Categories

## the projected rate of increase in enrollment at a new college is estimated by

The projected rate of increase in enrollment at a new college is estimated by dE/dt = 6,000(t+1)^-3/2 where E(t) is the projected enrollment in t years. If the enrollment is 3,000 now (t=0), find the projected enrollment 15 years from now.

0 0 247
Nov 21, 2013
dE/dt = 6,000(t+1)^-3/2
E(t) = -12000(t+1)^-1/2 + c
3000 = -12000+c
c = 15000

E(t) = 15000 – 12000/√(t+1)
E(15) = 15000 – 12000/4 = 12000

0 0
posted by Steve
Nov 21, 2013

Categories

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

ALEKS Pie Completion Worth 400 points

The primary goal of this class is for you to complete the entire pie by the end of the term. Points for pie completion will be added to your score at the end of the term.

ALEKS

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

Due Week 10 and worth 140 points

Imagine you are a manager at a major bottling company. Customers have begun to complain that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in your company contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of product. Your boss wants to solve the problem at hand and has asked you to investigate. You have your employees pull thirty (30) bottles off the line at random from all the shifts at the bottling plant. You ask your employees to measure the amount of soda there is in each bottle. Note: Use the data set provided by your instructor to complete this assignment.

Bottle Number

Ounces Bottle Number

Ounces Bottle Number

Ounces

1 14.5 11 15 21 14.1

2 14.6 12 15.1 22 14.2

3 14.7 13 15 23 14

4 14.8 14 14.4 24 14.9

5 14.9 15 15.8 25 14.7

6 15.3 16 14 26 14.5

7 14.9 17 16 27 14.6

8 15.5 18 16.1 28 14.8

9 14.8 19 15.8 29 14.8

10 15.2 20 14.5 30 14.6

Write a two to three (2-3) page report in which you:

1. Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

2. Construct a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

3. Conduct a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces

is supported. Clearly state the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

4. Provide the following discussion based on the conclusion of your test:

a. If you conclude that there are less than sixteen (16) ounces in a bottle of soda, speculate

on three (3) possible causes. Next, suggest the strategies to avoid the deficit in the

future.

Or

b. If you conclude that the claim of less soda per bottle is not supported or justified, provide

reason(s) behind the claim, and recommend one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating

this issue in the future.

 Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. No citations and references are required, but if you use them, they must follow APA format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

 Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

 Calculate measurements of central tendency and dispersal.

 Determine confidence intervals for data.

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

 Describe the vocabulary and principles of hypothesis testing.

 Discuss application of course content to professional contexts.

 Use technological tools to solve problems in statistics.

 Write clearly and concisely about statistics using proper writing mechanics.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.

Points: 140 Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

Criteria

Unacceptable

Below 60% F

Meets

Minimum

Expectations

60-69% D

Fair

70-79% C

Proficient

80-89% B

Exemplary

90-100% A

1. Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles. Weight: 20%

Did not submit or incompletely calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Insufficiently calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Partially calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Satisfactorily calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Thoroughly calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

2. Construct a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles. Weight: 25%

Did not submit or incompletely constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Insufficiently constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Partially constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Satisfactorily constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Thoroughly constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

3. Conduct a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Clearly state the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test. Weight: 30%

Did not submit or incompletely conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Did not submit or incompletely stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Insufficiently conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Insufficiently stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Partially conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Partially stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Satisfactorily conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Satisfactorily stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Thoroughly conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Thoroughly stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

4a. If you conclude that there are less than sixteen (16) ounces in a bottle of soda, speculate on three (3) possible causes. Next, suggest the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future. Or

Did not submit or incompletely speculated on three (3) possible causes. Did not submit or incompletely suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Insufficiently speculated on three (3) possible causes. Insufficiently suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Partially speculated on three (3) possible causes. Partially suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Satisfactorily speculated on three (3) possible causes. Satisfactorily suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Thoroughly speculated on three (3) possible causes. Thoroughly suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

4b. If you conclude that the claim of less soda per bottle is not supported or justified, provide a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Include your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and recommend one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future. Weight: 15%

Or Did not submit or incompletely provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Did not submit or incompletely included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and did not submit or incompletely recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Insufficiently provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Insufficiently included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and insufficiently recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Partially provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Partially included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and partially recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Satisfactorily provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Satisfactorily included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and satisfactorily recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Thoroughly provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Thoroughly included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and thoroughly recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

5. Writing / Support for ideas Weight: 5%

Never uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Rarely uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Partially uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Mostly uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Consistently uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

6. Writing / Grammar and mechanics Weight: 5%

Serious and persistent errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Numerous errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Partially free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Mostly free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

MAT 300 – Student Notes

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

Weekly Course Schedule

The purpose of the course schedule is to give you, at a glance, the required preparation, activities, and

online, access your online course shell.

The expectations for a 4.5 credit hour course are for students to spend 13.5 hours in weekly work. This

time estimate includes preparation, activities, and evaluation regardless of the delivery mode.

Instructional Materials

In order to be fully prepared, obtain a copy of the required textbooks and other instructional materials

prior to the first day of class. When available, Strayer University provides a link to the first three (3)

chapters of your textbook(s) in eBook format. Check your online course shell for availability.

Review the online course shell or check with your professor to determine whether Internet-based

assignments and activities are used in this course.

Strayer students are encouraged to purchase their course materials through our designated Strayer

Bookstore. http://www.strayerbookstore.com If a lab is required for the course, the Strayer Bookstore is

the only vendor that sells the correct registration code so that Strayer students may access labs

successfully.

Discussions

To earn full credit in an online threaded discussion, students must have one original post and a minimum

of one other post per discussion thread.

Please note: Material in the online class will be made available three weeks at a time to allow students to

work ahead, however, faculty will be focused on and responding only to the current calendar week. As it

is always possible that students could lose their work due to unforeseen circumstances, it is a best

practice to routinely save a working draft in a separate file before posting in the course discussion area.

Professors hold discussions during class time for on-ground students. Check with your professor if any

additional discussion participation is required in the online course shell outside of class hours.

Tests

Tests (quizzes, midterm and final exams, essay exams, lab tests, etc.) are available for student access

and completion through the online course shell. Check the online course shell to determine how students

are expected to take the tests. Do not change these questions or their point values in any way. This

disrupts the automated grade book preset in the online course shell.

 Online students are to complete the test by Monday 9:00 a.m. Details regarding due dates are

posted in the Blackboard Calendar tool.

 On-ground students are to complete the tests after the material is covered and before the next

class session.http://www.strayerbookstore.com/

MAT 300 – Student Notes

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MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

Assignments

assignments. Review the rubric before submitting assignments that have grading rubrics associated with

them to ensure you have met the performance criteria stated on the rubric.

Grades are based on individual effort. There is no group grading; however, working in groups in the

online or on-ground classroom is acceptable.

Assignments for online students are always submitted through the online course shell. On-ground

professors will inform students on how to submit assignments, whether in paper format or through the

online course shell.

Resources

Library Resources are available here as well as other important information. You should review this area

to find resources and answers to common questions.

Technical support is available for the following:

iCampus account at https://icampus.strayer.edu/login and submitting a case under “Student

contact Technical Support via phone at (877) 642-2999.

 For concerns with your class, please access the Solution Center by logging in to your iCampus

account at https://icampus.strayer.edu/login and submitting a case under “Student Center,” then

Help Desk at (866) 610-8123 or at mailto:IThelpdesk@Strayer.edu.

TurnItIn.com is an optional online tool to assess the originality of student written work. Check with your

professor for access and use instructions.

The Strayer Policies link on the navigation bar in the online course shell contains academic policies. It is

Categories

## walmartpsp

By:

Ammara Farooq

Grayson Ricafort

Esmeralda Ramirez

Josiah Orozco

Alyssa Becerra

Denisse Ramos Talavera

Descriptive Statistics

The Average Shipping cost to ship a product on truck is 28.758, while on air it is 8.571.

This will let the company know that shipping through truck is more expensive. Shipment through air is far more reliable as noted in the pie chart. This is a possibility to decrease spending and increase revenue.

Average Shipping: 14.7908

Mean Shipping Cost:

6.18

Average Product Base Margin:

0.4918

Mean Product Base Margin:

0.5

Total Averages

 median target PSP \$5.79 average target PSP \$7.22 median walmart PSP \$5.79 average walmart PSP \$7.14 The Average Discount percent of all Products 5

Comparing Target and Walmart Sales Prices

Both companies almost have the same prices.

Olay Regenerist Moisturizer, Hellmann’s Real Mayonnaise, and Folgers Classic Roast are the only ones with slight price differences.

4

Product sale price

Wal-Mart Folgers Classic Roast Hamburger Helper Frenchs Mustard Hellmanns Real Mayonnaise Kraft Miracle Whip Pringles Listerine Cool Mint Pantene Color Reserve Volume Shampoo Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Mositurizing Lotion Olay Regenerist Moisturizer Fancy Feast Wet Cat Food Gourmet Entree Nice n Easy Haircolor Cover Girl Lash Blast Volume Mascara 6.97 2.0 1.77 2.97 4.97 2.25 5.79 3.96 11.27 27.47 6.98 8.96 7.47 Target Folgers Classic Roast Hamburger Helper Frenchs Mustard Hellmanns Real Mayonnaise Kraft Miracle Whip Pringles Listerine Cool Mint Pantene Color Reserve Volume Shampoo Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Mositurizing Lotion Olay Regenerist Moisturizer Fancy Feast Wet Cat Food Gourmet Entree Nice n Easy Haircolor Cover Girl Lash Blast Volume Mascara 9.49 2.04 1.99 4.49 4.99 2.29 5.79 4.99 11.39 22.99 6.99 8.99 7.49

Products

Prices

Positive Correlation

2011 prices vs. Present prices

There is a perfect positive correlation

Correlation Coefficient r= 0.9885946 which is near 1, which makes the correlation almost the same.

Correlation bewteen walmart prices and walmart 2011 prices

Wal-Mart Folgers Classic Roast Hamburger Helper Frenchs Mustard Hellmanns Real Mayonnaise Kraft Miracle Whip Pringles Listerine Cool Mint Pantene Color Reserve Volume Shampoo Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Mositurizing Lotion Olay Regenerist Moisturizer Fancy Feast Wet Cat Food Gourmet Entree Nice n Easy Haircolor Cover Girl Lash Blast Volume Mascara 6.97 2.0 1.77 2.97 4.97 2.25 5.79 3.96 11.27 27.47 6.98 8.96 7.47 Wal-Mart (2011) Folgers Classic Roast Hamburger Helper Frenchs Mustard Hellmanns Real Mayonnaise Kraft Miracle Whip Pringles Listerine Cool Mint Pantene Color Reserve Volume Shampoo Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Mositurizing Lotion Olay Regenerist Moisturizer Fancy Feast Wet Cat Food Gourmet Entree Nice n Easy Haircolor Cover Girl Lash Blast Volume Mascara 9.47 2.67 2.17 3.97 4.37 1.67 4.99 4.96 11.27 32.97 7.48 7.78 7.47

Products

Prices

Product Correlation

Sales vs. Discounts

There is NO apparent correlation between product Sales and the Discount.

r= 0.0742363, which is near 0, meaning that there is no correlation.244.57 124.56 905.08 716.8399999999999 10123.02 228.41 146.69 394.27 261.54 196.85 93.54 2781.82 4965.7595 7.000000000000001 1.0 5.0 8.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 0.0 9.0 3.0 4.0 7.000000000000001 7.000000000000001

Product sales

Discount

Relative Frequency

There is NO association between Ship Mode and Product Container.

Categories

## cesi debt solutions

According to a study conducted by CESI Debt Solutions, 80% of married people hide purchases from their mates. In a random sample of 20 married people, find and interpret:

(a) The probability exactly 15 hide purchases from their mates.

(b) The probability at least 19 hide purchases from their mates.

(c) The probability fewer than 19 hide purchases from their mates.

(d) The probability between 15 and 17, inclusive, hide purchases from their mates.

Categories

## in which of the following situations is a sound wave most likely to travel through air

1. In which of the following situations is a sound wave most likely to travel through air?

A) An alarm clock rings in a vacuum.
B) A giant star explodes.
C) A grasshopper eats a leaf.
D) An astronaut uses tools in space.

1. Which of the following factors determines the loudness of a sound?

A) Frequency of the sound.
B) Amplitude of the sound.
C) The temperature of the medium.
D) The density of the medium.

1. Which of the following affects the speed of sound?

A) The amplitude of the wave.
B) The frequency of the wave.
C) The phase of the medium.
D) The wavelength.

1. A blind person walks through the neighborhood making loud clicking noises with his tongue. He doesn’t use a walking stick nor does he have a seeing-eye-dog. However, he avoids ever obstacle and is able to navigate his way around the neighborhood safely. What can be inferred from the given information?

A) He is detecting the reflection of sound waves.
B) He is detecting the refraction of sound waves.
C) He is detecting the absorption of sound waves.
D) He is detecting the diffraction of sound waves.

0 0 2,815
Dec 9, 2013
1.C
2.B
3.C
4.A

21 0
posted by Princess Anna
Dec 9, 2013
K, Thanks Anna. That’s what I thought. 😀

5 1
posted by Jasmine
Dec 9, 2013

2 0
posted by Princess Anna
Dec 9, 2013
1 cant c. cause a grasshopper eat really quiet…

0 3
posted by Ur_Mom
Oct 31, 2014

I got 100./. yay

1 0
posted by ms. cat
Nov 11, 2014
Thanks i got 100

1 0
posted by Tierra
Apr 2, 2015
OMG TY SO MUCH I LOVE UUU I GAWT 100 %

1 0
posted by jam
May 16, 2015
NOW I CAN GO TO COLLEGE

1 1
posted by jam
May 16, 2015
tanks guys

1 0
posted by TiffenyLPS
Oct 21, 2015

Lol ya’ll are funny. 😀

1 0
posted by Mariana
Nov 12, 2015
I am going to see what answers get me 100%….

1 0
posted by Yuck
Mar 27, 2016
5 is A

11 0
posted by Olive
Mar 30, 2016
IS 1 ACTUALLY C?

3 0
posted by YAY
Apr 11, 2016
I got 100% thx ppl

1 0
posted by King Tyler
Apr 25, 2016

1.C
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A

31 0
posted by LaShyla
Apr 27, 2016
lashyla is correct

2 0
posted by hhh
Apr 27, 2016
lashyla is right

0 0
posted by The_Meta13
May 16, 2016
1.c
2.b
3.c
4.a
5.a
These are the answers I took the test and I got 100%.

8 0
posted by raina the helper
Oct 6, 2016
Thank you, I got 100% on the quiz!

2 0
posted by Jane Barlow.
Nov 2, 2016

thanks I got 100%

2 0
posted by Corbin
Apr 11, 2017
c
b
c
a
a

4 0
posted by boo
Apr 26, 2017
ty guys

2 0
posted by a pimp named slick back
May 15, 2017
In which of the following situation is light most likely to be refracted

0 0
posted by Cassandra
Sep 15, 2017
greggggg

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Sep 20, 2017

I think c am i right?

0 0
posted by qdaewrf
Nov 2, 2017
-_-

0 0
posted by qdaewrf
Nov 2, 2017
THX 100%

0 0
posted by GameZone
Nov 13, 2017
TYSM!

0 0
posted by Welp
Dec 1, 2017
DONT CHEAT

0 1
posted by Andreas
Mar 14, 2018

the answers are correct. And Andreas, that’s not going to stop anyone from cheating. I commend you for your efforts, though. Nice try.

0 0
posted by Tisky
Mar 22, 2018

And Boo is right

C
B
C
A
A

Thank you Hunny~!

3 0
posted by \/(._.)\/
Mar 28, 2018
C
B
C
A
A

2 0
posted by N
Apr 29, 2018
C because every thing else cant make noise because they are deprived ofbair so even though “They eat real quiet” they still make a noise.

0 0
posted by Norot
May 1, 2018
c
b
c
a
a’

LIKE BAM

3 0
posted by Lexxy
May 3, 2018

c
b
c
a
a

3 0
posted by PearsonConnexus
May 4, 2018
1.C
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A

2 1
posted by Emo Aunt
May 9, 2018
C
B
C
A
A
I just took the test and I got 100%

3 0
posted by Thank you
May 9, 2018
@BOO is correct! Thanks love! 🙂

0 0
posted by hearteyes
May 10, 2018
Lexxy? Lexey?!

0 0
posted by Cereal…. is life. -Life Cereal
May 15, 2018

boo is correct 🙂

0 0
posted by Anonymous
May 21, 2018
Unit 4 Lesson 2
C
B
C
A
A
100%

3 0
posted by DifieJaucy
Nov 6, 2018
thxs hunnies

0 0
posted by ?
Nov 27, 2018
YAAAAAASSSSSSS! Thx guys!

0 0
Feb 11, 2019

1. C
2. B
3. C
4. A
5. A 0 0
posted by Hal
Mar 18, 2019

THANK YOU

0 0
posted by anonymous
Apr 1, 2019
thank u so much LaShyla that helped alot much thanks

1 0
posted by DJ Marshmello
Apr 2, 2019
for connections unit 4 lesson 2
Sound

1.C
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A

0 0
posted by Netflix
Apr 9, 2019

Categories

## what is the grooming process as it relates to online predators

What is the grooming process as it relates to online predators?

a.) the process by which online predators lure in minors to get them close enough to hurt them
b.) the process by which online predators are trained
c.) the process by which a cyber bully becomes an online predator
d.) the process of training yourself to avoid online predators*

What is an example of anonymous behavior online?

b.) not offering an personal identifying information
d.) using your name online only with those you have met in person

2 1 2,725
Feb 27, 2014

1. No
2. Yes 1 1
posted by Anonymous
Feb 27, 2014
What is the grooming process as it relates to online predators?

a.) the process by which online predators lure in minors to get them close enough to hurt them *
b.) the process by which online predators are trained
c.) the process by which a cyber bully becomes an online predator
d.) the process of training yourself to avoid online predators

2 2
posted by Mindy
Feb 27, 2014
Right.

1 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Feb 27, 2014
Thanks for checking! 🙂

1 1
posted by Mindy
Feb 27, 2014

You’re welcome.

1 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Feb 27, 2014
mmmmmm

1 1
posted by Anonymous
Jan 25, 2016
A
1&3
B

9 1
posted by abcd
Feb 10, 2016
“abcd” is 100% correct 🙂
A
1&3
B

18 0
posted by Drew
Feb 10, 2016
ty

3 0
posted by lamp
Feb 18, 2016

A AC B 100%

6 0
posted by Andrew
Mar 1, 2016
Andrew is correct

4 1
posted by Shun
Mar 22, 2016
Tysm every one!!

1 0
posted by Fox Girl
Nov 30, 2016
A
A &C
B
Thank you !!!!!!!

1 0
posted by Connections wiz
Jan 18, 2017

0 0
posted by Iko Matzou
Mar 1, 2017

Thanks everyone!!!

0 0
posted by Hi
Nov 24, 2017
100% correct

0 0
posted by Di
Dec 2, 2017
yuh its
a
a, c
b

5 0
posted by 5678
Oct 20, 2018
thx ABCD

0 1
posted by nathaan
Dec 4, 2018

Categories

## how is the supreme court equal to the other branches of government

1. how is the supreme court equal to the other branches of government?

a. it has the same powers as the legislative branch and executive branch.
b. it enforces the laws along with the president***
c. it creates laws like the legislative branch
d. it interprets the laws and has the final say in federal law.

1. which of the following is an example of the supreme court using the power of judicial review?

a. deciding the constitutionality of a law.
b. hearing an appellate case
c. asking questions during oral arguments
d. appointing federal judges***

1. when chief justice John Marshall wrote “A law repugnant to the constitution is void”in the case Marbury V. Madison,what was he claiming?

a. the framers should have taken more care designing the legislative branch.
b. laws unsupported by the constitution are automatically unlawful
c. the supreme court will take over lawmaking duties should it be necessary
d. the supreme court has the right to declare laws of congress unconstitutional

0 0 357
Dec 12, 2016

1. b
2. d
3. d 0 1
posted by Alice Keign
Dec 12, 2016
4. b – no
5. d – no
6. d – no 0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Dec 12, 2016
Alright, I did more research and changed my answers to:
7. a
8. b
9. b 0 0
posted by Alice Keign
Dec 12, 2016
10. a – no
11. b – no
12. b – yes

You’ve used up your two guesses. Please do not post these questions again.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Dec 12, 2016

b for 3 was wrong. This is not the first time I’ve experienced false tutoring from you, Ms. Sue 🙁

0 0
posted by Alice Keign
Dec 12, 2016

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Dec 12, 2016
Btw — that answer is an opinion. I don’t know how your text author interprets that quote.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Dec 12, 2016
D
A
D

100% you’re welcome

0 0
posted by Whocares
Jan 16, 2017
@WHOCARES is correct, thanks

0 0
posted by HotChick16
Mar 6, 2017

0 0
posted by Colin
Mar 9, 2017
Ms sue , you really can be foul when it comes to helping kids. You should be based around helping kids. Not tell them their wrong and not say why? You’re a horrible tutor. I suggest you find other ways to help kids and not be so scrappy with people. Horrible attitude, ms.

0 0
posted by Tacopaco
Oct 4, 2017
D
A
D is correct

0 0
posted by Fucc y’all
Nov 27, 2017
Supreme Court’s Protections/The Judicial Branch: 1. relative rights 2. freedoms that protect people from government 3. to restrict the power of the national and state governments

Supreme Court on Religious Freedom: 1. financial aid for student lunches in parochial schools / financial aid for vision testing in parochial schools

1. The prison had failed to show its policy was the least restrictive means of furthering its compelling interest 3. attending church
Good luck! 0 0
posted by Ms. Honey
Oct 13, 2018
@whocares and fucc you too are right. The answers for The Supreme Court and Other Courts is DAD 0 0
posted by Ms. Honey
Oct 13, 2018
Categories

## co(g) effuses at a rate that is ______ times that of xe(g) under the same conditions.

CO(g) effuses at a rate that is __ times that of Xe(g) under the same conditions.

0 0 614
Nov 19, 2015
2.16

0 0
posted by Alex
Nov 19, 2015
Let’s make up a number for the rate of Xe gas. Let’s call it 10 mL/second.

Then
(rate CO/rate Xe) = sqrt(M Xe/M CO where M stands for molar mass Xe or molar mass CO.

(10/x) = sqrt(131.29/28)
Solve for x for rate of CO then calculate how much faster/slower this is than Xe. You know CO should have a higher rate since the molar mass is lower.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Nov 19, 2015

Categories

## what is the maximum value of p = 24x + 30y, given the constraints on x and y listed below?

graph the system of constraints find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function x y
108,871 results
Algebra 2

1. By graphing the system of constraints, find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function. 2

Algebra
graph the system of constraints find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function x+y_0

asked by Lirio on October 17, 2016
algebra 2
Graph the system of constraints and find the value of x and y that maximize the objective function. Constraints {x >= 0 y >= 0 y

asked by Kandy on October 7, 2014
math
An objective function and a system of linear inequalities representing constraints are given. Graph the system of inequalities representing the constraints. Find the value of the objective function at each corner of the graphed region. Use these values to

asked by ReRe on February 22, 2010
Objective functon
An objective function and a system of linear inequalities representing constraints are given. Graph the system of inequalities representing the constraints. Find the value of the objective function at each corner of the graphed region. Use these values to

asked by Soly on November 17, 2007

Math
By graphing the system of constraints, find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function. 2x+y0 maximum for p=x+2y

asked by Jewell on October 16, 2017
HELP ME WITH THESE 2 PROBLEMS PLEASE….. 1. Objective Quantity: C= 5x+4y Constraints: x < -2 x > -4 y > 1 y < 6 All of the signs have lines under them. 2. Objective Quantity: C= 6x + 2y Constraints: x > 0 x < 5 y > 0 4x-y > 1 Again, all of the signs have

asked by Anonymous on October 11, 2006
College Algebra
Maximize the objective function C = 4x + 5y with the constraints x + y 5, x + 2y 6, x 0, y 0. Your constraints don’t make sense. They need to be equations. Are you leaving out “=” signs? If x=0 and y=0, there no variables and you can’t maximize C

asked by Cheryl on July 26, 2007
Math
Your computer-supply store sells two types of inkjet printers. The first, type A, costs \$237 and you make a \$22 profit on each one. The second, type B, costs \$122 and you make a \$19 profit on each one. You can order no more than 120 printers this month,

asked by Greg Martin on September 17, 2012
algebra
Find the minimum and maximum values of the objective function subject to the given constraints? Objective Function: C=4x+5y Constraints: x>=0, y>=0, x+y

asked by emily on April 4, 2010
Algebra 2
Name the vertices and then find the values of x and y that minimize the objective function. x >= 2 y >= 0 3x + 2y >= 12 Minimum for C = x + 5y Help with system of constraints please! I’m terrible at this…

asked by Reese on November 19, 2015
algebra 2
by graphing the system of constraints find the values of x and y that minimizes the objective function x+2y>8 x>2 y>0 >=greater than or equal to my answer was 0,10 am i right?

asked by the world forgot on September 29, 2017
Math
Find the minimum value of C = 4x – 3y using the following constraints. constraints to get the vertices. Plug the vertices into the objective function. Remember graph the

asked by pandagang on April 26, 2016
Alg. 2
Maximize the objective function M=6x+3y under the constraints {x ¡Ý 0 y ¡Ü 5 y ¡Ü -x + 10 y ¡Ý.5x – 4}

asked by Larry on July 7, 2008
PLEASE CHECK MY ANSWERS (: I just want to make sure I am doing this correctly ______________________ Graph the system of constraints and find the value of x and y that maximize the objective function. Constraints: x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 y ≤ (1)/(5)

asked by Greg on September 17, 2012

algebra2
Find the values of x and y that maximize the objective function P=3x + 2y for the graph. What is the maximum value. step by step please

asked by bowershe on December 10, 2013
SIMPLEX METHOD – Table: Nutrient Peanuts Raisins M&Ms Pretzels Calories 855 435 1024 162 Protein 34.57 4.67 9.01 3.87 Fat 72.50 0.67 43.95 1.49 Carbs 31.40 114.74 148.12 33.68 Suppose that you want to make at most 10 cups of trail mix, using all the

asked by Jay on June 6, 2011
math help needed
the bookholder company maunfactures two types of bookcases out of oak and walnut. model 01 requires 5 board feet of oak and 2 board feet of walnut. model 02 requires 4 board feet of oak and 3 board feet of walnut. a profit of \$75 is made on each model 01

asked by michael on June 6, 2007
Algebra
If some one can get me started, I should be able to graph this. MONTGOMERY COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE MAT106 SUMMER, 2007 ASSIGNMENT #1 NAME______________________________ The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The

asked by Jason on May 30, 2007
Algebra Assignment
An apple pie uses 4 cups of apples and 3 cups of flour. An apple cobbler uses 2 cups of apples and 3 cups of flour. You have 16 cups of apples and 15 cups of flour. When you sell these at the Farmer’s Market you make \$3.00 profit per apple pie and \$2.00

asked by Sam on December 11, 2017
Math
What point maximizes the objective function P = 4x + 3y for the constraints below. What is the maximum value? Constraints: x>=0 y>=0 y=y

asked by Aaron on October 13, 2016
math
An ad campaign for a new snack chip will be conducted in a limited geographical area and can use TV time, radio time, and newspaper ads. Information about each medium is shown below. Medium CostPerAd # Reached Exposure Quality TV 500 10000 30 Radio 200

asked by Chycaria on June 1, 2009
Algebra (Need help desperately)
I really don’t understand these.. can someone show me the correct way of doing them? (if it helps I will pay over paypal for detailed help or will pay in my services (I am a graphic designer, video editor, and web designer)

asked by Alex Lark on September 17, 2012
Math
The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The Deluxe model requires 3 hours to assemble and ½ hour to paint, and the Economy model requires 2 hours to assemble and 1 hour to paint. The maximum number of assembly hours

asked by Mike on February 25, 2008
math
The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The Deluxe model requires 3 hours to assemble and ½ hour to paint, and the Economy model requires 2 hours to assemble and 1 hour to paint. The maximum number of assembly hours

asked by Mike on February 25, 2008

Math – Linear Inequalities
The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The Deluxe model requires 3 hours to assemble and ½ hour to paint, and the Economy model requires 2 hours to assemble and 1 hour to paint. The maximum number of assembly hours

asked by Tushar on February 25, 2008
Maths
The Wellbuilt Company produces two types of wood chippers, Deluxe and Economy. The Deluxe model requires 3 hours to assemble and ½ hour to paint, and the Economy model requires 2 hours to assemble and 1 hour to paint. The maximum number of assembly hours

asked by Tushar on February 25, 2008
acc math 2 high school
I need help finding constraints to put this on the graph. the objective function is c=16x+25y. Problem: Your club plans to raisse money by selling two sizes of fruit baskets. The plan is to buy small baskets for \$10 and sell them for \$16, and to buy large

asked by preston jones on August 8, 2009
Math
Given the following LP model (represented abstractly with decision variables X and Y), find the optimal solution using the ‘graphing’ approach. Minimize 5X + 2Y Subject to: 4X + 2Y >= 80 3X + 4Y = 45 2X – Y >= 0 And non-negativity, of course. Your

asked by Rick on September 22, 2011
Math
The Bookholder Company manufactures two types of bookcases out of oal and walnut. Model 01 requires 5 board feet of oak and 2 board feet of walnut. Model 02 requires 4 board feet of oak and 3 board feet of walnut. A profit of \$75 is made on each Model 01

asked by Marie on March 19, 2007
Math
Find the maximum value of the objective function z = 19x + 7y, subject to the following constraints. (See Example 2.) 3x + 2y â‰¤ 18 6x + 2y â‰¤ 30 â€‰ x â‰¥ 0, y â‰¥ 0

asked by Sam on February 28, 2018
Algebra
Find the maximum value of the objective function z=24x+7y subject to the following constraints : 0¡Üx¡Ü10, 0¡Üy¡Ü5,3x+2y¡Ý6.

asked by Anonymous on March 19, 2010
algebra
Find the maximum value of the objective function z=24x+7y subject to the following constraints: 1. 0¡Üx¡Ü10, 0¡Üy¡Ü5. 3x + 2y ¡Ý 6

asked by Joe on March 9, 2011
Algebra 2
What point in the feasible region maximizes the objective function ? (3 points) Constraints {x>0 {y>0 {-x+3>y {y

asked by Alexia tucker on November 6, 2017
Math
MathMate – I’m still confused, please see below. Thanks!! SIMPLEX METHOD – Table: Nutrient Peanuts Raisins M&Ms Pretzels Calories 855 435 1024 162 Protein 34.57 4.67 9.01 3.87 Fat 72.50 0.67 43.95 1.49 Carbs 31.40 114.74 148.12 33.68 Suppose that you want

asked by Jay on June 6, 2011

Math
SIMPLEX METHOD – Table: Nutrient Peanuts Raisins M&Ms Pretzels Calories 855 435 1024 162 Protein 34.57 4.67 9.01 3.87 Fat 72.50 0.67 43.95 1.49 Carbs 31.40 114.74 148.12 33.68 Suppose that you want to make at most 10 cups of trail mix, using all the

asked by Jay on June 4, 2011
linear programming
Maximize z = 16x + 8y subject to: 2x + y ≤ 30 x + 2y ≤ 24 x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 Graph the feasibility region. Identify all applicable corner points of the feasibility region. Find the point(s) (x,y) that maximizes the objective function z = 16x + 8y.

asked by nmh on July 8, 2011
math
Maximize z = 16x + 8y subject to: 2x + y ≤ 30 x + 2y ≤ 24 x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 Graph the feasibility region. Identify all applicable corner points of the feasibility region. Find the point(s) (x,y) that maximizes the objective function z = 16x + 8y.

asked by ANONIMOUS on July 18, 2011
MATH

1. Maximize z = 16x + 8y subject to: 2x + y ≤ 30 x + 2y ≤ 24 x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 Graph the feasibility region. Identify all applicable corner points of the feasibility region. Find the point(s) (x,y) that maximizes the objective function z = 16x + 8y.

asked by ANONIMOUS on July 12, 2011
math
With regards to question J: The variables x and y are connected by the equation y = x2 – x – 5. Some corresponding values of x and y are given in the table below. x -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 y 15 7 a -3 -5 b -3 1 7 15 (a) Calculate the values of a and b (b)

asked by jun on January 24, 2011
Math/Management
MeanBeats is a company that manufactures and sells electronic musical equipment. Their headphone product line consists of two products, Reverbia and Bscape. MeanBeats sells the headphones to retailers at \$600 and \$300 per pack for Reverbia and Bscape,

asked by Carla on October 17, 2012
Alegra 2
Explain the use of the objective quantity in linear programming.Give an example of an objective quantity that you would minimize and an example of one that you would maximize

asked by Linda on November 3, 2009
algebra
What point in the feasible region maximizes the objective function? Step by step please x¡Ý0 y¡Ý0 Constraints -x+3¡Ýy y¡Ü1/3x+1 objective function C=5x-4y

asked by bowershe on December 10, 2013
Algebra 2 -Linear Programming
Find the values of x and y that maximize or minimize the objective function. x+y < or equal to 8 2x+y < or equal to 10 x> or equal to 0, y > or equal to 0 A. (0,5) Maximum value is 100 B.(1,7) Maximum value is 220 C.(2,6) Maximum value is 280 D. (5,0)

asked by LaH on October 26, 2011
science
Maximize value Z = 15x + 10y subject to the constraints 3x + 2y ¡Ü ¡Ü 12, 2x + 3y ¡Ü ¡Ü 15, x ¡Ý ¡Ý 0, y ¡Ý ¡Ý 0 is

asked by chirag on September 18, 2016

algebra
what point in the feasible region maximizes the objective function? x>0 y>0 constraints -x+3>y y

asked by bowershe on December 10, 2013
math
Maximize P = 4x + 20y subject to these constraints: 2x + 15y ≤ 700 5x + 10y ≤ 1150 5x + 5y ≤ 1000 4x + 15y ≤ 980 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P occurs when x = ? and y = ? If u1, u2, u3, and u4 represent the slack

asked by John on September 20, 2010
math
Maximize P = 4x + 20y subject to these constraints: 2x + 15y ≤ 700 5x + 10y ≤ 1150 5x + 5y ≤ 1000 4x + 15y ≤ 980 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P occurs when x = ? and y = ? If u1, u2, u3, and u4 represent the slack

asked by Anonymous on September 20, 2010
Calculus – Functions?

# 1. A cubic polynomial function f is defined by f(x) = 4x^3 +ax^2 + bx + k where a, b and k are constants. The function f has a local minimum at x = -1, and the graph of f has a point of inflection at x= -2 a.) Find the values of a and b #2. Let h be a

asked by Amy on February 21, 2011
College Algebra
a paper manufacturing company recycles paper, cans and other sheet metal. the profit on the paper is \$500 and the profit on the cans is \$350 per pound A) write the objective function that models the daily profit B) the manufacture is bound by the following

asked by meri on March 6, 2015
College Algebra
a paper manufacturing company recycles paper, cans and other sheet metal. the profit on the paper is \$500 and the profit on the cans is \$350 per pound A) write the objective function that models the daily profit B) the manufacture is bound by the following

asked by meri on March 6, 2015
material engineering
thanks. OK, for the design requirements: is the objective: to minimize the mass of cans? are the constraints: thickness of can is specified, and the can should not fail(strong), or what?

asked by hym on March 7, 2011
Math
Maximize P = 16x + 80y subject to these constraints: 2x + 20y ≤ 430 4x + 70y ≤ 1400 8x + 30y ≤ 980 10x + 10y ≤ 1000 4x + 30y ≤ 700 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P occurs when x = ? and y = ? If u1, u2, u3, u4, and u5

asked by John on September 20, 2010
Linear Programming
Maximize P = 16x + 80y subject to these constraints: 2x + 20y ≤ 430 4x + 70y ≤ 1400 8x + 30y ≤ 980 10x + 10y ≤ 1000 4x + 30y ≤ 700 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P occurs when x = ? and y = ? If u1, u2, u3, u4, and u5

asked by JP on September 20, 2010
Algebra
The Reptile Farm has 400 square feet in which to house a collection of new lizards and frogs. A lizard requires 2 square feet of living space and costs \$6 per month to feed. A frog also requires 2 square feet for living space but costs only \$1 per month to

asked by Anonymous on August 2, 2018

Calc-slopes & concavity

1. Let f(x)=x^3-3x+2 a.) Find the equation of the line tangent to the graph of y=f(x) at x=2 b.) For what values of x is the function increasing? c.) For what values of x is the graph concave down?

asked by Andy on January 23, 2011
Algebra 1 (Reiny or Kuai)

1. Which x-values should I choose to graph these equations (y = x; y = -x + 6) so that they intersect? 2. The school band sells carnations on Valentine’s Day for \$2 each. They buy the carnations from a florist for \$0.50 each, plus a \$16 delivery charge. a.

Intermediate Algebra
Find the maximum value of the objective function and the values of x and y for which it occurs. F = 5x + 2y x + 2y (greater than or equal to) 6 2x + y (greater than or equal to) 6 Both x and y are greater than or equal to 0. I don’t understand how to do

asked by Lauren on January 12, 2009
Math
A television manufacturer makes console and wide-screen televisions. The profit per unit is \$125 for the console televisions and \$200 for the wide-screen televisions. Write the objective function that describes the total monthly profit. Write a system of

asked by Bob on June 12, 2010
This post may be a little lengthy, so please bare with me if you can help. The problem is: A cruise liner has 4 classes of accommodations. Following are the # of reservations made, # of reservations available, and cost per room for each class: Super

asked by Matt on April 15, 2007
character education
What is the purpose of critically analyzing opinions? to reject anything that does not agree with your opinion to adopt any experts opinion is valid for you to compare the opinion to the framework of your values B facts : _ :: opinions : _

asked by Bri on November 8, 2017
Algebra 1 (Reiny or Kuai)

1. The school band sells carnations on Valentine’s Day for \$2 each. They buy the carnations from a florist for \$0.50 each, plus a \$16 delivery charge. a. Write a system of equations to describe the situation. A: y = 2x; y = 0.50x + 16. b. Graph the system.

algebra
what point in the feasible region maximizes the objective function x>0 y>0 constraints -x+3+y y,1/3x+1 Object function C+5x_4y

asked by bowershe on December 10, 2013
extreme value of absolute…..
find the extreme values of the function on the interval and where they occur. f(x) = |x-1|-|x-5|, -2

asked by Jen on October 28, 2006
MATH HELP

1. Consider the following. f(x)=8x-10 g(x)=x^2-4x+10 (a) Find the points of intersection of the graphs. ANSWER:(2,6) are the smaller values and (10,70) are the larder values (b) Compute the area of the region below the graph of f and above the graph or g.

asked by Jason on July 20, 2010

Calculus
f(x)=xe^(-2x) with domain 0< or equal to x< or equal to 10 find all values of x for which the graph of f is increasing and all values of x for which the graph is decreasing give the x and y coordinates if all absolute max and min points

asked by John on November 30, 2010
calculus
Consider the graph of the cosine function shown below. y=4 cos (2 x) a. Find the period and amplitude of the cosine function. b. At what values of θ for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π do the maximum value(s), minimum value(s), and zeros occur? so i don’t know how to

asked by sandy on February 4, 2019
materials engineering
for: prismatic non-circular section channel which used for window frames and for ducting for electrical wiring..I need to know : 1-function 2-objective 3-constraints how can we select the materials for this design, and why? what suitable processes for

asked by hym on March 17, 2011
materials engineering
for: prismatic non-circular section channel which used for window frames and for ducting for electrical wiring..I need to know : 1-function 2-objective 3-constraints how can we select the materials for this design, and why? what suitable processes for

asked by hym on March 18, 2011
minimize z= 5x + 9y subject to 6x + y >= 18 2x + 3y >= 30 x= 0 find the corner points, ans subject the objective function to the corner points, finding the minimum value of z giving the constraints. i know the first and second points but i couldn’t figure

asked by sha on July 19, 2010
precalculus
analyzethe graph of the function Find the x- and y-intercepts. (b) Determine the end behavior: find the power function that the graph of f resembles for large values of |x|. (c) Find the maximum number of turning points. (d) Graph the function Please show

asked by kawn on November 11, 2011
Calculus
If you can helpme on this problem you are GOD. If f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c, what can you say about the values of a, b, and c if: (A) (1,1) is on the graph of f(x)? (B) (1,1) is the vertex of the graph of f(x)?Hint: The axis of symmetry is x = -b/(2a).The

asked by George on September 2, 2008
Math
Solve this linear programming problem using the simplex method: Maximize P = 21x + 12y + 24z subject to these constraints: 3x + 2y + 3z ≤ 864 15x + 6z ≤ 1296 9x + 8y + 18z ≤ 4608 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, z ≥ 0 Maximum value for P = ?. This value of P

asked by John on September 20, 2010
Algebra 2
Problem Solving – A manufacturer of cell phones makes a profit of \$25 on a deluxe model and \$30 on a standard model. The company wishes to produce at least 80 deluxe models and at least 100 standard models per day. To maintain high quality, the daily

asked by LeLe on December 13, 2009
math
A certain diet requires no more than 60 units of carbohydrates, at least 45 units of protein, and at least 30 units of fat each day. Each ounce of Supplement A provides 5 units of carbs, 3 units of protein, and 4 units of fat. Each ounce of Supplement B

asked by Autumn on September 25, 2006

math pre calculus
find the following for the function f(x)=(x+5)^2(x-2)^2 a.find the x and y intercepts, b.find the power function that the graph ressembles for large values of x c.determine the maximum number of turning points on the graph of f d.determine the behavior of

asked by laila on March 26, 2013
algebra
Evaluate the logarithmic equation for three values of x that are greater than -1, three values of x that are between -2 and -1, and at x = -1. Show your work. Use the resulting ordered pairs to plot the graph; submit the graph via the Dropbox. State the

asked by Marlee on September 8, 2010
Intermediate Algebra
Evaluate the logarithmic equation for three values of x that are greater than -1, three values of x that are between -2 and -1, and at x = -1. Show your work. Use the resulting ordered pairs to plot the graph; submit the graph via the Dropbox. State the

asked by Marnae on September 5, 2010
algebra
Evaluate the logarithmic equation for three values of x that are greater than 1, three values of x that are between 0 and 1, and at x=1. Show your work. Use the resulting ordered pairs to plot the graph; submit the graph via the Dropbox. State the equation

asked by Anonymous on September 3, 2010
intermediate algebra
Evaluate the exponential equation for three positive values of x, three negative values of x, and at x=0. Show your work. Use the resulting ordered pairs to plot the graph; submit the graph via the Dropbox. State the equation of the line asymptotic to the

asked by Anonymous on September 3, 2010
trig/precalc
a car’s flywheel has a timing mark on it’s outer edge. the height of the timing mark on the rotating flywheel is given by y=3.55sin[x – (pi/4)]. graph one full cycle of this function. I was not taught how to graph a function like this, only the simple y=

asked by tabby on April 10, 2012
university of minnesota
Find the maximum and minimum values of the given objective function on the indicated feasible region. M = 150 − x − y

asked by fatima on November 17, 2014
math
Find the maximum and minimum values of the given objective function on the indicated feasible region. M = 150 − x − y

asked by fatima on November 17, 2014
algebra
Coulld someone take the time and check my answers please. 11) without graphing is the system independent, dependent, or inconsistent? y=-x+5 -3x-3y=-15 (my answer; dependent) 12) your club is baking vanilla and chocolate cakes for a bake sale. they need at

asked by Lee on January 3, 2013
isds
When specifying linear constraints, the modeler must take into account the unit specification of the decision variables so that the units represented by the left side of the constraints are consistent with the units represented by the right side of the

asked by mca on October 11, 2015

I think I have the right answer, but I am not 100% sure how to do the values at (1,-1) and the one below at (0,-1, 1). Please explain how I need to approach how to do these. Thank You! Calculate the partial derivative @f/@x, @f/@y and @f/@x | (1,-1), and

asked by Jennifer on November 13, 2014
English
Chose the answer that identifies the three cases of pronouns. nominative, possessive, objective

asked by Ana on March 30, 2016
Calculus

1. Given the function f defined by f(x) = x^3-x^2-4X+4 a. Find the zeros of f b. Write an equation of the line tangent to the graph of f at x = -1 c. The point (a, b) is on the graph of f and the line tangent to the graph at (a, b) passes through the point

asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2012
Math – Simple rational functions (check)
Consider the function f(x) = x/(x-1) Are there any turning points? Explain how this could help you graph f(x) for large values of x? Ans: turning points is another word for checking the concavity, and therefore i find the second derivative and equate it to

asked by Anonymous on October 29, 2010
math
The function f(x)= ax^3 – bx +c passes through the origin, f(-1)=4/3 and it has an extreme point at x=1 (i) Find the values of a, b and c. (ii) Sketch the graph (iii) Find the area bounded by the graph of f(x) and the x-axis between the lines x=-1 and x=1

asked by gibbs on April 25, 2013
1) solve:e^x(x^2-4)=0 e^x=0 and then (x+2)(x-2) so x=2, -2 2) differentiate: y=ln(6x^2 – 3x + 1) 1/(6x^2 – 3x + 1) * 12x-3 3) differentiate: y=e^-3x+2 -3 * e^-3x+2 4) evaluate: 2^4-x=8 2^4-x = 2^3 4-x = 3 -x=-1 so x=1 5) differentiate: x^3 + y^3 -6 =0 3x^2

asked by Hannah on April 30, 2011
Calculus
The function g is defined for x>0 with g(1)=2, g'(x)=sin(x+1/x), and g”(x)=(1-1/x^2)cos(x+1/x). A. Find all values of x in the interval 0.12

asked by Sarah on May 7, 2015
The graph below plots the values of y for different values of x: plot the ordered pairs 1, 1 and 2, 4 and 3, 7 and 4, 9 and 5, 12 and 6, 16 Which correlation coefficient best matches the data plotted on the graph? A. −0.5 B. 0 C. 0.25 D. 0.90 Is it D.

asked by Lidiah on April 17, 2017
calculus
Help! I have a test tommorow! I don’t understand (b), (c), (e), and (g). The answers are listed following the each question. Here’s a discription of the graph: There is a graph of a function f consists of a semi circle (-3 to 1 faced downward on the

asked by Anonymous on October 26, 2007
math help pls pls pls
The graph below plots the values of y for different values of x: Plot the ordered pairs 1, 3 and 2, 4 and 3, 9 and 4, 7 and 5, 2 and 6,18 Which correlation coefficient best matches the data plotted on the graph? 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.0 pls help me

asked by Oscar on March 19, 2016

Calculous
the figure shows the graph of F’, the derivative of a function f. the domain of the function f is the set of all X such that -3< or equal to x

asked by Yoona on November 21, 2011
AP CALC. AB
Let h be a function defined for all x≠0 such that h(4)=-3 and the derivative h is given by h'(x)=(x^2-2)/(x) for all x≠0 a). Find all values of x for which the graph of h has a horizontal tangent, and determine whether h has a local maximum, a local

asked by Darcy on December 2, 2014
Calculus
a)The curve with equation: 2y^3 + y^2 – y^5 = x^4 – 2x^3 + x^2 has been linked to a bouncing wagon. Use a computer algebra system to graph this curve and discover why. b)At how many points does this curve have horizontal tangent lines? Find the

asked by Chelsea on October 31, 2010
College alg
Analyze the graph of the following function as follows: (a) Find the x- and y-intercepts. (b) Determine the end behavior: find the power function that the graph of f resembles for large values of |x|. (c) Find the maximum number of turning points.

asked by sunny on January 4, 2012
algebra
The point of intersection of the graphs of the equations of the system Ax – 4y = 9 4x + By = –1 is (–1, –3). Explain how to find the values of A and B, then find these values.

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## complete this table of initial and final concentrations.

Complete this table of initial and final concentrations HF(aq) KOH(aq) <-> KF(aq) H20(l) Initial concentrations: HF-2.0M KOH-1.0M KF-0M Final Concentrations?
34,046 results
Chemistry
Complete this table of initial and final concentrations HF(aq) + KOH(aq) KF(aq) + H20(l) Initial concentrations: HF-2.0M KOH-1.0M KF-0M Final Concentrations? how do I set this up to figure out the final concentrations? How can I tell which of the following

asked by Cat on July 16, 2013
Chemistry
Question : ka1 and ka2 values of H2X is given 1(10)^-5 M and 1(10)^-9 M.50cm^3 of 0.2 M KOH and 50 cm^3 of H2X of unknown concentration is mixed together and the pH of the final solution is given as 7. 1)Find the concentration of H2X 2)Find the pH of the

asked by Aanya on May 20, 2017
chemistry
Question : ka1 and ka2 values of H2X is given 1(10)^-5 M and 1(10)^-9 M.50cm^3 of 0.2 M KOH and 50 cm^3 of H2X of unknown concentration is mixed together and the pH of the final solution is given as 7. 1)Find the concentration of H2X 2)Find the pH of the

asked by To Aanya on May 21, 2017
chemistry 12
Equilibrium concentrations (a)(mol/L)// (b)(mol/L)// (c)(mol/L) 0.040 // 0.066 // 1.72×10^-2 0.080 // 0.017 // 8.8×10^-3 0.030 // 0.024 // 4.7×10^-3 My data was collected at 25○C for the reaction A(g) + B(g) = C(g) What i have to do now is involving

asked by Robyn on September 26, 2011
I completed a lab to find the determination of Kc. I have to find the concentrations of reactants at equilibrium using an ICE table. The equation that were are using is Fe^3+(aq) + SCN^-(aq) -> Fe(SCN)^2+(aq) I have to create 5 ICE tables because we used 5

asked by Hannah on March 4, 2012

I completed a lab to find the determination of Kc. I have to find the concentrations of reactants at equilibrium using an ICE table. The equation that were are using is Fe^3+(aq) + SCN^-(aq) -> Fe(SCN)^2+(aq) I have to create 5 ICE tables because we used 5

asked by Hannah on March 4, 2012
chemistry
For the reaction H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2 HI(g), you have the initial concentrations [H2] = 0.15 and [I2] = 0.05. Keq for the reaction at this temperature is 4.5 x 10-6. Make a reaction table. Include rows for initial concentration, change in concentration, and

asked by Anonymous on April 24, 2012
chemistry
For the reaction H2(g) + I2(g) ¡ê 2 HI(g), you have the initial concentrations [H2] = 0.15 and [I2] = 0.05. Keq for the reaction at this temperature is 4.5 x 10-6. Make a reaction table. Include rows for initial concentration, change in concentration,

asked by Anonymous on May 4, 2012
chemistry
For the reaction H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2 HI(g), you have the initial concentrations [H2] = 0.15 and [I2] = 0.05. Keq for the reaction at this temperature is 4.5 x 10-6. Make a reaction table. Include rows for initial concentration, change in concentration, and

asked by Anonymous on April 23, 2012
Chemistry
The reaction X + Y –> products was studied using the method of initial rates. The initial rate of consumption of X was measured in three different experiments. What is the value of the rate constant, k? *concentrations are in mol/L and initial rates are

asked by Jamie on February 23, 2011
I completed a lab to find the determination of Kc. I have to find the concentrations of reactants at equilibrium using an ICE table. The equation that were are using is Fe^3+(aq) + SCN^-(aq) -> Fe(SCN)^2+(aq) I have to create 5 ICE tables because we used 5

asked by Hannah on March 5, 2012
science
The equilibrium constant for the gas phase reaction N2O4 ⇀↽ 2 NO2 at a certain temperature is K = 0.0466. If the initial concentrations are [N2O4] = 1.0 M, [NO2] = 0.0 M, what are the final concentrations of [N2O4] and [NO2], respectively? 1. 1.0 M ;

asked by cora on February 1, 2016
augusta state
What is the final concentration of d at equilibrium if the initial concentrations are a = 1.00 and b = 2.00 ?

asked by e on March 2, 2013
Chemistry12
For the reaction NO2 + NO = N2O3 If at a particular temperature, K was 575 and the equilibrium concentration of N2O3 was 2.5M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of NO2 and NO if they both had the same initial concentrations. I have this information

asked by Moriah on May 31, 2011
AP Chem
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.580 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases.

asked by Bill on January 8, 2012

Chemistry
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.520 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases

asked by Erin on May 5, 2010
Chemistry
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g)\ If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.550 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases.

asked by Amber on March 27, 2011
tommy
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.870 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases.

asked by CHEMISTRY on January 8, 2012
chemistry
At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g)= SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.840 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases.

asked by Enrique on January 15, 2009
Chemistry
HA(aq) H+(aq) + A-(aq) K = 5.0 x 10 -9 The initial concentration of HA is 0.30 M What is the final equilibrium concentrations of HA, H+, A-? Show work, solve if you can

asked by Kay on April 12, 2018
Chemistry
The following table contains data for the equilibrium reaction CH3COOH(g)+ C2H5OH(g)↔ CH3COOC2H5(g)+ H2O(g) T = 100oC. Each row in the table represents a different experiment (diffferent intial concentrations). Initial concentration Equilibrium

asked by Ava on September 24, 2009
Chemistry
For the reaction NO2(g) + NO(g) = N2O3(g) If at particular temperature, K was 575 and equilibrium concentration of N2O3(g) was 2.5 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of NO2(g) and NO(g) if they both had the same initial concentrations. i have my

asked by Sara on September 25, 2011
Chemistry
I have a question about buffers. Part A So it starts with 20ml 0.1 sodium acetate and 25ml 0.1 acetic acid. Calculate ph of buffer is 4.74 because the acid and conjugate base have the same molarity correct? So the Ph is just pKa (1.8e-5)? Part B So the

asked by Rio on March 31, 2010
Chemistry
At a particular temperature, K=3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) (reversible arrows) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.500 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases. K=(.5+x)^2/(.5-x^2) solve for

asked by Taasha on July 30, 2007
Chemistry
The following table shows how the initial rate of this reaction depends on the concentrations of the two reactants [NO] [O2] Initial rate 0.0050 0.0050 0.02 0.0050 0.0075 0.03 0.010 0.0075 0.12 Use the data to determine the order of reaction with respect

asked by Autumn on March 31, 2019

Physics
An ideal gas is contained within closed box behind a removable wall. The walls of the container are insulated, so that no heat may be transferred from the system. Initially, the gas has an initial pressure P and an initial temperature T. The gas is then

asked by Sam on July 20, 2014
chemistry
I have gotten the equilibrium concentrations of N202 to be 2M and N02 to be 2M also. After equilibirum is reached, a pistons is used to decrease the flask volume to 3L. Once equilibrium is established find the concentration and moles of each gas. K = 2 How

asked by A on October 9, 2008
College Chemistry 104
A voltaic cell consists of a Pb/Pb2+ half-cell and a Cu/Cu2+ half-cell at 25 C. The initial concentrations of Pb+2 and Cu+2 are 0.0500 M and 1.50 M, respectively. A. What is the initial cell potential? B. What is the cell potential when the concentration

asked by Samm on May 7, 2013
Chemistry
A voltaic cell consists of a Pb/Pb2+ half-cell and a Cu/Cu2+ half-cell at 25 C. The initial concentrations of Pb+2 and Cu+2 are 0.0500 M and 1.50 M, respectively. A. What is the initial cell potential? B. What is the cell potential when the concentration

asked by Samm on May 7, 2013
Physics
A car is traveling at 7.0 m/s when the driver applies the brakes. The car moves 1.5 m before it comes to a complete stop. If the car had been moving at 14 m/s, how far would it have continued to move after the brakes were applied? Assume the braking force

asked by Kayla on November 12, 2016
Chemistry
Experiment 1: A has .20 M, B has .20 M and the initial rate is 2.010^-4M/min Experiment 2: A has .20 M, B has .40 M, and the initial rate is 8.010^-4M/min Experiment 3: A has .40 M, B has .40 M, and the initial rate is 1.6*10^-3M/min Using the data

asked by Finn on August 20, 2015
Chemistry
Voltaic cell. The initial concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ are 1.50 M and 0.100 M. Initial cell potential=.56 V. What are the concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ when the cell potential falls to 0.45 V?

asked by Danielle on July 30, 2010
For the reaction, 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) == 2 SO3(g), at 450.0 K (Kelvin) the equilibrium constant, Kc, has a value of 4.62. A system was charged to give these initial concentrations, (SO3) = 0.254 M and (O2) = 0.00855 M, and (SO2) = 0.500 M. In which direction

asked by Hannah on March 3, 2012
College Chemistry
What are the concentrations of Pb2+ and Cu2+ when the cell potential falls to 0.370 V? Given: A voltaic cell consists of a Pb/Pb2+ half-cell and a Cu/Cu2+ half-cell at 25degrees C . The initial concentrations of Pb2+ and Cu2+ are 5.30×10−2 M and 1.60 M,

asked by Maria on June 23, 2012
Chemistry, equilibrium molarity
At a particular temperature, K=3.75 for the following reaction. SO2(g) + NO2(g) (reversible arrows) SO3(g) + NO(g) If all four gases had initial concentrations of 0.500 M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the gases. This is what I’ve done so

asked by Taasha on July 31, 2007

Chemistry
H2 (g) + I2 (g) 2 HI (g) If the initial concentrations of H2 and I2 are 1.0 M and the initial concentration of HI is 0.5 M (Kc = 54.3 at 430oC). (a) Is the reaction at equilibrium? (b) If not, which way will the reaction proceed?

asked by Troy on May 4, 2014
rate of reaction
What is the initial rate of appearance of SO3(g)? a reaction and table are given: reaction: 2S02(g)+O2 ——-> 2 SO3(g) Table note: i= initial, IRD= initial rate of disappearance; concentrations given in molarity (M) IRD given in M/s. Experiment [SO2]i

asked by j on July 20, 2011
College Chemistry
Determine the concentrations of MgCl2, Mg2+, and Cl- in a solution prepared by dissolving 2.39 x 10^-4g MgCl2 in 2.50L of water. Express all three concentrations in molarity. Also display the concentrations of ionic species in part per million (ppm).

asked by Bailey on September 20, 2016
Chemistry
X2 + Y2 2XY 0.50 mole each of X2 and Y2 are placed in a 1.0 litre vessel and allowed to reach equilibrium at a given temperature. The equilibrium concentrations of XY is found to be 0.025 mol/L. What is the equilibrium cosntant for this reaction? Do I just

asked by Janna on May 15, 2007
Chemistry
2 ml of 1M HCl 0 ml of H2O 3ml of .3M Na2S2O3 How do I find the initial and final concentrations of both HCl and Na2S2O3?

asked by Nicole on January 7, 2013
Chemistry
2A(aq)-> B(aq) +C(aq) Initial concentration of A and B is 1.00 M, with no C. Kc = 0.200 find equilibrium concentrations

asked by Jordan on March 15, 2013
Chemistry
If Kc = 0.143 at 25°C for this reaction, find the equilibrium concentrations of C6H12 and CH3C5H9 if the initial concentrations are 0.200 M and 0.075 M, respectively. a. [C6H12] = 0.041 M, [CH3C5H9] = 0.041 M b. [C6H12] = 0.159 M, [CH3C5H9] = 0.116 M c.

asked by bob on January 30, 2011
Chemistry
Consider the equilibrium 2NOCl (g) 2NO (g) + Cl2 (g). In a 1 L container @ equilibrium there are 1.0 mol NOCL, 0.70 mol NO, and 0.40 mol Cl2. @ constant temperature and volume, 0.10 mol NaCl is added. What are the concentrations in the “new” equilibrium in

asked by Anna on April 13, 2013
chm
The equilibrium constant for the equation 2 H2(g) + CO(g) CH3OH(g) Is 19 at a certain temperature. If there are 3.11 x 10-2 moles of H2 and 5.79 x 10-3 moles of CH3OH at equilibrium in a 6.75 L flask. What is the concentration of CO? At 1280 °C the

asked by vikki on March 16, 2015
Chem
The apparent equilibrium constant for the reaction A + B 2C is Kc= 4.11 at 298.2 K. Given that the initial concentrations of A, B, and C are .10M, .10M, and zero, respectively, find the equilibrium concentrations of A, B, and C. I had this long, drawn out

asked by Chris on April 16, 2007

Chemistry
Kc=1. The initial concentrations are A = 0M, B = 0M, C=10M. A+B –> C calculate the reaction quotient. (c)/(a)(b) = 10/0 .. is the answer zero?

asked by Jenny on February 9, 2011
chemistry
Complete the folling reactions by writing the structures of the expected products & by naming the reactants & products HCl a) CH3COOCH3 + H20 —> ? NaOH b) CH3CH2CH2COOCH2CH2CH3 + H20 —> ? KOH C) HCOOCH2CH3 + H20 —> ?

asked by sarah on May 30, 2010
Chemistry/- Dr.Bob222
A voltaic cell consists of a Zn/Zn2+ half-cell and a Ni/Ni2+ half-cell at 25 C. The initial concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ are 1.50 M and 0.10 M, respectively. a. What is the initial cell potential? My answer: 0.56 B b. What is the cell potential when the

asked by Nevaeh on June 2, 2016
Chemistry
Sulfur dioxide reacts with chlorine at 227 oC: SO2(g) +Cl2(g) ↔ SO2Cl2(g) Kp for this reaction is 5.1 x 10-2 atm-1. Initially, 1.00 g each of SO2 and Cl2 are placed in a 1.00 L reaction vessel. After 15 minutes, the concentration of SO2Cl2 is 45.5

asked by JOhn Boku on February 22, 2015
Physical Science
why does the maximum initial reaction rate cannot be reached at low substrate concentrations.

asked by Ron on August 1, 2011
Chemistry
If the initial concentration of is 0.250 , and the reaction mixture initially contains no products, what are the concentrations of and after 80 ?

asked by Anonymous on February 28, 2010
Chemistry
A battery is constructed based on the oxidation of magnesium and the reduction of Cu^2+. The initial concentrations of Mg^2+ and Cu^2+ are 1.2*10^-4M and 1.5M, respectively, in 1.0-L half-cells. The initial voltage of the battery is 2.83V with the standard

asked by Emma on May 2, 2010
Chemistry
1.984 g of a hydrate of K2CO3 is dissolved in 250. mLs of H2O. 10.0 mLs of this solution is tirade against 0.100 M HCl, producing the following results. Flask 1 – Initial 0, final 9.2 Flask 2 – Initial 9.2, final 18.3 Flask 3 – initial 18.3, final 27.8

asked by Candice on January 12, 2015
Chemistry Problem
At 25 oC, Kc = 0.145 for the following reaction in the solvent CCl4. 2BrCl Br2 + Cl2 A solution was prepared with the following initial concentrations: [BrCl] = 0.0482 M, [Br2]= 0.0307 M, and [Cl2]= 0.0277 M. What will their equilibrium concentrations be?

asked by Peter on March 8, 2013
AP Chem
At 25 oC, Kc = 0.145 for the following reaction in the solvent CCl4. 2BrCl Br2 + Cl2 A solution was prepared with the following initial concentrations: [BrCl] = 0.0482 M, [Br2]= 0.0307 M, and [Cl2]= 0.0277 M. What will their equilibrium concentrations be?

asked by Peter on March 8, 2013

Chem
Hi! I need help with this question: Sulfur dioxide reacts with chlorine at 227 oC: SO2(g) +Cl2(g) ↔ SO2Cl2(g) Kp for this reaction is 5.1 x 10-2 atm-1. Initially, 1.00 g each of SO2 and Cl2 are placed in a 1.00 L reaction vessel. After 15 minutes, the

asked by Anonymous on February 20, 2013
Chemistry
The reaction between NO (nitric oxide) and oxygen is a key step in the formation of acid rain. O2(g) + 2NO(g) → 2NO2(g) A series of experiments were run, each of which starts with a different set of reactant concentrations. From each experiment an

asked by Roman on March 27, 2012
chemistry
If the initial concentration of AB is .250 M, and the reaction mixture initially contains no products, what are the concentrations of A and B after 75s?of XY after 5.0 X10^1s?

asked by Ashton on February 21, 2010
college
1) You are given solutions of HCl and NaOH and must determine their concentrations. You use 37.0mL of NaOH to titrate 100mL of HCl and 13.6 mL of NaOH to titrate 50.0mL of 0.0782 M H2SO4. Find the unknown concentrations. Molarity of NaOH and molarity of

asked by Ashley on October 4, 2010
Chemistry
1) You are given solutions of HCl and NaOH and must determine their concentrations. You use 37.0mL of NaOH to titrate 100mL of HCl and 13.6 mL of NaOH to titrate 50.0mL of 0.0782 M H2SO4. Find the unknown concentrations. Molarity of NaOH and molarity of

asked by Ashley on October 4, 2010
chemistry
For each of the following solutions, calculate the initial pH and the final pH after adding 0.010 mol of HCℓ. a) 500.0 mL of pure water i’m not sure how to do this question.. would the equation be h20+h30 equilibrium arrows h30+h20

asked by help on December 1, 2010
Chemistry
I’m having trouble with the following question, any help would be greatly appreciated. A voltaic cell consists of a Zn/Zn^2+ half-cell and a Ni/Ni^2+ half-cell at 25 C . The initial concentrations of Ni^2+ and Zn^2+ are 1.30 M and 0.100 M , respectively.

asked by Rick on April 17, 2011
chem 12
1.00 mol of N2O4 and 1.00 mol of NO2 are placed in an 800 mL container. Calculate the initial concentrations of each gas. N2O4= 1.25 mol/L NO2=1.25 mol/L When equilibrium is reached, the concentration of NO2 increases by 0.50mol/L. Calculate the

asked by George on February 6, 2016
Chemistry
A mixture of .10 mol of NO, .050 mol of H2 and .10 mol of H20 is placed in a 1 liter vessel at 300 K. The following equilibrium is established. 2 NO + 2 H2 N2 + 2 H20 At equilibrium (N0) = .062 M. What are the equilibrium concentrations of H2 N2 and H20

asked by Thomas on March 29, 2010
Chemistry
A mixture of .10 mol of NO, .050 mol of H2 and .10 mol of H20 is placed in a 1 liter vessel at 300 K. The following equilibrium is established. 2 NO + 2 H2 N2 + 2 H20 At equilibrium (N0) = .062 M. What are the equilibrium concentrations of H2 N2 and H20

asked by Thomas on March 29, 2010

Chemistry
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 19, 2014
CHEMISTRY
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 19, 2014
Chemistry
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 19, 2014
Chemistry
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Nicole on March 19, 2014
CHEMISTRY
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 20, 2014
Rate Law – Chemistry
I need to find the rate law of a reaction but ive only done so when factors cancel out, this one has all different numbers and im not quite sure what to do with it. It has time taken every second (which im assuming are the different trials) and different

asked by Amanda on March 19, 2014
Chemistry II
At a certain temperature, Kc = 33 for the reaction: H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) Assume that the initial concentrations of both H2 and I2 are 6.00 x 10-3 mol/L. Find the concentration of each reactant and product at equilibrium.

asked by Tiffany on February 22, 2011
Chemistry 112
4Nh3(g) +3O2(g)=2N2(g)+6H2O(g) has kp=2.1×10^6 atm. Initial concentration of NH3=2.00 atm, and N2=1.00 atm, with all other concentrations being zero. Compute final concentration of NH3.

asked by Dominique on September 19, 2011
Chemistry
To determine v max and km of Beta-galactosidase for lactose, the same amount of enzyme (1 ug per tube) was incubated with a series of lactose concentrations under conditions where product concentrations remained negligible. At each lactose concentration,

Science
To determine v max and km of Beta-galactosidase for lactose, the same amount of enzyme (1 ug per tube) was incubated with a series of lactose concentrations under conditions where product concentrations remained negligible. At each lactose concentration,

Chemistry
To determine v max and km of Beta-galactosidase for lactose, the same amount of enzyme (1 ug per tube) was incubated with a series of lactose concentrations under conditions where product concentrations remained negligible. At each lactose concentration,

chemistry
In a certain trial, the initial concentrations of Fe3+ and SCN- are both 1.00×10^-3 M and the initial concentration of FeSCN2+ is zero. Suppose that after the reation reaches equilibrium, the concentration of FeSCN2+ was found to be 1.19×10^-4 M. Use this

asked by Elly on June 20, 2011
Chemistry
What volume of 0.01 M NaOH should be required to raise the pH of a litre of 25 mM H2SO4 to 4.0? I started out by attempting to find the initial pH of H2SO4 and determined I need 2.57 units of pH to raise it to 4. I know that somewhere I use the HH

asked by Sara on September 22, 2013
Chemistry
How do I start an ICE table from the following information: BrCl3(g)+ Cl2(l) -> BrCl5(g) where Kp=7.8*10^-6 and there is originally 0.215 atm BrCl3, 725g Cl2, 0.115 atm BrCl5 – Can pressures be used as initial concentrations?

asked by Ken on October 2, 2012
Any chemistry lovers?
A voltaic cell consists of Mn/Mn2+ and Cd/Cd2+ half-cells with the following initial concentrations: [Mn2+] = 0.090 M; [Cd2+] = 0.060 M. A)What is the intital Ecell? B)What is Ecell when [Cd2+} reaches .050M. C) What is [Mn2+] when Ecell reaches 0.055V? D)

asked by stumped on May 4, 2008
CHEMISTRY
Ion Concentrations 1.) A solution is prepared by dissolving 5.00 g of stannic nitrate in enough water to make 250.0 mL of stock solution. A 15.0 mL aliquot (portion) of this stock solution is then removed and added to 75.0 mL of water. Calculate the

asked by Anonymous on October 25, 2013
Science (Chemistry)

1. A Beer’s Law plot was prepared for the reaction A(aq) + B(aq) AB(aq), plotting absorption over AB(aq) concentration. The linear equation for this plot was y = 78.3x. A solution was prepared by mixing 10.0mL of 0.100M A with 5.00mL of 0.100M B and

asked by Niharika on June 16, 2014
physiology (nernst equation)
If cell depolarises at +50mV, what are the concentrations of K+? I am really confused how to use the nernst equation to get the concentrations. If I set up 58 [Kout]/[Kin] = 50, will that be right? I am not sure how to start this problem.

asked by Anna on March 6, 2007
Physics
A model airplane is flying in a horizontal circle with a constant speed. The initial radius of the circle is R. The boy holding the cord to which the airplane is attached, then decides to increase the length of the cord so that the radius of the circle

asked by Sam on June 8, 2014
Physics
A model airplane is flying in a horizontal circle with a constant speed. The initial radius of the circle is R. The boy holding the cord to which the airplane is attached, then decides to increase the length of the cord so that the radius of the circle

asked by Sam on June 8, 2014

physics
A projectile is fired through the air. It is launched from the ground, and travels without interference from wind or air resistance, landing on a raised platform above the field. Compare the following values: 1-Initial speed vs. final speed: 2-Initial

asked by Din123 on June 23, 2013
general chemistry
Determine the concentrations of Na2CO3, Na , and CO32– in a solution prepared by dissolving 2.57 × 10–4 g Na2CO3 in 1.50 L of water. Express all three concentrations in molarity. Additionally, express the concentrations of the ionic species in parts

asked by Anonymous on November 17, 2015
CHEMISTRY
Determine the concentrations of Na2CO3, Na , and CO32– in a solution prepared by dissolving 2.22 × 10–4 g Na2CO3 in 2.25 L of water. Express all three concentrations in molarity. Additionally, express the concentrations of the ionic species in parts

asked by Hannah on February 26, 2017
Chem
Determine the concentrations of K2SO4, K , and SO42– in a solution prepared by dissolving 2.84 × 10–4 g K2SO4 in 2.25 L of water. Express all three concentrations in molarity. Additionally, express the concentrations of the ionic species in parts per

asked by Jhanvi on February 19, 2013
CHEM
How can I calculate a pH of hypochlorite buffer into LiCLO with only initial concentrations and no Ka value? [CLO-]=.1M [LiCLO]=.1M

asked by Martin on April 13, 2013
ap chem
NH3 + H20 NH4+ + OH- this is aqueous solution. In 0.0180 M nH3, THE [OH-] is 5.60 X 10^-4 M. it is assumed that the volumes are additive. Determine the value of the base ionization constant, kb, for NH3. i am not sure how to approach this problem. i don’t

asked by rav on May 2, 2010
physics
I need help understanding these, please. Thanks! 1. A 2 kg body moves with constant velocity when a force of 10 N is applied. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the table and the body? (Would I use F=m*g for this??) 2. Which of the

asked by Ellie on October 4, 2015
Chemistry
Suppose that 30.0 mL of 0.20 M C6H5COOH(aq) is titrated with 0.30 M KOH(aq). Refer to table 1 and table 2. (a) What is the initial pH of the 0.20 M C6H5COOH(aq)? Using ICE i found to be 2.46 The rest I do not know how to set up or solve… (b) What is the

asked by Val on March 12, 2010
Chemistry
Use the concentrations and volumes of hydrogen peroxide and KI before mixing (Table 1), calculate the post-mixing concentrations. Before mixing: [H2O2] = 0.88M [KI] = 0.500M Table 1: before mixing 1. Vol H2O2 = 4.0 mL, [H2O2] = 0.88M 2. Vol KI = 1.0 mL,

asked by Amanda on February 28, 2017
Chemistry
The reaction 2H2S(g)⇌2H2(g)+S2(g) Kc=1.67×10−7 at 800∘C is carried out with the following initial concentrations: [H2S] = 0.300 M , [H2] =0.300 M , and [S2] = 0.00 M. Find the equilibrium concentration of [S2].

asked by hoooo on November 22, 2015

SCIENCE
THE VALUE OF KC=6.2 AT 750K FOR THE REACTION CO+H20 CO2.IF INITIALLY THE QUANTITIES OF CO AND H2O ARE 2 MOLES IN 1L.WHAT COULD BE THE EQUILIBRIUM CONCENTRATIONS FOR ALL CHEMICALS?

asked by NISHANT on February 25, 2013
chemistry
A solution of 0.178 M KOH(28.3 ml) is mixed with 28.9ml of 0.133 M HCl. Assuming that the final solution is the sum of the initial volumes, caculate: a)the molarity of the K+ cation b)the molatiry of the Cl- anion c)the pH of the final solution d)the pOH

asked by helen on February 8, 2012
chemistry 2
Calculate the relative concentrations of o-ethylbenzoic acid (pKa 3.79) and potassium o-ethylbenzoate that are needed to prepare a pH 4.0 buffer I know to set up hassle equation but when i get .21=log[a-/ha] i get lost because i was not given

asked by amber on July 28, 2013
Chemisrty
Assuming equal concentrations, rank these solutions by pH: hclo4 caoh2 NH3 koh hbro

asked by Carlos on March 5, 2016
college chemistry
For the following reaction: PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) Kc=.058 If the initial concentration of PCl5(g) is .160M, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all the components. (use quadratic)

asked by Jerrett on March 24, 2010

Categories

## calculate the average molar bond enthalpy of the carbon-bromine bond in a cbr4 molecule.

Given that
∆Hº(Br(g)) = 111.9 kJ/mol
∆Hº(C(g)) = 716.7 kJ/mol
∆Hº(CBr4(g)) = 29.4 kJ/mol
calculate the average molar bond enthalpy of the carbon-bromine bond in a CBr4 molecule.

0 0 284
Jan 23, 2013
I believe its products – reactants, but I am not sure. maybe Dr. Bob222 will come along and give you the right answer.

29.4- 828.6=-819.2kj/mol

Exothermic reaction.

0 1
posted by Devron
Jan 24, 2013

Categories

## pressing the ____ keyboard shortcut key(s) selects cell a1.

with Microsoft®

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

PEARSON T O W N S E N D FERRETT HAIN VARGAS

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E

T O W N S E N D I FERRETT I H A I N I VARGAS

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Townsend, Kris. Skills for success with Office 2010 / by Kris Townsend.

p. cm. ISBN 978-0-13-703257-0 (alk. paper) 1. Microsoft Office. 2. Business—Computer programs. I, Title.

HF5548.4.M525T692 201 I 005.5—dc22 2010016531

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Contents in Brief

Common Features Chapter 1 Common Features ot Office 2010 2

More Skills 26

Word Chapter 1 Create Documents with Word 2010 30

More Skills 54 Chapter 2 Format and Organize Text 64

More Skills 88 Chapter 3 Work with Graphics, Tabs, and Tables 98

More Skills 122 Chapter 4 Apply Special Text, Paragraph and

Document Formats 132 More Skills 156

Excel Chapter 1 Create Workbooks with Excel 2010 166

More Skills 190

Chapter 2 Create Charts 200 More Skills 224

Chapter 3 Manage Multiple Worksheets 234 More Skills 258

Chapter 4 Use Excel Functions and Tables 268 More Skills 292

Access Chapter 1 Work with Databases and

Create Tables 302 More Skills 326

Chapter 2 M a n a g e Datasheets and Create Queries 336 More Skills 360

Chapter 3 Create Forms 370 More Skills 394

Chapter 4 Create Reports 404 More Skills 428

PowerPoint Chapter 1 Getting Started with PowerPoint 2010 438

More Skills 462 Chapter 2 Format a Presentation 472

More Skills 496 Chapter 3 Enhance Presentations with Graphics 506

More Skills 530 Chapter 4 Present Data Using Tables, Charts,

and Animation 540 More Skills 564

Integrated Projects Chapter 1 Integrating Word, Excel, A c c e s s ,

and PowerPoint 574 More Skills 598

Chapter 2 More Integrated Projects for Word, Excel, A c c e s s , and PowerPoint 610 More Skills 634

Glossary 646

Index 654

Contents in Brief iii

C o m m o n Fea tu res C h a p t e r 1 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s of Office 2 0 1 0 2

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window 6 Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows 8 Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders 10 Skill 4 Print and Save Documents 12 Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As 14 Skill 6 Type and Edit Text 16 Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text 18 Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs 20 Skill 9 Use the Ribbon 22

Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes 24

More Skills More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping

Tool 26 More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help 26 More Skills 13 Organize Files 26 More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live 26

W o r d C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e D o c u m e n t s with Word 2 0 1 0 3 0

Skill 1 Create New Documents and Enter Text 34 Skill 2 Edit Text and Use Keyboard Shortcuts 36 Skill 3 Select Text 38 Skill 4 Insert Text from Other Documents 40 Skill 5 Change Fonts, Font Sizes, and Font Styles 42 Skill 6 Insert and Work with Graphics 44 Skill 7 Check Spelling and Grammar 46 Skill 8 Use the Thesaurus and Set Proofing Options 48 Skill 9 Create Document Footers 50

Skill 10 Work with the Print Page and Save Documents in Other Formats 52

More Skills More Skills 11 Split and Arrange Windows 54 More Skills 12 Insert Symbols 54 More Skills 13 Use Collect and Paste to Create a

Document 54 More Skills 14 Insert Screen Shots into Documents 54

C h a p t e r 2 Format a n d O r g a n i z e Text 6 4 Skill 1 Set Document Margins 68 Skill 2 Align Text and Set Indents 70 Skill 3 Modify Line and Paragraph Spacing 72 Skill 4 Format Text Using Format Painter 74 Skill 5 Find and Replace Text 76 Skill 6 Create Bulleted and Numbered Lists 78 Skill 7 Insert and Format Headers and Footers 80 Skill 8 Insert and Modify Footnotes 82 Skill 9 Add Citations 84

Skill 10 Create Bibliographies 86

More Skills More Skills 11 Record AutoCorrect Entries 88 More Skills 12 Use AutoFormat to Create

Numbered Lists 88 More Skills 13 Format and Customize Lists 88 More Skills 14 Manage Document Properties 88

C h a p t e r 3 Work with G r a p h i c s , Tabs , a n d T a b l e s 9 8

Skill 1 Insert Pictures from Files 102 Skill 2 Resize and Move Pictures 104 Skill 3 Format Pictures Using Styles and

Artistic Effects 106 Skill 4 Set Tab Stops 108 Skill 5 Enter Text with Tab Stops 110 Skill 6 Apply Table Styles 112 Skill 7 Create Tables 114 Skill 8 Add Rows and Columns to Tables H6 Skill 9 Format Text in Table Cells 118

Skill 10 Format Tables 120

More Skills More Skills 11 Insert Text Boxes 122 More Skills 12 Format with WordArt 122 More Skills 13 Create Tables from Existing Lists 122 More Skills 14 Insert Drop Caps 122

C h a p t e r 4 A p p l y S p e c i a l T e x t , P a r a g r a p h , a n d D o c u m e n t F o r m a t s 1 3 2

Skill 1 Create Multiple-Column Text 136 Skill 2 Insert a Column Break 138 Skill 3 Apply and Format Text Effects 140 Skill 4 Use and Create Quick Styles 142 Skill 5 Add Borders and Shading to Paragraphs

and Pages 144 Skill 6 Insert and Format Clip Art Graphics 146 Skill 7 Insert SmartArt Graphics 148 Skill 8 Format SmartArt Graphics 150 Skill 9 Create Labels Using Mail Merge 152

Skill 10 Preview and Print Mail Merge Documents 154

More Skil ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create Resumes from Templates 156 Create Outlines 156 Prepare Documents for Distribution 156 Preview and Save Documents as Web Pages 156

Exce l C h a p t e r 1 C r e a t e W o r k b o o k s w i t h

Exce l 2 0 1 0 Skill 1 Create and Save New Workbooks Skill 2 Enter Worksheet Data and Merge and

Center Titles Skill 3 Construct Addition and

Subtraction Formulas Skill 4 Construct Multiplication and

Division Formulas Skill 5 Adjust Column Widths and Apply Cell Styles Skill 6 Use the SUM Function Skill 7 Copy Formulas and Functions

Using the Fill Handle

1 6 6 170

Skill 8 Format, Edit, and Check the Spelling of Data 184 Skill 9 Create Footers and Change Page Settings 186

Skill 10 Display and Print Formulas and Scale Worksheets for Printing

More Skil ls More Skills 11

More Skills 12 More Skills 13 More Skills 14

Create New Workbooks from Templates Use Range Names in Formulas Change Themes Manage Document Properties

C h a p t e r 2 Skill 1 Skill 2

Skill 3 Skill 4 Skill 5 Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8

Skill 9 Skill 10

C r e a t e C h a r t s Open Existing Workbooks and Align Text Construct and Copy Formulas Containing Absolute Cell References Format Numbers Create Column Charts Format Column Charts Create Pie Charts and Chart Sheets Apply 3-D Effects and Rotate Pie Chart Slices Explode and Color Pie Slices, and Insert Text Boxes Update Charts and Insert WordArt Prepare Chart Sheets for Printing

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 More Skills 12 More Skills 13

Insert and Edit Comments Change Chart Types Copy Excel Data to Word Documents

More Skills 14 Fill Series Data into Worksheet Cells

188

190 190 190 190

2 0 0 204

206 208 210 212 214

216

218 220 222

224 224

224

224

172 C h a p t e r 3 M a n a g e M u l t i p l e W o r k s h e e t s 2 3 4

172 Skill 1 Work with Sheet Tabs 238

174 Skill 2 Enter and Format Dates 240 174 Skill 3 Clear Cell Contents and Formats 242

176 Skill 4 Move, Copy, Paste, and Paste Options 244

178 Skill 5 Work with Grouped Worksheets 246

180 Skill 6 Use Multiple Math Operators in a Formula 248 Skill 7 Format Grouped Worksheets 250

182 Skill 8 Insert and Move Worksheets 252

Skill 9 Construct Formulas That Refer to Cells in Other Worksheets 254

Skill 10 Create Clustered Bar Charts 256

More Skills More Skills 11 Create Organization Charts 258 More Skills 12 Create Line Charts 258 More Skills 13 Set and Clear Print Areas 258 More Skills 14 Insert Hyperlinks 258

C h a p t e r 4 U s e Exce l F u n c t i o n s a n d T a b l e s 2 6 8 Skill 1 Use the SUM and AVERAGE Functions 272 Skill 2 Use the MIN and MAX Functions 274 Skill 3 Move Ranges with Functions,

Add Borders, and Rotate Text 276 Skill 4 Use the IF Function 278 Skill 5 Apply Conditional Formatting with

Custom Formats, Data Bars, and Sparklines 280 Skill 6 Use Find and Replace and Insert

the NOW Function 282 Skill 7 Freeze and Unfreeze Panes 284 Skill 8 Create and Sort Excel Tables 286 Skill 9 Use the Search Filter in Excel Tables 288

Skill 10 Convert Tables to Ranges, Hide Rows and Columns, and Format Large Worksheets 290

More Skills More Skills 11 Apply Conditional Color Scales

with Top and Bottom Rules 292 More Skills 12 Use the Payment (PMT) Function 292 More Skills 13 Create PivotTable Reports 292 More Skills 14 Use Goal Seek 292

A c c e s s C h a p t e r 1 Work with D a t a b a s e s

a n d C r e a t e T a b l e s 3 0 2 Skill 1 Open and Organize Existing Databases 306 Skill 2 Enter and Edit Table Data 308 Skill 3 Create Forms and Enter Data 310 Skill 4 Filter Data in Queries 312 Skill 5 Create, Preview, and Print Reports 314 Skill 6 Create Databases and Tables 316

Skill 7 Change Data Types and Other Field Properties 318

Skill 8 Create Tables in Design View 320 Skill 9 Relate Tables 322

Skill 10 Enter Data in Related Tables 324

More Skills More Skills 11 Compact and Repair Databases 326 More Skills 12 Import Data from Excel 326 More Skills 13 Work with the Attachment Data

Type 326 More Skills 14 Work with the Hyperlink

and Yes/No Data Types 326

C h a p t e r 2 M a n a g e D a t a s h e e t s a n d C r e a t e Q u e r i e s 3 3 6

Skill 1 Find and Replace Data 340 Skill 2 Filter and Sort Datasheets 342 Skill 3 Use the Simple Query Wizard 344 Skill 4 Format Datasheets 346 Skill 5 Add Date and Time Criteria 348 Skill 6 Create Queries in Design View 350 Skill 7 Add Calculated Fields to Queries 352 Skill 8 Work with Logical Criteria 354 Skill 9 Add Wildcards to Query Criteria 356

Skill 10 Group and Total Queries 358

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Queries to Other Fie Formats 360 More Skills 12 Find Duplicate Records 360 More Skills 13 Find Unmatched Records 360 More Skills 14 Create Crosstab Queries 360

C h a p t e r 3 C r e a t e Forms 3 7 0 Skill 1 Use the Form Wizard 374 Skill 2 Format Forms in Layout View 376 Skill 3 Use Forms to Modify Data 378 Skill 4 Use the Blank Form Tool 380 Skill 5 Customize Form Layouts 382 Skill 6 Add Input Masks 384 Skill 7 Apply Conditional Formatting 386 Skill 8 Create One-to-Many Forms 388 Skill 9 Enter Data Using One-to-Many Forms 390

Skill 10 Create Forms from Queries 392

More Skills More Skills 11 Validate Fields 394 More Skills 12 Add Combo Boxes to Forms 394 More Skills 13 Create Multiple Item Forms 394 More Skills 14 Create Macros 394

C h a p t e r 4 C r e a t e R e p o r t s 4 0 4 Skill 1 Create Reports and Apply Themes 408 Skill 2 Modify Report Layouts 410 Skill 3 Prepare Reports for Printing 412 Skill 4 Use the Blank Report Tool 414 Skill 5 Group and Sort Reports 416 Skill 6 Format and Filter Reports 418 Skill 7 Create Label Reports 420 Skill 8 Use the Report Wizard 422 Skill 9 Modify Layouts in Design View 424

Skill 10 Add Totals and Labels to Reports 426

More Skills More Skills 11 Export Reports to Word 428 More Skills 12 Export Reports to HTML Documents 428 More Skills 13 Create Parameter Queries 428 More Skills 14 Create Reports for Parameter Queries 428

PowerPo in t C h a p t e r 1 G e t t i n g S t a r t e d w i t h

P o w e r P o i n t 2 0 1 0 4 3 8 Skill 1 Open, View, and Save Presentations 442 Skill 2 Edit and Replace Text in Normal View 444 Skill 3 Format Slide Text 446 Skill 4 Check Spelling and Use the Thesaurus 448 Skill 5 Insert Slides and Modify Slide Layouts 450 Skill 6 Insert and Format Pictures 452 Skill 7 Organize Slides Using Slide Sorter View 454 Skill 8 Apply Slide Transitions and View Slide Shows 456 Skill 9 Insert Headers and Footers

and Print Presentation Handouts 458 Skill 10 Add Notes Pages and Print Notes 460

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Type Text in the Outline Tab 462 More Skills 12 Use Keyboard Shortcuts 462

More Skills 13 Move and Delete Slides in Normal View 462

More Skills 14 Design Presentations for Audience and Location 462

C h a p t e r 2 F o r m a t a P r e s e n t a t i o n 4 7 2 Skill 1 Create New Presentations 476 Skill 2 Change Presentation Themes 478 Skill 3 Apply Font and Color Themes 480 Skill 4 Format Slide Backgrounds with Styles 482 Skill 5 Format Slide Backgrounds with Pictures

and Textures 484 Skill 6 Format Text with WordArt 486 Skill 7 Change Character Spacing and Font Color 488 Skill 8 Modify Bulleted and Numbered Lists 490 Skill 9 Move and Copy Text and Objects 492

Skill 10 Use Format Painter and Clear All Formatting Commands 494

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Edit Slide Master 496 More Skills 12 Save and Apply Presentation

Template 496 More Skills 13 Create Slides from Microsoft Word

Outline 496 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with Contrast 496

C h a p t e r 3 E n h a n c e P r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h G r a p h i c s 5 0 6

Skill 1 Insert Slides from Other Presentations 510 Skill 2 Insert, Size, and Move Clip Art 512 Skill 3 Modify Picture Shapes, Borders, and Effects 514 Skill 4 Insert, Size, and Move Shapes 516 Ski l l5 Add Text to Shapes and Insert Text Boxes 518 Skill 6 Apply Gradient Fills and Group

and Align Graphics 520 Skill 7 Convert Text to SmartArt Graphics

and Add Shapes 522 Skill 8 Modify SmartArt Layouts, Colors, and Styles 524 Skill 9 Insert Video Files 526

Skill 10 Apply Video Styles and Adjust Videos 528

More Skil ls More Skills 11 Compress Pictures 530

More Skills 12 Save Groups as Picture Files 530 More Skills 13 Change Object Order 530 More Skills 14 Design Presentations Using

Appropriate Graphics 530

C h a p t e r 4 P r e s e n t D a t a U s i n g T a b l e s , C h a r t s , a n d A n i m a t i o n 5 4 0

Skill 1 Insert Tables 544 Skill 2 Modify Table Layouts 546 Skill 3 Apply Table Styles 548 Skill 4 Insert Column Charts 550 Skill 5 Edit and Format Charts 552 Skill 6 Insert Pie Charts 554 Skill 7 Apply Animation Entrance

and Emphasis Effects 556 Skill 8 Modify Animation Timing

and Use Animation Painter 558 Skill 9 Remove Animation and Modify Duration 560

Skill 10 Navigate Slide Shows 562

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Prepare Presentations to be Viewed

Using Office PowerPoint Viewer 564 More Skills 12 Insert Hyperlinks in a Presentation 564 More Skills 13 Create Photo Albums 564 More Skills 14 Design Presentations with

Appropriate Animation 564

I n t e g r a t e d Pro jec ts C h a p t e r 1 I n t e g r a t i n g W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s ,

a n d P o w e r P o i n t 5 7 4 Skill 1 Move Text between Word Documents 578 Skill 2 Apply Heading Styles in Word 580 Skill 3 Create a PowerPoint Presentation

from a Word Document 582 Skill 4 Insert and Modify a Shape in PowerPoint 584 Skill 5 Import a Word Table into

an Excel Workbook 586 Skill 6 Insert a Shape from PowerPoint into Word

and Excel 588 Skill 7 Create and Work with an Excel Table 590

Skill 8 Link Data between Office Applications Using O L E

Skill 9 Create Envelopes Using Data from Access Skill 10 Create Name Tags Using Data in Excel

More Ski l ls More Skills 11 Insert Subtotals in Excel and

Link Data to a Word Document More Skills 12 Insert Slides from Another

Presentation More Skills 13 Move and Copy Excel Worksheets

and Consolidate Data More Skills 14 Compare Shared Excel Workbooks

C h a p t e r 2

Skill 1 Skill 2 Skill 3 Skill 4

Skill 5

Skill 6 Skill 7

Skill 8 Skill 9

M o r e I n t e g r a t e d P r o j e c t s f o r W o r d , E x c e l , A c c e s s , a n d P o w e r P o i n t Create an Access Append Query Export Data from Access into Excel Create an Excel PivotTable Report Create External References between Excel Workbooks Insert a SmartArt Organization Chart into PowerPoint Insert an Excel PivotTable into PowerPoint Insert a PowerPoint Outline in Word and Create a Cover Page and Table of Contents Link and Embed Data from Excel into Word Export Data from Access to an R T F File and Insert the File into Word Insert Objects from PowerPoint into Word Skill 10

kills More Skills 11 Create an Excel PivotChart

and Link the PivotChart to Word More Skills 12 Create a Hyperlink between

PowerPoint, Word, and Excel Files More Skills 13 Insert a Total Row in an Excel Table

and Link the Table to PowerPoint More Skills 14 Compare Word Documents

Glossary

592 594 596

598

598

598 598

6 1 0 614 616 618

620

622 624

626 628

630 632

634

634

634 634

646

Index 654

About the Authors Kris Townsend is an Information Systems instructor at Spokane Falls Community College in Spokane, Washington. Kris earned a bachelor’s degree in both Education and Business, and a master’s degree in Education. He has also worked as a public school teacher and as a systems analyst. Kris enjoys working with wood, snowboarding, and camping. He commutes to work by bike and enjoys long road rides in the Palouse country south of Spokane.

1

Robert L. Ferrett recently retired as the Director of the Center for Instructional Computing at Eastern Michigan University, where he provided computer training and support to faculty. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 books on Access, PowerPoint, Excel, Publisher, WordPerfect, Windows, and Word. He has been designing, developing, and delivering computer workshops for more than two decades.

Catherine Hain is an instructor at Central New Mexico Community College in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She teaches computer applications classes in the Business and Information Technology School, both in the classroom and through the distance learning office. Catherine holds a bachelor’s degree in Management and Marketing and a master’s degree in Business Administration.

f t Alicia Vargas is an Associate Professor of Business Information Technology at Pasadena City College in California. She holds a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in Business Education from California State University, Los Angeles and has authored numerous textbooks and training materials on Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.

A Special Thank You Pearson Prentice Hall gratefully acknowledges the contribution made by Shelley Gaskin to the first edition publication of this series—Skills for Success with Office 2007. The series has truly benefited from her dedication toward developing a textbook that aims to help students and instructors.We thank her for her continued support of this series.

Contributors We’d like to thank the following people for their work on Skills for Success:

Instructor Resource Authors Erich Adickes Parkland College Sharon Behrens Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Julie Boyles Portland Community College Barbara Edington St. Francis College Ranida Harris Indiana University Southeast Beth Hendrick Lake Sumter Community College Susan Holland Southeast Community College—Nebraska Andrea Leinbach Harrisburg Area Community College Yvonne Leonard Coastal Carolina Community College

Technical Editors Lisa Bucki Kelly Carling Hilda W i r t h Federico Jacksonville University Tom Lightner Missouri State University Elizabeth Lockley Joyce Nielsen

Reviewers Darrell Abbey Cascadia Community College Bridget I . Archer Oakton Community College Laura Aagard Sierra College John Alcorcha MTI College Barry Andrews Miami Dade College Natalie Andrews Miami Dade College Wilma Andrews Virginia Commonwealth University School

of Business Bridget Archer Oakton Community College Tahir Aziz J. Sargeant Reynolds Greg Balinger Miami Dade College Terry Bass University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lisa Beach Santa Rosa Junior College Rocky Belcher Sinclair Community College Nannette Biby Miami Dade College David Billings Guilford Technical Community College Brenda K. Br i t t Fayetteville Technical Community College Alisa Brown Pulaski Technical College Eric Cameron Passaic Community College

x Contributors

Trina Maurer Anthony Nowakowski Ernest Gines Stacey Gee Hollins John Purcell Ann Rowlette Amanda Shelton Steve St. John Joyce Thompson Karen Wisniewski

Georgia Virtual Technical College Buffalo State College Tarrant County College—Southeast St. Louis Community College—Meramec Castleton State College Liberty University J. Sargeant Reynolds Tulsa Community College Lehigh Carbon Community College County College of Morris

Janet Pickard Linda Pogue Steve Rubin Eric Sabbah Jan Snyder Mara Zebest

Chattanooga State Tech Community College Northwest Arkansas Community College California State University—Monterey Bay

Gene Carbonaro Trey Cherry Kim Childs Pualine Chohonis Lennie Coper Tara Cipriano Paulette Comet

Gail W . Cope Susana Contreras de Finch Chris Corbin Janis Cox Tomi Crawford Martin Cronlund Jennifer Day Ralph DeArazoza Carol Decker Loorna DeDuluc Caroline Delcourt

Long Beach City College Edgecombe Community College Bethany University Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Gateway Technical College Community College of Baltimore

Coun ty—Ca to nsville Sinclair Community College College of Southern Nevada Miami Dade College Tri-County Technical College Miami Dade College Anne Arundel Community College Sinclair Community College Miami Dade College Montgomery College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College

Contributors continued

Michael Discello Kevin Duggan Barbara Edington Donna Ehrhart Hilda Wirth Federico Tushnelda Fernandez Arlene Flerchinger Hedy Fossenkemper Kent Foster Penny Foster-Shiver Arlene Franklin George Gabb Barbara Garrell Deb Geoghan Jessica Gilmore Victor Giol Melinda Glander Linda Glassburn Deb Gross Rachelle Hall Marie Hartlein Diane Hartman Betsy Headrick Patrick Healy

Lindsay Henning Kermelle Hensley Diana Hill Rachel Hinton Mary Carole Hollingsworth Stacey Gee Hollins Bill Holmes Steve Holtz Margaret M. Hvatum Joan Ivey Dr. Dianna D. Johnson Kay Johnston Warren T. Jones, Sr. Sally Kaskocsak Renuka Kumar Kathy McKee Hazel Kates Gerald Kearns

Pittsburgh Technical Institute Midlands Technical Community College St. Francis College Genesee Community College Jacksonville University Miami Dade College Chattanooga State Tech Community College Paradise Valley Community College Withrop University Anne Arundel Community College Bucks County Community College Miami Dade College Delaware County Community College Bucks County Community College Highline Community College Miami Dade College Northmetro Technical College Cuyahoga Community College, West Ohio State University Glendale Community College Montgomery County Community College Utah Valley State College Chattanooga State Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Yavapai College Columbus Technical College Chesapeake College Broome Community College GA Perimeter St. Louis Community College—Meramec Chandler-Gilbert Community College University of Minnesota Duluth St. Louis Community College Lanier Technical College North Metro Technical College Columbia Basin College University of Alabama at Birmingham Sinclair Community College Community College of Baltimore County North Metro Technical College Miami Dade College Forsyth Technical Community College

Charles Kellermann

John Kidd Chris Kinnard Kelli Kleindorfer Kurt Kominek Dianne Kotokoff Cynthia Krebs Jean Lacoste Gene Laugh rey David LeBron Kaiyang Liang Linda Lindaman Felix Lopez Nicki Maines Cindy Manning Patri Mays Norma McKenzie Lee McKinley Sandy McCormack Eric Meyer Kathryn Miller

Gloria A. Morgan Kathy Morris Linda Moulton Ryan Murphy Stephanie Murre Wolf Jackie Myers Dell Najera

Scott Nason Paula Neal Bethanne Newman Eloise Newsome

Karen Nunan Ellen Orr Carol Ottaway Denise Passero Americus Pavese James Gordon Patterson Cindra Phillips

Northern Virginia Community College—Woodbridge

Tarrant County Community College Miami Dade College American Institute of Business NE State Tech Community College Lanier Technical College Utah Valley University Virginia Tech Northern Oklahoma College Miami Dade College Miami Dade College Black Hawk College Miami Dade College Mesa Community College Big Sandy Community and Technical College Paradise Valley Community College El Paso Community College GA Perimeter Monroe Community College Miami Dade College Big Sandy Community and Technical College,

Pike Ville Campus Monroe Community College University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Montgomery County Community College Sinclair Community College Moraine Park Technical College Sinclair Community College El Paso Community College, Valle Verde

Campus Rowan Cabarrus Community College Sinclair Community College Paradise Valley Community College Northern Virginia Community

College—Woodbridge Northeast State Technical Community College Seminole Community College Chemeketa Community College Fulton-Montgomery Community College Community College of Baltimore County Paradise Valley Community College Clark State CC

Contributors

Contributors continued

Janet Pickard Chattanooga State Tech Community College Diane Stark Phoenix College Floyd Pittman Miami Dade College Neil Stenlund Northern Virginia Community College Melissa Prinzing Sierra College Linda Stoudemayer Lamar Institute of Technology Pat Rahmlow Montgomery County Community College Pamela Stovall Forsyth Technical Community College Mary Rasley Lehigh Carbon Community College Linda Switzer Highline Community College Scott Rosen Santa Rosa Junior College Margaret Taylor College of Southern Nevada Ann Rowlette Liberty University Martha Taylor Sinclair Community College Kamaljeet Sanghera George Mason University Michael M. Taylor Seattle Central Community College June Scott County College of Morris Roseann Thomas Fayetteville Tech Community College Janet Sebesy Cuyahoga Community College Ingrid Thompson-Sellers GA Perimeter Jennifer Sedelmeyer Broome Community College Daniel Thomson Keiser University Kelly SellAnne Arundel Community College Astrid Hoy Todd Guilford Technical Community College Teresa Sept College of Southern Idaho Barb Tollinger Sinclair Community College Pat Serrano Scottsdale Community College Cathy Urbanski Chandler Gilbert Community College Amanda Shelton J. Sargeant Reynolds Sue Van Boven Paradise Valley Community College Gary Sibbits St. Louis Community College—Meramec Philip Vavalides Guildford Technical Community College Janet Siert Ellsworth Community College Pete Vetere Montgomery County Community College— Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College West Campus Karen Smith Technical College of the Lowcountry Asteria Villegas Monroe College Robert Smolenski Delaware County Community College Michael Walton Miami Dade College Robert Sindt Johnson County Community College Teri Weston Harford Community College Gary R. Smith Paradise Valley Community College Julie Wheeler Sinclair Community College Patricia Snyder Midlands Technical College Debbie Wood Western Piedmont Community College Pamela Sorensen Santa Rosa Junior College Thomas Yip Passaic Community College Eric Stadnik Santa Rosa Junior College Lindy Young Sierra Community College Mark Stanchfield Rochester Community and Technical College Matt Zullo Wake Technical Community College

xii Contributors

I n s t r u c t o r s – Y o u a s k e d for it s o h e r e it is!

A M i c r o s o f t ® O f f i c e t e x t b o o k t h a t r e c o g n i z e s h o w s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o d a y –

Skills for Success with Microsoft

1 Office 2010 Volume 1

10 X 8.5 F o r m a t – Easy for students to read and type at the same time by simply propping the book up on the desk in front of their monitor

Clear ly Out l ined Sk i l l s – Each skill is presented in a single two-page spread so that students can easily follow along

Numbered S t e p s and Bul le ted Tex t – Students don’t read long paragraphs or text, but they will read information presented concisely

Easy-to-Find S t u d e n t Da ta Fi les – Visual key shows students how to locate and interact with their data files

S t a r t H e r e – Students know exactly where to start and what their starting file will look like

C H A P T E R

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S k i l l s L is t – A visual snapshot of what skills they will complete in the chapter

O u t c o m e – Shows students up front what their completed project will look like

You will tdvo your filoi a t :

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S e q u e n t i a l P a g i n a t i o n – Saves you and your students time in locating topics and assignments I

VISUAL WALK-THROUGH XIII

Skills for Success l ock – Tells how much time students

need to complete the chapter

Introduct ion

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t Written for T o d a y ‘ s S t u d e n t s – skills are taught with numbered steps and bulleted text so students are less likely to skip valuable information T w o – P a g e S p r e a d s – Each skill is

presented on a two-page spread to help students keep up their momentum

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D a t a Files Are a S n a p – Students can now find their files easier than ever before with this visual map

C o l o r e d Text – Clearly shows what a student types

Hands-On – Students start actually working on their skills from Step 1

D o n e ! – Students always know when they’ve completed a skill

XIV VISUAL WALK-THROUGH

Skills for S u c c e s s

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End-o f -Chapte r M a t e r i a l – Several levels of assessment so you can assign the material that best fits your students’ needs

M o r e S k i l l s – Additional skills included online

K e y T e r m s O n l i n e H e l p Sk i l ls

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O n l i n e P r o j e c t – Students practice using Microsoft Help online to help prepare them for using the applications on their own

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Visual Walk-Through xv

Skills for S u c c e s s

Al l V i d e o s

a n d I n s t r u c t o r m a t e r i a l s

a v a i l a b l e o n t h e I R C D

Instructor Mater ia ls

I n s t r u c t o r ‘ s M a n u a l – Teaching tips and additional resources for each chapter

A s s i g n m e n t S h e e t s – Lists all the assignments for the chapter, you just add in the course information, due dates and points. Providing these to students ensures they will know what is due and when

S c r i p t e d L e c t u r e s – Classroom lectures prepared for you

A n n o t a t e d S o l u t i o n F i l e s – Coupled with the scoring rubrics, these create a grading and scoring system that makes grading so much easier for you

P o w e r P o i n t L e c t u r e s – PowerPoint presentations for each chapter

P r e p a r e d E x a m s – Exams for each chapter and for each application

S c o r i n g R u b r i c s – Can be used either by students to check their work or by you as a quick check-off for the items that need to be corrected

S y l l a b u s T e m p l a t e s – for 8-week, 12-week, and 16-week courses

T e s t B a n k – Includes a variety of test questions for each chapter

C o m p a n i o n W e b S i t e – Online content such as the More Skills Projects, Online Study Guide, Glossary, and Student Data Files are all at www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

xvi Visual Walk-Throughhttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

with M ic roso f t

Office 2010 V O L U M E 1

C H A P T E R J Common Features of Office 2010 • The programs in Microsoft Office 2010—Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access—share common

tools that you use in a consistent, easy-to-learn manner.

• Common tasks include opening and saving files, entering and formatting text, and printing your work.

Your starting screen will look like this: SKILLS SKILLS 1 – 1 0 TRAINING Umt Insert Pjgt 1

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A t t h e e n d o f t h i s chapter , y o u w i l l be a b l e t o :

Skill 1 Start Word and Navigate the Word Window Skill 2 Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with

Multiple Windows Skill 3 Save Files in New Folders Skill 4 Print and Save Documents Skill 5 Open Student Data Files and Save Copies

Using Save As Skill 6 Type and Edit Text Skill 7 Cut, Copy, and Paste Text Skill 8 Format Text and Paragraphs Skill 9 Use the Ribbon Skill 10 Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes

MORE SKILLS

More Skills 11 Capture Screens with the Snipping Tool More Skills 12 Use Microsoft Office Help More Skills 13 Organize Files More Skills 14 Save Documents to Windows Live

2 C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 | C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1

Outcome Using the skills listed to the left will enable you to create documents similar to this:

Visit Aspen Falls! A s p e n F a l l s o v e r l o o k s t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n

a n d is s u r r o u n d e d b y m a n y v i n e y a r d s a n d

w i n e r i e s . O c e a n r e c r e a t i o n is a c c e s s e d

p r i m a r i l y a t D u r a n g o C o u n t y P a r k . T h e

A s p e n L a k e R e c r e a t i o n A r e a p r o v i d e s y e a r

r o u n d f r e s h w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a n d is t h e

c i t y ‘ s l a r g e s t p a r k .

Local Attractions • W i n e C o u n t r y

o W i n e Tas t ing Tou rs

o Winer ies

• W o r d s w o r t h Fel lowship Museum of A r t

• Du rango C o u n t y M u s e u m of H is to ry

• Conven t ion Center

• A r t Galleries

• Gl ider T o u r s

Aspen Fallc Annual Events • Annua l Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale

• A n n u a l W i n e Festival

• C inco de Mayo

• Vintage Car S h o w

• Her i tage D a y Parade

• Harvest Days

• A m a t e u r Bike Races

• Farmer ‘s Market

• Aspen Lake Nature Cruises

• Aspen Falls T r ia th lon

• Tas te of Aspen Falls

• W i n t e r Blues Festival

Contact Y o u r N a m e for more informat ion.

Common Features of Office 2010

You will save your files as: Lastname_Firstname_cfO 1 _Visit 1 Lastname_Firstname_cfO l_Visit2 Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 3

In t h i s c h a p t e r , y o u w i l l c r e a t e d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e A s p e n F a l l s C i t y

H a l l , w h i c h p r o v i d e s e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e c i t i z e n s a n d v i s i t o r s o f

A s p e n F a l l s , C a l i f o r n i a .

C o m m o n Features of Of f ice 2 0 1 0 • Microsoft Office is the most common software used to create and share

• Microsoft Office is a suite o f several programs—Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Access, and others—that each have a special purpose.

• Because of the consistent design and layout o f Microsoft Office, when you learn to use one Microsoft Office program, you can use most o f those skil ls when working wi th the other Microsoft Office programs.

• T h e files you create w i t h Microsoft Office need to be named and saved in locations where they can be easily found when you need them.

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

Time to complete all 10 skills – 50 to 90 minutes

Find your student data files here:

Student data files needed for this chapter:

« cf01_Visit

• cf01_Visit_Events

cfOl Visit River

C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 5

• The Word 2010 program can be launched by clicking the Start button, and then locating and clicking the Microsoft Word 2010 command.

• When you start Word, a new blank document displays in which you can type text.

1. In the lower left corner of the desktop, click the Start button © .

2 . In the lower left corner of the Start menu, click the All Programs command, and then compare your screen with Figure 1 . –

The Microsoft Office folder is located in the All Programs folder. If you have several programs installed on your computer, you may need to scroll to see the Microsoft Office folder.

3 . Click the Microsoft Office folder, and then compare your screen with Figure 2. –

Below the Microsoft Office folder, commands that open various Office 2010 programs display.

4 . From the Start menu, under the Microsoft Office folder, click Microsoft Word 2010, and then wait a few moments for the Microsoft Word window to display.

5 . If necessary, in the upper right corner of the Microsoft Word window, click the Maximize button B| .

• C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s

6 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter 1

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SKILL 1: Start Word and Navigate the Word Window

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On the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide button H until it displays in gold indicating that it is active. Compare your screen with Figure 3 .

Above the blank Word document, the Quick Access Toolbar and Ribbon display. At the top of the Ribbon, a row of tab names display. Each Ribbon tab has buttons that you click to perform actions. The buttons are organized into groups that display their names along the bottom of the Ribbon.

In the document, the insertion point— a vertical line that indicates where text will be inserted when you start typing—flashes near the top left corner.

The Show/Hide button is a toggle button— a button used to turn a feature both on and off. The paragraph mark (f) indicates the end of a paragraph and will not print.

In the document, type your first and last names. As you type, notice that the insertion point and paragraph mark move to the right.

On the Home tab, in the Styles group, point to—but do not click—the Heading 1 thumbnail to show the Live Preview—a feature that displays the result of a formatting change if you select it.

Click the Heading 1 thumbnail to apply the formatting change as shown in Figure 4. If the Word Navigation Pane displays on the left side of the Word window, click its Close [*] button.

You have completed Skill 1 of 10

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Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010 7

• When you open more than one Office program, each program displays in its own window.

• When you want to work with a program in a different window, you need to make it the active window.

1 . Click the Start button © , and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

Your computer may be configured in such a way that you can open Office programs without opening the All Programs folder. The Office 2010 program commands may display as shortcuts in the Start menu’s pinned programs area or the recently used programs area. Your computer’s taskbar or desktop may also display icons that start each program.

2 . From the Start menu, locate and then click Microsoft Excel 2010. Depending on your computer, you may need to double-click—not single click—to launch Excel. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . If necessary, click the Maximize – button mm\<

A new blank worksheet displays in a new window. The first cell—the box formed by the intersection of a row and column—is active as indicated by the thick, black border surrounding the cell. When you type in Excel, the text is entered into the active cell.

The Quick Access Toolbar displays above the spreadsheet. The Excel Ribbon has its own tabs and groups that you use to work with an Excel spreadsheet. Many of these tabs, groups, and buttons are similar to those found in Word.

On the taskbar, two buttons display—one for Word and one for Excel.

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SKILL 2: Start Excel and PowerPoint and Work with Multiple Windows

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W i n d o w r e s t o r e d

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3 . From the Start menu <PJ, locate and then click Microsoft PowerPoint 2010.

— Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 . If necessary, Maximize N = M the Presentation 1 – Microsoft PowerPoint window.

A new, blank presentation opens in a new window. The PowerPoint window contains a slide in which you can type text. PowerPoint slides are designed to be displayed as you talk in front of a group of people.

4. In the upper right corner of the PowerPoint window, click the Close button fcgaj.

5. On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. With the insertion point flashing to the right of your name, press [Enter], and then type Skills for Success Common Features Chapter

6 . In the upper right corner of the Document 1 – Microsoft Word window, click the Minimize button

The Word window no longer displays, but its button is still available on the taskbar.

7 . With the Excel window active, in the first cell—cell A l — t y p e your first name. Press [Tab], and then type your last name.

Press (Enter), type =TODAY() and then press (Enter) to calculate the current date and to display it in the cell.

In the Excel window, click the Restore Down button |jSU and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

The window remains open, but it no longer fills the entire screen. The Maximize button replaced the Restore Down button.

Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 2 o f 1 0

8 .

9 .

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C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 9http://Sn1p.Hnw.9e

• SKILL 3: Sav<

• A new document or spreadsheet is stored in the computer ‘s temporary memory (RAM) until you save it to your hard drive or USB flash drive.

1 . If you are saving your work on a USB flash drive, insert the USB flash drive into the computer now. If the Windows Explorer button [3 flashes on the taskbar, right-click the button, and then on the Jump List, click Close window.

2 . On the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button [y].

For new documents, the first time you click the Save button, the Save As dialog box opens so that you can name the file.

3 . If you are to save your work on a USB drive, in the Navigation pane scroll down to display the list of drives, and then click your USB flash drive as shown in F i g u r e 1 . If you are saving your work to another location, in the Navigation pane, locate and then click that folder or drive.

4. On the Save As dialog box toolbar, click the New folder button, and then immedi­ ately type Common Features Chapter 1

5 . Press [En te r ] to accept the folder name, and then press [En te r ] again to open the new folder as shown in F i g u r e 2 .

The new folder is created and then opened in the Save As dialog box file list.

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6. In the Save As dialog box, click in the File name box one time to highlight all of the existing text.

7. With the text in the File name box still highlighted, type Lastname_Firstname_ cfOl_Visitl

– 8 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3 , and then click Save.

After the document is saved, the name of the file displays on the title bar at the top of the window.

9 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button \^\. In the folder window Navigation pane, open [ft] the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder. Verify that Lastname_Firstname_ cpl_Visitl displays in file list.

1 0 . On the taskbar, click the Excel button to make it the active window. On the Excel Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button § ] .

1 1 . In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, open 0 the drive where you are saving your work, and then click the Common Features Chapter 1 folder to display its file list.

The Word file may not display because the Save As box typically displays only files created by the program you are using. Here, only Excel files will typically display.

1 2 . Click in the File name box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_ cf01_Visit2 and then click the Save button.

1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button, and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 3 o f 1 0

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 1

• SKILL 4: Print an.

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f o r p r i n t i n g .

1 . O n t h e t a s k b a r , c l i c k t h e Excel b u t t o n , a n d t h e n c l i c k t h e Maximize |Uey b u t t o n .

2 . O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e View tab, a n d t h e n i n t h e Workbook Views group, c l i c k t h e Page Layout b u t t o n . C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 1 .

The worksheet displays the cells, the margins, and the edges of the paper as they will be positioned when you print. The cell references—the numbers on the left side and the letters across the top of a spreadsheet that address each cell—will not print.

O n t h e R i b b o n , c l i c k t h e Page Layout tab. I n t h e Page Setup group, c l i c k t h e Margins b u t t o n , a n d t h e n i n t h e Margins g a l l e r y , c l i c k Wide.

C l i c k t h e File tab, a n d t h e n o n t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e B a c k s t a g e , c l i c k Print. C o m p a r e y o u r s c r e e n w i t h F i g u r e 2.

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8 .

9 .

6. Check with your Course Assignment Sheet or Course Syllabus, or consult with your instructor to determine whether you are to print your work for this chapter. If you are to print your work, at the top left corner of the Print Settings section, click the Print button. If you printed the spreadsheet, retrieve the printout from the printer.

7. On the File tab, click Save.

Because you have already named the file, the Save As dialog box does not display.

O n the File tab, click Exit to close the spreadsheet and exit Excel.

In the Word document, verify that the insertion point is in the second line of text. If not, on the taskbar, click the Word button to make it the active window.

10. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Heading 2 thumbnail. Compare your screen with Figure 3.

11. On the File tab, click Print to display the Print tab. If you are printing your work for this chapter, click the Print button, and then retrieve your printout from the printer.

12. On the File tab, click Exit, and then com- pare your screen with Figure 4.

When you close a window with changes that have not yet been saved, a message will remind you to save your work.

13. Read the displayed message, and then click Save.

• You hove completed Skill 4 of 10

Figure 4 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2010 1 3

• This book often instructs you to open a student data file so that you do not need to start the project with a blank document.

• The student data files are located on the student CD that came with this book. Your instructor may have provided an alternate location.

• You use Save As to create a copy of the stu­ dent data file onto your own storage device.

1 . If necessary, insert the student CD that came with this text. If the AutoPlay dialog box displays, click Close U a 4 .

2 . Using the skills practiced earlier, start Microsoft Word 2010.

3 . In the Documentl – Microsoft Word window, click the File tab, and then click Open.

4 . In the Open dialog box Navigation pane, scroll down and then, if necessary, open \V\ Computer. In the list of drives, click the CD/DVD drive to display the contents of the student CD. If your instructor has provided a different location, navigate to that location instead of using the student CD.

5. In the file list, double-click the 01_ student_data_files folder, double-click the 01_common_features folder, and then double-click the chapter_01 folder. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1 . –

6. In the file list, click cf01_Visit, and then click the Open button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 .

If you opened the file from the student CD, the title bar indicates that the document is in read-only mode—a mode where you cannot save your changes.

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7. If the document opens in Protected View, click the Enable Editing button.

Protected View is a view applied to documents downloaded from the Internet that allows you to decide if the content is safe before working with the document.

8 . Click the File tab, and then click Save As.

Because this file has already been saved with a name in a specific location, you need to use Save As to create a copy with a new name and location.

9. In the Save As dialog box Navigation pane, navigate to the C o m m o n Features Chapter 1 folder that you created previ­ ously—open 0 the drive on which you are saving your work, and then click the C o m m o n Features Chapter 1 folder.

1 0 . In the File n a m e box, replace the existing value with Lastname_Firstname_cf01_ Visit3 Be sure to use your own first and last names.

1 1 . Compare your screen with F i g u r e 3, and then click the Save button.

1 2 . On the title bar, notice the new file name displays and [Read-Only] no longer displays.

1 3 . On the taskbar, click the Windows Explorer button. Verify that the three files you have saved in this chapter display as shown in F i g u r e 4.

1 4 . In the Windows Explorer window, navigate to the s tudent CD, and then display the chapter_01 file list.

1 5 . Notice that the original student data file—cf01_Visit—is still located in the chapter_01 folder, and then Close the Windows Explorer window.

Y o u h o v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 5 o f 1 0

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 5

• To edit is to insert text, delete text, or replace text in an Office document, spreadsheet, or presentation.

• To edit text, you need to position the insertion point at the desired location or select the text you want to replace.

1 . With the W o r d document as the active window, in the first line, click to the left of the word Aspen. Press (Bksp) 12 times to delete the words the City of. Be sure there is one space between each word as shown in F i g u r e 1 .

The Backspace key deletes one letter at a time moving from right to left.

2 . In the second line of the document, click to the left of the words The City of Aspen Falls. Press [ D e l e t e ] 12 times to delete the phrase The City of.

The Delete key deletes one letter at a time moving from left to right.

3 . In the line Area Attractions, double-click the word Area to select it. Type l o c a l and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 . —

When a word is selected, it is replaced by whatever you type next.

• Continue to the next page to complete the skill ̂

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SKILL 6: Type and Edit Text

4. Place the pointer approximately 1 inch to the left of the line Convention Center. When the [21 pointer displays as shown in

— F i g u r e 3, click one time.

Placing the pointer in the Selection bar and then clicking is a way to select an entire line with a single click. After selecting text, the Mini toolbar—a toolbar with common formatting buttons—may display briefly as you move the mouse.

5. With the entire line still selected, press [Delete) to delete the line.

6. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Undo button @ one time. Notice the Convention Center line displays again.

When you perform an incorrect action, clicking the Undo button often returns your document to its previous state.

7. At the end of the last line—Glider Tours— click between the last word and the para­ graph formatting mark (If). Press [Enter] to insert a new line.

8 . With the insertion point in the new line, type Contact Your Name for more information. Be sure to use your first and last names in place of Your and Name.

M Compare your screen with F i g u r e 4. 9. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click

Save Q .

When a document has already been saved with the desired name, click the Save button—the Save As dialog box is not needed.

M I N I T O O L B A R ( T H I S

M A Y N O T D I S P L A Y

O N Y O U R S C R E E N )

P O I N T E R I N

S E L E C T I O N B A R

F I G U R E 3

• Y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 6 o f 1 0

N E W L I N E I N S E R T E D

F I G U R E 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 1 7

»• The copy command places a copy of the selected text or object in the Clipboard— a temporary storage area that holds text or an object that has been cut or copied.

• You can move text by moving it to and from the Clipboard or by dragging the text.

1 . Click the File tab, and then click Open. In the Open dialog box, if necessary, navigate to the student files and display the contents of the chapter_01 folder. Click cft)l_Visit_Events, and then click Open.

2. On the right side of the Ribbon’s Home tab, in the Editing group, click the Select button, and then click Select All. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

3 . With all of the document text selected, on the left side of the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Copy button 0.

4 . In the upper right corner of the Word window, click Close l U o j . You do not need to save changes—you will not turn in this student data file.

5. In Lastname_Firstname_cf01_Visit3, click to place the insertion point to the left of the line that starts Contact Your Name.

6. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, point to—but do not click—the Paste button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2 .

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The Paste button has two parts—the upper half is the Paste button, and the lower half is the Paste button arrow. When you click the Paste button arrow, a list of paste options display.

Continue to the next page to complete the skill ^

18 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

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7. Click the upper half of the Paste but ton to paste the selected text. Compare your

— screen with F i g u r e 3.

When you paste, you insert a copy of the text or object stored in the Clipboard and the Paste Options button displays near the pasted text.

Press [Esc] to hide the Paste Options button.

Scroll up to display the line Winter Blues Festival. Place the \T\ pointer to the left of the W, and then drag down and to the right to select two lines—Winter Blues Festival and Taste of Aspen Falls.

To drag is to move the mouse while holding down the left mouse button and then to release it at the appropriate time.

1 0 . On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Cut button 0.

The ait command removes the selected text or object and stores it in the Clipboard.

1 1 . Click to place the insertion point to the left of Contact Your Name, and then in the Clipboard group, click the Paste button to insert the text.

1 2 . Drag to select the text Taste of Aspen Falls, including the paragraph mark.

1 3 . With the [§] pointer, drag the selected text to the left of Winter Blues Festival. When the [¥] pointer displays to the left of Winter as shown in F i g u r e 4, release the mouse button.

• You have completed Skill 7 of 10

F i g u r e 4

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 1 9

• To format is to change the appearance of the text—for example, changing the text color to red.

> Before formatting text, you first need to select the text that will be formatted.

»• Once text is selected, you can apply formatting using the Ribbon or the Mini toolbar.

1 . Scroll to the top of the document, and then click anywhere in the first line, Visit Aspen Falls.

2. O n the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Heading 1 thumbnail .

When no text is selected, the Heading 1 style is applied to the entire paragraph.

3 . Click in the paragraph, Local Attractions, and then in the Styles group, click the Heading 2 thumbnail . Click in the paragraph, Aspen Falls Annual Events, and then apply the Heading 2 style. Compare your screen with Figure 1.

4 . Drag to select the text Visit Aspen Falls! Immediately point to—but do not click— the Mini toolbar to display it as shown in Figure 2. If necessary, right-click the — selected text to display the Mini toolbar.

C o n t i n u e t o t h e n e x t p a g e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s k i l l >

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2 0 C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

SKILL 8: F< and Paragraphs

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b u t t o n

I n d e n t e d b u l l e t s

F i g u r e 4

5. On the Mini toolbar, click the Font Size arrow I” •[, and then from the list, click 28 to increase the size of the selected text.

6. Place the pointer approximately 1 inch to the left of the line Wine Country. When the SQ pointer displays, drag straight down. When all the lines between and including Wine Country and Glider Tours are selected, release the left mouse button.

7. On the Ribbon, in the Paragraph group, click the Bullets button IB-I and then compare your screen with F i g u r e 3.

8 . Click to the left of Annual Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale. Scroll down to display the bottom of the page. Press and hold [ S h i f t ] while clicking to the right of Winter Blues Festival to select all of the text between and including Annual Starving Artists Sidewalk Sale and Winter Blues Festival.

9. In the Paragraph group, click the Bullets button |B’L

1 0 . Scroll to the top of the document. Use either technique just practiced to select Wine Tasting Tours and Wineries.

1 1 . In the Paragraph group, click the Increase Indent button [*] one time. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 4.

• Y o u h o v e c o m p l e t e d S k i l l 8 o f 1 0

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 2 1http://Visit-Aspen-Falls.ilhttp://An-Geaer.il*http://vvmar.eshttp://ao-cv.eehttp://e-aAnnuaiWini-Ftitlva.lt

• SKILL 9: Use the Ribbon

• Each Ribbon tab contains commands organized into groups. Some tabs display only when a certain type of object is selected—a graphic, for example.

1. Press and hold [ C t r l ] , and then press [Homel to place the insertion point at the begin­ ning of the document.

2 . On the Ribbon, to the right of the Home tab, click the Insert tab. In the Illustrations group, click the Picture button.

3. In the Insert Picture dialog box, navigate as needed to display the contents of the student files in the chapter_01 folder. Click cf01_Visit_River, and then click the Insert button. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 1.

When a picture is selected, the Format tab displays below Picture Tools. On the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, a gallery— a visual display of choices from which you can choose—displays thumbnails. The entire gallery can be seen by clicking the More button to the right and below the first row of thumbnails.

4. On the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click the More button 0 to display the Picture Styles gallery. In the gallery, point to the fourth thumbnail in the first row—Drop Shadow Rectangle—to display the ScreenTip as shown in F i g u r e 2 .

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A ScreenTip is informational text that displays when you point to commands or thumbnails on the Ribbon.

5. Click the Drop Shadow Rectangle thumbnail to apply the picture style.

• Continue to the next page to complete the skill •

22 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter l

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F I G U R E 3

K E Y T I P S F O R

H O M E T A B

K E Y T I P F O R I T A L I C

B U T T O N

F I G U R E 4

6. On the Format tab, in the Arrange group, click the Wrap Text button, and then from the list of choices, click Square.

7. Point to the picture, and then with the \%\ pointer, drag the picture to the right side of the page as shown in F I G U R E 3.

8. Click a blank area of the page, and then notice the Picture Tools Format tab no longer displays.

9. On the Page Layout tab, in the Themes group, click the Themes button.

1 0 . In the Themes gallery, point to—but do not click—each of the thumbnails to dis­ play the Live Preview of each theme. When you are done, click the Civic thumbnail .

1 1 . On the View tab, in the Zoom group, click the One Page button to display the entire page on the screen. If necessary, adjust the position of the picture.

1 2 . On the View tab, in the Zoom group, click the 100% button.

1 3 . Select the text Visit Aspen Falls! without selecting the paragraph mark. Press [W] to display KeyTips—keys that you can press to access each Ribbon tab and most com­ mands on each tab. Release [Ait], and then press (TT) one time to display the Home tab. Compare your screen with F I G U R E 4 .

With KeyTips displayed on the Home tab, pressing [T] is the same as clicking the Italic button 0. In this manner, you select Ribbon commands without using the mouse.

1 4 . Press (T) to apply the Italic format to the selected text.

1 5 . Save (5] the document.

• You have completed Skill 9 of 10

C O M M O N F E A T U R E S C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 2 3http://Ho.milhttp://VisitAspenFalls.1Ifile://-/-ineyatC3

• Commands can be accessed in dialog boxes—boxes where you can select multiple settings.

• You can also access commands by right-clicking objects in a document.

1. In the paragraph that starts Aspen Falls overlooks the Pacific Ocean, triple-click— click three times fairly quickly without moving the mouse—to highlight the entire paragraph.

2. O n the Home tab, in the lower right cor­ ner of the Font group, point to the Font Dialog Box Launcher [|] as shown in F i g u r e 1.

The [1] buttons at the lower right corner of most groups open a dialog box with choices that may not be available on the Ribbon.

3 . Click the Font Dialog Box Launcher [s] to open the Font dialog box.

4. In the Font dialog box, click the Advanced tab. Click the Spacing arrow, and then click Expanded.

5. To the right of the Spacing box, click the By spin box up arrow three times to display 1.3 pt. Compare your screen with F i g u r e 2, and then click OK to close the dialog box and apply the changes.

• Continue to the next page to complete the skill

C o m m o n F e a t u r e s o f O f f i c e 2 0 1 0 | C o m m o n F e a t u r e s C h a p t e r 1

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s e l e c t e d

F i g u r e 2

Use Shortcut Menus and Dialog Boxes

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Figure 4

6. With the paragraph still selected, right-click—click the paragraph with the right mouse but ton—and then

— compare your screen with Figure 3. When you right-click selected text, the Mini toolbar and a shortcut menu display. A shortcut menu displays a list of commands related to the type of object that you right-click.

From the displayed shortcut menu, click the Paragraph command. Alternately, on the Home tab, click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

In the Paragraph dialog box, under Spacing, click the Before spin up arrow three times to display 18 pt.

In the After box, highlight the existing value, and then type 15 Compare your screen with Figure 4, and then click OK.

If your instructor asks you to print your work, click the File tab, click Print, and then click the Print button.

Click Save [5], click the File tab, and then click Exit.

Done! You have completed Skill 10 of 10, and your document is complete!

C O M M O N F E A T U R E S C H A P T E R 1 | C O M M O N F E A T U R E S O F O F F I C E 2010 2 5

T h e fo l lowing M o r e Skills a re located at www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

M o r e S k i l l s Q C a p t u r e S c r e e n s w i t h t h e S n i p p i n g T o o l

S O M E O F THE W O R K THAT Y O U D O IN THIS B O O K C A N N O T B E G R A D E D

W I T H O U T S H O W I N G Y O U R C O M P U T E R SCREENS TO THE GRADER. Y O U C A N

U S E THE S N I P P I N G TOOL TO CREATE PICTURES O F YOUR SCREENS. S N I P FILES

CAN B E P R I N T E D OR S U B M I T T E D ELECTRONICALLY.

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 1 , Y O U WILL U S E THE S N I P P I N G TOOL TO CREATE A

PICTURE O F YOUR SCREEN A N D THEN C O P Y THE PICTURE I N T O A W O R D

D O C U M E N T .

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F YOUR

TEXTBOOK, A N D THEN FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

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M I C R O S O F T O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 H A S A H E L P S Y S T E M I N W H I C H Y O U CAN

SEARCH FOR ARTICLES THAT S H O W Y O U H O W TO A C C O M P L I S H TASKS.

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 2 , Y O U WILL U S E THE O F F I C E 2 0 1 0 H E L P S Y S T E M

TO V I E W A N ARTICLE O N H O W TO C U S T O M I Z E THE H E L P W I N D O W .

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F YOUR

TEXTBOOK, A N D THEN FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

M o r e S k i l l s ^ O r g a n i z e F i l e s

O V E R T I M E , Y O U M A Y CREATE H U N D R E D S O F FILES U S I N G MICROSOFT

OFFICE. T O FIND Y O U R FILES W H E N Y O U N E E D T H E M , T H E Y N E E D TO B E

WELL-ORGANIZED. Y O U C A N ORGANIZE Y O U R C O M P U T E R FILES B Y CAREFULLY

N A M I N G T H E M A N D B Y PLACING T H E M INTO FOLDERS.

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 3 , Y O U WILL CREATE, DELETE, A N D R E N A M E FOLDERS.

Y O U WILL T H E N C O P Y , DELETE, A N D M O V E FILES INTO THE FOLDERS THAT Y O U

CREATED.

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F Y O U R

TEXTBOOK, A N D THEN FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

M o r e S k i l l s S a v e D o c u m e n t s t o W i n d o w s L i v e

I F Y O U R C O M P U T E R IS C O N N E C T E D TO THE INTERNET, Y O U C A N SAVE

YOUR O F F I C E D O C U M E N T S TO A DRIVE AVAILABLE TO Y O U FREE O F CHARGE

THROUGH W I N D O W S L I V E . Y O U C A N THEN O P E N THE FILES F R O M OTHER

LOCATIONS S U C H AS H O M E , SCHOOL, OR W O R K .

I N M O R E SKILLS 1 4 , Y O U WILL SAVE A M E M O TO W I N D O W S L I V E .

T O B E G I N , O P E N Y O U R W E B BROWSER, NAVIGATE TO

W W W . P E A R S O N H I G H E R E D . C O M / S K I L L S , LOCATE THE N A M E O F YOUR

TEXTBOOK, A N D T H E N FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS O N THE W E B S I T E .

C O M M O N FEATURES OF OFFICE 2 0 1 0 | C O M M O N FEATURES C H A P T E R 1http://www.pearsonhighered.com/skillshttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/skillshttp://www.pearsonhttp://highered.com/skillshttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/skillshttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/skills

K e y T e r m s

Cell 8

Cell reference 12

Clipboard 18

Copy 18

Cut 19

Dialog box 24

Drag 19

Edit 16

Format 20

Gallery 22

Grid line 12

Insertion point 7

KeyTip 23

Live Preview 7

Mini toolbar 17

Page Layout view 12

Paste 19

Protected View 15

RAM 10

Right-click 25

ScreenTip 22

Toggle button 7

Triple-click 24

O n l i n e H e l p Sk i l l s

1. Start f J Word. In the upper right corner o f the Word window, click the Help button [©]. In the Help window, click the Maximize h&H button.

2. Click in the search box, type Create a document and then click the Search button. In the search results, click Create a document.

3. Read the article’s introduction, and then below What do you want to do, click Start a document from a template. Compare your screen wi th Figure 1.

4. Read the Start a document from a template section to see i f you can answer the following: What types o f documents are available as templates? On the New tab, under Available Templates, what are the two general locations that you can find templates?

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010

Matching Match each term in the second column with its correct definition in the first column by writing the letter of the term on the blank line in front of the correct definition.

1, A feature that displays the result of a formatting change if you

select it.

2 . A line between the cells in a table or spreadsheet.

3. A mode where you can open and view a file, but you cannot save your changes.

4. A view where you prepare your document or spreadsheet for printing.

5. Quickly click the left mouse but ton two times without moving the mouse.

6. To insert text, delete text, or replace text in an Office document, spreadsheet, or presentation.

7. A command that moves a copy of the selected text or object to the Clipboard.

8. A command that removes the selected text or object and stores it

in the Clipboard.

9. To change the appearance of the text.

10. A menu that displays a list of commands related to the type of object that you right-clicked on.

28 Common Features of Office 2010 | Common Features Chapter 1

A Copy

B Cut

C Double-click

D Edit

E Format

F Grid line

G Live Preview

H Page Layout

J Shortcut

Multiple Choice Choose the correct answer.

1 . The flashing vertical line that indicates where text wi l l be inserted when you start typing.

A. Cell reference B. Insertion point C. KeyTip

2. A button used to turn a feature both on and off. A. Contextual button B. On /Of f button C. Toggle button

3. The box formed by the intersection o f a row and column.

A. Cell B. Cell reference C. Insertion point

4. U n t i l you save a document, it is stored only here. A. Clipboard B. Live Preview C. R A M

5. The combination of a number on the left side and a letter on the top of a spreadsheet that addresses a cell.

A. Coordinates B. Cell reference C. Insertion point

Topics for Discussion 1. You have briefly worked with three Microsoft Office

programs: Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. Based on your experience, describe the overall purpose o f each of these programs.

6. A temporary storage area that holds text or an object that has been cut or copied.

A. Clipboard B. Dialog box C. Live Preview

7. A toolbar w i th common formatting buttons that displays after you select text.

A. Gallery toolbar B. M i n i toolbar C. Taskbar toolbar

8. Informational text that displays when you point to commands or thumbnails on the Ribbon.

A. Live Preview B. ScreenTip C. Shortcut menu

9. A visual display of choices from which you can choose.

10. An icon that displays on the Ribbon to indicate the key that you can press to access Ribbon commands.

A. KeyTip B. ScreenTip C. T o o l T i p

2. Many believe that computers enable offices to go paperless—that is, to share files electronically instead o f printing and then distributing them. What are the advantages of sharing files electronically, and in what situations would it be best to print documents?

Common Features Chapter 1 | Common Features of Office 2010

C H A P T E R

C r e a t e D o c u m e n t s W o r d 2 0 1 0

• Microsoft Office Word is one of the most common programs that individuals use on a computer.

• Use Word to create simple documents such as memos, reports, or letters and to create sophisticated documents that include tables and graphics.

Your starting screen will look similar to this:

flat: 1 ol 1 i Weidv 0 J A A : – too’.i

SKILLS SKILLS 1 – 1 0 TRAINING At t h e e n d of t h i s c h a p t e r , y o u will b e a b l e t o :

Skill 1 Create New Documents and Enter Text Skill 2 Edit Text and Use Keyboard Shortcuts Skill 3 Select Text Skill 4 Insert Text from Other Documents Skill 5 Change Fonts, Font Sizes, and Font Styles Skill 6 Insert and Work with Graphics Skill 7 Check Spelling and Grammar Skill 8 Use the Thesaurus and Set Proofing

Options Skill 9 Create Document Footers Skill 10 Work with the Print Page and Save

Documents in Other Formats

M O R E S K I L L S

More Skills 11 Split and Arrange Windows More Skills 12 Insert Symbols More Skills 13 Use Collect and Paste to Create

Documents More Skills 14 Insert Screen Shots into

Documents

3 0 C R E A T E D O C U M E N T S WITH WORA 2 0 1 0 | MICROSOFT W O R D C H A P T E R 1

Outcome Using the skills listed to the left will enable you to create documents like these:

A S P E N F A L L S P U B L I C L I B R A R Y 2SS EbnStttvl

Aspen Falls. CA 93463

May 5. 2012

Dr. Janis Imlay Aspen Falls Community College 1 College Drive Aspen Fall*, CA 93464

Dv-i Dr. Imlay:

Subject: New Logo for Library

fhank youso much for vour letter effenng the servicesot your jraphicdesign sluoents lor libfary-

related projects. We currently have a projectiri mind thai might benefitboth the library and youi

sludents.

We want to update our losotomoicaccurately reflect the wide variety of services offered in a modern

library Alogoconteslwouldbeag-caticJea.Callmeat (805) 555 1011 to discuss this further

I have attached a listol libiaiy activities to give the sludents an idea of some ol the things we do.

Sincerely.

Douglas Hopkins, Director

Ustname_rirstn»me_w01_Ubrary

Book DiscusstonGroups

There are several different book discussion groups, all led by

volunteer moderators from the community. Some discussion groups

focus on different types of books, such as biographies, history, fiction,

classics.sdenecand technology.andSpanlsh language literature.

Comp uter Tra in ing

Computer training isoffered in the computer lab of the main branch only. The following dassesa

offered once a month and others J re offered intermittently:

• Introduction to Computers

• MicrosoltWord

• Microsoft Excel

• WindowsXP and Vista

• Using the Internet

Speakers and Entertainers

The library brings in noted authors once a month for an ongoing lecture series. Folk singers, small jazz

ensembles, and other musical groups perform in the Hawken Community Room as they can be booked.

A second bookmobile has been added, and mutes are displayed on the library website. Bookmobiles

visiteachschool in the district at least once a week.

Story timesare available in the Hawken Community Room on Saturday momingfor toddlers, Saturday

afternoon for early elementary students.and Sunday afternoon for kids interested in chapter books.

GamwNight

Games are played inthe HawkenCommunity Room on Friday even ing after the library closes at 6p .m.

Among the more popular games are chess, bridge, and backgammon. Experts are available to help

patrons learn the games or improve tbeirskils.

More than 1,000 c Books a re available for download toanMP3 player. Library patronscan check these

books out for three weeks, and can renew them one time. The books range from today’s popularficoon

to the classics.

Lastname_Flrstname_w01_Ubrarv

You will save these documents as: Lastname_Firstname_w01_Library Lastname_Firstname_w01_Library_2003

MICROSOFT WORD C H A P T E R 1 | CREATE D O C U M E N T S WITH WORD 2 0 1 0 3 1

In t h i s c h a p t e r , y o u wi l l c r e a t e d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e A s p e n F a l l s C i t y

H a l l , w h i c h p r o v i d e s e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e c i t i z e n s a n d v i s i t o r s o f

A s p e n F a l l s , C a l i f o r n i a .

In t roduc t ion

• Entering text, formatt ing text, and navigating within a Word d o c u m e n t are the first basic skills you need to work efficiently with Word.

• You can change the font and font size, and add emphasis to text, but use caution not to apply too many different formats to your text. This can be distracting to the reader.

• It is easy to insert a picture into a Word document , and doing so increases the visual appeal and the reader’s interest. Pictures should be clearly associated with the sur rounding text and should not be inserted just to have a picture in the documen t .

• It is never acceptable to have errors in spelling, g rammar , or word usage in your documents ; you can use Word to prevent this from happening.

C R E A T E D O C U M E N T S WITH WORD 2 0 1 0 | MICROSOFT W O R D C H A P T E R 1

I

Time to complete all 10 skills – 50 minutes

Student data files needed for this chapter:

New blank Word document

wO l_Library_Activities

Find your student data files here:

[W] O p e n

(^/y^J I ” 02_word • chapter.01 Organize » N e w folder

CD Mockup

• 01_student_data_files

O l . commcn jea tu res

a 02_word

Documents library chapte’ .Ol

Arrange by. Folder •

chapte»_01

chapter_02

ehapter_03

c h a p t e r M

‘ . 03_excel

chapter_01

c h a p t e r ^

chapter_03

chap te rW

> i . M.access

chapter_01

file n a m e

Name

B*0A.

a]woi.

:£] WOL.

-aj WOL.

ÎwOl.

.Donation_Opportunrties

.Donation_Phcto

.Library .Activities

.library_Logo

T r u ‘

Tour_Topics

Trustees.Report

– (Al l files

TOOTS -r

Page: l o l l | Words: 0 , ; i J .

U B 3 J B ioo?i .- r +

Microsoft Word Chapter 1 | Create Documents with Word 2010

• SKILL 1: Create New Documents and Enter Text

• When you start Microsoft Office Word 2010, a blank document displays.

• The first time you save the document, give it a name and choose a storage location. Then, save your changes frequently.

1. On the taskbar, click the Start button From the Start menu, locate and then start Microsoft Word 2010.

2. In the lower right corner of your screen, if necessary, click the Print Layout but ton HI.

3. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide button H until it displays in gold indicating it is active, as shown in Figure 1.

When you press (Enter), [Spacebar], or [Tab] on your keyboard, characters display in your document to represent these keystrokes. These characters do not print and are referred to as formatting marks or nonprinting characters.

4. In all uppercase letters, type ASPEN FALLS PUBLIC LIBRARY and press [EnteT], Type 255 Elm Street and press [Enter). Type Aspen Falls, CA 93463 and press (Enter) two times.

5. Type May 5, 2012 and press [Enter] three times; type Dr. Janis Imlay and press (EnteT); type Aspen Falls Community College and press ||nter|> type 1 College Drive and press [Enter); and type Aspen Falls, CA 93464 and press (Enter).

6. Type Dear Dr. Imlay: and press (EnteT). Type Subject: New Logo for Library and press [Enter]. Compare your screen with Figure 2. –

Continue to the next page to complete the ski

34 C R E A T E D O C U M E N T S W I T H W O R D 2010 | Microsoft Word Chapter 1

Show/Hide button

Print Layout view displays as a sheet of paper

Print Layout button

Figure 1

Nonprinting paragraph mark

indicate spaces between words

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Figure 2 ” » ” « • ” » ” ” • * J J ; “• •:, ICE- . –http://AaBl.Cc

SKILL 1: Create New Documents and Enter Text

ASPEN fA l iSPU BUCilBRARYU

255-Elm-Street*,

Aspen-f»Hs.CA.9M63«,

DT.-JarusHmlayU

AspenfafcComrnunrtyCoBege*.

1-CoSegeCriveli

AspenfaIs.CA-93464«j

Deaf-Or.Hmiv^

Subjedi-Newtogafori lwaryi;

Thark7Cxjso<r>udi<or-yo<jr^tTer<iffer^g<^^rv’CTS<i^’Our^fiiphic-rie5^n5lude^’s*cirsometbr^ry-

re lat£dproject5.We<urrentr / f iave*wrYgor^projec^-r^^

ytxir-students.fj

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1

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Aspenfafls<&mmunlty College*.

1-CoSegeOnveH

ASpenfafc.CA-S346411

Dear-Or.-lmlaY^l

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further.*

DougUs+lopluns,Orrector*i

Psar 1 « 1 t Wonte 117 3>

Figure 3

New file name displays on the title bar

Depending on resolution, document may have scrolled up

Figure 4

8.

7. Type the following, inserting only one space after the period at the end of a sen­ tence: Thank you so much for your letter offering the services of your graphic design students for some library-related projects. We currently have a very good project in mind that might benefit both the library and your students. Compare

— your screen with Figure 3.

As you type, the insertion point moves to the right. At the right margin, Word deter­ mines whether the word you are typing will fit within the established margin. If it does not fit, Word moves the entire word to the beginning of the next line. This feature is called word wrap. You do not need to press (Enter] until you reach the end of a paragraph.

Press [Enter], and then type We want to update our logo to more accurately reflect the wide variety of services offered in a modern library. A logo contest would be a great idea. Call me at (805) 555-1011 at any time to discuss this further.

Press (Enter] and type Sincerely, and then press [Enter] two times. Type Douglas Hopkins, Director

10. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save \M • Navigate to the location where you are saving your files, create a folder named Word Chapter 1 and then using your own name, Save the document as Lastname_ Firstname_w01_Library

11. Compare your screen with Figure 4, and notice that the new file name displays on the title bar.

Categories

## when an event is almost certain to​ happen, its complement will be an unusual event.

 when an event is almost certain to​ happen, its complement will be an unusual event.
Categories

## pycharm vs idle

IDE Wars: JES vs. IDLE vs. PyCharm

An IDE is an Integrated Development Environment.

It is the application used to create applications and code.

1. Research the differences between JES, IDLE, and PyCharm.
2. Compare/contrast features (a chart might be helpful).
3. What Python IDEs are being used in the industry?

Be sure to cite your research using APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

Categories

## Question 1

You can enter the correct range in a function by typing the beginning and ending cell references separated by a ____.

## Question 2

How many chart types does Excel offer?

## Question 3

In Excel, a number can contain the characters _____.

## Question 4

To enter a number such as 6,000,000,000,000,000 you can type 6,000,000,000,000,000 or
you can type _____.

## Question 5

What effect does the Comma Style format have on the selected cells?

## Question 6

To enter data in a cell, you must first select or activate the _____.

## Question 7

Pressing the _____ key to complete an entry activates the adjacent cell to the right.

## Question 8

Clicking the _____ box completes an entry.

## Question 9

By default, text is _____ in a cell.

## Question 10

The _____ is the small black square located in the lower-right corner of the heavy border around the active cell.

## Question 11

In the accompanying figure, the _____ identifies the colors assigned to each bar in the chart on a worksheet.

## Question 12

To cancel an entire entry before entering it into the cell, press the _____ key.

## Question 13

A _____ is a series of two or more adjacent cells in a column or row or a rectangular group of cells, as shown in the accompanying figure.

## Question 14

What effect does the Accounting Number Format have on the selected cells?

## Question 15

The first step in creating an effective worksheet is to make sure you _____.

## Question 16

Which of the following calculations multiplies 23 by 0.01?

## Question 17

Which of the following happens when you enter the formula =G15 into a cell?

## Question 18

To start a new line in a cell, press the _____ keys.

## Question 19

To copy cell contents, you can select the cell and then press the _____ keys.

## Question 20

When you enter a two-digit year that is less than 30, Excel changes the year to _____.

## Question 21

Which of the following is the path to the Conditional Formatting button?

## Question 22

You can select a range using the keyboard by pressing the _____ key and then an ARROW key.

## Question 23

Which of the following is the path to the Spelling button?

## Question 24

All of the following are valid Excel arithmetic operators except _____.

## Question 25

The adjusted cell references in a copied and pasted formula are called _____ references.

## Question 26

Which of the following is not a valid format symbol?

## Question 27

_____ refers to cells not wide enough to display the entire entry.

## Question 28

Which of the following formulas contains an absolute cell reference?

## Question 29

In the accompanying figure, the split double arrow mouse pointer _____.

## Question 30

The _____ function is useful when you want to assign a value to a cell based on a logical test.

## Question 31

When you set up a worksheet, you should use cell references in formulas whenever possible, rather than _____ values.

## Question 32

If formulas located in other cells reference cells in a deleted row or column, Excel does not adjust these cell references but instead displays the _____ error message.

## Question 33

You can press the _____ keys to open the Format Cells dialog box.

## Question 34

Pressing the _____ key(s) removes the marquee from the source area.

## Question 35

Which of the following is the path to the Increase or Decrease Indent button?

## Question 36

The _____ function sums the numbers in the specified range and then divides the sum by the number of cells with numeric values in the range.

## Question 37

When Excel follows the order of operations, the formula, 8 * 3 + 2, equals _____.

## Question 38

The _____ function determines the lowest number in a range.

## Question 39

The _____ function displays the highest value in a range.

## Question 40

The _____ displays numbers with a fixed dollar sign to the left of the number, a comma every three positions to the left of the decimal point, and displays numbers to the nearest cent.

Categories

## what is a data pattern that repeats itself after a period of​ days, weeks,​ months, or​ quarters?

 what is a data pattern that repeats itself after a period of​ days, weeks,​ months, or​ quarters?
Categories

## fikes products

PART 1 PLEASE RESPOND IN 275 WORDS

Fikes Products

•From the case study, discuss possible new options for finding quality employees other than those considered in the case study.

•From the case study, discuss how Mark Sims could better motivate the employees he already has to become more productive and dedicated. Provide specific examples to support your response.

ORIGINAL WORK, NO PLAGIARISM, 1 REFERENCE

PART 2 PLEASE RESPOND AND COMENT TO THIS DISCUSSION NO LESS THE 175 WORDS BASE ON 1 CREDIBLE RESORCE

Fikes Products

•         From the case study, discuss possible new options for finding quality employees other than those considered in the case study.

One other thing that Mr. Sims can do is look in his vicinity for any truck driving schools that might have recent graduates or those who will be graduating and gain permission to post on the schools website the driver job opportunities that he has within his business.  He can employ the help of a professional hiring website such as Glassdoor or Monster that allow candidates to filter jobs by experience so that this way the individuals who apply for positions are truly qualified for the positions posted.

•         From the case study, discuss how Mark Sims could better motivate the employees he already has to become more productive and dedicated.  Provide specific examples to support your response.

Items that Mr. Sims can do to motivate his employees is to identify any knowledge gaps that the employees have and provide individualized training to close the gap.  He can also take a knowledgeable employee and have them do some peer to peer training.  This will not only help the employee who is struggling but will also give the individual training/providing support to their peer motivation to continue to develop their own skill set.  Can Mr. Sims provide quarterly, mid-year or yearly incentives that compensate the employees for acquiring new customers or increasing the relationship with the current customers?  Maybe they can be compensated in the form of a year-end bonus where the employees get monetary compensation if the business meets or exceeds the performance goals and metrics.

Categories

## hermann rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.

Personality10

Enduring Issues in Personality

Studying Personality

Psychodynamic Theories • Sigmund Freud • Carl Jung • Alfred Adler • Karen Horney • Erik Erikson

• A Psychodynamic View of Jaylene Smith

• Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories

Humanistic Personality Theories • Carl Rogers • A Humanistic View of

Jaylene Smith

• Evaluating Humanistic Theories

Trait Theories • The Big Five • A Trait View of Jaylene Smith • Evaluating Trait Theories Cognitive–Social Learning Theories • Expectancies, Self-Efficacy,

and Locus of Control

• A Cognitive–Social Learning View of Jaylene Smith

• Evaluating Cognitive–Social Learning Theories

Personality Assessment • The Personal Interview • Direct Observation • Objective Tests • Projective Tests

O V E R V I E W

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Understanding Psychology, Ninth Edition, by Charles G. Morris and Albert A. Maisto. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Thirty-year-old Jaylene Smith is a talented physician whomeets with a psychologist because she is troubled by cer-tain aspects of her social life. Acquaintances describe Jay in glowing terms, saying she is highly motivated, intelligent, attractive, and charming. But Jay feels terribly insecure and anxious. When the psychologist asked her to pick out some self- descriptive adjectives, she selected “introverted,” “shy,” “inad- equate,” and “unhappy.”

Jay was the firstborn in a family of two boys and one girl. Her father is a quiet, gentle medical researcher. His work often allowed him to study at home, so he had extensive contact with his children when they were young. He loved all his children, but clearly favored Jay. His ambitions and goals for her were extremely high; and as she matured, he responded to her every need and demand almost immediately and with full conviction. Their relationship remains as close today as it was during Jay’s childhood.

Jay’s mother worked long hours away from home as a store manager and consequently saw her children primarily at night and on an occasional free weekend. When she came home, Mrs. Smith was tired and had little energy for “nonessential” interactions with her children. She had always been career ori- ented, but she experienced considerable conflict and frustration trying to reconcile her roles as mother, housekeeper, and finan- cial provider. Mrs. Smith was usually amiable toward all her children but tended to argue more with Jay, until the bickering subsided when Jay was about 6 or 7 years of age. Today, their relationship is cordial but lacks the closeness apparent between Jay and Dr. Smith. Interactions between Dr. and Mrs. Smith were sometimes marred by stormy outbursts over seem- ingly trivial matters. These episodes were always followed by periods of mutual silence lasting for days.

Jay was very jealous of her first brother, born when she was 2 years old. Her parents recall that Jay sometimes staged

335

temper tantrums when the new infant demanded and received a lot of attention (especially from Mrs. Smith). The temper tantrums intensified when Jay’s second brother was born, just 1 year later. As time passed, the brothers formed an alliance to try to undermine Jay’s supreme position with their father. Jay only became closer to her father, and her relationships with her brothers were marked by greater-than-average jealousy and rivalry from early childhood to the present.

Throughout elementary, junior high, and high school, Jay was popular and did well academically. Early on, she decided on a career in medicine. Yet, off and on between the ages of 8 and 17, she had strong feelings of loneliness, depression, insecurity, and confusion—feelings common enough during this age period, but stronger than in most youngsters and very distressing to Jay.

Jay’s college days were a period of great personal growth, but several unsuccessful romantic involvements caused her much pain. The failure to achieve a stable and long-lasting rela- tionship persisted after college and troubled Jay greatly. Although even-tempered in most circumstances, Jay often had an explosive fit of anger that ended each important romantic relationship that she had. “What is wrong with me?” she would ask herself. “Why do I find it impossible to maintain a serious relationship for any length of time?”

In medical school, her conflicts crept into her conscious- ness periodically: “I don’t deserve to be a doctor”; “I won’t pass my exams”; “Who am I, and what do I want from life?”

How can we describe and understand Jaylene Smith’s person- ality? How did she become who she is? Why does she feel insecure and uncertain despite her obvious success? Why do her friends see her as charming and attractive, though she describes herself as introverted and inadequate? These are the kinds of questions that personality psychologists are likely to ask about Jay—and the kinds of questions we will try to answer in this chapter.

ENDURING ISSUES IN PERSONALITY As we explore the topic of personality in this chapter, the enduring issues that interest psychologists emerge at several points. The very concept of personality implies that our behavior differs in significant ways from that of other people (diversity–universality) and that our behavior in part reflects our personality as opposed to the situations in which we find ourselves (person–situation). We will also assess the extent to which personality is a result of inheritance, rather than a reflection of life experiences (nature–nurture). Finally, we will consider the extent to which personality changes as we grow older (stability–change).

STUDYING PERSONALITY What do psychologists mean when they talk about personality?

Many psychologists define personality as an individual’s unique pattern of thoughts, feel- ings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations. There are two important parts to this definition. On the one hand, personality refers to unique differences—those

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E • Define personality. Explain the

difference between describing personality (in particular trait theory) and understanding the causes of personality (psychodynamic, humanistic, and cognitive–social learning theories).

personality An individual’s unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations.

IS B

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25 6-

37 42

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Understanding Psychology, Ninth Edition, by Charles G. Morris and Albert A. Maisto. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc.

pleasure principle According to Freud, the way in which the id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct.

336 Chapter 10

aspects that distinguish a person from everyone else. On the other hand, the definition asserts that personality is relatively stable and enduring—that these unique differences per- sist through time and across situations.

Psychologists vary in their approach to the study of personality. Some set out to iden- tify the most important characteristics of personality, whereas others seek to understand why there are differences in personality. Among the latter group, some consider the family to be the most important factor in personality development, whereas others emphasize the importance of influences outside the family. Still others see personality as the product of how we think about ourselves and our experiences. In this chapter, we explore representa- tive theories of these various approaches. We see how each theoretical paradigm sheds light on the personality of Jaylene Smith. Finally, we will evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and will see how psychologists go about assessing personality.

PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES What ideas do all psychodynamic theories have in common?

Psychodynamic theories see behavior as the product of internal psychological forces that often operate outside our conscious awareness. Freud drew on the physics of his day to coin the term psychodynamics: As thermodynamics is the study of heat and mechanical energy and the way that one may be transformed into the other, psychodynamics is the study of psychic energy and the way that it is transformed and expressed in behavior. Although psy- chodynamic theorists disagree about the exact nature of this psychic energy, the following five propositions are central to all psychodynamic theories and have withstood the tests of time (Huprich & Keaschuk, 2006; Westen, 1998):

1. Much of mental life is unconscious; as a result, people may behave in ways that they themselves do not understand.

2. Mental processes (such as emotions, motivations, and thoughts) operate in paral- lel and thus may lead to conflicting feelings.

3. Not only do stable personality patterns begin to form in childhood, but early expe- riences also strongly affect personality development.

4. Our mental representations of ourselves, of others, and of our relationships tend to guide our interactions with other people.

5. Personality development involves learning to regulate sexual and aggressive feel- ings as well as becoming socially interdependent rather than dependent.

Sigmund Freud When Freud proposed that sexual instinct is the basis of behavior, how was he defining “sexual instinct”?

To this day, Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) is the best known and most influential of the psy- chodynamic theorists (Solms, 2004). As we saw in Chapter 1, “The Science of Psychology,” Freud created an entirely new perspective on the study of human behavior. Up to his time, the field of psychology had focused on thoughts and feelings of which we are aware. In a radical departure, Freud stressed the unconscious—the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not normally aware (Zwettler-Otte, 2008). Freud’s ideas form the basis of psychoanalysis, a term that refers both to his particular psychodynamic theory of person- ality and to the form of therapy that he invented.

According to Freud, human behavior is based on unconscious instincts, or drives. Some instincts are aggressive and destructive; others, such as hunger, thirst, self-preservation, and sex, are necessary to the survival of the individual and the species. Freud used the term sexual instinct to refer not just to erotic sexuality, but to the craving for pleasure of all kinds. He used the term libido for the energy generated by the sexual instinct. As we will see, Freud regarded the sexual instinct as the most critical factor in the development of personality.

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S • Describe the five propositions that

are central to all psychodynamic personality theories.

• Describe Freud’s theory of personality, including the concepts of sexual instinct, libido, id, ego, superego, and pleasure principle versus reality principle. Summarize Freud’s stages of development and the consequences of fixation at a particular stage.

• Compare and contrast Freud’s theory, Carl Jung’s theory, Adler’s theory, Horney’s theory, and Erikson’s theory of personality.

• Explain how contemporary psychologists view the contributions and limitations of the psychodynamic perspective.

psychoanalysis The theory of personality Freud developed, as well as the form of therapy he invented.

unconscious In Freud’s theory, all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not and normally cannot become aware.

libido According to Freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct.

id In Freud’s theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression.

reality principle According to Freud, the way in which the ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely and effectively in the real world.

ego Freud’s term for the part of the personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id); now often used as a synonym for “self.”

superego According to Freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and the ego ideal.

ego ideal The part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be.

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How Personality is Structured Freud theorized that personality is formed around three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the only structure present at birth and is completely unconscious. (See Figure 10–1.) Consisting of all the unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression, it operates according to the pleasure principle—that is, it tries to obtain immediate pleasure and to avoid pain. As soon as an instinct arises, the id seeks to gratify it. Because the id is not in contact with the real world, however, it has only two ways of obtaining gratification. One way is by reflex actions, such as coughing, which immediately relieve unpleasant sensations. The other is through fan- tasy, or wish fulfillment: A person forms a mental image of an object or a situation that par- tially satisfies the instinct and relieves the uncomfortable feeling. This kind of thought occurs most often in dreams and daydreams, but it may take other forms. For instance, if someone insults you and you spend the next half hour imagining clever retorts, you are engaging in wish fulfillment.

Mental images of this kind provide fleeting relief, but they cannot fully satisfy most needs. For example, just thinking about being with someone you love is a poor substitute for actually being with that person. Therefore, the id by itself is not very effective at gratifying instincts. It must link to reality if it is to relieve its discomfort. The id’s link to reality is the ego.

Freud conceived of the ego as the psychic mechanism that controls all thinking and reasoning activities. The ego operates partly con- sciously, partly preconsciously, and partly uncon- sciously. (“Preconscious” refers to material that is not currently in awareness but can easily be recalled.) The ego seeks to satisfy the id’s drives in the external world. But instead of acting according to the pleasure principle, the ego oper- ates by the reality principle: By means of intelli- gent reasoning, the ego tries to delay satisfying the id’s desires until it can do so safely and suc- cessfully. For example, if you are thirsty, your ego will attempt to determine how effectively and safely to quench your thirst. (See Figure 10–2.)

A personality consisting only of ego and id would be completely selfish. It would behave effectively, but unsociably. Fully adult behavior is governed not only by reality, but also by the individual’s conscience or by the moral stan- dards developed through interaction with par- ents and society. Freud called this moral watchdog the superego.

The superego is not present at birth. In fact, in Freud’s view young children are amoral and do whatever is pleasurable. As we mature, how- ever, we adopt as our own the judgments of our parents about what is “good” and “bad.” In time, the external restraint applied by our par- ents gives way to our own internal self-restraint. The superego, eventually acting as our conscience, takes over the task of observing and guiding the ego, just as the parents once observed and guided the child. In addition, the superego compares the ego’s actions with an ego ideal of perfection and then rewards or punishes the ego accordingly. Like the ego, the superego works at the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels.

Ideally, our id, ego, and superego work in harmony, with the ego satisfying the demands of the id in a reasonable manner that is approved by the superego. We are then free to love and hate and to express our emotions sensibly and without guilt. When our id is dominant, our instincts are unbridled and we are likely to endanger both ourselves and society. When our superego dominates, our behavior is checked too tightly and we are inclined to judge ourselves too harshly or too quickly, impairing our ability to act on our own behalf and enjoy ourselves.

Figure 10–1 The structural relationship formed by the id, ego, and superego. Freud’s conception of personality is often depicted as an iceberg to illustrate how the vast workings of the mind occur beneath its surface. Notice that the ego is partly conscious, partly unconscious, and partly preconscious; it derives knowledge of the external world through the senses. The superego also works at all three levels. But the id is an enirely uncon- scious structure. Source: Adapted from New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud, 1933. New York: Carlton House.

Unconscious: Well below the surface of awareness

Preconscious: Material that can be easily recalled

Id Pleasure principle Unconscious urges and desires

Ego Self Reality principle

Superego Ego ideal Moral guardian

Conscious: Ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are aware

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How Personality Devel- ops Freud’s theory of personal- ity development focuses on the way in which we satisfy the sexual instinct during the course of life. As infants mature, their libido becomes focused on various sensitive parts of the body during sequential stages of development. If a child is deprived of pleasure (or allowed too much gratification) from the part of the body that dominates a certain stage, some sexual energy may remain permanently tied to that part of the body, instead of moving on in normal sequence to give the individual a fully integrated personality. This is called fixation and, as we shall see, Freud believed that it leads

to immature forms of sexuality and to certain characteristic personality traits. Let’s look more closely at the psychosexual stages that Freud identified and their presumed relation- ship to personality development.

In the oral stage (birth to 18 months), infants, who depend completely on other peo- ple to satisfy their needs, relieve sexual tension by sucking and swallowing; when their baby teeth come in, they obtain oral pleasure from chewing and biting. According to Freud, infants who receive too much oral gratification at this stage grow into overly optimistic and dependent adults; they are likely to lack confidence and to be gullible. Those who receive too little gratification may turn into pessimistic and hostile people later in life who are sar- castic and argumentative.

During the anal stage (roughly 18 months to 31/2 years), the primary source of sexual pleasure shifts from the mouth to the anus. Just about the time children begin to derive plea- sure from holding in and excreting feces, toilet training takes place, and they must learn to regulate this new pleasure in ways that are acceptable to their superego. In Freud’s view, if par- ents are too strict in toilet training, some children throw temper tantrums and may live in self-destructive ways as adults. Others are likely to become obstinate, stingy, and excessively orderly. If parents are too lenient, their children may become messy, unorganized, and sloppy.

When children reach the phallic stage (after age 3), they discover their genitals and develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex while becoming jealous of the same-sex parent. In boys, Freud called this the Oedipus complex, after the character in Greek mythology who killed his father and married his mother. Girls go through a corre- sponding Electra complex, involving possessive love for their father and jealousy toward their mother. Most children eventually resolve these conflicts by identifying with the parent of the same sex. However, Freud contended that fixation at this stage leads to vanity and egotism in adult life, with men boasting of their sexual prowess and treating women with contempt, and with women becoming flirtatious and promiscuous. Phallic fixation may also prompt feelings of low self-esteem, shyness, and worthlessness.

At the end of the phallic period, Freud believed, children lose interest in sexual behav- ior and enter a latency period. During this period, which begins around the age of 5 or 6 and lasts until age 12 or 13, boys play with boys, girls play with girls, and neither sex takes much interest in the other.

At puberty, the individual enters the last psychosexual stage, the genital stage. Sexual impulses reawaken and, ideally, the quest for immediate gratification of these desires yields to mature sexuality in which postponed gratification, a sense of responsibility, and caring for others all play a part.

fixation According to Freud, a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual’s psychosexual development.

oral stage First stage in Freud’s theory of personality development, in which the infant’s erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue.

anal stage Second stage in Freud’s theory of personality development, in which a child’s erotic feelings center on the anus and on elimination.

phallic stage Third stage in Freud’s theory of personality development, in which erotic feelings center on the genitals.

Oedipus complex and Electra complex According to Freud, a child’s sexual attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and jealousy toward the parent of the same sex; generally occurs in the phallic stage.

latency period In Freud’s theory of personality, a period in which the child appears to have no interest in the other sex; occurs after the phallic stage.

genital stage In Freud’s theory of personality development, the final stage of normal adult sexual development, which is usually marked by mature sexuality.

Figure 10–2 How Freud conceived the workings of the pleasure and reality principles. Note that according to the reality principle, the ego uses rational thought to postpone the grati- fication of the id until its desires can be satis- fied safely.

Unpleasure in the id

Release of discomfort by first available

means

External stimulus

Pleasure in the id

Increasing discomfort

in the id

Internal stimulus

External stimulus

Internal stimulus

Unpleasure in the id

Rational thought of ego

Release of discomfort by

safest and best available means

Pleasure in the id

Increasing discomfort

in the id

How the Pleasure Principle Works

How the Reality Principle Works

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Freud is certainly not without his critics. As we will see, even members of Freud’s own psychoanalytic school did not completely endorse his emphasis on sexuality. Contempo- rary psychodynamic theorists tend to put greater emphasis on the ego and its attempts to gain mastery over the world. Finally, some critics have suggested that male and female per- sonality development occur in very different ways, and that Freud’s male-centered theory sheds little if any light on female personality development (Zeedyk & Greemwood, 2008).

Carl Jung How did Carl Jung’s view of the unconscious differ from that of Freud?

Carl Jung (1875–1961) agreed with many of Freud’s tenets, including his emphasis on the role of the unconscious in human behavior, but he expanded the role of the unconscious. Jung contended that libido represents all life forces, not just pleasure-seeking. And where Freud viewed the id as a “cauldron of seething excitations” that the ego has to control, Jung saw the unconscious as the ego’s source of strength and vitality. He also believed that the unconscious consists of the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. The personal unconscious includes our repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undevel- oped ideas, which may enter consciousness if an incident or a sensation triggers their recall.

Diversity–Universality Universal Human Archetypes The collective unconscious, Jung’s most original concept, comprises memories and behav- ior patterns that are inherited from past generations and therefore are shared by all humans. Just as the human body is the product of millions of years of evolution, so too, according to Jung, is the human mind. Over millennia, it has developed “thought forms,” or collective memories, of experiences that people have had in common since prehistoric times. He called these thought forms archetypes. Archetypes appear in our thoughts as mental images. Because all people have mothers, for example, the archetype of “mother” is universally associated with the image of one’s own mother, with Mother Earth, and with a protective presence.

Jung felt that specific archetypes play special roles in shaping personality. The persona (an archetype whose meaning stems from the Latin word for “mask”) is the element of our personality that we project to other people—a shell that grows around our inner self. For some people, the public self so predominates that they lose touch with their inner feelings, leading to personality maladjustments. ■ personal unconscious In Jung’s theory of

personality, one of the two levels of the unconscious; it contains the individual’s repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas.

introverts According to Jung, people who usually focus on their own thoughts and feelings.

extraverts According to Jung, people who usually focus on social life and the external world instead of on their internal experience.

Jung also divided people into two general attitude types—introverts and extraverts. Extraverts turn their attention to the external world. They are “joiners” who take an active interest in other people and in the events going on around them. Introverts are more caught up in their own private worlds. They tend to be unsociable and lack confidence in dealing with other people. Everyone, Jung felt, possesses some aspects of both attitude types, but one is usually dominant.

Jung further divided people into rational individuals, who regulate their actions by thinking and feeling, and irrational individuals, who base their actions on perceptions, whether through the senses (sensation) or through unconscious processes (intuition). Most people exhibit all four psychological functions: thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuit- ing. Jung felt, however, that one or more of these functions is usually dominant. Thus, the thinking person is rational and logical, and decides on the basis of facts. The feeling person is sensitive to his or her surroundings, acts tactfully, and has a balanced sense of values. The sensing type relies primarily on surface perceptions and rarely uses imagination or deeper understanding. And the intuitive type sees beyond obvious solutions and facts to consider future possibilities.

archetypes In Jung’s theory of personality, thought forms common to all human beings, stored in the collective unconscious.

collective unconscious In Jung’s theory of personality, the level of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species.

According to Carl Jung, we all inherit from our ancestors collective memories or “thought forms” that people have had in com- mon since the dawn of human evolution. The image of a motherlike figure with protective, embracing arms is one such primordial thought form that stems from the important, nurturing role of women throughout human history. This thought form is depicted here in this Bulgarian clay figure of a goddess that dates back some six or seven thousand years.

persona According to Jung, our public self, the mask we wear to represent ourselves to others.

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compensation According to Adler, the person’s effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses.

340 Chapter 10

While Freud emphasized the primacy of the sexual instincts, Jung stressed people’s rational and spiritual qualities. And while Freud considered develop- ment to be shaped in childhood, Jung thought that psychic development comes to fruition only during middle age. Jung brought a sense of historical continuity to his theories, tracing the roots of human personality back through our ancestral past; yet he also contended that a person moves constantly toward self-realization—toward blending all parts of the personality into a harmonious whole.

Alfred Adler What did Alfred Adler believe was the major determinant of personality?

Alfred Adler (1870–1937) disagreed sharply with Freud’s concept of the conflict between the selfish id and the morality-based superego. To Adler, people possess

innate positive motives and they strive for personal and social perfection. One of his earli- est theories grew out of personal experience: As a child, Adler was frail and almost died of pneumonia at the age of 5. This early brush with death led him to believe that personality develops through the individual’s attempt to overcome physical weaknesses, an effort he called compensation.

Adler later modified and broadened his views, contending that people seek to over- come feelings of inferiority that may or may not have a basis in reality. He thought that such feelings often spark positive development and personal growth. Still, some people become so fixated on their feelings of inferiority that they become paralyzed and develop what Adler called an inferiority complex. Later in his life, Adler again shifted his theoretical emphasis in a more positive direction suggesting that people strive both for personal per- fection and for the perfection of the society to which they belong.

The emphasis Adler placed on positive, socially constructive goals and on striving for perfection is in marked contrast to Freud’s pessimistic vision of the selfish person locked into eternal conflict with society. Because of this emphasis, Adler has been hailed by many psychologists as the father of humanistic psychology (Cain, 2002), a topic we will explore in greater depth later in this chapter.

Karen Horney What major contributions did Karen Horney make to the psychodynamic perspective?

Karen Horney (1885–1952), another psychodynamic personality theorist greatly indebted to Freud, nevertheless took issue with some of his most prominent ideas, espe- cially his analysis of women and his emphasis on sexual instincts. Based on her experi- ence as a practicing therapist in Germany and the United States, Horney concluded that environmental and social factors are the most important influences in shaping personal- ity; and among these, the most pivotal are the human relationships we experience as chil- dren (W. B. Smith, 2007).

In Horney’s view, Freud overemphasized the sex drive, resulting in a distorted picture of human relationships. Horney believed that sexuality does figure in the development of personality, but nonsexual factors—such as the need for a sense of basic security and the person’s response to real or imagined threats—play an even larger role. For example, all people share the need to feel loved and nurtured by their parents, regardless of any sexual feelings they might have about them. Conversely, parents’ protective feelings toward their children emerge not only from biological forces but also from the value that society places on the nurturance of children.

A contemporary representation from U.S. cul- ture of the Jungian archetype of the Wise Old Man can be seen in Albus Dumbledore (from the movies based on J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series).

22-time Grammy Award winner Stevie Won- der, who cultivated particularly acute audi- tory abilities, illustrates what Alfred Adler referred to as compensation.

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Karen Horney, a psychotherapist during the first half of the 20th century, disagreed with Freud’s emphasis on sexual instincts. She considered environmental and social factors, especially the relationships we have as chil- dren, to be the most important influences on personality.

Personality 341

For Horney, anxiety—an individual’s reaction to real or imagined dangers—is a pow- erful motivating force. Whereas Freud believed that anxiety usually emerges from uncon- scious sexual conflicts, Horney stressed that feelings of anxiety also originate in a variety of nonsexual contexts. For example, in childhood anxiety arises because children depend on adults for their very survival. Insecure about receiving continued nurturance and protec- tion, children develop inner protections, or defenses, that provide both satisfaction and security. They experience more anxiety when those defenses are threatened.

In adulthood, anxiety and insecurity can lead to neurotic lifestyles that that may help to deal with emotional problems and ensure safety but only at the expense of personal independence (Horney, 1937). Some people develop an overriding need to give in or sub- mit to others and feel safe only when receiving their protection and guidance. Others deal with basic feelings of insecurity and anxiety by adopting a hostile and domineering man- ner. Still others withdraw from other people, as if saying “If I withdraw, nothing can hurt me.” In contrast, well-adjusted people deal with anxiety without becoming trapped in neu- rotic lifestyles because their childhood environment enabled them to satisfy their basic emotional needs.

inferiority complex In Adler’s theory, the fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional and social paralysis.

Stability–Change Is Biology Destiny? Horney’s conviction that social and cultural forces are far more important than biological ones had a profound effect on her views of human development. For example, in contrast to Freud’s view that personality is largely formed by the end of childhood, Horney believed that adults can continue to develop and change throughout life by coming to understand the source of their basic anxiety and trying to eliminate neurotic anxiety. Horney also opened the way to a more constructive and optimistic understanding of male and female personality. She emphasized that culture, rather than anatomy, determines many of the characteristics that differentiate women from men. For example, if women feel dissatisfied with their gender or men are overly aggressive, the explanation is likely to be found in their social status and social roles, not in their anatomy; and fortunately, social status and social roles can be changed. Indeed, she was a forerunner of contemporary thinkers who believe that we can change culture and society and, in the process, transform human relationships (Gilman, 2001). ■

Erik Erikson, another psychodynamic theorist, also stressed the importance of parent–child relationships for shaping personality. His eight-stage theory of personality develop- ment is still influential today.

Erik Erikson Erikson’s theory focused less on unconscious conflict and more on what factors?

Like Horney, Erik Erikson—a psychodynamic theorist who studied with Freud in Vienna—took a socially oriented view of personality development. While Erikson agreed with much of Freud’s thinking on sexual development and the influence of libidinal needs on personality, he put much greater emphasis on the quality of parent–child relationships. According to Erikson, only if children feel competent and valuable, in their own eyes and in society’s view, will they develop a secure sense of identity. In this way, Erikson shifted the focus of Freud’s personality theory to ego development.

Whereas Freud’s stages of personality development ended with adolescence, Erikson believed that personality continues to develop and change throughout life. But in contrast to Horney, he believed that the various stages of life present a variety of different chal- lenges. Success in dealing with early challenges lays the groundwork for effective adjust- ment at later stages. Conversely, failure to resolve early crises makes later adjustment more difficult. In Chapter 9 (“Life-Span Development”) we explored each of Erikson’s stages in considerable detail. Figure 10–3 provides a concise comparison of Erikson’s and Freud’s stages of personality development.

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A Psychodynamic View of Jaylene Smith How would a psychodynamic theorist view the personality of Jaylene Smith?

According to Freud, personality characteristics such as insecurity, introversion, and feelings of inadequacy and worthlessness often arise from fixation at the phallic stage of develop- ment. Thus, had Freud been Jaylene’s therapist, he would probably have concluded that Jay has not yet effectively resolved her Electra complex. Working from this premise, he would have hypothesized that Jay’s relationship with her father was either very distant and unsat- isfying or unusually close and gratifying. We know, of course, that it was the latter.

In all likelihood, Freud would also have asserted that at around age 5 or 6, Jay had become aware that she could not actually marry her father and do away with her mother, as he would say she wished to do. This possibility might account for the fact that fights between Jay and her mother subsided when Jay was about 6 or 7 years of age. Moreover, we know that shortly thereafter, Jay began to experience “strong feelings of loneliness, depression, insecu- rity, and confusion.” Clearly, something important happened in Jay’s life when she was 6 or 7.

Finally, the continued coolness of Jay’s relationship with her mother and the unusual closeness with her father would probably have confirmed Freud’s suspicion that Jay has still not satisfactorily resolved her Electra complex. Freud would have predicted that Jay would have problems making the progression to mature sexual relationships with other men. Jay, of course, is very much aware that she has problems relating to men, at least when these

relationships get “serious.” And what does Erikson’s theory tell us about

Jaylene Smith’s personality? Recall that for Erikson, one’s success in dealing with later developmental crises depends on how effectively one has resolved earlier crises. Because Jay is having great difficulty in dealing with intimacy (Stage 6), he would have sug- gested that she is still struggling with problems from earlier developmental stages. Erikson would have looked for the source of these problems in the qual- ity of Jay’s relationship with others. We know that her mother subtly communicated her own frustra- tion and dissatisfaction to her children and spent lit- tle time on “nonessential” interactions with them.

Figure 10–3 Erikson’s eight stages of personality development. Each stage involves its own developmental crisis, whose resolution is crucial to adjustment in successive stages. The first five of the eight stages correspond to Freud’s stages of personality development. Source: Figure, “Erickson’s Stages of Personality Development” from Childhood and Society by Erik H. Erikson. Copyright 1950, © 1963 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Renewed 1978, 1991 by Erik H. Erikson. Used by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. and Random House Ltd., UK.

Stage

Oral

Anal

Phallic

Latency

Genital

Maturity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Basic trust vs.

mistrust

Erikson’s stages of personality development

Fr eu

d ’s

s ta

g es

o f

p er

so n

al it

y d

ev el

o p

m en

t

Autonomy vs. shame,

doubt Initiative

vs. guilt

Industry vs.

inferiority

Identity vs. role

confusion Intimacy

vs. isolation

Generativity vs.

stagnation Ego

integrity vs. despair

Psychoanalysis

Freud’s original theory was based on case studies of his patients; and the lit-erature on psychoanalysis consists mainly of case studies—descriptions ofindividual cases of psychopathology, probable causes, and their treatment. Today, however, psychological science depends increasingly on experimental evidence and biological explanations for mental phenomena. Review the five basic concepts of psychodynamic theory described by Westen on page 336 and think about what kinds of evidence might convince you that they are indeed cor- rect. What evidence would lead you to conclude that they are not in fact correct?

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These feelings and behavior patterns would not have instilled in a child the kind of basic trust and sense of security that Erikson believed are essential to the first stage of develop- ment. In addition, her relationship with her mother and brothers continued to be less than fully satisfactory. It is not surprising, then, that Jay had some difficulty working through subsequent developmental crises. Although she developed a close and caring relationship with her father, Jay was surely aware that his affection partly depended on her fulfilling the dreams, ambitions, and goals that he had for her.

Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories How do modern psychologists view the contributions and limitations of the psychodynamic perspective?

Freud’s emphasis on the fact that we are not always—or even often—aware of the real causes of our behavior has fundamentally changed the way people view themselves and others. Freud’s ideas have also had a lasting impact on history, literature, and the arts (Krugler, 2004). Yet, Freud was a product of his time and place. Critics who contend his theory reflects a sexist view of women have pointed out that he was apparently unable to imagine a con- nection between his female patients’ sense of inferiority and their subordinate position in society. Psychodynamic views have also been criticized as lacking a scientific basis in that they are based largely on retrospective (backward-looking) accounts of a limited sample of individuals who have sought treatment, rather than on research with “healthy” individuals.

Although it is often difficult to translate psychodynamic personality theories into hypotheses that can be tested experimentally (Cloninger, 2003; Holt, 2003), Freud’s theory has received limited confirmation from research (Leichsenring, 2005). For example, people with eating disorders often have oral personalities (J. Perry, Silvera, & Rosenvinge, 2002). Orally fixated people generally eat and drink too much, tend to mention oral images when interpret- ing inkblot tests, and also seem to depend heavily on others, as Freud predicted (Fisher & Greenberg, 1985). Moreover, research confirms an association between specific personality types in childhood and later development of psychological problems. For example, a child with an inhibited temperament is more likely to develop social anxiety disorder as an adult (Gladstone, Parker, Mitchell, Wilhelm, & Malhi, 2005). The effectiveness of psychoanalysis as a therapy has also been cited as evidence in support of Freud’s theories (Leichsenring, 2005). Still, as we shall see in Chapter 13,“Therapies,”psychoanalysis does not seem to be any more or less effective than therapies based on other theories (J. A. Carter, 2006).

Freud’s theories have clearly expanded our understanding of personality, or they would not still be so vigorously debated today, more than 100 years after he proposed them. Whatever their merit as science, psychodynamic theories attempt to explain the root causes of all human behavior. The sheer magnitude of this undertaking helps to account for their lasting attractiveness.

Match the following Jungian terms with the appropriate definition. 1. 2.

3.

4. According to Alfred Adler, a person with a fixation on or belief in a negative characteristic has an ___________. They may try to overcome their perceived weakness through ____________.

5. Horney believed that ____________ is a stronger source of emotional disturbance than sexual urges.

persona a. typical mental image or mythical representation collective unconscious b. memories and behavior patterns inherited from

past generations archetype c. aspect of the personality by which one is

known to other people

Answers:1. c.2. b.3. a.4. inferiority complex; compensation.5. anxiety.

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HUMANISTIC PERSONALITY THEORIES What are the major ways that humanistic personality theory differs from psychodynamic theories?

Freud believed that personality grows out of the resolution of unconscious conflicts and developmental crises. Many of his followers—including some who modified his theory and others who broke away from his circle—also embraced this basic viewpoint. But in the the- ory of Alfred Adler, we glimpsed a very different view of human nature. Adler focused on forces that contribute to positive growth and a move toward personal perfection. For these reasons, Adler is sometimes called the first humanistic personality theorist.

Humanistic personality theory emphasizes that we are positively motivated and progress toward higher levels of functioning—in other words, there is more to human exis- tence than dealing with hidden conflicts. Humanistic psychologists believe that life is a process of opening ourselves to the world around us and experiencing joy in living. They stress people’s potential for growth and change as well as the ways they experience their lives right now, rather than dwelling on how they felt or acted in the past. Finally, humanists also believe that given reasonable life conditions, people will develop in desirable directions (Cloninger, 2003; Criswell, 2003). Adler’s concept of striving for perfection laid the ground- work for later humanistic personality theorists such as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. We discussed Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs leading to self-actualization in Chapter 8, “Motivation and Emotion.” We now turn to Rogers’s theory of self-actualization.

Carl Rogers According to Rogers, how can thinking of yourself as self-assured help you to become so?

One of the most prominent humanistic theorists, Carl Rogers (1902–1987), contended that men and women develop their personalities in the service of positive goals. According to Rogers, every organism is born with certain innate capacities, capabilities, or potentialities—“a sort of genetic blueprint, to which substance is added as life progresses” (Maddi, 1989, p. 102).

1. An angry parent imagines hitting a child for misbehaving, but decides instead to discuss the misbehavior with the child and to point out why the behavior was wrong. After hearing the child’s explanation for the behavior, the parent feels guilty for having been so angry. The parent’s anger and fantasy are the result of the ____________; the decision to discuss the problem is the result of the ____________; and the guilt derives from the ____________.

a. ego; superego; id b. id; ego; superego c. ego; id; superego d. id; superego; ego

2. John is a young adult. According to Erikson, the major challenge he faces is ____________, which will be followed in middle adulthood by the crisis of ____________.

a. intimacy vs. isolation; integrity vs. despair b. intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation c. identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation d. identity vs. role confusion; integrity vs. despair e. identity vs. role confusion; initiative vs. guilt

humanistic personality theory Any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning.

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S • Explain how humanistic personality

theories differ from psychodynamic theories. Distinguish Rogers’ concept of actualizing tendency and self- actualizing tendency, conditional versus unconditional positive regard, and what it means to be a fully functioning person.

• Summarize the contributions and limitations of the humanistic perspective.

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Personality 345

The goal of life, Rogers believed, is to fulfill this genetic blueprint, to become the best of what- ever each of us is inherently capable of becoming. Rogers called this biological push toward fulfillment the actualizing tendency. Although Rogers maintained that the actualizing ten- dency characterizes all organisms—plants, animals, and humans—he noted that human beings also form images of themselves, or self-concepts. Just as we try to fulfill our inborn bio- logical potential, so, too, we attempt to fulfill our self-concept, our conscious sense of who we are and what we want to do with our lives. Rogers called this striving the self-actualizing tendency. If you think of yourself as “intelligent” and “athletic,” for example, you will strive to live up to those images of yourself.

When our self-concept is closely matched with our inborn capacities, we are likely to become what Rogers called a fully functioning person. Such people are self-directed: They decide for themselves what it is they wish to do and to become, even though their choices may not always be sound ones. Fully functioning people are also open to experience—to their own feelings as well as to the world and other people around them—and thus find themselves “increasingly willing to be, with greater accuracy and depth, that self which [they] most truly [are]” (Rogers, 1961, pp. 175–176).

According to Rogers, people tend to become more fully functioning if they are brought up with unconditional positive regard, or the experience of being treated with warmth, respect, acceptance, and love regardless of their own feelings, attitudes, and behaviors. But often parents and other adults offer children what Rogers called conditional positive regard: They value and accept only certain aspects of the child. The acceptance, warmth, and love that the child receives from others then depend on the child’s behaving in certain ways and fulfilling certain conditions. In the process, self-concept comes to resemble the inborn capacity less and less, and the child’s life deviates from the genetic blueprint.

When people lose sight of their inborn potential, they become constricted, rigid, and defensive. They feel threatened and anxious, and experience considerable discomfort and uneasiness. Because their lives are directed toward what other people want and value, they are unlikely to experience much real satisfaction in life. At some point, they may realize that they don’t really know who they are or what they want.

A Humanistic View of Jaylene Smith How would humanistic theorists view the development of Jaylene Smith’s personality?

Humanistic personality theory would focus on the discrepancy between Jay’s self-concept and her inborn capacities. For example, Rogers would point out that Jay is intelligent and achievement-oriented but nevertheless feels that she doesn’t “deserve to be a doctor,” wor- ries about whether she will ever be “truly happy,” and remembers that when she was 13, she never was able to be herself and really express her feelings, even with a good friend. Her unhappiness, fearfulness, loneliness, insecurity, and other dissatisfactions similarly stem from Jay’s inability to become what she “most truly is.” Rogers would suspect that other people in Jay’s life made acceptance and love conditional on her living up to their ideas of what she should become. We know that for most of her life, Jay’s father was her primary source of positive regard. Very possibly, he conditioned his love for Jay on her living up to his goals for her.

Evaluating Humanistic Theories What have humanistic theories contributed to our understanding of personality?

The central tenet of most humanistic personality theories—that the overriding purpose of the human condition is to realize one’s potential—is difficult if not impossible to verify sci- entifically. The resulting lack of scientific evidence and rigor is one of the major criticisms

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actualizing tendency According to Rogers, the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become what it is inherently capable of becoming.

conditional positive regard In Rogers’s theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on another’s behaving in certain ways and on fulfilling certain conditions.

unconditional positive regard In Rogers’s theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of his or her behavior.

self-actualizing tendency According to Rogers, the drive of human beings to fulfill their self-concepts, or the images they have of themselves.

fully functioning person According to Rogers, an individual whose self-concept closely resembles his or her inborn capacities or potentials.

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346 Chapter 10

of these theories. In addition, some critics claim that humanistic theories present an overly optimistic view of human beings and fail to take into account the evil in human nature. Others contend that the humanistic view fosters self-centeredness and narcissism, and reflects Western values of individual achievement rather than universal human potential.

Nonetheless, Maslow and especially Rogers did attempt to test some aspects of their theories scientifically. For example, Rogers studied the discrepancy between the way people perceived themselves and the way they ideally wanted to be. He discovered that people whose real selves differed considerably from their ideal selves were more likely to be unhappy and dissatisfied.

Indicate whether the following are true (T) or false (F). 1. ________ Humanistic personality theory emphasizes that we are motivated by conflicts,

whereas psychodynamic personality theory emphasizes positive strivings. 2. ________ The goal of life, Rogers believed, is to become the best person that we can

inherently become. 3. ________ Our self-concept is our inborn biological potential. 4. ________ When people lose sight of their inborn potential, they are unlikely to experience

much satisfaction.

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S • Compare and contrast the trait theories

of Cattell and Eysenck and the current five-factor model of personality. Briefly summarize the research evidence on the usefulness and universality of the five-factor model, the stability of personality traits over time and across situations, and the biological basis of personality traits.

• Summarize the contributions and limitations of the trait perspective.

1. Barbara was brought up with unconditional positive regard. According to Rogers, she is likely to

a. be vain and narcissistic. b. feel she is valued regardless of her attitudes and behavior. c. have self-concepts that do not correspond very closely to her inborn capacities. d. Both (b) and (c) are true.

2. Your friend has always known that she wants to be a doctor. When you ask her how she knows that, she says, “That’s just who I am. It’s what I want to do with my life.” Rogers calls the push toward fulfilling this sense of who she is

a. being fully functioning. b. engaging in a compensatory process. c. expressing a high need for achievement. d. the self-actualizing tendency.

TRAIT THEORIES What is the key focus of trait theories?

The personality theories that we have examined so far all emphasize early childhood expe- riences; and all attempt to explain the varieties of human personality. Other personality theorists focus on the present, describing the ways in which already-developed adult per- sonalities differ from one another. These trait theorists assert that people differ according to the degree to which they possess certain personality traits, such as dependency, anxiety, aggressiveness, and sociability. We infer a trait from how a person behaves. If someone con- sistently throws parties, goes to great lengths to make friends, and travels in groups, we might safely conclude that this person possesses a high degree of sociability.

Our language has many words that describe personality traits. Gordon Allport, along with his colleague H. S. Odbert (1936), found nearly 18,000 dictionary entries that might refer to personality traits. However, only about 2,800 of the words on Allport and Odbert’s

personality traits Dimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways.

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Personality 347

list concern the kinds of stable or enduring characteristics that most psychologists would call personality traits; and when synonyms and near-synonyms are removed, the number of possible personality traits drops to around 200—which is still a formidable list. Psycholo- gist Raymond Cattell (1965), using a statistical technique called factor analysis, found that those 200 traits tend to cluster in groups. Thus, a person who is described as persevering or determined is also likely to be thought of as responsible, ordered, attentive, and stable and probably would not be described as frivolous, neglectful, and changeable. On the basis of extensive research, Cattell originally concluded that just 16 traits account for the complex- ity of human personality; later he suggested that it might be necessary to add another 7 traits to the list (Cattell & Kline, 1977).

Other theorists thought that Cattell used too many traits to describe personality. Eysenck (1976) argued that personality could be reduced to three basic dimensions: emotional stabil- ity, introversion–extraversion, and psychoticism. According to Eysenck, emotional stability refers to how well a person controls emotions. On a continuum, individuals at one end of this trait would be seen as poised, calm, and composed, whereas people at the other end might be described as anxious, nervous, and excitable. Introversion–extraversion refers to the degree to which a person is inwardly or outwardly oriented. At one end of this dimension would be the socially outgoing, talkative, and affectionate people, known as extraverts. Introverts— generally described as reserved, silent, shy, and socially withdrawn—would be at the other extreme. Eysenck used the term psychoticism to describe people characterized by insensitivity and uncooperativeness at one end and warmth, tenderness, and helpfulness at the other end.

Nature–Nurture Is Personality Inherited? For Allport, traits—or “dispositions,” as he called them—are literally encoded in the ner- vous system as structures that guide consistent behavior across a wide variety of situations. Allport also believed that while traits describe behaviors that are common to many people, each individual personality comprises a unique constellation of traits. While few psycholo- gists today would deny the influence of the environment in shaping personality, recent evi- dence substantiating the importance of genetic factors to the development of specific personality traits supports Allport’s hunch that at least some personality traits are encoded biologically (Rushton, Bons, & Hur, 2008). ■

The Big Five What five basic traits describe most differences in personality?

As listed in Table 10–1, contemporary trait theorists have boiled down personality traits to five basic dimensions: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and culture (Costa & McCrae, 2006; McCrae et al., 2008). There is a growing consensus today that these Big Five personality dimensions, also known as the five-factor model, capture the most salient dimensions of human personality (Costa & McCrae, 2006; De Raad, 1998), although there is some disagreement about whether the fifth dimension should be called “culture” or “openness to experience” or “intellect.” Recently, each of the Big Five traits has been shown to have at least six facets, or components, as shown in Table 10–1 (DeYoung, Quilty, & Peterson, 2007; Jang, Livesley, McCrae, Angleitner, & Riemann, 1998).

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## a balance sheet that displays only component percentages is called

1. When implementing a new management accounting and control system, it is BEST:
to allow management to implement their ideas.
for management to involve employees in the implementation.
to involve consultants and implement their experienced ideas.
to engage in benchmarking.

2. Knowledge-based pay for employees is a form of:
input-based reward.
output-based reward.
outcome-based reward.
None of these is correct.
3. When discussing the roles of budgets, a control role includes:
identifying organizational objectives and short-term goals.
developing long-term strategies and short-term plans.
measuring and assessing performance against budgeted amounts.
developing the master budget.
4. All of the following are true of flexible budgets EXCEPT that they:
use the same flexible (variable) cost per unit as the master budget.
result in higher total costs for greater levels of production.
allow comparison of actual results to targets based on the achieved level of production.
reflect the same level of production as the master budget.

5. The sales plan and inventory plan is compared to available productive capacity levels and ________ is determined.
an aggregate plan
a new sales plan
an administrative and discretionary spending plan

6. The numerator of the rate earned on total assets ratio is equal to
net income
net income plus tax expense
net income plus interest expense
net income minus preferred dividends

7. ________ provide(s) the starting point for developing the operating budget.
The demand forecast
Projected income statement
The production plan
Expected cash flows

8. ________ occur(s) when managers ask subordinates to discuss their ideas about the budget, but no joint decision-making occurs.
Authoritative budgeting
Stretch targets
Consultative budgeting
Budget slack
9. An analysis in which all the components of an income statement are expressed as a percentage of net sales is called
vertical analysis
horizontal analysis
liquidity analysis
common-size analysis
10. The MAJOR criticism of using return on investment (ROI) for financial control is that it:
gives managers an incentive to reject projects with an ROI greater than the company’s required rate of return but less than the department’s current ROI.
usually uses the blended rate of capital as the required rate of return.
encourages competition among segment managers.
is a measure of overall performance.

11. One reason that a common-size statement is a useful tool in financial analysis is that it enables the user to
judge the relative potential of two companies of similar size in different industries.
determine which companies in a single industry are of the same value.
determine which companies in a single industry are of the same size.
make a better comparison of two companies of different sizes in the same industry.

12. To the extent that an ethical hierarchy exists, ________ have the highest authority.
societal norms
legal rules
organizational norms
personal norms

13. A cost center is a business segment:
that usually evaluates employee performance by comparing the center’s actual costs with target or standard costs for the amount and type of work done.
in which interperiod cost comparisons can be misleading if the output level and production mix are constant.
that usually includes individual stores within a department-store chain.

14. The five stages in the process of keeping an organization in control are:
planning, implementing, measuring, evaluating and correcting.
planning, executing, monitoring, evaluating and correcting.
budgeting, implementing, monitoring, evaluation and feedback.
budgeting, executing, measuring, feedback and evaluation.

15. Corporate annual reports typically do not contain which of the following?
management discussion and analysis
SEC statement expressing an opinion
accompanying foot notes
auditor’s report
that should be evaluated solely on its ability to control and reduce costs.

16. Financial budgets are prepared:
to specify expectations for selling, purchasing, and production.
to evaluate the financial results of the proposed decisions.
so that financial statements can be prepared for shareholders.
to plan for production capacity.

17. ________ occur(s) when managers ask subordinates to discuss their ideas about the budget, but no joint decision-making occurs.
Stretch targets
The beyond budgeting approach
Budget slack

18. All of the following encourage ethical behavior among employees EXCEPT:
having a system for employees to point out violations of the organization’s code of ethics without fear of retribution.
dealing promptly and consistently with persons who violate the organization’s code of ethics.
exemplary behavior demonstrated by senior management.
protecting whistle blowers who report unethical behavior who have also acted unethically.

19. Which of the following items appear on the corporate income statement before income from continuing operations?
cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle
income tax expense
extraordinary gain
loss on discontinued operations

20. A balance sheet that displays only component percentages is called
trend balance sheet
comparative balance sheet
condensed balance sheet
common-sized balance sheet

21. L&M Manufacturing produces a single product that sells for \$16. Variable (flexible) costs per unit equal \$11.20. The company expects the total fixed (capacity-related) costs to be \$7,200 for the next month at the projected sales level of 20,000 units. In an attempt to improve performance, management is considering a number of alternative actions. Each situation is to be evaluated separately.
Suppose that L&M Manufacturing’s management believes that a 10% reduction in the selling price will result in a 30% increase in sales. If this proposed reduction in selling price is implemented, then:
profit will decrease by \$12,800 in a month.
profit will increase by \$12,800 in a month.
profit will decrease by \$32,000 in a month.
profit will increase by \$32,000 in a month.

22. When a subordinate is caught padding an expense report, the supervisor should FIRST:
ignore the incident if it is the first offense.
report the incident to the personnel department.
confront the employee and ask him to submit a corrected expense report.
take action that complies with the organization’s code of ethics.

23. Although planners update or revise the budgets during the period, ________ is typically performed once per year.
zero-based budgeting
periodic budgeting
incremental budgeting
continuous budgeting

24. In a centralized organization:
local-division managers do not need higher approval for most business decisions.
company-wide standard operating procedures are common.
local-division managers have an opportunity to gain decision-making experience.
decisions are made by local division managers.

25. In a management accounting and control system design, behavioral expectations are BEST incorporated by:
using a mix of short-term and quantitative performance measures.
including the organization’s code of conduct.
monitoring behavior with time and motion studies.

26. Which of the following ratios provides a solvency measure that shows the margin of safety of noteholders or bondholders and also gives an indication of the potential ability of the business to borrow additional funds on a long-term basis?
ratio of fixed assets to long-term liabilities
ratio of net sales to assets
number of days’ sales in receivables
rate earned on stockholders’ equity

27. The dimensions of motivation that are important in designing jobs and specific task include all of the following EXCEPT:
persistence.
control.
direction.
intensity.

28. The variance that LEAST affects cost control is the ________ variance.
flexible budget
direct material price
planning
direct labor efficiency
29. Hsu Company reported the following on its income statement:
Income before income taxes  \$420,000
Income taz expense   120,000
Net Income  \$300,000
An analysis of the income statement revelaed that interest expense was \$80,000. Hsu Company’s times interest earned was
8 times
6.25 times
5.25 times
5 times
30. The PRIMARY reason for using cost variances is:
that they diagnose the cause of a problem and what should be done to correct it.
for superiors to communicate expectations to lower level employees.
for financial control of operating activities.

31. Caution should be taken when interpreting a segment margin income statement because:
revenues may be based on transfer prices.
the interactive effects among responsibility centers are generally not clearly captured.
expenses may be a result of subjective allocation of jointly incurred costs.
All of these are correct.

32. Randall Company makes and distributes outdoor play equipment. Last year sales were \$4,800,000, operating income was \$1,200,000, and the assets used were \$6,000,000.
Return on sales, the efficiency component of return on investment (ROI), is:
20%.
80%.
25%.
125%.

33. Feedback systems that force a dialogue among all organizational participants about the data that are coming out of the system and what to do about the data are called:
diagnostic control systems.
monitoring.
preventative controls.
interactive control systems.

Categories

## to use language vividly, your textbook recommends that speakers employ

BUILDING A SPEECH Eighth Edition

Sheldon Metcalfe Community College of Baltimore County

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To my mother, who gave me the values, and my father, who gave me the vision

to write this book.

Brief Contents

Preface xxi

Unit One SURVEYING THE LANDSCAPE

Chapter 1 Introducing the Study of Public Speaking 2

Chapter 2 Understanding and Reducing Your Apprehension 15

Chapter 3 Building Your First Speech 28

Chapter 4 Analyzing Your Audience 43

Chapter 5 Improving Your Listening Skills 64

Chapter 6 Considering the Ethics of Public Speaking 81

Unit Two PREPARING THE FOUNDATION

Chapter 7 Selecting the Topic and Purpose 102

Chapter 8 Conducting Research 116

Chapter 9 Choosing Supporting Materials 141

Unit Three CREATING THE STRUCTURE

Chapter 10 Organizing the Body of the Speech 160

Chapter 11 Selecting the Introduction and Conclusion 179

Unit Four REFINING THE APPEARANCE

Chapter 12 Using Audiovisual Aids 206

Chapter 13 Considering Language 229

Chapter 14 Developing the Delivery 247

v

Unit Five CONSIDERING DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRUCTURE

Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform 270

Chapter 16 Speaking to Persuade 292

Chapter 17 Speaking to Persuade: Motivating Audiences 324

Chapter 18 Speaking for Special Occasions 340

Chapter 19 Speaking in Groups 357

v i Brief Contents

Contents

Preface xxi

Unit One Survey ing the Landscape

Chapter 1 Introducing the Study of Public Speaking 2 COMMUNICATION IN THE MODERN WORLD 3

THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS 4

A Communication Model 5

The Sender: Encoding Ideas into Symbols 5

The Message 6

The Channel 6

The Receiver: Decoding Symbols into Ideas 6

Feedback 7

Setting 7

Noise 8

UNDERSTANDING THE TOOLS OF COMMUNICATION 10

APPLYING THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS 12

DESIGNING A PLAN FOR SUCCESS 13

SUMMARY 14

SKILL BUILDERS 14

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 14

Chapter 2 Understanding and Reducing Your Apprehension 15 SPEECH ANXIETY IS COMMON 16

RESEARCH INTO STRESS AND COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION 17

REDUCING COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION 19

Face Anxiety Honestly and Overcome It 19

Develop a Positive Attitude 21

Maintain a Healthy Body 23

Be Thoroughly Prepared 24

Reward Yourself 24

Learn from Mistakes 25

Accept Constructive Criticism 25

vii

TAKING RESPONSIBILITY TO REDUCE APPREHENSION 26

SUMMARY 27

SKILL BUILDERS 27

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 27

Chapter 3 Building Your First Speech 28 EXTEMPORANEOUS DELIVERY AND SPEAKING STYLES 29

CREATING A BLUEPRINT 30

Step 1: Choose an Interesting, Well-Defined Topic 30

Step 2: Understand the General Purpose 31

Step 3: Conduct Extensive Research 31

Step 4: Write Specific Purpose and Thesis Statements 32

Step 5: Write a Comprehensive Outline 32

Step 6: Be Sensitive to Audience Members 33

Step 7: Understand Your Ethical Responsibilities 33

Step 8: Choose Extemporaneous Delivery 33

Step 9: Practice the Speech 33

Step 10: Be Confident and Prepared 35

THE CAREER SPEECH 36

Researching the Career Speech 36

Developing the Career Speech 37

SAMPLE SPEECH: CAREERS IN ANTHROPOLOGY 37

SUMMARY 41

SKILL BUILDERS 42

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 42

Chapter 4 Analyzing Your Audience 43 THE IMPORTANCE OF AUDIENCE ANALYSIS 44

Audience Perception of the Speaker 45

Audience Perception of the Topic 46

Motivations of the Audience 49

Physiological Needs 50

Safety Needs 50

Love Needs 50

Esteem Needs 50

Self-Actualization Needs 50

Impact of Social Groups on Listeners 51

Age 51

Gender 52

Religion 53

Cultural and Ethnic Origin 53

Educational Level, Occupation, and Interests 55

Income Level 56

v i i i Contents

Geographic Location 56

Social Organizations 56

Targeting Specific Groups 57

Impact of the Occasion on Listeners 58

The Purpose of the Occasion 58

The Physical Location of the Event 59

The Expectations of the Speaker 59

CONDUCTING AN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS 60

Collecting Demographic Data about the Audience 60

Informal Assessments 60

Surveys 60

Questionnaires 61

Interviews 61

Processing the Data with a Computer 62

Evaluating the Audience Profile 62

SUMMARY 62

SKILL BUILDERS 62

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 63

Chapter 5 Improving Your Listening Skills 64 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LISTENING 65

THE PROCESS OF LISTENING 66

KINDS OF LISTENING 68

Discriminative Listening 68

Evaluative Listening 69

Appreciative Listening 69

Empathic Listening 70

Active and Passive Listening 70

BARRIERS TO LISTENING: THE LACK OF BEING “PRESENT” 70

Yielding to Distractions 71

Blocking Out Communication 72

Listening Selectively 73

Overcriticizing the Speaker 74

Faking Attention 74

Avoiding Difficult or Unpleasant Listening Situations 74

HOW TO BECOME AN ACTIVE LISTENER AND SPEAKER 75

Withhold Judgment 75

Avoid the Appearance Trap 75

Don’t Be Easily Swayed by Delivery and Style 76

Give All Topics a Fair Hearing 76

Avoid Extraneous Mental Activity During the Speech 76

Give Honest, Attentive Feedback 76

Contents ix

Eliminate Distractions 78

Evaluate the Communication When It Is Finished 78

SUMMARY 79

SKILL BUILDERS 80

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 80

Chapter 6 Considering the Ethics of Public Speaking 81 THE NEED FOR ETHICS IN SOCIETY 83

EVALUATING A SPEAKER’S ETHICS 84

Honesty and the Speaker 84

The Speaker’s Reliability 87

The Speaker’s Motivations 87

The Speaker’s Policies 88

APPLYING ETHICAL STANDARDS 90

Be Honest 91

Direct Quotation 91

Paraphrased Passage 91

Plagiarized Passage 91

Advocate Ideas That Benefit Others 92

Evaluate Your Motives for Speaking 92

Develop a Speaking Code of Ethics 93

SAMPLE SPEECH: PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE: KNOWING IS NOT THE SAME THING AS DOING 95

SUMMARY 99

SKILL BUILDERS 99

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 99

Unit Two Prepar ing the Foundat ion

Chapter 7 Selecting the Topic and Purpose 102 GETTING IDEAS 103

Your Own Knowledge and Experience 103

Brainstorming 104

Library Databases and the Internet 104

SELECTING THE TOPIC 104

It Should Interest You, the Speaker 104

It Should be Sufficiently Narrow and Conform to the Time Limit 105

It Should Provide New Information 106

It Should be Appropriate 106

It Should Conform to the General Purpose 107

Speeches to Inform 107

Speeches to Entertain 108

x Contents

WRITING THE SPECIFIC PURPOSE 108

Be Clear, Concise, and Unambiguous 108

Include Only One Major Idea 109

Use a Declarative Statement 110

WORDING THE THESIS STATEMENT 110

Problems with the Thesis Statement 112

PUTTING IT TOGETHER 113

SUMMARY 114

SKILL BUILDERS 114

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 115

Chapter 8 Conducting Research 116 PREPARING FOR RESEARCH 117

ESTABLISHING CREDIBILITY 117

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES 118

ACCESSING THE LIBRARY 119

The Online Catalog 119

Databases 119

GUIDELINES FOR SEARCHING THE INTERNET 121

RESEARCHING REFERENCE SOURCES 123

Biographies 123

Directories and Handbooks 124

The Dictionary and Thesaurus 124

Encyclopedias 124

Almanacs, Yearbooks, and Statistical Publications 125

Collections of Quotations 125

Books 125

Magazines, Journals, and Newspapers 125

Legal Research 126

Audiovisual Aids 126

Interviews with Authorities 127

Legislative and Governmental Research 129

Institutional and Organizational Research 129

Specialized Libraries and Museums 130

KEEPING ACCURATE NOTES 130

INTERVIEWING 132

Preparing for the Interview 132

Conducting the Interview 133

Taking Notes During the Interview 134

THE BIBLIOGRAPHY: HOW TO RECORD AN ENTRY 134

AVOIDING PLAGIARISM 136

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT SPEECH RESEARCH AND CONSTRUCTION 136

Contents xi

Be Willing to Test Information 136

Be Organized 138

View Ideas from Different Perspectives 138

Think for Yourself 139

SUMMARY 140

SKILL BUILDERS 140

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 140

Chapter 9 Choosing Supporting Materials 141 MAKING THE APPROPRIATE SELECTION 142

STATISTICS, POLLS, AND SURVEYS 142

Using Statistics 142

Poll 143

Study 143

Startling Statistics 143

EXAMPLES, ILLUSTRATIONS, CASE STUDIES, AND NARRATIVES 144

Using Examples 144

Example 144

Hypothetical Example 145

Illustration 145

Case Study 146

Narrative 147

QUOTATIONS AND TESTIMONY 147

Using Quotations and Testimonies 148

Quotation 148

Expert Testimony 148

Prestige Testimony 149

Personal Testimony 149

VISUAL EVIDENCE 149

COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS 149

Using Comparisons and Contrasts 150

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AND OBSERVATION 151

Using Experience and Observation 151

HUMOR AND ANECDOTES 152

Using Humor and Anecdotes 152

ROLE-PLAYING 153

Using Role-Playing Techniques 153

SAMPLE SPEECH: THE FLAG RAISINGS ON IWO JIMA 154

SUMMARY 157

SKILL BUILDERS 157

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 157

xi i Contents

Unit Three Creat ing the Structure

Chapter 10 Organizing the Body of the Speech 160 APPROACHING ORGANIZATION LOGICALLY 161

PRINCIPLES OF OUTLINING 161

Building Block One: The Body Should Contain Between Two and Four Main Points or Numerals in a Five- to Seven-Minute Speech 162

Building Block Two: Main Points in the Body Should be Structured in an Organizational Sequence that is Logical, Interesting, and Appropriate to the Topic 162

Chronological Sequence 162

Spatial Sequence 163

Cause-Effect Sequence 164

Topical Sequence 164

Other Sequences 165

Building Block Three: A System of Roman Numerals, Letters, and Arabic Numbers Should be Combined with Indentation to Identify Main and Subordinate Levels 166

Building Block Four: The Outline Should Include Supporting Materials That are Coordinated and Subordinated in a Logical Manner 167

Building Block Five: Every Subdivision must Contain at Least Two Items 169

Building Block Six: Each Point Should Include Only One Topic or Idea 170

Building Block Seven: Main Points (Numerals) and Supporting Items Should be Linguistically Parallel 171

Building Block Eight: The Outline Should be Expressed in Either Sentences or Topics 172

Building Block Nine: The Outline Should Identify Sources for Major Supporting Materials 173

Building Block Ten: The Outline Should Include External Transitions Between Main Numerals 174

SUMMARY 177

SKILL BUILDERS 177

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 178

Chapter 11 Selecting the Introduction and Conclusion 179 PURPOSE OF THE INTRODUCTION 180

PLANNING AN EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION 181

Examples, Stories, and Illustrations 182

Shocking Statement or Situation 183

Statistics 184

Questions 185

Quotation 186

Suspense 186

Contents xi i i

Personal Reference, Compliment, or Reference to the Occasion 187

Humor 188

The Flexible Introduction 189

Combination of Strategies 190

OUTLINING THE INTRODUCTION 190

PURPOSE OF THE CONCLUSION 191

PLANNING THE EFFECTIVE CONCLUSION 192

Summary of Main Points 192

Quotation 193

Reference to the Introduction 194

Challenge or Appeal 194

Humor 195

Question 196

Story, Illustration, and Example 197

Statistics 197

OUTLINING THE CONCLUSION 198

SPEAKING NOTES FOR THE INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION 199

SAMPLE OUTLINE: RAISING THE MONITOR 200

SUMMARY 203

SKILL BUILDERS 203

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 203

Unit Four Ref in ing the Appearance

Chapter 12 Using Audiovisual Aids 206 TYPES OF AUDIOVISUAL AIDS 207

Electronic Media 207

The Data Projector and Computer 207

Devices for Capturing Text and Media 208

The Document Camera 208

The Touch Screen Monitor or Whiteboard 209

Audience Response Systems 209

Older Technologies 209

Graphs 213

Illustrations, Photographs, and Pictures 214

Posters, Flipcharts, and Chalkboards 218

Models and Objects 220

You as a Visual Aid 220

xiv Contents

SAMPLE SPEECH: HOW DO AIRPLANE WINGS PRODUCE LIFT? 223

SUMMARY 227

SKILL BUILDERS 228

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 228

Chapter 13 Considering Language 229 DEVELOPING CLARITY 230

Avoiding Euphemisms 231

USING CONCRETE LANGUAGE 232

Denotation and Connotation 233

BUILDING A UNIQUE STYLE 234

Similes 234

Metaphors 235

Alliteration 236

Amplification 236

Antithesis 236

Repetition 237

Mnemonic Phrases 237

BEING APPROPRIATE 238

Be Aware of Cultural Differences 238

Recognize Differences Due to Gender 240

Avoid Offensive Terms 241

Eliminate Irrelevant Language 241

Avoid Trite Expressions 242

Eliminate Grammatical Errors 242

Build Vocabulary Skills 243

MAKING IDEAS MEANINGFUL AND INTERRELATED 243

Personal Pronouns 243

Transitions 244

SUMMARY 245

SKILL BUILDERS 246

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 246

Chapter 14 Developing the Delivery 247 DELIVERING THE SPEECH 248

PROPER BREATHING FOR VOCAL DELIVERY 249

VOCAL DELIVERY 250

Volume 250

Articulation 251

Pitch and Inflection 251

Quality 252

Rate 253

Contents xv

Pronunciation 253

Pauses 254

Emphasis and Phrasing 255

VISUAL, NONVERBAL DELIVERY 256

Eye Contact 256

Appearance 257

Gestures 257

Facial Expression 258

Body Position and Movement 259

Culture and Nonverbal Delivery 260

Gender and Nonverbal Delivery 261

COMBINING VOCAL AND VISUAL DELIVERY 263

BUILDING SKILLS IN DELIVERY 264

Be Well Organized 264

Practice the Delivery 266

SUMMARY 267

SKILL BUILDERS 267

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 268

Unit Five Considering Dif ferent Types of Structure

Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform 270 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INFORMATION AND PERSUASION 271

TYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECHES 272

The Descriptive Speech 272

An Example 273

Outlining the Descriptive Speech 275

The Demonstration Speech 276

An Example 278

Outlining the Demonstration Speech 278

The Speech of Definition 280

Other Informative Types: Reports, Lectures, and Personal Experience 282

SAMPLE SPEECH: RAISING THE MONITOR 285

Alternative Introduction: Series of Questions 289

Alternative Conclusion: Quotation 290

SUMMARY 290

SKILL BUILDERS 291

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 291

xv i Contents

Chapter 16 Speaking to Persuade 292 PERSUASION IN TODAY’S SOCIETY 293

THE NATURE OF PERSUASION 293

Speeches to Convince 294

Speeches to Stimulate 294

Speeches to Actuate 294

Selecting the Persuasive Topic 295

Wording the Proposition Statement 295

Propositions of Fact, Value, and Policy 296

ETHOS, PATHOS, AND LOGOS: THE MEANS OF PERSUASION 297

Ethos: The Ethical Appeal 297

Pathos: The Emotional Appeal 299

Identify Emotions 300

Understand Audience Emotions 301

Connect Emotions to the Occasion 303

LOGOS: THE APPEAL TO REASON 304

Arguments Based on Enumeration 305

Arguments Based on Analogy 306

Arguments Based on Causation 307

Developing Rebuttal Arguments 308

METHODS OF ORGANIZING PERSUASIVE SPEECHES 311

Reasons 311

Problem-Solution 313

Motivated Sequence 316

SAMPLE SPEECH: COMPUTER-ENHANCED ADVERTISING SHOULD BE CLEARLY LABELED 318

SUMMARY 322

SKILL BUILDERS 323

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 323

Chapter 17 Speaking to Persuade: Motivating Audiences 324

STRATEGIES FOR MOTIVATING LISTENERS 325

Appeal to the Needs of the Audience 325

Physical 325

Safety and Security 325

Love 325

Esteem 326

Self-Actualization 326

Appeal to Listeners’ Beliefs and Values 326

Contents xv i i

Provide Listeners with Incentives 327

Involve the Audience Emotionally 328

THE SPEECH TO ACTUATE 329

Attention Step 329

Need Step 329

Satisfaction Step 330

Visualization Step 330

Action Step 330

Phrasing the Thesis 330

APPLYING THE MOTIVATED SEQUENCE 331

Attention Step 331

Need Step 331

Satisfaction Step 332

Visualization Step 332

Action Step 333

Outlining the Motivated Sequence 335

SAMPLE SPEECH: GENOCIDE IN SUDAN 336

SUMMARY 338

SKILL BUILDERS 339

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 339

Chapter 18 Speaking for Special Occasions 340 TYPES OF SPECIAL-OCCASION SPEECHES 341

The Speech of Tribute 341

Construct a Brief Biographical Sketch 341

Acknowledge Significant Achievements and Virtues 341

Convey Hope and Encouragement 341

The Presentation Speech 342

The Acceptance Speech 343

The Speech of Dedication 344

The Speech of Welcome 345

The Speech of Introduction 345

The Keynote Speech 346

The Nominating Speech 347

The Farewell Speech 348

The Victory Speech 348

The Commencement Speech 349

The After-Dinner Speech 349

Toasts 350

SAMPLE SPEECH: DEDICATION OF THE WORLD WAR II MEMORIAL 352

SUMMARY 355

SKILL BUILDERS 355

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 356

xv i i i Contents

Chapter 19 Speaking in Groups 357 CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL GROUPS 358

Shared Goals 358

Group Interaction 359

Size 359

Time Period 359

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL GROUPS 360

Forming 360

Storming 361

Norming 361

Performing 361

SOLVING PROBLEMS IN GROUPS 361

Questions for Discussion 361

Questions of Fact 361

Questions of Value 362

Questions of Policy 362

Developing a Problem-Solving Agenda 362

Define the Problem 362

Narrow the Problem 362

Analyze the Issue 363

Set Up Criteria 363

Suggest Solutions 363

Apply Criteria to Solutions 364

Implement the Selected Solution 364

Monitor the Success of the Solution 364

A Sample Agenda 365

PARTICIPATING IN GROUPS 365

Group-Centered Behavior 366

Be an Active Observer 366

Support Group Procedure 366

Be Reliable 366

Be Willing to Compromise 366

Be Courteous and Respectful 367

Encourage and Energize Members 367

Self-Centered Behavior 367

Be Prepared 369

Keep to Time Limits 370

Be Organized 371

Know When to Intervene 371

Contents xix

SPECIAL DISCUSSION FORMATS 374

Focus Groups 374

The Symposium 375

The Panel 375

The Forum 376

Buzz Groups 376

Role-Playing Groups 376

SUMMARY 376

SKILL BUILDERS 377

BUILDING A SPEECH ONLINE 377

Notes 378

Glossary 387

Suggested Topic Areas 395

Index 400

xx Contents

Preface

Public speaking is a building process wherein students gradually acquire skills in speech research, organization, and delivery. Students learn these skills step-by-step from their own experiences, by observing the presentations of others, through peer criticism, and from the guidance of effective instructors. This book establishes a caring environment for the learning process using a conversational style that aims to both interest and moti- vate students while conveying encouragement through topics such as apprehension and listening that will help students to realize that they are not alone in their struggles. It is grounded in the philosophy that students can master the steps of speech construction if provided with a caring environment, clear blueprints, and creative examples.

PLAN OF THE BOOK The five units in this book organize skills in a sequence that is meaningful and under- standable to students.

Unit One, “Surveying the Landscape,” presents modern theories of communication and a brief overview of communication in our contemporary world. In addition, it con- siders apprehension, introduces students to their first speaking experience, and includes chapters on listening and ethics.

Unit Two, “Preparing the Foundation,” describes how to select topics, write purpose statements, conduct research, and choose supporting materials for speeches.

Unit Three, “Creating the Structure,” discusses outlining as well as speech introduc- tions and conclusions.

Unit Four, “Refining the Appearance,” describes the refinements necessary to com- plete speech construction. It helps students build skills in delivery and language, explains the use of visual aids, and includes a sample demonstration speech.

Unit Five, “Considering Different Types of Structures,” discusses descriptive and process speeches and includes a sample descriptive speech; examines persuasive speaking, with sample convincing and actuating speeches; considers presentations for special occa- sions, including the after-dinner speech; and explores the dynamics of speaking in group situations.

FEATURES OF THE EIGHTH EDITION The Eighth Edition retains all of the popular features of previous editions, including a conversational style, vivid examples, and guidelines for speeches. It retains essential chapters on apprehension, listening, ethics, and discussion of diversity. In addition, Building a Speech, Eighth Edition, includes the following new and revised features:

Expanded and Relocated Apprehension Chapter Since studies show that speech apprehension is among the top two fears of most Amer- icans, “Understanding and Reducing Your Apprehension” is now presented as Chapter 2 to help students handle this anxiety early in the course. Chapter 2 has been

xxi

expanded as well. The section titled, “Accept Anxiety Honestly and Face It,” includes a three-column table that identifies a fear, asks challenge questions in response to the fear, and provides encouraging statements of affirmation to help students reduce their anxiety. In the section “Adopt Constructive Behaviors,” journaling before and after a speech is recommended and sample journal entries are provided for student practice. There are also updated examples of celebrities who have reported anxiety before per- formances and a new box with a statement about stage fright by actor Al Pacino.

Updated Chapter 1 Chapter 1, “Introducing the Study of Public Speaking,” includes a new discussion of past and present speakers who have influenced our modern world. In addition to well known leaders of the past such as Roosevelt, Kennedy, King, and Reagan, Chapter 1 describes how Elie Wiesel, Bono, Mother Teresa, Nelson Mandela, Princess Diana, Christopher Reeve, Michael J. Fox, Condoleezza Rice, Hillary Clinton, and Michelle Obama have used communication to shape our world. Reviewers suggested that the inclusion of con- temporary speakers replace discussion of ancient orators presented in earlier editions.

Boxed Examples in Audience Analysis Chapter Two example boxes have been added to Chapter 4, “Analyzing Your Audience.” One box includes a discussion of political lightening rods Nancy Pelosi and Sarah Palin and how public perception has changed over time regarding the policies and actions of these controversial political women. Another includes an example from Wall Street Journal col- umnist Jeffrey Zaslow who describes how a phrase he used as a college student was hurt- ful to the ethnicity of his Spanish professor.

New Boxed Examples and Building Strategies in Listening Chapter New example boxes have also been added to Chapter 5, “Improving Your Listening Skills.” “Caught by the Camera” describes how a sports writer for the Daily Herald in Arlington, Illinois was captured napping in a photograph when he should have been doing his job taking notes as a reporter and listening to a political speaker. A second boxed example presents an individual who is so absorbed in texting that she loses aware- ness and creates an embarrassing situation for herself. The chapter concludes with a new “building” box that summarizes skills that students need when listening to the content and delivery of a speech.

Updated Ethics Chapter Chapter 6, “Considering the Ethics of Public Speaking,” includes updated examples of the ethical lapses of prominent speakers in business and politics. The chapter also con- tains a boxed example describing accusations of plagiarism that caused Senator Joseph Biden to withdraw from the Democratic presidential primary race in the 1980s. There is also a boxed example describing an incident in which a Columbia University valedic- torian plagiarized a portion of his commencement address to his 2010 graduating class. In addition to an updated example of plagiarism, the chapter presents a new “building” box to help students develop a code of ethics for public speaking.

Revised MLA Examples in Research Chapter Since the Modern Language Association recently revised the format for bibliographic citations, all new bibliographic examples in Chapter 8, “Conducting Research,” conform to the new MLA standard. There are also updated examples for citing sources, new note card illustrations, and a new plagiarism example.

xxi i Preface

Revisions and Additions to Supporting Materials Chapter In Chapter 9, “Choosing Supporting Materials,” polls, studies, and startling statistics are more clearly defined and indicated. In addition, brief and hypothetical examples, illustra- tions, case studies, and narratives are more clearly differentiated. The chapter also now includes and explains the differences among expert, prestige, and personal testimony. Although visual aids are extensively presented and discussed in Chapter 12, visual evi- dence is introduced as a significant supporting material in Chapter 9.

Additional Development of the Introduction and Conclusion Chapter 11, “Selecting the Introduction and Conclusion,” further develops and clarifies the purpose of the introduction and conclusion. In addition, the chapter presents exam- ples of ineffective beginnings and endings and explains why they are poor. The chapter also clearly highlights the thesis to each sample introduction so students can see the sig- nificance of its placement as the last line of the introduction.

Updated Terminology in the Visual Aids Chapter In Chapter 12, “Using Audiovisual Aids,” terminology in the electronic media section has been updated and revised to help student speakers understand how current advance- ments such as audience response systems, document cameras, whiteboards, touch screens, and file capturing can help speakers create visuals more easily and stimulate added inter- est among listeners. A new section is also included titled, “Copyright Cautions,” to help students understand the important legal difference between “fair use” and “commercial use” for copyrighted visual and textual materials that require written permission.

Revised Speaking Notes in Delivery Chapter The section titled, “Prepare Your Speaking Notes,” in Chapter 14, “Developing the Delivery,” has been expanded and revised. Since extemporaneous delivery is so impor- tant for the beginning speaker to learn, this section provides five sample note cards to show students how to use key words and brief phrases to present a speech instead of a written manuscript. This section also explains and visually illustrates how students can use markings on their speaking notes to remind them where to state sources, use visuals, or emphasize significant words and phrases. The speech titled, “How Do Airplane Wings Produce Lift?,” from Chapter 12 is used for the sample note cards.

New Table Identifying Fallacies in Persuasive Chapter In addition to describing ethical and logical fallacies in Chapter 16, “Speaking to Persuade,” now contains a comprehensive table that identifies, defines, and provides examples of the principal ethical and logical fallacies presented in the chapter for easier student access. Additional logical fallacies are also included to help students avoid com- mon speaking errors. The chapter also contains an updated boxed example showing students how to construct persuasive arguments on opposing sides of the controversial issue, “The detention facility at Guantanamo Bay should be closed and detainees should be brought to trial in U.S. civilian courts.”

Original Cartoon Illustrations In addition to other updates and changes, the Eighth Edition includes original cartoons drawn by artist George Goebel whose Greek cartoon appears in Chapter 1 and was also featured in earlier editions. New cartoons in this edition include a nervous speaker in Chapter 2, texting in front of truck in Chapter 5, and gullible students in a strange med- ical lecture in Chapter 8.

Preface xxi i i

STUDENT RESOURCES Building a Speech, Eighth Edition, features an outstanding array of supplements to assist in making this course as meaningful and effective as possible. Available student resources include:

• Resource Center. This useful site offers a variety of rich learning assets designed to enhance the student experience. Organized by tasks as well as by chapter, these assets include self-assessments, Web activities, chapter outlines, and review questions. The Resource Center also features course resources such as Speech Builder Express™ 3.0, InfoTrac College Edition, and more.

• Speech Builder Express™ 3.0. This online program coaches students through the entire process of preparing speeches and provides the additional support of built-in video speech models, a tutor feature for concept review, direct links to InfoTrac College Edition, an online dictionary and thesaurus, and leading professional organizations’ online documentation style guidelines and sample models. Equipped with their speech type or purpose, a general topic, and preliminary research, students respond to the program’s customized prompts to complete interactive activities that require critical thinking about all aspects of creating an effective speech. Students are able to specify a speech purpose, identify an organizational pattern, write a thesis statement or central idea, establish main points, integrate support material, craft transitions, plan visual aids, compose their speech introduction and conclusion, and prepare their bibliography. Students are also able to stop and start work whenever they choose and to complete, save online, export to Microsoft Word®, or e-mail up to five outlines.

• InfoTrac College Edition with InfoMarks™. This online library provides access to more than 18 million reliable, full-length articles from over 5,000 academic and popular periodicals. Students also have access to InfoMarks—stable URLs that can be linked to articles, journals, and searches to save valuable time when doing research—and to the InfoWrite online resource center, where students can access grammar help, critical thinking guidelines, guides to writing research papers, and much more. For more information about InfoTrac College Edition and the InfoMarks linking tool, visit www.infotrac-college.com and click on “User Demo.”

• Book Companion Website. The website features study aids such as chapter outlines, flash cards, and other resources for mastering glossary terms as well as chapter quizzes that help students check their understanding of key concepts.

• iChapters.com. This online store provides students with exactly what they’ve been asking for: choice, convenience, and savings. A 2005 research study by the National Association of College Stores indicates that as many as 60 percent of students do not purchase all required course material; however, those who do are more likely to succeed. This research also tells us that students want the ability to purchase “a la carte” course material in the format that suits them best. Accordingly, iChapters.com is the only online store that offers eBooks at up to 50 percent off, eChapters for as low as \$1.99 each, and new textbooks at up to 25 percent off, plus up to 25 percent off print and digital supplements that can help improve student performance.

• A Guide to the Basic Course for ESL Students. Written specifically for communi- cators whose first language is not English, this guide features FAQs, helpful URLs, and strategies for managing communication anxiety.

• Conquer Your Speech Anxiety. Learn How to Overcome Your Nervousness About Public Speaking by Karen Kangas Dwyer. Drawing from the latest research, this

xxiv Prefacewww.infotrac-college.com

innovative resource helps students understand and develop a plan to overcome their fear of public speaking. The CD-ROM includes both audio relaxation exercises and techniques for overcoming anxiety.

RESOURCES FOR INSTRUCTORS Building a Speech, Eighth Edition, also features a full suite of resources for instructors. To evaluate any of these instructor or student resources, please contact your local Cengage Learning representative for an examination copy, contact our Academic Resource Cen- ter at 800-354-9706, or visit us at www.cengage.com/. Instructor resources include:

• Instructor’s Resource Manual. Written by the author, the Instructor’s Resource Manual provides a comprehensive teaching system. Included in the manual are a syllabus, criteria for evaluation, chapter objectives, in-class activities, handouts, and transparency masters. All of the Skill Builder and InfoTrac College Edition exercises included on the Resource Center and companion website are included in the Instructor’s Resource Manual in case online access is unavailable or inconvenient. The Instructor’s Resource Manual includes a printed test bank that features class- tested and reliability-rated multiple-choice, true-false, short-answer, essay, and fill-in-the-blank test questions. Print and electronic versions are available.

• PowerLecture. This CD-ROM contains an electronic version of the Instructor’s Resource Manual, ExamView computerized testing, and videos associated with Building a Speech. This all-in-one tool makes it easy for you to assemble, edit, and present materials for your course.

• Turn-It-In®. This proven online plagiarism-prevention software promotes fairness in the classroom by helping students learn to correctly cite sources and allowing instructors to check for originality before reading and grading papers and speeches. Turn-It-In quickly checks student work against billions of pages of Internet content, millions of published works, and millions of student papers and speeches and within seconds generates a comprehensive originality report.

• Wadsworth Communication Video and DVD Library. Wadsworth’s video and DVD series for speech communication includes communication scenarios for critique and analysis, student speeches for critique and analysis, and ABC News videos and DVDs for human communication, public speaking, interpersonal communication, and mass communication.

• The Teaching Assistant’s Guide to the Basic Course. Written by Katherine G. Hendrix of the University of Memphis, this resource was prepared specifically for new instructors. Based on leading communication teacher-training programs, this guide discusses some of the general issues that accompany a teaching role and offers specific strategies for managing the first week of classes, leading productive discus- sions, managing sensitive topics in the classroom, and grading students’ written and oral work.

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## what is the speed vto of the plane as it takes off?

To take off from the ground, an airplane must reach a sufficiently high speed. The velocity required for the takeoff, the takeoff velocity, depends on several factors, including the weight of the aircraft and the wind velocity.

Part A: A plane accelerates from rest at a constant rate of 5.00m/s2 along a runway that is 1800m long. Assume that the plane reaches the required takeoff velocity at the end of the runway. What is the time tTO needed to take off?

(the answer is 26.8s; i need help only on part B)

Part B: What is the speed vTO of the plane as it takes off?

0 0 417
Sep 10, 2013
time*acceleration=134m/s

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Sep 11, 2013
134 m/s a=vt a=26.83s•5.00m/s^2

0 0
posted by Anthony
Sep 14, 2013
a)s = ut + 0.5at^2
s = distance = 1800m, u = initial velocity = 0, a = acceleration = 5m/s^2, t = time
1800 = 0 + 0.55t^2
t^2 = 1800/2.5 = 720
t = 26.83 s (to 4 sig figs)

0 0
posted by Amal
May 27, 2015

Categories

## nitrogen and hydrogen combine at high temperature in the presence of a catalyst to produce ammonia

Nitrogen and hydrogen combine at high temperature, in the presence of a catalyst, to produce ammonia.
N2(g)+3H2(g)–>2NH3(g)
Assume 4 molecules of nitrogen and 9 molecules of hydrogen are present.
After complete reaction, how many molecules of ammonia are produced?
How many molecules of H2 remain?
How many molecules of N2 remain?
What is the limiting reactant?

0 0 371
Oct 7, 2012
………N2 + 3H2 ==> 2NH3
I……..4……9…….0
C
E
If we take 4 N2 that will use up 3*4 = 12 molecules of H2 BUT we don’t have 12 molecules; therefore, H2 must be the limiting reagent so in th table we will use H2
………..N2 + 3H2 ==> 2NH3
I……….4…..9………0
C………-3….-9……..6
E……….1…..0……..6

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Oct 8, 2012
Molecules of H2: 3 molecules.

Nitrogen atoms present: 3 atoms

Moles of NH3 formed: 2 moles

0 0
posted by Isaac
Jun 21, 2016

Categories

## where is most freshwater found on earth

Where is most freshwater on Earth found? lakes and rivers oceans and seas underground ice caps and glaciers How does algal growth caused by agricultural waste kill marine organisms?
22,409 results
Science
Where is most freshwater on Earth found? A. lakes and rivers B. oceans and seas C. underground D. ice caps and glaciers

asked by Anonymous on December 10, 2018
science
1.where is most freshwater found on earth? A.lakes and rivers B.oceans and seas C.Underground D.icecaps and glaciers

asked by nathan on April 25, 2017
Science help.
Where is most freshwater on Earth found? lakes and rivers oceans and seas underground ice caps and glaciers How does algal growth caused by agricultural waste kill marine organisms? by blocking sunlight and depleting oxygen by increasing oxygen levels in

asked by Princess Anna on January 4, 2014
Science
Where is most of the freshwater on Earth? F. lakes G. glaciers H. rivers J. oceans

asked by DTBR on January 5, 2012
A. 75 % B. 12.5% C. 25% D. 3.13% E. 9.38% 3. what percentage of land on the earths surface is inhospital lands? – B 4. what percentage of earths surface is covered by land? – C 5. what percentage of land on earth is usable, for living on, but not for

asked by Selena on November 15, 2013

A. 75 % B. 12.5% C. 25% D. 3.13% E. 9.38% 3. what percentage of land on the earths surface is inhospital lands? – B 4. what percentage of earths surface is covered by land? – C 5. what percentage of land on earth is usable, for living on, but not for

asked by Selena on November 15, 2013
Scienc
The Main difference between terrestrial planets and gas giants is the way they are formed the shape of their obits the level of their density*** the plane in which they lie Where is most of Earth’s freshwater located in lakes in rivers in oceans in

asked by Haley on May 16, 2017
oceanography

1. How much of the total water at earth’s surface is fresh water? 2. Of all the freshwater at the earth’s surface, what percent is found as ice and glaciers? 3. What percent of all freshwater is groundwater? 4. What percent of the rainfall that falls on

asked by Ashley on December 12, 2006
Science
Oceans receive freshwater from precipitation and rivers. Yet ocean level do not change very much from these actions. Why are ocean level not greatly affected? a) Water is constantly seeping underground in the ocean; B)Water is constantly evaporating over

asked by Maria on February 21, 2012
Science
Where is most of the surface water on earth found? a) as freshwater in rivers b) as frozen water near the pole c) as groundwater under the surface d) as salt water in oceans I think its either A or D. Am I correct?

asked by Val on May 12, 2016
science
The earth wobbles slightly on its axis. which of the following earth processes might best account for these changes in earth’s rotation? 1)underground nuclear explosions 2)population increases 3)variations in rainfall and river flooding 4)motion of

asked by kayci on May 12, 2010
physics
The polar ice caps contain about 2.76E+19 kg of ice. This mass contributes negligibly to the moment of inertia of Earth because it is located at the poles, close to the axis of rotation. Estimate the change in the length of the day that would be expected

asked by Jordan on April 9, 2010
science-plz help this is so urgent!

1. a) after the oceans, where is the next largest reserve of water found? b) does this reserve contain salt water or fresh water? Fresh water lakes on the surface. Glaciers and icecaps account for a greater amount of water than lakes swamps and rivers if

asked by jen on June 7, 2007
Science
What percent of water is not easily accessible or usable on earth? *A. .6% B. 12.5% C. 50% D. 99% Subtract the answer from the last question from 100%. What does the remainder represent and what are the sources of this percentage of water? A. 97% rivers

asked by Cassie on October 30, 2013
Science
1) How does water vapour change into solid and liquid water above earth’s surface? 2)does all surface runoff move directley into lakes, rivers and oceans? Please help asap it means alot!

asked by Enviormental Kid on September 11, 2013

Science
What is the average yearly rainfall for Rivers: Lakes & Ponds: Coral Reefs: Temperate Oceans: ?? thanks:)

asked by Nicky on October 3, 2009
Science
Bacterial action purifies water in lakes, streams, oceans, and A)in the air B)deep underground C)In the first few inches of soil D)On the surface of the ground. Thanks for helping out with this.

asked by Maureen on March 14, 2009
Science
About what percent of all of Earth’s fresh water is found in ground water, streams, lakes, and rivers?

asked by Sue on February 24, 2016
Is the Carribean Sea the only major body of water connected to Aruba. Is there any other oceans,lakes or rivers. Not sure if the Pacific Ocean is close enough to it. Thanks.

asked by Brooke on April 2, 2009
Geography
What general statements could you make about water resources in Africa south of the Sahara? Include rainfall, rivers, lakes, and oceans.

asked by Tempesta on August 7, 2012
Science
A hurricane becomes more powerful be evaporating water from? lakes mountains oceans*** rivers 1. Over time, scientists have changed their model of our solar system. It has transitioned from A) a sun-centered to an moon-centered model. B) a sun-centered to

asked by Haley on May 16, 2017
science
Bacterial action purifies water in lakes, streams, oceans, and BLANK? The options are in the air, deep underground, in the first couple inches of soil, or on the surface of the ground? thanks for your explanation 🙂

asked by Nikkie on March 13, 2009
SCIENCE (correct I hope)
Freshwater Resource Challenge: aquifer depletion overdrawing surface water saltwater intrusion Ocean Water Resource Challenge: Flooding (flood)is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land, a deluge. water pollution is the contamination of

asked by scooby91320002 on September 12, 2008
Environmental Sciencee

1. The water resources of the Earth are located in a. salt water fround in the ocean b. fresh water found in icecaps and glaciers c. fresh water found in rivers, lakes, and streams d. all of the above D

asked by y912f on January 19, 2010
Science
Why is freshwater a limited resource? A. because most water on Earth is in lakes B. because most water on Earth is in clouds C. because most water on Earth is in the ground D. because most water on Earth is saltwater D

asked by Anonymous on January 10, 2014

Environmental Science
Earth’s surface water is found in a.lakes b.rivers c.streams d.all of the above I picked d. because that’s where SURFACE water is at right? yup ditto…..

asked by Mack on April 20, 2007
English
Which sentence best summarizes the main idea of the article? A. You can do an experiment with a baggie, cup, water, food color, and a marker. B. When the water in a cloud falls as precipitation, it may fall on land or water. C. In the water cycle, water

asked by hunter on December 6, 2018
Math & science
Earth has a radius of about 6.4*10^m. What is the approximate surface are of Earth? Use the formula for the surface area of a sphere,S= 4 pi ^2 . Oceans cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth.A bout how many squares of Earth’s surface are covered by

asked by patama on October 16, 2018
Earth Science
Which aquartic biome would cypress, cedar, and dogwood trees, and submerged floating plants ne located? Lakes and Ponds Streams and RIvers Swamps Freshwater Marsh Saltwater Marsh Intertidal Zone

asked by Antentardeb on August 30, 2017
science
1.why is freshwater a limited resource? a)because most water on earth is in lakes** b)because most water on earth is in clouds c)because most water on earth is in the ground d)because most water on earth is salt water

asked by HOMEWORK on March 22, 2015
Enviro Science

1. The water resources of Earth are located in a. salt water found in the ocean b. freshwater found in icecaps and glaciers c. fresh water found in rivers, lakes, and streams d. all of the above C 4. Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a moment in

asked by mysterychicken on April 29, 2012
Science
What are the dominant plants in the Tundra Taiga: Temperate Deciduous Forest: Tropical Rainforest: Grasslands: Desert: Rivers: Lakes & Ponds: Coral Reefs: Temperate Oceans: ? if you know of a website with the information that would be great!

asked by Natile Peterson on October 3, 2009
Social Studies
Ships from the Great Lakes travel the St Lawrence river to what ocean? Answer these questions with true or false The five great lakes are large enough to be called inland seas False? The great lakes form north americas most important waterway true? The

asked by Jerald on November 12, 2012
Science
Do you guys know of a website where i can find the average temperature of these biomes? Tundra, Tiaga, Temperate Deciduous Forest: Tropical Rainforest: Grasslands: Desert: Rivers: Lakes & Ponds: Coral Reefs: Temperate Oceans: thanks:)

asked by Nicole on October 8, 2009
Biology
If water were not a polar molecule and could not form hydrogen bonds, how would this change the structure and density of ice? Why would change? How would this affect the organisms living in lakes and ponds? 1. It would be heavier than water and sink. 2. If

asked by Abraham on November 14, 2006

SCIENCE (correct I hope)
Summarize the hydrologic cycle. How important is this cycle to Earth? The hydrologic cycle is a circulation of water from the oceans to the atmosphere and land, and back to the oceans. The hydrologic cycle starts with evaporation of water which comes from

asked by scooby91320002 on June 19, 2009
science
sedimentary rock is formed from bits and pieces of dirt, clay and sand that have been carried. a) on the earth’s crust b) underground c) in rivers and streams d) over mountaintops

asked by pam on September 21, 2010
Science
PLEASE CHECK MY ANSWERS!! I AM SOO FAR BEHIND IN THIS CLASS! 1. Which of the following describes the effect of high altitude on climate? Rain is very rare Flooding is more likely Temperatures are lower

asked by Kristen on November 21, 2018
Science
Water on Earth is either freshwater or saltwater. What is the percent ratio of freshwater to percent saltwater on Earth? A) 1% freshwater : 99% saltwater B) 3% freshwater : 97% saltwater C) 30% freshwater : 70% saltwater D) 50% freshwater : 50% saltwater I

asked by Sasha on March 30, 2017
Science
Which biome is found near the polar ice caps?

asked by Kyrstyn White on May 19, 2014
History
All of the following are examples of how geographical boundaries can limit cultural interaction except rivers deserts mountains oceans I think its A. since rivers are the easiest boundraies to pass through

asked by Jiskha on April 26, 2016
chemistry
Global warming refers to the rise in average global temperature due to the increased concentration of certain gases, called greenhouse gases, in our atmosphere. Earth’s oceans, because of their high heat capacity, can absorb heat and therefore act to slow

asked by Al on February 5, 2010
chem.
How much heat would be required to warm Earth’s oceans by 1.0 degree celsius ? Assume that the volume of Earth’s oceans is 137×10^7 km^3 and that the density of seawater is 1.03 g/cm^3. Also assume that the heat capacity of seawater is the same as that of

asked by Al on February 5, 2010
earth
the area around the great lakes was once covered by thick sheets of ice. Use the principal of isostasy to explain how the melting of these ice sheets has effected the land around the lakes?

asked by matt on February 23, 2010
Science
The area around the Great Lakes Was once covered by thick sheets of ice. Use the principle of isostasy to explain how the melting of these ice sheets has affected the land around the lakes.

asked by Angie on March 19, 2009

geography
the wide looping curves which are found along parts of the courses of some rivers are called: a.meanders b.flood plains c.river bluffs d.ox-bow lakes

asked by Natalia on February 22, 2010
English
I am making a mini book and in it i am writing these words: Peninsula,island,continent,island,ocean,seas,rivers,lakes,and glaciers and writing definitions for these words. So I wanted to know what could I put for the title of this mini book.

asked by Sumaiya on October 11, 2009
Biology
7) The dumping of large amounts of raw sewage into rivers or lakes typically leads to massive fish kills, although sewage itself is not toxic to fish. Similar fish kills also occur in shallow lakes that become covered in ice during the winter. What kills

asked by Cassie on November 8, 2011
Physics
When land ice on Antarctica melts and flows into the sea, eventually it circulates and therefore distributes uniformly over the earth’s oceans. As a result, does the earth’s rotational speed increase, decrease or remain unaffected? (If it does have an

asked by Bill on October 26, 2009
biology

1. how does the density of ice compare to that liquid water and why is that property important to aquatic oranisms a. the density of ice is higher than that liquid water, which means that ice forms from the bottom of lakes upward , protecting aquatic life

Math: slope problem
Suppose a line passes through the point (6 caps, \$3/cap) and has a slope of -3. Which of the following points also lie along that line? Select all that apply. a) 4 caps, \$9/cap b) 7 caps, \$0/cap c) 5 caps, \$5/cap d) 2 caps, \$7/cap e) 7 caps, \$1/cap f) 4

asked by Anonymous on January 10, 2009
Biology
Which is one way that a freshwater wetland differs from a lake or pond? A. water flows in a lake or pond but never flows in a wetland. B. Wetlands are nesting areas for birds, but lakes and ponds are not. C. Water does not always cover a wetland as it does

asked by Cassie on September 17, 2013
biology

1. how does the density of ice compare to that liquid water and why is that property important to aquatic oranisms a. the density of ice is higher than that liquid water, which means that ice forms from the bottom of lakes upward , protecting aquatic life

civics
Which of the following describes how features of countries in north america influence change in these countries ? A.Most have flat terrain, making railroads the least expensive method of transporting goods. B.with oceans on both sides, most countries have

asked by cheyenne on June 4, 2014
Science
Which of the following is NOT a common landform caused by the passing of a glacier? Drumlins Esker Moraine Steppe There are sometimes flowing rivers within a glacier. True * False Glaciers form and grow when

asked by Cassie on March 12, 2014

physics
Suppose partial melting of the polar ice caps increases the moment of inertia of the Earth from 0.331MR^2 to 0.332MR^2. What is the change in length of day in seconds?

asked by nikki on March 17, 2011
chem
Global warming refers to the rise in average global temperature due to the increased concentration of certain gases, called greenhouse gases, in our atmosphere. Earth¡¯s oceans, because of their high heat capacity, can absorb heat and therefore act to

asked by marie on January 24, 2011
math chem
Global warming refers to the rise in average global temperature due to the increased concentration of certain gases, called greenhouse gases, in our atmosphere. Earth¡¯s oceans, because of their high heat capacity, can absorb heat and therefore act to

asked by Anonymous on January 24, 2011
Ms. Sue PLZ HELP!!!(Civics)
Which of the following describes how the physical features of countries in North America influence trade in these countries? Most have flat terrain, making railroads the least expensive method of transporting goods. With oceans on both sides, most

asked by Anonymous on May 17, 2015
Civics HELP!!! Ms.Sue
Which of the following describes how the physical features of countries in North America influence trade in these countries? A) Most have flat terrain, making railroads the least expensive method of transporting goods. B) With oceans on both sides, most

asked by Anon101 on April 29, 2015
Science
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune: what is one reason why life probably does not exist on these four planets? A) They have no gravity. B) They are the gas planets. C) They are the giant planets. **** D) They are the rocky planets. Earth seems to be the

asked by Haley on May 16, 2017
Planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune: what is one reason why life probably does not exist on these four planets? A) They have no gravity. B) They are the gas planets. C) They are the giant planets. **** D) They are the rocky planets. Earth seems to be the

asked by Haley on May 16, 2017
Science
Why does the water of lakes and oceans look alike?

asked by Abby on August 15, 2010
Civics ASAP PLZ =:)
Which of the following describes how the physical features of countries in North America influence trade in these countries? (3 points) Most have flat terrain, making railroads the least expensive method of transporting goods. With oceans on both sides,

asked by Anonymous on May 30, 2015
Science
3) what 2 chemical contaminants that can be found in a freshwater source for each one b) identify a source of contaminants that can be found in a freshwater source for each one. 4) briefly describe how a biological contaminant was able to get into

asked by Help ASAP on September 30, 2013

french
How do you differentiate the prepositions for bodies of water. I know seas are feminine and oceans are masculine, but what prepostions do you use?

asked by sidhant on March 10, 2010
chemistry
how much heat would be required to warm the earth’s oceans by 1 degree celcius if the volume of the earths oceans is 137x100000000km3 and the density of the seawater is 1.03g/cm3

asked by Kay on May 25, 2013
chem/math
How much heat would be required to warm Earth¡¯s oceans by 1.0 ¡ãC? Assume that the volume of Earth¡¯s oceans is 137 x ¡¼10¡½^7 ¡¼km¡½^3 and that the density of sea water is 1.03 g/cm3. Also assume that the heat capacity of seawater is the

asked by marie on January 24, 2011
Quantitative Reasoning
if the volume of the oceans combined is about 1,350,000,000 cubic km by what height with the oceans increase if all the ice melted

asked by Keiyonna on October 10, 2016
Basic Geology
I need help with a Science essay. The question reads: “Hannah is comparing a rock from a riverbed and a rock from deep underground. One is very smooth, and the other has very rough edges. Explain why each rock was probably found in that location.” In order

asked by JPtiger13 on May 25, 2017
science
how is the rivers and oceans so important to us besides it provides water and habitat?

asked by Shelby on April 7, 2008
science
Discuss how comets might have a role to play in life evolving on an earth-like extrasolar planet in a distant solar system. can some one please help me out here. If life came to Earth via a comet, wouldn’t it make sense to predict that some comet could

asked by kat on May 18, 2007
science

1. Why do earthquakes occur along the San Andreas Fault? a. Two plates meet at the San Andreas Fault and they slide next to each other causing earthquakes b. Two plates converge at the San Andreas Fault causing earthquakes*** c. Two plates pull apart at

asked by what on May 4, 2014
science
On Earth as a whole, what happens to most of the presipitation? 1 It recharges the soil moisture deflict. 2 it becomes runoff and moves o the oceans. 3 it is store in the soil as capillary oceans. 4 it is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation and

asked by Anonymous on February 11, 2009
language arts peer edit
The Lightning Thief book and movie are different and same in many ways. The book of the Lightning Thief is more interesting and detailed for most people who read the book and watched the movie. The movie sometimes has things that the book doesn’t have

asked by Justin on February 8, 2011

Chemistry
The pH of healthy lakes is around 6.0. Due to acid rain, the pH of our lakes & rivers is decreasing. At low pH levels, producers such as phytoplankton cannot thrive. Decreased plankton can cause consumer populations to crash. The end result is a lake

asked by Lucy on December 16, 2007
Social Studies
How do the rivers/seas and deserts of China impact it’s culture over time? I need to write a paper so if i could get a lot of info on this it wud be great help!

asked by Dee on May 19, 2008
GEOGRAPHY
1)The branches of rivers within a delta are called:(a)tributaries(b)confluences(c)distributaries(d)meanders 2)All of the following are conditions that m,ust be met so that deltas may form except:(a)steep drop in the sea floor(b)area protected from strong

asked by Devaughn on March 8, 2010
Science
Hannah is comparing a rock from a riverbed and a rock from deep underground. One is very smooth, and the other has very rough edges. Explain why each rock was probably found in that location. Answer: The rock that is very smooth is likely to be the one

asked by Bunny Funny on December 3, 2015
biology
What geological process is used to explain how nearly identical animals that cannot swim, are found on continents separated by large oceans? What is the half-life of Uranium 238 and what did we use that radioisotope to date as the oldest item on Earth?

asked by Anonymous on April 21, 2012
Icebergs can be slippery slopes for ships at sea. An iceberg can be dangerous to ships because more than 3/4 of it is under the water. Most of it isnt visible. Icebergs are found in the cold seas near the North and South Poles. The wind and currents move

asked by Alex on January 5, 2012
AP Chemistry
The Antarctic ice sheet contains an estimated 7.0 million cubic miles of ice. If the entire ice sheet melted, how many feet would the average global sea level rise? The density of ice is about 0.90 g/cm^3. The density of water is about 1.0 g/cm^3. The

asked by Alliya on September 11, 2011
science
I’m stuck on the following questions 1)The geocentric model of the universe states that the Earth is the center of the universe. This is an example of a A)scientific conclusion B)pseudoscience C)scientific law*** D)Scientific method Through process of

asked by katrina on November 30, 2016
Science
How does radioactivity make it possible to understand how Earth can be so old and still have a hot interior? (1 point) A.Radioactive elements trap heat from underground magma chambers. B.Radioactive elements absorb heat from the atmosphere and release it

asked by jeje on January 21, 2015
Physics -I’m stumped
Europa, a satellite of Jupiter, appears to have an ocean beneath its icy surface. Proposals have been made to send a robotic submarine to Europa to see if there might be life there. There is no atmosphere on Europa, and we shall assume that the surface ice

asked by Christina on November 30, 2007

social studies
How many lakes does the National Trust in England have? It’s hard to find the information about that on the Internet. About 136 lakes or 500 lakes? Would you let me know that or the website? Thank you.

asked by rfvv on October 18, 2012
English
Can someone check these sentences, please? I need to prepare them for Tomorrow. 1) Air pollution is mainly caused by gases from factories and car exhaust fumes. It can cause acid rain, breathing problems and it can increase the risk of cancer. 2)The

asked by Frank on January 8, 2014
How does wind affect precipitation? a. Wind does not have any effect on precipitation. b. Winds that blow from over the land contain a lot of water vapor that will cause precipitation. c. Winds that blow inland from oceans or large lakes contain very

asked by Trr on May 13, 2015
Chemistry
Earth’s oceans have an average depth of 3800 m, a total area of 3.63 108 km2, and an average concentration of dissolved gold of 5.8 10-9 g/L. (a) How many grams of gold are in the oceans? (b) How many cubic meters of gold are in the oceans? Assuming the

asked by Anonymous on August 25, 2013
geography
what causes deferred junctions on on rivers flood plains? a.swamps b.ox-bow lakes c.raised riverf banks d.river cliffs

asked by Nyasha on February 22, 2010
physics
There is a great deal of ice floating on the ocean near the north pole. If this ice were to melt due to global warming, what would happen to the level of the oceans? A.Rise B.Fall C.Remain the same water is slightly more dense than water, but when the ice

asked by Sarah on December 7, 2009
physics
The volume of the Earth’s oceans is approximately 1.4×1018 m3. The Earth’s radius is 6.4×106 m. What percentage of the Earth, by volume, is ocean?

asked by julianna on December 5, 2010
science
I am studying science at GCSE. I a working through a revision book and have come across a question which i am unsure of the answer. The question is, “state the number of different elements present in C6H5CO2Na.” The answer i have is 14 but still i am

asked by sam on March 19, 2007
geololgy
Earth and Venus are so similar in size and overall composition that they are almost “twins.” Why did these two planets evolve so differently? Why is Earth’s atmosphere rich in oxygen and poor in carbon dioxide, whereas the reverse is true on Venus?

asked by anonymous on May 24, 2011
Biology
What is the difference between an environment with freshwater and an environment with pristine wates? I need to design an experiment with a shrimp that is found in freshwater but not in pristine but I don’t understand what is the difference between the

asked by Anonymous on October 7, 2015

math
There are some caps in a box. 1/6 of them are red, 1/3 of them are blue and 3/7 of the remainder are green. If there are 27 green caps, how many caps are there altogether? How should I solve this?

asked by Claire on December 3, 2015
science
the threat of global warming is mainly associated with ? 1 radioactive wastes 2 use of hydroelectric energy 3 burning of fossil fuels 4 thermal pollution of lakes and rivers

asked by amber on May 29, 2012
Social studies
Posted by rfvv on Thursday, October 18, 2012 at 9:03pm. How many lakes does the National Trust in England have? It’s hard to find the information about that on the Internet. About 136 lakes or 500 lakes? Would you let me know that or the website? Thank

asked by rfvv on October 19, 2012
Moon Science
What causes the phases of the moon as observed from the Earth? A) Filtering of the light from the moon due to the Earth’s atmosphere. B) The tidal forces of the Earth’s oceans change the appearance of the moon. C) Change in distance of the moon from the

asked by Haley on May 16, 2017
Global

1. What are the 3 mountain ranges with the longest area of high elevation? I guessed Himalayas, Andes, and Alps. 5. How many inches of annual rainfall are in areas that have year long growing seasons? 17. What two countries have the longest growing season

asked by Anonymous on September 8, 2008