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## which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon

1. Which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon? methane *propyne nonane methyl 2. The general name for hydrocarbons with at least one triple covalent bond is __. alkenes alkyls alkanes *alkynes 3. What is the name of the
2,927 results
Chemistry
2. Which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon? methane *propyne nonane methyl 2. The general name for hydrocarbons with at least one triple covalent bond is __. alkenes alkyls alkanes *alkynes 3. What is the name of the smallest

asked by Cassie on April 11, 2013

1. Which of the following compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon? methane *propyne nonane methyl 2. The general name for hydrocarbons with at least one triple covalent bond is __. alkenes alkyls alkanes *alkynes 3. What is the name of the smallest

asked by Cassie on April 11, 2013
Chemistry
A hydrocarbon consists of a benzene ring and two methyl groups. The methyl groups are located at opposite carbons and the molecule is perfectly symmetrical. Which option correctly describes the numbers of the carbon atoms the methyl groups are bonded to?

asked by Summer on April 9, 2018
chemistry
can someone tell me how to draw the condensed structure for 4-ethyl-3,3,4-trimethyloctane and 2-methyl-5-(2-methylpropyl)nonane

asked by jessie on February 14, 2011
Chemistry
What is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?

asked by Peter on May 10, 2011

Chemistry

1. Ethanol and methyl ether have the same elements in same proportions. What is the difference between these two compounds? My guess: Ethanol has a hydroxyl group which is different from methyl ether as methyl ether contains an oxygen atom bonded to two

asked by anonymous on May 9, 2009
Chem
Which formula represents an unsaturated hydrocarbon? a. C3H6 b. C3H8 Is the answer B? Thanks! 🙂

asked by Skye on January 6, 2013
Chemistry
Why use Methyl tert-butyl ether in the organic chemistry lab when separating compounds? separating WHAT compounds and how? as a solvent? It has a low boiling point and isn’t very reactive, generally, but there may be other specific reasons depending upon

asked by Ba on November 21, 2006
Chemistry
Write the class/family of the following compounds and the functional group in each compound. a. 3-methylcyclohexene b. Cis-3-octene c. 4-methyl-2-heptanone d. 3-bromobenzaldehyde e. 3-bromo-5-chlorotoluene f. 3-chlorophenol g. 6-methyl-2-heptyne Please

asked by Christina on April 22, 2014
chemistry
ionic componuds tend to have higher boiling points than covalent compounds . both ammonia NH3 and methane CH4 are covalent compounds but yet the boiling point of ammonia 130C is higher than methane. what might account for this difference please help thank

asked by teri on April 1, 2009
science(chem)
Solubility: Solubility of compounds in a)water (highly polar) b)methyl alchohol (intermediate polarity) c)Hexane (nonpolar) My guess 1. Benzophenone a) not soluble b) partially soluble c) soluble 2. Malonic acid a) soluble (since it’s polar) b) soluble c)

asked by ~christina~ on September 3, 2007
Chemistry
Nonane has a density of 0.79 g/mL. and boils at 151 Celcius. a. What is the condensed structural formula of nonane b. Is it a solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature c. Is it soluable in water d. Will it float on water or sink

asked by Elisabeth on July 20, 2010
Organic Chemistry
Ooops sorry! Please rank the following compounds in DECREASING order of their reactivity toward the SN2 reaction with sodium ethoxide in ethanol. a. methyl chloride b. isopropylbromide c. t-butyliodide d. methyl iodide e. ethyl chloride I have an answer,

chemistry
Which of the compounds below exhibit geometric isomerism (cis-, trans-)? 1-chloro-1-pentene 1-heptene 1,2-dimethylcyclopentene 2-methyl-3-hexene 2-methyl-2-butene 1-methylcyclopentane 1,2-dimethylcyclohexane here’s what i got: 1-chloro-1-pentene – yes

asked by lie on April 20, 2008
chemistry
Name the compound (CH3)2CHCCCH3 1. 2-methyl-3-pentyne 2. 3-methyl-1-pentyne 3. 5-methyl-2-pentyne 4. 4-methyl-2-pentyne 5. 3-methyl-2-hexane 6. 4-methyl-2-pentene Can you also explain how to draw the structure? Thanks:)

asked by Anonymous on November 30, 2011

Organic Chemistry-pls check
Which is the major product from acid catalyzed hydration (addition of water) of 2-methyl-2-pentene? a) 2-methyl-2-pentanol b) 2-methyl-1-pentanol c) 2-methyl-3-pentanol d) 3-methyl-3-pentanol answer: “c”: 2-methyl-3-pentanol ???

asked by K on February 24, 2008
Chemistry

1. A 100.00g sample of the gaseous hydrocarbon ethane is a gaseous hydrocarbon, with 79.89g of carbon and 20.11g of hydrogen. Ethylene is a different gas phase hydrocarbon. A 100.00g sample of ethylene has 85.63g of carbon with 14.37 of hydrogen. A sample

asked by Alissa L on August 28, 2016
Chemistry
A 100.00g sample of the gaseous hydrocarbon ethane is a gaseous hydrocarbon, with 79.89g of carbon and 20.11g of hydrogen. Ethylene is a different gas phase hydrocarbon. A 100.00g sample of ethylene has 85.63g of carbon with 14.37 of hydrogen. A sample of

asked by Alissa L on August 29, 2016
Organic Chemistry
I’m a beginner in the subject. It’s a category that is overviewed in my AP Chem class. I need some help understanding the following: dimethyl-n-butylmethane diethylmethylmethane diethyldimethylmethane trimethylisobutylmethane diethylisopropylmethane

asked by Angela on September 9, 2008
Chemistry
Please rank the following compounds in DECREASING order of their reactivity toward the SN2 reaction with sodium ethoxide in ethanol. a. methyl chloride (CH3Cl) b. isopropylbromide ((CH3)2CHBr) c. t-butyliodide (CH3)3Cl) d. methyl iodide (CH3I) e. ethyl

Chemistry
A liquid hydrocarbon (Cx Hy) is found to be 16.37% H by mass. A 1.158-g vaporized sample of the hydrocarbon has a 358 mL volume at 71.0 C and 749 mmHg. what is the molecular formula for this hydrocarbon?

asked by Katrina on June 21, 2011
chemistry
If you burn methane(CH4)and methyl alcohol(CH3OH)which gives off more heat

asked by luly on February 19, 2008
Chemistry
a hydrocarbon is burnt completely in excess oxygen. it is found that 1.00g of the hydrocarbon gives 2.93g carbon dioxide and 1.80g water. find the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon (H=1,C=12,O=16)

asked by Henry on May 10, 2018
Chemistry
‘Describe the difference in intermolecular forces between 2-methyl-3-hexanone and 5-methyl-3-hexanol and how this affects the properties of the substances.’ I’m looking at the molecles on Chemspider, and I want to say that because 5-methyl-3-hexanol has a

asked by SarahF275 on March 6, 2018
Organic Chemistry
2-methyl-2hexanol is reacted with sulfuric acid at around 800C. The two products formed are 2-methyl-1-hexene (19%) and 2-methyl-2-hexene (81%). Show the chemical equation for this reaction. Explain fully why 2-methyl-2-hexene is the major product. Please

asked by Deon on October 14, 2010

Chem
Complete combustion of 8.30 g of a hydrocarbon produced 26.7 g of CO2 and 9.10 g of H2O. What is the empirical formula for the hydrocarbon? My Work: First I tried to find the Amount of C and H in the product… Which I got 1 Mole of Carbon and 2 moles of

asked by Dan on October 21, 2015
chemistry
complete combustion of a 0.0100mol sample of hydrocarbon, CxHy, gives 1.344 L of CO2 at STP and 0.720 g of H2O. a. what is the molecular formula of hydrocarbon? b. what is the empirical formula of hydrocarbon?..

asked by SHY on November 28, 2011
Chemistry
Choose an alkane that is 6 to 10 carbon atoms in length. List the alkane’s name and the other isomers you can properly draw and name. For example: Decane / isomer 2 methyl-Nonane. Do not guess. Draw out on paper then name for best results. Include the

asked by Anonymous on May 27, 2016
chemistry
a hydrocarbon was burnt completely and the products were bubbled into excess of Ca(OH)2 solution. The resulting mixture was filtered, and the residue dried and weighed. The mass of the hydrocarbon was found to be 10.00g. In a separate experiment, the same

asked by kandace on June 19, 2016
Chem!
Compound Odor Boiling Point, °C Flammability Ammonia Yes -33.3 Yes Methyl vinyl ether Slight 12.0 Yes Methyl chloride Yes -33.9 Yes Sulfur dioxide Yes -10.0 No Ethynyl bromide Yes 4.7 Yes Freon 134a No -26.1 No Carbon dioxide No -28.9 No Good refrigerants

asked by Haley on February 8, 2017
Chemistry
Clathrate hydrate research is done by Professor Ken Janda here at UC Irvine. Look up clathrate hydrate with a general search of the internet and at Professor Janda’s Research. Look at text and structures posted on the Gas Hydrate Home and the Clathrate

asked by CHEMBOB on May 2, 2011
Chem
Calculate the work (in kJ) when 1.80 moles of methane react with excess oxygen at 389 K: CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) I got 11661.26 Calculate the change in entropy (in J/K) when 70.1 g of nitrogen gas is heated at a constant pressure of 1.50 atm

asked by Anonymous on March 27, 2013
chemistry
thanks for helping me with the list. By checking the product’s labels I’m finding many of the substances the problem now is that i found a product with hydrocarbon in it but I do not know how to figure out if its molecular mass is greater than 100g/mol

asked by desperate on February 4, 2007
Chemisty
Hydrocarbons are important fuel that we burn for many different reasons. a. what is a hydrocarbon? b. rank these hydrocarbons by the number of carbons the contain: propane, methane, butane, octane, ethane.

asked by Jaclyn on March 11, 2014
biology
Olive oil is an unsaturated fat. Does the Sudan Red Test differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fats?

asked by loveag on July 8, 2013

organic chemistry

1. Predict the order of elution of a mixture of triphenylmethanol, biphenyl, benzoic acid, and methyl benzoate from an alumina column. You may need to examine the structural elements in each compound. 2. Once the chromatography column has been prepared,

asked by DONT UNDERSTAND!! on September 20, 2015
Chemisty!
a flask with a volume of 267.5 mL contains a few milliliters of a volatile hydrocarbon. after vaporizing the gas at 100 degrees C, the flask is weighed and found to contain 0.728 grams of hydrocarbon vapor at 755 mmHg. a separate combustion analysis

asked by Rachel on March 14, 2011
chemistry
a flask with a volume of 267.5 mL contains a few milliliters of a volatile hydrocarbon. after vaporizing the gas at 100 degrees C, the flask is weighed and found to contain 0.728 grams of hydrocarbon vapor at 755 mmHg. a separate combustion analysis

asked by Rachel on March 14, 2011
chemistry
Which solvent will dissolve more in given solute: 1. Ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) in hexane(C6H14) or H2O 2. Diethyl ether (CH2CH2OCH2CH3) in H2O or CH3OH? 3. NaCl in CH3OH or CH3CH2CH2CH2OH I know that like dissolves like. Therefore the molecules with the

asked by Gabriela on April 26, 2007
ap chem
an unknown gaseous hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to form CO2 and H2O, DETERMINE HEAT OF FORMATION FOR THE HYDROCARBON. the density of the mixture of CO2 and H2O at 1 atm and 200 degree celsius is 0.751g /L and heat of reaction is equal to -2044.5 KJ /MOL

asked by Rita on October 11, 2014
Science Chemistry
The elementary analysis of 22 g hydrocarbon sample results in 18 g C and 4 g H. a) Choose the correct chemical formula of the hydrocarbon: i) CH4 ii) C2H4 iii) C3H8 b) What is the amount of CO2 in grams formed by the total combustion of hydrocarbon? Assume

asked by karem on December 22, 2016
Science

1. ALTERNATIVE B The elementary analysis of 22 g hydrocarbon sample results in 18 g C and 4 g H. a) Choose the correct chemical formula of the hydrocarbon: i) CH4 ii) C2H4 iii) C3H8 b) What is the amount of CO2 in grams formed by the total combustion of

asked by karem on December 21, 2016
chemistry
in an experiment a sample of hydrocarbon was analyzed. The sample contained6 g of carbon and 1.344 g Hydrogen. a) whats the empirical formula? the density of hydrocarbon at 25 C and 1.09 atm is 1.96 g/L b.) whats the molar mass of the hydrocarbon? c) whats

asked by hilde on March 10, 2010
Ochem
Give the products (if any) expected from the treatment of the following compounds with ozone followed by aqueous hydrogen peroxide. Do not include any byproducts. 1) 2-methyl-2-pentene 2) cyclooctene Please help! I’m not sure on where to start with this

asked by Lucy on February 8, 2012
Chemistry II
what is the complete & balanced equation for the following reactions & include the catalysts if any: 1. Combustion of Methane: 2. Halogenation of Cyclopentene with Br2 4. Hydrogenation of 3-methyl-1-butyne 5. Combustion of 2-methylpropene 6.

asked by Jessie on February 4, 2014

chemistry
What is a special group of compounds that produce H+ ions when dissolved in water? A. Acids B. Ionic compounds C. Molecular compounds D. Polyatomic compounds I think A

asked by Keri on November 10, 2012
chemistry
Complete combustion of 4.20 g of a hydrocarbon produced 13.4 g of CO2 and 4.81 g of H2O. What is the empirical formula for the hydrocarbon?

asked by Alex on February 13, 2017
Chemistry
Complete combustion of 7.00 g of a hydrocarbon produced 21.4 g of CO2 and 10.2 g of H2O. What is the empirical formula for the hydrocarbon?

asked by Stephanie on June 6, 2012
chemistry
Complete combustion of 4.80 g of a hydrocarbon produced 15.6 g of CO2 and 4.80 g of H2O. What is the empirical formula for the hydrocarbon?

asked by college chem on September 19, 2013
chemistry
Complete combustion of 8.80 g of a hydrocarbon produced 27.1 g of CO2 and 12.5 g of H2O. What is the empirical formula for the hydrocarbon?

asked by Anonymous on October 11, 2013
alkanes!
What is meant when we say that alkanes are saturated? Carbon has four bonds. When all the bonds are occupied with hydrogen atoms(no double or triple bonds), the molecule is said to be saturated. CH4 is saturataed. CH3CH3 or C2H6 is saturated. There is a

asked by AL J on June 12, 2006
Chemistry
Complete combustion of 8.00 g of hydrocarbon produced 26.0g of CO2 and 7.99g of H2O. What is the empirical formula for the hydrocarbon?

asked by Jerry on September 18, 2011
Chemistry
1C2H6+2O2 yields 3H2O + 2CO2 would this be the hydrocarbon butene? If I did this wrong, how would you correctly identify this hydrocarbon? Thanks for your help.

asked by Tabetha on May 19, 2009
chemistry
Consider the following five compounds. a. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 b. OH ‘ CH3CH2CH2CH2 c. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 d. O ” CH3CH2CH2CH3 e. CH3 ‘ CH3CCH3 ‘ CH3 The boiling points of these five compounds are 9.5 C, 36 C, 69 C, 76 C, and 117 C. Which compound boils at 36

asked by cathleen on January 5, 2007
chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing boiling point: sodium fluoride ( \rm NaF ), methane ( \rm CH_4 ), fluoromethane ( \rm CH_3F )

asked by nurul on August 21, 2011

Chemistry
Hydrocarbon burn in excess oxygen yields 4.4g of carbon(iv)oxide and 2 of 7g of water. Find the empirical formula of hydrocarbon

asked by Prudent on November 16, 2015
Treacher girls scholl
A hydrocarbon is burnt completely in air to form 13.2g of carbon dioxide gas and 7.2g of water. What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon?

asked by Esh on March 28, 2011
Chemistry
When you’re naming organic compounds, is there more than one name that’s acceptable for each compound? For example Ch3-CH2-CH2 CH3 1 1 CH3-CH-CH-CH 1 1 CH3-CH2 CH3 Hopefully this appeared alright once I typed it. The ones represent bonds. In the answer

asked by Rori on May 20, 2009
Dr. Bob
a gaseous hydrocarbon reacts completely with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. given the following data, determine (delta)HoF for hydrocarbon: (delta)Horxn=-2044.5kj/mol hydrocarbon (delta)HoF CO2= -393.5kj/mol (delta)HoF H2O = -242kj/mol

asked by Kim on April 21, 2008
kim
a gaseous hydrocarbon reacts completely with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. given the following data, determine (delta)HoF for hydrocarbon: (delta)Horxn=-2044.5kj/mol hydrocarbon (delta)HoF CO2= -393.5kj/mol (delta)HoF H2O = -242kj/mol

asked by chemistry on April 20, 2008
chemistry
combustion analysis of a hydrocarbon produced: 33.01 g CO2 and 13.51 g H2O Calculate the empirical formula of the Hydrocarbon. I got CH5 but that doesn’t seem right? how do i do this problem?

asked by ALISON on September 11, 2011
CHEM
What is the major product from an elimination reaction starting with 2-bromo-1-methylcyclohexane? would it be: a) 1-methyl-1-cyclohexene b) a cyclohexane/ene with a double bond off of one C – basically the cyclohexane shape with =CH2 off of it (I don’t

asked by k on March 12, 2008
Organic Chemistry
“Cabbage leaves are coated with a hydrocarbon of molecular formula C29H60. What purpose might this hydrocarbon coating serve?” This is a question from a textbook. Anything helps!!

asked by ryancon on February 14, 2019
chemistry
an unknown alcohol reacts with sodium salt but further tests show the compound to be an aliphatic hydrocarbon. what structural unit is probably present in the hydrocarbon?

asked by jen on March 24, 2018
chem 1411
A combustion analysis of a 0.00134g sample (CxHy) of a hydrocarbon yields 0.00375g of CO2 and 0.00164g of H2O. What is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon?

asked by JACI WINLOW on October 18, 2016

chemistry
an unknown alcohol reacts with sodium salt but further tests show the compound to be an aliphatic hydrocarbon. what structural unit is probably present in the hydrocarbon?

asked by jen on March 31, 2018
Chemistry
Methyl linoleate is one of the common components of biodiesel. As an alternative fuel, Methyl linoleate reacts completely with oxygen (O2) to make carbon dioxide and water. Balance the chemical equation. How many kilograms of oxygen are required to react

asked by Shell on May 19, 2011
chemistry
Outline the following synthesis: a) 2 – methyl propene -> 2-methyl-2-propanol. b) 3 –ethylpentene -> carbon dioxide, water and 2-ethylbutanoic acid. c) 2 methyl-2-pentene -> 2-chloro-2-methylpetane and 3-chloro-2-methylpentane d) 1-ethylcyclohexene ->

asked by aiman on August 15, 2015
science
Methane is a natural gas, petrol is a liquid and wax is a solid. So explain the difference in phases or states of the molecules/compounds by reffering to the IMF

asked by Anonymous on February 27, 2011
Chemistry
10cm^3 of aa hydrocarbon was completely combusted in 200cm^3 of O2. It was found that there was 20cm^3 of O2 remaining and the volume of CO2 produced was 120cm^3. Determine the formula of the hydrocarbon.

Chemistry
10cm^3 of aa hydrocarbon was completely combusted in 200cm^3 of O2. It was found that there was 20cm^3 of O2 remaining and the volume of CO2 produced was 120cm^3. Determine the formula of the hydrocarbon.

Chemistry
Methane is formed in landfills by the action of certain bacteria on buried organic matter. If a sample of methane collected from a landfill has a volume of 500. mL at 744. torr and 22. °C, how many grams of methane are in the sample?

asked by Marisa on November 22, 2010
chemistry
Methane is formed in landfills by the action of certain bacteria on buried organic matter. If a sample of methane collected from a landfill has a volume of 100. mL at 754 torr and 21.2 °C, how many grams of methane are in the sample?

asked by Anonymous on November 5, 2013
Chemistry
Methane is formed in landfills by the action of certain bacteria on buried organic matter. If a sample of methane collected from a landfill has a volume of 200. mL at 741 torr and 27.2 °C, how many grams of methane are in the sample?

asked by Luke on July 8, 2014
Chemistry
As I read it, the question provides you with a word description of the production of diesel fuel, gasoline, lighter gases such as ethane and propane, as well as some of the refinery operations such as cracking. Your job is to take this word description and

asked by DrBob222 on April 30, 2007

chemistry
Consider a sample of a hydrocarbon (a compound consisting of only carbon and hydrogen) at 0.959 atm and 298 K. Upon combusting the entire sample in oxygen, you collect a mixture of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at 0.755 atm and 375 K. This mixture

asked by Jaxx on February 27, 2015
Chemistry HELP
Complete combustion of 3.30 g of a hydrocarbon produced 10.2 g of CO2 and 4.68 g of H2O. What is the empirical formula for the hydrocarbon? I did the calculation and the ratio comes out to C: 1 H: 2.24 So I thought the answer is CH2 but apparently its

asked by Alz on February 9, 2014
chemistry
a 47.7L sample of a gaseous hydrocarbon, measured at 1.00atm and 25degreesC is burned in excess oxygen, liberating 4.33X10^3 kJ of heat at a constant pressure. what is the identity of the hydrocarbon?

asked by Ellie on June 21, 2010
chemistry
Compare the three types of bonds based on valence electrons. Explain why S-H bond lengths are longer than O-H bond lengths. Which element has a greater bond energy, oxygen or nitrogen and why. Determine if the following compounds are likely to have ionic

asked by mido on December 13, 2010
chemistry
In a methane fuel cell, the chemical energy of the methane is converted into electrical energy instead of heat that would flow during the combustion of methane. Using the half-reactions and reduction potentials given below a) Write a net equation for the

asked by Vt on August 3, 2011
chemistry
In a methane fuel cell, the chemical energy of the methane is converted into electrical energy instead of heat that would flow during the combustion of methane. Using the half-reactions and reduction potentials given below a) Write a net equation for the

asked by Vt on August 3, 2011
Chemistry – Liquid Methane?
“The planets Uranus and Neptune are so far from the Sun that temperatures are low enough for atmospheric methane, CH4, to condense and form clouds. How is it possible for methane, a nonpolar substance, to exist in this liquid state?” I want to say it’s

asked by Sarah on December 12, 2017
Chemistry
Using the technique of the previous problem ΔE was found to be -2,000.00 kJ/mol of an unknown liquid hydrocarbon at 298 K. In another experiment it was determined that for each mole of hydrocarbon, 4 moles of oxygen gas are consumed and 6 moles of CO2 gas

asked by John Handra on March 31, 2015
Chemistry
Complete combustion of 7.70 g of a hydrocarbon produced 23.7 g of CO2 and 10.9 of H2O. What is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon? I first calculated the moles of both the carbon dioxide and the water, but I have no idea where to go from there. Any

asked by Student on January 27, 2011
gr. 12 chem
what is nonane and decane used for and why is this appropriate for each use?

asked by shelly on February 23, 2010

Science/chemistry
Could you please check these answers I don’t understand #4 could you give me a link or you can try to help me. Thanks: 1. Identify what all organic compounds have in common, and list the four principal classes of organic compounds. Answer: Cabohydrates,

asked by Gabby on February 15, 2009
Physics
Suppose a distant world with surface gravity of 7.12 m/s2 has an atmospheric pressure of 7.48 104 Pa at the surface. (a) What force is exerted by the atmosphere on a disk-shaped region 2.00 m in radius at the surface of a methane ocean?________N (b) What

asked by Amelia on November 7, 2012
Suppose a distant world with surface gravity of 7.12 m/s2 has an atmospheric pressure of 7.48 104 Pa at the surface. (a) What force is exerted by the atmosphere on a disk-shaped region 2.00 m in radius at the surface of a methane ocean?____________N (b)

asked by AMY on November 8, 2012
chemistry
A sample of methane gas, CH4, was collected over water at 25.0ºC and 800 torr. The volume of the wet gas is 4.36 L. What will be the volume of the dry methane at standard pressure? Voldry methane=_______L

asked by Anonymous on April 10, 2011
chemistry
A ten gallon methane tank contains 1.243 mol of methane at 74°F. Express the volume of tank in liters, the amount of methane in the tank in grams, and the tempature of the tank in kelvin.

asked by Kalyn on February 10, 2011
dijla
if you change the indicator of standardization Hcl with Na2co3 methyl red methyl orange titration corset not why?

asked by yasser on December 5, 2012
Organic Chemistry
How do I draw the condensed formula for: 1. 2-methyl-2-pentene 2. 5-methyl-1-hexene 3. 2,2,4,5-tetramethylhexane 4. propanoic acid 5. 2-pentyne

asked by Cinnamon on September 30, 2007
Chemistry
What volume of “wet” methane would have to be collected at 20.0 oC and 760.0 torr to be sure the sample contained 2.00 x 102 ml of dry methane at the same temperature and pressure ? My Work: All I have so far is that I use P1V1=P2V2 but I don’t know

asked by Joe on September 7, 2015
chemistry 12
If the pH of a solution is 3.5, what colour will be shown by each of the following indicators in the solution? a)Methyl Violet b) methyl red c) Methyl orange d) phenolphthalein My answers: a) Yellow to Blue b) Red to Yellow c) Red to Yellow d) close to a

asked by Sarah on October 13, 2011
chemistry
Combustion analysis of a hydrocarbon produced 33.01 g {\rm CO}_2 and 27.04 g {\rm H}_2{\rm O}. Calculate the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon. Express your answer as a chemical formula.

asked by david on March 17, 2014

Environmental Issues
My science teacher says that cattle flatulence is destroying the ozone layer. If this is true, what can we do to regulate the flatulence output of cattle in order to preserve the ozone? http://www.guardian.co.uk/climatechange/story/0,12374,905360,00.html

asked by Joey on May 10, 2007
chemistry
Calculate the volume of natural gas (methane) required to bring 2.6 L of water to a boil. Assume the initial temperature of the water is 21 C, and the methane is at 1 bar and 25 C. Assume that methane is an ideal gas, the specific heat capacity of water to

asked by Katie on December 4, 2011
Chemistry
Calculate the volume of natural gas (methane) required to bring 3.9 L of water to a boil. Assume the initial temperature of the water is 39 C, and the methane is at 1 bar and 25 C. Assume that methane is an ideal gas, the specific heat capacity of water to

asked by LaurenB on December 2, 2011
chemistry
what are some examples of covalent bonds and what are some examples of ionic bonds? Electrons are shared in covalent bonds. Electrons are exchanged in ionic bonds. Typical ionic compounds are NaCl, MgCl2, LiI, etc. Typical covalent compounds are CH4,

asked by Leeann on January 29, 2007
AP Chemistry
a 5.15g sample of a hydrocarbon is burned in oxygen, producing 15.6g of carbon dioxide and 8.45g of water. Assuming an excess of oxygen, what is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon?

asked by Ariday on September 13, 2011

Categories

## walmartpsp

By:

Ammara Farooq

Grayson Ricafort

Esmeralda Ramirez

Josiah Orozco

Alyssa Becerra

Denisse Ramos Talavera

Descriptive Statistics

The Average Shipping cost to ship a product on truck is 28.758, while on air it is 8.571.

This will let the company know that shipping through truck is more expensive. Shipment through air is far more reliable as noted in the pie chart. This is a possibility to decrease spending and increase revenue.

Average Shipping: 14.7908

Mean Shipping Cost:

6.18

Average Product Base Margin:

0.4918

Mean Product Base Margin:

0.5

Total Averages

 median target PSP $5.79 average target PSP$7.22 median walmart PSP $5.79 average walmart PSP$7.14 The Average Discount percent of all Products 5

Comparing Target and Walmart Sales Prices

Both companies almost have the same prices.

Olay Regenerist Moisturizer, Hellmann’s Real Mayonnaise, and Folgers Classic Roast are the only ones with slight price differences.

4

Product sale price

Wal-Mart Folgers Classic Roast Hamburger Helper Frenchs Mustard Hellmanns Real Mayonnaise Kraft Miracle Whip Pringles Listerine Cool Mint Pantene Color Reserve Volume Shampoo Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Mositurizing Lotion Olay Regenerist Moisturizer Fancy Feast Wet Cat Food Gourmet Entree Nice n Easy Haircolor Cover Girl Lash Blast Volume Mascara 6.97 2.0 1.77 2.97 4.97 2.25 5.79 3.96 11.27 27.47 6.98 8.96 7.47 Target Folgers Classic Roast Hamburger Helper Frenchs Mustard Hellmanns Real Mayonnaise Kraft Miracle Whip Pringles Listerine Cool Mint Pantene Color Reserve Volume Shampoo Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Mositurizing Lotion Olay Regenerist Moisturizer Fancy Feast Wet Cat Food Gourmet Entree Nice n Easy Haircolor Cover Girl Lash Blast Volume Mascara 9.49 2.04 1.99 4.49 4.99 2.29 5.79 4.99 11.39 22.99 6.99 8.99 7.49

Products

Prices

Positive Correlation

2011 prices vs. Present prices

There is a perfect positive correlation

Correlation Coefficient r= 0.9885946 which is near 1, which makes the correlation almost the same.

Correlation bewteen walmart prices and walmart 2011 prices

Wal-Mart Folgers Classic Roast Hamburger Helper Frenchs Mustard Hellmanns Real Mayonnaise Kraft Miracle Whip Pringles Listerine Cool Mint Pantene Color Reserve Volume Shampoo Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Mositurizing Lotion Olay Regenerist Moisturizer Fancy Feast Wet Cat Food Gourmet Entree Nice n Easy Haircolor Cover Girl Lash Blast Volume Mascara 6.97 2.0 1.77 2.97 4.97 2.25 5.79 3.96 11.27 27.47 6.98 8.96 7.47 Wal-Mart (2011) Folgers Classic Roast Hamburger Helper Frenchs Mustard Hellmanns Real Mayonnaise Kraft Miracle Whip Pringles Listerine Cool Mint Pantene Color Reserve Volume Shampoo Aveeno Active Naturals Daily Mositurizing Lotion Olay Regenerist Moisturizer Fancy Feast Wet Cat Food Gourmet Entree Nice n Easy Haircolor Cover Girl Lash Blast Volume Mascara 9.47 2.67 2.17 3.97 4.37 1.67 4.99 4.96 11.27 32.97 7.48 7.78 7.47

Products

Prices

Product Correlation

Sales vs. Discounts

There is NO apparent correlation between product Sales and the Discount.

r= 0.0742363, which is near 0, meaning that there is no correlation.244.57 124.56 905.08 716.8399999999999 10123.02 228.41 146.69 394.27 261.54 196.85 93.54 2781.82 4965.7595 7.000000000000001 1.0 5.0 8.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 0.0 9.0 3.0 4.0 7.000000000000001 7.000000000000001

Product sales

Discount

Relative Frequency

There is NO association between Ship Mode and Product Container.

Categories

## if a company fails to make an adjusting entry to record supplies expense, then

Which of the following reflect the balances of prepayment accounts prior to adjustment?

 Balance sheet accounts are overstated and income statement accounts are overstated.
 Balance sheet accounts are understated and income statement accounts are overstated.
 Balance sheet accounts are overstated and income statement accounts are understated.
 Balance sheet accounts are understated and income statement accounts are understated.

If an adjustment is needed for unearned revenues, the

 liability is overstated and the related revenue is understated before adjustment.
 liability is understated and the related revenue is overstated before adjustment.
 liability and related revenue are understated before adjustment.
 liability and related revenue are overstated before adjustment. If a company fails to make an adjusting entry to record supplies expense, thenowner’s equity will be understated.assets will be understated.net income will be understated.expense will be understated.Which of the following would not result in unearned revenue?Sale of two-year magazine subscriptionsSale of season tickets to football gamesRent collected in advance from tenantsServices performed on accountFugazi City College sold season tickets for the 2014 football season for $240,000. A total of 8 games will be played during September, October and November. In September, three games were played. The adjusting journal entry at September 30is not required. No adjusting entries will be made until the end of the season in November.will include a debit to Unearned Ticket Revenue and a credit to Ticket Revenue for$90,000.will include a debit to Ticket Revenue and a credit to Unearned Ticket Revenue for $80,000.The income statement and balance sheet columns of Iron and Wine Company’s worksheet reflect the following totals:Income StatementBalance SheetDr.Cr.Dr.Cr.Totals$72,000$44,000$60,000$88,000The net income (or loss) for the period is$28,000 loss.$28,000 income.not determinable.$44,000 income.Which of the following is a true statement about closing the books of a proprietorship?Expenses are closed to the Expense Summary account.Only revenues are closed to the Income Summary account.Revenues and expenses are closed to the Income Summary account.Revenues, expenses, and the owner’s drawings account are closed to the Income Summary account.The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:Revenues$70,000Expenses:Salaries and Wages Expense$45,000Rent Expense12,000Advertising Expense10,000Supplies Expense6,000Utilities Expense2,500Insurance Expense2,000Total expenses77,500Net income (loss)($7,500)After the revenue and expense accounts have been closed, the balance in Income Summary will be$0.a credit balance of $7,500.a debit balance of$7,500.a credit balance of $70,000.The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:Revenues$70,000Expenses:Salaries and Wages Expense$45,000Rent Expense12,000Advertising Expense10,000Supplies Expense6,000Utilities Expense2,500Insurance Expense2,000Total expenses77,500Net income (loss)($7,500)At January 1, 2014, Fugazi reported owner’s equity of $50,000. Owner drawings for the year totalled$10,000. At December 31, 2014, the company will report owner’s equity of$17,500.$32,500.$42,500.All of the following statements about the post-closing trial balance are correct except itshows that the accounting equation is in balance.proves that all transactions have been recorded.provides evidence that the journalizing and posting of closing entries have been properly completed.contains only permanent accounts. Categories ## cesi debt solutions According to a study conducted by CESI Debt Solutions, 80% of married people hide purchases from their mates. In a random sample of 20 married people, find and interpret: (a) The probability exactly 15 hide purchases from their mates. (b) The probability at least 19 hide purchases from their mates. (c) The probability fewer than 19 hide purchases from their mates. (d) The probability between 15 and 17, inclusive, hide purchases from their mates. Categories ## identify the hybridization of the c atom in ch2br2. How would i find the hybridization of the central atom in NO3^- and CH2Br2? 90,770 results Chemistry How would i find the hybridization of the central atom in NO3^- and CH2Br2? Also, in general how would I find the hybridization of something, and what is hybridization (I’m very lost)? asked by Sarah on December 8, 2009 CHEM What is the hybridization of the central atom in COH2?? Would the correct response, out of the following: a) sp b) sp^2 c) sp^3 d) sp^3d e) sp^3d^2 “e”-> sp^3d^2?? asked by K on November 26, 2007 chemistry What is the orbital hybridization of the central atom S in SF4? 1) sp 2) sp3d 3) sp2 4) sp3d2 5) sp3 asked by saara on April 9, 2008 chemsitry The molecular geometry of POCl3 is tetrahedral. What hybridization does this indicate for the central P atom? Why is the answer spy? asked by Chelsea on December 11, 2013 chem 1. under what circumstances is the molecular geometry around a single central atom the same as the electron group geometry around the central atom? 2.If all of the electron groups around a single central atom are bonding, and the same outer atom is bonded asked by natash on April 28, 2008 Chemistry Hey can you please check my answers? Also, Can you explain interparticle force of attraction? I’m not sure about the difference between IMFOA and IPFOA. Chemical formula: Cl2 Name: Chlorine Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape: asked by Anonymous on December 7, 2015 Chemistry (Check and Help) Hey can you please check my answers? Also, Can you explain interparticle force of attraction? I’m not sure about the difference between IMFOA and IPFOA. Chemical formula: Cl2 Name: Chlorine Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape: asked by Anonymous on December 6, 2015 chemistry 1.which of the following is the most polar bond? explain n-f c-f h-f o-f 2. in the trigonal bipyramidal geometry, which position – axial or equatorial – do nonbonding electrons prefer? why? 3.under what circumstances is the molecular geometry around a asked by katherine on April 23, 2010 Chemistry Hello, What is the hybridization of an H atom on a methane? As far as I understand, the hydrogen has 1 s orbital which bonds only to carbon, so does not have any hybridization. Is this correct? Thank you asked by Nat on July 15, 2010 chem what is the appropriate hybridization for the carbon atom in CO2? the explanation I was given is 2 electron groups around the center atom carbon suggest sp hybridization. the 2 unhibridized p orbitals on carbon form the 2 pi bonds. My question is why pi asked by Natash on November 24, 2008 chemistry Sulfur forms the following compounds with chlorine. Identify thetype of hybridization for the central sulfur atom in each compound. SCl2,SCl6,SCl4 a. sp b. sp2 c. sp3 d. sp3d e. sp3d2 asked by Mely on November 6, 2010 chemistry Hello! my question is. Cumulene has chemical formula C4H4 with 7sigma and 3pie bonds. the 2 outer C atoms have a hybridization of “sp2”, the H atoms have a hybridization of “s”, and the 2 C atoms in between have “sp” hybridization. As I figured out, there asked by Jam09 on January 30, 2009 chemistry Which of the following has the central atom with the lowest oxidation number? a. CO32- b. NO3- c. ClO2- d. SO42- e. PO43- asked by Megan on October 31, 2008 chem Which of the following ions contains lone pair of electrons at the central atom? A) SO4 2- B) NO3 – C) IO3 – (Is there any ways without drawing the diagrams and I could still able to figure out the answer???) Thx very much asked by ivan on October 2, 2014 Chemistry Chemical formula: Na Name: Sodium Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: sp Molecular Polarity: nonpolar Interparticle force of attraction (IPFOA): ? State of Matter (at room temperature): solid Can’t asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015 CHEM if you were to draw a Lewis dot structure for HOCl…would it be H:Cl:O: (with double dots above & below the Oxygen & Chlorine) or would it be: H:O:Cl: (same thing for the double dots being above & below the Cl & O? Basically…is Oxygen the central atom asked by K on November 10, 2007 Chemistry (Help) I’m having trouble figuring out this one. Can you please help? I haven’t gotten a response to any of my questions. Chemical formula: Na Name: Sodium Bond Type (intramolecular FOA): metallic bond VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: none? asked by Kyle on December 9, 2015 Chemisty Help!!!!!!!! show how you would obtain (the orbitals used) and the possible types (the orbitals produced) for hybridization of a carbon atom. you must report the shape and the number of orbitals of each type used and produced for each type of hybridization. asked by Amanda on April 9, 2012 Chemistry (Check) Are these right? Chemical formula: NaCl Name: Sodium chloride Bond Type (intramolecular FOA): ionic bonding VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: sp3 Molecular Polarity: polar Interparticle force of attraction (IPFOA): London, asked by Kyle on December 9, 2015 Chemistry Please explain this, I have no idea how to figure this out. What molecule or polyatomic ion has the following features. (a) four bonded atoms, no unshared electrons on the central atom (b) two bonded atoms, no unshared electrons on the central atom (c) two asked by Lewis on March 7, 2013 Chemistry Chemical formula: NaCl Name: Sodium chloride Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London, dipole-dipole, ion-dipole VSEPR molecular shape: none Central Atom Hybridization: sp3 Molecular Polarity: polar Interparticle force of attraction (IPFOA): ? State of asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015 chemistry The hybridization of the lead atom in PbCl4 is…? asked by Sandy on November 3, 2012 chemistry what is the hybridization of each atom for hydrocyanic acid? asked by Mai on March 29, 2014 chemistry How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization? B,N, and O asked by Paul on December 5, 2014 Chemistry Can you please check if these are right? I’m not sure about IPFOA. Chemical formula: H2O Name: Dihydrogen oxide Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding VSEPR molecular shape: bent Central Atom Hybridization: sp3 Molecular asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015 chem Determine the electron and molecular geometries of each of the following molecules. For those with more than one central atom, indicate the geometry about each central atom. (Enter your answers in the order given in the skeletal structure from left to asked by hannah on January 29, 2011 chemistry A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0400 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0800 mol CH2Br2 at 25 degrees C. Assume solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25 C. At 25 C, vaporpressure of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2 are 133 asked by Sara on March 7, 2010 chem I really need these answers to balance the net ionic equation or make it into one. Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = CuOH (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + NaI (aq) = CuI (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4 (aq) = CuPO4 (s) + Na3(NO3)2 (aq) Fe(NO3)3 asked by Suey on February 18, 2012 Chemistry A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0400 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0700 mol of CH2Br2 at 25°C. Assuming the solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25°C. At 25°C, the vapor pressures of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2 asked by Katrina on February 20, 2011 AP Chemistry A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0200 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0500 mol CH2Br2 at 25°C. Assuming the solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25°C. At 25°C, the vapor pressures of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2 asked by Sarah on March 22, 2010 chemistry A solution is prepared by mixing 0.0433 mol CH2Cl2 and 0.0623 mol CH2Br2 at 25°C. Assuming the solution is ideal, calculate the composition of the vapor (in terms of mole fractions) at 25°C. At 25°C, the vapor pressures of pure CH2Cl2 and pure CH2Br2 asked by bob on May 4, 2010 Chemistry # 1) The Lewis structure of PF3 shows that central phosphorus atom has _ nonbonding and _ bonding electron pairs. #2) How many equivalent resonance forms can be drawn for CO3^-2? (carbon is the central atom) #3) The bond angle in NF3 is slightly less asked by Diana on May 21, 2009 Chemistry Hey can you please check my answers? Also, Can you explain interparticle force of attraction? I’m not sure about the difference between IMFOA and IPFOA. Chemical formula: Cl2 Name: Chlorine Bond Type (intermolecular FOA): London VSEPR molecular shape: asked by Anonymous on December 8, 2015 chem I just need to know the net ionic equation and balance them. I figured the equation. but the net and balance is harder. Co(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = CoOH (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) = CoCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4 asked by Ari on February 18, 2012 Chemistry Choose the true statements regarding the charge-minimized Lewis structure(s) of the BrO2- ion. (selet all that apply) a. There is only one charge-minimized structure for this ion. b. There are two charge-minimized resonance structures for this ion. c. The asked by Lindsay on October 5, 2008 chemistry how would I determine the hybridization of the carbon atom if it has 3 single bonds with hydrogen and no free electrons? Do I draw this out?? asked by ~christina~ on August 31, 2007 Chemistry Below shows 3 displacement reactions involving metals and solutions of metal nitrates. Cu+2AgNO3->Cu(NO3)2+2Ag Pb+Cu(NO3)2->Pb(NO3)2+Cu Zn+Pb(NO3)2->Zn(NO3)2+Pb Use this information to find the order of reactivity of the 4 metals, with the most reactive asked by Anonymous on January 17, 2008 chemistry ratio of lone pair on surrounding atom to central atom in Xeo2F2? asked by Mukund on May 5, 2011 Chemistry We’re going over hybridization right now, like sp3 and stuff. But I don’t understand how you got it at all. Can you please tell me the hybridization for these two examples I made up and explain how you got it thanks 1. NH3 2. PF5 asked by beth on October 20, 2009 ms. sue please help We’re going over hybridization right now, like sp3 and stuff. But I don’t understand how you got it at all. Can you please tell me the hybridization for these two examples I made up and explain how you got it thanks 1. NH3 2. PF5 asked by beth on October 20, 2009 Chemistry For acids of the same general structure but differing electronegativities of the central atoms, acid strength decreases with increasing electronegativity of the central atom. True or false asked by Josh G. on November 15, 2012 chemistry These are short and simple. 🙂 I’ve included my answers, tell me if I am wrong please. CH3 is attached to a carbon on a pentane ring. Is the hybridization of the carbon sp3? NH connects a benzene ring to two benzene rings. Is the hybridization of the asked by s on March 16, 2011 chemistry These are short and simple. 🙂 I’ve included my answers, tell me if I am wrong please. CH3 is attached to a carbon on a pentane ring. Is the hybridization of the carbon sp3? NH connects a benzene ring to two benzene rings. Is the hybridization of the asked by s on March 16, 2011 Chemistry “Is the following species a dipole?” NH2Cl I have drawn out the lewis dot structure of the molecule and the electronegativy values I have are N- 3.0 Cl- 3.0 H- 2.1 I know that the electronegativity difference between N and Cl is 0 and the bond is non asked by Alexa on December 6, 2006 chemistry C4 H10 O or diethyl ether or with a formula of CH3CH2OCH2CH3 its stick structure is H H H H ! ! ! ! .. H-C-C-C-C- O-H ! ! ! ! .. H H H H I used the this ! sign as a sign for bond. pls help me to determine the geometry for each central atom in this asked by chemdummy on October 5, 2012 Chemistiy Complete & Balance the Equation: i) Zn + Cu(NO3)2 -> ii) Ag + Mg(NO3)2 -> iii) Al + HNO3 -> iv) Mg + Fe(NO3)2 -> My Answers: i) 2 Zn + Cu(NO3)2 -> Cu + 2 ZnNO3 ii) Ag + Mg(NO3)2 -> No RXN iii) Al + HNO3 -> Al(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O iv) Mg + Fe(NO3)2 -> Mg(NO3)2 asked by Anonymous on January 15, 2017 Chemistry Solubility Rules!! Homework problem I desperately need help with Solutions used: 6M HCl, 6M NaOH, 6M NH3, 3M H2SO4 Mixed with: Cr(NO3)3, Fe(NO3)3, Bi(NO3)3, Mg(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2 please help me and tell me which form precipitates and which asked by Kelsey on October 30, 2014 chemistry If the symbol X represents a central atom, Y represents outer atoms, and Z represents lone pairs on the central atom, the structure Y-:X:-Y could be abbreviated as XY2Z2. Classify these structures according to their shape. asked by Laura on October 19, 2013 Chemistry If the symbol X represents a central atom, Y represents outer atoms, and Z represents lone pairs on the central atom, the structure Y-:X:-Y could be abbreviated as XY2Z2. Classify these structures according to their shape. asked by Laura on October 19, 2013 Chemistry (0.75 moles Al(NO3)3/L Al(NO3)3) x 0.040 L Al(NO3)3 = ??moles Al(NO3)3 I am unsure how to find the factor to convert moles Al(NO3)3 into moles NO3. i think that if i do the first section, you get .03 moles as your answer for moles of Al(NO3)3, but I am not asked by M on August 23, 2011 chemistry For CH3CO2H, give the hybridization and approximate bond angles for each atom except hydrogen. Also, draw an orbital bonding picture. Show all lone pairs. Can this be drawn on paint and uploaded to me? Thank you. asked by kate on September 23, 2009 Chemistry(Please check) Last question, I just want to make sure I understand the concept of hybridization. For carboxylic acid the hybridization is: CH3= sp3 because there are only single bonds COOH= Sp2 because the oxygen is double bonded to the C Is this correct? Thank you for asked by Hannah on September 12, 2012 Chemistry…Help!! I don’t even know how to start this…The valence electron configurations of several atoms are shown below. How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization? 1. Si 3S2 3P2 2. P 3S2 3P3 3. F 2S2 2P5 asked by Stacy on November 6, 2010 Chem—DrBob222 Calculate the oxidation # for each atom in the molecule below. Can you help me with the rest. Thank you!!! H H H H / / / / H — C —C ===C —-N .. / / H H Group # # of E Oxidation # H 1 0 1 x 7 = 7 C 4 7 C 4 C 4 N 5 3 H atom attached to first C atom. 1 H asked by Layla on September 18, 2014 chemistry For AsClF42-: a) Name the hybridization of the orbitals of the central atom. s sp sp2 sp3 sp4 sp3d sp3d2 b) Estimate the Cl-As-F bond angle. Slightly less than 90∘ Exactly 90∘ Slightly greater than 90∘ Slightly less than 109.5∘ Exactly 109.5∘ asked by Anonymous on January 11, 2013 chemistry How many total atoms are in the chemical formula Ai(NO3)3? I thought it was ten because Ai is 1 atom. The No3 is 3 atoms times the 3 is 9 plus the 1 is ten. asked by lexi on November 19, 2014 Chemistry The hybridization of nitrogen in FNO3 (or FONO2) I cannot for the life of me draw the spin diagram for the NO single bonds and NO double bonds. Sp2 hybridization?? I think? N is forming 3 sigma bonds and one Pi. asked by Jen on April 20, 2018 chemistry Below shows 3 displacement reactions involving metals and solutions of metal nitrates. Cu+2AgNO3->Cu(NO3)2+2Ag Pb+Cu(NO3)2->Pb(NO3)2+Cu Zn+Pb(NO3)2->Zn(NO3)2+Pb Use this information to find the order of reactivity of the 4 metals, with the most reactive. I asked by Anonymous on January 17, 2008 chem I just need to know the net ionic equation and balance them. I figured the equation. but the net and balance is harder. Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) = FeCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)3 (aq) Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + NaI (aq) =FeI (s) + Na(NO3)3 (aq) Ba(NO3)3 (aq) + Na3PO4(aq) = asked by Suey on February 18, 2012 chem I just need to know the net ionic equation and balance them. I figured the equation. but the net and balance is harder. Co(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) = CoOH (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) = CoCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4 asked by Suey on February 18, 2012 chemistry Which of the following combinations of atomic orbitals can combine to form sigma bonds? s-ss-pp-phybrid orbital – hybrid orbitalhybrid orbital – shybrid orbital – p What is the bond angle (in degrees) resulting from sp hybridization? What is the bond angle asked by adex on March 12, 2013 science When an atom is broken down into parts, what happens to its identity? The atom is no longer recognizable. The atom takes on a new average atomic mass. The atom becomes a new type of matter. The atom becomes a new element. Is it the third one? asked by Dianni on November 7, 2018 Chemistry how do u complete these questions? 2HCI(aq)+Pb(NO3)2(aq)—> 2HI(aq)+K2SO3(s)—> Pb(NO3)2(aq)+2KCI(aq)—> Ba(NO3)2(aq)+Na2SO4(aq)—> K2CO3(aq)+Ba(NO3)2(aq)—> HCI(aq)+AgNO3(aq)—> asked by Kim on February 28, 2012 Chemistry Will Zinc react with Zn(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2,Pb(NO3)2, Mg(NO3)2, AgNO3, Al(NO3)3, or Fe(NO3)3 asked by Jenn on January 27, 2011 Chemistry Please Help!!! Airbags contain a mixture of sodium azide, potassium nitrate, and silicon dioxide. A sensor detects a head on collision that cause the sodium azide to be ignited and to decompose forming sodium and nitrogen gas. This gas fills a nylon or polyamide bag such asked by Annie on July 25, 2014 Chemistry – Hybridization Can anyone help me with this questioin pleasee? Describe the orientation and relative energy levels of sp2 and sp3 orbitals with respect to unhyberdized orbitals (1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz orbitals) 1s and 2s are spherical. 2px, 2py, and 2pz are at 90o to each asked by Eunice on December 5, 2006 Chemistry A solution contains 23.1 ppm of dissolved Fe(NO3)3 (241.860g/mol), which dissociates completely into Fe3+ and NO3- (62.005g/mol) ions. Find the concentration of NO3- in parts per million asked by Nick on January 9, 2015 General Chemistry A student dissolved 4.00 g of Co(NO3)2 in enough water to make 100. mL of stock solution. He took 4.00 mL of the stock solution and then diluted it with water to give 275. mL of a final solution. How many grams of NO3- ion are there in the final solution? asked by Dave on October 12, 2010 Chemistry (Check and Help) Determine the type of chemical reaction, find the limiting reagent, determine the amount of product in grams, and the amount in grams of excess reagent. 8.75 g of mercury (II) nitrate solution is mixed with 9.83 g sodium iodide solution (ppt). Hg(NO3)2(aq) asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2015 Chemistry Ag(NO3)+ CaClYields to AgCl + (NO3)Ca KI + Pb(NO3) yields to K(NO3)+ IPb What is the precipitate in both?? asked by Emily on November 15, 2012 Chemistry For AsClF4^2-: a)Name the hybridization of the orbitals of the central atom. i)s ii)sp iii)sp2 iv)sp3 v)sp4 vi)sp3d vii)sp3d2 b)Estimate the Cl-As-F bond angle. i)Slightly less than 90 ii)Exactly 90 iii)Slightly greater than 90 iv)Slightly less than 109.5 asked by Chemgam on January 11, 2013 science Nitrate concentrations exceeding 44.3 mg NO3-/L are a concern in drinking water due to the infant disease, methemoglobinemia. Nitrate concentrations near three rural wells were reported as 0.01 mg NO3- N/L, 1.3 mg NO3- N/L, and 20.0 mg NO3- N/L. Do any of asked by cucu on August 24, 2013 Atoms You discovered a new atom! Wow, everyone at your lab is impressed!! Some are saying you may be nominated for the Nobel Prize in Medicine!!! If this is going to happen, you have to find out as much about the atom as you can, and you don’t have long to do asked by Gessica on December 4, 2007 CHEMISTRY Is CF4 an example of a central atom with an expanded octet? asked by John on May 12, 2012 Chemistry How many lone pairs are on the central atom in BCl3 asked by Brenda on November 30, 2010 Atoms. Atoms. YOU DISCOVERED A NEW ATOM! WOW, EVERYONE AT YOUR LAB IS IMPRESSED!! SOME ARE SAYING YOU MAY BE NOMINATED FOR THE NOBEL PRIZE IN MEDICINE!!! IF THIS IS GOING TO HAPPEN, YOU HAVE TO FIND OUT AS MUCH ABOUT THE ATOM AS YOU CAN, AND YOU DON’T HAVE LONG TO DO asked by Tina on December 3, 2007 Chemistry Using the following information, identify the strong electrolyte whose general formula is Mx(A)y * zH2O Ignore the effect of interionic attractions in the solution. a. A”-is a common oxyanion. When 30.0 mg of the anhydrous sodium salt containing this asked by Cynthia on March 29, 2007 Chemistry (Check) Determine the type of chemical reaction, find the limiting reagent, determine the amount of product in grams, and the amount in grams of excess reagent. Calcium nitrate is decomposed with heat to give calcium nitrite and oxygen gas. Start with 15.99g of asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2015 chemistry need help Determine the number of moles of each specified atom or ion in the given samples of the following compounds.( Hint: the formula tells you how many atoms or ions are in each molecule of formula unit.) a. O atom in 3.161×10^21 molecules of CO2 b. C atom in asked by bre bre on March 10, 2009 chemistry Determine the number of moles of each specified atom or ion in the given samples of the following compounds.( Hint: the formula tells you how many atoms or ions are in each molecule of formula unit.) a. O atom in 3.161×10^21 molecules of CO2 b. C atom in asked by bre bre on March 8, 2009 11th grade In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 2.17 x 10^6 m/s. find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 5.42 x 10^-11m. asked by Julia on December 5, 2010 Chemistry What is the full net ionic equation for each reaction? do they form a precipitate or have a color change? CuSO4+AgNO3 CuSO4+BaCl2 CuSO4+Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4+Pb(NO3)2 CuSO4+KI CuSO4+Na2S2O3 AgNO3+BaCl2 AgNO3+Cu(NO3)2 AgNO3+Pb(NO3)2 AgNO3+KI AgNO3+Na2S2O3 asked by Joe on May 27, 2008 Chemistry What is the full net ionic equation for each reaction? do they form a precipitate or have a color change? CuSO4+AgNO3 CuSO4+BaCl2 CuSO4+Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4+Pb(NO3)2 CuSO4+KI CuSO4+Na2S2O3 AgNO3+BaCl2 AgNO3+Cu(NO3)2 AgNO3+Pb(NO3)2 AgNO3+KI AgNO3+Na2S2O3 asked by Joe on May 27, 2008 Chemistry 1. A student uses 6M HCl solution contaminated with Al(NO3)3 to wash the nichrome wire in between recordings of emission spectra for the different known and unknown metal ion solutions. The emission energies for the aluminum are 3.90×10^-19 J/atom, asked by Sandy on February 16, 2014 Chemistry What is the electronic geometry of a central atom with 4 electron pairs? asked by Kevin on December 3, 2012 science-chem question Hello I have another hybridization question. For example in BeF2 … the electron configuration is 1s2, 2s2, 2p1. It gets hybridized to 1s2, 2s1, 2p2. I know that it will be a sp2 hybridization but I’m not exactly sure why. It’s because the last p orbital asked by jisun on February 11, 2007 Chem Determine the number of moles of N atoms in 43.5 g of Mg(NO3)2. Textbook answer: 1.43 mol N My answer: 43.5 g Mg(NO3)x x (1 mol Mg(NO3)2/148.313 g Mg(NO3)2) x (2 mol N/1 mol Mg(NO3)2) = .293 Can tell me where i went wrong? asked by Bob on March 8, 2009 physics In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N. asked by go on May 11, 2011 Physics In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 2.1 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.51 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N asked by Kate on October 29, 2013 physics In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N. asked by go on May 11, 2011 physics In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N. asked by go on May 11, 2011 physics In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 1.97 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 4.72 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N. asked by go on May 11, 2011 Physics In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the speed of the electron is approximately 2.45 × 106 m/s. Find the central force acting on the electron as it revolves in a circular orbit of radius 5.18 × 10−11 m. Answer in units of N asked by Kaylee on June 22, 2014 chemistry, polar or nonpolar Why is NO3 nonpolar but CIF3 is polar? I looked at the lewis structures, they look similar, but why is one opposite. also, when something is polar or non polar, my teacher said I should see which atom is more electronegativity is higher and draw arrows asked by Anonymous on January 25, 2009 Physics The following questions use a central charge of q1=+2×10^-4C 1. What is the field strength at a distance of 5m from the central charge? I got 7.2×10^4 However, I’m not sure which unit to use… is it joules? 2. What is the force acting on another charge asked by Lucy on April 17, 2009 Chemistry How many electron domains are around the central atom ina water molecule? asked by Amelia on November 7, 2017 Chem How many lone pairs of electrons are on the central atom in the water molecule asked by Lynn on April 8, 2010 chemistry how does the number of electron pairs around a central atom determines its shape asked by Doreen on March 17, 2012 Chemistry Determine the mass of PbSO4 produced when 10mL of 0.2M CuSO4 reacts with 10mL of 0.2M Pb(NO3)2? Balance the equation CuSO4 + Pb(NO3)2 → PbSO4 + Cu(NO3)2 Find the number of moles for CuSO4 c=n/v n=c × v n=0.2 × 0.01 n=0.002 mol Since it is a 1:1 ratio, asked by Kendall on August 5, 2015 Chemistry Balancing K3PO4(aq) + 3Sr(NO3)2 ==> Sr3(PO4)2 + K2(NO3) the reactant was given. I can’t seem to balance this. whenever everything is even either the 3Sr(NO3)2 or K2(NO3) is not balanced. Also, the 3Sr in 3Sr(NO3)2 was already there. asked by Amy~ on September 8, 2010 Categories ## rank the following compounds according to their boiling point. Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing boiling point: KCI CO2 CH2O 41,966 results chem Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing boiling point: KCI CO2 CH2O asked by Natash on December 7, 2008 intro to chem disolving sucrose, NaCl< and calcium chloried affect the boiling point of frezing point of water. Assuming that you have 0.1m solution of all these 3 compounds: a)rank then in order of decreasing freezing point. b) rank in order of increasing boiling point asked by julia on October 27, 2010 chemistry Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing boiling point: sodium fluoride ( \rm NaF ), methane ( \rm CH_4 ), fluoromethane ( \rm CH_3F ) asked by nurul on August 21, 2011 chemistry Given the compounds H2S, NH3, and SO2. Determine the order o boiling points. Rank them from highest to lowest boiling point. Give an explanation for your ranking by the electronegativity data a by type of intermolecular force. asked by regina on December 5, 2010 Chemisty !! (a) Why do the densities of most liquids increase as they are cooled and solidified? How does water differ in this regard? (b) Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing surface tension at a given temperature, and explain your ranking. CH3CH3, asked by Xiang ! on September 2, 2013 chemistry Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CCl4, CH4, CH2Cl2 – Rank the following 3 compounds in terms of increasing boiling point: CF4, CH4, CH2F2 – Water, H2O, is a liquid at room temperature. Hydrogen selenide, H2Se, is a asked by adex on March 18, 2013 chemistry The alkanes are a homologous series of compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen that have the general formula . Members of this series include butane (), 2,2-dimethylpentane (), hexane (), and heptane (). The boiling points of some members of this asked by isthiscorrect on January 24, 2009 Chemistry (a)What is the bond order of the diatomic molecule BN? (b) Is BN paramagnetic? (c) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond energy: B2, N2, BN. (d) Rank the following compounds in order of increasing bond length: B2, N2, BN. asked by b on November 18, 2012 Chemistry Arrange the compounds in order of increasing boiling point. A) CH4 B)CH3CH3 C) CH3CH2Cl D) CH3CH2OH I know High Intermolecular force = High boiling point! My question is if A, B & C are dipole-dipole, and D is hydrogen bonding.. how can i determine asked by Tc on July 2, 2011 Chemisty I do not know how to rank the polarity between these, i have also included the boiling point in degrees C but it still does not help. The only thing that i think is that D is the least polar because it is symmetrical, and i think A is the most but I’m not asked by Polarity on August 12, 2014 O.CHEM -> PLEASE CHECK!! Arrange the compounds in the order of increasing boiling point ***(LOWEST first): 1) H3C-O-CH3 2) H2O 3) CH3CH2OH 4) CH3CH2SH I think the order should be: #1, 4, 3, 2 Arrange the following in order of increasing rate of reactivity with conc.HBr ***(LEAST asked by K on March 12, 2008 chemistry 1) Rank the elements, aluminum, sodium and phosphorus, in order of decreasing conductivity. 2) Rank the elements aluminum, gallium, and boron in order of decreasing conductivity asked by Adam on November 15, 2009 Physical Science Hello, Can some one please tell me if B is the correct answer? Thank You Which one of the following groups of chemical compounds is composed entirely of organic compounds? A. C2H4O, CH2O, CaSO4, C3H5(OH)3 B. C6H6, C2H5OH, C6H5CH3, C3H5(NO3)3 C. C2H2, CH4, asked by Mandi on March 6, 2008 chem Rank the following species according to the decreasing energy needed to raise the temperature of 10.0g of the substance by 25.0 degrees celsius Rank from most to least energy needed. Rank these in order of the question. copper aluminum cast iron silver asked by mira on February 1, 2013 Chemistry Rank the following in order by increasing boiling point and explain why? CH3Cl Rn CH4 CH3-CH2-OH asked by MMPM on March 8, 2011 Organic Chemistry Ooops sorry! Please rank the following compounds in DECREASING order of their reactivity toward the SN2 reaction with sodium ethoxide in ethanol. a. methyl chloride b. isopropylbromide c. t-butyliodide d. methyl iodide e. ethyl chloride I have an answer, asked by Please help on October 25, 2010 chemistry Arrange the following in order of decreasing stability. A blank molecular orbital diagram (Part A 1 figure) has been provided to help you. Rank the fluorine species from most to least stable. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. F2, F2+, F2- asked by defferan on November 19, 2008 Organic Chem Rank these conformational isomers in order of decreasing potential energy? Highest on the left and lowest on the right. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. Here is a link to the picture of the problem: ht+tp+:/+/bit+.ly/+8ZHeDA Remove the ‘+’ sign asked by Random User on April 19, 2010 chemistry what is the new boiling point for a solution prepared from 1.40 mol of KCI 1.00kg of water? asked by lkra on October 8, 2011 chemistry intermolecular forces Rank the following substance from highest melting point to lowest melting point. My teacher gave a list of compounds: H2O, NO2,F2,CI2 and to have a high melting point means that you need a stronger IMF. Rank the following substances asked by jen on March 17, 2009 Chemistry Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing Boiling point: CH4, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3Cl asked by Naaz on January 6, 2016 chemistry Place these hydrocarbons in order of decreasing boiling point: paraffin : methane: octane: isooctane: ( also known as 2,2,4 trimethylpentane) octadecane: asked by ashely on December 6, 2009 chemistry Which of the following statements about boiling points are true? A. The boiling point of 0.1 m NaF(aq) is lower than the boiling point of 0.1 m methanol(aq). B. The boiling point of a 0.5 m aqueous solution of LiOH is the same as the boiling point of a 0.5 asked by Anonymous on April 18, 2013 Chemistry Please rank the following compounds in DECREASING order of their reactivity toward the SN2 reaction with sodium ethoxide in ethanol. a. methyl chloride (CH3Cl) b. isopropylbromide ((CH3)2CHBr) c. t-butyliodide (CH3)3Cl) d. methyl iodide (CH3I) e. ethyl asked by Please help on October 25, 2010 Chemistry Diethyl ether has a boiling point of 34.5C, and 1-butanol has a boiling point of 117C. Both of these compounds have the same numbers and types of atoms. Explain the difference in their boiling points. The answer I found was that: only 1-butanol can form asked by Sara on December 6, 2010 college chemistry Comparing the boiling points of: A) C3H8 B) C5H12 C) C2H5OH and identify the folowing statements as either True or False: Dispersion forces only for (A) Boiling point (C) > Boiling point (A) (B) exhibits hydrogen bonding Boiling point (C) < Boiling point asked by Stefanie on November 11, 2010 some science a filter tip or a cigarette acts as both a filter and a condenser. which of the following cannot be removed, assuming the filter tip is 100% efficient? a. carbon monoxide, boiling point -191 degrees. b. nicotine, boiling point 247 degrees. c. tar, boiling asked by holly on December 22, 2006 Chemistry (Inorganic) Given the two substances Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) and Urea ([NO2]2CO), why is it that urea has a lower boiling point? I thought that the nitrate would because urea has the double bond which makes it more stable. Urea is covalently bonded. NaNO3 is an ionic asked by Vic on July 29, 2007 chemistry (college final) How to determine which of the compounds will have the lowest boiling point vs the highest boiling point? asked by Sarah (C) on May 1, 2011 Chemistry Why use Methyl tert-butyl ether in the organic chemistry lab when separating compounds? separating WHAT compounds and how? as a solvent? It has a low boiling point and isn’t very reactive, generally, but there may be other specific reasons depending upon asked by Ba on November 21, 2006 Chemistry Which of the following statements about boiling points are false: A. the boiling point of 0.1 m KF(aq) is lower than the boiling point of 0.1 m ethanol(aq) B. the boiling point of a 0.5 m aqueous solution of NaOH is the same as the boiling point of a 0.5 m asked by Timothy on September 8, 2010 Organic Chemistry The compounds below are contained in a mixed sample. Rank the compounds in order of elitism if separated using a silica gel column rank them from what elutes first to what elutes last. Benzoic acid, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, tert-butylcyclohexane, and asked by Arianna on February 10, 2017 Chemistry Rank the following atoms in order of decreasing electronegativity, putting the most electronegative first: F, Ne, O, N, C asked by Nevaeh on September 27, 2016 Chemistry Rank the ions in order of decreasing size. Sr2+, Ba2+, Cs Cs>Ba>Sr asked by Sally on November 9, 2007 Chemistry Predict which compound will have the higher boiling point and explain how you made your choice by including intermolecular forces. 1. H2O or CH2O 2. CS2 or CH4 asked by Natalie on May 12, 2014 Chemistry pretty urgent!!!!!!! Chemical bonding question! The partial Lewis structure that follows (Figure 1) is for a hydrocarbon molecule. In the full Lewis structure, each carbon atom satisfies the octet rule, and there are no unshared electron pairs in the molecule. The asked by G-Dogg on November 4, 2014 Chemistry Rank the following molecules in order of increasing boiling point. NH3, CaCl2, Ar, CO, HF This is what I have, am I correct or on the right track? CaCl2, HF, NH3, CO, Ar asked by Stacie on March 29, 2013 Chem Rank thefollowing elements in order of decreasing atomic radius. N, B, Be, Li? I thought it was N, B, Be, Li asked by Anna on November 14, 2011 Chemistry Rank the following compounds in order of their solubility in water. (most soluble = 1 — least soluble = 4)–Note that for the same solubility rank the same (a tie). (CH3)2CHOH HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH CH3CH2OH (CH3)3COH asked by Maddie on March 14, 2013 chem Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing boiling point. butanal 1-butanol diethylamine tartaric acid butane butanoic acid and can you please explain why? asked by Emily on March 28, 2016 chemistry ionic componuds tend to have higher boiling points than covalent compounds . both ammonia NH3 and methane CH4 are covalent compounds but yet the boiling point of ammonia 130C is higher than methane. what might account for this difference please help thank asked by teri on April 1, 2009 Chemistry Which of the following is NOT true? (A) CH2O Has a relatively high boiling point due to hydrogen bonding. (b) BaCl2 is an example of an ionic sold. (c) Ionic solids are poor conductors of heat and electicity. (d) The melting point of Fe is higher than asked by Bouforyou on February 10, 2010 chemistry cp rank the following compiunds in order of increasing boiling points. a. CO b. C2H6 c. NH3 asked by susie on March 25, 2015 Chemistry Which reaction is NOT a redox reaction? CH4+2O2=CO2+2H2O 2Na+CI2=2NaCI AgNO3+NaCI=AgCI+NaNO3 KCIO3=KCI+3/2O2 I chose, KCIO3=KCI+3/2O2. Is this correct? asked by Summer on April 11, 2018 Chemistry Im not sure where to factor in the two longer compounds for this problem. “Rank the given compounds based ontheir relative acidities” HF H2C–CH2 NH3 CH4 HC—CCH3 This is the order i thought it was, but this isnt right apparently… (— means triple asked by Tokey on October 13, 2010 Chemistry Rank the following 4 compounds in order of lowest to highest freezing point. Enter the formulas in the spaces provided. For example, enter CH4 as CH4. H2O MgO CH4 H2S asked by Whats Good on November 19, 2011 Chemistry Rank in order of decreasing average molecular speed at 21 degrees celsius: Ne, HBr, SO2, NF3, CO asked by Emory on November 2, 2009 Chemistry The boiling points of the following compounds increase in the order in which they are listed below: CH4 < H2S < NH3 Discuss the theoretical considerations involved and use them to account for this order. asked by Ariana on March 23, 2011 Chemistry Rank the carbon-carbon bonds in order of decreasing bond length. Rank carbon-carbon bonds from highest bond length to lowest. To rank bonds as equivalent, overlap them. 1,2,3 asked by Caitlin on October 11, 2011 Chemistry What effect does lowering the pressure on the surface of water have on the boiling point? It increases the boiling point It decreases the boiling point the boiling point remains the same asked by Megan on April 28, 2010 chemistry rank the following ionic compounds in order of increasing lattice energy NaF, Csl, CaO asked by re on March 3, 2011 Chemistry rank the compounds below in order of increasing vapor pressure at 298 K? A) c3h6 B) c4h8 C) c5h10 asked by Vanessa on December 12, 2016 Chemistry Arrange the following aqueous solutions in order of increasing boiling point, explain your answer: 0.120 m glucose (C6H12O6), 0.05 m LiBr, 0.05 m Zn(NO3)2. Using data the boiling point constants given in the test book, calculate the boiling points of each asked by m on February 15, 2013 Delaware State University Arrange these gases in order of decreasing standard molar entropy: Rank from largest to smallest. Kr,Cl2,SO3 asked by Pastor on April 12, 2015 chemistry A 0.0583 mol sample of formaldehyde vapour, CH2O, was placed in a heated 0.359 L vessel and some of it decomposed. The reaction is CH2O(g)—> H2(g) + CO(g). At equilibrium, the CH2O concentration was 0.0449 M. What is the value of Kc for this reaction? my asked by alex on April 20, 2013 O.Chem -> PLEASE CHECK!! Please check these out for me, if I am correct: Match the following statements with SN1 or SN2 reactions: 1) The order of reactivity in alkyl halides is methyl>primary>secondary>tertiary 2) There is an intermediate carbocation 3) The rate-limiting step asked by K on March 12, 2008 chem If pentane,hexane and hexanol are heated evenly at different altitudes, rank them according to the order in which you would expect them to begin boiling. asked by alisha on March 29, 2009 Chemistry 130 Can someone please help me with these questions? 1 (7). Rank the following in order of increasing radius based on their positions on the periodic table: S, S-2, Cl a. S, S-2, Cl b. S-2, Cl, S c. Cl, S, S-2 d. Cl, S-2, S e. S, Cl, S-2 6 (16). Methane burns asked by Jessie on September 8, 2009 Chemistry Regarding “hydrogen” bonding How come the compounds CH2O and CH3OCH3 do not exhibit hydrogen bonding, as opposed to compounds like CH3CH2OH and CH3NH2? It’s indicated in my solutions manual that the two compounds that don’t exhibit hydrogen bonding can be asked by Anonymous on June 3, 2013 Chemistry Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acid strength (1 = weakest, 4 = strongest) HCOOH CH2ClCOOH CHCl2COOH CH3COOH asked by Matt on November 20, 2007 chemistry Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acid strength (1 = weakest, 4 = strongest) HClO HClO3 HClO2 HClO4 asked by mark on November 18, 2007 OChem 1. if and when boiling points can be used to determine the purity of organic compounds. 2. if and when boiling points can be used to identify organic compounds. 3. when can fractional distillation be used to separate organic compounds asked by Mia on September 23, 2012 chemistry Some properties of the two compounds are listed below: Melting point- Compound X= -114C Compound Y= -138C Boiling Point- Compound X= 78C Compound Y= -22C Net Dipole?- Compound X= Yes Compound Y= Yes Functional group: Compound X Alcohol Compound Y= asked by LeePyeonggang on February 10, 2010 O.Chemistry PLEASE CHECK!!!! Please check these out for me, if I am correct: Match the following statements with SN1 or SN2 reactions: 1) The order of reactivity in alkyl halides is methyl>primary>secondary>tertiary 2) There is an intermediate carbocation 3) The rate-limiting step asked by K on March 14, 2008 Chemistry..Please Help 1. The vapor pressure of dichloromethane, CH2Cl2, at 0C is 134mmHg. The normal boiling point of dichloromethane is 40C. Calculate its molar heat of vaporization The answer is in kilojoules per mole. I know i use the Clausius-Clapeyron equation but i don’t asked by Saira on January 18, 2009 Science Which of the following equations is balanced correctly? A. 3 H20 = H2 + 3 O2 B.2 C2H2 + 5 O2 = 4 CO2 + 2 H2O C.Cl2 + 2 KBr = KCI + Br2 D. 2 C3H3 + O2 = 2 CO2 + H2O asked by Candy on October 31, 2017 chemistry You remember Dr. Laude saying something about how adding salt to water increases the boiling point. If you have 1 cup (8 fl. oz. = 250 mL = 250 g) of H2O, how much NaCl should you add in order to raise the boiling point to 105C? asked by jalyn on February 9, 2011 Chemistry Rank these from lowest boiling point to highest. CH4 CH3CH2CO2CH2CH3 CH3(CH2)2C=ONH2 CH3COOH asked by Stacy on December 5, 2014 Chemistry 130 Will someone let me know if I did these correct? 1. Rank the following in order of increasing radius based on their positions on the periodic table: S, S-2, Cl a. S, S-2, Cl b. S-2, Cl, S c. Cl, S, S-2 d. Cl, S-2, S e. S, Cl, S-2 I believe it’s C. Cl, S, asked by Jessie on September 8, 2009 ap chemistry Consider the specific heats CH2O(s) = 2.09 J/g ¡¤◦ C. CH2O(§¤) =4.18 J/g ¡¤◦ C. CH2O(g) = 2.03 J/g ¡¤◦ C. The heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g and the heat of vaporization for water is 2260 J/g. Calculate the amount of heat absorbed when asked by gabriella on October 22, 2013 chem The accepted density of the sugar solution is 1.392 g/mL . Based on the average value of each data set, rank the data sets in decreasing order of accuracy. asked by Anonymous on September 20, 2015 chemistry Based upon the intermolecular forces present, rank the following substances according to the expected boiling point for the substance: MgF2, H2O, HCl, N2 asked by sara on April 3, 2014 chemistry Based on molecular mass and boiling point of the five compounds in the table below, which should have the high? est dipole moment: first # molecular mass 2nd: boiling point compound 1 244 203 compound 2 346 255 compound 3 250 138 compound 4 246 146 asked by ben on December 13, 2010 Chem II When you are given a list of compounds that all have the same 0.2 m and the question which has the highest boiling point, how do you figure this? asked by Ken on June 6, 2008 gen chemistry Which of the following compounds has the highest boiling point? HI H2Te H2O AsH3 asked by ada on April 19, 2010 heat At what point will liquid alcohol change to vapor? Boiling Melting Fusing Freezing The boiling point is the point above which the liquid state does not exist. Evaporation can occur from the liquid state at lower temperatures as well, but there will be no asked by alf on August 3, 2005 Chemistry Iron forms a series of compounds of the type Fex(CO)y. If you heat any of these compounds in air , they decompose to Fe2O3 and CO2 gas. After heating a 0.142g sample of Fe(CO)y, You isolate the CO2 in a 1.50 L flask at 25 Degrees celsius. The pressure is asked by Anonymous on October 23, 2017 Chemistry When CH3OH at its normal boiling point, does its entropy increase or decrease? Explain. – My opinion The entropy decreases because there is less order due to the less randomness of gas particles favoured when such an element is boiled not at normal boiling asked by Liam on November 27, 2015 Chemistry Can someone please help me with these chemistry questions…I just don’t get it! 1. Using the following elements, rank them in order of increasing melting points, based on the periodic trend for melting point: Sr, Mg, Be, Ba? Would it be Be, Mg, Sr, Ba or asked by Taylor on September 16, 2009 pH levels Rank the following solutions in order of decreasing [H3O^+]. .10 M HC2H3C2 .10 M HC6H5O .10 M HF ,10 M HBr I think the correct order is: HBr>HF>HC2H3C2>HC6H5O am i right? asked by Kyle on March 21, 2010 Chemistry Arrange the following compounds in order of decreasing ease of elution from a column of silica gel: a) 2-octanol; b) 1,3-dichlorobenzene; c) tert-butylcyclohexane; d) benzoic acid asked by Jeff on February 4, 2015 Chemistry Arrange the following compounds in order of decreasing ease of elution from a column of silica gel: a) 2-octanol; b) 1,3-dichlorobenzene; c) tert-butylcyclohexane; d) benzoic acid asked by Ryan on February 5, 2015 Chemistry Rank the following fertilizers in decreasing order of mass percentage of nitrogen: NH3 NH4NO3 (NH4)2HPO4 KNO3 (NH4)H2PO4 (NH4)2SO4 asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2011 Chemistry- DrBob222 I completed this question like you told me to. Are the answers correct? Is my method for finding the molecular formula correct? 2.4g of a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen gave on combustion, 3.52g of CO2 and 1.44g of H2O. The relative molecular mass asked by Ava on October 22, 2013 CHEM 2: Boiling Point Which Aqueous solution has the highest normal boiling point? a.) 0.1 m NaCl b.) 0.1 m C2H5OH c.) 0.1 m CaCl2 d.) They all have the same boiling point. I think that the answer is D, the all have the same boiling point. Is this correct? Because Delta T= asked by kay on June 12, 2016 Chemistry Order the following considering their boiling point in an aqueous solution. 1) pentan-2-one 2) pentan-2-ol 3) 2-aminopropanoic acid The answer key says the order (increasing) is, 1 < 2 < 3 and states 1 only have weak permanent dipole dipole forces and Van asked by Shenaya on July 28, 2017 chem 11 Chloroform, CHCl3, has a boiling point of 62 oC, whereas methane, CH4, has a much lower boiling point of -164 oC. Using diagrams, explain the difference between the two boiling points. asked by iris on January 4, 2017 Chem II When you are given the question: Arrange the following aqueous solutions in order of increasing boiling points. 0.050 m Mg(NO3)2; 0.100 m ethanol; and 0.090 m NaCl. I know the formula for boiling point, but I don’t know where to get the Kb. Am I headed in asked by Ken on June 6, 2008 chemistry Rank from decreasing to increasing the effect the functional groups have on the melting point of compound x: -OH or -COOH i think its COOH asked by un on December 2, 2008 geochemistry Been trying to balance this equation for a while, but can’t get the right answer. any help would be apperciated! CH2O (aq) + NO3 – —> N2 + HCO3 – + CO2(g) asked by jason on March 14, 2013 chem class which of the following has the highest boiling point? a)C2Cl6 b)C2Br6 c)C2H6 d)C2F6 e)C2I6 i know its e, but why is that the answer? are all questions about boiling points similar? or they they have to do with intermolecular forces? i have a test soon on asked by RiChy on September 16, 2010 Chemistry Rank the following in order of decreasing vapor pressure, and briefly explain the observed trend in vapor pressure: Acetic Acid Isobutane Acetamide Propanal asked by Sarah on December 8, 2015 Chemistry When comparing the boiling points of two compounds,one is a gas and the other is a liquid,is there anything like the liquid will have a lower boiling point than the solid? The molecular mass of the liquid is lower than the solid and they have the same type asked by Shenaya on July 31, 2017 chem Rank these in order of increasing freezing points: C2H6O, NaCl, NaSO4, C12H22O11 I suggest that you look them up. You will have to make an assumption at the isomer of the organic compounds that is intended, but it will not make a difference to the ranking. asked by Helen on April 18, 2007 Chemistry The boiling point of a solution increases directly as a function of the number of moles of solute present in a given mass of solution. This relationship is expressed mathematically by the following equation. ΔTb = Kb·m ΔTb is the boiling-point elevation asked by Anne on January 16, 2018 Chemistry calculate the freezing and boiling points of each of the following solutions. (a) 0.37 m glucose in ethanol freezing point I got -1.2e2 but its wrong_°C boiling point _____I got 1.1e2 but its wrong:(°C (b) 15.0 g of decane, C10H22, in asked by Rebekah on March 24, 2011 Chemistry A metal, , of atomic weight 96 reacts with fluorine to form a salt that can be represented as . In order to determine and therefore the formula of the salt, a boiling point elevation experiment is performed. A 9.18- sample of the salt is dissolved in 100.0 asked by Robin on February 20, 2011 Chemistry A metal, , of atomic weight 96 reacts with fluorine to form a salt that can be represented as . In order to determine and therefore the formula of the salt, a boiling point elevation experiment is performed. A 9.18- sample of the salt is dissolved in 100.0 asked by Robin on February 20, 2011 Organic Chemistry Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acidity. a. H2O, H3O-, Ho- == HO-, H2O, H3O- b. NH3 asked by Rhea on August 4, 2014 chemistry the boiling point of diphenyl ether is 259 degrees C. It dissolves many nonpolar compounds but it is a poor solvent for crystallization.Why? asked by Anonymous on October 6, 2010 Categories ## how long will it take for 30% of the c-14 atoms in a sample of c-14 to decay? How long will it take for 25% of the C-14 atoms in a sample of C-14 to decay? The half-life for the radioactive decay of C-14 is 5730 years. If a sample of C-14 initially contains 1.1 mmol of C-14 , how many millimoles will be left after 2275 years? 0 0 351 asked by Anonymous Feb 28, 2010 Both problems are similar. Use this first equation to evaluate k. k = 0.693/t1/2 Then substitute k into this equation. ln(No/N) = kt To make thing easy I would assume we start with 100 atoms so No = 100. If 25% of the atoms decay, that will leave 75 atoms remaining; therefore, N = 75. You know k from the first equation, you can solve for time. Second problem is done the same way but you solve for N. 0 0 posted by DrBob222 Feb 28, 2010 2000 Years 0 1 posted by Anonymous Jun 11, 2014 Categories ## option is to choice as deference is to 1. A major difference between today’s Hispanic and past European immigrants is that— (1 point) for Hispanics, the old country is only two hours away. European immigrants were all light-skinned. Hispanics are willing to take jobs Americans don’t want. European immigrants did not come in such large numbers. Choose the word or phrase that best completes the analogy. 1. Option is to choice as deference is to— (1 point) rudeness. respect. difference. alternative. Choose the progressive or emphatic verb tense that is used in the sentence below. 2. The Cougars had been winning until the third quarter of the game. (1 point) present perfect progressive past perfect progressive past progressive 3. Which of the following informational texts would be the most helpful if you wanted to gain perspective into how an historical event affected a particular type of person? (1 point) a journal written by a person who experienced the event an essay by an expert on that event a newspaper article about the event a speech given by a leader at the time of the event My answers: 1.b 2.d 3.a 4.b 0 0 376 asked by Angela May 13, 2012 Congratulations! All of your answers are WRONG! 0 1 👩‍🏫 Ms. Sue May 13, 2012 A B B A 0 0 posted by Lacey May 13, 2012 caaba 0 0 posted by WriteTeacher Mar 20, 2013 Lacey was right!(: 0 0 posted by Helper May 11, 2013 Ms. Sue, that was RUDE! 1 0 posted by Stacey May 28, 2013 Wow… Ms. Sue, you have the attitude of my old French teacher; in which she got fired and her teaching license removed :)… 1 0 posted by Patricia May 29, 2013 Lacey is right!! 0 0 posted by Scarlett Jul 27, 2013 She TRIED and she was looking to see if her answers were correct, which they were not so someone gave her the right answers, she learned from this. Your ignorance was not needed nor is it wanted. Btw getting an education is succeeding and learning, which is what this was! Seems like you’re the one that needs to get their education. 0 0 posted by Emily May 20, 2015 bob you’re 0 0 posted by john Jun 17, 2015 Damn Ms. Sue got a stick up her !@#$%^& Go see a doctor and get that surgically removed

1 0
posted by Damnu
May 3, 2016
I once again find another example of How patheticly useless Ms.Sue can be

1 0
posted by Wut
May 5, 2016
Oh my… so rude!
If you have the updated version on the story “Familiar Strangers” the Answers are still A, B, B, A!

0 0
posted by Rach
May 18, 2016
You have to disrespect kids to feel good about yourself. What does that say about you ms.sue

1 0
posted by Smd
Jun 2, 2016
no wonder why you arnt married

1 0
posted by Smd
Jun 2, 2016

First all of you who are talking bad about Ms. Sue look just as bad as her. Yeah she is rude but you don’t have to make yourselves look bad too.
Also I just took this and got 100% the answers are:

1. The act of new immigrants moving to America from closer countries….
2. Respect

3.Past Perfect Progressive

1. A journal written by a person…

Also if you are in honors there was a 5th question:
“True or false:
Apropos means suitable”
Hope that helps 😀
~SilentRebel :3

0 1
posted by SilentRebel
Jun 5, 2016
SilentRebel is correct,

I just took the Quick Check, the answers are in fact:

1. The act of new immigrants moving to America from closer countries….
2. Respect

3.Past Perfect Progressive

1. A journal written by a person…

Thanks SilentRebel!!!
P.S. Listen to SilentRebel, she has a very great point, although what was said was rude, let it go, and learn from your mistakes!!!

“I Help Everyone No matter how tough it may be…”

0 0
Mar 7, 2017
New update with a fifth question:

1. Apropos means suitable. (1 point)
True
1/1 point 0 0
posted by hlsml
Mar 13, 2017
SilentRebel is correct 🙂 0 0
posted by anon
May 25, 2017
go to ms sues most recent ansers you will be suprised 1 0
posted by if any of you think thats the rudest ms sue is llok at this
Dec 19, 2017

he was just trying to figure out the questions ms. sue

2 0
posted by stud

Categories

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Introduction to Sociology 2e

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Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 An Introduction to Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 What Is Sociology? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The History of Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Theoretical Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Why Study Sociology? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2 Sociological Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Approaches to Sociological Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Research Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Ethical Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 What Is Culture? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Elements of Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4 Society and Social Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Types of Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Theoretical Perspectives on Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Social Constructions of Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 5 Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Theories of Self-Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Why Socialization Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Agents of Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Socialization Across the Life Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 6 Groups and Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Types of Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Group Size and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Formal Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Deviance and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Crime and the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 8 Media and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Technology Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Media and Technology in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Global Implications of Media and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 9 Social Stratification in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 What Is Social Stratification? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Global Stratification and Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 10 Global Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Global Stratification and Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Global Wealth and Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 11 Race and Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Theories of Race and Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Intergroup Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Race and Ethnicity in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 12 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Sex and Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Sex and Sexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 13 Aging and the Elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 The Process of Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Challenges Facing the Elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Theoretical Perspectives on Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 14 Marriage and Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Variations in Family Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Challenges Families Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 15 Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 The Sociological Approach to Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 World Religions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Religion in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 16 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Education around the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Theoretical Perspectives on Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Issues in Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 17 Government and Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 Power and Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 Forms of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Politics in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 18 Work and the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Economic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Globalization and the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Work in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 19 Health and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 The Social Construction of Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Global Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Health in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Comparative Health and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 20 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Demography and Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Urbanization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 The Environment and Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 21 Social Movements and Social Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Collective Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Social Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Social Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 Preface About OpenStax OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations. About This Book Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e, an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions. To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at info@openstaxcollege.org. To the Student This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced. To the Instructor This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to info@openstaxcollege.org so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions. General Approach Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences. Changes to the Second Edition Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture. For instance, since the first edition there have been major cultural shifts within the Middle East and Arab world—a movement still underway called the Arab Spring—changes that are now incorporated into our coverage on social movements and social unrest (Chapter 21, “Social Movements and Social Change”). New issues in immigration, in the United States and across the world, have been brought to the forefront of the second edition, as rising income gaps and modern transportation are responsible for trends in Europe (fears of Islamic conservatism and economic recession) and political debates in the U.S. (such as border security, universal education and health care). Since the first edition in 2012, technology and social media has ushered in new forms of communication, and, of course, these changes are altering the fabric of social life around the world. The benefits and downfalls of new technologies are Preface 1 reflected in new material in Chapter 4, “Society and Social Interaction,” where we discuss how social media is changing classical models of social stratification and prestige. In addition to updating critical facts, data, and policies from the first edition, we have expanded on essential topics, including: Feminism and feminist theory Health care legislation US social stratification Minimum wage policies Transgender issues and changes to the DSM-V Global statistics on education Marriage and pay equality Competing theories of tolerance The use of charter schools Cyberbullying Impact of economy on population segments Climate change debates Use of technology and social media by Global population and demographic shifts individuals and groups Net neutrality, online privacy and security Other topics received a light update for relevance and student engagement. The racial tensions that have come about through the cases of Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown, as well as the legalization of marijuana are two examples of such additions. Features of OpenStax Introduction to Sociology 2e We have retained and updated the special features of the original text for this updated version. Modularity This textbook is organized on Connexions (http://cnx.org (http://cnx.org) ) as a collection of modules that can be rearranged and modified to suit the needs of a particular professor or class. That being said, modules often contain references to content in other modules, as most topics in sociology cannot be discussed in isolation. Learning Objectives Every module begins with a set of clear and concise learning objectives. These objectives are designed to help the instructor decide what content to include or assign, and to guide the student with respect to what he or she can expect to learn. After completing the module and end-of-module exercises, students should be able to demonstrate mastery of the learning objectives. Key Features The following features show students the dynamic nature of sociology: • Sociological Research: Highlights specific current and relevant research studies. Examples include “Is Music a Cultural Universal?” and “Deceptive Divorce Rates.” • Sociology in the Real World: Ties chapter content to student life and discusses sociology in terms of the everyday. Topics include “Secrets of the McJob” and “Grade Inflation: When Is an A Really a C?” • Big Picture: Features present sociological concepts at a national or international level, including “Education in Afghanistan” and “American Indian Tribes and Environmental Racism.” • Case Study: Describes real-life people whose experiences relate to chapter content, such as “Catherine Middleton: The Commoner Who Would Be Queen.” • Social Policy and Debate: Discusses political issues that relate to chapter content, such as “The Legalese of Sex and Gender” and “Is the U.S. Bilingual?” • Careers in Sociology: Explores the lives and work of those in careers in sociology, including the real-world issues and debates these professionals encounter on a daily basis. Section Summaries Section summaries distill the information in each section for both students and instructors down to key, concise points addressed in the section. 2 Preface This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6http://cnx.org Key Terms Key terms are bold and are followed by a definition in context. Definitions of key terms are also listed in the Glossary, which appears at the end of the module online and at the end of the chapter in print. Section Quizzes Section quizzes provide opportunities to apply and test the information students learn throughout each section. Both multiple-choice and short-response questions feature a variety of question types and range of difficulty. Further Research This feature helps students further explore the section topic and offers related research topics that could be explored. Acknowledgements Introduction to Sociology 2e is based on the work of numerous professors, writers, editors, and reviewers who are able to bring topics to students in the most engaging way. We would like to thank all those listed below as well as many others who have contributed their time and energy to review and provide feedback on the manuscript. Especially Clint Lalonde and team at BC Campus for sharing the updates they made for use in this edition, and the team at Stark State College for their editorial support in this update. Their input has been critical in maintaining the pedagogical integrity and accuracy of the text. Contributing Authors Heather Griffiths, Fayetteville State University* Nathan Keirns, Zane State College* Eric Strayer, Hartnell College* Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Georgia Perimeter College Gail Scaramuzzo, Lackawanna College Tommy Sadler, Union University Sally Vyain, Ivy Tech Community College* Jeff Bry, Minnesota State Community and Technical College at Moorhead* Faye Jones, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College *individuals who were contributors to the 2nd edition Expert Reviewers Rick Biesanz, Corning Community College Cynthia Heddlesten, Metropolitan Community College Janet Hund, Long Beach City College Thea Alvarado, College of the Canyons Daysha Lawrence, Stark State College Sally Vyain, Ivy Tech Community College Natashia Willmott, Stark State College Angela M. Adkins, Stark State College Carol Jenkins, Glendale Community College Lillian Marie Wallace, Pima Community College J. Brandon Wallace, Middle Tennessee State University Gerry R. Cox, professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse David Hunt, Augusta State University Jennifer L. Newman-Shoemake, Angelo State University, and Cisco College Matthew Morrison, University of Virginia Sue Greer-Pitt, Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College Faye Jones, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College Athena Smith, Hillsborough Community College Kim Winford, Blinn College Kevin Keating, Broward College Russell Davis, University of West Alabama Kimberly Boyd, Piedmont Virginia Community College Lynn Newhart, Rockford College Russell C. Ward, Maysville Community and Technical College Preface 3 Xuemei Hu, Union County College Margaret A. Choka, Pellissippi State Community College Cindy Minton, Clark State Community College Nili Kirschner, Woodland Community College Shonda Whetstone, Blinn College Elizabeth Arreaga, instructor emerita at Long Beach City College Florencio R. Riguera, Catholic University of America John B. Gannon, College of Southern Nevada Gerald Titchener, Des Moines Area Community College Rahime-Malik Howard, El Centro College, and Collin College Jeff Bry, Minnesota State Community and Technical College at Moorhead Cynthia Tooley, Metropolitan Community College at Blue River Carol Sebilia, Diablo Valley College Marian Moore, Owens Community College John Bartkowski, University of Texas at San Antonio Shelly Dutchin, Western Technical College Supplements Accompanying the main text is an Instructor’s PowerPoint (https://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/introduction-to- sociology) file, which includes all of the images and captions found throughout the text and an Instructor’s test bank. Disclaimer All photos and images were licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license at the time they were placed into this book. The CC-BY license does not cover any trademarks or logos in the photos. If you have questions about regarding photos or images, please contact us at info@openstaxcollege.org. 4 Preface This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6https://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/introduction-to-sociologyhttps://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/introduction-to-sociology 1 An Introduction to Sociology Figure 1.1 Sociologists study how society affects people and how people affect society. (Photo courtesy of Diego Torres Silvestre/flickr) Learning Objectives 1.1. What Is Sociology? • Explain concepts central to sociology • Understand how different sociological perspectives have developed 1.2. The History of Sociology • Explain why sociology emerged when it did • Describe how sociology became a separate academic discipline 1.3. Theoretical Perspectives • Explain what sociological theories are and how they are used • Understand the similarities and differences between structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism 1.4. Why Study Sociology? • Explain why it is worthwhile to study sociology • Identify ways sociology is applied in the real world Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 5 Introduction to Sociology We all belong to many groups; you’re a member of your sociology class, and you’re a member of your family; you may belong to a political party, sports team, or the crowd watching a sporting event; you’re a citizen of your country, and you’re a part of a generation. You may have a somewhat different role in each group and feel differently in each. Groups vary in their sizes and formalities, as well as in the levels of attachment between group members, among other things. Within a large group, smaller groups may exist, and each group may behave differently. At a rock concert, for example, some may enjoy singing along, others prefer to sit and observe, while still others may join in a mosh pit or try crowd surfing. Why do we feel and act differently in different types of social situations? Why might people of a single group exhibit different behaviors in the same situation? Why might people acting similarly not feel connected to others exhibiting the same behavior? These are some of the many questions sociologists ask as they study people and societies. 1.1 What Is Sociology? Figure 1.2 Sociologists learn about society as a whole while studying one-to-one and group interactions. (Photo courtesy of Gareth Williams/flickr) What Are Society and Culture? Sociology is the study of groups and group interactions, societies and social interactions, from small and personal groups to very large groups. A group of people who live in a defined geographic area, who interact with one another, and who share a common culture is what sociologists call a society. Sociologists study all aspects and levels of society. Sociologists working from the micro-level study small groups and individual interactions, while those using macro-level analysis look at trends among and between large groups and societies. For example, a micro-level study might look at the accepted rules of conversation in various groups such as among teenagers or business professionals. In contrast, a macro-level analysis might research the ways that language use has changed over time or in social media outlets. The term culture refers to the group’s shared practices, values, and beliefs. Culture encompasses a group’s way of life, from routine, everyday interactions to the most important parts of group members’ lives. It includes everything produced by a society, including all of the social rules. Sociologists often study culture using the sociological imagination, which pioneer sociologist C. Wright Mills described as an awareness of the relationship between a person’s behavior and experience and the wider culture that shaped the person’s choices and perceptions. It’s a way of seeing our own and other people’s behavior in relationship to history and social structure (1959). One illustration of this is a person’s decision to marry. In the United States, this choice is heavily influenced by individual feelings; however, the social acceptability of marriage relative to the person’s circumstances also plays a part. Remember, 6 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 though, that culture is a product of the people in a society; sociologists take care not to treat the concept of “culture” as though it were alive in its own right. Reification is an error of treating an abstract concept as though it has a real, material existence (Sahn 2013). Studying Patterns: How Sociologists View Society All sociologists are interested in the experiences of individuals and how those experiences are shaped by interactions with social groups and society as a whole. To a sociologist, the personal decisions an individual makes do not exist in a vacuum. Cultural patterns and social forces put pressure on people to select one choice over another. Sociologists try to identify these general patterns by examining the behavior of large groups of people living in the same society and experiencing the same societal pressures. Changes in the U.S. family structure offer an example of patterns that sociologists are interested in studying. A “typical” family now is vastly different than in past decades when most U.S. families consisted of married parents living in a home with their unmarried children. The percent of unmarried couples, same-sex couples, single-parent and single-adult households is increasing, as well as is the number of expanded households, in which extended family members such as grandparents, cousins, or adult children live together in the family home (U.S. Census Bureau 2013). While mothers still make up the majority of single parents, millions of fathers are also raising their children alone, and more than 1 million of these single fathers have never been married (Williams Institute 2010; cited in Ludden 2012). Increasingly, single men and women and cohabitating opposite-sex or same-sex couples are choosing to raise children outside of marriage through surrogates or adoption. Some sociologists study social facts, which are the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life, that may contribute to these changes in the family. Do people in the United States view marriage and family differently than before? Do employment and economic conditions play a role? How has culture influenced the choices that individuals make in living arrangements? Other sociologists are studying the consequences of these new patterns, such as the ways children are affected by them or changing needs for education, housing, and healthcare. Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 7 Figure 1.3 Modern U.S. families may be very different in structure from what was historically typical. (Photo courtesy of Tony Alter/Wikimedia Commons) Another example of the way society influences individual decisions can be seen in people’s opinions about and use of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP benefits. Some people believe those who receive SNAP benefits are lazy and unmotivated. Statistics from the United States Department of Agriculture show a complex picture. 8 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 Table 1.1 SNAP Use by State in 2005 Sociologists examine social conditions in different states to explain differences in the number of people receiving SNAP benefits. (Table courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture) Percent Eligible by Reason for Eligibility Living in Waiver Area Have Not Exceeded Time Limits[1] In E & T Program Received Exemption Total Percent Eligible for the FSP[2] Alabama 29 62 / 72 0 1 73 / 80 Alaska 100 62 / 72 0 0 100 California 6 62 / 72 0 0 64 / 74 District of Columbia 100 62 / 72 0 0 100 Florida 48 62 / 72 0 0 80 / 85 Mississippi 39 62 / 72 0 3 100 Wyoming 7 62 / 72 0 0 64 / 74 The percentage of the population receiving SNAP benefits is much higher in certain states than in others. Does this mean, if the stereotype above were applied, that people in some states are lazier and less motivated than those in other states? Sociologists study the economies in each state—comparing unemployment rates, food, energy costs, and other factors—to explain differences in social issues like this. To identify social trends, sociologists also study how people use SNAP benefits and how people react to their use. Research has found that for many people from all classes, there is a strong stigma attached to the use of SNAP benefits. This stigma can prevent people who qualify for this type of assistance from using SNAP benefits. According to Hanson and Gundersen (2002), how strongly this stigma is felt is linked to the general economic climate. This illustrates how sociologists observe a pattern in society. Sociologists identify and study patterns related to all kinds of contemporary social issues. The “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy, the emergence of the Tea Party as a political faction, how Twitter has influenced everyday communication—these are all examples of topics that sociologists might explore. Studying Part and Whole: How Sociologists View Social Structures A key basis of the sociological perspective is the concept that the individual and society are inseparable. It is impossible to study one without the other. German sociologist Norbert Elias called the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of individuals and the society that shapes that behavior figuration. An application that makes this concept understandable is the practice of religion. While people experience their religions in a distinctly individual manner, religion exists in a larger social context. For instance, an individual’s religious practice may be influenced by what government dictates, holidays, teachers, places of worship, rituals, and so on. These influences underscore the important relationship between individual practices of religion and social pressures that influence that religious experience (Elias 1978). 1. The lower number is for individuals in households reporting food stamp receipt in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). The higher number is for individuals in households not reporting food stamp receipt in the SIPP. 2. The lower number is for individuals in households reporting food stamp receipt in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). The higher number is for individuals in households not reporting food stamp receipt in the SIPP. Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 9 Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Individual-Society Connections When sociologist Nathan Kierns spoke to his friend Ashley (a pseudonym) about the move she and her partner had made from an urban center to a small Midwestern town, he was curious about how the social pressures placed on a lesbian couple differed from one community to the other. Ashley said that in the city they had been accustomed to getting looks and hearing comments when she and her partner walked hand in hand. Otherwise, she felt that they were at least being tolerated. There had been little to no outright discrimination. Things changed when they moved to the small town for her partner’s job. For the first time, Ashley found herself experiencing direct discrimination because of her sexual orientation. Some of it was particularly hurtful. Landlords would not rent to them. Ashley, who is a highly trained professional, had a great deal of difficulty finding a new job. When Nathan asked Ashley if she and her partner became discouraged or bitter about this new situation, Ashley said that rather than letting it get to them, they decided to do something about it. Ashley approached groups at a local college and several churches in the area. Together they decided to form the town’s first gay-straight alliance. The alliance has worked successfully to educate their community about same-sex couples. It also worked to raise awareness about the kinds of discrimination that Ashley and her partner experienced in the town and how those could be eliminated. The alliance has become a strong advocacy group, and it is working to attain equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, or LBGT individuals. Kierns observed that this is an excellent example of how negative social forces can result in a positive response from individuals to bring about social change (Kierns 2011). 1.2 The History of Sociology (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 1.4 People have been thinking like sociologists long before sociology became a separate academic discipline: Plato and Aristotle, Confucius, Khaldun, and Voltaire all set the stage for modern sociology. (Photos (a),(b),(d) courtesy of Wikimedia Commons; Photo (c) courtesy of Moumou82/Wikimedia Commons) Since ancient times, people have been fascinated by the relationship between individuals and the societies to which they belong. Many topics studied in modern sociology were also studied by ancient philosophers in their desire to describe an ideal society, including theories of social conflict, economics, social cohesion, and power (Hannoum 2003). In the thirteenth century, Ma Tuan-Lin, a Chinese historian, first recognized social dynamics as an underlying component of historical development in his seminal encyclopedia, General Study of Literary Remains. The next century saw the emergence of the historian some consider to be the world’s first sociologist: Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) of Tunisia. He wrote about many topics of interest today, setting a foundation for both modern sociology and economics, including a theory of social conflict, a comparison of nomadic and sedentary life, a description of political economy, and a study connecting a tribe’s social cohesion to its capacity for power (Hannoum 2003). In the eighteenth century, Age of Enlightenment philosophers developed general principles that could be used to explain social life. Thinkers such as John Locke, Voltaire, Immanuel Kant, and Thomas Hobbes responded to what they saw as 10 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 social ills by writing on topics that they hoped would lead to social reform. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) wrote about women’s conditions in society. Her works were long ignored by the male academic structure, but since the 1970s, Wollstonecraft has been widely considered the first feminist thinker of consequence. The early nineteenth century saw great changes with the Industrial Revolution, increased mobility, and new kinds of employment. It was also a time of great social and political upheaval with the rise of empires that exposed many people—for the first time—to societies and cultures other than their own. Millions of people moved into cities and many people turned away from their traditional religious beliefs. Creating a Discipline Auguste Comte (1798–1857) Figure 1.5 Auguste Comte played an important role in the development of sociology as a recognized discipline. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) The term sociology was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836) in an unpublished manuscript (Fauré et al. 1999). In 1838, the term was reinvented by Auguste Comte (1798–1857). Comte originally studied to be an engineer, but later became a pupil of social philosopher Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825). They both thought that social scientists could study society using the same scientific methods utilized in natural sciences. Comte also believed in the potential of social scientists to work toward the betterment of society. He held that once scholars identified the laws that governed society, sociologists could address problems such as poor education and poverty (Abercrombie et al. 2000). Comte named the scientific study of social patterns positivism. He described his philosophy in a series of books called The Course in Positive Philosophy (1830–1842) and A General View of Positivism (1848). He believed that using scientific methods to reveal the laws by which societies and individuals interact would usher in a new “positivist” age of history. While the field and its terminology have grown, sociologists still believe in the positive impact of their work. Harriet Martineau (1802–1876)—the First Woman Sociologist Harriet Martineau was a writer who addressed a wide range of social science issues. She was an early observer of social practices, including economics, social class, religion, suicide, government, and women’s rights. Her writing career began in 1931 with a series of stories titled Illustrations of Political Economy, in which she tried to educate ordinary people about the principles of economics (Johnson 2003). Martineau was the first to translate Comte’s writing from French to English and thereby introduced sociology to English- speaking scholars (Hill 1991). She is also credited with the first systematic methodological international comparisons of social institutions in two of her most famous sociological works: Society in America (1837) and Retrospect of Western Travel (1838). Martineau found the workings of capitalism at odds with the professed moral principles of people in the United States; she pointed out the faults with the free enterprise system in which workers were exploited and impoverished while business owners became wealthy. She further noted that the belief in all being created equal was inconsistent with the lack of women’s rights. Much like Mary Wollstonecraft, Martineau was often discounted in her own time by the male domination of academic sociology. Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 11 Karl Marx (1818–1883) Figure 1.6 Karl Marx was one of the founders of sociology. His ideas about social conflict are still relevant today. (Photo courtesy of John Mayall/ Wikimedia Commons) Karl Marx (1818–1883) was a German philosopher and economist. In 1848 he and Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) coauthored the Communist Manifesto. This book is one of the most influential political manuscripts in history. It also presents Marx’s theory of society, which differed from what Comte proposed. Marx rejected Comte’s positivism. He believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production. At the time he was developing his theories, the Industrial Revolution and the rise of capitalism led to great disparities in wealth between the owners of the factories and workers. Capitalism, an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of goods and the means to produce them, grew in many nations. Marx predicted that inequalities of capitalism would become so extreme that workers would eventually revolt. This would lead to the collapse of capitalism, which would be replaced by communism. Communism is an economic system under which there is no private or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and distributed as needed. Marx believed that communism was a more equitable system than capitalism. While his economic predictions may not have come true in the time frame he predicted, Marx’s idea that social conflict leads to change in society is still one of the major theories used in modern sociology. Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) In 1873, the English philosopher Herbert Spencer published The Study of Sociology, the first book with the term “sociology” in the title. Spencer rejected much of Comte’s philosophy as well as Marx’s theory of class struggle and his support of communism. Instead, he favored a form of government that allowed market forces to control capitalism. His work influenced many early sociologists including Émile Durkheim (1858–1917). Georg Simmel (1858–1918) Georg Simmel was a German art critic who wrote widely on social and political issues as well. Simmel took an anti- positivism stance and addressed topics such as social conflict, the function of money, individual identity in city life, and the European fear of outsiders (Stapley 2010). Much of his work focused on the micro-level theories, and it analyzed the dynamics of two-person and three-person groups. His work also emphasized individual culture as the creative capacities of individuals. Simmel’s contributions to sociology are not often included in academic histories of the discipline, perhaps overshadowed by his contemporaries Durkheim, Mead, and Weber (Ritzer and Goodman 2004). Émile Durkheim (1858–1917) Durkheim helped establish sociology as a formal academic discipline by establishing the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895 and by publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method in 1895. In another important work, Division of Labour in Society (1893), Durkheim laid out his theory on how societies transformed from a primitive state into a capitalist, industrial society. According to Durkheim, people rise to their proper levels in society based on merit. Durkheim believed that sociologists could study objective “social facts” (Poggi 2000). He also believed that through such studies it would be possible to determine if a society was “healthy” or “pathological.” He saw healthy societies as stable, while pathological societies experienced a breakdown in social norms between individuals and society. 12 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate In 1897, Durkheim attempted to demonstrate the effectiveness of his rules of social research when he published a work titled Suicide. Durkheim examined suicide statistics in different police districts to research differences between Catholic and Protestant communities. He attributed the differences to socioreligious forces rather than to individual or psychological causes. George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) George Herbert Mead was a philosopher and sociologist whose work focused on the ways in which the mind and the self were developed as a result of social processes (Cronk n.d.). He argued that how an individual comes to view himself or herself is based to a very large extent on interactions with others. Mead called specific individuals that impacted a person’s life significant others, and he also conceptualized “ generalized others” as the organized and generalized attitude of a social group. Mead’s work is closely associated with the symbolic interactionist approach and emphasizes the micro-level of analysis. Max Weber (1864–1920) Prominent sociologist Max Weber established a sociology department in Germany at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich in 1919. Weber wrote on many topics related to sociology including political change in Russia and social forces that affect factory workers. He is known best for his 1904 book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. The theory that Weber sets forth in this book is still controversial. Some believe that Weber argued that the beliefs of many Protestants, especially Calvinists, led to the creation of capitalism. Others interpret it as simply claiming that the ideologies of capitalism and Protestantism are complementary. Weber believed that it was difficult, if not impossible, to use standard scientific methods to accurately predict the behavior of groups as people hoped to do. They argued that the influence of culture on human behavior had to be taken into account. This even applied to the researchers themselves, who, they believed, should be aware of how their own cultural biases could influence their research. To deal with this problem, Weber and Dilthey introduced the concept of verstehen, a German word that means to understand in a deep way. In seeking verstehen, outside observers of a social world—an entire culture or a small setting—attempt to understand it from an insider’s point of view. In his book The Nature of Social Action (1922), Weber described sociology as striving to “interpret the meaning of social action and thereby give a causal explanation of the way in which action proceeds and the effects it produces.” He and other like-minded sociologists proposed a philosophy of antipositivism whereby social researchers would strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values. This approach led to some research methods whose aim was not to generalize or predict (traditional in science), but to systematically gain an in-depth understanding of social worlds. The different approaches to research based on positivism or antipositivism are often considered the foundation for the differences found today between quantitative sociology and qualitative sociology. Quantitative sociology uses statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants. Researchers analyze data using statistical techniques to see if they can uncover patterns of human behavior. Qualitative sociology seeks to understand human behavior by learning about it through in-depth interviews, focus groups, and analysis of content sources (like books, magazines, journals, and popular media). Should We Raise the Minimum Wage? In the 2014 State of the Union Address, President Obama called on Congress to raise the national minimum wage, and he signed an executive order putting this into effect for individuals working on new federal service contracts. Congress did not pass legislation to change the national minimum wage more broadly. The result has become a national controversy, with various economists taking different sides on the issue, and public protests being staged by several groups of minimum-wage workers. Opponents of raising the minimum wage argue that some workers would get larger paychecks while others would lose their jobs, and companies would be less likely to hire new workers because of the increased cost of paying them (Bernstein 2014; cited in CNN). Proponents of raising the minimum wage contend that some job loss would be greatly offset by the positive effects on the economy of low-wage workers having more income (Hassett 2014; cited in CNN). Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 13 Sociologists may consider the minimum wage issue from differing perspectives as well. How much of an impact would a minimum wage raise have for a single mother? Some might study the economic effects, such as her ability to pay bills and keep food on the table. Others might look at how reduced economic stress could improve family relationships. Some sociologists might research the impact on the status of small business owners. These could all be examples of public sociology, a branch of sociology that strives to bring sociological dialogue to public forums. The goals of public sociology are to increase understanding of the social factors that underlie social problems and assist in finding solutions. According to Michael Burawoy (2005), the challenge of public sociology is to engage multiple publics in multiple ways. 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives Figure 1.7 Sociologists develop theories to explain social occurrences such as protest rallies. (Photo courtesy of voanews.com/Wikimedia Commons) Sociologists study social events, interactions, and patterns, and they develop a theory in an attempt to explain why things work as they do. In sociology, a theory is a way to explain different aspects of social interactions and to create a testable proposition, called a hypothesis, about society (Allan 2006). For example, although suicide is generally considered an individual phenomenon, Émile Durkheim was interested in studying the social factors that affect it. His studied social ties within a group, or social solidarity, and hypothesized that differences in suicide rates might be explained by religion-based differences. Durkheim gathered a large amount of data about Europeans who had ended their lives, and he did indeed find differences based on religion. Protestants were more likely to commit suicide than Catholics in Durkheim’s society, and his work supports the utility of theory in sociological research. Theories vary in scope depending on the scale of the issues that they are meant to explain. Macro-level theories relate to large-scale issues and large groups of people, while micro-level theories look at very specific relationships between individuals or small groups. Grand theories attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why societies form and why they change. Sociological theory is constantly evolving and should never be considered complete. Classic sociological theories are still considered important and current, but new sociological theories build upon the work of their predecessors and add to them (Calhoun 2002). In sociology, a few theories provide broad perspectives that help explain many different aspects of social life, and these are called paradigms. Paradigms are philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them. Three paradigms have come to dominate sociological thinking, because they provide useful explanations: structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. 14 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 Table 1.2 Sociological Theories or Perspectives Different sociological perspectives enable sociologists to view social issues through a variety of useful lenses. Sociological Paradigm Level of Analysis Focus Structural Functionalism Macro or mid The way each part of society functions together to contribute to the whole Conflict Theory Macro The way inequalities contribute to social differences and perpetuatedifferences in power Symbolic Interactionism Micro One-to-one interactions and communications Functionalism Functionalism, also called structural-functional theory, sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of the individuals in that society. Functionalism grew out of the writings of English philosopher and biologist, Hebert Spencer (1820–1903), who saw similarities between society and the human body; he argued that just as the various organs of the body work together to keep the body functioning, the various parts of society work together to keep society functioning (Spencer 1898). The parts of society that Spencer referred to were the social institutions, or patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs, such as government, education, family, healthcare, religion, and the economy. Émile Durkheim, another early sociologist, applied Spencer’s theory to explain how societies change and survive over time. Durkheim believed that society is a complex system of interrelated and interdependent parts that work together to maintain stability (Durkheim 1893), and that society is held together by shared values, languages, and symbols. He believed that to study society, a sociologist must look beyond individuals to social facts such as laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashion, and rituals, which all serve to govern social life. Alfred Radcliff-Brown (1881–1955) defined the function of any recurrent activity as the part it played in social life as a whole, and therefore the contribution it makes to social stability and continuity (Radcliff-Brown 1952). In a healthy society, all parts work together to maintain stability, a state called dynamic equilibrium by later sociologists such as Parsons (1961). Durkheim believed that individuals may make up society, but in order to study society, sociologists have to look beyond individuals to social facts. Social facts are the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life (Durkheim 1895). Each of these social facts serves one or more functions within a society. For example, one function of a society’s laws may be to protect society from violence, while another is to punish criminal behavior, while another is to preserve public health. Another noted structural functionalist, Robert Merton (1910–2003), pointed out that social processes often have many functions. Manifest functions are the consequences of a social process that are sought or anticipated, while latent functions are the unsought consequences of a social process. A manifest function of college education, for example, includes gaining knowledge, preparing for a career, and finding a good job that utilizes that education. Latent functions of your college years include meeting new people, participating in extracurricular activities, or even finding a spouse or partner. Another latent function of education is creating a hierarchy of employment based on the level of education attained. Latent functions can be beneficial, neutral, or harmful. Social processes that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society are called dysfunctions. In education, examples of dysfunction include getting bad grades, truancy, dropping out, not graduating, and not finding suitable employment. Criticism One criticism of the structural-functional theory is that it can’t adequately explain social change. Also problematic is the somewhat circular nature of this theory; repetitive behavior patterns are assumed to have a function, yet we profess to know that they have a function only because they are repeated. Furthermore, dysfunctions may continue, even though they don’t serve a function, which seemingly contradicts the basic premise of the theory. Many sociologists now believe that functionalism is no longer useful as a macro-level theory, but that it does serve a useful purpose in some mid-level analyses. Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 15 Making Connections: Big Picturethe A Global Culture? Figure 1.8 Some sociologists see the online world contributing to the creation of an emerging global culture. Are you a part of any global communities? (Photo courtesy of quasireversible/flickr) Sociologists around the world look closely for signs of what would be an unprecedented event: the emergence of a global culture. In the past, empires such as those that existed in China, Europe, Africa, and Central and South America linked people from many different countries, but those people rarely became part of a common culture. They lived too far from each other, spoke different languages, practiced different religions, and traded few goods. Today, increases in communication, travel, and trade have made the world a much smaller place. More and more people are able to communicate with each other instantly—wherever they are located—by telephone, video, and text. They share movies, television shows, music, games, and information over the Internet. Students can study with teachers and pupils from the other side of the globe. Governments find it harder to hide conditions inside their countries from the rest of the world. Sociologists research many different aspects of this potential global culture. Some explore the dynamics involved in the social interactions of global online communities, such as when members feel a closer kinship to other group members than to people residing in their own countries. Other sociologists study the impact this growing international culture has on smaller, less-powerful local cultures. Yet other researchers explore how international markets and the outsourcing of labor impact social inequalities. Sociology can play a key role in people’s abilities to understand the nature of this emerging global culture and how to respond to it. Conflict Theory Conflict theory looks at society as a competition for limited resources. This perspective is a macro-level approach most identified with the writings of German philosopher and sociologist Karl Marx (1818–1883), who saw society as being made up of individuals in different social classes who must compete for social, material, and political resources such as food and housing, employment, education, and leisure time. Social institutions like government, education, and religion reflect this competition in their inherent inequalities and help maintain the unequal social structure. Some individuals and organizations are able to obtain and keep more resources than others, and these “winners” use their power and influence to maintain social institutions. Several theorist suggested variations on this basic theme. Polish-Austrian sociologist Ludwig Gumplowicz (1838–1909) expanded on Marx’s ideas by arguing that war and conquest are the basis of civilizations. He believed that cultural and ethnic conflicts led to states being identified and defined by a dominant group that had power over other groups (Irving 2007). German sociologist Max Weber agreed with Marx but also believed that, in addition to economic inequalities, inequalities of political power and social structure cause conflict. Weber noted that different groups were affected differently based on 16 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World education, race, and gender, and that people’s reactions to inequality were moderated by class differences and rates of social mobility, as well as by perceptions about the legitimacy of those in power. German sociologist Georg Simmel (1858–1918) believed that conflict can help integrate and stabilize a society. He said that the intensity of the conflict varies depending on the emotional involvement of the parties, the degree of solidarity within the opposing groups, and the clarity and limited nature of the goals. Simmel also showed that groups work to create internal solidarity, centralize power, and reduce dissent. Resolving conflicts can reduce tension and hostility and can pave the way for future agreements. In the 1930s and 1940s, German philosophers, known as the Frankfurt School, developed critical theory as an elaboration on Marxist principles. Critical theory is an expansion of conflict theory and is broader than just sociology, including other social sciences and philosophy. A critical theory attempts to address structural issues causing inequality; it must explain what’s wrong in current social reality, identify the people who can make changes, and provide practical goals for social transformation (Horkeimer 1982). More recently, inequality based on gender or race has been explained in a similar manner and has identified institutionalized power structures that help to maintain inequality between groups. Janet Saltzman Chafetz (1941–2006) presented a model of feminist theory that attempts to explain the forces that maintain gender inequality as well as a theory of how such a system can be changed (Turner 2003). Similarly, critical race theory grew out of a critical analysis of race and racism from a legal point of view. Critical race theory looks at structural inequality based on white privilege and associated wealth, power, and prestige. Criticism Farming and Locavores: How Sociological Perspectives Might View Food Consumption The consumption of food is a commonplace, daily occurrence, yet it can also be associated with important moments in our lives. Eating can be an individual or a group action, and eating habits and customs are influenced by our cultures. In the context of society, our nation’s food system is at the core of numerous social movements, political issues, and economic debates. Any of these factors might become a topic of sociological study. A structural-functional approach to the topic of food consumption might be interested in the role of the agriculture industry within the nation’s economy and how this has changed from the early days of manual-labor farming to modern mechanized production. Another examination might study the different functions that occur in food production: from farming and harvesting to flashy packaging and mass consumerism. A conflict theorist might be interested in the power differentials present in the regulation of food, by exploring where people’s right to information intersects with corporations’ drive for profit and how the government mediates those interests. Or a conflict theorist might be interested in the power and powerlessness experienced by local farmers versus large farming conglomerates, such as the documentary Food Inc. depicts as resulting from Monsanto’s patenting of seed technology. Another topic of study might be how nutrition varies between different social classes. A sociologist viewing food consumption through a symbolic interactionist lens would be more interested in micro- level topics, such as the symbolic use of food in religious rituals, or the role it plays in the social interaction of a family dinner. This perspective might also study the interactions among group members who identify themselves based on their sharing a particular diet, such as vegetarians (people who don’t eat meat) or locavores (people who strive to eat locally produced food). Just as structural functionalism was criticized for focusing too much on the stability of societies, conflict theory has been criticized because it tends to focus on conflict to the exclusion of recognizing stability. Many social structures are extremely stable or have gradually progressed over time rather than changing abruptly as conflict theory would suggest. Symbolic Interactionist Theory Symbolic interactionism is a micro-level theory that focuses on the relationships among individuals within a society. Communication—the exchange of meaning through language and symbols—is believed to be the way in which people Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 17 make sense of their social worlds. Theorists Herman and Reynolds (1994) note that this perspective sees people as being active in shaping the social world rather than simply being acted upon. George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) is considered a founder of symbolic interactionism though he never published his work on it (LaRossa and Reitzes 1993). Mead’s student, Herbert Blumer, coined the term “symbolic interactionism” and outlined these basic premises: humans interact with things based on meanings ascribed to those things; the ascribed meaning of things comes from our interactions with others and society; the meanings of things are interpreted by a person when dealing with things in specific circumstances (Blumer 1969). If you love books, for example, a symbolic interactionist might propose that you learned that books are good or important in the interactions you had with family, friends, school, or church; maybe your family had a special reading time each week, getting your library card was treated as a special event, or bedtime stories were associated with warmth and comfort. Social scientists who apply symbolic-interactionist thinking look for patterns of interaction between individuals. Their studies often involve observation of one-on-one interactions. For example, while a conflict theorist studying a political protest might focus on class difference, a symbolic interactionist would be more interested in how individuals in the protesting group interact, as well as the signs and symbols protesters use to communicate their message. The focus on the importance of symbols in building a society led sociologists like Erving Goffman (1922–1982) to develop a technique called dramaturgical analysis. Goffman used theater as an analogy for social interaction and recognized that people’s interactions showed patterns of cultural “scripts.” Because it can be unclear what part a person may play in a given situation, he or she has to improvise his or her role as the situation unfolds (Goffman 1958). Studies that use the symbolic interactionist perspective are more likely to use qualitative research methods, such as in- depth interviews or participant observation, because they seek to understand the symbolic worlds in which research subjects live. Constructivism is an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be. We develop social constructs based on interactions with others, and those constructs that last over time are those that have meanings which are widely agreed-upon or generally accepted by most within the society. This approach is often used to understand what’s defined as deviant within a society. There is no absolute definition of deviance, and different societies have constructed different meanings for deviance, as well as associating different behaviors with deviance. One situation that illustrates this is what you believe you’re to do if you find a wallet in the street. In the United States, turning the wallet in to local authorities would be considered the appropriate action, and to keep the wallet would be seen as deviant. In contrast, many Eastern societies would consider it much more appropriate to keep the wallet and search for the owner yourself; turning it over to someone else, even the authorities, would be considered deviant behavior. Criticism Research done from this perspective is often scrutinized because of the difficulty of remaining objective. Others criticize the extremely narrow focus on symbolic interaction. Proponents, of course, consider this one of its greatest strengths. Sociological Theory Today These three approaches are still the main foundation of modern sociological theory, but some evolution has been seen. Structural-functionalism was a dominant force after World War II and until the 1960s and 1970s. At that time, sociologists began to feel that structural-functionalism did not sufficiently explain the rapid social changes happening in the United States at that time. Conflict theory then gained prominence, as there was renewed emphasis on institutionalized social inequality. Critical theory, and the particular aspects of feminist theory and critical race theory, focused on creating social change through the application of sociological principles, and the field saw a renewed emphasis on helping ordinary people understand sociology principles, in the form of public sociology. Postmodern social theory attempts to look at society through an entirely new lens by rejecting previous macro-level attempts to explain social phenomena. Generally considered as gaining acceptance in the late 1970s and early 1980s, postmodern social theory is a micro-level approach that looks at small, local groups and individual reality. Its growth in popularity coincides with the constructivist aspects of symbolic interactionism. 18 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 1.4 Why Study Sociology? Figure 1.9 The research of sociologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark helped the Supreme Court decide to end “separate but equal” racial segregation in schools in the United States. (Photo courtesy of public domain) When Elizabeth Eckford tried to enter Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957, she was met by an angry crowd. But she knew she had the law on her side. Three years earlier in the landmark Brown vs. the Board of Education case, the U.S. Supreme Court had overturned twenty-one state laws that allowed blacks and whites to be taught in separate school systems as long as the school systems were “equal.” One of the major factors influencing that decision was research conducted by the husband-and-wife team of sociologists, Kenneth and Mamie Clark. Their research showed that segregation was harmful to young black schoolchildren, and the Court found that harm to be unconstitutional. Since it was first founded, many people interested in sociology have been driven by the scholarly desire to contribute knowledge to this field, while others have seen it as way not only to study society but also to improve it. Besides desegregation, sociology has played a crucial role in many important social reforms, such as equal opportunity for women in the workplace, improved treatment for individuals with mental handicaps or learning disabilities, increased accessibility and accommodation for people with physical handicaps, the right of native populations to preserve their land and culture, and prison system reforms. The prominent sociologist Peter L. Berger (1929– ), in his 1963 book Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective, describes a sociologist as “someone concerned with understanding society in a disciplined way.” He asserts that sociologists have a natural interest in the monumental moments of people’s lives, as well as a fascination with banal, everyday occurrences. Berger also describes the “aha” moment when a sociological theory becomes applicable and understood: [T]here is a deceptive simplicity and obviousness about some sociological investigations. One reads them, nods at the familiar scene, remarks that one has heard all this before and don’t people have better things to do than to waste their time on truisms—until one is suddenly brought up against an insight that radically questions everything one had previously assumed about this familiar scene. This is the point at which one begins to sense the excitement of sociology. (Berger 1963) Sociology can be exciting because it teaches people ways to recognize how they fit into the world and how others perceive them. Looking at themselves and society from a sociological perspective helps people see where they connect to different groups based on the many different ways they classify themselves and how society classifies them in turn. It raises awareness of how those classifications—such as economic and status levels, education, ethnicity, or sexual orientation—affect perceptions. Sociology teaches people not to accept easy explanations. It teaches them a way to organize their thinking so that they can ask better questions and formulate better answers. It makes people more aware that there are many different kinds of people in the world who do not necessarily think the way they do. It increases their willingness and ability to try to see the world from other people’s perspectives. This prepares them to live and work in an increasingly diverse and integrated world. Sociology in the Workplace Employers continue to seek people with what are called “transferable skills.” This means that they want to hire people whose knowledge and education can be applied in a variety of settings and whose skills will contribute to various tasks. Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 19 Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Studying sociology can provide people with this wide knowledge and a skill set that can contribute to many workplaces, including • an understanding of social systems and large bureaucracies; • the ability to devise and carry out research projects to assess whether a program or policy is working; • the ability to collect, read, and analyze statistical information from polls or surveys; • the ability to recognize important differences in people’s social, cultural, and economic backgrounds; • skills in preparing reports and communicating complex ideas; and • the capacity for critical thinking about social issues and problems that confront modern society. (Department of Sociology, University of Alabama) Sociology prepares people for a wide variety of careers. Besides actually conducting social research or training others in the field, people who graduate from college with a degree in sociology are hired by government agencies and corporations in fields such as social services, counseling (e.g., family planning, career, substance abuse), community planning, health services, marketing, market research, and human resources. Even a small amount of training in sociology can be an asset in careers like sales, public relations, journalism, teaching, law, and criminal justice. Please “Friend” Me: Students and Social Networking The phenomenon known as Facebook was designed specifically for students. Whereas earlier generations wrote notes in each other’s printed yearbooks at the end of the academic year, modern technology and the Internet ushered in dynamic new ways for people to interact socially. Instead of having to meet up on campus, students can call, text, and Skype from their dorm rooms. Instead of a study group gathering weekly in the library, online forums and chat rooms help learners connect. The availability and immediacy of computer technology has forever changed the ways in which students engage with each other. Now, after several social networks have vied for primacy, a few have established their place in the market and some have attracted niche audience. While Facebook launched the social networking trend geared toward teens and young adults, now people of all ages are actively “friending” each other. LinkedIn distinguished itself by focusing on professional connections and served as a virtual world for workplace networking. Newer offshoots like Foursquare help people connect based on the real-world places they frequent, while Twitter has cornered the market on brevity. The widespread ownership of smartphones adds to this social experience; the Pew Research Center (2012) found that the majority of people in the United States with mobile phones now have “smart” phones with Internet capability. Many people worldwide can now access Facebook, Twitter, and other social media from virtually anywhere, and there seems to be an increasing acceptance of smartphone use in many diverse and previously prohibited settings. The outcomes of smartphone use, as with other social media, are not yet clear. These newer modes of social interaction have also spawned harmful consequences, such as cyberbullying and what some call FAD, or Facebook Addiction Disorder. Researchers have also examined other potential negative impacts, such as whether Facebooking lowers a student’s GPA, or whether there might be long-term effects of replacing face- to-face interaction with social media. All of these social networks demonstrate emerging ways that people interact, whether positive or negative. They illustrate how sociological topics are alive and changing today. Social media will most certainly be a developing topic in the study of sociology for decades to come. Chapter Review Key Terms 20 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 antipositivism: conflict theory: constructivism: culture: dramaturgical analysis: dynamic equilibrium: dysfunctions: figuration: function: functionalism: generalized others: grand theories: hypothesis: latent functions: macro-level: manifest functions: micro-level theories: paradigms: positivism: qualitative sociology: quantitative sociology: reification: significant others: social facts: social institutions: social solidarity: society: the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited resources an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be a group’s shared practices, values, and beliefs a technique sociologists use in which they view society through the metaphor of theatrical performance a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society work together properly social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of an individual and the society that shapes that behavior the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to structural continuity a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society the organized and generalized attitude of a social group an attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why societies form and why they change a testable proposition the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process a wide-scale view of the role of social structures within a society sought consequences of a social process the study of specific relationships between individuals or small groups philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them the scientific study of social patterns in-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants an error of treating an abstract concept as though it has a real, material existence specific individuals that impact a person’s life the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs the social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, and religion a group of people who live in a defined geographical area who interact with one another and who share a common culture Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 21 sociological imagination: sociology: symbolic interactionism: theory: verstehen: the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other people, as well as to history in general and societal structures in particular the systematic study of society and social interaction a theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and symbols) a proposed explanation about social interactions or society a German word that means to understand in a deep way Section Summary 1.1 What Is Sociology? Sociology is the systematic study of society and social interaction. In order to carry out their studies, sociologists identify cultural patterns and social forces and determine how they affect individuals and groups. They also develop ways to apply their findings to the real world. 1.2 The History of Sociology Sociology was developed as a way to study and try to understand the changes to society brought on by the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Some of the earliest sociologists thought that societies and individuals’ roles in society could be studied using the same scientific methodologies that were used in the natural sciences, while others believed that is was impossible to predict human behavior scientifically, and still others debated the value of such predictions. Those perspectives continue to be represented within sociology today. 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives Sociologists develop theories to explain social events, interactions, and patterns. A theory is a proposed explanation of those social interactions. Theories have different scales. Macro-level theories, such as structural functionalism and conflict theory, attempt to explain how societies operate as a whole. Micro-level theories, such as symbolic interactionism, focus on interactions between individuals. 1.4 Why Study Sociology? Studying sociology is beneficial both for the individual and for society. By studying sociology people learn how to think critically about social issues and problems that confront our society. The study of sociology enriches students’ lives and prepares them for careers in an increasingly diverse world. Society benefits because people with sociological training are better prepared to make informed decisions about social issues and take effective action to deal with them. Section Quiz 1.1 What Is Sociology? 1. Which of the following best describes sociology as a subject? a. The study of individual behavior b. The study of cultures c. The study of society and social interaction d. The study of economics 2. C. Wright Mills once said that sociologists need to develop a sociological __________ to study how society affects individuals. a. culture b. imagination c. method d. tool 3. A sociologist defines society as a group of people who reside in a defined area, share a culture, and who: a. interact b. work in the same industry 22 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 c. speak different languages d. practice a recognized religion 4. Seeing patterns means that a sociologist needs to be able to: a. compare the behavior of individuals from different societies b. compare one society to another c. identify similarities in how social groups respond to social pressure d. compare individuals to groups 1.2 The History of Sociology 5. Which of the following was a topic of study in early sociology? a. Astrology b. Economics c. Physics d. History 6. Which founder of sociology believed societies changed due to class struggle? a. Emile Comte b. Karl Marx c. Plato d. Herbert Spencer 7. The difference between positivism and antipositivism relates to: a. whether individuals like or dislike their society b. whether research methods use statistical data or person-to-person research c. whether sociological studies can predict or improve society d. all of the above 8. Which would a quantitative sociologists use to gather data? a. A large survey b. A literature search c. An in-depth interview d. A review of television programs 9. Weber believed humans could not be studied purely objectively because they were influenced by: a. drugs b. their culture c. their genetic makeup d. the researcher 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives 10. Which of these theories is most likely to look at the social world on a micro level? a. Structural functionalism b. Conflict theory c. Positivism d. Symbolic interactionism 11. Who believed that the history of society was one of class struggle? a. Emile Durkheim b. Karl Marx c. Erving Goffmann d. George Herbert Mead 12. Who coined the phrase symbolic interactionism? a. Herbert Blumer b. Max Weber c. Lester F. Ward d. W. I. Thomas 13. A symbolic interactionist may compare social interactions to: a. behaviors b. conflicts Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 23 c. human organs d. theatrical roles 14. Which research technique would most likely be used by a symbolic interactionist? a. Surveys b. Participant observation c. Quantitative data analysis d. None of the above 1.4 Why Study Sociology? 15. Kenneth and Mamie Clark used sociological research to show that segregation was: a. beneficial b. harmful c. illegal d. of no importance 16. Studying sociology helps people analyze data because they learn: a. interview techniques b. to apply statistics c. to generate theories d. all of the above 17. Berger describes sociologists as concerned with: a. monumental moments in people’s lives b. common everyday life events c. both a and b d. none of the above Short Answer 1.1 What Is Sociology? 1. What do you think C. Wright Mills meant when he said that to be a sociologist, one had to develop a sociological imagination? 2. Describe a situation in which a choice you made was influenced by societal pressures. 1.2 The History of Sociology 3. What do you make of Karl Marx’s contributions to sociology? What perceptions of Marx have you been exposed to in your society, and how do those perceptions influence your views? 4. Do you tend to place more value on qualitative or quantitative research? Why? Does it matter what topic you are studying? 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives 5. Which theory do you think better explains how societies operate—structural functionalism or conflict theory? Why? 6. Do you think the way people behave in social interactions is more like the behavior of animals or more like actors playing a role in a theatrical production? Why? 1.4 Why Study Sociology? 7. How do you think taking a sociology course might affect your social interactions? 8. What sort of career are you interested in? How could studying sociology help you in this career? Further Research 1.1 What Is Sociology? Sociology is a broad discipline. Different kinds of sociologists employ various methods for exploring the relationship between individuals and society. Check out more about sociology at http://openstaxcollege.org/l/what-is-sociology (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/what-is-sociology) . 24 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6http://openstaxcollege.org/l/what-is-sociologyhttp://openstaxcollege.org/l/what-is-sociology 1.2 The History of Sociology Many sociologists helped shape the discipline. To learn more about prominent sociologists and how they changed sociology check out http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ferdinand-toennies (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ferdinand-toennies) . 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives People often think of all conflict as violent, but many conflicts can be resolved nonviolently. To learn more about nonviolent methods of conflict resolution check out the Albert Einstein Institution http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ae- institution (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ae-institution) 1.4 Why Study Sociology? Social communication is rapidly evolving due to ever improving technologies. To learn more about how sociologists study the impact of these changes check out http://openstaxcollege.org/l/media (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/media) References 1.1 What Is Sociology? Elias, Norbert. 1978. What Is Sociology? New York: Columbia University Press. 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U.S. Census Bureau. 2013. “America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2012.” Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/p20-570.pdf). 1.2 The History of Sociology Abercrombie, Nicholas, Stephen Hill, and Bryan S. Turner. 2000. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. London: Penguin. Buroway, Michael. 2005. “2004 Presidential Address: For Public Sociology.” American Sociological Review 70 (February): 4–28. Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/Public%20Sociology,%20Live/ Burawoy.pdf). Cable Network News (CNN). 2014. “Should the minimum wage be raised?” CNN Money. Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://money.cnn.com/infographic/pf/low-wage-worker/). Cronk, George. n.d. “George Herbert Mead.” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource. Retrieved October 14, 2014 (http://www.iep.utm.edu/mead/). Durkheim, Émile. 1964 [1895]. The Rules of Sociological Method, edited by J. Mueller, E. George and E. Caitlin. 8th ed. 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New York: McGraw Hill Education. Stapley, Pierre. 2010. “Georg Simmel.” Cardiff University School of Social Sciences. Retrieved October 21, 2014 (http://www.cf.ac.uk/socsi/undergraduate/introsoc/simmel.html). U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee. 2010. Women and the Economy, 2010: 25 Years of Progress But Challenges Remain. August. Washington, DC: Congressional Printing Office. Retrieved January 19, 2012 (http://jec.senate.gov/ public/?a=Files.Serve&File_id=8be22cb0-8ed0-4a1a-841b-aa91dc55fa81 (http://jec.senate.gov/ public/?a=Files.Serve&File_id=8be22cb0-8ed0-4a1a-841b-aa91dc55fa81) ). 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives Allan, Kenneth. 2006. Contemporary Social and Sociological Theory: Visualizing Social Worlds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. Blumer, H. 1969. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Broce, Gerald. 1973. History of Anthropology. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company. Calhoun, Craig J. 2002. Classical Sociological Theory. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Durkheim, Émile. 1984 [1893]. The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Free Press. Durkheim, Émile. 1964 [1895]. The Rules of Sociological Method, edited by J. Mueller, E. George and E. Caitlin. 8th ed. Translated by S. Solovay. New York: Free Press. Goffman, Erving. 1958. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Social Sciences Research Centre. Goldschmidt, Walter. 1996. “Functionalism” in Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 2, edited by D. Levinson and M. Ember. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Henry, Stuart. 2007. “Deviance, Constructionist Perspectives.” Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. Retrieved October 14, 2014 (http://www.sociologyencyclopedia.com/public/ tocnode?id=g9781405124331_yr2011_chunk_g978140512433110_ss1-41). Herman, Nancy J., and Larry T. Reynolds. 1994. Symbolic Interaction: An Introduction to Social Psychology. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press. Horkeimer, M. 1982. Critical Theory. New York: Seabury Press. Irving, John Scott. 2007. Fifty Key Sociologists: The Formative Theorists. New York: Routledge. LaRossa, R., and D.C. Reitzes. 1993. “Symbolic Interactionism and Family Studies.” Pp. 135–163 in Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A Contextual Approach, edited by P. G. Boss, W. J. Doherty, R. LaRossa, W. R. Schumm, and S. K. Steinmetz. New York: Springer. Maryanski, Alexandra, and Jonathan Turner. 1992. The Social Cage: Human Nature and the Evolution of Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. 1998 [1848]. The Communist Manifesto. New York: Penguin. Parsons, T. 1961. Theories of Society: Foundations of Modern Sociological Theory. New York: Free Press. Pew Research Center. 2012. “Mobile Technology Fact Sheet.” Pew Research Internet Project, April 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2014 (http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/mobile-technology-fact-sheet/). Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. 1952. Structure and Function in Primitive Society: Essays and Addresses. London: Cohen and West. Spencer, Herbert. 1898. The Principles of Biology. New York: D. Appleton and Company. Turner, J. 2003. The Structure of Sociological Theory. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson/Wadsworth. UCLA School of Public Affairs. n.d. “What is Critical Race Theory?” UCLA School of Public Affairs: Critical Race Studies. Retrieved October 20, 2014 (http://spacrs.wordpress.com/what-is-critical-race-theory/). 1.4 Why Study Sociology? Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Anchor Books. 26 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6http://jec.senate.gov/public/?a=Files.Serve&File_id=8be22cb0-8ed0-4a1a-841b-aa91dc55fa81http://jec.senate.gov/public/?a=Files.Serve&File_id=8be22cb0-8ed0-4a1a-841b-aa91dc55fa81http://jec.senate.gov/public/?a=Files.Serve&File_id=8be22cb0-8ed0-4a1a-841b-aa91dc55fa81 Department of Sociology, University of Alabama. N.d. Is Sociology Right for You?. Huntsville: University of Alabama. Retrieved January 19, 2012 (http://www.uah.edu/la/departments/sociology/about-sociology/why-sociology (http://www.uah.edu/la/departments/sociology/about-sociology/why-sociology) ). 2B4C6B8A10D12A14B16D Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 27http://www.uah.edu/la/departments/sociology/about-sociology/why-sociologyhttp://www.uah.edu/la/departments/sociology/about-sociology/why-sociology 28 Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 2 Sociological Research Figure 2.1 Many believe that crime rates go up during the full moon, but scientific research does not support this conclusion. (Photo courtesy of Jubula 2/flickr) Chapter 2 | Sociological Research 29 Learning Objectives 2.1. Approaches to Sociological Research • Define and describe the scientific method • Explain how the scientific method is used in sociological research • Understand the function and importance of an interpretive framework • Define what reliability and validity mean in a research study 2.2. Research Methods • Differentiate between four kinds of research methods: surveys, field research, experiments, and secondary data analysis • Understand why different topics are better suited to different research approaches 2.3. Ethical Concerns • Understand why ethical standards exist • Demonstrate awareness of the American Sociological Association’s Code of Ethics • Define value neutrality Introduction to Sociological Research Have you ever wondered if home schooling affects a person’s later success in college or how many people wait until they are in their forties to get married? Do you wonder if texting is changing teenagers’ abilities to spell correctly or to communicate clearly? How do social movements like Occupy Wall Street develop? How about the development of social phenomena like the massive public followings for Star Trek and Harry Potter? The goal of research is to answer questions. Sociological research attempts to answer a vast variety of questions, such as these and more, about our social world. We often have opinions about social situations, but these may be biased by our expectations or based on limited data. Instead, scientific research is based on empirical evidence, which is evidence that comes from direct experience, scientifically gathered data, or experimentation. Many people believe, for example, that crime rates go up when there’s a full moon, but research doesn’t support this opinion. Researchers Rotton and Kelly (1985) conducted a meta-analysis of research on the full moon’s effects on behavior. Meta-analysis is a technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated together. Rotton and Kelly’s meta-analysis included thirty-seven prior studies on the effects of the full moon on crime rates, and the overall findings were that full moons are entirely unrelated to crime, suicide, psychiatric problems, and crisis center calls (cited in Arkowitz and Lilienfeld 2009). We may each know of an instance in which a crime happened during a full moon, but it was likely just a coincidence. People commonly try to understand the happenings in their world by finding or creating an explanation for an occurrence. Social scientists may develop a hypothesis for the same reason. A hypothesis is a testable educated guess about predicted outcomes between two or more variables; it’s a possible explanation for specific happenings in the social world and allows for testing to determine whether the explanation holds true in many instances, as well as among various groups or in different places. Sociologists use empirical data and the scientific method, or an interpretative framework, to increase understanding of societies and social interactions, but research begins with the search for an answer to a question. 2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research When sociologists apply the sociological perspective and begin to ask questions, no topic is off limits. Every aspect of human behavior is a source of possible investigation. Sociologists question the world that humans have created and live in. They notice patterns of behavior as people move through that world. Using sociological methods and systematic research within the framework of the scientific method and a scholarly interpretive perspective, sociologists have discovered workplace patterns that have transformed industries, family patterns that have enlightened family members, and education patterns that have aided structural changes in classrooms. The crime during a full moon discussion put forth a few loosely stated opinions. If the human behaviors around those claims were tested systematically, a police officer, for example, could write a report and offer the findings to sociologists and the world in general. The new perspective could help people understand themselves and their neighbors and help people make better decisions about their lives. It might seem strange to use scientific practices to study social trends, but, as we shall see, it’s extremely helpful to rely on systematic approaches that research methods provide. 30 Chapter 2 | Sociological Research This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 Sociologists often begin the research process by asking a question about how or why things happen in this world. It might be a unique question about a new trend or an old question about a common aspect of life. Once the sociologist forms the question, he or she proceeds through an in-depth process to answer it. In deciding how to design that process, the researcher may adopt a scientific approach or an interpretive framework. The following sections describe these approaches to knowledge. The Scientific Method Sociologists make use of tried and true methods of research, such as experiments, surveys, and field research. But humans and their social interactions are so diverse that these interactions can seem impossible to chart or explain. It might seem that science is about discoveries and chemical reactions or about proving ideas right or wrong rather than about exploring the nuances of human behavior. However, this is exactly why scientific models work for studying human behavior. A scientific process of research establishes parameters that help make sure results are objective and accurate. Scientific methods provide limitations and boundaries that focus a study and organize its results. The scientific method involves developing and testing theories about the world based on empirical evidence. It is defined by its commitment to systematic observation of the empirical world and strives to be objective, critical, skeptical, and logical. It involves a series of prescribed steps that have been established over centuries of scholarship. Figure 2.2 The scientific method is an essential tool in research. But just because sociological studies use scientific methods does not make the results less human. Sociological topics are not reduced to right or wrong facts. In this field, results of studies tend to provide people with access to knowledge they did not have before—knowledge of other cultures, knowledge of rituals and beliefs, or knowledge of trends and attitudes. No matter what research approach they use, researchers want to maximize the study’s reliability, which refers to how likely research results are to be replicated if the study is reproduced. Reliability increases the likelihood that what happens to one person will happen to all people in a group. Researchers also strive for validity, which refers to how well the study measures what it was designed to measure. Returning to the crime rate during a full moon topic, reliability of a study would reflect how well the resulting experience represents the average adult crime rate during a full moon. Validity would ensure that the study’s design accurately examined what it was designed to study, so an exploration of adult criminal behaviors during a full moon should address that issue and not veer into other age groups’ crimes, for example. In general, sociologists tackle questions about the role of social characteristics in outcomes. For example, how do different communities fare in terms of psychological well-being, community cohesiveness, range of vocation, wealth, crime rates, and so on? Are communities functioning smoothly? Sociologists look between the cracks to discover obstacles to meeting basic human needs. They might study environmental influences and patterns of behavior that lead to crime, substance abuse, divorce, poverty, unplanned pregnancies, or illness. And, because sociological studies are not all focused on negative behaviors or challenging situations, researchers might study vacation trends, healthy eating habits, neighborhood organizations, higher education patterns, games, parks, and exercise habits. Chapter 2 | Sociological Research 31 Sociologists can use the scientific method not only to collect but also to interpret and analyze the data. They deliberately apply scientific logic and objectivity. They are interested in—but not attached to—the results. They work outside of their own political or social agendas. This doesn’t mean researchers do not have their own personalities, complete with preferences and opinions. But sociologists deliberately use the scientific method to maintain as much objectivity, focus, and consistency as possible in a particular study. With its systematic approach, the scientific method has proven useful in shaping sociological studies. The scientific method provides a systematic, organized series of steps that help ensure objectivity and consistency in exploring a social problem. They provide the means for accuracy, reliability, and validity. In the end, the scientific method provides a shared basis for discussion and analysis (Merton 1963). Typically, the scientific method starts with these steps—1) ask a question, 2) research existing sources, 3) formulate a hypothesis—described below. Ask a Question The first step of the scientific method is to ask a question, describe a problem, and identify the specific area of interest. The topic should be narrow enough to study within a geography and time frame. “Are societies capable of sustained happiness?” would be too vague. The question should also be broad enough to have universal merit. “What do personal hygiene habits reveal about the values of students at XYZ High School?” would be too narrow. That said, happiness and hygiene are worthy topics to study. Sociologists do not rule out any topic, but would strive to frame these questions in better research terms. That is why sociologists are careful to define their terms. In a hygiene study, for instance, hygiene could be defined as “personal habits to maintain physical appearance (as opposed to health),” and a researcher might ask, “How do differing personal hygiene habits reflect the cultural value placed on appearance?” When forming these basic research questions, sociologists develop an operational definition, that is, they define the concept in terms of the physical or concrete steps it takes to objectively measure it. The operational definition identifies an observable condition of the concept. By operationalizing a variable of the concept, all researchers can collect data in a systematic or replicable manner. The operational definition must be valid, appropriate, and meaningful. And it must be reliable, meaning that results will be close to uniform when tested on more than one person. For example, “good drivers” might be defined in many ways: those who use their turn signals, those who don’t speed, or those who courteously allow others to merge. But these driving behaviors could be interpreted differently by different researchers and could be difficult to measure. Alternatively, “a driver who has never received a traffic violation” is a specific description that will lead researchers to obtain the same information, so it is an effective operational definition. Research Existing Sources The next step researchers undertake is to conduct background research through a literature review, which is a review of any existing similar or related studies. A visit to the library and a thorough online search will uncover existing research about the topic of study. This step helps researchers gain a broad understanding of work previously conducted on the topic at hand and enables them to position their own research to build on prior knowledge. Researchers—including student researchers—are responsible for correctly citing existing sources they use in a study or that inform their work. While it is fine to borrow previously published material (as long as it enhances a unique viewpoint), it must be referenced properly and never plagiarized. To study hygiene and its value in a particular society, a researcher might sort through existing research and unearth studies about child-rearing, vanity, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and cultural attitudes toward beauty. It’s important to sift through this information and determine what is relevant. Using existing sources educates researchers and helps refine and improve studies’ designs. Formulate a Hypothesis A hypothesis is an assumption about how two or more variables are related; it makes a conjectural statement about the relationship between those variables. In sociology, the hypothesis will often predict how one form of human behavior influences another. In research, independent variables are the cause of the change. The dependent variable is the effect, or thing that is changed. For example, in a basic study, the researcher would establish one form of human behavior as the independent variable and observe the influence it has on a dependent variable. How does gender (the independent variable) affect rate of income (the dependent variable)? How does one’s religion (the independent variable) affect family size (the dependent variable)? How is social class (the dependent variable) affected by level of education (the independent variable)? 32 Chapter 2 | Sociological Research This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 Table 2.1 Examples of Dependent and Independent Variables Typically, the independent variable causes the dependent variable to change in some way. Hypothesis IndependentVariable Dependent Variable The greater the availability of affordable housing, the lower the homeless rate. Affordable Housing Homeless Rate The greater the availability of math tutoring, the higher the math grades. Math Tutoring Math Grades The greater the police patrol presence, the safer the neighborhood. Police Patrol Presence Safer Neighborhood The greater the factory lighting, the higher the productivity. Factory Lighting Productivity The greater the amount of observation, the higher the public awareness. Observation Public Awareness At this point, a researcher’s operational definitions help measure the variables. In a study asking how tutoring improves grades, for instance, one researcher might define a “good” grade as a C or better, while another uses a B+ as a starting point for “good.” Another operational definition might describe “tutoring” as “one-on-one assistance by an expert in the field, hired by an educational institution.” Those definitions set limits and establish cut-off points that ensure consistency and replicability in a study. As the table shows, an independent variable is the one that causes a dependent variable to change. For example, a researcher might hypothesize that teaching children proper hygiene (the independent variable) will boost their sense of self-esteem (the dependent variable). Or rephrased, a child’s sense of self-esteem depends, in part, on the quality and availability of hygienic resources. Of course, this hypothesis can also work the other way around. Perhaps a sociologist believes that increasing a child’s sense of self-esteem (the independent variable) will automatically increase or improve habits of hygiene (now the dependent variable). Identifying the independent and dependent variables is very important. As the hygiene example shows, simply identifying two topics, or variables, is not enough; their prospective relationship must be part of the hypothesis. Just because a sociologist forms an educated prediction of a study’s outcome doesn’t mean data contradicting the hypothesis aren’t welcome. Sociologists analyze general patterns in response to a study, but they are equally interested in exceptions to patterns. In a study of education, a researcher might predict that high school dropouts have a hard time finding rewarding careers. While it has become at least a cultural assumption that the higher the education, the higher the salary and degree of career happiness, there are certainly exceptions. People with little education have had stunning careers, and people with advanced degrees have had trouble finding work. A sociologist prepares a hypothesis knowing that results will vary. Once the preliminary work is done, it’s time for the next research steps: designing and conducting a study and drawing conclusions. These research methods are discussed below. Interpretive Framework While many sociologists rely on the scientific method as a research approach, others operate from an interpretive framework. While systematic, this approach doesn’t follow the hypothesis-testing model that seeks to find generalizable results. Instead, an interpretive framework, sometimes referred to as an interpretive perspective, seeks to understand social worlds from the point of view of participants, which leads to in-depth knowledge. Interpretive research is generally more descriptive or narrative in its findings. Rather than formulating a hypothesis and method for testing it, an interpretive researcher will develop approaches to explore the topic at hand that may involve a significant amount of direct observation or interaction with subjects. This type of researcher also learns as he or she proceeds and sometimes adjusts the research methods or processes midway to optimize findings as they evolve. 2.2 Research Methods Sociologists examine the world, see a problem or interesting pattern, and set out to study it. They use research methods to design a study—perhaps a detailed, systematic, scientific method for conducting research and obtaining data, or perhaps Chapter 2 | Sociological Research 33 an ethnographic study utilizing an interpretive framework. Planning the research design is a key step in any sociological study. When entering a particular social environment, a researcher must be careful. There are times to remain anonymous and times to be overt. There are times to conduct interviews and times to simply observe. Some participants need to be thoroughly informed; others should not know they are being observed. A researcher wouldn’t stroll into a crime-ridden neighborhood at midnight, calling out, “Any gang members around?” And if a researcher walked into a coffee shop and told the employees they would be observed as part of a study on work efficiency, the self-conscious, intimidated baristas might not behave naturally. This is called the Hawthorne effect—where people change their behavior because they know they are being watched as part of a study. The Hawthorne effect is unavoidable in some research. In many cases, sociologists have to make the purpose of the study known. Subjects must be aware that they are being observed, and a certain amount of artificiality may result (Sonnenfeld 1985). Making sociologists’ presence invisible is not always realistic for other reasons. That option is not available to a researcher studying prison behaviors, early education, or the Ku Klux Klan. Researchers can’t just stroll into prisons, kindergarten classrooms, or Klan meetings and unobtrusively observe behaviors. In situations like these, other methods are needed. All studies shape the research design, while research design simultaneously shapes the study. Researchers choose methods that best suit their study topics and that fit with their overall approaches to research. In planning studies’ designs, sociologists generally choose from four widely used methods of social investigation: survey, field research, experiment, and secondary data analysis, or use of existing sources. Every research method comes with plusses and minuses, and the topic of study strongly influences which method or methods are put to use. Surveys As a research method, a survey collects data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire. The survey is one of the most widely used scientific research methods. The standard survey format allows individuals a level of anonymity in which they can express personal ideas. Figure 2.3 Questionnaires are a common research method; the U.S. Census is a well-known example. (Photo courtesy of Kathryn Decker/flickr) At some point, most people in the United States respond to some type of survey. The U.S. Census is an excellent example of a large-scale survey intended to gather sociological data. Not all surveys are considered sociological research, however, and many surveys people commonly encounter focus on identifying marketing needs and strategies rather than testing a hypothesis or contributing to social science knowledge. Questions such as, “How many hot dogs do you eat in a month?” or “Were the staff helpful?” are not usually designed as scientific research. Often, polls on television do not reflect a general population, but are merely answers from a specific show’s audience. Polls conducted by programs such as American Idol or So You Think You Can Dance represent the opinions of fans but are not particularly scientific. A good contrast to these are the Nielsen Ratings, which determine the popularity of television programming through scientific market research. 34 Chapter 2 | Sociological Research This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 Figure 2.4 American Idol uses a real-time survey system—with numbers—that allows members in the audience to vote on contestants. (Photo courtesy of Sam Howzit/flickr) Sociologists conduct surveys under controlled conditions for specific purposes. Surveys gather different types of information from people. While surveys are not great at capturing the ways people really behave in social situations, they are a great method for discovering how people feel and think—or at least how they say they feel and think. Surveys can track preferences for presidential candidates or reported individual behaviors (such as sleeping, driving, or texting habits) or factual information such as employment status, income, and education levels. A survey targets a specific population, people who are the focus of a study, such as college athletes, international students, or teenagers living with type 1 (juvenile-onset) diabetes. Most researchers choose to survey a small sector of the population, or a sample: that is, a manageable number of subjects who represent a larger population. The success of a study depends on how well a population is represented by the sample. In a random sample, every person in a population has the same chance of being chosen for the study. According to the laws of probability, random samples represent the population as a whole. For instance, a Gallup Poll, if conducted as a nationwide random sampling, should be able to provide an accurate estimate of public opinion whether it contacts 2,000 or 10,000 people. After selecting subjects, the researcher develops a specific plan to ask questions and record responses. It is important to inform subjects of the nature and purpose of the study up front. If they agree to participate, researchers thank subjects and offer them a chance to see the results of the study if they are interested. The researcher presents the subjects with an instrument, which is a means of gathering the information. A common instrument is a questionnaire, in which subjects answer a series of questions. For some topics, the researcher might ask yes-or-no or multiple-choice questions, allowing subjects to choose possible responses to each question. This kind of quantitative data—research collected in numerical form that can be counted—are easy to tabulate. Just count up the number of “yes” and “no” responses or correct answers, and chart them into percentages. Questionnaires can also ask more complex questions with more complex answers—beyond “yes,” “no,” or the option next to a checkbox. In those cases, the answers are subjective and vary from person to person. How do plan to use your college education? Why do you follow Jimmy Buffett around the country and attend every concert? Those types of questions require short essay responses, and participants willing to take the time to write those answers will convey personal information about religious beliefs, political views, and morals. Some topics that reflect internal thought are impossible to observe directly and are difficult to discuss honestly in a public forum. People are more likely to share honest answers if they can respond to questions anonymously. This type of information is qualitative data—results that are subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting. Qualitative information is harder to organize and tabulate. The researcher will end up with a wide range of responses, some of which may be surprising. The benefit of written opinions, though, is the wealth of material that they provide. An interview is a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject, and it is a way of conducting surveys on a topic. Interviews are similar to the short-answer questions on surveys in that the researcher asks subjects a series of questions. However, participants are free to respond as they wish, without being limited by predetermined choices. In the back-and-forth conversation of an interview, a researcher can ask for clarification, spend more time on a subtopic, or ask additional questions. In an interview, a subject will ideally feel free to open up and answer questions that are often complex. There are no right or wrong answers. The subject might not even know how to answer the questions honestly. Questions such as, “How did society’s view of alcohol consumption influence your decision whether or not to take your first sip of alcohol?” or “Did you feel that the divorce of your parents would put a social stigma on your family?” involve so many factors that the answers are difficult to categorize. A researcher needs to avoid steering or prompting the subject to respond in a specific way; otherwise, the results will prove to be unreliable. And, obviously, a sociological interview is Chapter 2 | Sociological Research 35 not an interrogation. The researcher will benefit from gaining a subject’s trust, from empathizing or commiserating with a subject, and from listening without judgment. Field Research The work of sociology rarely happens in limited, confined spaces. Sociologists seldom study subjects in their own offices or laboratories. Rather, sociologists go out into the world. They meet subjects where they live, work, and play. Field research refers to gathering primary data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey. It is a research method suited to an interpretive framework rather than to the scientific method. To conduct field research, the sociologist must be willing to step into new environments and observe, participate, or experience those worlds. In field work, the sociologists, rather than the subjects, are the ones out of their element. The researcher interacts with or observes a person or people and gathers data along the way. The key point in field research is that it takes place in the subject’s natural environment, whether it’s a coffee shop or tribal village, a homeless shelter or the DMV, a hospital, airport, mall, or beach resort. Figure 2.5 Sociological researchers travel across countries and cultures to interact with and observe subjects in their natural environments. (Photo courtesy of IMLS Digital Collections and Content/flickr and Olympic National Park) While field research often begins in a specific setting, the study’s purpose is to observe specific behaviors in that setting. Field work is optimal for observing how people behave. It is less useful, however, for understanding why they behave that way. You can’t really narrow down cause and effect when there are so many variables floating around in a natural environment. Much of the data gathered in field research are based not on cause and effect but on correlation. And while field research looks for correlation, its small sample size does not allow for establishing a causal relationship between two variables. 36 Chapter 2 | Sociological Research This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6 Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Parrotheads as Sociological Subjects Figure 2.6 Business suits for the day job are replaced by leis and T-shirts for a Jimmy Buffett concert. (Photo courtesy of Sam Howzitt/flickr) Some sociologists study small groups of people who share an identity in one aspect of their lives. Almost everyone belongs to a group of like-minded people who share an interest or hobby. Scientologists, folk dancers, or members of Mensa (an organization for people with exceptionally high IQs) express a specific part of their identity through their affiliation with a group. Those groups are often of great interest to sociologists. Jimmy Buffett, an American musician who built a career from his single top-10 song “Margaritaville,” has a following of devoted groupies called Parrotheads. Some of them have taken fandom to the extreme, making Parrothead culture a lifestyle. In 2005, Parrotheads and their subculture caught the attention of researchers John Mihelich and John Papineau. The two saw the way Jimmy Buffett fans collectively created an artificial reality. They wanted to know how fan groups shape culture. What Mihelich and Papineau found was that Parrotheads, for the most part, do not seek to challenge or even change society, as many sub-groups do. In fact, most Parrotheads live successfully within society, holding upper-level jobs in the corporate world. What they seek is escape from the stress of daily life. At Jimmy Buffett concerts, Parrotheads engage in a form of role play. They paint their faces and dress for the tropics in grass skirts, Hawaiian leis, and Parrot hats. These fans don’t generally play the part of Parrotheads outside of these concerts; you are not likely to see a lone Parrothead in a bank or library. In that sense, Parrothead culture is less about individualism and more about conformity. Being a Parrothead means sharing a specific identity. Parrotheads feel connected to each other: it’s a group identity, not an individual one. In their study, Mihelich and Papineau quote from a recent book by sociologist Richard Butsch, who writes, “un-self- conscious acts, if done by many people together, can produce change, even though the change may be unintended” (2000). Many Parrothead fan groups have performed good works in the name of Jimmy Buffett culture, donating to charities and volunteering their services. However, the authors suggest that what really drives Parrothead culture is commercialism. Jimmy Buffett’s popularity was dying out in the 1980s until being reinvigorated after he signed a sponsorship deal with a beer company. These days, his concert tours alone generate nearly$30 million a year. Buffett made a lucrative career for himself by partnering with product companies and marketing Margaritaville in the form of T-shirts, restaurants, casinos, and an expansive line of products. Some fans accuse Buffett of selling out, while others admire his financial success. Buffett makes no secret of his commercial exploitations; from the stage, he’s been known to tell his fans, “Just remember, I am spending your money foolishly.”

Mihelich and Papineau gathered much of their information online. Referring to their study as a “Web ethnography,” they collected extensive narrative material from fans who joined Parrothead clubs and posted their experiences on websites. “We do not claim to have conducted a complete ethnography of Parrothead fans, or even of the Parrothead Web activity,” state the authors, “but we focused on particular aspects of Parrothead practice as revealed through Web

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research” (2005). Fan narratives gave them insight into how individuals identify with Buffett’s world and how fans used popular music to cultivate personal and collective meaning.

In conducting studies about pockets of culture, most sociologists seek to discover a universal appeal. Mihelich and Papineau stated, “Although Parrotheads are a relative minority of the contemporary US population, an in-depth look at their practice and conditions illuminate [sic] cultural practices and conditions many of us experience and participate in” (2005).

Here, we will look at three types of field research: participant observation, ethnography, and the case study.

Participant Observation

In 2000, a comic writer named Rodney Rothman wanted an insider’s view of white-collar work. He slipped into the sterile, high-rise offices of a New York “dot com” agency. Every day for two weeks, he pretended to work there. His main purpose was simply to see whether anyone would notice him or challenge his presence. No one did. The receptionist greeted him. The employees smiled and said good morning. Rothman was accepted as part of the team. He even went so far as to claim a desk, inform the receptionist of his whereabouts, and attend a meeting. He published an article about his experience in The New Yorker called “My Fake Job” (2000). Later, he was discredited for allegedly fabricating some details of the story and The New Yorker issued an apology. However, Rothman’s entertaining article still offered fascinating descriptions of the inside workings of a “dot com” company and exemplified the lengths to which a sociologist will go to uncover material.

Rothman had conducted a form of study called participant observation, in which researchers join people and participate in a group’s routine activities for the purpose of observing them within that context. This method lets researchers experience a specific aspect of social life. A researcher might go to great lengths to get a firsthand look into a trend, institution, or behavior. Researchers temporarily put themselves into roles and record their observations. A researcher might work as a waitress in a diner, live as a homeless person for several weeks, or ride along with police officers as they patrol their regular beat. Often, these researchers try to blend in seamlessly with the population they study, and they may not disclose their true identity or purpose if they feel it would compromise the results of their research.

Figure 2.7 Is she a working waitress or a sociologist conducting a study using participant observation? (Photo courtesy of zoetnet/flickr)

At the beginning of a field study, researchers might have a question: “What really goes on in the kitchen of the most popular diner on campus?” or “What is it like to be homeless?” Participant observation is a useful method if the researcher wants to explore a certain environment from the inside.

Field researchers simply want to observe and learn. In such a setting, the researcher will be alert and open minded to whatever happens, recording all observations accurately. Soon, as patterns emerge, questions will become more specific, observations will lead to hypotheses, and hypotheses will guide the researcher in shaping data into results.

In a study of small towns in the United States conducted by sociological researchers John S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, the team altered their purpose as they gathered data. They initially planned to focus their study on the role of religion in U.S. towns. As they gathered observations, they realized that the effect of industrialization and urbanization was the more relevant topic of this social group. The Lynds did not change their methods, but they revised their purpose.

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This shaped the structure of Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture, their published results (Lynd and Lynd 1959).

The Lynds were upfront about their mission. The townspeople of Muncie, Indiana, knew why the researchers were in their midst. But some sociologists prefer not to alert people to their presence. The main advantage of covert participant observation is that it allows the researcher access to authentic, natural behaviors of a group’s members. The challenge, however, is gaining access to a setting without disrupting the pattern of others’ behavior. Becoming an inside member of a group, organization, or subculture takes time and effort. Researchers must pretend to be something they are not. The process could involve role playing, making contacts, networking, or applying for a job.

Once inside a group, some researchers spend months or even years pretending to be one of the people they are observing. However, as observers, they cannot get too involved. They must keep their purpose in mind and apply the sociological perspective. That way, they illuminate social patterns that are often unrecognized. Because information gathered during participant observation is mostly qualitative, rather than quantitative, the end results are often descriptive or interpretive. The researcher might present findings in an article or book and describe what he or she witnessed and experienced.

This type of research is what journalist Barbara Ehrenreich conducted for her book Nickel and Dimed. One day over lunch with her editor, as the story goes, Ehrenreich mentioned an idea. How can people exist on minimum-wage work? How do low-income workers get by? she wondered. Someone should do a study. To her surprise, her editor responded, Why don’t you do it?

That’s how Ehrenreich found herself joining the ranks of the working class. For several months, she left her comfortable home and lived and worked among people who lacked, for the most part, higher education and marketable job skills. Undercover, she applied for and worked minimum wage jobs as a waitress, a cleaning woman, a nursing home aide, and a retail chain employee. During her participant observation, she used only her income from those jobs to pay for food, clothing, transportation, and shelter.

She discovered the obvious, that it’s almost impossible to get by on minimum wage work. She also experienced and observed attitudes many middle and upper-class people never think about. She witnessed firsthand the treatment of working class employees. She saw the extreme measures people take to make ends meet and to survive. She described fellow employees who held two or three jobs, worked seven days a week, lived in cars, could not pay to treat chronic health conditions, got randomly fired, submitted to drug tests, and moved in and out of homeless shelters. She brought aspects of that life to light, describing difficult working conditions and the poor treatment that low-wage workers suffer.

Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, the book she wrote upon her return to her real life as a well-paid writer, has been widely read and used in many college classrooms.

Figure 2.8 Field research happens in real locations. What type of environment do work spaces foster? What would a sociologist discover after blending in? (Photo courtesy of drewzhrodague/flickr)

Ethnography

Ethnography is the extended observation of the social perspective and cultural values of an entire social setting. Ethnographies involve objective observation of an entire community.

The heart of an ethnographic study focuses on how subjects view their own social standing and how they understand themselves in relation to a community. An ethnographic study might observe, for example, a small U.S. fishing town, an Inuit community, a village in Thailand, a Buddhist monastery, a private boarding school, or an amusement park. These

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Making Connections: Sociological Research

places all have borders. People live, work, study, or vacation within those borders. People are there for a certain reason and therefore behave in certain ways and respect certain cultural norms. An ethnographer would commit to spending a determined amount of time studying every aspect of the chosen place, taking in as much as possible.

A sociologist studying a tribe in the Amazon might watch the way villagers go about their daily lives and then write a paper about it. To observe a spiritual retreat center, an ethnographer might sign up for a retreat and attend as a guest for an extended stay, observe and record data, and collate the material into results.

Institutional Ethnography

Institutional ethnography is an extension of basic ethnographic research principles that focuses intentionally on everyday concrete social relationships. Developed by Canadian sociologist Dorothy E. Smith, institutional ethnography is often considered a feminist-inspired approach to social analysis and primarily considers women’s experiences within male- dominated societies and power structures. Smith’s work is seen to challenge sociology’s exclusion of women, both academically and in the study of women’s lives (Fenstermaker, n.d.).

Historically, social science research tended to objectify women and ignore their experiences except as viewed from the male perspective. Modern feminists note that describing women, and other marginalized groups, as subordinates helps those in authority maintain their own dominant positions (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, n.d.). Smith’s three major works explored what she called “the conceptual practices of power” (1990; cited in Fensternmaker, n.d.) and are still considered seminal works in feminist theory and ethnography.

The Making of Middletown: A Study in Modern U.S. Culture In 1924, a young married couple named Robert and Helen Lynd undertook an unprecedented ethnography: to apply sociological methods to the study of one U.S. city in order to discover what “ordinary” people in the United States did and believed. Choosing Muncie, Indiana (population about 30,000), as their subject, they moved to the small town and lived there for eighteen months.

Ethnographers had been examining other cultures for decades—groups considered minority or outsider—like gangs, immigrants, and the poor. But no one had studied the so-called average American.

Recording interviews and using surveys to gather data, the Lynds did not sugarcoat or idealize U.S. life (PBS). They objectively stated what they observed. Researching existing sources, they compared Muncie in 1890 to the Muncie they observed in 1924. Most Muncie adults, they found, had grown up on farms but now lived in homes inside the city. From that discovery, the Lynds focused their study on the impact of industrialization and urbanization.

They observed that Muncie was divided into business class and working class groups. They defined business class as dealing with abstract concepts and symbols, while working class people used tools to create concrete objects. The two classes led different lives with different goals and hopes. However, the Lynds observed, mass production offered both classes the same amenities. Like wealthy families, the working class was now able to own radios, cars, washing machines, telephones, vacuum cleaners, and refrigerators. This was an emerging material new reality of the 1920s.

As the Lynds worked, they divided their manuscript into six sections: Getting a Living, Making a Home, Training the Young, Using Leisure, Engaging in Religious Practices, and Engaging in Community Activities. Each chapter included subsections such as “The Long Arm of the Job” and “Why Do They Work So Hard?” in the “Getting a Living” chapter.

When the study was completed, the Lynds encountered a big problem. The Rockefeller Foundation, which had commissioned the book, claimed it was useless and refused to publish it. The Lynds asked if they could seek a publisher themselves.

Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture was not only published in 1929 but also became an instant bestseller, a status unheard of for a sociological study. The book sold out six printings in its first year of publication, and has never gone out of print (PBS).

Nothing like it had ever been done before. Middletown was reviewed on the front page of the New York Times. Readers in the 1920s and 1930s identified with the citizens of Muncie, Indiana, but they were equally fascinated by

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the sociological methods and the use of scientific data to define ordinary people in the United States. The book was proof that social data was important—and interesting—to the U.S. public.

Figure 2.9 A classroom in Muncie, Indiana, in 1917, five years before John and Helen Lynd began researching this “typical” U.S. community. (Photo courtesy of Don O’Brien/flickr)

Case Study

Sometimes a researcher wants to study one specific person or event. A case study is an in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual. To conduct a case study, a researcher examines existing sources like documents and archival records, conducts interviews, engages in direct observation and even participant observation, if possible.

Researchers might use this method to study a single case of, for example, a foster child, drug lord, cancer patient, criminal, or rape victim. However, a major criticism of the case study as a method is that a developed study of a single case, while offering depth on a topic, does not provide enough evidence to form a generalized conclusion. In other words, it is difficult to make universal claims based on just one person, since one person does not verify a pattern. This is why most sociologists do not use case studies as a primary research method.

However, case studies are useful when the single case is unique. In these instances, a single case study can add tremendous knowledge to a certain discipline. For example, a feral child, also called “wild child,” is one who grows up isolated from human beings. Feral children grow up without social contact and language, which are elements crucial to a “civilized” child’s development. These children mimic the behaviors and movements of animals, and often invent their own language. There are only about one hundred cases of “feral children” in the world.

As you may imagine, a feral child is a subject of great interest to researchers. Feral children provide unique information about child development because they have grown up outside of the parameters of “normal” child development. And since there are very few feral children, the case study is the most appropriate method for researchers to use in studying the subject.

At age three, a Ukranian girl named Oxana Malaya suffered severe parental neglect. She lived in a shed with dogs, and she ate raw meat and scraps. Five years later, a neighbor called authorities and reported seeing a girl who ran on all fours, barking. Officials brought Oxana into society, where she was cared for and taught some human behaviors, but she never became fully socialized. She has been designated as unable to support herself and now lives in a mental institution (Grice 2011). Case studies like this offer a way for sociologists to collect data that may not be collectable by any other method.

Experiments You’ve probably tested personal social theories. “If I study at night and review in the morning, I’ll improve my retention skills.” Or, “If I stop drinking soda, I’ll feel better.” Cause and effect. If this, then that. When you test the theory, your results either prove or disprove your hypothesis.

One way researchers test social theories is by conducting an experiment, meaning they investigate relationships to test a hypothesis—a scientific approach.

There are two main types of experiments: lab-based experiments and natural or field experiments. In a lab setting, the research can be controlled so that perhaps more data can be recorded in a certain amount of time. In a natural or field- based experiment, the generation of data cannot be controlled but the information might be considered more accurate since it was collected without interference or intervention by the researcher.

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Making Connections: Sociological Research

As a research method, either type of sociological experiment is useful for testing if-then statements: if a particular thing happens, then another particular thing will result. To set up a lab-based experiment, sociologists create artificial situations that allow them to manipulate variables.

Classically, the sociologist selects a set of people with similar characteristics, such as age, class, race, or education. Those people are divided into two groups. One is the experimental group and the other is the control group. The experimental group is exposed to the independent variable(s) and the control group is not. To test the benefits of tutoring, for example, the sociologist might expose the experimental group of students to tutoring but not the control group. Then both groups would be tested for differences in performance to see if tutoring had an effect on the experimental group of students. As you can imagine, in a case like this, the researcher would not want to jeopardize the accomplishments of either group of students, so the setting would be somewhat artificial. The test would not be for a grade reflected on their permanent record, for example.

An Experiment in Action

Figure 2.10 Sociologist Frances Heussenstamm conducted an experiment to explore the correlation between traffic stops and race-based bumper stickers. This issue of racial profiling remains a hot-button topic today. (Photo courtesy of dwightsghost/flickr)

A real-life example will help illustrate the experiment process. In 1971, Frances Heussenstamm, a sociology professor at California State University at Los Angeles, had a theory about police prejudice. To test her theory she conducted an experiment. She chose fifteen students from three ethnic backgrounds: black, white, and Hispanic. She chose students who routinely drove to and from campus along Los Angeles freeway routes, and who’d had perfect driving records for longer than a year. Those were her independent variables—students, good driving records, same commute route.

Next, she placed a Black Panther bumper sticker on each car. That sticker, a representation of a social value, was the independent variable. In the 1970s, the Black Panthers were a revolutionary group actively fighting racism. Heussenstamm asked the students to follow their normal driving patterns. She wanted to see whether seeming support of the Black Panthers would change how these good drivers were treated by the police patrolling the highways. The dependent variable would be the number of traffic stops/citations.

The first arrest, for an incorrect lane change, was made two hours after the experiment began. One participant was pulled over three times in three days. He quit the study. After seventeen days, the fifteen drivers had collected a total of thirty-three traffic citations. The experiment was halted. The funding to pay traffic fines had run out, and so had the enthusiasm of the participants (Heussenstamm 1971).

Secondary Data Analysis While sociologists often engage in original research studies, they also contribute knowledge to the discipline through secondary data analysis. Secondary data don’t result from firsthand research collected from primary sources, but are the already completed work of other researchers. Sociologists might study works written by historians, economists, teachers, or early sociologists. They might search through periodicals, newspapers, or magazines from any period in history.

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Using available information not only saves time and money but can also add depth to a study. Sociologists often interpret findings in a new way, a way that was not part of an author’s original purpose or intention. To study how women were encouraged to act and behave in the 1960s, for example, a researcher might watch movies, televisions shows, and situation comedies from that period. Or to research changes in behavior and attitudes due to the emergence of television in the late 1950s and early 1960s, a sociologist would rely on new interpretations of secondary data. Decades from now, researchers will most likely conduct similar studies on the advent of mobile phones, the Internet, or Facebook.

Social scientists also learn by analyzing the research of a variety of agencies. Governmental departments and global groups, like the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics or the World Health Organization, publish studies with findings that are useful to sociologists. A public statistic like the foreclosure rate might be useful for studying the effects of the 2008 recession; a racial demographic profile might be compared with data on education funding to examine the resources accessible by different groups.

One of the advantages of secondary data is that it is nonreactive research (or unobtrusive research), meaning that it does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influence people’s behaviors. Unlike studies requiring direct contact with people, using previously published data doesn’t require entering a population and the investment and risks inherent in that research process.

Using available data does have its challenges. Public records are not always easy to access. A researcher will need to do some legwork to track them down and gain access to records. To guide the search through a vast library of materials and avoid wasting time reading unrelated sources, sociologists employ content analysis, applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as they relate to the study at hand.

But, in some cases, there is no way to verify the accuracy of existing data. It is easy to count how many drunk drivers, for example, are pulled over by the police. But how many are not? While it’s possible to discover the percentage of teenage students who drop out of high school, it might be more challenging to determine the number who return to school or get their GED later.

Another problem arises when data are unavailable in the exact form needed or do not include the precise angle the researcher seeks. For example, the average salaries paid to professors at a public school is public record. But the separate figures don’t necessarily reveal how long it took each professor to reach the salary range, what their educational backgrounds are, or how long they’ve been teaching.

When conducting content analysis, it is important to consider the date of publication of an existing source and to take into account attitudes and common cultural ideals that may have influenced the research. For example, Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd gathered research for their book Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture in the 1920s. Attitudes and cultural norms were vastly different then than they are now. Beliefs about gender roles, race, education, and work have changed significantly since then. At the time, the study’s purpose was to reveal the truth about small U.S. communities. Today, it is an illustration of 1920s’ attitudes and values.

2.3 Ethical Concerns Sociologists conduct studies to shed light on human behaviors. Knowledge is a powerful tool that can be used toward positive change. And while a sociologist’s goal is often simply to uncover knowledge rather than to spur action, many people use sociological studies to help improve people’s lives. In that sense, conducting a sociological study comes with a tremendous amount of responsibility. Like any researchers, sociologists must consider their ethical obligation to avoid harming subjects or groups while conducting their research.

The American Sociological Association, or ASA, is the major professional organization of sociologists in North America. The ASA is a great resource for students of sociology as well. The ASA maintains a code of ethics—formal guidelines for conducting sociological research—consisting of principles and ethical standards to be used in the discipline. It also describes procedures for filing, investigating, and resolving complaints of unethical conduct.

Practicing sociologists and sociology students have a lot to consider. Some of the guidelines state that researchers must try to be skillful and fair-minded in their work, especially as it relates to their human subjects. Researchers must obtain participants’ informed consent and inform subjects of the responsibilities and risks of research before they agree to partake. During a study, sociologists must ensure the safety of participants and immediately stop work if a subject becomes potentially endangered on any level.

Researchers are required to protect the privacy of research participants whenever possible. Even if pressured by authorities, such as police or courts, researchers are not ethically allowed to release confidential information. Researchers must make results available to other sociologists, must make public all sources of financial support, and must not accept funding from any organization that might cause a conflict of interest or seek to influence the research results for its own purposes. The ASA’s ethical considerations shape not only the study but also the publication of results.

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case study:

code of ethics:

content analysis:

correlation:

dependent variables:

empirical evidence:

ethnography:

experiment:

field research:

Hawthorne effect:

hypothesis:

independent variables:

interpretive framework:

interview:

literature review:

meta-analysis:

Pioneer German sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920) identified another crucial ethical concern. Weber understood that personal values could distort the framework for disclosing study results. While he accepted that some aspects of research design might be influenced by personal values, he declared it was entirely inappropriate to allow personal values to shape the interpretation of the responses. Sociologists, he stated, must establish value neutrality, a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment, during the course of a study and in publishing results (1949). Sociologists are obligated to disclose research findings without omitting or distorting significant data.

Is value neutrality possible? Many sociologists believe it is impossible to set aside personal values and retain complete objectivity. They caution readers, rather, to understand that sociological studies may, by necessity, contain a certain amount of value bias. It does not discredit the results but allows readers to view them as one form of truth rather than a singular fact. Some sociologists attempt to remain uncritical and as objective as possible when studying cultural institutions. Value neutrality does not mean having no opinions. It means striving to overcome personal biases, particularly subconscious biases, when analyzing data. It means avoiding skewing data in order to match a predetermined outcome that aligns with a particular agenda, such as a political or moral point of view. Investigators are ethically obligated to report results, even when they contradict personal views, predicted outcomes, or widely accepted beliefs.

Chapter Review

Key Terms in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual

a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology

applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand

when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but does not necessarily indicate causation

a variable changed by other variables

evidence that comes from direct experience, scientifically gathered data, or experimentation

observing a complete social setting and all that it entails

the testing of a hypothesis under controlled conditions

gathering data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey

when study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awareness of being observed by a researcher

a testable educated guess about predicted outcomes between two or more variables

variables that cause changes in dependent variables

a sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testing

a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject

a scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research

a technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated together

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nonreactive research:

operational definitions:

participant observation:

population:

primary data:

qualitative data:

quantitative data:

random sample:

reliability:

samples:

scientific method:

secondary data analysis:

surveys:

validity:

value neutrality:

using secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influence people’s behaviors

specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study

when a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make observations from an “insider” perspective

a defined group serving as the subject of a study

data that are collected directly from firsthand experience

comprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting

represent research collected in numerical form that can be counted

a study’s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population

a measure of a study’s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced

small, manageable number of subjects that represent the population

an established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions

using data collected by others but applying new interpretations

collect data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire

the degree to which a sociological measure accurately reflects the topic of study

a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results

Section Summary

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research Using the scientific method, a researcher conducts a study in five phases: asking a question, researching existing sources, formulating a hypothesis, conducting a study, and drawing conclusions. The scientific method is useful in that it provides a clear method of organizing a study. Some sociologists conduct research through an interpretive framework rather than employing the scientific method.

Scientific sociological studies often observe relationships between variables. Researchers study how one variable changes another. Prior to conducting a study, researchers are careful to apply operational definitions to their terms and to establish dependent and independent variables.

2.2 Research Methods Sociological research is a fairly complex process. As you can see, a lot goes into even a simple research design. There are many steps and much to consider when collecting data on human behavior, as well as in interpreting and analyzing data in order to form conclusive results. Sociologists use scientific methods for good reason. The scientific method provides a system of organization that helps researchers plan and conduct the study while ensuring that data and results are reliable, valid, and objective.

The many methods available to researchers—including experiments, surveys, field studies, and secondary data analysis—all come with advantages and disadvantages. The strength of a study can depend on the choice and implementation of the appropriate method of gathering research. Depending on the topic, a study might use a single method or a combination of methods. It is important to plan a research design before undertaking a study. The information

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gathered may in itself be surprising, and the study design should provide a solid framework in which to analyze predicted and unpredicted data.

Table 2.2 Main Sociological Research Methods Sociological research methods have advantages and disadvantages.

Survey • Questionnaires

• Interviews

• Yields many responses

• Can survey a large sample

• Quantitative data are easy to chart

• Can be time consuming

• Can be difficult to encourage participant response

• Captures what people think and believe but not necessarily how they behave in real life

Field Work

• Observation

• Participant observation

• Ethnography

• Case study

• Yields detailed, accurate real-life information

• Time consuming

• Data captures how people behave but not what they think and believe

• Qualitative data is difficult to organize

Experiment • Deliberate manipulation

of social customs and mores

• Tests cause and effect relationships

• Hawthorne Effect

• Ethical concerns about people’s wellbeing

Secondary Data Analysis

• Analysis of government data (census, health, crime statistics)

• Research of historic documents

• Makes good use of previous sociological information

• Data could be focused on a purpose other than yours

• Data can be hard to find

2.3 Ethical Concerns Sociologists and sociology students must take ethical responsibility for any study they conduct. They must first and foremost guarantee the safety of their participants. Whenever possible, they must ensure that participants have been fully informed before consenting to be part of a study.

The ASA maintains ethical guidelines that sociologists must take into account as they conduct research. The guidelines address conducting studies, properly using existing sources, accepting funding, and publishing results.

Sociologists must try to maintain value neutrality. They must gather and analyze data objectively and set aside their personal preferences, beliefs, and opinions. They must report findings accurately, even if they contradict personal convictions.

Section Quiz

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research 1. A measurement is considered ______ if it actually measures what it is intended to measure, according to the topic of the study.

a. reliable b. sociological c. valid d. quantitative

2. Sociological studies test relationships in which change in one ______ causes change in another. a. test subject b. behavior

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c. variable d. operational definition

3. In a study, a group of ten-year-old boys are fed doughnuts every morning for a week and then weighed to see how much weight they gained. Which factor is the dependent variable?

a. The doughnuts b. The boys c. The duration of a week d. The weight gained

4. Which statement provides the best operational definition of “childhood obesity”? a. Children who eat unhealthy foods and spend too much time watching television and playing video games b. A distressing trend that can lead to health issues including type 2 diabetes and heart disease c. Body weight at least 20 percent higher than a healthy weight for a child of that height d. The tendency of children today to weigh more than children of earlier generations

2.2 Research Methods 5. Which materials are considered secondary data?

a. Photos and letters given to you by another person b. Books and articles written by other authors about their studies c. Information that you have gathered and now have included in your results d. Responses from participants whom you both surveyed and interviewed

6. What method did researchers John Mihelich and John Papineau use to study Parrotheads? a. Survey b. Experiment c. Web Ethnography d. Case study

7. Why is choosing a random sample an effective way to select participants? a. Participants do not know they are part of a study b. The researcher has no control over who is in the study c. It is larger than an ordinary sample d. Everyone has the same chance of being part of the study

8. What research method did John S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd mainly use in their Middletown study? a. Secondary data b. Survey c. Participant observation d. Experiment

9. Which research approach is best suited to the scientific method? a. Questionnaire b. Case study c. Ethnography d. Secondary data analysis

10. The main difference between ethnography and other types of participant observation is: a. ethnography isn’t based on hypothesis testing b. ethnography subjects are unaware they’re being studied c. ethnographic studies always involve minority ethnic groups d. ethnography focuses on how subjects view themselves in relationship to the community

11. Which best describes the results of a case study? a. It produces more reliable results than other methods because of its depth b. Its results are not generally applicable c. It relies solely on secondary data analysis d. All of the above

12. Using secondary data is considered an unobtrusive or ________ research method. a. nonreactive b. nonparticipatory c. nonrestrictive

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d. nonconfrontive

2.3 Ethical Concerns 13. Which statement illustrates value neutrality?

a. Obesity in children is obviously a result of parental neglect and, therefore, schools should take a greater role to prevent it

b. In 2003, states like Arkansas adopted laws requiring elementary schools to remove soft drink vending machines from schools

c. Merely restricting children’s access to junk food at school is not enough to prevent obesity d. Physical activity and healthy eating are a fundamental part of a child’s education

14. Which person or organization defined the concept of value neutrality? a. Institutional Review Board (IRB) b. Peter Rossi c. American Sociological Association (ASA) d. Max Weber

15. To study the effects of fast food on lifestyle, health, and culture, from which group would a researcher ethically be unable to accept funding?

a. A fast-food restaurant b. A nonprofit health organization c. A private hospital d. A governmental agency like Health and Social Services

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research 1. Write down the first three steps of the scientific method. Think of a broad topic that you are interested in and which would make a good sociological study—for example, ethnic diversity in a college, homecoming rituals, athletic scholarships, or teen driving. Now, take that topic through the first steps of the process. For each step, write a few sentences or a paragraph: 1) Ask a question about the topic. 2) Do some research and write down the titles of some articles or books you’d want to read about the topic. 3) Formulate a hypothesis.

2.2 Research Methods 2. What type of data do surveys gather? For what topics would surveys be the best research method? What drawbacks might you expect to encounter when using a survey? To explore further, ask a research question and write a hypothesis. Then create a survey of about six questions relevant to the topic. Provide a rationale for each question. Now define your population and create a plan for recruiting a random sample and administering the survey.

3. Imagine you are about to do field research in a specific place for a set time. Instead of thinking about the topic of study itself, consider how you, as the researcher, will have to prepare for the study. What personal, social, and physical sacrifices will you have to make? How will you manage your personal effects? What organizational equipment and systems will you need to collect the data?

4. Create a brief research design about a topic in which you are passionately interested. Now write a letter to a philanthropic or grant organization requesting funding for your study. How can you describe the project in a convincing yet realistic and objective way? Explain how the results of your study will be a relevant contribution to the body of sociological work already in existence.

2.3 Ethical Concerns 5. Why do you think the ASA crafted such a detailed set of ethical principles? What type of study could put human participants at risk? Think of some examples of studies that might be harmful. Do you think that, in the name of sociology, some researchers might be tempted to cross boundaries that threaten human rights? Why?

6. Would you willingly participate in a sociological study that could potentially put your health and safety at risk, but had the potential to help thousands or even hundreds of thousands of people? For example, would you participate in a study of a new drug that could cure diabetes or cancer, even if it meant great inconvenience and physical discomfort for you or possible permanent damage?

Further Research

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2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research For a historical perspective on the scientific method in sociology, read “The Elements of Scientific Method in Sociology” by F. Stuart Chapin (1914) in the American Journal of Sociology: http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Method-in-Sociology (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Method-in-Sociology)

2.2 Research Methods For information on current real-world sociology experiments, visit: http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Sociology-Experiments (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Sociology-Experiments)

2.3 Ethical Concerns Founded in 1905, the ASA is a nonprofit organization located in Washington, DC, with a membership of 14,000 researchers, faculty members, students, and practitioners of sociology. Its mission is “to articulate policy and implement programs likely to have the broadest possible impact for sociology now and in the future.” Learn more about this organization at http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ASA (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ASA) .

References

2.0 Introduction to Sociological Research Arkowitz, Hal, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. 2009. “Lunacy and the Full Moon: Does a full moon really trigger strange behavior?” Scientific American. Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the- full-moon/ (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/) ).

Rotton, James, and Ivan W. Kelly. 1985. “Much Ado about the Full Moon: A Meta-analysis of Lunar-Lunacy Research.” Psychological Bulletin 97 (no. 2): 286–306.

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research Arkowitz, Hal, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. 2009. “Lunacy and the Full Moon: Does a full moon really trigger strange behavior?” Scientific American. Retrieved October 20, 2014 (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the- full-moon (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/) ).

Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Anchor Books.

Merton, Robert. 1968 [1949]. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

“Scientific Method Lab,” the University of Utah, http://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/scientific_method/ sci_method_main.html (http://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/scientific_method/sci_method_main.html) .

2.2 Research Methods Butsch, Richard. 2000. The Making of American Audiences: From Stage to Television, 1750–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Caplow, Theodore, Louis Hicks, and Ben Wattenberg. 2000. “The First Measured Century: Middletown.” The First Measured Century. PBS. Retrieved February 23, 2012 (http://www.pbs.org/fmc/index.htm (http://www.pbs.org/fmc/ index.htm) ).

Durkheim, Émile. 1966 [1897]. Suicide. New York: Free Press.

Fenstermaker, Sarah. n.d. “Dorothy E. Smith Award Statement” American Sociological Association. Retrieved October 19, 2014 (http://www.asanet.org/about/awards/duboiscareer/smith.cfm (http://www.asanet.org/about/awards/duboiscareer/ smith.cfm) ).

Franke, Richard, and James Kaul. 1978. “The Hawthorne Experiments: First Statistical Interpretation.” American Sociological Review 43(5):632–643.

Grice, Elizabeth. “Cry of an Enfant Sauvage.” The Telegraph. Retrieved July 20, 2011 (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ culture/tvandradio/3653890/Cry-of-an-enfant-sauvage.html (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/3653890/Cry- of-an-enfant-sauvage.html) ).

Heussenstamm, Frances K. 1971. “Bumper Stickers and Cops” Trans-action: Social Science and Modern Society 4:32–33.

Igo, Sarah E. 2008. The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Lynd, Robert S., and Helen Merrell Lynd. 1959. Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Javanovich.

Lynd, Staughton. 2005. “Making Middleton.” Indiana Magazine of History 101(3):226–238.

Mihelich, John, and John Papineau. Aug 2005. “Parrotheads in Margaritaville: Fan Practice, Oppositional Culture, and Embedded Cultural Resistance in Buffett Fandom.” Journal of Popular Music Studies 17(2):175–202.

Pew Research Center. 2014. “Ebola Worries Rise, But Most Are ‘Fairly’ Confident in Government, Hospitals to Deal with Disease: Broad Support for U.S. Efforts to Deal with Ebola in West Africa.” Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, October 21. Retrieved October 25, 2014 (http://www.people-press.org/2014/10/21/ebola-worries-rise-but-most-are- fairly-confident-in-government-hospitals-to-deal-with-disease/ (http://www.people-press.org/2014/10/21/ebola-worries- rise-but-most-are-fairly-confident-in-government-hospitals-to-deal-with-disease/) ).

Rothman, Rodney. 2000. “My Fake Job.” Pp. 120 in The New Yorker, November 27.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. n.d. “Institutional Ethnography.” Retrieved October 19, 2014 (http://web.uvic.ca/~mariecam/kgSite/institutionalEthnography.html (http://web.uvic.ca/~mariecam/kgSite/ institutionalEthnography.html) ).

Sonnenfeld, Jeffery A. 1985. “Shedding Light on the Hawthorne Studies.” Journal of Occupational Behavior 6:125.

2.3 Ethical Concerns Code of Ethics. 1999. American Sociological Association. Retrieved July 1, 2011 (http://www.asanet.org/about/ethics.cfm (http://www.asanet.org/about/ethics.cfm) ).

Rossi, Peter H. 1987. “No Good Applied Social Research Goes Unpunished.” Society 25(1):73–79.

Weber, Max. 1949. Methodology of the Social Sciences. Translated by H. Shils and E. Finch. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

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3 Culture

Figure 3.1 People adhere to various rules and standards that are created and maintained in culture, such as giving a high five to someone. (Photo courtesy of Chris Barnes/flickr)

Learning Objectives 3.1. What Is Culture?

• Differentiate between culture and society

• Explain material versus nonmaterial culture

• Discuss the concept of cultural universalism as it relates to society

• Compare and contrast ethnocentrism and xenocentrism

3.2. Elements of Culture • Understand how values and beliefs differ from norms

• Explain the significance of symbols and language to a culture

• Explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

• Discuss the role of social control within culture

3.3. Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change • Discuss the roles of both high culture and pop culture within society

• Differentiate between subculture and counterculture

• Explain the role of innovation, invention, and discovery in culture

• Understand the role of cultural lag and globalization in cultural change

3.4. Theoretical Perspectives on Culture • Discuss the major theoretical approaches to cultural interpretation

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Introduction to Culture What are the rules when you pass an acquaintance at school, work, in the grocery store, or in the mall? Generally, we do not consider all of the intricacies of the rules of behavior. We may simply say, “Hello!” and ask, “How was your weekend?” or some other trivial question meant to be a friendly greeting. Rarely do we physically embrace or even touch the individual. In fact, doing so may be viewed with scorn or distaste, since as people in the United States we have fairly rigid rules about personal space. However, we all adhere to various rules and standards that are created and maintained in culture. These rules and expectations have meaning, and there are ways in which you may violate this negotiation. Consider what would happen if you stopped and informed everyone who said, “Hi, how are you?” exactly how you were doing that day, and in detail. You would more than likely violate rules of culture and specifically greeting. Perhaps in a different culture the question would be more literal, and it may require a response. Or if you are having coffee with a good friend, perhaps that question warrants a more detailed response. These examples are all aspects of culture, which is shared beliefs, values, and practices, that participants must learn. Sociologically, we examine in what situation and context certain behavior is expected, and in which situations perhaps it is not. These rules are created and enforced by people who interact and share culture.

In everyday conversation, people rarely distinguish between the terms culture and society, but the terms have slightly different meanings, and the distinction is important to a sociologist. A society describes a group of people who share a community and a culture. By “community,” sociologists refer to a definable region—as small as a neighborhood (Brooklyn, or “the east side of town”), as large as a country (Ethiopia, the United States, or Nepal), or somewhere in between (in the United States, this might include someone who identifies with Southern or Midwestern society). To clarify, a culture represents the beliefs and practices of a group, while society represents the people who share those beliefs and practices. Neither society nor culture could exist without the other. In this chapter, we examine the relationship between culture and society in greater detail and pay special attention to the elements and forces that shape culture, including diversity and cultural changes. A final discussion touches on the different theoretical perspectives from which sociologists research culture.

3.1 What Is Culture? Humans are social creatures. Since the dawn of Homo sapiens nearly 250,000 years ago, people have grouped together into communities in order to survive. Living together, people form common habits and behaviors—from specific methods of childrearing to preferred techniques for obtaining food. In modern-day Paris, many people shop daily at outdoor markets to pick up what they need for their evening meal, buying cheese, meat, and vegetables from different specialty stalls. In the United States, the majority of people shop once a week at supermarkets, filling large carts to the brim. How would a Parisian perceive U.S. shopping behaviors that Americans take for granted?

Almost every human behavior, from shopping to marriage to expressions of feelings, is learned. In the United States, people tend to view marriage as a choice between two people, based on mutual feelings of love. In other nations and in other times, marriages have been arranged through an intricate process of interviews and negotiations between entire families, or in other cases, through a direct system, such as a “mail order bride.” To someone raised in New York City, the marriage customs of a family from Nigeria may seem strange or even wrong. Conversely, someone from a traditional Kolkata family might be perplexed with the idea of romantic love as the foundation for marriage and lifelong commitment. In other words, the way in which people view marriage depends largely on what they have been taught.

Behavior based on learned customs is not a bad thing. Being familiar with unwritten rules helps people feel secure and “normal.” Most people want to live their daily lives confident that their behaviors will not be challenged or disrupted. But even an action as seemingly simple as commuting to work evidences a great deal of cultural propriety.

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Figure 3.2 How would a visitor from the suburban United States act and feel on this crowded Tokyo train? (Photo courtesy of simonglucas/flickr)

Take the case of going to work on public transportation. Whether people are commuting in Dublin, Cairo, Mumbai, or San Francisco, many behaviors will be the same, but significant differences also arise between cultures. Typically, a passenger will find a marked bus stop or station, wait for his bus or train, pay an agent before or after boarding, and quietly take a seat if one is available. But when boarding a bus in Cairo, passengers might have to run, because buses there often do not come to a full stop to take on patrons. Dublin bus riders would be expected to extend an arm to indicate that they want the bus to stop for them. And when boarding a commuter train in Mumbai, passengers must squeeze into overstuffed cars amid a lot of pushing and shoving on the crowded platforms. That kind of behavior would be considered the height of rudeness in the United States, but in Mumbai it reflects the daily challenges of getting around on a train system that is taxed to capacity.

In this example of commuting, culture consists of thoughts (expectations about personal space, for example) and tangible things (bus stops, trains, and seating capacity). Material culture refers to the objects or belongings of a group of people. Metro passes and bus tokens are part of material culture, as are automobiles, stores, and the physical structures where people worship. Nonmaterial culture, in contrast, consists of the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society. Material and nonmaterial aspects of culture are linked, and physical objects often symbolize cultural ideas. A metro pass is a material object, but it represents a form of nonmaterial culture, namely, capitalism, and the acceptance of paying for transportation. Clothing, hairstyles, and jewelry are part of material culture, but the appropriateness of wearing certain clothing for specific events reflects nonmaterial culture. A school building belongs to material culture, but the teaching methods and educational standards are part of education’s nonmaterial culture. These material and nonmaterial aspects of culture can vary subtly from region to region. As people travel farther afield, moving from different regions to entirely different parts of the world, certain material and nonmaterial aspects of culture become dramatically unfamiliar. What happens when we encounter different cultures? As we interact with cultures other than our own, we become more aware of the differences and commonalities between others’ worlds and our own.

Cultural Universals Often, a comparison of one culture to another will reveal obvious differences. But all cultures also share common elements. Cultural universals are patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies. One example of a cultural universal is the family unit: every human society recognizes a family structure that regulates sexual reproduction and the care of children. Even so, how that family unit is defined and how it functions vary. In many Asian cultures, for example, family members from all generations commonly live together in one household. In these cultures, young adults continue to live in the extended household family structure until they marry and join their spouse’s household, or they may remain and raise their nuclear family within the extended family’s homestead. In the United States, by contrast, individuals are expected to leave home and live independently for a period before forming a family unit that consists of parents and their offspring. Other cultural universals include customs like funeral rites, weddings, and celebrations of births. However, each culture may view the ceremonies quite differently.

Anthropologist George Murdock first recognized the existence of cultural universals while studying systems of kinship around the world. Murdock found that cultural universals often revolve around basic human survival, such as finding food, clothing, and shelter, or around shared human experiences, such as birth and death or illness and healing. Through his research, Murdock identified other universals including language, the concept of personal names, and, interestingly, jokes. Humor seems to be a universal way to release tensions and create a sense of unity among people (Murdock 1949).

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Sociologists consider humor necessary to human interaction because it helps individuals navigate otherwise tense situations.

Is Music a Cultural Universal? Imagine that you are sitting in a theater, watching a film. The movie opens with the heroine sitting on a park bench with a grim expression on her face. Cue the music. The first slow and mournful notes play in a minor key. As the melody continues, the heroine turns her head and sees a man walking toward her. The music slowly gets louder, and the dissonance of the chords sends a prickle of fear running down your spine. You sense that the heroine is in danger.

Now imagine that you are watching the same movie, but with a different soundtrack. As the scene opens, the music is soft and soothing, with a hint of sadness. You see the heroine sitting on the park bench and sense her loneliness. Suddenly, the music swells. The woman looks up and sees a man walking toward her. The music grows fuller, and the pace picks up. You feel your heart rise in your chest. This is a happy moment.

Music has the ability to evoke emotional responses. In television shows, movies, even commercials, music elicits laughter, sadness, or fear. Are these types of musical cues cultural universals?

In 2009, a team of psychologists, led by Thomas Fritz of the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, Germany, studied people’s reactions to music that they’d never heard (Fritz et al. 2009). The research team traveled to Cameroon, Africa, and asked Mafa tribal members to listen to Western music. The tribe, isolated from Western culture, had never been exposed to Western culture and had no context or experience within which to interpret its music. Even so, as the tribal members listened to a Western piano piece, they were able to recognize three basic emotions: happiness, sadness, and fear. Music, it turns out, is a sort of universal language.

Researchers also found that music can foster a sense of wholeness within a group. In fact, scientists who study the evolution of language have concluded that originally language (an established component of group identity) and music were one (Darwin 1871). Additionally, since music is largely nonverbal, the sounds of music can cross societal boundaries more easily than words. Music allows people to make connections, where language might be a more difficult barricade. As Fritz and his team found, music and the emotions it conveys can be cultural universals.

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Despite how much humans have in common, cultural differences are far more prevalent than cultural universals. For example, while all cultures have language, analysis of particular language structures and conversational etiquette reveal tremendous differences. In some Middle Eastern cultures, it is common to stand close to others in conversation. North Americans keep more distance and maintain a large “personal space.” Even something as simple as eating and drinking varies greatly from culture to culture. If your professor comes into an early morning class holding a mug of liquid, what do you assume she is drinking? In the United States, it’s most likely filled with coffee, not Earl Grey tea, a favorite in England, or Yak Butter tea, a staple in Tibet.

The way cuisines vary across cultures fascinates many people. Some travelers pride themselves on their willingness to try unfamiliar foods, like celebrated food writer Anthony Bourdain, while others return home expressing gratitude for their native culture’s fare. Often, people in the United States express disgust at other cultures’ cuisine and think that it’s gross to eat meat from a dog or guinea pig, for example, while they don’t question their own habit of eating cows or pigs. Such attitudes are an example of ethnocentrism, or evaluating and judging another culture based on how it compares to one’s own cultural norms. Ethnocentrism, as sociologist William Graham Sumner (1906) described the term, involves a belief or attitude that one’s own culture is better than all others. Almost everyone is a little bit ethnocentric. For example, Americans tend to say that people from England drive on the “wrong” side of the road, rather than on the “other” side. Someone from a country where dog meat is standard fare might find it off-putting to see a dog in a French restaurant—not on the menu, but as a pet and patron’s companion. A good example of ethnocentrism is referring to parts of Asia as the “Far East.” One might question, “Far east of where?”

A high level of appreciation for one’s own culture can be healthy; a shared sense of community pride, for example, connects people in a society. But ethnocentrism can lead to disdain or dislike for other cultures and could cause misunderstanding and conflict. People with the best intentions sometimes travel to a society to “help” its people, because they see them as uneducated or backward—essentially inferior. In reality, these travelers are guilty of cultural imperialism, the deliberate imposition of one’s own cultural values on another culture. Europe’s colonial expansion,

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begun in the sixteenth century, was often accompanied by a severe cultural imperialism. European colonizers often viewed the people in the lands they colonized as uncultured savages who were in need of European governance, dress, religion, and other cultural practices. A more modern example of cultural imperialism may include the work of international aid agencies who introduce agricultural methods and plant species from developed countries while overlooking indigenous varieties and agricultural approaches that are better suited to the particular region.

Ethnocentrism can be so strong that when confronted with all of the differences of a new culture, one may experience disorientation and frustration. In sociology, we call this culture shock. A traveler from Chicago might find the nightly silence of rural Montana unsettling, not peaceful. An exchange student from China might be annoyed by the constant interruptions in class as other students ask questions—a practice that is considered rude in China. Perhaps the Chicago traveler was initially captivated with Montana’s quiet beauty and the Chinese student was originally excited to see a U.S.- style classroom firsthand. But as they experience unanticipated differences from their own culture, their excitement gives way to discomfort and doubts about how to behave appropriately in the new situation. Eventually, as people learn more about a culture, they recover from culture shock.

Culture shock may appear because people aren’t always expecting cultural differences. Anthropologist Ken Barger (1971) discovered this when he conducted a participatory observation in an Inuit community in the Canadian Arctic. Originally from Indiana, Barger hesitated when invited to join a local snowshoe race. He knew he’d never hold his own against these experts. Sure enough, he finished last, to his mortification. But the tribal members congratulated him, saying, “You really tried!” In Barger’s own culture, he had learned to value victory. To the Inuit people, winning was enjoyable, but their culture valued survival skills essential to their environment: how hard someone tried could mean the difference between life and death. Over the course of his stay, Barger participated in caribou hunts, learned how to take shelter in winter storms, and sometimes went days with little or no food to share among tribal members. Trying hard and working together, two nonmaterial values, were indeed much more important than winning.

During his time with the Inuit tribe, Barger learned to engage in cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the practice of assessing a culture by its own standards rather than viewing it through the lens of one’s own culture. Practicing cultural relativism requires an open mind and a willingness to consider, and even adapt to, new values and norms. However, indiscriminately embracing everything about a new culture is not always possible. Even the most culturally relativist people from egalitarian societies—ones in which women have political rights and control over their own bodies—would question whether the widespread practice of female genital mutilation in countries such as Ethiopia and Sudan should be accepted as a part of cultural tradition. Sociologists attempting to engage in cultural relativism, then, may struggle to reconcile aspects of their own culture with aspects of a culture that they are studying.

Sometimes when people attempt to rectify feelings of ethnocentrism and develop cultural relativism, they swing too far to the other end of the spectrum. Xenocentrism is the opposite of ethnocentrism, and refers to the belief that another culture is superior to one’s own. (The Greek root word xeno, pronounced “ZEE-no,” means “stranger” or “foreign guest.”) An exchange student who goes home after a semester abroad or a sociologist who returns from the field may find it difficult to associate with the values of their own culture after having experienced what they deem a more upright or nobler way of living.

Perhaps the greatest challenge for sociologists studying different cultures is the matter of keeping a perspective. It is impossible for anyone to keep all cultural biases at bay; the best we can do is strive to be aware of them. Pride in one’s own culture doesn’t have to lead to imposing its values on others. And an appreciation for another culture shouldn’t preclude individuals from studying it with a critical eye.

Overcoming Culture Shock During her summer vacation, Caitlin flew from Chicago to Madrid to visit Maria, the exchange student she’d befriended the previous semester. In the airport, she heard rapid, musical Spanish being spoken all around her. Exciting as it was, she felt isolated and disconnected. Maria’s mother kissed Caitlin on both cheeks when she greeted her. Her imposing father kept his distance. Caitlin was half asleep by the time supper was served—at 10 p.m.! Maria’s family sat at the table for hours, speaking loudly, gesturing, and arguing about politics, a taboo dinner subject in Caitlin’s house. They served wine and toasted their honored guest. Caitlin had trouble interpreting her hosts’ facial expressions, and didn’t realize she should make the next toast. That night, Caitlin crawled into a strange bed, wishing she hadn’t come. She missed her home and felt overwhelmed by the new customs, language, and surroundings. She’d studied Spanish in school for years—why hadn’t it prepared her for this?

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What Caitlin hadn’t realized was that people depend not only on spoken words but also on subtle cues like gestures and facial expressions, to communicate. Cultural norms accompany even the smallest nonverbal signals (DuBois 1951). They help people know when to shake hands, where to sit, how to converse, and even when to laugh. We relate to others through a shared set of cultural norms, and ordinarily, we take them for granted.

For this reason, culture shock is often associated with traveling abroad, although it can happen in one’s own country, state, or even hometown. Anthropologist Kalervo Oberg (1960) is credited with first coining the term “culture shock.” In his studies, Oberg found that most people found encountering a new culture to be exciting at first. But bit by bit, they became stressed by interacting with people from a different culture who spoke another language and used different regional expressions. There was new food to digest, new daily schedules to follow, and new rules of etiquette to learn. Living with this constant stress can make people feel incompetent and insecure. People react to frustration in a new culture, Oberg found, by initially rejecting it and glorifying one’s own culture. An American visiting Italy might long for a “real” pizza or complain about the unsafe driving habits of Italians compared to people in the United States.

It helps to remember that culture is learned. Everyone is ethnocentric to an extent, and identifying with one’s own country is natural.

Caitlin’s shock was minor compared to that of her friends Dayar and Mahlika, a Turkish couple living in married student housing on campus. And it was nothing like that of her classmate Sanai. Sanai had been forced to flee war- torn Bosnia with her family when she was fifteen. After two weeks in Spain, Caitlin had developed a bit more compassion and understanding for what those people had gone through. She understood that adjusting to a new culture takes time. It can take weeks or months to recover from culture shock, and it can take years to fully adjust to living in a new culture.

By the end of Caitlin’s trip, she’d made new lifelong friends. She’d stepped out of her comfort zone. She’d learned a lot about Spain, but she’d also discovered a lot about herself and her own culture.

Figure 3.3 Experiencing new cultures offers an opportunity to practice cultural relativism. (Photo courtesy of OledSidorenko/flickr)

3.2 Elements of Culture Values and Beliefs The first, and perhaps most crucial, elements of culture we will discuss are its values and beliefs. Values are a culture’s standard for discerning what is good and just in society. Values are deeply embedded and critical for transmitting and teaching a culture’s beliefs. Beliefs are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true. Individuals in a society have specific beliefs, but they also share collective values. To illustrate the difference, Americans commonly believe in the American Dream—that anyone who works hard enough will be successful and wealthy. Underlying this belief is the American value that wealth is good and important.

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Values help shape a society by suggesting what is good and bad, beautiful and ugly, sought or avoided. Consider the value that the United States places upon youth. Children represent innocence and purity, while a youthful adult appearance signifies sexuality. Shaped by this value, individuals spend millions of dollars each year on cosmetic products and surgeries to look young and beautiful. The United States also has an individualistic culture, meaning people place a high value on individuality and independence. In contrast, many other cultures are collectivist, meaning the welfare of the group and group relationships are a primary value.

Living up to a culture’s values can be difficult. It’s easy to value good health, but it’s hard to quit smoking. Marital monogamy is valued, but many spouses engage in infidelity. Cultural diversity and equal opportunities for all people are valued in the United States, yet the country’s highest political offices have been dominated by white men.

Values often suggest how people should behave, but they don’t accurately reflect how people do behave. Values portray an ideal culture, the standards society would like to embrace and live up to. But ideal culture differs from real culture, the way society actually is, based on what occurs and exists. In an ideal culture, there would be no traffic accidents, murders, poverty, or racial tension. But in real culture, police officers, lawmakers, educators, and social workers constantly strive to prevent or repair those accidents, crimes, and injustices. American teenagers are encouraged to value celibacy. However, the number of unplanned pregnancies among teens reveals that not only is the ideal hard to live up to, but the value alone is not enough to spare teenagers the potential consequences of having sex.

One way societies strive to put values into action is through rewards, sanctions, and punishments. When people observe the norms of society and uphold its values, they are often rewarded. A boy who helps an elderly woman board a bus may receive a smile and a “thank you.” A business manager who raises profit margins may receive a quarterly bonus. People sanction certain behaviors by giving their support, approval, or permission, or by instilling formal actions of disapproval and nonsupport. Sanctions are a form of social control, a way to encourage conformity to cultural norms. Sometimes people conform to norms in anticipation or expectation of positive sanctions: good grades, for instance, may mean praise from parents and teachers. From a criminal justice perspective, properly used social control is also inexpensive crime control. Utilizing social control approaches pushes most people to conform to societal rules, regardless of whether authority figures (such as law enforcement) are present.

When people go against a society’s values, they are punished. A boy who shoves an elderly woman aside to board the bus first may receive frowns or even a scolding from other passengers. A business manager who drives away customers will likely be fired. Breaking norms and rejecting values can lead to cultural sanctions such as earning a negative label—lazy, no-good bum—or to legal sanctions, such as traffic tickets, fines, or imprisonment.

Values are not static; they vary across time and between groups as people evaluate, debate, and change collective societal beliefs. Values also vary from culture to culture. For example, cultures differ in their values about what kinds of physical closeness are appropriate in public. It’s rare to see two male friends or coworkers holding hands in the United States where that behavior often symbolizes romantic feelings. But in many nations, masculine physical intimacy is considered natural in public. This difference in cultural values came to light when people reacted to photos of former president George W. Bush holding hands with the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia in 2005. A simple gesture, such as hand-holding, carries great symbolic differences across cultures.

Figure 3.4 In many parts of Africa and the Middle East, it is considered normal for men to hold hands in friendship. How would Americans react to these two soldiers? (Photo courtesy of Geordie Mott/Wikimedia Commons)

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Norms So far, the examples in this chapter have often described how people are expected to behave in certain situations—for example, when buying food or boarding a bus. These examples describe the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which societies are structured, or what sociologists call norms. Norms define how to behave in accordance with what a society has defined as good, right, and important, and most members of the society adhere to them.

Formal norms are established, written rules. They are behaviors worked out and agreed upon in order to suit and serve the most people. Laws are formal norms, but so are employee manuals, college entrance exam requirements, and “no running” signs at swimming pools. Formal norms are the most specific and clearly stated of the various types of norms, and they are the most strictly enforced. But even formal norms are enforced to varying degrees and are reflected in cultural values.

For example, money is highly valued in the United States, so monetary crimes are punished. It’s against the law to rob a bank, and banks go to great lengths to prevent such crimes. People safeguard valuable possessions and install antitheft devices to protect homes and cars. A less strictly enforced social norm is driving while intoxicated. While it’s against the law to drive drunk, drinking is for the most part an acceptable social behavior. And though there are laws to punish drunk driving, there are few systems in place to prevent the crime. These examples show a range of enforcement in formal norms.

There are plenty of formal norms, but the list of informal norms—casual behaviors that are generally and widely conformed to—is longer. People learn informal norms by observation, imitation, and general socialization. Some informal norms are taught directly—“Kiss your Aunt Edna” or “Use your napkin”—while others are learned by observation, including observations of the consequences when someone else violates a norm. But although informal norms define personal interactions, they extend into other systems as well. In the United States, there are informal norms regarding behavior at fast food restaurants. Customers line up to order their food and leave when they are done. They don’t sit down at a table with strangers, sing loudly as they prepare their condiments, or nap in a booth. Most people don’t commit even benign breaches of informal norms. Informal norms dictate appropriate behaviors without the need of written rules.

Breaching Experiments Sociologist Harold Garfinkel (1917–2011) studied people’s customs in order to find out how societal rules and norms not only influenced behavior but also shaped social order. He believed that members of society together create a social order (Weber 2011). His resulting book, Studies in Ethnomethodology, published in 1967, discusses people’s assumptions about the social makeup of their communities.

One of Garfinkel’s research methods was known as a “breaching experiment,” in which the researcher behaves in a socially awkward manner in order to test the sociological concepts of social norms and conformity. The participants are not aware an experiment is in progress. If the breach is successful, however, these “innocent bystanders” will respond in some way. For example, if the experimenter is, say, a man in a business suit, and he skips down the sidewalk or hops on one foot, the passersby are likely to stare at him with surprised expressions on their faces. But the experimenter does not simply “act weird” in public. Rather, the point is to deviate from a specific social norm in a small way, to subtly break some form of social etiquette, and see what happens.

To conduct his ethnomethodology, Garfinkel deliberately imposed strange behaviors on unknowing people. Then he observed their responses. He suspected that odd behaviors would shatter conventional expectations, but he wasn’t sure how. For example, he set up a simple game of tic-tac-toe. One player was asked beforehand to mark Xs and Os not in the boxes but on the lines dividing the spaces instead. The other player, in the dark about the study, was flabbergasted and did not know how to continue. The second player’s reactions of outrage, anger, puzzlement, or other emotions illustrated the existence of cultural norms that constitute social life. These cultural norms play an important role. They let us know how to behave around each other and how to feel comfortable in our community.

There are many rules about speaking with strangers in public. It’s OK to tell a woman you like her shoes. It’s not OK to ask if you can try them on. It’s OK to stand in line behind someone at the ATM. It’s not OK to look over his shoulder as he makes his transaction. It’s OK to sit beside someone on a crowded bus. It’s weird to sit beside a stranger in a half-empty bus.

For some breaches, the researcher directly engages with innocent bystanders. An experimenter might strike up a conversation in a public bathroom, where it’s common to respect each other’s privacy so fiercely as to ignore other people’s presence. In a grocery store, an experimenter might take a food item out of another person’s grocery cart,

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saying, “That looks good! I think I’ll try it.” An experimenter might sit down at a table with others in a fast food restaurant or follow someone around a museum and study the same paintings. In those cases, the bystanders are pressured to respond, and their discomfort illustrates how much we depend on social norms. Breaching experiments uncover and explore the many unwritten social rules we live by.

Norms may be further classified as either mores or folkways. Mores (mor-ays) are norms that embody the moral views and principles of a group. Violating them can have serious consequences. The strongest mores are legally protected with laws or other formal norms. In the United States, for instance, murder is considered immoral, and it’s punishable by law (a formal norm). But more often, mores are judged and guarded by public sentiment (an informal norm). People who violate mores are seen as shameful. They can even be shunned or banned from some groups. The mores of the U.S. school system require that a student’s writing be in the student’s own words or use special forms (such as quotation marks and a whole system of citation) for crediting other writers. Writing another person’s words as if they are one’s own has a name—plagiarism. The consequences for violating this norm are severe and usually result in expulsion.

Unlike mores, folkways are norms without any moral underpinnings. Rather, folkways direct appropriate behavior in the day-to-day practices and expressions of a culture. They indicate whether to shake hands or kiss on the cheek when greeting another person. They specify whether to wear a tie and blazer or a T-shirt and sandals to an event. In Canada, women can smile and say hello to men on the street. In Egypt, that’s not acceptable. In regions in the southern United States, bumping into an acquaintance means stopping to chat. It’s considered rude not to, no matter how busy one is. In other regions, people guard their privacy and value time efficiency. A simple nod of the head is enough. Other accepted folkways in the United States may include holding the door open for a stranger or giving someone a gift on their birthday. The rules regarding these folkways may change from culture to culture.

Many folkways are actions we take for granted. People need to act without thinking in order to get seamlessly through daily routines; they can’t stop and analyze every action (Sumner 1906). Those who experience culture shock may find that it subsides as they learn the new culture’s folkways and are able to move through their daily routines more smoothly. Folkways might be small manners, learned by observation and imitated, but they are by no means trivial. Like mores and laws, these norms help people negotiate their daily lives within a given culture.

Symbols and Language Humans, consciously and subconsciously, are always striving to make sense of their surrounding world. Symbols—such as gestures, signs, objects, signals, and words—help people understand that world. They provide clues to understanding experiences by conveying recognizable meanings that are shared by societies.

The world is filled with symbols. Sports uniforms, company logos, and traffic signs are symbols. In some cultures, a gold ring is a symbol of marriage. Some symbols are highly functional; stop signs, for instance, provide useful instruction. As physical objects, they belong to material culture, but because they function as symbols, they also convey nonmaterial cultural meanings. Some symbols are valuable only in what they represent. Trophies, blue ribbons, or gold medals, for example, serve no other purpose than to represent accomplishments. But many objects have both material and nonmaterial symbolic value.

A police officer’s badge and uniform are symbols of authority and law enforcement. The sight of an officer in uniform or a squad car triggers reassurance in some citizens, and annoyance, fear, or anger in others.

It’s easy to take symbols for granted. Few people challenge or even think about stick figure signs on the doors of public bathrooms. But those figures are more than just symbols that tell men and women which bathrooms to use. They also uphold the value, in the United States, that public restrooms should be gender exclusive. Even though stalls are relatively private, most places don’t offer unisex bathrooms.

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(a) (b)

Figure 3.5 Some road signs are universal. But how would you interpret the signage on the right? (Photo (a) courtesy of Andrew Bain/flickr; Photo (b) courtesy of HonzaSoukup/flickr)

Symbols often get noticed when they are out of context. Used unconventionally, they convey strong messages. A stop sign on the door of a corporation makes a political statement, as does a camouflage military jacket worn in an antiwar protest. Together, the semaphore signals for “N” and “D” represent nuclear disarmament—and form the well-known peace sign (Westcott 2008). Today, some college students have taken to wearing pajamas and bedroom slippers to class, clothing that was formerly associated only with privacy and bedtime. Though students might deny it, the outfit defies traditional cultural norms and makes a statement.

Even the destruction of symbols is symbolic. Effigies representing public figures are burned to demonstrate anger at certain leaders. In 1989, crowds tore down the Berlin Wall, a decades-old symbol of the division between East and West Germany, communism, and capitalism.

While different cultures have varying systems of symbols, one symbol is common to all: language. Language is a symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted. Some languages contain a system of symbols used for written communication, while others rely on only spoken communication and nonverbal actions.

Societies often share a single language, and many languages contain the same basic elements. An alphabet is a written system made of symbolic shapes that refer to spoken sound. Taken together, these symbols convey specific meanings. The English alphabet uses a combination of twenty-six letters to create words; these twenty-six letters make up over 600,000 recognized English words (OED Online 2011).

Rules for speaking and writing vary even within cultures, most notably by region. Do you refer to a can of carbonated liquid as “soda,” pop,” or “Coke”? Is a household entertainment room a “family room,” “rec room,” or “den”? When leaving a restaurant, do you ask your server for a “check,” the “ticket,” or your “bill”?

Language is constantly evolving as societies create new ideas. In this age of technology, people have adapted almost instantly to new nouns such as “e-mail” and “Internet,” and verbs such as “downloading,” “texting,” and “blogging.” Twenty years ago, the general public would have considered these nonsense words.

Even while it constantly evolves, language continues to shape our reality. This insight was established in the 1920s by two linguists, Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf. They believed that reality is culturally determined, and that any interpretation of reality is based on a society’s language. To prove this point, the sociologists argued that every language has words or expressions specific to that language. In the United States, for example, the number thirteen is associated with bad luck. In Japan, however, the number four is considered unlucky, since it is pronounced similarly to the Japanese word for “death.”

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is based on the idea that people experience their world through their language, and that they therefore understand their world through the culture embedded in their language. The hypothesis, which has also been called linguistic relativity, states that language shapes thought (Swoyer 2003). Studies have shown, for instance, that unless people have access to the word “ambivalent,” they don’t recognize an experience of uncertainty from having conflicting positive and negative feelings about one issue. Essentially, the hypothesis argues, if a person can’t describe the experience, the person is not having the experience.

In addition to using language, people communicate without words. Nonverbal communication is symbolic, and, as in the case of language, much of it is learned through one’s culture. Some gestures are nearly universal: smiles often represent

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate

joy, and crying often represents sadness. Other nonverbal symbols vary across cultural contexts in their meaning. A thumbs-up, for example, indicates positive reinforcement in the United States, whereas in Russia and Australia, it is an offensive curse (Passero 2002). Other gestures vary in meaning depending on the situation and the person. A wave of the hand can mean many things, depending on how it’s done and for whom. It may mean “hello,” “goodbye,” “no thank you,” or “I’m royalty.” Winks convey a variety of messages, including “We have a secret,” “I’m only kidding,” or “I’m attracted to you.” From a distance, a person can understand the emotional gist of two people in conversation just by watching their body language and facial expressions. Furrowed brows and folded arms indicate a serious topic, possibly an argument. Smiles, with heads lifted and arms open, suggest a lighthearted, friendly chat.

Is the United States Bilingual? In 1991, when she was six years old, Lucy Alvarez attended a school that allowed for the use of both English and Spanish. Lucy’s teacher was bilingual, the librarian offered bilingual books, and many of the school staff spoke both Spanish and English. Lucy and many of her classmates who spoke only Spanish at home were lucky. According to the U.S. Census, 13.8 percent of U.S. residents speak a non-English language at home. That’s a significant figure, but not enough to ensure that Lucy would be encouraged to use her native language in school (Mount 2010).

Lucy’s parents, who moved to Texas from Mexico, struggled under the pressure to speak English. Lucy might easily have gotten lost and left behind if she’d felt the same pressure in school. In 2008, researchers from Johns Hopkins University conducted a series of studies on the effects of bilingual education (Slavin et al. 2008). They found that students taught in both their native tongue and English make better progress than those taught only in English.

Technically, the United States has no official language. But many believe English to be the rightful language of the United States, and over thirty states have passed laws specifying English as the official tongue. Proponents of English-only laws suggest that a national ruling will save money on translation, printing, and human resource costs, including funding for bilingual teachers. They argue that setting English as the official language will encourage non- English speakers to learn English faster and adapt to the culture of the United States more easily (Mount 2010).

Groups such as the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) oppose making English the official language and claim that it violates the rights of non-English speakers. English-only laws, they believe, deny the reality of our nation’s diversity and unfairly target Latinos and Asians. They point to the fact that much of the debate on this topic has risen since 1970, a time when the United States experienced new waves of immigration from Asia and Mexico.

Today, a lot of product information gets written in multiple languages. Enter a store like Home Depot and you’ll find signs in both English and Spanish. Buy a children’s product, and the safety warnings could be presented in multiple languages. While marketers are financially motivated to reach the largest number of consumers possible, this trend also may help people acclimate to a culture of bilingualism.

Studies show that most U.S. immigrants eventually abandon their native tongues and become fluent in English. Bilingual education helps with that transition. Today, Lucy Alvarez is an ambitious and high-achieving college student. Fluent in both English and Spanish, Lucy is studying law enforcement—a field that seeks bilingual employees. The same bilingualism that contributed to her success in grade school will help her thrive professionally as a law officer serving her community.

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Figure 3.6 Nowadays, many signs—on streets and in stores—include both English and Spanish. What effect does this have on members of society? What effect does it have on our culture? (Photo courtesy of istolethetv/flickr)

3.3 Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change It may seem obvious that there are a multitude of cultural differences between societies in the world. After all, we can easily see that people vary from one society to the next. It’s natural that a young woman from rural Kenya would have a very different view of the world from an elderly man in Mumbai—one of the most populated cities in the world. Additionally, each culture has its own internal variations. Sometimes the differences between cultures are not nearly as large as the differences inside cultures.

High Culture and Popular Culture Do you prefer listening to opera or hip hop music? Do you like watching horse racing or NASCAR? Do you read books of poetry or celebrity magazines? In each pair, one type of entertainment is considered high-brow and the other low-brow. Sociologists use the term high culture to describe the pattern of cultural experiences and attitudes that exist in the highest class segments of a society. People often associate high culture with intellectualism, political power, and prestige. In America, high culture also tends to be associated with wealth. Events considered high culture can be expensive and formal—attending a ballet, seeing a play, or listening to a live symphony performance.

The term popular culture refers to the pattern of cultural experiences and attitudes that exist in mainstream society. Popular culture events might include a parade, a baseball game, or the season finale of a television show. Rock and pop music—“pop” is short for “popular”—are part of popular culture. Popular culture is often expressed and spread via commercial media such as radio, television, movies, the music industry, publishers, and corporate-run websites. Unlike high culture, popular culture is known and accessible to most people. You can share a discussion of favorite football teams with a new coworker or comment on American Idol when making small talk in line at the grocery store. But if you tried to launch into a deep discussion on the classical Greek play Antigone, few members of U.S. society today would be familiar with it.

Although high culture may be viewed as superior to popular culture, the labels of high culture and popular culture vary over time and place. Shakespearean plays, considered pop culture when they were written, are now part of our society’s high culture. Five hundred years from now, will our descendants associate Breaking Bad with the cultural elite?

Subculture and Counterculture A subculture is just what it sounds like—a smaller cultural group within a larger culture; people of a subculture are part of the larger culture but also share a specific identity within a smaller group.

Thousands of subcultures exist within the United States. Ethnic and racial groups share the language, food, and customs of their heritage. Other subcultures are united by shared experiences. Biker culture revolves around a dedication to motorcycles. Some subcultures are formed by members who possess traits or preferences that differ from the majority of a society’s population. The body modification community embraces aesthetic additions to the human body, such as tattoos, piercings, and certain forms of plastic surgery. In the United States, adolescents often form subcultures to develop a shared youth identity. Alcoholics Anonymous offers support to those suffering from alcoholism. But even as members of a subculture band together, they still identify with and participate in the larger society.

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Making Connections: Big Picturethe

Sociologists distinguish subcultures from countercultures, which are a type of subculture that rejects some of the larger culture’s norms and values. In contrast to subcultures, which operate relatively smoothly within the larger society, countercultures might actively defy larger society by developing their own set of rules and norms to live by, sometimes even creating communities that operate outside of greater society.

Cults, a word derived from culture, are also considered counterculture group. The group “Yearning for Zion” (YFZ) in Eldorado, Texas, existed outside the mainstream and the limelight, until its leader was accused of statutory rape and underage marriage. The sect’s formal norms clashed too severely to be tolerated by U.S. law, and in 2008, authorities raided the compound and removed more than two hundred women and children from the property.

The Evolution of American Hipster Subculture Skinny jeans, chunky glasses, and T-shirts with vintage logos—the American hipster is a recognizable figure in the modern United States. Based predominately in metropolitan areas, sometimes clustered around hotspots such as the Williamsburg neighborhood in New York City, hipsters define themselves through a rejection of the mainstream. As a subculture, hipsters spurn many of the values and beliefs of U.S. culture and prefer vintage clothing to fashion and a bohemian lifestyle to one of wealth and power. While hipster culture may seem to be the new trend among young, middle-class youth, the history of the group stretches back to the early decades of the 1900s.

Where did the hipster culture begin? In the early 1940s, jazz music was on the rise in the United States. Musicians were known as “hepcats” and had a smooth, relaxed quality that went against upright, mainstream life. Those who were “hep” or “hip” lived by the code of jazz, while those who were “square” lived according to society’s rules. The idea of a “hipster” was born.

The hipster movement spread, and young people, drawn to the music and fashion, took on attitudes and language derived from the culture of jazz. Unlike the vernacular of the day, hipster slang was purposefully ambiguous. When hipsters said, “It’s cool, man,” they meant not that everything was good, but that it was the way it was.

Figure 3.7 In the 1940s, U.S. hipsters were associated with the “cool” culture of jazz. (Photo courtesy of William P. Gottlieb/Ira and Leonore S. Gershwin Fund Collection, Music Division, Library of Congress)

By the 1950s, the jazz culture was winding down and many traits of hepcat culture were becoming mainstream. A new subculture was on the rise. The “Beat Generation,” a title coined by writer Jack Kerouac, were anticonformist and antimaterialistic. They were writers who listened to jazz and embraced radical politics. They bummed around, hitchhiked the country, and lived in squalor.

The lifestyle spread. College students, clutching copies of Kerouac’s On the Road, dressed in berets, black turtlenecks, and black-rimmed glasses. Women wore black leotards and grew their hair long. Herb Caen, a San Francisco journalist, used the suffix from Sputnik 1, the Russian satellite that orbited Earth in 1957, to dub the movement’s followers “Beatniks.”

As the Beat Generation faded, a new, related movement began. It too focused on breaking social boundaries, but it also advocated freedom of expression, philosophy, and love. It took its name from the generations before; in fact,

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some theorists claim that Beats themselves coined the term to describe their children. Over time, the “little hipsters” of the 1970s became known simply as “hippies.”

Today’s generation of hipsters rose out of the hippie movement in the same way that hippies rose from Beats and Beats from hepcats. Although contemporary hipsters may not seem to have much in common with 1940s hipsters, the emulation of nonconformity is still there. In 2010, sociologist Mark Greif set about investigating the hipster subculture of the United States and found that much of what tied the group members together was not based on fashion, musical taste, or even a specific point of contention with the mainstream. “All hipsters play at being the inventors or first adopters of novelties,” Greif wrote. “Pride comes from knowing, and deciding, what’s cool in advance of the rest of the world. Yet the habits of hatred and accusation are endemic to hipsters because they feel the weakness of everyone’s position—including their own” (Greif 2010). Much as the hepcats of the jazz era opposed common culture with carefully crafted appearances of coolness and relaxation, modern hipsters reject mainstream values with a purposeful apathy.

Young people are often drawn to oppose mainstream conventions, even if in the same way that others do. Ironic, cool to the point of noncaring, and intellectual, hipsters continue to embody a subculture, while simultaneously impacting mainstream culture.

Figure 3.8 Intellectual and trendy, today’s hipsters define themselves through cultural irony. (Photo courtesy of Lorena Cupcake/Wikimedia Commons)

Cultural Change As the hipster example illustrates, culture is always evolving. Moreover, new things are added to material culture every day, and they affect nonmaterial culture as well. Cultures change when something new (say, railroads or smartphones) opens up new ways of living and when new ideas enter a culture (say, as a result of travel or globalization).

Innovation: Discovery and Invention

An innovation refers to an object or concept’s initial appearance in society—it’s innovative because it is markedly new. There are two ways to come across an innovative object or idea: discover it or invent it. Discoveries make known previously unknown but existing aspects of reality. In 1610, when Galileo looked through his telescope and discovered Saturn, the planet was already there, but until then, no one had known about it. When Christopher Columbus encountered America, the land was, of course, already well known to its inhabitants. However, Columbus’s discovery was new knowledge for Europeans, and it opened the way to changes in European culture, as well as to the cultures of the discovered lands. For example, new foods such as potatoes and tomatoes transformed the European diet, and horses brought from Europe changed hunting practices of Native American tribes of the Great Plains.

Inventions result when something new is formed from existing objects or concepts—when things are put together in an entirely new manner. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, electric appliances were invented at an astonishing pace. Cars, airplanes, vacuum cleaners, lamps, radios, telephones, and televisions were all new inventions. Inventions may shape a culture when people use them in place of older ways of carrying out activities and relating to others, or as a way to carry

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out new kinds of activities. Their adoption reflects (and may shape) cultural values, and their use may require new norms for new situations.

Consider the introduction of modern communication technology, such as mobile phones and smartphones. As more and more people began carrying these devices, phone conversations no longer were restricted to homes, offices, and phone booths. People on trains, in restaurants, and in other public places became annoyed by listening to one-sided conversations. Norms were needed for cell phone use. Some people pushed for the idea that those who are out in the world should pay attention to their companions and surroundings. However, technology enabled a workaround: texting, which enables quiet communication and has surpassed phoning as the chief way to meet today’s highly valued ability to stay in touch anywhere, everywhere.

When the pace of innovation increases, it can lead to generation gaps. Technological gadgets that catch on quickly with one generation are sometimes dismissed by a skeptical older generation. A culture’s objects and ideas can cause not just generational but cultural gaps. Material culture tends to diffuse more quickly than nonmaterial culture; technology can spread through society in a matter of months, but it can take generations for the ideas and beliefs of society to change. Sociologist William F. Ogburn coined the term culture lag to refer to this time that elapses between the introduction of a new item of material culture and its acceptance as part of nonmaterial culture (Ogburn 1957).

Culture lag can also cause tangible problems. The infrastructure of the United States, built a hundred years ago or more, is having trouble supporting today’s more heavily populated and fast-paced life. Yet there is a lag in conceptualizing solutions to infrastructure problems. Rising fuel prices, increased air pollution, and traffic jams are all symptoms of culture lag. Although people are becoming aware of the consequences of overusing resources, the means to support changes takes time to achieve.

Figure 3.9 Sociologist Everett Rogers (1962) developed a model of the diffusion of innovations. As consumers gradually adopt a new innovation, the item grows toward a market share of 100 percent, or complete saturation within a society. (Graph courtesy of Tungsten/Wikimedia Commons)

Diffusion and Globalization

The integration of world markets and technological advances of the last decades have allowed for greater exchange between cultures through the processes of globalization and diffusion. Beginning in the 1980s, Western governments began to deregulate social services while granting greater liberties to private businesses. As a result, world markets became dominated by multinational companies in the 1980s, a new state of affairs at that time. We have since come to refer to this integration of international trade and finance markets as globalization. Increased communications and air travel have further opened doors for international business relations, facilitating the flow not only of goods but also of information and people as well (Scheuerman 2014 (revised)). Today, many U.S. companies set up offices in other nations where the costs of resources and labor are cheaper. When a person in the United States calls to get information about banking, insurance, or computer services, the person taking that call may be working in another country.

Alongside the process of globalization is diffusion, or the spread of material and nonmaterial culture. While globalization refers to the integration of markets, diffusion relates to a similar process in the integration of international cultures. Middle-class Americans can fly overseas and return with a new appreciation of Thai noodles or Italian gelato. Access to television and the Internet has brought the lifestyles and values portrayed in U.S. sitcoms into homes around the globe. Twitter feeds from public demonstrations in one nation have encouraged political protesters in other countries. When this kind of diffusion occurs, material objects and ideas from one culture are introduced into another.

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(a)

(b)

Figure 3.10 Officially patented in 1893 as the “clasp locker” (left), the zipper did not diffuse through society for many decades. Today, it is immediately recognizable around the world. (Photo (a) courtesy of U.S. Patent Office/Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy of Rabensteiner/ Wikimedia Commons)

3.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture Music, fashion, technology, and values—all are products of culture. But what do they mean? How do sociologists perceive and interpret culture based on these material and nonmaterial items? Let’s finish our analysis of culture by reviewing them in the context of three theoretical perspectives: functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism.

Functionalists view society as a system in which all parts work—or function—together to create society as a whole. In this way, societies need culture to exist. Cultural norms function to support the fluid operation of society, and cultural values guide people in making choices. Just as members of a society work together to fulfill a society’s needs, culture exists to meet its members’ basic needs.

Functionalists also study culture in terms of values. Education is an important concept in the United States because it is valued. The culture of education—including material culture such as classrooms, textbooks, libraries, dormitories—supports the emphasis placed on the value of educating a society’s members.

Figure 3.11 This statue of Superman stands in the center of Metropolis, Illinois. His pedestal reads “Truth—Justice—The American Way.” How would a functionalist interpret this statue? What does it reveal about the values of American culture? (Photo courtesy of David Wilson/flickr)

Conflict theorists view social structure as inherently unequal, based on power differentials related to issues like class, gender, race, and age. For a conflict theorist, culture is seen as reinforcing issues of “privilege” for certain groups based upon race, sex, class, and so on. Women strive for equality in a male-dominated society. Senior citizens struggle to protect their rights, their health care, and their independence from a younger generation of lawmakers. Advocacy groups such as the ACLU work to protect the rights of all races and ethnicities in the United States.

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## what can readers infer from the following quote from act v scene 3 of romeo and juliet

1. What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet?
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2. What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Romeo: O, be gone! By heaven, I love thee better than myself; For I come hither arm’d against myself: Stay not, be gone;–live, and hereafter say, A madman’s

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Please help me with these question about Romeo and Juliet!!! They really are confusing me!! 1. In act 4 scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet, Paris tells Friar Laurence, “Immoderately she weeps for Tybalt’s death, / and therefore have I little talked of love.” What

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What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Romeo: O, be gone! By heaven I love thee better than myself; For I come hither arm’d against myself Stay no, be gone; live, and hereafter say, A madman’s mercy bid

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8.What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Prince: A gloomy peace this morning with it brings; The sun for sorrow will not show his head. Go hence, to have more talk of these sad things; Some shall be

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What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Montague: O thou untaught! what manners is in this, To press before thy father to a grave? a. Montague believes that sons who act disobediently die early deaths b.

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Romeo and Juliet
What can readers infer from the following quote from Act V, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Montague: O thou untaught! what manners is in this, To press before thy father to a grave? a. Montague believes that sons who act disobediently die early deaths b.

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Read the following line from Romeo’s monologue in Act II, Scene 2 of Romeo and Juliet: But soft! What light through yonder window breaks? What is Romeo saying in this passage? a. Romeo has broken the window even though he threw a rock softly. b. Juliet is

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ROMEO AND JULIET what are juliets feelings towards romeo in act 3 scene 2 from lines 1-35?

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asked by Ted on May 17, 2010
English
Act 1 Scene 1 .. Romeo & Juliet I don’t know the answer to two of my questions for Romeo and Juliet the first one . . . Although Rome and Juliet is a tragedy, much of the play is quite comic. Outline briefly the comic elements in this scene. To whatextent

asked by Becca on February 13, 2007
English
PLEASE HELP!!! Please check my answers!! I’m not sure about a few of them, but i marked the answers that I think are correct. 1. In Act IV of Romeo and Juliet, what is Friar Lawrence’s advice to Juliet concerning her parents’ wishes that she marry

asked by Becca on March 17, 2016
English
Please someone explain these to me!!! I’ve put in the answers that i think are right but i don’t understand these very well. 1. Identify the type of irony found i Act IV, scene 1, of romeo and juliet, when paris meets juliet at friar lawrence’s cell and

asked by Starcatcher on March 17, 2016

Shakespear
Read the exchange between Romeo and Nurse in Act II, scene iv of Romeo and Juliet. Romeo: Bid her devise Some means to come to shrift this afternoon; And there she shall at Friar Laurence’ cell, Be shriv’d and married. Here is for thy pains. Nurse: No,

asked by Danny G on March 21, 2015
Romeo and Juliet Help!!!
Could someone please help me I can’t find the answer anywhere! thanks for you help! Why does Romeo’s answer to Tybalts insults upset Mercutio? What does he think Romeo is doing? (By the way this is all in act 3 scene 1)

asked by Alex on March 26, 2009
what lines are foreshadowing I fear, too early: for my mind misgives Some consequence yet hanging in the stars Shall bitterly begin his fearful date With this night’s revels and expire the term Of a despised life closed in my breast By some vile forfeit of

What is a good quote for Romeo and Juliet?
What is a good quote for me to explain that it is important to think before you act? In the play, Romeo and Juliet? Thanks -Allyson I was thinking of something between Romeo and Juliet themselves, it would be helpful in my essay. I’ve already searched

asked by Allyson on May 11, 2011
English
1.) Identify the type of figurative language in the sentences below (taken from Act IV, scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet). Paris: “Poor soul, thy face is much abus’d with tears.” Juliet: “The tears have got small victory by that;/ For it was bad enough before

asked by Help. on March 7, 2016
English(Romeo and Juliet)
Capulet asks Nurse where Juliet has gone in the beginning of Act IV, scene 2. The Nurse indicates that she went to Friar Lawrence for confession purposes. Capulet responds by saying, “Well, he may chance to do some good in her. A peevish self-willed

asked by Anna on February 2, 2012
Romeo and Juliet Quick Question
Could you tell me in Act 1 Scene 5 what does Romeo compare Juliet to.

asked by Romeo on March 10, 2009
english
i need shaekspear translation for Romeo&Juliet act 3 scene 1

asked by hhhgggh on May 18, 2009
romeo and juliet
for my history project, I need to rewrite one scene from Romeo and Juliet. but it has to be modern. say, Juliet can text Romeo, or talk with him on messenger, and so on. which scene should I choose and any ideas how I can change it?

asked by rose marie on March 9, 2010
English
Write an essay explaining why you think The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet remains so popular. What is it about the characters of The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet that makes it so easy for young people to identify with them? Make at least two references to

asked by Talha on March 21, 2014

Romeo and Juliet
During act 2 and scene 2 what imagery comparisons does Romeo describe about Juliet. I need 3.

asked by Thai on October 10, 2007
english
romeo and Juliet Act 1 scene 3 questions: 1. what impression does the audience get of Juliet in this scene? 2.what impression does the audience get of Juliet’s nurse on this scene? 3.Explain the extended metaphor used by Lady Capulet (lines 80-95) what is

asked by patrik on February 26, 2012
english
I found 2 foil character in ROMEO AND JULIET can need one more please with (act and scene and line)thank for your help.

asked by marie on October 17, 2010
english
In Romeo and Juliet, what is the significance of the death of Paris in Act V, scene iii?

asked by Tiffany on May 28, 2008
english
i have to act out the first half of act3 scene 5 in romeo and juliet and i have to have some props. does anybody have any ideas for what i could use?

asked by christina on February 25, 2008
quote from Misanthrope
Hello, I can’t find this qoute in the Misanthrope “Still in a letter, appearances may decieve, this may not be as bad as you believe, I can’t find it in the book. thanks http://www.bibliomania.com/0/6/4/1967/frameset.html This website has the entire play

asked by cameron on February 12, 2007
Romeo and Juliet
Why does the nurse agree to help juliet marry romeo? By the way it’s in act 2 scene 5. I can’t find the answer. Thanks for your help

asked by Anonymous on March 23, 2009
English
I need help in identifying literary terms in Much Ado About Nothing by Shakespere. The literary terms must be from Act 5 Scene 1 page 163 Prince: “see see, here comes the man we went to seek.” to Act 5 scene 1 page 167 Benedick: “Fare you well…, and till

asked by Anonymous on June 17, 2008
memorization
does anybody have any tips on memorizing things? i have to memorize one of juleit’s speeches in romeo and juliet in act 2 scene 1. Please help!!

asked by anonymous on March 26, 2008
English
Is the “sober-suited matron” in Romeo and Juliet(Act 3,Scene 2,line 11)a metaphor? If it is, what is it being compared to?

asked by Emily on June 3, 2010

English
In Romeo and Juliet, what is ironic about Lord Capulet’s praise of Friar Lawrence in Act 4 Scene 2?

asked by Emily on November 29, 2012
Romeo and Juliet Quote Help
Could someone please help me with this quote I read the rest of act 2 today and I was wondering what this quote means: Mercutio: ” Alas poor Romeo, he is already dead: stabbed with a white wench’s black eye; run through the ear with a love song; the very

asked by Jamie:) on April 1, 2009
Romeo and Juliet quotation help!
I’m reading act 2 of Romeo and Juliet and I have no idea what the quote, “that which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet” means. Could someone please help me thanks:) J-J:)

asked by Jamie:) on March 31, 2009
ENGLISH
I don’t get this from Act 2 Scene 3 What are your feelings about Friar Lawrence’s involvement? Do you think he is right or wrong? Why? Use two quotes to support your answers. ITS FROM ROMEO AND JULIET

asked by LISA on January 5, 2012
English
When Romeo learns of Juliet’s “death” (Act 5 Scene 1), he plans to be join her and goes to an apothecary to buy poison. The question I have is why did he choose to use poison on HIMSELF rather than a dagger, to join Juliet? Ie. What was Shakespeare’s

asked by Kendry on May 26, 2010
English

1. After he is wounded in Act III, Scene 1, Mercutio says to Romeo, “Why the devil came you between us? I was hurt your arm.” Which of the following is the best paraphrase of Mercutio’s words? a. I am so badly wounded that I feel I will die. b. Why did you

asked by Julie on March 10, 2017
Romeo and Juliet
What event do Benvolio’s lines from the opening of Act III, Scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet, hint at, or foreshadow? And, if we meet, we shall not ‘scape a brawl, For now, these hot days, is the mad blood stirring. a. the conversation the young men have later

asked by Kaai97 on April 14, 2016
Language Arts – Romeo and Juliet – Please Check
I need help with the following: 11. Read these lines from the prologue of Romeo and Juliet. “Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands

Please help me with the following questions: 1. Read the excerpt from Act II, scene v of Romeo and Juliet. Friar Laurence: These violent delights have violent ends, And in their triumph die, like fire and powder, Which, as they kiss consume: the sweetest

english
in romeo and juliet, descibe juliet’s state of mind in act 4,scene one

asked by Ted on May 19, 2010

compare and contrast Romeo and Juliet Soliloquies in act 2. what differences are revealed about their understanding of romantic relationships Juliet is a little more cautious than Romeo. She laments the fact that Romeo is a Montague and wonders how she

asked by yasminb on May 13, 2014
Romeo and Juliet
Read Capulet’s speech from Act IV, Scene 2, as he plans for the wedding: Tush, I will stir about, And all things shall be well, I warrant thee, wife. Go thou to Juliet, help to deck up her. I’ll not to bed tonight. Let me alone. I’ll play the housewife

asked by Kaai97 on April 15, 2016
English
Provide quotations in the book with the scene number, about how Romeo is a serious person, and lacks sense of humor. Romeo and Juliet

asked by B4 on November 11, 2016
English.
O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy father and refuse thy name, Or if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love, And I’ll no longer be a Capulet. Can someone help me change this into a greeting card quote ?

asked by Thi on March 16, 2015
Romeo and Juliet
Could you please help me with this thanks. In act 1 scene 5 Romeo and Juliet say speeches that form a sonnet. Could you give me a link that will give me a translation of what they are saying. Thanks for your time

asked by Lala on March 11, 2009
Language arts unit 3 lesson 5 second read
If you have answers to 1-5 that would be great. 1. In act 1, scene 5, Scrooge sees himself as a child at school. What is revealed about his childhood in this scene? 2. In act one scene two Scrooge’s nephew stops by to wish Scrooge a Merry Christmas and to

asked by Abd on April 11, 2016
English
Read Capulet’s speech from Act IV, scene 2 , as he plans for the wedding: Tush , I will stir about , And all things shall be well , I warrant thee , wife: Go thou to Juliet , help to deck up her; I’ll not to bed to- night ; let me alone; I’ll play

asked by Mike on March 9, 2016
ENGLISH
Read Capulet’s speech from Act IV, scene 2 , as he plans for the wedding: Tush , I will stir about , And all things shall be well , I warrant thee , wife: Go thou to Juliet , help to deck up her; I’ll not to bed to- night ; let me alone; I’ll play

asked by HELLO WORLD<> on March 25, 2015
English Lit.
romeo and juliet: why is act 1 scene 5 an important part in the novel, basing on themes, lots of quotes, P-E-E-L (point, evidence, explain, link),and how is it relevant to these days? p.s – i would like to have an B grade answer to this please

asked by Baybee Cintia on March 25, 2009
Shakespeare
How would I use ellipses in Shakspearean quotes? I know that after every line you put a / but I want to omit like half a speech and get to the end. How would I do this? This is what I want to use: “You call me misbeliever, cutthroat dog/ And you spit

asked by Lena on May 6, 2009

english
What quote from Romeo and Juliet Act 3, Scene 5 illustrates Shakespeare’s use of comic relief? A) Lady Capulet: Marry, my child, early next Thursday morn/The gallant, young, and noble gentleman,/The County Paris, at Saint Peter’s Church,/Shall happily make

asked by Cassandra on May 23, 2017
english
What quote from Romeo and Juliet Act 3, Scene 5 illustrates Shakespeare’s use of comic relief? A) Lady Capulet: Marry, my child, early next Thursday morn/The gallant, young, and noble gentleman,/The County Paris, at Saint Peter’s Church,/Shall happily make

asked by Cassandra on May 23, 2017
english/ Romeo and Juliet
anyone know an oxymoron in Romeo and Juliet in Act1? sorry for such a random question…. thxs act 1 scene i line 170 Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!

asked by Emily on May 1, 2007
english
act 1 secne 4 romeo and rosaline act 2 secne 1 Mercutio is foil for romeo act 1 secne 1 benvolio and tybalt

asked by marie on October 17, 2010
ENGLISH GCSE
i need to write 5 bullet points about act 1 scene 1 and act 1 scene 3. what websites would be good to look on that explains it simply. thankyou guys!

asked by HONEY BEE on October 1, 2010
english
We first meet juliet (act 1 scene 3) she has a conversation with her mother about marriage. discuss this. what do we learn about juliet from this? ROMEO AND JULIET

asked by jane on February 13, 2012
Romeo and Juliet
Read the following line from Act IV, Scene 5 of Romeo and Juliet, when Capulet speaks of Juliet’s death: Death, that hath ta’en her hence to make me wail, Ties up my tongue and will not let me speak. What effect does Shakespeare’s use of personification

asked by Kaai97 on April 15, 2016
Hamlet!
What is the dramatic purpose of Scene IV? sorry Act 4 scene 4 This scene reminds Hamlet of his purpose. “Act IV, scene iv restores the focus of the play to the theme of human action. Hamlet’s encounter with the Norwegian captain serves to remind the

asked by Justin on November 17, 2006
Romeo and Juliet
In Act IV, Scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet, Paris tells Friar Lawrence, “Immoderately she weeps for Tybalt’s death, And therefore have I little talked of love.” What makes Paris’s comment an example of dramatic irony? a. Juliet is saddened by the death of

asked by Kaai97 on April 15, 2016
ELA
“It is only with the heart that one can see rightly” and my interpretation of this quote is that If you truly believe in yourself, you can make the right decisions. I need help to relate this quote to ROmeo and Juliet with an appropriate literary element.

asked by LISA on January 16, 2012

English
Doing an assignment on act 4 scene 1-2 of Romeo and Juliet’s symbols I have to use these symbols and find an object for each one that reflects it it needs evidence too Here are the symbols and thanks for all your help Love Foolishness of the feud Extremes

asked by Haley on March 17, 2012
Romeo and Juliet (Check answers pplz hurry)
Could you please check these answers from Act 1 (Review it’s only 5 questions) 1.What warning does the Prince issue to the Capulets and Montagues? Answer: The Prince warns to the Capulet’s and Montague’s is if anyone fights they will be put to death. 2.

asked by lala on March 12, 2009
English
Romeo and Juliet! Explain and evaluate the literary device- I have chosen the quote “Indeed, I never shall be satisfied With Romeo, till I behold him—dead— Is my poor heart for a kinsman vexed. Madam, if you could find out but a man to bear a poison,

asked by Um on February 14, 2018
English
In Act 2 scene 4, lear is finally confronted by the betrayal of his daughters.Lear is stripped bare and reduced to a helpless old man and it also marks he start of his descent in to madness. How does Shakespeare do so in Act 2 Scene 4???

asked by Kelli on November 2, 2008
English
Some readers argue that the adults in this play– Friar Lawrence and Juliet’s nurce— do an incredibly BAD job of mentoring and providing guidance to romeo and juliet; in fact, some people believe that without these meddling adults, Romeo and Juliet would

asked by Darcy on May 2, 2013
LA
When did William Shakespeare live? A. in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century b. in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century c.in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century Answer A 2. Which is NOT one of the differences between

asked by Shawn on February 19, 2015
English
Reading Bethune. Need help asap please! When Frances and Bethune quarrel in Act 1 Scene 2, Frances calls Bethune a hypocrite? How does Bethune defend himself from her accusation? In Bethune’s opinion, who are the real hypocrites in the medical profession?

asked by Tala on December 7, 2016
English – Hamlet
My teacher has asked me to identify and explain how Shakespeare creates atmosphere in Act 1, Scene i. I think he creates atmosphere by making the readers to think what will happen to Prince Hamlet and the ghost? I’m not really sure how to answer this

asked by … on September 5, 2007
Romeo and Juliet
Which word means the same as valiant is used in these lines from Act I, Scene 3 of Romeo and Juliet? Lady Capulet: Well, think of marriage now: younger than you, Here in Verona, ladies of esteem, Are made already mothers: by my count I was your mother much

asked by Kaai97 on April 14, 2016
Language
together now, Barbara Jordan’s main purpose is to a)persuade readers that a tolerant society is best created by working on a small scale.•• b)inform readers of the civil rights movement in the United States. c)praise the work of the leaders of the

asked by Estephania on January 11, 2016

literature
Two quotes dealing with puns in act one and two in Romeo and Juliet.And a 3-5 analysis. Best look in the text for these items. Here’s a link in case you left your book at school: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/romeo_juliet/index.html Once you have some ideas,

asked by michelle on April 24, 2007
the scene before this one in the play is scene 3, act 1, scene 2, act 1 or act 2, scene 1 in the play from almost sisters

English
Where is Romeo in act IV of Romeo and Juliet? He is hiding in Friar Lawrence’s cell. He is in exile in Mantua. He is in exile in Verona. I don’t know:/

asked by SkatingDJ on March 10, 2016
English
Where is Romeo during Act IV of Romeo and Juliet? A: Hiding in Friar Lawerence’s Cell B: He is in Exile in Mantua C: He is in Exile in Verona I choose B is this correct? Thank you

asked by Marylyn on March 17, 2016
English
In Act IV, of Romeo and Juliet, Why do Juliet’s parents think she is crying? 1:Because Romeo wash banished 2: Tybalt is dead 3: Because she did not want to marry Paris I think it is 2 is this correct? Thank you

asked by Marylyn on March 17, 2016
Literature

1. The Kellers allow Annie and Helen to live alone for two weeks because they a. believe that their interference creates too many obstacles b. trust Annie to care for Helen as they would c. fear that Helen will otherwise have to enter an institution d.

asked by mysterychicken on January 3, 2010
12 english, romeo and juliet
can someone help me out in anyway possiable, it says create a modern scene with two to four characters based on a theme in a ROMEO AND JULIET. Devise a new situation, new setting, and new character names, but be faithful both to the theme from ROMEO AND

asked by amanda on January 13, 2010
English
I need help writing a thesis sentence for an analytical essay about Romeo and Juliet. The topic the teacher chose is “Romeo and Juliet face untimely deaths because they act recklessly and hastily. thanks!

asked by Nicole on March 11, 2012
English -Macbeth
I need help understanding what the witches are saying exactly in act 4 , scene 1 when they are making the spell in the very begining of the scene

asked by Lizzie on December 1, 2008
English
In act one scene three of Julius Caesar, what are some details in the scene that help build suspense?

asked by Morgan on January 25, 2012

LA HELP!!!!
PLZ HELP! 1. Part A In “All Together Now,” Barbara Jordan’s main purpose is to persuade readers that a tolerant society is best created by working on a small scale.*** inform readers of the recent history of the civil rights movement in the United States.

asked by Agal on November 28, 2016
shakespeare
ok so i have to summarize 3 important events in act 1 of romeo and Juliet by using a creative way like an email or article or letter, poem, essay, joke, ect. I have to have to be a certain person in the act and be talking to another person in the act. and

asked by Anonymous on February 14, 2008
Romeo and Juliet (English Literature)

1. To what heavenly body does Romeo compare Juliet? Why is this so? 2. What does Juliet mean when she says to Romeo, “tis, but thy name that is my enemy?” 3. How is Romeo let to Juliet’s home? 4. Is it difficult for Romeo to win Juliet’s love? Why? 5. Why

asked by Han on October 31, 2007
How can I show that Love is a Powerful Emotion?
PLEASE READ THIS In my essay for Romeo and Juliet, I’ve got to show a QUOTE and a few Setences to show that Love is a Powerfull emotion in Romeo and Juliet I need some help with this. What is a good way to express this? What should I use? I couldn’t find

asked by Allyson on May 9, 2011
Romeo and Juliet Quick Question
I’m doing a paper on act 5 of romeo and juliet does Capulet think Romeo killed Juliet

asked by Matt on April 12, 2009
Romeo and Juliet; Act 1 Scene 5 Chorus Now old desire doth in his death-bed lie, and young affection gapes to be his heir; That fair for which love groan’d for and would die, With tender Juliet match’d is now not fair. Now romeo is belov’d, and loves

asked by Cathy on November 19, 2011
English
What does pestilence mean as it is used in the following lines from Act V,Scene 2 of Romeo and Juliet? Friar John:Going to find a barefoot brother out,One of our order,to associate me, Here in this city visiting the sick, and finding him,the searches of

asked by GummyBears16 on March 25, 2016
English: Quotes
What if there’s a quote inside a quote would I use this ” …’…'” and also what if I wanted to add something in my own words in between the quote would I end the quote then write my thought and then start a new quote OR would I use […] in between the

asked by Amy~ on September 20, 2010
English
In Romeo and Juliet, why doesn’t Juliet want to marry Paris? A: She is all ready married B: She is in love with Romeo C: Paris hasn’t won her affection D: All of the above I’m torn between B and D. Please help…this paper has been haunting me…I need to

asked by Marylyn on March 14, 2016
English
Act I of An Enemy of the People Question Think carefully about what each quote might infer about the character and choose the most appropriate answer in the context of the play. Taking one thing with another, there is an excellent spirit of toleration in

asked by Ella on November 17, 2014

ELAAAAAAAAAA
What does headstrong mean as it is used in the following lines from Act IV, scene 2 of Romeo and Juliet [ Enter Juliet ] Capulet : How now , my headstrong! Where have you been gadding?” Juliet: Where I have learn’d me to repent the sin Of disobedient

asked by HELLO WORLD<>!!!!!!!!!!! on March 26, 2015
English
What scene does romeo and juliets parents forbid them to see each other ?

asked by Cassandra on May 22, 2017
English
hat does headstrong mean as it is used in the following lines from Act IV, scene 2 of Romeo and Juliet [ Enter Juliet ] Capulet : How now , my headstrong! Where have you been gadding?” Juliet: Where I have learn’d me to repent the sin Of disobedient

asked by BUBBLES on May 18, 2016
english
Can someone link me sites where they have information on the two below? 1. In Act IV, Scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet, Juliet cries, ”O, bid me leap, rather than marry Paris . . . And I will do it without fear or doubt.” Both Romeo and Juliet seek out Friar

asked by Carl Wheezer on April 3, 2017
Romeo and Juliet Summary
Could you please read my act 1 summary of Romeo and Juliet and if there are any changes needed please let me know. It doesn’t matter if you don’t remember the first act but as long as it sounds right to you. Thanks God Bless Sampson, and Gregory who are

asked by Lala on March 16, 2009

Categories

## fayol’s ____________ principle says that tasks should be divided into areas of specialization.

Management RICHARD L. DAFT

Vanderb i l t Un i ve r s i t y

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

Management RICHARD L. DAFT

Vanderb i l t Un i ve r s i t y

NINTH EDITION

© 2010, 2008 South-Western, Cengage Learning

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, information storage and retrieval systems, or in any other manner—except as may be permitted by the license terms herein.

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Management, Ninth Edition Richard L. Daft, with the assistance of Patricia G. Lane

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With deep appreciation to Dorothy, the playwright and partner in my life, and to my parents, who started my life

toward outcomes that I could not understand at the time.

vii

Richard L. Daft, PhD, is the Brownlee O. Currey, Jr., Pro- fessor of Management in the Owen Graduate School of Management at Vanderbilt University. Professor Daft specializes in the study of organization theory and leadership. Dr. Daft is a Fellow of the Academy of Management and has served on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Journal, Administrative Sci- ence Quarterly, and Journal of Management Education. He was the associate editor-in-chief of Organization Science and served for three years as associate editor of Administrative Science Quarterly. Professor Daft has authored or co-authored 12 books, including Organization Theory and Design (South-Western, 2007), The Leadership Experience (South-Western, 2008), and What to Study: Generating and Developing Research Questions (Sage, 1982). He published Fusion Leadership: Unlocking the Subtle Forces That Change People and Orga-

nizations (Berrett-Koehler, 2000, with Robert Lengel). He has also authored dozens of scholarly articles, papers, and chapters. His work has been published in Administra- tive Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Management, Accounting Organizations and Society, Management Science, MIS Quarterly, California Management Review, and Organi- zational Behavior Teaching Review. Professor Daft is currently working on a new book, The Executive and the Elephant. He also is an active teacher and consultant. He has taught management, leadership, organizational change, organizational theory, and organizational behavior. Professor Daft served as associate dean, produced for-profi t theatrical produc- tions, and helped manage a start-up enterprise. He has been involved in management development and consulting for many companies and government organizations, including the American Banking Association, Bridgestone, Bell Canada, the National Transportation Research Board, Nortel, TVA, Pratt & Whitney, State Farm Insur- ance, Tenneco, the United States Air Force, the United States Army, J. C. Bradford & Co., Central Parking System, Entergy Sales and Service, Bristol-Myers Squibb, First American National Bank, and the Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

ix

Preface

Managing for Innovation in a Changing World In recent years, organizations have been buffeted by massive and far-reaching social, technological, and economic changes. Any manager who still believed in the myth of stability was rocked out of complacency when, one after another, large fi nancial insti- tutions in the United States began to fail. Business schools, as well as managers and businesses, were scrambling to keep up with the fast-changing story and evaluate its impact. This edition of Management addresses themes and issues that are directly rel- evant to the current, fast-shifting business environment. I revised Management with a goal of helping current and future managers fi nd innovative solutions to the prob- lems that plague today’s organizations—whether they are everyday challenges or once-in-a-lifetime crises. The world in which most students will work as managers is undergoing a tremendous upheaval. Ethical turmoil, the need for crisis management skills, e-business, rapidly changing technologies, globalization, outsourcing, global virtual teams, knowledge management, global supply chains, the Wall Street melt- down, and other changes place demands on managers that go beyond the techniques and ideas traditionally taught in management courses. Managing today requires the full breadth of management skills and capabilities. This text provides comprehensive coverage of both traditional management skills and the new competencies needed in a turbulent environment characterized by economic turmoil, political confusion, and general uncertainty.

In the traditional world of work, management was to control and limit people, enforce rules and regulations, seek stability and effi ciency, design a top-down hier- archy, and achieve bottom-line results. To spur innovation and achieve high per- formance, however, managers need different skills to engage workers’ hearts and minds as well as take advantage of their physical labor. The new workplace asks that managers focus on leading change, harnessing people’s creativity and enthusiasm, fi nding shared visions and values, and sharing information and power. Teamwork, collaboration, participation, and learning are guiding principles that help managers and employees maneuver the diffi cult terrain of today’s turbulent business environ- ment. Managers focus on developing, not controlling, people to adapt to new tech- nologies and extraordinary environmental shifts, and thus achieve high performance and total corporate effectiveness.

My vision for the ninth edition of Management is to present the newest manage- ment ideas for turbulent times in a way that is interesting and valuable to students while retaining the best of traditional management thinking. To achieve this vision, I have included the most recent management concepts and research and have shown the contemporary application of management ideas in organizations. I have added a questionnaire at the beginning of each chapter that draws students personally into the topic and gives them some insight into their own management skills. A chapter feature for new managers, called the New Manager Self-Test, gives students a sense of what will be expected when they become managers. The combination of established scholarship, new ideas, and real-life applications gives students a taste of the energy, challenge, and adventure inherent in the dynamic fi eld of management. The South- Western/Cengage Learning staff and I have worked together to provide a textbook better than any other at capturing the excitement of organizational management.

I revised Management to provide a book of utmost quality that will create in stu- dents both respect for the changing fi eld of management and confi dence that they can

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understand and master it. The textual portion of this book has been enhanced through the engaging, easy-to-understand writing style and the many in-text examples, boxed items, and short exercises that make the concepts come alive for students. The graphic component has been enhanced with several new exhibits and a new set of photo essays that illustrate specifi c management concepts. The well-chosen photographs provide vivid illustrations and intimate glimpses of management scenes, events, and people. The photos are combined with brief essays that explain how a specifi c management concept looks and feels. Both the textual and graphic portions of the textbook help students grasp the often abstract and distant world of management.

Focus on Innovation: New to the Ninth Edition The ninth edition of Management is especially focused on the future of management education by identifying and describing emerging ideas and examples of innovative organizations and by providing enhanced learning opportunities for students.

Learning Opportunities The ninth edition has taken a leap forward in pedagogical features to help students understand their own management capabilities and learn what it is like to manage in an organization today. New to this edition is an opening questionnaire that directly relates to the topic of the chapter and enables students to see how they respond to situations and challenges typically faced by real-life managers. New Manager Self- Tests in each chapter provide further opportunity for students to understand their management abilities. These short feedback questionnaires give students insight into how they would function in the real world of management. End-of-chapter questions have been carefully revised to encourage critical thinking and application of chap- ter concepts. End-of-chapter cases and ethical dilemmas help students sharpen their diagnostic skills for management problem solving.

Chapter Content Within each chapter, many topics have been added or expanded to address the cur- rent issues managers face. At the same time, chapter text has been tightened and sharpened to provide greater focus on the key topics that count for management today. This tightening has resulted in a shortening of the text from 21 to 19 chapters. The essential elements about operations and technology have been combined into one chapter. An appendix on entrepreneurship and small business has been provided for students who want more information on managing in small businesses start-ups.

Chapter 1 includes a section on making the leap from being an individual contribu- tor in the organization to becoming a new manager and getting work done primarily through others. The chapter introduces the skills and competencies needed to manage organizations effectively, including issues such as managing diversity, coping with glo- balization, and managing crises. In addition, the chapter discusses today’s emphasis within organizations on innovation as a response to a rapidly changing environment.

Chapter 2 continues its solid coverage of the historical development of management and organizations. It also examines new management thinking for turbulent times. The chapter includes a new section on systemic thinking and an expanded discussion of post-World War II management techniques. The fi nal part of the chapter looks at issues of managing the technology-driven workplace, including supply chain man- agement, customer relationship management, and outsourcing.

Chapter 3 contains an updated look at current issues related to the environment and corporate culture, including a new section on issues related to the natural environ- ment and managers’ response to environmental advocates. The chapter also illus- trates how managers shape a high–performance culture as an innovative response to a shifting environment.

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Chapter 4 takes a look at the growing power of China and India in today’s global business environment and what this means for managers around the world. The chapter discusses the need for cultural intelligence, and a new section looks at under- standing communication differences as an important aspect of learning to manage internationally or work with people from different cultures. In addition, the complex issues surrounding globalization are discussed, including a consideration of the cur- rent globalization backlash. A new section on human resources points out the need for evaluating whether people are suitable for foreign assignments.

Chapter 5 makes the business case for incorporating ethical values in the organi- zation. The chapter includes a new discussion of the bottom-of-the-pyramid business concept and how managers are successfully applying this new thinking. The chapter also has an expanded discussion of ethical challenges managers face today, includ- ing responses to recent fi nancial scandals. It considers global ethical issues, as well, including a discussion of corruption rankings of various countries.

Chapter 6 provides a more focused discussion of the overall planning process and a new discussion of using strategy maps for aligning goals. This chapter also takes a close look at crisis planning and how to use scenarios. The chapter’s fi nal section on planning for high performance has been enhanced by a new discussion of intelli- gence teams and an expanded look at using performance dashboards to help manag- ers plan in a fast-changing environment.

Chapter 7 continues its focus on the basics of formulating and implementing strategy. It includes a new section on diversifi cation strategy, looking at how managers use unrelated diversifi cation, related diversifi cation, or vertical integration as strategic approaches in shifting environments. This chapter also looks at new trends in strat- egy, including the dynamic capabilities approach and partnership strategies.

Chapter 8 gives an overview of managerial decision making with an expanded dis- cussion of how confl icting interests among managers can create uncertainty regard- ing decisions. A new section on why managers often make bad decisions looks at the biases that can cloud judgment. The chapter also includes a new section on innova- tive group decision making and the dangers of groupthink.

Chapter 9 discusses basic principles of organizing and describes both traditional and contemporary organizational structures in detail. The chapter includes a discussion of organic versus mechanistic structures and when each is more effective. Chapter 9 also provides a description of the virtual network organization form.

Chapter 10 includes a more focused discussion of the critical role of managing change and innovation today. The chapter includes a new discussion of the ambidextrous approach for both creating and using innovations and has expanded material on exploration and creativity, the importance of internal and external cooperation, and the growing trend toward open innovation.

Chapter 11 includes an expanded discussion of the strategic role of HRM in building human capital. The chapter has new sections on coaching and mentoring and the trend toward part-time and contingent employment. New ways of doing background checks on applicants, such as checking their pages on social networks, are discussed, and the chapter also looks at the changing social contract between employers and employees.

Chapter 12 has been revised and updated to refl ect the most recent thinking on organiza- tional diversity issues. The chapter looks at how diversity is changing the domestic and global workforce and includes a new section on the traditional versus inclusive models for managing diversity. This chapter also contains new coverage of the dividends of diversity; an expanded discussion of prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes; and a new look at the difference between stereotyping and valuing cultural differences. The chapter includes a new fi ve-step process for achieving cultural competence.

Chapter 13 continues its solid coverage of the basics of organizational behavior, includ- ing personality, values and attitudes, perception, emotional intelligence, learning and

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problem-solving styles, and stress management. Many exercises and questionnaires throughout this chapter enhance students’ understanding of organizational behavior topics and their own personalities and attitudes.

Chapter 14 has been enriched with a discussion of followership. The chapter empha- sizes that good leaders and good followers share common characteristics. Good lead- ership can make a difference, often through subtle, everyday actions. The discussion of power and infl uence has been expanded to include the sources of power that are available to followers as well as leaders. The discussions of charismatic, transforma- tional, and interactive leadership have all been revised and refocused.

Chapter 15 covers the foundations of motivation and also incorporates recent think- ing about motivational tools for today, including an expanded treatment of employee engagement. The chapter looks at new motivational ideas such as the importance of helping employees achieve work-life balance, incorporating fun and learning into the workplace, giving people a chance to fully participate, and helping people fi nd meaning in their work.

Chapter 16 begins with a discussion of how managers facilitate strategic conversa- tions by using communication to direct everyone’s attention to the vision, values, and goals of the organization. The chapter explores the foundations of good com- munication and includes a new section on gender differences in communication, an enriched discussion of dialogue, and a refocused look at the importance of effective written communication in today’s technologically connected workplace, including the use of new forms of manager communication such as blogs.

Chapter 17 includes a new section on the dilemma of teams, acknowledging that teams are sometimes ineffective and looking at the reasons for this, including such problems as free riders, lack of trust among team members, and so forth. The chapter then looks at how to make teams effective, including a signifi cantly revised discus- sion of what makes an effective team leader. The chapter covers the types of teams and includes a new look at effectively using technology in virtual teams. The chapter also includes a section on managing confl ict, including the use of negotiation.

Chapter 18 provides an overview of fi nancial and quality control, including Six Sigma, ISO certifi cation, and a new application of the balanced scorecard, which views employee learning and growth as the foundation of high performance. The dis- cussion of hierarchical versus decentralized control has been updated and expanded. The chapter also addresses current concerns about corporate governance and fi nding a proper balance of control and autonomy for employees.

Chapter 19 has been thoroughly revised to discuss recent trends in operations man- agement, information technology, and e-business. The chapter begins by looking at the organization as a value chain and includes an expanded discussion of supply chain management and new technologies such a radio frequency identifi cation (RFID). The discussion of information technology has been updated to include the trend toward user-generated content through wikis, blogs, and social networking. The chapter explores how these new technologies are being applied within organizations along with traditional information systems. The chapter also discusses e-commerce strate- gies, the use of business intelligence software, and knowledge management.

In addition to the topics listed above, this text integrates coverage of the Internet and new technology into the various topics covered in each and every chapter.

Organization The chapter sequence in Management is organized around the management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. These four functions effectively encompass both management research and characteristics of the manager’s job.

Part One introduces the world of management, including the nature of management, issues related to today’s chaotic environment, the learning organization, historical perspectives on management, and the technology-driven workplace.

PREFACE xiii

Part Two examines the environments of management and organizations. This sec- tion includes material on the business environment and corporate culture, the global environment, ethics and social responsibility, and the natural environment.

Part Three presents three chapters on planning, including organizational goal setting and planning, strategy formulation and implementation, and the decision-making process.

Part Four focuses on organizing processes. These chapters describe dimensions of structural design, the design alternatives managers can use to achieve strategic objec- tives, structural designs for promoting innovation and change, the design and use of the human resource function, and the ways managing diverse employees are signifi – cant to the organizing function.

Part Five is devoted to leadership. The section begins with a chapter on organiza- tional behavior, providing grounding in understanding people in organizations. This foundation paves the way for subsequent discussion of leadership, motivation of employees, communication, and team management.

Part Six describes the controlling function of management, including basic principles of total quality management, the design of control systems, information technology, and techniques for control of operations management.

Innovative Features A major goal of this book is to offer better ways of using the textbook medium to convey management knowledge to the reader. To this end, the book includes several innova- tive features that draw students in and help them contemplate, absorb, and comprehend management concepts. South-Western has brought together a team of experts to create and coordinate color photographs, video cases, beautiful artwork, and supplemental materials for the best management textbook and package on the market.

Chapter Outline and Objectives. Each chapter begins with a clear statement of its learning objectives and an outline of its contents. These devices provide an overview of what is to come and can also be used by students to guide their study and test their understanding and retention of important points.

Opening Questionnaire. The text grabs student attention immediately by giving the student a chance to participate in the chapter content actively by completing a short questionnaire related to the topic.

Take a Moment. At strategic places through the chapter, students are invited to Take a Moment to apply a particular concept or think about how they would apply it as a practicing manager. This call to action further engages students in the chapter con- tent. Some of the Take a Moment features also refer students to the associated New Manager Self-Test, or direct students from the chapter content to relevant end-of- chapter materials, such as an experiential exercise or an ethical dilemma.

New Manager Self-Test. A New Manager Self-Test in each chapter of the text provides opportunities for self-assessment as a way for students to experience management issues in a personal way. The change from individual performer to new manager is dramatic, and these self-tests provide insight into what to expect and how students might perform in the world of the new manager.

Concept Connection Photo Essays. A key feature of the book is the use of photo- graphs accompanied by detailed photo essay captions that enhance learning. Each caption highlights and illustrates one or more specifi c concepts from the text to rein- force student understanding of the concepts. Although the photos are beautiful to look at, they also convey the vividness, immediacy, and concreteness of management events in today’s business world.

Contemporary Examples. Every chapter of the text contains several written examples of management incidents. They are placed at strategic points in the chapter and are

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designed to illustrate the application of concepts to specifi c companies. These in-text examples—indicated by an icon in the margin—include well-known U.S. and inter- national companies such as Toyota, Facebook, UPS, LG Electronics, Google, Unilever, Siemens, and eBay, as well as less-well-known companies and not-for-profi t organi- zations such as Red 5 Studios, Strida, Genmab AS, ValueDance, and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). These examples put students in touch with the real world of organizations so that they can appreciate the value of management concepts.

Manager’s Shoptalk Boxes. A Manager’s Shoptalk box in each chapter addresses a specifi c topic straight from the fi eld of management that is of special interest to stu- dents. These boxes may describe a contemporary topic or problem that is relevant to chapter content, or they may contain a diagnostic questionnaire or a special example of how managers handle a problem. The boxes heighten student interest in the sub- ject matter and provide an auxiliary view of management issues not typically avail- able in textbooks.

Video Cases. The six parts of the text conclude with video cases, one per chapter, that illustrate the concepts presented in that part. The 19 videos enhance class discussion, because students can see the direct application of the management theories they have learned. Companies discussed in the video package include Recycline, Flight 001, and Numi Organic Teas. Each video case explores the issues covered in the video, allowing students to synthesize the material they’ve just viewed. The video cases culminate with several questions that can be used to launch classroom discussion or as homework. Suggested answers are provided in the Media Case Library.

Exhibits. Several exhibits have been added or revised in the ninth edition to enhance student understanding. Many aspects of management are research based, and some concepts tend to be abstract and theoretical. The many exhibits throughout this book enhance students’ awareness and understanding of these concepts. These exhibits con- solidate key points, indicate relationships among concepts, and visually illustrate con- cepts. They also make effective use of color to enhance their imagery and appeal.

Glossaries. Learning the management vocabulary is essential to understanding con- temporary management. This process is facilitated in three ways. First, key concepts are boldfaced and completely defi ned where they fi rst appear in the text. Second, brief defi nitions are set out in the margin for easy review and follow-up. Third, a glossary summarizing all key terms and defi nitions appears at the end of the book for handy reference.

A Manager’s Essentials and Discussion Questions. Each chapter closes with a sum- mary of the essential points that students should retain. The discussion questions are a complementary learning tool that will enable students to check their understand- ing of key issues, to think beyond basic concepts, and to determine areas that require further study. The summary and discussion questions help students discriminate between main and supporting points and provide mechanisms for self-teaching.

Management in Practice Exercises. End-of-chapter exercises called “Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise” and “Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma” provide a self-test for students and an opportunity to experience management issues in a personal way. These exercises take the form of questionnaires, scenarios, and activities, and many also provide an opportunity for students to work in teams. The exercises are tied into the chapter through the Take a Moment feature that refers stu- dents to the end-of-chapter exercises at the appropriate point in the chapter content.

Case for Critical Analysis. Also appearing at the end of each chapter is a brief but substantive case that provides an opportunity for student analysis and class discus- sion. Some of these cases are about companies whose names students will recog- nize; others are based on real management events but the identities of companies and managers have been disguised. These cases allow students to sharpen their diagnos- tic skills for management problem solving.

PREFACE xv

Continuing Case. Located at the end of each part, the Continuing Case is a run- ning discussion of management topics appropriate to that part as experienced by General Motors Company. Focusing on one company allows students to follow the managers’ and the organization’s long-term problems and solutions in a sustained manner.

Supplementary Materials Instructor’s Manual. Designed to provide support for instructors new to the course, as well as innovative materials for experienced professors, the Instructor’s Man- ual includes Chapter Outlines, annotated learning objectives, Lecture Notes, and sample Lecture Outlines. Additionally, the Instructor’s Manual includes answers and teaching notes to end-of-chapter materials, including the video cases and the continuing case.

Instructor’s CD-ROM. Key instructor ancillaries (Instructor’s Manual, Test Bank, ExamView, and PowerPoint slides) are provided on CD-ROM, giving instructors the ultimate tool for customizing lectures and presentations.

Test Bank. Scrutinized for accuracy, the Test Bank includes more than 2,000 true/ false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions. Page references are indi- cated for every question, as are designations of either factual or application so that instructors can provide a balanced set of questions for student exams. Each question is also tagged based on AACSB guidelines.

ExamView. Available on the Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM, ExamView contains all of the questions in the printed Test Bank. This program is an easy-to-use test cre- ation software compatible with Microsoft Windows. Instructors can add or edit ques- tions, instructions, and answers, and select questions (randomly or numerically) by previewing them on the screen. Instructors can also create and administer quizzes online, whether over the Internet, a local area network (LAN), or a wide area network (WAN).

PowerPoint Lecture Presentation. Available on the Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM and the Web site, the PowerPoint Lecture Presentation enables instructors to custom- ize their own multimedia classroom presentation. Containing an average of 27 slides per chapter, the package includes fi gures and tables from the text, as well as outside materials to supplement chapter concepts. Material is organized by chapter and can be modifi ed or expanded for individual classroom use. PowerPoint slides are also easily printed to create customized Transparency Masters.

Study Guide. Packed with real-world examples and additional applications for help- ing students master management concepts, this learning supplement is an excellent resource. For each chapter of the text, the Study Guide includes a summary and com- pletion exercise; a review with multiple-choice, true/false, and short-answer ques- tions; a mini case with multiple-choice questions; management applications; and an experiential exercise that can be assigned as homework or used in class.

Video Package. The video package for Management, ninth edition, contains two options: On the Job videos created specifi cally for the ninth edition of Daft’s Man- agement and BizFlix videos. On the Job videos use real-world companies to illustrate management concepts as outlined in the text. Focusing on both small and large busi- ness, the videos give students an inside perspective on the situations and issues that corporations face. BizFlix are fi lm clips taken from popular Hollywood movies such as Failure to Launch, Rendition, and Friday Night Lights, and integrated into the ninth edition of Daft. Clips are supported by short cases and discussion questions at the end of each chapter.

Web Site (www.cengage.com/management/daft). Discover a rich array of online teaching and learning management resources that you won’t fi nd anywhere else.www.cengage.com/management/daft

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Acknowledgments A gratifying experience for me was working with the team of dedicated professionals at South-Western who were committed to the vision of producing the best manage- ment text ever. I am grateful to Joe Sabatino, executive editor, whose enthusiasm, creative ideas, assistance, and vision kept this book’s spirit alive. Emma Newsom, managing developmental editor, provided superb project coordination and offered excellent ideas and suggestions to help the team meet a demanding and sometimes arduous schedule. Kimberly Kanakes, executive marketing manager, and Clint Kernen, marketing manager, provided keen market knowledge and innovative ideas for instructional support. Martha Conway, senior content project manager, cheerfully and expertly guided me through the production process. Tippy McIntosh contributed her graphic arts skills to create a visually dynamic design. Ruth Belanger, editorial assistant, and Sarah Rose, marketing coordinator, skillfully pitched in to help keep the project on track. Joe Devine deserves a special thank you for his layout expertise and commitment to producing an attractive, high-quality textbook. Additionally, BJ Parker, Copyshop, USA, contributed the Continuing Case.

Here at Vanderbilt I want to extend special appreciation to my assistant, Barbara Haselton. Barbara provided excellent support and assistance on a variety of proj- ects that gave me time to write. I also want to acknowledge an intellectual debt to my colleagues, Bruce Barry, Ray Friedman, Neta Moye, Rich Oliver, David Owens, Ranga Ramanujam, Bart Victor, and Tim Vogus. Thanks also to Deans Jim Bradford and Bill Christie who have supported my writing projects and maintained a positive scholarly atmosphere in the school. Another group of people who made a major con- tribution to this textbook are the management experts who provided advice, reviews, answers to questions, and suggestions for changes, insertions, and clarifi cations. I want to thank each of these colleagues for their valuable feedback and suggestions on the ninth edition:

David Alexander Christian Brothers University

Reginald L Audibert California State University—Long Beach

Burrell A. Brown California University of Pennsylvania

Paula Buchanan Jacksonville State University

Diane Caggiano Fitchburg State College

Bruce Charnov Hofstra University

Gloria Cockerell Collin College

Jack Cox Amberton University

Paul Ewell Bridgewater College

Mary M. Fanning College of Notre Dame of Maryland

Merideth Ferguson Baylor University

Karen Fritz Bridgewater College

Yezdi H. Godiwalla University of Wisconsin— Whitewater

James Halloran Wesleyan College

Stephen R. Hiatt Catawba College

Betty Hoge Bridgewater College

PREFACE xvii

Jerry Kinard Western Carolina University

Sal Kukalis California State University—Long Beach

Joyce LeMay Bethel University

Wade McCutcheon East Texas Baptist College

Tom Miller Concordia University

W J Mitchell Bladen Community College

John Okpara Bloomsburg University

Lori A. Peterson Augsburg College

Michael Provitera Barry University

Abe Qastin Lakeland College

Holly Caldwell Ratwani Bridgewater College

Terry L. Riddle Central Virginia Commu- nity College

Thomas Sy California State University—Long Beach

Kevin A. Van Dewark Humphreys College

Noemy Watchel Kean University

Peter Wachtel Kean University

Erin M. Alexander University of Houston– Clear Lake

Hal Babson Columbus State Community College

Reuel Barksdale Columbus State Community College

Gloria Bemben Finger Lakes Community College

Pat Bernson County College of Morris

Art Bethke Northeast Louisiana University

Thomas Butte Humboldt State University

Peter Bycio Xavier University, Ohio

Diane Caggiano Fitchburg State College

Douglas E. Cathon St. Augustine’s College

Jim Ciminskie Bay de Noc Community College

Dan Connaughton University of Florida

Byron L. David The City College of New York

Richard De Luca William Paterson University

Robert DeDominic Montana Tech

Linn Van Dyne Michigan State University

John C. Edwards East Carolina University

Mary Ann Edwards College of Mount St. Joseph

Janice M. Feldbauer Austin Community College

Daryl Fortin Upper Iowa University

Michael P. Gagnon New Hampshire Community Technical College

Richard H. Gayor Antelope Valley College

Dan Geeding Xavier University, Ohio

James Genseal Joliet Junior College

Peter Gibson Becker College

Carol R. Graham Western Kentucky University

Gary Greene Manatee Community College

Ken Harris Indiana University Southeast

Paul Hayes Coastal Carolina Commu- nity College

Dennis Heaton Maharishi University of Management, Iowa

Jeffrey D. Hines Davenport College

Bob Hoerber Westminster College

James N. Holly University of Wisconsin– Green Bay

Genelle Jacobson Ridgewater College

C. Joy Jones Ohio Valley College

Kathleen Jones University of North Dakota

Sheryl Kae Lynchburg College

Jordan J. Kaplan Long Island University

I would also like to continue to acknowledge those reviewers who have contrib- uted comments, suggestions and feedback on previous editions:

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J. Michael Keenan Western Michigan University

Gloria Komer Stark State College

Paula C. Kougl Western Oregon University

Cynthia Krom Mount St. Mary College

Mukta Kulkarni University of Texas–San Antonio

William B. Lamb Millsaps College

Robert E. Ledman Morehouse College

George Lehma Bluffton College

Cynthia Lengnick-Hall University of Texas–San Antonio

Janet C. Luke Georgia Baptist College of Nursing

Jenna Lundburg Ithaca College

Walter J. MacMillan Oral Roberts University

Myrna P. Mandell California State University, Northridge

Daniel B. Marin Louisiana State University

Michael Market Jacksonville State University

James C. McElroy Iowa State University

Dennis W. Meyers Texas State Technical College

Alan N. Miller University of Nevada–Las Vegas

Irene A. Miller Southern Illinois University

James L. Moseley Wayne State University

Micah Mukabi Essex County College

David W. Murphy Madisonville Community College

Nora Nurre Upper Iowa University

Tomas J. Ogazon St. Thomas University

Allen Oghenejbo Mills College

Linda Overstreet Hillsborough Community College

Ken Peterson Metropolitan State University

Clifton D. Petty Drury College

James I. Phillips Northeastern State University

Linda Putchinski University of Central Florida

Gerald D. Ramsey Indiana University Southeast

Barbara Redmond Briar Cliff College

William Reisel St. John’s University–New York

Terry Riddle Central Virginia Commu- nity College

Walter F. Rohrs Wagner College

Meir Russ University of Wisconsin– Green Bay

Marcy Satterwhite Lake Land College

Don Schreiber Baylor University

Kilmon Shin Ferris State University

Daniel G. Spencer University of Kansas

Gary Spokes Pace University

M. Sprencz David N. Meyers College

Shanths Srinivas California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Jeffrey Stauffer Ventura College

William A. Stower Seton Hall University

Mary Studer Southwestern Michigan College

Bruce C. Walker Northeast Louisiana University

Mark Weber University of Minnesota

Emilia S. Westney Texas Tech University

Stan Williamson Northeast Louisiana University

Alla L. Wilson University of Wisconsin– Green Bay

Ignatius Yacomb Loma Linda University

Imad Jim Zbib Ramapo College of New Jersey

Vic Zimmerman Pima Community College

James Swenson Moorhead State University, Minnesota

Irwin Talbot St. Peter’s College

PREFACE xix

Andrew Timothy Lourdes College

Frank G. Titlow St. Petersburg Junior College

John Todd University of Arkansas

Philip Varca University of Wyoming

Dennis L. Varin Southern Oregon University

Gina Vega Merrimack College

George S. Vozikis University of Tulsa

Bruce C. Walker Northeast Louisiana University

Mark Weber University of Minnesota

Emilia S. Westney Texas Tech University

Stan Williamson Northeast Louisiana University

Alla L. Wilson University of Wisconsin– Green Bay

Ignatius Yacomb Loma Linda University

Imad Jim Zbib Ramapo College of New Jersey

Vic Zimmerman Pima Community College

I’d like to pay special tribute to my long-time editorial associate, Pat Lane. I can’t imagine how I would ever complete such a comprehensive revision on my own. Pat provided truly outstanding help throughout every step of writing the ninth edition of Management. She skillfully drafted materials for a wide range of chapter topics, boxes, and cases; researched topics when new sources were lacking; and did an absolutely superb job with the copyedited manuscript and page proofs. Her commitment to this text enabled us to achieve our dream for its excellence. I also want to pay tribute to Mary Draper, who stepped in to help with the research and revision of this edition. Mary also did a superb job with the copyedited manu- script and page proofs. We could not have completed this revision without Mary’s excellent assistance.

Finally, I want to acknowledge the love and contributions of my wife, Dorothy Marcic. Dorothy has been very supportive during this revision as we share our lives together. I also want to acknowledge the love and support from my fi ve daughters— Danielle, Amy, Roxanne, Solange, and Elizabeth—who make my life special during our precious time together. Thanks also to B. J. and Kaitlyn and Kaci and Matthew for their warmth and smiles that brighten my life, especially during our days together skiing and on the beach.

Richard L. Daft Nashville, Tennessee December 2008

xxi

Part 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT

1 Innovative Management for Turbulent Times 2

2 The Evolution of Management Thinking 32

Part 2 THE ENVIRONMENT OF MANAGEMENT

3 The Environment and Corporate Culture 62

4 Managing in a Global Environment 94

5 Managing Ethics and Social Responsibility 128

Part 3 PLANNING

6 Managerial Planning and Goal Setting 158

7 Strategy Formulation and Implementation 184

8 Managerial Decision Making 212

Part 4 ORGANIZING

10 Managing Change and Innovation 276

11 Managing Human Resources 306

12 Managing Diversity 340

13 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations 376

15 Motivating Employees 440

16 Managing Communication 470

Part 6 CONTROLLING

18 Managing Quality and Performance 536 19 Managing the Value Chain, Information Technology,

APPENDIX A: MANAGING SMALL BUSINESS START-UPS 601

Glossary 625

Indexes 639

Brief Contents

xxiii

Part 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT

1 Innovative Management for Turbulent Times 2 Are You Ready to Be a Manager? 3 Why Innovation Mat ters 4 The Defi nition of Management 4 The Four Management Functions 5

Planning 5 | Organizing 6 | Leading 6 Controlling 7

Organizational Performance 7 Management Skills 8

Conceptual Skills 8 | Human Skills 9 | Technical Skills 9 | When Skills Fail 10

Management Types 10 Vertical Differences 11 | Horizontal Differences 12

What Is It Like to Be a Manager? 13 Making the Leap: Becoming a New Manager 13

New Manager Self-Test: Manager Achievement 14 Manager’s Shoptalk: Do You Really Want To Be A Manager? 16

Manager Activities 17 | Manager Roles 18 Managing in Small Businesses and Nonprofi t Organizations 20 Management and the New Workplace 21

New Workplace Characteristics 21 | New Management Competencies 23

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 23 Discussion Questions 24 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 25 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 26 Case for Critical Analysis 26 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 27

BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 28 Endnotes 29

2 The Evolution of Management Thinking 32 Are You a New-Style or an Old-Style Manager? 33 Management and Organization 34 Manager’s Shoptalk: Contemporary Management Tools 35 Classical Perspective 36

Scientifi c Management 37 | Bureaucratic Organizations 38 | Administrative Principles 40

Humanistic Perspective 41 Human Relations Movement 42 | Human Resources Perspective 43

New Manager Self-Test: Evolution of Style 44 Behavioral Sciences Approach 45

Management Science Perspective 46 Recent Historical Trends 47

Systems Theory 47 | Contingency View 48 | Total Quality Management 49

Innovative Management Thinking For Turbulent Times 50

The Learning Organization 50 Managing the Technology-Driven Workplace 50

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 52 Discussion Questions 52 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 53 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 53 Case for Critical Analysis 54 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 55 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 56 Endnotes 57 Continuing Case 60

3 The Environment and Corporate Culture 62 Are You Fit for Managerial Uncertainty? 63 The External Environment 64

General Environment 65

Manager’s Shoptalk: Creating Guanxi in China 67 Task Environment 69

The Organization–Environment Relationship 72 Environmental Uncertainty 72 | Adapting to the Environment 73

Part 2 THE ENVIRONTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

Contents

xxiv

The Internal Environment: Corporate Culture 75 Symbols 77 | Stories 77 | Heroes 77 Slogans 78 | Ceremonies 78

Environment and Culture 78 Adaptive Cultures 79 | Types of Cultures 79

New Manager Self-Test: Culture Preference 82 Shaping Corporate Culture for Innovative Response 82

Managing the High-Performance Culture 83 | Cultural Leadership 85

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 85 Discussion Questions 86 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 87 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 87 Case for Critical Analysis 88 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 89 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 90 Endnotes 91

4 Managing in a Global Environment 94 Are You Ready To Work Internationally? 95 A Borderless World 96 Getting Started Internationally 98

Exporting 98 | Outsourcing 99 | Licensing 99 Direct Investing 100 | China Inc. 101

The International Business Environment 102 The Economic Environment 103

Economic Development 103 | Resource and Product Markets 103 | Exchange Rates 104

The Legal-Political Environment 104 The Sociocultural Environment 105

Social Values 105 Manager’s Shoptalk: How Well Do You Play The Culture Game? 108

Communication Differences 109 | Other Cultural Characteristics 110

International Trade Alliances 111 GAT T and the World Trade Organization 112 | European Union 112 | North American Free Trade Agreement (NAF TA) 113

The Globalization Backlash 113 Multinational Corporations 114 Managing in a Global Environment 115

Developing Cultural Intelligence 115 | Managing Cross-Culturally 116

New Manager Self-Test: Are You Culturally Intelligent? 117 A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 119 Discussion Questions 120 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 120 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 121 Case for Critical Analysis 122 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 123 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 124 Endnotes 124

5 Managing Ethics and Social Responsibility 128 Will You Be a Courageous Manager? 129 What Is Managerial Ethics? 130 Ethical Dilemmas: What Would You Do? 131 Criteria for Ethical Decision Making 132

Utilitarian Approach 132 Individualism Approach 132 | Moral-Rights Approach 133 | Justice Approach 133

Manager Ethical Choices 134 Manager’s Shoptalk: How to Challenge the Boss on Ethical Issues 136 New Manager Self-Test: Self and Others 137 What Is Corporate Social Responsibility? 138

Organizational Stakeholders 138 | The Bottom of the Pyramid 140

The Ethic of Sustainability 141 Evaluating Corporate Social Responsibilit y 142 Managing Company Ethics and Social Responsibilit y 144

Code of Ethics 144 | Ethical Structures 145 | Whistle-Blowing 146 | The Business Case for Ethics and Social Responsibility 147

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 148 Discussion Questions 148 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 149 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 150 Case for Critical Analysis 150 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 151 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 152 Endnotes 153 Continuing Case 156

6 Managerial Planning and Goal Setting 158 Does Goal Set ting Fit Your Management Style? 159 Overview of Goals and Plans 160

Levels of Goals and Plans 160 | Purposes of Goals and Plans 160 | The Organizational Planning Process 162

Goals in Organizations 162 New Manager Self-Test: Your Approach to Studying 163

Organizational Mission 163 Goals and Plans 164 | Aligning Goals with Strategy Maps 166

Part 3 PLANNING

CONTENTS

xxv

Operational Planning 167 Criteria for Effective Goals 168 | Management by Objectives 168 | Single-Use and Standing Plans 171

Manager’s Shoptalk: Regulating E-Mail in the Workplace 171 Planning for a Turbulent Environment 172

Contingency Planning 172 | Building Scenarios 173 | Crisis Planning 173

Planning for High Performance 175 Traditional Approaches to Planning 175 | High- Performance Approaches to Planning 175

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 178 Discussion Questions 178 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 179 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 179 Case for Critical Analysis 180 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 181 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 182 Endnotes 182

7 Strategy Formulation and Implementation 184 What Is Your Strategy Strength? 185 Thinking Strategically 186 New Manager Self-Test: Your Approach to Studying, Part 2 187 What Is Strategic Management? 188

Purpose of Strategy 188 | Levels of Strategy 190 The Strategic Management Process 191

Strategy Formulation Versus Execution 191 | SWOT Analysis 192

Formulating Corporate-Level Strategy 194 Portfolio Strategy 194 | The BCG Matrix 194 | Diversifi cation Strategy 195

Formulating Business-Level Strategy 196 Porter’s Five Competitive Forces 196 | Competitive Strategies 198

New Trends in Strategy 199 Innovation from Within 200 | Strategic Partnerships 200

Global Strategy 200 Globalization 201 | Multidomestic Strategy 202 | Transnational Strategy 202

Strategy Execution 203 Manager’s Shoptalk: Tips for Effective Strategy Execution 204

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 205 Discussion Questions 206 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 206 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 207 Case for Critical Analysis 207 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 208 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 209 Endnotes 210

8 Managerial Decision Making 212 How Do You Make Decisions? 213 Types of Decisions and Problems 214

Programmed and Nonprogrammed Decisions 214 | Facing Certainty and Uncertainty 215

Decision-Making Models 217 The Ideal, Rational Model 217 | How Managers Actually Make Decisions 218

New Manager Self-Test: Making Important Decisions 220

Political Model 221 Decision-Making Steps 222

Recognition of Decision Requirement 222 | Diagnosis and Analysis of Causes 222 | Development of Alternatives 223 | Selection of Desired Alternative 224 | Implementation of Chosen Alternative 224 | Evaluation and Feedback 225

Personal Decision Framework 226 Why Do Managers Make Bad Decisions? 227 Innovative Group Decision Making 228 Manager’s Shoptalk: Evidence-Based Management 229

Start with Brainstorming 229 Engage in Rigorous Debate 230 | Avoid Groupthink 230 | Know When to Bail 231

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 231 Discussion Questions 232 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 232 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 233 Case for Critical Analysis 234 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 235 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 236 Endnotes 237 Continuing Case 240

Work Specialization 244 | Chain of Command 245 | Span of Management 247

Manager’s Shoptalk: How to Delegate 248 Centralization and Decentralization 250

Departmentalization 250 Vertical Functional Approach 252 | Divisional Approach 252 | Matrix Approach 254 | Team

Part 4 ORGANIZING

CONTENTS

xxvi

Approach 255 | The Virtual Network Approach 256 | Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Structure 258

Organizing for Horizontal Coordination 260 The Need for Coordination 260 | Task Forces, Teams, and Project Management 262 Reengineering 263

Struc ture Follows Strategy 264 New Manager Self-Test: Authority Role Models 266 A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 268 Discussion Questions 268 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 269 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 270 Case for Critical Analysis 270 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 272 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 272 Endnotes 273

10 Managing Change and Innovation 276 Are You Innovative? 277 Innovation and the Changing Workplace 278 Changing Things: New Products and Technologies 279

Exploration 279 | Cooperation 281 Entrepreneurship 284

New Manager Self-Test: Taking Charge of Change 286 Changing People and Culture 287

Training and Development 287 | Organization Development 287

Implementing Change 291 Need for Change 291 | Resistance to Change 291

Manager’s Shoptalk: Making Change Stick 292 Force-Field Analysis 293 | Implementation Tactics 294

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 296 Discussion Questions 296 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 297 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 298 Case for Critical Analysis 299 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 300 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 301 Endnotes 301

11 Managing Human Resources 306 Getting the Right People on the Bus 307 The Strategic Role of HRM Is to Drive Organizational Performance 308

The Strategic Approach 308 | Building Human Capital to Drive Performance 309 | Globalization 311

The Impac t of Federal Legislation on HRM 311 New Manager Self-Test: What Is Your HR Work Orientation? 313 The Changing Nature of Careers 314

The Changing Social Contract 314 | Innovations in HRM 315

Finding the Right People 316 Human Resource Planning 317 | Recruiting 318 Selecting 321

Manager’s Shoptalk: What Makes a Good Interview Go Bad? 323 Managing Talent 324

Training and Development 324 | Performance Appraisal 326

Maintaining an Effective Workforce 329 Compensation 329 | Benefi ts 330 Termination 330

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 331 Discussion Questions 332 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 332 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 333 Case for Critical Analysis 334 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 335 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 336 Endnotes 336

12 Managing Diversity 340 Do You Know Your Biases? 341 The Changing Workplace 342

Diversity in the United States 343 | Diversity on a Global Scale 345

Manager’s Shoptalk: A Guide for Expatriate Managers in America 346 Managing Diversity 346

What Is Diversity? 346 | Dividends of Workplace Diversity 348

Factors Shaping Personal Bias 350 Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotypes 350 | Ethnocentrism 352

Factors Affecting Women’s Careers 353 Glass Ceiling 353 | Opt-Out Trend 354

New Manager’s Self-Test: Are You Tuned Into Gender Differences? 355

The Female Advantage 356 Cultural Competence 356 Diversity Initiatives and Programs 358

Changing Structures and Policies 358 | Expanding Recruitment Efforts 358 | Establishing Mentor Relationships 358 | Accommodating Special Needs 360 | Providing Diversity Skills Training 360 | Increasing Awareness of Sexual Harassment 361

New Diversity Initiatives 362 Multicultural Teams 362 | Employee Network Groups 362

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 363 Discussion Questions 364 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 365 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 366 Case for Critical Analysis 367 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 368 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 369 Endnotes 370 Continuing Case 374

CONTENTS

xxvii

13 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations 376 Are You Self-Confi dent? 377 Organizational Behavior 378 Attitudes 378

Components of Attitudes 379 | High-Performance Work Attitudes 380 | Confl icts Among Attitudes 382

Perception 382 Perceptual Selectivity 383 | Perceptual Distortions 384 | Attributions 384

Personality and Behavior 385 Personality Traits 386 | Emotional Intelligence 388 | Attitudes and Behaviors Infl uenced by Personality 388

New Manager Self-Test: What’s Your EQ? 389 Manager’s Shoptalk: Bridging the Personality Gap 390

Person–Job Fit 393 Learning 394

The Learning Process 394 | Learning Styles 395 Stress and Stress Management 396

Type A and Type B Behavior 397 | Causes of Work Stress 397 | Innovative Responses to Stress Management 398

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 399 Discussion Questions 400 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 400 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 403 Case for Critical Analysis 403 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 405 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 405 Endnotes 406

New Manager Self-Test: Interpersonal Patterns 413 From Management to Leadership 414 Leadership Traits 415 Behavioral Approaches 415

Ohio State Studies 416 | Michigan Studies 416 The Leadership Grid 417

Contingency Approaches 418 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory 418 | Fiedler’s Contingency Theory 419 | Matching Leader Style to the Situation 420 | Substitutes for Leadership 421

Manager’s Shoptalk: Are You a Charismatic Leader? 423

Transformational Versus Transactional Leadership 424 Followership 424 Power and Infl uence 426

Position Power 426 | Personal Power 427 | Other Sources of Power 427 | Interpersonal Infl uence Tactics 428

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 431 Discussion Questions 432 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 432 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 433 Case for Critical Analysis 434 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 435 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 436 Endnotes 437

15 Motivating Employees 440 Are You Engaged or Disengaged? 441 The Concept of Motivation 442 Content Perspectives on Motivation 443

The Hierarchy of Needs 443 | ERG Theory 445 | A Two-Factor Approach to Motivation 446 | Acquired Needs 447

Process Perspectives on Motivation 448 Goal-Setting 448 | Equity Theory 449 | Expectancy Theory 450

New Manager Self-Test: Your Approach to Motivating Others 452 Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation 452 Job Design for Motivation 454

Job Simplifi cation 454 | Job Rotation 455 Manager’s Shoptalk: The Carrot-and-Stick Controversy 455

Job Enlargement 456 | Job Enrichment 456 | Job Characteristics Model 457

Innovative Ideas for Motivating 458 Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs 459 Giving Meaning to Work Through Engagement 460

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 462 Discussion Questions 463 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 463 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 464 Case for Critical Analysis 465 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 466 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 467 Endnotes 468

CONTENTS

xxviii

16 Managing Communication 470 Are You Building a Personal Network? 471 Communication Is the Manager’s Job 472

What Is Communication? 473 | The Communication Process 474

Communicating Among People 475 Manager’s Shoptalk: Breaking Down Language Barriers 475

Communication Channels 476 | Communicating to Persuade and Infl uence Others 478 | Gender Differences in Communication 479 | Nonverbal Communication 480 | Listening 480

New Manager Self-Test: What Is Your Social Disposition? 482 Organizational Communication 483

Formal Communication Channels 483 | Team Communication Channels 486 | Personal Communication Channels 487

Innovations in Organizational Communication 489 Dialogue 489 | Crisis Communication 490 | Feedback and Learning 491 | Climate of Trust and Openness 492

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 492 Discussion Questions 493 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 494 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 495 Case for Critical Analysis 496 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 497 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 498 Endnotes 499

17 Leading Teams 502 How Do You Like to Work? 503 Why Teams at Work? 504

What Is a Team? 504 | The Dilemma of Teams 505

How to Make Teams Effective 506 Model of Team Effectiveness 506 | Effective Team Leadership 507

Types of Teams 507 Formal Teams 507 | Self-Directed Teams 508

Innovative Uses of Teams 509 Virtual Teams 509 | Global Teams 511

Team Characteristics 512 Size 512 | Diversity 512 | Member Roles 513

Team Processes 513 Stages of Team Development 514 | Team Cohesiveness 516 | Team Norms 517

Managing Team Confl ict 517 Balancing Confl ict and Cooperation 518 | Causes of Confl ict 519 | Styles to Handle Confl ict 519 Negotiation 520

New Manager Self-Test: Managing Confl ict 522 Work Team Effectiveness 522

Productive Output 523 | Satisfaction of Members 523 | Capacity to Adapt and Learn 523

Manager’s Shoptalk: How to Run a Great Meeting 524 A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 525 Discussion Questions 525 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 526 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 526 Case for Critical Analysis 527 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 529 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 530 Endnotes 531 Continuing Case 534

18 Managing Quality and Performance 536 What Is Your Attitude Toward Organizational Regulation and Control? 537 The Meaning of Control 538 Manager’s Shoptalk: Cyberslackers Beware: The Boss Is Watching 539

Choosing Standards and Measures 539 The Balanced Scorecard 540

Feedback Control Model 541 Steps of Feedback Control 541 | Application to Budgeting 544

Financial Control 546 Financial Statements 546 | Financial Analysis: Interpreting the Numbers 547

The Changing Philosophy of Control 548 Hierarchical versus Decentralized Approaches 548 | Open-Book Management 550

New Manager Self-Test: What Is Your Control Approach? 551 Total Quality Management 552

TQM Techniques 553 | TQM Success Factors 556

Trends in Quality and Financial Control 557 International Quality Standards 557 | New Financial Control Systems 557

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 559 Discussion Questions 560

Part 6 CONTROLLING

CONTENTS

xxix

Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 561 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 561 Case for Critical Analysis 562 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 564 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 565 Endnotes 565

19 Managing the Value Chain, Information Technology, and E-Business 568 Which Side of Your Brain Do You Use? 569 The Organization As a Value Chain 570

Manufacturing and Service Operations 571 | Supply Chain Management 572

Facilities Layout 573 Process Layout 573

New Manager Self-Test: Political Skills 574 Product Layout 574 | Cellular Layout 576 | Fixed-Position Layout 576

Technology Automation 576 Radio-Frequency Identifi cation (RFID) 577 | Flexible Manufacturing Systems 577 | Lean Manufacturing 578

Inventory Management 578 The Importance of Inventory 579 | Just-in-Time Inventory 579

Information Technology Has Transformed Management 580

Boundaries Dissolve; Collaboration Reigns 580 | Knowledge Management 580 | Management Information Systems 581 | Enterprise Resource Planning Systems 582

Manager’s Shoptalk: Putting Performance Dashboards to Work 583 A New Generation of Information Technology 585 The Internet and E-Business 586

E-Business Strategy: Market Expansion 588 | E-Business Strategy: Increasing Effi ciency 589

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 589 Discussion Questions 590 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 591 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 591 Case for Critical Analysis 592 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 593 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 594 Endnotes 595 Continuing Case 598

Appendix A: Managing Small Business Start-Ups 601 Glossary 625 Name Index 639 Company Index 653 Subject Index 657

CONTENTS

Management RICHARD L. DAFT

Vanderb i l t Un i ve r s i t y

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e After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the four management functions and the type of management

activity associated with each.

2. Explain the difference between effi ciency and effectiveness and their importance for organizational performance.

3. Describe conceptual, human, and technical skills and their relevance for managers.

4. Describe management types and the horizontal and vertical differences between them.

5. Defi ne ten roles that managers perform in organizations.

6. Appreciate the manager’s role in small businesses and nonprofi t organizations.

7. Understand the personal challenges involved in becoming a new manager.

8. Discuss characteristics of the new workplace and the new management competencies needed to deal with today’s turbulent environment.

Are You Ready to Be a Manager? Why Innovation Matters The Defi nition of Management The Four Management Functions

Organizational Performance Management Skills

Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical Skills When Skills Fail

Management Types Vertical Differences Horizontal Differences

What Is It Like to Be a Manager? Making the Leap: Becoming a

New Manager New Manager Self-Test: Manager

Achievement Manager Activities Manager Roles

Managing in Small Businesses and Nonprofi t Organizations

Management and the New Workplace New Workplace Characteristics New Management Competencies

3

Innovative Management for Turbulent Times

C ontrolling

6

P lanning

3

Environm ent

2

4O rganizing

1

ARE YOU READY TO BE A MANAGER?1

Welcome to the world of management. Are you ready for it? This questionnaire will help you see whether your pri- orities align with the demands placed on today’s manag- ers. Rate each of the following items based on what you think is the appropriate emphasis for that task to your success as a new manager of a department. Your task is to rate the top four priority items as “High Priority” and the other four as “Low Prioity.” You will have four of the items rated high and four rated low.

High Priority

Low Priority

1. Spend 50 percent or more of your time in the care and feeding of people.

2. Make sure people understand that you are in control of the department.

3. Use lunches to meet and network with peers in other departments.

4. Implement the changes you believe will improve department performance.

5. Spend as much time as possible talking with and listening to subordinates.

6. Make sure jobs get out on time.

7. Reach out to your boss to discuss his expectations for you and your department.

8. Make sure you set clear expec- tations and policies for your department.

SCORING & INTERPRETATION: All eight items in the list may be important, but the odd-numbered items are considered more important than the even-numbered items for long-term success as a manager. If you checked three or four of the odd-numbered items, consider your- self ready for a management position. A successful new manager discovers that a lot of time has to be spent in the care and feeding of people, including direct reports and colleagues. People who fail in new management jobs often do so because they have poor working relationships or they misjudge management philosophy or cultural values. Developing good relationships in all directions is typically more important than holding on to old work skills or emphasizing control and task outcomes. Success- ful outcomes typically will occur when relationships are solid. After a year or so in a managerial role, successful people learn that more than half their time is spent net- working and building relationships.

Categories

## when an event is almost certain to​ happen, its complement will be an unusual event.

 when an event is almost certain to​ happen, its complement will be an unusual event.
Categories

## pycharm vs idle

IDE Wars: JES vs. IDLE vs. PyCharm

An IDE is an Integrated Development Environment.

It is the application used to create applications and code.

1. Research the differences between JES, IDLE, and PyCharm.
2. Compare/contrast features (a chart might be helpful).
3. What Python IDEs are being used in the industry?

Be sure to cite your research using APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

Categories

## what is the result of procedural complexity in multiparty negotiations?

 what is the result of procedural complexity in multiparty negotiations?
Categories

## fikes products

PART 1 PLEASE RESPOND IN 275 WORDS

Fikes Products

•From the case study, discuss possible new options for finding quality employees other than those considered in the case study.

•From the case study, discuss how Mark Sims could better motivate the employees he already has to become more productive and dedicated. Provide specific examples to support your response.

ORIGINAL WORK, NO PLAGIARISM, 1 REFERENCE

PART 2 PLEASE RESPOND AND COMENT TO THIS DISCUSSION NO LESS THE 175 WORDS BASE ON 1 CREDIBLE RESORCE

Fikes Products

•         From the case study, discuss possible new options for finding quality employees other than those considered in the case study.

One other thing that Mr. Sims can do is look in his vicinity for any truck driving schools that might have recent graduates or those who will be graduating and gain permission to post on the schools website the driver job opportunities that he has within his business.  He can employ the help of a professional hiring website such as Glassdoor or Monster that allow candidates to filter jobs by experience so that this way the individuals who apply for positions are truly qualified for the positions posted.

•         From the case study, discuss how Mark Sims could better motivate the employees he already has to become more productive and dedicated.  Provide specific examples to support your response.

Items that Mr. Sims can do to motivate his employees is to identify any knowledge gaps that the employees have and provide individualized training to close the gap.  He can also take a knowledgeable employee and have them do some peer to peer training.  This will not only help the employee who is struggling but will also give the individual training/providing support to their peer motivation to continue to develop their own skill set.  Can Mr. Sims provide quarterly, mid-year or yearly incentives that compensate the employees for acquiring new customers or increasing the relationship with the current customers?  Maybe they can be compensated in the form of a year-end bonus where the employees get monetary compensation if the business meets or exceeds the performance goals and metrics.

Categories

## list the steps of the accounting cycle in their proper order.

accounting
List the following steps of the accounting cycle in their proper order
a. Preparing the post closing trial balance
b. postint the journal entries
c. journalizing and posting adjusting entries
d. preparing the adjusted trial balance
e. journalizing and posting closing entries
f. analyzing transactions and events
g. preparing the fianacial statements
i. journalizing transactions and events

I got this
1.preparing the finacial statements

1. preparing the post-closing trial balance
3.posting the journal entries
2. journalizing transactions and events
3. journalizing and posting closing entries
6.analyzing transactions and events
4. journalizing and posting adjusting entries
5. preparing the adjusted trial balance
any one help me out to see if this is right? 0 0 388
Oct 16, 2007
F. Analyzing transactions and events.
I. Journalizing transactions and events.
B. Posting the journal entries.
H. Preparing the unadjusted trial balance.
C. Journalizing and posting adjusting entries.
D. Preparing the adjusted trial balance.
G. Preparing the financial statements.
E. Journalizing and posting closing entries.
A. Preparing the post-closing trial balance. 0 0
posted by Mz.Diamond
Jan 22, 2009
Categories

## determine the ph of each of the following solutions.

Calculate the pH of each of the following solutions:

a) .35 M hydrochloric acid, HCl
b) .35 M acetic acid, HC2H3O2
c) .35 M sodium hydroxide, NaOH

Can someone please explain to me how to calculate the pH in a way that is easy to understand? I am confused. Could you please do one of the above questions as an example? Thank you so much!

0 0 293
Sep 14, 2009
This has a very good explaination. Go through his examples, especially at the end.

On c, find the OH concentration, then the pOH, then you know pH+pOH=14 and you can solve for pH from that.

0 0
👨‍🏫
bobpursley
Sep 14, 2009
a) 0.35M HCl (monoprotic strong acid) produces a 0.35M [H+] solution.
pH = -log(0.35)

c) 0.35M NaOH (strong base) acid produces a 0.35M [OH-] solution.
pOH = -log(0.35)
pH = 14-pOH

b) 0.35M HC2H3O2 (WEAK ACID) does not dissociate completely. Its Ka = 1.8×10^-5
[H+] = sqrt[(Ka)(0.35)]
pH = -log[H+]

0 0
posted by GK
Sep 14, 2009
🙂

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 22, 2018

Categories

## cis-2,3-dibromo-2-hexene

Draw the structure for cis-2,3-dibromo-2-hexene.

0 0 528
Apr 28, 2010
We can’t draw structures on the board; however, this may help.
C-C=C-C-C-C
Start counting from the left. On carbon 2 place a Br atom. On carbon 3 place another Br atom ON THE SAME SIDE (place the Br atoms both on top or both on bottom). That is the cis form. Fill for a valence of 4 on the other carbons with H atoms.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Apr 28, 2010
cis-2,3-dibromo-2-hexene

br
| br
h2 | |
/\ /\ | /h3
h3 / \/ \|/
h2

0 1
posted by elizabeth Reyes
Mar 21, 2012
it does get messed up

oh well.

DO your skeleton 6 legs on the second from right to left your right facing computer put double bond

first and last carbon has h3
left carbons 4,5 have h2 and carbon 2, 3 have br facing each other. IF you put them one up and one down you will create trans.

0 0
posted by elizabeth Reyes
Mar 21, 2012

Categories

## which of the following would always require a citation in a research paper

1.Which of the following would always require a citation in a research paper?
10,654 results
writing
Can someone please check my answers which of the following would always require a citation in a research paper? thesis statenment an anecdotal experience a quotation (answer) a humorous statement Which of the following shows the correct parenthetical

asked by kevin on April 1, 2012
medical billing and coding from Penn Foster
I am writing a research paper for HIPAA, I beleive I have most of the information to do the paper. I do not understand what it means by writing it in proper MLA/APA citation style? Could someone please explain this to me and show me a small example of what

asked by Shannon on June 20, 2009
Lang, Arts
1.Which of the following would always require a citation in a research paper? A.Thesis statement B.an anecdotal experience C.a quotation D.a humorous statement I think it is C…? 2. Which of the following shows the correct parenthetical citation for

asked by cassie on March 20, 2013
English
Which pf the following, would not always require a citation in a research paper? a- quotation of a phrase b- quotation of a sentence c- thesis statement d- sentence paraphrased from a book

asked by Steve on May 29, 2015
Lang. Arts

1. Which of the following would not always require a citation in a research paper? A.quotation of a phrase B.quotation of a sentence C.sentence paraphrased from a book D.thesis statement I think this is C or D…? any suggestions? Thanks 5. Which of the

asked by cassie on March 20, 2013

1. What is one disadvantage of accessing the Internet through a public search engine such as or ? A.) It’s open to anyone, so the information comes from many different people. B.) You won’t be able to access documents that have not been published

asked by Jim on February 28, 2013
aberdeen
To avoid plagiarism in your written research paper, you must provide a citation for which of the following?

asked by Anonymous on November 4, 2012
info interacy
To avoid plagiarism in your written research paper, you must provide a citation for which of the following?

asked by tasha on January 15, 2012
English

1. what sources should you include in your works cited list? a. all of the sources that you read whether you used them in the paper. b. only the sources that have a parenthetical citation in your paper. c. most of the sources that have a parenthetical

asked by jay on April 8, 2012
Citations
I’m writing a research paper about Bernie Sanders and I’m including a quote from him in it. Do I need to put an in-text citation for the website where I found that quote or is it fine if I say that Sanders stated it. My sentence is: When asked about

asked by Anon on January 3, 2018
English

1. Which of the following would require documentation in an academic research paper? A. A statement regarding Thomas Jefferson being the third President of the United States B. An observation you made while on a field trip to a zoo C. A map of Brooklyn, NY

asked by Taj on February 10, 2018
stats 200
. At a college, 72% of courses have final exams and 46% of courses require research papers. Suppose that 32% of courses have a research paper and a final exam. Let F be the event that a course has a final exam. Let R be the event that a course requires a

asked by edi on September 6, 2015
Social Studies
I need help looking for an interview with Amelia Earhart, written or audio/visual, for a research paper. This is the last citation I need, and I cannot find a direct interview. Please help.

asked by Brittany on April 11, 2010
English help

1. In a citation within a Works Cited page, which of the following should NOT be in italics? A. the title of a book B. the title of an editorial* C. the title of an encyclopedia 2. You finished writing a research paper on the way modern technology

asked by Cassie on April 27, 2014
Educational Tech
At which point in a research presentation should you paraphrase your information A) When You Search For The Resources B) When You Take Notes C) When You Write The Research Paper D) When You Edit The Research Paper My answer is B.

asked by @AmeliaTheGamer on April 21, 2017

Now that you have finished your research paper, what advice would you give to students starting this course? What would you do differently if you were just starting the course? On what would you focus more? On what would you focus less? Explain your

asked by rose – Ms. Sue on June 3, 2008
Illegal Drugs

1. CheckPoint: Introduction and Conclusion · Resource: Drafting Your Research Paper · Consider the components of an effective introduction and an effective conclusion outlined in Drafting Your Research Paper. · Write an introduction for your research

asked by Valentina Miozza on March 23, 2010
english – final revision
Now that you have finished your research paper, what advice would you give to students starting this course? What would you do differently if you were just starting the course? On what would you focus more? On what would you focus less? Explain your

asked by rose – Ms. Sue on June 3, 2008
chi-square test
the assumptions for using a chi-square test. Research articles provide practical examples from the research to support your assumptions. Include a citation of one article you used for your research

asked by smith on December 15, 2010
english
The final section of a research paper paragraph should include _, to help readers figure out how the evidence supplied in the body of the paragraph supports the topic. A. an analysis B. a transition C. a citation D. a quotation C?

asked by caitlyn on November 30, 2016
science
Any topic (writer’s choice) Research paper Science 3 pages / 825 words Discipline: Science Type of service: Writing from scratch Format or citation style: APA

asked by mark on November 5, 2013
English
If I am told to use an in-text citation in my research, and if I use only one source in my entire paragraph, where would the in-text citation go?

asked by Anonymous on January 12, 2016
chi-square test
Discuss the assumptions for using a chi-square test. Research articles from the Ashford Library and provide practical examples from the research to support your assumptions. Include a citation of one article you used for your research

asked by wallic on December 21, 2010
statistics
Discuss the assumptions for using a chi-square test. Research articles from the Ashford Library and provide practical examples from the research to support your assumptions. Include a citation of one article you used for your research.

asked by steve on April 13, 2011
HIPPA/ research project
I was hoping that someone might be able to help me. I am doing a research project. to the questions below. I was wondering if you might know of any web-sites that might be able to help me. I have to use appropriate citation through out my paper and I have

asked by a bit confused on May 13, 2008

Criminal Justice
Research Process and Terminology Paper To be proficient in research, one must know language and process. During this assignment, you will familiarize yourself with research terminology as you use the terms to write your paper. Prepare a 1,050- to

asked by Steph on January 23, 2011
English

1. One major difference between a debate and a research paper is that a. a research paper involves a multistage process of gathering, organizing, and revising information. b. a debate involves the delivery of ideas before an audience. c. a debate involves

asked by cristalL5 on March 7, 2018
English
I have to do a research paper about something that has to do with my career field which is medical. My paper is on premature babies. My question is how do I do an outline before doing my research paper, how much information do I need to put in the outline?

asked by Casey on April 16, 2008
MLA English

1. The MLA format for citing a book has four parts, beginning with the author’s name. What appears in the fourth position? A. Place of publication B. Date C. Publisher D. Medium 2. Which of the following is a true statement about an MLA Works Cited page?

asked by Ariel on February 7, 2018
English
Hi, I’m writing a paper for English and my professor crossed off the authors name in one of quotes for the citation of my rough draft as if it was suppose to be there. Something like xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (john 59) and she crossed off john as if I wasn’t

asked by Jhon on October 10, 2011
eng 122
The types of information that does not require source citation

asked by Bernice Smith on August 22, 2011
Can someone please help me with the topics for a research paper. It needs to be based on some medical issues. This is the first time I am writing a research paper. please help me with a topic. Please!!!!

asked by Anonymous on April 3, 2009
PHI 103 Informal Logic
I need major help with writing my final research paper. research paper are over whelming to me to information is need and its has to bee 6-8 i don’t have that much to say.This is the topic “Is the death penalty just and applied fairly”?

asked by Macc on June 4, 2012
English
Choose the best answer. Which sentence would make the best opening for a speech arguing for more nutritious school lunches? A.) Many students dislike the current lunch menus, and I feel they should be changed.**** B.) Evidence

asked by Cassie on May 21, 2014
Literacy

1. To avoid plagiarism in your written research paper, you must provide a citation for which of the following? A. The United Nations ruling on the Soviet-bloc countries B. Former President John F. Kennedy’s birthday C. Statistics about Web usage you found

asked by Heather on January 16, 2012

English

1. When taking notes from your sources, you should also __. A. revise your research question B. write the information needed for your works cited list C. format your paper and works cited list D. find a topic for your research paper 2. Academic

asked by Jay on April 17, 2015
eth/125
Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word research paper in which you identify the linguistic, political, social, economic, religious, and familial conventions or statuses of four Hispanic groups living in the United States. Your paper must address Mexican Americans,

asked by meka on April 30, 2011
MLA

1. When a block quotation is used in a research paper, punctuation the parenthetical citation. A. is set off by a comma from B. precedes C. is omitted from D. follows 8. It’s necessary to use a/an when a quotation is introduced by a verb.

asked by Ariel on February 7, 2018
computer

1. The website for Long Island University provides online A. style guides. B. bibliography generators. C. print and ebooks that include citation and documentation guides. D. resources that are a popular means of disseminating information. 5. Penn Foster’s

asked by Tina on April 29, 2015
English 2
‘When you finish the final section of this lesson, you’ll write a short research paper. You can choose any subject to research and write about, but you’ll want to keep some guidelines in mind. Your subject should be interesting. It should be complex enough

asked by mysterychicken on September 23, 2010
English
When your writing any type of research paper are you writing in past or present tense? It’s a history research paper on the Jacksonian Era. I’m replying back to what SraJMcGin said. – SraJMcGin That would depend! Is this research over and done with or do

asked by Carla on November 5, 2009
compositionII
In Weeks 6-11, you will write a research paper. Your completed paper will be 5-7 pages in length. In Week 8, you finalized your thesis and prepared an outline of your paper. This week, Week 9, you’ll write your rough draft. Using Microsoft Word, prepare

asked by annomyons on December 21, 2012
English
I need help with finding sources for my research paper. My teacher said: All of your sources should be from reputable scholarly sources, from journal articles you access via the library’s online databases or from books that you access in the library.

asked by pam on February 15, 2010
English
I need help with finding sources for my research paper. My teacher said: All of your sources should be from reputable scholarly sources, from journal articles you access via the library’s online databases or from books that you access in the library.

asked by pam on February 15, 2010
English
What type of conclusion do you plan to write for your research paper? Why? For my conclusion, I plan to write my research paper on a compilation of all the specific topics discussed in my introduction. I would summarize the information I want to relate to

asked by Nish on June 11, 2014

1. You finished writing a research paper on the way modern technology affects communication within families. Now you need to include the citation for an editorial published in the Sacramento Gazette titled “Should We Just Text Our Children?” However,

asked by Cassie on April 28, 2014
UOP-ETH 125
I am starting the writing process for an autobiographical research paper and was not sure exactlly what the requirements fo writing this form of paper were. Is it supposed to be written like an autobiography, in the first person? What exactlly makes it an

asked by Rose on September 1, 2009

1. Which of the following methods of reporting research is not followed by most scientists? (Points : 1) publishing a research paper online publishing a research paper in print holding a press conference presenting a talk at a meeting Question 4. 4. Who

asked by Jane on January 8, 2014

1. Which of the following methods of reporting research is not followed by most scientists? (Points : 1) publishing a research paper online publishing a research paper in print holding a press conference presenting a talk at a meeting Question 4. 4. Who

asked by Jane on January 8, 2014
Language Arts
I have to write a research paper for L.A. and it must be comepletely in 3rd Person. I have all the research information and how i am organizing the paper but i can’t seem to figure out how to start it off. How can i write a good introduction?

asked by Anonymous on December 5, 2010
writing
so i have to write a research paper(3-4 pages) on this topic ‘does lack of sleep affect heart rate’ how do i do that…this is the first time i write a research paper so i need help..thanks

asked by HELP on February 5, 2011
writing or computer
What is the appropriate citation method for your major or course of study? What have you learned about that citation methodology from Lesson Three of this course? Do you think you’ll be able to use this citation method effectively to avoid plagiarism?

asked by jill on May 7, 2015
research paper
s my outline for my research paper is this * abstract * introduction: includes the research question, general overview of your paper *scientific and historical perspective of your topic * two or three differing opinions relating to the topic *conclusion

asked by anonymous on October 11, 2014
English
how to make a body of research paper? I really don’t know.. I have already my note cards.. all i have to do is to make a body of my research paper.. I have a question, does the body of research paper must not be on first person or second person? thank you

asked by james on May 11, 2008
english
Can someone tell me how to put a source in a paper? this is how I think my teacher told me to do it: “Tom was a dead man the minute Mayella Ewell opened her mouth and screamed” (Lee 241). how do you do it if the quote is a question What you have is

asked by April on January 17, 2007

Research Writing
How do you do this? I am lost. My topic I chose is Homeless. Summary of the Research Process I. Begin the project. A. Think about the assignment. B. Analyze your audience and the purpose for which you are writing. C. Select an appropriate topic. D.

asked by Doris on August 26, 2008
health
It’s my first time writing a research paper, I’m not sure what it should look like and was hoping someone would have an example of one on line. I have four questions I need to answer and if I could see an example of a paper written it would really help me

asked by Teresa on August 2, 2010
Pick any 3 firms to research. Based on Internet research on these companies, write a 500–750-word research paper proposing at least 3 marketing opportunities that you would strongly suggest that each firm pursue

asked by Michelle on September 8, 2011
English 122
I have to write a research paper. My research paper is on Large corporations, such as Walmart and Home Depot, have been criticized for driving mom-and-pop shops out of business. Is this a valid criticism? Does the American public have some role to play? I

asked by Darlene on May 26, 2013
ANT101
“In Tikopia, when the paramount chief dies, there is an election among the lesser chiefs to replace him” (Nowak & Laird, 2010, p. 177). Suppose you write the following in your post or paper: When a Tikopian chief who rules over other chiefs dies, the

asked by Anonymous on May 1, 2015
LITERACY
Which type of citation would you use for a psychology paper?

asked by Anonymous on March 4, 2014
English
When you do an internal citation, following a direct quote, do you put a period after the quote and another after the citation, or just one at the end of the citation?

asked by marcie on December 7, 2009
com 220
Ceckpoint Introduction and conclusion. I am having a problem with writing an introduction for my research paper and a conclusion. My research paper is about education. But my professor said it has to be in a rough draft what does that mean. can somebody

asked by ana on February 24, 2010
english
What is the appropriate citation method for your major or course of study? What have you learned about that citation methodology from Lesson Three of this course? Do you think you’ll be able to use this citation method effectively to avoid plagiarism?

asked by jd on July 8, 2017
Sociology
Hi, i am takin a research class and i need to do a quantitative research paper. so i need help thinking of a research question or hypothesis? could you suggest some please. i would like to do something with gender. i need another variable. i was gonna do

asked by ally on September 18, 2008

Cultural Diversity
I have to write a 1400 to 1750 word autobiographical research paper that analyzes the influences of race as it relates to my community. In the paper I must write a first person account of how human interactions in my community have been racialized. What is

asked by Susan H. on January 12, 2010
english
Using the chicago style manuel, how would you cite this in in-text citation. Smith doesn’t disagree. (In fact, he claims he figured this out himself!) Citation: Smith, 2008, p. 15 There needs to be a citation after the word disagree and at the end after

asked by kim on September 11, 2010
character education
An authoritative paper is one that ________. The paper is based on research in the real world has an author and sources who are recognized as experts in the field of study with which the paper deals is listed on the dean list in colled where it

asked by Bri on November 9, 2017
eth 125
If you’re curious, you can see what a search for . Final Project: Race and Your Community ï‚· Resource: Appendix A ï‚· Due Date: Day 7 [Individual] forum ï‚· Prepare a 1,400- to 1,750-word autobiographical research paper that analyzes the

asked by patiance on May 9, 2009
AP English 11
I have to write a paper for english, i keep getting bad grades and i use the paper rater sight always to make sure i do my best. it shows i get a 95 and my teacher gives me 30-20 points less and i don’t under stand what im doing wrong. i need help on my

asked by Stephanie on February 18, 2013
AP English 11
I have to write a paper for english, i keep getting bad grades and i use the paper rater sight always to make sure i do my best. it shows i get a 95 and my teacher gives me 30-20 points less and i don’t under stand what im doing wrong. i need help on my

asked by Stephanie on February 17, 2013
Art History
I have to write a research paper on my field trip to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NY, and discuss 8 items in length that we were meant to find in the museum. The only problem I am having is actually starting the paper, I don’t want to just jump into

asked by Ashley on October 26, 2007
com/220
I have to write a research paper for gun control. I would like to know what information I should be looking for and what I should try to include in my paper. I know that research writing should be unbiased but I do not know how to start. I do not want my

asked by donovan on March 24, 2010
sci/275
research due day 2 (tuesday) wk 6 sci/275 Exercise: Final Paper Research Due Day 2 (Tuesday) Please post in your Individual Forum · Resource: Appendix A · Review the environmental issues that are covered in this course. · Choose an environmental issue

asked by aisha on May 27, 2010
English
I need to write a research paper on a topic that is relevant to, or is present in a book after I have read it. I wish to know any suggestions on good books to read on which an obvious research topic can be extracted from(preferably history related but not

asked by Bethany on March 12, 2015

Ethics
I’m writing a research paper regarding HIPAA. There are 4 questions to answer, I’ve never written a paper before and I would like to see an example of a paper with questions and what it should look like with references and citations. Thanks!

asked by Anonymous on August 2, 2010
English – revised
Question: What type of introduction and what type of conclusion do you plan to write for your research paper? How does the introduction draw readers into your argument, and how does the conclusion neatly tie up your paper? Explain your answers. Answer: My

asked by rose – Ms. Sue on May 13, 2008
english
some help needed…i have to write research paper..paper topic is to choose one of these poets and analyze one or more of hus poems:Donne, Herbert, Vaughan, Marvell, Crashaw But i can only use page- well i am not allowed to write the adress but it is

asked by curly on January 2, 2007
English – Check these?
Can someone help me check these? 1. The main purpose of a research paper is __. (1 point) to verify information to expand a body of knowledge*** to persuade the reader to commit to a course of action 2. Which of the following is NOT a guideline

asked by Sandy East Ward on April 30, 2014
com220
need to find three sources for research paper about legalizing marijuana apa formatted the i need a answer for Practice note-taking techniques by quoting a source you plan to use for your research paper, summarizing a second source, and paraphrasing a

asked by Axia on September 22, 2008
English

1. When punctuating quotations, commas and __ are placed inside the quotation marks. A. semicolons B. colons C. periods D. page numbers in parentheses 9 A 7. Which of the following would require documentation in an academic research paper? A. A

asked by Taj on February 10, 2018
gen200
• Identify a problem in your day-to-day life that you would like to solve (e.g., time management). • Using the information from your Week Three readings as a guide, prepare a 700 to 1,050-word paper in which you develop a research strategy to find a

asked by Anonymous on August 5, 2010
English
I need to do a research paper. The assisgnment is research Christmas back to its ancient origins. Can you recommend some sites I can look into?

asked by Vicky on November 26, 2012
medical billing and coding from Penn Foster
When writing a research paper and writing a reference page, should you include in the paper that you are writing the refence number after the sentence, or can you just list the references on a separate sheet of paper and call it done?

asked by Shannon on June 22, 2009
HCS 310
ORGANIZATION AL ANALYSIS · Select one public sector not-for-profit health agency within the United States health care system. · Prepare a 1,050-1,400 word paper in APA format describing the type of health organization: government, quasi-government, or

asked by LaShawn on May 7, 2010

acc 305 accounting
The fourth step in the financial accounting research process may require you to​ __. A. cross reference information in the Codification B. work down the levels of the hierarchy to identify a similar transaction C. draft a memo D. change or refine

english
I’m working on a research paper for this whole unit in English, the first task is to form research questions. But how do I do that? Is it supposed to be in a MLA format/paragraph type? Do I just list the research questions like I would when I’m doing a

asked by Carl Wheezer on April 10, 2017
Biology
I am doing a research paper on multiple sclerosis. Can you recommend a book that I can use in my research?

asked by Gabby on December 5, 2013
English
if you summarize some informations from quotes, how do you citing them? can I just cite like this???? summarizing sentence (name page#). In order to cite references correctly, be sure you have a parenthetical citation just like what you indicated PLUS a

asked by Kalli on October 30, 2006
history
i have a question. my research paper is on the jacksonian era what would my thesis be because the paper contains many different events

asked by Melissa on September 21, 2009
Medical Terminology
I have to write a paper on Abbreviations. Anyone have any web sites to research my paper. I have a few but need a coule more.

asked by Deb on August 20, 2008
Science
I need a Title to my research paper, my topic is about telecommunication and I need it to be specific. I choose the use computer in Telecommunication and I have no Idea what are the uses or functions of the computer in telecommunication.. any can help on

asked by James on April 20, 2008
ECE pls help!
I need a Title to my research paper, my topic is about telecommunication and I need it to be specific. I choose the use computer in Telecommunication and I have no Idea what are the uses or functions of the computer in telecommunication.. anyone can help

asked by James on April 20, 2008
History
I’m writing a research paper on the Jacksonian Era. Can you help me with a good attention grabber to start my paper off with.

asked by Unknown on November 4, 2009
Essay
Does an interview that I conducted for a research paper need to be sited on a reference page if the paper is written in APA format?

asked by JaneDawn on March 6, 2009

English 12
I am doing a literary research paper on chaucers canterbury tales. I need help in writing my thesis for this paper also i can not figure out a topic.

asked by Vicky on February 19, 2013
english
I doing a research paper on “obesity” where can I find credible resource for my paper.

asked by John on June 6, 2010
Toilet Paper
I am studying the history of toilet paper. When and how was toilet paper invented? What did people use before the invention of toilet paper? What are some of the future advances in Toilet Paper manufacturing that we can look forward to? Thank you, Fred

asked by Fred Mullens on May 8, 2007
Statistics
Based on sq foot and home prices :Create an inferential statistics (hypothesis) test using the research question and two variables your learning team developed for the Week 2 Business Research Project Part 1 assignment. Include: The research question Mock

asked by Brenda on March 5, 2017
English
hello, I have to write a research paper on a paticular author. I chose Mary Shelly since we just finsihed reading Frankenstein. I need to narrow down my topic to make it more specific. I don’t know how to start. I want to somehow relate her life with

asked by Anonymous on February 18, 2008

Categories

## in jefferson’s view, george washington’s action in addressing the whiskey rebellion

In Jefferson’s view, George Washington’s action in addressing the Whiskey Rebellion

A. was appropriate but not sufficiently bold.

B. amounted to an inappropriate overreaction.

C. Wouldn’t have been necessary save for the influence of Republican Clubs

D. was a fitting response to an immediate threat to the federal government.

0 0 65
Nov 29, 2013
Check out Related Questions below.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Writeacher
Nov 29, 2013
Well it’s not c

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Jan 18, 2015

Categories

## what is the value of x given that pq bc

What is the value of x, given PQ || BC?
Triangle: A, B, C with bisector PQ
AP = 8
PB = x
AQ = 12
QC = 18

1 0 709
Feb 12, 2015
Apparently PQ is not a bisector. It is just parallel to BC.

So,

AQ/QC = AP/PB
12/18 = 8/x
x = 12

0 0
posted by Steve
Feb 13, 2015
37,53

0 1
posted by aman
Jun 24, 2016
Each triangle is different -_-

0 1
posted by Wolfcat
Mar 27, 2018
for this same Q!!!

0 1
posted by Wolfcat
Mar 27, 2018

Categories

## which of the following must occur for speciation to happen?

1. which of the following must occur for speciation to take place?
10,681 results
science
1.a population of snails on an island is disrupted during a violent storm. portions of the population are carried by the storm surge to two new islands, while a portion remains on the original island creating three separate populations. conditions on one

asked by kayla(sciences) plz help on October 5, 2015
science

1. which of the following must occur for speciation to take place? a. a population must be physically separated into groups b. harsh environmental conditions must be imposed on a population c. competition must occur between members of a populations d. some

asked by kayla help plzz on October 6, 2015
science

1. which of the following must occur for speciation to take place? a. a population must be physically separated into groups b. harsh environmental conditions must be imposed on a population c. competition must occur between members of a populations d. some

asked by kayla help plzz on October 5, 2015
Science
Can you please help me answer just a couple questions A species of flowering plant produces vibrant blue flowers. The flowers attract both pollinators that spread the plant’s pollen and herbivores that feed on the plant. An adaptation occurred through

asked by anonymous on May 18, 2015
theory of evolution
if you guys could check my answers I would be really grateful A species of flowering plant produces vibrant blue flowers. The flowers attract both pollinators that spread the plant’s pollen and herbivores that feed on the plant. An adaptation occurred

asked by anonymous on May 19, 2015

Science
Sorry Ms Sue I forgot to separate them A species of flowering plant produces vibrant blue flowers. The flowers attract both pollinators that spread the plant’s pollen and herbivores that feed on the plant. An adaptation occurred through several generations

asked by anonymous on May 18, 2015
Biology
Can someone explain allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation. I know that allopatric speciation is because of geographic isolation. I don’t understand sympatric speciaiton, though.

asked by Alex on January 23, 2008
Biology
1.) Do you think evolution is still taking place in the Galapagos finches? Why or why not? According to what I’ve learned yes evolution is still taking place in the Galapagos finches. Isolation and gene mutations cause species to evolve into different

biology
How do adaptive radiation, polyploidy, and sexual selection relate to speciation? And what is allopatric and sympatric speciation and how to they relate to the earlier mentioned topics?

asked by Rach on September 2, 2009
Math
8 runners are entered in the 1000-meter run. How many different first, second, and third place finishes could possibly occur? Is the answer 24? No. 8x7x6 = 336 The first place can be any of eight. For each first place possibility, there are seven possible

asked by Tony on December 14, 2006
Environmental Science
I have to determine which kind of natural selection is most likely to begin speciation out of stabalizing, directional and disruptive. I would think Directional, since it favors one extreme which could eventually break away from the norm to the point a new

asked by Regina on April 1, 2011
geo
I need 3 reasons why a huge earthquake wouldnt occur in NYC. I have the following points: 1) New york city doesn’t lay beneath any fault lines I also said that if an earthquake were to occur, the magnitude would be on the lower end of the ritcher scale.

asked by Lena on September 27, 2010
Biology

1. Two species live in the same area but breed in different parts of their habitat. These species are A) geographically isolated. B) ecologically isolated. C) artificially isolated. D) likely to produce hybrids. 2. A large population of animals is split in

asked by Anon on December 12, 2012
college chemistry

1. what voltage is necessary to force the following electrolysis reaction to occur? which process would occur at the anode? cathode? assuming the iodine oxidation takes place at a platinumm electrode, what is the direction of electron flow in this cell?

asked by Anonymous on May 20, 2015
Economics
If, when there is full employment, the federal government increases its spending without increasing its tax revenues, generally: 1. an increase in employment will occur 2. a serious depression will occur 3. the national debts will occur 4. inflation will

asked by Ami on September 14, 2009

Living environment
what is speciation

asked by SYNC on November 21, 2011
Antrophology
i need help on the this assigments can some one please help me and thanks. Are [r] and [I] allophones of one or two phonemes? A) Do they occur in any minimal pairs? B) Are they occur in any complementary distribution? C) In what enviroments does each

asked by SELENE on February 22, 2010
bio
what affect would a very short generation time, such as that of bacteria, have on speciation?

asked by tara on May 31, 2010
Biology
explain the process of adaptive radiation, and how are reproductive barriers important to speciation

asked by Melissa on December 8, 2011
biology/honors
How does genetic variation lead to speciation ? Can you help me answer this question please for the review test ? thank you .

asked by mike on May 19, 2011
science
does geographic isolation lead to speciation in self pollinating plants and asexually reproducing organisms?

asked by beena on September 3, 2007
Chemistry
In blueprinting, there are to reactions that occur. The first one: Fe^3+ + C204^-2 (oxalate) -> Fe^2+ + CO3 must occur with light. Can the second reaction described by the chemical equation below occur without light? Fe^2+ + Fe (CN)6^-2 -> Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2

asked by Jenny on January 31, 2011
Biology 110
Displacement of O2 from its respiratory pigment: A. occur more rapidly in cold temp. B. occur more slowly when Ph alkaline. C. occur more slowly when O2 tissue level low. D. none of these.

asked by Susan Yi on October 28, 2011
science
will geographical isolation be a major factor in the speciation of a self pollinating plant species and an organism that reproduces asexually?

asked by beena on August 29, 2007
This number has 7 digits The digit in the ten thousands place is 9 The digit in the hundreds place is 3 times greater than the digit in the ones place The digit in the millions place is the difference between the tens place and the thousands place The

asked by Creative kid on October 6, 2016

chemistry
A process which is unfavorable with respect to enthalpy, but favorable with respect to entrophy a)could occur at high temperatures, but not at lower temperatures b)could not occur regardless of temperature c)could occur at any temperature d)could occur at

asked by Kim B. on November 6, 2009
Biology
Which of the following terms describes changes in allele frequencies in the gene pool over a single generation? A. Macroevolution B. Microevolution C. Segregation D. Speciation

asked by Dulce on July 13, 2014
Psychology
Which of the following was not raised as a criticism of the James-Lange theory of emotion? Question 1 options: The body’s responses are too similar to trigger the various emotions. Emotional reactions occur before the body’s responses can take place. The

asked by milla on April 3, 2012
Science-Ms.Sue
Which of the following correctly states the relationship between monkeys and humans? A. Humans and monkeys evolved from apes. B. Humans evolved from monkeys. C. Humans and monkeys evolved from the same ancestor, which is now extinct. D. Humans evolved from

asked by Anonymous on November 24, 2013
statistics
let E,F and G be three events. state expressions fo rthe events. a. only F occurs b. exactly two of the events occur. c. at leasat one of the events occur. d. E and G occur but F does not. how do I go about writing these. do I use like union and

asked by sara on September 5, 2014
math
(1A) Write the 11-digit number that has a 2 in the ones place,1 in the tens place,a digit in the ten-thousands place that is twice the digit in the ones place,the smallest odd digit in the billions place, 6 in the tenths place, and 0 in all the other

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light travelling in air is incident on a soap bubble. If the path difference through the soap bubble is 2.5λ: a) constructive interference will occur b) destructive interference will occur c) partial interference will occur d) none of the above

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asked by Gloria on May 8, 2015

Categories

## solid sodium reacts violently with water producing heat

1. Solid sodium reacts violently with water, producing heat, hydrogen gas, and sodium hydroxide. How many molecules of hydrogen gas are formed when 48.7 g of sodium are added to water?
2Na + 2H2O = 2NaOH + H2

So far I have this much figured out:
Mass to moles for Na: 48.7g Na x 1mol / 22.990g = 2.118mol Na
…2.118mol Na….(I need help with this part!!)
1.06mol x 6.02*10^23 atoms / 1 mol = 6.38 x 10^23 molecules of hydrogen gas are formed.

That middle part is really throwing me off. I’m seeing people doing this: 2.12/2 x 24 =25.44dm^3 H = 1.06mol
But I really dont understand where the 24 is coming from?? I understand the math behind it, but I’m confused as to how these people are getting that when working through the problem. Thank you!!

2 0 563
Dec 12, 2017
The H2 stuff looks ok.

the 24 also confuses me. 1 mole of any gas at STP is 22.4 liters, not 24. I suspect a typo (the missing 2)

0 0
posted by Steve
Dec 12, 2017
maybe the H2 is hot when it comes off, so it occupies more space. Do you have some thermal information?

0 0
posted by Steve
Dec 12, 2017
Yeah the question states that when the solid sodium reacts violently with water, it produces /heat/, hydrogen gas, and sodium hydroxide. I never learned anything about how to write heat into an equation, could you explain it to me?

0 0
posted by Mitch n’ Joey
Dec 12, 2017
@Steve? Still there, buddy? Can anyone else help me, I’m struggling.

0 0
posted by Mitch n’ Joey
Dec 12, 2017

let’s do this one step at a time.

1. Write and balance the equation. You’ve done that.
2Na + 2H2O = 2NaOH + H2
2. Convert g Na to mols. You’ve done that. 48.7/22.99 = 2.12 mols.
3. Now you want to convert mols Na (what you have)to mols H2(what you want). You do that with the coefficients in the balanced equation.
2.12 mols Na x (1 mol H2/2 mol Na) = 1.06 mols H2 produced.
4. Now you convert mols H2 to molecules. You know that 1 mol of anything contains 6.02E23 of those anythings; therefore, 1.06 mols H2 x (6.02E23 moleculers/1 mol H2) = ?

My notes. There is no need to convert mols H2 to liters before converting to molecules. Doing that brings up that pesky 22.4L(U.S.) or 24 (U.K.). It is worth noting that 1 mole of a gas occupies 22.4 L IF the gas is at STP. At NTP it occupies 24 L which is probably the source of that 24. Unfortunately some people use 20 C as normal T and others like to use 25 C. Finally there is SATP (24.8 L). Also i should note that “normal pressure) is almost always 1 atm in the U. S. but 100 kPa is usually seen in the definitions. The good news in this problem is that none of that matters if you go directly from mols to number of molecules.

2 0
posted by DrBob222
Dec 12, 2017
Awesome! Thank you so much! My answer was 6.38 x 10^23 molecules

0 0
posted by Mitch n’ Joey
Dec 13, 2017
I have the same problem to figure out, but mine gave this equation: Na + H20 -> H2 + NaOH
So I was just wondering what I should do since mine aren’t the exact same.

0 0
posted by Lydia
Dec 21, 2017
Never mind. I figured it out.

0 0
posted by Lydia
Dec 21, 2017

Categories

## hi(aq)+koh(aq)â†’h2o(l)+ki(aq)

HI(aq)+KOH(aq)→H2O(l)+KI(aq) express this as a complete ionic equation

0 0 871
Nov 7, 2013
H^+(aq) + I^-(aq) + K^+(aq) + OH^-(aq) ==> H2O(l) + K^+(aq) + (I^-)(aq)

The net ionic equation is
H^+(aq) + OH^-(aq) ==> H2O(l)

1 0
posted by DrBob222
Nov 7, 2013
H^+(aq) + OH^-(aq) ==> H2O(l)

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 12, 2018

Categories

## at 850 k the equilibrium constant for the following reaction is kc = 15.

At 850 K, the value of the equilibrium constant Kp for the ammonia synthesis reaction N2(g) H2(g) N2H2(g) is 0.1690. If a vessel contains an initial reaction mixture in which [N2]=0.0150 M, [H2]=0.0200 M, and [N2H2]=0.000250 M, what will
33,320 results
chemistry
At 850 K, the value of the equilibrium constant Kp for the ammonia synthesis reaction N2(g) + H2(g) N2H2(g) is 0.1690. If a vessel contains an initial reaction mixture in which [N2]=0.0150 M, [H2]=0.0200 M, and [N2H2]=0.000250 M, what will the [N2H2] be

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In the industrial synthesis of ammonia, the equilibrium constant expression may be written as: Keq= [NH3]^2/[N2][H2]^3 Calculate the value of this equilibrium constant, if the equilibrium concentration of nitrogen in the reaction mixture at 600°C if [N2]

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Chemistry
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Chem
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asked by Robert on July 2, 2012
Chemistry – Correction
I just wanted to be sure if my answers make any sense. Thank you; For the reaction of ammonia: N2(g) + 3H2(g) –> 2NH3(g) suppose equilibrium has been established. Explain how and why the position of equilibrium will shift in response to the following

asked by Robert on July 3, 2012
Chemistry

1. Solid ammonium iodide decomposes to yield ammonia gas(NH3) and hydrogen iodide gas at 400oF. The equilibrium constant for this reaction is 0.215. Ten grams of ammonium iodide are sealed in a 10.0 L flask at equilibrium. Complete the following: a. Write

asked by Jacob on March 13, 2018
Chemistry
At 25oC, the equilibrium pressure of ammonia vapour above a 0.500 M aqueous ammonia solution is 0.84 kPa. Calculate the Henry’s law constant for ammonia in M/bar. Do not include units. Include 4 significant figures.

asked by Joseph on February 8, 2018
Chemistry
Two moles of pure ammonia were injected into a 2.00L flask at a certain temperature. The equilibrium mixture: 2NH3(G)–>N2(G) + 3H2(G)

asked by Jimmy on May 17, 2009
Chemistry
The equilibrium constant Kc for the following reaction is equal to 0.20 at 250°C. Calculate the equilibrium constant Kp for the reverse reaction at the same temperature. COCl2 (g) = CO (g) + Cl2 (g) My Answer: To find the reverse reaction of Kc, it should

chemistry
The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of ammonia at 25 ° c is – 16.5kj per mole.calculate the value of equilibrium constant Kp at this temperature for this reaction. ( 5marks )

asked by muli on March 21, 2015
Chemistory
The reaction has an equilibrium constant of = 0.154. If 6.60 of , 4.30 of , and 11.60 of are added to a reaction vessel with a volume of 5.30 , what net reaction will occur? A-The reaction will proceed to the left to establish equilibrium. B-The reaction

asked by Anonymous on April 18, 2013
chemistry
Concerning the following reaction at equilibrium: 3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g), increasing the concentration of the Fe(s) would: Answer A. Shift the equilibrium to the right B. Shift the equilibrium to the left C. No change D. Increase the value of

asked by ken on July 21, 2012

chemistry
Which of the following statements is not true? 1.Chemical equilibria are examples of reversible processes. 2.When multiple reaction steps are in equilibrium, then the equilibrium constant for the net reaction is the product of the individual reactions.

asked by danny on February 25, 2015
Chemstry
For the reaction A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g) the equilibrium constant K is defined as K = Y(sub y) * Y(sub D) / (Y (sub A) * Y(sub b)) where y is the molar fraction of the gas phase of a species At 620.00 K, the equilibrium constant is 1.100. Suppose the feed

asked by Simon on July 11, 2012
Chemistry
I am having great difficulty with the following questions. Any and all help will be greatly appreciated. I have read the chapter and even looked up online tutorials. I still do not understand it. 2 NO (G) + O2 (G) > 2 NO2 (G) Write the equilibrium constant

asked by Lissa on September 22, 2014
Chemistry
A container initially has 0.0186 M ammonia at a certain temperature. When the system reaches equilibrium the concentration of ammonia is 0.0035 M. Calculate Kc for the following reaction as written. N2(g) + 3H2(g) –> 2NH3(g)

asked by Dan on November 3, 2007
Chemistry
Hi this question is on my study guide and I want to make sure I get to the right answer and know why. Calculate K for the synthesis of ammonia at 400°C N2(g) + 3 H2(g) —> 2 NH3(g)

asked by Lauren on January 21, 2018
science
A mixture of nitrogen gas, hydrogen gas and ammonia gas reacts by: N2(g) + 3H2(g) = 2NH3(g) If the total pressure in the reaction vessel is 50.0 atm ans the equilibrium mixture contains by volume: N2= 96.143% H2= 0.3506% NH3= 3.506% what is the equilibrium

asked by Marie on April 16, 2015
chemistry
I am given the following reaction: 2NH3(g) —–> N2(g) + 3H2(g) 6.4 mols of ammonia gas has been put into a 1.7 L flask and has been permitted to reach equilibrium in accordance to the reaction listed above. If the equilibrium mixture has 4.2 mols of

asked by Eric on May 26, 2008
Chemistry
Need help in AP chemistry on Equilibrium When heated, hydrogen sulfide gas decomposes according to the equation 2 H2S(g) ⇄ 2 H2(g) + S2(g) A 3.40 g sample of H2S(g) is introduced into an evacuated rigid 1.25 L container. The sealed container is heated to

asked by Sam on April 9, 2012
Idontgetit
The value of the equilibrium constant, Kc, at a certain temperature is 2.50 x 102. If the reaction quotient for a mixture of these species at the same temperature is found to be 7.37 x 100, would the mixture yield more products, more reactants or is it at

asked by Chemistry on October 2, 2013
Chemistry***
A mixture containing 19.8 moles of H2 and 7.2 mole of I2 was allowed to reach equilibrium in a 5 L closed vessel at ToC according to the equation: H2 (g) + I2 (g) 2HI (g) At equilibrium, 14 moles of H2 was present. The equilibrium constant for this

asked by plasma membrane on December 30, 2014

Idontgetit
The value of the equilibrium constant, Kc, at a certain temperature is 2.56 x 10-1. If the reaction quotient for a mixture of these species at the same temperature is found to be 9.90 x 10-4, would the mixture yield more products, more reactants or is it

asked by Chemistry on October 2, 2013
Idontgetit
The value of the equilibrium constant, Kc, at a certain temperature is 2.56 x 10-1. If the reaction quotient for a mixture of these species at the same temperature is found to be 9.90 x 10-4, would the mixture yield more products, more reactants or is it

asked by Chemistry on October 2, 2013
Chemistry
One day at the fertilizer factory, your boss Mr. Haber comes to you with a problem. The process used by the factory to produce ammonia,the raw material for your fertilizer, is just not optimized. He would like to modify the conditions to achieve a better

asked by Elizabeth on February 25, 2014
chemistry
Wrtie the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction of NH3 with water. the OH- concentration of .050 M ammonia, NH3, is 9.5 x 10^-4 M

asked by Stacey on November 17, 2010
chemistry
given the equilibrium constant for the following reaction at 500 K, 2 NO (g) + O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g) Kc = 6.2×10^5 calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction expressed as partial pressures, Kp. the answer is 1.51×10^4. How do i get this?

asked by alex on March 28, 2012
Chemistry
At 2000°C the equilibrium constant for the reaction is Kc = 2.4 ✕ 103. 2 NO(g) equilibrium reaction arrow N2(g) + O2(g) If the initial concentration of NO is 0.160 M, what are the equilibrium concentrations of NO, N2, and O2? I do not even know how

asked by Ariana on November 28, 2014
Chemistry
Given the two reactions 1.PbCl2 Pb^2+ + 2 Cl^-, K1= 1.82×10^−10 2. AgCl Ag^+ + Cl^-, K2 = 1.15×10−4 what is the equilibrium constant Kfinal for the following reaction? PbCl2+ 2 Ag^+ 2AgCl+ Pb^2+ This is what i have soo far: PbCl2Pb2+ + 2Cl- K1=

asked by Saira on February 5, 2009
chemistry
For the following reaction, 2SO3(g) = 2SO2(g) + O2(g), the equilibrium constant, Kp, is 1.32 at 627 degrees Celsius. What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction: SO3(g) = SO2(g)+ 1/2 O2(g)

asked by Erka on July 22, 2012
Science
The following reaction: 2SO3 (g) ! 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) has an equilibrium constant equal to 0.23 M. If the following concentrations are present: [SO2] =0.480 M, [O2] = 0.561 M, [SO3] = 0.220 M, is the reaction at equilibrium? If not, which way must it shift

asked by Abby on June 30, 2011
Chemistry
Consider the following reaction: CO(g)+2H2(g)⇌CH3OH(g) This reaction is carried out at a specific temperature with initial concentrations of [CO] = 0.27 M and [H2] = 0.49 M. At equilibrium, the concentration of CH3OH is 0.11 M. Find the equilibrium

asked by Donnie on June 16, 2016

chemistry
For the reaction at equilibrium: 3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g), removing some of the product, Fe3O4(s), would: Answer A. Increase the value of the equilibrium constant, K B. No change C. Decrease the value of the equilibrium constant, K D. Shift the

asked by ken on July 21, 2012
chem
Given the concentrations, calculate the equilibrium constant for this reaction: I2(g) + Cl2(g)—> 2ICl(g) At equilibrium, the molar concentrations for reactants and products are found to be I2 = 0.50M, Cl2 = 0.60M, and ICl = 5.0M. What is the equilibrium

asked by byke on November 14, 2012
The equilibrium constant for the reaction, H2(g) + I2(g) == 2 HI(g) is 54.9 at 699.0 K (Kelvin). What is the equilibrium constant for 4 HI(g) == 2 H2(g) + 2 I2(g) under the same conditions? Note: the == indicates the equilibrium double arrow Since the

asked by Hannah on March 14, 2012
Chemistry
One enzyme- catalyzed reaction in a biochemical cycle has an equilibrium constant (K1) that is 10 times the equilibrium constant (K2) of a second reaction. If the standard Gibbs energy of the former reaction is – 300 kJ mol-1, what is the standard reaction

asked by harry on April 10, 2012
intergrated rate law chemistry
The decomposition of ammonia on a platinum surface at 1129 K occurs according to the following reaction: 2NH3 (g) ¨ N2(g) + 3H2(g). Use the following kinetic data which report the variation of ammonia concentration in the gas phase with time to evaluate

asked by chancy xdicey on September 1, 2016
chemistry
The system H2 (g) + 3N2 (g) = NH3 (s) is at equilibrium.Use Le Chatelier’s principle to predict the direction in which the equilibrium will shift if the ammonia is withdrawn from the reaction chamber.

asked by Shane on March 6, 2013
Chemistry
Use the data in the table to calculate the equilibrium constant for the following reaction. HCOOH(aq)+ OH −(aq) equilibrium reaction arrow HCOO−(aq)+ H2O(l) HCOO is 5.9e-11 (Kb) HCOOH is 1.7e-4 (Ka) Not sure how to find the equilibrium constant given

asked by Dani on April 12, 2017
CHEMISTRY
the equilibrium composition of a reaction is 1.522mol CO, 1.566mol H2, 0.478mol CH4 and 0.478mol H2O and the volume of the reaction vessel is 10Litres. -What is the equation for the reaction? -Calculate the equilibrium constant for both the forward and

asked by Taynell on April 5, 2011
chemistry
a) The OH- concentration of 0.050 M ammonia, NH3, is 9.5×10^-4. Write the equilibrium equation for its ionization and the equilibrium constant expression; solve for the value of K.

asked by E.G. on March 30, 2011
chemistry
The OH- concentration of 0.050 M ammonia, NH3, is 9.5×10^-4. Write the equilibrium equation for its ionization and the equilibrium constant expression; solve for the value of K.

asked by Eghonghon on March 30, 2011

chem
a.) At equilibrium, the molar concentrations for reactants and products are found to be [I2] = 0.50 M,[Cl2] = 0.60 M, and [ICl] = 5.0 M. What is the equilibrium constant (Kc) for this reaction? b.) The concentration of I2 is increased to 1.5 M, disrupting

asked by Tracy on November 19, 2012
Chemistry
Consider the reaction A+B->C+3D. A solution was prepared by mixing 50 ml of .001 M of A, 100 ml of .002 M of B, 10 ml of 1 M of C, and 75 ml of .0015 M of D. At equilibrium, the concentration of D was measured and found to be .0006 M. Calculate the

asked by Anonymous on January 26, 2014
chemistry
What effect does raising the temperature of the reaction chamber at a constant pressure have on the following reaction at equilibrium? 2NO2(g) N2O4(g) + heat A. The equilibrium shifts toward the reactants because the reverse reaction is endothermic. B. The

asked by erika on September 15, 2016
chemistry
When 1.0 mol of ammonia gas in injected into a o.50L flask, the following reaction proceeds to equilibrium. 2NH3 N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) At equilibrium, 0.30 mol of hydrogen gas is present. a) calculate the equilibrium concentrations of N2 and Nh3. b) what is the

asked by Luke on November 26, 2006
Chemistry 3A
An aqueous solution contains the ions B, C, and D that are in equilibrium with one another according to the reaction B (aq) + C (aq) ->/

asked by Sarah on July 21, 2013
Chemistry
An experiment that led to the formation of the new field of organic chemistry involved the synthesis of urea, CN2H4O, by the controlled reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide. 2 NH3(g) + CO2(g)= CN2H4O(s) + H2O(l) What is the theoretical yield of urea when

asked by Jack on November 30, 2012
Chemistry
At a given temperature, the elementary reaction A B in the forward direction is first order in A with a rate constant of 2.60 x 10^-2 s^-1. The reverse reaction is first order in B and the rate constant is 8.50 x 10^-2 s^-1. What is the value of the

asked by Jessica on March 5, 2012
chemistry
Heterogenous equilibrium of ammonium bisulfide. Ammonium bisulfide NH4HS forms ammonia NH3 and hydrogen sulfide H2S through the reaction NH4HS(s) arrows + H2S(g). This reaction has a kp value of 0.120 at 25 C. A 5.0-L flask is charged with .400g of pure

asked by gin on March 12, 2011
Chemistry
Cu(s) | Cu2+(0.10M) || H+ (0.20M), MnO4-(0.35M), Mn2+(0.15M) | C(s) Determine the cell potential. ii. Is this reaction spontaneous? Prove using ∆G. iii. The equilibrium constant can also be found from Standard Cell Potentials. Eventually the cell will

asked by help on May 23, 2018
Chemistry
Which of the following can we predict from an equilibrium constant for a reaction? 1 The extent of a reaction 2 Whether the reaction is fast or slow 3 Whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 only e. 1 and 3

asked by IBY on May 13, 2010

Chemistry
Ka for a weak acid HA = 3.46×10^-8, calculate K for the reaction of HA with OH- HA + OH- = A- + H2O This is an equilibrium question, but I do not understand how to find the equilibrium constant K, from the equilibrium constant of an acid, Ka

asked by Nehemie on March 27, 2017
Chemistry
N2(g)+3H2(g) -> 2NH3(g)+ 22000 cal Consider the reaction is at equilibrium. Explain how the equilibrium is shifted when a. more N is added b. more H is added c. ammonia is removed

asked by Liz on November 12, 2012
chem
When the concentration of I2 is increased to 1.5 M, the ratio of products to reactants is 28. The equilibrium constant for the reaction is 83. In which direction will the reaction shift to regain equilibrium?

asked by tracy on November 19, 2012
Chemistry

1. For the reaction H2(g)+I2(g)„\2HI(g); [H2] = 0.95 M; [I2] = 0.78 M; [HI] = 0.27 M. Calculate the equilibrium constant K and describe the direction (forward or reverse) of the reaction. Will adding a catalyst to the reaction alter the direction of the

asked by Kathleen on March 29, 2010
Chem II
The equilibrium constant of a reaction is 12.6. If the rate constant of the reverse reaction is 5.1 x 10 -2 the rate constant for the forward reaction is _ 0.32 0.16 0.64 0.08 I don’t even know where to start on this question. Any direction will help

asked by Ken on June 16, 2008
chemistry
Equilibrium constant K for some reaction at temperature 300K was found to be 100 .Calculate equilibrium for same reaction at 400K if R= 8.23 change in enthalpy is 5000J

asked by shashank on August 18, 2014
Chemistry
For the reaction 2NH3(g) 3H2(g) N2(g) at 472oC equilibrium is established when [H2] =0.0200M, [N2] = 0.0100M and [NH3] = 5.37×10^_8 M. What is the equilibrium constant for the reverse reaction?

asked by joe on July 16, 2012
chem
Reaction H2 +I2 yields 2HI All three gases are initially at 0.1atm/ upon reaching equilibrium it is found that H2 pressure droped by 55% what is the equilibrium constant for this reaction.

asked by Anonymous on December 26, 2010
science
For the reaction mc011-1.jpg at 472°C equilibrium is established when [H2] =0.0200M, [N2] = 0.0100M and [NH3] = 5.37 x 10-8M. What is the equilibrium constant for this reaction

asked by mike on November 25, 2013
Chemistry
Ammonia is used as a fertilizer throughout the world. It is often produced by reacting nitrogen gas with hydrogen gas in a synthesis reaction. How much ammonia in grams can be produced from 9207 grams of nitrogen and 44 000 L of hydrogen?

asked by Michelle on March 4, 2013

chemistry

1. The reaction of 50 mL of N2 gas with 150 mL H2 gas to form ammonia via the equation: N 2(g) + 3H2 (g) → 2NH3 (g) will produce a total of mL of ammonia if pressure and temperature are kept constant

asked by Anonymous on August 12, 2014
Chemistry
Consider the reaction 2 SO2 + O2 in equilibrium with 2 SO3 . At 25°C Ho = -197.78 kJ and So = -187.95 J/K. Using this information, calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction at 50°C. (R = 8.314 J/K) Enter your answer using TWO significant

asked by Laura on April 6, 2011
chemistry
How is the reaction quotient used to determine whether a system is at equilibrium? The reaction is at equilibrium when Q > Keq. At equilibrium, the reaction quotient is undefined. The reaction quotient must be satisfied for equilibrium to be achieved. The

asked by danny on February 25, 2015
Chemistry
The following reaction is a step in the commercial production of sulfuric acid. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) The equilibrium constant is very high at room temperature, but the reaction is very slow. It must be run at high temperatures to achieve a reasonable

asked by Anonymous on October 5, 2010
Chemistry
The equilibrium constant, Kc is 3.2 x10 -34 at 25C for the reaction 2 HCl(g) H2(g) + Cl2(g). what is The equilibrium expression, Kc for the reaction

asked by Donna on April 27, 2011
chemistry
For the reaction 2CO(g)+O2 《=》2CO2 with equilibrium constant Kc. Suppose the equation is rewritten as CO + 1/2O2 《=》CO2 with an equilibrium constant Kc’.what is the relationship between Kc and Kc’

asked by Emem on October 27, 2017
chemistry
For the reaction 2CO(g)+O2 《=》2CO2 with equilibrium constant Kc. Suppose the equation is rewritten as CO + 1/2O2 《=》CO2 with an equilibrium constant Kc’.what is the relationship between Kc and Kc’

asked by Emem on October 27, 2017
Chemistry
The equilibrium constant, Keq, is defined as the ratio of the concentrations of products to reactants. What is the equilibrium constant for the following reaction: ClNO2 (g) + NO (g) ↔ NO2 (g) + ClNO (g)

asked by Tamera on November 11, 2014
Chemistry
An aqueous solution of 0.25 M silver nitrate, AgNO3, and 0.25 M iron(II) nitrate, Fe(NO3)2, are allowed to come to equilibrium in the following chemical reaction: Ag+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Fe3 + (aq) + Ag(s) If the equilibrium constant, Kc, for the reaction

asked by Cortney on April 7, 2015
chemistry
you work for a company that makes ammonia,NH3, which is an important compund needed in the manufacture of fertilizers. Ammonia is produced by the following reaction: N2 + 3H2 ———–> 2NH3(g) on the basis of what you have discovered in this experiment,

asked by Z………. on May 12, 2010

Chemistry
Consider the cracking of gaseous ammonia at constant total pressure of 1 atm and constant temperature. Find the equilibrium gas composition at 400 degree C. Given: The Gibbs free energy for the cracking reaction 2NH3 = N2 + 3H2, DeltaGo ( delta G standard)

asked by John on March 29, 2012
chemistry
Determine the expression for the equilibrium constant for this equilibrium reaction: 2NO(g) + 2CO(g) (arrows)(in equilibrium with) N2(g) + 2CO2(g) PLease help anyone i really apreciate it Beccy

asked by rebecca niles on January 8, 2011
Chemistry
The equilibrium constant for the reaction H2 + I2 –> 2HI, is 54 at 425 degrees C. If the equilibrium mixture contains 0.030 M HI and 0.015 M I2, calculate the equilibrium concentration of H2.

asked by Hannah on November 24, 2014
AP Chemistry
For the system 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3 (g), change in enthalpy is negative for the production of SO3. At a particular temperature, 8.00 moles of sulfur dioxide and 10.00 moles of sulfur trioxide are introduced into a 2.00 L container. The system is allowed to

asked by S on January 12, 2008