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n3- polar or nonpolar

Would the following structures be polar or nonpolar? (Not applicable if the structure is an ion. Pick “ionic” in that case).
SO2
N2O
N3−

0 0 505
asked by Johannie
Apr 10, 2010
Is the idea here for you to know the Lewis electron dot structure?
Draw the Lewis structure, then determine the shape of the molecule.
In order for a molecule to be polar the following two criteria must be satisfied.

  1. There must be a difference in electronegativity between the central atom and one of the other atoms, AND
  2. The molecule must not be symmetrical in three dimensions. 0 0
    posted by DBob222
    Apr 10, 2010
    SO2 polar
    N2O polar
    N3- non polar
    ? 0 0
    posted by Johannie
    Apr 10, 2010
    SO2 polar
    N2O polar
    N3- non polar
    ? 0 0
    posted by Johannie
    Apr 10, 2010
    Those look ok to me. N2O is linear but polar. 0 0
    posted by DBob222
    Apr 10, 2010

it tells me that it is incorrect..

0 0
posted by Johannie
Apr 10, 2010
N3- is an ion.

0 0
posted by bobpursley
Apr 10, 2010
so
N20 is polar
SO2 is polar
and N3- is ionic
?

0 0
posted by Johannie
Apr 10, 2010
I should have read the instructions as bob Pursley did.
Would the following structures be polar or nonpolar? (Not applicable if the structure is an ion. Pick “ionic” in that case).

0 0
posted by DBob222
Apr 10, 2010

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MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

ALEKS Pie Completion Worth 400 points

The primary goal of this class is for you to complete the entire pie by the end of the term. Points for pie completion will be added to your score at the end of the term.

ALEKS

Emphasis on Lab Work. On-ground sections of the course will be taught in a computer lab, with three (3) hours of lab time using ALEKS for every one (1) hour of traditional instruction. Thus, students in an on- ground section of the course will log about three (3) of the required five (5) weekly hours in ALEKS during class. To get full credit for the ALEKS participation points, on-ground students will have to put in two (2) additional hours using ALEKS outside of class. Online students will also utilize ALEKS in the same or similar manner. All students will start the term by taking a comprehensive ALEKS assessment to identify where they need to focus their efforts. As you master each assigned topic, your progress will be plotted on a pie chart. Your goal will be to fill in the entire pie. Forty (40) percent of your final grade will be based on how much of the pie you fill in. Weekly Lab Requirement. Students are expected to spend at least five (5) hours per week working with ALEKS. The instructor will be able to see how much time you’ve spent in ALEKS and what topics you’ve worked on. Weekly ALEKS time will count toward 10% of your final grade. If you work in ALEKS for five (5) or more hours, you will earn ten (10) points. If you spend less time working in ALEKS, you’ll receive partial credit in direct proportion to the time you spend, at 2.0 points per hour. Please note that five (5) hours is the minimum requirement each week. Generally, the more time you can spend working on the pie, the more you will progress. We recommend that students spend at least six (6) hours each week in ALEKS. If you fill in the ALEKS pie early, your instructor will provide instructions on how to access an expansion pie with advanced topics covered in the next math course, so that you can continue to learn new material while meeting the ALEKS lab requirement. Pacing and Weekly Objectives. While each student will work through a unique ALEKS pathway, this course is being taught in the context of an 11-week term. To assist students in pacing their efforts, weekly objectives have been established. These appear as white dots on your pie chart. Halfway through the term, all students will complete a Midterm Exam, based on the weekly objectives for the first four (4) weeks. Repeating Exams. Students may repeat the Midterm and the Final Exam one (1) time each. Please note that students who score poorly on the Midterm Exam should consult their instructor before taking the exam a second time. Typically, students who score poorly on the Midterm Exam have not completed at least sixty (60) topics in their ALEKS pie. Those in this situation are advised to complete at least sixty (60) topics in the ALEKS pie before retaking the Midterm Exam. Discussion Requirement. Students taking the course on-ground will receive points for class participation and attendance, based on the criteria set by the instructor. Students taking the course online must participate in the online discussion boards each week in Blackboard to earn points for discussion. Discussion makes up 10% of the overall final grade.

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

Due Week 10 and worth 140 points

Imagine you are a manager at a major bottling company. Customers have begun to complain that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in your company contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of product. Your boss wants to solve the problem at hand and has asked you to investigate. You have your employees pull thirty (30) bottles off the line at random from all the shifts at the bottling plant. You ask your employees to measure the amount of soda there is in each bottle. Note: Use the data set provided by your instructor to complete this assignment.

Bottle Number

Ounces Bottle Number

Ounces Bottle Number

Ounces

1 14.5 11 15 21 14.1

2 14.6 12 15.1 22 14.2

3 14.7 13 15 23 14

4 14.8 14 14.4 24 14.9

5 14.9 15 15.8 25 14.7

6 15.3 16 14 26 14.5

7 14.9 17 16 27 14.6

8 15.5 18 16.1 28 14.8

9 14.8 19 15.8 29 14.8

10 15.2 20 14.5 30 14.6

Write a two to three (2-3) page report in which you:

1. Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

2. Construct a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

3. Conduct a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces

is supported. Clearly state the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

4. Provide the following discussion based on the conclusion of your test:

a. If you conclude that there are less than sixteen (16) ounces in a bottle of soda, speculate

on three (3) possible causes. Next, suggest the strategies to avoid the deficit in the

future.

Or

b. If you conclude that the claim of less soda per bottle is not supported or justified, provide

a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Include your speculation on the

reason(s) behind the claim, and recommend one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating

this issue in the future.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

 Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. No citations and references are required, but if you use them, they must follow APA format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

 Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

 Calculate measurements of central tendency and dispersal.

 Determine confidence intervals for data.

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

 Describe the vocabulary and principles of hypothesis testing.

 Discuss application of course content to professional contexts.

 Use technological tools to solve problems in statistics.

 Write clearly and concisely about statistics using proper writing mechanics.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.

Points: 140 Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

Criteria

Unacceptable

Below 60% F

Meets

Minimum

Expectations

60-69% D

Fair

70-79% C

Proficient

80-89% B

Exemplary

90-100% A

1. Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles. Weight: 20%

Did not submit or incompletely calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Insufficiently calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Partially calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Satisfactorily calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Thoroughly calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

2. Construct a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles. Weight: 25%

Did not submit or incompletely constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Insufficiently constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Partially constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Satisfactorily constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Thoroughly constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

3. Conduct a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Clearly state the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test. Weight: 30%

Did not submit or incompletely conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Did not submit or incompletely stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Insufficiently conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Insufficiently stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Partially conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Partially stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Satisfactorily conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Satisfactorily stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Thoroughly conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Thoroughly stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

4a. If you conclude that there are less than sixteen (16) ounces in a bottle of soda, speculate on three (3) possible causes. Next, suggest the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future. Or

Did not submit or incompletely speculated on three (3) possible causes. Did not submit or incompletely suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Insufficiently speculated on three (3) possible causes. Insufficiently suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Partially speculated on three (3) possible causes. Partially suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Satisfactorily speculated on three (3) possible causes. Satisfactorily suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Thoroughly speculated on three (3) possible causes. Thoroughly suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

4b. If you conclude that the claim of less soda per bottle is not supported or justified, provide a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Include your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and recommend one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future. Weight: 15%

Or Did not submit or incompletely provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Did not submit or incompletely included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and did not submit or incompletely recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Insufficiently provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Insufficiently included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and insufficiently recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Partially provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Partially included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and partially recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Satisfactorily provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Satisfactorily included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and satisfactorily recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Thoroughly provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Thoroughly included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and thoroughly recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

5. Writing / Support for ideas Weight: 5%

Never uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Rarely uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Partially uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Mostly uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Consistently uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

6. Writing / Grammar and mechanics Weight: 5%

Serious and persistent errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Numerous errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Partially free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Mostly free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

MAT 300 – Student Notes

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

Weekly Course Schedule

The purpose of the course schedule is to give you, at a glance, the required preparation, activities, and

evaluation components of your course. For more information about your course, whether on-ground or

online, access your online course shell.

The expectations for a 4.5 credit hour course are for students to spend 13.5 hours in weekly work. This

time estimate includes preparation, activities, and evaluation regardless of the delivery mode.

Instructional Materials

In order to be fully prepared, obtain a copy of the required textbooks and other instructional materials

prior to the first day of class. When available, Strayer University provides a link to the first three (3)

chapters of your textbook(s) in eBook format. Check your online course shell for availability.

Review the online course shell or check with your professor to determine whether Internet-based

assignments and activities are used in this course.

Strayer students are encouraged to purchase their course materials through our designated Strayer

Bookstore. http://www.strayerbookstore.com If a lab is required for the course, the Strayer Bookstore is

the only vendor that sells the correct registration code so that Strayer students may access labs

successfully.

Discussions

To earn full credit in an online threaded discussion, students must have one original post and a minimum

of one other post per discussion thread.

Please note: Material in the online class will be made available three weeks at a time to allow students to

work ahead, however, faculty will be focused on and responding only to the current calendar week. As it

is always possible that students could lose their work due to unforeseen circumstances, it is a best

practice to routinely save a working draft in a separate file before posting in the course discussion area.

Professors hold discussions during class time for on-ground students. Check with your professor if any

additional discussion participation is required in the online course shell outside of class hours.

Tests

Tests (quizzes, midterm and final exams, essay exams, lab tests, etc.) are available for student access

and completion through the online course shell. Check the online course shell to determine how students

are expected to take the tests. Do not change these questions or their point values in any way. This

disrupts the automated grade book preset in the online course shell.

 Online students are to complete the test by Monday 9:00 a.m. Details regarding due dates are

posted in the Blackboard Calendar tool.

 On-ground students are to complete the tests after the material is covered and before the next

class session.http://www.strayerbookstore.com/

MAT 300 – Student Notes

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

Assignments

A standardized performance grading rubric is a tool your professor will use to evaluate your written

assignments. Review the rubric before submitting assignments that have grading rubrics associated with

them to ensure you have met the performance criteria stated on the rubric.

Grades are based on individual effort. There is no group grading; however, working in groups in the

online or on-ground classroom is acceptable.

Assignments for online students are always submitted through the online course shell. On-ground

professors will inform students on how to submit assignments, whether in paper format or through the

online course shell.

Resources

The Resource Center navigation button in the online course shell contains helpful links. Strayer University

Library Resources are available here as well as other important information. You should review this area

to find resources and answers to common questions.

Technical support is available for the following:

 For technical questions, please contact Strayer Online Technical Support by logging in to your

iCampus account at https://icampus.strayer.edu/login and submitting a case under “Student

Center,” then “Submit Help Ticket.” If you are unable to log in to your iCampus account, please

contact Technical Support via phone at (877) 642-2999.

 For concerns with your class, please access the Solution Center by logging in to your iCampus

account at https://icampus.strayer.edu/login and submitting a case under “Student Center,” then

“Submit Help Ticket.” If you are unable to log in to your iCampus account, please contact the IT

Help Desk at (866) 610-8123 or at mailto:IThelpdesk@Strayer.edu.

TurnItIn.com is an optional online tool to assess the originality of student written work. Check with your

professor for access and use instructions.

The Strayer Policies link on the navigation bar in the online course shell contains academic policies. It is

important that students be aware of these policies.https://icampus.strayer.edu/loginhttps://icampus.strayer.edu/loginmailto:IThelpdesk@Strayer.edu

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what is the value of x given that pq bc

What is the value of x, given PQ || BC? Triangle: A, B, C with bisector PQ AP = 8 PB = x AQ = 12 QC = 18
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asked by Sudarshan on March 25, 2017
Geometry
How would you write the name of a segment differently than the name of a line? what symbols would you use? How is constructing a perpendicular bisector similar to constructing an angle bisector? how is it different? Describe a process you would use to

asked by Ashley on December 3, 2015
Geomertry
In cetrain triangles can a median be a perpendicular bisector, altitude and an angle bisector?

asked by Honeymoney on December 3, 2015
Math
1.The midpoint of SM is (5 -11) one endpoint is S (3,5). What are the coordinates of endpoint M? 2.Describe a process you would use to create the perpendicular bisector to a segment AB using only an unmarked straightedge and an unmarked compass. 3. How is

asked by Ashley on December 4, 2015
math
the end points of a line segment are A (-7, -1) and B (5,5) determine the equation of right bisector of AB show that the origin 0,0 lies on the right bisector of AB

asked by cam on August 18, 2012
Algebra Help
Write the equation of a perpendicular bisector of the segment joining the points: (7,2) and (3,0). Okay, so I don’t even know what a bisector is. Is there a formula for this or something? If some could someone tell me it. Or tell me the process.

asked by Kendra on August 26, 2010
Math
Let AB and CD be two lines intersecting at point O. Let OP be the bisector of angle AOC, OT the bisector of angle POB, and OR the bisector of angle TOD. If angle POR = 25 degrees, find angle AOC and angle AOD.

asked by Freaky on November 28, 2010
Math
Let AB and CD be two lines intersecting at point O. Let OP be the bisector of angle AOC, OT the bisector of angle POB, and OR the bisector of angle TOD. If angle POR = 25 degrees, find angle AOC and angle AOD.

asked by Suzy on November 28, 2010
geometry
When is the perpendicular bisector of a side of a regular n-gon also an angle bisector?

asked by Bre on December 8, 2011
Math please help
In triangle ABC, we have

asked by Gem on April 2, 2015

Math
The sides of a triangle are 15, 20 and 28. How long are the segments into which the bisector of the largest angle separates the opposite side

asked by Gems on October 24, 2016
math
In triangle ABC, BC = 20 * sqrt(3) and angle C = 30 degrees. Let the perpendicular bisector of BC intersect BC and AC at D and E, respectively. Find the length of DE.

asked by InfaRed on November 16, 2016
Math
The points P(-2,2) , Q(4,4) and R(5,2) are vertices of a Triangle. The perpendicular bisector of PQ and the line through P parallel to QR intersect at S. Find the coordinates of S.

asked by Felix on September 13, 2017
geometry PLZ HELP!!!!
how do write and graph a coordinate proof? Isoceles triangle ABC with AB congruent to BC perpendicular bisector BD from B to AC

asked by synester on November 23, 2009
math
In triangle $ABC$, $BC = 20 \sqrt{3}$ and $\angle C = 30^\circ$. Let the perpendicular bisector of $BC$ intersect $BC$ and $AC$ at $D$ and $E$, respectively. Find the length of $DE$.

asked by InfaRed on November 10, 2016
Geometry
In triangle ABC, BC = 20sqrt3 and angle C = 30 degrees. Let the perpendicular bisector of BC intersect BC and AC at D and E respectively. Find the length of E.

asked by JulieJones on June 5, 2015
math
The legs of a right triangle are 3 and 4 units long. Find the lengths, to the nearest tenth, of the segments into which the bisector of the right angle divides the hypotenuse. (Hint: Draw a picture of the triangle, label one segment of the hypotenuse “x,”

asked by molly on June 8, 2012
Calculus
Show by vector calculation that the bisector of the angle between the two equal sides of an isosceles triangle bisects the third side and is perpendicular to it.

asked by Anonymous on May 13, 2012
MATHS-geometry
how do you draw an obtuse angle triangle, construct the perpendicular bisector of each side Draw a triangle with one angle greater then 90 degrees. Find the midpoint of each side. Then draw a perpendicular to each side at each midpoint. The three lines may

asked by NIcole on June 3, 2007
MAth
The sides of a triangle are 15cm, 20cm, and 28cm. How long are the segments into which the bisector of the largest angle separates the opposite side?

asked by Raquel on January 27, 2018

geometry
the legs of a right angled triangle are 5 cm and 12cm long. find the lengths, to the tenth, of the segment into which the bisector of the right angle divides the hypotenuse.

asked by verenice on February 11, 2011
Geometry
The legs of a right triangle are 5cm and 12 cm long. Find the lengths, to the nearest tenth, of the segments into which the bisector of the right angle divides the hypotenuse.

asked by Billy on April 5, 2011
Geometry
Which of the following must be true about a perpendicular bisector and the segment it bisects? a. the perpendicular bisector and the segment bisect each other b. the angle of intersection depends on the length of the line segment c. the perpendicular

asked by Anonymous on August 16, 2018
PLEASE HELP!!!!! (Right Triangle Question)
Point N is on hypotenuse BC of triangle ABC such than angle CAN is 45 degrees. If AC=8 and AB=6, find AN. I did Pythagorean Theorem for triangle ABC, and hypotenuse BC will be 10. I don’t know how to continue from there. Oh, I’m also unsure about this, but

asked by My Name Is Bob on April 9, 2012
math
ABC is a right angled triangle . AD is bisector of angle BAC. Angle DAC = 20 degree . X = CD.

asked by Shalu on January 21, 2017
Geometry
Line CD is the perpendicular bisector of line AB. E and F are midpoints. If AB=6 and CZ=4, find the triangle ABC. Z is the centroid.

asked by caleb on February 3, 2015
Math (Geometry)
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB?

asked by Dan on May 15, 2013
heeelp MATH
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A.M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21,what is CM/MB?

asked by Anubhav on May 16, 2013
triangles (math)
BO and CO are respectively the bisector of angle b and angle c triangle ABC.AO produced meets BC at P, then find AB/AC.

asked by help(in much need)!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! on September 21, 2013
Math (Geometry)
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB?

asked by Dan on May 16, 2013

maths
ABC is a triangle with ∠BAC=60∘,AB=5 and AC=25. D is a point on the internal angle bisector of ∠BAC such that BD=DC. What is AD^2?

asked by Anonymous on March 20, 2013
Geometry
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ÚBAC. If CN/NB =21 , what is CM/MB ?

asked by Andrew on May 16, 2013
MATHS
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB?

asked by HELP!! on May 17, 2013
math
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB?

asked by Gandu man on May 18, 2013
math
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of ∠BAC. If CNNB=21, what is CMMB?

asked by Anonymous on May 16, 2013
Math
Triangle ABC has a right angle at C. The bisector of an exterior angle at B intersects line AC at D. If AB=13 and BC=5, what is the length of segment BD?

asked by Gems on October 24, 2016
Geometry
ABC is a triangle with a right angle at A. M and N are points on BC such that AM is the altitude, and AN is the angle bisector of A. If CN/NB=21, what is CM/MB ?

asked by AA on May 13, 2013
Math
If one of the angles of a triangle is 110 degree then the angle between the bisector of the other two angles is what ?

asked by Pranav on December 21, 2016
Geometry
BC is a triangle with ∠BAC=60∘,AB=5 and AC=25. D is a point on the internal angle bisector of ∠BAC such that BD=DC. What is AD^2? It is not stated that D lies on BC. This assumption is not necessarily true.

asked by Stranger on March 18, 2013
SAT math
Can someone please double check my true and false answers! 1. All cylinders are prisms: TRUE 2. The angle opposite a side length of 6 cm in a triangle is larger than an angle opposite a side length of 7 cm in the same triangle: FALSE 3. The perpendicular

asked by mysterychicken on June 2, 2013

trig
ABC is rightangled triangle. AD is the bisector of angle BAC. Angle DAC=15 degrees. X=CD. Find X. I know the answer is 7.1 but do not know how to do the actual sum. Can you please help.

asked by jane on May 5, 2011
trig
ABC is rightangled triangle. AD is the bisector of angle BAC. Angle DAC=15 degrees. X=CD. Find X. I know the answer is 7.1 but do not know how to do the actual sum. Can you please help AB = 23 CM

asked by jane on May 5, 2011
Math
I don’t know if finding the perpendicular bisector would help The x-axis, the y-axis, and the line through the point (1, 3) having slope -3 form a triangle, find the area.

asked by Blissy on December 20, 2013
MMATH08
IN PARALLELOGRAM ABCD, BISECTOR OF ANGLE A BISECTS BC,WILL BISECTOR OF ANGLE B BISECT AD,EXPLAIN HOW.

asked by DIPI on May 2, 2017
Math
Can someone please check this? given: line AE and line BD bisect each other. prove: triangle ACB is congruent to triangle ECD Statements 1. Line AE and line BD bisect each other 2. Line AC is congruent to line EC, line DC is congruent to line BC 3. Angle

asked by Ryan on October 8, 2018
Vectors
In triangle OAB, OA = 3i + 4k and OB = i + 2j – 2k. Find OP, where P is the point where the bisector of Angle AOB intersects AB. Answer is 7i/4 + 5j/4 + k/4 Don’t use the matrix method as I haven’t learnt it yet and please show working. Thx a lot.

asked by C on January 11, 2017
math pls
The lengths of segments PQ and PR are 8 inches and 5 inches, respectively, and they make a 60-degree angle at P. (d) Find the sizes of the other two angles of triangle PQR. (e) Find the length of the median drawn to side PQ. (f) Find the length of the

asked by Maryann on April 21, 2010
geometry/math pls help
The lengths of segments PQ and PR are 8 inches and 5 inches, respectively, and they make a 60-degree angle at P. (1) Find the sizes of the other two angles of triangle PQR. (2) Find the length of the median drawn to side PQ. (3) Find the length of the

asked by Maryann on April 21, 2010
Math
How is constructing a perpendicular bisector similar to constructing an angle bisector’s? How is it different? Help I’m sick with this

asked by Marco on August 27, 2018
maths
Trigonometry query. ABC is a rightangled triangle. AD is the bisector of angle BAC. Angle DAC = 15 degrees. X = CD. find X. I know the answer is 7.1 but cannot work out the theory. Could you please help? Thankyou.

asked by jane on May 5, 2011

MAth
ina given parallelogram ABCD THE ANGLE BISECTOR OF ANGLE A BISECTS BC .WILL ANGLE BISECTOR OF B ALSO BISECT AD?GIVE REASON.

asked by DEEPI on May 1, 2017
math
In triangle ABC, angle A = 80 degrees. The bisector of angle B and angel C intersect at point P. Angle BPC = what?

asked by Mika on September 28, 2011
fundamentals of math
A point lies on the of a line segment if and only if the point is equidistant from the endpoints of the segment. angle bisector trisector altitude perpendicular bisector

asked by Anonymous on August 6, 2016
math plz check ;-; sorry
A triangle has sides of lengths 5 cm, 5 cm, and square root 47cm. Which of the following statements is true? A. The triangle is an obtuse triangle because (√47)^2>5^2+5^2 B. The triangle is an acute triangle because 5^2

asked by leo on May 31, 2016
math plz check ;-;
A triangle has sides of lengths 5 cm, 5 cm, and square root 47cm. Which of the following statements is true? A. The triangle is an obtuse triangle because (√47)^2>5^2+5^2 B. The triangle is an acute triangle because 5^2

asked by leo on May 31, 2016

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if a company fails to make an adjusting entry to record supplies expense, then

Which of the following reflect the balances of prepayment accounts prior to adjustment?

http://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/art2/common/pixel.gif
Balance sheet accounts are overstated and income statement accounts are overstated.
Balance sheet accounts are understated and income statement accounts are overstated.
Balance sheet accounts are overstated and income statement accounts are understated.
Balance sheet accounts are understated and income statement accounts are understated.

If an adjustment is needed for unearned revenues, the

http://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/art2/common/pixel.gif
liability is overstated and the related revenue is understated before adjustment.
liability is understated and the related revenue is overstated before adjustment.
liability and related revenue are understated before adjustment.
liability and related revenue are overstated before adjustment.
If a company fails to make an adjusting entry to record supplies expense, thenowner’s equity will be understated.assets will be understated.net income will be understated.expense will be understated.Which of the following would not result in unearned revenue?Sale of two-year magazine subscriptionsSale of season tickets to football gamesRent collected in advance from tenantsServices performed on accountFugazi City College sold season tickets for the 2014 football season for $240,000. A total of 8 games will be played during September, October and November. In September, three games were played. The adjusting journal entry at September 30is not required. No adjusting entries will be made until the end of the season in November.will include a debit to Unearned Ticket Revenue and a credit to Ticket Revenue for $90,000.will include a debit to Ticket Revenue and a credit to Unearned Ticket Revenue for $80,000.The income statement and balance sheet columns of Iron and Wine Company’s worksheet reflect the following totals:Income StatementBalance SheetDr.Cr.Dr.Cr.Totals$72,000$44,000$60,000$88,000The net income (or loss) for the period is$28,000 loss.$28,000 income.not determinable.$44,000 income.Which of the following is a true statement about closing the books of a proprietorship?Expenses are closed to the Expense Summary account.Only revenues are closed to the Income Summary account.Revenues and expenses are closed to the Income Summary account.Revenues, expenses, and the owner’s drawings account are closed to the Income Summary account.The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:Revenues$70,000Expenses:Salaries and Wages Expense$45,000Rent Expense12,000Advertising Expense10,000Supplies Expense6,000Utilities Expense2,500Insurance Expense2,000Total expenses77,500Net income (loss)($7,500)After the revenue and expense accounts have been closed, the balance in Income Summary will be$0.a credit balance of $7,500.a debit balance of $7,500.a credit balance of $70,000.The income statement for the year 2014 of Fugazi Co. contains the following information:Revenues$70,000Expenses:Salaries and Wages Expense$45,000Rent Expense12,000Advertising Expense10,000Supplies Expense6,000Utilities Expense2,500Insurance Expense2,000Total expenses77,500Net income (loss)($7,500)At January 1, 2014, Fugazi reported owner’s equity of $50,000. Owner drawings for the year totalled $10,000. At December 31, 2014, the company will report owner’s equity of$17,500.$32,500.$42,500.All of the following statements about the post-closing trial balance are correct except itshows that the accounting equation is in balance.proves that all transactions have been recorded.provides evidence that the journalizing and posting of closing entries have been properly completed.contains only permanent accounts.
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electric charges that are different

electric charges that are different
A) attract each other
B) repel each other
C) exist in pairs
D) do not interact

Magnetic field lines around a bar magnet
A) are only perpendicular to the magnet
B) spread out from one pole and curve around the other
C) cross back and forth over one another
D) are perfectly straight

which of the following would decrease the magnetic field around the wire?
A) decreasing the current
B) reversing the The polls of the wire
C) looping a section of the wire into a solenoid
D) increasing the current

What device transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy?
A) an electromagnet
B) an electric motor
C) a generator
D) a solenoid

A device used to open and close an electric circuit is a(n)
A) light bulb
B) energy source
C) switch
D) resistor

According to Ohm’s law resistance is equal to voltage devided by
A) time
B) conduction
C) current
D) potential

In a series circuit with three bulbs
A) The remaining two bolts will go out if one bulb burns out
B) The remaining two bulbs are not affected if one bulb burns out
C) The brightness of the light bulbs does not change if more bulbs are added
D) a switch is never used

The strength of the force of gravity depends on
A) The masses of the objects in their speeds
B) The masses of the objects and the distance between them
C) The weight of the objects in their speeds
D) The masses of the objects in their weight s

According to Ohm’s law what is the resistance of a light bulb if the applied voltage is 9.0 V and the current is 0.30 amps?
A) 0.033 ohms
B) 2.7 ohms
C) 30 ohms
D) 8.7 ohms

An example of an insulator is
A) rubber
B) copper
C) silver
D) iron

The force of gravity on Jupiter is much stronger than the force of gravity on earth. Which of the following explains why this is true?
A) Jupiters orbit is farther away from the sun then earths orbit
B) Jupiter has more mass than earth
C) jupiters orbit is closer to the sun than earths orbit
D) Jupiter has less mass than earth

An electric current produces a
A) magnetic field
B) magnet
C) solenoid
D) insulator

A generator transforms
A) potential energy to kinetic energy
B) mechanical energy into electrical energy
C) mechanical energy into electrical energy
D) friction into electrical energy

0 0 2,839
asked by Anonymous
Mar 31, 2015
Do you think your school approves of these test questions posted here?

It looks to me like you’re wanting to cheat and have someone else give you these answers.

0 9
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Mar 31, 2015
No I just forgot to give my answers. Sorry my answers are
1) A
2) d
3) a
4) b
5) c
6) c
7) a
8) d
9) ?
10)?
11)b
12) b
13)d

2 3
posted by Anonymous
Mar 31, 2015
12 is a 13 is b 8 is b 5 is c 4 is b 2 is b

1 0
posted by Dr.Bob
Nov 4, 2015
ababccabcabab true
100%

0 1
posted by connections student
Dec 19, 2015

connections student is correct.

0 1
posted by Anonymous
Mar 3, 2016
The correct answers are:

  1. a
  2. b
  3. a
  4. b
  5. c
  6. c
  7. a
  8. b
  9. c
  10. a
  11. b
  12. a
  13. b
  14. true

I promise these are correct. I took the test. Hope this helps!

45 0
posted by Olivia
Mar 14, 2016
Olivia is 100% correct

8 0
posted by shes right
Mar 24, 2016
Olivia is correct.

8 0
posted by Johanna
Mar 28, 2016
Just took the practice, these are the answers. In this order 1 – 14.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. A
  4. B
  5. C
  6. C
  7. A
  8. B
  9. C
  10. A
  11. B
  12. A
  13. B
  14. A [true] 13 0
    posted by Lily
    May 10, 2016

Olivia is correct

5 0
posted by Katrina Petrova
Jan 17, 2017

  1. A
  2. B
  3. A
  4. B
  5. C
  6. C
  7. A
  8. B
  9. C
  10. A
  11. B
  12. A
  13. B
  14. A

100%

Thanks olivia also if anyone has the unit test answers for this unit please provide them

5 0
posted by TEA
Apr 22, 2017

  1. a
  2. b
  3. a
  4. b
  5. c
  6. c
  7. a
  8. b
  9. c
  10. a
  11. b
  12. a
  13. b
  14. true

10000000

2 0
posted by boo
Apr 26, 2017
thanks

1 0
posted by jo gibson
May 17, 2017
dude just stop. XD btw Olivia thank you

2 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 26, 2018

Olivia is correct is promise

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 26, 2018
Btw thx ppl that posted the answers (sorry i forgot all ur names)

2 0
posted by no name 4 u lol
Apr 9, 2018
Why did I just scroll through all this?

4 0
posted by Why
Apr 18, 2018
olivia is correct. 100%. thank you

0 0
posted by alexa
Dec 4, 2018

  1. A
  2. B
  3. A
  4. B
  5. C
  6. C
  7. A
  8. B
  9. C
  10. A
  11. B
  12. A
  13. B
  14. True 0 0
    posted by Hal
    Mar 9, 2019
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how many formula units are in the unit cell shown for li2s?

The crystal structure of lithium sulfide (Li2S) is pictured here. (Intro 1 figure) The edge length of the unit cell is 5.88*10^2^2 pm.

i guess it is FCC ( face cenred cubic)

1–

What are the coordination numbers of and Li^+ and S^2- in the lithium sulfide crystal shown? Enter the values in order of Li^+ and S^2-, respectively.

Ans… i though it shld be 4,4 .. but it says ” Face ions are shared between two unit cells.”…

plz someone

2- How many formula units are in the unit cell shown for Li2S ?

Ans- i gues it shld be 1 but it says –
The formula represents one formula unit. How many sets of are in the unit cell?

0 0 791
asked by Dr Bob plz help
Jan 24, 2009
I don’t have the book and can’t see the picture. I can’t find anything on the Internet so I’m passing on this one. I’ve also looked in all the references I have at home and can’t find anything on Li2S.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Jan 24, 2009
The Number of Formula Units is 4, but I don’t know why, I just happened to guess it and it marked it as correct for me.
As for part 1, I don’t know 🙁

0 0
posted by Mrs C
Jan 25, 2009
It’s 4,8. Easy, you just count the lines, but note that the S(2-) is on the surface, so it’s surrounded by the Li+ of the adjacent unit cell as well as its own.

0 0
posted by Dash
Jan 26, 2009
What is the density of Li2S in grams per cubic centimeter? this was the 3rd part of this question :/

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Jan 27, 2009

The density of lithium sulfide is 1.5g/cm^3

0 0
posted by friend
Jan 27, 2009
the number of formula units is 4: there are 4 Sulfur atoms in the unit cell (8* 1/8 + 6* 1/2) and 8 Lithium atoms (all contained within the unit cell)

0 0
posted by SJ
Jan 27, 2012

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what was the speed vai of puck a before the collision?

On a frictionless horizontal air table, puck A (with mass 0.255 kg ) is moving toward puck B (with mass 0.365 kg ), which is initially at rest. After the collision, puck A has velocity 0.118 m/s to the left, and puck B has velocity 0.649 m/s to the right.
What was the speed vAi of puck A before the collision?

0 0 179
asked by Amanda
Dec 3, 2015
This is the same as the one with the skaters, just different numbers
momentum before = .255 v + .365 * 0
momentum after = .255 (-.118) + .365*.649

momentum after = momentum before, solve for v

0 0
posted by Damon
Dec 3, 2015

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what does a cat need to play baseball

Geometry question. a Math riddle. What does a cat need to play baseball?

0 0 500
asked by Jim
Dec 8, 2008
A purrmitt

1 0
posted by drwls
Dec 8, 2008
which of the following is not a point on AC

0 0
posted by elizbeth
Jan 31, 2018
Point D

0 0
posted by Morelia
Oct 3, 2018
What does a cat need to play baseball

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posted by Billy Bod Joe
Mar 19, 2019

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which issue did the great compromise address

What issue did the great compromise address?
A. congressional representation
B. election of the president
C. membership of the supreme court
D. relationship of the states to each other
my best answer is A.

0 0 201
asked by leslie
Aug 22, 2016
Right.

0 0
posted by Writeacher
Aug 22, 2016
i think its actually D

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posted by Gooby
Sep 21, 2016
DONT USE MY ANSWER…

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posted by Gooby
Sep 21, 2016
1.A
2.A
3.B
4.C
i got 100%

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posted by mona
Feb 3, 2017

Thank you mona. Everyone Mona is right

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posted by supergirl
Aug 18, 2017
it works

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posted by thanks
Sep 15, 2017

  1. A
  2. A
  3. B
  4. C 0 0
    posted by yoongi
    Sep 15, 2017
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Introduction to Sociology 2e

OpenStax Rice University 6100 Main Street MS-375 Houston, Texas 77005 To learn more about OpenStax, visit https://openstax.org. Individual print copies and bulk orders can be purchased through our website. ©2017 Rice University. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). Under this license, any user of this textbook or the textbook contents herein must provide proper attribution as follows: – If you redistribute this textbook in a digital format (including but not limited to PDF and HTML), then you

must retain on every page the following attribution: “Download for free at https://openstax.org/details/books/introduction-sociology-2e.”

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Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 An Introduction to Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

What Is Sociology? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The History of Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Theoretical Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Why Study Sociology? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2 Sociological Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Approaches to Sociological Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Research Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Ethical Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

3 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 What Is Culture? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Elements of Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

4 Society and Social Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Types of Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Theoretical Perspectives on Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Social Constructions of Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

5 Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Theories of Self-Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Why Socialization Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Agents of Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Socialization Across the Life Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

6 Groups and Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Types of Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Group Size and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Formal Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Deviance and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Crime and the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

8 Media and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Technology Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Media and Technology in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Global Implications of Media and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

9 Social Stratification in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 What Is Social Stratification? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Global Stratification and Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

10 Global Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Global Stratification and Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Global Wealth and Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

11 Race and Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Theories of Race and Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Intergroup Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Race and Ethnicity in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

12 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Sex and Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Sex and Sexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

13 Aging and the Elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 The Process of Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Challenges Facing the Elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Theoretical Perspectives on Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

14 Marriage and Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Variations in Family Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Challenges Families Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

15 Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 The Sociological Approach to Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 World Religions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Religion in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

16 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Education around the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Theoretical Perspectives on Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Issues in Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

17 Government and Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 Power and Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 Forms of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Politics in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

18 Work and the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Economic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Globalization and the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Work in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

19 Health and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 The Social Construction of Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Global Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Health in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Comparative Health and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

20 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Demography and Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Urbanization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 The Environment and Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

21 Social Movements and Social Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Collective Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Social Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Social Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

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Preface About OpenStax OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About This Book Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e, an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at info@openstaxcollege.org.

To the Student This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the Instructor This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to info@openstaxcollege.org so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General Approach Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the Second Edition Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

For instance, since the first edition there have been major cultural shifts within the Middle East and Arab world—a movement still underway called the Arab Spring—changes that are now incorporated into our coverage on social movements and social unrest (Chapter 21, “Social Movements and Social Change”). New issues in immigration, in the United States and across the world, have been brought to the forefront of the second edition, as rising income gaps and modern transportation are responsible for trends in Europe (fears of Islamic conservatism and economic recession) and political debates in the U.S. (such as border security, universal education and health care).

Since the first edition in 2012, technology and social media has ushered in new forms of communication, and, of course, these changes are altering the fabric of social life around the world. The benefits and downfalls of new technologies are

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reflected in new material in Chapter 4, “Society and Social Interaction,” where we discuss how social media is changing classical models of social stratification and prestige.

In addition to updating critical facts, data, and policies from the first edition, we have expanded on essential topics, including:

Feminism and feminist theory Health care legislation

US social stratification Minimum wage policies

Transgender issues and changes to the DSM-V Global statistics on education

Marriage and pay equality Competing theories of tolerance

The use of charter schools Cyberbullying

Impact of economy on population segments Climate change debates

Use of technology and social media by Global population and demographic shifts

individuals and groups Net neutrality, online privacy and security

Other topics received a light update for relevance and student engagement. The racial tensions that have come about through the cases of Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown, as well as the legalization of marijuana are two examples of such additions.

Features of OpenStax Introduction to Sociology 2e We have retained and updated the special features of the original text for this updated version.

Modularity This textbook is organized on Connexions (http://cnx.org (http://cnx.org) ) as a collection of modules that can be rearranged and modified to suit the needs of a particular professor or class. That being said, modules often contain references to content in other modules, as most topics in sociology cannot be discussed in isolation.

Learning Objectives Every module begins with a set of clear and concise learning objectives. These objectives are designed to help the instructor decide what content to include or assign, and to guide the student with respect to what he or she can expect to learn. After completing the module and end-of-module exercises, students should be able to demonstrate mastery of the learning objectives.

Key Features The following features show students the dynamic nature of sociology:

• Sociological Research: Highlights specific current and relevant research studies. Examples include “Is Music a Cultural Universal?” and “Deceptive Divorce Rates.”

• Sociology in the Real World: Ties chapter content to student life and discusses sociology in terms of the everyday. Topics include “Secrets of the McJob” and “Grade Inflation: When Is an A Really a C?”

• Big Picture: Features present sociological concepts at a national or international level, including “Education in Afghanistan” and “American Indian Tribes and Environmental Racism.”

• Case Study: Describes real-life people whose experiences relate to chapter content, such as “Catherine Middleton: The Commoner Who Would Be Queen.”

• Social Policy and Debate: Discusses political issues that relate to chapter content, such as “The Legalese of Sex and Gender” and “Is the U.S. Bilingual?”

• Careers in Sociology: Explores the lives and work of those in careers in sociology, including the real-world issues and debates these professionals encounter on a daily basis.

Section Summaries Section summaries distill the information in each section for both students and instructors down to key, concise points addressed in the section.

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Key Terms Key terms are bold and are followed by a definition in context. Definitions of key terms are also listed in the Glossary, which appears at the end of the module online and at the end of the chapter in print.

Section Quizzes Section quizzes provide opportunities to apply and test the information students learn throughout each section. Both multiple-choice and short-response questions feature a variety of question types and range of difficulty.

Further Research This feature helps students further explore the section topic and offers related research topics that could be explored.

Acknowledgements Introduction to Sociology 2e is based on the work of numerous professors, writers, editors, and reviewers who are able to bring topics to students in the most engaging way.

We would like to thank all those listed below as well as many others who have contributed their time and energy to review and provide feedback on the manuscript. Especially Clint Lalonde and team at BC Campus for sharing the updates they made for use in this edition, and the team at Stark State College for their editorial support in this update. Their input has been critical in maintaining the pedagogical integrity and accuracy of the text.

Contributing Authors Heather Griffiths, Fayetteville State University* Nathan Keirns, Zane State College* Eric Strayer, Hartnell College* Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Georgia Perimeter College Gail Scaramuzzo, Lackawanna College Tommy Sadler, Union University Sally Vyain, Ivy Tech Community College* Jeff Bry, Minnesota State Community and Technical College at Moorhead* Faye Jones, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College

*individuals who were contributors to the 2nd edition

Expert Reviewers Rick Biesanz, Corning Community College Cynthia Heddlesten, Metropolitan Community College Janet Hund, Long Beach City College Thea Alvarado, College of the Canyons Daysha Lawrence, Stark State College Sally Vyain, Ivy Tech Community College Natashia Willmott, Stark State College Angela M. Adkins, Stark State College Carol Jenkins, Glendale Community College Lillian Marie Wallace, Pima Community College J. Brandon Wallace, Middle Tennessee State University Gerry R. Cox, professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse David Hunt, Augusta State University Jennifer L. Newman-Shoemake, Angelo State University, and Cisco College Matthew Morrison, University of Virginia Sue Greer-Pitt, Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College Faye Jones, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College Athena Smith, Hillsborough Community College Kim Winford, Blinn College Kevin Keating, Broward College Russell Davis, University of West Alabama Kimberly Boyd, Piedmont Virginia Community College Lynn Newhart, Rockford College Russell C. Ward, Maysville Community and Technical College

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Xuemei Hu, Union County College Margaret A. Choka, Pellissippi State Community College Cindy Minton, Clark State Community College Nili Kirschner, Woodland Community College Shonda Whetstone, Blinn College Elizabeth Arreaga, instructor emerita at Long Beach City College Florencio R. Riguera, Catholic University of America John B. Gannon, College of Southern Nevada Gerald Titchener, Des Moines Area Community College Rahime-Malik Howard, El Centro College, and Collin College Jeff Bry, Minnesota State Community and Technical College at Moorhead Cynthia Tooley, Metropolitan Community College at Blue River Carol Sebilia, Diablo Valley College Marian Moore, Owens Community College John Bartkowski, University of Texas at San Antonio Shelly Dutchin, Western Technical College

Supplements Accompanying the main text is an Instructor’s PowerPoint (https://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/introduction-to- sociology) file, which includes all of the images and captions found throughout the text and an Instructor’s test bank.

Disclaimer All photos and images were licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license at the time they were placed into this book. The CC-BY license does not cover any trademarks or logos in the photos. If you have questions about regarding photos or images, please contact us at info@openstaxcollege.org.

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1 An Introduction to Sociology

Figure 1.1 Sociologists study how society affects people and how people affect society. (Photo courtesy of Diego Torres Silvestre/flickr)

Learning Objectives 1.1. What Is Sociology?

• Explain concepts central to sociology

• Understand how different sociological perspectives have developed

1.2. The History of Sociology • Explain why sociology emerged when it did

• Describe how sociology became a separate academic discipline

1.3. Theoretical Perspectives • Explain what sociological theories are and how they are used

• Understand the similarities and differences between structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism

1.4. Why Study Sociology? • Explain why it is worthwhile to study sociology

• Identify ways sociology is applied in the real world

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Introduction to Sociology We all belong to many groups; you’re a member of your sociology class, and you’re a member of your family; you may belong to a political party, sports team, or the crowd watching a sporting event; you’re a citizen of your country, and you’re a part of a generation. You may have a somewhat different role in each group and feel differently in each.

Groups vary in their sizes and formalities, as well as in the levels of attachment between group members, among other things. Within a large group, smaller groups may exist, and each group may behave differently.

At a rock concert, for example, some may enjoy singing along, others prefer to sit and observe, while still others may join in a mosh pit or try crowd surfing. Why do we feel and act differently in different types of social situations? Why might people of a single group exhibit different behaviors in the same situation? Why might people acting similarly not feel connected to others exhibiting the same behavior? These are some of the many questions sociologists ask as they study people and societies.

1.1 What Is Sociology?

Figure 1.2 Sociologists learn about society as a whole while studying one-to-one and group interactions. (Photo courtesy of Gareth Williams/flickr)

What Are Society and Culture? Sociology is the study of groups and group interactions, societies and social interactions, from small and personal groups to very large groups. A group of people who live in a defined geographic area, who interact with one another, and who share a common culture is what sociologists call a society. Sociologists study all aspects and levels of society. Sociologists working from the micro-level study small groups and individual interactions, while those using macro-level analysis look at trends among and between large groups and societies. For example, a micro-level study might look at the accepted rules of conversation in various groups such as among teenagers or business professionals. In contrast, a macro-level analysis might research the ways that language use has changed over time or in social media outlets.

The term culture refers to the group’s shared practices, values, and beliefs. Culture encompasses a group’s way of life, from routine, everyday interactions to the most important parts of group members’ lives. It includes everything produced by a society, including all of the social rules. Sociologists often study culture using the sociological imagination, which pioneer sociologist C. Wright Mills described as an awareness of the relationship between a person’s behavior and experience and the wider culture that shaped the person’s choices and perceptions. It’s a way of seeing our own and other people’s behavior in relationship to history and social structure (1959).

One illustration of this is a person’s decision to marry. In the United States, this choice is heavily influenced by individual feelings; however, the social acceptability of marriage relative to the person’s circumstances also plays a part. Remember,

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though, that culture is a product of the people in a society; sociologists take care not to treat the concept of “culture” as though it were alive in its own right. Reification is an error of treating an abstract concept as though it has a real, material existence (Sahn 2013).

Studying Patterns: How Sociologists View Society All sociologists are interested in the experiences of individuals and how those experiences are shaped by interactions with social groups and society as a whole. To a sociologist, the personal decisions an individual makes do not exist in a vacuum. Cultural patterns and social forces put pressure on people to select one choice over another. Sociologists try to identify these general patterns by examining the behavior of large groups of people living in the same society and experiencing the same societal pressures.

Changes in the U.S. family structure offer an example of patterns that sociologists are interested in studying. A “typical” family now is vastly different than in past decades when most U.S. families consisted of married parents living in a home with their unmarried children. The percent of unmarried couples, same-sex couples, single-parent and single-adult households is increasing, as well as is the number of expanded households, in which extended family members such as grandparents, cousins, or adult children live together in the family home (U.S. Census Bureau 2013).

While mothers still make up the majority of single parents, millions of fathers are also raising their children alone, and more than 1 million of these single fathers have never been married (Williams Institute 2010; cited in Ludden 2012). Increasingly, single men and women and cohabitating opposite-sex or same-sex couples are choosing to raise children outside of marriage through surrogates or adoption.

Some sociologists study social facts, which are the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life, that may contribute to these changes in the family. Do people in the United States view marriage and family differently than before? Do employment and economic conditions play a role? How has culture influenced the choices that individuals make in living arrangements? Other sociologists are studying the consequences of these new patterns, such as the ways children are affected by them or changing needs for education, housing, and healthcare.

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Figure 1.3 Modern U.S. families may be very different in structure from what was historically typical. (Photo courtesy of Tony Alter/Wikimedia Commons)

Another example of the way society influences individual decisions can be seen in people’s opinions about and use of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP benefits. Some people believe those who receive SNAP benefits are lazy and unmotivated. Statistics from the United States Department of Agriculture show a complex picture.

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Table 1.1 SNAP Use by State in 2005 Sociologists examine social conditions in different states to explain differences in the number of people receiving SNAP benefits. (Table courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture)

Percent Eligible by Reason for Eligibility

Living in Waiver Area

Have Not Exceeded Time

Limits[1] In E & T Program

Received Exemption

Total Percent Eligible for the

FSP[2]

Alabama 29 62 / 72 0 1 73 / 80

Alaska 100 62 / 72 0 0 100

California 6 62 / 72 0 0 64 / 74

District of Columbia 100 62 / 72 0 0 100

Florida 48 62 / 72 0 0 80 / 85

Mississippi 39 62 / 72 0 3 100

Wyoming 7 62 / 72 0 0 64 / 74

The percentage of the population receiving SNAP benefits is much higher in certain states than in others. Does this mean, if the stereotype above were applied, that people in some states are lazier and less motivated than those in other states? Sociologists study the economies in each state—comparing unemployment rates, food, energy costs, and other factors—to explain differences in social issues like this.

To identify social trends, sociologists also study how people use SNAP benefits and how people react to their use. Research has found that for many people from all classes, there is a strong stigma attached to the use of SNAP benefits. This stigma can prevent people who qualify for this type of assistance from using SNAP benefits. According to Hanson and Gundersen (2002), how strongly this stigma is felt is linked to the general economic climate. This illustrates how sociologists observe a pattern in society.

Sociologists identify and study patterns related to all kinds of contemporary social issues. The “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy, the emergence of the Tea Party as a political faction, how Twitter has influenced everyday communication—these are all examples of topics that sociologists might explore.

Studying Part and Whole: How Sociologists View Social Structures A key basis of the sociological perspective is the concept that the individual and society are inseparable. It is impossible to study one without the other. German sociologist Norbert Elias called the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of individuals and the society that shapes that behavior figuration.

An application that makes this concept understandable is the practice of religion. While people experience their religions in a distinctly individual manner, religion exists in a larger social context. For instance, an individual’s religious practice may be influenced by what government dictates, holidays, teachers, places of worship, rituals, and so on. These influences underscore the important relationship between individual practices of religion and social pressures that influence that religious experience (Elias 1978).

1. The lower number is for individuals in households reporting food stamp receipt in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). The higher number is for individuals in households not reporting food stamp receipt in the SIPP. 2. The lower number is for individuals in households reporting food stamp receipt in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). The higher number is for individuals in households not reporting food stamp receipt in the SIPP.

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World

Individual-Society Connections When sociologist Nathan Kierns spoke to his friend Ashley (a pseudonym) about the move she and her partner had made from an urban center to a small Midwestern town, he was curious about how the social pressures placed on a lesbian couple differed from one community to the other. Ashley said that in the city they had been accustomed to getting looks and hearing comments when she and her partner walked hand in hand. Otherwise, she felt that they were at least being tolerated. There had been little to no outright discrimination.

Things changed when they moved to the small town for her partner’s job. For the first time, Ashley found herself experiencing direct discrimination because of her sexual orientation. Some of it was particularly hurtful. Landlords would not rent to them. Ashley, who is a highly trained professional, had a great deal of difficulty finding a new job.

When Nathan asked Ashley if she and her partner became discouraged or bitter about this new situation, Ashley said that rather than letting it get to them, they decided to do something about it. Ashley approached groups at a local college and several churches in the area. Together they decided to form the town’s first gay-straight alliance.

The alliance has worked successfully to educate their community about same-sex couples. It also worked to raise awareness about the kinds of discrimination that Ashley and her partner experienced in the town and how those could be eliminated. The alliance has become a strong advocacy group, and it is working to attain equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, or LBGT individuals.

Kierns observed that this is an excellent example of how negative social forces can result in a positive response from individuals to bring about social change (Kierns 2011).

1.2 The History of Sociology

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Figure 1.4 People have been thinking like sociologists long before sociology became a separate academic discipline: Plato and Aristotle, Confucius, Khaldun, and Voltaire all set the stage for modern sociology. (Photos (a),(b),(d) courtesy of Wikimedia Commons; Photo (c) courtesy of Moumou82/Wikimedia Commons)

Since ancient times, people have been fascinated by the relationship between individuals and the societies to which they belong. Many topics studied in modern sociology were also studied by ancient philosophers in their desire to describe an ideal society, including theories of social conflict, economics, social cohesion, and power (Hannoum 2003).

In the thirteenth century, Ma Tuan-Lin, a Chinese historian, first recognized social dynamics as an underlying component of historical development in his seminal encyclopedia, General Study of Literary Remains. The next century saw the emergence of the historian some consider to be the world’s first sociologist: Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) of Tunisia. He wrote about many topics of interest today, setting a foundation for both modern sociology and economics, including a theory of social conflict, a comparison of nomadic and sedentary life, a description of political economy, and a study connecting a tribe’s social cohesion to its capacity for power (Hannoum 2003).

In the eighteenth century, Age of Enlightenment philosophers developed general principles that could be used to explain social life. Thinkers such as John Locke, Voltaire, Immanuel Kant, and Thomas Hobbes responded to what they saw as

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social ills by writing on topics that they hoped would lead to social reform. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) wrote about women’s conditions in society. Her works were long ignored by the male academic structure, but since the 1970s, Wollstonecraft has been widely considered the first feminist thinker of consequence.

The early nineteenth century saw great changes with the Industrial Revolution, increased mobility, and new kinds of employment. It was also a time of great social and political upheaval with the rise of empires that exposed many people—for the first time—to societies and cultures other than their own. Millions of people moved into cities and many people turned away from their traditional religious beliefs.

Creating a Discipline

Auguste Comte (1798–1857)

Figure 1.5 Auguste Comte played an important role in the development of sociology as a recognized discipline. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)

The term sociology was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836) in an unpublished manuscript (Fauré et al. 1999). In 1838, the term was reinvented by Auguste Comte (1798–1857). Comte originally studied to be an engineer, but later became a pupil of social philosopher Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825). They both thought that social scientists could study society using the same scientific methods utilized in natural sciences. Comte also believed in the potential of social scientists to work toward the betterment of society. He held that once scholars identified the laws that governed society, sociologists could address problems such as poor education and poverty (Abercrombie et al. 2000).

Comte named the scientific study of social patterns positivism. He described his philosophy in a series of books called The Course in Positive Philosophy (1830–1842) and A General View of Positivism (1848). He believed that using scientific methods to reveal the laws by which societies and individuals interact would usher in a new “positivist” age of history. While the field and its terminology have grown, sociologists still believe in the positive impact of their work.

Harriet Martineau (1802–1876)—the First Woman Sociologist

Harriet Martineau was a writer who addressed a wide range of social science issues. She was an early observer of social practices, including economics, social class, religion, suicide, government, and women’s rights. Her writing career began in 1931 with a series of stories titled Illustrations of Political Economy, in which she tried to educate ordinary people about the principles of economics (Johnson 2003).

Martineau was the first to translate Comte’s writing from French to English and thereby introduced sociology to English- speaking scholars (Hill 1991). She is also credited with the first systematic methodological international comparisons of social institutions in two of her most famous sociological works: Society in America (1837) and Retrospect of Western Travel (1838). Martineau found the workings of capitalism at odds with the professed moral principles of people in the United States; she pointed out the faults with the free enterprise system in which workers were exploited and impoverished while business owners became wealthy. She further noted that the belief in all being created equal was inconsistent with the lack of women’s rights. Much like Mary Wollstonecraft, Martineau was often discounted in her own time by the male domination of academic sociology.

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Karl Marx (1818–1883)

Figure 1.6 Karl Marx was one of the founders of sociology. His ideas about social conflict are still relevant today. (Photo courtesy of John Mayall/ Wikimedia Commons)

Karl Marx (1818–1883) was a German philosopher and economist. In 1848 he and Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) coauthored the Communist Manifesto. This book is one of the most influential political manuscripts in history. It also presents Marx’s theory of society, which differed from what Comte proposed.

Marx rejected Comte’s positivism. He believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production. At the time he was developing his theories, the Industrial Revolution and the rise of capitalism led to great disparities in wealth between the owners of the factories and workers. Capitalism, an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of goods and the means to produce them, grew in many nations.

Marx predicted that inequalities of capitalism would become so extreme that workers would eventually revolt. This would lead to the collapse of capitalism, which would be replaced by communism. Communism is an economic system under which there is no private or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and distributed as needed. Marx believed that communism was a more equitable system than capitalism.

While his economic predictions may not have come true in the time frame he predicted, Marx’s idea that social conflict leads to change in society is still one of the major theories used in modern sociology.

Herbert Spencer (1820–1903)

In 1873, the English philosopher Herbert Spencer published The Study of Sociology, the first book with the term “sociology” in the title. Spencer rejected much of Comte’s philosophy as well as Marx’s theory of class struggle and his support of communism. Instead, he favored a form of government that allowed market forces to control capitalism. His work influenced many early sociologists including Émile Durkheim (1858–1917).

Georg Simmel (1858–1918)

Georg Simmel was a German art critic who wrote widely on social and political issues as well. Simmel took an anti- positivism stance and addressed topics such as social conflict, the function of money, individual identity in city life, and the European fear of outsiders (Stapley 2010). Much of his work focused on the micro-level theories, and it analyzed the dynamics of two-person and three-person groups. His work also emphasized individual culture as the creative capacities of individuals. Simmel’s contributions to sociology are not often included in academic histories of the discipline, perhaps overshadowed by his contemporaries Durkheim, Mead, and Weber (Ritzer and Goodman 2004).

Émile Durkheim (1858–1917)

Durkheim helped establish sociology as a formal academic discipline by establishing the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895 and by publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method in 1895. In another important work, Division of Labour in Society (1893), Durkheim laid out his theory on how societies transformed from a primitive state into a capitalist, industrial society. According to Durkheim, people rise to their proper levels in society based on merit.

Durkheim believed that sociologists could study objective “social facts” (Poggi 2000). He also believed that through such studies it would be possible to determine if a society was “healthy” or “pathological.” He saw healthy societies as stable, while pathological societies experienced a breakdown in social norms between individuals and society.

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate

In 1897, Durkheim attempted to demonstrate the effectiveness of his rules of social research when he published a work titled Suicide. Durkheim examined suicide statistics in different police districts to research differences between Catholic and Protestant communities. He attributed the differences to socioreligious forces rather than to individual or psychological causes.

George Herbert Mead (1863–1931)

George Herbert Mead was a philosopher and sociologist whose work focused on the ways in which the mind and the self were developed as a result of social processes (Cronk n.d.). He argued that how an individual comes to view himself or herself is based to a very large extent on interactions with others. Mead called specific individuals that impacted a person’s life significant others, and he also conceptualized “ generalized others” as the organized and generalized attitude of a social group. Mead’s work is closely associated with the symbolic interactionist approach and emphasizes the micro-level of analysis.

Max Weber (1864–1920)

Prominent sociologist Max Weber established a sociology department in Germany at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich in 1919. Weber wrote on many topics related to sociology including political change in Russia and social forces that affect factory workers. He is known best for his 1904 book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. The theory that Weber sets forth in this book is still controversial. Some believe that Weber argued that the beliefs of many Protestants, especially Calvinists, led to the creation of capitalism. Others interpret it as simply claiming that the ideologies of capitalism and Protestantism are complementary.

Weber believed that it was difficult, if not impossible, to use standard scientific methods to accurately predict the behavior of groups as people hoped to do. They argued that the influence of culture on human behavior had to be taken into account. This even applied to the researchers themselves, who, they believed, should be aware of how their own cultural biases could influence their research. To deal with this problem, Weber and Dilthey introduced the concept of verstehen, a German word that means to understand in a deep way. In seeking verstehen, outside observers of a social world—an entire culture or a small setting—attempt to understand it from an insider’s point of view.

In his book The Nature of Social Action (1922), Weber described sociology as striving to “interpret the meaning of social action and thereby give a causal explanation of the way in which action proceeds and the effects it produces.” He and other like-minded sociologists proposed a philosophy of antipositivism whereby social researchers would strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values. This approach led to some research methods whose aim was not to generalize or predict (traditional in science), but to systematically gain an in-depth understanding of social worlds.

The different approaches to research based on positivism or antipositivism are often considered the foundation for the differences found today between quantitative sociology and qualitative sociology. Quantitative sociology uses statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants. Researchers analyze data using statistical techniques to see if they can uncover patterns of human behavior. Qualitative sociology seeks to understand human behavior by learning about it through in-depth interviews, focus groups, and analysis of content sources (like books, magazines, journals, and popular media).

Should We Raise the Minimum Wage? In the 2014 State of the Union Address, President Obama called on Congress to raise the national minimum wage, and he signed an executive order putting this into effect for individuals working on new federal service contracts. Congress did not pass legislation to change the national minimum wage more broadly. The result has become a national controversy, with various economists taking different sides on the issue, and public protests being staged by several groups of minimum-wage workers.

Opponents of raising the minimum wage argue that some workers would get larger paychecks while others would lose their jobs, and companies would be less likely to hire new workers because of the increased cost of paying them (Bernstein 2014; cited in CNN).

Proponents of raising the minimum wage contend that some job loss would be greatly offset by the positive effects on the economy of low-wage workers having more income (Hassett 2014; cited in CNN).

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Sociologists may consider the minimum wage issue from differing perspectives as well. How much of an impact would a minimum wage raise have for a single mother? Some might study the economic effects, such as her ability to pay bills and keep food on the table. Others might look at how reduced economic stress could improve family relationships. Some sociologists might research the impact on the status of small business owners. These could all be examples of public sociology, a branch of sociology that strives to bring sociological dialogue to public forums. The goals of public sociology are to increase understanding of the social factors that underlie social problems and assist in finding solutions. According to Michael Burawoy (2005), the challenge of public sociology is to engage multiple publics in multiple ways.

1.3 Theoretical Perspectives

Figure 1.7 Sociologists develop theories to explain social occurrences such as protest rallies. (Photo courtesy of voanews.com/Wikimedia Commons)

Sociologists study social events, interactions, and patterns, and they develop a theory in an attempt to explain why things work as they do. In sociology, a theory is a way to explain different aspects of social interactions and to create a testable proposition, called a hypothesis, about society (Allan 2006).

For example, although suicide is generally considered an individual phenomenon, Émile Durkheim was interested in studying the social factors that affect it. His studied social ties within a group, or social solidarity, and hypothesized that differences in suicide rates might be explained by religion-based differences. Durkheim gathered a large amount of data about Europeans who had ended their lives, and he did indeed find differences based on religion. Protestants were more likely to commit suicide than Catholics in Durkheim’s society, and his work supports the utility of theory in sociological research.

Theories vary in scope depending on the scale of the issues that they are meant to explain. Macro-level theories relate to large-scale issues and large groups of people, while micro-level theories look at very specific relationships between individuals or small groups. Grand theories attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why societies form and why they change. Sociological theory is constantly evolving and should never be considered complete. Classic sociological theories are still considered important and current, but new sociological theories build upon the work of their predecessors and add to them (Calhoun 2002).

In sociology, a few theories provide broad perspectives that help explain many different aspects of social life, and these are called paradigms. Paradigms are philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them. Three paradigms have come to dominate sociological thinking, because they provide useful explanations: structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism.

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Table 1.2 Sociological Theories or Perspectives Different sociological perspectives enable sociologists to view social issues through a variety of useful lenses.

Sociological Paradigm

Level of Analysis Focus

Structural Functionalism Macro or mid

The way each part of society functions together to contribute to the whole

Conflict Theory Macro The way inequalities contribute to social differences and perpetuatedifferences in power

Symbolic Interactionism Micro One-to-one interactions and communications

Functionalism Functionalism, also called structural-functional theory, sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of the individuals in that society. Functionalism grew out of the writings of English philosopher and biologist, Hebert Spencer (1820–1903), who saw similarities between society and the human body; he argued that just as the various organs of the body work together to keep the body functioning, the various parts of society work together to keep society functioning (Spencer 1898). The parts of society that Spencer referred to were the social institutions, or patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs, such as government, education, family, healthcare, religion, and the economy.

Émile Durkheim, another early sociologist, applied Spencer’s theory to explain how societies change and survive over time. Durkheim believed that society is a complex system of interrelated and interdependent parts that work together to maintain stability (Durkheim 1893), and that society is held together by shared values, languages, and symbols. He believed that to study society, a sociologist must look beyond individuals to social facts such as laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashion, and rituals, which all serve to govern social life. Alfred Radcliff-Brown (1881–1955) defined the function of any recurrent activity as the part it played in social life as a whole, and therefore the contribution it makes to social stability and continuity (Radcliff-Brown 1952). In a healthy society, all parts work together to maintain stability, a state called dynamic equilibrium by later sociologists such as Parsons (1961).

Durkheim believed that individuals may make up society, but in order to study society, sociologists have to look beyond individuals to social facts. Social facts are the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life (Durkheim 1895). Each of these social facts serves one or more functions within a society. For example, one function of a society’s laws may be to protect society from violence, while another is to punish criminal behavior, while another is to preserve public health.

Another noted structural functionalist, Robert Merton (1910–2003), pointed out that social processes often have many functions. Manifest functions are the consequences of a social process that are sought or anticipated, while latent functions are the unsought consequences of a social process. A manifest function of college education, for example, includes gaining knowledge, preparing for a career, and finding a good job that utilizes that education. Latent functions of your college years include meeting new people, participating in extracurricular activities, or even finding a spouse or partner. Another latent function of education is creating a hierarchy of employment based on the level of education attained. Latent functions can be beneficial, neutral, or harmful. Social processes that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society are called dysfunctions. In education, examples of dysfunction include getting bad grades, truancy, dropping out, not graduating, and not finding suitable employment.

Criticism

One criticism of the structural-functional theory is that it can’t adequately explain social change. Also problematic is the somewhat circular nature of this theory; repetitive behavior patterns are assumed to have a function, yet we profess to know that they have a function only because they are repeated. Furthermore, dysfunctions may continue, even though they don’t serve a function, which seemingly contradicts the basic premise of the theory. Many sociologists now believe that functionalism is no longer useful as a macro-level theory, but that it does serve a useful purpose in some mid-level analyses.

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Making Connections: Big Picturethe

A Global Culture?

Figure 1.8 Some sociologists see the online world contributing to the creation of an emerging global culture. Are you a part of any global communities? (Photo courtesy of quasireversible/flickr)

Sociologists around the world look closely for signs of what would be an unprecedented event: the emergence of a global culture. In the past, empires such as those that existed in China, Europe, Africa, and Central and South America linked people from many different countries, but those people rarely became part of a common culture. They lived too far from each other, spoke different languages, practiced different religions, and traded few goods. Today, increases in communication, travel, and trade have made the world a much smaller place. More and more people are able to communicate with each other instantly—wherever they are located—by telephone, video, and text. They share movies, television shows, music, games, and information over the Internet. Students can study with teachers and pupils from the other side of the globe. Governments find it harder to hide conditions inside their countries from the rest of the world.

Sociologists research many different aspects of this potential global culture. Some explore the dynamics involved in the social interactions of global online communities, such as when members feel a closer kinship to other group members than to people residing in their own countries. Other sociologists study the impact this growing international culture has on smaller, less-powerful local cultures. Yet other researchers explore how international markets and the outsourcing of labor impact social inequalities. Sociology can play a key role in people’s abilities to understand the nature of this emerging global culture and how to respond to it.

Conflict Theory Conflict theory looks at society as a competition for limited resources. This perspective is a macro-level approach most identified with the writings of German philosopher and sociologist Karl Marx (1818–1883), who saw society as being made up of individuals in different social classes who must compete for social, material, and political resources such as food and housing, employment, education, and leisure time. Social institutions like government, education, and religion reflect this competition in their inherent inequalities and help maintain the unequal social structure. Some individuals and organizations are able to obtain and keep more resources than others, and these “winners” use their power and influence to maintain social institutions. Several theorist suggested variations on this basic theme.

Polish-Austrian sociologist Ludwig Gumplowicz (1838–1909) expanded on Marx’s ideas by arguing that war and conquest are the basis of civilizations. He believed that cultural and ethnic conflicts led to states being identified and defined by a dominant group that had power over other groups (Irving 2007).

German sociologist Max Weber agreed with Marx but also believed that, in addition to economic inequalities, inequalities of political power and social structure cause conflict. Weber noted that different groups were affected differently based on

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World

education, race, and gender, and that people’s reactions to inequality were moderated by class differences and rates of social mobility, as well as by perceptions about the legitimacy of those in power.

German sociologist Georg Simmel (1858–1918) believed that conflict can help integrate and stabilize a society. He said that the intensity of the conflict varies depending on the emotional involvement of the parties, the degree of solidarity within the opposing groups, and the clarity and limited nature of the goals. Simmel also showed that groups work to create internal solidarity, centralize power, and reduce dissent. Resolving conflicts can reduce tension and hostility and can pave the way for future agreements.

In the 1930s and 1940s, German philosophers, known as the Frankfurt School, developed critical theory as an elaboration on Marxist principles. Critical theory is an expansion of conflict theory and is broader than just sociology, including other social sciences and philosophy. A critical theory attempts to address structural issues causing inequality; it must explain what’s wrong in current social reality, identify the people who can make changes, and provide practical goals for social transformation (Horkeimer 1982).

More recently, inequality based on gender or race has been explained in a similar manner and has identified institutionalized power structures that help to maintain inequality between groups. Janet Saltzman Chafetz (1941–2006) presented a model of feminist theory that attempts to explain the forces that maintain gender inequality as well as a theory of how such a system can be changed (Turner 2003). Similarly, critical race theory grew out of a critical analysis of race and racism from a legal point of view. Critical race theory looks at structural inequality based on white privilege and associated wealth, power, and prestige.

Criticism

Farming and Locavores: How Sociological Perspectives Might View Food Consumption The consumption of food is a commonplace, daily occurrence, yet it can also be associated with important moments in our lives. Eating can be an individual or a group action, and eating habits and customs are influenced by our cultures. In the context of society, our nation’s food system is at the core of numerous social movements, political issues, and economic debates. Any of these factors might become a topic of sociological study.

A structural-functional approach to the topic of food consumption might be interested in the role of the agriculture industry within the nation’s economy and how this has changed from the early days of manual-labor farming to modern mechanized production. Another examination might study the different functions that occur in food production: from farming and harvesting to flashy packaging and mass consumerism.

A conflict theorist might be interested in the power differentials present in the regulation of food, by exploring where people’s right to information intersects with corporations’ drive for profit and how the government mediates those interests. Or a conflict theorist might be interested in the power and powerlessness experienced by local farmers versus large farming conglomerates, such as the documentary Food Inc. depicts as resulting from Monsanto’s patenting of seed technology. Another topic of study might be how nutrition varies between different social classes.

A sociologist viewing food consumption through a symbolic interactionist lens would be more interested in micro- level topics, such as the symbolic use of food in religious rituals, or the role it plays in the social interaction of a family dinner. This perspective might also study the interactions among group members who identify themselves based on their sharing a particular diet, such as vegetarians (people who don’t eat meat) or locavores (people who strive to eat locally produced food).

Just as structural functionalism was criticized for focusing too much on the stability of societies, conflict theory has been criticized because it tends to focus on conflict to the exclusion of recognizing stability. Many social structures are extremely stable or have gradually progressed over time rather than changing abruptly as conflict theory would suggest.

Symbolic Interactionist Theory Symbolic interactionism is a micro-level theory that focuses on the relationships among individuals within a society. Communication—the exchange of meaning through language and symbols—is believed to be the way in which people

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make sense of their social worlds. Theorists Herman and Reynolds (1994) note that this perspective sees people as being active in shaping the social world rather than simply being acted upon.

George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) is considered a founder of symbolic interactionism though he never published his work on it (LaRossa and Reitzes 1993). Mead’s student, Herbert Blumer, coined the term “symbolic interactionism” and outlined these basic premises: humans interact with things based on meanings ascribed to those things; the ascribed meaning of things comes from our interactions with others and society; the meanings of things are interpreted by a person when dealing with things in specific circumstances (Blumer 1969). If you love books, for example, a symbolic interactionist might propose that you learned that books are good or important in the interactions you had with family, friends, school, or church; maybe your family had a special reading time each week, getting your library card was treated as a special event, or bedtime stories were associated with warmth and comfort.

Social scientists who apply symbolic-interactionist thinking look for patterns of interaction between individuals. Their studies often involve observation of one-on-one interactions. For example, while a conflict theorist studying a political protest might focus on class difference, a symbolic interactionist would be more interested in how individuals in the protesting group interact, as well as the signs and symbols protesters use to communicate their message. The focus on the importance of symbols in building a society led sociologists like Erving Goffman (1922–1982) to develop a technique called dramaturgical analysis. Goffman used theater as an analogy for social interaction and recognized that people’s interactions showed patterns of cultural “scripts.” Because it can be unclear what part a person may play in a given situation, he or she has to improvise his or her role as the situation unfolds (Goffman 1958).

Studies that use the symbolic interactionist perspective are more likely to use qualitative research methods, such as in- depth interviews or participant observation, because they seek to understand the symbolic worlds in which research subjects live.

Constructivism is an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be. We develop social constructs based on interactions with others, and those constructs that last over time are those that have meanings which are widely agreed-upon or generally accepted by most within the society. This approach is often used to understand what’s defined as deviant within a society. There is no absolute definition of deviance, and different societies have constructed different meanings for deviance, as well as associating different behaviors with deviance. One situation that illustrates this is what you believe you’re to do if you find a wallet in the street. In the United States, turning the wallet in to local authorities would be considered the appropriate action, and to keep the wallet would be seen as deviant. In contrast, many Eastern societies would consider it much more appropriate to keep the wallet and search for the owner yourself; turning it over to someone else, even the authorities, would be considered deviant behavior.

Criticism

Research done from this perspective is often scrutinized because of the difficulty of remaining objective. Others criticize the extremely narrow focus on symbolic interaction. Proponents, of course, consider this one of its greatest strengths.

Sociological Theory Today

These three approaches are still the main foundation of modern sociological theory, but some evolution has been seen. Structural-functionalism was a dominant force after World War II and until the 1960s and 1970s. At that time, sociologists began to feel that structural-functionalism did not sufficiently explain the rapid social changes happening in the United States at that time.

Conflict theory then gained prominence, as there was renewed emphasis on institutionalized social inequality. Critical theory, and the particular aspects of feminist theory and critical race theory, focused on creating social change through the application of sociological principles, and the field saw a renewed emphasis on helping ordinary people understand sociology principles, in the form of public sociology.

Postmodern social theory attempts to look at society through an entirely new lens by rejecting previous macro-level attempts to explain social phenomena. Generally considered as gaining acceptance in the late 1970s and early 1980s, postmodern social theory is a micro-level approach that looks at small, local groups and individual reality. Its growth in popularity coincides with the constructivist aspects of symbolic interactionism.

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1.4 Why Study Sociology?

Figure 1.9 The research of sociologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark helped the Supreme Court decide to end “separate but equal” racial segregation in schools in the United States. (Photo courtesy of public domain)

When Elizabeth Eckford tried to enter Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957, she was met by an angry crowd. But she knew she had the law on her side. Three years earlier in the landmark Brown vs. the Board of Education case, the U.S. Supreme Court had overturned twenty-one state laws that allowed blacks and whites to be taught in separate school systems as long as the school systems were “equal.” One of the major factors influencing that decision was research conducted by the husband-and-wife team of sociologists, Kenneth and Mamie Clark. Their research showed that segregation was harmful to young black schoolchildren, and the Court found that harm to be unconstitutional.

Since it was first founded, many people interested in sociology have been driven by the scholarly desire to contribute knowledge to this field, while others have seen it as way not only to study society but also to improve it. Besides desegregation, sociology has played a crucial role in many important social reforms, such as equal opportunity for women in the workplace, improved treatment for individuals with mental handicaps or learning disabilities, increased accessibility and accommodation for people with physical handicaps, the right of native populations to preserve their land and culture, and prison system reforms.

The prominent sociologist Peter L. Berger (1929– ), in his 1963 book Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective, describes a sociologist as “someone concerned with understanding society in a disciplined way.” He asserts that sociologists have a natural interest in the monumental moments of people’s lives, as well as a fascination with banal, everyday occurrences. Berger also describes the “aha” moment when a sociological theory becomes applicable and understood:

[T]here is a deceptive simplicity and obviousness about some sociological investigations. One reads them, nods at the familiar scene, remarks that one has heard all this before and don’t people have better things to do than to waste their time on truisms—until one is suddenly brought up against an insight that radically questions everything one had previously assumed about this familiar scene. This is the point at which one begins to sense the excitement of sociology. (Berger 1963)

Sociology can be exciting because it teaches people ways to recognize how they fit into the world and how others perceive them. Looking at themselves and society from a sociological perspective helps people see where they connect to different groups based on the many different ways they classify themselves and how society classifies them in turn. It raises awareness of how those classifications—such as economic and status levels, education, ethnicity, or sexual orientation—affect perceptions.

Sociology teaches people not to accept easy explanations. It teaches them a way to organize their thinking so that they can ask better questions and formulate better answers. It makes people more aware that there are many different kinds of people in the world who do not necessarily think the way they do. It increases their willingness and ability to try to see the world from other people’s perspectives. This prepares them to live and work in an increasingly diverse and integrated world.

Sociology in the Workplace Employers continue to seek people with what are called “transferable skills.” This means that they want to hire people whose knowledge and education can be applied in a variety of settings and whose skills will contribute to various tasks.

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World

Studying sociology can provide people with this wide knowledge and a skill set that can contribute to many workplaces, including

• an understanding of social systems and large bureaucracies;

• the ability to devise and carry out research projects to assess whether a program or policy is working;

• the ability to collect, read, and analyze statistical information from polls or surveys;

• the ability to recognize important differences in people’s social, cultural, and economic backgrounds;

• skills in preparing reports and communicating complex ideas; and

• the capacity for critical thinking about social issues and problems that confront modern society. (Department of Sociology, University of Alabama)

Sociology prepares people for a wide variety of careers. Besides actually conducting social research or training others in the field, people who graduate from college with a degree in sociology are hired by government agencies and corporations in fields such as social services, counseling (e.g., family planning, career, substance abuse), community planning, health services, marketing, market research, and human resources. Even a small amount of training in sociology can be an asset in careers like sales, public relations, journalism, teaching, law, and criminal justice.

Please “Friend” Me: Students and Social Networking The phenomenon known as Facebook was designed specifically for students. Whereas earlier generations wrote notes in each other’s printed yearbooks at the end of the academic year, modern technology and the Internet ushered in dynamic new ways for people to interact socially. Instead of having to meet up on campus, students can call, text, and Skype from their dorm rooms. Instead of a study group gathering weekly in the library, online forums and chat rooms help learners connect. The availability and immediacy of computer technology has forever changed the ways in which students engage with each other.

Now, after several social networks have vied for primacy, a few have established their place in the market and some have attracted niche audience. While Facebook launched the social networking trend geared toward teens and young adults, now people of all ages are actively “friending” each other. LinkedIn distinguished itself by focusing on professional connections and served as a virtual world for workplace networking. Newer offshoots like Foursquare help people connect based on the real-world places they frequent, while Twitter has cornered the market on brevity.

The widespread ownership of smartphones adds to this social experience; the Pew Research Center (2012) found that the majority of people in the United States with mobile phones now have “smart” phones with Internet capability. Many people worldwide can now access Facebook, Twitter, and other social media from virtually anywhere, and there seems to be an increasing acceptance of smartphone use in many diverse and previously prohibited settings. The outcomes of smartphone use, as with other social media, are not yet clear.

These newer modes of social interaction have also spawned harmful consequences, such as cyberbullying and what some call FAD, or Facebook Addiction Disorder. Researchers have also examined other potential negative impacts, such as whether Facebooking lowers a student’s GPA, or whether there might be long-term effects of replacing face- to-face interaction with social media.

All of these social networks demonstrate emerging ways that people interact, whether positive or negative. They illustrate how sociological topics are alive and changing today. Social media will most certainly be a developing topic in the study of sociology for decades to come.

Chapter Review

Key Terms

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antipositivism:

conflict theory:

constructivism:

culture:

dramaturgical analysis:

dynamic equilibrium:

dysfunctions:

figuration:

function:

functionalism:

generalized others:

grand theories:

hypothesis:

latent functions:

macro-level:

manifest functions:

micro-level theories:

paradigms:

positivism:

qualitative sociology:

quantitative sociology:

reification:

significant others:

social facts:

social institutions:

social solidarity:

society:

the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values

a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited resources

an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be

a group’s shared practices, values, and beliefs

a technique sociologists use in which they view society through the metaphor of theatrical performance

a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society work together properly

social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society

the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of an individual and the society that shapes that behavior

the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to structural continuity

a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society

the organized and generalized attitude of a social group

an attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why societies form and why they change

a testable proposition

the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process

a wide-scale view of the role of social structures within a society

sought consequences of a social process

the study of specific relationships between individuals or small groups

philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them

the scientific study of social patterns

in-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data

statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants

an error of treating an abstract concept as though it has a real, material existence

specific individuals that impact a person’s life

the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life

patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs

the social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, and religion

a group of people who live in a defined geographical area who interact with one another and who share a common culture

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sociological imagination:

sociology:

symbolic interactionism:

theory:

verstehen:

the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other people, as well as to history in general and societal structures in particular

the systematic study of society and social interaction

a theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and symbols)

a proposed explanation about social interactions or society

a German word that means to understand in a deep way

Section Summary

1.1 What Is Sociology? Sociology is the systematic study of society and social interaction. In order to carry out their studies, sociologists identify cultural patterns and social forces and determine how they affect individuals and groups. They also develop ways to apply their findings to the real world.

1.2 The History of Sociology Sociology was developed as a way to study and try to understand the changes to society brought on by the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Some of the earliest sociologists thought that societies and individuals’ roles in society could be studied using the same scientific methodologies that were used in the natural sciences, while others believed that is was impossible to predict human behavior scientifically, and still others debated the value of such predictions. Those perspectives continue to be represented within sociology today.

1.3 Theoretical Perspectives Sociologists develop theories to explain social events, interactions, and patterns. A theory is a proposed explanation of those social interactions. Theories have different scales. Macro-level theories, such as structural functionalism and conflict theory, attempt to explain how societies operate as a whole. Micro-level theories, such as symbolic interactionism, focus on interactions between individuals.

1.4 Why Study Sociology? Studying sociology is beneficial both for the individual and for society. By studying sociology people learn how to think critically about social issues and problems that confront our society. The study of sociology enriches students’ lives and prepares them for careers in an increasingly diverse world. Society benefits because people with sociological training are better prepared to make informed decisions about social issues and take effective action to deal with them.

Section Quiz

1.1 What Is Sociology? 1. Which of the following best describes sociology as a subject?

a. The study of individual behavior b. The study of cultures c. The study of society and social interaction d. The study of economics

2. C. Wright Mills once said that sociologists need to develop a sociological __________ to study how society affects individuals.

a. culture b. imagination c. method d. tool

3. A sociologist defines society as a group of people who reside in a defined area, share a culture, and who: a. interact b. work in the same industry

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c. speak different languages d. practice a recognized religion

4. Seeing patterns means that a sociologist needs to be able to: a. compare the behavior of individuals from different societies b. compare one society to another c. identify similarities in how social groups respond to social pressure d. compare individuals to groups

1.2 The History of Sociology 5. Which of the following was a topic of study in early sociology?

a. Astrology b. Economics c. Physics d. History

6. Which founder of sociology believed societies changed due to class struggle? a. Emile Comte b. Karl Marx c. Plato d. Herbert Spencer

7. The difference between positivism and antipositivism relates to: a. whether individuals like or dislike their society b. whether research methods use statistical data or person-to-person research c. whether sociological studies can predict or improve society d. all of the above

8. Which would a quantitative sociologists use to gather data? a. A large survey b. A literature search c. An in-depth interview d. A review of television programs

9. Weber believed humans could not be studied purely objectively because they were influenced by: a. drugs b. their culture c. their genetic makeup d. the researcher

1.3 Theoretical Perspectives 10. Which of these theories is most likely to look at the social world on a micro level?

a. Structural functionalism b. Conflict theory c. Positivism d. Symbolic interactionism

11. Who believed that the history of society was one of class struggle? a. Emile Durkheim b. Karl Marx c. Erving Goffmann d. George Herbert Mead

12. Who coined the phrase symbolic interactionism? a. Herbert Blumer b. Max Weber c. Lester F. Ward d. W. I. Thomas

13. A symbolic interactionist may compare social interactions to: a. behaviors b. conflicts

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c. human organs d. theatrical roles

14. Which research technique would most likely be used by a symbolic interactionist? a. Surveys b. Participant observation c. Quantitative data analysis d. None of the above

1.4 Why Study Sociology? 15. Kenneth and Mamie Clark used sociological research to show that segregation was:

a. beneficial b. harmful c. illegal d. of no importance

16. Studying sociology helps people analyze data because they learn: a. interview techniques b. to apply statistics c. to generate theories d. all of the above

17. Berger describes sociologists as concerned with: a. monumental moments in people’s lives b. common everyday life events c. both a and b d. none of the above

Short Answer

1.1 What Is Sociology? 1. What do you think C. Wright Mills meant when he said that to be a sociologist, one had to develop a sociological imagination?

2. Describe a situation in which a choice you made was influenced by societal pressures.

1.2 The History of Sociology 3. What do you make of Karl Marx’s contributions to sociology? What perceptions of Marx have you been exposed to in your society, and how do those perceptions influence your views?

4. Do you tend to place more value on qualitative or quantitative research? Why? Does it matter what topic you are studying?

1.3 Theoretical Perspectives 5. Which theory do you think better explains how societies operate—structural functionalism or conflict theory? Why?

6. Do you think the way people behave in social interactions is more like the behavior of animals or more like actors playing a role in a theatrical production? Why?

1.4 Why Study Sociology? 7. How do you think taking a sociology course might affect your social interactions?

8. What sort of career are you interested in? How could studying sociology help you in this career?

Further Research

1.1 What Is Sociology? Sociology is a broad discipline. Different kinds of sociologists employ various methods for exploring the relationship between individuals and society. Check out more about sociology at http://openstaxcollege.org/l/what-is-sociology (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/what-is-sociology) .

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1.2 The History of Sociology Many sociologists helped shape the discipline. To learn more about prominent sociologists and how they changed sociology check out http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ferdinand-toennies (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ferdinand-toennies) .

1.3 Theoretical Perspectives People often think of all conflict as violent, but many conflicts can be resolved nonviolently. To learn more about nonviolent methods of conflict resolution check out the Albert Einstein Institution http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ae- institution (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ae-institution)

1.4 Why Study Sociology? Social communication is rapidly evolving due to ever improving technologies. To learn more about how sociologists study the impact of these changes check out http://openstaxcollege.org/l/media (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/media)

References

1.1 What Is Sociology? Elias, Norbert. 1978. What Is Sociology? New York: Columbia University Press.

Hanson, Kenneth, and Craig Gundersen. 2002. “How Unemployment Affects the Food Stamp Program.” Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report Number 26-7. USDA. Retrieved January 19, 2012 (http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ fanrr26/fanrr26-7/fanrr26-7.pdf (http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr26/fanrr26-7/fanrr26-7.pdf) ).

Ludden, Jennifer. 2012. “Single Dads By Choice: More Men Going It Alone.” npr. Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://www.npr.org/2012/06/19/154860588/single-dads-by-choice-more-men-going-it-alone).

Mills, C. Wright. 2000 [1959]. The Sociological Imagination. 40th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sahn, Richard. 2013. “The Dangers of Reification.” The Contrary Perspective. Retrieved October 14, 2014 (http://contraryperspective.com/2013/06/06/the-dangers-of-reification/).

U.S. Census Bureau. 2013. “America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2012.” Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/p20-570.pdf).

1.2 The History of Sociology Abercrombie, Nicholas, Stephen Hill, and Bryan S. Turner. 2000. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. London: Penguin.

Buroway, Michael. 2005. “2004 Presidential Address: For Public Sociology.” American Sociological Review 70 (February): 4–28. Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/Public%20Sociology,%20Live/ Burawoy.pdf).

Cable Network News (CNN). 2014. “Should the minimum wage be raised?” CNN Money. Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://money.cnn.com/infographic/pf/low-wage-worker/).

Cronk, George. n.d. “George Herbert Mead.” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource. Retrieved October 14, 2014 (http://www.iep.utm.edu/mead/).

Durkheim, Émile. 1964 [1895]. The Rules of Sociological Method, edited by J. Mueller, E. George and E. Caitlin. 8th ed. Translated by S. Solovay. New York: Free Press.

Fauré, Christine, Jacques Guilhaumou, Jacques Vallier, and Françoise Weil. 2007 [1999]. Des Manuscrits de Sieyès, 1773–1799, Volumes I and II. Paris: Champion.

Hannoum, Abdelmajid. 2003. Translation and the Colonial Imaginary: Ibn Khaldun Orientalist. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University. Retrieved January 19, 2012 (http://www.jstor.org/pss/3590803 (http://www.jstor.org/pss/3590803) ).

Hill, Michael. 1991. “Harriet Martineau.” Women in Sociology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook, edited by Mary Jo Deegan. New York: Greenwood Press.

Johnson, Bethany. 2003. “Harriet Martineau: Theories and Contributions to Sociology.” Education Portal. Retrieved October 14, 2014 (http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/harriet-martineau-theories-and-contributions-to- sociology.html#lesson).

Poggi, Gianfranco. 2000. Durkheim. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Chapter 1 | An Introduction to Sociology 25http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ferdinand-toennieshttp://openstaxcollege.org/l/ae-institutionhttp://openstaxcollege.org/l/ae-institutionhttp://openstaxcollege.org/l/mediahttp://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr26/fanrr26-7/fanrr26-7.pdfhttp://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr26/fanrr26-7/fanrr26-7.pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/pss/3590803

Ritzer, George, and Goodman, Douglas. 2004. Sociological Theory, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Education.

Stapley, Pierre. 2010. “Georg Simmel.” Cardiff University School of Social Sciences. Retrieved October 21, 2014 (http://www.cf.ac.uk/socsi/undergraduate/introsoc/simmel.html).

U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee. 2010. Women and the Economy, 2010: 25 Years of Progress But Challenges Remain. August. Washington, DC: Congressional Printing Office. Retrieved January 19, 2012 (http://jec.senate.gov/ public/?a=Files.Serve&File_id=8be22cb0-8ed0-4a1a-841b-aa91dc55fa81 (http://jec.senate.gov/ public/?a=Files.Serve&File_id=8be22cb0-8ed0-4a1a-841b-aa91dc55fa81) ).

1.3 Theoretical Perspectives Allan, Kenneth. 2006. Contemporary Social and Sociological Theory: Visualizing Social Worlds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Blumer, H. 1969. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Broce, Gerald. 1973. History of Anthropology. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company.

Calhoun, Craig J. 2002. Classical Sociological Theory. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Durkheim, Émile. 1984 [1893]. The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Free Press.

Durkheim, Émile. 1964 [1895]. The Rules of Sociological Method, edited by J. Mueller, E. George and E. Caitlin. 8th ed. Translated by S. Solovay. New York: Free Press.

Goffman, Erving. 1958. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Social Sciences Research Centre.

Goldschmidt, Walter. 1996. “Functionalism” in Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 2, edited by D. Levinson and M. Ember. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Henry, Stuart. 2007. “Deviance, Constructionist Perspectives.” Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. Retrieved October 14, 2014 (http://www.sociologyencyclopedia.com/public/ tocnode?id=g9781405124331_yr2011_chunk_g978140512433110_ss1-41).

Herman, Nancy J., and Larry T. Reynolds. 1994. Symbolic Interaction: An Introduction to Social Psychology. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.

Horkeimer, M. 1982. Critical Theory. New York: Seabury Press.

Irving, John Scott. 2007. Fifty Key Sociologists: The Formative Theorists. New York: Routledge.

LaRossa, R., and D.C. Reitzes. 1993. “Symbolic Interactionism and Family Studies.” Pp. 135–163 in Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A Contextual Approach, edited by P. G. Boss, W. J. Doherty, R. LaRossa, W. R. Schumm, and S. K. Steinmetz. New York: Springer.

Maryanski, Alexandra, and Jonathan Turner. 1992. The Social Cage: Human Nature and the Evolution of Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. 1998 [1848]. The Communist Manifesto. New York: Penguin.

Parsons, T. 1961. Theories of Society: Foundations of Modern Sociological Theory. New York: Free Press.

Pew Research Center. 2012. “Mobile Technology Fact Sheet.” Pew Research Internet Project, April 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2014 (http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/mobile-technology-fact-sheet/).

Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. 1952. Structure and Function in Primitive Society: Essays and Addresses. London: Cohen and West.

Spencer, Herbert. 1898. The Principles of Biology. New York: D. Appleton and Company.

Turner, J. 2003. The Structure of Sociological Theory. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.

UCLA School of Public Affairs. n.d. “What is Critical Race Theory?” UCLA School of Public Affairs: Critical Race Studies. Retrieved October 20, 2014 (http://spacrs.wordpress.com/what-is-critical-race-theory/).

1.4 Why Study Sociology? Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Anchor Books.

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Department of Sociology, University of Alabama. N.d. Is Sociology Right for You?. Huntsville: University of Alabama. Retrieved January 19, 2012 (http://www.uah.edu/la/departments/sociology/about-sociology/why-sociology (http://www.uah.edu/la/departments/sociology/about-sociology/why-sociology) ).

2B4C6B8A10D12A14B16D

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2 Sociological Research

Figure 2.1 Many believe that crime rates go up during the full moon, but scientific research does not support this conclusion. (Photo courtesy of Jubula 2/flickr)

Chapter 2 | Sociological Research 29

Learning Objectives 2.1. Approaches to Sociological Research

• Define and describe the scientific method

• Explain how the scientific method is used in sociological research

• Understand the function and importance of an interpretive framework

• Define what reliability and validity mean in a research study

2.2. Research Methods • Differentiate between four kinds of research methods: surveys, field research, experiments, and secondary

data analysis

• Understand why different topics are better suited to different research approaches

2.3. Ethical Concerns • Understand why ethical standards exist

• Demonstrate awareness of the American Sociological Association’s Code of Ethics

• Define value neutrality

Introduction to Sociological Research Have you ever wondered if home schooling affects a person’s later success in college or how many people wait until they are in their forties to get married? Do you wonder if texting is changing teenagers’ abilities to spell correctly or to communicate clearly? How do social movements like Occupy Wall Street develop? How about the development of social phenomena like the massive public followings for Star Trek and Harry Potter? The goal of research is to answer questions. Sociological research attempts to answer a vast variety of questions, such as these and more, about our social world.

We often have opinions about social situations, but these may be biased by our expectations or based on limited data. Instead, scientific research is based on empirical evidence, which is evidence that comes from direct experience, scientifically gathered data, or experimentation. Many people believe, for example, that crime rates go up when there’s a full moon, but research doesn’t support this opinion. Researchers Rotton and Kelly (1985) conducted a meta-analysis of research on the full moon’s effects on behavior. Meta-analysis is a technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated together. Rotton and Kelly’s meta-analysis included thirty-seven prior studies on the effects of the full moon on crime rates, and the overall findings were that full moons are entirely unrelated to crime, suicide, psychiatric problems, and crisis center calls (cited in Arkowitz and Lilienfeld 2009). We may each know of an instance in which a crime happened during a full moon, but it was likely just a coincidence.

People commonly try to understand the happenings in their world by finding or creating an explanation for an occurrence. Social scientists may develop a hypothesis for the same reason. A hypothesis is a testable educated guess about predicted outcomes between two or more variables; it’s a possible explanation for specific happenings in the social world and allows for testing to determine whether the explanation holds true in many instances, as well as among various groups or in different places. Sociologists use empirical data and the scientific method, or an interpretative framework, to increase understanding of societies and social interactions, but research begins with the search for an answer to a question.

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research When sociologists apply the sociological perspective and begin to ask questions, no topic is off limits. Every aspect of human behavior is a source of possible investigation. Sociologists question the world that humans have created and live in. They notice patterns of behavior as people move through that world. Using sociological methods and systematic research within the framework of the scientific method and a scholarly interpretive perspective, sociologists have discovered workplace patterns that have transformed industries, family patterns that have enlightened family members, and education patterns that have aided structural changes in classrooms.

The crime during a full moon discussion put forth a few loosely stated opinions. If the human behaviors around those claims were tested systematically, a police officer, for example, could write a report and offer the findings to sociologists and the world in general. The new perspective could help people understand themselves and their neighbors and help people make better decisions about their lives. It might seem strange to use scientific practices to study social trends, but, as we shall see, it’s extremely helpful to rely on systematic approaches that research methods provide.

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Sociologists often begin the research process by asking a question about how or why things happen in this world. It might be a unique question about a new trend or an old question about a common aspect of life. Once the sociologist forms the question, he or she proceeds through an in-depth process to answer it. In deciding how to design that process, the researcher may adopt a scientific approach or an interpretive framework. The following sections describe these approaches to knowledge.

The Scientific Method Sociologists make use of tried and true methods of research, such as experiments, surveys, and field research. But humans and their social interactions are so diverse that these interactions can seem impossible to chart or explain. It might seem that science is about discoveries and chemical reactions or about proving ideas right or wrong rather than about exploring the nuances of human behavior.

However, this is exactly why scientific models work for studying human behavior. A scientific process of research establishes parameters that help make sure results are objective and accurate. Scientific methods provide limitations and boundaries that focus a study and organize its results.

The scientific method involves developing and testing theories about the world based on empirical evidence. It is defined by its commitment to systematic observation of the empirical world and strives to be objective, critical, skeptical, and logical. It involves a series of prescribed steps that have been established over centuries of scholarship.

Figure 2.2 The scientific method is an essential tool in research.

But just because sociological studies use scientific methods does not make the results less human. Sociological topics are not reduced to right or wrong facts. In this field, results of studies tend to provide people with access to knowledge they did not have before—knowledge of other cultures, knowledge of rituals and beliefs, or knowledge of trends and attitudes. No matter what research approach they use, researchers want to maximize the study’s reliability, which refers to how likely research results are to be replicated if the study is reproduced. Reliability increases the likelihood that what happens to one person will happen to all people in a group. Researchers also strive for validity, which refers to how well the study measures what it was designed to measure. Returning to the crime rate during a full moon topic, reliability of a study would reflect how well the resulting experience represents the average adult crime rate during a full moon. Validity would ensure that the study’s design accurately examined what it was designed to study, so an exploration of adult criminal behaviors during a full moon should address that issue and not veer into other age groups’ crimes, for example.

In general, sociologists tackle questions about the role of social characteristics in outcomes. For example, how do different communities fare in terms of psychological well-being, community cohesiveness, range of vocation, wealth, crime rates, and so on? Are communities functioning smoothly? Sociologists look between the cracks to discover obstacles to meeting basic human needs. They might study environmental influences and patterns of behavior that lead to crime, substance abuse, divorce, poverty, unplanned pregnancies, or illness. And, because sociological studies are not all focused on negative behaviors or challenging situations, researchers might study vacation trends, healthy eating habits, neighborhood organizations, higher education patterns, games, parks, and exercise habits.

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Sociologists can use the scientific method not only to collect but also to interpret and analyze the data. They deliberately apply scientific logic and objectivity. They are interested in—but not attached to—the results. They work outside of their own political or social agendas. This doesn’t mean researchers do not have their own personalities, complete with preferences and opinions. But sociologists deliberately use the scientific method to maintain as much objectivity, focus, and consistency as possible in a particular study.

With its systematic approach, the scientific method has proven useful in shaping sociological studies. The scientific method provides a systematic, organized series of steps that help ensure objectivity and consistency in exploring a social problem. They provide the means for accuracy, reliability, and validity. In the end, the scientific method provides a shared basis for discussion and analysis (Merton 1963).

Typically, the scientific method starts with these steps—1) ask a question, 2) research existing sources, 3) formulate a hypothesis—described below.

Ask a Question

The first step of the scientific method is to ask a question, describe a problem, and identify the specific area of interest. The topic should be narrow enough to study within a geography and time frame. “Are societies capable of sustained happiness?” would be too vague. The question should also be broad enough to have universal merit. “What do personal hygiene habits reveal about the values of students at XYZ High School?” would be too narrow. That said, happiness and hygiene are worthy topics to study. Sociologists do not rule out any topic, but would strive to frame these questions in better research terms.

That is why sociologists are careful to define their terms. In a hygiene study, for instance, hygiene could be defined as “personal habits to maintain physical appearance (as opposed to health),” and a researcher might ask, “How do differing personal hygiene habits reflect the cultural value placed on appearance?” When forming these basic research questions, sociologists develop an operational definition, that is, they define the concept in terms of the physical or concrete steps it takes to objectively measure it. The operational definition identifies an observable condition of the concept. By operationalizing a variable of the concept, all researchers can collect data in a systematic or replicable manner.

The operational definition must be valid, appropriate, and meaningful. And it must be reliable, meaning that results will be close to uniform when tested on more than one person. For example, “good drivers” might be defined in many ways: those who use their turn signals, those who don’t speed, or those who courteously allow others to merge. But these driving behaviors could be interpreted differently by different researchers and could be difficult to measure. Alternatively, “a driver who has never received a traffic violation” is a specific description that will lead researchers to obtain the same information, so it is an effective operational definition.

Research Existing Sources

The next step researchers undertake is to conduct background research through a literature review, which is a review of any existing similar or related studies. A visit to the library and a thorough online search will uncover existing research about the topic of study. This step helps researchers gain a broad understanding of work previously conducted on the topic at hand and enables them to position their own research to build on prior knowledge. Researchers—including student researchers—are responsible for correctly citing existing sources they use in a study or that inform their work. While it is fine to borrow previously published material (as long as it enhances a unique viewpoint), it must be referenced properly and never plagiarized.

To study hygiene and its value in a particular society, a researcher might sort through existing research and unearth studies about child-rearing, vanity, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and cultural attitudes toward beauty. It’s important to sift through this information and determine what is relevant. Using existing sources educates researchers and helps refine and improve studies’ designs.

Formulate a Hypothesis

A hypothesis is an assumption about how two or more variables are related; it makes a conjectural statement about the relationship between those variables. In sociology, the hypothesis will often predict how one form of human behavior influences another. In research, independent variables are the cause of the change. The dependent variable is the effect, or thing that is changed.

For example, in a basic study, the researcher would establish one form of human behavior as the independent variable and observe the influence it has on a dependent variable. How does gender (the independent variable) affect rate of income (the dependent variable)? How does one’s religion (the independent variable) affect family size (the dependent variable)? How is social class (the dependent variable) affected by level of education (the independent variable)?

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Table 2.1 Examples of Dependent and Independent Variables Typically, the independent variable causes the dependent variable to change in some way.

Hypothesis IndependentVariable Dependent

Variable

The greater the availability of affordable housing, the lower the homeless rate. Affordable Housing Homeless Rate

The greater the availability of math tutoring, the higher the math grades. Math Tutoring Math Grades

The greater the police patrol presence, the safer the neighborhood.

Police Patrol Presence Safer Neighborhood

The greater the factory lighting, the higher the productivity. Factory Lighting Productivity

The greater the amount of observation, the higher the public awareness. Observation Public Awareness

At this point, a researcher’s operational definitions help measure the variables. In a study asking how tutoring improves grades, for instance, one researcher might define a “good” grade as a C or better, while another uses a B+ as a starting point for “good.” Another operational definition might describe “tutoring” as “one-on-one assistance by an expert in the field, hired by an educational institution.” Those definitions set limits and establish cut-off points that ensure consistency and replicability in a study.

As the table shows, an independent variable is the one that causes a dependent variable to change. For example, a researcher might hypothesize that teaching children proper hygiene (the independent variable) will boost their sense of self-esteem (the dependent variable). Or rephrased, a child’s sense of self-esteem depends, in part, on the quality and availability of hygienic resources.

Of course, this hypothesis can also work the other way around. Perhaps a sociologist believes that increasing a child’s sense of self-esteem (the independent variable) will automatically increase or improve habits of hygiene (now the dependent variable). Identifying the independent and dependent variables is very important. As the hygiene example shows, simply identifying two topics, or variables, is not enough; their prospective relationship must be part of the hypothesis.

Just because a sociologist forms an educated prediction of a study’s outcome doesn’t mean data contradicting the hypothesis aren’t welcome. Sociologists analyze general patterns in response to a study, but they are equally interested in exceptions to patterns. In a study of education, a researcher might predict that high school dropouts have a hard time finding rewarding careers. While it has become at least a cultural assumption that the higher the education, the higher the salary and degree of career happiness, there are certainly exceptions. People with little education have had stunning careers, and people with advanced degrees have had trouble finding work. A sociologist prepares a hypothesis knowing that results will vary.

Once the preliminary work is done, it’s time for the next research steps: designing and conducting a study and drawing conclusions. These research methods are discussed below.

Interpretive Framework While many sociologists rely on the scientific method as a research approach, others operate from an interpretive framework. While systematic, this approach doesn’t follow the hypothesis-testing model that seeks to find generalizable results. Instead, an interpretive framework, sometimes referred to as an interpretive perspective, seeks to understand social worlds from the point of view of participants, which leads to in-depth knowledge.

Interpretive research is generally more descriptive or narrative in its findings. Rather than formulating a hypothesis and method for testing it, an interpretive researcher will develop approaches to explore the topic at hand that may involve a significant amount of direct observation or interaction with subjects. This type of researcher also learns as he or she proceeds and sometimes adjusts the research methods or processes midway to optimize findings as they evolve.

2.2 Research Methods Sociologists examine the world, see a problem or interesting pattern, and set out to study it. They use research methods to design a study—perhaps a detailed, systematic, scientific method for conducting research and obtaining data, or perhaps

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an ethnographic study utilizing an interpretive framework. Planning the research design is a key step in any sociological study.

When entering a particular social environment, a researcher must be careful. There are times to remain anonymous and times to be overt. There are times to conduct interviews and times to simply observe. Some participants need to be thoroughly informed; others should not know they are being observed. A researcher wouldn’t stroll into a crime-ridden neighborhood at midnight, calling out, “Any gang members around?” And if a researcher walked into a coffee shop and told the employees they would be observed as part of a study on work efficiency, the self-conscious, intimidated baristas might not behave naturally. This is called the Hawthorne effect—where people change their behavior because they know they are being watched as part of a study. The Hawthorne effect is unavoidable in some research. In many cases, sociologists have to make the purpose of the study known. Subjects must be aware that they are being observed, and a certain amount of artificiality may result (Sonnenfeld 1985).

Making sociologists’ presence invisible is not always realistic for other reasons. That option is not available to a researcher studying prison behaviors, early education, or the Ku Klux Klan. Researchers can’t just stroll into prisons, kindergarten classrooms, or Klan meetings and unobtrusively observe behaviors. In situations like these, other methods are needed. All studies shape the research design, while research design simultaneously shapes the study. Researchers choose methods that best suit their study topics and that fit with their overall approaches to research.

In planning studies’ designs, sociologists generally choose from four widely used methods of social investigation: survey, field research, experiment, and secondary data analysis, or use of existing sources. Every research method comes with plusses and minuses, and the topic of study strongly influences which method or methods are put to use.

Surveys As a research method, a survey collects data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire. The survey is one of the most widely used scientific research methods. The standard survey format allows individuals a level of anonymity in which they can express personal ideas.

Figure 2.3 Questionnaires are a common research method; the U.S. Census is a well-known example. (Photo courtesy of Kathryn Decker/flickr)

At some point, most people in the United States respond to some type of survey. The U.S. Census is an excellent example of a large-scale survey intended to gather sociological data. Not all surveys are considered sociological research, however, and many surveys people commonly encounter focus on identifying marketing needs and strategies rather than testing a hypothesis or contributing to social science knowledge. Questions such as, “How many hot dogs do you eat in a month?” or “Were the staff helpful?” are not usually designed as scientific research. Often, polls on television do not reflect a general population, but are merely answers from a specific show’s audience. Polls conducted by programs such as American Idol or So You Think You Can Dance represent the opinions of fans but are not particularly scientific. A good contrast to these are the Nielsen Ratings, which determine the popularity of television programming through scientific market research.

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Figure 2.4 American Idol uses a real-time survey system—with numbers—that allows members in the audience to vote on contestants. (Photo courtesy of Sam Howzit/flickr)

Sociologists conduct surveys under controlled conditions for specific purposes. Surveys gather different types of information from people. While surveys are not great at capturing the ways people really behave in social situations, they are a great method for discovering how people feel and think—or at least how they say they feel and think. Surveys can track preferences for presidential candidates or reported individual behaviors (such as sleeping, driving, or texting habits) or factual information such as employment status, income, and education levels.

A survey targets a specific population, people who are the focus of a study, such as college athletes, international students, or teenagers living with type 1 (juvenile-onset) diabetes. Most researchers choose to survey a small sector of the population, or a sample: that is, a manageable number of subjects who represent a larger population. The success of a study depends on how well a population is represented by the sample. In a random sample, every person in a population has the same chance of being chosen for the study. According to the laws of probability, random samples represent the population as a whole. For instance, a Gallup Poll, if conducted as a nationwide random sampling, should be able to provide an accurate estimate of public opinion whether it contacts 2,000 or 10,000 people.

After selecting subjects, the researcher develops a specific plan to ask questions and record responses. It is important to inform subjects of the nature and purpose of the study up front. If they agree to participate, researchers thank subjects and offer them a chance to see the results of the study if they are interested. The researcher presents the subjects with an instrument, which is a means of gathering the information. A common instrument is a questionnaire, in which subjects answer a series of questions. For some topics, the researcher might ask yes-or-no or multiple-choice questions, allowing subjects to choose possible responses to each question. This kind of quantitative data—research collected in numerical form that can be counted—are easy to tabulate. Just count up the number of “yes” and “no” responses or correct answers, and chart them into percentages.

Questionnaires can also ask more complex questions with more complex answers—beyond “yes,” “no,” or the option next to a checkbox. In those cases, the answers are subjective and vary from person to person. How do plan to use your college education? Why do you follow Jimmy Buffett around the country and attend every concert? Those types of questions require short essay responses, and participants willing to take the time to write those answers will convey personal information about religious beliefs, political views, and morals. Some topics that reflect internal thought are impossible to observe directly and are difficult to discuss honestly in a public forum. People are more likely to share honest answers if they can respond to questions anonymously. This type of information is qualitative data—results that are subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting. Qualitative information is harder to organize and tabulate. The researcher will end up with a wide range of responses, some of which may be surprising. The benefit of written opinions, though, is the wealth of material that they provide.

An interview is a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject, and it is a way of conducting surveys on a topic. Interviews are similar to the short-answer questions on surveys in that the researcher asks subjects a series of questions. However, participants are free to respond as they wish, without being limited by predetermined choices. In the back-and-forth conversation of an interview, a researcher can ask for clarification, spend more time on a subtopic, or ask additional questions. In an interview, a subject will ideally feel free to open up and answer questions that are often complex. There are no right or wrong answers. The subject might not even know how to answer the questions honestly.

Questions such as, “How did society’s view of alcohol consumption influence your decision whether or not to take your first sip of alcohol?” or “Did you feel that the divorce of your parents would put a social stigma on your family?” involve so many factors that the answers are difficult to categorize. A researcher needs to avoid steering or prompting the subject to respond in a specific way; otherwise, the results will prove to be unreliable. And, obviously, a sociological interview is

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not an interrogation. The researcher will benefit from gaining a subject’s trust, from empathizing or commiserating with a subject, and from listening without judgment.

Field Research The work of sociology rarely happens in limited, confined spaces. Sociologists seldom study subjects in their own offices or laboratories. Rather, sociologists go out into the world. They meet subjects where they live, work, and play. Field research refers to gathering primary data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey. It is a research method suited to an interpretive framework rather than to the scientific method. To conduct field research, the sociologist must be willing to step into new environments and observe, participate, or experience those worlds. In field work, the sociologists, rather than the subjects, are the ones out of their element.

The researcher interacts with or observes a person or people and gathers data along the way. The key point in field research is that it takes place in the subject’s natural environment, whether it’s a coffee shop or tribal village, a homeless shelter or the DMV, a hospital, airport, mall, or beach resort.

Figure 2.5 Sociological researchers travel across countries and cultures to interact with and observe subjects in their natural environments. (Photo courtesy of IMLS Digital Collections and Content/flickr and Olympic National Park)

While field research often begins in a specific setting, the study’s purpose is to observe specific behaviors in that setting. Field work is optimal for observing how people behave. It is less useful, however, for understanding why they behave that way. You can’t really narrow down cause and effect when there are so many variables floating around in a natural environment.

Much of the data gathered in field research are based not on cause and effect but on correlation. And while field research looks for correlation, its small sample size does not allow for establishing a causal relationship between two variables.

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World

Parrotheads as Sociological Subjects

Figure 2.6 Business suits for the day job are replaced by leis and T-shirts for a Jimmy Buffett concert. (Photo courtesy of Sam Howzitt/flickr)

Some sociologists study small groups of people who share an identity in one aspect of their lives. Almost everyone belongs to a group of like-minded people who share an interest or hobby. Scientologists, folk dancers, or members of Mensa (an organization for people with exceptionally high IQs) express a specific part of their identity through their affiliation with a group. Those groups are often of great interest to sociologists.

Jimmy Buffett, an American musician who built a career from his single top-10 song “Margaritaville,” has a following of devoted groupies called Parrotheads. Some of them have taken fandom to the extreme, making Parrothead culture a lifestyle. In 2005, Parrotheads and their subculture caught the attention of researchers John Mihelich and John Papineau. The two saw the way Jimmy Buffett fans collectively created an artificial reality. They wanted to know how fan groups shape culture.

What Mihelich and Papineau found was that Parrotheads, for the most part, do not seek to challenge or even change society, as many sub-groups do. In fact, most Parrotheads live successfully within society, holding upper-level jobs in the corporate world. What they seek is escape from the stress of daily life.

At Jimmy Buffett concerts, Parrotheads engage in a form of role play. They paint their faces and dress for the tropics in grass skirts, Hawaiian leis, and Parrot hats. These fans don’t generally play the part of Parrotheads outside of these concerts; you are not likely to see a lone Parrothead in a bank or library. In that sense, Parrothead culture is less about individualism and more about conformity. Being a Parrothead means sharing a specific identity. Parrotheads feel connected to each other: it’s a group identity, not an individual one.

In their study, Mihelich and Papineau quote from a recent book by sociologist Richard Butsch, who writes, “un-self- conscious acts, if done by many people together, can produce change, even though the change may be unintended” (2000). Many Parrothead fan groups have performed good works in the name of Jimmy Buffett culture, donating to charities and volunteering their services.

However, the authors suggest that what really drives Parrothead culture is commercialism. Jimmy Buffett’s popularity was dying out in the 1980s until being reinvigorated after he signed a sponsorship deal with a beer company. These days, his concert tours alone generate nearly $30 million a year. Buffett made a lucrative career for himself by partnering with product companies and marketing Margaritaville in the form of T-shirts, restaurants, casinos, and an expansive line of products. Some fans accuse Buffett of selling out, while others admire his financial success. Buffett makes no secret of his commercial exploitations; from the stage, he’s been known to tell his fans, “Just remember, I am spending your money foolishly.”

Mihelich and Papineau gathered much of their information online. Referring to their study as a “Web ethnography,” they collected extensive narrative material from fans who joined Parrothead clubs and posted their experiences on websites. “We do not claim to have conducted a complete ethnography of Parrothead fans, or even of the Parrothead Web activity,” state the authors, “but we focused on particular aspects of Parrothead practice as revealed through Web

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research” (2005). Fan narratives gave them insight into how individuals identify with Buffett’s world and how fans used popular music to cultivate personal and collective meaning.

In conducting studies about pockets of culture, most sociologists seek to discover a universal appeal. Mihelich and Papineau stated, “Although Parrotheads are a relative minority of the contemporary US population, an in-depth look at their practice and conditions illuminate [sic] cultural practices and conditions many of us experience and participate in” (2005).

Here, we will look at three types of field research: participant observation, ethnography, and the case study.

Participant Observation

In 2000, a comic writer named Rodney Rothman wanted an insider’s view of white-collar work. He slipped into the sterile, high-rise offices of a New York “dot com” agency. Every day for two weeks, he pretended to work there. His main purpose was simply to see whether anyone would notice him or challenge his presence. No one did. The receptionist greeted him. The employees smiled and said good morning. Rothman was accepted as part of the team. He even went so far as to claim a desk, inform the receptionist of his whereabouts, and attend a meeting. He published an article about his experience in The New Yorker called “My Fake Job” (2000). Later, he was discredited for allegedly fabricating some details of the story and The New Yorker issued an apology. However, Rothman’s entertaining article still offered fascinating descriptions of the inside workings of a “dot com” company and exemplified the lengths to which a sociologist will go to uncover material.

Rothman had conducted a form of study called participant observation, in which researchers join people and participate in a group’s routine activities for the purpose of observing them within that context. This method lets researchers experience a specific aspect of social life. A researcher might go to great lengths to get a firsthand look into a trend, institution, or behavior. Researchers temporarily put themselves into roles and record their observations. A researcher might work as a waitress in a diner, live as a homeless person for several weeks, or ride along with police officers as they patrol their regular beat. Often, these researchers try to blend in seamlessly with the population they study, and they may not disclose their true identity or purpose if they feel it would compromise the results of their research.

Figure 2.7 Is she a working waitress or a sociologist conducting a study using participant observation? (Photo courtesy of zoetnet/flickr)

At the beginning of a field study, researchers might have a question: “What really goes on in the kitchen of the most popular diner on campus?” or “What is it like to be homeless?” Participant observation is a useful method if the researcher wants to explore a certain environment from the inside.

Field researchers simply want to observe and learn. In such a setting, the researcher will be alert and open minded to whatever happens, recording all observations accurately. Soon, as patterns emerge, questions will become more specific, observations will lead to hypotheses, and hypotheses will guide the researcher in shaping data into results.

In a study of small towns in the United States conducted by sociological researchers John S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, the team altered their purpose as they gathered data. They initially planned to focus their study on the role of religion in U.S. towns. As they gathered observations, they realized that the effect of industrialization and urbanization was the more relevant topic of this social group. The Lynds did not change their methods, but they revised their purpose.

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This shaped the structure of Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture, their published results (Lynd and Lynd 1959).

The Lynds were upfront about their mission. The townspeople of Muncie, Indiana, knew why the researchers were in their midst. But some sociologists prefer not to alert people to their presence. The main advantage of covert participant observation is that it allows the researcher access to authentic, natural behaviors of a group’s members. The challenge, however, is gaining access to a setting without disrupting the pattern of others’ behavior. Becoming an inside member of a group, organization, or subculture takes time and effort. Researchers must pretend to be something they are not. The process could involve role playing, making contacts, networking, or applying for a job.

Once inside a group, some researchers spend months or even years pretending to be one of the people they are observing. However, as observers, they cannot get too involved. They must keep their purpose in mind and apply the sociological perspective. That way, they illuminate social patterns that are often unrecognized. Because information gathered during participant observation is mostly qualitative, rather than quantitative, the end results are often descriptive or interpretive. The researcher might present findings in an article or book and describe what he or she witnessed and experienced.

This type of research is what journalist Barbara Ehrenreich conducted for her book Nickel and Dimed. One day over lunch with her editor, as the story goes, Ehrenreich mentioned an idea. How can people exist on minimum-wage work? How do low-income workers get by? she wondered. Someone should do a study. To her surprise, her editor responded, Why don’t you do it?

That’s how Ehrenreich found herself joining the ranks of the working class. For several months, she left her comfortable home and lived and worked among people who lacked, for the most part, higher education and marketable job skills. Undercover, she applied for and worked minimum wage jobs as a waitress, a cleaning woman, a nursing home aide, and a retail chain employee. During her participant observation, she used only her income from those jobs to pay for food, clothing, transportation, and shelter.

She discovered the obvious, that it’s almost impossible to get by on minimum wage work. She also experienced and observed attitudes many middle and upper-class people never think about. She witnessed firsthand the treatment of working class employees. She saw the extreme measures people take to make ends meet and to survive. She described fellow employees who held two or three jobs, worked seven days a week, lived in cars, could not pay to treat chronic health conditions, got randomly fired, submitted to drug tests, and moved in and out of homeless shelters. She brought aspects of that life to light, describing difficult working conditions and the poor treatment that low-wage workers suffer.

Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, the book she wrote upon her return to her real life as a well-paid writer, has been widely read and used in many college classrooms.

Figure 2.8 Field research happens in real locations. What type of environment do work spaces foster? What would a sociologist discover after blending in? (Photo courtesy of drewzhrodague/flickr)

Ethnography

Ethnography is the extended observation of the social perspective and cultural values of an entire social setting. Ethnographies involve objective observation of an entire community.

The heart of an ethnographic study focuses on how subjects view their own social standing and how they understand themselves in relation to a community. An ethnographic study might observe, for example, a small U.S. fishing town, an Inuit community, a village in Thailand, a Buddhist monastery, a private boarding school, or an amusement park. These

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Making Connections: Sociological Research

places all have borders. People live, work, study, or vacation within those borders. People are there for a certain reason and therefore behave in certain ways and respect certain cultural norms. An ethnographer would commit to spending a determined amount of time studying every aspect of the chosen place, taking in as much as possible.

A sociologist studying a tribe in the Amazon might watch the way villagers go about their daily lives and then write a paper about it. To observe a spiritual retreat center, an ethnographer might sign up for a retreat and attend as a guest for an extended stay, observe and record data, and collate the material into results.

Institutional Ethnography

Institutional ethnography is an extension of basic ethnographic research principles that focuses intentionally on everyday concrete social relationships. Developed by Canadian sociologist Dorothy E. Smith, institutional ethnography is often considered a feminist-inspired approach to social analysis and primarily considers women’s experiences within male- dominated societies and power structures. Smith’s work is seen to challenge sociology’s exclusion of women, both academically and in the study of women’s lives (Fenstermaker, n.d.).

Historically, social science research tended to objectify women and ignore their experiences except as viewed from the male perspective. Modern feminists note that describing women, and other marginalized groups, as subordinates helps those in authority maintain their own dominant positions (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, n.d.). Smith’s three major works explored what she called “the conceptual practices of power” (1990; cited in Fensternmaker, n.d.) and are still considered seminal works in feminist theory and ethnography.

The Making of Middletown: A Study in Modern U.S. Culture In 1924, a young married couple named Robert and Helen Lynd undertook an unprecedented ethnography: to apply sociological methods to the study of one U.S. city in order to discover what “ordinary” people in the United States did and believed. Choosing Muncie, Indiana (population about 30,000), as their subject, they moved to the small town and lived there for eighteen months.

Ethnographers had been examining other cultures for decades—groups considered minority or outsider—like gangs, immigrants, and the poor. But no one had studied the so-called average American.

Recording interviews and using surveys to gather data, the Lynds did not sugarcoat or idealize U.S. life (PBS). They objectively stated what they observed. Researching existing sources, they compared Muncie in 1890 to the Muncie they observed in 1924. Most Muncie adults, they found, had grown up on farms but now lived in homes inside the city. From that discovery, the Lynds focused their study on the impact of industrialization and urbanization.

They observed that Muncie was divided into business class and working class groups. They defined business class as dealing with abstract concepts and symbols, while working class people used tools to create concrete objects. The two classes led different lives with different goals and hopes. However, the Lynds observed, mass production offered both classes the same amenities. Like wealthy families, the working class was now able to own radios, cars, washing machines, telephones, vacuum cleaners, and refrigerators. This was an emerging material new reality of the 1920s.

As the Lynds worked, they divided their manuscript into six sections: Getting a Living, Making a Home, Training the Young, Using Leisure, Engaging in Religious Practices, and Engaging in Community Activities. Each chapter included subsections such as “The Long Arm of the Job” and “Why Do They Work So Hard?” in the “Getting a Living” chapter.

When the study was completed, the Lynds encountered a big problem. The Rockefeller Foundation, which had commissioned the book, claimed it was useless and refused to publish it. The Lynds asked if they could seek a publisher themselves.

Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture was not only published in 1929 but also became an instant bestseller, a status unheard of for a sociological study. The book sold out six printings in its first year of publication, and has never gone out of print (PBS).

Nothing like it had ever been done before. Middletown was reviewed on the front page of the New York Times. Readers in the 1920s and 1930s identified with the citizens of Muncie, Indiana, but they were equally fascinated by

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the sociological methods and the use of scientific data to define ordinary people in the United States. The book was proof that social data was important—and interesting—to the U.S. public.

Figure 2.9 A classroom in Muncie, Indiana, in 1917, five years before John and Helen Lynd began researching this “typical” U.S. community. (Photo courtesy of Don O’Brien/flickr)

Case Study

Sometimes a researcher wants to study one specific person or event. A case study is an in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual. To conduct a case study, a researcher examines existing sources like documents and archival records, conducts interviews, engages in direct observation and even participant observation, if possible.

Researchers might use this method to study a single case of, for example, a foster child, drug lord, cancer patient, criminal, or rape victim. However, a major criticism of the case study as a method is that a developed study of a single case, while offering depth on a topic, does not provide enough evidence to form a generalized conclusion. In other words, it is difficult to make universal claims based on just one person, since one person does not verify a pattern. This is why most sociologists do not use case studies as a primary research method.

However, case studies are useful when the single case is unique. In these instances, a single case study can add tremendous knowledge to a certain discipline. For example, a feral child, also called “wild child,” is one who grows up isolated from human beings. Feral children grow up without social contact and language, which are elements crucial to a “civilized” child’s development. These children mimic the behaviors and movements of animals, and often invent their own language. There are only about one hundred cases of “feral children” in the world.

As you may imagine, a feral child is a subject of great interest to researchers. Feral children provide unique information about child development because they have grown up outside of the parameters of “normal” child development. And since there are very few feral children, the case study is the most appropriate method for researchers to use in studying the subject.

At age three, a Ukranian girl named Oxana Malaya suffered severe parental neglect. She lived in a shed with dogs, and she ate raw meat and scraps. Five years later, a neighbor called authorities and reported seeing a girl who ran on all fours, barking. Officials brought Oxana into society, where she was cared for and taught some human behaviors, but she never became fully socialized. She has been designated as unable to support herself and now lives in a mental institution (Grice 2011). Case studies like this offer a way for sociologists to collect data that may not be collectable by any other method.

Experiments You’ve probably tested personal social theories. “If I study at night and review in the morning, I’ll improve my retention skills.” Or, “If I stop drinking soda, I’ll feel better.” Cause and effect. If this, then that. When you test the theory, your results either prove or disprove your hypothesis.

One way researchers test social theories is by conducting an experiment, meaning they investigate relationships to test a hypothesis—a scientific approach.

There are two main types of experiments: lab-based experiments and natural or field experiments. In a lab setting, the research can be controlled so that perhaps more data can be recorded in a certain amount of time. In a natural or field- based experiment, the generation of data cannot be controlled but the information might be considered more accurate since it was collected without interference or intervention by the researcher.

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Making Connections: Sociological Research

As a research method, either type of sociological experiment is useful for testing if-then statements: if a particular thing happens, then another particular thing will result. To set up a lab-based experiment, sociologists create artificial situations that allow them to manipulate variables.

Classically, the sociologist selects a set of people with similar characteristics, such as age, class, race, or education. Those people are divided into two groups. One is the experimental group and the other is the control group. The experimental group is exposed to the independent variable(s) and the control group is not. To test the benefits of tutoring, for example, the sociologist might expose the experimental group of students to tutoring but not the control group. Then both groups would be tested for differences in performance to see if tutoring had an effect on the experimental group of students. As you can imagine, in a case like this, the researcher would not want to jeopardize the accomplishments of either group of students, so the setting would be somewhat artificial. The test would not be for a grade reflected on their permanent record, for example.

An Experiment in Action

Figure 2.10 Sociologist Frances Heussenstamm conducted an experiment to explore the correlation between traffic stops and race-based bumper stickers. This issue of racial profiling remains a hot-button topic today. (Photo courtesy of dwightsghost/flickr)

A real-life example will help illustrate the experiment process. In 1971, Frances Heussenstamm, a sociology professor at California State University at Los Angeles, had a theory about police prejudice. To test her theory she conducted an experiment. She chose fifteen students from three ethnic backgrounds: black, white, and Hispanic. She chose students who routinely drove to and from campus along Los Angeles freeway routes, and who’d had perfect driving records for longer than a year. Those were her independent variables—students, good driving records, same commute route.

Next, she placed a Black Panther bumper sticker on each car. That sticker, a representation of a social value, was the independent variable. In the 1970s, the Black Panthers were a revolutionary group actively fighting racism. Heussenstamm asked the students to follow their normal driving patterns. She wanted to see whether seeming support of the Black Panthers would change how these good drivers were treated by the police patrolling the highways. The dependent variable would be the number of traffic stops/citations.

The first arrest, for an incorrect lane change, was made two hours after the experiment began. One participant was pulled over three times in three days. He quit the study. After seventeen days, the fifteen drivers had collected a total of thirty-three traffic citations. The experiment was halted. The funding to pay traffic fines had run out, and so had the enthusiasm of the participants (Heussenstamm 1971).

Secondary Data Analysis While sociologists often engage in original research studies, they also contribute knowledge to the discipline through secondary data analysis. Secondary data don’t result from firsthand research collected from primary sources, but are the already completed work of other researchers. Sociologists might study works written by historians, economists, teachers, or early sociologists. They might search through periodicals, newspapers, or magazines from any period in history.

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Using available information not only saves time and money but can also add depth to a study. Sociologists often interpret findings in a new way, a way that was not part of an author’s original purpose or intention. To study how women were encouraged to act and behave in the 1960s, for example, a researcher might watch movies, televisions shows, and situation comedies from that period. Or to research changes in behavior and attitudes due to the emergence of television in the late 1950s and early 1960s, a sociologist would rely on new interpretations of secondary data. Decades from now, researchers will most likely conduct similar studies on the advent of mobile phones, the Internet, or Facebook.

Social scientists also learn by analyzing the research of a variety of agencies. Governmental departments and global groups, like the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics or the World Health Organization, publish studies with findings that are useful to sociologists. A public statistic like the foreclosure rate might be useful for studying the effects of the 2008 recession; a racial demographic profile might be compared with data on education funding to examine the resources accessible by different groups.

One of the advantages of secondary data is that it is nonreactive research (or unobtrusive research), meaning that it does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influence people’s behaviors. Unlike studies requiring direct contact with people, using previously published data doesn’t require entering a population and the investment and risks inherent in that research process.

Using available data does have its challenges. Public records are not always easy to access. A researcher will need to do some legwork to track them down and gain access to records. To guide the search through a vast library of materials and avoid wasting time reading unrelated sources, sociologists employ content analysis, applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as they relate to the study at hand.

But, in some cases, there is no way to verify the accuracy of existing data. It is easy to count how many drunk drivers, for example, are pulled over by the police. But how many are not? While it’s possible to discover the percentage of teenage students who drop out of high school, it might be more challenging to determine the number who return to school or get their GED later.

Another problem arises when data are unavailable in the exact form needed or do not include the precise angle the researcher seeks. For example, the average salaries paid to professors at a public school is public record. But the separate figures don’t necessarily reveal how long it took each professor to reach the salary range, what their educational backgrounds are, or how long they’ve been teaching.

When conducting content analysis, it is important to consider the date of publication of an existing source and to take into account attitudes and common cultural ideals that may have influenced the research. For example, Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd gathered research for their book Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture in the 1920s. Attitudes and cultural norms were vastly different then than they are now. Beliefs about gender roles, race, education, and work have changed significantly since then. At the time, the study’s purpose was to reveal the truth about small U.S. communities. Today, it is an illustration of 1920s’ attitudes and values.

2.3 Ethical Concerns Sociologists conduct studies to shed light on human behaviors. Knowledge is a powerful tool that can be used toward positive change. And while a sociologist’s goal is often simply to uncover knowledge rather than to spur action, many people use sociological studies to help improve people’s lives. In that sense, conducting a sociological study comes with a tremendous amount of responsibility. Like any researchers, sociologists must consider their ethical obligation to avoid harming subjects or groups while conducting their research.

The American Sociological Association, or ASA, is the major professional organization of sociologists in North America. The ASA is a great resource for students of sociology as well. The ASA maintains a code of ethics—formal guidelines for conducting sociological research—consisting of principles and ethical standards to be used in the discipline. It also describes procedures for filing, investigating, and resolving complaints of unethical conduct.

Practicing sociologists and sociology students have a lot to consider. Some of the guidelines state that researchers must try to be skillful and fair-minded in their work, especially as it relates to their human subjects. Researchers must obtain participants’ informed consent and inform subjects of the responsibilities and risks of research before they agree to partake. During a study, sociologists must ensure the safety of participants and immediately stop work if a subject becomes potentially endangered on any level.

Researchers are required to protect the privacy of research participants whenever possible. Even if pressured by authorities, such as police or courts, researchers are not ethically allowed to release confidential information. Researchers must make results available to other sociologists, must make public all sources of financial support, and must not accept funding from any organization that might cause a conflict of interest or seek to influence the research results for its own purposes. The ASA’s ethical considerations shape not only the study but also the publication of results.

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case study:

code of ethics:

content analysis:

correlation:

dependent variables:

empirical evidence:

ethnography:

experiment:

field research:

Hawthorne effect:

hypothesis:

independent variables:

interpretive framework:

interview:

literature review:

meta-analysis:

Pioneer German sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920) identified another crucial ethical concern. Weber understood that personal values could distort the framework for disclosing study results. While he accepted that some aspects of research design might be influenced by personal values, he declared it was entirely inappropriate to allow personal values to shape the interpretation of the responses. Sociologists, he stated, must establish value neutrality, a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment, during the course of a study and in publishing results (1949). Sociologists are obligated to disclose research findings without omitting or distorting significant data.

Is value neutrality possible? Many sociologists believe it is impossible to set aside personal values and retain complete objectivity. They caution readers, rather, to understand that sociological studies may, by necessity, contain a certain amount of value bias. It does not discredit the results but allows readers to view them as one form of truth rather than a singular fact. Some sociologists attempt to remain uncritical and as objective as possible when studying cultural institutions. Value neutrality does not mean having no opinions. It means striving to overcome personal biases, particularly subconscious biases, when analyzing data. It means avoiding skewing data in order to match a predetermined outcome that aligns with a particular agenda, such as a political or moral point of view. Investigators are ethically obligated to report results, even when they contradict personal views, predicted outcomes, or widely accepted beliefs.

Chapter Review

Key Terms in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual

a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology

applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand

when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but does not necessarily indicate causation

a variable changed by other variables

evidence that comes from direct experience, scientifically gathered data, or experimentation

observing a complete social setting and all that it entails

the testing of a hypothesis under controlled conditions

gathering data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey

when study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awareness of being observed by a researcher

a testable educated guess about predicted outcomes between two or more variables

variables that cause changes in dependent variables

a sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testing

a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject

a scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research

a technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated together

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nonreactive research:

operational definitions:

participant observation:

population:

primary data:

qualitative data:

quantitative data:

random sample:

reliability:

samples:

scientific method:

secondary data analysis:

surveys:

validity:

value neutrality:

using secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influence people’s behaviors

specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study

when a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make observations from an “insider” perspective

a defined group serving as the subject of a study

data that are collected directly from firsthand experience

comprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting

represent research collected in numerical form that can be counted

a study’s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population

a measure of a study’s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced

small, manageable number of subjects that represent the population

an established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions

using data collected by others but applying new interpretations

collect data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire

the degree to which a sociological measure accurately reflects the topic of study

a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results

Section Summary

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research Using the scientific method, a researcher conducts a study in five phases: asking a question, researching existing sources, formulating a hypothesis, conducting a study, and drawing conclusions. The scientific method is useful in that it provides a clear method of organizing a study. Some sociologists conduct research through an interpretive framework rather than employing the scientific method.

Scientific sociological studies often observe relationships between variables. Researchers study how one variable changes another. Prior to conducting a study, researchers are careful to apply operational definitions to their terms and to establish dependent and independent variables.

2.2 Research Methods Sociological research is a fairly complex process. As you can see, a lot goes into even a simple research design. There are many steps and much to consider when collecting data on human behavior, as well as in interpreting and analyzing data in order to form conclusive results. Sociologists use scientific methods for good reason. The scientific method provides a system of organization that helps researchers plan and conduct the study while ensuring that data and results are reliable, valid, and objective.

The many methods available to researchers—including experiments, surveys, field studies, and secondary data analysis—all come with advantages and disadvantages. The strength of a study can depend on the choice and implementation of the appropriate method of gathering research. Depending on the topic, a study might use a single method or a combination of methods. It is important to plan a research design before undertaking a study. The information

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gathered may in itself be surprising, and the study design should provide a solid framework in which to analyze predicted and unpredicted data.

Table 2.2 Main Sociological Research Methods Sociological research methods have advantages and disadvantages.

Method Implementation Advantages Challenges

Survey • Questionnaires

• Interviews

• Yields many responses

• Can survey a large sample

• Quantitative data are easy to chart

• Can be time consuming

• Can be difficult to encourage participant response

• Captures what people think and believe but not necessarily how they behave in real life

Field Work

• Observation

• Participant observation

• Ethnography

• Case study

• Yields detailed, accurate real-life information

• Time consuming

• Data captures how people behave but not what they think and believe

• Qualitative data is difficult to organize

Experiment • Deliberate manipulation

of social customs and mores

• Tests cause and effect relationships

• Hawthorne Effect

• Ethical concerns about people’s wellbeing

Secondary Data Analysis

• Analysis of government data (census, health, crime statistics)

• Research of historic documents

• Makes good use of previous sociological information

• Data could be focused on a purpose other than yours

• Data can be hard to find

2.3 Ethical Concerns Sociologists and sociology students must take ethical responsibility for any study they conduct. They must first and foremost guarantee the safety of their participants. Whenever possible, they must ensure that participants have been fully informed before consenting to be part of a study.

The ASA maintains ethical guidelines that sociologists must take into account as they conduct research. The guidelines address conducting studies, properly using existing sources, accepting funding, and publishing results.

Sociologists must try to maintain value neutrality. They must gather and analyze data objectively and set aside their personal preferences, beliefs, and opinions. They must report findings accurately, even if they contradict personal convictions.

Section Quiz

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research 1. A measurement is considered ______ if it actually measures what it is intended to measure, according to the topic of the study.

a. reliable b. sociological c. valid d. quantitative

2. Sociological studies test relationships in which change in one ______ causes change in another. a. test subject b. behavior

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c. variable d. operational definition

3. In a study, a group of ten-year-old boys are fed doughnuts every morning for a week and then weighed to see how much weight they gained. Which factor is the dependent variable?

a. The doughnuts b. The boys c. The duration of a week d. The weight gained

4. Which statement provides the best operational definition of “childhood obesity”? a. Children who eat unhealthy foods and spend too much time watching television and playing video games b. A distressing trend that can lead to health issues including type 2 diabetes and heart disease c. Body weight at least 20 percent higher than a healthy weight for a child of that height d. The tendency of children today to weigh more than children of earlier generations

2.2 Research Methods 5. Which materials are considered secondary data?

a. Photos and letters given to you by another person b. Books and articles written by other authors about their studies c. Information that you have gathered and now have included in your results d. Responses from participants whom you both surveyed and interviewed

6. What method did researchers John Mihelich and John Papineau use to study Parrotheads? a. Survey b. Experiment c. Web Ethnography d. Case study

7. Why is choosing a random sample an effective way to select participants? a. Participants do not know they are part of a study b. The researcher has no control over who is in the study c. It is larger than an ordinary sample d. Everyone has the same chance of being part of the study

8. What research method did John S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd mainly use in their Middletown study? a. Secondary data b. Survey c. Participant observation d. Experiment

9. Which research approach is best suited to the scientific method? a. Questionnaire b. Case study c. Ethnography d. Secondary data analysis

10. The main difference between ethnography and other types of participant observation is: a. ethnography isn’t based on hypothesis testing b. ethnography subjects are unaware they’re being studied c. ethnographic studies always involve minority ethnic groups d. ethnography focuses on how subjects view themselves in relationship to the community

11. Which best describes the results of a case study? a. It produces more reliable results than other methods because of its depth b. Its results are not generally applicable c. It relies solely on secondary data analysis d. All of the above

12. Using secondary data is considered an unobtrusive or ________ research method. a. nonreactive b. nonparticipatory c. nonrestrictive

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d. nonconfrontive

2.3 Ethical Concerns 13. Which statement illustrates value neutrality?

a. Obesity in children is obviously a result of parental neglect and, therefore, schools should take a greater role to prevent it

b. In 2003, states like Arkansas adopted laws requiring elementary schools to remove soft drink vending machines from schools

c. Merely restricting children’s access to junk food at school is not enough to prevent obesity d. Physical activity and healthy eating are a fundamental part of a child’s education

14. Which person or organization defined the concept of value neutrality? a. Institutional Review Board (IRB) b. Peter Rossi c. American Sociological Association (ASA) d. Max Weber

15. To study the effects of fast food on lifestyle, health, and culture, from which group would a researcher ethically be unable to accept funding?

a. A fast-food restaurant b. A nonprofit health organization c. A private hospital d. A governmental agency like Health and Social Services

Short Answer

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research 1. Write down the first three steps of the scientific method. Think of a broad topic that you are interested in and which would make a good sociological study—for example, ethnic diversity in a college, homecoming rituals, athletic scholarships, or teen driving. Now, take that topic through the first steps of the process. For each step, write a few sentences or a paragraph: 1) Ask a question about the topic. 2) Do some research and write down the titles of some articles or books you’d want to read about the topic. 3) Formulate a hypothesis.

2.2 Research Methods 2. What type of data do surveys gather? For what topics would surveys be the best research method? What drawbacks might you expect to encounter when using a survey? To explore further, ask a research question and write a hypothesis. Then create a survey of about six questions relevant to the topic. Provide a rationale for each question. Now define your population and create a plan for recruiting a random sample and administering the survey.

3. Imagine you are about to do field research in a specific place for a set time. Instead of thinking about the topic of study itself, consider how you, as the researcher, will have to prepare for the study. What personal, social, and physical sacrifices will you have to make? How will you manage your personal effects? What organizational equipment and systems will you need to collect the data?

4. Create a brief research design about a topic in which you are passionately interested. Now write a letter to a philanthropic or grant organization requesting funding for your study. How can you describe the project in a convincing yet realistic and objective way? Explain how the results of your study will be a relevant contribution to the body of sociological work already in existence.

2.3 Ethical Concerns 5. Why do you think the ASA crafted such a detailed set of ethical principles? What type of study could put human participants at risk? Think of some examples of studies that might be harmful. Do you think that, in the name of sociology, some researchers might be tempted to cross boundaries that threaten human rights? Why?

6. Would you willingly participate in a sociological study that could potentially put your health and safety at risk, but had the potential to help thousands or even hundreds of thousands of people? For example, would you participate in a study of a new drug that could cure diabetes or cancer, even if it meant great inconvenience and physical discomfort for you or possible permanent damage?

Further Research

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2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research For a historical perspective on the scientific method in sociology, read “The Elements of Scientific Method in Sociology” by F. Stuart Chapin (1914) in the American Journal of Sociology: http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Method-in-Sociology (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Method-in-Sociology)

2.2 Research Methods For information on current real-world sociology experiments, visit: http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Sociology-Experiments (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Sociology-Experiments)

2.3 Ethical Concerns Founded in 1905, the ASA is a nonprofit organization located in Washington, DC, with a membership of 14,000 researchers, faculty members, students, and practitioners of sociology. Its mission is “to articulate policy and implement programs likely to have the broadest possible impact for sociology now and in the future.” Learn more about this organization at http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ASA (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/ASA) .

References

2.0 Introduction to Sociological Research Arkowitz, Hal, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. 2009. “Lunacy and the Full Moon: Does a full moon really trigger strange behavior?” Scientific American. Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the- full-moon/ (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/) ).

Rotton, James, and Ivan W. Kelly. 1985. “Much Ado about the Full Moon: A Meta-analysis of Lunar-Lunacy Research.” Psychological Bulletin 97 (no. 2): 286–306.

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research Arkowitz, Hal, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. 2009. “Lunacy and the Full Moon: Does a full moon really trigger strange behavior?” Scientific American. Retrieved October 20, 2014 (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the- full-moon (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/) ).

Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Anchor Books.

Merton, Robert. 1968 [1949]. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

“Scientific Method Lab,” the University of Utah, http://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/scientific_method/ sci_method_main.html (http://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/scientific_method/sci_method_main.html) .

2.2 Research Methods Butsch, Richard. 2000. The Making of American Audiences: From Stage to Television, 1750–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Caplow, Theodore, Louis Hicks, and Ben Wattenberg. 2000. “The First Measured Century: Middletown.” The First Measured Century. PBS. Retrieved February 23, 2012 (http://www.pbs.org/fmc/index.htm (http://www.pbs.org/fmc/ index.htm) ).

Durkheim, Émile. 1966 [1897]. Suicide. New York: Free Press.

Fenstermaker, Sarah. n.d. “Dorothy E. Smith Award Statement” American Sociological Association. Retrieved October 19, 2014 (http://www.asanet.org/about/awards/duboiscareer/smith.cfm (http://www.asanet.org/about/awards/duboiscareer/ smith.cfm) ).

Franke, Richard, and James Kaul. 1978. “The Hawthorne Experiments: First Statistical Interpretation.” American Sociological Review 43(5):632–643.

Grice, Elizabeth. “Cry of an Enfant Sauvage.” The Telegraph. Retrieved July 20, 2011 (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ culture/tvandradio/3653890/Cry-of-an-enfant-sauvage.html (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/3653890/Cry- of-an-enfant-sauvage.html) ).

Heussenstamm, Frances K. 1971. “Bumper Stickers and Cops” Trans-action: Social Science and Modern Society 4:32–33.

Chapter 2 | Sociological Research 49http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Method-in-Sociologyhttp://openstaxcollege.org/l/Method-in-Sociologyhttp://openstaxcollege.org/l/Sociology-Experimentshttp://openstaxcollege.org/l/Sociology-Experimentshttp://openstaxcollege.org/l/ASAhttp://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/http://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/scientific_method/sci_method_main.htmlhttp://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/scientific_method/sci_method_main.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/fmc/index.htmhttp://www.pbs.org/fmc/index.htmhttp://www.asanet.org/about/awards/duboiscareer/smith.cfmhttp://www.asanet.org/about/awards/duboiscareer/smith.cfmhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/3653890/Cry-of-an-enfant-sauvage.htmlhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/3653890/Cry-of-an-enfant-sauvage.htmlhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/3653890/Cry-of-an-enfant-sauvage.html

Igo, Sarah E. 2008. The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Lynd, Robert S., and Helen Merrell Lynd. 1959. Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Javanovich.

Lynd, Staughton. 2005. “Making Middleton.” Indiana Magazine of History 101(3):226–238.

Mihelich, John, and John Papineau. Aug 2005. “Parrotheads in Margaritaville: Fan Practice, Oppositional Culture, and Embedded Cultural Resistance in Buffett Fandom.” Journal of Popular Music Studies 17(2):175–202.

Pew Research Center. 2014. “Ebola Worries Rise, But Most Are ‘Fairly’ Confident in Government, Hospitals to Deal with Disease: Broad Support for U.S. Efforts to Deal with Ebola in West Africa.” Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, October 21. Retrieved October 25, 2014 (http://www.people-press.org/2014/10/21/ebola-worries-rise-but-most-are- fairly-confident-in-government-hospitals-to-deal-with-disease/ (http://www.people-press.org/2014/10/21/ebola-worries- rise-but-most-are-fairly-confident-in-government-hospitals-to-deal-with-disease/) ).

Rothman, Rodney. 2000. “My Fake Job.” Pp. 120 in The New Yorker, November 27.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. n.d. “Institutional Ethnography.” Retrieved October 19, 2014 (http://web.uvic.ca/~mariecam/kgSite/institutionalEthnography.html (http://web.uvic.ca/~mariecam/kgSite/ institutionalEthnography.html) ).

Sonnenfeld, Jeffery A. 1985. “Shedding Light on the Hawthorne Studies.” Journal of Occupational Behavior 6:125.

2.3 Ethical Concerns Code of Ethics. 1999. American Sociological Association. Retrieved July 1, 2011 (http://www.asanet.org/about/ethics.cfm (http://www.asanet.org/about/ethics.cfm) ).

Rossi, Peter H. 1987. “No Good Applied Social Research Goes Unpunished.” Society 25(1):73–79.

Weber, Max. 1949. Methodology of the Social Sciences. Translated by H. Shils and E. Finch. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

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3 Culture

Figure 3.1 People adhere to various rules and standards that are created and maintained in culture, such as giving a high five to someone. (Photo courtesy of Chris Barnes/flickr)

Learning Objectives 3.1. What Is Culture?

• Differentiate between culture and society

• Explain material versus nonmaterial culture

• Discuss the concept of cultural universalism as it relates to society

• Compare and contrast ethnocentrism and xenocentrism

3.2. Elements of Culture • Understand how values and beliefs differ from norms

• Explain the significance of symbols and language to a culture

• Explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

• Discuss the role of social control within culture

3.3. Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change • Discuss the roles of both high culture and pop culture within society

• Differentiate between subculture and counterculture

• Explain the role of innovation, invention, and discovery in culture

• Understand the role of cultural lag and globalization in cultural change

3.4. Theoretical Perspectives on Culture • Discuss the major theoretical approaches to cultural interpretation

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Introduction to Culture What are the rules when you pass an acquaintance at school, work, in the grocery store, or in the mall? Generally, we do not consider all of the intricacies of the rules of behavior. We may simply say, “Hello!” and ask, “How was your weekend?” or some other trivial question meant to be a friendly greeting. Rarely do we physically embrace or even touch the individual. In fact, doing so may be viewed with scorn or distaste, since as people in the United States we have fairly rigid rules about personal space. However, we all adhere to various rules and standards that are created and maintained in culture. These rules and expectations have meaning, and there are ways in which you may violate this negotiation. Consider what would happen if you stopped and informed everyone who said, “Hi, how are you?” exactly how you were doing that day, and in detail. You would more than likely violate rules of culture and specifically greeting. Perhaps in a different culture the question would be more literal, and it may require a response. Or if you are having coffee with a good friend, perhaps that question warrants a more detailed response. These examples are all aspects of culture, which is shared beliefs, values, and practices, that participants must learn. Sociologically, we examine in what situation and context certain behavior is expected, and in which situations perhaps it is not. These rules are created and enforced by people who interact and share culture.

In everyday conversation, people rarely distinguish between the terms culture and society, but the terms have slightly different meanings, and the distinction is important to a sociologist. A society describes a group of people who share a community and a culture. By “community,” sociologists refer to a definable region—as small as a neighborhood (Brooklyn, or “the east side of town”), as large as a country (Ethiopia, the United States, or Nepal), or somewhere in between (in the United States, this might include someone who identifies with Southern or Midwestern society). To clarify, a culture represents the beliefs and practices of a group, while society represents the people who share those beliefs and practices. Neither society nor culture could exist without the other. In this chapter, we examine the relationship between culture and society in greater detail and pay special attention to the elements and forces that shape culture, including diversity and cultural changes. A final discussion touches on the different theoretical perspectives from which sociologists research culture.

3.1 What Is Culture? Humans are social creatures. Since the dawn of Homo sapiens nearly 250,000 years ago, people have grouped together into communities in order to survive. Living together, people form common habits and behaviors—from specific methods of childrearing to preferred techniques for obtaining food. In modern-day Paris, many people shop daily at outdoor markets to pick up what they need for their evening meal, buying cheese, meat, and vegetables from different specialty stalls. In the United States, the majority of people shop once a week at supermarkets, filling large carts to the brim. How would a Parisian perceive U.S. shopping behaviors that Americans take for granted?

Almost every human behavior, from shopping to marriage to expressions of feelings, is learned. In the United States, people tend to view marriage as a choice between two people, based on mutual feelings of love. In other nations and in other times, marriages have been arranged through an intricate process of interviews and negotiations between entire families, or in other cases, through a direct system, such as a “mail order bride.” To someone raised in New York City, the marriage customs of a family from Nigeria may seem strange or even wrong. Conversely, someone from a traditional Kolkata family might be perplexed with the idea of romantic love as the foundation for marriage and lifelong commitment. In other words, the way in which people view marriage depends largely on what they have been taught.

Behavior based on learned customs is not a bad thing. Being familiar with unwritten rules helps people feel secure and “normal.” Most people want to live their daily lives confident that their behaviors will not be challenged or disrupted. But even an action as seemingly simple as commuting to work evidences a great deal of cultural propriety.

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Figure 3.2 How would a visitor from the suburban United States act and feel on this crowded Tokyo train? (Photo courtesy of simonglucas/flickr)

Take the case of going to work on public transportation. Whether people are commuting in Dublin, Cairo, Mumbai, or San Francisco, many behaviors will be the same, but significant differences also arise between cultures. Typically, a passenger will find a marked bus stop or station, wait for his bus or train, pay an agent before or after boarding, and quietly take a seat if one is available. But when boarding a bus in Cairo, passengers might have to run, because buses there often do not come to a full stop to take on patrons. Dublin bus riders would be expected to extend an arm to indicate that they want the bus to stop for them. And when boarding a commuter train in Mumbai, passengers must squeeze into overstuffed cars amid a lot of pushing and shoving on the crowded platforms. That kind of behavior would be considered the height of rudeness in the United States, but in Mumbai it reflects the daily challenges of getting around on a train system that is taxed to capacity.

In this example of commuting, culture consists of thoughts (expectations about personal space, for example) and tangible things (bus stops, trains, and seating capacity). Material culture refers to the objects or belongings of a group of people. Metro passes and bus tokens are part of material culture, as are automobiles, stores, and the physical structures where people worship. Nonmaterial culture, in contrast, consists of the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society. Material and nonmaterial aspects of culture are linked, and physical objects often symbolize cultural ideas. A metro pass is a material object, but it represents a form of nonmaterial culture, namely, capitalism, and the acceptance of paying for transportation. Clothing, hairstyles, and jewelry are part of material culture, but the appropriateness of wearing certain clothing for specific events reflects nonmaterial culture. A school building belongs to material culture, but the teaching methods and educational standards are part of education’s nonmaterial culture. These material and nonmaterial aspects of culture can vary subtly from region to region. As people travel farther afield, moving from different regions to entirely different parts of the world, certain material and nonmaterial aspects of culture become dramatically unfamiliar. What happens when we encounter different cultures? As we interact with cultures other than our own, we become more aware of the differences and commonalities between others’ worlds and our own.

Cultural Universals Often, a comparison of one culture to another will reveal obvious differences. But all cultures also share common elements. Cultural universals are patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies. One example of a cultural universal is the family unit: every human society recognizes a family structure that regulates sexual reproduction and the care of children. Even so, how that family unit is defined and how it functions vary. In many Asian cultures, for example, family members from all generations commonly live together in one household. In these cultures, young adults continue to live in the extended household family structure until they marry and join their spouse’s household, or they may remain and raise their nuclear family within the extended family’s homestead. In the United States, by contrast, individuals are expected to leave home and live independently for a period before forming a family unit that consists of parents and their offspring. Other cultural universals include customs like funeral rites, weddings, and celebrations of births. However, each culture may view the ceremonies quite differently.

Anthropologist George Murdock first recognized the existence of cultural universals while studying systems of kinship around the world. Murdock found that cultural universals often revolve around basic human survival, such as finding food, clothing, and shelter, or around shared human experiences, such as birth and death or illness and healing. Through his research, Murdock identified other universals including language, the concept of personal names, and, interestingly, jokes. Humor seems to be a universal way to release tensions and create a sense of unity among people (Murdock 1949).

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Sociologists consider humor necessary to human interaction because it helps individuals navigate otherwise tense situations.

Is Music a Cultural Universal? Imagine that you are sitting in a theater, watching a film. The movie opens with the heroine sitting on a park bench with a grim expression on her face. Cue the music. The first slow and mournful notes play in a minor key. As the melody continues, the heroine turns her head and sees a man walking toward her. The music slowly gets louder, and the dissonance of the chords sends a prickle of fear running down your spine. You sense that the heroine is in danger.

Now imagine that you are watching the same movie, but with a different soundtrack. As the scene opens, the music is soft and soothing, with a hint of sadness. You see the heroine sitting on the park bench and sense her loneliness. Suddenly, the music swells. The woman looks up and sees a man walking toward her. The music grows fuller, and the pace picks up. You feel your heart rise in your chest. This is a happy moment.

Music has the ability to evoke emotional responses. In television shows, movies, even commercials, music elicits laughter, sadness, or fear. Are these types of musical cues cultural universals?

In 2009, a team of psychologists, led by Thomas Fritz of the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, Germany, studied people’s reactions to music that they’d never heard (Fritz et al. 2009). The research team traveled to Cameroon, Africa, and asked Mafa tribal members to listen to Western music. The tribe, isolated from Western culture, had never been exposed to Western culture and had no context or experience within which to interpret its music. Even so, as the tribal members listened to a Western piano piece, they were able to recognize three basic emotions: happiness, sadness, and fear. Music, it turns out, is a sort of universal language.

Researchers also found that music can foster a sense of wholeness within a group. In fact, scientists who study the evolution of language have concluded that originally language (an established component of group identity) and music were one (Darwin 1871). Additionally, since music is largely nonverbal, the sounds of music can cross societal boundaries more easily than words. Music allows people to make connections, where language might be a more difficult barricade. As Fritz and his team found, music and the emotions it conveys can be cultural universals.

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Despite how much humans have in common, cultural differences are far more prevalent than cultural universals. For example, while all cultures have language, analysis of particular language structures and conversational etiquette reveal tremendous differences. In some Middle Eastern cultures, it is common to stand close to others in conversation. North Americans keep more distance and maintain a large “personal space.” Even something as simple as eating and drinking varies greatly from culture to culture. If your professor comes into an early morning class holding a mug of liquid, what do you assume she is drinking? In the United States, it’s most likely filled with coffee, not Earl Grey tea, a favorite in England, or Yak Butter tea, a staple in Tibet.

The way cuisines vary across cultures fascinates many people. Some travelers pride themselves on their willingness to try unfamiliar foods, like celebrated food writer Anthony Bourdain, while others return home expressing gratitude for their native culture’s fare. Often, people in the United States express disgust at other cultures’ cuisine and think that it’s gross to eat meat from a dog or guinea pig, for example, while they don’t question their own habit of eating cows or pigs. Such attitudes are an example of ethnocentrism, or evaluating and judging another culture based on how it compares to one’s own cultural norms. Ethnocentrism, as sociologist William Graham Sumner (1906) described the term, involves a belief or attitude that one’s own culture is better than all others. Almost everyone is a little bit ethnocentric. For example, Americans tend to say that people from England drive on the “wrong” side of the road, rather than on the “other” side. Someone from a country where dog meat is standard fare might find it off-putting to see a dog in a French restaurant—not on the menu, but as a pet and patron’s companion. A good example of ethnocentrism is referring to parts of Asia as the “Far East.” One might question, “Far east of where?”

A high level of appreciation for one’s own culture can be healthy; a shared sense of community pride, for example, connects people in a society. But ethnocentrism can lead to disdain or dislike for other cultures and could cause misunderstanding and conflict. People with the best intentions sometimes travel to a society to “help” its people, because they see them as uneducated or backward—essentially inferior. In reality, these travelers are guilty of cultural imperialism, the deliberate imposition of one’s own cultural values on another culture. Europe’s colonial expansion,

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World

begun in the sixteenth century, was often accompanied by a severe cultural imperialism. European colonizers often viewed the people in the lands they colonized as uncultured savages who were in need of European governance, dress, religion, and other cultural practices. A more modern example of cultural imperialism may include the work of international aid agencies who introduce agricultural methods and plant species from developed countries while overlooking indigenous varieties and agricultural approaches that are better suited to the particular region.

Ethnocentrism can be so strong that when confronted with all of the differences of a new culture, one may experience disorientation and frustration. In sociology, we call this culture shock. A traveler from Chicago might find the nightly silence of rural Montana unsettling, not peaceful. An exchange student from China might be annoyed by the constant interruptions in class as other students ask questions—a practice that is considered rude in China. Perhaps the Chicago traveler was initially captivated with Montana’s quiet beauty and the Chinese student was originally excited to see a U.S.- style classroom firsthand. But as they experience unanticipated differences from their own culture, their excitement gives way to discomfort and doubts about how to behave appropriately in the new situation. Eventually, as people learn more about a culture, they recover from culture shock.

Culture shock may appear because people aren’t always expecting cultural differences. Anthropologist Ken Barger (1971) discovered this when he conducted a participatory observation in an Inuit community in the Canadian Arctic. Originally from Indiana, Barger hesitated when invited to join a local snowshoe race. He knew he’d never hold his own against these experts. Sure enough, he finished last, to his mortification. But the tribal members congratulated him, saying, “You really tried!” In Barger’s own culture, he had learned to value victory. To the Inuit people, winning was enjoyable, but their culture valued survival skills essential to their environment: how hard someone tried could mean the difference between life and death. Over the course of his stay, Barger participated in caribou hunts, learned how to take shelter in winter storms, and sometimes went days with little or no food to share among tribal members. Trying hard and working together, two nonmaterial values, were indeed much more important than winning.

During his time with the Inuit tribe, Barger learned to engage in cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the practice of assessing a culture by its own standards rather than viewing it through the lens of one’s own culture. Practicing cultural relativism requires an open mind and a willingness to consider, and even adapt to, new values and norms. However, indiscriminately embracing everything about a new culture is not always possible. Even the most culturally relativist people from egalitarian societies—ones in which women have political rights and control over their own bodies—would question whether the widespread practice of female genital mutilation in countries such as Ethiopia and Sudan should be accepted as a part of cultural tradition. Sociologists attempting to engage in cultural relativism, then, may struggle to reconcile aspects of their own culture with aspects of a culture that they are studying.

Sometimes when people attempt to rectify feelings of ethnocentrism and develop cultural relativism, they swing too far to the other end of the spectrum. Xenocentrism is the opposite of ethnocentrism, and refers to the belief that another culture is superior to one’s own. (The Greek root word xeno, pronounced “ZEE-no,” means “stranger” or “foreign guest.”) An exchange student who goes home after a semester abroad or a sociologist who returns from the field may find it difficult to associate with the values of their own culture after having experienced what they deem a more upright or nobler way of living.

Perhaps the greatest challenge for sociologists studying different cultures is the matter of keeping a perspective. It is impossible for anyone to keep all cultural biases at bay; the best we can do is strive to be aware of them. Pride in one’s own culture doesn’t have to lead to imposing its values on others. And an appreciation for another culture shouldn’t preclude individuals from studying it with a critical eye.

Overcoming Culture Shock During her summer vacation, Caitlin flew from Chicago to Madrid to visit Maria, the exchange student she’d befriended the previous semester. In the airport, she heard rapid, musical Spanish being spoken all around her. Exciting as it was, she felt isolated and disconnected. Maria’s mother kissed Caitlin on both cheeks when she greeted her. Her imposing father kept his distance. Caitlin was half asleep by the time supper was served—at 10 p.m.! Maria’s family sat at the table for hours, speaking loudly, gesturing, and arguing about politics, a taboo dinner subject in Caitlin’s house. They served wine and toasted their honored guest. Caitlin had trouble interpreting her hosts’ facial expressions, and didn’t realize she should make the next toast. That night, Caitlin crawled into a strange bed, wishing she hadn’t come. She missed her home and felt overwhelmed by the new customs, language, and surroundings. She’d studied Spanish in school for years—why hadn’t it prepared her for this?

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What Caitlin hadn’t realized was that people depend not only on spoken words but also on subtle cues like gestures and facial expressions, to communicate. Cultural norms accompany even the smallest nonverbal signals (DuBois 1951). They help people know when to shake hands, where to sit, how to converse, and even when to laugh. We relate to others through a shared set of cultural norms, and ordinarily, we take them for granted.

For this reason, culture shock is often associated with traveling abroad, although it can happen in one’s own country, state, or even hometown. Anthropologist Kalervo Oberg (1960) is credited with first coining the term “culture shock.” In his studies, Oberg found that most people found encountering a new culture to be exciting at first. But bit by bit, they became stressed by interacting with people from a different culture who spoke another language and used different regional expressions. There was new food to digest, new daily schedules to follow, and new rules of etiquette to learn. Living with this constant stress can make people feel incompetent and insecure. People react to frustration in a new culture, Oberg found, by initially rejecting it and glorifying one’s own culture. An American visiting Italy might long for a “real” pizza or complain about the unsafe driving habits of Italians compared to people in the United States.

It helps to remember that culture is learned. Everyone is ethnocentric to an extent, and identifying with one’s own country is natural.

Caitlin’s shock was minor compared to that of her friends Dayar and Mahlika, a Turkish couple living in married student housing on campus. And it was nothing like that of her classmate Sanai. Sanai had been forced to flee war- torn Bosnia with her family when she was fifteen. After two weeks in Spain, Caitlin had developed a bit more compassion and understanding for what those people had gone through. She understood that adjusting to a new culture takes time. It can take weeks or months to recover from culture shock, and it can take years to fully adjust to living in a new culture.

By the end of Caitlin’s trip, she’d made new lifelong friends. She’d stepped out of her comfort zone. She’d learned a lot about Spain, but she’d also discovered a lot about herself and her own culture.

Figure 3.3 Experiencing new cultures offers an opportunity to practice cultural relativism. (Photo courtesy of OledSidorenko/flickr)

3.2 Elements of Culture Values and Beliefs The first, and perhaps most crucial, elements of culture we will discuss are its values and beliefs. Values are a culture’s standard for discerning what is good and just in society. Values are deeply embedded and critical for transmitting and teaching a culture’s beliefs. Beliefs are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true. Individuals in a society have specific beliefs, but they also share collective values. To illustrate the difference, Americans commonly believe in the American Dream—that anyone who works hard enough will be successful and wealthy. Underlying this belief is the American value that wealth is good and important.

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Values help shape a society by suggesting what is good and bad, beautiful and ugly, sought or avoided. Consider the value that the United States places upon youth. Children represent innocence and purity, while a youthful adult appearance signifies sexuality. Shaped by this value, individuals spend millions of dollars each year on cosmetic products and surgeries to look young and beautiful. The United States also has an individualistic culture, meaning people place a high value on individuality and independence. In contrast, many other cultures are collectivist, meaning the welfare of the group and group relationships are a primary value.

Living up to a culture’s values can be difficult. It’s easy to value good health, but it’s hard to quit smoking. Marital monogamy is valued, but many spouses engage in infidelity. Cultural diversity and equal opportunities for all people are valued in the United States, yet the country’s highest political offices have been dominated by white men.

Values often suggest how people should behave, but they don’t accurately reflect how people do behave. Values portray an ideal culture, the standards society would like to embrace and live up to. But ideal culture differs from real culture, the way society actually is, based on what occurs and exists. In an ideal culture, there would be no traffic accidents, murders, poverty, or racial tension. But in real culture, police officers, lawmakers, educators, and social workers constantly strive to prevent or repair those accidents, crimes, and injustices. American teenagers are encouraged to value celibacy. However, the number of unplanned pregnancies among teens reveals that not only is the ideal hard to live up to, but the value alone is not enough to spare teenagers the potential consequences of having sex.

One way societies strive to put values into action is through rewards, sanctions, and punishments. When people observe the norms of society and uphold its values, they are often rewarded. A boy who helps an elderly woman board a bus may receive a smile and a “thank you.” A business manager who raises profit margins may receive a quarterly bonus. People sanction certain behaviors by giving their support, approval, or permission, or by instilling formal actions of disapproval and nonsupport. Sanctions are a form of social control, a way to encourage conformity to cultural norms. Sometimes people conform to norms in anticipation or expectation of positive sanctions: good grades, for instance, may mean praise from parents and teachers. From a criminal justice perspective, properly used social control is also inexpensive crime control. Utilizing social control approaches pushes most people to conform to societal rules, regardless of whether authority figures (such as law enforcement) are present.

When people go against a society’s values, they are punished. A boy who shoves an elderly woman aside to board the bus first may receive frowns or even a scolding from other passengers. A business manager who drives away customers will likely be fired. Breaking norms and rejecting values can lead to cultural sanctions such as earning a negative label—lazy, no-good bum—or to legal sanctions, such as traffic tickets, fines, or imprisonment.

Values are not static; they vary across time and between groups as people evaluate, debate, and change collective societal beliefs. Values also vary from culture to culture. For example, cultures differ in their values about what kinds of physical closeness are appropriate in public. It’s rare to see two male friends or coworkers holding hands in the United States where that behavior often symbolizes romantic feelings. But in many nations, masculine physical intimacy is considered natural in public. This difference in cultural values came to light when people reacted to photos of former president George W. Bush holding hands with the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia in 2005. A simple gesture, such as hand-holding, carries great symbolic differences across cultures.

Figure 3.4 In many parts of Africa and the Middle East, it is considered normal for men to hold hands in friendship. How would Americans react to these two soldiers? (Photo courtesy of Geordie Mott/Wikimedia Commons)

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Norms So far, the examples in this chapter have often described how people are expected to behave in certain situations—for example, when buying food or boarding a bus. These examples describe the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which societies are structured, or what sociologists call norms. Norms define how to behave in accordance with what a society has defined as good, right, and important, and most members of the society adhere to them.

Formal norms are established, written rules. They are behaviors worked out and agreed upon in order to suit and serve the most people. Laws are formal norms, but so are employee manuals, college entrance exam requirements, and “no running” signs at swimming pools. Formal norms are the most specific and clearly stated of the various types of norms, and they are the most strictly enforced. But even formal norms are enforced to varying degrees and are reflected in cultural values.

For example, money is highly valued in the United States, so monetary crimes are punished. It’s against the law to rob a bank, and banks go to great lengths to prevent such crimes. People safeguard valuable possessions and install antitheft devices to protect homes and cars. A less strictly enforced social norm is driving while intoxicated. While it’s against the law to drive drunk, drinking is for the most part an acceptable social behavior. And though there are laws to punish drunk driving, there are few systems in place to prevent the crime. These examples show a range of enforcement in formal norms.

There are plenty of formal norms, but the list of informal norms—casual behaviors that are generally and widely conformed to—is longer. People learn informal norms by observation, imitation, and general socialization. Some informal norms are taught directly—“Kiss your Aunt Edna” or “Use your napkin”—while others are learned by observation, including observations of the consequences when someone else violates a norm. But although informal norms define personal interactions, they extend into other systems as well. In the United States, there are informal norms regarding behavior at fast food restaurants. Customers line up to order their food and leave when they are done. They don’t sit down at a table with strangers, sing loudly as they prepare their condiments, or nap in a booth. Most people don’t commit even benign breaches of informal norms. Informal norms dictate appropriate behaviors without the need of written rules.

Breaching Experiments Sociologist Harold Garfinkel (1917–2011) studied people’s customs in order to find out how societal rules and norms not only influenced behavior but also shaped social order. He believed that members of society together create a social order (Weber 2011). His resulting book, Studies in Ethnomethodology, published in 1967, discusses people’s assumptions about the social makeup of their communities.

One of Garfinkel’s research methods was known as a “breaching experiment,” in which the researcher behaves in a socially awkward manner in order to test the sociological concepts of social norms and conformity. The participants are not aware an experiment is in progress. If the breach is successful, however, these “innocent bystanders” will respond in some way. For example, if the experimenter is, say, a man in a business suit, and he skips down the sidewalk or hops on one foot, the passersby are likely to stare at him with surprised expressions on their faces. But the experimenter does not simply “act weird” in public. Rather, the point is to deviate from a specific social norm in a small way, to subtly break some form of social etiquette, and see what happens.

To conduct his ethnomethodology, Garfinkel deliberately imposed strange behaviors on unknowing people. Then he observed their responses. He suspected that odd behaviors would shatter conventional expectations, but he wasn’t sure how. For example, he set up a simple game of tic-tac-toe. One player was asked beforehand to mark Xs and Os not in the boxes but on the lines dividing the spaces instead. The other player, in the dark about the study, was flabbergasted and did not know how to continue. The second player’s reactions of outrage, anger, puzzlement, or other emotions illustrated the existence of cultural norms that constitute social life. These cultural norms play an important role. They let us know how to behave around each other and how to feel comfortable in our community.

There are many rules about speaking with strangers in public. It’s OK to tell a woman you like her shoes. It’s not OK to ask if you can try them on. It’s OK to stand in line behind someone at the ATM. It’s not OK to look over his shoulder as he makes his transaction. It’s OK to sit beside someone on a crowded bus. It’s weird to sit beside a stranger in a half-empty bus.

For some breaches, the researcher directly engages with innocent bystanders. An experimenter might strike up a conversation in a public bathroom, where it’s common to respect each other’s privacy so fiercely as to ignore other people’s presence. In a grocery store, an experimenter might take a food item out of another person’s grocery cart,

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saying, “That looks good! I think I’ll try it.” An experimenter might sit down at a table with others in a fast food restaurant or follow someone around a museum and study the same paintings. In those cases, the bystanders are pressured to respond, and their discomfort illustrates how much we depend on social norms. Breaching experiments uncover and explore the many unwritten social rules we live by.

Norms may be further classified as either mores or folkways. Mores (mor-ays) are norms that embody the moral views and principles of a group. Violating them can have serious consequences. The strongest mores are legally protected with laws or other formal norms. In the United States, for instance, murder is considered immoral, and it’s punishable by law (a formal norm). But more often, mores are judged and guarded by public sentiment (an informal norm). People who violate mores are seen as shameful. They can even be shunned or banned from some groups. The mores of the U.S. school system require that a student’s writing be in the student’s own words or use special forms (such as quotation marks and a whole system of citation) for crediting other writers. Writing another person’s words as if they are one’s own has a name—plagiarism. The consequences for violating this norm are severe and usually result in expulsion.

Unlike mores, folkways are norms without any moral underpinnings. Rather, folkways direct appropriate behavior in the day-to-day practices and expressions of a culture. They indicate whether to shake hands or kiss on the cheek when greeting another person. They specify whether to wear a tie and blazer or a T-shirt and sandals to an event. In Canada, women can smile and say hello to men on the street. In Egypt, that’s not acceptable. In regions in the southern United States, bumping into an acquaintance means stopping to chat. It’s considered rude not to, no matter how busy one is. In other regions, people guard their privacy and value time efficiency. A simple nod of the head is enough. Other accepted folkways in the United States may include holding the door open for a stranger or giving someone a gift on their birthday. The rules regarding these folkways may change from culture to culture.

Many folkways are actions we take for granted. People need to act without thinking in order to get seamlessly through daily routines; they can’t stop and analyze every action (Sumner 1906). Those who experience culture shock may find that it subsides as they learn the new culture’s folkways and are able to move through their daily routines more smoothly. Folkways might be small manners, learned by observation and imitated, but they are by no means trivial. Like mores and laws, these norms help people negotiate their daily lives within a given culture.

Symbols and Language Humans, consciously and subconsciously, are always striving to make sense of their surrounding world. Symbols—such as gestures, signs, objects, signals, and words—help people understand that world. They provide clues to understanding experiences by conveying recognizable meanings that are shared by societies.

The world is filled with symbols. Sports uniforms, company logos, and traffic signs are symbols. In some cultures, a gold ring is a symbol of marriage. Some symbols are highly functional; stop signs, for instance, provide useful instruction. As physical objects, they belong to material culture, but because they function as symbols, they also convey nonmaterial cultural meanings. Some symbols are valuable only in what they represent. Trophies, blue ribbons, or gold medals, for example, serve no other purpose than to represent accomplishments. But many objects have both material and nonmaterial symbolic value.

A police officer’s badge and uniform are symbols of authority and law enforcement. The sight of an officer in uniform or a squad car triggers reassurance in some citizens, and annoyance, fear, or anger in others.

It’s easy to take symbols for granted. Few people challenge or even think about stick figure signs on the doors of public bathrooms. But those figures are more than just symbols that tell men and women which bathrooms to use. They also uphold the value, in the United States, that public restrooms should be gender exclusive. Even though stalls are relatively private, most places don’t offer unisex bathrooms.

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Figure 3.5 Some road signs are universal. But how would you interpret the signage on the right? (Photo (a) courtesy of Andrew Bain/flickr; Photo (b) courtesy of HonzaSoukup/flickr)

Symbols often get noticed when they are out of context. Used unconventionally, they convey strong messages. A stop sign on the door of a corporation makes a political statement, as does a camouflage military jacket worn in an antiwar protest. Together, the semaphore signals for “N” and “D” represent nuclear disarmament—and form the well-known peace sign (Westcott 2008). Today, some college students have taken to wearing pajamas and bedroom slippers to class, clothing that was formerly associated only with privacy and bedtime. Though students might deny it, the outfit defies traditional cultural norms and makes a statement.

Even the destruction of symbols is symbolic. Effigies representing public figures are burned to demonstrate anger at certain leaders. In 1989, crowds tore down the Berlin Wall, a decades-old symbol of the division between East and West Germany, communism, and capitalism.

While different cultures have varying systems of symbols, one symbol is common to all: language. Language is a symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted. Some languages contain a system of symbols used for written communication, while others rely on only spoken communication and nonverbal actions.

Societies often share a single language, and many languages contain the same basic elements. An alphabet is a written system made of symbolic shapes that refer to spoken sound. Taken together, these symbols convey specific meanings. The English alphabet uses a combination of twenty-six letters to create words; these twenty-six letters make up over 600,000 recognized English words (OED Online 2011).

Rules for speaking and writing vary even within cultures, most notably by region. Do you refer to a can of carbonated liquid as “soda,” pop,” or “Coke”? Is a household entertainment room a “family room,” “rec room,” or “den”? When leaving a restaurant, do you ask your server for a “check,” the “ticket,” or your “bill”?

Language is constantly evolving as societies create new ideas. In this age of technology, people have adapted almost instantly to new nouns such as “e-mail” and “Internet,” and verbs such as “downloading,” “texting,” and “blogging.” Twenty years ago, the general public would have considered these nonsense words.

Even while it constantly evolves, language continues to shape our reality. This insight was established in the 1920s by two linguists, Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf. They believed that reality is culturally determined, and that any interpretation of reality is based on a society’s language. To prove this point, the sociologists argued that every language has words or expressions specific to that language. In the United States, for example, the number thirteen is associated with bad luck. In Japan, however, the number four is considered unlucky, since it is pronounced similarly to the Japanese word for “death.”

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is based on the idea that people experience their world through their language, and that they therefore understand their world through the culture embedded in their language. The hypothesis, which has also been called linguistic relativity, states that language shapes thought (Swoyer 2003). Studies have shown, for instance, that unless people have access to the word “ambivalent,” they don’t recognize an experience of uncertainty from having conflicting positive and negative feelings about one issue. Essentially, the hypothesis argues, if a person can’t describe the experience, the person is not having the experience.

In addition to using language, people communicate without words. Nonverbal communication is symbolic, and, as in the case of language, much of it is learned through one’s culture. Some gestures are nearly universal: smiles often represent

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate

joy, and crying often represents sadness. Other nonverbal symbols vary across cultural contexts in their meaning. A thumbs-up, for example, indicates positive reinforcement in the United States, whereas in Russia and Australia, it is an offensive curse (Passero 2002). Other gestures vary in meaning depending on the situation and the person. A wave of the hand can mean many things, depending on how it’s done and for whom. It may mean “hello,” “goodbye,” “no thank you,” or “I’m royalty.” Winks convey a variety of messages, including “We have a secret,” “I’m only kidding,” or “I’m attracted to you.” From a distance, a person can understand the emotional gist of two people in conversation just by watching their body language and facial expressions. Furrowed brows and folded arms indicate a serious topic, possibly an argument. Smiles, with heads lifted and arms open, suggest a lighthearted, friendly chat.

Is the United States Bilingual? In 1991, when she was six years old, Lucy Alvarez attended a school that allowed for the use of both English and Spanish. Lucy’s teacher was bilingual, the librarian offered bilingual books, and many of the school staff spoke both Spanish and English. Lucy and many of her classmates who spoke only Spanish at home were lucky. According to the U.S. Census, 13.8 percent of U.S. residents speak a non-English language at home. That’s a significant figure, but not enough to ensure that Lucy would be encouraged to use her native language in school (Mount 2010).

Lucy’s parents, who moved to Texas from Mexico, struggled under the pressure to speak English. Lucy might easily have gotten lost and left behind if she’d felt the same pressure in school. In 2008, researchers from Johns Hopkins University conducted a series of studies on the effects of bilingual education (Slavin et al. 2008). They found that students taught in both their native tongue and English make better progress than those taught only in English.

Technically, the United States has no official language. But many believe English to be the rightful language of the United States, and over thirty states have passed laws specifying English as the official tongue. Proponents of English-only laws suggest that a national ruling will save money on translation, printing, and human resource costs, including funding for bilingual teachers. They argue that setting English as the official language will encourage non- English speakers to learn English faster and adapt to the culture of the United States more easily (Mount 2010).

Groups such as the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) oppose making English the official language and claim that it violates the rights of non-English speakers. English-only laws, they believe, deny the reality of our nation’s diversity and unfairly target Latinos and Asians. They point to the fact that much of the debate on this topic has risen since 1970, a time when the United States experienced new waves of immigration from Asia and Mexico.

Today, a lot of product information gets written in multiple languages. Enter a store like Home Depot and you’ll find signs in both English and Spanish. Buy a children’s product, and the safety warnings could be presented in multiple languages. While marketers are financially motivated to reach the largest number of consumers possible, this trend also may help people acclimate to a culture of bilingualism.

Studies show that most U.S. immigrants eventually abandon their native tongues and become fluent in English. Bilingual education helps with that transition. Today, Lucy Alvarez is an ambitious and high-achieving college student. Fluent in both English and Spanish, Lucy is studying law enforcement—a field that seeks bilingual employees. The same bilingualism that contributed to her success in grade school will help her thrive professionally as a law officer serving her community.

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Figure 3.6 Nowadays, many signs—on streets and in stores—include both English and Spanish. What effect does this have on members of society? What effect does it have on our culture? (Photo courtesy of istolethetv/flickr)

3.3 Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change It may seem obvious that there are a multitude of cultural differences between societies in the world. After all, we can easily see that people vary from one society to the next. It’s natural that a young woman from rural Kenya would have a very different view of the world from an elderly man in Mumbai—one of the most populated cities in the world. Additionally, each culture has its own internal variations. Sometimes the differences between cultures are not nearly as large as the differences inside cultures.

High Culture and Popular Culture Do you prefer listening to opera or hip hop music? Do you like watching horse racing or NASCAR? Do you read books of poetry or celebrity magazines? In each pair, one type of entertainment is considered high-brow and the other low-brow. Sociologists use the term high culture to describe the pattern of cultural experiences and attitudes that exist in the highest class segments of a society. People often associate high culture with intellectualism, political power, and prestige. In America, high culture also tends to be associated with wealth. Events considered high culture can be expensive and formal—attending a ballet, seeing a play, or listening to a live symphony performance.

The term popular culture refers to the pattern of cultural experiences and attitudes that exist in mainstream society. Popular culture events might include a parade, a baseball game, or the season finale of a television show. Rock and pop music—“pop” is short for “popular”—are part of popular culture. Popular culture is often expressed and spread via commercial media such as radio, television, movies, the music industry, publishers, and corporate-run websites. Unlike high culture, popular culture is known and accessible to most people. You can share a discussion of favorite football teams with a new coworker or comment on American Idol when making small talk in line at the grocery store. But if you tried to launch into a deep discussion on the classical Greek play Antigone, few members of U.S. society today would be familiar with it.

Although high culture may be viewed as superior to popular culture, the labels of high culture and popular culture vary over time and place. Shakespearean plays, considered pop culture when they were written, are now part of our society’s high culture. Five hundred years from now, will our descendants associate Breaking Bad with the cultural elite?

Subculture and Counterculture A subculture is just what it sounds like—a smaller cultural group within a larger culture; people of a subculture are part of the larger culture but also share a specific identity within a smaller group.

Thousands of subcultures exist within the United States. Ethnic and racial groups share the language, food, and customs of their heritage. Other subcultures are united by shared experiences. Biker culture revolves around a dedication to motorcycles. Some subcultures are formed by members who possess traits or preferences that differ from the majority of a society’s population. The body modification community embraces aesthetic additions to the human body, such as tattoos, piercings, and certain forms of plastic surgery. In the United States, adolescents often form subcultures to develop a shared youth identity. Alcoholics Anonymous offers support to those suffering from alcoholism. But even as members of a subculture band together, they still identify with and participate in the larger society.

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Making Connections: Big Picturethe

Sociologists distinguish subcultures from countercultures, which are a type of subculture that rejects some of the larger culture’s norms and values. In contrast to subcultures, which operate relatively smoothly within the larger society, countercultures might actively defy larger society by developing their own set of rules and norms to live by, sometimes even creating communities that operate outside of greater society.

Cults, a word derived from culture, are also considered counterculture group. The group “Yearning for Zion” (YFZ) in Eldorado, Texas, existed outside the mainstream and the limelight, until its leader was accused of statutory rape and underage marriage. The sect’s formal norms clashed too severely to be tolerated by U.S. law, and in 2008, authorities raided the compound and removed more than two hundred women and children from the property.

The Evolution of American Hipster Subculture Skinny jeans, chunky glasses, and T-shirts with vintage logos—the American hipster is a recognizable figure in the modern United States. Based predominately in metropolitan areas, sometimes clustered around hotspots such as the Williamsburg neighborhood in New York City, hipsters define themselves through a rejection of the mainstream. As a subculture, hipsters spurn many of the values and beliefs of U.S. culture and prefer vintage clothing to fashion and a bohemian lifestyle to one of wealth and power. While hipster culture may seem to be the new trend among young, middle-class youth, the history of the group stretches back to the early decades of the 1900s.

Where did the hipster culture begin? In the early 1940s, jazz music was on the rise in the United States. Musicians were known as “hepcats” and had a smooth, relaxed quality that went against upright, mainstream life. Those who were “hep” or “hip” lived by the code of jazz, while those who were “square” lived according to society’s rules. The idea of a “hipster” was born.

The hipster movement spread, and young people, drawn to the music and fashion, took on attitudes and language derived from the culture of jazz. Unlike the vernacular of the day, hipster slang was purposefully ambiguous. When hipsters said, “It’s cool, man,” they meant not that everything was good, but that it was the way it was.

Figure 3.7 In the 1940s, U.S. hipsters were associated with the “cool” culture of jazz. (Photo courtesy of William P. Gottlieb/Ira and Leonore S. Gershwin Fund Collection, Music Division, Library of Congress)

By the 1950s, the jazz culture was winding down and many traits of hepcat culture were becoming mainstream. A new subculture was on the rise. The “Beat Generation,” a title coined by writer Jack Kerouac, were anticonformist and antimaterialistic. They were writers who listened to jazz and embraced radical politics. They bummed around, hitchhiked the country, and lived in squalor.

The lifestyle spread. College students, clutching copies of Kerouac’s On the Road, dressed in berets, black turtlenecks, and black-rimmed glasses. Women wore black leotards and grew their hair long. Herb Caen, a San Francisco journalist, used the suffix from Sputnik 1, the Russian satellite that orbited Earth in 1957, to dub the movement’s followers “Beatniks.”

As the Beat Generation faded, a new, related movement began. It too focused on breaking social boundaries, but it also advocated freedom of expression, philosophy, and love. It took its name from the generations before; in fact,

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some theorists claim that Beats themselves coined the term to describe their children. Over time, the “little hipsters” of the 1970s became known simply as “hippies.”

Today’s generation of hipsters rose out of the hippie movement in the same way that hippies rose from Beats and Beats from hepcats. Although contemporary hipsters may not seem to have much in common with 1940s hipsters, the emulation of nonconformity is still there. In 2010, sociologist Mark Greif set about investigating the hipster subculture of the United States and found that much of what tied the group members together was not based on fashion, musical taste, or even a specific point of contention with the mainstream. “All hipsters play at being the inventors or first adopters of novelties,” Greif wrote. “Pride comes from knowing, and deciding, what’s cool in advance of the rest of the world. Yet the habits of hatred and accusation are endemic to hipsters because they feel the weakness of everyone’s position—including their own” (Greif 2010). Much as the hepcats of the jazz era opposed common culture with carefully crafted appearances of coolness and relaxation, modern hipsters reject mainstream values with a purposeful apathy.

Young people are often drawn to oppose mainstream conventions, even if in the same way that others do. Ironic, cool to the point of noncaring, and intellectual, hipsters continue to embody a subculture, while simultaneously impacting mainstream culture.

Figure 3.8 Intellectual and trendy, today’s hipsters define themselves through cultural irony. (Photo courtesy of Lorena Cupcake/Wikimedia Commons)

Cultural Change As the hipster example illustrates, culture is always evolving. Moreover, new things are added to material culture every day, and they affect nonmaterial culture as well. Cultures change when something new (say, railroads or smartphones) opens up new ways of living and when new ideas enter a culture (say, as a result of travel or globalization).

Innovation: Discovery and Invention

An innovation refers to an object or concept’s initial appearance in society—it’s innovative because it is markedly new. There are two ways to come across an innovative object or idea: discover it or invent it. Discoveries make known previously unknown but existing aspects of reality. In 1610, when Galileo looked through his telescope and discovered Saturn, the planet was already there, but until then, no one had known about it. When Christopher Columbus encountered America, the land was, of course, already well known to its inhabitants. However, Columbus’s discovery was new knowledge for Europeans, and it opened the way to changes in European culture, as well as to the cultures of the discovered lands. For example, new foods such as potatoes and tomatoes transformed the European diet, and horses brought from Europe changed hunting practices of Native American tribes of the Great Plains.

Inventions result when something new is formed from existing objects or concepts—when things are put together in an entirely new manner. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, electric appliances were invented at an astonishing pace. Cars, airplanes, vacuum cleaners, lamps, radios, telephones, and televisions were all new inventions. Inventions may shape a culture when people use them in place of older ways of carrying out activities and relating to others, or as a way to carry

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out new kinds of activities. Their adoption reflects (and may shape) cultural values, and their use may require new norms for new situations.

Consider the introduction of modern communication technology, such as mobile phones and smartphones. As more and more people began carrying these devices, phone conversations no longer were restricted to homes, offices, and phone booths. People on trains, in restaurants, and in other public places became annoyed by listening to one-sided conversations. Norms were needed for cell phone use. Some people pushed for the idea that those who are out in the world should pay attention to their companions and surroundings. However, technology enabled a workaround: texting, which enables quiet communication and has surpassed phoning as the chief way to meet today’s highly valued ability to stay in touch anywhere, everywhere.

When the pace of innovation increases, it can lead to generation gaps. Technological gadgets that catch on quickly with one generation are sometimes dismissed by a skeptical older generation. A culture’s objects and ideas can cause not just generational but cultural gaps. Material culture tends to diffuse more quickly than nonmaterial culture; technology can spread through society in a matter of months, but it can take generations for the ideas and beliefs of society to change. Sociologist William F. Ogburn coined the term culture lag to refer to this time that elapses between the introduction of a new item of material culture and its acceptance as part of nonmaterial culture (Ogburn 1957).

Culture lag can also cause tangible problems. The infrastructure of the United States, built a hundred years ago or more, is having trouble supporting today’s more heavily populated and fast-paced life. Yet there is a lag in conceptualizing solutions to infrastructure problems. Rising fuel prices, increased air pollution, and traffic jams are all symptoms of culture lag. Although people are becoming aware of the consequences of overusing resources, the means to support changes takes time to achieve.

Figure 3.9 Sociologist Everett Rogers (1962) developed a model of the diffusion of innovations. As consumers gradually adopt a new innovation, the item grows toward a market share of 100 percent, or complete saturation within a society. (Graph courtesy of Tungsten/Wikimedia Commons)

Diffusion and Globalization

The integration of world markets and technological advances of the last decades have allowed for greater exchange between cultures through the processes of globalization and diffusion. Beginning in the 1980s, Western governments began to deregulate social services while granting greater liberties to private businesses. As a result, world markets became dominated by multinational companies in the 1980s, a new state of affairs at that time. We have since come to refer to this integration of international trade and finance markets as globalization. Increased communications and air travel have further opened doors for international business relations, facilitating the flow not only of goods but also of information and people as well (Scheuerman 2014 (revised)). Today, many U.S. companies set up offices in other nations where the costs of resources and labor are cheaper. When a person in the United States calls to get information about banking, insurance, or computer services, the person taking that call may be working in another country.

Alongside the process of globalization is diffusion, or the spread of material and nonmaterial culture. While globalization refers to the integration of markets, diffusion relates to a similar process in the integration of international cultures. Middle-class Americans can fly overseas and return with a new appreciation of Thai noodles or Italian gelato. Access to television and the Internet has brought the lifestyles and values portrayed in U.S. sitcoms into homes around the globe. Twitter feeds from public demonstrations in one nation have encouraged political protesters in other countries. When this kind of diffusion occurs, material objects and ideas from one culture are introduced into another.

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(a)

(b)

Figure 3.10 Officially patented in 1893 as the “clasp locker” (left), the zipper did not diffuse through society for many decades. Today, it is immediately recognizable around the world. (Photo (a) courtesy of U.S. Patent Office/Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy of Rabensteiner/ Wikimedia Commons)

3.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture Music, fashion, technology, and values—all are products of culture. But what do they mean? How do sociologists perceive and interpret culture based on these material and nonmaterial items? Let’s finish our analysis of culture by reviewing them in the context of three theoretical perspectives: functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism.

Functionalists view society as a system in which all parts work—or function—together to create society as a whole. In this way, societies need culture to exist. Cultural norms function to support the fluid operation of society, and cultural values guide people in making choices. Just as members of a society work together to fulfill a society’s needs, culture exists to meet its members’ basic needs.

Functionalists also study culture in terms of values. Education is an important concept in the United States because it is valued. The culture of education—including material culture such as classrooms, textbooks, libraries, dormitories—supports the emphasis placed on the value of educating a society’s members.

Figure 3.11 This statue of Superman stands in the center of Metropolis, Illinois. His pedestal reads “Truth—Justice—The American Way.” How would a functionalist interpret this statue? What does it reveal about the values of American culture? (Photo courtesy of David Wilson/flickr)

Conflict theorists view social structure as inherently unequal, based on power differentials related to issues like class, gender, race, and age. For a conflict theorist, culture is seen as reinforcing issues of “privilege” for certain groups based upon race, sex, class, and so on. Women strive for equality in a male-dominated society. Senior citizens struggle to protect their rights, their health care, and their independence from a younger generation of lawmakers. Advocacy groups such as the ACLU work to protect the rights of all races and ethnicities in the United States.

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About the Author

Richard L. Daft, PhD, is the Brownlee O. Currey, Jr., Pro- fessor of Management in the Owen Graduate School of Management at Vanderbilt University. Professor Daft specializes in the study of organization theory and leadership. Dr. Daft is a Fellow of the Academy of Management and has served on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Journal, Administrative Sci- ence Quarterly, and Journal of Management Education. He was the associate editor-in-chief of Organization Science and served for three years as associate editor of Administrative Science Quarterly. Professor Daft has authored or co-authored 12 books, including Organization Theory and Design (South-Western, 2007), The Leadership Experience (South-Western, 2008), and What to Study: Generating and Developing Research Questions (Sage, 1982). He published Fusion Leadership: Unlocking the Subtle Forces That Change People and Orga-

nizations (Berrett-Koehler, 2000, with Robert Lengel). He has also authored dozens of scholarly articles, papers, and chapters. His work has been published in Administra- tive Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Management, Accounting Organizations and Society, Management Science, MIS Quarterly, California Management Review, and Organi- zational Behavior Teaching Review. Professor Daft is currently working on a new book, The Executive and the Elephant. He also is an active teacher and consultant. He has taught management, leadership, organizational change, organizational theory, and organizational behavior. Professor Daft served as associate dean, produced for-profi t theatrical produc- tions, and helped manage a start-up enterprise. He has been involved in management development and consulting for many companies and government organizations, including the American Banking Association, Bridgestone, Bell Canada, the National Transportation Research Board, Nortel, TVA, Pratt & Whitney, State Farm Insur- ance, Tenneco, the United States Air Force, the United States Army, J. C. Bradford & Co., Central Parking System, Entergy Sales and Service, Bristol-Myers Squibb, First American National Bank, and the Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

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ix

Preface

Managing for Innovation in a Changing World In recent years, organizations have been buffeted by massive and far-reaching social, technological, and economic changes. Any manager who still believed in the myth of stability was rocked out of complacency when, one after another, large fi nancial insti- tutions in the United States began to fail. Business schools, as well as managers and businesses, were scrambling to keep up with the fast-changing story and evaluate its impact. This edition of Management addresses themes and issues that are directly rel- evant to the current, fast-shifting business environment. I revised Management with a goal of helping current and future managers fi nd innovative solutions to the prob- lems that plague today’s organizations—whether they are everyday challenges or once-in-a-lifetime crises. The world in which most students will work as managers is undergoing a tremendous upheaval. Ethical turmoil, the need for crisis management skills, e-business, rapidly changing technologies, globalization, outsourcing, global virtual teams, knowledge management, global supply chains, the Wall Street melt- down, and other changes place demands on managers that go beyond the techniques and ideas traditionally taught in management courses. Managing today requires the full breadth of management skills and capabilities. This text provides comprehensive coverage of both traditional management skills and the new competencies needed in a turbulent environment characterized by economic turmoil, political confusion, and general uncertainty.

In the traditional world of work, management was to control and limit people, enforce rules and regulations, seek stability and effi ciency, design a top-down hier- archy, and achieve bottom-line results. To spur innovation and achieve high per- formance, however, managers need different skills to engage workers’ hearts and minds as well as take advantage of their physical labor. The new workplace asks that managers focus on leading change, harnessing people’s creativity and enthusiasm, fi nding shared visions and values, and sharing information and power. Teamwork, collaboration, participation, and learning are guiding principles that help managers and employees maneuver the diffi cult terrain of today’s turbulent business environ- ment. Managers focus on developing, not controlling, people to adapt to new tech- nologies and extraordinary environmental shifts, and thus achieve high performance and total corporate effectiveness.

My vision for the ninth edition of Management is to present the newest manage- ment ideas for turbulent times in a way that is interesting and valuable to students while retaining the best of traditional management thinking. To achieve this vision, I have included the most recent management concepts and research and have shown the contemporary application of management ideas in organizations. I have added a questionnaire at the beginning of each chapter that draws students personally into the topic and gives them some insight into their own management skills. A chapter feature for new managers, called the New Manager Self-Test, gives students a sense of what will be expected when they become managers. The combination of established scholarship, new ideas, and real-life applications gives students a taste of the energy, challenge, and adventure inherent in the dynamic fi eld of management. The South- Western/Cengage Learning staff and I have worked together to provide a textbook better than any other at capturing the excitement of organizational management.

I revised Management to provide a book of utmost quality that will create in stu- dents both respect for the changing fi eld of management and confi dence that they can

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understand and master it. The textual portion of this book has been enhanced through the engaging, easy-to-understand writing style and the many in-text examples, boxed items, and short exercises that make the concepts come alive for students. The graphic component has been enhanced with several new exhibits and a new set of photo essays that illustrate specifi c management concepts. The well-chosen photographs provide vivid illustrations and intimate glimpses of management scenes, events, and people. The photos are combined with brief essays that explain how a specifi c management concept looks and feels. Both the textual and graphic portions of the textbook help students grasp the often abstract and distant world of management.

Focus on Innovation: New to the Ninth Edition The ninth edition of Management is especially focused on the future of management education by identifying and describing emerging ideas and examples of innovative organizations and by providing enhanced learning opportunities for students.

Learning Opportunities The ninth edition has taken a leap forward in pedagogical features to help students understand their own management capabilities and learn what it is like to manage in an organization today. New to this edition is an opening questionnaire that directly relates to the topic of the chapter and enables students to see how they respond to situations and challenges typically faced by real-life managers. New Manager Self- Tests in each chapter provide further opportunity for students to understand their management abilities. These short feedback questionnaires give students insight into how they would function in the real world of management. End-of-chapter questions have been carefully revised to encourage critical thinking and application of chap- ter concepts. End-of-chapter cases and ethical dilemmas help students sharpen their diagnostic skills for management problem solving.

Chapter Content Within each chapter, many topics have been added or expanded to address the cur- rent issues managers face. At the same time, chapter text has been tightened and sharpened to provide greater focus on the key topics that count for management today. This tightening has resulted in a shortening of the text from 21 to 19 chapters. The essential elements about operations and technology have been combined into one chapter. An appendix on entrepreneurship and small business has been provided for students who want more information on managing in small businesses start-ups.

Chapter 1 includes a section on making the leap from being an individual contribu- tor in the organization to becoming a new manager and getting work done primarily through others. The chapter introduces the skills and competencies needed to manage organizations effectively, including issues such as managing diversity, coping with glo- balization, and managing crises. In addition, the chapter discusses today’s emphasis within organizations on innovation as a response to a rapidly changing environment.

Chapter 2 continues its solid coverage of the historical development of management and organizations. It also examines new management thinking for turbulent times. The chapter includes a new section on systemic thinking and an expanded discussion of post-World War II management techniques. The fi nal part of the chapter looks at issues of managing the technology-driven workplace, including supply chain man- agement, customer relationship management, and outsourcing.

Chapter 3 contains an updated look at current issues related to the environment and corporate culture, including a new section on issues related to the natural environ- ment and managers’ response to environmental advocates. The chapter also illus- trates how managers shape a high–performance culture as an innovative response to a shifting environment.

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Chapter 4 takes a look at the growing power of China and India in today’s global business environment and what this means for managers around the world. The chapter discusses the need for cultural intelligence, and a new section looks at under- standing communication differences as an important aspect of learning to manage internationally or work with people from different cultures. In addition, the complex issues surrounding globalization are discussed, including a consideration of the cur- rent globalization backlash. A new section on human resources points out the need for evaluating whether people are suitable for foreign assignments.

Chapter 5 makes the business case for incorporating ethical values in the organi- zation. The chapter includes a new discussion of the bottom-of-the-pyramid business concept and how managers are successfully applying this new thinking. The chapter also has an expanded discussion of ethical challenges managers face today, includ- ing responses to recent fi nancial scandals. It considers global ethical issues, as well, including a discussion of corruption rankings of various countries.

Chapter 6 provides a more focused discussion of the overall planning process and a new discussion of using strategy maps for aligning goals. This chapter also takes a close look at crisis planning and how to use scenarios. The chapter’s fi nal section on planning for high performance has been enhanced by a new discussion of intelli- gence teams and an expanded look at using performance dashboards to help manag- ers plan in a fast-changing environment.

Chapter 7 continues its focus on the basics of formulating and implementing strategy. It includes a new section on diversifi cation strategy, looking at how managers use unrelated diversifi cation, related diversifi cation, or vertical integration as strategic approaches in shifting environments. This chapter also looks at new trends in strat- egy, including the dynamic capabilities approach and partnership strategies.

Chapter 8 gives an overview of managerial decision making with an expanded dis- cussion of how confl icting interests among managers can create uncertainty regard- ing decisions. A new section on why managers often make bad decisions looks at the biases that can cloud judgment. The chapter also includes a new section on innova- tive group decision making and the dangers of groupthink.

Chapter 9 discusses basic principles of organizing and describes both traditional and contemporary organizational structures in detail. The chapter includes a discussion of organic versus mechanistic structures and when each is more effective. Chapter 9 also provides a description of the virtual network organization form.

Chapter 10 includes a more focused discussion of the critical role of managing change and innovation today. The chapter includes a new discussion of the ambidextrous approach for both creating and using innovations and has expanded material on exploration and creativity, the importance of internal and external cooperation, and the growing trend toward open innovation.

Chapter 11 includes an expanded discussion of the strategic role of HRM in building human capital. The chapter has new sections on coaching and mentoring and the trend toward part-time and contingent employment. New ways of doing background checks on applicants, such as checking their pages on social networks, are discussed, and the chapter also looks at the changing social contract between employers and employees.

Chapter 12 has been revised and updated to refl ect the most recent thinking on organiza- tional diversity issues. The chapter looks at how diversity is changing the domestic and global workforce and includes a new section on the traditional versus inclusive models for managing diversity. This chapter also contains new coverage of the dividends of diversity; an expanded discussion of prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes; and a new look at the difference between stereotyping and valuing cultural differences. The chapter includes a new fi ve-step process for achieving cultural competence.

Chapter 13 continues its solid coverage of the basics of organizational behavior, includ- ing personality, values and attitudes, perception, emotional intelligence, learning and

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problem-solving styles, and stress management. Many exercises and questionnaires throughout this chapter enhance students’ understanding of organizational behavior topics and their own personalities and attitudes.

Chapter 14 has been enriched with a discussion of followership. The chapter empha- sizes that good leaders and good followers share common characteristics. Good lead- ership can make a difference, often through subtle, everyday actions. The discussion of power and infl uence has been expanded to include the sources of power that are available to followers as well as leaders. The discussions of charismatic, transforma- tional, and interactive leadership have all been revised and refocused.

Chapter 15 covers the foundations of motivation and also incorporates recent think- ing about motivational tools for today, including an expanded treatment of employee engagement. The chapter looks at new motivational ideas such as the importance of helping employees achieve work-life balance, incorporating fun and learning into the workplace, giving people a chance to fully participate, and helping people fi nd meaning in their work.

Chapter 16 begins with a discussion of how managers facilitate strategic conversa- tions by using communication to direct everyone’s attention to the vision, values, and goals of the organization. The chapter explores the foundations of good com- munication and includes a new section on gender differences in communication, an enriched discussion of dialogue, and a refocused look at the importance of effective written communication in today’s technologically connected workplace, including the use of new forms of manager communication such as blogs.

Chapter 17 includes a new section on the dilemma of teams, acknowledging that teams are sometimes ineffective and looking at the reasons for this, including such problems as free riders, lack of trust among team members, and so forth. The chapter then looks at how to make teams effective, including a signifi cantly revised discus- sion of what makes an effective team leader. The chapter covers the types of teams and includes a new look at effectively using technology in virtual teams. The chapter also includes a section on managing confl ict, including the use of negotiation.

Chapter 18 provides an overview of fi nancial and quality control, including Six Sigma, ISO certifi cation, and a new application of the balanced scorecard, which views employee learning and growth as the foundation of high performance. The dis- cussion of hierarchical versus decentralized control has been updated and expanded. The chapter also addresses current concerns about corporate governance and fi nding a proper balance of control and autonomy for employees.

Chapter 19 has been thoroughly revised to discuss recent trends in operations man- agement, information technology, and e-business. The chapter begins by looking at the organization as a value chain and includes an expanded discussion of supply chain management and new technologies such a radio frequency identifi cation (RFID). The discussion of information technology has been updated to include the trend toward user-generated content through wikis, blogs, and social networking. The chapter explores how these new technologies are being applied within organizations along with traditional information systems. The chapter also discusses e-commerce strate- gies, the use of business intelligence software, and knowledge management.

In addition to the topics listed above, this text integrates coverage of the Internet and new technology into the various topics covered in each and every chapter.

Organization The chapter sequence in Management is organized around the management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. These four functions effectively encompass both management research and characteristics of the manager’s job.

Part One introduces the world of management, including the nature of management, issues related to today’s chaotic environment, the learning organization, historical perspectives on management, and the technology-driven workplace.

PREFACE xiii

Part Two examines the environments of management and organizations. This sec- tion includes material on the business environment and corporate culture, the global environment, ethics and social responsibility, and the natural environment.

Part Three presents three chapters on planning, including organizational goal setting and planning, strategy formulation and implementation, and the decision-making process.

Part Four focuses on organizing processes. These chapters describe dimensions of structural design, the design alternatives managers can use to achieve strategic objec- tives, structural designs for promoting innovation and change, the design and use of the human resource function, and the ways managing diverse employees are signifi – cant to the organizing function.

Part Five is devoted to leadership. The section begins with a chapter on organiza- tional behavior, providing grounding in understanding people in organizations. This foundation paves the way for subsequent discussion of leadership, motivation of employees, communication, and team management.

Part Six describes the controlling function of management, including basic principles of total quality management, the design of control systems, information technology, and techniques for control of operations management.

Innovative Features A major goal of this book is to offer better ways of using the textbook medium to convey management knowledge to the reader. To this end, the book includes several innova- tive features that draw students in and help them contemplate, absorb, and comprehend management concepts. South-Western has brought together a team of experts to create and coordinate color photographs, video cases, beautiful artwork, and supplemental materials for the best management textbook and package on the market.

Chapter Outline and Objectives. Each chapter begins with a clear statement of its learning objectives and an outline of its contents. These devices provide an overview of what is to come and can also be used by students to guide their study and test their understanding and retention of important points.

Opening Questionnaire. The text grabs student attention immediately by giving the student a chance to participate in the chapter content actively by completing a short questionnaire related to the topic.

Take a Moment. At strategic places through the chapter, students are invited to Take a Moment to apply a particular concept or think about how they would apply it as a practicing manager. This call to action further engages students in the chapter con- tent. Some of the Take a Moment features also refer students to the associated New Manager Self-Test, or direct students from the chapter content to relevant end-of- chapter materials, such as an experiential exercise or an ethical dilemma.

New Manager Self-Test. A New Manager Self-Test in each chapter of the text provides opportunities for self-assessment as a way for students to experience management issues in a personal way. The change from individual performer to new manager is dramatic, and these self-tests provide insight into what to expect and how students might perform in the world of the new manager.

Concept Connection Photo Essays. A key feature of the book is the use of photo- graphs accompanied by detailed photo essay captions that enhance learning. Each caption highlights and illustrates one or more specifi c concepts from the text to rein- force student understanding of the concepts. Although the photos are beautiful to look at, they also convey the vividness, immediacy, and concreteness of management events in today’s business world.

Contemporary Examples. Every chapter of the text contains several written examples of management incidents. They are placed at strategic points in the chapter and are

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designed to illustrate the application of concepts to specifi c companies. These in-text examples—indicated by an icon in the margin—include well-known U.S. and inter- national companies such as Toyota, Facebook, UPS, LG Electronics, Google, Unilever, Siemens, and eBay, as well as less-well-known companies and not-for-profi t organi- zations such as Red 5 Studios, Strida, Genmab AS, ValueDance, and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). These examples put students in touch with the real world of organizations so that they can appreciate the value of management concepts.

Manager’s Shoptalk Boxes. A Manager’s Shoptalk box in each chapter addresses a specifi c topic straight from the fi eld of management that is of special interest to stu- dents. These boxes may describe a contemporary topic or problem that is relevant to chapter content, or they may contain a diagnostic questionnaire or a special example of how managers handle a problem. The boxes heighten student interest in the sub- ject matter and provide an auxiliary view of management issues not typically avail- able in textbooks.

Video Cases. The six parts of the text conclude with video cases, one per chapter, that illustrate the concepts presented in that part. The 19 videos enhance class discussion, because students can see the direct application of the management theories they have learned. Companies discussed in the video package include Recycline, Flight 001, and Numi Organic Teas. Each video case explores the issues covered in the video, allowing students to synthesize the material they’ve just viewed. The video cases culminate with several questions that can be used to launch classroom discussion or as homework. Suggested answers are provided in the Media Case Library.

Exhibits. Several exhibits have been added or revised in the ninth edition to enhance student understanding. Many aspects of management are research based, and some concepts tend to be abstract and theoretical. The many exhibits throughout this book enhance students’ awareness and understanding of these concepts. These exhibits con- solidate key points, indicate relationships among concepts, and visually illustrate con- cepts. They also make effective use of color to enhance their imagery and appeal.

Glossaries. Learning the management vocabulary is essential to understanding con- temporary management. This process is facilitated in three ways. First, key concepts are boldfaced and completely defi ned where they fi rst appear in the text. Second, brief defi nitions are set out in the margin for easy review and follow-up. Third, a glossary summarizing all key terms and defi nitions appears at the end of the book for handy reference.

A Manager’s Essentials and Discussion Questions. Each chapter closes with a sum- mary of the essential points that students should retain. The discussion questions are a complementary learning tool that will enable students to check their understand- ing of key issues, to think beyond basic concepts, and to determine areas that require further study. The summary and discussion questions help students discriminate between main and supporting points and provide mechanisms for self-teaching.

Management in Practice Exercises. End-of-chapter exercises called “Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise” and “Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma” provide a self-test for students and an opportunity to experience management issues in a personal way. These exercises take the form of questionnaires, scenarios, and activities, and many also provide an opportunity for students to work in teams. The exercises are tied into the chapter through the Take a Moment feature that refers stu- dents to the end-of-chapter exercises at the appropriate point in the chapter content.

Case for Critical Analysis. Also appearing at the end of each chapter is a brief but substantive case that provides an opportunity for student analysis and class discus- sion. Some of these cases are about companies whose names students will recog- nize; others are based on real management events but the identities of companies and managers have been disguised. These cases allow students to sharpen their diagnos- tic skills for management problem solving.

PREFACE xv

Continuing Case. Located at the end of each part, the Continuing Case is a run- ning discussion of management topics appropriate to that part as experienced by General Motors Company. Focusing on one company allows students to follow the managers’ and the organization’s long-term problems and solutions in a sustained manner.

Supplementary Materials Instructor’s Manual. Designed to provide support for instructors new to the course, as well as innovative materials for experienced professors, the Instructor’s Man- ual includes Chapter Outlines, annotated learning objectives, Lecture Notes, and sample Lecture Outlines. Additionally, the Instructor’s Manual includes answers and teaching notes to end-of-chapter materials, including the video cases and the continuing case.

Instructor’s CD-ROM. Key instructor ancillaries (Instructor’s Manual, Test Bank, ExamView, and PowerPoint slides) are provided on CD-ROM, giving instructors the ultimate tool for customizing lectures and presentations.

Test Bank. Scrutinized for accuracy, the Test Bank includes more than 2,000 true/ false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions. Page references are indi- cated for every question, as are designations of either factual or application so that instructors can provide a balanced set of questions for student exams. Each question is also tagged based on AACSB guidelines.

ExamView. Available on the Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM, ExamView contains all of the questions in the printed Test Bank. This program is an easy-to-use test cre- ation software compatible with Microsoft Windows. Instructors can add or edit ques- tions, instructions, and answers, and select questions (randomly or numerically) by previewing them on the screen. Instructors can also create and administer quizzes online, whether over the Internet, a local area network (LAN), or a wide area network (WAN).

PowerPoint Lecture Presentation. Available on the Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM and the Web site, the PowerPoint Lecture Presentation enables instructors to custom- ize their own multimedia classroom presentation. Containing an average of 27 slides per chapter, the package includes fi gures and tables from the text, as well as outside materials to supplement chapter concepts. Material is organized by chapter and can be modifi ed or expanded for individual classroom use. PowerPoint slides are also easily printed to create customized Transparency Masters.

Study Guide. Packed with real-world examples and additional applications for help- ing students master management concepts, this learning supplement is an excellent resource. For each chapter of the text, the Study Guide includes a summary and com- pletion exercise; a review with multiple-choice, true/false, and short-answer ques- tions; a mini case with multiple-choice questions; management applications; and an experiential exercise that can be assigned as homework or used in class.

Video Package. The video package for Management, ninth edition, contains two options: On the Job videos created specifi cally for the ninth edition of Daft’s Man- agement and BizFlix videos. On the Job videos use real-world companies to illustrate management concepts as outlined in the text. Focusing on both small and large busi- ness, the videos give students an inside perspective on the situations and issues that corporations face. BizFlix are fi lm clips taken from popular Hollywood movies such as Failure to Launch, Rendition, and Friday Night Lights, and integrated into the ninth edition of Daft. Clips are supported by short cases and discussion questions at the end of each chapter.

Web Site (www.cengage.com/management/daft). Discover a rich array of online teaching and learning management resources that you won’t fi nd anywhere else.www.cengage.com/management/daft

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Resources include interactive learning tools, links to critical management Web sites, and password-protected teaching resources available for download.

Premium Student Web Site (www.cengage.com/login). Give your students access to additional study aides for your management course. With this optional package, stu- dents gain access to the Daft premium Web site. There your students will fi nd inter- active quizzes, fl ashcards, PowerPoint slides, learning games, and more to reinforce chapter concepts. Add the ninth edition of Management to your bookshelf at www .cengage.com/login and access the Daft Premium Web site to learn more.

Acknowledgments A gratifying experience for me was working with the team of dedicated professionals at South-Western who were committed to the vision of producing the best manage- ment text ever. I am grateful to Joe Sabatino, executive editor, whose enthusiasm, creative ideas, assistance, and vision kept this book’s spirit alive. Emma Newsom, managing developmental editor, provided superb project coordination and offered excellent ideas and suggestions to help the team meet a demanding and sometimes arduous schedule. Kimberly Kanakes, executive marketing manager, and Clint Kernen, marketing manager, provided keen market knowledge and innovative ideas for instructional support. Martha Conway, senior content project manager, cheerfully and expertly guided me through the production process. Tippy McIntosh contributed her graphic arts skills to create a visually dynamic design. Ruth Belanger, editorial assistant, and Sarah Rose, marketing coordinator, skillfully pitched in to help keep the project on track. Joe Devine deserves a special thank you for his layout expertise and commitment to producing an attractive, high-quality textbook. Additionally, BJ Parker, Copyshop, USA, contributed the Continuing Case.

Here at Vanderbilt I want to extend special appreciation to my assistant, Barbara Haselton. Barbara provided excellent support and assistance on a variety of proj- ects that gave me time to write. I also want to acknowledge an intellectual debt to my colleagues, Bruce Barry, Ray Friedman, Neta Moye, Rich Oliver, David Owens, Ranga Ramanujam, Bart Victor, and Tim Vogus. Thanks also to Deans Jim Bradford and Bill Christie who have supported my writing projects and maintained a positive scholarly atmosphere in the school. Another group of people who made a major con- tribution to this textbook are the management experts who provided advice, reviews, answers to questions, and suggestions for changes, insertions, and clarifi cations. I want to thank each of these colleagues for their valuable feedback and suggestions on the ninth edition:

David Alexander Christian Brothers University

Reginald L Audibert California State University—Long Beach

Burrell A. Brown California University of Pennsylvania

Paula Buchanan Jacksonville State University

Diane Caggiano Fitchburg State College

Bruce Charnov Hofstra University

Gloria Cockerell Collin College

Jack Cox Amberton University

Paul Ewell Bridgewater College

Mary M. Fanning College of Notre Dame of Maryland

Merideth Ferguson Baylor University

Karen Fritz Bridgewater College

Yezdi H. Godiwalla University of Wisconsin— Whitewater

James Halloran Wesleyan College

Stephen R. Hiatt Catawba College

Betty Hoge Bridgewater College

Jody Jones Oklahoma Christian Universitywww.cengage.com/loginwww.cengage.com/loginwww.cengage.com/login

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Jerry Kinard Western Carolina University

Sal Kukalis California State University—Long Beach

Joyce LeMay Bethel University

Wade McCutcheon East Texas Baptist College

Tom Miller Concordia University

W J Mitchell Bladen Community College

John Okpara Bloomsburg University

Lori A. Peterson Augsburg College

Michael Provitera Barry University

Abe Qastin Lakeland College

Holly Caldwell Ratwani Bridgewater College

Terry L. Riddle Central Virginia Commu- nity College

Thomas Sy California State University—Long Beach

Kevin A. Van Dewark Humphreys College

Noemy Watchel Kean University

Peter Wachtel Kean University

David C. Adams Manhattanville College

Erin M. Alexander University of Houston– Clear Lake

Hal Babson Columbus State Community College

Reuel Barksdale Columbus State Community College

Gloria Bemben Finger Lakes Community College

Pat Bernson County College of Morris

Art Bethke Northeast Louisiana University

Thomas Butte Humboldt State University

Peter Bycio Xavier University, Ohio

Diane Caggiano Fitchburg State College

Douglas E. Cathon St. Augustine’s College

Jim Ciminskie Bay de Noc Community College

Dan Connaughton University of Florida

Bruce Conwers Kaskaskia College

Byron L. David The City College of New York

Richard De Luca William Paterson University

Robert DeDominic Montana Tech

Linn Van Dyne Michigan State University

John C. Edwards East Carolina University

Mary Ann Edwards College of Mount St. Joseph

Janice M. Feldbauer Austin Community College

Daryl Fortin Upper Iowa University

Michael P. Gagnon New Hampshire Community Technical College

Richard H. Gayor Antelope Valley College

Dan Geeding Xavier University, Ohio

James Genseal Joliet Junior College

Peter Gibson Becker College

Carol R. Graham Western Kentucky University

Gary Greene Manatee Community College

Ken Harris Indiana University Southeast

Paul Hayes Coastal Carolina Commu- nity College

Dennis Heaton Maharishi University of Management, Iowa

Jeffrey D. Hines Davenport College

Bob Hoerber Westminster College

James N. Holly University of Wisconsin– Green Bay

Genelle Jacobson Ridgewater College

C. Joy Jones Ohio Valley College

Kathleen Jones University of North Dakota

Sheryl Kae Lynchburg College

Jordan J. Kaplan Long Island University

I would also like to continue to acknowledge those reviewers who have contrib- uted comments, suggestions and feedback on previous editions:

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J. Michael Keenan Western Michigan University

Gloria Komer Stark State College

Paula C. Kougl Western Oregon University

Cynthia Krom Mount St. Mary College

Mukta Kulkarni University of Texas–San Antonio

William B. Lamb Millsaps College

Robert E. Ledman Morehouse College

George Lehma Bluffton College

Cynthia Lengnick-Hall University of Texas–San Antonio

Janet C. Luke Georgia Baptist College of Nursing

Jenna Lundburg Ithaca College

Walter J. MacMillan Oral Roberts University

Myrna P. Mandell California State University, Northridge

Daniel B. Marin Louisiana State University

Michael Market Jacksonville State University

James C. McElroy Iowa State University

Dennis W. Meyers Texas State Technical College

Alan N. Miller University of Nevada–Las Vegas

Irene A. Miller Southern Illinois University

James L. Moseley Wayne State University

Micah Mukabi Essex County College

David W. Murphy Madisonville Community College

Nora Nurre Upper Iowa University

Tomas J. Ogazon St. Thomas University

Allen Oghenejbo Mills College

Linda Overstreet Hillsborough Community College

Ken Peterson Metropolitan State University

Clifton D. Petty Drury College

James I. Phillips Northeastern State University

Linda Putchinski University of Central Florida

Kenneth Radig Medaille College

Gerald D. Ramsey Indiana University Southeast

Barbara Redmond Briar Cliff College

William Reisel St. John’s University–New York

Terry Riddle Central Virginia Commu- nity College

Walter F. Rohrs Wagner College

Meir Russ University of Wisconsin– Green Bay

Marcy Satterwhite Lake Land College

Don Schreiber Baylor University

Kilmon Shin Ferris State University

Daniel G. Spencer University of Kansas

Gary Spokes Pace University

M. Sprencz David N. Meyers College

Shanths Srinivas California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Jeffrey Stauffer Ventura College

William A. Stower Seton Hall University

Mary Studer Southwestern Michigan College

Bruce C. Walker Northeast Louisiana University

Mark Weber University of Minnesota

Emilia S. Westney Texas Tech University

Stan Williamson Northeast Louisiana University

Alla L. Wilson University of Wisconsin– Green Bay

Ignatius Yacomb Loma Linda University

Imad Jim Zbib Ramapo College of New Jersey

Vic Zimmerman Pima Community College

James Swenson Moorhead State University, Minnesota

Irwin Talbot St. Peter’s College

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Andrew Timothy Lourdes College

Frank G. Titlow St. Petersburg Junior College

John Todd University of Arkansas

Philip Varca University of Wyoming

Dennis L. Varin Southern Oregon University

Gina Vega Merrimack College

George S. Vozikis University of Tulsa

Bruce C. Walker Northeast Louisiana University

Mark Weber University of Minnesota

Emilia S. Westney Texas Tech University

Stan Williamson Northeast Louisiana University

Alla L. Wilson University of Wisconsin– Green Bay

Ignatius Yacomb Loma Linda University

Imad Jim Zbib Ramapo College of New Jersey

Vic Zimmerman Pima Community College

I’d like to pay special tribute to my long-time editorial associate, Pat Lane. I can’t imagine how I would ever complete such a comprehensive revision on my own. Pat provided truly outstanding help throughout every step of writing the ninth edition of Management. She skillfully drafted materials for a wide range of chapter topics, boxes, and cases; researched topics when new sources were lacking; and did an absolutely superb job with the copyedited manuscript and page proofs. Her commitment to this text enabled us to achieve our dream for its excellence. I also want to pay tribute to Mary Draper, who stepped in to help with the research and revision of this edition. Mary also did a superb job with the copyedited manu- script and page proofs. We could not have completed this revision without Mary’s excellent assistance.

Finally, I want to acknowledge the love and contributions of my wife, Dorothy Marcic. Dorothy has been very supportive during this revision as we share our lives together. I also want to acknowledge the love and support from my fi ve daughters— Danielle, Amy, Roxanne, Solange, and Elizabeth—who make my life special during our precious time together. Thanks also to B. J. and Kaitlyn and Kaci and Matthew for their warmth and smiles that brighten my life, especially during our days together skiing and on the beach.

Richard L. Daft Nashville, Tennessee December 2008

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xxi

Part 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT

1 Innovative Management for Turbulent Times 2

2 The Evolution of Management Thinking 32

Part 2 THE ENVIRONMENT OF MANAGEMENT

3 The Environment and Corporate Culture 62

4 Managing in a Global Environment 94

5 Managing Ethics and Social Responsibility 128

Part 3 PLANNING

6 Managerial Planning and Goal Setting 158

7 Strategy Formulation and Implementation 184

8 Managerial Decision Making 212

Part 4 ORGANIZING

9 Designing Adaptive Organizations 242

10 Managing Change and Innovation 276

11 Managing Human Resources 306

12 Managing Diversity 340

Part 5 LEADING

13 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations 376

14 Leadership 408

15 Motivating Employees 440

16 Managing Communication 470

17 Leading Teams 502

Part 6 CONTROLLING

18 Managing Quality and Performance 536 19 Managing the Value Chain, Information Technology,

and E-Business 568

APPENDIX A: MANAGING SMALL BUSINESS START-UPS 601

Glossary 625

Indexes 639

Brief Contents

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xxiii

Part 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT

1 Innovative Management for Turbulent Times 2 Are You Ready to Be a Manager? 3 Why Innovation Mat ters 4 The Defi nition of Management 4 The Four Management Functions 5

Planning 5 | Organizing 6 | Leading 6 Controlling 7

Organizational Performance 7 Management Skills 8

Conceptual Skills 8 | Human Skills 9 | Technical Skills 9 | When Skills Fail 10

Management Types 10 Vertical Differences 11 | Horizontal Differences 12

What Is It Like to Be a Manager? 13 Making the Leap: Becoming a New Manager 13

New Manager Self-Test: Manager Achievement 14 Manager’s Shoptalk: Do You Really Want To Be A Manager? 16

Manager Activities 17 | Manager Roles 18 Managing in Small Businesses and Nonprofi t Organizations 20 Management and the New Workplace 21

New Workplace Characteristics 21 | New Management Competencies 23

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 23 Discussion Questions 24 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 25 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 26 Case for Critical Analysis 26 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 27

BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 28 Endnotes 29

2 The Evolution of Management Thinking 32 Are You a New-Style or an Old-Style Manager? 33 Management and Organization 34 Manager’s Shoptalk: Contemporary Management Tools 35 Classical Perspective 36

Scientifi c Management 37 | Bureaucratic Organizations 38 | Administrative Principles 40

Humanistic Perspective 41 Human Relations Movement 42 | Human Resources Perspective 43

New Manager Self-Test: Evolution of Style 44 Behavioral Sciences Approach 45

Management Science Perspective 46 Recent Historical Trends 47

Systems Theory 47 | Contingency View 48 | Total Quality Management 49

Innovative Management Thinking For Turbulent Times 50

The Learning Organization 50 Managing the Technology-Driven Workplace 50

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 52 Discussion Questions 52 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 53 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 53 Case for Critical Analysis 54 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 55 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 56 Endnotes 57 Continuing Case 60

3 The Environment and Corporate Culture 62 Are You Fit for Managerial Uncertainty? 63 The External Environment 64

General Environment 65

Manager’s Shoptalk: Creating Guanxi in China 67 Task Environment 69

The Organization–Environment Relationship 72 Environmental Uncertainty 72 | Adapting to the Environment 73

Part 2 THE ENVIRONTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

Contents

xxiv

The Internal Environment: Corporate Culture 75 Symbols 77 | Stories 77 | Heroes 77 Slogans 78 | Ceremonies 78

Environment and Culture 78 Adaptive Cultures 79 | Types of Cultures 79

New Manager Self-Test: Culture Preference 82 Shaping Corporate Culture for Innovative Response 82

Managing the High-Performance Culture 83 | Cultural Leadership 85

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 85 Discussion Questions 86 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 87 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 87 Case for Critical Analysis 88 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 89 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 90 Endnotes 91

4 Managing in a Global Environment 94 Are You Ready To Work Internationally? 95 A Borderless World 96 Getting Started Internationally 98

Exporting 98 | Outsourcing 99 | Licensing 99 Direct Investing 100 | China Inc. 101

The International Business Environment 102 The Economic Environment 103

Economic Development 103 | Resource and Product Markets 103 | Exchange Rates 104

The Legal-Political Environment 104 The Sociocultural Environment 105

Social Values 105 Manager’s Shoptalk: How Well Do You Play The Culture Game? 108

Communication Differences 109 | Other Cultural Characteristics 110

International Trade Alliances 111 GAT T and the World Trade Organization 112 | European Union 112 | North American Free Trade Agreement (NAF TA) 113

The Globalization Backlash 113 Multinational Corporations 114 Managing in a Global Environment 115

Developing Cultural Intelligence 115 | Managing Cross-Culturally 116

New Manager Self-Test: Are You Culturally Intelligent? 117 A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 119 Discussion Questions 120 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 120 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 121 Case for Critical Analysis 122 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 123 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 124 Endnotes 124

5 Managing Ethics and Social Responsibility 128 Will You Be a Courageous Manager? 129 What Is Managerial Ethics? 130 Ethical Dilemmas: What Would You Do? 131 Criteria for Ethical Decision Making 132

Utilitarian Approach 132 Individualism Approach 132 | Moral-Rights Approach 133 | Justice Approach 133

Manager Ethical Choices 134 Manager’s Shoptalk: How to Challenge the Boss on Ethical Issues 136 New Manager Self-Test: Self and Others 137 What Is Corporate Social Responsibility? 138

Organizational Stakeholders 138 | The Bottom of the Pyramid 140

The Ethic of Sustainability 141 Evaluating Corporate Social Responsibilit y 142 Managing Company Ethics and Social Responsibilit y 144

Code of Ethics 144 | Ethical Structures 145 | Whistle-Blowing 146 | The Business Case for Ethics and Social Responsibility 147

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 148 Discussion Questions 148 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 149 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 150 Case for Critical Analysis 150 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 151 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 152 Endnotes 153 Continuing Case 156

6 Managerial Planning and Goal Setting 158 Does Goal Set ting Fit Your Management Style? 159 Overview of Goals and Plans 160

Levels of Goals and Plans 160 | Purposes of Goals and Plans 160 | The Organizational Planning Process 162

Goals in Organizations 162 New Manager Self-Test: Your Approach to Studying 163

Organizational Mission 163 Goals and Plans 164 | Aligning Goals with Strategy Maps 166

Part 3 PLANNING

CONTENTS

xxv

Operational Planning 167 Criteria for Effective Goals 168 | Management by Objectives 168 | Single-Use and Standing Plans 171

Manager’s Shoptalk: Regulating E-Mail in the Workplace 171 Planning for a Turbulent Environment 172

Contingency Planning 172 | Building Scenarios 173 | Crisis Planning 173

Planning for High Performance 175 Traditional Approaches to Planning 175 | High- Performance Approaches to Planning 175

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 178 Discussion Questions 178 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 179 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 179 Case for Critical Analysis 180 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 181 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 182 Endnotes 182

7 Strategy Formulation and Implementation 184 What Is Your Strategy Strength? 185 Thinking Strategically 186 New Manager Self-Test: Your Approach to Studying, Part 2 187 What Is Strategic Management? 188

Purpose of Strategy 188 | Levels of Strategy 190 The Strategic Management Process 191

Strategy Formulation Versus Execution 191 | SWOT Analysis 192

Formulating Corporate-Level Strategy 194 Portfolio Strategy 194 | The BCG Matrix 194 | Diversifi cation Strategy 195

Formulating Business-Level Strategy 196 Porter’s Five Competitive Forces 196 | Competitive Strategies 198

New Trends in Strategy 199 Innovation from Within 200 | Strategic Partnerships 200

Global Strategy 200 Globalization 201 | Multidomestic Strategy 202 | Transnational Strategy 202

Strategy Execution 203 Manager’s Shoptalk: Tips for Effective Strategy Execution 204

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 205 Discussion Questions 206 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 206 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 207 Case for Critical Analysis 207 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 208 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 209 Endnotes 210

8 Managerial Decision Making 212 How Do You Make Decisions? 213 Types of Decisions and Problems 214

Programmed and Nonprogrammed Decisions 214 | Facing Certainty and Uncertainty 215

Decision-Making Models 217 The Ideal, Rational Model 217 | How Managers Actually Make Decisions 218

New Manager Self-Test: Making Important Decisions 220

Political Model 221 Decision-Making Steps 222

Recognition of Decision Requirement 222 | Diagnosis and Analysis of Causes 222 | Development of Alternatives 223 | Selection of Desired Alternative 224 | Implementation of Chosen Alternative 224 | Evaluation and Feedback 225

Personal Decision Framework 226 Why Do Managers Make Bad Decisions? 227 Innovative Group Decision Making 228 Manager’s Shoptalk: Evidence-Based Management 229

Start with Brainstorming 229 Engage in Rigorous Debate 230 | Avoid Groupthink 230 | Know When to Bail 231

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 231 Discussion Questions 232 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 232 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 233 Case for Critical Analysis 234 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 235 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 236 Endnotes 237 Continuing Case 240

9 Designing Adaptive Organizations 242 What Are Your Leadership Beliefs? 243 Organizing the Vertical Structure 244

Work Specialization 244 | Chain of Command 245 | Span of Management 247

Manager’s Shoptalk: How to Delegate 248 Centralization and Decentralization 250

Departmentalization 250 Vertical Functional Approach 252 | Divisional Approach 252 | Matrix Approach 254 | Team

Part 4 ORGANIZING

CONTENTS

xxvi

Approach 255 | The Virtual Network Approach 256 | Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Structure 258

Organizing for Horizontal Coordination 260 The Need for Coordination 260 | Task Forces, Teams, and Project Management 262 Reengineering 263

Struc ture Follows Strategy 264 New Manager Self-Test: Authority Role Models 266 A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 268 Discussion Questions 268 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 269 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 270 Case for Critical Analysis 270 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 272 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 272 Endnotes 273

10 Managing Change and Innovation 276 Are You Innovative? 277 Innovation and the Changing Workplace 278 Changing Things: New Products and Technologies 279

Exploration 279 | Cooperation 281 Entrepreneurship 284

New Manager Self-Test: Taking Charge of Change 286 Changing People and Culture 287

Training and Development 287 | Organization Development 287

Implementing Change 291 Need for Change 291 | Resistance to Change 291

Manager’s Shoptalk: Making Change Stick 292 Force-Field Analysis 293 | Implementation Tactics 294

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 296 Discussion Questions 296 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 297 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 298 Case for Critical Analysis 299 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 300 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 301 Endnotes 301

11 Managing Human Resources 306 Getting the Right People on the Bus 307 The Strategic Role of HRM Is to Drive Organizational Performance 308

The Strategic Approach 308 | Building Human Capital to Drive Performance 309 | Globalization 311

The Impac t of Federal Legislation on HRM 311 New Manager Self-Test: What Is Your HR Work Orientation? 313 The Changing Nature of Careers 314

The Changing Social Contract 314 | Innovations in HRM 315

Finding the Right People 316 Human Resource Planning 317 | Recruiting 318 Selecting 321

Manager’s Shoptalk: What Makes a Good Interview Go Bad? 323 Managing Talent 324

Training and Development 324 | Performance Appraisal 326

Maintaining an Effective Workforce 329 Compensation 329 | Benefi ts 330 Termination 330

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 331 Discussion Questions 332 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 332 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 333 Case for Critical Analysis 334 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 335 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 336 Endnotes 336

12 Managing Diversity 340 Do You Know Your Biases? 341 The Changing Workplace 342

Diversity in the United States 343 | Diversity on a Global Scale 345

Manager’s Shoptalk: A Guide for Expatriate Managers in America 346 Managing Diversity 346

What Is Diversity? 346 | Dividends of Workplace Diversity 348

Factors Shaping Personal Bias 350 Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotypes 350 | Ethnocentrism 352

Factors Affecting Women’s Careers 353 Glass Ceiling 353 | Opt-Out Trend 354

New Manager’s Self-Test: Are You Tuned Into Gender Differences? 355

The Female Advantage 356 Cultural Competence 356 Diversity Initiatives and Programs 358

Changing Structures and Policies 358 | Expanding Recruitment Efforts 358 | Establishing Mentor Relationships 358 | Accommodating Special Needs 360 | Providing Diversity Skills Training 360 | Increasing Awareness of Sexual Harassment 361

New Diversity Initiatives 362 Multicultural Teams 362 | Employee Network Groups 362

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 363 Discussion Questions 364 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 365 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 366 Case for Critical Analysis 367 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 368 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 369 Endnotes 370 Continuing Case 374

CONTENTS

xxvii

13 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations 376 Are You Self-Confi dent? 377 Organizational Behavior 378 Attitudes 378

Components of Attitudes 379 | High-Performance Work Attitudes 380 | Confl icts Among Attitudes 382

Perception 382 Perceptual Selectivity 383 | Perceptual Distortions 384 | Attributions 384

Personality and Behavior 385 Personality Traits 386 | Emotional Intelligence 388 | Attitudes and Behaviors Infl uenced by Personality 388

New Manager Self-Test: What’s Your EQ? 389 Manager’s Shoptalk: Bridging the Personality Gap 390

Person–Job Fit 393 Learning 394

The Learning Process 394 | Learning Styles 395 Stress and Stress Management 396

Type A and Type B Behavior 397 | Causes of Work Stress 397 | Innovative Responses to Stress Management 398

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 399 Discussion Questions 400 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 400 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 403 Case for Critical Analysis 403 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 405 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 405 Endnotes 406

14 Leadership 408 What’s Your Personal Style? 409 The Nature of Leadership 410 Contemporary Leadership 410

Level 5 Leadership 411 | Interactive Leadership 412

New Manager Self-Test: Interpersonal Patterns 413 From Management to Leadership 414 Leadership Traits 415 Behavioral Approaches 415

Ohio State Studies 416 | Michigan Studies 416 The Leadership Grid 417

Contingency Approaches 418 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory 418 | Fiedler’s Contingency Theory 419 | Matching Leader Style to the Situation 420 | Substitutes for Leadership 421

Charismatic and Transformational Leadership 422 Charismatic and Visionary Leadership 422

Manager’s Shoptalk: Are You a Charismatic Leader? 423

Transformational Versus Transactional Leadership 424 Followership 424 Power and Infl uence 426

Position Power 426 | Personal Power 427 | Other Sources of Power 427 | Interpersonal Infl uence Tactics 428

Leadership as Service 429 Servant Leadership 429 | Moral Leadership 430

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 431 Discussion Questions 432 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 432 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 433 Case for Critical Analysis 434 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 435 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 436 Endnotes 437

15 Motivating Employees 440 Are You Engaged or Disengaged? 441 The Concept of Motivation 442 Content Perspectives on Motivation 443

The Hierarchy of Needs 443 | ERG Theory 445 | A Two-Factor Approach to Motivation 446 | Acquired Needs 447

Process Perspectives on Motivation 448 Goal-Setting 448 | Equity Theory 449 | Expectancy Theory 450

New Manager Self-Test: Your Approach to Motivating Others 452 Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation 452 Job Design for Motivation 454

Job Simplifi cation 454 | Job Rotation 455 Manager’s Shoptalk: The Carrot-and-Stick Controversy 455

Job Enlargement 456 | Job Enrichment 456 | Job Characteristics Model 457

Innovative Ideas for Motivating 458 Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs 459 Giving Meaning to Work Through Engagement 460

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 462 Discussion Questions 463 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 463 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 464 Case for Critical Analysis 465 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 466 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 467 Endnotes 468

Part 5 LEADING

CONTENTS

xxviii

16 Managing Communication 470 Are You Building a Personal Network? 471 Communication Is the Manager’s Job 472

What Is Communication? 473 | The Communication Process 474

Communicating Among People 475 Manager’s Shoptalk: Breaking Down Language Barriers 475

Communication Channels 476 | Communicating to Persuade and Infl uence Others 478 | Gender Differences in Communication 479 | Nonverbal Communication 480 | Listening 480

New Manager Self-Test: What Is Your Social Disposition? 482 Organizational Communication 483

Formal Communication Channels 483 | Team Communication Channels 486 | Personal Communication Channels 487

Innovations in Organizational Communication 489 Dialogue 489 | Crisis Communication 490 | Feedback and Learning 491 | Climate of Trust and Openness 492

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 492 Discussion Questions 493 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 494 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 495 Case for Critical Analysis 496 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 497 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 498 Endnotes 499

17 Leading Teams 502 How Do You Like to Work? 503 Why Teams at Work? 504

What Is a Team? 504 | The Dilemma of Teams 505

How to Make Teams Effective 506 Model of Team Effectiveness 506 | Effective Team Leadership 507

Types of Teams 507 Formal Teams 507 | Self-Directed Teams 508

Innovative Uses of Teams 509 Virtual Teams 509 | Global Teams 511

Team Characteristics 512 Size 512 | Diversity 512 | Member Roles 513

Team Processes 513 Stages of Team Development 514 | Team Cohesiveness 516 | Team Norms 517

Managing Team Confl ict 517 Balancing Confl ict and Cooperation 518 | Causes of Confl ict 519 | Styles to Handle Confl ict 519 Negotiation 520

New Manager Self-Test: Managing Confl ict 522 Work Team Effectiveness 522

Productive Output 523 | Satisfaction of Members 523 | Capacity to Adapt and Learn 523

Manager’s Shoptalk: How to Run a Great Meeting 524 A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 525 Discussion Questions 525 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 526 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 526 Case for Critical Analysis 527 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 529 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 530 Endnotes 531 Continuing Case 534

18 Managing Quality and Performance 536 What Is Your Attitude Toward Organizational Regulation and Control? 537 The Meaning of Control 538 Manager’s Shoptalk: Cyberslackers Beware: The Boss Is Watching 539

Choosing Standards and Measures 539 The Balanced Scorecard 540

Feedback Control Model 541 Steps of Feedback Control 541 | Application to Budgeting 544

Financial Control 546 Financial Statements 546 | Financial Analysis: Interpreting the Numbers 547

The Changing Philosophy of Control 548 Hierarchical versus Decentralized Approaches 548 | Open-Book Management 550

New Manager Self-Test: What Is Your Control Approach? 551 Total Quality Management 552

TQM Techniques 553 | TQM Success Factors 556

Trends in Quality and Financial Control 557 International Quality Standards 557 | New Financial Control Systems 557

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 559 Discussion Questions 560

Part 6 CONTROLLING

CONTENTS

xxix

Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 561 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 561 Case for Critical Analysis 562 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 564 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 565 Endnotes 565

19 Managing the Value Chain, Information Technology, and E-Business 568 Which Side of Your Brain Do You Use? 569 The Organization As a Value Chain 570

Manufacturing and Service Operations 571 | Supply Chain Management 572

Facilities Layout 573 Process Layout 573

New Manager Self-Test: Political Skills 574 Product Layout 574 | Cellular Layout 576 | Fixed-Position Layout 576

Technology Automation 576 Radio-Frequency Identifi cation (RFID) 577 | Flexible Manufacturing Systems 577 | Lean Manufacturing 578

Inventory Management 578 The Importance of Inventory 579 | Just-in-Time Inventory 579

Information Technology Has Transformed Management 580

Boundaries Dissolve; Collaboration Reigns 580 | Knowledge Management 580 | Management Information Systems 581 | Enterprise Resource Planning Systems 582

Manager’s Shoptalk: Putting Performance Dashboards to Work 583 A New Generation of Information Technology 585 The Internet and E-Business 586

E-Business Strategy: Market Expansion 588 | E-Business Strategy: Increasing Effi ciency 589

A Manager’s Essentials: What Have We Learned? 589 Discussion Questions 590 Management in Practice: Experiential Exercise 591 Management in Practice: Ethical Dilemma 591 Case for Critical Analysis 592 ON THE JOB VIDEO CASE 593 BIZ FLIX VIDEO CASE 594 Endnotes 595 Continuing Case 598

Appendix A: Managing Small Business Start-Ups 601 Glossary 625 Name Index 639 Company Index 653 Subject Index 657

CONTENTS

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Management RICHARD L. DAFT

Vanderb i l t Un i ve r s i t y

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e After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the four management functions and the type of management

activity associated with each.

2. Explain the difference between effi ciency and effectiveness and their importance for organizational performance.

3. Describe conceptual, human, and technical skills and their relevance for managers.

4. Describe management types and the horizontal and vertical differences between them.

5. Defi ne ten roles that managers perform in organizations.

6. Appreciate the manager’s role in small businesses and nonprofi t organizations.

7. Understand the personal challenges involved in becoming a new manager.

8. Discuss characteristics of the new workplace and the new management competencies needed to deal with today’s turbulent environment.

Are You Ready to Be a Manager? Why Innovation Matters The Defi nition of Management The Four Management Functions

Planning Organizing Leading Controlling

Organizational Performance Management Skills

Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical Skills When Skills Fail

Management Types Vertical Differences Horizontal Differences

What Is It Like to Be a Manager? Making the Leap: Becoming a

New Manager New Manager Self-Test: Manager

Achievement Manager Activities Manager Roles

Managing in Small Businesses and Nonprofi t Organizations

Management and the New Workplace New Workplace Characteristics New Management Competencies

3

Innovative Management for Turbulent Times

C ontrolling

6

P lanning

3

Environm ent

2

4O rganizing

5Leading Introduction

1

ARE YOU READY TO BE A MANAGER?1

Welcome to the world of management. Are you ready for it? This questionnaire will help you see whether your pri- orities align with the demands placed on today’s manag- ers. Rate each of the following items based on what you think is the appropriate emphasis for that task to your success as a new manager of a department. Your task is to rate the top four priority items as “High Priority” and the other four as “Low Prioity.” You will have four of the items rated high and four rated low.

High Priority

Low Priority

1. Spend 50 percent or more of your time in the care and feeding of people.

2. Make sure people understand that you are in control of the department.

3. Use lunches to meet and network with peers in other departments.

4. Implement the changes you believe will improve department performance.

5. Spend as much time as possible talking with and listening to subordinates.

6. Make sure jobs get out on time.

7. Reach out to your boss to discuss his expectations for you and your department.

8. Make sure you set clear expec- tations and policies for your department.

SCORING & INTERPRETATION: All eight items in the list may be important, but the odd-numbered items are considered more important than the even-numbered items for long-term success as a manager. If you checked three or four of the odd-numbered items, consider your- self ready for a management position. A successful new manager discovers that a lot of time has to be spent in the care and feeding of people, including direct reports and colleagues. People who fail in new management jobs often do so because they have poor working relationships or they misjudge management philosophy or cultural values. Developing good relationships in all directions is typically more important than holding on to old work skills or emphasizing control and task outcomes. Success- ful outcomes typically will occur when relationships are solid. After a year or so in a managerial role, successful people learn that more than half their time is spent net- working and building relationships.

Categories
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cell structure and function answer key

This contains 100% correct material for UMUC Biology 103 LAB03. However, this is an Answer Key, which means, you should put it in your own words. Here is a sample for the Pre lab questions answered:

Pre-Lab Questions

1. Identify the major similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (2 pts)

Prokaryotes tend to be less complex than eukaryotic cells, with fewer organelles and (generally) fewer requirements for survival. Eukaryotes have a nucleus, while prokaryotes do not. Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have DNA, a cell membrane, and cytoplasm.

2. Where is the DNA housed in a prokaryotic cell? Where is it housed in a eukaryotic cell? (2 pts)

DNA is housed in the nucleus in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, and thus DNA exists freely in the cytoplasm.

3. Identify three structures which provide support and protection in a eukaryotic cell. (2 pts)

The cell membrane, the cytoplasm, and the cytoskeleton (microtubules, microfilaments, etc.).

The rest of the questions are answered as well:


Experiment 1: Cell Structure and Function

Post-Lab Questions

1.    Label each of the arrows in the following slide image:

2.    What is the difference between the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

3.    Would an animal cell be able to survive without a mitochondria? Why or why not?

4.    What could you determine about a specimen if you observed a slide image showing the specimen with a cell wall, but no nucleus or mitochondria?

5.    Hypothesize why parts of a plant, such as the leaves, are green, but other parts, such as the roots, are not. Use scientific reasoning to support your hypothesis.

Experiment 2: Osmosis – Direction and Concentration Gradients

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

Table 3: Sucrose Concentration vs. Tubing Permeability

Band ColorSucrose %Initial Volume (mL)Final Volume (mL)Net Displacement (mL)
Yellow    
Red    
Blue    
Green    

Hypothesis:

Post-Lab Questions

1.    For each of the tubing pieces, identify whether the solution inside was hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic in comparison to the beaker solution in which it was placed.

2.    Which tubing increased the most in volume? Explain why this happened.

3.    What do the results of this experiment this tell you about the relative tonicity between the contents of the tubing and the solution in the beaker?

4.    What would happen if the tubing with the yellow band was placed in a beaker of distilled water?

5.    How are excess salts that accumulate in cells transferred to the blood stream so they can be removed from the body? Be sure to explain how this process works in terms of tonicity.

6.    If you wanted water to flow out of a tubing piece filled with a 50% solution, what would the minimum concentration of the beaker solution need to be? Explain your answer using scientific evidence.

7.    How is this experiment similar to the way a cell membrane works in the body? How is it different? Be specific with your response.

Categories
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to start a new line in a cell, press the ____ keys.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

1

Chapter 10: Patterns of Inheritance, Mendel Laws

Multiple-Choice Questions

2) Which of the following statements best represents the theory of pangenesis developed by Hippocrates? A) Pregnancy is a spontaneous event, and the characteristics of the offspring are determined by the gods. B) Particles called pangenes, which originate in each part of an organism’s body, collect in the sperm or eggs and are passed on to the next generation. C) Offspring inherit the traits of either the mother or the father, but not both. D) Fertilization of plants is dependent on an animal. E) Heritable traits are influenced by the environment and the behaviors of the parents. 3) Which of the following statements regarding hypotheses about inheritance is false? A) The theory of pangenesis incorrectly suggests that reproductive cells receive particles from somatic cells. B) Contrary to the theory of pangenesis, somatic cells do not influence eggs or sperm. C) The blending hypothesis does not explain how traits that disappear in one generation can reappear in later generations. D) The blending hypothesis suggests that all of the traits of the offspring come from either the mother or the father. E) Aristotle suggested that inheritance is the potential to produce body features. 4) Mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on A) peas. B) roses. C) guinea pigs. D) fruit flies. E) clones. 5) Varieties of plants in which self-fertilization produces offspring that are identical to the parents are referred to as A) hybrids. B) the F2 generation. C) monohybrid crosses. D) independent crosses. E) true-breeding. 6) Which of the following statements regarding cross-breeding and hybridization is false? A) The offspring of two different varieties are called hybrids. B) Hybridization is also called a cross. C) The parental plants of a cross are the P generation. D) The hybrid offspring of a cross are the P1 generation. E) The hybrid offspring of an F1 cross are the F2 generation. 7) A monohybrid cross is A) the second generation of a self-fertilized plant. B) a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties have only one trait in common. C) a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one character. D) a triploid plant that results from breeding two very different plants. E) a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties have only one prominent trait. 8) Which of the following statements regarding genotypes and phenotypes is false? A) The genetic makeup of an organism constitutes its genotype. B) An organism with two different alleles for a single trait is said to be heterozygous for that trait. C) Alleles are alternate forms of a gene. D) An allele that is fully expressed is referred to as recessive. E) The expressed physical traits of an organism are called its phenotype.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

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9) Research since Mendel’s time has established that the law of the segregation of genes during gamete formation A) applies to all forms of life. B) applies to all sexually reproducing organisms. C) applies to all asexually reproducing organisms. D) applies only to unicellular organisms. E) is invalid. 10) All the offspring of a cross between a black-eyed mendelien and an orange-eyed mendelien have black eyes. This means that the allele for black eyes is ________ the allele for orange eyes. A) codominant to B) recessive to C) more aggressive than D) dominant to E) better than 11) All the offspring of a cross between a black-eyed mendelien and an orange-eyed mendelien have black eyes. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a cross between two orange-eyed mendeliens? A) 3 black-eyed:1 orange-eyed B) 0 black-eyed:1 orange-eyed C) 1 black-eyed:3 orange-eyed D) 1 black-eyed:0 orange-eyed E) 1 black-eyed:1 orange-eyed 12) The alleles of a gene are found at ________ chromosomes. A) the same locus on homologous mitochondrial B) the same locus on heterologous C) different loci on homologous D) different loci on heterologous E) the same locus on homologous 13) The phenotypic ratio resulting from a dihybrid cross showing independent assortment is expected to be A) 1:2:1. B) 3:1. C) 9:1:1:3. D) 3:9:9:1. E) 9:3:3:1. 14) If A is dominant to a and B is dominant to b, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of the cross: AaBb × AaBb? A) 16:0:0:0 B) 8:4:2:2 C) 4:4:4:4 D) 1:1:1:1 E) 9:3:3:1 15) Mendel’s law of independent assortment states that A) chromosomes sort independently of each other during mitosis and meiosis. B) genes sort independently of each other in animals but not in plants. C) independent sorting of genes produces polyploid plants under some circumstances. D) each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation. E) genes are sorted concurrently during gamete formation. 16) Imagine that we mate two black Labrador dogs with normal vision and find that three of the puppies are like the parents, but one puppy is chocolate with normal vision and another is black with PRA (progressive retinal atrophy, a serious disease of vision).

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We can conclude that A) both of the parents are homozygous for both traits. B) one of the parents is homozygous for both traits. C) the same alleles that control coat color can also cause PRA. D) the alleles for color and vision segregate independently during gamete formation. E) the alleles for color and vision segregate dependently during gamete formation. 17) A testcross is A) a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait of interest. B) a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual heterozygous for the trait of interest. C) a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous dominant for the trait of interest. D) a mating between two individuals heterozygous for the trait of interest. E) a mating between two individuals of unknown genotype. 18) Using a six-sided die, what is the probability of rolling either a 5 or a 6? A) 1/6 × 1/6 = 1/36 B) 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/3 C) 1/6 + 1/6 = 2/3 D) 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/12 E) 1/6 19) Assuming that the probability of having a female child is 50% and the probability of having a male child is also 50%, what is the probability that a couple’s first-born child will be female and that their second-born child will be male? A) 20% B) 25% C) 50% D) 75% E) 100% 20) A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be ________ to transmit it to offspring. A) heterozygous for the trait and able B) heterozygous for the trait and unable C) homozygous for the trait and able D) homozygous for the trait and unable E) heterozygous for the trait and unlikely 21) Dr. Smith’s parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith’s parents could have which of the following genotypes? A) DD and dd B) dd and dd C) Dd and Dd D) DD and DD E) Dd and DD 22) Most genetic disorders of humans are caused by A) multiple alleles. B) recessive alleles. C) drinking during pregnancy. D) a mutation that occurs in the egg, sperm, or zygote. E) dominant alleles.

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23) The vast majority of people afflicted with recessive disorders are born to parents who were A) both affected by the disease. B) not affected at all by the disease. C) slightly affected by the disease, showing some but not all of the symptoms. D) subjected to some environmental toxin that caused the disease in their children. E) affected by the disease but had subclinical symptoms. 24) Which of the following statements best explains why dominant alleles that cause lethal disorders are less common than recessive alleles that cause lethal disorders? A) Lethal disorders caused by dominant alleles are usually more severe than lethal disorders caused by recessive alleles. B) Unlike lethal disorders caused by recessive alleles, lethal disorders caused by dominant alleles usually cause the death of the embryo. C) Most individuals carrying a lethal dominant allele have the disorder and die before they reproduce, whereas individuals carrying a lethal recessive allele are more likely to be healthy and reproduce. D) The presence of a lethal dominant allele causes sterility. E) Many lethal recessive alleles cause enhanced disease resistance when they are present in the heterozygous state, and carriers of these alleles have more children, on average, than other people. 25) Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling allow for ________ and ________ of the fetus so that it can be tested for abnormalities. A) imaging . . . biochemical testing B) imaging . . . karyotyping C) sexing . . . imaging D) karyotyping . . . biochemical testing E) direct observation . . . biochemical testing 26) Which of the following statements regarding prenatal testing is false? A) Results from chorionic villus sampling come faster than from amniocentesis. B) Chorionic villus sampling is typically performed later in the pregnancy than amniocentesis. C) Ultrasound imaging has no known risk. D) The complication rate for chorionic villus sampling is about 2% and for amniocentesis is about 1%. E) Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis are usually reserved for pregnancies with higher than usual risks of complications. 27) Which of the following statements regarding genetic testing is false? A) Genetic testing before birth requires the collection of fetal cells. B) Carrier testing helps determine if a person carries a potentially harmful disorder. C) Most children with recessive disorders are born to healthy parents. D) The screening of newborns can catch inherited disorders right after birth. E) Most human genetic diseases are treatable if caught early. 28) For most sexually reproducing organisms, Mendel’s laws A) cannot strictly account for most patterns of inheritance. B) explain the reasons why certain genes are dominant. C) help us understand the global geographic patterns of genetic disease. D) indicate if a particular genotype will cause a certain phenotype. E) clarify the phenomenon of incomplete dominance. 29) Which of the following statements is false? A) Incomplete dominance supports the blending hypothesis. B) Heterozygotes for hypercholesterolemia have blood cholesterols about twice normal. C) The four blood types result from various combinations of the three different ABO alleles. D) ABO blood groups can provide evidence of paternity. E) The impact of a single gene on more than one character is called pleiotropy.

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30) All the offspring of a cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant have pink flowers. This means that the allele for red flowers is ________ to the allele for white flowers. A) dominant B) codominant C) pleiotropic D) incompletely dominant E) recessive 31) Imagine that beak color in a finch species is controlled by a single gene. You mate a finch homozygous for orange (pigmented) beak with a finch homozygous for ivory (unpigmented) beak and get numerous offspring, all of which have a pale, ivory-orange beak. This pattern of color expression is most likely to be an example of A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance. E) crossing over. 32) Which of the following is an example of incomplete dominance in humans? A) sickle-cell disease B) hypercholesterolemia C) skin color D) ABO blood groups E) phenylketonuria 33) The expression of both alleles for a trait in a heterozygous individual illustrates A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance. E) blending inheritance. 34) A person with AB blood illustrates the principle of A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance. E) blending inheritance. 35) Which of the following statements regarding sickle-cell disease is false? A) Sickle-cell disease is common in tropical Africa. B) Persons who are heterozygous for sickle-cell disease are also resistant to malaria. C) Sickle-cell disease causes white blood cells to be sickle-shaped. D) All of the symptoms of sickle-cell disease result from the actions of just one allele. E) About one in ten African-Americans is a carrier of sickle-cell disease. 36) Sickle-cell disease is an example of A) codominance and pleiotropy. B) codominance and blended inheritance. C) multiple alleles, pleiotropy, and blended inheritance. D) codominance and multiple alleles. E) multiple alleles and pleiotropy.

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37) Which of the following terms refers to a situation where a single phenotypic character is determined by the additive effects of two or more genes? A) incomplete dominance B) codominance C) pleiotropy D) polygenic inheritance E) blending inheritance 38) Which of the following is essentially the opposite of pleiotropy? A) incomplete dominance B) codominance C) multiple alleles D) polygenic inheritance E) blending inheritance 39) The individual features of all organisms are the result of A) genetics. B) the environment. C) genetics and cytoplasmic determinants. D) the environment and individual needs. E) genetics and the environment. 40) The chromosome theory of inheritance states that A) chromosomes that exhibit mutations are the source of genetic variation. B) the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for patterns of inheritance. C) the behavior of chromosomes during mitosis accounts for inheritance patterns. D) humans have 46 chromosomes. E) the inheritance pattern of humans is predetermined from chromosomes. 41) Genes located close together on the same chromosomes are referred to as ________ genes and generally ________. A) associated . . . sort independently during meiosis B) linked . . . sort independently during meiosis C) homologous . . . are inherited together D) linked . . . do not sort independently during meiosis E) codependent . . . do not sort independently during meiosis 42) Linked genes generally A) follow the laws of independent assortment. B) do not follow the laws of independent assortment. C) show incomplete dominance. D) reflect a pattern of codominance. E) show pleiotropy. 43) You conduct a dihybrid cross and then testcross the generation. A ________ ratio would make you suspect that the genes are linked. A) 3:1 B) 1:2:1 C) 1:1:1:1 D) 7:7:1:1 E) 9:3:3:1

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44) Crossing over ________ genes into assortments of ________ not found in the parents. A) recombines unlinked . . . genes B) recombines linked . . . alleles C) combines unlinked . . . alleles D) combines linked . . . genes E) recombines unlinked . . . chromosomes 45) The mechanism that “breaks” the linkage between linked genes is A) incomplete dominance. B) pleiotropy. C) codominance. D) independent assortment. E) crossing over. 46) Which of the following kinds of data could be used to map the relative position of three genes on a chromosome? A) the frequencies with which the genes exhibit incomplete dominance over each other B) the frequencies of mutations in the genes C) the frequencies with which the genes are inherited from the mother and from the father D) the frequencies with which the genes are heterozygous E) the frequencies with which the corresponding traits occur together in offspring 47) What is the normal complement of sex chromosomes in a human male? A) two X chromosomes B) two Y chromosomes C) two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome D) one X chromosome and one Y chromosome E) one Y chromosome 48) The sex chromosome complement of a normal human male is A) XO. B) XX. C) XY. D) YY. E) YO. 49) How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete? A) one B) two C) three D) four E) five 50) How is sex determined in most ants and bees? A) by the X-Y system B) by the Z-W system C) by the number of chromosomes D) by the size of the sex chromosome E) by the X-O system

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 11

Molecular Biology of the Gene

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Chapter 11: Molecular Biology of the Gene Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following statements regarding viruses is false? A) A virus is generally considered to be alive because it is cellular and can reproduce on its own. B) The host cell provides most of the tools and raw materials for viral multiplication. C) Once a person is infected with the herpes virus, the virus remains permanently latent in the body. D) Viruses can enter a host cell when the protein molecules on the outside of the virus fit into receptor molecules on the outside of the cell. E) Herpesviruses and the virus that causes AIDS can remain latent inside our cells for long periods of time. 2) Which of the following people conducted the experiments that demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophages? A) Watson and Crick B) Hershey and Chase C) Franklin D) Griffith E) Pauling 3) One type of virus that infects bacteria is called a A) phage. B) mage. C) rhinovirus. D) filovirus. E) coronavirus. 4) When a T2 bacteriophage infects an Escherichia coli cell, which part of the phage enters the bacterial cytoplasm? A) the whole phage B) only the RNA C) only the DNA D) the protein “headpiece” and its enclosed nucleic acid E) the tail fibers 5) The way that genetic material of a bacteriophage enters a bacterium is most like the way that A) a drug is injected with a hypodermic needle. B) a person swallows a pill. C) skin lotion is rubbed onto the hands. D) sugar dissolves in water. E) water soaks into a sponge. 6) The monomers of DNA and RNA are A) amino acids. B) monosaccharides. C) nucleotides. D) fatty acids. E) nucleic acids. 7) Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false? A) DNA uses the sugar deoxyribose. B) DNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil. C) DNA is a nucleic acid. D) One DNA molecule can include four different nucleotides in its structure. E) DNA molecules have a sugar-phosphate backbone.

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Molecular Biology of the Gene

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8) Which of the following statements regarding RNA is false? A) RNA uses the sugar dextrose. B) RNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil. C) RNA is a nucleic acid. D) One RNA molecule can include four different nucleotides in its structure. E) RNA molecules have a sugar-phosphate backbone. 9) Which of the following statements regarding the structure of DNA is false? A) The DNA molecule has a uniform diameter. B) In a DNA molecule, adenine bonds to thymine and guanine to cytosine. C) The DNA molecule is in the form of a double helix. D) Watson and Crick received a Nobel Prize for their description of the structure of DNA. E) The sequence of nucleotides along the length of a DNA strand is restricted by the base-pairing rules. 10) How would the shape of a DNA molecule change if adenine paired with guanine and cytosine paired with thymine? A) The DNA molecule would be longer. B) The DNA molecule would be shorter. C) The DNA molecule would be circular. D) The DNA molecule would have regions where no base-pairing would occur. E) The DNA molecule would have irregular widths along its length. 11) The shape of a DNA molecule is most like A) a set of railroad tracks. B) a diamond ring. C) a twisted rope ladder. D) a gold necklace. E) the letter X. 12) Which of the following statements regarding a DNA double helix is always true? A) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of uracil, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine. B) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of uracil. C) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of guanine, and the amount of thymine is equal to the amount of cytosine. D) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of cytosine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of thymine. E) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine. 13) DNA replication A) occurs through the addition of nucleotides to the end of the DNA molecule. B) results in the formation of four new DNA strands. C) produces two daughter DNA molecules that are complementary to each other. D) uses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand. E) begins when two DNA molecules join together to exchange segments. 14) If one strand of DNA is CGGTAC, the corresponding strand would be A) GCCTAG. B) CGGTAC. C) GCCAUC. D) TAACGT. E) GCCATG.

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Molecular Biology of the Gene

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15) The copying mechanism of DNA is most like A) using a photographic negative to make a positive image. B) mixing flour, sugar, and water to make bread dough. C) joining together links to make a chain. D) carving a figure out of wood. E) threading beads onto a string. 16) When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains A) none of the parent DNA. B) 25% of the parent DNA. C) 50% of the parent DNA. D) 75% of the parent DNA. E) 100% of the parent DNA 17) Multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells serve to A) remove errors in DNA replication. B) create multiple copies of the DNA molecule at the same time. C) shorten the time necessary for DNA replication. D) reduce the number of “bubbles” that occur in the DNA molecule during replication. E) assure the correct orientation of the two strands in the newly growing double helix. 18) Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA strand? A) helicase B) primase C) ligase D) single-stranded binding protein E) DNA polymerase 19) Why does a DNA strand grow only in the 5′ to 3′ direction? A) because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 3′ end of the growing molecule B) because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 5′ end of the growing molecule C) because mRNA can only read a DNA molecule in the 5′ to 3′ direction D) because the DNA molecule only unwinds in the 5′ to 3′ direction E) because DNA polymerase requires the addition of a starter nucleotide at the 5′ end 20) Which of the following options best depicts the flow of information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular component? A) RNA → DNA → RNA → protein B) DNA → RNA → protein C) protein → RNA → DNA D) DNA → amino acid → RNA → protein E) DNA → tRNA → mRNA → protein 21) The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called A) translation. B) transcription. C) initiation. D) elongation. E) promotion. 22) The “one gene-one polypeptide” theory states that A) the synthesis of each gene is catalyzed by one specific enzyme. B) the synthesis of each enzyme is catalyzed by one specific gene. C) the function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific polypeptide. D) each polypeptide catalyzes a specific reaction.

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E) the function of each polypeptide is to regulate the synthesis of each corresponding gene. 23) Experiments have demonstrated that the “words” of the genetic code (the units that specify amino acids) are A) single nucleotides. B) two-nucleotide sequences. C) three-nucleotide sequences. D) nucleotide sequences of various lengths. E) enzymes. 24) The directions for each amino acid in a polypeptide are indicated by a codon that consists of ________ nucleotide(s) in an RNA molecule. A) 5 B) 4 C) 3 D) 2 E) 1 25) We would expect that a 15-nucleotide sequence will direct the production of a polypeptide that consists of A) 2 amino acids. B) 3 amino acids. C) 4 amino acids. D) 5 amino acids. E) 6 amino acids. 26) A base substitution mutation in a gene does not always result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this? A) the fact that the mutation affects only the sequence of the protein’s amino acids, so the protein stays the same B) the double-ring structure of adenine and guanine C) a correcting mechanism that is part of the mRNA molecule D) the fact that such mutations are usually accompanied by a complementary deletion E) the fact that some amino acids are specified from more than one codon 27) Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the linking together of RNA nucleotides to form RNA? A) RNA polymerase B) RNA ligase C) a ribozyme D) reverse transcriptase E) tRNA 28) Which of the following occurs when RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter DNA? A) elongation of the growing RNA molecule B) termination of the RNA molecule C) addition of nucleotides to the DNA template D) initiation of a new RNA molecule E) initiation of a new polypeptide chain 29) ________ marks the end of a gene and causes transcription to stop. A) RNA polymerase B) RNA ligase C) A terminator D) Reverse transcriptase E) Methionine

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30) Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells? A) on the plasma membrane B) in the nucleus C) in the cytoplasm D) in chromatophores E) in the cell wall 31) Which of the following statements about eukaryotic RNA is true? A) Introns are added to the RNA. B) Exons are spliced together. C) A small cap of extra nucleotides is added to both ends of the RNA. D) A long tail of extra nucleotides is removed from the 5′ end of the RNA. E) The modified RNA molecule is transported into the nucleus. 32) Which of the following takes place during translation? A) the conversion of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins B) the conversion of genetic information from DNA nucleotides into RNA nucleotides C) the addition of nucleotides to a DNA template D) the conversion of genetic information from the language of proteins to the language of enzymes E) DNA replication 33) Which of the following is a function of tRNA? A) joining to several types of amino acid B) recognizing the appropriate anticodons in mRNA C) transferring nucleotides to rRNA D) helping to translate codons into nucleic acids E) joining to only one specific type of amino acid 34) Which of the following is not needed in order for translation to occur? A) DNA template B) ribosomes C) tRNA D) various enzymes and protein “factors” E) sources of energy, including ATP 35) Which of the following statements about ribosomes is false? A) A ribosome consists of two subunits. B) Subunits of RNA are made of proteins and ribosomal RNA. C) The ribosomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the same in structure and function. D) Each ribosome has two binding sites for tRNA. E) Ribosomes coordinate the functioning of mRNA and tRNA. 36) Which of the following statements is false? A) Translation consists of initiation, elongation, and termination. B) During polypeptide initiation, an mRNA, the first amino acid attached to its tRNA, and the two subunits of a ribosome are brought together. C) An mRNA molecule transcribed from DNA is shorter than the genetic message it carries. D) During the first step of initiation, an mRNA molecule binds to a small ribosomal subunit. E) During the second step of initiation, a large ribosomal subunit binds to a small ribosomal subunit. 37) Which of the following options most accurately lists the sequence of events in translation? A) codon recognition → translocation → peptide bond formation → termination B) peptide bond formation → codon recognition → translocation → termination C) codon recognition → peptide bond formation → translocation → termination

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D) codon recognition → peptide bond formation → termination → translocation E) peptide bond formation → translocation → codon recognition → termination 38) Which of the following statements regarding the flow of genetic information is false? A) Polypeptides form proteins that determine the appearance and function of the cell and organism. B) Eukaryotic mRNA is processed in several ways before export out of the nucleus. C) The codons in a gene specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. D) Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. E) Ribosomes function as factories that coordinate the functioning of mRNA and tRNA. 39) Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called A) a mutation. B) an advantage. C) a codon. D) a translation. E) an anticodon. 40) Consider the following sentence: “The dog did not eat.” Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a base substitution mutation? A) The dog did not et. B) The dog dog did not eat. C) The did dog not eat. D) The doe did not eat. E) The dog did not. 41) Consider the following sentence: “The dog did not eat.” Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a reading frame mutation? A) The dog dog did not eat. B) The did dog not eat. C) The dod idn ote at. D) The did not eat. E) The dog did dog did not eat. 42) A physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a(n) A) reverse transcriptase. B) terminator. C) transposon. D) mutagen. E) anticodon. 43) A protein shell enclosing a viral genome is known as a(n) A) capsule. B) envelope. C) phage. D) capsid. E) prophage. 44) Which of the following features characterizes the lytic cycle of a viral infection? A) The cycle typically ends when the host bacterium divides. B) The cycle typically leads to the lysis of the host cell. C) The viral DNA is inserted into a bacterial chromosome. D) The virus reproduces outside of the host cell. E) The viral genes typically remain inactive once they are inside the host cell.

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45) Which of the following statements is false? A) Some prophage genes can cause the transformation of a nonpathogenic bacterium into a form that causes human disease. B) Sometimes an environmental signal can trigger a switchover from the lysogenic to the lytic cycle. C) The lysogenic cycle always occurs inside of host cells. D) The lysogenic cycle typically results in the rapid lysis of all infected cells. E) During a lysogenic cycle, viral DNA replication typically occurs without destroying the host cell. 46) Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a(n) A) capsid. B) prophage. C) envelope. D) phage. E) genome. 47) The envelope of a flu virus A) helps the virus enter the cell. B) is coded by viral genes. C) helps the virus insert its DNA into the host cell genome. D) changes rapidly, thereby helping the virus evade an immune system response. E) accounts for viral resistance to antibiotics. 48) Which of the following statements about herpesviruses is false? A) Herpesviruses reproduce inside the host cell’s mitochondria. B) Herpesviruses acquire their envelopes from the host cell nuclear membrane. C) Herpesviruses are DNA viruses. D) Herpesviruses may remain latent for long periods of time while inside the host cell nucleus. E) Herpesviruses may cause cold sores or genital sores to appear during times of physical or emotional stress. 49) Which of the following statements about plant viruses is false? A) Once in a plant, a virus can spread from cell to cell through plasmodesmata. B) The genetic material in most plant viruses is RNA. C) Preventing infections and breeding resistant plants can control viral infection in plants. D) To infect a plant, a virus must first get past the plant’s epidermis. E) There are many successful ways to rid infected plants of a virus. 50) Which of the following statements regarding viral diseases is false? A) RNA viruses tend to have an unusually high rate of mutation because their RNA genomes cannot be corrected by proofreading. B) New viral diseases often emerge when a virus infects a new host species. C) Very few new human diseases have originated in other animals because the genetic differences are too great. D) Some new viral diseases arise as a result of a mutation of existing viruses. E) AIDS was around for decades before becoming a widespread epidemic. 51) What will be the most likely cause of a new avian flu pandemic like the 1918-1919 flu pandemic that killed approximately 40 million people worldwide? A) sexual promiscuity B) intravenous drug use and abuse C) easy viral transmission from person to person D) blood transfusions with tainted blood E) increased international travel at affordable rates

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52) What kind of virus is HIV? A) a herpesvirus B) a paramyxovirus C) a retrovirus D) a complex virus E) a provirus 53) Which of the following enzymes does HIV use to synthesize DNA on an RNA template? A) ligase B) RNA polymerase C) terminator enzyme D) reverse transcriptase E) DNA convertase 54) HIV does the greatest damage to A) the adrenal glands. B) pancreatic cells. C) nervous tissue. D) gametes. E) white blood cells. 55) How do viroids harm the plants that are infected with them? A) by increasing the plants’ metabolic rate B) by altering the plants’ growth C) by reducing the plants’ seed production D) by preventing leaf production E) by destroying the root system 56) Which of the following statements about the treatment or prevention for a prion infection is true? A) Antibiotic therapies such as penicillin are very effective cures. B) High doses of anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen reduce the symptoms of prion infections. C) Corticosteroid therapy is the only drug therapy that can reverse the effects of a prion infection. D) Preventative vaccines have recently been shown to be effective in preventing prion infections. E) There is no known treatment or cure for prion infections. 57) In the 1920s, Frederick Griffith conducted an experiment in which he mixed the dead cells of a bacterial strain that can cause pneumonia with live cells of a bacterial strain that cannot. When he cultured the live cells, some of the daughter colonies proved able to cause pneumonia. Which of the following processes of bacterial DNA transfer does this experiment demonstrate? A) transduction B) conjugation C) transformation D) transposition E) crossing over 58) Transduction A) is the direct transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another. B) occurs when a bacterium acquires DNA from the surrounding environment. C) is the result of crossing over. D) occurs when a phage transfers bacterial DNA from one bacterium to another. E) requires DNA polymerase. 59) Conjugation A) is the direct transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another. B) occurs when a bacterium acquires DNA from the surrounding environment.

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Molecular Biology of the Gene

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C) is the result of crossing over. D) occurs when a phage transfers bacterial DNA from one bacterium to another. E) requires DNA polymerase. 60) Conjugation, transformation, and transduction are all ways that bacteria A) reduce their DNA content. B) increase the amount of RNA in the cytoplasm. C) change their ribosomes to eukaryotic ribosomes. D) increase their genetic diversity. E) alter their oxygen requirements. 61) A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus from his computer. Without knowing it, you infect your computer with the virus when you open the email. This process of spreading the computer virus using emails is most like which of the following processes? A) binary fission B) conjugation C) transduction D) transformation E) mitosis 62) When a bacterial cell with a chromosome-borne F factor conjugates with another bacterium, how is the transmitted donor DNA incorporated into the recipient’s genome? A) It is substituted for the equivalent portion of the recipient’s chromosome by the process of crossing over. B) It circularizes and becomes one of the recipient cell’s plasmids. C) The genes on the donor DNA of which the recipient does not have a copy are added to the recipient chromosome; the remainder of the donor DNA is degraded. D) The DNA of the recipient cell replicates, and the donor DNA is added to the end of the recipient DNA. E) The donor and recipient DNA are both chopped into segments by restriction enzymes, and a new, composite chromosome is assembled from the fragments 63) In many bacteria, genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried on A) factors. B) R plasmids. C) dissimilation plasmids. D) transposons. E) exons. 64) Conjugation between a bacterium that lacks an F factor (F-) and a bacterium that has an F factor on its chromosome (F+) would typically produce which of the following results? A) The F- bacterium ends up carrying one or more plasmids from the F+ bacterium; the F+ bacterium is unchanged. B) The F+ bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F- bacterium, and the F- bacterium ends up with an unaltered chromosome. C) The F+ bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F- bacterium, and the F- bacterium ends up with a chromosome that lacks those genes. D) The F- bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F+ bacterium, and the F+ bacterium ends up with an unaltered chromosome. E) The F- bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F+ bacterium, and the F+ bacterium ends up with a chromosome that lacks those genes. 65) A functional F factor that is an R plasmid must contain all of the following elements except A) genes for making sex pili. B) genes for making the enzymes needed for conjugation. C) a site for making the proteins needed for conjugation.

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D) a site where DNA replication can begin. E) genes for enzymes that confer resistance to antibiotics. 66) Which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids? A) nitrogen fixation by genetically engineered plants B) widespread use of childhood vaccination in developing countries C) improper use of restriction enzymes in research and medical facilities D) increased carcinogen exposure from excessive fossil fuel burning E) heavy use of antibiotics in medicine and in agriculture

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 12

Genes are Controlled

1

Chapter 12: How Genes Are Controlled

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Which of the following statements about the problems created by cloning is false? A) Cloned animals are less healthy than animals created by natural methods. B) Cloning does not increase genetic diversity in the cloned species. C) Cloning endangered species may de-emphasize the need to preserve critical natural habitats. D) Cloned animals live longer compared to naturally bred animals. E) Cloning leads to malfunctions in gene regulation. 2) The fact that the nucleus from an adult somatic cell can be used to create all of the cell types in a new organism demonstrates that development depends upon A) the control of gene expression. B) the timing of mitosis and meiosis. C) the timing of meiosis and cell migrations. D) the deposition of materials in the extracellular matrix. E) the position of cells within an embryo. 3) The term “gene expression” refers to the A) fact that each individual of a species has a unique set of genes. B) fact that individuals of the same species have different phenotypes. C) process by which genetic information flows from genes to proteins. D) fact that certain genes are visible as dark stripes on a chromosome. E) flow of information from parent to offspring. 4) A gene operon consists of A) a transcribed gene only. B) a promoter only. C) a regulatory gene only. D) transcribed genes, an operator, and a promoter. E) transcribed genes, a promoter, and a regulatory gene. 5) In a prokaryote, a group of genes with related functions, along with their associated control sequences, defines A) an allele. B) an operon. C) a locus. D) a transposon. E) a chromosome. 6) The lac operon in E. coli A) prevents lactose-utilizing enzymes from being expressed when lactose is absent from the environment. B) coordinates the production of tryptophan-utilizing enzymes when it is present. C) allows the bacterium to resist antibiotics in the penicillin family. D) regulates the rate of binary fission. E) uses activators to initiate the production of enzymes that break down lactose. 7) Proteins that bind to DNA and turn on operons by making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to a promoter are called A) regulators. B) inhibitors. C) operators. D) activators. E) repressors.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 12

Genes are Controlled

2

8) The lac operon of E. coli is ________ when the repressor is bound to lactose. A) active B) inactive C) elongated D) cloned E) unregulated 9) The expression of the tryptophan operon is controlled by A) a repressor that is active when it is alone. B) a repressor that is inactive when it binds to lactose. C) a repressor that is active when it binds to tryptophan. D) an activator that turns the operon on by binding to DNA. E) an activator that permanently deletes genes in the tryptophan operon. 10) Which of the following is likely to occur in E. coli cells that are grown in skim milk? A) The lac operon is shut off and the cells will not produce lactose-utilizing enzymes. B) The trp repressor is activated and the cells will produce lactose-utilizing enzymes. C) The trp operon is turned on but the bacteria will not produce lactose-utilizing enzymes. D) The trp operon and the lac operon are both switched off. E) The trp operon and the lac operon are both switched on. 11) A single cell, the zygote, can develop into an entirely new organism with many different specialized cells. Which of the following statements about this process is false? A) Additional genetic information for the formation of specialized cells is passed on to the developing embryo via the placenta. B) The descendant cells specialize by a process known as cellular differentiation. C) The zygote contains all of the genetic information required for the development of many different cell types. D) Only some of the genes in the zygote are expressed in all of its descendant cells. E) Differentiation of the zygote into a multicellular organism results from selective gene expression. 12) The genes for the enzymes of glycolysis A) are active in all metabolizing cells, but the genes for specialized proteins are expressed only in particular cell types. B) are inactive in all metabolizing cells, but the genes for specialized proteins are expressed in all cell types. C) and the genes for all specialized proteins are expressed in all metabolizing cells. D) and the genes for specialized proteins are expressed in all nonembryonic cell types. E) and the genes for all specialized proteins are expressed in all embryonic cells. 13) Which of the following statements regarding DNA packing is false? A) A nucleosome consists of DNA wound around a protein core of eight histone molecules. B) DNA packing tends to promote gene expression. C) Histones account for about half the mass of eukaryotic chromosomes. D) Highly compacted chromatin is generally not expressed at all. E) Prokaryotes have proteins analogous to histones. 14) The relationship between DNA and chromosomes is most like A) an egg yolk inside of an egg. B) a dozen eggs packaged within an egg carton. C) a spoon cradling some peas. D) thread wrapped around a spool. E) the candy shell surrounding the chocolate in a piece of M & M candy. 15) In female mammals, the inactive X chromosome in each cell A) becomes a nucleotroph corpus. B) can be activated if mutations occur in the active X chromosome.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 12

Genes are Controlled

3

C) is broken down, and its nucleotides are degraded and reused. D) is absorbed and used in energy production. E) becomes a Barr body. 16) The tortoiseshell pattern on a cat A) usually occurs in males. B) is the result of a homozygous recessive condition. C) results from X chromosome inactivation. D) is a result of alleles on the Y chromosome. E) occurs in male cats 25% of the time and in female cats 50% of the time. 17) Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells use ________ to turn certain genes on or off. A) DNA ligase B) RNA transcriptase C) intron segments D) regulatory proteins E) nucleosome packing 18) Enhancers are A) adjacent to the gene that they regulate. B) required to turn on gene expression when transcription factors are in short supply. C) the site on DNA to which activators bind. D) required to facilitate the binding of DNA polymerases. E) the products of transcription factors. 19) Silencers are sites in DNA that A) bind RNA promoters to promote the start of transcription. B) bind enhancers to promote the start of transcription. C) bind repressor proteins to inhibit the start of transcription. D) bind activators to inhibit the start of transcription. E) release mRNA. 20) RNA splicing involves the A) addition of a nucleotide “cap” to the molecule. B) addition of a nucleotide “tail” to the molecule. C) removal of introns from the molecule. D) removal of exons from the molecule. E) addition of introns to the molecule. 21) The coding regions of a gene (the portions that are expressed as polypeptide sequences) are called A) introns. B) exons. C) redundant coding sections. D) proto-oncogenes. E) nucleosomes. 22) Which of the following permits a single gene to code for more than one polypeptide? A) retention of different introns in the final version of the different mRNA strands B) alternative RNA splicing C) protein degradation D) genetic differentiation E) addition of different types of caps and tails to the final version of the mRNA strands

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 12

Genes are Controlled

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23) Small pieces of RNA that can regulate mRNA transcription are called A) microRNA. B) minuteRNA. C) miniRNA. D) monoRNA. E) minorRNA. 24) miRNA can be used by A) researchers to induce the production of more mRNA. B) researchers to stimulate the production of DNA. C) researchers to artificially turn on gene expression. D) viruses to stop the production of new proteins. E) cells to prevent infections from double-stranded RNA viruses. 25) Which of the following statements regarding RNA and proteins is false? A) Some genes are edited before they are translated. B) Some polypeptides are edited to make them functional. C) The length of time that mRNA remains functional in the cytoplasm is quite variable. D) In eukaryotes, the lifetime of a protein is closely regulated. E) In eukaryotes, one gene controls the production of just one functioning protein. 26) All of the following mechanisms are used to regulate protein production except A) controlling the start of polypeptide synthesis. B) protein activation. C) protein breakdown. D) DNA editing. E) the breakdown of mRNA. 27) The textbook authors’ analogy between the regulation of gene expression and the movement of water through pipes includes all of the following except A) the web of control that connects different genes. B) pretranscriptional events. C) post-transcriptional events. D) the editing of RNA. E) the multiple mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated. 28) Which of the following mechanisms of controlling gene expression occurs outside of the nucleus? A) adding a cap and tail to RNA B) transcription C) DNA packing/unpacking D) RNA splicing E) translation 29) Which of the following statements about fruit fly development is false? A) One of the earliest development events is the determination of the head and tail ends of the egg. B) The location of the head and tail ends of the egg is primarily determined by the location of sperm entry during fertilization. C) Cell signaling plays an important role in the development of fruit flies. D) Homeotic genes regulate batteries of other genes that direct the anatomical identity of body parts. E) Cascades of gene expression routinely direct fruit fly development. 30) A homeotic gene A) turns on the genes necessary for synthesis of proteins. B) serves as a master control gene that functions during embryonic development by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 12

Genes are Controlled

5

C) represses gene transcription and promotes mRNA translation. D) produces a product that controls the transcription of other genes. E) is found only in adult somatic cells. 31) Which of the following statements about microarrays is false? A) Microarrays enable scientists to determine the activity of thousands of genes at once. B) Microarrays use tiny portions of double-stranded RNA fragments from a large number of genes. C) Microarrays are used to determine which genes are active in different tissues or in tissues of different states of health. D) Microarrays use fluorescently labeled cDNA molecules to identify particular genes expressed at a particular time. E) Microarrays help scientists understand how genes interact, particularly during embryonic development. 32) Animal development is directed by A) cell receptors that detect transcription factors. B) the availability of certain “key” nutrients as cells divide. C) signal transduction pathways. D) cell-to-cell signaling. E) cell-to-cell signaling and signal transduction pathways. 33) To initiate a signal transduction pathway, a signal binds to a receptor protein usually located in the A) cytosol. B) nucleus. C) plasma membrane. D) ER. E) cytoplasm. 34) Transcription factors attach to A) DNA. B) signal molecules. C) plasma membrane receptors. D) proteins. E) mRNA. 35) A signal outside a cell triggers changes in the transcription and translation inside the cell through the process of A) post-translational editing. B) signal transduction pathways. C) protein activation. D) protein breakdown. E) X chromosome inactivation. 36) The basis of cellular differentiation is A) the operon. B) cellular specialization. C) selective gene expression. D) cloning. E) mutation. 37) Yeast are able to communicate with each other A) by close cell-to-cell contact. B) with signal transduction pathways. C) only if they can touch each other and have merged cell walls. D) with pseudopodia. E) only when a yeast cell has died and released its internal organelles into the external environment.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 12

Genes are Controlled

6

38) Signal transduction pathways A) are found strictly in multicellular organisms for cell-to-cell communication. B) first appeared in animals when primates began to walk upright. C) are limited for use in sexual identification. D) originally evolved in vertebrates. E) are mechanisms of communication that evolved in the ancient prokaryotes. 39) Most differentiated cells retain A) only a tiny fraction of their original set of genes. B) only a tiny fraction of their original set of genes, but can regenerate lost genes as needed. C) a complete set of their genes, but lose the ability to express most of those genes. D) a complete set of their genes, and retain the ability to express those genes under certain circumstances. E) the ability to dedifferentiate, but then cannot return to their original differentiated state. 40) Why can some plants be cloned from a single cell? A) Plant cells do not differentiate even when mature, so any cell can grow into an entire plant. B) Plant cells can dedifferentiate and give rise to all of the specialized cells required to produce an entire plant. C) Plant cells are able to retrieve genes lost to the environment during development. D) Plant cells can produce genes to replace those lost during development. E) Plant cells are capable of self-renewal by utilizing cellular components from adjacent cells . 41) Which of the following processes occurs when a salamander regenerates a lost limb? A) Oncogenes that cause accelerated cell division are turned on. B) Certain cells in the limb dedifferentiate, divide, and then redifferentiate to form a new limb. C) A new salamander develops from the lost limb. D) The homeotic genes of the regenerating cells turn off. E) The cell cycle is arrested and apoptosis begins. 42) The cloning of Dolly the sheep A) demonstrated that the nuclei from differentiated mammalian cells can retain their full genetic potential. B) demonstrated that differentiated cells contain only a fraction of their full genetic potential. C) demonstrated, for the first time, that eggs are haploid and body cells are diploid. D) revealed that cloned mammals most resemble the egg donor. E) revealed that cloned mammals most resemble the sperm donor. 43) Cloning to produce embryonic stem cells is called A) regenerative cloning. B) transplantational cloning. C) reproductive cloning. D) therapeutic cloning. E) dedifferentiation. 44) Which of the following mammals has not yet been cloned and brought through the complete gestation cycle? A) cow B) human C) pig D) dog E) cat 45) Which of the following possible uses of reproductive cloning is still considered by most to be an unresolved ethical issue? A) the production of genetically identical animals for experimentation B) the production of potentially valuable drugs C) the production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans D) the improvement of the quality of farm animals E) the production of genetically identical humans for therapeutic purposes.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 12

Genes are Controlled

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46) Which of the following statements regarding stem cells is false? A) Embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate. B) Embryonic stem cells can give rise to all the different specialized cells in the body. C) Adult, but not embryonic, stem cells can be grown in laboratory culture. D) Adult stem cells are present in adult tissues. E) Adult stem cells are partway along the road to differentiation. 47) Adult stem cells have limited therapeutic potential A) because they are fully differentiated. B) because they lack a complete set of genes. C) due to their excessive numbers in tissues. D) because scientists have no reliable method of identification. E) because their developmental potential is limited to certain tissues. 48) A gene that can cause cancer when present in a single copy in a cell is called a(n) A) oncogene. B) enhancer gene. C) silencer gene. D) carcinogen. E) proto-oncogene. 49) Which of the following statements about proto-oncogenes is false? A) Proto-oncogenes are normal genes with the potential to become oncogenes. B) Many proto-oncogenes code for growth factors. C) A mutation must occur in a cell’s DNA for a proto-oncogene to become an oncogene. D) A mutation in a tumor-suppressor gene can stop cell division immediately. E) One of the earliest clues to understanding cancer was the discovery of a virus that causes cancer in chickens. 50) Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to normal cells becoming cancerous? A) the conversion of a proto-oncogene to an oncogene B) damage to a tumor-suppressor gene C) the acquisition of an oncogene from a virus D) one or more of the cell’s genes being removed by a virus E) excessive replication of proto-oncogenes 51) Cancer of the colon is caused by A) a single gene mutation. B) several somatic cell mutations. C) exposure of colon cells to a mutagen. D) lack of vitamin K. E) the proto-oncogene, lac. 52) The development of colon cancer occurs slowly and is more prominent in the elderly than the young. This is most likely because A) cancer cells don’t have mitochondria, so they grow slowly. B) four or more somatic mutations must occur to give rise to the cancer, which takes time. C) cancer cells suppress the growth of each other in a tissue. D) cancer cells have to wait until new blood vessels grow into the area, which takes much time. E) most cancer mutations interfere with mitosis, so cell division occurs more slowly. 53) Mutations in the proto-oncogenes ras and p53 A) increase protein synthesis by the cell. B) are rarely associated with cancers. C) can improve the chance of avoiding cancer as one ages. D) can enhance further mutations, which can develop into cancer.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 12

Genes are Controlled

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E) disrupt normal regulation of the cell cycle. 54) Mutations in the p53 gene can lead to cancer by A) causing the production of excessive amounts of relay proteins. B) turning off a gene for a protein that inhibits cell division. C) increasing the production of glycogen, which nourishes the cell cycle. D) promoting the expression of mRNA that can interact with DNA, resulting in new mutations. E) increasing the production of growth hormones, which trigger faster cell cycles. 55) The carcinogen known to cause the most cases of cancer is A) plutonium. B) ultraviolet light. C) alcohol. D) salt. E) tobacco. 56) Which of the following statements regarding cancer risk factors is false? A) Factors that alter DNA and make cells cancerous are called carcinogens. B) Mutagens are usually not carcinogens. C) X-rays and ultraviolet radiation are two of the most potent carcinogens. D) Eating 20-30 grams of plant fiber daily and reducing the intake of animal fat can reduce your risk of developing colon cancer. E) Broccoli and cauliflower are thought to be especially rich in substances that help prevent cancer.

  • Chapter 10 Mendel Laws_TestQ11.4.16
  • Chapter 11 Molecular Biology of the gene_TestQ11.16.16
  • Chapter 12 Gene Regulation_TestQ11.23.16
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what is the result of procedural complexity in multiparty negotiations?

what is the result of procedural complexity in multiparty negotiations?
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choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution.

Choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution.

N2O4 and NH4Cl

C6H14 and C10H20

LiBr and C5H12

C6H14 and H2O

None of the pairs above will form a homogeneous solution.

0 0 377
asked by reem
Feb 3, 2016
Like dissolves like.
That is, polar solvents dissolve polar solutes but not non-polar solutes and non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar solutes.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Feb 3, 2016
c6h14 and c10h20

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posted by Anonymous
May 3, 2016

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which of the following is true about the formal amendment process for the constitution

  1. Which of the following is true about the formal amendment process for the Constitution?
    A. Only citizen may propose an amendment.

B. Only Congress may propose an amendment.

C. Both houses of Congress may pass a resolution to propose an amendment.

D. The president can Vito an amendment.

1 0 840
asked by Michael
Sep 12, 2016
I’ll be glad to check your answer.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Sep 12, 2016
C, D, D, B, A, C, D, C, D, B

0 0
posted by Reed
Sep 13, 2016
I failed it, better luck to you.

0 0
posted by Reed
Sep 13, 2016
Reed is correct

0 0
posted by Miss I Love You
Sep 13, 2016

Can confirm that reeds answers are correct.

0 0
posted by Mr.M
Sep 15, 2016
Can also confirm those answers are correct

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Sep 15, 2016
reed is 100% correct just did it got 10/10 thank god

0 0
posted by n1gr
Sep 18, 2016
its right

0 0
posted by noah
Sep 18, 2016
God bless rReed

0 0
posted by Aoba Suzuki
Sep 19, 2016

Reed’s 100% right.

0 0
posted by Aspie
Sep 19, 2016
Lesson 11 unit 2 quiz; Constiutional change and the formal amendment
1.C
2.B
3.D
4.A
5.A
6.C
7.D
8.C
9.D
10.B

0 0
posted by OCA
Sep 20, 2016
^^^OCA was totally correct^^^^
Thanks so much

0 0
posted by BOb
Sep 20, 2016
OCA is correct. 2 is actually B.

0 1
posted by Dread Pirate Roberts
Sep 20, 2016
OCA was correct, but 4 is actually B, Separation of powers, got 9/10 thanks!

0 0
posted by Anon
Sep 21, 2016

Anon is correct about 4 being b

0 0
posted by Anon is correct
Sep 25, 2016
Why was it a problem that congress did not have the power to tax under the Articles of Confederation?
CORRECT ANSWER: D) Congress had to borrow money, which increased the U.S. debt.

0 0
posted by snns
Sep 27, 2016
OCA very wrong

1-c
2-d
3-d
4-b
5-a
6-c
7-d
8-c
9-c
10-b

0 0
posted by Tina
Sep 27, 2016
Thanks Reed❤

0 0
posted by Carol Anne
Sep 28, 2016
OCA was corrct, 2.) is actually B
I just took the quiz, the correct answer is D) Congress had to borrow money, which increased the U.S. debt

0 0
posted by Fait
Sep 29, 2016

Thanks OCA <3

0 0
posted by Fait
Sep 29, 2016
that was suppose to be a heart…

0 0
posted by Fait
Sep 29, 2016
Reed is right! Don’t listen to OCA!

0 0
posted by 100%
Oct 1, 2016
OKAY WTF? I didn’t know which answer to go with so I went with Reed’s, and I got a 7/10 so i’m pissed so here are the REAL answers people..

1) C
2) D
3) D
4) B
5) C
6) C
7) B
8) C
9) D
10) B

Thank me later

0 0
posted by BS
Oct 2, 2016
1) C
2) D
3) D
4) B
5) B
6) C
7) D
8) C
9) D
10) B
THESE ARE THE ACTUAL ANSWERS

0 0
posted by amy
Nov 30, 2016

well I havnt finished the quiz but im sure that 5, what is executive power? is not B or C but A power to enforce laws

0 0
posted by deadshot
Jan 25, 2017
1.) c-both houses…
2.) d-borrow money…
3.) d-supreme court…
4.) b-separation of power
5.) a-enforce laws
6.) c-levying and collecting taxes..
7.) d-national vs state…
8.) c-bill of rights
9.) d-commerce compromise…
10.) b-states and individuals…

for those of u that were as confused as I was. I got a 10/10

0 0
posted by Smart
Jan 30, 2017
Amy is right guys i took OCA’s answers and got an 80… Listen to amy… wel 5 is actually A for me but i think the schools are doing that on purpose for this exact reason Haha

0 0
posted by Melvin
Feb 1, 2017
reed is right got 100%

0 0
posted by mona
Feb 3, 2017
I got Smart’s test and got 100%

0 0
posted by Maddy
Feb 14, 2017

Reed is 100%. Just took it and got 10/10. Thanks Reed

0 0
posted by Jim
Apr 5, 2017
Went with Reed’s answers, got 10/10. checked

0 0
posted by Mel
Jun 16, 2017
reed is correct for 9th grade algebra i got 100%

0 0
posted by kok
Aug 22, 2017
reed is 100% correct 100%

0 0
posted by Serena
Aug 24, 2017
Smarts answers are true I’m serious I just got 100%

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Aug 26, 2017

Thanks reed

0 0
posted by Richard
Aug 28, 2017
reed was right

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Aug 30, 2017
thanks REED he was 100 right

0 0
posted by anonymous
Aug 30, 2017
This is hilarious. We’re all turning on each other. I love it.

0 0
posted by =)
Sep 5, 2017
smart is correct! I got 10/10! Thanks Smart!

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Sep 6, 2017

amy’s is right but 5 is A and i got a 9/10

0 0
posted by Smart Person
Sep 7, 2017
I went with Smarts answers I got 100%

0 0
posted by Someone you probably know
Sep 18, 2017
Smart is 100% right 🙂

0 0
posted by lol
Sep 18, 2017
Stop trolling please -_-

Anyways, don’t be confused, people. I went with smart, and that dud gave me a 10/10 fr. Just do it if you don’t trust me, gosh.

Smart re-post:

1.) c-both houses…
2.) d-borrow money…
3.) d-supreme court…
4.) b-separation of power
5.) a-enforce laws
6.) c-levying and collecting taxes..
7.) d-national vs state…
8.) c-bill of rights
9.) d-commerce compromise…
10.) b-states and individuals…

0 0
posted by Iowa
Sep 20, 2017
*dude

0 0
posted by Iowa
Sep 20, 2017

i just took it and smarts answers gave me a 10/10 fr

0 0
posted by doughboy17
Sep 20, 2017
smart and reed are right

0 0
posted by ernf
Sep 20, 2017
i used smart and got 9/10. this is for lesson 11, unit 2:

  1. C
  2. D
  3. D
  4. B
  5. A
  6. C
  7. D
  8. C
  9. D
    10.B 0 0
    posted by yoongi
    Sep 20, 2017
    Maybe some of us have different quizzes… 0 0
    posted by Bryan
    Sep 21, 2017
    thanks though 0 0
    posted by Bryan
    Sep 21, 2017

smart was correct btw i got a 100%

0 0
posted by chrisssre-smart
Sep 21, 2017
yoongi is also right

0 0
posted by anon08
Sep 22, 2017
Smart is Smart. I followed his instruction and received 10/10

Smart re-post:

1.) c-both houses…
2.) d-borrow money…
3.) d-supreme court…
4.) b-separation of power
5.) a-enforce laws
6.) c-levying and collecting taxes..
7.) d-national vs state…
8.) c-bill of rights
9.) d-commerce compromise…
10.) b-states and individuals…

0 0
posted by Nina
Sep 23, 2017
Thanks amy is correct for connexus acadmey, but 5 Was A lol 🙂

0 0
posted by Fox Girl
Sep 25, 2017
LOL i love you people sometimes

0 0
posted by Lame dude
Sep 26, 2017

reeeeeeeeeed is a genious

0 0
posted by man with the plan
Sep 26, 2017
i just took smarts & got a 10/10. you have to read the answers he put not but the letter choice

0 0
posted by kasey
Sep 26, 2017
Ohhh, i see what went wrong! Everyone got a randomized assessment… Noone was right, type question next to answer to veritify.

0 0
posted by hidden
Sep 26, 2017
Scored 10/10 For Constitutional Change And Formal Amendment Quiz: Here Are The Answers

1.C
2.D
3.D
4.B
5.A
6.C
7.D
8.C
9.D
10.B

0 0
posted by CORRECT ANSWERS
Sep 26, 2017
Ffs guys the answer choices are randomized so you can’t just look at the lettes stop being idiots…

  1. Both houses of Congress…
  2. Congress had to borrow money…
  3. The Supreme Court … settle disputes ..
  4. Separation of powers
  5. Powers to enforce laws
  6. levying and collecting taxes…
  7. national vs. state powers
  8. the Bill of Rights
  9. the Commerce/Slave Trade Compromise
  10. States and individuals… 0 0
    posted by OurGovernmentHasFailed
    Sep 27, 2017

Yo thanks OurGovernmentHasFailed, I got a 10/10. We’re in the same class lmao

0 0
posted by DankMemes
Sep 27, 2017
1.c
2.d
3.d
4.b
5.a
6.c
7.d
8.c
9.d
10.b

0 0
posted by bleh
Oct 20, 2017
reed just made me the happiest person on this website

0 0
posted by rabes
Feb 3, 2018
Smart is CORRECT. I am not a troll, take my word for it

0 0
posted by Anonymouse
Feb 13, 2018
Pocket pussies are great. =)

0 0
posted by Reed
Feb 24, 2018

Lesson 11: Constitutional Change and the Formal Amendment

  1. C
  2. D
  3. D
  4. B
  5. A
  6. C
  7. D
  8. C
  9. D
  10. B

I got a 10/10 with these answers

Yandere_Wolfie#5332 <- My discord

1 0
posted by Yandere_Wolfie
Aug 21, 2018
Thanks so much guys!

0 0
posted by yano
Aug 23, 2018
maybe the reason were getting different answers is because they changed the answers for everyone’s test…just saying…

0 0
posted by Ash
Oct 9, 2018

  1. C
  2. D
  3. D
  4. B
  5. A
  6. C
  7. D
  8. C
  9. D
  10. B

Just took it.. 100%

0 0
posted by LillyPrince
Jan 28, 2019

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a 12-ft-by-15-ft rectangular swimming pool

A 12-ft-by-15-ft rectangular swimming pool has a 3-ft-wide-no-slip surface around it. What is the outer perimeter of the no-slip surface?

78 ft
78 ft^2
198 ft
198 ft^2

I’ve already completed it, and know the answer is 78 ft, but I don’t quite understand it. I would appreciate if someone could explain the problem. I thought it would have been +3 to each side, so 12 ft becomes 15 ft, and the other side, which is 15 ft, will be 18 ft. This is incorrect though, so I’m confused.

Thank you!

0 0 323
asked by Anonymous
Oct 7, 2016
it’s 3 ft on each side (left&right, top&bottom), so 12 becomes 18, 15 becomes 21.

2(18+21) = 78

0 0
posted by Steve
Oct 7, 2016

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if 3x^2+2xy+y^2=2 then the value of dy/dx at x=1 is

  1. If 3x^2+2xy+y2=2 then the value of dy/dx x = 1 is
    A. -2 B. 0 C. 2 D. 4 E. not defined 0 0 1,075
    asked by Taeyeon
    Feb 26, 2012
    3x^2+2xy+y2=2
    6x + 2y + 2xy’ + 2yy’ = 0

x=1 ==> y=-1

6(1) + 2(-1) + 2(1)y’ + 2(-1)y’ = 0
6 – 2 + 2y’ – 2y’ = 0
4 = 0

(e) undefined

The graph is an ellipse. At (1,-1) there is a vertical tangent

3 0
posted by Steve
Feb 27, 2012

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a weatherman reports the storm waves

. A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing?
20,457 results
scienice
a weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” what properties of waves is the reporter describing

asked by Anonymous on May 9, 2017
Science
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength*** D.amplitude

asked by jeje on January 21, 2015
Science Help Please
A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 25 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? A. frequency and wavelength B. wavelength and wave speed C. amplitude and wavelength D. amplitude and frequency

asked by frazzled on March 13, 2015
Science

  1. A weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart. “what properties of waves is the reporter describing? Frequency and wavelength Wavelength and wave speed* Amplitude and wavelength Amplitude and frequency 2.

asked by Hailee on April 1, 2015
Science

  1. A weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart. “what properties of waves is the reporter describing? Frequency and wavelength Wavelength and wave speed* Amplitude and wavelength Amplitude and frequency 2.

asked by Andrew on April 16, 2015

Science

  1. A weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart. “what properties of waves is the reporter describing? Frequency and wavelength Wavelength and wave speed* Amplitude and wavelength Amplitude and frequency 2.

asked by Hailee on April 14, 2015
Science

  1. A weatherman reports, “the storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart. “what properties of waves is the reporter describing? Frequency and wavelength Wavelength and wave speed Amplitude and wavelength Amplitude and frequency 2. Sound

asked by Hailee on April 16, 2015
Algebra 1 high school
In deep water, the speed s (in meters per second) of a series of waves and the wavelength L (in meters) of the waves are related by the equation 2(pi)s^2=9.8L. a. Find the speed the the nearest hundredth of a meter per second of a series of waves with the

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Identical points on two harmonic waves with the same wavelength (.65 meters) and frequency are separated by a distance of .15 meters. What is the phase difference between the waves?

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Identical points on two harmonic waves with the same wavelength (0.65 meters) and frequency are the separated by a distance of 0.15 meters. What is the phase difference between the waves?

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Pleasant Beach is two meters above sea level at its highest point. If the ocean waves along the shore increase to a height of five meters, then the elevation of Pleasant Beach will most likely A.decrease to nearly zero meters B.increase to more than two

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physical science
A weight attached to a wire is swung in a circular path. Its speed is 12 meters/sec, and it has a centripetal acceleration of 9.0 meters/sec2. Calculate the diameter of the circle. 1.3 meters 2.6 meters 16 meters 32 meters

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A Fisherman in a row boat notices that one wave crest passes his fishing line ever 5 seconds. He estimates the distance between the crests to be 1.5 meters and that the crests of the waves are about .5 meters above the troughs. Using this data, determining

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A bicyclist moving at a constant speed takes 10.0 seconds to travel 500 meters down a path inclined 30.0° downward from the horizontal. What is the vertical velocity of this motion?Select one of the options below as your answer: A. 18.3 meters/second B.

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Science
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength D.amplitude

asked by Tom on May 19, 2015
Science Please Help Me
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength D.amplitude

asked by Sarr3 on June 3, 2014
Science Help Please
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength ***

asked by frazzled on March 13, 2015
Science Help Please
1.A weatherman reports, “The storm waves are about 2 meters high and about 35 meters apart.” What properties of waves is the reporter describing? (1 point) A.frequency and wavelength B.wavelength and wave speed C.amplitude and wavelength ***

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Two vectors with magnitudes of 6 meters and 8 meters cannot have a resultant of: 48 meters 14 meters 10 meters 2 meters Please explain. I do not understand how to figure this out!

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A launched rocket has an altitude, in meters, given by the polynomial h+vt-4.9t^2, where h is the height, in meters, from which the launch occurs, at the velocity v in meters per second, and the t is the number of seconds for which the rocket is airborne.

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A launched rocket has an altitude, in meters, given by the polynomial h = vt -4.9t^2, where h is the height, in meters, from which the launch occurs, at velocity v in meters per second, and t is the number of seconds for which the rocket is airborne. If a

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a launched rocket has an altitude, in meters, given by the polynimial h+vt-4.9t^2 where h is the height, in meters, from which the launch occurs, at velocity v in meters per second, and t is the number of seconds for which the rocket is airborne. If a

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At the ruins of Caesarea, archaeologists discovered a huge hydraulic concrete block with a volume of 945 cubic meters. The block’s dimensions are x meters high by 12x – 15 meters long by 12x – 21 meters wide. What is the height of the block? Can someone

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Physics Help!!!
A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial velocity? (b) If the

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A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial velocity? (b) If the

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A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial velocity? (b) If the

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A tennis ball is served 2.00 degrees above the horizontal at a height of 2.40 meters, 12.0 meters from a net that is 0.900 meters high. (a) If the tennis ball is to clear the net by at least 0.200 meters, what is its minimum initial velocity? (b) If the

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find the area of prism 5 millimeters 6 meters 13 meters not drama scale A. 48 meters squared B. 346 meters squared C. 780 meters squared D. 195 meters squared help

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A trapezoid has an area of 24 square meters. The lengths of the bases of the trapezoid are 5 meters and 7 meters. What is the height of the trapezoid? A. 4 meters B. 144 meters** C. 2 meters D. 1 meter

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A trapezoid has an area of 24 square meters. The lengths of the bases of the trapezoid are 5 meters and 7 meters. What is the height of the trapezoid? • 4 meters • 144 meters • 2 meters • 1 meter

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a passenger in the rear seat of a car moving at a steady speed is at rest relative to

A passenger in the rear seat of a car moving at a
steady speed is at rest relative to

*the side of the road
a pedestrian on the corner ahead
the front seat of the car
the wheels of the car

A person walks 1 mile every day for excercise, leaving
her porch at 9:00 a.m. and returning at 9:25 a.m.
What is the total displacement of her daily walk?

1 mile
*0
25 minutes
none of the above

A person drives north 6 blocks, turns west, and
then drives 6 blocks. The driver then turns south
and drives 6 blocks. How could the driver have made
the distance shorter while maintaining the same
displacement?

*by driving west 6 blocks from the starting point
by driving north 4 blocks and west 7 blocks
by driving south 6 blocks from the starting point
by driving back to the starting point by the same route

A ball is rolled uphill a distance of 5 meters before it
slows, stops, and begins to roll back. The ball rolls
downhill 9 meters before coming to rest against a tree.
What is the magnitude of the ball’s displacement?

4meters
*9meters
14meters
45meters

Thank You 🙂 I appreciate it! ^_^

0 0 576
asked by Aliana
Jan 17, 2012

  1. Displacement is the difference between the starting point and the end. In this case, they are the same,Therefore, the displacement is 0.
  2. Ans. is A.
  3. 9 – 5 = 4 meters beyond starting point. Disp. = 4 meters.
    Ans. is A. 0 0
    posted by Henry
    Jan 18, 2012
    Answer to the first question is: the front seat of the car.
    Second answer is: 0
    Third answer is: by driving west 6 blocks from the starting point
    Fourth answer is: 4 meters 0 0
    posted by TwinWin
    Mar 10, 2012
    Man I need some help too! 0 0
    posted by Im one sexy mother goose’s
    Jan 15, 2015
    TwinWin got it right. 100% correct. 0 0
    posted by Emily
    Jan 7, 2016

Thanks TwinWin

0 0
posted by 100%
Jan 7, 2018
twinwin 100% yay

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posted by bughead
Jan 8, 2018
Cheaters..

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posted by Mr. Megee
Jan 17, 2018
100% twinwin and I love being a cheater.

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posted by HEAVY METAL
Jan 19, 2018

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which of the following statements is correct regarding deciding whether an alcohol sale is legal?

Which of the following statements is CORRECT regarding deciding whether an alcohol sale is legal?

A. IF a person looks over 21, they likely are.

B. Few minors have physical characteristics of an adult.

C. if a person looks like a minor, they likely are a minor.

D. signs of physical maturity are a reliable guide.

is it D.

0 0 2,255
asked by jay
Dec 11, 2014
How do you define “physical maturity”?

0 0
posted by Writeacher
Dec 11, 2014
D. Signs

0 0
posted by Arturo
Nov 11, 2016
Maybe

0 0
posted by Arturo
Nov 11, 2016
C

0 0
posted by Arturo
Nov 11, 2016

Sign of physical maturity are reliable guide

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posted by Mary Mar
Feb 9, 2017
d

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which textile technique do quilters use to craft blankets

which textile techniquw do quilters use to craft blankets

  1. cross-stitching
  2. weaving
  3. stitchery
  4. knitting

It’s weaving or stitchery.. Help please

0 0 901
asked by Anne
May 12, 2015
Quilters do not weave.

http://www.google.com/#q=weaving
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Gee’s_Bend_quilting_bee.jpg

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
May 12, 2015

  1. C
  2. D
  3. B
  4. B
  5. D
  6. C
  7. B
  8. B
  9. C
  10. B 1 1
    posted by Pacman
    Jan 12, 2016
    C
    D
    B
    B
    D
    A pacman was wrong
    C Pacman was wrong
    B
    C
    D pacman was wrong yet again

Just did it only 3 of them were incorrect.

3 0
posted by Zericthestudent
Jan 12, 2016
7 is actually d

Everything else zeric the student was right thanks

4 0
posted by Anon
Jan 12, 2016

@Zericthestudentis and @Anon right it is
C
D
B
B
D
A
D
B
C
D

2 0
posted by girl
Feb 10, 2016
For everyone who is wanting the correct answers @girl, @Zericthestudentis, and @Anon is 100% correct. Trust me I never commit unless I know it is 100% myself.

1 0
posted by _
Feb 24, 2016
Wow, Ms. Sue.

0 0
posted by The Guy Who Points It Out When Teachers Don’t Help
Mar 10, 2016
Thank goodness someone came up with this website XD

0 0
posted by TheKnowItAll
Mar 23, 2016
Yeessss!!!

  1. C
  2. D
  3. B
  4. B
  5. D
  6. A
  7. D
  8. B
  9. C
  10. D
    I got 100%!!! 13 0
    posted by Kpop is real
    Mar 25, 2016

Kpop is real is RIGHT!

0 0
posted by Helper
Mar 30, 2016
yes anon ,zeric, girl, kpop are all right

0 0
posted by Quzzy modo
Mar 31, 2016
^^

0 0
posted by kpop is right
Apr 5, 2016
Correct^

0 0
posted by .
Apr 18, 2016
Kpop is real is 100% right. BTW, Listen to kpop it feels good.

0 0
posted by A
Apr 25, 2016

Thanks Kpop!!

0 0
posted by plz listen to Kat
Apr 28, 2016
Thanks Kpop is real!! Got 100%!!

0 0
posted by Anonymous
May 2, 2016
100% correct. Thank you @kpop.

0 0
posted by K_A_B
May 6, 2016
thanks kpop

0 0
posted by The man that gravity forgot
May 9, 2016
Thank you Kpop I passed 😁😚👍👌🍕

0 0
posted by Lus
May 10, 2016

Your welcome 😁😁

0 0
posted by Kpop is real
May 10, 2016
Thanks so much!

0 0
posted by CrendyGal
May 11, 2016
Bunch of cheaters! Haha Well done =)

0 1
posted by RoastedToaster
May 13, 2016
lol XD why can’t you all just do the work yourself?

0 1
posted by Biana Vacker
May 18, 2016
Look at my name.

1 0
posted by Why should we?
May 19, 2016

@Whyshouldwe? because, that is the best way to learn…

0 1
posted by lel
May 21, 2016
Why the hell are you here then?

1 0
posted by G
May 23, 2016
Kpop,Anon, and Girl are all correct

0 0
posted by The Phoenix
May 26, 2016
Thx everyone!!

0 0
posted by fox girl
Jun 1, 2016
100%

0 0
posted by 👉👌
Jun 1, 2016

KPOP IS CORRRRECTTTTTTTTTTT OH HALIJUAH

0 0
posted by TRUST WORTHY BIHH
Jun 2, 2016
Im watching you

0 0
posted by Connexus
Jun 3, 2016
C
D
B
B
D
A
D
B
C
D

0 0
posted by Connections Academy whiz
Feb 27, 2017

  1. C
  2. D
  3. B
  4. B
  5. D
  6. A
  7. D
  8. B
  9. C
  10. D

Honest people!!!! Its about time

1 0
posted by Boo
Mar 17, 2017
I agree with everyone!!!

0 0
posted by BBC
Apr 27, 2017

Kpop is right, and so is their username lmao kpop is lit

0 0
posted by Momo
May 22, 2017
kpop is terrible jesus christ,
the hell did you just make me listen to.

0 0
posted by oof.
May 24, 2017
The correct answers are
C
D
B
B
D
A
D
B
C
D
If your are in connections Lesson 4 unit 5.

1 0
posted by Lucita
May 24, 2017
@Lucita is right but 6 is wrong….

  1. A 0 0
    posted by I’m That White Girl
    Jun 9, 2017
    @oof boi Kpop is a sanctuary WYM!!! Its so good but I guess it depends on which type of songs u like 0 0
    posted by Kpop is real
    Jul 24, 2017

girl is correct!

0 0
posted by anna
Apr 6, 2018
y’all are lifesavers thank u

0 0
posted by kevin abstract
May 3, 2018
KPop person is correcto

0 0
posted by nanvad ahaeoihawigga hai
May 7, 2018
@kpop is 100% right

0 0
posted by ayyyyyyy
May 11, 2018
@Kpop is correct
Thank you so much!

0 0
posted by J-HOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOPE
May 17, 2018

STAN TALENT STAN BLACKPINK

0 0
posted by STAN BLACKPINK
May 17, 2018

  1. C
  2. D
  3. B
  4. B
  5. D
  6. A
  7. D
  8. B
  9. C
  10. D 1 0
    posted by Pansexual pride c:
    May 24, 2018
    Thx Kpop is real you are a life saver!! 0 0
    posted by ThatKpopFan14
    Jun 6, 2018
  11. C
  12. D
  13. B
  14. B
  15. D
  16. A
  17. D
  18. B
  19. C
  20. D 2 0
    posted by Hal
    Mar 19, 2019
    @Kpop is real… This was not planned I swear.. 0 0
    posted by KpopIsAwful
    Apr 11, 2019
Categories
business plan writing services do my assignment help writing college papers what should i write my college essay about

find the length of the missing side leave your answer in simplest radical form

Can anyone check my answers?

  • = My answer
  1. Find the length of the missing side. Leave your answer in simplest radical form (1 point) The triangle is not drawn to scale.
    Sides 4 on the bottom and 3 on the side

a. 25
b. 144
c. 5
d. √5*

  1. Find the length of the missing leg of a right triangle given a leg of length 8 and a hypotenuse of length 10. Leave your answer in simplest radical form (1 point)

a. 2√41*
b. 164
c. 6
d. 2

  1. Does the set of numbers 13, 21, and 24 form a Pythagorean triple? Explain. (1 point)

a. Yes; 13²+21²≠24²
b. No; 13²+21=24²
c. No; 13²+21²≠24²
d. Yes; 13²+21²=24²*

  1. A triangle has side lengths of 12 cm, 15cm, and 20 cm. Classify it as acute, obtuse or right. (1 point)

a. Acute
b. Obtuse
c. Right*
d. There is not enough information

  1. A gardener wants to divide a square piece of lawn in half diagonally. What is the length of the diagonal if the side of the square is 8ft? Leave your Answer in simplest radical form. (1 point)

a. 16√8
b. 2√8*
c. 8√2
d. 4

0 3 1,813
asked by Kairi
Oct 27, 2016

1. Nope – 3^2+4^2 = 25

2. Nope – the hypotenuse is 10, not the leg

3 ok

4 ok

5 nope – look carefully

0 3
posted by Steve
Oct 27, 2016
Steve is wrong
its
5
6
c
obtuse
8_/2

17 0
posted by tomy
Mar 3, 2017
question 2 is 5 not 6 i just did the test

0 7
posted by creeper
Mar 23, 2017
Tomy is correct

7 0
posted by helping hand
Apr 23, 2018

the answers are:
1 c
2 c
3 c
4 b
5 c
100 %

17 1
posted by Kenz
Apr 25, 2018
Kenz is correct, I got 100

6 1
posted by Natalie
May 25, 2018
kenz is right

3 0
posted by Mason
Feb 12, 2019
Kenz is right. 100%.

1 0
posted by иван
Mar 13, 2019
Tommy and kenz are both right

0 0
posted by Unicorns
Mar 20, 2019

Thank you, Kenz! Just took quiz and got 100%

0 0
posted by Taken ♥
Apr 10, 2019

Categories
custom essay service do my assignment someone to write my essay what should i write my college essay about

in the first line from o captain

english

  1. In the first line from “O Captain! My Captain!” what does “our fearful trip”refer to? (1 point)
    the Civil War
    the battle at Antietam Creek
    the presidency
    Lincoln’s life 4 1 5,015
    asked by PLZ… CHECK MY WOK~English
    Feb 20, 2015
    Again … no thoughts of your own? You’re just mooching for answers? 1 55
    👩‍🏫
    Writeacher
    Feb 20, 2015
    1.A
    2.B
    3.C
    4.D
    5.A

And writeacher that’s kind of rude. 🙁

10 40
posted by That Girl
Feb 10, 2016

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A
  5. A

100%
Trust Me!

140 2
posted by Mr. Bacon
Feb 11, 2016
Mr. Bacon is correct.

15 0
posted by Kyan
Feb 11, 2016

mr.bacon is right, thatgirl’s answers number 4 is wrong.

8 1
posted by Science Nerd-In-Training
Feb 16, 2016
Mr. Bacon is right! ThatGirl, thanks for trying to help but next time make sure you are absolutely right. Thanks!

7 0
posted by Mac N 🧀
Feb 16, 2016
thanks bacon

4 0
posted by lamp
Feb 22, 2016
mr. bacon is right

4 0
posted by j
Mar 3, 2016
Mr. Bacon is right! 100%

3 0
posted by Anna
Mar 8, 2016

i think that for # 4 the answer should be B,
but the test shows that A is the right answer….

2 0
posted by tbh
Mar 9, 2016
Thank you Mr. Bacon

1 0
posted by Girl Power
Mar 28, 2016
Thanks Mr.bacon

1 0
posted by ikcss
Mar 29, 2016
@Mr. Bacon is once again correct!!!!!!!

1 0
posted by Ice Cream Lover
Jun 21, 2016
The answers are
1.A
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A

6 0
posted by Meow
Feb 3, 2017

1.A
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A
These are all correct I really hope this helps

6 0
posted by connexus
Feb 13, 2017
TBH Lincoln didn’t die in the last war though, he got killed watching a play

0 0
posted by Lebrun
Feb 15, 2017
i think mr.bacon needs a medal for helping use get a 100 2 times

1 0
posted by k
Feb 15, 2017
I think mr. Bacon should to. He helps a lot and is honest. That isn’t common. A lot of people try to trick people on this website.

0 0
posted by Yup!
Feb 15, 2017
If you ever see Mr. Bacon’s answers, he is always correct. I have found him on a few question and he answers 100% correct.

0 0
posted by AnswerKing
Feb 21, 2017

Yeah. All those who posted

ABCAA

are correct. Good way to check your scores.

1 0
posted by GLiTCH
Mar 2, 2017
1.A
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A

Writeteacher needs to go eat a bag of !@#$%^&s we just want a good grade noone is smooching of answers

2 1
posted by Correct answers are/Writeteacher
Mar 5, 2017
ABCAA is right!

0 0
posted by Wolfart
Mar 7, 2017
i trust mr bacon because i like bacon

0 0
posted by ZeNe
Mar 8, 2017
This is homework HELP not homework give me the answers. You have to at least try and guess.

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 12, 2018

You need to stop talking dirty

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 12, 2018
1.A
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A

FOR CONNEXUS TRUST ME

4 0
posted by wooo
Feb 12, 2018
Thank you Mr. Bacon! 100%

0 0
posted by Taylor
Feb 13, 2018
Mr Bacon is correct I just took the quiz!

0 0
posted by Hi
Feb 14, 2018
@Mr. Bacon is correct!

0 0
posted by LittleNoot
Feb 16, 2018

Mr. Bacon is 100% Correct;
A
B
C
A
A

0 0
posted by Elzbieta Bosak
Mar 2, 2018
Thanks Mr. Bacon for the correct answers!!! 🙂

0 0
posted by Kylie
Mar 5, 2018
Mr. Bacon is correct yo

0 0
posted by Swiss
Mar 21, 2018
a
b
c
a
a

0 0
posted by PearsonConnexus
Apr 26, 2018
I’m sorry I didn’t think Mr.Bacons awnsers were right because Lincon didn’t die on a boat but they were right so THANK YOU!!!!!!! still right in 2019 😀

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Jan 23, 2019

thanks
abcaa

1 1
posted by Queen Naija
Feb 1, 2019

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A
  5. A 3 0
    posted by Hal
    Feb 2, 2019
    mr bacon still correct
    a
    b
    c
    a
    a 1 0
    posted by ………………………..
    Feb 8, 2019
    mr. bacon always be right 0 0
    posted by trynna get thru
    Feb 12, 2019
    A
    B
    C
    A
    A
    is correct. 100% 1 0
    posted by Kelly
    Feb 21, 2019

A
B
C
A
A

mr. bcaon i still right
Subscribe to Piewdiepie unsubscribe from t series.

1 0
posted by save yt sub to piewdiepie
Feb 22, 2019
Thanks mr bacon I got 100

0 0
posted by Dylan
Feb 22, 2019
You go Mr. Bacon!!!

0 0
posted by HelpGirl101
Feb 22, 2019
Gloria Borger here I have a scoop, Mr. Bacon is correct

0 0
posted by Pew News
Feb 25, 2019
mr bacon your the best

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 26, 2019

I got bacon breathe

0 0
posted by Breakfast gal
Feb 27, 2019
1.A
2.B
3.C
4.A
5.A
I GOT 100% ON THIS TRUST ME

0 0
posted by Ali
Mar 6, 2019
I love Bacon, and I love u Bacon 😍😍

0 0
posted by Ali-A
Mar 12, 2019

Categories
pay someone to write my essay someone to write my essay what should i write my college essay about

the decameron sparknotes

(above link will help with this assignment)

Instructions:

For our first class-wide discussion, please read the essay, Navigating Genres by Kerry Dirk and post your responses to the discussion prompt before the deadline listed in the course calendar.

In a fully developed short essay (minimum of eight paragraphs in length), please answer all of the questions below and post your essay to the discussion forum. Your work should include an introduction, a body of supporting evidence, and a conclusion.

Remember that you are having a conversation with your peers in this particular genre of writing, so adopt an appropriate tone and vocabulary for an audience of contemporary college students. Please take time to edit your work for punctuation, usage, and clarity prior to submission. Don’t forget to comment on the works of two peers in order to earn full credit for these discussions.

Questions for Analysis:

1) What is Dirk saying about the nature of rhetorical genres? Cite the essay specifically in formulating your answer.

2) Which genres do you follow most closely? Using at least two different genres, cite some specific examples from these genres and comment on their rhetorical features. What are the hallmarks of these communication types?

3) What, in your view, are the important components of the advertising genre? What about the contemporary speech or verbal address?

Where applicable, feel free to use hyperlinks to connect your essay to a resource or two in support of your answers. (1)