM_LUMINOSITY = 0x93, NODE_ID1 = 1, NODE_ID2 = 2, BASESTATION_ID = 0 }; typedef nx_struct mydataformat { nx_uint16_t version; nx_uint16_t samplingperiod; nx_uint16_t nodeid; nx_uint16_t count; nx_uint16_t samples[NUMSAMPLES]; } mydataformat_t; #endif /* SENSING_LUMINOSITY_H */

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Makefile COMPONENT=SensingLuminosityAppC SENSORBOARD=mda100 include $(MAKERULES)

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which of the following is a true statement?

Which of the following is a true statement about the power of congress?
25,096 results
civics help plz
Which is a true statement about the power of Congress? a)Congress may overrule the Bill of Rights. b)Congress may pass any law necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated powers. c)Congress may overrule decisions of federal judges. d)Congress may

asked by spunky on January 31, 2019
Civics
which is a true statement about the power of Congress a. congress may overrule the bill of rights b. congress may pass any law necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated powers c. congress may overrule decisions of federal judges d. congress may

asked by please help!!!! on February 11, 2019
Government
Which of the following is a true statement about the power of congress? A. Congress may overrule the bill of rights B. Congress may pass any law necessary and proper to carry out it enumerated powers C. Congress may overrule decisions by federal judges D.

asked by Mila on October 26, 2016
Social studies
What presidential power under the constitution led the antifederalists to urge for a bill of rights? A veto power over acts of congress B miltary power, as commander-in-cheif C the power to carry out the laws passed by congress*** D the power to declare

asked by Hi on September 28, 2017
check my work

  1. Which of the following provides the best definition of a strict constructionist interpretation of congressional power? (1 point) Congress must have more powers than the states. Congress should only use implied powers when directly connected to expressed

asked by kate on September 22, 2016

history (check my work)
. Which of the following provides the best definition of a strict constructionist interpretation of congressional power? (1 point) Congress must have more powers than the states. Congress should only use implied powers when directly connected to expressed

asked by kate on September 23, 2016
government
why does a member of congress vote as he or she does? like their race, gender, all that stuff. and where does the true power of congress lie?

asked by s on March 14, 2008
American government
Which power allows congress to check the foreign affairs powers of the president? Eminent domain power Judicial power Taxing and spending power Commerce power**** Which of the following examples reflects an action that congress can take under the war

asked by ….. on October 17, 2016
GOVERNMENT
Please help. I’m trying to figure these True or False questions. A President’s threat to grant amnesty can sometimes convince Congress to make changes in a bill to satisfy the President’s objections. T or F I think it’s true. Am I right? As the nation has

asked by Suzi on April 19, 2007
Algebra II
In an induction proof of the statement 4+7+10+…+(3n-1)=n(3n+5)/2 the first step is to show that the statement is true for some integers n. Note:3(1)+1=1[3(1)+5]/2 is true. Select the steps required to complete the proof. A)Show that the statement is true

asked by Jon on December 15, 2007
American government
1.) Which of the following is true about the formal amendment process for the Constitution? A.) Any citizen may propose an amendment. B.) only Congress may propose an amendment. C.) both houses of Congress must pass a resolution to propose an amendment.

asked by Taylor on September 1, 2016
Government-Need Help
With respect to the 31 amendments (of the Constitution)that have been proposed by Congress,which statement is true? 1.Only 25 have been ratified 2.The Eighteenth Amendment which makes selling liquor illegal was ratified and is still a valid law. 3.The

asked by Anonymous on January 17, 2007
American Government
Why was it a problem that Congress did not have the power to tax under the Articles of Confederation? a. Congress wanted to provide more services, but it could not afford to without taxes. b. Congress could not regulate trade between the states. c.

asked by Steve on January 9, 2018
logical statements-urgent
I have to come up with a logical statement when making a truth table that has these conditions: The statement is always false if both P and Q are true. Otherwise, the statement is true if Q is true but R is not true. so far I have ~(P&Q) which makes it

asked by Anonymous on June 17, 2015
Microeconomis
Why is much more profitable for a company to bring to market a new product than secon? While your statement is generally true, it is not always true. The producer of a new product MAY enjoy some monopoly power for a time. Makers of an existing product are,

asked by leanna on November 6, 2006

social studies
Mrs. Sue I need your help. Which statement BEST describes the power of government provided by the Articles of Confederation? A) The national government held most of the power. B) Congress enforced its power by taxing the states. C) The states had more

asked by Matthew on October 12, 2016
Mth 209
Which of the following conclusions is true about the statement below? X^2√x Multiple Choice: The statement is never true. The statement is true when x is negative. The statement is true when x=0. The statement is always true.

asked by Tina on December 16, 2013
check my work

  1. Which of the following best exemplifies how Congress’s use of its weights and measures powers plays an important role in business transactions? (1 point) With uniform and consistent standards, producers are allowed to charge different prices for a

asked by kate on September 22, 2016
US History II
Which one would be right…I don’t really understand This is the question: What was the signifianceof the War Powers Resolution of 1973? 1) gives the Executive Branch the power to wage wars instead of leaving that power to Congress to declare it.

asked by Amy~ on July 11, 2010
Statistics
Answer “True” if the statement is always true. If the statement is not always true, replace the underlined words with words that make the statement always true. Alpha is the measure of the area under the curve of the standard score that lies in the

asked by shuggins on June 23, 2015
Pre-Algebra
Which exponent makes this statement true? One fifth to the ninth power equals five to what power? A) 9 B)-9 C) 1/9 D)-1/9

asked by Grace on October 1, 2015
Social Studies
Under the Articles, each state sent one delegate to Congress. Thus each state, no matter its size or population, had one vote. Congress did have the power to declare war. It could appoint military officers, coin money, and operate post offices. It was also

asked by Pier on November 19, 2017
math
1)Find the third iterate x3 of f(x)=x2-4 for an initial value of x0=2 A)-4 B)4 C)12 D)-12 I chose C 2)Use Pascal’s triangle to expand:(w-x)5 This ones long so I chose w5-5w4x+10w3x3-10w2x4+5wx4-x5 3)Use the binomial Theorem to find the third term in the

asked by Jon on December 13, 2007
government
the power that allows congress to take private property for such uses as an interstate highway system or a national park is a. the commerce power b. the power of eminent domain c. the borrowing power d. the power to tax a

asked by jere on January 3, 2008
Social Studies
My son has to write a paragraph for a Social Studies project. The paragraph should include a “Power 1 statement at the beginning and end of the paragraph and at least three Power 2 statements. Eache Power 2 statement should be supported by at least two

asked by Mom on October 15, 2006

Government

  1. The U.S. Constitution’s Article I, Section 1 created the office for the U.S. president. A) True B) False 2. The term of office for a House member is two years. A) True B) False 3. Two requirements for members of the House are that they must be 25 years

asked by Allison on July 9, 2013
8th Grade Social Studies
Under the Articles, each state sent one delegate to Congress. Thus each state, no matter size or population, had one vote. Congress did have the power to declare war. It could appoint military officers, coin money, and operate post offices. It was also

asked by Cookie Thumper on November 15, 2017
Civics Economics

  1. Nixon’s credibility as President was severely strained by the Watergate scandal. a. True b. False (A) 2. In the 1970’s, the federal government gave up its policy of trying to Americanize the Indians. a. True b. False (B) 3. Vietnam was no longer an

asked by cristaln on March 7, 2018
Government
This case came about because President Marbury refused to honor the last-minute judicial appointments of Pres. Madison. A) True B) False 2. Marbury wanted the courts to issue of writ of mandamus, a court order forcing Jefferson to give him his commission.

asked by Madi on July 21, 2012
government
all the following expressed powers belong to congress EXCEPT a. the power to declare war b. the power to tax imports c. the power to naturalize citizens d. the power to raise an army d.

asked by jere on January 14, 2008
Math
1: Classify the quadrilateral using the name that best describes it I tried posting it but it didn’t work 2: which statement is a true statement 3: which statement is a true statement 4: Which property is not a characteristic of a polygon 5: Which figure

asked by Please Help on January 19, 2018
math
can someone correct this for me… solve: -4(2x – 3) = -8x + 5 my answer: this equation has no solution because they don’t equal i get 0=-7 -4(2x-3)=-8x+5 -8x+12=-8x+5 0(x)=-7 So am I correct You are right, let me explain a bit more. When you write down:

asked by jasmine20 on January 1, 2007
government
what is the implied power expressed by the necessary and proper clause in the constitution a. congress’s ability to make laws is severely limited by the constitution b. congress is given limited authority to interpret reserved powers c. congress must

asked by jere on January 15, 2008
government
what is the implied power expressed by the necessary and proper clause in the constitution a congress’s ability to make laws is severely limited by the Constitution b congress is given limited authority to interpret reserved powers c congress must follow a

asked by john on April 2, 2013
history
“… In administering the laws of Congress I shall keep steadily in view the limitations as well as the extent of the Executive power trusting thereby to discharge the functions of my office without transcending its authority. …” Review section 1. What

asked by Nikki on April 11, 2017

physics
Consider the following statement: “When a rifle is fired horizontally, the bullet leaves the barrel and doesn’t drop at all for the first 45 meters of flight.” Is this statement true? Wouldn’t this statement not be true because you don’t know the

asked by jon on October 5, 2010
World History
Check; 5.Why was the Congress of Vienna considered a success? The Congress of Vienna was a success because the congress got a balance of power back to the European countries. The congress also brought back peace among the nations. Europe had peace for

asked by _Unknown on August 17, 2013
Government
which of the following is an example of the principle of checks and balances? A)President can veto an act of congress. B)Members of congress have the power to raise their own salaries C)Federal courts have the power to hear cases involving federal law

asked by Fred on September 2, 2016
Educational Technology
Which of the following do you need to remember about true/false questions? A. If the statement is mostly right, then you should answer true. B. Not all parts of a statement must be true for it to be true. C. All parts of a statement must be true for it to

asked by noneya on November 16, 2018
American Government
Which of the following is an example of the principle of checks and balances? A:Presidents can veto an act of Congress*** B:Members of Congress have power to raise their own salaries. C:Federal courts have the power to hear cases involving federal law.

asked by marylyn on September 25, 2017
geometry
Rafael wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement 1 Description If a point lies outside a line, then exactly one plane contains both the line and the point. Statement 2 Description If two points lie in a plane, then the line joining them lies in

asked by Anonymous on September 22, 2011
geometry
State what conclusion can be made IFx=5 and the given statement is true IFx>x=z, then y=14z. I don’t understand this part of your statement: “IFx>x=z,” Please clarify this. If x>X-2, then y=14x Ok, I will suppose this is the question then “State what

asked by maria on October 2, 2006
American Government
Please check my answers 2. What does congressional power of the purse refer to? A. Congress taxes all individuals who earn money in the US B. Congress taxes all corporations who make a profit in the US C. Congress finances the federal government and all

asked by M on January 6, 2017
Health
Stress is a normal part of life. A. The above statement is false B. The above statement is never true C. The above statement is true D. None of the above I think its C.

asked by Anonymous on March 18, 2016
health
Stress is a normal part of life. A. The above statement is false B. The above statement is never true C. The above statement is true D. None of the above D? because for sure its not B …

asked by Aya on August 8, 2012

Math
WHERE DO I PUT THE PERENTHESIS TO MAKE THIS STATEMENT TRUE: 18+2*1+3 TO THE SECOND POWER

asked by Andrea on August 27, 2012
speech
I need help with where to look for an answer to this question: That no people can see the same thing because the statement is self-discrediting, if the statement were true the person making the statement would have no way of knowing that it is true since

asked by Desieree on August 25, 2012
Math
Insert grouping symbols to make each statement true. 4 • 2 – 2 to the power of 2 ➗ 9 + 2 = 6

asked by Parker on August 17, 2017
HISTORY HELP
which of the following does congress have the authority to do based upon the constitution ? A)Tax church services B)Regulate local tax C) regulate shipping licenses or vessels operating on rivers between D)tax the sale and consumption of oranges exported

asked by A.A on October 19, 2016
U.S. GOVERNMENT
True or False Qsns: 1)Indiana is TECHNICALLY not a “state,” because it has to answer to a higher authority, that being the national government in D.C. 2)The U.S. is a republic, because we are led by a president and Congress, and their authority is based on

asked by Booker Perry on June 5, 2012
math
Which of the following conclusions is true about the statement below? x^2 = √x a) The statement is always true. b) The statement is true when x is negative. c) The statement is true when x=0. d) The statement is never true.

asked by Anonymous on April 6, 2013
US Gov
The greatest source of presidential power is: a. the power to remove members of Congress from office for violating their oath of office. b. the power of referendum. c. politics and public opinion. d. the threat of a veto. e. the power to make political

asked by Brooke on November 18, 2011
History
What struggle was there between the president and Congress for dominant political power within the federal government from 1850-1868? I know there was the reconstruction problem and how congress basically took over. What else?

asked by Lala on April 8, 2012
math
Identify the contrapositive of the following statement, then decide if the contrapositive is true or false. “if angle 1 congruent to angle 2, then symbol representing angle 1andSymbol representing angle 2are vertical angles. Whether or not your statement

asked by Kgirl on July 30, 2007
science
Which statement is true regarding nuclear energy? (Points : 1) Nuclear power produces no greenhouse gasses and thus poses no environmental threats. Nuclear plants rely on a massive industrial infrastructure using fossil fuels. Due to strict safety

asked by jamie on February 2, 2015

geometry
Lara wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement One: If two lines intersect, then they intersect at exactly one point Statement Two: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the length of

asked by Sam on September 25, 2011
math
Lara wrote the statements shown in the chart. Statement One: If two lines intersect, then they intersect at exactly one point Statement Two: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the length of

asked by Please Help Me on September 29, 2011
American Gov’t
Which statement is NOT true about Congress? 1.)It was originally intended to be an elite governing body 2.)The vast majority of its members have college degrees 3.)The age requirement is the same for both houses 4.)Most members are lawyers

asked by Mackenzie on March 2, 2012
american goverment check answers

  1. Which of the following does Congress have the authority to do based upon the Constitution? (1 point) tax church services regulate local property tax regulate shipping licenses for vessels operating on rivers between states tax the sale and consumption

asked by Anonymous on September 20, 2016
Science
Is the following statement true or false? Solar panels collect energy from the sun that can then power a lamp in a home.

asked by Anonymous on February 11, 2014
National Government
The principal powers of Congress include all except the power of the purse. the power to declare war. implied powers. x the power to hire generals.

asked by Shirley on January 17, 2015
Government.
The President exercises legislative power over Congress by: a – recommending legislation. b – preventing a bill from coming before Senate committees. c – routinely telling Congress when it must adjourn. d – allowing all bills to die through pocket vetoes.

asked by Eustice on April 9, 2009
us history

  1. Which answer best explains how the Articles of Confederation set up governmental roles for dealing with foreign governments? Congress had the power to make foreign treaties.*** The states had the power to make foreign treaties. Congress could write

asked by Labbayk on January 11, 2016
History
“Congress has not declared war since ww2. In eight occasions since then however it has a natural joint resolutions to authorize the president to meet certain International crisis with military force” What is the strongest conclusion that can be drawn from

asked by Ren on November 29, 2016
Math
Decide whether the given statement is always, sometimes, or never true. The domain of a rational expression and any simplified form are equivalent. a. sometimes true b. never true c. always true

asked by Olivia N J on March 7, 2017

algebra
x^2(insert radical sign) x is this statement always true is this true when x is negative is this never true is this true when x=0 Wow can’t understand this. Anyone explain this to me please

asked by Alaska Diamond on September 16, 2013
american gov
Based on the excerpt, which statement best illustrates the impact of Lincoln’s proclamation on government? A >It increased the influence of the legislative branch. B. It caused the voters to elect a Democratic Congress. C> It allowed slaves to vote

asked by Martha on April 21, 2017
general
According to Gardner, intelligence quotient (IQ) is the only barometer as to how students will succeed outside of school. A. The statement is true. B. The statement is false. C. The statement did not originate from Gardner. D. The statement is partly

asked by keyanna on December 18, 2015
psychology
According to Gardner, intelligence quotient (IQ) is the only barometer as to how students will succeed outside of school. A. Statement is true B. Statement is false C. Statement did not originate from Gardner D. Statement is partially accurate. I think the

asked by Kelli on July 8, 2015
Math
Determine whether the statement is true, false, or sometimes true. Explain or show why. If x is positive and y = -x, then xy is negative. Is this always true or sometimes true?

asked by Anonymous on October 24, 2009
Math
If you are given a conditional statement that you know is true, can you predict whether i) the converse is true? ii) the inverse is true? iii) the contrapositive is true?

asked by Theo on April 5, 2014
English12
Below, you will find a list of sentences. After each sentence, select true if the topic of the statement is suitable to form the basis of a single persuasive paragraph. If the topic of the statement in your textbook is unsuitable for a single persuasive

asked by Sam on June 21, 2012
math
Explain if this is a true statement 56

asked by larrenzia on January 3, 2011
Chemistry
Is the following sentence true or false? To decide wheather a measurement has good precision or poor precision, the measurement must be made more than once. thanks in advance True. I hate T/F statements that have “must be”. Life is full of exceptions to

asked by Bryan on January 11, 2007
US history HELP
Which of the following statements is true? a. Political parties are unimportant in the organization of the U.S. Congress. b. Party-line voting rarely occurs in Congress. c. Party-line voting has increased in recent years. d. Partisanship makes virtually no

asked by HM on December 4, 2011

check my work

  1. Which of the following provides the best definition of a strict constructionist interpretation of congressional power? (1 point) Congress must have more powers than the states. Congress should only use implied powers when directly connected to expressed

asked by kate on September 23, 2016
Math
According to the Pythagorean theorem, which of the following statements below is true for the triangle in the diagram? (1) a2+4 to 2 power= 5 2 power. 5 (2) a2-4 to2 power=5 2 power. A. (3) a2+5 to2 power=4 2 power (4) a2-5 to 2power=4 2 power. 4 (5) 5

asked by Mydogbear on May 6, 2017
government
Consider each of the following features of congress (including some that may no longer apply) and discuss the policy implications of each. Does each: (a) lead to more or less logical and coherent policies? (b) Lead to more or less representation of various

asked by Anonymous on October 18, 2008
geometry
Refer to the following statement: Two lines are perpendicular if and only if they intersect to form a right angle. A. Is this a biconditional statement? b. Is the statement true? this is what I put a. yes b. yes

asked by alan on October 2, 2007
Math Quadratic Equations

  1. Which of the following conclusions is true about the statement below ? x^2 = square root x A. The statement is never true. B. The statement is true when x = 0. C. The statement is true when x is negative. D. The statement is always true. My answer is c.

asked by Queta on September 8, 2013
world history
Which of the following statements is true of the Gulf of Tonkin affair? A. Johnson told Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to let him expand the war. B. Congress was divided and only reluctantly passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. C. The

asked by L on July 30, 2014
english
External motivation is not desirable. A. The statement is not accurate. B. The statement is false. C. The statement is true. D. It depends. is it B

asked by Amy on March 8, 2013
Geometry
Assume the following is a true statement. If it is raining, I will carry an umbrella. Which form of the original statement must also be true? a- converse b– inverse c- contrapositive d- biconditional My answer is c contrapositive

asked by Steve on January 7, 2016
History
What does the phrase “without transcending its authority” suggest about Jackson? Jackson is concerned about abusing the power he has been given. Jackson wants to unite the states but does not have enough control of Congress. Jackson feels the Congress has

asked by Jenna on April 11, 2017
Federal Employees Union Question–Please Help
With respect to the powers of a federal employees union,which statement is True? 1. It can bargain to obtain better pay and benefits for employees. 2. It cannot lobby Congress for personnel policy changes. 3. It can overrule the decisions of the Office of

asked by Lynette on January 23, 2007

Grammar and Composition
please check my answers: Write true if the statement is true, and false if the statement is false. 1. An Etymology is a type of dictionary. False 2. An unabridged dictionary is a condensed version. False 3. Etymologies appear in [ square brackets ]. True

asked by y912f on October 14, 2009
English
Which of the following statement is NOT accurate when describing the emotional powers of writing? Question 2 answers a. The power of color b. The power of style c. The power of emotion d. All of the above are correct

asked by John on March 9, 2008
History
The Magna Carta laid the foundation for a written social contract between the government and the people. True* False It protected the rights and property of all those considered to be free men. True * False It limited the king’s power to tax without the

asked by Mya on October 17, 2012
Geometry
1) What are the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of the statement? Which statements are true? If the figure is a rectangle with sides 2 cm and 3 cm, then it has a perimeter of 10cm. My A: the statement is not true. 2) What are the hypothesis and the

asked by Mary on October 7, 2016
Geometry
1) What are the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of the statement? Which statements are true? If the figure is a rectangle with sides 2 cm and 3 cm, then it has a perimeter of 10cm. My A: the statement is not true. 2) What are the hypothesis and the

asked by Sam on October 7, 2016
math
Determine whether the statement is always true, sometimes true, or never true. 3) The length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the length of one of the legs of the triangle. Answer choice: a.) always true b.) sometimes true c.)never true

asked by nicole on April 14, 2010
Physics
Pease evaluate the statements by choosing from these three statements Always true: the statement is true under any circumstances Not necessarily true: the statement may be true in some circumstances, but not in others Always false: under no circumstances

asked by Chris on January 27, 2015
MATH I NEED HELP PLEASE

  1. Which of the following conclusions is true about the statement below? A. The statement is never true. B. the statement is true when x =0. C. The statement is true when x is negative. D. The statement is always true. My answer was B. 2. Solve for x in

asked by Queta on September 6, 2013
Calculus
True or False: Consider the following statement: A differentiable function must have a relative minimum between any two relative maxima. Think about the First Derivative Test and decide if the statement is true or false. I want to say that its true and

asked by Mishaka on December 10, 2011
government
The Constitutional priciples of seperation of powers and checks and balances have resulted in frequent power struggles between the legislative and executive branches of government. Discuss the contemporary balance of power between the Congress and the

asked by Chrissy on January 23, 2007

History
8.)Which answer best details a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? A.)The Articles of Confederation gave too much power to Congress and not enough to the states. B.)The Articles of Confederation did not give Congress all the powers it needed to help

asked by YRN DJ on November 30, 2015
American government
Which of the following accurately summarizes the different purposes of the First and the Second Continental Congresses? A.The First Continental Congress was held to write new laws for the colonies, while the Second Continental Congress implemented those

asked by Kidthelearner on August 23, 2016
math
Find the value of the missing digit that makes the statement true. 214,21_ is divisible by 11 Determine whether the statement is true or false. Why? If a natural number is divisible by 5 and 2, then it must also be divisible by 10.

asked by anonymous on March 19, 2011
american government
Consider the following features of Congress (including some that no longer apply), and discuss the policy implications of each. Does they (a) lead to more or less logical and coherent policies? (b) lead to more or less representation of various local and

asked by dora on October 19, 2012
Government

  1. The main purpose of a legislature, whether it be the Indiana General Assembly or the US Congress, is to MAKE laws. True False 2. Indiana’s two US Senators are Richard Lugar (R) and Dan Coats (R) True False 3. Currently in the US House of

asked by Alison on July 4, 2016

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which of the following best describes science fiction

English 9th grade

  1. Which of the following best describes science fiction?
    Answer:C The characters often face problems related to future tech advancements.
  2. A literary analysis should contain a
    Answer: A thoughtful interpretation of a work
  3. Which sentence below is incorrectly punctuated?
    Answer: B Help me shovel the driveway please?

I studied and got these answers, are they correct?

0 0 342
asked by Lena Cronedy
Oct 24, 2018
It looks as though two are wrong. But it’s hard to tell without seeing the other choices.

0 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Oct 24, 2018
No Lena Cronedy is correct.
C
A
B

0 0
posted by efGg
Nov 27, 2018
C
A
B
is correct

0 0
posted by wrong
Feb 26, 2019

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why was the engineer driving the train backwards

math
Why Was the Engineer Driving the Train Backwards?

0 0 444
asked by aj
Mar 27, 2015
he was a midget.

0 2
posted by Steve
Mar 27, 2015
he had a locomotive

2 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 15, 2017

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which of the following values represents an index of refraction of an actual material?

which of the following values represents an index of refraction of an actual material
a 0
b 1/4
c 1/2
d 5/4

0 0 98
asked by ski
Jul 20, 2010
Try some of the following sites:

http://search.yahoo.com/search?fr=mcafee&p=index+of+refraction+of+actual+materials

Sra

0 0
posted by SraJMcGin
Jul 20, 2010
The Index of Refraction is the ratio
of the speed of light in a vacuum to
the speed of light in some other material. The speed of light is highest
in a vacuum.Therefore, the index of refraction is always greater than 1.

Answer: d.

0 0
posted by Henry
Jul 20, 2010
Questions. And answer

0 0
posted by Martinjohn
Nov 9, 2016

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the lowest frequency in the audible range is 20 hz.

The lowest frequency in the audible range is 20Hz.
A)What is the length of the shortest open-open tube needed to produce this frequency?
B)What is the length of the shortest open-closed tube needed to produce this frequency?

0 0 779
asked by Zach Neal
Apr 25, 2013
A) L=λ/2=v/2f
B) L=λ/4=v/4f
v is the speed of sound

0 2
posted by Elena
Apr 25, 2013

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a communication medium that is moderate in both information richness and data capacity is:

1. The task of an organization is reflected in its: (Points : 4)
        human resources
       mission or purpose
        input materials
        structure

2. The beliefs and assumptions about people, work, and the organization best reflects the: (Points : 4)
        formal organization
        overt part of an organization
       informal organization
        social surface

3. The specific setting within which organizational behavior is enacted would be called the: (Points : 4)
        situation
        external environment
       organizational context
        group

4. In an open system the transformation or conversion of inputs to outputs is accomplished with: (Points : 4)
       technology
        task
        borrowed financial resources
        robots

5. If a pregnant woman claimed that a manager’s failed office romance caused him to focus more on her work, thus increasing her work demands, could result in a discrimination claim based on: (Points : 4)
        gender plus
        utilitarian romance
       hierarchical romance
        sexual harassment

6. Attention to diversity has particularly increased in recent years because of: (Points : 4)
        the use of telecommunications
        the opportunity for use of lower cost labor in other countries
       the changing demographics of the working population
        legislation

7. According to Hofstede’s research, the country displaying cultural characteristics most similar to the U.S. is: (Points : 4)
        Japan
        Sweden
        Italy
        Canada

8. In an interview situation, the interviewer’s first impression of the interviewee (or target) is likely to be based upon: (Points : 4)
        nonverbal cues of the target
        verbal communication by the target
        the intentions of the target
       the target’s physical appearance

9. Which of the following organizations has perfected software that decodes a caller’s personality using voice recognition in order to match them with an agent with a similar personality? (Points : 4)
        EVR
       ELoyalty
       EPersonalityRecognition
       EPersonalityCallCenter (EPCC)

10. The perceiver’s pattern of thinking or manner in which they assemble and interpret information about another person is: (Points : 4)
        the strength of situational cues
       cognitive structure
        self-concept
        attitude structuring

11. Counterproductive behavior that violates organizational norms and causes harms to others of the organization is known as: (Points : 4)
        OCB
       WDB
        JDI
        MSQ

12. The three major aspects of the source characteristic affecting persuasion include: (Points : 4)
        expertise, credibility, charisma
        credibility, charisma, attractiveness
        expertise, charisma, attractiveness
       expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness

13. Low-Mach persons value: (Points : 4)
       loyal and personal friendships
        the “get it done anyway” mentality
        manipulation of others
        emotional detachment

14. According to Herzberg, which factors are related to job dissatisfaction? (Points : 4)
        motivation factors
       hygiene factors
        lower level needs
        the absence of motivation factors

15. Adam Smith formulated the “invisible hand” and the free market to explain the motivation for individual behavior. The “invisible hand” refers to: (Points : 4)
        psychological determinants of behavior
        unconscious motives
        internal needs
       unseen forces of a free market system

16. The close linkage of _____ to performance under expectancy theory is crucial for enhancing motivation. (Points : 4)
        knowledge and skill
       rewards
        equity
        satisfaction

17. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model begins with _____ needs and ends with _____ needs. (Points : 4)
        security, social
        achievement, power
       power, affiliation
       physiological, self-actualization

18. As a supervisor, you can enhance the performance of your employees by: (Points : 4)
        setting their goals
        closely controlling their behavior
       allowing employees to participate in goal setting
        giving workers easy goals

19. The approach to stress that is based on the concept of homeostasis is known as: (Points : 4)
       physiological
        psychoanalytical
        social psychological
        psychological-cognitive

20. Which of the following persons is most closely associated with the homeostatic and medical approach to stress? (Points : 4)
        Richard Lazarus
        Harry Levinson
       Walter B. Cannon
        Robert Kahn

21. An informational cue indicating the degree to which a person behaves the same way in other situations is known as: (Points : 4)
        consistency
        consensus
       distinctiveness
        inconsistency

22. Americans generally do not like to communicate with one another within their: (Points : 4)
        social distance
        personal distance
       intimate distance
        public distance

23. Richness in a communication message refers to: (Points : 4)
        the amount of data that can be sent via the type of communication medium
        the amount of feeling that is communicated with the message
        the amount of analyzable elements of a message
       the ability of the medium to convey the meaning

24. A communication medium that is moderate in both information richness and data capacity is: (Points : 4)
        the telephone
       electronic mail
        face-to-face discussion
        formal numeric report

25. The element of the communication model that contains the thoughts and feelings the communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver is the: (Points : 4)
        data
        feedback
       message
        information

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a major advantage of the built-in or automatic stabilizers is that they

Econ 214 Exam 2

1. Which of the following will most likely occur in the US as the result of an unexpected rapid growth— an increase in aggregate demand and output in the short run

2. Within the AD/AS model, if consumers increase their savings and cut back on their spending, the real interest rate will decrease and thereby cushion the reduction in consumption spending

3. In the economy were operating at a point in figure 10-9 resource prices would tend to – increase and move the economy toward point c

4. During the 1990s a financial crisis spread throughout Asia causing those economies to drop into recession—both real output and the price level would have fallen.

5. Which of the following is most likely to accompany an unanticipated increase in short-run aggregate supply.- an increase in real GDP

6. At which point in figure 10-2 is the economy at long-run equilibrium- F

7. If improvements in education and training programs increased the productivity of persons in the labor force—both short-run and long-run aggragte supply

8. The short-run effect of a sudden increase in stock prices will be – an increase in both output prices

9. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the view that the economy has a self-corrective- when the economy is in a recession, falling resource prices and declioning interest rate

10. If the economy is simultaneously in long-run and short-run equilibrium which of the following is true? Aggregate quantity demanded is equal to potential output

11. Within the framework of the Keynesian model, which of the following would most likely occur if the federal government increased its spending— the rate of inflation would rise

12. According to Keynesian view, if an economy was operating at long-run equilibrium, an increase in government expenditures would—be inflationary

13. Keynesian analysis indicates that an unexpected decline in aggregate demand will lead to- an increase in inventories and a reduction in output

14. If policy makers believe that an inflationary boom is about to begin, the Keynesian view indicates that they—decrease government spending and/or raise taces

15. The prevailing budget philosophy prior to Keynes called for a balanced budget. Keynes argued that the government—economic recessions

16. A major advantage of built in or automatic stabilizers is that they- required no congressional action to be effective.

17. Within the framework of the Keynesian model, if spending is abnormally low- equilibrium output will be less than the full-employment rate of output

18. When the unemployment rate is low, the impact of additional spending on real output will be smaller than when the unemployment rate is high

19. Unemployment compensation payments rise during a recession and thereby help stimulate consumption

20. Suppose long-run equilibrium is present and the government budget is in balance. Which of the following—a budget deficit

21. The crowding out effect refers to the tendency of – the additional borrowing accompanying larger budget deficits to increase interest rates

22. Reductions in personal income tax rates that increase supply and work effort, can be expected to also increase consumption spending

23. If a reduction in government borrowing leads to lower real interest rates in the US— the dollar will depreciate in the foreign exchange market.

24. If heavy federal borrowing pushes up real interest rates in the Us, which of the following will most likely result? – an inflow of capital and an appreciation in the foreign exchange value of the dollar

25. Which of the following tends to make the size of a shift in aggregate demand resulting from a tax change smaller than would otherwise be the case—the crowding-out effect

26. If the output of the economy is y1 which of the following would a new classical economy—continuation of the current tax and expenditure policies

27. Keynesian critics would aruge that expansion in government debt during a recession would lead to – higher failure interest payments and tax rates

28. Politicians often instruct households to spend in order to help the economy.. this advice overlooks the fact that—you cannot have strong economy if all or most household are spending just about

29. The new classical model implies that a shift to a more expansionary fiscal policy will – exert little or no impact on the real interest rate, aggregate demand and employment

30. Supply –side economies stresses that marginal tax rates exert important incentive effects that influence real output

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nosotros / ser / simpático / y / trabajador

Write an adjective with the opposite meaning.

alto

difícil

malo

grande

viejo

Nacionalidades

Rewrite the sentences using adjectives of nationality.

Olivia es de Argentina.

El profesor es de Alemania.

Carlos y yo somos de Canadá.

La turista es de Costa Rica.

Los ingenieros son de España.

Margaret y Anne son de Inglaterra.

Oraciones

Write sentences using the information provided. Make any necessary changes. Follow the model.

mi novio / ser / inteligente / y / guapo

la mujer / pelirrojo / enseñar / periodismo

nosotros / ser / simpático / y / trabajador

¿los turistas / japonés / esperar / el autobús?

ustedes / tomar / mucho / pruebas / en la clase de español

Completar

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the correct adjectives.

Mi madre es muy (1) (trabajador / rubio): es artista y también enseña en una universidad. A los estudiantes les gusta mi madre porque es una profesora (2) (bueno / antipático), pero ella da (gives) exámenes muy (3) (bonito / difícil). Este semestre enseña dos clases de arte (4) (delgado / chino). Mi madre es una (5) (grande / mismo) mujer, ¿verdad?

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what is the implied main idea of the passage

  1. What is the implied main idea of the passage?
    11,191 results
    ELA
    What is the implied main idea of the passage>

asked by KK on December 13, 2016
Language Arts
Passage: “Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad” by Ann Petry 1) What is the implied main idea of the passage? A) Harriet and the fugitives only survived because of the kindness of others. B) Harriet worked hard to ensure the fugitives

asked by Mopdopnop on December 23, 2016
developmental reading
what are the processes in finding the main idea and where can you find the main idea? There are several articles here which discuss the “main idea” of something.

asked by klar maesen on July 3, 2007
6th grade ELA
an implied main idea is ___ in a paragraph. can someone help me with this fill in the blank question???

asked by Kate on November 8, 2011
ELA

  1. What is the implied main idea of the passage? (1 point) Harriet and the fugitives only survived because of the kindness of others.Harriet worked hard to ensure the fugitives survived the harsh winter.Harriet and the fugitives wished they could go back

asked by KK on December 13, 2016

English
What is the main idea of this passage? (look up fighting hitler a holocaust story scholastic scope pdf on google). What is the main idea of this poem? (look up A Wagon Of Shoes – Poem by Abraham Sutzkever). Tell why scope magazine decided to pair these

asked by kms on May 22, 2017
6th grade ELA
An implied main idea is ___ in a paragraph.You have to ask yourself:What do all the supporting details add up to? Can someone please help me with this fill in the blank question???

asked by Kate on November 8, 2011
English 3
How can a reader find the main idea of a passage

asked by Cd on June 4, 2013
3 grade english ms sue
MAIN IDEA AND DETAILS THE MAIN IDEA IS THE MOST IMPORTANT IDEA IN A SELECTION OR A PARAGRAPH. DETAILS ARE THE SMALL PIECES OF INFORMATION THAT TELL ABOUT THE MAIN IDEA. DIRECTION- READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE. THEN ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW. Every day,Juan

asked by dw on March 9, 2012
English
Is this paragraph’s main idea stated or implied? The greatest gift the Sumerians gave the world was the invention of writing. The Sumerians were a wealthy people. They needed some way to keep track of what they owned. They began drawing pictures. They

asked by Rebecca on June 24, 2016
developmental reading
Please explain to me the ff: 1. Main idea that is directly stated in the fisrt sentence. 2. Main idea that is stated in the last sentence. 3. Main idea that is stated in part of one sentence. 4. Where two sentences are used to express main idea. 5. Main

asked by klar maesen on July 7, 2007
Reading
James Baldwin’s eloquent, forceful style has given his work its wide recognition… Which of the following statements best summarizes the main idea of the passage?

asked by Anonymous on November 12, 2014
3 grade english ms sue
the topic is what a piece of writing is about. the main idea is the most important idea about the topic. details are small pieces of information that tell more about the main idea. directions read the following passage. then answer the questions below.

asked by dw on April 23, 2012
english
List and briefly describe each step in the three-step method for identifying the stated or unstated main idea in a passage

asked by lola on April 23, 2010
ENglish
List and briefly describe each step in the three-step method for identifying the stated or unstated main idea in a passage

asked by lola on April 23, 2010

conclusions
What function do conclusions serve in essays? A. Conclusions provide the supporting details of an essay. B. Conclusions develop the main idea of an essay. C. Conclusions sum up the main idea of an essay. (MY ANSWER) D. Conclusions introduce new ideas

asked by Rebecca on July 5, 2016
English
from “Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad”by Ann Petry 1 That first winter in St. Catharines was a terrible one. Canada was a strange frozen land, snow everywhere, ice everywhere, and a bone-biting cold the like of which none of them

asked by Anonymous on December 17, 2018
3 grade english ms sue
main idea and details the topic is what a piece of writing is about. the main idea is the most important idea about the topic details are small pieces of information that tell more about the main idea. directions read the following passage. then fill in

asked by dw on April 26, 2012
Grammar ( Need help Ms. Sue )
Directions: Read each passage and ask yourself, ”What is the author doing in this paragraph?” Write each anser in the summary box and then think of an appropriate title for the passage based on the main idea of the passage. 1 A penny for your thoughts?

asked by Losa on June 21, 2012
Brave New World
Have any f you read “Brave New World?” If so, I would appreciate if you could give me a thesis, or rather a main idea that i could use for my essay. I am thinking of writing about how Huxley uses new vocabulary and how words have taken a new meaning.

asked by Moi on April 21, 2009
English 3 & 4)
How did one village bring disaster on itself? On a morning in early spring, 1873, the people of Oberfest left their houses and took refuge in the town hall. No one knows why precisely. A number of rumors had raced through the town during recent weeks, were

asked by Anonymous on June 5, 2010
reading/english
what is the toic and implied main idea of this paragraph? I don’t understand it Where do our notions of family come from? One way we get information is through experience and that of our friends and relatives. Another important source of information is the

asked by jerson on October 13, 2009
english
Main Idea: The big rivers in the center of the United States have a constant power that is greater than the human uses for the rivers. I need to provide 3 supporting details for main idea.

asked by zac on April 25, 2012
Science
What is the main idea and list a least 2 details about the main idea? Edwin Hubble came up with a way to classify galaxies by shape.He labeled elliptical galaxies E.He classified by th size of the galaxy’s nucleus and the tightness of it’s arms.

asked by Frances on April 13, 2011
science
what is the main idea for Joule and give a detail to it and an example. Also for calorie, kilocalorie and caloric values…. I need help I don’t know what is their main idea and detail and example..

asked by nin on April 5, 2011

“write a paragraph on book’s thesis”?
I’m going into AP (advanced placement) European History, grade 10, and our summer reading assignment was to read a A World Lit Only By Fire, a book about the tenaissance. Along with this assignment, I’m required to write a paragraph about the book’s

asked by christine on August 31, 2005
LA HELP! 2
Passage: from “Life Without Gravity” by Robert Zimmerman Worse, weightlessness can sometimes be downright unpleasant. Your body gets upset and confused. Your face puffs up, your nose gets stuffy, your back hurts, your stomach gets upset, and you throw

asked by Agala on December 5, 2016
Business Communication
When communicating a message, the best approach for a boss to take would likely be the __. a. state the main idea right away to get it over with. b. hint at the main idea and let the employees read between the lines. c. tell employees bad news

asked by Emily on November 19, 2014
reading
Read the passage labeled number 2 starting on p. 473 in your text. As you read, either use the Two Column Note (see directions on how to create a table below these directions) or the Spider Web graphic organizer to identify the main idea and supporting

asked by mizz lynn on March 2, 2009
English
I need some help on figuring out the main idea of “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.” I know that for most of the part, Huck and Jim float on a raft down the Mississippi River and on the way, they encounter many people and obstacles. At the end of the

asked by Anonymous on September 19, 2013
english
what are some of the main ideas and details of the olaudah Equiano story I know one of the main ideas is the slaves on the ship were kept in close confinement under terrible conditions and I have the detail for that main idea. any other ones?

asked by lamisha on November 5, 2016
History
I have a paper I must do and have been trying all summer to finish. I have read the book The Story of Sacagawea and now what I need to do is write what the main idea/topic is ( which I know is Sacagawea) but then I have to write a main idea’s # 1 and # 2

asked by Sandy on August 15, 2013
English

  1. Will you summarize the passage? 2. Will you tell us summary of the passage? 3. Will you make a summary of the passage and say it to us? 4. Will you tell us about the summary of the reading text? 5. Will you summarize the passage and say it out loud in

asked by rfvv on September 18, 2016
English
The strategies for writing positive or neutral message. is my response correct?: In the opening avoid personal information state your main idea so it wouldn’t be overlooked. In the body of the message provide reasons and/or details for the main idea. Close

asked by Bryan on November 6, 2011
word meaning
what does the word “implied” mean in this sentence?: “What was implied after Billy’s mother found him using her scissors?”

asked by Thanks to all Jiskha Teachers on December 5, 2010

Language Arts
from “Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad” by Ann Petry. 1 That first winter in St. Catharines was a terrible one. Canada was a strange frozen land, snow everywhere, ice everywhere, and a bone-biting cold the like of which none of them

asked by Callie on November 26, 2014
History
How many main sects are in Christianity? I know that “main” can be interpreted differently, but I want a reasonable number so I get the idea.

asked by Anonymous on September 24, 2014
language arts pls check!
My answers are in parentheses The first two questions use this passage. You must have only positive thoughts in your heart that you’re going to cripple this monster. Stick a piece of garlic in your pocket for good luck. A woman my mother knew in Palermo

asked by fab on November 18, 2016
Language Art (Please Check)
1.C But mama told me never mind.She said i didn’t need a bracelet to remember laurie,just as i didn’t need anything to remember pap or our home in berkeley or all the people and things we loved and had left behind What is the main idea of this passage? A.

asked by matt on March 20, 2014
English

  1. Which idea is central to a literary analysis? A. the number of images in the work B. the order of the images in the work C. how the imagery relates to the work as a whole D. Imagery is not central to a literary analysis I think it’s C? 2. Which should

asked by anthony on May 16, 2011
Writing Skills
Which of the following statements about connecting paragraphs is correct? A. A good connection between two paragraphs is an implied transition. B. Two paragraphs may be joined by an action verb. C. You can use a pointing word that that refers to a word in

asked by Brooke on December 9, 2015
ELA

  1. Which of the following statements about connecting paragraphs is correct? A. Two paragraphs may be joined by an action verb. B. A good connection between two paragraphs is an implied transition. C. You can use a pointing word that that refers to

asked by Brooklyn on June 2, 2015
writing
need help please with writing. I need to explain the purpose / main idea of the presentation. But I have no idea how to do that.

asked by Alie on November 7, 2016
English
Is it self plagerism if I take the same argument or main idea from a paper that I wrote last semester and use that same principle/argument/main idea/thesis in another paper for the next semester if it’s is completely rewritten with different words and

asked by Jhon on December 27, 2011
businesscommunication
What is a proper organizational strategy for an informative message? (Points: 5) Background information, negative elements, main idea(s), goodwill ending, benefits Benefits, negative elements, main idea(s), benefits, background information, goodwill ending

asked by Anonymous on June 4, 2011

social studies
Passage: from “Life Without Gravity” by Robert Zimmerman Being weightless in space seems so exciting. Astronauts bounce about from wall to wall, flying! They float, they weave, they do somersaults and acrobatics without effort. Heavy objects can be

asked by whats upp on December 17, 2018
Social Studies
Which of the following did the populist party believe would solve U.S economic problems? A)currency reform*** B)saving Banks C)new policies on Native Americans D)renewed immigration policies ~I can’t really type this because passage but the next thing it

asked by Nawa101 (ANYONE HELP) The Labor Movement Quiz on January 22, 2018
English
Please help me interpret this-I’m in 8th grade and I don’t have any idea: What is the main idea? Read the following quote from Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, Common Sense. Summarize the main idea of the passage. “Some writers have so confounded society with

asked by Erik on September 8, 2010
English
I have to write a thesis paper with the main, broad idea being the similarities and differences between The Epic of Gilgamesh and Toy Story. I have no idea what the connections, or lack thereof, are between the two.

asked by Morgan on September 5, 2013
History
16.)The defect of the Confederation is that the United States has no powers to exact obedience, or punish disobedience to their resolutions. Which statement summarizes the main idea of this passage? A.)A Bill of Rights would protect citizens from excessive

asked by YRN DJ on November 30, 2015
English
The cracker was named by Josiah Bent. One day Mr. Bent was making biscuits. He baked the biscuits until they were very crisp. The biscuits crackled when he chewed, so he called them crackers. What is main idea? The cracker was named by Josiah Bent What

asked by Hayden on October 24, 2016
Logic
From these premises… Ken is a killer and Sam is a saint. Ken is a killer. …which of the following conclusions are implied? a. Sam is a saint. b. Ken is a killer or Sam is a saint. c. Sam is a saint or Sam is not a saint. d. All of the above are implied

asked by Anonymous on September 22, 2008
Business Law
A contract cannot involve both and implied warranty of merchantability and an implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose?

asked by Erika on August 22, 2009
history
what event convinced south Carolina to spend representatives to the first continental congress ? A. passage of the currency act B. passage of the intolerable act C. passage of the navigation act D. passage of the stamp act is it D

asked by jack on October 20, 2015
AP English
Refer to the passage from Benedict de Spinoza’s On the Improvement of the Understanding, translated by R.H.M. Elwes. The last sentence in the passage is: 1. A summary of a main idea in the passage 2. An example that illustrates a hypothesis 3. A transition

asked by Sean on May 22, 2018

Business law
A contract cannot involve both and implied warranty of merchant ability and an implied warranty of

asked by Kathy on December 3, 2017
Law
Would food be covered by an express or implied warranty? I answered with an implied warranty called warranty of merchantability. Am I correct?

asked by Justine on December 5, 2015
reading
In this passage I need to find the main idea and 3 supporting details. You have probably gone on a merry-go-around. Theres one at most theme and carnivals. You find a painted horse or other animal. You climb up on its back. Most of the animals are on the

asked by christy on April 6, 2011
Language Arts
Could someone read the passage and please tell me which answer is correct? Some kids collect coins. I can’t keep a quarter without spending it. Some kids collect stuffed animals. Cute, but my room is the size of a closet. Where am I going to put alot of

asked by Jessica on March 6, 2007
english grade 12
i’m to make an note making frame work which includes main idea and examples or supporting ideas or key words. the video is naming canada. Main Idea: Discovering our nation Canada 1. Native language Kanata was translated as our nation country name. 2. The

asked by vanessa on September 12, 2013
Manipal university
Write a passage using rhetorical device on a person idea or ideology.

asked by Reetu mele on September 27, 2011
english
How to write a passage using rhetorical devices on a person, idea or ideology

asked by yangdond on June 24, 2011
english
write a passage using rhetorical devices on aperson, idea or ideology

asked by sandip on March 3, 2011
English
How could I compare the passage from “from Dust Tracks on a Road” and “from The Autobiography”? Please give an idea.

asked by bindiya farswani on September 20, 2010
English
Write a passage using rhetorical device on aperson,idea or ideology in about 300words

asked by Paden on March 4, 2012

English
Can you look at my rough outline to see if my points and my main idea is relevant to my focus? And if it isn’t, please give me specific ideas on how to improve? —- I’m writing a paragraph on the focus: A leader is a representative of the totalitarian

asked by Anonymous on December 1, 2007
LA helppp
1)The most catastrophic natural disaster in the U.S was a Category 4, or extreme, hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas on September 8,1900. 2)A 15-foot storm surge killed more than 8,000 people on the low-lying island. 3) In an effort to prevent a

asked by Haley on October 3, 2017
bege101
write a passage using rhetorical devices on a person ,idea or ideology in about 300 words

asked by sonu on July 23, 2012
english
write a passage (300 words)using rhetorical devices on a person,idea or ideology.

asked by pat on March 23, 2010
english
using rhetorical devices write a passage(300 words) on a person, idea or ideology.

asked by pat on March 23, 2010
English
Write a passage using rhetorical device on a person, idea or ideology(300 words)

asked by priyanka on April 24, 2010
Language Arts
(1)The most catastrophic natural disaster in the United States was a category 4 or extreme, hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, on September 8, 1900.(2) A 15-foot storm surge killed more than 8,000 people on the low-lying island.(3) In a effort to

asked by Sid.V on December 2, 2016
Englsih

  1. Tressa likes to generate ideas and relationships about a topic by writing a central idea in the middle of a piece of paper and then surrounding it with related ideas connected to each other and the main idea with a series of lines or arrows. This

asked by studnet on February 17, 2017
english
which of the following sentences contains an implied metaphor? a. the small sailboat bobbed about like a cork on the huge ocean b. the wind looked down upon the tiny craft, laughed, and then attacked c. the battle between wind and boat raged on for an hour

asked by y912f on May 27, 2009
writing
19) Which of the following does not belong in the speaker’s process of summarizing a source’s ideas for his/her speech? a) Reading the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas b) Putting into your own words the main idea c) Including all of the

asked by Anonymous on May 10, 2012

English
Which sentence best summarizes the main idea of the article? A. You can do an experiment with a baggie, cup, water, food color, and a marker. B. When the water in a cloud falls as precipitation, it may fall on land or water. C. In the water cycle, water

asked by hunter on December 6, 2018
Language Art
Read this sentence from the third paragraph: First, it has large fins at the top of its head that look like ears. What is the main purpose of this sentence in the paragraph? A: To introduce a list of features B: To introduce a new topic C: To make

asked by Sam on May 25, 2017
biology
What is the main idea of metabolism. please help

asked by Josh2817 on August 24, 2011
English
How do you know what the topic and main idea of a paragraph is?

asked by 3rd Grader on April 28, 2010
english
What is the main idea of the shepards daughter

asked by Anonymous on January 27, 2011
English
What could the main idea of Through The Tunnel be, in a sentence?

asked by Anonymous on November 5, 2014
english
Both texts deal with racial discrimination. How does the structure of poem help convey this meaning in a way that the prose passage does not? A) The poem conveys meaning through imagery; the prose passage does not. B) The poem uses first person point of

asked by Bizuwerk 😉 on December 20, 2014
english
main idea: The idea that women are not equal to men has been a prevailing, common theme in literature since the beginning of time. Like their predecessors, Renaissance writers staunchly laid down the tenet that women were less valuable throughout the pages

asked by ezekiel on October 9, 2013
Juniors Enligsh 3 Honors
My online honors class had us read The Awakening by Kate Chopin and the assignment is to answer 15 questions, but I’m having trouble with these last 6. I have an idea about how to answer some of them, but I can’t fully articulate an answer. Please help? 9.

asked by Natalie on December 18, 2009
reading
Is there a difference between a main idea and a central theme?

asked by Kathy on April 10, 2008

history
which of these best states the main idea of “the drive-in movies”?

asked by destan on October 2, 2018
english
How do I re word a sentence that is the main idea in a paragraph

asked by Vicky on August 15, 2012
English

  1. Referring to Mike’s passage, complete the next passage about the way from school to your house. 1-2. Referring to Mike’s passage, write the way from school to your house in the next incomplete passage. (There are two passages;one is Mike’s passage, and

asked by John on October 30, 2008
Reading Help
Think about the rites of passage that individuals confront in the following literature The bass, the river, and Shelia Mant by W.D Wetherell Oranges by gary Soto I have no idea what im supposed to do here. Please help me.

asked by Alex on September 26, 2013
english
Write a 150- to 200-word paragraph to explain how purpose, audience, tone, and content impact academic writing. Be sure to use the three components of a good paragraph covered in this weekâ??s readings. Underline the topic sentence and bold the concluding

asked by Anonymous on July 22, 2012
reading/english
When studying the world of living things, biologists and other scientists use the scientific process. Observtions along with precious data are used to formulate a hypothesis. New observations and or experiments are carried out in order to test the

asked by jerson on September 30, 2009
English Expression

  1. After you read the first passage, mark all the things you can know about Hana Middle School. 2. Write down the names of the places where you can do the following activities from the first passage of the reading text. 3. Compare the classroom in the

asked by John on April 17, 2008
reading
what is an main idea when you are thalkig about king and poor people

asked by sckid30 on December 1, 2016
social studies
What was the main idea of the declaration of the rights of man and citizen?

asked by Renee on May 27, 2008
english
main idea of A Screamingly Good Science Lesson

asked by thomas on February 6, 2019

English
What is the main idea of from the Interesting Life of Olaudah Equiano

asked by SARAH on September 18, 2014
Health
What is the main idea of the film “supersize me” and the reason of the movie

asked by Anwar on May 18, 2011
English – Thiong’o Decolonising the mind
What is the main idea of Thiong’o’s essay, Decolonising The Mind?

asked by Bam on January 9, 2011
English

  1. canal: a passage of water that boats can travel canal: a passage of water that boats can travel [What is the part of speech of that in the phrase?] 2. Boats can travel a passage of water. 3. Boats can travel on a passage of water. 4. Boats can

asked by rfvv on August 13, 2018
lovely bones
i was wondering if someone could either suggest to me some good websites or actually post the info about the gist of the book “lovely bones” esp. the main character…i have no idea what this book is about or anything, but there is an attempt at a

asked by B on September 3, 2007

Categories
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na2co3 + agno3

Precipitation reaction for agno3 and na2co3?
14,430 results
Phycis
Precipitation reaction for agno3 and na2co3?

asked by Somila on July 24, 2014
Chemistry (Stoichiometry)
Heres a balanced equation: Na2CO3(aq)+2AgNO3 (aq) –> 2NaNO3(aq)+Ag2CO3 (s) From this equation, 10 mL of AgNO3 in this contains 34 grams of AgNO3. Calculate the grams of solid product, Ag2CO3. Part 2: 10 mL of Na2CO3 in this experiment contains 21 grams of

asked by Jennifer on February 6, 2013
Chemistry
Heres a balanced equation: Na2CO3(aq)+2AgNO3 (aq) –> 2NaNO3(aq)+Ag2CO3 (s) From this equation, 10 mL of AgNO3 in this contains 34 grams of AgNO3. Calculate the grams of solid product, Ag2CO3. Part 2: 10 mL of Na2CO3 in this experiment contains 21 grams of

asked by Sarah on February 6, 2013
Chemistry
Which statement about this reaction is FALSE? AgNO3 + NaCl -> AgCl + NaNO3 A. This is one kind of metathesis reaction, where molecules exchange atoms. B. This reaction produces a gas. C. This is a precipitation reaction. D. The equation is balanced

asked by Anonymous on April 17, 2017
Chemistry
AgNO3 + NaCl -> AgCl + NaNO3 Which statement about this reaction is FALSE? A. This is one kind of metathesis reaction, where molecules exchange atoms. B. This reaction produces a gas. C. This is a precipitation reaction. D. The equation is balanced.

asked by Riley on April 17, 2017

Chemistry
how can i know if a solution is aqueous or solid? i have a test tomorrow and don’t know how to do this PLEASE HELP!!! i have this question on my homework…Will precipitation occur when the following solutions are mixed? 1. Na2Co3 and AgNO3 2. NaNO3 and

asked by nina on October 4, 2009
Chemistry
Complete and balance the precipitation reaction. Include physical states in your answer. CuCI2(aq)+Na2CO3(aq)

asked by Tiara on May 4, 2016
Chemistry
How do you write the combination of: Na2CO3 AgNO3 (CO3 -2) and (Ag=1) Thanks! This is a double displacement reaction. silver carbonate and sodum nitrate form.

asked by Ben on October 30, 2006
Chemistry
Net ionic equations for: Br- + AgNO3 CO3 + AgNO3 Cl-+ AgNO3 I + AgNO3 PO4^-3 + AgNO3 SO4^-2 + AgNO3 S^-2 + AgNO3 They all formed ppt,but I don’t know where to go from here. Even a couple to get me started would be greatly appreciated!

asked by Ann on July 14, 2013
Chemistry
1.2048g sample of impure Na2CO3 is dissolved and allowed to react with a solution of CaCl2 resulting CaCO3 after precipitation, filtaration and drying was found to weight 1.0362g. calculate the percentage purity of Na2CO3

asked by Ana on February 14, 2015
AP Chem
I know this might sound easy… but i need these problems for bonus and i want to make sure they are right Silver nitrate reacts with strontium chloride in an aqueous precipitation reaction. What are the formulas of silver nitrate and strontium chloride?

asked by Anna-Marie on October 27, 2008
Chemistry
CaCl2(aq)+ Cs3PO4(aq) —> Complete the reaction and classify as precipitation or acid/base. Net ionic equation as well. I believe this is a precipitation reaction since there is no H. Believe the products may be CaPO4 and Cs3Cl2? Can someone help explain

asked by Meaghan on November 3, 2009
chemistry
Determine whether a solid forms when solutions containing the follow salts are mixed. If so, write the ionic equation and the net ionic equation. a: Na3PO4 and AgNO3 b: K2SO4 and Na2CO3 C: Pb(NO3)2 and Na2CO3 d: BaCl2 and KOH

asked by Boo Boo on November 21, 2012
chemistry
A 0.1028 g impure sample consists of Na2CO3 was analyzed by the Volhard method. After adding 50.00 mL of 0.06208 M AgNO3, the sample was back titrated with 0.06261 M KSCN, requiring 28.36 mL to reach the end point. Report the purity of the Na2CO3 sample

asked by yun on November 4, 2015
chem please help
In the reaction AgNO3(aq) + HCl(aq) AgCl(s) + HNO3(aq) + heat, when 0.70 mole of AgNO3 and 0.70 mole of HCl react, the temperature of 50 g of water increases from 15°C to 30°C. If the specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g•°C, how much energy was produced

asked by Morgan on November 22, 2014

AP Chem
Whew. long question. Barium carbonate is the source of barium compounds. It is produced in an aqueous precipitation reaction from barium sulfide and sodium carbonate. (Barium sulfide is a soluble compound obtained by heating the mineral barite, which is

asked by Anna-Marie on October 28, 2008
Chemistry
If 2.00 mL of 0.600 M NaOH are added to 1.000 L of 0.850 M CaCl2, what is the value of the reaction quotient and will precipitation occur? I’ve been trying this problem over and over and haven’t been able to get it. I know precipitation will not occur from

asked by Rachelle on November 18, 2014
Chemistry
What is the enthalpy rate of reaction of Na2CO3 + 2M HCl = Na2Co3 + H20 + Co2?

asked by Tia on March 9, 2019
Chemistry
If you add Na2CO3 and AgNO3 together in a test tube what exactly would you observe and what would be the equation for the equilibrium system? If you then add HNO3 to the solution what exactly would you observe and what would be the equation for that

asked by Sylvia on June 20, 2009
Chemistry
I posted before about designing a procedure to determine two unknowns (1 solid, 1 solution). The possible solutions were: NaCl, CaCl2, CuSO4, NaOH,Ba(OH)2, HCl, HNO3, or H2O. The reagents given are: NaOH, HCl, AgNO3, Zn metal, Na2SO4, and H2O. The

asked by Raj on November 11, 2007
Chemistry
What is the precipitation of CaSO4 and Na2CO3 when mixed? What is the net ionic equation?

asked by Coco on October 24, 2017
Chemistry
You mix HCl with Na2CO3; the result is not exactly a precipitation, but it is related. Explain.

asked by Anonymous on November 16, 2010
chemistry
Reaction: Na2CO3 + 2 HCl -> 2 NaCl + CO2 + H2o How many grams of NaCl can be produced from the reaction of 1.35g of Na2CO3 with 125mL of 0.265 M HCl?

asked by Jo on November 30, 2012
Chemistry Question
The reaction of quicklime (CaO) with sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important reaction for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants: CaO(s) + SO2(g) → CaSO3(s) This reaction is an example of: A. a precipitation reaction B. an electrolysis reaction

asked by M on March 29, 2012
Chemistry
If 2.00 mL of 0.600 M NaOH are added to 1.000 L of 0.850 M CaCl2, what is the value of the reaction quotient and will precipitation occur? I’ve been trying this problem over and over and haven’t been able to get it. I know precipitation will not occur from

asked by Rachelle on November 18, 2014

chemistry
Ethylene glycol, C2H6O2, is used as antifreeze for automobile engines. If you want to produce 2.00 kg of ethylene glycol from the reaction of C2H4Cl2 and Na2CO3, what is the minimum amount of Na2CO3 that is needed? C2H4Cl2(l) + Na2CO3(s) + H2O(l)=C2H6O2(l)

asked by Maggie on April 27, 2012
chemistry
The solubility products of AgBr and Ag3PO4 are 5.0 10-13 and 1.8 10-18, respectively. If Ag+ is added (without changing the volume) to 1.00 L of a solution containing 0.31 mol Br ‾ and 0.31 mol PO43-, calculate the molarity of Ag+ ions required to

asked by Tanner on March 25, 2012
Chemistry
Why does the white precipitation turns dark when adding Na2S2O3 drop wise to AgNO3 sollution

asked by Pramodi on November 25, 2016
Chemistry UGH
Help please! I can’t solve any of these, would someone be as kind as to show me the answers? How many moles of NaHCO3 are in a 125.0 g sample of the compound? 3. How many moles are in 6.73 x 1024 water molecules? 4-5. AgBr, a chemical used in photography

asked by Daniel on May 28, 2009
Chemistry
Calculate the mass of solid AgNo3 that can be added to 2.0 L of 0.10M K2CrO4 solution in order to just start precipitation?

asked by Sarah on February 27, 2017
chemistry
Precipitation Reactions Write a molecular equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs (if any) when the following solutions are mixed. If no reaction occurs, write NO REACTION. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases

asked by Jake on February 9, 2009
Chemistry
In this reaction: 2 HCl + Na2CO3 -> H2O + CO2 + 2 NaCl The HCl was diluted from 2M to 0.8M and I currently have 0.020 L of it. There is also Na2CO3. What would be four causes for a large error percentage? Is it possible that some of the HCl evaporated?

asked by Benjamin on January 19, 2017
Chem
If you want to produce 2.00 kg of ethylene glycol from the reaction of C2H4Cl2 and Na2CO3, what is the minimum amount of C2H4Cl2 that is needed? C2H4Cl2(l) + Na2CO3(s) + H2O(l)C2H6O2(l) + 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g)

asked by Verls on June 10, 2012
Chem
If you want to produce 2.00 kg of ethylene glycol from the reaction of C2H4Cl2 and Na2CO3, what is the minimum amount of C2H4Cl2 that is needed? C2H4Cl2(l) + Na2CO3(s) + H2O(l)C2H6O2(l) + 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g)

asked by Verls on June 10, 2012
Chemistry
For the following Reaction: 2AgNO3 + CaBr2 = 2AgBr + CaN2O6 If a chemist starts with 12.0g AgNO3, how many grams of CaBr2 must be added to use up all of the AgNO3?

asked by Carrie on November 14, 2011

Chemistry
What kind of reaction is this (redox, precipitation, acid-base, or complex ion formation reaction)? 1. 3 Ca(s) + 2 Al^3+(aq) -> 3 Ca^2+(aq) + 2 Al(s) 2. LiHCO3(s) + heat -> Li2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g) Complete the reaction: Ni(s) + 2 Na^+(aq) -> ?

asked by Fred on October 21, 2013
chemistry
The balanced reaction is CaCO3 + 2 NaF -> CaF2 + Na2CO3 If you start with 20.0 grams CaCO3, how many moles of CaCO3 do you have? 20.0 2.00 .200 .0200 .0386 If you start with .500 moles of NaF, how many moles of CaF2 will form .500 1.00 1.50 2.00 0.250 What

asked by kyled on February 12, 2008
Chemistry
To 40cm^3 of 1mol AgNO3 is added 20cm^3 of 0.500 AlCl3. What is the molar concentration of the resulting AgNO3 solution. The reaction, if needed, is 3AgNO3 + AlCl3 ==> 3AgCl + Al(NO3)3 I worked out the number of moles present in AgNO3 which is 0.04 mol,

asked by Matt on December 30, 2012
Chemistry

  1. How would you sketch the probable products of the reaction of the cis and trans with each reagent other than AgNO3? _ with en with NH3 _ with KSCN cis: trans: (NOTE: What are the differences between cis and trans and its formation?) 2. How

asked by Hannah on April 15, 2014
Science asap

  1. Which of the following describes the correct sequence of events during the water cycle? precipitation → condensation → evaporation → runoff condensation → precipitation → runoff → evaporation runoff → condensation → evaporation →

asked by anonymous on March 12, 2014
science (chemistry)
consider the following reaction AgNO3+KBr=AgBr+KNO3 calculate the amount of presipitate in gram obtained when 0.25 mole of AgNO3 is trheated with excess of aqueous KBr solution

asked by Shivtej on April 4, 2017
Science
Which type of weather is most likely produced by a cold front? A. light to moderate precipitation B. moderate to heavy precipitation C. no precipitation** D. heavy precipitation and thunderstorms

asked by Anonymous on January 29, 2015
chemistry
A solution of AgNO3 (1 x 10-6 molar) is prepared. To this is added K2CrO4 until precipitation of Ag2CrO4 begins. The Ksp of Ag2 CrO4 is 9 X 10-12. Addition of NaCl will bring about:

asked by shahanas on January 14, 2011
chemistry
A solution of Na2CO3 is added dropwise to a solution that contains 1.34×10−2M Fe^2+ and 1.33×10−2M Cd^2+ . What CO3^2- concentration of is need to initiate precipitation? Neglect any volume changes during the addition.

asked by CHEMISTRY on March 14, 2009
Chemistry
The titration reaction of a solution containing 1.00 g mixture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 with HCl shows that there are 8.50×10^-3 moles of C03-2. Find the weight percent of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 in the mixture. Please Help!!

asked by Magaly on December 7, 2014

Chemistry
A solution is prepared by mixing 45.00 mL of 0.022 M AgNO3 with 13.00 mL of 0.0014 M Na2CO3. Assume volumes are additive. Calculate [Ag+], [CO32-], [Na+] and [NO3-] after equilibrium is established.

asked by Olivia on November 15, 2013
Chemistry
Which two solutions, when mixed together, will undergo a double replacement reaction and form a white, solid substance? 1. NaCl(aq) and LiNO3(aq) 2. KCl(aq) and AgNO3(aq) 3. KCl(aq) and LiCL(aq) 4. NaNO3(aq) and AgNO3(aq) I know the answers 2 but I have no

asked by TJ on January 23, 2008
Chemistry

  1. Write out the precipitation reaction formulas: NaOH(aq)+MgCl2(aq)> a. Complete ionic reaction: b. Net ionic reaction: c. Molecular reaction: *Please could some explain step by step why and how you solve this problem I do not understand at all . Thanks

asked by Naomi on March 3, 2018
Chemistry
The Cu2+ ion can be separated from Ag+, Ca2+, and K+ in aqueous solution by 1. precipitation of Cu2+ as Cu(OH)2(s) with 6 M NaOH(aq). 2. precipitation of Ag+, Ca2+, and K+ as the carbonates. 3. None of these procedures will separate Cu2+ from the other

asked by Christina on April 5, 2010
chemistry
how many grams of Ag2CO3 will precipitate when excess Na2CO3 solution is added to 64.0 mL of 0.554 M AgNO3 solution?

asked by mya on March 23, 2013
science (chem)
what is the chemical eqzn of Na2CO3 + HClO4? Na2CO3 + HClO4 ==> NaClO4 + H2O + CO2 I will leave it for you to balance. how did you get that DrBob The rule on carbonates is: An acid added to a carbonate yields carbon dioxide, water, and a salt. oooh so you

asked by christina on June 24, 2007
Chemistry
Consider the following reactants. Which produces a gas? 1. NH4Cl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → 2. Na2CO3(aq) + BaCl2(aq) → 3. Na2S(aq) + HCl(aq) → 4. All of these would produce a gas.

asked by Sue on October 5, 2016
Chemistry
What is the full net ionic equation for each reaction? do they form a precipitate or have a color change? CuSO4+AgNO3 CuSO4+BaCl2 CuSO4+Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4+Pb(NO3)2 CuSO4+KI CuSO4+Na2S2O3 AgNO3+BaCl2 AgNO3+Cu(NO3)2 AgNO3+Pb(NO3)2 AgNO3+KI AgNO3+Na2S2O3

asked by Joe on May 27, 2008
Chemistry
What is the full net ionic equation for each reaction? do they form a precipitate or have a color change? CuSO4+AgNO3 CuSO4+BaCl2 CuSO4+Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4+Pb(NO3)2 CuSO4+KI CuSO4+Na2S2O3 AgNO3+BaCl2 AgNO3+Cu(NO3)2 AgNO3+Pb(NO3)2 AgNO3+KI AgNO3+Na2S2O3

asked by Joe on May 27, 2008
Analytical Chemistry (Titrations)
About 10ml of concentrated HCl was transferred to a 1-L volumetric flash and diluted to mark with distilled water. When this solution was used to titrate a sample of pure sodium carbonate, Na2Co3, weighing 0.3054 gram, it took 35.09 ml to reach the methyl

asked by Alex on September 23, 2014

chem
why will Na2CO3 + AgNO3 create a percipitate? I thought that one of the compounds has to be insoluble for it to form a percipitate? but according to the solubility rules they both are soluble

asked by rebekah on October 28, 2012
Science
According to the following thermochemical reaction, how much energy is involved in the reaction of 18.5 g of NaHCO3? Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic according to how the thermochemical equation is written? 2NaHCO3(s) + 129 kJ → Na2CO3(s) +

asked by Jenna on May 27, 2014
chemistry
what volume (in ML) of a 0.150 M HNO3 solution is required to completely react wtih 35.7 mL of a 0.108 M Na2CO3 solution according to the following balanced chemical equation? Na2CO3(aq) + 2 HNO3(aq) –> 2NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) then, in the reaction above,

asked by samantha on June 21, 2010
Chemistry-Help Please
Help please. Am doing a past exam paper and I hit a road block with this question: Chloride in a brine solution is determined by a precipitation titration. A 10.00 mL aliquot of the solution is titrated with 15.00mL of standard 0.1182 M AgNO3 solution. The

asked by Bell on December 6, 2016
Chemistry
CaCl2 reacts with AgNO3 in aqueous solutions to produce a precipitate of AgCl that can be filtered and weighed. The balanced equation for the reaction is: CaCl2 (aq) + 2 AgNO3 (aq) → 2 AgCl (s) + Ca(NO3)2 (aq)

asked by Brandon on October 10, 2017
Chem
CaCl2 reacts with AgNO3 in aqueous solutions to produce a precipitate of AgCl that can be filtered and weighed. The balanced equation for the reaction is: CaCl2 (aq) + 2 AgNO3 (aq) → 2 AgCl (s) + Ca(NO3)2 (aq) I got 59.22%.

asked by Matthew on October 13, 2017
Chemistry
Find the Qsp when 9 drops of 0.014 M Na2CO3(aq) are added to 25 mL of 0.003 M AgNO3(aq). The solubility product of Ag2CO3 is 6.2 × 10−12. Assume 20 drops per milliliter.

asked by Alice on March 30, 2013
Chemistry
Label the following reactions as combination, decomposition, displacement, precipitation, or acid-base reaction. Also whether each reaction is a redox or non redox reaction. SO2(g)+H2O(l)-> H2SO3(aq) NH3(aq)+HS(-)(aq)-> NH4(+)(aq)+S(2-) Na2O2(l)->

asked by sara on April 5, 2011
chemistry
predict which three of the following five aqueous solutions should react with solid aluminum metal (the elemental form of aluminum): AgNO3, Na2CO3, CuSO4, CaCl2, Pb(NO3)2

asked by Anonymous on April 22, 2013
chemistry
What type of reaction does the following equation represent? AgNO3 + NaCl —> AgCl + NaNO3 A. Single-displacement reaction B. Synthesis C. Combustion D. Double-displacement reaction

asked by Yui on September 15, 2014

chemistry
What type of reaction does the following equation represent? AgNO3 + NaCl —> AgCl + NaNO3 A. Single-displacement reaction B. Synthesis C. Combustion D. Double-displacement reaction

asked by Emiko on September 13, 2014
chemistry
What type of reaction does the following equation represent? AgNO3 + NaCl —> AgCl + NaNO3 A. Single-displacement reaction B. Synthesis C. Combustion D. Double-displacement reaction

asked by Emiko on September 13, 2014
chemistry
What type of reaction does the following equation represent? AgNO3 + NaCl —> AgCl + NaNO3 A. Single-displacement reaction B. Synthesis C. Combustion D. Double-displacement reaction

asked by Emiko on September 13, 2014
chemistry
Hey, I need help finding out how many moles of CO2 is produced from this reaction. Any help is appreciated, thanks. Mass of empty Erlenmeyer flask (g): 88.000 g Mass of Erlenmeyer flask and 20 mL H2SO4: 112.198 g Mass of 20 mL H2SO4: 24.198 g Trial I Mass

asked by Matti on March 3, 2013
chemistry
Exactly 50.0ml solution of Na2CO3 was titrated with 65.8ml of 3.00M HCl. If the specific gravity of the Na2CO3 solution is 1.25, what percent by weight of Na2CO3 does it contain?

asked by siari ann on February 14, 2013
Chemistry Lab
Number of moles of HCl and Na2CO3 (show calculations) when 0.015 g of Na2CO3. How can I calculate this problem if I am only given the 0.015 grams of Na2CO3?

asked by Julissa on October 3, 2016
Chemistry
How many grams of Ag2S can be generated from a mixture of 2.48 g Na2S and 3.41 g of AgNO3 given the following unbalanced reaction: Na2S(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → Ag2S(aq) + NaNO3(aq)

asked by Jacob on February 8, 2012
Chemistry
predict if precipitation will occur when 36ml of 0.0039M Na2CrO4 is mixed with 18ml of 0.00033M AgNO3. M.W of Ag2CrO4 :331.73g/mol Kspof ag2cro4 1.1×10^-12

asked by Janna on November 21, 2015
Chem
1) Which solution will have the lowest OH- A) Na2CO3 B) NaHCO3 C) NaCl D) NaHSO4 E) NH4Cl 2) Which solution will be the strongest base? A) Na2CO3 B) NaHCO3 C) NaCl D) NaHSO4 E) NH4Cl 3) Which aqueous solutions are acidic? A) Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 B) NaCl and

asked by Timothy on April 5, 2014
Chemistry
Determine whether a solid forms when solutions containing the following salts are mixed. (Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer) NaF and AgNo3 MnSO4 and Na2CO3

asked by David on May 24, 2010

chemistry
what is the oxidation half-reaction in the following chemical reaction? fe(s) + 3 agno3 -> ag + fe(no3)3

asked by Anonymous on April 3, 2014
CHEMISTRY
Suppose you are studying coordination compounds of Co(II) with the ligand pyridine (py, C5H5N, molar mass=79.10). You isolate a crystalline compound, and because the only available anions are Cl- and NO3-, you hypothesize that the empirical formula of the

asked by PreMed33 on May 30, 2013
chemistry
Record and calculate the following masses: (a)mass of empty beaker: 47.420g (b)mass of beaker plus Na₂CO₃:47.920g (c)Mass of Na₂CO₃:0.5g (d)mass of beaker plus NaCl:47.438g (e) Mass of NaCl (g):0.018g I need help with these questions below 2.

asked by chelsea on June 7, 2012
Chemistry
Suppose you are studying coordination compounds of Co(II) with the ligand pyridine (py, C5H5N, MW = 79.10). You isolate a crystalline compound and since the only available ions are chloride and nitrate, you hypothesize the empirical formula of the

asked by Ray on April 20, 2007
Chemistry
How many milliliters of 0.277 M AgNO3 solution are needed to react completely with 47.1 mL of 0.278 M NaCl solution? How many grams of AgCl will be formed? The reaction is NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

asked by Lynn on November 1, 2011
chemistry
Use the balanced equation below to answer the following questions. 2Al(NO3)3 + 3Na2CO3 Al2(CO3)3(s) + 6NaNO3 – What is the ratio of moles of Al(NO3)3 to moles Na2CO3? (1 point) – If 852.04 g Al(NO3)3 reacted with the 741.93 g Na2CO3, which would be the

asked by Adrian on February 8, 2012
Chemistry
The Solvay process for the manufacture of sodium carbonate begins by passing ammonia and carbon dioxide through a solution of sodium chloride to make sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. The equation for this reaction is H2O + NaCl + NH3 + CO2 ¨

asked by Zacky on April 2, 2010
chemistry
Consider the following reaction: Na2CO3 + NiCl2 ¨ NiCO3 + 2NaCl Using the solubility rules determine the solubility of all reactants and products. Explain your answer Please. Which product is the precipitate in this reaction? Write the complete ionic

asked by Eagertolearn on February 23, 2013
chemistry
so I don’t expect you to answer all of these I just don’t understand how they work so if someone could just explain one or two so I can do the rest that would be helpful! Thanks! Use the activity series to predict whether the following reaction will occur.

asked by will.i.am on January 8, 2013
Chemistry
The Solvay process for the manufacture of sodium carbonate begins by passing ammonia and carbon dioxide through a solution of sodium chloride to make sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. The equation for this reaction is H2O + NaCl + NH3 + CO2 ¨

asked by David on April 2, 2010

Science 🙁
Which of the following describes the correct sequence of events during the water cycle? precipitation → condensation → evaporation → runoff condensation → precipitation → runoff → evaporation runoff → condensation → evaporation →

asked by anonymous on March 11, 2014
chemistry
‘24.6 mL of 0.488 M NaCl is added to 24.6 mL of 0.312 M AgNO3. How many moles of AgCl would precipitate? What would be the concentrations of each of the ions in the reaction mixture after the reaction? Ion Concentration (M) Ag+ M NO3- M Na+ M Cl- M’

asked by walter on June 13, 2015
Science
NaBR+ AgNO3- AgBr+ NaNO3 AgNO3=reagent A NaBr=reagent B When 4.36 grams of AgNO3 react with 5.05 grams of NaBr, which is the limiting reagent? How many grams of the excess reagent remain? How many grams of AgBr are produced in the reaction?

asked by Raz on October 5, 2007
Chemistry
How many milliliters of 0.258 M NiCl2 solution are needed to react completely with 20.0 mL of 0.153 M Na2CO3 solution? How many grams of NiCO3 will be formed? The reaction is Na2CO3(aq) +NiCl2 (aq)—-> NiCO3(s)+2NaCl I solved for the 1st part, 11.8 M

asked by Stacie on March 22, 2015
Chemistry
Calculate ΔG at 25°C for the precipitation of lead(II) iodide from mixing 100. mL of 0.10 M lead(II) nitrate solution with 100. mL of 0.10 M sodium iodide solution. The ΔG° for this precipitation reaction at 25°C = −46.2 kJ/mol.

asked by DrBob21 on February 27, 2017
chemistry
We are doing a lab that requires finding the molarity of an unknown AgNO3 solution after reacting NaCl + AgNO3 –> NaNO3 and AgCl and collecting/massing the precipitate. We will be using 10.00 mL of an NaCl solution and 10.00 mL of the AgNO3 solution. We

asked by Chris on October 4, 2006
Chemistry
What type of reaction occurs when potassiumbromide solution is mixed. With lead(II) acetate solution? Gas evolution, oxidation reduction, precipitation, acid-base neutralization, or no reaction

asked by Coug on January 8, 2010
chemistry
A laboratory instructor gives you a test tube containing Ag+ ,Ba 2+ , and Cu 2+ ions. Devise a reaction scheme that would allow you to selectively precipitate each of these ions. Write a balanced net ionic equation for each precipitation reaction.

asked by steven on March 17, 2014
chemistry
If 950 mL of 0.800 M aqueous Na2CO3 and 920 mL of 0.565 M aqueous HCl are reacted stoichiometrically according to the balanced equation, how many milliliters of 0.800 M aqueous Na2CO3 remain? Round your answer to 3 significant figures. Na2CO3(aq) +

asked by Judy on June 2, 2010
Chemistry
Predict the reaction, if any, that would occur if Sr(NO3)2 and Na2CO3 were mixed. Would any reaction occur if HBr were added? Thank You

asked by Arnub on January 28, 2012

Cemistry
A solution is 36% silver nitrate (AgNO3) by mass. The density of this solution is 1.44 g/mL. The formula weight of AgNO3 is 170 g/mol. Calculate the molality of AgNO3 in this solution.

asked by Swagato on June 9, 2010
someones GOTTA help me with this science…!!!

  1. Which of the following describes the correct sequence of events during the water cycle? (1 point)precipitation ¨ condensation ¨ evaporation ¨ runoff condensation ¨ precipitation ¨ runoff ¨ evaporation runoff ¨ condensation ¨

asked by TTR+S<3 on January 20, 2014 Chemistry. Predict these reaction products. If a reaction takes place, balance the reaction if needed. If no reaction takes place then write no reaction. Cu+FeCl3—>CuCl3 + Fe Double replacement Al+HBr—-> AgNO3 + KCL—>AgClKnO3 Double replacement

asked by Jessy on June 16, 2015
calculus
For which of the following mixtures will Ag2SO4(s) precipitate? 150.0 mL of 0.10 M Na2SO4(aq) and 5.0 mL of 0.20 M AgNO3(aq) 150.0 mL of 0.10 M Na2SO4(aq) and 5.0 mL of 0.30 M AgNO3(aq) 150.0 mL of 0.10 M Na2SO4(aq) and 5.0 mL of 0.40 M AgNO3(aq) 150.0 mL

asked by chris12 on November 20, 2016
Chemistry
a solution contains an unkown amount of dissolved magnesium, addition odf 0.0877 mol of Na2CO3 causes complete precipitation of all the magnesium. what is the mass of magnesium was dissovled in the solution? you must write a balanced equation for the

asked by Monika on April 28, 2011