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nickel metal is added to a solution of copper(ii) nitrate.

Using the activity series (Table 4.5), write balanced chemical equations for the following reactions. If no reaction occurs, simply write NR. (a) Nickel metal is added to a solution of copper (II) nitrate; (b) a solution of zinc nitrate is added to a solution of magnesium sulfate; (c) hydrochloric acid is added to gold metal; (d) chromium metal is immersed in an aqueous solution of cobalt (II) chloride; (e) hydrogen gas is bubbled through a solution of silver nitrate.

0 0 780
asked by rob
Oct 9, 2011
All of these follow the same rule.
A metal will displace the ion of any other metal BELOW it in the activity series.
For example:
Ni + Cu(NO3)2 ==> Cu + Ni(NO3)2
Au + HCl ==> NR (because Au is not below H).
The second one (Zn(NO3)2 + MgSO4) doesn’t belong in this question since it isn’t a single replacement. As it stands; however, there is no reaction.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Oct 9, 2011

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which of the following is a chemical change?

1) Which of the following is a chemical change? (1 point)
Boiling of water
Melting a cube of ice
Dissolving 10 grams of salt in water
Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen***

2) What is the mass of water that results from combining 2.0g of hydrogen with 16.0g of oxygen? (1 point)
14.0g
16.0g
18.0g***
20.0g

3) Why are plastic building blocks good for modeling molecules? (1 point)
They come in thousands of shapes and sizes.
They can be combined in many different ways.***
They are rigid and do not easily separate.
There are as many different colors as there are atoms.

  1. What did Antoine Lavoisier’s experiments demonstrate? (1 point)
    Atoms always split into pairs during a chemical change.
    Mass is neither lost nor gained during a chemical change.***
    Matter can be created during a chemical change.
    Energy is neither lost nor gained during a chemical change. 12 0 2,314
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attendance at​ orlando’s newest disneylike​ attraction, lego​ world, has been as​ follows:

OPER ATIONS MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

TWELFTH EDITION

O PER

A T

IO N

S M A

N A

G E

M E

N T

Su stain

ability an d

Su p

ply C h

ain M

an agem

en t

TWELFTH EDITION

JAY HEIZER | BARRY RENDER | CHUCK MUNSON

HEIZER RENDER MUNSON

www.pearsonhighered.com

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O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

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T W E L F T H E D I T I O N

O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

HEIZER J A Y

RENDER B A R R Y

Jesse H. Jones Professor of Business Administration Texas Lutheran University

Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management Graduate School of Business Rollins College

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

C H U C K

MUNSON Professor of Operations Management Carson College of Business Washington State University

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Heizer, Jay. [Production and operations management] Operations management; sustainability and supply chain management / Jay Heizer, Jesse H. Jones Professor of Business Administration, Texas Lutheran University, Barry Render, Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management, Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Chuck Munson, Professor of Operations Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University. — Twelfth edition. pages cm Original edition published under the Title: Production and operations management. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-13-413042-2 — ISBN 0-13-413042-1 1. Production management. I. Render, Barry. II. Munson, Chuck. III. Title. TS155.H3725 2015 658.5–dc23 2015036857

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-413042-1

ISBN 13: 978-0-13-413042-2

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To Karen Heizer Herrmann, all a sister could ever be

To Donna, Charlie, and Jesse

J.H.

B.R.

To Kim, Christopher, and Mark Munson for their unwavering support, and to Bentonville High School teachers Velma Reed and Cheryl Gregory,

who instilled in me the importance of detail and a love of learning C.M.

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ABOUT THE A U T H O R S

JAY HEIZER

BARRY RENDER

Professor Emeritus, the Jesse H. Jones Chair of Business Administration, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, Texas. He received his B.B.A. and M.B.A. from the University of North Texas and his Ph.D. in Management and Statistics from Arizona State University. He was previously a member of the faculty at the University of Memphis, the University of Oklahoma, Virginia Commonwealth University, and the University of Richmond. He has also held visiting positions at Boston University, George Mason University, the Czech Management Center, and the Otto-Von-Guericke University, Magdeburg.

Dr. Heizer’s industrial experience is extensive. He learned the practical side of operations management as a machinist apprentice at Foringer and Company, as a production planner for Westinghouse Airbrake, and at General Dynamics, where he worked in engineering administration. In addition, he has been actively involved in consulting in the OM and MIS areas for a variety of organizations, includ- ing Philip Morris, Firestone, Dixie Container Corporation, Columbia Industries, and Tenneco. He holds the CPIM certification from APICS—the Association for Operations Management.

Professor Heizer has co-authored 5 books and has published more than 30 arti- cles on a variety of management topics. His papers have appeared in the Academy of Management Journal , Journal of Purchasing , Personnel Psychology , Production & Inventory Control Management , APICS—The Performance Advantage , Journal of Management History , IIE Solutions, and Engineering Management , among others. He has taught operations management courses in undergraduate, graduate, and executive programs.

Professor Emeritus, the Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management, Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. He received his B.S. in Mathematics and Physics at Roosevelt University, and his M.S. in Operations Research and Ph.D. in Quantitative Analysis at the University of Cincinnati. He previously taught at George Washington University, University of New Orleans, Boston University, and George Mason University, where he held the Mason Foundation Professorship in Decision Sciences and was Chair of the Decision Sciences Department. Dr. Render has also worked in the aerospace indus- try for General Electric, McDonnell Douglas, and NASA.

Professor Render has co-authored 10 textbooks for Pearson, including Managerial Decision Modeling with Spreadsheets , Quantitative Analysis for Management , Service Management , Introduction to Management Science , and Cases and Readings in Management Science . Quantitative Analysis for Management, now in its 13th edition, is a leading text in that discipline in the United States and globally. Dr.  Render’s more than 100 articles on a variety of management topics have appeared in Decision Sciences , Production and Operations Management , Interfaces , Information and Management , Journal of Management Information Systems , Socio-Economic Planning Sciences , IIE Solutions , and Operations Management Review , among others.

Dr. Render has been honored as an AACSB Fellow and was twice named a Senior Fulbright Scholar. He was Vice President of the Decision Science Institute Southeast Region and served as Software Review Editor for Decision Line for six years and as Editor of the New York Times Operations Management special issues for five years. For nine years, Dr. Render was President of Management Service Associates of Virginia, Inc., whose technology clients included the FBI, NASA, the U.S. Navy, Fairfax County, Virginia, and C&P Telephone. He is currently Consulting Editor to Pearson Press .

Dr. Render has received Rollins College’s Welsh Award as leading Professor and was selected by Roosevelt University as the recipient of the St. Claire Drake Award for Outstanding Scholarship. Dr. Render also received the Rollins College MBA Student Award for Best Overall Course, and was named Professor of the Year by full-time MBA students.

vi

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Professor of Operations Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. He received his BSBA summa cum laude in finance, along with his MSBA and Ph.D. in operations management, from Washington University in St. Louis. For two years, he served as Associate Dean for Graduate Programs in Business at Washington State. He also worked for three years as a financial analyst for Contel Telephone Corporation.

Professor Munson serves as a senior editor for Production and Operations Management , and he serves on the editorial review board of four other journals . He has published more than 25 articles in such journals as Production and Operations Management , IIE Transactions, Decision Sciences , Naval Research Logistics , European Journal of Operational Research , Journal of the Operational Research Society , and Annals of Operations Research. He is editor of the book The Supply Chain Management Casebook: Comprehensive Coverage and Best Practices in SCM , and he has co-authored the research monograph Quantity Discounts: An Overview and Practical Guide for Buyers and Sellers . He is also coauthor of Managerial Decision Modeling with Spreadsheets (4th edition), published by Pearson.

Dr. Munson has taught operations management core and elective courses at the undergraduate, MBA, and Ph.D. levels at Washington State University. He has also conducted several teaching workshops at international conferences and for Ph.D. students at Washington State University. His major awards include being a Founding Board Member of the Washington State University President’s Teaching Academy (2004); winning the WSU College of Business Outstanding Teaching Award (2001 and 2015), Research Award (2004), and Service Award (2009 and 2013); and being named the WSU MBA Professor of the Year (2000 and 2008).

CHUCK MUNSON

ABOUT THE AUTHORS vii

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PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management 1

Chapter 1 Operations and Productivity 1 Chapter 2 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment 29 Chapter 3 Project Management 59 Chapter 4 Forecasting 105

PART TWO Designing Operations 159

Chapter 5 Design of Goods and Services 159 ◆ Supplement 5 Sustainability in the Supply Chain 193

Chapter 6 Managing Quality 213 ◆ Supplement 6 Statistical Process Control 245

Chapter 7 Process Strategy 279 ◆ Supplement 7 Capacity and Constraint Management 307

Chapter 8 Location Strategies 337 Chapter 9 Layout Strategies 367 Chapter 10 Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement 407

PART THREE Managing Operations 441

Chapter 11 Supply Chain Management 441 ◆ Supplement 11 Supply Chain Management Analytics 471

Chapter 12 Inventory Management 487 Chapter 13 Aggregate Planning and S&OP 529 Chapter 14 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP 563 Chapter 15 Short-Term Scheduling 599 Chapter 16 Lean Operations 635 Chapter 17 Maintenance and Reliability 659

PART FOUR Business Analytics Modules 677

Module A Decision-Making Tools 677 Module B Linear Programming 699 Module C Transportation Models 729 Module D Waiting-Line Models 747 Module E Learning Curves 775 Module F Simulation 791

ONLINE TUTORIALS

1. Statistical Tools for Managers T1-1 2. Acceptance Sampling T2-1 3. The Simplex Method of Linear Programming T3-1 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Transportation Problems T4-1 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling T5-1

Brief Table of Contents

ix

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Table of Contents

About the Authors vi Preface xxiii

Chapter 1 Operations and Productivity 1

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: HARD ROCK CAFE 2 What Is Operations Management? 4 Organizing to Produce Goods and Services 4 The Supply Chain 6 Why Study OM? 6 What Operations Managers Do 7 The Heritage of Operations Management 8 Operations for Goods and Services 11

Growth of Services 11

Service Pay 12

The Productivity Challenge 13 Productivity Measurement 14

Productivity Variables 15

Productivity and the Service Sector 17

Current Challenges in Operations Management 18 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 19 Summary 20 Key Terms 20 Ethical Dilemma 20 Discussion Questions 20 Using Software for Productivity Analysis 21 Solved Problems 21 Problems 22 CASE STUDIES 24

Uber Technologies, Inc. 24

Frito-Lay: Operations Management in Manufacturing Video Case 25

Hard Rock Cafe: Operations Management in Services Video Case 25

Endnotes 26 Rapid Review 27 Self Test 28

Chapter 2 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment 29

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: BOEING 30 A Global View of Operations and Supply

Chains 32 Cultural and Ethical Issues 35

Developing Missions and Strategies 35 Mission 36

Strategy 36

Achieving Competitive Advantage Through Operations 36 Competing on Diff erentiation 37

Competing on Cost 38

Competing on Response 39

Issues in Operations Strategy 40 Strategy Development and Implementation 41

Key Success Factors and Core Competencies 41

Integrating OM with Other Activities 43

Building and Staffi ng the Organization 43

Implementing the 10 Strategic OM Decisions 44

Strategic Planning, Core Competencies, and Outsourcing 44 The Theory of Comparative Advantage 46

Risks of Outsourcing 46

Rating Outsource Providers 47

Global Operations Strategy Options 49 Summary 50 Key Terms 50 Ethical Dilemma 51 Discussion Questions 51 Using Software to Solve Outsourcing

Problems 51 Solved Problems 52 Problems 53 CASE STUDIES 55

Rapid-Lube 55

Strategy at Regal Marine Video Case 55

Hard Rock Cafe’s Global Strategy Video Case 55

Outsourcing Off shore at Darden Video Case 56

Endnotes 56 Rapid Review 57 Self Test 58

Chapter 3 Project Management 59

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: BECHTEL GROUP 60 The Importance of Project Management 62

PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management 1

xi

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xii TABLE OF CONTENTS

Project Planning 62 The Project Manager 63

Work Breakdown Structure 64

Project Scheduling 65 Project Controlling 66 Project Management Techniques: PERT and CPM 67

The Framework of PERT and CPM 67

Network Diagrams and Approaches 68

Activity-on-Node Example 69

Activity-on-Arrow Example 71

Determining the Project Schedule 71 Forward Pass 72

Backward Pass 74

Calculating Slack Time and Identifying the Critical Path(s) 75

Variability in Activity Times 77 Three Time Estimates in PERT 77

Probability of Project Completion 79

Cost-Time Trade-Off s and Project Crashing 82 A Critique of PERT and CPM 85 Using Microsoft Project to Manage Projects 86 Summary 88 Key Terms 88 Ethical Dilemma 89 Discussion Questions 89 Using Software to Solve Project Management

Problems 89 Solved Problems 90 Problems 93 CASE STUDIES 98

Southwestern University: (A) 98

Project Management at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 99

Managing Hard Rock’s Rockfest Video Case 100

Endnotes 102 Rapid Review 103 Self Test 104

Chapter 4 Forecasting 105

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: WALT DISNEY PARKS & RESORTS 106

What is Forecasting? 108 Forecasting Time Horizons 108

Types of Forecasts 109

The Strategic Importance of Forecasting 109 Supply-Chain Management 109

Human Resources 110

Capacity 110

Seven Steps in the Forecasting System 110 Forecasting Approaches 111

Overview of Qualitative Method 111

Overview of Quantitative Methods 112

Time-Series Forecasting 112 Decomposition of a Time Series 112

Naive Approach 113

Moving Averages 114

Exponential Smoothing 116

Measuring Forecast Error 117

Exponential Smoothing with Trend Adjustment 120

Trend Projections 124

Seasonal Variations in Data 126

Cyclical Variations in Data 131

Associative Forecasting Methods: Regression and Correlation Analysis 131 Using Regression Analysis for Forecasting 131

Standard Error of the Estimate 133

Correlation Coeffi cients for Regression Lines 134

Multiple-Regression Analysis 136

Monitoring and Controlling Forecasts 138 Adaptive Smoothing 139

Focus Forecasting 139

Forecasting in the Service Sector 140 Summary 141 Key Terms 141 Ethical Dilemma 141 Discussion Questions 142 Using Software in Forecasting 142 Solved Problems 144 Problems 146 CASE STUDIES 153

Southwestern University: (B) 153

Forecasting Ticket Revenue for Orlando Magic Basketball Games Video Case 154

Forecasting at Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 155

Endnotes 156 Rapid Review 157 Self Test 158

PART TWO Designing Operations 159

Chapter 5 Design of Goods and Services 159

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: REGAL MARINE 160 Goods and Services Selection 162

Product Strategy Options Support Competitive Advantage 163

Product Life Cycles 164

Life Cycle and Strategy 164

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii

Product-by-Value Analysis 165

Generating New Products 165 Product Development 166

Product Development System 166

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 166

Organizing for Product Development 169

Manufacturability and Value Engineering 170

Issues for Product Design 171 Robust Design 171

Modular Design 171

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) 171

Virtual Reality Technology 172

Value Analysis 173

Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 173

Product Development Continuum 173 Purchasing Technology by Acquiring a Firm 174

Joint Ventures 174

Alliances 175

Defi ning a Product 175 Make-or-Buy Decisions 176

Group Technology 177

Documents for Production 178 Product Life-Cycle Management (PLM) 178

Service Design 179 Process–Chain–Network (PCN) Analysis 179

Adding Service Effi ciency 181

Documents for Services 181

Application of Decision Trees to Product Design 182

Transition to Production 184 Summary 184 Key Terms 185 Ethical Dilemma 185 Discussion Questions 185 Solved Problem 186 Problems 186 CASE STUDIES 189

De Mar’s Product Strategy 189

Product Design at Regal Marine Video Case 189

Endnotes 190 Rapid Review 191 Self Test 192

Supplement 5 Sustainability in the Supply Chain 193

Corporate Social Responsibility 194 Sustainability 195

Systems View 195

Commons 195

Triple Bottom Line 195

Design and Production for Sustainability 198 Product Design 198

Production Process 200

Logistics 200

End-of-Life Phase 203

Regulations and Industry Standards 203 International Environmental Policies and Standards 204

Summary 205 Key Terms 205 Discussion Questions 205 Solved Problems 206 Problems 207 CASE STUDIES 208

Building Sustainability at the Orlando Magic’s Amway Center Video Case 208

Green Manufacturing and Sustainability at Frito-Lay Video Case 209

Endnotes 210 Rapid Review 211 Self Test 212

Chapter 6 Managing Quality 213

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ARNOLD PALMER HOSPITAL 214

Quality and Strategy 216 Defi ning Quality 217

Implications of Quality 217

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award 218

ISO 9000 International Quality Standards 218

Cost of Quality (COQ) 218

Ethics and Quality Management 219

Total Quality Management 219 Continuous Improvement 220

Six Sigma 221

Employee Empowerment 222

Benchmarking 222

Just-in-Time (JIT) 224

Taguchi Concepts 224

Knowledge of TQM Tools 225

Tools of TQM 226 Check Sheets 226

Scatter Diagrams 227

Cause-and-Eff ect Diagrams 227

Pareto Charts 227

Flowcharts 228

Histograms 229

Statistical Process Control (SPC) 229

The Role of Inspection 230 When and Where to Inspect 230

Source Inspection 231

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xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS

Service Industry Inspection 232

Inspection of Attributes versus Variables 233

TQM in Services 233 Summary 235 Key Terms 235 Ethical Dilemma 235 Discussion Questions 236 Solved Problems 236 Problems 237 CASE STUDIES 239

Southwestern University: (C) 239

The Culture of Quality at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 240

Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines Video Case 240

Quality at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company Video Case 242

Endnotes 242 Rapid Review 243 Self Test 244

Supplement 6 Statistical Process Control 245

Statistical Process Control (SPC) 246 Control Charts for Variables 248

The Central Limit Theorem 248

Setting Mean Chart Limits ( x -Charts) 250

Setting Range Chart Limits ( R-Charts) 253

Using Mean and Range Charts 254

Control Charts for Attributes 256

Managerial Issues and Control Charts 259

Process Capability 260 Process Capability Ratio ( C p ) 260

Process Capability Index ( C pk ) 261

Acceptance Sampling 262 Operating Characteristic Curve 263

Average Outgoing Quality 264

Summary 265 Key Terms 265 Discussion Questions 265 Using Software for SPC 266 Solved Problems 267 Problems 269 CASE STUDIES 274

Bayfi eld Mud Company 274

Frito-Lay’s Quality-Controlled Potato Chips Video Case 275

Farm to Fork: Quality at Darden Restaurants Video Case 276

Endnotes 276 Rapid Review 277 Self Test 278

Chapter 7 Process Strategy 279

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: HARLEY-DAVIDSON 280 Four Process Strategies 282

Process Focus 282

Repetitive Focus 283

Product Focus 284

Mass Customization Focus 284

Process Comparison 286

Selection of Equipment 288 Process Analysis and Design 288

Flowchart 289

Time-Function Mapping 289

Process Charts 289

Value-Stream Mapping 290

Service Blueprinting 292

Special Considerations for Service Process Design 293

Production Technology 294 Machine Technology 294

Automatic Identifi cation Systems (AISs) and RFID 295

Process Control 295

Vision Systems 296

Robots 296

Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) 296

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) 296

Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) 297

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) 297

Technology in Services 298 Process Redesign 298 Summary 299 Key Terms 299 Ethical Dilemma 300 Discussion Questions 300 Solved Problem 300 Problems 301 CASE STUDIES 302

Rochester Manufacturing’s Process Decision 302

Process Strategy at Wheeled Coach Video Case 302

Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process— Guaranteed! Video Case 303

Process Analysis at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 304

Endnotes 304 Rapid Review 305 Self Test 306

Supplement 7 Capacity and Constraint Management 307

Capacity 308 Design and Eff ective Capacity 309

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xv

Capacity and Strategy 311

Capacity Considerations 311

Managing Demand 312

Service-Sector Demand and Capacity Management 313

Bottleneck Analysis and the Theory of Constraints 314 Theory of Constraints 317

Bottleneck Management 317

Break-Even Analysis 318 Single-Product Case 319

Multiproduct Case 320

Reducing Risk with Incremental Changes 322 Applying Expected Monetary Value (EMV)

to Capacity Decisions 323 Applying Investment Analysis to Strategy-Driven

Investments 324 Investment, Variable Cost, and Cash Flow 324

Net Present Value 324

Summary 326 Key Terms 327 Discussion Questions 327 Using Software for Break-Even Analysis 327 Solved Problems 328 Problems 330 CASE STUDY 333

Capacity Planning at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 333

Endnote 334 Rapid Review 335 Self Test 336

Chapter 8 Location Strategies 337

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: FEDEX 338 The Strategic Importance of Location 340 Factors That Aff ect Location Decisions 341

Labor Productivity 342

Exchange Rates and Currency Risk 342

Costs 342

Political Risk, Values, and Culture 343

Proximity to Markets 343

Proximity to Suppliers 344

Proximity to Competitors (Clustering) 344

Methods of Evaluating Location Alternatives 344 The Factor-Rating Method 345

Locational Cost–Volume Analysis 346

Center-of-Gravity Method 348

Transportation Model 349

Service Location Strategy 350 Geographic Information Systems 351 Summary 353

Key Terms 353 Ethical Dilemma 354 Discussion Questions 354 Using Software to Solve Location Problems 354 Solved Problems 355 Problems 357 CASE STUDIES 362

Southern Recreational Vehicle Company 362

Locating the Next Red Lobster Restaurant Video Case 362

Where to Place the Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 363

Endnote 364 Rapid Review 365 Self Test 366

Chapter 9 Layout Strategies 367

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: McDONALD’S 368 The Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions 370 Types of Layout 370 Offi ce Layout 371 Retail Layout 372

Servicescapes 375

Warehouse and Storage Layouts 375 Cross-Docking 376

Random Stocking 377

Customizing 377

Fixed-Position Layout 377 Process-Oriented Layout 378

Computer Software for Process-Oriented Layouts 382

Work Cells 383 Requirements of Work Cells 383

Staffi ng and Balancing Work Cells 384

The Focused Work Center and the Focused Factory 386

Repetitive and Product-Oriented Layout 386 Assembly-Line Balancing 387

Summary 392 Key Terms 392 Ethical Dilemma 392 Discussion Questions 392 Using Software to Solve Layout Problems 393 Solved Problems 394 Problems 396 CASE STUDIES 402

State Automobile License Renewals 402

Laying Out Arnold Palmer Hospital’s New Facility Video Case 402

Facility Layout at Wheeled Coach Video Case 404

Endnotes 404 Rapid Review 405 Self Test 406

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Chapter 10 Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement 407

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: RUSTY WALLACE’S NASCAR RACING TEAM 408

Human Resource Strategy for Competitive Advantage 410 Constraints on Human Resource Strategy 410

Labor Planning 411 Employment-Stability Policies 411

Work Schedules 411

Job Classifi cations and Work Rules 412

Job Design 412 Labor Specialization 412

Job Expansion 413

Psychological Components of Job Design 413

Self-Directed Teams 414

Motivation and Incentive Systems 415

Ergonomics and the Work Environment 415 Methods Analysis 417 The Visual Workplace 420 Labor Standards 420

Historical Experience 421

Time Studies 421

Predetermined Time Standards 425

Work Sampling 427

Ethics 430 Summary 430 Key Terms 430 Ethical Dilemma 431 Discussion Questions 431 Solved Problems 432 Problems 434 CASE STUDIES 437

Jackson Manufacturing Company 437

The “People” Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines Video Case 437

Hard Rock’s Human Resource Strategy Video Case 438

Endnotes 438 Rapid Review 439 Self Test 440

PART THREE Managing Operations 441

Chapter 11 Supply Chain Management 441

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: DARDEN RESTAURANTS 442 The Supply Chain’s Strategic Importance 444 Sourcing Issues: Make-or-Buy and

Outsourcing 446 Make-or-Buy Decisions 447

Outsourcing 447

Six Sourcing Strategies 447 Many Suppliers 447

Few Suppliers 447

Vertical Integration 448

Joint Ventures 448

Keiretsu Networks 448

Virtual Companies 449

Supply Chain Risk 449 Risks and Mitigation Tactics 450

Security and JIT 451

Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 451 Issues in Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 451

Opportunities in Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 452

Building the Supply Base 454 Supplier Evaluation 454

Supplier Development 454

Negotiations 455

Contracting 455

Centralized Purchasing 455

E-Procurement 456

Logistics Management 456 Shipping Systems 456

Warehousing 457

Third-Party Logistics (3PL) 458

Distribution Management 459 Ethics and Sustainable Supply Chain

Management 460 Supply Chain Management Ethics 460

Establishing Sustainability in Supply Chains 460

Measuring Supply Chain Performance 461 Assets Committed to Inventory 461

Benchmarking the Supply Chain 463

The SCOR Model 463

Summary 464 Key Terms 465 Ethical Dilemma 465 Discussion Questions 465 Solved Problems 465 Problems 466 CASE STUDIES 467

Darden’s Global Supply Chains Video Case 467

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Supply Chain Management at Regal Marine Video Case 467

Arnold Palmer Hospital’s Supply Chain Video Case 468

Endnote 468 Rapid Review 469 Self Test 470

Supplement 11 Supply Chain Management Analytics 471

Techniques for Evaluating Supply Chains 472 Evaluating Disaster Risk in the Supply Chain 472 Managing the Bullwhip Eff ect 474

A Bullwhip Eff ect Measure 475

Supplier Selection Analysis 476 Transportation Mode Analysis 477 Warehouse Storage 478 Summary 479 Discussion Questions 480 Solved Problems 480 Problems 482 Rapid Review 485 Self Test 486

Chapter 12 Inventory Management 487

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: AMAZON.COM 488 The Importance of Inventory 490

Functions of Inventory 490

Types of Inventory 490

Managing Inventory 491 ABC Analysis 491

Record Accuracy 493

Cycle Counting 493

Control of Service Inventories 494

Inventory Models 495 Independent vs. Dependent Demand 495

Holding, Ordering, and Setup Costs 495

Inventory Models for Independent Demand 496 The Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model 496

Minimizing Costs 497

Reorder Points 501

Production Order Quantity Model 502

Quantity Discount Models 505

Probabilistic Models and Safety Stock 508 Other Probabilistic Models 511

Single-Period Model 513 Fixed-Period (P) Systems 514 Summary 515 Key Terms 515 Ethical Dilemma 515

Discussion Questions 515 Using Software to Solve Inventory Problems 516 Solved Problems 517 Problems 520 CASE STUDIES 524

Zhou Bicycle Company 524

Parker Hi-Fi Systems 525

Managing Inventory at Frito-Lay Video Case 525

Inventory Control at Wheeled Coach Video Case 526

Endnotes 526 Rapid Review 527 Self Test 528

Chapter 13 Aggregate Planning and S&OP 529

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: FRITO-LAY 530 The Planning Process 532 Sales and Operations Planning 533 The Nature of Aggregate Planning 534 Aggregate Planning Strategies 535

Capacity Options 535

Demand Options 536

Mixing Options to Develop a Plan 537

Methods for Aggregate Planning 538 Graphical Methods 538

Mathematical Approaches 543

Aggregate Planning in Services 545 Restaurants 546

Hospitals 546

National Chains of Small Service Firms 546

Miscellaneous Services 546

Airline Industry 547

Revenue Management 547 Summary 550 Key Terms 550 Ethical Dilemma 551 Discussion Questions 551 Using Software for Aggregate Planning 552 Solved Problems 554 Problems 555 CASE STUDIES 559

Andrew-Carter, Inc. 559

Using Revenue Management to Set Orlando Magic Ticket Prices Video Case 560

Endnote 560 Rapid Review 561 Self Test 562

Chapter 14 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP 563

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: WHEELED COACH 564 Dependent Demand 566

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Dependent Inventory Model Requirements 566 Master Production Schedule 567

Bills of Material 568

Accurate Inventory Records 570

Purchase Orders Outstanding 570

Lead Times for Components 570

MRP Structure 571 MRP Management 575

MRP Dynamics 575

MRP Limitations 575

Lot-Sizing Techniques 576 Extensions of MRP 580

Material Requirements Planning II (MRP II) 580

Closed-Loop MRP 581

Capacity Planning 581

MRP in Services 583 Distribution Resource Planning (DRP) 584

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 584 ERP in the Service Sector 587

Summary 587 Key Terms 587 Ethical Dilemma 587 Discussion Questions 588 Using Software to Solve MRP Problems 588 Solved Problems 589 Problems 592 CASE STUDIES 595

When 18,500 Orlando Magic Fans Come to Dinner Video Case 595

MRP at Wheeled Coach Video Case 596

Endnotes 596 Rapid Review 597 Self Test 598

Chapter 15 Short-Term Scheduling 599

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ALASKA AIRLINES 600 The Importance of Short-Term Scheduling 602 Scheduling Issues 602

Forward and Backward Scheduling 603

Finite and Infi nite Loading 604

Scheduling Criteria 604

Scheduling Process-Focused Facilities 605 Loading Jobs 605

Input–Output Control 606

Gantt Charts 607

Assignment Method 608

Sequencing Jobs 611 Priority Rules for Sequencing Jobs 611

Critical Ratio 614

Sequencing N Jobs on Two Machines: Johnson’s Rule 615

Limitations of Rule-Based Sequencing Systems 616

Finite Capacity Scheduling (FCS) 617 Scheduling Services 618

Scheduling Service Employees with Cyclical Scheduling 620

Summary 621 Key Terms 621 Ethical Dilemma 621 Discussion Questions 622 Using Software for Short-Term Scheduling 622 Solved Problems 624 Problems 627 CASE STUDIES 630

Old Oregon Wood Store 630

From the Eagles to the Magic: Converting the Amway Center Video Case 631

Scheduling at Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 632

Endnotes 632 Rapid Review 633 Self Test 634

Chapter 16 Lean Operations 635

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION 636

Lean Operations 638 Eliminate Waste 638

Remove Variability 639

Improve Throughput 640

Lean and Just-in-Time 640 Supplier Partnerships 640

Lean Layout 642

Lean Inventory 643

Lean Scheduling 646

Lean Quality 649

Lean and the Toyota Production System 649 Continuous Improvement 649

Respect for People 649

Processes and Standard Work Practice 650

Lean Organizations 650 Building a Lean Organization 650

Lean Sustainability 652

Lean in Services 652 Summary 653 Key Terms 653 Ethical Dilemma 653 Discussion Questions 653 Solved Problem 653 Problems 654

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xix

CASE STUDIES 655 Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines Video Case 655

JIT at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 656

Endnote 656 Rapid Review 657 Self Test 658

Chapter 17 Maintenance and Reliability 659

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ORLANDO UTILITIES COMMISSION 660

The Strategic Importance of Maintenance and Reliability 662

Reliability 663 System Reliability 663

Providing Redundancy 665

Maintenance 667

Implementing Preventive Maintenance 667

Increasing Repair Capabilities 670

Autonomous Maintenance 670

Total Productive Maintenance 671 Summary 671 Key Terms 671 Ethical Dilemma 671 Discussion Questions 671 Using Software to Solve Reliability Problems 672 Solved Problems 672 Problems 672 CASE STUDY 674

Maintenance Drives Profi ts at Frito-Lay Video Case 674

Rapid Review 675 Self Test 676

PART FOUR Business Analytics Modules 677

Module A Decision-Making Tools 677

The Decision Process in Operations 678 Fundamentals of Decision Making 679 Decision Tables 680 Types of Decision-Making Environments 681

Decision Making Under Uncertainty 681

Decision Making Under Risk 682

Decision Making Under Certainty 683

Expected Value of Perfect Information (EVPI) 683

Decision Trees 684 A More Complex Decision Tree 686

The Poker Decision Process 688

Summary 689 Key Terms 689 Discussion Questions 689 Using Software for Decision Models 689 Solved Problems 691 Problems 692 CASE STUDY 696

Warehouse Tenting at the Port of Miami 696

Endnote 696 Rapid Review 697 Self Test 698

Module B Linear Programming 699

Why Use Linear Programming? 700 Requirements of a Linear Programming

Problem 701 Formulating Linear Programming Problems 701

Glickman Electronics Example 701

Graphical Solution to a Linear Programming Problem 702

Graphical Representation of Constraints 702

Iso-Profi t Line Solution Method 703

Corner-Point Solution Method 705

Sensitivity Analysis 705 Sensitivity Report 706

Changes in the Resources or Right-Hand-Side Values 706

Changes in the Objective Function Coeffi cient 707

Solving Minimization Problems 708 Linear Programming Applications 710

Production-Mix Example 710

Diet Problem Example 711

Labor Scheduling Example 712

The Simplex Method of LP 713 Integer and Binary Variables 713

Creating Integer and Binary Variables 713

Linear Programming Applications with Binary Variables 714

A Fixed-Charge Integer Programming Problem 715

Summary 716 Key Terms 716 Discussion Questions 716 Using Software to Solve LP Problems 716 Solved Problems 718 Problems 720 CASE STUDIES 725

Quain Lawn and Garden, Inc. 725

Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines Video Case 726

Endnotes 726 Rapid Review 727 Self Test 728

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xx TABLE OF CONTENTS

Module C Transportation Models 729

Transportation Modeling 730 Developing an Initial Solution 732

The Northwest-Corner Rule 732

The Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method 733

The Stepping-Stone Method 734 Special Issues in Modeling 737

Demand Not Equal to Supply 737

Degeneracy 737

Summary 738 Key Terms 738 Discussion Questions 738 Using Software to Solve Transportation

Problems 738 Solved Problems 740 Problems 741 CASE STUDY 743

Custom Vans, Inc. 743

Rapid Review 745 Self Test 746

Module D Waiting-Line Models 747

Queuing Theory 748 Characteristics of a Waiting-Line System 749

Arrival Characteristics 749

Waiting-Line Characteristics 750

Service Characteristics 751

Measuring a Queue’s Performance 752

Queuing Costs 753 The Variety of Queuing Models 754

Model A (M/M/1): Single-Server Queuing Model with Poisson Arrivals and Exponential Service Times 754

Model B (M/M/S): Multiple-Server Queuing Model 757

Model C (M/D/1): Constant-Service-Time Model 762

Little’s Law 763

Model D (M/M/1 with Finite Source): Finite-Population Model 763

Other Queuing Approaches 765 Summary 765 Key Terms 765 Discussion Questions 765 Using Software to Solve Queuing Problems 766 Solved Problems 766 Problems 768 CASE STUDIES 771

New England Foundry 771

The Winter Park Hotel 772

Endnotes 772 Rapid Review 773 Self Test 774

Module E Learning Curves 775

What Is a Learning Curve? 776 Learning Curves in Services and

Manufacturing 777 Applying the Learning Curve 778

Doubling Approach 778

Formula Approach 779

Learning-Curve Table Approach 779

Strategic Implications of Learning Curves 782 Limitations of Learning Curves 783 Summary 783 Key Term 783 Discussion Questions 783 Using Software for Learning Curves 784 Solved Problems 784 Problems 785 CASE STUDY 787

SMT’s Negotiation with IBM 787

Endnote 788 Rapid Review 789 Self Test 790

Module F Simulation 791

What Is Simulation? 792 Advantages and Disadvantages of Simulation 793 Monte Carlo Simulation 794 Simulation with Two Decision Variables:

An Inventory Example 797 Summary 799 Key Terms 799 Discussion Questions 799 Using Software in Simulation 800 Solved Problems 801 Problems 802 CASE STUDY 805

Alabama Airlines’ Call Center 805

Endnote 806 Rapid Review 807 Self Test 808

Appendix A1 Bibliography B1 Name Index I1 General Index I7

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xxi

ONLINE TUTORIALS

1. Statistical Tools for Managers T1-1

Discrete Probability Distributions T1-2 Expected Value of a Discrete Probability Distribution T1-3

Variance of a Discrete Probability Distribution T1-3

Continuous Probability Distributions T1-4 The Normal Distribution T1-4

Summary T1-7 Key Terms T1-7 Discussion Questions T1-7 Problems T1-7 Bibliography T1-7

2. Acceptance Sampling T2-1

Sampling Plans T2-2 Single Sampling T2-2

Double Sampling T2-2

Sequential Sampling T2-2

Operating Characteristic (OC) Curves T2-2 Producer’s and Consumer’s Risk T2-3 Average Outgoing Quality T2-5 Summary T2-6 Key Terms T2-6 Solved Problem T2-7 Discussion Questions T2-7 Problems T2-7

3. The Simplex Method of Linear Programming T3-1

Converting the Constraints to Equations T3-2 Setting Up the First Simplex Tableau T3-2 Simplex Solution Procedures T3-4 Summary of Simplex Steps for Maximization

Problems T3-6 Artifi cial and Surplus Variables T3-7 Solving Minimization Problems T3-7 Summary T3-8 Key Terms T3-8 Solved Problem T3-8

Discussion Questions T3-8 Problems T3-9

4. The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Transportation Problems T4-1

MODI Method T4-2 How to Use the MODI Method T4-2 Solving the Arizona Plumbing Problem with MODI T4-2

Vogel’s Approximation Method: Another Way to Find an Initial Solution T4-4

Discussion Questions T4-8 Problems T4-8

5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling T5-1

Introduction T5-2 Service Delivery Example: Meals-for-ME T5-2

Objectives of Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-2

Characteristics of Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-3 Classifying Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-3 Solving Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-4

Routing Service Vehicles T5-5 The Traveling Salesman Problem T5-5 Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem T5-8 The Vehicle Routing Problem T5-9 Cluster First, Route Second Approach T5-10

Scheduling Service Vehicles T5-11 The Concurrent Scheduler Approach T5-13

Other Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-13 Summary T5-14 Key Terms T5-15 Discussion Questions T5-15 Problems T5-15 Case Study: Routing and Scheduling of

Phlebotomists T5-17 Bibliography T5-17

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Welcome to your operations management (OM) course. In this book, we present a state-of-the- art view of the operations function. Operations is an exciting area of management that has a profound effect on productivity. Indeed, few other activities have as much impact on the quality of our lives. The goal of this text is to present a broad introduction to the field of operations in a realistic, practical manner. Even if you are not planning on a career in the operations area, you will likely be working with people in operations. Therefore, having a solid understanding of the role of operations in an organization will be of substantial benefit to you. This book will also help you understand how OM affects society and your life. Certainly, you will better understand what goes on behind the scenes when you attend a concert or major sports event; purchase a bag of Frito-Lay potato chips; buy a meal at an Olive Garden or a Hard Rock Cafe; place an order through Amazon.com; board a flight on Alaska Airlines; or enter a hospital for medical care. More than one and a half million readers of our earlier editions seem to have endorsed this premise.

We welcome comments by email from our North American readers and from students using the International edition, the Indian edition, the Arabic edition, and our editions in Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish, Indonesian, and Chinese. Hopefully, you will find this material useful, interest- ing, and even exciting.

New to This Edition We’ve made significant revisions to this edition, and want to share some of the changes with you.

Five New Video Case Studies Featuring Alaska Airlines In this edition, we take you behind the scenes of Alaska Airlines, consistently rated as one of the top carriers in the country. This fascinating organization opened its doors—and planes— so we could examine leading edge OM in the airlines industry. We observe: the quality pro- gram at Alaska Air (Chapter 6); the process analysis behind the airline’s 20-minute baggage retrieval guarantee (Chapter 7); how Alaska empowers its employees (Chapter 10); the air- line’s use of Lean, 5s, kaizen, and Gemba walks (Chapter 16); and the complexities of sched- uling (Module B).

Our prior editions focused on integrated Video Case Studies for the Orlando Magic basketball team, Frito-Lay, Darden Restaurants, Hard Rock Cafe, Arnold Palmer Hospital, Wheeled Coach Ambulances, and Regal Marine. These Video Case Studies appear in this edition as well, along with the five new ones for Alaska Airlines. All of our videos are created by the authors, with the outstanding coauthorship of Beverly Amer at Northern Arizona University, to explicitly match with text content and terminology.

Preface

xxiii

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xxiv PREFACE

Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets We continue to provide two free decision support software programs, Excel OM for Windows and Mac and POM for Windows, to help you and your students solve homework problems and case studies. These excellent packages are found in MyOMLab and at our text’s Student Download Page.

Many instructors also encourage students to develop their own Excel spreadsheet models to tackle OM issues. With this edition, we provide numerous examples at chapter end on how to do so. “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” examples now appear in Chapters 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 13, Supplement 6, Supplement 7, and Modules A, B, and F. We hope these eleven samples will help expand students’ spreadsheet capabilities.

Video Case Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed! Alaska Airlines is unique among the nine major U.S. carriers not only for its extensive flight coverage of remote towns throughout Alaska (it also covers the U.S., Hawaii, and Mexico from its pri- mary hub in Seattle). It is also one of the smallest independent airlines, with 10,300 employees, including 3,000 flight attendants and 1,500 pilots. What makes it really unique, though, is its abil- ity to build state-of-the-art processes, using the latest technology, that yield high customer satisfaction. Indeed, J. D. Power and Associates has ranked Alaska Airlines highest in North America for seven years in a row for customer satisfaction.

Alaska Airlines was the first to sell tickets via the Internet, first to offer Web check-in and print boarding passes online, and first with kiosk check-in. As Wayne Newton, Director of System Operation Control, states, “We are passionate about our pro- cesses. If it’s not measured, it’s not managed.”

One of the processes Alaska is most proud of is its baggage han- dling system. Passengers can check in at kiosks, tag their own bags with bar code stickers, and deliver them to a customer service agent at the carousel, which carries the bags through the vast under- ground system that eventually delivers the bags to a baggage han- dler. En route, each bag passes through TSA automated screening and is manually opened or inspected if it appears suspicious. With the help of bar code readers, conveyer belts automatically sort and transfer bags to their location (called a “pier”) at the tarmac level. A baggage handler then loads the bags onto a cart and takes it to Al

as ka

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in es

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Using Software for Productivity Analysis

This section presents three ways to solve productivity problems with computer software. First, you can create your own Excel spreadsheets to conduct productivity analysis. Second, you can use the Excel OM software that comes with this text. Third, POM for Windows is another program that is available with this text .

Program 1.1

Actions Copy C7 to B7, Copy B14 to C14, Copy C15 to B15, and Copy D14 to D15

Create a row for each of the inputs used for the productivity measure. Put the output in the last row.

=C5*C6

=B10/B7

Enter the values for the old system in column B and the new system in Column C.

Productivity = Output/Input

=(C14-B14)/B14=C10/(C8+C9)

X USING EXCEL OM Excel OM is an Excel “add-in” with 24 Operations Management decision support “Templates.” To access the templates, double- click on the Excel OM tab at the top of the page, then in the menu bar choose the appropriate chapter (in this case Chapter 1 ), from either the “Chapter” or “Alphabetic” tab on the left. Each of Excel OM’s 24 modules includes instructions for that particular module. The instructions can be turned on or off via the “instruction” tab in the menu bar.

P USING POM FOR WINDOWS POM for Windows is decision support software that includes 24 Operations Management modules. The modules are accessed by double-clicking on Module in the menu bar, and then double-clicking on the appropriate (in this case Productivity ) item. Instructions are provided for each module just below the menu bar.

CREATING YOUR OWN EXCEL SPREADSHEETS Program 1.1 illustrates how to build an Excel spreadsheet for the data in Example 2.

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PREFACE xxv

Expanding and Reordering Our Set of Homework Problems We believe that a vast selection of quality homework problems, ranging from easy to challeng- ing (denoted by one to four dots), is critical for both instructors and students. Instructors need a broad selection of problems to choose from for homework, quizzes, and exams—without reus- ing the same set from semester to semester. We take pride in having more problems—by far, with 807—than any other OM text. We added dozens of new problems this edition. The following table illustrates the selection by chapter.

Further, with the majority of our adopters now using the MyOMLab learning system in their classes, we have reorganized all the homework problems—both those appearing in the printed text, as well as the Additional Homework Problems that are available in MyOMLab—by topic heading. We are identifying all problems by topic (see the following example).

The list of all problems by topic also appears at the end of each boxed example, as well as in the Rapid Review that closes each chapter. These handy references should make it easier to assign problems for homework, quizzes, and exams. A rich set of assignable problems and cases makes the learning experience more complete and pedagogically sound.

CHAPTER 5 | DESIGN OF GOODS AND SERVICES 187

Problems 5.4–5.8 relate to Product Development

• • 5.4 Construct a house of quality matrix for a wrist- watch. Be sure to indicate specific customer wants that you think the general public desires. Then complete the matrix to show how an operations manager might identify specific attributes that can be measured and controlled to meet those customer desires.

• • 5.5 Using the house of quality, pick a real product (a good or service) and analyze how an existing organization satis- fies customer requirements.

• • 5.6 Prepare a house of quality for a mousetrap.

• • 5.7 Conduct an interview with a prospective purchaser of a new bicycle and translate the customer’s wants into the specific hows of the firm.

• • • • 5.8 Using the house of quality sequence, as described in Figure 5.4 on page 169, determine how you might deploy resources to achieve the desired quality for a product or service whose production process you understand.

Problems 5.9–5.17 relate to Defining a Product

• • 5.9 Prepare a bill of material for (a) a pair of eyeglasses and its case or (b) a fast-food sandwich (visit a local sandwich

Problems 5.21–5.28 relate to the Application of Decision Trees to Product Design

• • 5.21 The product design group of Iyengar Electric Supplies, Inc., has determined that it needs to design a new series of switches. It must decide on one of three design strategies. The market forecast is for 200,000 units. The better and more sophisticated the design strategy and the more time spent on value engineering, the less will be the variable cost. The chief of engineering design, Dr. W. L. Berry, has decided that the following costs are a good estimate of the initial and variable costs connected with each of the three strategies: a) Low-tech: A low-technology, low-cost process consisting of

hiring several new junior engineers. This option has a fixed cost of $45,000 and variable-cost probabilities of .3 for $.55 each, .4 for $.50, and .3 for $.45.

b) Subcontract: A medium-cost approach using a good outside design staff. This approach would have a fixed cost of $65,000 and variable-cost probabilities of .7 of $.45, .2 of $.40, and .1 of $.35.

c) High-tech: A high-technology approach using the very best of the inside staff and the latest computer-aided design technol- ogy. This approach has a fixed cost of $75,000 and variable- cost probabilities of .9 of $.40 and .1 of $.35.

What is the best decision based on an expected monetary value (EMV) criterion? ( Note: We want the lowest EMV, as we are dealing with costs in this problem.) PX

• • 5.22 MacDonald Products, Inc., of Clarkson, New York, has the option of (a) proceeding immediately with production of

Problem 5.3 is available in MyOMLab.

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Chapter Number of Problems

15 27

16 12

17 24

Module A 32

Module B 42

Module C 18

Module D 39

Module E 33

Module F 25

Chapter Number of Problems

Supplement 7 45

8 34

9 27

10 46

11 8

Supplement 11 20

12 53

13 26

14 32

Chapter Number of Problems

1 18

2 12

3 33

4 59

5 28

Supplement 5 19

6 21

Supplement 6 55

7 17

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Jay, Barry, and Chuck’s OM Blog As a complement to this text, we have created a companion blog, with coordinated features to help teach the OM course. There are teaching tips, highlights of OM items in the news (along with class discussion questions and links), video tips, guest posts by instructors using our text, sample OM syllabi from dozens of colleges, and much more—all arranged by chapter. To learn more about any chapter topics, visit www.heizerrenderOM.wordpress.com . As you prepare your lectures and syllabus, scan our blog for discussion ideas, teaching tips, and classroom exercises.

Lean Operations In previous editions, we sought to explicitly differentiate the concepts of just-in-time, Lean, and Toyota Production System in Chapter 16. However, there is significant overlap and interchangea- bility among those three concepts, so we have revised Chapter 16 to incorporate the three concepts into an overall concept of “Lean.” The chapter suggests that students view Lean as a comprehen- sive integrated operations strategy that sustains competitive advantage and results in increased returns to all stakeholders.

Chapter-by-Chapter Changes To highlight the extent of the revisions in this edition, here are a few of the changes, on a chapter- by-chapter basis.

Chapter 1 : Operations and Productivity We updated Table 1.4 to reflect employment in various sectors and expanded our discussion of Lean operations. Our new case, Uber Technologies, introduces productivity by discussing the dis- ruptive nature of the Uber business model. In addition, there is a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for both labor productivity and multifactor productivity.

Chapter 2 : Operations Strategy in a Global Environment We have updated Figure 2.1 to better reflect changes in the growth of world trade and Figure 2.5 to reflect product life cycle changes. The Minute Lube case has been revised as Rapid Lube. Example 1 (National Architects) has been expanded to clarify factor rating calculations and is also demonstrated with a “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” presentation.

Chapter 3 : Project Management We rewrote and updated the Bechtel Global Company Profile and added a new section on well- defined projects with the “agile” and “waterfall” approaches. There are two new OM in Action boxes: “Agile Project Management at Mastek,” and “Behind the Tour de France.”

Chapter 4 : Forecasting We created a new table comparing the MAD, MSE, and MAPE forecasting error measures. There is also a new OM in Action box called “NYC’s Potholes and Regression Analysis.”

Chapter 5 : Design of Goods and Services We expanded our treatment of concurrent engineering and added two new discussion questions. Solved Problem 5.1 has been revised.

Supplement 5: Sustainability in the Supply Chain We wrote a new introductory section on Corporate Social Responsibility. There is also a new OM in Action box called “Blue Jeans and Sustainability” and 10 new homework problems.

Chapter 6 : Managing Quality We added new material to expand our discussion of Taguchi’s quality loss function. There is a new sec- tion on SERVQUAL, and a new video case study, “Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines,” appears here.

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Supplement 6: Statistical Process Control We added a figure on the relationship between sample size and sampling distribution. We also added raw data to Examples S2 and S3 to illustrate how ranges are computed. There is a new Excel spreadsheet to show students how to make their own c -chart, and we have added three new homework problems.

Chapter 7 : Process Strategy We wrote a new section on machine technology and additive manufacturing. There are two new discussion questions and three new homework problems. Our second new video case study is called “Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed!”

Supplement 7: Capacity and Constraint Management We added a new Table S7.1, which compares and clarifies three capacity measurements, with an example of each. There is a new treatment of expected output and actual output in Example S2. The discussion of bottleneck time versus throughput time has also been expanded. Example S3, capacity analysis with parallel processes, has been revised. We have also added a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for a break-even model. Finally, we updated the Arnold Palmer Hospital capacity planning case with recent data.

Chapter 8 : Location Strategies We added two new OM in Action boxes: “Iowa—Home of Corn and Facebook” and “Denmark’s Meat Cluster.” We changed the notation for the center-of-gravity model to simplify the equa- tion and provided a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” presentation for the center-of- gravity example.

Chapter 9 : Layout Strategies We created a new Muther grid for office relationship charting and added a spread of five layouts showing how offices have evolved over time. There is a new OM in Action box called “Amazon Lets Loose the Robots,” and there is a new graphic example of Proplanner’s Flow Path Calculator. We have included a formula for idle time as a second measure of balance assignment efficiency and added new technology issues to the Arnold Palmer Hospital video case.

Chapter 10 : Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement We added a new OM in Action box, “The Missing Perfect Chair,” and revised the Operations Chart as a service example. Our third new video case study is “The ‘People’ Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines.”

Chapter 11 : Supply Chain Management We added “outsourcing” as a supply chain risk in Table 11.3.

Supplement 11: Supply Chain Management Analytics We added a major section on the topic of Warehouse Storage, with a new model for allocating inven- tory to storage locations. There is a new discussion question and three new homework problems.

Chapter 12 : Inventory Management New Programs 12.1 and 12.2 illustrate “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” for both the production run model and the single-period inventory model. The Excel function NORMSINV is introduced throughout the chapter. The Quantity Discount Model section is totally rewritten to illustrate the feasible solution shortcut. Solved Problem 12.5 is likewise redone with the new approach.

Chapter 13 : Aggregate Planning and S&OP We added a new OM in Action box, “Revenue Management Makes Disney the ‘King’ of the Broadway Jungle.” We also provided a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for the transportation method for aggregate planning, using the Solver approach.

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Chapter 14 : Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP The MRP II example now includes greenhouse gasses.

Chapter 15 : Short-Term Scheduling We begin this chapter with a new Global Company Profile featuring Alaska Airlines and the scheduling issues it faces in its northern climate. We have added two new graphics to help illus- trate Forward and Backward Scheduling. There is also a new section called Performance Criteria, detailing how the choice of priority rule depends on four quantifiable criteria. We now explicitly define the performance criteria for sequencing jobs as separate numbered equations. Also, we provide an explicit formula for job lateness. There is a new OM in Action box called “Starbucks’ Controversial Scheduling Software.”

Chapter 16 : Lean Operations This chapter saw a major reorganization and rewrite with an enhanced focus on Lean operations. There is more material on supplier partnerships and building lean organizations. A new OM in Action box describes the use of kaizen at San Francisco General Hospital, and we have added a new video case study called “Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines.”

Chapter 17 : Maintenance and Reliability There are no major changes in this chapter.

Module A: Decision-Making Tools We added a discussion of “big data” and a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example on how to evaluate a decision table.

Module B: Linear Programming There is a new section on integer and binary programming, two new homework problems, and a new video case study called “Using LP to Meet Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines.” The corner point method is now covered before the iso-profit line approach.

Module C: Transportation Models There are no major changes to Module C.

Module D: Waiting-Line Models The limited population model (Model D) has been replaced by the finite population model, M/M/1 with finite source. This standardizes the queuing notation to match the M/M/1, M/M/s, and M/D/1. We have also expanded the coverage of Little’s Law and added six new homework problems.

Module E: Learning Curves There are no major changes to Module E.

Module F: Simulation We added a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for a simulation problem.

Student Resources To liven up the course and help students learn the content material, we have made available the following resources:

◆ Forty-one exciting Video Case Studies (videos located at MyOMLab ): These Video Case Studies feature real companies (Alaska Airlines, The Orlando Magic, Frito-Lay, Darden Restaurants, Regal Marine, Hard Rock Cafe, Ritz-Carlton, Wheeled Coach, and Arnold Palmer Hospital) and

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allow students to watch short videos, read about the key topics, and answer questions. These case studies can also be assigned without using class time to show the videos. Each of them was developed and written by the text authors to specifi cally supplement the book’s content. Instruc- tors who wish to use these in class, and who don’t have access to MyOMLab, should contact their Pearson Publishing Representative for access to the MyOMLab materials.

◆ POM for Windows software (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer): POM for Windows is a powerful tool for easily solving OM problems. Its 24 modules can be used to solve most of the homework problems in the text.

◆ Excel OM problem-solving software (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www.pearsonhighered.com/heizer): Excel OM is our exclusive user-friendly Excel add-in. Excel OM automatically creates worksheets to model and solve problems. Users select a topic from the pull-down menu and fi ll in the data, and then Excel will display and graph (where appropri- ate) the results. This software is great for student homework, what-if analysis, and classroom demonstrations. This edition includes a new version of Excel OM that is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2013 for Windows, Excel 2011 and 2016 for Mac, and earlier versions of Excel. Professor Howard Weiss, Temple University, developed both Excel OM for Windows and Mac, and POM for Windows to accompany our text and its problem set.

◆ Excel OM data fi les (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer): These data fi les are prepared for specifi c examples and allow users to solve all the marked text examples without reentering any data.

◆ Active Models (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www.pearsonhighered .com/heizer): These 28 Active Models are Excel-based OM simulations, designed to help students understand the quantitative methods shown in the textbook examples. Students may change the data in order to see how the changes aff ect the answers.

◆ Virtual tours (located at MyOMLab): These company tours provide direct links to companies— ranging from a hospital to an auto manufacturer—that practice key OM concepts. After touring each Web site, students are asked questions directly related to the concepts discussed in the chapter.

◆ Online Tutorial Chapters (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer ): “Statistical Tools for Managers,” “Acceptance Sampling,” “The Simplex Method of Linear Programming,” “The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Trans- portation Problems,” and “Vehicle Routing and Scheduling” are provided as additional material.

◆ Additional practice problems (located at MyOMLab): These problems provide problem-solving experience. They supplement the examples and solved problems found in each chapter.

◆ Additional case studies (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer ): Over two dozen additional case studies supplement the ones in the text. Detailed solutions appear in the Solutions Manual.

◆ Virtual offi ce hours (located at MyOMLab): Professors Heizer, Render, and Munson walk stu- dents through all 89 Solved Problems in a series of 5- to 20-minute explanations. These have been updated with this new edition.

Instructor Resources At the Instructor Resource Center, www.pearsonhighered.com/irc , instructors can easily register to gain access to a variety of instructor resources available with this text in downloadable format. If assistance is needed, our dedicated technical support team is ready to help with the media sup- plements that accompany this text. Visit http://247.pearsoned.com for answers to frequently asked questions and toll-free user support phone numbers.

The following supplements are available with this text:

Instructor’s Resource Manual The Instructor’s Resource Manual, updated by co-author Chuck Munson, contains many useful resources for instructors—PowerPoint presentations with annotated notes, course outlines, video notes, blog highlights, learning techniques, Internet exercises and sample answers, case analysis ideas, additional teaching resources, and faculty notes.

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Instructor’s Solutions Manual The Instructor’s Solutions Manual, written by the authors, contains the answers to all of the dis- cussion questions, Ethical Dilemmas , Active Models, and cases in the text, as well as worked-out solutions to all the end-of-chapter problems, additional homework problems, and additional case studies.

PowerPoint Presentations An extensive set of PowerPoint presentations, created by Professor Jeff Heyl of Lincoln University, is available for each chapter. With well over 2,000 slides, this set has excellent color and clarity.

Test Bank / TestGen® Computerized Test Bank The test bank, updated by James Roh, contains a variety of true/false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions, along with a selection of written problems, for each chapter. Test questions are annotated with the following information:

◆ Diffi culty level ◆ Type: multiple-choice, true/false, short-answer, essay, problem ◆ Learning objective ◆ AACSB (see the description that follows)

TestGen®, Pearson Education’s test-generating software, is PC/MAC compatible and preloaded with all the test bank questions. The test program permits instructors to edit, add, and delete ques- tions from the test bank to create customized tests.

The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)

The test bank has connected select questions to the general knowledge and skill guidelines found in the AACSB Assurance of Learning standards.

AACSB is a not-for-profit corporation of educational institutions, corporations, and other organizations devoted to the promotion and improvement of higher education in business admin- istration and accounting. A collegiate institution offering degrees in business administration or accounting may volunteer for AACSB accreditation review. The AACSB makes initial accredi- tation decisions and conducts periodic reviews to promote continuous quality improvement in management education. Pearson Education is a proud member of the AACSB and is pleased to provide advice to help you apply AACSB assurance of learning standards.

What are AACSB assurance of learning standards? One of the criteria for AACSB accredita- tion is quality of the curricula. Although no specific courses are required, the AACSB expects a curriculum to include learning experiences in the following areas:

◆ Written and oral communication ◆ Ethical understanding and reasoning ◆ Analytical thinking ◆ Information technology ◆ Interpersonal relations and teamwork ◆ Diverse and multicultural work environments ◆ Refl ective thinking ◆ Application of knowledge

Questions that test skills relevant to these guidelines are appropriately tagged. For example, a question regarding clothing manufactured for U.S. firms by 10-year olds in Asia would receive the Ethical understanding and reasoning tag.

Tagged questions help you measure whether students are grasping the course content that aligns with the AACSB guidelines noted. In addition, the tagged questions may help instructors identify potential applications of these skills. This in turn may suggest enrichment activities or other educational experiences to help students achieve these skills.

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AACSB

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Video Package Designed and created by the authors specifically for their Heizer/Render/Munson texts, the video package contains the following 41 videos:

◆ Frito-Lay: Operations Management in Manufacturing ( Chapter 1 ) ◆ Hard Rock Cafe: Operations Management in Services ( Chapter 1 ) ◆ Strategy at Regal Marine ( Chapter 2 ) ◆ Hard Rock Cafe’s Global Strategy ( Chapter 2 ) ◆ Outsourcing Off shore at Darden ( Chapter 2 ) ◆ Project Management at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 3 ) ◆ Managing Hard Rock’s Rockfest ( Chapter 3 ) ◆ Forecasting Ticket Revenue for Orlando Magic Basketball Games ( Chapter 4 ) ◆ Forecasting at Hard Rock Cafe ( Chapter 4 ) ◆ Product Design at Regal Marine ( Chapter 5 ) ◆ Building Sustainability at the Orlando Magic’s Amway Center ( Supplement 5 ) ◆ Green Manufacturing and Sustainability at Frito-Lay ( Supplement 5 ) ◆ Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines ( Chapter 6 ) ◆ The Culture of Quality at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 6 ) ◆ Quality at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company ( Chapter 6 ) ◆ Frito-Lay’s Quality-Controlled Potato Chips ( Supplement 6 ) ◆ Farm to Fork: Quality at Darden Restaurants ( Supplement 6 ) ◆ Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed! ( Chapter 7 ) ◆ Process Strategy at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 7 ) ◆ Process Analysis at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 7 ) ◆ Capacity Planning at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Supplement 7 ) ◆ Locating the Next Red Lobster Restaurant ( Chapter 8 ) ◆ Where to Place the Hard Rock Cafe ( Chapter 8 ) ◆ Facility Layout at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 9 ) ◆ Laying Out Arnold Palmer Hospital’s New Facility ( Chapter 9 ) ◆ The “People” Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines ( Chapter 10 ) ◆ Hard Rock’s Human Resource Strategy ( Chapter 10 ) ◆ Darden’s Global Supply Chains ( Chapter 11 ) ◆ Supply Chain Management at Regal Marine ( Chapter 11 ) ◆ Arnold Palmer Hospital’s Supply Chain ( Chapter 11 ) ◆ Managing Inventory at Frito-Lay ( Chapter 12 ) ◆ Inventory Control at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 12 ) ◆ Using Revenue Management to Set Orlando Magic Ticket Prices ( Chapter 13 ) ◆ When 18,500 Orlando Magic Fans Come to Dinner ( Chapter 14 ) ◆ MRP at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 14 ) ◆ From the Eagles to the Magic: Converting the Amway Center ( Chapter 15 ) ◆ Scheduling at Hard Rock Cafe ( Chapter 15 ) ◆ Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines ( Chapter 16 ) ◆ JIT at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 16 ) ◆ Maintenance Drives Profi ts at Frito-Lay ( Chapter 17 ) ◆ Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines (Module B)

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ALABAMA John Mittenthal University of Alabama Philip F. Musa University of Alabama at Birmingham William Petty University of Alabama Doug Turner Auburn University

ALASKA Paul Jordan University of Alaska

ARIZONA Susan K. Norman Northern Arizona University Scott Roberts Northern Arizona University Vicki L. Smith-Daniels Arizona State University Susan K. Williams Northern Arizona University

CALIFORNIA Jean-Pierre Amor University of San Diego Moshen Attaran California State University–Bakersfi eld Ali Behnezhad California State University–Northridge Joe Biggs California Polytechnic State University Lesley Buehler Ohlone College Rick Hesse Pepperdine Ravi Kathuria Chapman University Richard Martin California State University–Long Beach Ozgur Ozluk San Francisco State University Zinovy Radovilsky California State University–Hayward Robert J. Schlesinger San Diego State University

V. Udayabhanu San Francisco State University Rick Wing San Francisco State University

COLORADO Peter Billington Colorado State University–Pueblo Gregory Stock University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

CONNECTICUT David Cadden Quinnipiac University Larry A. Flick Norwalk Community Technical College

FLORIDA Joseph P. Geunes University of Florida Rita Gibson Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Jim Gilbert Rollins College Donald Hammond University of South Florida Wende Huehn-Brown St. Petersburg College Adam Munson University of Florida Ronald K. Satterfi eld University of South Florida Theresa A. Shotwell Florida A&M University Jeff Smith Florida State University

GEORGIA John H. Blackstone University of Georgia Johnny Ho Columbus State University John Hoft Columbus State University John Miller Mercer University

Nikolay Osadchiy Emory University Spyros Reveliotis Georgia Institute of Technology

ILLINOIS Suad Alwan Chicago State University Lori Cook DePaul University Matt Liontine University of Illinois–Chicago Zafar Malik Governors State University

INDIANA Barbara Flynn Indiana University B.P. Lingeraj Indiana University Frank Pianki Anderson University Stan Stockton Indiana University Jerry Wei University of Notre Dame Jianghua Wu Purdue University Xin Zhai Purdue University

IOWA Debra Bishop Drake University Kevin Watson Iowa State University Lifang Wu University of Iowa

KANSAS William Barnes Emporia State University George Heinrich Wichita State University Sue Helms Wichita State University Hugh Leach Washburn University

xxxii PREFACE

Acknowledgments We thank the many individuals who were kind enough to assist us in this endeavor. The following professors provided insights that guided us in this edition (their names are in bold) and in prior editions:

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M.J. Riley Kansas State University Teresita S. Salinas Washburn University Avanti P. Sethi Wichita State University

KENTUCKY Wade Ferguson Western Kentucky University Kambiz Tabibzadeh Eastern Kentucky University

LOUISIANA Roy Clinton University of Louisiana at Monroe L. Wayne Shell (retired) Nicholls State University

MARYLAND Eugene Hahn Salisbury University Samuel Y. Smith, Jr. University of Baltimore

MASSACHUSETTS Peter Ittig University of Massachusetts Jean Pierre Kuilboer University of Massachusetts–Boston Dave Lewis University of Massachusetts–Lowell Mike Maggard (retired) Northeastern University Peter Rourke Wentworth Institute of Technology Daniel Shimshak University of Massachusetts–Boston Ernest Silver Curry College Yu Amy Xia Northeastern University

MICHIGAN Darlene Burk Western Michigan University Damodar Golhar Western Michigan University Dana Johnson Michigan Technological University Doug Moodie Michigan Technological University

MINNESOTA Rick Carlson Metropolitan State University John Nicolay University of Minnesota Michael Pesch St. Cloud State University Manus Rungtusanatham University of Minnesota Kingshuk Sinha University of Minnesota Peter Southard University of St. Thomas

MISSOURI Shahid Ali Rockhurst University Stephen Allen Truman State University Sema Alptekin University of Missouri–Rolla Gregory L. Bier University of Missouri–Columbia James Campbell University of Missouri–St. Louis Wooseung Jang University of Missouri–Columbia Mary Marrs University of Missouri–Columbia A. Lawrence Summers University of Missouri

NEBRASKA Zialu Hug University of Nebraska–Omaha

NEVADA Joel D. Wisner University of Nevada, Las Vegas

NEW JERSEY Daniel Ball Monmouth University Leon Bazil Stevens Institute of Technology Mark Berenson Montclair State University Grace Greenberg Rider University Joao Neves The College of New Jersey Leonard Presby William Paterson University

Faye Zhu Rowan University

NEW MEXICO William Kime University of New Mexico

NEW YORK Theodore Boreki Hofstra University John Drabouski DeVry University Richard E. Dulski Daemen College Jonatan Jelen Baruch College Beate Klingenberg Marist College Donna Mosier SUNY Potsdam Elizabeth Perry SUNY Binghamton William Reisel St. John’s University Kaushik Sengupta Hofstra University Girish Shambu Canisius College Rajendra Tibrewala New York Institute of Technology

NORTH CAROLINA Coleman R. Rich Elon University Ray Walters Fayetteville Technical Community College

OHIO Victor Berardi Kent State University Andrew R. Thomas University of Akron

OKLAHOMA Wen-Chyuan Chiang University of Tulsa

OREGON Anne Deidrich Warner Pacifi c College Gordon Miller Portland State University

PREFACE xxxiii

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xxxiv PREFACE

John Sloan Oregon State University

PENNSYLVANIA Henry Crouch Pittsburgh State University Jeff rey D. Heim Pennsylvania State University James F. Kimpel University of Pittsburgh Ian M. Langella Shippensburg University Prafulla Oglekar LaSalle University David Pentico Duquesne University Stanford Rosenberg LaRoche College Edward Rosenthal Temple University Susan Sherer Lehigh University Howard Weiss Temple University

RHODE ISLAND Laurie E. Macdonald Bryant College John Swearingen Bryant College Susan Sweeney Providence College

SOUTH CAROLINA Jerry K. Bilbrey Anderson University Larry LaForge Clemson University Emma Jane Riddle Winthrop University

TENNESSEE Joseph Blackburn Vanderbilt University Hugh Daniel Lipscomb University

Cliff Welborn Middle Tennessee State University

TEXAS Warren W. Fisher Stephen F. Austin State University Garland Hunnicutt Texas State University Gregg Lattier Lee College Henry S. Maddux III Sam Houston State University Arunachalam Narayanan Texas A&M University Ranga V. Ramasesh Texas Christian University Victor Sower San Houston State University Cecelia Temponi Texas State University John Visich-Disc University of Houston Dwayne Whitten Texas A&M University Bruce M. Woodworth University of Texas–El Paso

UTAH William Christensen Dixie State College of Utah Shane J. Schvaneveldt Weber State University Madeline Thimmes (retired) Utah State University

VIRGINIA Andy Litteral University of Richmond Arthur C. Meiners, Jr. Marymount University Michael Plumb Tidewater Community College

WASHINGTON Mark McKay University of Washington

Chris Sandvig Western Washington University John Stec Oregon Institute of Technology

WASHINGTON, DC Narendrea K. Rustagi Howard University

WEST VIRGINIA Charles Englehardt Salem International University Daesung Ha Marshall University John Harpell West Virginia University James S. Hawkes University of Charleston

WISCONSIN James R. Gross University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh Marilyn K. Hart (retired) University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh Niranjan Pati University of Wisconsin–La Crosse X. M. Saff ord Milwaukee Area Technical College Rao J. Taikonda University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

WYOMING Cliff Asay University of Wyoming

INTERNATIONAL Steven Harrod Technical University of Denmark Robert D. Klassen University of Western Ontario Ronald Lau Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

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PREFACE xxxv

In addition, we appreciate the wonderful people at Pearson Education who provided both help and advice: Stephanie Wall, our superb editor-in-chief; Lenny Ann Kucenski, our dynamo mar- keting manager; Linda Albelli, our editorial assistant; Courtney Kamauf and Andra Skaalrud for their fantastic and dedicated work on MyOMLab; Jeff Holcomb, our project manager team lead; Claudia Fernandes, our program manager; Jacqueline Martin, our senior project manager; and Heidi Allgair, our project manager at Cenveo® Publisher Services. We are truly blessed to have such a fantastic team of experts directing, guiding, and assisting us.

In this edition, we were thrilled to be able to include one of the country’s premier airlines, Alaska Airlines, in our ongoing Video Case Study series. This was possible because of the wonderful efforts of COO/EVP-Operations Ben Minicucci, and his superb management team. This included John Ladner (Managing Director, Seattle Station Operations), Wayne Newton (Managing Director, Station Operations Control), Mike McQueen (Director, Schedule Planning), Chad Koehnke (Director, Planning and Resource Allocation), Cheryl Schulz (Executive Assistant to EVP Minicucci), Jeffrey Butler (V.P. Airport Operations & Customer Service), Dan Audette (Manager of Operations Research and Analysis), Allison Fletcher (Process Improvement Manager), Carlos Zendejas (Manager Line-Flying Operations, Pilots), Robyn Garner (Flight Attendant Trainer), and Nikki Meier and Sara Starbuck (Process Improvement Facilitators). We are grateful to all of these fine people, as well as the many others that participated in the develop- ment of the videos and cases during our trips to the Seattle headquarters.

We also appreciate the efforts of colleagues who have helped to shape the entire learning pack- age that accompanies this text. Professor Howard Weiss (Temple University) developed the Active Models, Excel OM, and POM for Windows software; Professor Jeff Heyl (Lincoln University) created the PowerPoint presentations; and Professor James Roh (Rowan University) updated the test bank. Beverly Amer (Northern Arizona University) produced and directed the video series; Professors Keith Willoughby (Bucknell University) and Ken Klassen (Brock University) contrib- uted the two Excel-based simulation games; and Professor Gary LaPoint (Syracuse University) developed the Microsoft Project crashing exercise and the dice game for SPC. We have been fortu- nate to have been able to work with all these people.

We wish you a pleasant and productive introduction to operations management.

JAY HEIZER Texas Lutheran University 1000 W. Court Street Seguin, TX 78155 Email: jheizer@tlu.edu

BARRY RENDER Graduate School of Business Rollins College Winter Park, FL 32789 Email: brender@rollins.edu

CHUCK MUNSON Carson College of Business Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-4746 Email: munson@wsu.edu

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xxxvi PREFACE

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT, 12TH EDITION ISBN: 0-13-413042-1

PART I INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 1. Operations and Productivity 2. Operations Strategy in a Global

Environment 3. Project Management 4. Forecasting

PART II DESIGNING OPERATIONS 5. Design of Goods and Services S5. Sustainability in the Supply Chain 6. Managing Quality S6. Statistical Process Control 7. Process Strategy S7. Capacity and Constraint Management 8. Location Strategies 9. Layout Strategies 10. Human Resources, Job Design, and

Work Measurement

PART III MANAGING OPERATIONS 11. Supply Chain Management S11. Supply Chain Management Analytics 12. Inventory Management 13. Aggregate Planning and S&OP 14. Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

and ERP 15. Short-Term Scheduling 16. Lean Operations 17. Maintenance and Reliability

PART IV BUSINESS ANALYTICS MODULES A. Decision-Making Tools B. Linear Programming C. Transportation Models D. Waiting-Line Models E. Learning Curves F. Simulation

ONLINE TUTORIALS 1. Statistical Tools for Managers 2. Acceptance Sampling 3. The Simplex Method of Linear

Programming 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of

Solving Transportation Problems 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT, 10TH EDITION ISBN: 0-13-418198-0

PART I INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 1. Operations and Productivity 2. Operations Strategy in a Global

Environment 3. Project Management 4. Forecasting

PART II DESIGNING OPERATIONS 5. Design of Goods and Services S5. Sustainability in the Supply Chain 6. Managing Quality S6. Statistical Process Control 7. Process Strategy S7. Capacity and Constraint Management 8. Location Strategies 9. Layout Strategies 10. Human Resources, Job Design, and

Work Measurement

PART III MANAGING OPERATIONS 11. Supply Chain Management S11. Supply Chain Management Analytics 12. Inventory Management 13. Aggregate Planning and S&OP 14. Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

and ERP 15. Short-Term Scheduling 16. Lean Operations 17. Maintenance and Reliability

ONLINE TUTORIALS 1. Statistical Tools for Managers 2. Acceptance Sampling 3. The Simplex Method of Linear

Programming 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of

Solving Transportation Problems 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

TWO VERSIONS ARE AVAILABLE This text is available in two versions: Operations Management , 12th edition, a hardcover, and Principles of Operations Management , 10th edition, a paperback. Both books include the identi- cal core Chapters 1 – 17 . However, Operations Management , 12th edition also includes six business analytics modules in Part IV .

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O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

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CHAPTER O U T L I N E

1 ◆ What Is Operations Management? 4 ◆ Organizing to Produce Goods

and Services 4 ◆ The Supply Chain 6 ◆ Why Study OM? 6 ◆ What Operations Managers Do 7 ◆ The Heritage of Operations Management 8

◆ Operations for Goods and Services 11 ◆ The Productivity Challenge 13 ◆ Current Challenges in Operations

Management 18 ◆ Ethics, Social Responsibility, and

Sustainability 19

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: Hard Rock Cafe

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PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management

Operations and Productivity

1010 OMOM STRATEGY DECISIONS

• • Design of Goods and Services • • Managing Quality • • Process Strategy • • Location Strategies • • Layout Strategies

• • Human Resources • • Supply-Chain Management • • Inventory Management • • Scheduling • • Maintenance

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Operations managers throughout the world are producing products every day to provide for the well-being of society. These products take on a multitude of forms. They may be washing machines at Whirlpool, motion pictures at DreamWorks, rides at Disney World, or food at Hard Rock Cafe. These firms produce thousands of complex products every day—to be

delivered as the customer ordered them, when the customer wants them, and where the cus-

tomer wants them. Hard Rock does this for over 35 million guests worldwide every year. This is a

challenging task, and the operations manager’s job, whether at Whirlpool, DreamWorks, Disney,

or Hard Rock, is demanding.

Operations Management at Hard Rock Cafe

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE Hard Rock Cafe

C H A P T E R 1

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Hard Rock Cafe in Orlando, Florida, prepares over 3,500 meals each day. Seating more than 1,500 people, it is one of the largest restaurants in the world. But Hard Rock’s operations managers serve the hot food hot and the cold food cold.

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Operations managers are interested in the attractiveness of the layout, but they must be sure that the facility contributes to the efficient movement of people and material with the necessary controls to ensure that proper portions are served.

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Orlando-based Hard Rock Cafe opened its first restau-

rant in London in 1971, making it over 45 years old and the

granddaddy of theme restaurants. Although other theme

restaurants have come and gone, Hard Rock is still going

strong, with 150 restaurants in more than 53 countries—and

new restaurants opening each year. Hard Rock made its

name with rock music memorabilia, having started when Eric

Clapton, a regular customer, marked his favorite bar stool

by hanging his guitar on the wall in the London cafe. Now

Hard Rock has 70,000 items and millions of dollars invested

in memorabilia. To keep customers coming back time and

again, Hard Rock creates value in the form of good food and

entertainment.

The operations managers at Hard Rock Cafe at Uni-

versal Studios in Orlando provide more than 3,500 custom

products—in this case meals—every day. These products

are designed, tested, and then analyzed for cost of

Lots of work goes into designing, testing, and costing meals. Then suppliers deliver quality products on time, every time, for well-trained cooks to prepare quality meals. But none of that matters unless an enthusiastic waitstaff, such as the one shown here, holding guitars previously owned by members of U2, is doing its job.

Efficient kitchen layouts, motivated personnel, tight schedules, and the right ingredients at the right place at the right time are required to delight the customer.

Lots of work goes into designing testing and costing

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ingredients, labor requirements, and customer satisfaction.

On approval, menu items are put into production—and then

only if the ingredients are available from qualified suppliers.

The production process, from receiving, to cold storage,

to grilling or baking or frying, and a dozen other steps, is

designed and maintained to yield a quality meal. Operations

managers, using the best people they can recruit and train,

also prepare effective employee schedules and design

efficient layouts.

Managers who successfully design and deliver goods

and services throughout the world understand operations.

In this text, we look not only at how Hard Rock’s manag-

ers create value but also how operations managers in other

services, as well as in manufacturing, do so. Operations

management is demanding, challenging, and exciting. It

affects our lives every day. Ultimately, operations managers

determine how well we live.

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4

What Is Operations Management? Operations management (OM) is a discipline that applies to restaurants like Hard Rock Cafe as well as to factories like Ford and Whirlpool. The techniques of OM apply throughout the world to virtually all productive enterprises. It doesn’t matter if the application is in an office, a hospital, a restaurant, a department store, or a factory—the production of goods and ser- vices requires operations management. And the efficient production of goods and services requires effective applications of the concepts, tools, and techniques of OM that we introduce in this book.

As we progress through this text, we will discover how to manage operations in an economy in which both customers and suppliers are located throughout the world. An array of informa- tive examples, charts, text discussions, and pictures illustrates concepts and provides informa- tion. We will see how operations managers create the goods and services that enrich our lives.

In this chapter, we first define operations management , explaining its heritage and exploring the exciting role operations managers play in a huge variety of organizations. Then we discuss production and productivity in both goods- and service-producing firms. This is followed by a discussion of operations in the service sector and the challenge of managing an effective and efficient production system.

Production is the creation of goods and services. Operations management (OM) is the set of activi- ties that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs. Activities creating goods and services take place in all organizations. In manufacturing firms, the production activities that create goods are usually quite obvious. In them, we can see the creation of a tangible product such as a Sony TV or a Harley-Davidson motorcycle.

In an organization that does not create a tangible good or product, the production func- tion may be less obvious. We often call these activities services . The services may be “hidden” from the public and even from the customer. The product may take such forms as the transfer of funds from a savings account to a checking account, the transplant of a liver, the filling of an empty seat on an airplane, or the education of a student. Regardless of whether the end product is a good or service, the production activities that go on in the organization are often referred to as operations, or operations management .

Organizing to Produce Goods and Services To create goods and services, all organizations perform three functions (see Figure 1.1 ). These functions are the necessary ingredients not only for production but also for an organization’s survival. They are:

1. Marketing , which generates the demand, or at least takes the order for a product or ser- vice (nothing happens until there is a sale).

Categories
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process recordings social work

A process recording is a written tool used by field education experience students to examine the dynamics of social work interactions in time. Process recordings can help in developing and refining interviewing and intervention skills. By conceptualizing and organizing ongoing activities with social work clients, you are able to clarify the purpose of interviews and interventions, identify personal and professional strengths and weaknesses, and improve self-awareness. The process recording is also a useful tool in exploring the interpersonal dynamics and values operating between you and the client system through an analysis of filtering the process used in recording a session.

For this Assignment, you will submit a process recording of your field education experiences specific to this week.

Note: You are submitting a written transcript, not an audio or video recording.

The Assignment (2–4 pages):

  • Provide a transcript of what happened during your field education experience, including a dialogue of interaction with a client.
  • Explain your interpretation of what occurred in the dialogue, including social work practice theories, and explain how it might relate to diversity or cultural competence covered this week.
  • Describe your reactions and/or any issues related to your interaction with a client during your field education experience.
  • Explain how you applied social work practice skills when performing the activities during your process recording.
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“teens are less guilty by reason of adolescence” because their:

CHAPTER 4: Developing Through the Life Span

Life is a journey, from womb to tomb. So it is for me, and so it will be for you. My story, and yours, began when a man and a woman contributed 20,000+ genes to an egg that became a unique person. Those genes coded the protein building blocks that, with astonishing precision, formed our bodies and predisposed our traits. My grandmother bequeathed to my mother a rare hearing-loss pattern, which she, in turn, gave to me (the least of her gifts). My father was an amiable extravert, and sometimes I forget to stop talking. As a child, my talking was impeded by painful stuttering, for which Seattle Public Schools gave me speech therapy.

Along with my parents’ nature, I also received their nurture. Like you, I was born into a particular family and culture, with its own way of viewing the world. My values have been shaped by a family culture filled with talking and laughter, by a religious culture that speaks of love and justice, and by an academic culture that encourages critical thinking (asking, What do you mean? How do you know?).

We are formed by our genes, and by our contexts, so our stories will differ. But in many ways we are each like nearly everyone else on Earth. Being human, you and I have a need to belong. My mental video library, which began after age 4, is filled with scenes of social attachment. Over time, my attachments to parents loosened as peer friendships grew. After lacking confidence to date in high school, I fell in love with a college classmate and married at age 20. Natural selection disposes us to survive and perpetuate our genes. Sure enough, two years later a child entered our lives and I experienced a new form of love that surprised me with its intensity.

But life is marked by change. That child now lives 2000 miles away, and one of his two siblings has found her calling in South Africa. The tight rubber bands linking parent and child have loosened, as yours likely have as well.

Change also marks most vocational lives, which for me transitioned from a teen working in the family insurance agency, to a premed chemistry major and hospital aide, to (after discarding my half-completed medical school applications) a psychology professor and author. I predict that in 10 years you, too, will be doing things you do not currently anticipate.

Stability also marks our development. When I look in the mirror I do not see the person I once was, but I feel like the person I have always been. I am the same person who, as a late teen, played basketball and discovered love. A half-century later, I still play basketball and still love (with less passion but more security) the life partner with whom I have shared life’s griefs and joys.

We experience a continuous self, but that self morphs through stages—growing up, raising children, enjoying a career, and, eventually, life’s final stage, which will demand my presence. As I wend my way through this cycle of life and death, I am mindful that life’s journey is a continuing process of development, seeded by nature and shaped by nurture, animated by love and focused by work, begun with wide-eyed curiosity and completed, for those blessed to live to a good old age, with peace and never-ending hope.

Across the life span we grow from newborn to toddler, from toddler to teenager, and from teen to mature adult. At each stage of life’s journey there are physical, cognitive, and social milestones. Let’s begin at the very beginning.

Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues

4-1: What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists?

Developmental psychology examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span, with a focus on three major issues:

· 1.  Nature and nurture:  How does our genetic inheritance (our nature) interact with our experiences (our nurture) to influence our development? How have your nature and your nurture influenced your life story?

· 2.  Continuity and stages:  What parts of development are gradual and continuous, like riding an escalator? What parts change abruptly in separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?

· 3.  Stability and change:  Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age?

developmental psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

“Nature is all that a man brings with him into the world; nurture is every influence that affects him after his birth.”

Francis Galton, English Men of Science, 1874

We will reflect on these three developmental issues throughout this chapter.

Prenatal Development and the Newborn

4-2: What is the course of prenatal development, and how do teratogens affect that development?

Conception

Nothing is more natural than a species reproducing itself. And nothing is more wondrous. With humans, the process starts when a woman’s ovary releases a mature egg—a cell roughly the size of the period at the end of this sentence. Like space voyagers approaching a huge planet, the 200 million or more deposited sperm begin their race upstream, approaching a cell 85,000 times their own size. The relatively few reaching the egg release digestive enzymes that eat away its protective coating. As soon as one sperm penetrates that coating and is welcomed in the egg’s surface blocks out the others. Before half a day elapses, the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse. The two have become one.

Consider it your most fortunate of moments. Among 200 million sperm, the one needed to make you, in combination with that one particular egg, won the race. And so it was for innumerable generations before us. If any one of our ancestors had been conceived with a different sperm or egg, or died before conceiving, or not chanced to meet the partner or … the mind boggles at the improbable, unbroken chain of events that produced you and me.

Prenatal Development

Fewer than half of all fertilized eggs, called zygotes, survive beyond the first 2 weeks (Grobstein, 1979; Hall, 2004). But for you and me, good fortune prevailed. One cell became 2, then 4—each just like the first—until this cell division had produced some 100 identical cells within the first week. Then the cells began to differentiate—to specialize in structure and function. How identical cells do this—as if one decides “I’ll become a brain, you become intestines!”—is a puzzle that scientists are just beginning to solve.

zygote the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

About 10 days after conception, the zygote attaches to the mother’s uterine wall, beginning approximately 37 weeks of the closest human relationship. The zygote’s inner cells become the embryo. The outer cells become the placenta, the life-link that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to embryo. Over the next 6 weeks, the embryo’s organs begin to form and function. The heart begins to beat.

embryo the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

By 9 weeks after conception, an embryo looks unmistakably human. It is now a fetus (Latin for “offspring” or “young one”). During the sixth month, organs such as the stomach have developed enough to give the fetus a chance of survival if born prematurely.

fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

At each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors affect our development. By the sixth month, microphone readings taken inside the uterus reveal that the fetus is responsive to sound and is exposed to the sound of its mother’s muffled voice (Ecklund-Flores, 1992; Hepper, 2005). Immediately after birth, newborns prefer her voice to another woman’s or to their father’s (Busnel et al., 1992; DeCasper et al., 1984, 1986, 1994). They also prefer hearing their mother’s language. If she spoke two languages during pregnancy, they display interest in both (Byers-Heinlein et al., 2010). And just after birth, the melodic ups and downs of newborns’ cries bear the tuneful signature of their mother’s native tongue (Mampe et al., 2009). Babies born to French-speaking mothers tend to cry with the rising intonation of French; babies born to German-speaking mothers cry with the falling tones of German. Would you have guessed? The learning of language begins in the womb.

In the two months before birth, fetuses demonstrate learning in other ways, as when they adapt to a vibrating, honking device placed on their mother’s abdomen (Dirix et al., 2009). Like people who adapt to the sound of trains in their neighborhood, fetuses get used to the honking. Moreover, four weeks later, they recall the sound (as evidenced by their blasé response, compared with the reactions of those not previously exposed).

Sounds are not the only stimuli fetuses are exposed to in the womb. In addition to transferring nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus, the placenta screens out many harmful substances, but some slip by. Teratogens, agents such as toxins, viruses, and drugs, can damage an embryo or fetus. This is one reason pregnant women are advised not to drink alcoholic beverages. A pregnant woman never drinks alone. As alcohol enters her bloodstream, and her fetus’, it depresses activity in both their central nervous systems. Alcohol use during pregnancy may prime the woman’s offspring to like alcohol and may put them at risk for heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder during their teens. In experiments, when pregnant rats drank alcohol, their young offspring later displayed a liking for alcohol’s taste and odor (Youngentob et al., 2007, 2009).

teratogens (literally, “monster maker”) agents, such as toxins, chemicals, and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

Even light drinking or occasional binge drinking can affect the fetal brain (Braun, 1996; Ikonomidou et al., 2000; Sayal et al., 2009). Persistent heavy drinking puts the fetus at risk for birth defects and for future behavior problems, hyperactivity, and lower intelligence. For 1 in about 800 infants, the effects are visible as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), marked by a small, misproportioned head and lifelong brain abnormalities (May & Gossage, 2001). The fetal damage may occur because alcohol has what Chapter 2 called an epigenetic effect: It leaves chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off (Liu et al., 2009).

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.

Prenatal development

zygote:  conception to 2 weeks
embryo:  2 weeks through 8 weeks
fetus:  9 weeks to birth

“You shall conceive and bear a son. So then drink no wine or strong drink.”

Judges 13:7

“I felt like a man trapped in a woman’s body. Then I was born.”

Comedian Chris Bliss

The Competent Newborn

4-3: What are some newborn abilities, and how do researchers explore infants’ mental abilities?

Babies come with software preloaded on their neural hard drives. Having survived prenatal hazards, we as newborns came equipped with automatic reflex responses ideally suited for our survival. We withdrew our limbs to escape pain. If a cloth over our face interfered with our breathing, we turned our head from side to side and swiped at it.

New parents are often in awe of the coordinated sequence of reflexes by which their baby gets food. When something touches their cheek, babies turn toward that touch, open their mouth, and vigorously root for a nipple. Finding one, they automatically close on it and begin sucking—which itself requires a coordinated sequence of reflexive tonguing, swallowing, and breathing. Failing to find satisfaction, the hungry baby may cry—a behavior parents find highly unpleasant and very rewarding to relieve.

The pioneering American psychologist William James presumed that newborns experience a “blooming, buzzing confusion,” an assumption few people challenged until the 1960s. Then scientists discovered that babies can tell you a lot—if you know how to ask. To ask, you must capitalize on what babies can do—gaze, suck, turn their heads. So, equipped with eye-tracking machines and pacifiers wired to electronic gear, researchers set out to answer parents’ age-old questions: What can my baby see, hear, smell, and think?

Prepared to feed and eat

Consider how researchers exploit habituation—a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation. We saw this earlier when fetuses adapted to a vibrating, honking device placed on their mother’s abdomen. The novel stimulus gets attention when first presented. With repetition, the response weakens. This seeming boredom with familiar stimuli gives us a way to ask infants what they see and remember.

habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.

Indeed, even as newborns, we prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness. We turn our heads in the direction of human voices. We gaze longer at a drawing of a face-like image. We prefer to look at objects 8 to 12 inches away, which—wonder of wonders—just happens to be the approximate distance between a nursing infant’s eyes and its mother’s (Maurer & Maurer, 1988).

Within days after birth, our brain’s neural networks were stamped with the smell of our mother’s body. Week-old nursing babies, placed between a gauze pad from their mother’s bra and one from another nursing mother, have usually turned toward the smell of their own mother’s pad (MacFarlane, 1978). What’s more, that smell preference lasts. One experiment capitalized on the fact that some nursing mothers in a French maternity ward used a chamomile-scented balm to prevent nipple soreness (Delaunay-El Allam, 2010). Twenty-one months later, their toddlers preferred playing with chamomile-scented toys! Their peers who had not sniffed the scent while breast feeding showed no such preference. (This makes me wonder: Will adults, who as babies associated chamomile scent with their mother’s breast, become devoted chamomile tea drinkers?)

Infancy and Childhood

As a flower unfolds in accord with its genetic instructions, so do we humans. Maturation—the orderly sequence of biological growth—decrees many of our commonalities. We stand before walking. We use nouns before adjectives. Severe deprivation or abuse can retard our development, but the genetic growth tendencies are inborn. Maturation (nature) sets the basic course of development; experience (nurture) adjusts it. Once again, we see genes and scenes interacting.

maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.

“It is a rare privilege to watch the birth, growth, and first feeble struggles of a living human mind.”

Annie Sullivan, in Helen Keller’s The Story of My Life, 1903

Physical Development

4-4: During infancy and childhood, how do the brain and motor skills develop?

Brain Development

The formative nurture that conspired with nature began at conception, with the prenatal environment in the womb. Nurture continues outside the womb, where our early experiences foster brain development.

In your mother’s womb, your developing brain formed nerve cells at the explosive rate of nearly one-quarter million per minute. From infancy on, brain and mind—neural hardware and cognitive software—develop together. On the day you were born, you had most of the brain cells you would ever have. However, the wiring among these cells—your nervous system—was immature: After birth, these neural networks had a wild growth spurt branching and linking in patterns that would eventually enable you to walk, talk, and remember.

From ages 3 to 6, the most rapid brain growth was in your frontal lobes, which enable rational planning. During those years, your ability to control your attention and behavior developed rapidly (Garon et al., 2008; Thompson-Schill et al., 2009).

Frontal lobe development continues into adolescence and beyond. The last cortical areas to develop are the association areas—those linked with thinking, memory, and language. As they develop, mental abilities surge (Chugani & Phelps, 1986; Thatcher et al., 1987). The neural pathways supporting language and agility proliferate into puberty. Then, a use-it-or-lose-it pruning processshuts down unused links and strengthens others (Paus et al., 1999; Thompson et al., 2000).

Stringing the circuits young

Your genes dictated your overall brain architecture, rather like the lines of a coloring book, but experience fills in the details (Kenrick et al., 2009). So how do early experiences leave their “marks” in the brain? Mark Rosenzweig and David Krech opened a window on that process when they raised some young rats in solitary confinement in an impoverished environment, and others in a communal playground that simulated a natural environment. When the researchers later analyzed the rats’ brains, those who died with the most toys had won. The rats living in the enriched environment had usually developed a heavier and thicker brain cortex.

Rosenzweig was so surprised by this discovery that he repeated the experiment several times before publishing his findings (Renner & Rosenzweig, 1987; Rosenzweig, 1984). So great are the effects that, shown brief video clips, you could tell from the rats’ activity and curiosity whether their environment had been impoverished or enriched (Renner & Renner, 1993). After 60 days in the enriched environment, the rats’ brain weights increased 7 to 10 percent and the number of synapses mushroomed by about 20 percent (Kolb & Whishaw, 1998).

Such results have motivated improvements in environments for laboratory, farm, and zoo animals—and for children in institutions. Stimulation by touch or massage also benefits infant rats and premature babies (Field et al., 2007). “Handled” infants of both species develop faster neurologically and gain weight more rapidly. By giving preemies massage therapy, neonatal intensive care units help them to go home sooner (Field et al., 2006).

Nature and nurture together sculpt our synapses. Brain maturation provides us with an abundance of neural connections. Experiences—sights and smells, touches and tugs—activate and strengthen some neural pathways while others weaken from disuse. Like forest pathways, popular tracks are broadened and less-traveled ones gradually disappear. The result by puberty is a massive loss of unemployed connections.

Here at the juncture of nurture and nature is the biological reality of early childhood learning. During early childhood—while excess connections are still on call—youngsters can most easily master such skills as the grammar and accent of another language. We seem to have a critical period for some skills. Lacking any exposure to spoken, written, or signed language before adolescence, a person will never master any language. Likewise, lacking visual experience during the early years, a person whose vision is restored by cataract removal will never achieve normal perceptions. Without stimulation, the brain cells normally assigned to vision will die during the pruning process or be diverted to other uses. The maturing brain’s rule: Use it or lose it.

critical period an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development.

Although normal stimulation during the early years is critical, the brain’s development does not end with childhood. As we saw in Chapter 2’s discussion of brain plasticity, our neural tissue is ever changing and new neurons are born. If a monkey pushes a lever with the same finger several thousand times a day, brain tissue controlling that finger changes to reflect the experience. Human brains work similarly. Whether learning to keyboard or skateboard, we perform with increasing skill as our brain incorporates the learning (Ambrose, 2010).

“Genes and experiences are just two ways of doing the same thing—wiring synapses.”

Joseph LeDoux, The Synaptic Self, 2002

Motor Development

The developing brain enables physical coordination. As an infant’s muscles and nervous system mature, skills emerge. With occasional exceptions, the sequence of physical (motor) development is universal. Babies roll over before they sit unsupported, and they usually crawl on all fours before they walk. These behaviors reflect not imitation but a maturing nervous system; blind children, too, crawl before they walk.

There are, however, individual differences in timing. In the United States, for example, 25 percent of all babies walk by 11 months of age, 50 percent within a week after their first birthday, and 90 percent by age 15 months (Frankenburg et al., 1992). The recommended infant back-to-sleep position (putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of a smothering crib death) has been associated with somewhat later crawling but not with later walking (Davis et al., 1998; Lipsitt, 2003).

In the eight years following the 1994 launch of a U.S. Back to Sleep educational campaign, the number of infants sleeping on their stomach dropped from 70 to 11 percent—and SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) deaths fell by half (Braiker, 2005).

Genes guide motor development. Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day (Wilson, 1979). Maturation—including the rapid development of the cerebellum at the back of the brain—creates our readiness to learn walking at about age 1. Experience before that time has a limited effect. The same is true for other physical skills, including bowel and bladder control. Before necessary muscular and neural maturation, neither pleading nor punishment will produce successful toilet training.

Brain Maturation and Infant Memory

Can you recall your first day of preschool or your third birthday party? Our earliest memories seldom predate our third birthday. We see this infantile amnesia in the memories of some preschoolers who experienced an emergency fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker. Seven years later, they were able to recall the alarm and what caused it—if they were 4 to 5 years old at the time. Those experiencing the event as 3-year-olds could not remember the cause and usually misrecalled being already outside when the alarm sounded (Pillemer, 1995). Other studies have confirmed that the average age of earliest conscious memory is 3.5 years (Bauer, 2002, 2007). As children mature, from 4 to 6 to 8 years, childhood amnesia is giving way, and they become increasingly capable of remembering experiences, even for a year or more (Bruce et al., 2000; Morris et al., 2010). The brain areas underlying memory, such as the hippocampus and frontal lobes, continue to mature into adolescence (Bauer, 2007).

Although we consciously recall little from before age 4, our brain was processing and storing information during those early years. In 1965, while finishing her doctoral work in psychology, Carolyn Rovee-Collier observed an infant memory. She was a new mom, whose colicky 2-month-old, Benjamin, could be calmed by moving a crib mobile. Weary of hitting the mobile, she strung a cloth ribbon connecting the mobile to Benjamin’s foot. Soon, he was kicking his foot to move the mobile. Thinking about her unintended home experiment, Rovee-Collier realized that, contrary to popular opinion in the 1960s, babies are capable of learning. To know for sure that her son wasn’t just a whiz kid, she repeated the experiment with other infants (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1999). Sure enough, they, too, soon kicked more when hitched to a mobile, both on the day of the experiment and the day after. They had learned the link between moving legs and moving mobiles. If, however, she hitched them to a different mobile the next day, the infants showed no learning, indicating that they remembered the original mobile and recognized the difference. Moreover, when tethered to the familiar mobile a month later, they remembered the association and again began kicking.

Traces of forgotten childhood languages may also persist. One study tested English-speaking British adults who had no conscious memory of the Hindi or Zulu they had spoken as children. Yet, up to age 40, they could relearn subtle sound contrasts in these languages that other people could notlearn (Bowers et al., 2009). What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words, the nervous system and our two-track mind somehow remembers.

Cognitive Development

4-5: From the perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, and today’s researchers, how does a child’s mind develop?

Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Somewhere on your life journey, you became conscious. When was that, and how did your mind unfold from there? Developmental psychologist Jean Piaget [pee-ah-ZHAY] spent his life searching for the answers to such questions. His interest began in 1920, when he was in Paris developing questions for children’s intelligence tests. While administering the tests, Piaget became intrigued by children’s wrong answers, which were often strikingly similar among same-age children. Where others saw childish mistakes, Piaget saw intelligence at work.

cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

A half-century spent with children convinced Piaget that a child’s mind is not a miniature model of an adult’s. Thanks partly to his work, we now understand that children reason differently than adults, in “wildly illogical ways about problems whose solutions are self-evident to adults” (Brainerd, 1996).

Jean Piaget (1896–1980)

Piaget’s studies led him to believe that a child’s mind develops through a series of stages, in an upward march from the newborn’s simple reflexes to the adult’s abstract reasoning power. Thus, an 8-year-old can comprehend things a toddler cannot, such as the analogy that “getting an idea is like having a light turn on in your head,” or that a miniature slide is too small for sliding, and a miniature car is much too small to get into.

Piaget’s core idea is that the driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences. To this end, the maturing brain builds schemas, concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences. By adulthood we have built countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love.

schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

To explain how we use and adjust our schemas, Piaget proposed two more concepts. First, we assimilate new experiences—we interpret them in terms of our current understandings (schemas). Having a simple schema for dog, for example, a toddler may call all four-legged animals dogs. But as we interact with the world, we also adjust, or accommodate, our schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences. Thus, the child soon learns that the original dog schema is too broad and accommodates by refining the category.

assimilation interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.

accommodation adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking

Piaget believed that children construct their understanding of the world while interacting with it. Their minds experience spurts of change, followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive plateau to the next, each with distinctive characteristics that permit specific kinds of thinking.  TABLE 4.1  summarizes the four stages in Piaget’s theory.

Table 4.1: Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Typical Age RangeDescription of StageDevelopmental Phenomena
Birth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotorExperiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping)·  Object permanence·  Stranger anxiety
About 2 to about 6 or 7 yearsPreoperationalRepresenting things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning·  Pretend play·  Egocentrism
About 7 to 11 yearsConcrete operationalThinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations· Conservation· Mathematical transformations
About 12 through adulthoodFormal operationalAbstract reasoning·  Abstract logic·  Potential for mature moral reasoning

Sensorimotor Stage

In the sensorimotor stage, from birth to nearly age 2, babies take in the world through their senses and actions—through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. As their hands and limbs begin to move, they learn to make things happen.

sensorimotor stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

Very young babies seem to live in the present: Out of sight is out of mind. In one test, Piaget showed an infant an appealing toy and then flopped his beret over it. Before the age of 6 months, the infant acted as if the toy ceased to exist. Young infants lack object permanence—the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived. By 8 months, infants begin exhibiting memory for things no longer seen. If you hide a toy, the infant will momentarily look for it. Within another month or two, the infant will look for it even after being restrained for several seconds.

object permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.

So does object permanence in fact blossom at 8 months, much as tulips blossom in spring? Today’s researchers think not. They believe object permanence unfolds gradually, and they see development as more continuous than Piaget did. Even young infants will at least momentarily look for a toy where they saw it hidden a second before (Wang et al., 2004).

Researchers also believe Piaget and his followers underestimated young children’s competence. Consider these simple experiments:

·  Baby physics: Like adults staring in disbelief at a magic trick (the “Whoa!” look), infants look longer at an unexpected and unfamiliar scene of a car seeming to pass through a solid object, a ball stopping in midair, or an object violating object permanence by magically disappearing (Baillargeon, 1995, 2008; Wellman & Gelman, 1992).

·  Baby math: Karen Wynn (1992, 2000) showed 5-month-olds one or two objects. Then she hid the objects behind a screen, and visibly removed or added one. When she lifted the screen, the infants sometimes did a double take, staring longer when shown a wrong number of objects. But were they just responding to a greater or smaller mass of objects, rather than a change in number (Feigenson et al., 2002)? Later experiments showed that babies’ number sense extends to larger numbers, to ratios, and to such things as drumbeats and motions (Libertus & Brannon, 2009; McCrink & Wynn, 2004; Spelke & Kinzler, 2007). If accustomed to a Daffy Duck puppet jumping three times on stage, they showed surprise if it jumped only twice.

Clearly, infants are smarter than Piaget appreciated. Even as babies, we had a lot on our minds.

Preoperational Stage

Piaget believed that until about age 6 or 7, children are in a preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations (such as imagining an action and mentally reversing it). For a 5-year-old, the milk that seems “too much” in a tall, narrow glass may become an acceptable amount if poured into a short, wide glass. Focusing only on the height dimension, this child cannot perform the operation of mentally pouring the milk back. Before about age 6, said Piaget, children lack the concept of conservation—the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape.

preoperational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

conservation the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

PRETEND PLAY A child who can perform mental operations can think in symbols and therefore begins to enjoy pretend play. Contemporary researchers have found that symbolic thinking appears at an earlier age than Piaget supposed. Judy DeLoache (1987) showed children a model of a room and hid a miniature stuffed dog behind its miniature couch. The 2½-year-olds easily remembered where to find the miniature toy, but they could not use the model to locate an actual stuffed dog behind a couch in a real room. Three-year-olds—only 6 months older—usually went right to the actual stuffed animal in the real room, showing they could think of the model as a symbol for the room. Piaget did not view the stage transitions as abrupt shifts. Even so, he probably would have been surprised to see symbolic thinking at such an early age.

EGOCENTRISM Piaget contended that preschool children are egocentric: They have difficulty perceiving things from another’s point of view. Asked to “show Mommy your picture,” 2-year-old Gabriella holds the picture up facing her own eyes. Three-year-old Gray makes himself “invisible” by putting his hands over his eyes, assuming that if he can’t see his grandparents, they can’t see him. Children’s conversations also reveal their egocentrism, as one young boy demonstrated (Phillips, 1969, p. 61):

“Do you have a brother?”

“Yes.”

“What’s his name?”

“Jim.”

“Does Jim have a brother?”

“No.”

egocentrism in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view.

Like Gabriella, TV-watching preschoolers who block your view of the TV assume that you see what they see. They simply have not yet developed the ability to take another’s viewpoint. Even we adults may overestimate the extent to which others share our opinions and perspectives, a trait known as the curse of knowledge. We assume that something will be clear to others if it is clear to us, or that e-mail recipients will “hear” our “just kidding” intent (Epley et al., 2004; Kruger et al., 2005). Children are even more susceptible to such egocentrism.

THEORY OF MIND When Little Red Riding Hood realized her “grandmother” was really a wolf, she swiftly revised her ideas about the creature’s intentions and raced away. Preschoolers, although still egocentric, develop this ability to infer others’ mental states when they begin forming a theory of mind (a term first coined by psychologists David Premack and Guy Woodruff [1978], to describe chimpanzees’ seeming ability to read intentions).

theory of mind people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.

As the ability to take another’s perspective gradually develops, preschoolers come to understand what made a playmate angry, when a sibling will share, and what might make a parent buy a toy. And they begin to tease, empathize, and persuade. Between about 3½ and 4½, children worldwide come to realize that others may hold false beliefs (Callaghan et al., 2005; Sabbagh et al., 2006). Jennifer Jenkins and Janet Astington (1996) showed Toronto children a Band-Aids box and asked them what was inside. Expecting Band-Aids, the children were surprised to discover that the box actually contained pencils. Asked what a child who had never seen the box would think was inside, 3-year-olds typically answered “pencils.” By age 4 to 5, the children’s theory of mind had leapt forward, and they anticipated their friends’ false belief that the box would hold Band-Aids. Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty understanding that another’s state of mind differs from their own.

Concrete Operational Stage

By age 6 or 7, said Piaget, children enter the concrete operational stage. Given concrete (physical) materials, they begin to grasp conservation. Understanding that change in form does not mean change in quantity; they can mentally pour milk back and forth between glasses of different shapes. They also enjoy jokes that use this new understanding:

concrete operational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

Mr. Jones went into a restaurant and ordered a whole pizza for his dinner. When the waiter asked if he wanted it cut into 6 or 8 pieces, Mr. Jones said, “Oh, you’d better make it 6, I could never eat 8 pieces!” (McGhee, 1976)

Piaget believed that during the concrete operational stage, children become able to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation. When my daughter, Laura, was 6, I was astonished at her inability to reverse simple arithmetic. Asked, “What is 8 plus 4?” she required 5 seconds to compute “12,” and another 5 seconds to then compute 12 minus 4. By age 8, she could answer a reversed question instantly.

Formal Operational Stage

By about age 12, our reasoning expands from the purely concrete (involving actual experience) to encompass abstract thinking (involving imagined realities and symbols). As children approach adolescence, said Piaget, many become capable of thinking more like scientists. They can ponder hypothetical propositions and deduce consequences: If this, then that. Systematic reasoning, what Piaget called formal operational thinking, is now within their grasp.

formal operational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.

Although full-blown logic and reasoning await adolescence, the rudiments of formal operational thinking begin earlier than Piaget realized. Consider this simple problem:

If John is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?

Formal operational thinkers have no trouble answering correctly. But neither do most 7-year-olds (Suppes, 1982).

An Alternative Viewpoint: Lev Vygotsky and the Social Child

As Piaget was forming his theory of cognitive development, Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) was also studying how children think and learn. He noted that by age 7, they increasingly think in words and use words to solve problems. They do this, he said, by internalizing their culture’s language and relying on inner speech (Fernyhough, 2008). Parents who say “No, no!”when pulling a child’s hand away from a cake are giving the child a self-control tool. When the child later needs to resist temptation, he may likewise say “No, no!” Second-graders who muttered to themselves while doing math problems grasped third-grade math better the following year (Berk, 1994). Whether out loud or inaudibly, talking to themselves helps children control their behavior and emotions and master new skills.

Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934)

Where Piaget emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the physical environment, Vygotsky emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the socialenvironment. If Piaget’s child was a young scientist, Vygotsky’s was a young apprentice. By mentoring children and giving them new words, parents and others provide a temporary scaffoldfrom which children can step to higher levels of thinking (Renninger & Granott, 2005). Language, an important ingredient of social mentoring, provides the building blocks for thinking, noted Vygotsky (who was born the same year as Piaget, but died prematurely of tuberculosis).

Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory

What remains of Piaget’s ideas about the child’s mind? Plenty—enough to merit his being singled out by Time magazine as one of the twentieth century’s 20 most influential scientists and thinkers and rated in a survey of British psychologists as the last century’s greatest psychologist (Psychologist, 2003). Piaget identified significant cognitive milestones and stimulated worldwide interest in how the mind develops. His emphasis was less on the ages at which children typically reach specific milestones than on their sequence. Studies around the globe, from aboriginal Australia to Algeria to North America, have confirmed that human cognition unfolds basically in the sequence Piaget described (Lourenco & Machado, 1996; Segall et al., 1990).

However, today’s researchers see development as more continuous than did Piaget. By detecting the beginnings of each type of thinking at earlier ages, they have revealed conceptual abilities Piaget missed. Moreover, they view formal logic as a smaller part of cognition than he did. Piaget would not be surprised that today, as part of our own cognitive development, we are adapting his ideas to accommodate new findings.

“Assessing the impact of Piaget on developmental psychology is like assessing the impact of Shakespeare on English literature.”

Developmental psychologist Harry Beilin (1992)

CLOSE UP: Autism Spectrum Disorder and “Mind-Blindness”

Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a disorder marked by social deficiencies, have been increasing. Once believed to affect 1 in 2500 children, ASD now affects 1 in 110 American children and about 1 in 100 in Britain (CDC, 2009; Lilienfeld & Arkowitz, 2007; NAS, 2011). The increase in ASD diagnoses has been offset by a decrease in the number of children considered “cognitively disabled” or “learning disabled,” which suggests a relabeling of children’s disorders (Gernsbacher et al., 2005; Grinker, 2007; Shattuck, 2006). A massive $6.7 billion National Children’s Study now under way aims to enroll 100,000 pregnant women in 105 countries and to follow their babies until they turn 21. Researchers hope this study will help explain the rising rates of ASD, as well as premature births, childhood obesity, and asthma (Belluck, 2010; Murphy, 2008).

autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind.

The underlying source of ASD’s symptoms seems to be poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to let us take another’s viewpoint. This effect appears to result from ASD-related genes interacting with the environment (State  Šestan, 2012). People with ASD are therefore said to have an impaired theory of mind (Rajendran & Mitchell, 2007; Senju et al., 2009). They have difficulty inferring others’ thoughts and feelings. They do not appreciate that playmates and parents might view things differently. Mind reading that most of us find intuitive (Is that face conveying a smirk or a sneer?) is difficult for those with ASD. Most children learn that another child’s pouting mouth signals sadness, and that twinkling eyes mean happiness or mischief. A child with ASD fails to understand these signals (Frith & Frith, 2001). In hopes of a cure, desperate parents have sometimes subjected children to ineffective therapies (Shute, 2010).

Autism spectrum disorder

This speech-language pathologist is helping a boy with ASD learn to form sounds and words. ASD is marked by deficient social communication and difficulty grasping others’ states of mind.

Ozier Muhammad/The New York Times/Redux

ASD (formerly referred to as “autism”) has differing levels of severity. “High- functioning” individuals have normal intelligence, and they often have an exceptional skill or talent in a specific area. But they lack social and communication skills, and they tend to become distracted by minor and unimportant stimuli (Remington et al., 2009). Those at the spectrum’s lower end are unable to use language at all.

ASD afflicts four boys for every girl. Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen believes this hints at one way to understand this disorder. He has argued that ASD represents an “extreme male brain” (2008, 2009). Although there is some overlap between the sexes, he believes that boys are better “systemizers.” They tend to understand things according to rules or laws, for example, as in mathematical and mechanical systems. Children exposed to high levels of the male sex hormone testosterone in the womb may develop more masculine and autistic traits (Auyeung et al, 2009).

In contrast, girls are naturally predisposed to be “empathizers,” Baron-Cohen contends. They are better at reading facial expressions and gestures, though less so if given testosterone (van Honk et al, 2011).

Biological factors, including genetic influences and abnormal brain development, contribute to ASD (State  Šestan, 2012). Childhood MMR vaccinations do not (Demicheli et al., 2012). Based on a fraudulent 1998 study—the most damaging medical hoax of the last 100 years” (Flaherty, 2011)—some parents were misled into thinking that the childhood MMR vaccine increased risk of ASD. The unfortunate result was a drop in vaccination rates and an increase in cases of measles and mumps. Some unvaccinated children suffered long-term harm or even death.

Twin and sibling studies provide some evidence for biology’s influence. If one identical twin is diagnosed with ASD, the chances are 50 to 70 percent that the co-twin will also receive this diagnosis (Lichtenstein et al., 2010; Sebat et al., 2007). A younger sibling of a child with ASD also is at a heightened risk (Sutcliffe, 2008). Random genetic mutations in sperm-producing cells may also play a role. As men age, these mutations become more frequent, which may help explain why an over-40 man has a much higher risk of fathering a child with ASD than does a man under 30 (Reichenberg et al., 2007). Researchers are now sleuthing ASD’s telltale signs in the brain’s synaptic and gray matter (Crawley, 2007; Ecker et al., 2010; Garber, 2007).

“Autism” case number 1

In 1943, Donald Gray Triplett, an “odd” child with unusual gifts and social deficits, was the first person to receive the diagnosis of a previously unreported condition, which psychiatrist Leo Kanner termed “autism.” (After a 2013 change in the diagnosis manual, his condition is now called autism spectrum disorder.) In 2010, at age 77, Triplett was still living in his native home and Mississippi town, where he often played golf (Donvan & Zucker, 2010).

Biology’s role in ASD also appears in brain-function studies. People without ASD often yawn after seeing others yawn. And as they view and imitate another’s smiling or frowning, they feel something of what the other is feeling. Not so among those with ASD, who are less imitative and show much less activity in brain areas involved in mirroring others’ actions (Dapretto et al., 2006; Perra et al., 2008; Senju et al., 2007). When people with ASD watch another person’s hand movements, for example, their brain displays less-than-normal mirroring activity (Oberman & Ramachandran, 2007; Théoret et al., 2005). Scientists are continuing to explore and vigorously debate the idea that the brains of people with ASD have “broken mirrors” (Gallese et al., 2011).

Seeking to “systemize empathy,” Baron-Cohen and his Cambridge University colleagues (2007; Golan et al., 2010) collaborated with Britain’s National Autistic Society and a film production company. Knowing that television shows with vehicles have been popular among kids with ASD, they created animations with toy vehicle characters in a pretend boy’s bedroom, grafting emotion-conveying faces onto toy trams, trains, and tractors. After the boy leaves for school, the characters come to life and have experiences that lead them to display various emotions ( www.thetransporters.com ). The children were surprisingly able to generalize what they had learned to a new, real context. By the intervention’s end, their previously deficient ability to recognize emotions on real faces equaled that of children without ASD.

Implications for Parents and Teachers

Future parents and teachers, remember this: Young children are incapable of adult logic. Preschoolers who block one’s view of the TV simply have not learned to take another’s viewpoint. What seems simple and obvious to us—getting off a teeter-totter will cause a friend on the other end to crash—may be incomprehensible to a 3-year-old. Also remember that children are not passive receptacles waiting to be filled with knowledge. Better to build on what they already know, engaging them in concrete demonstrations and stimulating them to think for themselves. Finally, accept children’s cognitive immaturity as adaptive. It is nature’s strategy for keeping children close to protective adults and providing time for learning and socialization (Bjorklund & Green, 1992).

“Childhood has its own way of seeing, thinking, and feeling, and there is nothing more foolish than the attempt to put ours in its place.”

Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1798

Social Development

4-6: How do parent-infant attachment bonds form?

From birth, babies are social creatures, developing an intense bond with their caregivers. Infants come to prefer familiar faces and voices, then to coo and gurgle when given a parent’s attention. After about 8 months, soon after object permanence emerges and children become mobile, a curious thing happens: They develop stranger anxiety. They may greet strangers by crying and reaching for familiar caregivers. “No! Don’t leave me!” their distress seems to say. Children this age have schemas for familiar faces; when they cannot assimilate the new face into these remembered schemas, they become distressed (Kagan, 1984). Once again, we see an important principle: The brain, mind, and social-emotional behavior develop together.

stranger anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.

Origins of Attachment

One-year-olds typically cling tightly to a parent when they are frightened or expect separation. Reunited after being apart, they shower the parent with smiles and hugs. No social behavior is more striking than the intense and mutual infant-parent bond. This attachment bond is a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers. Infants become attached to those—typically their parents—who are comfortable and familiar. For many years, psychologists reasoned that infants became attached to those who satisfied their need for nourishment. It made sense. But an accidental finding overturned this explanation.

attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

Stranger anxiety

Body Contact

During the 1950s, University of Wisconsin psychologists Harry Harlow and Margaret Harlow bred monkeys for their learning studies. To equalize experiences and to isolate any disease, they separated the infant monkeys from their mothers shortly after birth and raised them in sanitary individual cages, which included a cheese-cloth baby blanket (Harlow et al., 1971). Then came a surprise: When their blankets were taken to be laundered, the monkeys became distressed.

The Harlows recognized that this intense attachment to the blanket contradicted the idea that attachment derives from an association with nourishment. But how could they show this more convincingly? To pit the drawing power of a food source against the contact comfort of the blanket, they created two artificial mothers. One was a bare wire cylinder with a wooden head and an attached feeding bottle, the other a cylinder wrapped with terry cloth.

When raised with both, the monkeys overwhelmingly preferred the comfy cloth mother. Like other infants clinging to their live mothers, the monkey babies would cling to their cloth mothers when anxious. When exploring their environment, they used her as a secure base, as if attached to her by an invisible elastic band that stretched only so far before pulling them back. Researchers soon learned that other qualities—rocking, warmth, and feeding—made the cloth mother even more appealing.

Human infants, too, become attached to parents who are soft and warm and who rock, feed, and pat. Much parent-infant emotional communication occurs via touch (Hertenstein et al., 2006), which can be either soothing (snuggles) or arousing (tickles). Human attachment also consists of one person providing another with a secure base from which to explore and a safe haven when distressed. As we mature, our secure base and safe haven shift—from parents to peers and partners (Cassidy & Shaver, 1999). But at all ages we are social creatures. We gain strength when someone offers, by words and actions, a safe haven: “I will be here. I am interested in you. Come what may, I will support you” (Crowell & Waters, 1994).

Familiarity

Contact is one key to attachment. Another is familiarity. In many animals, attachments based on familiarity form during a critical period—an optimal period when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development (Bornstein, 1989). As noted earlier, humans seem to have a critical period for language. Goslings, ducklings, and chicks have a critical period for attachment, called imprinting, which falls in the hours shortly after hatching, when the first moving object they see is normally their mother. From then on, the young fowl follow her, and her alone.

imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

Konrad Lorenz (1937) explored this rigid attachment process. He wondered: What would ducklings do if he was the first moving creature they observed? What they did was follow him around: Everywhere that Konrad went, the ducks were sure to go. Although baby birds imprint best to their own species, they also will imprint on a variety of moving objects—an animal of another species, a box on wheels, a bouncing ball (Colombo, 1982; Johnson, 1992). Once formed, this attachment is difficult to reverse.

Children—unlike ducklings—do not imprint. However, they do become attached to what they’ve known. Mere exposure to people and things fosters fondness. Children like to reread the same books, rewatch the same movies, and reenact family traditions. They prefer to eat familiar foods, live in the same familiar neighborhood, and attend school with the same old friends. Familiarity is a safety signal. Familiarity breeds content.

Attachment Differences

4-7: How have psychologists studied attachment differences, and what have they learned?

What accounts for children’s attachment differences? To answer this question, Mary Ainsworth (1979) designed the strange situation experiment. She observed mother-infant pairs at home during their first six months. Later she observed the 1-year-old infants in a strange situation (usually a laboratory playroom). Such research has shown that about 60 percent of infants display secure attachment. In their mother’s presence they play comfortably, happily exploring their new environment. When she leaves, they become distressed; when she returns, they seek contact with her.

Other infants avoid attachment or show insecure attachment, marked either by anxiety or avoidance of trusting relationships. They are less likely to explore their surroundings; they may even cling to their mother. When she leaves, they either cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent to her departure and return (Ainsworth, 1973, 1989; Kagan, 1995; van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg, 1988).

Ainsworth and others found that sensitive, responsive mothers—those who noticed what their babies were doing and responded appropriately—had infants who exhibited secure attachment (De Wolff & van IJzendoorn, 1997). Insensitive, unresponsive mothers—mothers who attended to their babies when they felt like doing so but ignored them at other times—often had infants who were insecurely attached. The Harlows’ monkey studies, with unresponsive artificial mothers, produced even more striking effects. When put in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the deprived infants were terrified.

But is attachment style the result of parenting? Or are other factors also at work?

Temperament and Attachment

How does temperament—a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity—affect attachment style? Temperament is genetically influenced. Shortly after birth, some babies are noticeably difficult—irritable, intense, and unpredictable. Others are easy—cheerful, relaxed, and feeding and sleeping on predictable schedules (Chess & Thomas, 1987).

temperament a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

The genetic effect appears in physiological differences. Anxious, inhibited infants have high and variable heart rates and a reactive nervous system. When facing new or strange situations, they become more physiologically aroused (Kagan & Snidman, 2004). One form of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter serotonin predisposes a fearful temperament and, in combination with unsupportive caregiving, an inhibited child (Fox et al., 2007).

Temperament differences typically persist. Consider:

·  The most emotionally reactive newborns have tended also to be the most reactive 9-month-olds (Wilson & Matheny, 1986; Worobey & Blajda, 1989).

·  Exceptionally inhibited and fearful 2-year-olds often were still relatively shy as 8-year-olds; about half became introverted adolescents (Kagan et al., 1992, 1994).

·  The most emotionally intense preschoolers have tended to be relatively intense young adults (Larsen & Diener, 1987). In one long-term study of more than 900 New Zealanders, emotionally reactive and impulsive 3-year-olds developed into somewhat more impulsive, aggressive, and conflict-prone 21-year-olds (Caspi, 2000).

Such evidence supports the conclusion that our biologically rooted temperament helps form our enduring personality (McCrae et al., 2000, 2007; Rothbart et al., 2000).

Parenting studies that neglect such inborn differences, noted Judith Harris (1998), do the equivalent of “comparing foxhounds reared in kennels with poodles reared in apartments.” To separate the effects of nature and nurture on attachment, we would need to vary parenting while controlling temperament. (Pause and think: If you were the researcher, how might you have done this?)

Full-time dad

Dutch researcher Dymphna van den Boom’s solution was to randomly assign 100 temperamentally difficult 6- to 9-month-olds to either an experimental group, in which mothers received personal training in sensitive responding, or to a control group, in which they did not. At 12 months of age, 68 percent of the experimental group infants were rated securely attached, as were only 28 percent of the control group infants. Other studies have confirmed that intervention programs can increase parental sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, infant attachment security (Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., 2003; Van Zeijl et al., 2006).

As many of these examples indicate, researchers have more often studied mother care than father care, but fathers are more than just mobile sperm banks. Despite the widespread attitude that “fathering a child” means impregnating, and “mothering” means nurturing, nearly 100 studies worldwide have shown that a father’s love and acceptance are comparable to a mother’s love in predicting an offspring’s health and well-being (Rohner & Veneziano, 2001). In one mammoth British study following 7259 children from birth to adulthood, those whose fathers were most involved in parenting (through outings, reading to them, and taking an interest in their education) tended to achieve more in school, even after controlling for other factors such as parental education and family wealth (Flouri & Buchanan, 2004). Fathers matter.

Children’s anxiety over separation from parents peaks at around 13 months, then gradually declines. This happens whether they live with one parent or two, are cared for at home or in a day-care center, live in North America, Guatemala, or the Kalahari Desert. Does this mean our need for and love of others also fades away? Hardly. Our capacity for love grows, and our pleasure in touching and holding those we love never ceases. The power of early attachment does nonetheless gradually relax, allowing us to move into a wider range of situations, communicate with strangers more freely, and stay emotionally attached to loved ones despite distance.

“Out of the conflict between trust and mistrust, the infant develops hope, which is the earliest form of what gradually becomes faith in adults.”

Erik Erikson (1983)

Attachment Styles and Later Relationships

Developmental theorist Erik Erikson (1902–1994), working with his wife, Joan Erikson, believed that securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust—a sense that the world is predictable and reliable. He attributed basic trust not to environment or inborn temperament, but to early parenting. He theorized that infants blessed with sensitive, loving caregivers form a lifelong attitude of trust rather than fear.

basic trust according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.

Although debate continues, many researchers now believe that our early attachments form the foundation for our adult relationships (Birnbaum et al., 2006; Fraley, 2002). Our adult styles of romantic love tend to exhibit secure, trusting attachment; insecure-anxious attachment; or insecure-avoidant attachment (Feeney & Noller, 1990; Rholes & Simpson, 2004; Shaver & Mikulincer, 2007). Feeling insecurely attached to others during childhood, for example, may take two main forms in adulthood (Fraley et al., 2011). One is anxiety, in which people constantly crave acceptance but remain vigilant to signs of possible rejection. The other is avoidance, in which people experience discomfort getting close to others and use avoidant strategies to maintain distance from others.

Adult attachment styles can also affect relationships with one’s own children. Avoidant people’s discomfort with closeness makes parenting more stressful and unsatisfying (Rholes et al., 2006). But say this for those (nearly half of all humans) who exhibit insecure attachments: Anxious or avoidant tendencies have helped our groups detect or escape dangers (Ein-Dor et al., 2010).

Deprivation of Attachment

4-8: How does childhood neglect or abuse affect children’s attachments?

If secure attachment fosters social trust, what happens when circumstances prevent a child’s forming attachments? In all of psychology, there is no sadder research literature. Babies locked away at home under conditions of abuse or extreme neglect are often withdrawn, frightened, even speechless. The same is true of those reared in institutions without the stimulation and attention of a regular caregiver, as was tragically illustrated during the 1970s and 1980s in Romania. Having decided that economic growth for his impoverished country required more human capital, Nicolae Ceauşescu, Romania’s Communist dictator, outlawed contraception, forbade abortion, and taxed families with fewer than five children. The birthrate indeed skyrocketed. But unable to afford the children they had been coerced into having, many families abandoned them to government-run orphanages with untrained and overworked staff. Child-to-caregiver ratios often were 15 to 1, so the children were deprived of healthy attachments with at least one adult. When tested after Ceauşescu was assassinated in 1989, these children had lower intelligence scores and double the 20 percent rate of anxiety symptoms found in children assigned to quality foster care settings (Nelson et al., 2009). Dozens of other studies across 19 countries have confirmed that orphaned children tend to fare better on later intelligence tests if raised in family homes. This is especially so for those placed at an early age (van IJzendoorn et al., 2008).

“What is learned in the cradle lasts to the grave.”

French proverb

Most children growing up under adversity (as did the surviving children of the Holocaust) are resilient; they become normal adults (Helmreich, 1992; Masten, 2001). So do most victims of childhood sexual abuse, notes Harvard researcher Susan Clancy (2010), while emphasizing that using children for sex is revolting and never the victim’s fault.

But others, especially those who experience no sharp break from their abusive past, don’t bounce back so readily. The Harlows’ monkeys raised in total isolation, without even an artificial mother, bore lifelong scars. As adults, when placed with other monkeys their age, they either cowered in fright or lashed out in aggression. When they reached sexual maturity, most were incapable of mating. If artificially impregnated, females often were neglectful, abusive, even murderous toward their first-born. Another primate experiment confirmed the abuse-breeds-abuse phenomenon in rhesus monkeys: 9 of 16 females who had been abused by their mothers became abusive parents, as did no female raised by a nonabusive mother (Maestripieri, 2005).

The deprivation of attachment

In humans, too, the unloved may become the unloving. Most abusive parents—and many condemned murderers—have reported being neglected or battered as children (Kempe & Kempe, 1978; Lewis et al., 1988). Some 30 percent of people who have been abused later abuse their children—a rate lower than that found in the primate study, but four times the U.S. national rate of child abuse (Dumont et al., 2007; Kaufman & Zigler, 1987).

Although most abused children do not later become violent criminals or abusive parents, extreme early trauma may nevertheless leave footprints on the brain. Abused children exhibit hypersensitivity to angry faces (Pollak, 2008). As adults, they exhibit stronger startle responses (Jovanovic et al., 2009). If repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, normally placid golden hamsters grow up to be cowards when caged with same-sized hamsters, or bullies when caged with weaker ones (Ferris, 1996). Such animals show changes in the brain chemical serotonin, which calms aggressive impulses. A similarly sluggish serotonin response has been found in abused children who become aggressive teens and adults. “Stress can set off a ripple of hormonal changes that permanently wire a child’s brain to cope with a malevolent world,” concluded abuse researcher Martin Teicher (2002).

Such findings help explain why young children who have survived severe or prolonged physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, or wartime atrocities are at increased risk for health problems, psychological disorders, substance abuse, and criminality (Freyd et al., 2005; Kendall-Tackett et al., 1993, 2004; Wegman & Stetler, 2009). Abuse victims are at considerable risk for depression if they carry a gene variation that spurs stress-hormone production (Bradley et al., 2008). As we will see again and again, behavior and emotion arise from a particular environment interacting with particular genes.

We adults also suffer when our attachment bonds are severed. Whether through death or separation, a break produces a predictable sequence. Agitated preoccupation with the lost partner is followed by deep sadness and, eventually, the beginnings of emotional detachment and a return to normal living (Hazan & Shaver, 1994). Newly separated couples who have long ago ceased feeling affection are sometimes surprised at their desire to be near the former partner. Deep and longstanding attachments seldom break quickly. Detaching is a process, not an event.

Day Care

4-9: How does day care affect children?

Developmental psychologists’ research has uncovered no major impact of maternal employment on children’s development, attachments, and achievements (Friedman & Boyle, 2008; Goldberg et al., 2008; Lucas-Thompson et al., 2010).

Contemporary research now focuses on the effects of differing quality of day care on different types and ages of children (Vandell et al., 2010). Sandra Scarr (1997) explained: Around the world, “high-quality child care consists of warm, supportive interactions with adults in a safe, healthy, and stimulating environment.…Poor care is boring and unresponsive to children’s needs.” Even well-run orphanages can produce healthy, thriving children. In Africa and Asia, where more and more children are losing parents to AIDS and other diseases, orphanages typically are unlike those in Ceauşescu’s Romania, and the children living in quality orphanages fare about as well as those living in communities (Whetten et al., 2009).

Children thrive under varied types of responsive caregiving. Westernized attachment features one or two caregivers and their offspring, but multiple caregivers are the norm in other cultures, such as the Efe of Zaire (Field, 1996; Whaley et al., 2002). Even before an Efe mother holds her newborn, the baby is passed among several women. In the weeks to come, the infant will be constantly held (and fed) by other women and will form strong multiple attachments.

Categories
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commercial research firms like nielsen and j. d. power and associates are sources of

marketing research

10

Chapter

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

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Chapter 10 – Marketing Research

Learning Objectives

LO 10-1 Identify the five steps in the marketing research process.

LO 10-2 Describe the various secondary data sources.

LO 10-3 Describe the various primary data collection techniques.

LO 10-4 Summarize the differences between secondary data and primary data.

LO 10-5 Examine the circumstances in which collecting information on consumers is ethical.

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These questions are the learning objectives guiding the chapter and will be explored in more detail in the following slides.

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Disney

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Ask students: How did Disney conduct research and what did they learn? Students should realize that exploratory research was very important.

How should Disney deal with the backlash among privacy experts and some consumers?

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Marketing Research

DATA

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Consists of a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recoding, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas

The marketing research function links firms and organizations to their customers through data.

By collecting data from customers, firms can better deliver products and services designed to meet their needs

Collecting

Recording

Analyzing

Interpreting

Decision Making

The Marketing Research Process

Defining the objectives and research needs

Designing the research

Collecting the data

Analyzing data and developing insights

Developing and implementing an action plan

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Answers to some research questions are readily accessible, as a simple data search would show.

Step 1: Defining Objectives and Research Needs

What information is needed to answer specific research questions?

How should that information be obtained?

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To determine whether to conduct research, two questions must be addressed: What? How?

Step 2: Designing the Research

Type of data

Type of research

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In this step, researchers identify the type of data needed and determine the type of research necessary to collect it.

Step 3: Collecting the Data

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After answering why and how, researchers must determine where they can find the data. Discuss how the types of data required determine the methods used to collect them. If you can connect to your college library, look at some of the data sources at your own school. Dabases like mintel, tablebase, ABI inform, and Business Source Premier are excellent sources of data.

Group activity: As a group, tackle a problem for a company (e.g., local retailer who appears to be losing customers). For this problem, list several research questions that secondary data can answer. Then list several questions that require primary data.

Step 4: Analyzing Data and Developing Insights

Converting data into information to explain, predict, and/or evaluate a particular situation.

©Getty Images

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The problem today is not too little data but, in many instances, too much. Firms are drowning in data, and their challenge is to convert that data into information.

For example, consider data from a cookie taste test. Suppose the average mean for the group who saw the national brand cookie was 5.4 (1=poor taste and 7=great taste) and the store brand cookie was 2.3. These two means are significantly different. It would be important for the students to realize that the data helps marketing managers make decisions—in this case—creating and cultivating that the brand is important.

Step 5: Developing and Implementing an Action Plan

Executive Summary

Body

Conclusions

Limitations

Supplements including tables, figures, appendices

Digital Vision/Getty Images

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A typical marketing research report would start with a two page executive summary.

This would highlight the objectives of the study, methodology, and key insights.

The body of the report would go through the objectives of the study, issues examined, methodology, analysis and results, insights, and managerial implications.

We would end with conclusions and any limitations or caveats.

Many consultants today provide an executive summary, PowerPoint presentation of the report, questionnaire, and tabulated study results

What are the steps in the marketing research process?

What is the difference between data and information?

check yourself-1

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Define objectives and research needs, designing the research project, deciding on the data collection process and collecting the data, analyze and interpret the data, prepare the findings for presentation.

Data can be defined as raw numbers or other factual information that, on their own, have limited value to marketers. However, when the data are interpreted, they become information.

External Secondary Data Syndicated Data

NameServices Provided
Nielsen (http://www.nielsen.com)With its Market Measurement Services, the company tracks the sales of consumer packaged goods, gathered at the point of sale in retail stores of all types and sizes.
IRI (http://www.iriworldwide.com)InfoScan store tracking provides detailed information about sales, share, distribution, pricing, and promotion across a wide variety of retail channels and accounts.
JD. Power and Associates (http://www.jdpower.com)Widely known for its automotive ratings, it produces quality and customer satisfaction research for a variety of industries.
Mediamark Research Inc. (http://www.mediamark.com)Supplies multimedia audience research pertaining to media and marketing planning for advertised brands.
National Purchase Diary Panel (http://www.npd.com)Based on detailed records consumers keep about their purchases (i.e., a diary), it provides information about product movement and consumer behavior in a variety of industries.
NOP World (http://www.nopworld.com)The mKids US research study tracks mobile telephone ownership and usage, brand affinities, and entertainment habits of American youth between 12 and 19 years of age.
Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com)Promotes itself as a one-stop shop for market research and data from most leading publishers, consultants, and analysts.
Roper Center for Public Opinion Research (http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu)The General Social Survey is one of the nation’s longest running surveys of social, cultural, and political indicators.
Simmons Market Research Bureau (http://www.smrb.com)Reports on the products American consumers buy, the brands they prefer, and their lifestyles, attitudes, and media preferences.
Yankelovich (http://www.yankelovich.com)The MONITOR tracks consumer attitudes, values, and lifestyles shaping the American marketplace.

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Secondary data are plentiful and free, whereas syndicated data generally are more detailed but can be very costly.

Ask students: Why might firms subscribe to a data service and collect their own primary and secondary data at the same time?

External Secondary Data Scanner Research

IRI

Courtesy The Nielsen Co

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Students may not remember a time before grocery stores used scanners, but highlight how the installation of scanners created a huge new data source for marketers.

Ask students: What can researchers take from scanner data?

Students might note that researchers can discover which consumers purchase what products together and how often.

They also can immediately track the impact of any price or promotional adjustments.

This web link brings you to IRI homepage—explore their many products with the students.

External Secondary Data Panel Research

Group of consumers

Survey or sales receipts

What are they buying

or not buying?

©BananaStock/PunchStock

Flying Colours Ltd/Getty Images

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In recent years, response rates to marketing research surveys have declined, which has increased usage of research panels.

Internal Secondary Data

Data Warehouse

Data Mining

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Every day, consumers provide wide-ranging data that get stored in increasingly large databases.

Ask students: How might firms and organizations collect information about you? Do you always know when you are providing such data? Who uses these data?

In the United States, firms use opt-out programs, so when consumers fill out a registration form or application, the firm automatically has permission to market to that customer and share information with its partners, unless consumers explicitly revoke this permission.

In contrast, the EU regulations state that customers must opt-in to such information uses.

What is the difference between internal and external secondary research?

check yourself-2

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Secondary data might come from free or very inexpensive external sources, such as census data, information from trade associations, and reports published in magazines. Secondary sources can also be accessed through internal sources, including the company’s sales invoices, customer lists, and other reports generated by the company itself.

Qualitative versus Quantitative Data Collection Techniques

Jump to Appendix 1 long image description

Qualitative research

Data

collection

research

Quantitative research

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Managers commonly use several exploratory research methods: observation, in-depth interviewing, focus group interviews, and projective techniques.

If the firm is ready to move beyond preliminary insights, it likely is ready to engage in conclusive research, which provides the information needed to confirm those insights and which managers can use to pursue appropriate courses of action.

Observation

In-Depth interviews

Focus groups

Social media

Experiments

Scanner

Survey

Panel

Data Collection

Qualitative Research

Observation

Social Media

In-depth interview

Focus group

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Example of observation: When a museum wanted to know which exhibits people visited most often, it conducted a unique study to determine the wear patterns in the floor. This “human trace” evidence allowed the museum to study flow patterns.

Interviews provide extremely valuable information, because researchers can probe respondents to elicit more information about interesting topics. Focus groups similarly provide a snapshot of customers’ opinions and allow some follow-up but also are relatively fast and inexpensive to conduct.

Video: “The Brave New World of Shopper-Tracking Technology”

Ask students: What are the advantages to a company in tracking a customer’s behavior inside a store?

Ask students: What are the advantages to a company of combining a customer’s in-store behavior with their online shopping behavior?

WSJ: http://live.wsj.com/video/the-brave-new-world-of-shopper-tracking-technology/7503B9D6-2F0D-40B8-9684-E293BA3E9207.html#!7503B9D6-2F0D-40B8-9684-E293BA3E9207

What are the types of qualitative research?

check yourself-3

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Observation, In-Depth Interviews, Focus Groups, and Social Media.

Survey Research

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Marketing research relies heavily on questionnaires, and questionnaire design is virtually an art form.

Ask students: What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of question (unstructured and structured)?

Group activity: Create a questionnaire. First determine the form of the questions (i.e., structured versus unstructured).

On the basis of these questions, what types of analysis will you be able to perform on your collected data?

Web Surveying

Response rates are relatively high

Respondents may lie less

It is inexpensive

Results are processed and received quickly

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Ask students: Do you fill out Internet surveys? If so, were you honest in your responses.

Ask students whether they took their time with the survey and gave quality responses.

Using Web Surveying

How do firms successfully use web surveying?

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc/John Flournoy, photographer

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The Internet offers researchers a new way to reach customers, but its use requires adaptations and new research methods.

Experimental Research

AP Photo/Mary Altaffer

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Using an experiment, McDonald’s would “test” the price of a new menu item to determine which is the most profitable.

An example of an experiment could involve two groups of subjects. One tastes cookies with a national brand and the other with a store brand. Each group rates the cookie on a seven point scale from poor to great taste. The group with the branded name tends to rate the cookie as better tasting, demonstrating the power of a brand name.

Group Activity: Ask students to design a taste test experiment for Coke vs. Pepsi.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary and Primary Data

TypeExamplesAdvantagesDisadvantages
Secondary Research
Primary Research

Census data

Sales invoices

Internet information

Books

Journal articles

Syndicated data

Saves time in collecting data because they are readily available

Free or inexpensive (except for syndicated data)

May not be precisely relevant to information needs

Information may not be timely

Sources may not be original, and therefore usefulness is an issue

Methodologies for collecting data may not be appropriate

Data sources may be biased

Observed consumer behavior

Focus group interviews

Surveys

Experiments

Specific to the immediate

data needs and topic at hand

Offers behavioral insights generally not available from secondary research

Costly = Time consuming

Requires more sophisticated training and experience to design study and collect data

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A summary of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of research.

What are the types of quantitative research?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of primary and secondary research?

check yourself-4

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Experiments, Survey, Scanner, and Panel

See Exhibit 10.9

The Ethics of Using Customer Information

Strong ethical orientation

Adhere to ethical practices

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A strong ethical orientation must be an integral part of a firm’s marketing strategy and decision making.

It is extremely important for marketers to adhere to ethical practices when conducting marketing research.

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Under what circumstances is it ethical to use consumer information in marketing research?

What challenges do technological advances pose for the ethics of marketing research?

check yourself-5

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Many customers demand increasing control over the information that has been collected about them. Companies must disclose their privacy practices to customers before using information.

As technology continues to advance though, the potential threats to consumers’ personal information grow in number and intensity.

Glossary-1

Data are raw numbers or other factual information that, on their own, have limited value to marketers.

Return to slide

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Data are raw numbers or other factual information that, on their own, have limited value to marketers.

28

Glossary-2

Experimental research is a type of quantitative research that systematically manipulates one or more variables to determine which variables have a causal effect on another variable.

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Experimental research is a type of quantitative research that systematically manipulates one or more variables to determine which variables have a causal effect on another variable.

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Glossary-3

Marketing research consists of a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recording, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas.

Return to slide

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Marketing research consists of a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recording, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas.

30

Glossary-4

Panel research is a type of quantitative research that involves collecting information from a group of consumers (the panel) over time.

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Panel research is a type of quantitative research that involves collecting information from a group of consumers (the panel) over time.

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Glossary-5

Scanner research is a type of quantitative research that uses data obtained from scanner readings of UPC codes at check-out counters.

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Scanner research is a type of quantitative research that uses data obtained from scanner readings of UPC codes at check-out counters.

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Glossary-6

A survey is a systematic means of collecting information from people that generally uses a questionnaire.

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A survey is a systematic means of collecting information from people that generally uses a questionnaire.

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Glossary-7

Syndicated data are data available for a fee from commercial research firms such as Information Resources Inc. (IRI), National Purchase Diary Panel, and ACNielsen.

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Syndicated data are data available for a fee from commercial research firms such as Information Resources Inc. (IRI), National Purchase Diary Panel, and ACNielsen.

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Appendix 1 Qualitative versus Quantitative Data Collection Techniques

Data collection research consists of qualitative research (observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups and social media) and quantitative research (experiments, survey, scanner, and panel).

Return to slide

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FIFTH EDITION

DEVELOPMENT and

SOCIAL CHANGE

For Karen, with love and gratitude

FIFTH EDITION

DEVELOPMENT and

SOCIAL CHANGE A GLOBAL

PERSPECTIVE

PHILIP MCMICHAEL Cornell University

FOR INFORMATION:

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

McMichael, Philip.

Development and social change: a global perspective / Philip McMichael. —5th ed.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-4129-9207-7 (pbk.: alk. paper)

1. Economic development projects—History. 2. Economic development—History. 3. Competition, International—History. I. Title.

HC79.E44M25 2012 306.309—dc23 2011036148

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

11 12 13 14 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Brief Contents

About the Author

Preface to the Fifth Edition

A Timeline of Development

Acknowledgments

Abbreviations

1. Development: Theory and Reality

Part I. The Development Project (Late 1940s to Early 1970s)

2. Instituting the Development Project

3. The Development Project: International Framework

4. Globalizing Developments

Part II. The Globalization Project (1980s to 2000s)

5. Instituting the Globalization Project

6. The Globalization Project in Practice

7. Global Countermovements

Part III. Millennial Reckonings (2000s to Present)

8. The Globalization Project in Crisis

9. The Sustainability Project

10. Rethinking Development

Notes

References

Glossary/Index

Detailed Contents

About the Author

Preface to the Fifth Edition

A Timeline of Development

Acknowledgments

Abbreviations

1. Development: Theory and Reality Development: History and Politics Development Theory

Naturalizing Development Global Context Agrarian Questions Ecological Questions

Social Change The Projects as Framework

The Development Experience Conclusion

Part I. The Development Project (Late 1940s to Early 1970s)

2. Instituting the Development Project Colonialism

The Colonial Division of Labor Social Reorganization under Colonialism

Decolonization Colonial Liberation

Decolonization and Development Postwar Decolonization and the Rise of the Third World Ingredients of the Development Project

The Nation-State Economic Growth

Framing the Development Project National Industrialization: Ideal and Reality

Economic Nationalism

Import-Substitution Industrialization Summary

3. The Development Project: International Framework The International Framework

U.S. Bilateralism: The Marshall Plan (Reconstructing the First World) Multilateralism: The Bretton Woods System Politics of the Postwar World Order

Remaking the International Division of Labor The Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs)

The Food-Aid Regime The Public Law 480 Program Food Dependency

Remaking Third World Agricultures The Global Livestock Complex The Green Revolution Anti-rural Biases of the Development Project

Summary

4. Globalizing Developments Third World Industrialization in Context

The World Factory The Strategic Role of Information Technologies The Export-Processing Zone The Rise of the New International Division of Labor (NIDL) From the NIDL to a Global Labor Force Global Sourcing

Agricultural Globalization The New Agricultural Countries (NACs)

Global Finance The Offshore Money Market Banking on Development

Summary

Part II. The Globalization Project (1980s to 2000s)

5. Instituting the Globalization Project Securing the Global Market Empire The Debt Regime

Debt Management Reversing the Development Project Challenging the Development State

The Globalization Project Global Governance

Liberalization and the Reformulation of Development The Making of a Free Trade Regime

The World Trade Organization The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

Summary

6. The Globalization Project in Practice Poverty Governance Outsourcing Displacement

Labor: The New Export Informalization Global Recolonization Summary

7. Global Countermovements Environmentalism

Sustainable Development Earth Summits Managing the Global Commons Environmental Resistance Movements

Feminism Feminist Formulations Women and the Environment Women, Poverty, and Fertility Women’s Rights

Cosmopolitan Activism Food Sovereignty Movements Summary

Part III. Millennial Reckonings (2000s to Present)

8. The Globalization Project in Crisis Legitimacy Crisis

Microfinance, or Poverty Capital Post-Washington Consensus? The Latin Rebellion Arab Spring?

Geopolitical Transitions Financial Crisis Food Crises

Ecological Crisis Conclusion

9. The Sustainability Project The Problem of Climate Change

The Pentagon The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) The Stern Review and Grassroots Initiatives

Stabilizing Ecosystems The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)

The Centrality of Agriculture International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for

Development (IAASTD) Feeding the World

The Agro-Ecology Project The World Bank World Development Report (2008)

The Global Land Grab Biofuels Green Technology Summary

10. Rethinking Development Development in the Gear of Social Change

Nonmarket Values Politicizing Inequality New Geography of Inequality The Analytical and Political “Purchase” of Development

Paradigm Change Degrowth Economics Transition Towns The Commons

Conclusion

Notes

References

Glossary/Index

About the Author

Philip McMichael grew up in Adelaide, South Australia, and he completed undergraduate degrees in economics and in political science at the University of Adelaide. After traveling in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan and doing community work in Papua New Guinea, he pursued his doctorate in sociology at the State University of New York at Binghamton. He has taught at the University of New England (New South Wales), Swarthmore College, and the University of Georgia, and he is presently International Professor of Development Sociology at Cornell University. Other appointments include Visiting Senior Research Scholar in International Development at the University of Oxford (Wolfson College), and Visiting Scholar, School of Political Science and International Relations at the University of Queensland. His book Settlers and the Agrarian Question: Foundations of Capitalism in Colonial Australia (1984) won the Social Science History Association’s Allan Sharlin Memorial Award in 1985. McMichael edited The Global Restructuring of Agro-Food Systems (1994), Food and Agrarian Orders in the World Economy (1995), New Directions in the Sociology of Global Development (2005) with Frederick H. Buttel, Looking Backward and Looking Forward: Perspectives on Social Science History (2005) with Harvey Graff and Lesley Page Moch, Contesting Development: Critical Struggles for Social Change (2010), and The Politics of Biofuels, Land and Agrarian Change (2011) with Jun Borras and Ian Scoones. He has served as chair of his department, as director of Cornell University’s International Political Economy Program, as chair of the American Sociological Association’s Political Economy of the World-System Section, as president of the Research Committee on Agriculture and Food for the International Sociological Association, and as a board member of Cornell University Press. He has also worked with the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and its Committee on Food Security, the UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), the international peasant coalition Vía Campesina, and the International Planning Committee for Food Sovereignty. He and his wife, Karen Schachere, have two children, Rachel and Jonathan.

T

Preface to the Fifth Edition

he fifth edition of this text updates the material in a world in substantial transition. The original framework and perspective of the first edition remain intact, although the

attempt to organize development as a global project is fraught with instability and possibly planet-threatening trends. Accordingly, a new section outlining an emergent “sustainability project” has been added. The thread that weaves together this story of colonialism, developmentalism, globalization, and sustainability is that development is a project of rule, with environmental consequences. It takes different forms in different historical periods, and these have been laid out as changing sets of political-economic and political-ecological relations, animated by powerful discourses of discipline, opportunity, and sustainability. While this text may have the appearance of an economic argument, it is important to note that the framework is essentially political and world-historical in that it attempts to understand the intersection between the development enterprise and power relations in ordering the world and its ecological foundations. This account of development focuses on social and political transformations, and the various ways in which development is realized through social and spatial inequalities. It also considers these processes from the perspective of social movements, and how their resistances problematize the dominant vision of economism as a form of rule and as an increasingly evident threat to ecological stability.

The conceptual framework posits “development” as a political construct devised by dominant actors such as metropolitan states, multilateral institutions, and political and economic elites to order the world and contain opposition. Development and globalization are presented as projects with coherent organizing principles (e.g., economic nationalism, market liberalization), yet unrealistic in their vision and potential for accomplishment, since they are realized through inequality. The theoretical subtext of the development project is organized by extended Polanyian cycles of regulation and resistance. In the mid-twentieth century, a form of “embedded liberalism” (market regulation within a maturing nation-state system to contain labor and decolonization movements) informed social-democratic (developmentalist) goals within a Cold War context of economic and military aid to the Third World. This “development era” ended with a “countermobilization” of corporate interests dedicated to instituting a “self-regulating market” on a global scale from the 1970s onwards. The dominant discourse of neoliberalism proposed market liberalization, privatization, freedom of capital movement and access, and so on. This globalization project had a “test run” during the debt regime of the 1980s, and was institutionalized with the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995. A further countermobilization—to the deprivations of the globalization project—has gathered momentum through maturing global justice movements in the 1990s, the Latin American and Arab rebellions of the new century, and a growing “legitimacy deficit” for the global development establishment. This is symbolized in the collapse of the Washington Consensus following the 1997 Asian-originating global financial crisis, recovery of the trope of “poverty reduction” in the Millennium

Development Goals (MDGs) initiative of 2000, stalemate at the WTO, and growing antipathy toward the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) among countries of the global South. Neoliberalism is at a crossroads, complicated by serious security concerns: with a social component—in mushrooming slums; an economic dimension—in both financial volatility and the casualization of employment; a political element—in acts of terrorism; and an ecological aspect—in the evidence of global climate change. How the current cycle of opposition and creative development alternatives will unfold is yet to be determined, but it is possible to see an emergent sustainability project which includes both security concerns— largely of those with political and economic power—and grassroots initiatives toward rethinking the values that define development.

The fifth edition has two major revisions. The first is the introduction of an explicit discussion of the origins and role of development theory. The purpose here is to (a) introduce basic theoretical concepts that organize our understanding of development, (b) situate these theoretical concepts in the era of decolonization and the optimism of the development decades, (c) examine how subsequent transformations in world ordering call such foundational development theory into question, and (d) indicate to the reader how the author has organized the narrative according to social change theory that allows transformation in conceptions of development.

The second major revision considers current events as indicative of fundamental transitions in development possibilities. These events, outlined in Chapter 8, include the conjunction of food, energy, financial, and climate crises, as well as a redistribution of political-economic power as registered in the rise of the Group of 21 (G-21)—in particular the BRICS—and the challenge to U.S. supremacy. Structural adjustment of states in the global North, combined with social rebellion in the Middle East and the aforementioned crises in several dimensions, call into question the assumptions and institutions associated with the “Globalization Project” and its neoliberal dictates. Chapter 9 provides the outlines of the “Sustainability Project” as an emergent set of practices and institutions governing the next iteration/ordering of “development,” which is no longer about improving on the past so much as managing the future. The chapter considers the significance of a series of high-profile reports, initiatives, and green technologies—together these investigations and experiments reveal an array of disparate attempts to manage the future, and point toward a future ecological/climate regime.

The subject of development is difficult to teach. Living in relatively affluent surroundings, most university students understandably situate their society on the “high end” of a development continuum—at the pinnacle of human economic and technological achievement. And they often perceive the development continuum and their favorable position on it as “natural”—a well-deserved reward for embracing modernity. It is difficult to put one’s world in historical perspective from this vantage point. It is harder still to help students grasp a world perspective that goes beyond framing their experience as an “evolved state”—the inevitable march of progress.

In my experience, until students go beyond simple evolutionary views, they have difficulty valuing other cultures and social possibilities that do not potentially mirror their own. When they do go beyond the evolutionary perspective, they are better able to evaluate their own culture sociologically and to think reflexively about social change, development, and global

inequalities. This is the challenge we face.

Ancillaries

For the Instructor

The password-protected Instructor Site at www.sagepub.com/mc michael5e gives instructors access to a full complement of resources to support and enhance their courses. The following assets are available on the instructor site:

An essay test question bank that provides a number of essay questions to test students’ comprehension of the topics PowerPoint slides for each chapter that are integrated with the book’s distinctive features and incorporate key tables, figures, and photos, for use in lecture and review Chapter summaries and outlines that provide valuable tools for use in handouts and lectures Tables and figures from the book in an easily downloadable format, for use in handouts and presentations A timeline of globalization and development from the printed text in a digital formathttp://www.sagepub.com/mc michael5e

A Timeline of Development

I

Acknowledgments

wish to express my thanks to the people who have helped me along the way, beginning with the late Terence Hopkins (my graduate school mentor), and James Petras and

Immanuel Wallerstein. The late Giovanni Arrighi played a critical role in encouraging me to cultivate “analytical nerve.” For the first three editions, which include acknowledgment of the various people who were so helpful, special mention still goes to the original editor-in-chief, Steve Rutter, for his remarkable vision and his enthusiasm and faith in this project, as well as friends and colleagues who made significant contributions to improving this project—the late Fred Buttel, Harriet Friedmann, Richard Williams, Michelle Adato, Dale Tomich, Farshad Araghi, Rajeev Patel, Dia Da Costa, Gayatri Menon, and Karuna Morarji—and my undergraduate and graduate students (particularly my remarkable teaching assistants) at Cornell.

For this fifth edition, I have been fortunate to have the encouragement and understanding of publisher for sociology at SAGE, David Repetto, and the thoughtful guidance of editorial assistants for sociology, Maggie Stanley and Lydia Balian. Also, special thanks go to senior project editor, Laureen Gleason, and to editorial and marketing specialists Theresa Accomazzo and Erica DeLuca for their work behind the scenes, and especially to Anna Socrates, my fastidious copyeditor. Graduate student Ian Bailey provided much-needed and thorough research support when I needed it most and turned a critical eye on the first chapter. And Gary Hytrek prompted me to make more explicit my conceptual framework, despite my skepticism toward formal theorizing. Great thanks are also due to the reviewers of this edition: Pamela Altman, Dennis Canterbury, Julie Guthman, Robert Hard, Syndee Knight, and P. Pushkar.

Abbreviations

AfDB African Development Bank AGRA Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa ALBA Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas AoA Agreement on Agriculture (WTO) APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation BAIR Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Industrializing Regime BIP Border Industrialization Program BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa CAFTA Central American Free Trade Agreement CBD Convention on Biodiversity CDM Clean development mechanism

CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination againstWomen CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research COMECON Council for Mutual Economic Assistance COP conference of parties ECA Export Credit Agency ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America EOI export-oriented industrialization EPZ export processing zone EU European Union FAO Food and Agricultural Organization (UN) FDI foreign direct investment FLO Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International FTA Free Trade Agreement FTAA Free Trade Area of the Americas GAD gender and development GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDI Gender Development Index GDL global division of labor GDP gross domestic product GEF Global Environmental Facility GEM gender empowerment measure

GHG greenhouse gas emissions GLOBALGAP Retailer Produce Working Group on Good Agricultural Practices GNH gross national happiness GNP gross national product GPI genuine progress indicator HDI Human Development Index HIPC heavily indebted poor countries HYV high-yielding variety

IAASTD International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology forDevelopment ICT information and communication technologies IDS Institute for Development Studies IEA International Energy Agency IFI international financial institutions IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute IIED International Institute for Environment and Development IMF International Monetary Fund IPCC Inter-Governmental Plan on Climate Change IPR intellectual property rights ISI import-substitution industrialization LDC least developed countries LDCF less developed countries fund MA millennium ecosystem assessment MDGs millennium development goals MNEA Middle East North African states MICs middle-income countries NAC new agricultural country NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NAM Non-Aligned Movement NAPA National adaptation programme of action NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development NGO nongovernmental organization NIC newly industrializing country NIDL new international division of labor NIEO new international economic order NTE nontraditional export OAU Organization for African Unity ODA Overseas Development Assistance OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PRSP poverty reduction strategy papers RAI Responsible agricultural investment REDD Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation SAL structural adjustment loan SAP structural adjustment policies SEZ special economic zone TFN Transnational Feminist Network TIE Transnationals Information Exchange TNB transnational bank TNC transnational corporation TPN Transnational Policy Network TRIMs trade-related aspects of investment measures TRIPs trade-related intellectual property rights UNASUR Union of South American Nations UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNDP United Nations Development Program UNEP United Nations Environment Program UNFCCC United Nations Convention on Climate Change WEEE waste from electrical and electronic equipment WEF World Economic Forum WHO World Health Organization WID Women in Development WSF World Social Forum WTO World Trade Organization

D

1 Development

Theory and Reality

evelopment, today, is increasingly about how we survive the future, rather than how we improve on the past. While ideas of human progress, development stages, or visions of

improvement will still guide social theory and policy making, how we manage “energy descent” and adapt to serious ecological deficits and climatic disruption will define our existence. How will this shift change our understanding and practice of development?

A central issue is how effectively policy makers (in states and development agencies) recognize the need for wholesale public coordination of planning to minimize and adapt to inevitable climatic changes. Plenty of new ideas, practices, and policies are surfacing, but more as a cacophony rather than a strategic endeavor to reverse our ecological footprint. (See Glossary/Index for bolded definitions.) While the Chinese government is strategic in promoting green technology, China—the major offshore assembly zone for global commodities—is now the leading source of global greenhouse gas emissions. China averages $150 billion worth of environmental damage annually, due to its breakneck economic growth.1 Climate summits have so far only confirmed the intransigence of governments held hostage to domestic growth policies—whether these governments are from the global North or the global South. This division, and which nation belongs to which “bloc”—and therefore is most responsible for emissions—only distracts authorities from substantive action. Another crisis also confronts twenty-first century nation-states, namely, the global crisis of unemployment and debt, which compounds the challenges of development futures.

Not only are there increasingly evident biophysical limits to development as we know it, but development is now compromised by mushrooming public austerity policies across the nation-state system. Such policies, tested in the global South from the 1980s, are now affecting the societies of the global North. All over, the development ideal of a social contract between governments and citizens is crumbling as hard-won social rights and entitlements erode—this is evident in contemporary European and U.S. political and social disorder as citizens protest cut-backs, as well as in the Middle Eastern uprisings against repressive regimes and joblessness (see Chapter 8). Arguably, “development” is not only in crisis but is at a significant turning point in its short history as a master concept of (Western- based) social science and cultural life.

This book is a guide to the rise and transformation of development as a vector of global social change over the last two centuries. From one (long-term) angle, it appears increasingly comet-like: a brilliant lodestar for the world, but perhaps destined to burn out as its energy- intensive foundations meet their limits. From another (immediate) angle, the energy dilemma forces renewed critical thinking about how humans might live sustainably on the planet. These

perspectives are the subject of Chapter 9, “The Sustainability Project.” Here we are concerned with the source and maturation of “development” as a master concept.

Development: History and Politics

Development had its origins in the colonial era, as Europeans began constructing systems of government—domestic and imperial—and concentrating within the emerging national states an industrial system fueled by the products of colonial labor regimes. As European political economies matured within this broader context, “development” emerged as the definitive concept. Global in its origins, the meaning of development nevertheless focused on European accomplishments. While such accomplishments came with massive social—and often violent —upheaval, they have been represented in theory as a set of idealized outcomes to be emulated by other countries. Accordingly, the “end” of development justifies the means of getting there, however disruptive socially and ecologically the process may be.

At this point it is helpful to work with Michael Cowan and Robert Shenton’s distinction between development as an imminent and/or universal social process, and development as a political intervention. In the nineteenth century, development was understood philosophically as the improvement of humankind (in the form of knowledge-building, technological change, wealth accumulation). European political elites interpreted development practically, as a way to socially engineer emerging national societies. Elites formulated government policy to manage the social transformations attending the rise of capitalism and industrial technologies, so development was identified with both industrialization and the regulation of its disruptive social impacts. These impacts began with the displacement of rural populations by land enclosures for cash cropping, a process that generated “undesirables,” such as menacing paupers, restless proletarians, and unhealthy factory towns.2 Development, then, meant balancing technological change and class formation with social intervention, that is, managing the citizen-subjects who experienced wrenching social transformations. At the same time, such transformations became the catalyst of competing political visions—liberal, socialist, conservative—of the ideal society.

In Europe’s colonies, the inhabitants appeared undeveloped—by self-defined European standards. In this context, development (as “evolution”) ideologically justified imperial intervention, whether to plunder or civilize. Either way, the social engineering impulse framed the European colonization of the non-European world. Not only did the extraction of colonial resources facilitate European industrialization, but European colonial administrators managed subject populations as they experienced their own version of wrenching social transformations. Thus development assumed an additional, normative meaning, namely, the “white man’s burden”—the title of a poem by English poet Rudyard Kipling—imparting honor to an apparently noble task. The implied racism remains a part of the normative understanding (and world consequence) of development.

Under these circumstances, development extended modern social engineering to colonies incorporated into the European orbit. Subject populations were exposed to a variety of new disciplines, including forced labor schemes, schooling, and segregation in native quarters. Forms of colonial subordination differed across time and space, but the overriding object

was either to adapt or marginalize colonial subjects to the European presence. In this sense, development was a power relationship. For example, British colonialism introduced the English factory-model “Lancaster school” to the (ancient) city of Cairo in 1843 to educate Cairo’s emerging civil service. Egyptian students learned the new disciplines necessary to a developing society that was busily displacing peasant culture with plantations of cotton for export to English textile mills and managing an army of migrant labor building an infrastructure of roads, canals, railways, telegraphs, and ports.3 Through the colonial relation, industrialism was transforming both English and Egyptian society, producing new forms of social discipline among laboring populations and middle-class citizen-subjects. And, while industrialism produced new class inequalities within each society, colonialism racialized international inequality. In other words, development introduced new class and racial hierarchies within and across societies.

While development informed modern narratives in the age of industrialism and empire, it only became formalized as a project in the mid-twentieth century. This period was the high tide of decolonization, as the Western—British, Italian, German, French, Dutch, Portuguese, and Belgian—and Japanese empires collapsed, and when a standardizing concept, “development,” as an emancipatory promise, became the new global ontology (a way of seeing/ordering the world).

In 1945, the United Nations, with the intent of expanding membership as colonies gained independence as sovereign states, institutionalized the System of National Accounts. A universal quantifiable measure of development, the Gross National Product (GNP), was born. At this point, the colonial rule of subjects under the guise of civilizing inferior races morphed into the development project, based on the ideal of self-governing states composed of citizens united by the ideology of nationalism. By the twentieth century’s end, the global development project focused on market governance of and by self-maximizing consumers.

Development Theory

Specifying development as consumption privileges the market as the vehicle of social change. The underlying philosophy—deriving from a popular (but limiting) interpretation of Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations4 and formalized in neoclassical economic theory—is that markets maximize individual preferences and allocate resources efficiently. Whether this theory reflects reality or not, it is a deeply held belief that is now institutionalized in much development policy across the world. Why is this the case?

Naturalizing Development

There are two ways to answer this question. First, a belief in markets is a central tenet of liberal Western philosophy. Hungarian philosopher Karl Polanyi noted that modern liberalism rests on a belief in a natural propensity for self-gain, which translates in economic theory as the market principle—realized as consumer preference.5 Self-gain, expressed through the market, drives the aspiration for improvement, aggregated as development. Second, as

Polanyi noted, to naturalize (competitive) market behavior as a transhistorical attribute discounts other human attributes, or values—such as cooperation, redistribution, and reciprocity. For Polanyi, and other classical social theorists, economic individualism is quite novel in the history of human societies and specific to nineteenth-century European developments, rather than being an innate human characteristic.

While these other values are clearly evident today in human interactions, the aspiration for improvement, normalized now as a private motivation, informs development. That is, well-being and self-improvement are squarely centered on access to goods and services through the marketplace. Initial (dating from the mid-twentieth century) formulations of development paired private consumption with public provisions—infrastructure, education, health, water supply, commons, clean air, and so forth. The mid-twentieth century was the heyday of the welfare, or development, state. But from the last quarter of the twentieth century, increasingly all provisioning has been subjected to privatization, as the market becomes the medium through which we consume and develop. To this end, development has become synonymous with consumption.

This outcome was prefigured in one of the most influential theories of development emerging in the post–World War II world. In 1960, economist Walt Rostow published The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto,6 outlining a development theory that celebrates the Western model of free enterprise—in contrast to a state-planned economy. The “stages” traversed a linear sequence, beginning with “Traditional Society” (agrarian, limited productivity) and moving through “Preconditions for Take-off” (state formation, education, science, banking, profit-systematization), “Take-off” (normalization of growth, with investment rates promoting the expanded reproduction of industry), and “Maturity” (the second industrial revolution that moved from textiles and iron to machine-tools, chemicals, and electrical equipment)—and finally to the “Age of High Mass-Consumption,” which is characterized by the movement from basic to durable goods, urbanization, and the rising level of white-collar versus blue-collar work.

This evolutionary sequence, distilled from the U.S. experience, represents the consumer society as the terminal stage of a complex historical process. Rostow also held out the U.S. model as the goal to which other (i.e., developing) societies should aspire, which partly explains Rostow’s subtitle—expressing the Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union at the time. The theorization of development as a series of evolutionary stages naturalizes the process, whether it occurs on a national (development era) or an international (globalization era) stage. Mass consumption was a final goal to be realized through membership of the “free world” at the time, and by implication, U.S. assistance would be available to spur the Third World of post-colonial, developing nations into progress along the stages.

However, note that Rostow’s “development blueprint” depended on a political context. That is, markets were not so natural that they did not require creating, securing, and protecting (by a development state). Development was neither spontaneous or inevitable, rather it required an institutional complex on a world scale (a development project) to nurture it along, complete with trade, monetary, and investment rules, aid regimes, and a military umbrella—all of which were supplied through post-war multilateral institutions and bilateral

arrangements led by the United States. In this way, theory came to imitate reality, which in turn is shaped by theory—informing public discourse and translating into policy implementation.

Global Context

Reality, of course, is more complicated than it first appears. Rostow’s prescriptions artificially separated societies from one another. While this may have expressed the idealism of mid-twentieth century nationalism, to assign stages of growth to societies without accounting for their unequal access to offshore resources discounted a fundamental historic relationship between world regions that have been shaped by colonial and investment patterns. Not only did European powers once depend on their colonies for resources and markets, these patterns continued in the post-colonial era. Because of continuing First World dependence on raw materials from the Third World, some societies were more equal than others in their capacity to traverse Rostow’s stages, as we shall see in Chapter 4.

It was this reality that stimulated dependency analysis and world-system analysis. The concept of “dependency” emerged in the mid-twentieth century from several quarters—an empirical observation by economist Hans Singer that “peripheral” countries were exporting more and more natural resources to pay for increasingly expensive manufactured imports; an argument by Singer’s collaborator, Argentinean economist Raúl Prebisch, that Latin American states should therefore industrialize behind protective tariffs on manufactured imports; and earlier Marxist theories of exploitative imperialist relations between the European and the non-European world.7 “Dependency” referred to the unequal economic relations between metropolitan societies and non-European peripheries—a factor accounting for the development of the former at the expense of the underdevelopment of the latter. As economist Andre Gunder Frank put it:

[H]istorical research demonstrates that contemporary underdevelopment is in large part the historical product of past and continuing economic and other relations between the satellite underdeveloped and the now-developed metropolitan countries. … When we examine this metropolis-satellite structure, we find that each of the satellites … serves as an instrument to suck capital or economic surplus out of its own satellites and to channel part of this surplus to the world metropolis of which all are satellites.8

World-system analysis, advanced by sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein, deepened the concept of dependency by elevating the scope of the modern social system to a global scale. States became political units competing for—or surrendering—resources within a world division of labor. Here regional labor forces occupy a skill/technological hierarchy associated with state strength or weakness in the capitalist world-economy.9 From this perspective, the “core” concentrates capital-intensive or intellectual production and the “periphery” is associated with lower-skilled labor-intensive production, whether plantation labor or assembly of manufactured goods. As we shall see, this kind of geographical hierarchy is increasingly complicated by what journalist Thomas Friedman calls “flat world”

processes (an example is India’s Information Technology boom).10 While “dependency” broadens the analysis of development processes to world-scale

relationships, challenging the assumption that societies are aligned along a self-evident spectrum of growth stages, it implies a “development-centrism”—where (idealized western) development is the term of reference. In this regard Wallerstein has argued that given the power hierarchy of the world-system, (idealized western) “development” represents a “lode- star” or master concept of modern social theory.11 As such, the privileging of “development” denied many other collective/social strategies of sustainability or improvement in other cultures. Nevertheless, while measuring all societies against a conception of (industrial) development may have seemed the appropriate goal for modernization and dependency theory at mid-century, from the vantage point of the twenty-first century it is quite problematic. The growing recognition that the planet cannot sustain the current urban-industrial trends in China and India is one dramatic expression of this new reality.

Agrarian Questions

Urbanization is a defining outcome of development and the “stages of growth” metaphor, where “tradition” yields to “modernity” as industrialization deepens and nurtures it. Political scientist Samuel Huntington, writing about the process of modernization in Political Order and Changing Societies (1968), claimed, “Agriculture declines in importance compared to commercial, industrial, and other nonagricultural activities, and commercial agriculture replaces subsistence agriculture.”12 While this sequence is clearly in evidence, the way in which it has played out raises questions about the model of separate national development (leaving aside the problem of artificial boundary drawing of “nations” in the colonial world). Rather than commercial agriculture replacing subsistence agriculture in country by country, millions of small producers have been unable to survive because of foreign impact—in the form of colonialism, foreign aid, and unequal market relations—expressing the global power relations identified by dependency and world-system analysts. How we perceive these changes is the ultimate question: Even as social changes occur within nations, does that mean the change is “internally” driven? Thus, if subsistence agriculture declines or disappears, is this because it does not belong on a society’s “development ladder”?13 Or is it because of a deepening exposure of smallholders to unequal world market competition by agribusiness— where agricultural productivity ratios across high- and low-input farming systems have risen from 10 to 1 before 1940 to 2000 to 1 in the twenty-first century?14

Rather than simply developing “internally,” Britain progressively outsourced its agriculture to the colonies, replacing subsistence agriculture there with plantations for commercial export. Such a global process played out in the North American continent as well, and partly accounts for the commercial dynamism of U.S. agriculture by the twentieth century (informing Rostow’s model). Therefore, modeling the rise of commercial agriculture as a question of domestic transformation is only partially valid. Nevertheless, the absence of peasantries in the First World is a key register for development theory. A logical extrapolation (if not historical analysis) would therefore define peasant cultures elsewhere as remnants of “Traditional Society.” As such, and according to this development model, peasant

cultures are destined to disappear, whether because of urban gravitational pull, green revolution technologies, eviction by land grabs, or unequal competition from First World agribusiness exports.

Thus small farming cultures became development “baselines”—in theory, and in practice, given modern technology’s drive to replace labor and control production. Unrecognized is the superior capacity or potential in surviving agrarian cultures for managing and sustaining their ecosystems than commercial agriculture, which overrides natural limits with chemicals and other technologies that deplete soil fertility, hydrological cycles, and biodiversity.15 The current “global land grab” depends on representing small-holdings across the global South as “underutilized” land that would be better employed by conversion to commercial agricultural estates producing foods and biofuels largely for export.16 Such activities raise the question as to whether and to what extent development—as modeled—is inevitable or intentional, and national or international?

Ecological Questions

In addition, this particular example of agricultural land usage also underscores a significant ecological blindspot in development theory. Where the passage from subsistence to commercial agriculture is represented as improvement (of single-crop productivity), it is an insufficient measure if it does not take into account the “externals.” These are the significant social and environmental impacts such as disruption of agrarian cultures and ecosystems, the deepening of dependency on fossil fuel, and modern agriculture’s responsibility for up to a third of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). It is this consequence that challenges the veracity of linear projections of development, and also the wisdom of replacing a long-standing knowledge-intensive culture/ecology (farming) with an industrialized economic sector (agriculture).

One key example of this ecological blindspot is its reproduction in the Human Development Index (HDI), constructed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The HDI overcame the singular emphasis on economic growth as development, but carried forward the absence of the ecological dimension:

The concept of human development focuses on the ends rather than the means of development and progress. The real objective of development should be to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. Though this may appear to be a simple truth, it is often overlooked as more immediate concerns are given precedence.17

While the HDI is known for its more robust measurement of (human) development, its data sources have lacked environmental content. This is particularly so given that humanity has now overshot the earth’s biocapacity (see Figure 1.1). Focusing on the outcomes of development discounts how we live on the earth, that is, measuring what practices are sustainable or not. It was only in 2011 that the UNDP began to embrace an ecological sensibility. Thus the Human Development Report (2011) is “about the adverse repercussions

of environment degradation for people, how the poor and disadvantaged are worst affected, and how greater equity needs to be part of the solution.”18

Figure 1.1 Humanity’s Ecological Footprint

Source: Global Footprint Network 2010 National Footprint Accounts, see http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/newsletter/bv/ humanity_now_demanding_1.4_earthsUS:official&channel=np&prmd =ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=aPv_TYmj EOqy0AHx7LGvDg&ved=0CDMQsA Q&biw=1125&bih=821

Given the UNDP’s reputation for questioning conventional wisdom, this new focus is a counterpoint to the 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, which noted that the last half century of human action has had the most intensive and extensive negative impact on world ecosystems ever, and yet this has been accompanied by continuing global gains in human well-being.19 Known as the “environmentalist’s paradox” (since we might expect ecosystem degradation to negatively affect human well-being), researchers have noted that average measures of well-being may reduce the validity of this claim, but perhaps more significantly “technology has decoupled well-being from nature” and time lags will only tell.20 In other words, mastery of nature may be effective in the short-term in generating rising consumption patterns, but also in masking the long-term implications of ecosystem stress. What such research suggests is that development needs a robust sustainability dimension. It is in this context that this book ends with an account of an emerging Sustainability Project.

DEVELOPMENT PARADOXES

The environmentalist’s paradox, when inverted, is—in fact—a “development paradox.” Former World Bank economist Herman Daly formulated this as an “impossibility theorem,” namely, that the universalization of U.S.-style high mass consumption economy wouldhttp://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/newsletter/bv/humanity_now_demanding_1.4_earthsUS:official&channel=np&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=aPv_TYmjEOqy0AHx7LGvDg&ved=0CDMQsAQ&biw=1125&bih=821

require several planet Earths. Either way, the ultimate paradox here is that the environment is not equipped to absorb its unrelenting exploitation by the current growth model of endless accumulation. In other words, development as we know it is undermining itself.

Three of the nine planetary operational boundaries have been crossed already—climate change, biodiversity, and the nitrogen cycle—while others such as fresh water use and oceanic acidification are at serious tipping points. Meanwhile, the costs of ecological degradation are borne disproportionately by the poor—the very same people targeted by the development industry. Two paradoxical formulations follow: (1) development expands opportunity/prosperity but is realized through inequality; and (2) development targets poverty but often magnifies it. Related to these formulations is the notion (advanced by the World Bank in 1992) that economic growth is a condition for sustainable development, which the UK Stern Review of 2006 termed a paradox: since the cost of climate change adaptation would be far greater if we wait for higher future levels of wealth to address the problem.

Some subsidiary paradoxes include such questions as these: Are low-carbon cultures that live with rather than seek to master nature backward? Are non-western cultures judged poor in what makes western cultures rich? Is frugality poverty? Why is malnutrition common to western and non-western cultures (see Figure 1.2)? Are non-western cultures rich in what western cultures are now poor (non-monetized items such as open space, leisure, solidarity, ecological knowledge)? Should we measure living standards only in monetary terms?

Sources: Foster (2011), Stern (2006), Daly (1990).

Figure 1.2 Percentage of Population That Is Malnourished and Overweight

Source: Adapted from New Internationalist 353 (2003): 20.

Social Change

As we have seen, development theory provides a blueprint, and justification, for universalizing a process originating within Europe—but as “greater Europe,” since European industrialization depended on displacing non-European industry and capturing non-European resources (minerals, raw materials, labor, and foodstuffs). Justification of this exploitation meant representing colonial intervention as a civilizing mission to those opposing colonialism on moral grounds. Of course colonial subjects resisted—for example, the successful late- eighteenth-century slave uprising in the French colony of Saint Domingue (forming the Haitian free state), but also the unsuccessful Amritsar rebellion put down savagely by British forces in India in 1919. Such uprisings marked a long-term politics of decolonization, with colonial subjects gaining moral and material power as countermovements to European empires, which in turn became increasingly costly to maintain. Resistance to colonialism—including substantial peasant mobilizations from China to Mexico to Kenya—was matched with labor uprisings and political organization during the late-colonial era. The British faced widespread labor strikes in their West Indian and African colonies in the 1930s, and this pattern continued over the next two decades in Africa as British and French colonial subjects protested conditions in cities, ports, mines, and on the railways.21

In other words, large-scale social changes accompanying industrial development involve definitive power struggles. Colonial rule generated a politics of decolonization, including class conflict, identity/cultural claims, and the desire for equality and sovereignty. The colonial project was certainly anchored in class relations as empires subordinated colonial labor forces and resources to service imperial needs. But this economic relation was accompanied by fundamental racial politics that both justified subjugation and fueled resistances across the colonial world. Added to the mix was the human rights dimension, whereby the desire for equality and sovereignty driving European social changes resonated in anti-colonial movements. While all three dimensions inform social struggles today, including gender and indigenous rights, they are all conditioned by the global development project that emerged in the mid-twentieth-century postcolonial era. Here, decolonization led to a universal realization of sovereignty in the (European-based) form of the nation-state, and expressed in the establishment of the United Nations organization in 1945.

The divided racial legacy of colonialism certainly did not disappear, but a very diverse world was bound together now by a universal principle: an international governmental structure enshrining the meaning and measurement of development as a national standard. This was institutionalized in the UN System of National Accounts by which monetized economic activity was recorded as Gross National Product (GNP). Outside of the Communist bloc (also known as the Second World), as national economic growth and income levels became the measure of development, so First- and Third-World societies came to be governed by the market (and its metrics), with varying degrees of public regulation.

The “market society” was the product of modern capitalism and its drive to commodify social relations, expressed in monetary exchanges. As Karl Marx pointed out, even human labor power came to be commodified via the wage contract, as villagers lost their means of livelihood and were forced to work for wages.22 Karl Polanyi extended this observation to

land and currency, noting that with the rise of nineteenth-century market society each of these substances came to be traded for a price. He argued that neither labor, land, nor money were produced for sale, and so were really “fictitious commodities.” For this reason, when these substances are treated as commodities, workers, farmers, and businesses are exposed to exploitative or uncertain conditions. That is, their labor, farming, or entrepreneurship experience competitive relations beyond their control, by a market with seemingly independent authority. Under these circumstances, Polanyi proposed that social movements would inevitably arise to protect society from unregulated markets (a “double movement”)— in effect, to re-embed markets within social controls. For Polanyi, the proof of this pudding was establishment of the twentieth-century welfare state, which became a model for the development state. It arose out of a European-wide social mobilization to protect the rights of workers, farmers, and businesses from the ill effects of unrestrained markets.23

The Projects as Framework

Within the terms of this broad social change theory, then, the postcolonial world order emerged from the combined force of decolonization politics and the new model of publicly regulated capitalist markets (as distinct from the communist model of a state-planned economy). Development as an ideal and as a policy carried forward the social welfare dimension, reinforced by the UN Declaration of Universal Human Rights (1948), through which governments were enjoined to protect civil rights through a social contract between state and citizen. This contract defined the era of the development project (1940s–1980), rooted in public regulation of markets as servants of states. The following era of the globalization project (1980s–through the present) saw markets regain ascendancy—with states as servants—and the incorporation of the “good market, bad state” mantra into public discourse. The tension between these poles continues in the emerging sustainability project (2000s onward) as the world transitions to a new project governed by a “climate regime.”

This book frames the story of development around these three projects, as a clarifying method to underline the point that the meaning and practice of development changes with changing political-economic (and environmental) conditions. The transition from the development to the globalization project involved a political countermovement “from above” by powerful business and financial interests and their allies to reduce or eliminate public regulation of corporations and their ability to operate across national borders. Deregulation of markets has been the ultimate goal, legitimized by neo-liberal economic theory. And subsequent controversies over the impact of globalization at the turn of the twenty-first century have been generated by social mobilization “from below,” driven by economic destabilization and intensification of social inequalities as markets have been disembedded from social controls.24

The development paradox, where poverty accompanies economic growth, is evident in the control of 50 percent of the world’s income by the wealthiest 10 percent of the world’s population, as well as in the deepening food crisis rendering over a billion people chronically hungry.25 In India—with annual economic growth rates around 8 percent and projections of overtaking China’s by 2013—almost half of its children under the age of five

were malnourished in 2010. The paradox can be qualified by public action—when in 2009, child malnutrition was 42.5 percent in India, it was just 7 percent in China.26

The current market malaise and combination of crises—food, energy, climate, social— suggests the world is in transition toward another project, which I term the Sustainability Project. The dynamic that links these projects, and accounts for their succession, can be thought of as a series of Polanyian “double movements” (politicization of market rule via social mobilization). The colonial project accompanying the rise of capitalist markets yielded to the development project as social and decolonization countermovements challenged the ascendancy of the market in their respective territories. Then the development project yielded to a globalization project intent on restoring market sway and reducing the power of states and citizens to the status of servants and consumers respectively.

Currently, the crisis of the globalization project (addressed in Chapter 8) is stimulating a wide range of sustainability initiatives, from the global to the local scale, that are geared to containing or reducing environmental degradation and climate warming. How these may coalesce into some kind of world ordering is not yet clear. Whether we will see or make a more authoritarian world order built on energy and climate security claims, or some decentralized ecologically-based social organization, are some of the possibilities that are informing debate (see Chapter 9). In the meantime, it is important to situate our condition via some “development coordinates.”

The Development Experience

Development is not an activity that other societies do to catch up to the “developed societies.” That nomenclature is unfortunate, since it suggests there is a state of development enjoyed by a minority of the world’s population that is the goal and envy of the rest of the world. It forgets that development is an endless process, not an end. Indeed, some argue that the West is busy “undeveloping” as jobs relocate to growth areas like China and India, as public infrastructure decays, and social services such as education and health care dwindle. From this perspective, development—at the national level—does not look like a linear process, nor is it a model outcome.

From a global perspective, development redistributes jobs to lower-wage regions. While transnational firms thereby enhance profitability, Northern consumers (at least those with incomes) enjoy access to low-cost products that are produced offshore. In this sense, development has been identified—for its beneficiaries—as consumption. This of course corresponds with Rostow’s final growth stage, but not as a national characteristic—rather as a global relationship. Much of what we consume today has global origins. Even when a product has a domestic “Made in …” label, its journey to market probably combines components and labor from production and assembly sites located around the world. Sneakers, or parts thereof, might be produced in China or Indonesia, blue jeans assembled in the Philippines, a cell phone or portable media player put together in Singapore, and a watch made in Hong Kong. The British savor organic vegetables from western China, the Chinese eat pork fed with Brazilian soy, and North Americans consume fast foods that may include chicken diced in Mexico or hamburger beef from cattle raised in Costa Rica. And, depending

on taste, our coffee is from Southeast Asia, the Americas, or Africa. We readers may not be global citizens yet, but we are certainly global consumers.

But global consumers are still a minority. While over three-quarters of the world’s population can access television images of the global consumer, only half of that audience has access to sufficient cash or credit to consume. Television commercials depict people everywhere consuming global commodities, but this is just an image. We know that 20 percent of the world’s population consume 86 percent of all goods and services, while the poorest 20 percent consume just 1.3 percent.27 Distribution of, and access to, the world’s material wealth is extraordinarily uneven. Almost half of the ex-colonial world dwells now in slums. Over 3 billion people cannot, or do not, consume in the Western style. Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano observes,

Advertising enjoins everyone to consume, while the economy prohibits the vast majority of humanity from doing so. … This world, which puts on a banquet for all, then slams the door in the noses of so many, is simultaneously equalizing and unequal: equalizing in the ideas and habits it imposes and unequal in the opportunities it offers.28

And yet it is important also to note that while we may be accustomed to a commercial culture, and view it as the development “standard,” other cultures and peoples are noncommercial, not comfortable with commercial definition, or are simply marginal to commercial life. Contrary to media images, global consumerism is neither accessible to—nor possible for—a majority of humans, nor is it a universal aspiration.

Nevertheless, the global marketplace binds consumers, producers, and even those marginalized by resource consumption. Consumers everywhere are surrounded, and often identified by, world products. One of the most ubiquitous, and yet invisible, world products is coltan, a metallic ore used in consumer electronics, such as computers and cell phones, in addition to nuclear reactors. It comes predominantly from the Congo, where militarized conflict over this valuable resource caused nearly 4 million deaths, and mining has negative environmental consequences for forests and wild-life. Such ethical issues, similar to those associated with “blood diamonds,” have driven some electronics corporations to mine coltan elsewhere in Africa.29

The global marketplace is a matrix of networks of commodity exchanges. In any one network, there is a sequence of production stages, located in a number of countries at sites that provide inputs of labor and materials contributing to the fabrication of a final product (see Figure 1.3). These networks are called commodity chains. The chain metaphor illuminates the interconnections among producing communities dispersed across the world. And it allows us to understand that, when we consume a product, we often participate in a global process that links us to a variety of places, people, and resources. While we may experience consumption individually, it is a fundamentally social—and environmental—act.

Commodity chains enable firms to switch production sites for flexible management of their operations (and costs). Any shopper at The Gap, for example, knows that this clothing retailer competes by changing its styles on a short-term cycle. Such flexibility requires access through subcontractors to labor forces, increasingly feminized, which can be intensified or let

go as orders and fashion changes. Workers for these subcontractors often have little security —or rights—as they are one of the small links in this global commodity chain stretching across an unregulated global workplace.

The world was shocked in 2010 when 18 Chinese migrant workers between 17 and 25 years old attempted suicide at Foxconn factories in three Chinese provinces. Foxconn recorded profits that year in excess of some of its corporate customers, such as Microsoft, Dell, and Nokia. Foxconn—responsible for producing iPhone 4, the iPod, and iPad 2— captures 50 percent of the world electronics market share in manufacturing and service.30

Figure 1.3 A Commodity Chain for Athletic Shoes

Source: Adapted from Bill Ryan and Alan During, “The Story of a Shoe,” World Watch, March/April 1998.

CASE STUDY Waste and the Commodity Chain

The disconnect between development theory and the environment is dramatized by the problem of waste, concealed in plain sight. The fact that consumption simultaneously produces waste is neither something consumers want to acknowledge, nor does it feature in

measures of economic growth. And yet waste in general, and electronic waste (e-waste) in particular, are huge and problematic by-products of our lifestyle. The household electronics sector is now the fastest growing segment of municipal waste streams, as computing and communication technologies rapidly evolve. The UN estimates the annual global generation of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) runs at a rate of between 20–50 million tons. In 2009, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) reported that e-waste could increase by 500 percent over the next decade in rising middle-income countries. The toxicity of this waste is extraordinary: From 1994–2003, for example, disposal of personal computers released 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium into landfills worldwide.

Cellular, or mobile, phones (1.2 billion sold globally in 2007) leach more than 17 times the U.S. federal threshold for hazardous waste. And yet the noxious ingredients (including silver, copper, platinum, and gold) are valued on secondhand markets, just as discarded e-waste may be recycled for reuse in poorer markets—sometimes by businesses such as Collective Good, which donate a portion of the profits to the Red Cross or the Humane Society. Refurbishing phones occurs from Ghana to India, where labor costs are lower and environmental regulations are less. About 70 percent of the world’s discarded e-waste finds its way through informal networks to China, where it is scavenged for usable parts—often by children with no protection—and abandoned to pollute soil and groundwater with toxic metals. Africa is one of the largest markets for discarded phones, while China sells between 200–300 million phones annually to dealers in India, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Thailand, from where they may pass on to buyers in Laos, Cambodia, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. Just as water seeks its own level, unregulated markets enable toxic waste to leach into the global South. While there are regulations regarding hazardous waste, the 170-nation agreement called the Basel Convention is ambiguous on the question of restricting the movement of e-waste from North to South.

Why is the current fixation on the virtual, or “de-materialized” information economy unable to recognize the dependence on offshore manufacturing and disposal of waste—both of which pose social and environmental hazards?

Sources: Schwarzer et al. (2005); Widmer et al. (2005); Mooallem (2008); Leslie (2008); Salehabadi (2011).

Not everything we consume has such global origins, but the trend toward these worldwide supply networks is powerful. Our food, clothing, and shelter, in addition to other consumer comforts, have increasingly long supply chains. Take food, for example. Britain was the first nation to deliberately “outsource” a significant part of its food supply to its empire in the 1840s. In spite of the fact that the British climate is ideal for fruit production, 80 percent of pears and almost 70 percent of apples consumed by Britons now come from Chile, Australia, the United States, South Africa, and throughout the European Union.31 The Dutch concept of “ghost acres” refers to additional land offshore used to supply a national diet. Britons are estimated to use about 4.1 million hectares of ghost acres to grow mainly animal feed.32 Ghost acres include “food miles,” prompting the remark, “This form of global sourcing … is

not only energy-inefficient, but it is also doubtful whether it improves global ‘equity,’ and helps local farmers to meet the goals of sustainable development.”33 In other words, much commercial agriculture today is dedicated to supplying the global consumer rather than improving production for domestic consumers. It is extraverted, rather than introverted as in the Rostow schema. Thus,

Half of all [Guatemala’s] children under five are malnourished—one of the highest rates of malnutrition in the world. Yet the country has food in abundance. It is the fifth largest exporter of sugar, coffee, and bananas. Its rural areas are witnessing a palm oil rush as international traders seek to cash in on demand for biofuels created by U.S. and EU mandates and subsidies. But despite being a leading agro-exporter, half of Guatemala’s 14 million people live in extreme poverty, on less than $2 a day.34

Globalization deepens the paradox of development by virtue of its sheer scale. Integrating the lives of consumers and producers across the world does not necessarily mean universalizing the benefits of development. The distance between consumers, and producers and their environments, means it is virtually impossible for consumers to recognize the impact of their consumption on people and environments elsewhere. At the other end, producers experience the social distance in the difficulty in voicing concerns about working conditions or the health of their habitats. Bridging this distance has become the focus of initiatives such as fair trade, or brand boycotts organized by activist movements or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), to enhance transparency with information to support more responsible consumption.

CASE STUDY Consuming the Amazon

In a recent report, Eating Up the Amazon, Greenpeace noted that “Europe buys half the soya exported from the Amazon state of Matto Grosso, where 90% of rainforest soya is grown. Meat reared on rainforest soya finds its way on to supermarket shelves and fast food counters across Europe.” As the Greenpeace website claimed, “nuggets of Amazon forest were being served up on a platter at McDonald’s restaurants throughout Europe.” Following this dramatic report, McDonald’s slapped a moratorium on purchasing soya grown in newly deforested regions of the rainforest, and entered into an alliance with Greenpeace, and other food retailers, to develop a zero deforestation plan, involving the government in monitoring the integrity of the forest and of its inhabitants, some of whom had been enslaved and subjected to violence. The global soy traders, Cargill, ADM, Bunge, Dreyfus, and Maggi, made a two-year commitment to the alliance.

What is all this about? Quite simply, like many nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) today, Greenpeace made the lifestyle connection and ecological relation embodied in chicken nuggets explicit. Documenting the ways in which the Brazilian soy boom—with all its social and environmental consequences—is a product of the fast food diet, Greenpeace made visible what is routinely invisibilized by an impersonal marketplace. By tracing the soy chain—with the aid of satellite images, aerial surveillance, classified government documents, and on-ground observation—Greenpeace reconstructed the geography of the

soy trade, bringing the ethical dimensions of their diet to consumers’ notice. While traders can escape the notice of the consuming public, retailers have become “brand sensitive” in an era in which information technology has created a new public space, and consumers have the ability to choose not to consume products that come with baggage.

What is the value of fast food compared with the value of preserving one of the richest and most biologically diverse rainforests on the planet—especially given that the scientific journal Nature recently warned that 40 percent of the Amazon rainforest will disappear by 2050 if current trends continue?

Source: Greenpeace, Eating Up the Amazon, 2006. Available at www.greenpeace.org.

With only 6 percent of the world adult population, North America holds 34 percent of household wealth (in monetary terms). Europe and high-income Asia-Pacific countries also have disproportionate wealth, whereas the overall share of wealth of Africans, Chinese, Indians, and other lower-income countries in Asia is substantially less than their population share, sometimes by a factor of more than ten.35 Standardizing development measures reinforces the belief that there is a high correlation between GNP and social well-being. Clive Hamilton, executive director of the Australian Institute think tank, notes, “The evidence shows that, beyond a certain point, increased income does not result in increased well- being.”36

CONCLUSION

Development, conventionally associated with economic growth, is a recent phenomenon. With the rise of European capitalism, state bureaucrats pursued economic growth to finance their needs for military protection and political legitimacy. But “development,” as such, was not yet a worldwide strategy. It became so only in the mid-twentieth century, as newly independent states embraced development as an antidote to colonialism, with varying success.

The mid-twentieth-century development project (1940s–1970s) was an internationally orchestrated program of nationally-sited economic growth across the Cold War divide, involving superpower-provided financial, technological, and military assistance. Development was a United Nations ideal, as formerly colonized subjects gained political independence, and governments implemented a human rights–based social contract with their citizens. This book traces the implementation of this project, noting its partial successes and ultimate failure, in its own terms, to equalize conditions across the world, and the foreshadowing of its successor, the globalization project, in laying the foundations of a global market that progressively overshadowed the states charged with development in the initial post–World War II era.

The globalization project (1970s–2000s) superimposed open markets across national boundaries, liberalizing trade and investment rules, and privatizing public goods and services. Corporate rights gained priority over the social contract and redefined developmenthttp://www.greenpeace.org

as a private undertaking. The neoliberal doctrine (“market freedoms”) underlying the globalization project has been met with growing contention, symbolized by the anti-neoliberal social revolt in Latin America over the last decade and the recent Middle-East rebellions, and the growing weight and assertiveness of China (and India) in the world political economy. Polanyi’s double movement is alive and well.

Whether the global market will remain dominant is still to be determined. In the meantime an incipient sustainability project, heavily influenced by the climate change emergency, is forming, with China leading the green technology race and a myriad of environmental and justice movements across the world pushing states, business leaders, and citizens toward a new formulation of development as “managing the future” sustainably.

FURTHER READING

Crow, Ben, and Suresh K. Lodha. The Atlas of Global Inequalities. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

Payne, Anthony, and Nicola Phillips. Development. Cambridge: Polity, 2010. Perrons, Diane. Globalization and Social Change: People and Places in a Divided World.

London: Routledge, 2004. Sage, Colin. Environment and Development. London: Routledge, 2011. Willis, Katie. Theories and Practices of Development. London: Routledge, 2011.

SELECT WEBSITES

Eldis Gateway to Development Information: www.eldis.org Global Exchange: www.globalexchange.org New Internationalist: www.newint.org Raj Patel: www.RajPatel.org UNDP Human Development Reports: http://hdr.undp.org/en/ World Bank Development Report: http://wdronline.worldbank.org/http://www.eldis.orghttp://www.globalexchange.orghttp://www.newint.orghttp://www.RajPatel.orghttp://hdr.undp.org/en/http://wdronline.worldbank.org/

PART I

The Development Project (Late 1940s to Early 1970s)

D

2 Instituting the Development Project

evelopment emerged during the colonial era. While it may have been experienced by nineteenth century Europeans as something specifically European, over time it came to

be viewed as a universal necessity. Understanding why this was so helps to answer the question “what is development?”

As we have seen in Chapter 1, development (as social engineering) framed European colonization of the non-European world. Not only did the extraction of colonial resources facilitate European industrialization, but this process also required colonial administrators to manage subject populations adjusting to the extractive economy and monocultures, administering colonial rule for their masters, and experiencing physical, as well as psychic displacement. Under these circumstances, development assumed an additional meaning: the proverbial “white man’s burden,” a dimension that has persisted in various ways.

Non-European cultures were irrevocably changed through colonialism, and the postcolonial context was founded on inequality. When newly independent states emerged, political leaders had to negotiate an unequal international framework not of their making but through which their governments acquired political legitimacy. How that framework emerged is the subject of this chapter. But first we must address the historical context of colonialism.

Colonialism

Our appeal to history begins with a powerful simplification. It concerns the social psychology of European colonialism, built largely around stereotypes that have shaped perceptions and conflict for at least five centuries. (Colonialism is defined and explained in the box below, and the European colonial empires are depicted in Figure 2.1.) One such perception was the idea among Europeans that non-European native people or colonial subjects were “backward” and trapped in stifling cultural traditions. The experience of colonial rule encouraged this image, as the juxtaposition of European and non-European cultures invited comparison—but through the lens of Europe’s powerful missionary and military-industrial apparatus. This comparison was interpreted—or misinterpreted—as European cultural superiority. It was easy to take the next step and view the difference as “progress,” something the colonizers had, and could impart to their subjects.

Categories
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smiles, head nods, eye contact, and clapping from audience members are all forms of

Consider the Audience

• Analyzing the audience is central to the speechmaking process; consider your audience at every step of the way in preparing and presenting your speech. • Gather information about your audience by asking questions or surveying them more formally. • Summarize and analyze the information you have gathered.

Select and Narrow Your Topic

• Consider the audience: Who are your listeners and what do they expect? • Consider the occasion: What is the reason for the speech? • Consider your own interests and skills: What are your strengths?

Determine Your Purpose

• Decide whether your general speech purpose is to inform, to persuade, or

to entertain, or a combination of these goals. • Decide on your specific purpose:

What do you want your listeners to be able to do after you finish your speech? • Use your specific purpose to guide

you in connecting your message to your audience.

Develop Your Central Idea

• State your central idea for your speech in one sentence. • Your central idea should be a single idea

presented in clear, specific language. • Relate your central idea to your audience.

Generate Main Ideas

• Determine whether your central idea can be supported with logical divisions using a topical arrangement. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with reasons the idea is true. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with a series of steps.

Gather Supporting Material

• Remember that most of what you say consists of supporting material such

as stories, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions.

• The best supporting material both clarifies your major ideas and holds your listeners’ attention. • Supporting material that is personal, concrete, and appealing to the listeners’

senses is often the most interesting.

Organize Your Speech

• Remember the maxim: Tell us what you’re going to tell us (introduction); tell us (body); and tell us what you told us (conclusion). • Outline your main ideas by topic, chronologically, spatially, by cause and effect, or by problem and solution. • Use signposts to clarify the overall structure of your message.

Rehearse Your Speech

• Prepare speaking notes and practice using them well in advance of your speaking date. • Rehearse your speech out loud, standing as you would stand while delivering your speech. • Practice with well-chosen visual aids that are big, simple, and appropriate for your audience.

Deliver Your Speech

• Look at individual listeners. • Use movement and gestures that fit your natural style of speaking.

Why Do You Need This New Edition? If you’re wondering why you should buy this new edition of Public Speaking: An Audience- Centered Approach, here are eight good reasons!

1. We’ve kept the best and improved the rest. The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach continues its unique focus on the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point in the speech- making process, but is now an easier-to-use and more effec- tive learning tool than ever.

2. We’ve streamlined the book to 16 chapters, so that every chapter can be covered during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now combines an introduction to public speaking with an overview of the audience-centered model. Chapter 6 now combines information on gathering supporting mate- rial with advice on how to integrate supporting material into a speech.

3. New end-of-chapter Study Guides are designed to help you retain and apply chapter concepts. Study Guides feature chapter summaries; “Using What You’ve Learned” questions posing realistic scenarios; “A Question of Ethics” to reinforce the importance of ethical speaking; and referrals to selected online resources that help you find resources to use in your own speeches.

4. More tables and Recap boxes summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. These frequent reviews help you check understanding, study for exams, and rehearse material to aid retention.

5. The eighth edition continues our popular focus on control- ling speaking anxiety, developed through expanded and updated coverage of communication apprehension in Chapter 1 and reinforced with tips and reminders in “Confidently Connecting with Your Audience” features in the margins of every chapter.

6. New and expanded coverage of key communication theories and current research, including studies of anxiety styles in Chapter 1, introductions to social judgment theory in Chapter 14, and emotional response theory in Chapter 15, help you apply recent theories and findings.

7. Every chapter of the eighth edition boasts engaging fresh examples to help you connect concepts to your own life and interests, including new references to contemporary technology such as social media sites in Chapter 4 and iPads in Chapter 12.

8. New speeches, including Barack Obama’s inaugural speech, contribute to an impressive sample speech appendix that will inspire and instruct you as you work with your own material.

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Public Speaking

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8 Public SpeakingAN AUDIENCE-CENTERED APPROACH Steven A. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

Susan J. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

E D

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beebe, Steven A.

Public speaking : an audience-centered approach / Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe. — 8th ed. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-78462-2 (alk. paper)

1. Public speaking. 2. Oral communication. I. Beebe, Susan J. II. Title. PN4129.15.B43 2012 808.5’1—dc22

2010054152

Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States. To obtain permission to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116, fax: (617) 671-2290. For information regarding permissions, call (617) 671-2295 or e-mail: permissionsus@pearson.com.

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ISBN-13: 978-0-205-78462-2 www.pearsonhighered.com ISBN-10: 0-205-78462-3

Dedicated to our parents, Russell and Muriel Beebe and Herb and Jane Dye

And to our children, Mark, Matthew, and Brittany Beebe

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ix

1 Speaking with Confidence 3 2 Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 3 Listening to Speeches 49 4 Analyzing Your Audience 77 5 Developing Your Speech 111 6 Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 7 Organizing Your Speech 161 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 9 Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203

10 Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 11 Delivering Your Speech 235 12 Using Presentation Aids 265 13 Speaking to Inform 289 14 Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 15 Using Persuasive Strategies 337 16 Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373

Epilogue 390

Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 392

Appendix B Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400

Brief Contents

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xi

Contents

Preface xxiii

Speaking with Confidence 3 Why Study Public Speaking? 4

Empowerment 4 ● Employment 4

The Communication Process 5 Communication as Action 5 ● Communication as Interaction 6 ● Communication as Transaction 7

The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 7 LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Martin Luther King Jr. 8

Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker 9

1

C H

A PT

E R

SAMPLE OUTLINE 24

Gather Visual Supporting Material 25

Organize Your Speech 25

Select and Narrow Your Topic 20 Determine Your Purpose 21

Determine Your General Purpose 21 ● Determine Your Specific Purpose 21

Develop Your Central Idea 22 Generate the Main Ideas 22 Gather Supporting Material 23

Gather Interesting Supporting Material 23

Understand Your Nervousness 10 ● How to Build Your Confidence 13

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Begin with the End in Mind 17

An Overview of Audience-Centered Public Speaking 17 Consider Your Audience 19

Gather and Analyze Information about Your Audience 19 ● Consider the Culturally Diverse Backgrounds of Your Audience 19

Rehearse Your Speech 27

Deliver Your Speech 27

SAMPLE SPEECH 29

STUDY GUIDE 30

SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Confidence as a Public Speaker 33

Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 Speaking Freely 37

Free Speech and the U.S. Constitution 37 ● Free Speech in the Twentieth Century 37 ● Free Speech in the Twenty-first Century 38

Speaking Ethically 39 Have a Clear, Responsible Goal 39

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mohandas Gandhi 40

Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning 40 ● Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences 41 ● Be Honest 41 ● Don’t Plagiarize 42

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Remember That You Will Look More Confident Than You May Feel 42

SAMPLE ORAL CITATION 44

Speaking Credibly 44

STUDY GUIDE 46

SPEECH WORKSHOP Avoiding Plagiarism 47

Listening to Speeches 49 Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening 51

Managing Information Overload 52 ● Overcoming Personal Concerns 53 ● Reducing Outside Distractions 53 ● Overcoming Prejudice 54 ● Using Differences between Speech Rate and Thought Rate 54 ● Managing Receiver Apprehension 55

How to Become a Better Listener 55 Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears 56 ● Listen Mindfully 57

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS César Chávez 58

Listen Skillfully 59 ● Listen Ethically 62

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Improving Listening and Critical Thinking Skills 63 Separate Facts from Inferences 63 ● Evaluate the Quality of Evidence 64 ● Evaluate the Underlying Logic and Reasoning 65

Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches 65 Understanding Criteria for Evaluating Speeches 66 ● Identifying and Analyzing Rhetorical Strategies 68 ● Giving Feedback to Others 69 ● Giving Feedback to Yourself 70

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Look for Positive Listener Support 71

STUDY GUIDE 72

SPEECH WORKSHOP Evaluating a Speaker’s Rhetorical Effectiveness 74

Analyzing Your Audience 77 Gathering Information about Your Audience 79 Analyzing Information about Your Audience 80

Look for Audience Member Similarities 81 ● Look for Audience Member Differences 82 ● Establish Common Ground with Your Audience 82

Adapting to Your Audience 82

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Winston Churchill 83

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Learn as Much as You Can about Your Audience 83

Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak 84 Demographic Audience Analysis 84 ● Psychological Audience Analysis 94 ● Situational Audience Analysis 96

Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak 99

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Consider Your Audience 99

Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues 100 ● Responding to Nonverbal Cues 101 ● Strategies for Customizing Your Message to Your Audience 101

Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak 103 Nonverbal Responses 104 ● Verbal Responses 104 ● Survey Responses 104 ● Behavioral Responses 105

STUDY GUIDE 106

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing Communication Strategies to Adapt to Your Audience 108

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Developing Your Speech 111 Select and Narrow Your Topic 112

Guidelines for Selecting a Topic 113

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Select an Interesting Topic 113

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Frederick Douglass 115

Strategies for Selecting a Topic 115 ● Narrowing the Topic 117

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Select and Narrow Your Topic 117

Determine Your Purpose 118 General Purpose 118 ● Specific Purpose 119

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Determine Your Purpose 121

Develop Your Central Idea 121 A Complete Declarative Sentence 122 ● Direct, Specific Language 122

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Develop Your Central Idea 123 ● A Single Idea 123 ● An Audience-Centered Idea 123

Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas 124 Generating Your Main Ideas 124 ● Previewing Your Main Ideas 125

Meanwhile, Back at the Computer . . . 126

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Generate Your Main Ideas 127

STUDY GUIDE 128

SPEECH WORKSHOP Strategies for Selecting a Speech Topic 130

Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 Sources of Supporting Material 134

Personal Knowledge and Experience 134 ● The Internet 134 ● Online Databases 135 ● Traditional Library Holdings 137 ● Interviews 139

Research Strategies 141 Develop a Preliminary Bibliography 141 ● Locate Resources 142 ● Assess the Usefulness of Resources 142 ● Take Notes 143

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Gather Supporting Material 143

Identify Possible Presentation Aids 144

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Types of Supporting Material 144 Illustrations 145

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Eleanor Roosevelt 146

Descriptions and Explanations 147 ● Definitions 148 ● Analogies 149 ● Statistics 150 ● Opinions 152

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Prepare Early 153

The Best Supporting Material 154

STUDY GUIDE 156

SPEECH WORKSHOP Identifying a Variety of Supporting Material for Your Speech 158

Organizing Your Speech 161 Organizing Your Main Ideas 163

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Organize Your Message 163

Organizing Ideas Topically 163 ● Ordering Ideas Chronologically 164 ● Arranging Ideas Spatially 166 ● Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect 166

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Desmond Tutu 166

Organizing Ideas by Problem-Solution 167 ● Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization 169

Subdividing Your Main Ideas 170 Integrating Your Supporting Material 170

Prepare Your Supporting Material 170 ● Organize Your Supporting Material 171

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Organize Your Speech 172

Incorporate Your Supporting Material into Your Speech 173

Developing Signposts 173

SAMPLE INTEGRATION OF SUPPORTING MATERIAL 173

Transitions 174 ● Previews 175 ● Summaries 176

Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids 177

STUDY GUIDE 178

SPEECH WORKSHOP Organizing Your Ideas 180

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Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Be Familiar with Your

Introduction and Conclusion 184

Purposes of Introductions 184 Get the Audience’s Attention 184 ● Give the Audience a Reason to Listen 185 ● Introduce the Subject 185 ● Establish Your Credibility 186 ● Preview Your Main Ideas 186

Effective Introductions 187 Illustrations or Anecdotes 187 ● Startling Facts or Statistics 188 ● Quotations 188 ● Humor 189 ● Questions 190 ● References to Historical Events 191 ● References to Recent Events 192 ● Personal References 192 ● References to the Occasion 192 ● References to Preceding Speeches 193

Purposes of Conclusions 193 Summarize the Speech 193 ● Provide Closure 194

Effective Conclusions 195 Methods Also Used for Introductions 196 ● References to the Introduction 196 ● Inspirational Appeals or Challenges 196

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Patrick Henry 197

STUDY GUIDE 198

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing the Introduction and Conclusion to Your Speech 200

Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203 Developing Your Preparation Outline 204

The Preparation Outline 204 ● Sample Preparation Outline 206

Revising Your Speech 207

SAMPLE PREPARATION OUTLINE 208

Developing Your Delivery Outline and Speaking Notes 209 The Delivery Outline 210

SAMPLE DELIVERY OUTLINE 210

Sample Delivery Outline 211 ● Speaking Notes 212

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Your Well-Prepared Speaking Notes When You Rehearse 212

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mark Twain 213

STUDY GUIDE 214

SPEECH WORKSHOP Outlining Your Speech 215

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Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 Differentiating Oral and Written Language Styles 218 Using Words Effectively 219

Use Specific, Concrete Words 219 ● Use Simple Words 220 ● Use Words Correctly 220 ● Use Words Concisely 221

Adapting Your Language Style to Diverse Listeners 221 Use Language That Your Audience Can Understand 222 ● Use Appropriate Language 222 ● Use Unbiased Language 222

Crafting Memorable Word Structures 223 Creating Figurative Images 224 ● Creating Drama 225 ● Creating Cadence 225

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS John F. Kennedy 228

Analyzing an Example of Memorable Word Structure 228

Using Memorable Word Structures Effectively 229

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Words to Manage Your Anxiety 229

STUDY GUIDE 230

SPEECH WORKSHOP Conducting a “Language Style Audit” of Your Speech 232

Delivering Your Speech 235 The Power of Speech Delivery 236

Listeners Expect Effective Delivery 236 ● Listeners Make Emotional Connections with You through Delivery 237 ● Listeners Believe What They See 238

Methods of Delivery 238 Manuscript Speaking 238 ● Memorized Speaking 239 ● Impromptu Speaking 240 ● Extemporaneous Speaking 241

Characteristics of Effective Delivery 242

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Marcus Tullius Cicero 242

Eye Contact 243 ● Gestures 243 ● Movement 246 ● Posture 247 ● Facial Expression 248 ● Vocal Delivery 248 ● Personal Appearance 253

Audience Diversity and Delivery 253

DON’T GET LOST IN TRANSLATION 255

Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips 256 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Re-create the Speech Environment When You Rehearse 257

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DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Rehearse Your Speech 257

Delivering Your Speech 257

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Deliver Your Speech 257

Responding to Questions 258

STUDY GUIDE 261

SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Speech Delivery 263

Using Presentation Aids 265 The Value of Presentation Aids 266

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Ronald Reagan 267

Types of Presentation Aids 268 Three-Dimensional Presentation Aids 268 ● Two-Dimensional Presentation Aids 269 ● PowerPoint™ Presentation Aids 274 ● Tips for Using PowerPoint™ 275 ● Audiovisual Aids 277

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Practice with Your Presentation Aids to Boost Your Confidence 277

Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids 279 Make Them Easy to See 279 ● Keep Them Simple 279 ● Select the Right Presentation Aid 280 ● Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Presentation Aids 280

Guidelines for Using Presentation Aids 280 Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Make Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Explain Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Do Not Pass Objects among Members of Your Audience 282 ● Use Animals with Caution 282 ● Use Handouts Effectively 282 ● Time the Use of Visuals to Control Your Audience’s Attention 283 ● Use Technology Effectively 284 ● Remember Murphy’s Law 284

STUDY GUIDE 285

SPEECH WORKSHOP A Checklist for Using Effective Presentation Aids 287

Speaking to Inform 289 Types of Informative Speeches 290

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Oprah Winfrey 291

Speeches about Objects 292 ● Speeches about Procedures 293 ● Speeches about People 294 ● Speeches about Events 295 ● Speeches about Ideas 295

Strategies to Enhance Audience Understanding 296 Speak with Clarity 296 ● Use Principles and Techniques of Adult Learning 297 ● Clarify Unfamiliar Ideas or Complex Processes 298 ● Appeal to a Variety of Learning Styles 299

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Strategies to Maintain Audience Interest 300 Motivate Your Audience to Listen to You 300 ● Tell a Story 301 ● Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners 301 ● Use the Unexpected 301

SAMPLE INFORMATIVE SPEECH 302

Strategies to Enhance Audience Recall 303 Build In Redundancy 303 ● Make Your Key Ideas Short and Simple 304 ● Pace Your Information Flow 304 ● Reinforce Key Ideas 304

Developing an Audience-Centered Informative Speech 305 Consider Your Audience 305 ● Select and Narrow Your Informational Topic 305 ● Determine Your Informative Purpose 306 ● Develop Your Central Idea 306 ● Generate Your Main Ideas 306

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Focus on Your Information Rather Than on Your Fear 307

Gather Your Supporting Materials 307 ● Organize Your Speech 307 ● Rehearse Your Presentation 307 ● Deliver Your Speech 307

STUDY GUIDE 309

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Vivid Word Picture 311

Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 Persuasion Defined 314

Changing or Reinforcing Audience Attitudes 314 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Beliefs 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Values 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Behaviors 316

How Persuasion Works 316 Aristotle’s Traditional Approach: Using Ethos, Logos, and Pathos to Persuade 316 ● ELM’S Contemporary Approach: Using a Direct or Indirect Path to Persuade 317

How to Motivate Listeners 319 Use Cognitive Dissonance 319 ● Use Listener Needs 322 ● Use Positive Motivation 324 ● Use Negative Motivation 324

How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech 326 Consider the Audience 326 ● Select and Narrow Your Persuasive Topic 327

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Elizabeth Cady Stanton 327

Determine Your Persuasive Purpose 328 ● Develop Your Central Idea and Main Ideas 328 ● Gather Supporting Material 331

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Breathe to Relax 332

Organize Your Persuasive Speech 332 ● Rehearse and Deliver Your Speech 332

STUDY GUIDE 333

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Persuasive Speech 335

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Using Persuasive Strategies 337 Enhancing Your Credibility 338

Elements of Your Credibility 338 ● Phases of Your Credibility 339

Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade 340 Understanding Types of Reasoning 341 ● Persuading the Culturally Diverse Audience 345 ● Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence 347 ● Using Evidence Effectively 348 ● Avoiding Faulty Reasoning 349

Using Emotion to Persuade 351

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Franklin Delano Roosevelt 351

Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade 352 ● Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues 355

Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 356 Persuading the Receptive Audience 356 ● Persuading the Neutral Audience 357 ● Persuading the Unreceptive Audience 357

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Enhance Your Initial Credibility 358

Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages 359 Problem–Solution 360 ● Refutation 361 ● Cause and Effect 362 ● The Motivated Sequence 363

SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH 366

STUDY GUIDE 369

SPEECH WORKSHOP Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 371

Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373 Public Speaking in the Workplace 374

Group Presentations 374 ● Public-Relations Speeches 377

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Seek a Variety of Speaking Opportunities 378

Ceremonial Speaking 378 Introductions 378 ● Toasts 379 ● Award Presentations 379 ● Nominations 380 ● Acceptances 380 ● Keynote Addresses 381 ● Commencement Addresses 382 ● Commemorative Addresses and Tributes 382 ● Eulogies 383

After-Dinner Speaking: Using Humor Effectively 383

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LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Dave Barry 384

Humorous Topics 384 ● Humorous Stories 385 ● Humorous Verbal Strategies 386 ● Humorous Nonverbal Strategies 387

STUDY GUIDE 388

SPEECH WORKSHOP Introducing a Speaker 389

Epilogue 390

Speaking in Small Groups 392 Solving Problems in Groups and Teams 393

1. Identify and Define the Problem 393 ● 2. Analyze the Problem 394 ● 3. Generate Possible Solutions 394 ● 4. Select the Best Solution 395 ● 5. Test and Implement the Solution 395

Participating in Small Groups 395 Come Prepared for Group Discussions 395 ● Do Not Suggest Solutions before Analyzing the Problem 396 ● Evaluate Evidence 396 ● Help Summarize the Group’s Progress 396 ● Listen and Respond Courteously to Others 396 ● Help Manage Conflict 396

Leading Small Groups 397 Leadership Responsibilities 397 ● Leadership Styles 398

Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400 I Have a Dream, Martin Luther King Jr. 400 Delivering the Gift of Freedom to Future Generations (Inaugural Address), Barack Obama 402 Find Your Passion, and Find a Way to Get Paid to Follow It, Anne Lynam Goddard 406 Sticky Ideas: Low-Tech Solutions to a High-Tech Problem, Richard L. Weaver, II 410

Land of the Free Because of the Homeless, Shaunna Miller 414

Endnotes 417 Index 431

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The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach is writ-ten to be the primary text in a course intended to help students become bet-ter public speakers. We are delighted that since the first edition of the book was published two decades ago, educators and students of public speaking have found our book a distinctively useful resource to enhance public-speaking skills. We’ve worked to make our latest edition a preeminent resource for helping students enhance their speaking skills by adding new features and retaining the most success- ful elements of previous editions.

New to the Eighth Edition We’ve refined and updated the book you are holding in your hands to create a pow- erful and contemporary resource for helping speakers connect to their audience. We’ve added several new features and revised features that both instructors and stu- dents have praised.

Streamlined Organization In response to suggestions from instructors who use the book, we’ve consolidated re- lated topics to reduce the book to a total of 16 chapters, allowing instructors to in- clude every chapter during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now offers a preview of the audience-centered speaking model as well as introducing students to the history and value of public speaking and starting the process of building their confidence as public speakers. Chapter 6 now not only shows stu- dents how to gather sup- porting material, but also immediately provides them advice and examples for ef- fective ways to integrate their supporting materials into a speech.

Preface

Learn, compare,

collect the

facts! . . . Always

have the courage to

say to yourself—

I am ignorant.

—IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV

132

Sources of Supporting Material Personal Knowledge and

Experience The Internet Online Databases Traditional Library Holdings Interviews

Research Strategies Develop a Preliminary Bibliography Locate Resources Assess the Usefulness of Resources

Take Notes Identify Possible Presentation Aids

Types of Supporting Material Illustrations Descriptions and Explanations Definitions Analogies Statistics Opinions

The Best Supporting Material

O U

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6 Gathering and UsingSupporting Material

A pple pie is your specialty. Your family and friends relish your flaky crust,spicy filling, and crunchy crumb topping. Fortunately, not only do you havea never-fail recipe and technique, but you also know where to go for the best ingredients. Fette’s Orchard has the tangiest pie apples in town. For your crust,

you use only Premier shortening, which you buy at Meyer’s Specialty Market. Your

crumb topping requires both stone-ground whole-wheat flour and fresh creamery

butter, available on Tuesdays at the farmer’s market on the courthouse square.

Chapter 6 covers the speech-development step highlighted in Figure 6.1 on

page 134: Gather Supporting Material. Just as making your apple pie requires

that you know where to find specific ingredients, creating a successful speech re-

quires a knowledge of the sources, research strategies, and types of supporting

material that speechmakers typically use.

After studying this chapter you should be able to do the following:

1. List five potential sources of supporting material for a speech.

2. Explain five strategies for a logical research process.

3. List and describe six types of supporting material.

4. List and explain six criteria for determining the best supporting material to use in a speech.

O B

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Alexandra Exter (1882–1949), Sketch for a Scenic Design, ca. 1924, gouache on paper. Photo: M. E. Smith/Private Collection. © DeA Picture Library/Art Resource, N. Y.

xxiii

xxiv Preface

Updated Features In the eighth edition, we have added more marginal Recap boxes and tables to summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. Students can use the Recaps and tables to check their understanding, review for exams, and to reference key advice as they prepare their speeches.

New End-of-Chapter Study Guides We’ve provided a new, consolidated Study Guide at the end of each chapter. This practical feature helps students to review and check their understanding of chapter topics. The Study Guide summarizes the content of each major section of the chapter; restates the chapter’s best ideas for being an audience-centered speaker; poses discussion- sparking scenarios that show how chapter concepts might apply in real speaking and ethical situations; and points readers in the direction of relevant online resources that they can use as speakers.

Purposes of Introductions It is important to begin and end your speech in a way that is memorable and that also provides the repetition audiences need. A good introduction gets the audience’s attention, gives the audience a reason to listen, intro- duces your subject, establishes your credibility, and pre- views your main ideas.

Introducing your subject and previewing the body of your speech can be accomplished by includ- ing your central idea and preview statement in the introduction.

Being Audience-Centered ● Introductions and conclusions provide audiences

with important first and final impressions of speaker and speech.

● As a speaker, your task is to ensure that your in- troduction convinces your audience to listen to you.

● A credible speaker is one whom the audience judges to be a believable authority and a compe-

k E bli hi dibili l i

Being Audience-Centered ● If your audience is linguistically diverse or com-

posed primarily of listeners whose first language is not English, it may be preferable not to use humor in your introduction. Because much humor is cre- ated verbally, it may not be readily understood and it rarely translates well.

Using What You’ve Learned ● Nakai is planning to give his informative speech on

Native American music, displaying and demon- strating the use of such instruments as the flute, the Taos drum, and the Yaqui rain stick. He asks you to suggest a good introduction for the speech. How do you think he might best introduce his speech?

A Question of Ethics ● Marty and Shanna, who are in the same section of a

public-speaking class, are discussing their upcoming speeches. Marty has discovered an illustration that she thinks will make an effective introduction. When she tells Shanna about it, Shanna is genuinely enthu- siastic In fact she thinks it would make a great in-

STUDY GUIDE

198 CHAPTER 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech

TABLE 4.3 Adapting Your Message to Different Types of Audiences

Type of Audience Example How to Be Audience-Centered

Interested Mayors who attend a talk by the gov- ernor about increasing security and reducing the threat of terrorism

Acknowledge audience interest early in your speech; use the interest they have in you and your topic to gain and maintain their attention.

Uninterested Junior-high students attending a lecture about retirement benefits

Make it a high priority to tell your lis- teners why your message should be of interest to them. Remind your listeners throughout your speech how your mes- sage relates to their lives.

Favorable A religious group that meets to hear a group leader talk about the importance of their beliefs

Use audience interest to move them closer to your speaking goal; you may be more explicit in telling them in your speech conclusion what you would like them to do.

Unfavorable Students who attend a lecture by the university president explaining why tuition and fees will increase 15 percent next year

Be realistic in what you expect to ac- complish; acknowledge listeners’ oppos- ing point of view; consider using facts to refute misperceptions they may hold.

Voluntary Parents attending a lecture by the new principal at their children’s school

Anticipate why listeners are coming to hear you, and speak about the issues they want you to address.

Captive Students in a public-speaking class Find out who will be in your audience and use this knowledge to adapt your message to them.

We’ve updated the extended example that appears in Developing Your Speech Step by Step boxes throughout the book. We’ve also updated our popular Learning from Great Speakers features, which identify specific tips and lessons students can learn from great speakers, and our practical Speech Workshop worksheets, which end each chapter and guide students in implementing chapter advice. These worksheets are designed as aids to help students with what they are most concerned about: developing and delivering their own speeches with confidence.

New Speeches We’ve added new annotated student speeches and speech examples throughout the book. In addition, nearly every speech in our revised Appendix B is new, selected to provide readers with a variety of positive models of effective speeches.

R E

C A

P Adapting to Your Audience To ethically use information to help an audience understand your message, consider your:

• listeners

• speech goal

• speech content

• delivery

Avoid pandering to listeners or making up information.

Organizing Your Ideas Use this worksheet to help you identify the overall organizational strategy for your speech.

GENERAL PURPOSE:

____ To inform

____ To persuade

____ To entertain

SPECIFIC PURPOSE:

At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to ___________________________

SPEECH WORKSHOP 180 CHAPTER 7 Developing Your Speech

Preface xxv

New Examples and Illustrations New examples and illustrations integrated in every chapter provide both classic and contemporary models to help students master the art of public speaking. As in previous editions, we draw on both stu- dent speeches and speeches delivered by well-known people.

New Material in Every Chapter In addition to these new and expanded features, each chapter has been revised with new examples, illustrations, and references to the latest research conclusions. Here’s a summary of the changes and revisions we’ve made:

Chapter 1: Speaking with Confidence ● The chapter now includes a preview of the audience-centered speaking

process to offer a more complete introduction to public speaking. ● New research on biological causes and effects of speech anxiety provides

advice for channeling physiological arousal in ways that help the speaker. ● A new discussion of anxiety styles helps readers choose confidence-building

tips that are most effective for their style. ● A new figure and a new discussion of the timing of speech anxiety help speak-

ers to time their use of confidence-building strategies for maximum effect.

Chapter 2: Speaking Freely and Ethically ● A revised and updated discussion of free speech helps students understand

the evolution of interpretation of the First Amendment. ● New examples throughout the chapter keep material current and relevant to

readers. ● A new section, Speaking Credibly, reinforces the importance of ethics and

remaining audience-centered and connects concepts across chapters of the book.

Chapter 3: Listening to Speeches ● A new introduction to working memory theory helps students understand

how to cope with information overload that can impede listening. ● A new summary of research on the importance of awareness of one’s own

listening guides students to assess how well they stay on-task as listeners. ● The chapter is streamlined by removing discussion of note-taking, a skill

most students at this level have learned in other contexts. ● A new Listening Ethically section helps to reinforce the importance of ethics

introduced in the previous chapter.

Chapter 4: Analyzing Your Audience ● Our discussion of methods for gathering information has been updated to

include use of the Internet and social media. ● New definitions of race, ethnicity, and culture help readers to clarify the im-

portance of adapting to the audience’s cultural diversity.

Chapter 5: Developing Your Speech ● A new speech, in the Developing Your Speech Step by Step featured in several

chapters, provides an extended example of how to implement audience- centered speechmaking concepts.

Speech Assignment Given

A nx

ie ty

L ev

el

You Begin Your Speech

Speech

High

Low

● Updated lists of potential speech topics can spark students’ own topic brainstorms. ● New material helps students to clarify and distinguish among the general purpose,

specific purpose, and central idea of their speeches. ● New examples throughout the chapter keep material current and relevant to readers.

Chapter 6: Gathering and Using Supporting Material ● This streamlined chapter combines two previously separate chapters to show students

not only where to find supporting material but also how to most effectively use the material they find.

● A thoroughly updated section on sources of information guides students to use Inter- net sources, online databases, traditional library holdings and more, without rehashing research basics students have learned in other contexts.

● The revised end-of-chapter Speech Workshop offers students structured guidance for planning their use of supporting materials.

Chapter 7: Organizing Your Speech ● New examples provide clear demonstrations of how to use popular organizational

patterns, establish main ideas, integrate supporting material, and signal transitions with signposts.

Chapter 8: Introducing and Concluding Your Speech ● New examples of effective introductions and conclusions from both student and

seasoned speakers show students how to implement the techniques described in the chapter.

Chapter 9: Outlining and Revising Your Speech

● We’ve moved our discussion of editing to Chapter 10, where it helps students to focus on the process of rehearsing with a preparation outline as a way to guide them in revising their speeches.

● We’ve included a new Sample Preparation Outline and Delivery Outline to give students complete models of the best practices in organization and revision.

Chapter 10: Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style

● A discussion of editing your speech, formerly in Chapter 9, helps students to under- stand how to make their speeches more effective by keeping their words concise.

● New examples throughout the chapter clarify discussions of memorable word struc- tures, including similes, metaphors, inversion, suspension, parallelism, antithesis, and alliteration.

Chapter 11: Delivering Your Speech

● New information offers guidance in using eye contact effectively. ● A new table summarizes recommendations for working with a translator when speak-

ing to audiences who do not speak English. ● We’ve streamlined the chapter by removing discussion of adapting speech delivery for

television. ● A revised end-of-chapter Speech Workshop offers students structured guidance for

evaluating how to improve their speech delivery.

xxvi Preface

Chapter 12: Using Presentation Aids ● Updated information on two-dimensional presentation aids suggests more effective,

economical technological alternatives when using photographs, slides, and overhead transparencies.

● We’ve added new information on the latest research about using PowerPoint™. ● New discussions of using video aids and audio aids include references to current stor-

age technology, such as iPods and iPads, as well as current content sources, such as YouTube.

Chapter 13: Speaking to Inform ● A new section shows readers how to appeal to a variety of listener learning styles when

speaking to inform. ● Another new section shows the applicability of every step of the audience-centered

model of public speaking to informative speeches.

Chapter 14: Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking ● A clarified definition helps students to understand key elements of persuasion. ● New and expanded discussion of ELM persuasion theory and how it compares to Aris-

totle’s classical theory focuses on how persuasive speakers can effectively apply both theories.

● A new discussion and figure on social judgment theory help students to apply theoret- ical concepts to their own real-life speaking situations.

● An expanded section How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech shows students how to apply every step of the audience-centered speaking model to their persuasive speeches.

Chapter 15: Using Persuasive Strategies ● Our updated discussion of credibility helps students to plan how to establish and sup-

port their own credibility at various phases of their speech. ● New examples help to clarify explanations of strategies for organizing persuasive

messages, including refutation, cause and effect, and the motivated sequence. ● A new Sample Persuasive Speech gives students a complete model of how to use the

motivated sequence and other principles of persuasion.

Chapter 16: Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes ● New chapter opening examples reinforce the value of public speaking with dollars-

and-cents evidence. ● New examples throughout the chapter demonstrate models of speeches for ceremonial

occasions including award acceptances, commencement addresses, and eulogies, as well as humorous speaking.

Successful Features Retained in This Edition The goal of the eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach remains the same as that of the previous seven editions: to be a practical and user-friendly guide to help speakers connect their hearts and minds with those of their listeners. While adding powerful new features and content to help students become skilled public speakers, we have also endeavored

Preface xxvii

to keep what students and instructors liked best. Specifically, we retained five areas of focus that have proven successful in previous editions: our audience-centered approach; our focus on over- coming communication apprehension; our focus on ethics; our focus on diversity; and our focus on skill development. We also continue our partnership with instructors and students by offer- ing a wide array of print and electronic supplements to support teaching and learning.

Our Audience-Centered Approach The distinguishing focus of the book is our audience-centered approach. Over 2,300 years ago, Aristotle said, “For of the three elements in speechmaking—speaker, subject, and person ad- dressed—it is the last one, the hearer, that determines the speaker’s end and object.” We think Aristotle was right. A good speech centers on the needs, values, and hopes of the audience, who should be foremost in the speaker’s mind during every step of the speech development and de- livery process. Thus, in a very real sense, the audience writes the speech. Effective and ethical public speaking does not simply tell listeners only what they want to hear—that would be a manipulative, speaker-centered approach. Rather, the audience-centered speaker is ethically responsive to audience interests without abandoning the speaker’s end and object.

It is not unusual or distinctive for a public-speaking book to discuss audience analysis. What is unique about our audience-centered approach is that our discussion of audience analy- sis and adaptation is not confined to a single chapter; rather, we emphasize the importance of considering the audience throughout our entire discussion of the speech preparation and delivery process. From the opening overview of the public-speaking process until the final chapter, we illuminate the positive power of helping students relate to their audience by keep- ing their listeners foremost in mind.

Preparing and delivering a speech also involves a sequence of steps. Our audience-centered model integrates the step-by-step process of speech preparation and delivery with the ongoing

process of considering the audience. Our audience-centered model of public speaking, shown here and intro- duced in Chapter 1, reappears throughout the text to remind students of the

steps involved in speech preparation and delivery, while simultaneously emphasizing the importance of considering the audience. Viewing the

model as a clock, the speaker begins the process at the 12 o’clock position with “Select and Narrow Topic” and moves around the

model clockwise to “Deliver Speech.” Each step of the speech preparation and delivery process touches the center portion of the model, labeled “Consider the Audience.” Arrows connect- ing the center with each step of the process illustrate how the audience influences each of the steps involved in designing and presenting a speech. Arrows pointing in both directions around the central process of “Consider the Audience” repre- sent how a speaker may sometimes revise a previous step be-

cause of further information or thought about the audience. A speaker may, for example, decide after having gathered support-

ing material for a speech that he or she needs to go back and revise the speech purpose. Visual learners will especially appreciate the

illustration of the entire public-speaking process provided by the model. The colorful, easy-to-understand synopsis will also be appreci-

ated by people who learn best by having an overview of the entire process before beginning the first step of speech preparation.

After introducing the model in the very first chapter of the book, we continue to emphasize the centrality of considering the audience by revisiting it at appropriate points throughout the book. A highlighted version of the model appears in several chapters, as a visual reminder of the place the chapter’s topic occupies in the audience-centered speech- making process. Similarly, highlighted versions appear in Developing Your Speech Step by Step boxes. Another visual reminder comes in the form of a miniature version of the model, the icon shown here in the margin. When you see this icon, it will remind you that the material

xxviii Preface

Deliver Speech

Generate Main Ideas

Develop Central

Idea

Gather Supporting

Material

Select and Narrow Topic

Rehearse Speech

Determine Purpose

Organize Speech

CONSIDER THE

AUDIENCE

CONSIDER THE

AUDIENCE

presented has special significance for considering your audience.

Our Focus on Communication Apprehension One of the biggest barriers that keeps a speaker, especially a novice public speaker, from connecting to his or her audience is apprehension. Fear of failure, forgetting, or fumbling words is a major distraction. In this edition, we help students to overcome their apprehension of speaking to others by focusing on their listeners rather than on their fear. We’ve updated and expanded our discussion of communication appre- hension in Chapter 1, adding the most contemporary research conclusions we can find to help stu- dents overcome the anxiety that many people experience when speaking publicly. To help students integrate confidence-boosting strategies through their study of public speaking, we offer students powerful pointers for managing anxiety in the Confidently Connecting with Your Audience features found in the margins of each chapter. To provide yet additional help for managing apprehension, we’ve distilled several seminal ideas keyed to our audience-centered model on the inside back cover. So, from Chapter 1 until the literal last page in the book, we help stu- dents manage their apprehension.

Our Focus on Ethics Being audience-centered does not mean that a speaker tells an audience only what they want to hear; if you are not true to your own values, you will have become a manipulative, unethical communicator rather than an audience-centered one. Audience-centered speakers articulate truthful messages that give audience members free choice in responding to a message, while they also use effective means of ensuring message clarity and credibility.

From the first chapter onward, we link being an audience-centered speaker with being an ethical speaker. Our principles and strategies for being rhetorically skilled are anchored in eth- ical principles that assist speakers in articulating a message that connects with their audience. We not only devote an entire chapter (Chapter 2) to being an ethical speaker, but we also offer reminders, tips, and strategies for making ethical speaking and listening an integral part of human communication. As part of the Study Guide at the end of each chapter, students and in- structors will find questions to spark discussion about and raise awareness of ethical issues in effective speechmaking.

Our Focus on Diversity Just as the topic of audience analysis is covered in most public-speaking textbooks, so is diversity. Sometimes diversity is discussed in a separate chapter; sometimes it is presented in “diversity boxes” sprinkled throughout a book. We choose to address diversity not as an add-on to the main discussion but rather as an integral part of being an audience-centered speaker. To be audience- centered is to acknowledge the various ethnic and cultural backgrounds, attitudes, beliefs, values, and other differences present when people assemble to hear a speech. We suggest that inherent in the process of being audience-centered is a focus on the diverse nature of listeners in contempo- rary audiences. The topic of adapting to diverse audiences is therefore not a boxed afterthought but is integrated into every step of our audience-centered approach.

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a circular air hockey puck of radius

A physics student playing with an air hockey table (a frictionless surface) finds that if she gives the puck a velocity of 5.30 m/s along the length (2.80 m) of the table at one end,
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physics
A physics student playing with an air hockey table (a frictionless surface) finds that if she gives the puck a velocity of 5.30 m/s along the length (2.80 m) of the table at one end, by the time it has reached the other end the puck has drifted 5.19 cm to

asked by Nick on March 4, 2012
Physics
a mouse pushes a piece of cheese with a mass of 6.4 g for a distance of 75 cm over the frictionless surface of an air hockey table. He exerts a constant 0.5 N force as he does so. If the cheese starts from rest, what is it’s final velocity?

asked by Kelly on December 5, 2012
Science: Physics
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Physics
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Physics
A hockey puck of mass m = 70 g is attached to a string that passes through a hole in the center of a table, as shown in the figure below. The hockey puck moves in a circle of radius r = 1.20 m. Tied to the other end of the string, and hanging vertically

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physics
A physics student pulls a block of mass m = 23 kg up an incline at a slow constant velocity for a distance of d = 4 m. The incline makes an angle q = 25° with the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the inclined plane is

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Physics
A 0.2 kg hockey puck is placed against a spring lying on a horizontal frictionless surface. The spring is compressed 0.2 m, with the hockey puck, and then released. The hockey puck when released is able to go up a frictionless slope with an angle of 30

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PHYSICS
Indentify the direction of the netforce in each of the following situations. A marble moves in a circular path inside a paper plate at a constant speed. The moon orbits the earth. An air hockey puck moves smoothly across the air hockey table after being

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Physics 11 steve or any physics teacher helpURGENT
A 30kg student pushes a 20kg box on a frictionless surface. If student accelerates at 0.80 m/s^2, what is acceleration of the box. My question is why does the box accelerate in opposite direction of the boy, and how does the frictionless surface affect

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physics
An air hockey table works by pumping air through thousands of tiny holes in a table to support light pucks. this allows the pucks to move around on cushions of air with very little resistance. one of these pucks has a mass of 0.25 kg and is pushed along by

asked by Liz on October 28, 2009
physics .Henry,Damon,Steve,Saed,bobpursley, And This is my question every one
A rocket-powered hockey puck is moving on a (friction-less) horizontal air-hockey table. The x- and y-components of its velocity as a function of time are presented in the graphs below. Assuming that at t=0 the puck is at (X0,Y0)=(1,2), draw a detailed

asked by himel on August 21, 2016
physics question
A rocket-powered hockey puck is moving on a (friction-less) horizontal air-hockey table. The x- and y-components of its velocity as a function of time are presented in the graphs below. Assuming that at t=0 the puck is at (X0,Y0)=(1,2), draw a detailed

asked by himel on August 16, 2016

Physics
A student places her 330 g physics book on a frictionless table. She pushes the book against a spring, compressing the spring by 9.90 cm, then releases the book

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phsc
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Physics
A large horizontal circular platform (M=143.1 kg, r=3.01 m) rotates about a frictionless vertical axle. A student (m=75.3 kg) walks slowly from the rim of the platform toward the center. The angular velocity ω of the system is 2.10 rad/s when the student

asked by Molly on February 11, 2014
physics
find the frictional force between an air hockey puck and the table, assume u air = 1.8 X 10^-5 kg/ms, the puck is 0.013 above the table, the puck has an area of 25 cm^2

asked by emily on October 19, 2010
physical science
Suppose you are playing ice hockey in the middle of a totally frictionless frozen pond. How can you move yourself to the edge of the pond? Explain what you would do and why it would work.

asked by kjunior on June 22, 2011
Physics
While sliding horizontal on a frictionless surface at a speed of 30 m/s, a hockey puck of mass 0.16 kg is struck by a hockey stick. After leaving the stick, the puck has a speed of 22 m/s in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the impulse given to the

asked by Samiboo711 on February 2, 2015
Physics
The spring shown in the figure is compressed 59cm and used to launch a 100 kg physics student. The track is frictionless until it starts up the incline. The student’s coefficient of kinetic friction on the 30∘ incline is 0.14 . k= 80,000 N/m m=100 kg uk=

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physics
A student places her 500 g physics book on a frictionless table. She pushes the book against a spring, compressing the spring by 4.0 cm, then releases the book. What is the book’s speed as it slides away? The spring constant is 1250 N/m. 1

asked by anonymus on August 30, 2018
Physics
A student places her 442 g physics book on a frictionless table. She pushes the book against a spring, compressing the spring by 4.44 cm, then releases the book. What is the book’s speed as it slides away? The spring constant is 1102 N/m.

asked by Juan on September 29, 2011
PHYSICS
Two objects are tied together and placed on a frictionless table. One is pushed off the edge of the table so it falls, dragging the second along the surface of the table. The magnitude of the acceleration of the falling object is _.

asked by Anonymous on September 18, 2016

physics
2 masses are connected through a non-stretchable string that passes over a frictionless pulley. The masses of the objects are 12 kg and 5.5 kg respectively. The obj with larger mass is hanging 2.5 m fr the surface of a table. Suppose that the two objs are

asked by Sha on January 15, 2012
pre calc 12
During intermission, at a hockey game, small foam hockey pucks are launched from a height. How long is a puck in the air if a student in the stands catches it on its way down 12m above ice lvl? The model for the vertical motion of the puck can be

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physics
A mass m1 = 10 kg on top of a rough horizontal table surface is connected by a massless cable over a frictionless wheel to a hanging mass m2 = 5 kg, as shown in the previous problem. In m2 falls 1 m from rest in 1.2 seconds, find the co-efficient of

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Earth Science Regents!!!
Two students in different parts of New York State measure the altitude of Polaris is above the horizon. The student near New York City finds the angle to be 41 degrees. The student near Massena finds the angle to be 45 degrees. Which state is best

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physics B
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Physics
In her physics lab, Stephanie rolls a 30 g marble down a ramp and off a table with a horizontal velocity of 2 m/s. The marble falls in a cup placed 0.4 m from the table’s edge. a. How long is the ball in the air? 0.2 s b. How high is the table? m

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physics
What forces are acting on a puck that is on an air hockey table?

asked by Ale on March 3, 2011
physics
A hockey puck of mass m = 120 g is attached to a string that passes through a hole in the center of a table, as shown in the figure below. The hockey puck moves in a circle of radius r = 0.50 m. Tied to the other end of the string, and hanging vertically

asked by jyothi on February 16, 2015
Physics
1) Determine the force of gravitational attraction between the earth(m=5.98*10^24kg) and a 70-kg physics student if the student is in an airplane at 4.950 meters above the earth’s surface.

asked by Charlie on December 6, 2014
physics
A hockey puck with mass 0.160kg is at rest on the horizontal, frictionless surface of a rink. A player applies a force of 0.310N to the puck, parallel to the surface of the ice, and continues to apply this force for 1.60s. What is the (a)position and

asked by Force and direction on November 14, 2012

Physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 2.40 and a total mass of 1.40 . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.90 from the edge of a 1.80 drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge. How far from the table does the

asked by Dan on March 15, 2011
physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 4.70 N and a total mass of 2.40 kg. It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 4.80 m from the edge of a 3.00 m drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge. How far does the puck

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Physics
An air-hockey puck of mass m floats across the table essentially frictionless on a cushion of air. This puck bumps nearly head-on into a second puck that has 3 times the mass, moving in the opposite direction but with the same speed, v i , as the lighter

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Physics
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asked by winged17 on April 7, 2015
physics
A 90-kilogram physics student would weigh 2970 Newtons on the surface of planet X. What is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of planet X?

asked by tyler on December 4, 2014
Physics
In a Physics laboratory class, an object of mass 2.1 kg, attached by massless strings to two hanging masses, m1= 1.0 kg and m2= 4.0 kg, is free to slide on the surface of the table. the coefficient of kinetic friction between m2 and the table is 0.30.

asked by Ashley on October 15, 2012
physics
A physics student throws a softball straight up into the air. The ball was in the air for a total of 6.16 s before it was caught at its original position. (a) What was the initial velocity of the ball? (b) How high did it rise?

asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2012
physics
A physics student throws a softball straight up into the air. The ball was in the air for a total of 6.16 s before it was caught at its original position. (a) What was the initial velocity of the ball? (b) How high did it rise?

asked by Anonymous on January 16, 2012
PHYSICS
An object is originally moving at 13 m/s at the top of a frictionless, quarter-circular ramp with a radius of R = 13 meters. It then travels on a frictionless horizontal surface, around a frictionless loop of radius r = 2 meters, across another horizontal,

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Physics (dynamics)
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gr10 math
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asked by Rebecca on May 31, 2011
physics
A 0.19 kg hockey puck has a velocity of 2.1 m/s toward the east (the +x direction) as it slides over the frictionless surface of an ice hockey rink. What are the (a) magnitude and (b) direction of the constant net force that must act on the puck during a

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Science
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asked by Lee on September 17, 2012
physics
home / study / science / physics / questions and answers / a block of mass 3kg s sliding along the frictionless … Question A block of mass 3kg s sliding along the frictionless horizontal surface with a speed of 2m/s. 1. What is the kinetic energy of the

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Physics
A hockey puck is observed to be sliding along a flat frictionless surface at a speed of 42 mm/s. There is no net force acting on the puck. Assuming it doesn’t smash into anything, how FAST will the puck be going 2 h later?

asked by Cameron on October 3, 2018
physics
An 7.95 g bullet is fired horizontally into a 9.03 kg block of wood on an air table and is embedded in it. After the collision, the block and bullet slide along the frictionless surface together with a speed of 11.6 cm/s. What was the initial speed of the

asked by Jess on March 20, 2010
Physics
Three objects with masses m1 = 7.4 kg, m2 = 11 kg, and m3 = 18 kg, respectively, are attached by strings over frictionless pulleys (M1 hangs off the left side of the table and M3 hangs off the right side of the table with M2 between them on the table). The

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Physics
A physics student sits by the open window on a train moving at 25 m/sec towards the east. Her boyfriend is standing on the station platform, sadly watching her leave. When the train is 150 meters form the station, it emits a whistle at a frequency of 3000

asked by caleb on April 23, 2010
physics
A physics student sits by the open window on a train moving at 25 m/sec towards the east. Her boyfriend is standing on the station platform, sadly watching her leave. When the train is 150 meters form the station, it emits a whistle at a frequency of 3000

asked by Jason on April 21, 2010
Physics
A physics student sits by the open window on a train moving at 25 m/sec towards the east. Her boyfriend is standing on the station platform, sadly watching her leave. When the train is 150 meters form the station, it emits a whistle at a frequency of 3000

asked by caleb on April 22, 2010

Physics 11 urgent Steve, bob, damon pls
A 30 kg student pushes a 20kg box on frictionless surface. If student accelerates at 0.8m/s^2(N),what is acceleration of bix. now why does the box acceerate towards south, if it is being pushed north should it not move north.

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Math
Find the area of an air hockey table that is 8 1/4 feet by 4 3/8 feet.

asked by Anonymous on October 5, 2016
Physics
a 78kg hockey player standing on frictionless ice throws a 6.0kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 3.0m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by Sarah on April 26, 2012
emmanuel
in a class of 60 student,26 offer mathmatic and 28 offer physics if 8 student do not offer any of the two subject (1)how many student offer both subject. (2)how many student offer mathematic only. (3)how many student offer physics only. (4)how many student

asked by toluwase on January 7, 2016
Physics
Two Students are pulling on a box initially at rest with a mass of 13.5 kg on a frictionless surface. Student #1 is applying a force of 16.5 N to the left while student #2 is apply a force of 3.7 N to the right. Find the velocity of the box after 6 sec

asked by Tinamarie on January 15, 2014
Physics
A hockey puck is sliding on frictionless ice. It slams against a wall and bounces back toward the player with the same speed that it had before hitting the wall. Does the velocity of the hockey puck change in this process?

asked by Robin on September 15, 2011
Physics
A hockey puck is sliding on frictionless ice. It slams against the wall and bounces back toward the player with the same speed that it had before hitting the wall. Does the velocity of the hockey puck change in this process? Explain.

asked by Crystal on April 10, 2013
physics
A student wearing frictionless in-line skates on a horizontal surface is pushed, from rest, by a friend with a constant force of 45 N. How far must the student be pushed, starting from rest, so that her final kinetic energy is 352 J?

asked by bill on December 15, 2014
physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 2.20 and a total mass of 0.700 . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.90 from the edge of a 2.80 drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge.

asked by Bob on September 30, 2011
physics
a block B (m2 = 14 kg) is at rest on top of a table. Block B is connected to block A (m1 = 4.8 kg) and block C (m3 = 17 kg) by two strings that each pass over a frictionless pulley installed at the either end of the table. The horizontal surface of the

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Sta 112
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physics
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 3.6 cm and a weight of 38 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Anonymous on November 22, 2011
physics
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 3.6 cm and a weight of 38 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

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Physics
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 4.8 cm and a weight of 26 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Anonymous on October 4, 2012
Physics HELP
A student has six textbooks, each with a thickness of 4.0 cm and a weight of 30 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

asked by Kels on October 4, 2011
English (grammar)
The players were playing hockey

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Physics
a person pushes on a hockey puck with their stick at an angle so the vertical force is 22N down and the horizontal force is 45N forward. Assume the ice is frictionless. What is the actual force the hockey player transmits to the puck? what is the work done

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physics
The figure below shows an object of mass M = 1,276 g. It is free to move along a horizontal, frictionless surface. This object is further connected to a second object with a mass of m = 1,362 g by means of a massless string that extends around a massless,

asked by m2a on October 10, 2009
physics
a student has six textbooks, each has a thickness of 3.6cm and a weight of 28 N. What is the minimum work the student would have to do to place all of the books in a single vertical stack, starting with all the books on the surface of the table?

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physics
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Physics
A rocket-powered hockey puck has a thrust of 2.20 newtons and a total mass of 0.700 kilograms . It is released from rest on a frictionless table, 2.90 meters from the edge of a 2.80 meter drop. The front of the rocket is pointed directly toward the edge.

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Physics
A 2.1 kg mass is connected to a spring with spring constant k= 180 N/m and unstretched length 16 cm. The pair are mounted on a frictionless air table, with the free end of the spring attached to a frictionless pivot. The mass is set into circular motion at

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Physics
Suppose you’re eating in a restaurant where the dishes are shared at the table and all placed uniformly on a rotating disk-like surface. Model this surface as a thin disk of radius 33.4 cm. You can’t stop thinking about physics even though you’re out

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physics
A physics student pulls a block of mass m = 20 kg up an incline at a slow constant velocity for a distance of d = 4.5 m. The incline makes an angle Δ = 30° with the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the inclined plane

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Physics
A 50 kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless ice surface throws a ball, mass of 5.0 kg horizontally with a speed of 3.0 m/s. With what speed will the player recoil? • What formula/s should I use?

asked by Lea on August 31, 2015
physics
A 182 block is launched by compressing a spring of constant k=200N/m a distance of 15cm. The spring is mounted horizontally, and the surface directly under it is frictionless. But beyond the equilibrium position of the spring end, the surface has

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Physics
Hi, just need a little help with this physics question please. A cylindrical tank of water is located 68m deep in water. An air lock at the bottome of the tank allows access. The sailor must wait while the air pressure in the lock is increased until it

asked by Sally on February 19, 2015
physics
A copper rod of length 0.83 m is lying on a frictionless table (see the drawing). Each end of the rod is attached to a fixed wire by an unstretched spring that has a spring constant of k = 73 N/m. A magnetic field with a strength of 0.17 T is oriented

asked by VictorD2 on March 25, 2013
physics
An air puck of mass m1 = 0.45 kg is tied to a string and allowed to revolve in a circle of radius R = 1.0 m on a frictionless horizontal table. The other end of the string passes through a hole in the center of the table, and a mass m2 = 1.10 kg is

asked by melissa on November 30, 2010
physics
A 80- kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless sheet of ice throws a 6.2- kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 2.1 m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by kevin on October 31, 2009
physics
A 72- kg ice hockey player standing on a frictionless sheet of ice throws a 5.6- kg bowling ball horizontally with a speed of 3.9 m/s. With what speed does the hockey player recoil?

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2014
Physics
A hockey puck slides off the edge of a table with the initial velocity of 20m/s. The table height is 2.0 m. What is the accleration of the puck right after it leaves the table?

asked by Jj on November 6, 2011
Physics
A paladin howitzer fires a 46.00 kg projectile towards a 1000 kg metal block resting on a frictionless surface. Just before impact, the projectile is traveling with a horizontal velocity of 529 m/s. After the collision, the embedded projectile and the

asked by Samiboo711 on February 2, 2015
Statistics 2231
12.05 A study of the students taking distance learning courses at a university finds that they are mostly older students not living in the university town. Choose a distance learning student at random. Let A be the event that the student is 25 years old or

asked by Regina on October 6, 2012
Solid mensuration
A wooden sphere 16 inches in diameter is placed on a table. The ball is cut horizontally 4in and 10in above the table surface. Find the surface area of the table remains after two cutting

asked by anonymous on March 10, 2016
physics
A 40 gram bullet is fired horizontally from a gun with a momentum of 2.8 (kg*m/s) and embeds itself into a 300 gram block of wood initially at rest on a wooden horizontal surface. After this collision the wood block slides 15 meters before falling off a

asked by Cass on January 16, 2013

Physics
A 40 gram bullet is fired horizontally from a gun with a momentum of 2.8 (kg*m/s) and embeds itself into a 300 gram block of wood initially at rest on a wooden horizontal surface. After this collision the wood block slides 15 meters before falling off a

asked by Cass on January 16, 2013
physics
Note: The direction of the acceleration ~a of the system is given in the figure. Three masses (17 kg, 21 kg and 67 kg) are connected by strings. The 67 kg mass slides on a horizontal surface of a table top and the 17 kg and 21 kg masses hang over the edge

asked by I dont like physics on November 24, 2015
Physics
An airplane has a mass of 2.8×106 kg , and the air flows past the lower surface of the wings at 81 m/s . Part A: If the wings have a surface area of 1100 m2 , how fast must the air flow over the upper surface of the wing if the plane is to stay in the

asked by Ashley on November 4, 2016
Probability
48% of the students in the school are female and the probability of taking of physics is independent of the gender of the student, what is the probability that a student chosen at random is both a female and taking physics?

asked by Anonymous on November 2, 2017
Math
Out of a group of 600 students taking computer,mathematics or physics,there is no student taking both computer and mathematics.Every student takes computer or mathematics.150 take physics and mathematics and 250 take only one of the subjects.Find 1) the

asked by Mitu on December 30, 2015

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business plan writing services help me write my essay write my assignment write my essay for me cheap

the figure shows an electron passing between two charged metal plates

The figure below shows an electron passing between two charged metal plates that create an 115 N/C vertical electric field perpendicular to the electron’s original horizontal velocity. (These can be used to change the electron’s direction, such as in an oscilloscope.) The initial speed of the electron is 3.30×106 m/s, and the horizontal distance it travels in the uniform field is 4.10 cm. What is its vertical deflection?

0 0 217
asked by Joe
Aug 22, 2014
If two equal charges each of 1.0 C each are separated in air by a distance of 1.0 km, what is the magnitude of the force acting between them? You will see that even at a distance as large as 1.0 km, the repulsive force is substantial because 1.0 C is a very significant amount of charge.

0 0
posted by Joe
Aug 22, 2014
On the second question, this is coulombs law. I don’t understand what your question is, or what you don’t understand about it.

On the first, Force=qE
then find the time it is in the field
time=distancetraveled/velocity

Now you have the force, and time in the force,
distance=1/2 (force/mass)time^2

0 0
👨‍🏫
bobpursley
Aug 22, 2014

Categories
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which of the following are boolean operators

  1. Which of the following are Boolean operators? and, or, not *** to, for, from a, an, the is, are, not 2. How are Boolean search strategies and other search filters useful? They organize results
    129 results
    psy202
    which of the following do experts recommend regarding the search for information on the internet avoid boolean operators since new technology has made them obsolete stick to one search engine like google so that bookmarks are better organized bookmark any

asked by kim on September 17, 2013
Help?

  1. Which of the following are Boolean operators? and, or, not *** to, for, from a, an, the is, are, not 2. How are Boolean search strategies and other search filters useful? They organize results alphabetically. *** They narrow the search results. They

asked by Anonymous on May 9, 2014
electronics and circuits
How many distinct boolean-valued functions are there of n boolean-valued signals? Write an expression in terms of n.

asked by kanimozhi on November 18, 2016
vba excel
Our teacher wanted us to set up a command button that gives 3 input boxes on city, state, and zip code. Next we are suppose to use a Boolean type and set a true or false setting depending on the zip code that’s suppose to be 5 digits. Next we are to insert

asked by Angel on October 18, 2011
logic
Since the boolean interpretatrion doesn’t acknowledge any relationship between categorical propositions but contradiction…if the two statements are related in some other way acknowledged on the square of opposition, such as through the relationship of

asked by anonymous on January 11, 2009

Boolean Algebra
Simplify: (x * y) + (~x * z) + (y * z) I’m using ~ to represent NOT, * to represent AND, + to represent OR I did: (x * y) + (~x * z) + (y * z) = (x * y) + z(~x * y) But I can’t get any further from here A boolean algebra calculator online says the

asked by Anonymous on September 18, 2018
Arithmetic Operations
Find a set of 4 distinct positive integers a,b,c,d such that the smallest positive integer that can not be represented by such expressions involving a,b,c,d (instead of 1,2,3,4) is greater than 22.You can use digits exactly once. You are allowed to reuse

asked by Parashar on November 3, 2006
physics
Design some simple digital circuits based on Boolean expressions. Draw circuits that implement the following Boolean expressions using some combination of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, and NOR gates. – NOT X OR NOT Y OR Z – X OR Y OR NOT Z – NOT X AND Y OR NOT Y AND

asked by Sandhya on June 10, 2009
computer science
IHow do you refractor this: public class Employee { private boolean isPartTime; private int seniority; private int monthsDisabled; public Employee(boolean isPartTime, int seniority, int monthsDisabled) { this.isPartTime = isPartTime; this.seniority =

asked by Su on April 23, 2014
Math (Programming)
To whoever helped me ealier (or anybody period), need some more help on where to go Here’s the question once again: I need to write a code in java based on an alrgorithm, the alrgorithm and it’s problem are below: The Sieve of Eratosthenes is “a

asked by Mr. Anonymous on March 11, 2019
INT 1111
QUESTION 1 When using the OR logical operator to connect 2 conditions to create a complex Boolean expression, neither the first condition nor the second condition has to be true for the complex Boolean expression to be true. True False QUESTION 2 String

asked by Tom on June 18, 2016
computer science
QUESTION 1 When using the OR logical operator to connect 2 conditions to create a complex Boolean expression, neither the first condition nor the second condition has to be true for the complex Boolean expression to be true. True False QUESTION 2 String

asked by Tom on June 18, 2016
com 150
What is boolean?

asked by Derek Swann on September 7, 2011
Educational Technology
Which of the following are Boolean operaters? A.) and, or, not B.) to, for, from C.) a, and, the D.) is, are not

asked by Kelsey on March 21, 2015
physics
A+(NOT A)B=? {BOOLEAN ALGEBRA)

asked by vera on February 24, 2011

ggs
simply the following Boolean expression A-BC+AB-C-+A-BC+A-BC+AB-C

asked by sadiya umar on December 16, 2015
computer
Simplify Boolean algebra f(X,Y,Z)=(X’Y+XZ)(X+Y’)

asked by Ardi on September 29, 2011
English
How do I relate literary operators to meaningless words?

asked by rach16 on July 12, 2016
Excel
What are the symbols I would use in Excel for each of the following Comparison Operators? “At Least” –> “More Than” –> “X Or Higher” –> “X Or Less” –> “Not More Than” –> “At Most” –>

asked by Jacob on February 13, 2013
logical approach towards math
Use only 4’4’s and only 4’4′ along with any mathematical operators to make a total of 2348.

asked by mathmania on October 26, 2011
mathssss
Use only four 4’s along with any mathematical operators to make a total of 2348.

asked by kindy help me.. on October 24, 2011
math..
Use only four 4’s along with any mathematical operators to make a total of 2348.

asked by .. on October 24, 2011
E.C.E
The Boolean search connector OR is used for which of the following purposes?

asked by Trina on March 15, 2012
gss
simply the following Boolean expression A’BC+AB’C’+A’BC+ABC+AB’C

asked by sadiya umar on December 16, 2015
Math
Hi, Please help me solve the ffg. set of simultaneous equations using D-operators: dy/dx+2x-3y=1 dy/dx-3x+2y=e^-t

asked by Ash on February 27, 2013

Travel and Tourism
What is the most successful marketing strategy for Travel Agents and Tour Operators?

asked by Taylor on May 29, 2016
Physics
prove the following rules if true or false using Boolean algebra (a)A+AB = A+B (b)(A+B)(A+C) = A+BC

asked by NONEE on October 5, 2015
Technolgy
Which boolean operator omits information for search parameters? AND OR WITHOUT NOT***

asked by Shalee ^~^ on September 29, 2015
University physics
prove the following rules if True or False using Boolean algebra (a)A+AB = A+B (b)(A+B)(A+C) = A+BC

asked by Megameno on October 6, 2015
Literacy
Which Boolean operator limits your search so that each term input must be in the same document

asked by Martha on January 21, 2012
English
The Red Cross’ shelters needed ham operators. Is the apostrophe correct in the sentence above?

asked by kelley on April 13, 2016
statistics
An office has 8 secretaries and 5 computer operators. If one employee is picked at random, find the probability that it will be a secretary.

asked by Kate on September 15, 2011
Math
“How many different equivalent expressions for a particular number can be found?” Various constraints can be (and need to be) applied, such as the use of integers only, the number of expressions listed, a restricted choice of digits, or operations etc.

asked by Henry on January 9, 2009
CAIS
Could Somebody please help me to understand truth tables, boolean expression, and von neumann architecture? Just an explanation to help me grasp it easier.

asked by Ti on November 15, 2007
Math/ Computer Sci
Could Somebody please help me to understand truth tables, boolean expression, and von neumann architecture? Just an explanation to help me grasp it easier.

asked by Ti on November 15, 2007

college
I need help with this one question with two parts… Describe the traditional role of a travel agents and tour operators compared to thier current operation?

asked by Evey on October 2, 2009
Travel and Tourism
I need help with this one question with two parts… Describe the traditional role of a travel agents and tour operators compared to thier current operation?

asked by Evey on October 3, 2009
Technolgy
A _ is a way for students to keep track of information during research Credible Website Search log** Boolean operator online database

asked by Shalee ^~^ on September 29, 2015
Ed. Tech
A blank is a way for students to keep track of information during research. A. Credible website B. Search log C. Boolean operator D. Online database Is the answer D?

asked by Gwen on September 17, 2014
chemistry
Identify which of the following function are Eigen functions of the operators d/dx and give the corresponding Eigen value (1). ¥= e^ikx (2). ¥= coskx (3). kx

asked by Aweda on November 5, 2016
boolean algebra – PLEASE HELP!!
simplify the following equation using boolean laws and rules: x=~(A(+)B) + ~(AB)+~((A(+)B)AC)+(~A)C (+) means plus in the circle ~ means not

asked by Anonymous on February 13, 2019
boolean algebra – PLEASE HELP!!
simplify the following equation using boolean laws and rules: x=~(A(+)B) + ~(AB)+~((A(+)B)AC)+(~A)C (+) means plus in the circle ~ means not

asked by Hi😱 on February 12, 2019
digital electronics
Let f(a,b,c,d,e) be a Boolean function. Check which expression corresponds to the minterm 19 (m19) of the function. a.b.c.d.e a¯.b.c¯.d¯.e a.b¯.c¯.d.e a.b¯.c¯.d.e¯

asked by nithya on January 6, 2017
Boolean algebra
Simplify this function using Boolean algebra laws? I am stuck on this part of my homework (x2’x1’x0′) + (x2’x1x0) + (x2x1x0′) I know you have to use distributive laws to do this. Any help is appreciated. Thank you.

asked by John on October 23, 2012
META!!!
what are advantages and disadvantages of using meta search services? http://www.sou.edu/library/searchtools/ 1. Go through the different articles in the section entitled HOW TO SEARCH THE INTERNET. 2. Then try out some of the search engines in the

asked by jen on November 30, 2006

AVIATION SECURITY
who is responsible for hiring and training checkpoint security supervisors? 1. federal government 2. airport operators 3. airline carriers 4. airport security managers I think it’s B

asked by Melina on December 18, 2014
Precedence rules for the algebra community
Precedence of operators In simple algebra, there is a set of precedence (priority) of operations that should be respected in order that everyone evaluates mathematical expressions in the same way. Although these rules have been taught in elementary school

asked by MathMate on September 2, 2014
mah
Let A = {a, b} and list the four elements of the power set P (A). We consider the operations + to be ∪, · to be ∩, and complement to be set complement. Consider 1 to be A and 0 to be ∅. a. Explain why the description above defines a Boolean algebra.

asked by excel on April 8, 2015
mah
Let A = {a, b} and list the four elements of the power set P (A). We consider the operations + to be ∪, · to be ∩, and complement to be set complement. Consider 1 to be A and 0 to be ∅. a. Explain why the description above defines a Boolean algebra.

asked by excel on April 7, 2015
Digital Electronics
Hi everyone. Im not sure how to draw PLA and PAL Circuit for the following Boolean expression “F=A+~B+D”. can someone please provide me with drawing below if possible is not then kindly email me on “mattkazma@gmail. com”. please let me leave me response if

asked by Mat on June 22, 2018
Information literacy lesson 2
What is Expanded Academic ASAP? A. An open-access search engine on the web B. A Boolean search engine C. A periodical database D. A metasearch engine

asked by Bern on July 6, 2015
info interacy
The Boolean search connector OR is used for which of the following purposes? A. To restrict a search by excluding results that include a particular term B. To narrow a search by adding another concept C. To search several different databases simultaneously

asked by tasha on January 15, 2012
VBA Microsoft Excel
I have been on this problem for about 3 hours and I cannot solve it. My professor wanted us to make a command button with 3 input boxes ( I was able to do this part), but I’m suppose to design a boolean and select case that makes sure that a 5 digit number

asked by Angel on October 9, 2011
math
Let A = {a, b} and list the four elements of the power set P (A). We consider the operations + to be ∪, · to be ∩, and complement to be set complement. Consider 1 to be A and 0 to be ∅. a). Explain why the description above defines a Boolean

asked by excel on April 8, 2015
Physics
A wave traveling in the +x direction has an amplitude of 0.45 m, a speed of 6.1 m/s, and a frequency of 16 Hz. Write the equation of the wave in the form given by either Equation 16.3 or 16.4. (Answer in terms of t and x. Assume standard units.) You have

asked by Mary on April 27, 2007

digital electronics
Hi everyone. Im not sure how to draw PLA and PAL Circuit for the following simplified Boolean expression “F=A+~B+D” its a 4 input circuit. can someone please provide me with drawing below if possible is not then kindly email me on “mattkazma@gmail com”.

asked by Mat on June 22, 2018
macroeconomics
If the operators of the golf course revised their revenue estimates so that each cart is expected to earn $100 less, how many carts would they buy at an interest rate of 8 percent? How many would they buy if the interest rate is 3 percent?

asked by Amber on December 10, 2009
Help!
How are Boolean search strategies and other search filters useful? A.They organize results alphabetically. B.They narrow the search results. C.They increase the number of search results. D.They find creative sources. Please help me!

asked by Kalie on April 30, 2014
Educational Technology and Online Learning
How are boolean search strategies and other search filters useful? a. They organize results alphabetically b. They narrow the search results c. They increase the number of search results * d. They find creative sources

asked by Lilly on April 9, 2014
English
Identify the italicized part of the sentence. All of the operators are efficient. subject predicate direct object indirect object predicate noun predicate adjective the italicized word is efficient.

asked by Mclovin on September 30, 2014
Computers
What is a Boolean Operator? (1 Point) A) A credible website described as having current information about a topic. B) A tool used to organize a search log when conducting online research.*** C) Search parameters set to identify specific information during

asked by BA on November 2, 2017
Algebra
In the old days there were elevator operators to transport passengers. Don Downs always started his day in the basement. He went up 20 floors to take his boss some coffee. Then he went down 8 floors to take a donut to his friend. He went up 7 floors to

asked by samay on January 26, 2018
Math
At the Statsville County Fair, the probability of winning a prize in the basketball toss game is 0.1. a) Show the probability distribution for the number of prizes won in 8 games (round to 6 decimal places). b) If the game will be played 500 times during

asked by Lily on May 7, 2013
Boolean expression Help asap PLEASE
A control system is needed to alert an attendant for the following situation. Which of the following is the Boolean equation expressing the electronics you would need? Either the tank is filled and the pump is on, or the tank is empty. (Use A = tank

asked by Adam on June 19, 2013
Language Arts
What is a boolean operator? A. A credible website described as having current information about topic. B. A tool used to organize a search log when conducting online search. C. Search parameters set to identify specific information during internet searches

asked by Gwen on September 17, 2014

Computer Science
Q1: Write (militaryTime t AMPM), where t is an integer from 1 to 12 (inclusive) and AMPM is either 0 to represent morning or 1 to represent afternoon/evening. The function will convert the hours of the day from standard to military time. (militaryTime 5 0)

asked by Ronaldo on February 13, 2011
Comp. Tech
Is Lycos an example of a search engine, Boolean operator, directory, or metasearch engine? Isn’t Lycos a search engine? Yes, Lycos is a search engine. If you need help with other names and terms, be sure to visit this site:

asked by Eric on June 11, 2007
Quantum mechanics, eigenfunctions!
Determine if the function sin(x)*e^(ax) where a=constant is an eigenfunction of the operators d/dx and d^2/(dx)^2 Okay. My understanding is that you use the operator and perform its “thing” on the function. In this case, you will have to find the 1st

asked by Steven on October 8, 2009
Physics
On an unwanted weather situation, rescue operators fly a helicopter that is aimed to travel 100 knots due southwest. However, two winds coming from different directions move it sideways. One wind is making it move sideways 20 knots northward while the

asked by Shin on July 16, 2017
algabre
the speed of the current in a river is 6 mph a ferry operator who works that part of the river is looking to buy a new boat for his business everyday his route takes him 22.5 miles against the current and back to his deck and he needs this trip in a total

asked by lee on January 24, 2013
data management gr.12
There is a new water park in your neighbourhood. A rider is not allowed to get on the slide at the top until the previous rider has comletely exited at the bottom. It is known that the mean ride time for this type of slide is 24.5 s and the standard

asked by Jenna on December 19, 2016
algebra
the speed of the current in a river is 6 mph a ferry operator who works that part of the river is looking to buy a new boat for his business everyday his route takes him 22.5 miles against the current and back to his deck and he needs this trip in a total

asked by stan loona on March 12, 2019
algebra
please explain the step for this I have no idea. the speed of the current in a river is 6 mph a ferry operator who works that part of the river is looking to buy a new boat for his business everyday his route takes him 22.5 miles against the current and

asked by lee on January 29, 2013
algebra
please explain the step for this I have no idea. the speed of the current in a river is 6 mph a ferry operator who works that part of the river is looking to buy a new boat for his business everyday his route takes him 22.5 miles against the current and

asked by lee on January 29, 2013
educational and tecnology
A Boolean search can help you narrow down your topic by doing what A( finding the most popular topic for you to research B( allowing you to restrict your search to look only for specific terms or groups of terms C(avoid searching for him popular topics D(

asked by jjiiddss on March 22, 2016

Programming
I need to write a code in java based on an alrgorithm, the alrgorithm and it’s problem are below: The Sieve of Eratosthenes is “a simple, ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit,” which you can read about at: (Wikipedia:

asked by Mr. Anonymous on March 10, 2019
Check My History Please

  1. When the Texas Railroad Commission enforced new restrictions in 1931, those that benefited most were individual wildcatters. small oil operators. large oil companies. Texas state officials.* 2. The geographic area hardest hit by drought in the 1930s is

asked by SmartyPants on March 22, 2015
science
Sky-High Internet Services Situation: Sky-High Internet Services is a leading Internet service provider in a metropolitan area. The new customer billing system has caused an increase in complaints. Tammy Jones, the office manager, asked you to investigate

asked by Pete Watson on February 2, 2013
HUMAN ORGANIZATON BEHAVIOR…. PLEASE HELP
can u help to have an idea to get the correct answer.for the question below. What model of organizational behavior would be most appropriate in each of the following situations? (Assume that you must use the kinds of employees and supervisors currently

asked by jessie on October 16, 2011
computer science
If all the hub and authority scores are initialized to 1, what is the hub/authority score of a node after one iteration? In the preceding discussion we encountered two recommended “hard constants” – the increment on te being ten times the last fetch

asked by Alex on December 10, 2010
Senior Paper
hey gurl IP address is your Internet Protocol address. Its kinda of like your street address but for your computer like how you put a return address on letters your IP address is recorded when visiting websites and posting things so the website operators

asked by Haley on July 6, 2007
HUMAN ORGANIZATON BEHAVIOR..MS. SUE PLEASE HELP
can u help to have an idea to get the correct answer.for the question below. AUTOCRATIC,CUSTODIAL, SUPPORTIVE AND COLLEGIAL MODEL. What model of organizational behavior would be most appropriate in each of the following situations? (Assume that you must

asked by jessie on October 16, 2011
Computer Science
Write a class “Program1” that has the method “allLess” (below) that receives two arrays of integers and returns true if each element in the first array is less than the element at the same index in the second array. For example, given the arrays

asked by Valerie on September 3, 2013
business
A music producing firm holds the copyright over several songs which have just been recorded by a popular singer. Based on market research conducted by a consulting agency, the producer expects to sell 50,000 CDs for $20 each. The accountant of the firm is

asked by Zunish on March 17, 2012
accounting II

  1. Definitions of manufacturing concepts Interstate Manufacturing produces brass fasteners and incurred the following costs for the year just ended: Materials and supplies used Brass $75,000 Repair parts 16,000 Machine lubricants 9,000 Wages and salaries

asked by eric on April 28, 2014

accounting
i need help working through this! i am stuck. 3. Definitions of manufacturing concepts Interstate Manufacturing produces brass fasteners and incurred the following costs for the year just ended: Materials and supplies used Brass $75,000 Repair parts 16,000

asked by eric on April 28, 2014
Math
There are 8 people on one side of a river. They have a raft to help them get to the other side. There is a father and his two sons, a mother and her two daughters, a policeman and a thief. Everyone must cross the river, but you must follow the rules: *

asked by Bo on September 29, 2007
C++
Using C++ (if, char or Boolean) Write a program that asks the user for a two digit number and then prints the English word for that number. Sample run: Enter a two-digit number: 45 You entered the number forty-five. PLAN: Read the number entered as an

asked by Sundayy on February 22, 2011
physics
when a power station converts chemical or nuclear energy to electrical energy it converts about 50% of the energy to low grade heat suggest how people could use this energy before the power station operators allow it to enter the environment. why is this

asked by Emma on May 8, 2007
English
Writing sentences and paragraphs. Is this correct? Paragraph 2 Dear Elizabeth, I am anxious when I found out that you move back to town, and looking for job. My SBU manager, is currently hiring for a production manager. She is SBU manager for ACS. I think

asked by Sis on January 13, 2012
English
Writing sentences and paragraphs. Is this correct? Paragraph 2 Dear Elizabeth, I am anxious when I found out that you move back to town, and looking for job. My SBU manager, is currently hiring for a production manager. She is SBU manager for ACS. I think

asked by Sis on January 12, 2012
microsoft excell 2007
entering the formula=SUM(C5:C18)is cell C19 will resolve in which of the following? (a)cells C5 and C18 will be added together (b)cells C5 and C18,and C19 will be added together (c)the total of cells C5 to C19 will appear in cell C19 (d0the total of cells

asked by susue on April 11, 2012
programing

  1. Elements – sequence-series outputting Write a program that prints the following elements: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, (hereto referred to as elements) etc., up till a user-entered value. The program should not print more than 10 numbers per

asked by tefo sello on October 3, 2014
System Analyst and Design
Sky-High Internet Services Situation: Sky-High Internet Services is a leading Internet service provider in a metropolitan area. The new customer billing system has caused an increase in complaints. Tammy Jones, the office manager, asked you to investigate

asked by Pete Watson on February 2, 2013
Programming
Hello, I seem to be having some difficulties with an assignement of mine, and pretty much need a fill in the blank for a program I have written for it. Heres the assignment: In this lab, you will demonstrate your understanding of two-dimensional arrays by

asked by Tim on October 13, 2009

business solutions
formulate a solution that takes into account audience characteristics… requirements, and expectations? the scenerio I have tell 25 classmate that our trip has been canceled for mexico because the bus company filed bankruptcy and they will not be getting

asked by todd on July 20, 2006
Economics
What is the common element in each column? Column A: The number of minimum wage jobs has increased. By 2025 blue collar work could be totally obsolete. The number of ATM’s is increasing faster than the rate of bank tellers. “We’re sorry all our

asked by Ann on February 22, 2011
Economics
What is the common element in each column? Column A: The number of minimum wage jobs has increased. By 2025 blue collar work could be totally obsolete. The number of ATM’s is increasing faster than the rate of bank tellers. “We’re sorry all our

asked by Ann on February 22, 2011
Economics
What is the common element in each column? Column A: The number of minimum wage jobs has increased. By 2025 blue collar work could be totally obsolete. The number of ATM’s is increasing faster than the rate of bank tellers. “We’re sorry all our

asked by Ann on February 22, 2011
Intro to Computer Programming – Pseudocode
This assignment (below) jumped way ahead of my abilities compared to the last assignment. I think I need a parallel array or a 2D array, an accumulator or loop counter, a verification of input, and Boolean something. But I’m not sure how to write it. We’re

asked by Lauren on November 3, 2008

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identify the sentence in which the underlined verb does not agree with its subject

electron configuration of Cr3 ? I think is Cr: [Ar] 4s1,3d5 but how about Cr , Cr2 , Cr3 ?
3,090 results
chemistry final-urgent
electron configuration of Cr3+? I think is Cr: [Ar] 4s1,3d5 but how about Cr+, Cr2+, Cr3+? Please explain?

asked by lianne on December 14, 2010
AP Chemistry
Which of the following electron configurations correspond to an excited state? Identify the atoms and write the ground-state electron configuration where appropriate. If the configuration is a noble gas, enter the noble gas in brackets, for example [Ne]

asked by Ferdinand on October 30, 2011
Chemistry
How many unpaired electrons are in the electron structure of 24 Cr, [Ar]4s1 3d5

asked by dody on December 5, 2010
Chemistry
1) A Cobalt (II) ion has the electron configuration ? and is ? The answer choices were: [Ar] 3d5 4s2 diamagnetic [Ar] 3d7 paramagnetic [Ar] 3d5 4s2 para [Ar] 3d7 dia None of these I chose [Ar] 3d5 4s2 diamagnetic 2) Choose the corect statement

asked by Hannah on November 2, 2011
chem
There are several exceptions to the octet rule found along the transition and rare earth metal sections. These exceptions are tied to the observed phenomenon that atoms are more stable if orbital systems are either whole or half filled. In other words, the

asked by Alexa on November 19, 2006

Chemistry
You write the electron structure like this. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1 is the neutral Cu atom. Remove the two outside electrons to make the Cu^+2 ion. That leaves us with 3d9 as the outside and since that is an odd number, one electron must be unpaired.

asked by Anonymous on October 19, 2010
chemistry
Hi! Can somebody please help me with a coupla questions? Thanks loads!!! Describe physical and chemical properties of isotopes of the same element. Given the electron configuration of an element, how can you tell whether it represents the element in its

asked by Marge on December 10, 2006
chemistry
I just need a definitive answer because I’ve searched everywhere and it’s made me second guess my original answer. How many valence electrons does copper have? I thought it was one but now I’m unsure. I know it’s electron configuration is [Ar]4s1 3d10, so

asked by Sierra on November 24, 2014
CHEM
Confirm that the experimentally observed electronic configuration of K, 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 is energetically more stable than the configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1. __ i know that it is energetically favorable for the electron to occupy the 4s

asked by Kimora on December 10, 2008
chem
If you maximize the unshared electrons in the boron atom, the electron configuration is? i know the electron configuration at ground state is 1S2 2S2 2P1 but when it maximizes unshared electrons i don’t understand how it affects the configuration

asked by B on August 24, 2015
Chemistry
How do you write the electron configuration of Curium (Cm) and copper (Cu)? I’m confused of writing electron configuration with d and f orbitals. Please help. Thanks.

asked by Anonymous on December 27, 2009
chemistry electron config
I need to know the predicted and actual electron configuration for Lanthanum I know for lets say Cr the predicted config is [Ar] 3d44s2 and the actual is [Ar]3d54s1 but lanthanum is different and i don’t know how to do it. Any help? You can find the actual

asked by Mike on April 2, 2007
chemistry
what is the complete electron configuration and the abbreviated electron configuration of copper (II) ion? what is the complete electron configuration and the abbreviated electron configuration of bromide ion?

asked by shay on April 20, 2011
Chemistry-electron configuration CONFUSED!!
I need help with electron configuration. I do not understand any of it!! I bombed a test ad have a chance to retake it. Any info on electron configuration is great! It is really hard to help you if we don’t know what is wrong. Here is a site that may help.

asked by cbarnett on October 25, 2006
Chemistry (Check)
Q: Name the group that has a general electron configuration of ns^2 and provide an example of an atom with this general configuration. A: Alkaline Earth Metals and Beryllium [He] 2s^2 Q: Name the group that has a general electron configuration of ns^2np^6

asked by Anonymous on September 13, 2015

Chemistry
What is the electron configuration of the complex: Fe(C2O4)3 3- I am not really quite sure how to go about doing this and whether the electron configuration are supposed to be for each atom.

asked by Anonymous on April 20, 2009
Lauren
Write the electron configuration of Sn and Sn2+ Give the electron configuration of Cu+ and Cu2+

asked by Chemistry on November 14, 2007
Chemistry (very simple)
Why does Ga have one unpaired electron? Such as for example P has three unpaired electrons (because of its electron configuration) but I don’t understand why Ga has one unpaired electron – wouldn’t it be five (electron configuration)? Thank you!

asked by Anonymous on December 9, 2018
Chemistry

  1. When chromium loses two electrons, its configuration changes to A. [Ar]4s1. B. [Ar]3d4. C. [Ar]4s13d5. D. [Ar]4s13d4. I’m guessing it’s B but I just want to double check

asked by Hannah on August 7, 2013
chemistry
How can I determine which elements have higher first and second ionization energies than other elements? Also, how can I find the number of valence electrons from the electron configuration? Also, how can I use the electron configuration to find out what

asked by Anonymous on March 1, 2009
Chemisrty
Answer the questions below for an element that has the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1. A. What is the symbol for this element? B. What is the atomic number of this element? C. How many unpaired electrons does an atom of this elelemt have?

asked by Kristen on October 20, 2013
Chem help
Answer the questions below for an element that has the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1. A. What is the symbol for this element? B. What is the atomic number of this element? C. How many unpaired electrons does an atom of this elelemt have?

asked by Lena on October 17, 2012
chemistry
How do i calculate the effective nuclear charge of a 3d electron of copper? what is the zeff. for a electron in the 3d orbital of copper. i looked up the answer to be 13.20, but i calculated 13.05 this is my work: (1s2)(2s2 2p6)(3s2 3p6)(3d10)(4s1)

asked by mandy on November 10, 2008
Chemistry
Metals lose electrons under certain conditions to attain a noble-gas electron configuration. How many electrons must be lost by the element Ca? Is it 2 e^-? Which noble-gas electron configuration is attained in this process? argon radon krypton xenon

asked by Bill on October 28, 2012
Chemistry
What is the electron configuration called that has 18 electrons in the outer energy level and all of the orbitals filled? Noble gas configuration

asked by Bryan on November 16, 2006

Chemistry
Consider the following electron configuration. (σ3s)2 (σ3s)2 (σ3p)2 (π3p)4 (π3p)4 Select four species that, in theory, would have this electron configuration.

asked by Tracey on October 9, 2009
Chemistry
Consider the following electron configuration. (σ3s)2 (σ3s)2 (σ3p)2 (π3p)4 (π3p)4 Select four species that, in theory, would have this electron configuration.

asked by Sarah on March 4, 2012
physics
what is the electron configuration in the Noble Gas configuration?

asked by may on October 18, 2009
Chemistry
WHy is Copper an exception in electron configuration? Copper is not an exception except in our minds. The exception lies in our attempt to explain electron configurations. In the case of Cu and Cr for the 3d series, they don’t fall into our neat pattern;

asked by John on October 7, 2006
Chemistry
Electron configuration for phosphorus is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3. So the number of electron must be 15 , right ? But , what if m = 1 ? Does it effect the number of electron ?

asked by Lily on June 23, 2015
College Chemistry
Write a complete set of quantum numbers for the 5th electron added to H ion..(5th electron in any electron configuration). n= l= m(l)= m(s)=

asked by Anonymous on November 19, 2010
electronic configuration
how do you figure out electronic configuration of excited state? ex: identify atom & write ground state conig. 1s2 2s2 2p6 4s1 Isn’t there eleven electrons here? Element number 11 is… 1s23s

asked by hawkstar on October 1, 2006
Chemistry
Which group of elements is characterized by an s2p3 configuration? What is the electron configuration of group 15? http://www.chemsoc.org/visElements/pages/data/intro_groupv_data.html thanks

asked by Larry on November 12, 2006
Chem 1C
What is the electron configuration of an isolated Fe atom (no ligands bound to it)? (Use notation like [Ne]3s^23p^6 for your answer) B. What is the electron configuration of an isolated Fe3+ cation? (Use notation like [Ne]3s^23p^6 for your answer)

asked by M.R. on June 30, 2010
Chemistry
I am having trouble figuring out the electron configuration for a carbon atom when it is in a molecule such as methane. I know that the ground state configuration for carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2 but im not sure how to figure it out when it is bonded to other

asked by Abbey on September 1, 2014

CHEMISTRY

  1. For the ion Fe3+ what is the electron configuration and electron atrangement? please explain… i do not understand… 2. F- +. Br2—-> Br- + Cl2—–>

asked by Student on September 27, 2013
Chemistry
What is the l quantum number for the last electron added in the Aufbau procedure for forming the electron configuration of barium?

asked by Austin on February 8, 2018
Chemistry
What is the n quantum number for the last electron added in the Aufbau procedure for forming the electron configuration of uranium?

asked by Austin on February 8, 2018
Chemistry
Large jumps in ionization energy tend to occur whenever the removal of that electron disrupts an electron configuration ending in: a. ns^2 b. ns^1 c. np^6 d. np^4

asked by Anonymous on June 5, 2013
Chemistry
Write the symbol and electron configuration for each ion and name the noble gas with the same configuration. a. nitride _____________ b. oxide _______________ c. sulfide _____________ d. bromide _____________

asked by Greg on October 9, 2012
chemistry
Identify the neutral element represented by this excited-state electron configuration, then write the ground-state electron configuration for that element. Excited State: 1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1 Element Symbol: ? Ground State: ?

asked by Kim on September 30, 2013
Chemistry
what is the electron arrangement and electron configuration of Fe3+? it loses 3 electrons so is it vanadium…. please explain.. by the way is this a transition metal? if so are there any rules?…… i don’t understand!!!

asked by Anonymous on September 26, 2013
Chemistry
Shown below are several options for the box notations of the ground state electron configuration of the following gas-phase species. Identify the correct electronic configuration. i. Al2− ii. Mn (a)Select the reason that best explains why the first

asked by c on January 11, 2013
Chemistry(Please help)
For a carbon atom that is sp2 hybridized, I understand that the electron configuration would be Yes, 1s2 2s1 2p3 which is a 2s up arrow,and 3 orbtials that are 2p up arrows but then since the four bonds hybridize to form four sp3 hybrid bonds how do I

asked by Abbey on September 2, 2014
AP Chem
What is the electron configuration for carbon with sp hybridization? I have no idea. I know carbon has 4 electrons to use (6 electrons total, but 4 to move around for hybridization purposes), I know that the sp orbitals would take up two of the electrons,

asked by Anonymous on January 25, 2016

Chemistry
Use these answers for questions 4 – 7. (A) 1s2 2s22p5 3s23p5 (B) 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p6 (C) 1s2 2s22p62d10 3s23p6 (D) 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p63d5 (E) 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p63d3 4s2 4. An impossible electronic configuration 5. The ground-state configuration for the atoms of

asked by Rachel on April 12, 2007
Chemistry
Large jumps in ionization energy tend to occur whenever the removal of that electron disrupts an electron configuration ending in: a. ns2 b. ns1 c. np6 d. np4

asked by Anonymous on June 5, 2013
Potassium (chem)
Confirm that the experimentally observed electronic configuration of K, 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 is energetically more stable than the configuration 1s22s22p63s23p63d1. __ i know that it is energetically more stable for the electron to occupy the 4s orbital than

asked by Kimora on December 10, 2008
chemistry – exam practice help!!
Given the table below predict the numerical value of the standard cell potential for the reaction: 2 Cr(s) + 3 Cu2+(aq) 2 Cr3+(aq) + 3 Cu(s) Half Reaction E (volts) (1) Cr3+ + 3 e- Cr E= -0.74 (2) Cr3+ + e- Cr2+ E=-0.41 (3) Cr2O72- + 14 H+ + 6 e- 2 Cr3+ +

asked by Anya on December 13, 2012
Chemistry
An element with the symbol Z has the electron configuration 2.8.6. Which species is this elrment most likely to form? A. The ion Z 2+ B. The ion Z 6+ C. The compound H subscript 2 Z D. The compound Z subscript 6 F Which ionization requires the most energy?

asked by Anonymous on September 21, 2013
Chemistry
Where Can i find drawing of the electron dot structure of the following atoms. Argon,Calcium,Iodine www.webelements.com will give you the electron configuration. Scroll down the menu on the left side. The electron dot structure is done this way: Write the

asked by Bryan on November 11, 2006
Chemistry Electron Configuration Questions
I do not understand anything about electron configuration. How do you figure out if the element is in P,D,S,orF? What do the subscripts represent? What is a subshell? I am so confused!! You figure it out by using the Aufgau principle, placing electrons in

asked by cbarnett on October 25, 2006
Chemistry
Element x has the highest first electron affinity in its period, the ground state electron configuration of its common is: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p6 Element Y is the second largest element in its period; its valence electron are in orbital(s) that have n= 6. What

asked by Kara on June 22, 2017
Chemistry
What would be concept in which you would have to use electron configurations in order to solve? and how would you determine the answer? One uses the electron configuration to solve the bonding preferences and energies.

asked by Danni on March 29, 2007
Chemistry
Name an element that has 5 electrons in the third energy level. How do i determine the third energy level Row three on the periodic table is third energy level If memory serves me will, it begins with sodium. Ok. iS Krypton the electron configuration that

asked by Bryan on November 12, 2006

chemistry
Ca + Br2 –> CaBr2 its synthesis and the reason the reaction happens is stable electron configuration but i don’t understand why. Responses chemistry – DrBob222, Wednesday, January 21, 2009 at 10:06pm Synthesis because it’s two elements combining to form a

asked by lyne on January 21, 2009
Chemistry
what is electron configuration?

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Chemistry
1) What is the atomic # for selenium? 34 2) Write the full electron configuration for selenium following the (n+l) rule? I am not sure what is meant by n+l 3) write the electron configuration, grouping electrons by their “n” values. [Ar]3d10 4s2 4p4 Are

asked by Hannah on November 1, 2011
Chemistry
Which stereoisomer configuration would be more stable, the z configuration or the e configuration? I tried searching for this, but I only got answers for cis/trans instead of e/z. Can anyone help with it? ty

asked by Neee on July 29, 2010
CHEM
Consider the following neutral electron configurations in which ‘n’ has a constant value. Which configuration would belong to the element with the most negative electron affinity, E-ea? a) ns^2 b) ns^2 np^2 c) ns^2 np^5 d) ns^2 np^6 would the answer be

asked by K on November 13, 2007
George School
The following questions relate to the bonding in the OH-1 ion. (16 points) Write the electron configuration for H. (1 point) Write the electron configuration for O. (1 point) Draw the molecular orbital diagram for OH-1. (5 points) Draw the Lewis Structure

asked by Daniel on May 20, 2008
Chemistry: Electron Configuration
The following questions relate to the bonding in the OH-1 ion. (16 points) Write the electron configuration for H. (1 point) Write the electron configuration for O. (1 point) Draw the molecular orbital diagram for OH-1. (5 points) Draw the Lewis Structure

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the two rectangles are similar. which is the correct proportion

1. The two rectangles are similar. Which is the correct proportion for corresponding sides?
the two rectangles are 4 by 12 and 8 by 24. thanks!

A) 12/8=24/4
B) 8/4=24/12
C) 12/4=8/24
D) 4/12=24/8

Is the answer C? I’m not quite sure about it but that’s what i’m gonna go with. Please help me or tell me if i’m correct. Thank you!

  1. 👍 1
  2. 👎 0
  3. 👁 912

asked by TimMar 14, 2016

  1. 12/4 does not = 8/24.

    8/4 = 24/12. So, the ans. is B.
    1. 👍 2
    2. 👎 1
    posted by HenryMar 14, 2016
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in a 1.0× 10–4 m solution of hclo(aq), identify the relative molar amounts of these species.

In a 1.0×10^-4 M solution of HClO(aq), identify the relative molar amounts of these species:HClO, OH-, H3O , OCl-, H2O
38,945 results
chemistry
In a 1.0×10^-4 M solution of HClO(aq), identify the relative molar amounts of these species:HClO, OH-, H3O+, OCl-, H2O

asked by karla on October 12, 2012
Chemistry
In a 1.0× 10–4 M solution of HClO(aq), identify the relative molar amounts of these species. (most to least) H2O HClO H3O OH- OCl-

asked by Paula on March 9, 2013
Chemistry
In a 1.0× 10–4 M solution of HClO(aq), identify the relative molar amounts of these species from most to least: HClO, OCl, OH^-, H30^+, H20

asked by Ethan on February 21, 2013
chemistry
A solution of HClO is mixed and found to have a pH of 4.53. Find what the initial concentration of HClO was for this solution. Ka = 3.00 × 10−8 for HClO. Answer in units of mol/L please help this is due in 1 hour

asked by Anonymous on January 28, 2015
Chemistry
The Ka of HClO is 3.0x 10^-8 at 25°c. What is the percent ionization of HClO in a 0.015M aqueous solution of HCLO at 25°c?

asked by Zekariyas on December 7, 2017

Chem
In a 1.0×10^-6 M solution of HNO3(aq) at 25 degrees C, identify the relative molar amounts of species from most to least. HNO3 H3O+ H2O OH- NO3-

asked by Mer on February 20, 2014
Chem
A 20.00−mL sample of an unknown HClO 4 solution requires titration with 22.92mL of 0.2200M NaOH to reach the equivalence point. What is the concentration of the unknown HClO 4 solution? The neutralization reaction is: HClO 4 (aq)+NaOH(aq)¨H 2

asked by Anonymous on August 5, 2013
CHEMISTRY
In a 1.0×10^-6 M soltution of HNO3(aq), identify the relative molar amounts of these species. H2O , HNO3, H3O+,NO3-, OH-

asked by Alexis Moran on October 17, 2011
Chemistry
In a 1.0×10^-6 M soltution of HNO3(aq), identify the relative molar amounts of these species. H2O , HNO3, H3O+,NO3-, OH-

asked by Alexis Moran on October 17, 2011
college general chemistry 2
a chemist titrates 70 ml of .7889M HClO solution with .6221M KOH. calculate pH at equivalence. pKa of HClO is 7.50 I am getting pH of 17.72 Is that right?

asked by osp on April 3, 2016
Chemistry
An industrial chemist studying bleaching and sterilizing prepares several hypochlorite buffers. Find the pH of the following buffers. (a) 0.090 M HClO and 0.090 M NaClO (b) 0.090 M HClO and 0.135 M NaClO (c) 0.135 M HClO and 0.090 M NaClO (d) One liter of

asked by Edward on March 4, 2013
chemistry
Calculate the pH for each of the following cases in the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.150 M HClO(aq) with 0.150 M KOH(aq). The ionization constant for HClO is 4.0×10^-8. pH before the addition of any KOH? pH after the addition of 25 mL of KOH? Please show the

asked by Francesca on March 10, 2015
pH calculations
A backyard pool as a pH of 7.4. At this level, the concentrations of hypochlorus acid and hypochlorite are approximetly equal. HClO(aq) H^+ (aq) + ClO^- (aq) (a) Predict the effect of increasing pH has on the concentration of HClO(aq) in the pool. For this

asked by Lena on July 27, 2009
Chemistry
In a 1.0× 10–2 M solution of CH3NH3Br(aq), identify the relative molar amounts of these species. H2O, OH-, CH3NH3+, CH3NH2, H3O+, Br-, HBr

asked by Joe on March 28, 2016
Chemistry
You have 1.0 liter of .45 M HCLO (aq). At 25 degrees Celsius, Ka= 3.5×10^8 for this acid. Calculate the pH of .45 M HCLO and the concentration of CLO- at equilibrium. Thank you very much for any amount of help you are willing to give me.

asked by Nurah on April 3, 2016

chemistry
Calculate the [OCl-] of a 7.03×10-2 M solution of the weak acid HClO (make an approximate calculation assuming that initial concentration is equal to the equilibrium concentration). Round your answer to 3 significant digits. HClO = OCl- + H+

asked by HELP ASAP PLEASE on October 10, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the pH for each of the following cases in the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.240 M HClO(aq) with 0.240 M KOH(aq). The ionization constant for HClO can be found here.

asked by Judith on March 3, 2014
chemistry
Ka for hypochlorous acid, HClO, is 3.0*10^(-8). Calculate the pH after 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 mL of 0.100M NaOH have been added to 40.00mL of 0.100M HClO.

asked by a on March 10, 2011
Chemistry
Calculate the pH for each of the following cases in the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.140 M HClO(aq) with 0.140 M KOH(aq).HClO is a weak acid with a Ka of 4.0× 10–8. It reacts with strong base to produce ClO–. (e) after addition of 60.0 mL of KOH

asked by Emma on April 25, 2013
chemistry
The Ka of hypochlorous acid (HClO) is 3.0 × 10-8 at 25°C. Calculate the pH of a 0.0385-M hypochlorous acid solution? i got help with this problem, but i don’t get where one of the numbers came from (3.4 x 10^-5)??? i tried makeing 3.0 x 10^-8 the x but i

asked by jessica on November 23, 2010
Chemistry
Identify the relative molar amounts of the species in 0.10 M NaBr(aq). NaBr, Na+, Br-, H3O+, OH-, H2O

asked by Hei on April 6, 2013
Chemistry
Identify the relative molar amounts of the species in 0.10 M NaBr(aq). NaBr, Na+, Br-, H3O+, OH-, H2O

asked by Hei on April 4, 2013
152
Ka for hypochlorous acid,HCLO, IS 3.0*10^-8. Calculate the pH after 10.0,20.0,30.0, and 40.0mL OF 0.100M NaOH have been added to 40.0mL of 0.100M HCLO..

asked by AMI on March 31, 2010
chemistry
For the weak hypochlorous acid (HClO), which statement is true at the point halfway to the equivalence point? A. The total amount of HClO is equal to the pKa. B. The total amount of HClO is equal to ClO-. C. The total amount of H3O+ is equal to the amount

asked by Cortney on April 9, 2015
Chemistry
In a 1.0 x10-6 M of HNO3 (aq) at 25 degrees celsius identify the relative molar amounts of theses species HNO3- H3O+ OH- NO3- H2O

asked by Joe on February 21, 2014

chemistry
Write the net ionic equation for the following molecular equation. HBr is a strong electrolyte. HClO is a weak electrolyte. KClO(aq) + HBr(aq) KBr(aq) + HClO(aq)

asked by Kay on March 3, 2014
Chem
In a 1.0× 10–2 M solution of CH3NH3Br(aq), identify the relative molar amounts from highest to lowest for : -Br- -OH- -CH3NH3+ -HBr -CH3NH2 -H3O+ -H2O

asked by Rich on November 8, 2013
chemistry
Please identify the acid and the base in this equation. HClO + NaOH = NaClO + H2O Thank you!

asked by Sierra on September 15, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate the pH for each of the following cases in the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.230 M HClO (aq) with 0.230 M KOH (aq). The ionization constant (Ka) for HClO is 4.00 x 10^-8. (b) after addition of 25.0 mL of KOH (d) after addition of 50.0 mL of KOH

asked by Rosi on March 15, 2012
CHEM-102
Ka for hypochlorous acid,HClO is 3.0×10^-8. Calculate the pH after 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0mL of 0.100M NaOH have been added to 40.0mL of 0.100M HOCl.

asked by Christian on March 27, 2011
CHEM 1412 general
What is the pH of a solution that is 0.0 100 M in HClO and 0.0300 M in NaClO

asked by chemistryhelpneeded on April 30, 2012
ap chem
What is the pH at 25C of a 0.17 M solution of the acid HClO which has an ionization constant of 3.5 × 10−8?

asked by Anonymous on February 14, 2011
Chemistry
what is the pH of a solution created by adding 15.5 g of KClO to 228 mL of 1.08 M HClO(aq).?

asked by Carl on March 12, 2015
Chemistry
The pH of an 0.0870 M solution of weak acid A is 2.20. The pH of an 0.0830 M solution of weak acid B is 4.07. The pH of an 0.0890 M solution of weak acid C is 5.13. Identify the three acids from among those listed below (the Ka values are listed in

asked by Maddie on April 12, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the pH for each of the following cases in the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.200 M HClO(aq) with 0.200 M KOH(aq). The ionization constant for HClO can be found here. A. Before any addition of KOH B. After addition of 25.0 mL of KOH C. After 30.0 mL of

asked by Kathy on February 10, 2013

chemistry
What is the molarity of OH- in a 7.68×10-4 M NaClO solution that hydrolyzes according to the equation. ClO-(aq) + H2O(l) = OH-(aq) + HClO(aq) Constants: Kh=2.86×10-7 Can someone help me figure this one out?

asked by axl on November 4, 2010
chemistry
What is the molarity of OH- in a 7.68×10-4 M NaClO solution that hydrolyzes according to the equation. ClO-(aq) + H2O(l) = OH-(aq) + HClO(aq) Constants: Kh=2.86×10-7 Can someone help me figure this one out?

asked by axl on November 4, 2010
chemistry
If you had 500.0 ml of a 0.10 M solution of HCLO, what mass of the corresponding Na+ (sodium salt) of the conjugate base would you need to make the buffer?

asked by sam on March 5, 2011
Chem
Balance the following redox reactions in acidic solution by the half-reaction method Br–(aq) + I–(aq) + HClO(aq) = Br2(l) + IO3 + Cl–(aq)

asked by James on October 7, 2012
Chemistry
Hi, I posted yesterday with this lab question. “Calculate the molar amounts of NaOH used in the reaction with the HCl solution and with the HC2H3O2. I think I got the answer to that with the help that I received. I had 5 mL of HCl, and I was using .100 M

asked by Rachel on April 22, 2007
Chemistry
HClO(aq) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + ClO-(aq) Calculate the value of ΔGrxn at 25 °C for hypochlorous acid when [ClO-]=[H3O+]=5.69×10^-5 M [HClO] = 1.340 M Previously calculated a ΔGºrxn of 42.20 kJ/mol Q = [5.69×10^-5] / [1.340] = .00004245 M equation used:

asked by Angely R. on March 20, 2014
CHEMISTRY!!
1) How would you prepare 20 mL of a solution having pH = 2.00 by dilution of 0.10 M HCl? 2) The Ka, for hypochlorous acid, HClO, is 7.2 x l0^–4 at 25°C. What is pKa? Write the equation for the reaction to which Ka applies.

asked by jess on October 25, 2015
Chemistry (really need quick help)
Balance the following equations. (Use the lowest possible coefficients. These may be zero.) (a) As(s) + ClO3-(aq) —> H3AsO3(aq) + HClO(aq) (acidic solution) I am using half-reactions but I don’t really get this at all. Can someone explain?

asked by Samantha on May 5, 2011
CHEMISTRY
I have these equations in our book , but I’ve tried a few times to solve it in half reaction method , but I couldn’t yet : 1) KMnO4 + KIO3 => MnO2 + KIO4 ( in a basic solution ) 2) MnO4- + Cl- => Mn^+2 + HClO ( in a acidic solution ) I think these are

asked by MAD on July 9, 2014
chem
Calculate the pH for each of the following cases in the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.150 M HClO(aq) with 0.150 M KOH(aq). The ionization constant for HClO is 4.0*10^-8 a)before addition of any KOH b)after addition of 25.0 mL of KOH c)after addition of 40.0 mL

asked by quinn on July 8, 2012

more chemistry
What volume of 0.115 M M HClO 4 \rm HClO_4 solution is needed to neutralize 58.00mL mL of 8.75×10−2 M M NaOH \rm NaOH

asked by Anonymous on September 29, 2013
Chemistry
How many moles are in 1.64 g hclo

asked by Adam on November 27, 2010
College Chemistry
what is the approximate pH of a solution labeled 0.050 M HClO? I realized my mistake on my last post but this isnt a strong acid nor a strong base so how do i solve this?

asked by jahil on May 2, 2010
Chemistry
What is the molarity of OH- in a 7.83×10-3 M NaClO solution that hydrolyzes according to the equation. ClO-(aq) + H2O(l) = OH-(aq) + HClO(aq) The information they give is that constants Kh=2.86E-7 I know how to solve the problem when the constant Kw is

asked by Jay on December 5, 2011
chem
Given that Ka for HClO is 4.0 × 10-8 at 25 °C, what is the value of Kb for ClO– at 25 °C? Given that Kb for CH3CH2NH2 is 6.3 × 10-4 at 25 °C, what is the value of Ka for CH3CH2NH3 at 25 °C?

asked by Greg on March 26, 2013
Chemistry
calculate the ph of titration of 50.0 ml of 0.140 m hclo (aq)

asked by Aaron on April 7, 2013
chemistry
I^- H5IO6 BrO2 HClO I2 Which could not disproportionate?

asked by Lucas on February 19, 2012
Chemistry
the ka of hypochlorous acid hclo is 3.5 x 10^-8. What is Kb for the hypochlorite ion?

asked by Bb on March 21, 2013
A few chemistry
I got the rest of the homework, but these are confusing me so much…ugghhhh. 1. The pH of a .400 M solution of iodic acid, HlO3, is .726 at 25 degrees C. What is the Ka(acid constant) at this temperature? 2. The pH of a .150 M solution of HClO is found to

asked by Trish on March 22, 2007
Chemistry
What is the correct net equation for: LiOH(aq) + HClO(aq) → LiClO(aq) + H2O(l)?

asked by Shea on January 26, 2012

chemistry..
to drbob222 ok, the pka (hclo) = 7.54 the ph = 7.35 this problem was under “preparing a buffer” section

asked by sam on March 6, 2011
chemistry
Which of the following has the HIGHEST pKa? 1. HClO3 2. HBrO 3. HClO 4. HIO 5. HClO4

asked by Anonymous on February 7, 2015
CHEMISTRY
a) Write the formula for each component in a buffer solution of acetic acid and its’ salt. b) The Ka, for hypochlorous acid, HClO, is 7.2 x l0^–4 at 25°C. What is pKa? Write the equation for the reaction to which Ka applies.

asked by jess on October 26, 2015
Chemistry
Ag2S is an insoluable black solid. Would more solid dissolve, or precipitate once the following are added to the solution. 1. KS—–I know [S] increases, shift to reactants side, precipitate 2. HClO 3. LiOH 4. NH4OH

asked by Jake on June 20, 2012
chemistry
The Ka of hypochlorous acid (HClO) is 3.00×10-8 at 25.0°C. Calculate the pH of a 0.0385 M hypochlorous acid solution. a.1.41 b.7.52 c.-1.41 D.4.47 E. 8.94 I got B 7.52 but i feel like im wrong

asked by danny on March 21, 2015
chemistry
The Ka of hypochlorous acid (HClO) is 3.00×10-8 at 25.0°C. Calculate the pH of a 0.0385 M hypochlorous acid solution. A.1.41 B.7.52 C.-1.41 D.4.47 E.8.94 I chose B

asked by danny on March 21, 2015
Chemistry
I just to know how to identify the substance that is reduced, the substance that is oxidized, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent in each reaction. As (s) + ClO3-(aq) → H3AsO3 (aq) + HClO(aq) CN-(aq) + MnO4-(aq) → CNO-(aq) + MnO2(s) C2H5OH +

asked by m on April 30, 2013
Chemistry
Which of the following can we predict from an equilibrium constant for a reaction? 1 The extent of a reaction 2 Whether the reaction is fast or slow 3 Whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 only e. 1 and 3

asked by IBY on May 13, 2010
chemistry
Rank the following compounds in order of increasing acid strength (1 = weakest, 4 = strongest) HClO HClO3 HClO2 HClO4

asked by mark on November 18, 2007
Chemistry
Which solution will have the lowest pH? a. 0.10 M HClO2, pKa = 1.96 b. 0.10 M HCN, pKa = 9.21 c. 0.10 M HF, pKa = 3.19 d. 0.10 M HClO, pKa = 7.538 e. 0.00010 M HCl Does the lower the pka stronger the acid, means the lower the ph, so the answer is A?

asked by Anonymous on November 29, 2015

8th Grade math PLEASE CHECK MY ANSWERES
1.Write the number in standard form: 7.1×10^4 A)710 B)7,100 C)71,000 D)710,000* 2.Write the number in standard form: 5.01×10^-3 A)5,010 B)0.501 C)0.0501 D)0.00501* 3.Multiply (2.0×10^4)(3.0×10^3)=? A)6.0×10^7*** B)6.0×10^12 C)6.0×10^5 D)6.0×10^43 Add.

asked by Connections Academy Student on October 2, 2015
AP Chem
A lab manual states that to prepare a certain buffer requires mixing 25 ml of 0.200 M HClO (Ka=3.00 x 10^-8) with 50 ml of 0.2 M NaClO What is the Ph of this buffer?

asked by John on October 31, 2017
Chem II Oxidation Reduction
Sb+1 + HClO ——> Sb2O5 + Cl-1 I’m not doing something right. I think I have the charges correct, this is what I have so far . . . . 2Sb^+1 —–> Sb^+5 + 4e- 2(2e- + Cl^+1 ——> Cl^-1 then when I start subbing everything back and start trying to

asked by Ken on July 26, 2008
Chemistry
When all the following solutes act as acids, the one with the weakest conjugate base is a. H2SO3. b. H2CO3. c. HClO4. d. HClO. e. HF. 4. (Points: 1) A sample of ammonia (Kb = 1.8 * 10^-5) is titrated with 0.1 M H2SO4. At the equivalence point, the pH is

asked by Iby on May 13, 2010
Chemistry Please HELP!
calculate the mass of each product formed if 10.0 g of the first reactant is reacted with 10.0 g of the second reactant: NCl3 + 3 H2O → 3 HClO + NH3 (Please show me full working out)

asked by Kevin on June 11, 2012
Chemistry
3HClO2(aq) +2Cr3+(aq) + 4H2O(l) -> 3HClO(aq) + (Cr2O7)2–(aq) + 8H+(aq) At pH 0.00, with [Cr2O72–] = 0.80 M, [HClO2] = 0.15 M, and [HClO] = 0.20 M, the cell voltage is found to be 0.15 V. Calculate the concentration of [Cr3+] in the cell Ecell = 0.31

asked by RZeal on June 10, 2012
Chemistry
Write the HA reaction for each acid below. Account for the following activity order by drawing the important resonance contributing structures (those having only one negative (-) formal charge) for A-. HA + H2O H3O+ + A- stronger HClO4>HClO3>HClO weaker

asked by Ochem Student on September 2, 2018
Chemistry
Consider the following reaction that describes the solubility equilibria of solid Zn(OH)2 in aqueous solution (Ksp of Zn(OH)2 4.0×10^-17. Calculate molar solubility of Zn(OH)s in an acidic solution of pH5.0.

asked by Jamie on April 16, 2013
Chemistry
Consider the following reaction that describes the solubility equilibria of solid Zn(OH)2 in aqueous solution (Ksp of Zn(OH)2 4.0×10^-17. Calculate molar solubility of Zn(OH)s in an acidic solution of pH5.0.

asked by Jamie on April 16, 2013
Science
A biologist made population counts of four different species of animals in an ecosystem. What can you infer from these numbers about possible predator-prey relationships between the species? Species A 155 Species B 17 Species C 2,467 Species D 19 ·

asked by Steve on December 27, 2013

Chemistry
Which of the following are Arrhenius bases? (a) H3AsO4 (b) Ba(OH)2 (c) HClO (d) KOH Which of the following are Arrhenius bases? (a) CH3COOH (b) HOH (c) CH3OH (d) H2NNH2

asked by david on January 6, 2019
Chemistry
Which one of the following pairs of reactants would react together in a Lewis Acid/Lewis Base reaction? a. KOH and HNO2 b. NaOH and HCl c. CH3COOH and HF d. Ag+ and NH3 e. HClO and NH3

asked by Brian on February 27, 2011
Science
A biologist made population counts of four different species of animals in an ecosystem. What can you infer from these numbers about possible predator-prey relationships between the species? Species A:155 Species B:17 Species C:2467 Species D:19 A.Species

asked by Peter on January 5, 2014
science (check!)
A biologist made population counts of four different species of animals in an ecosystem. What can you infer from these numbers about possible predator-prey relationships between the species? Species A:155 Species B:17 Species C:2467 Species D:19 A.Species

asked by Me on May 27, 2014
chemistry
Adding a complex ion forming species to a solution will increase the solubility of a slightly soluble species. Calculate the Molar solubility (s) of AgI in a 1.75 M ammonia solution. The Ksp for AgI is 8.3 x 10-17 and the Kf for Ag(NH3)2+ is 1.5 x 107. I

asked by bekah on April 14, 2014
Science

  1. Study the amino acid sequences of the same protein taken from four different species of plants. Which pair of plants is most closely related? Species 1: -A-P-A-C-W- Species 2: -G-P-G-S-F- Species 3: -A-P-A-C-F- Species 4: -N-K-M-H-H- A. Species 2 and 4

asked by Melissa bowers on October 23, 2015
chemistry

  1. Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide at 273 K and 1.01 * 10^5 Pa which would be produced when 1.25g of calcium carbonate reacts completely with HCL. and 2. When 41.18 cm^3 of a solution of silver ions with concentration of .2040 mol dm^-3 is added to

asked by ANn on May 19, 2008
Chemistry
what is Kc at 25 celsius for the following equilibrium? CH3BH3^+ +H2O CH3NH2 + H3O^+ Kb=4.4×10^-4 I got 4.0×10^4 / 1.0×10^-14 = 4.0×10^-10 (correct)?

asked by Bb on March 22, 2013
Chemistry

  1. 0.1825 g of Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2•6H2O is dissolved in 250.00 mL of solution; this is Solution A. 5.00 mL of Solution A is transferred to another flask, and it is diluted to a total of 100.0 mL to make another solution, which is Solution B. Next, 3.00 mL of

asked by Chad on October 16, 2017
Chemistry

  1. 0.1825 g of Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2•6H2O is dissolved in 250.00 mL of solution; this is Solution A. 5.00 mL of Solution A is transferred to another flask, and it is diluted to a total of 100.0 mL to make another solution, which is Solution B. Next, 3.00 mL of

asked by Anonymous on October 16, 2017

Chemistry
0.1825 g of Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2•6H2O is dissolved in 250.00 mL of solution; this is Solution A. 5.00 mL of Solution A is transferred to another flask, and it is diluted to a total of 100.0 mL to make another solution, which is Solution B. Next, 3.00 mL of

asked by Anonymous on October 16, 2017
Chemistry
A 100 milliliter sample of 0.100-molar NH4Cl solution was added to 80 milliliters of a 0.200-molar solution of NH3. The value of Kb for ammonia is 1.79 x 10^-5. (a) What is the value of pKb for ammonia? (b) What is the pH of the solution described in the

asked by Nicole on April 26, 2010
Chemistry
A 100 milliliter sample of 0.100-molar NH4Cl solution was added to 80 milliliters of a 0.200-molar solution of NH3. The value of Kb for ammonia is 1.79 x 10^-5. (a) What is the value of pKb for ammonia? (b) What is the pH of the solution described in the

asked by Nicole on April 26, 2010
HELP!
A biologist made population count of four different species of animals in an ecosystem. What can you infer from these numbers possible predator-prey relationship[s between species? Species A : 155 Species B : 17 Species C : 2,467 Species D : 19

asked by Mika on January 22, 2015
chemistry
Which weak acid would be best to use when preparing a buffer solution with a pH of 8.50? 1) an acid with Ka=3.3×10^-9 2) an acid with Ka=5.0×10^-4 3) an acid with KA=6.3×10^-6 4) an acid with Ka=5.0×10^-7 5) an acid with Ka=4.0×10^-5 6) an acid with

asked by Anonymous on April 8, 2013
science
A species that influences the survival of many other species is an ecosystem is called a(n) (A) Niche species (B) Extinct species (C) Keystone species (D) Endangered species

asked by 220134 on November 2, 2016
Chemistry
A solution is prepared by dissolving 571.6 g of H 2SO4 in enough water to make 1000.0 mL of solution. The solution has a density of 1.3294 g/mL. (molar mass of H2SO4 = 98.08). What is the molar concentration of the solution?

asked by Bill on March 24, 2013
Chem
in a 0.40 M solution of diprotic acid H2A(Ka=7.4×10^-5, Ka2=5.0×10^-10 at 25 celsius), what is the equilibrium concentration of A^2-? A)0.40m b)0.80M C)5.4×10^-3m d)1.4×10^-5M E)5.0×10^-10M

asked by C on March 19, 2013
Physics
Using Coulomb’s law to solve: Charge A is +2.0×10^-6C and charge B is +3.0×10^-6C. The two changes are 3 m apart. What is the force between them?Is the force attractive or repulsive? Okay so here’s what I have so far (2.0×10^-6)(3.0×10^-6)/(3)^2 It is

asked by ANONYMOUS on March 28, 2017
chemistry
Given the table of Ka values on the right below, arrange the conjugate bases in order from strongest to weakest. Acid Ka HClO 3.5 e-8 HClO2 1.2 e-2 HCN 6.2 e-10 H2PO4- 6.2 e-8 A. ClO2-, ClO¬-, HPO42-, CN- B. ClO2-, HPO42-, ClO¬-, CN- C. CN-, HPO42-,

asked by linda on November 29, 2010

Chemistry
Identify the species oxidized and the species reduced in each of these redox equations A. 3Br2 + 2Ga -> 2GaBr3 B. HCL + Zn -> ZnCl2 + H2 C. Mg + N2 -> Mg3N2

asked by Anonymous on April 6, 2010
Environmental Science
Will someone please help me understand this? Identify a keystone species that has been removed or reduced in number in its habitat. How has the removal of this species effected the ecosystem to which it belonged?

asked by PENNY on December 10, 2011
chemistry
Calculate the molar concentrations of all phosphate species in H3PO4 in a solution with pH = 2.25, given that the concentration of all four forms of phosphate total 15 mM.

asked by lawerence on March 20, 2015
AP Chemistry
If 400 mL of 3.2 molar HCl solution is added to 300 mL of 2 molar NaOH solution, what will be the molarity of NaCl in the resulting solution? Answer in units of M

asked by Gabriella on January 30, 2014
ap chemistry
If 300 mL of 3.9 molar HCl solution is added to 200 mL of 2.2 molar NaOH solution, what will be the molarity of NaCl in the resulting solution? Answer in units of M

asked by cheri on March 5, 2013

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when the area in square units of an expanding circle is increasing twice as fast as its radius

4. When the area in square units of an expanding circle is increasing twice as fast as its radius in linear units, the radius is
A. 1/4pi B.1/4 C.1/pi D. 1 E.pi

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  1. Area = πr²
    dA/dr=2πr
    dA/dt=dA/dr*dr/dt=2πrdr/dt
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    2πrdr/dt=2dr/dt
    r=1/π
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statics final

I have attached all of the weekly lectures below to help with the creation of the final paper. 

The Final Paper provides you with an opportunity to integrate and reflect on what you have learned during the class.

The question to address is: “What have you learned about statistics?” In developing your responses, consider—at a minimum—and discuss the application of each of the course elements in analyzing and making decisions about data (counts and/or measurements).

In your paper,

  • Discuss the following course elements:
    • Descriptive statistics
    • Inferential statistics
    • Hypothesis development and testing
    • Selection of appropriate statistical tests
    • Evaluating statistical results.

The Final Paper

  • Must be three to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use at least three scholarly sources in addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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under a perpetual inventory system, acquisition of merchandise for resale is debited to the

Test Bank for Accounting Principles, Eleventh Edition

5 – 13

Accounting for Merchandising Operations

CHAPTER 5

ACCOUNTING FOR MERCHANDISING OPERATIONS

Summary of Questions by LEARNING Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy
ItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBT
True-False Statements
1.1C10.3C19.5K28.5Ksg37.2K
2.1C11.3C20.5K29.5Ksg38.3K
3.1K12.3K21.5Ca30.6Ksg39.3K
4.1K13.4C22.5Ca31.7Ksg40.4C
5.1K14.4K23.5Ca32.7Ksg41.5K
6.2K15.4K24.5Ka33.7Ksg42.5K
7.2K16.5K25.5Ka34.7K
8.3C17.5K26.5APsg35.1K
9.3C18.5K27.5Ksg36.1K
Multiple Choice Questions
43.1K73.2AP103.3K133.5APa163.7AP
44.1K74.3AP104.3C134.5APa164.7AP
45.1C75.3AP105.3C135.5APsg165.1AP
46.1K76.3AP106.3K136.5APsg166.2K
47.1K77.3C107.3K137.5APsg167.2K
48.1C78.3C108.4C138.5APst168.2K
49.1K79.3AP109.4C139.5APsg169.3K
50.1K80.3AP110.4K140.5APst170.4K
51.1C81.3C111.1C141.5APsg171.6AP
52.1K82.3C112.4C142.5APst172.5K
53.1C83.3C113.5AP143.5APsg173.6K
54.1C84.3K114.5K144.5APa,st174.7K
55.1C85.3K115.5C145.5AP175.8K
56.1K86.3C116.5Ca146.6K176.8K
57.1C87.3C117.5Ca147.6K177.8K
58.2K88.3K118.5APa148.7AP178.8K
59.2K89.3K119.5K149.7AP179.8K
60.2C90.3C120.5C150.7AP180.8K
61.2K91.3K121.5K151.7C1818K
62.2C92.3AP122.5Ka152.7K1828K
63.2C93.3C123.5Ka153.7K183.8K
64.2C94.3C124.5APa154.7K184.8K
65.2AP95.3C125.5APa155.7AP185.8K
66.2AP96.3C126.5Ka156.7AP186.8K
67.2C97.3C127.5Ca157.7K187.8K
68.2K98.3C128.5Ka158.7C188.8K
69.2AP99.3AP129.5Ka159.7C189.8K
70.2AP100.3AP130.5APa160.7K
71.2K101.3AP131.5APa161.7K
72.2AP102.3K132.5APa162.7C

sg This question also appears in the Study Guide.

st This question also appears in a self-test at the student companion website.

a This question covers a topic in an appendix to the chapter.

Summary of Questions by LEARNING Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy
Brief Exercises
190.1AP193.3AP196.5AP199.7AP
191.2AP194.3AP197.5AP200.7AP
192.2,3AP195.4AP198.7APa201.7AP
Exercises
202.1C207.2,3AN212.4AP217.5APa222.7AP
203.2,3AP208.2AP213.4AP218.5Ca223.7AP
204.2,3AP209.3AP214.5AN219.5APa224.7AP
205.2E210.3AP215.5AP220.5APa221.7AP
206.2,3AP211.4AP216.5APa221.6APa226.7AP
Completion Statements
227.1K229.1K231.2K233.3K235.5K
228.1K230.2K232.3K234.3K236.5K
Matching Statements
237.1K
Short-Answer Essay
238.3K240.3K242.1K244.1K
239.1K241.5K243.5K245.1K

SUMMARY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE

ItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemType
Learning Objective 1
1.TF35.TF46.MC51.MC56.MC202.Ex239.SA
2.TF36.TF47.MC52.MC57.MC227.C242.SA
3.TF43.MC48.MC53.MC111.MC228.C244.SA
4.TF44.MC49.MC54.MC165.MC229.C245.SA
5.F45.MC50.MC55.MC190.BE237.MA
Learning Objective 2
6.TF60.MC65.MC70.MC157.MC204.Ex230.C
7.TF61.MC66.MC71.MC158.MC205.Ex231.C
37.TF62.MC67.MC72.MC203.Ex206.Ex
58.MC63.MC68.MC73.MC166.BE207.Ex
59.MC64.MC69.MC156.MC167.BE208.Ex
Learning Objective 3
8.TF75.MC83.MC91.MC99.MC107.MC209.Ex
9.TF76.MC84.MC92.MC100.MC169.MC210.Ex
10.TF77.MC85.MC93.MC101.MC192.BE232.C
11.TF78.MC86.MC94.MC102.MC193.BE233.C
12.TF79.MC87.MC95.MC103.MC194.BE234.C
38.TF80.MC88.MC96.MC104.MC203.Ex240.SA
39.TF81.MC89.MC97.MC105.MC204.Ex
74.MC82.MC90.MC98.MC106.MC206.Ex

SUMMARY OF Learning OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE

Learning Objective 4
13.TF15.TF108.MC110.MC170.MC211.Ex213.Ex
14.TF40.TF109.MC112.MC195.BE212.Ex
Learning Objective 5
16.TF26.TF117.MC127.MC137.MC172.MC235.C
17.TF27.TF118.MC128.MC138.MC173.MC236.C
18.TF28.TF119.MC129.MC139.MC196.BE241.SA
19.TF29.TF120.MC130.MC140.MC197.BE243.SA
20.TF41.TF121.MC131.MC141.MC215.Ex
21.TF42.TF122.MC132.MC142.MC216.Ex
22.TF113.MC123.MC133.MC143.MC217.Ex
23.TF114.MC124.MC134.MC144.MC218.Ex
24.TF115.MC125.MC135.MC145.MC219.Ex
25.TF116.MC126.MC136.MC171.MC220.Ex
Learning Objective a6a34.TF175.MC178.MC181.MC184.MC187.MCa225.Exa146.MC176.MC179.MC182.MC185.MC188.MCa147.MC177.MC180.MC183.MC186.MC189.MCLearning Objective a7
a30.TFa149.MCa154.MCa159.MCa164.MCa201.BEa225.Ex
a31.TFa150.MCa155.MCa160.MCa174.MCa221.Exa226.Ex
a32.TFa151.MCa156.MCa161.MCa198.BEa222.Ex
a33.TFa152.MCa157.MCa162.MCa199.BEa223.Ex
a148.MCa153.MCa158.MCa163.MCa200.BEa224.Ex
Learning Objective 8
175.MC177.MC179.MC181.MC183.MC185.MC
176.MC178.MC180.MC182.MC184.MC

Note: TF = True-False BE = Brief Exercise C = Completion

MC = Multiple Choice Ex = Exercise SA = Short-Answer

MA = Matching

CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies. Because of inventory, a merchandising company has sales revenue, cost of goods sold, and gross profit. To account for inventory, a merchandising company must choose between a perpetual and a periodic inventory system.

2. Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system. The company debits the Inventory account for all purchases of merchandise, and freight-in, and credits it for purchase discounts and purchase returns and allowances.

3. Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system. When a merchandising company sells inventory, it debits Accounts Receivable (or Cash) and credits Sales Revenue for the selling price of the merchandise. At the same time, it debits Cost of Goods Sold and credits Inventory for the cost of the inventory items sold. Sales returns and allowances and sales discounts are debited and are contra revenue accounts.

4. Explain the steps in the accounting cycle for a merchandising company. Each of the required steps in the accounting cycle for a service company applies to a merchandising company. A worksheet is again an optional step. Under a perpetual inventory system, the company must adjust the Inventory account to agree with the physical count.

5. Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement. A multiple-step income statement shows numerous steps in determining net income, including nonoperating activities sections. A single-step income statement classifies all data under two categories, revenues or expenses, and determines net income in one step.

a6. Prepare a worksheet for a merchandising company. The steps in preparing a worksheet for a merchandising company are the same as for a service company. The unique accounts for a merchandiser are Inventory, Sales Revenue, Sales Returns and Allowances, Sales Discounts, and Cost of Goods Sold.

a7. Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system. In recording purchases under a periodic system, companies must make entries for (a) cash and credit purchases, (b) purchase returns and allowances, (c) purchase discounts, and (d) freight costs. In recording sales, companies must make entries for (a) cash and credit sales, (b) sales returns and allowances, and (c) sales discounts.

TRUE-FALSE STATEMENTS

1. Retailers and wholesalers are both considered merchandisers.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

2. The steps in the accounting cycle are different for a merchandising company than for a service company.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

3. Sales minus operating expenses equals gross profit.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

4. Under a perpetual inventory system, the cost of goods sold is determined each time a sale occurs.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

5. A periodic inventory system requires a detailed inventory record of inventory items.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

6. Freight terms of FOB Destination means that the seller pays the freight costs.

Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

7. Freight costs incurred by the seller on outgoing merchandise are an operating expense to the seller.

Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

8. Sales revenues are earned during the period cash is collected from the buyer.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

9. The Sales Returns and Allowances account and the Sales Discount account are both classified as expense accounts.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

10. The revenue recognition principle applies to merchandisers by recognizing sales revenues when the performance obligation is satisfied.

Ans: T, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

11. Sales Returns and Allowances and Sales Discounts are both designed to encourage customers to pay their accounts promptly.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

12. To grant a customer a sales return, the seller credits Sales Returns and Allowances.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

13. A company’s unadjusted balance in Inventory will usually not agree with the actual amount of inventory on hand at year-end.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

14. For a merchandising company, all accounts that affect the determination of income are closed to the Income Summary account.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

15. A merchandising company has different types of adjusting entries than a service company.

Ans: F, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

16. Nonoperating activities exclude revenues and expenses that result from secondary or auxiliary operations.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

17. Operating expenses are different for merchandising and service enterprises.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

18. Net sales appears on both the multiple-step and single-step forms of an income statement.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

19. A multiple-step income statement provides users with more information about a company’s income performance.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

20. The multiple-step form of income statement is easier to read than the single-step form.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

21. Inventory is classified as a current asset in a classified balance sheet.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

22. Gain on sale of equipment and interest expense are reported under other revenues and gains in a multiple-step income statement.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

23. The gross profit section for a merchandising company appears on both the multiple-step and single-step forms of an income statement.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

24. In a multiple-step income statement, income from operations excludes other revenues and gains and other expenses and losses.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

25. A single-step income statement reports all revenues, both operating and other revenues and gains, at the top of the statement.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

26. If net sales are $800,000 and cost of goods sold is $600,000, the gross profit rate is 25%.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

27. Gross profit represents the merchandising profit of a company.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

28. Gross profit is a measure of the overall profitability of a company.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

29. Gross profit rate is computed by dividing cost of goods sold by net sales.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

a30. In a worksheet, cost of goods sold will be shown in the trial balance (Dr.), adjusted trial balance (Dr.) and income statement (Dr.) columns.

Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

a31. Freight-in is an account that is subtracted from the Purchases account to arrive at cost of goods purchased.

Ans: F, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a32. Under a periodic inventory system, the acquisition of inventory is charged to the Purchases account.

Ans: T, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

a33. Under a periodic inventory system, freight-in on merchandise purchases should be charged to the Inventory account.

Ans: F, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

a34. Purchase Returns and Allowances and Purchase Discounts are subtracted from Purchases to produce net purchases.

Ans: T, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

35. Inventory is reported as a long-term asset on the balance sheet.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

36. Under a perpetual inventory system, inventory shrinkage and lost or stolen goods are more readily determined.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

37. The terms 2/10, n/30 state that a 2% discount is available if the invoice is paid within the first 10 days of the next month.

Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

38. Sales revenue should be recorded in accordance with the matching principle.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

39. Sales returns and allowances and sales discounts are subtracted from sales in reporting net sales in the income statement.

Ans: T, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

40. A merchandising company using a perpetual inventory system will usually need to make an adjusting entry to ensure that the recorded inventory agrees with physical inventory count.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

41. If a merchandising company sells land at more than its cost, the gain should be reported in the sales revenue section of the income statement.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

42. The major difference between the balance sheets of a service company and a merchandising company is inventory.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

Answers to True-False Statements

ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.
1.T7.T13.T19.T25.Ta31.F37.F
2.F8.F14.T20.F26.Ta32.T38.F
3.F9.F15.F21.T27.Ta33.F39.T
4.T10.T16.F22.F28.Fa34.T40.T
5.F11.F17.F23.F29.F35.F41.F
6.T12.F18.T24.T30.T36.T42.T

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

43. Net income is gross profit less

a. financing expenses.

b. operating expenses.

c. other expenses and losses.

d. other expenses.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

44. An enterprise which sells goods to customers is known as a

a. proprietorship.

b. corporation.

c. retailer.

d. service firm.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

45. Which of the following would not be considered a merchandising company?

a. Retailer

b. Wholesaler

c. Service firm

d. Dot Com firm

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

46. A merchandising company that sells directly to consumers is a

a. retailer.

b. wholesaler.

c. broker.

d. service company.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

47. Two categories of expenses for merchandising companies are

a. cost of goods sold and financing expenses.

b. operating expenses and financing expenses.

c. cost of goods sold and operating expenses.

d. sales and cost of goods sold.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

48. The primary source of revenue for a wholesaler is

a. investment income.

b. service fees.

c. the sale of merchandise.

d. the sale of fixed assets the company owns.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

49. Sales revenue less cost of goods sold is called

a. gross profit.

b. net profit.

c. net income.

d. marginal income.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

50. After gross profit is calculated, operating expenses are deducted to determine

a. gross margin.

b. net income.

c. gross profit on sales.

d. net margin.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

51. Cost of goods sold is determined only at the end of the accounting period in

a. a perpetual inventory system.

b. a periodic inventory system.

c. both a perpetual and a periodic inventory system.

d. neither a perpetual nor a periodic inventory system.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

52. Which of the following expressions is incorrect?

a. Gross profit – operating expenses = net income

b. Sales revenue – cost of goods sold – operating expenses = net income

c. Net income + operating expenses = gross profit

d. Operating expenses – cost of goods sold = gross profit

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

53. Detailed records of goods held for resale are not maintained under a

a. perpetual inventory system.

b. periodic inventory system.

c. double entry accounting system.

d. single entry accounting system.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

54. A perpetual inventory system would likely be used by a(n)

a. automobile dealership.

b. hardware store.

c. drugstore.

d. convenience store.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

55. Which of the following is a true statement about inventory systems?

a. Periodic inventory systems require more detailed inventory records.

b. Perpetual inventory systems require more detailed inventory records.

c. A periodic system requires cost of goods sold be determined after each sale.

d. A perpetual system determines cost of goods sold only at the end of the accounting period.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

56. In a perpetual inventory system, cost of goods sold is recorded

a. on a daily basis.

b. on a monthly basis.

c. on an annual basis.

d. with each sale.

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

57. If a company determines cost of goods sold each time a sale occurs, it

a. must have a computer accounting system.

b. uses a combination of the perpetual and periodic inventory systems.

c. uses a periodic inventory system.

d. uses a perpetual inventory system.

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

58. Under a perpetual inventory system, acquisition of merchandise for resale is debited to the

a. Inventory account.

b. Purchases account.

c. Supplies account.

d. Cost of Goods Sold account.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

59. The journal entry to record a return of merchandise purchased on account under a perpetual inventory system would credit

a. Accounts Payable.

b. Purchase Returns and Allowances.

c. Sales Revenue.

d. Inventory.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

60. The Inventory account is used in each of the following except the entry to record

a. goods purchased on account.

b. the return of goods purchased.

c. payment of freight on goods sold.

d. payment within the discount period.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

61. A buyer would record a payment within the discount period under a perpetual inventory system by crediting

a. Accounts Payable.

b. Inventory.

c. Purchase Discounts.

d. Sales Discounts.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

62. If a purchaser using a perpetual system agrees to freight terms of FOB shipping point, then the

a. Inventory account will be increased.

b. Inventory account will not be affected.

c. seller will bear the freight cost.

d. carrier will bear the freight cost.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

63. Freight costs paid by a seller on merchandise sold to customers will cause an increase

a. in the selling expense of the buyer.

b. in operating expenses for the seller.

c. to the cost of goods sold of the seller.

d. to a contra-revenue account of the seller.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

64. Paden Company purchased merchandise from Emmett Company with freight terms of FOB shipping point. The freight costs will be paid by the

a. seller.

b. buyer.

c. transportation company.

d. buyer and the seller.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

65. Glenn Company purchased merchandise inventory with an invoice price of $9,000 and credit terms of 2/10, n/30. What is the net cost of the goods if Glenn Company pays within the discount period?

a. $8,100

b. $8,280

c. $8,820

d. $9,000

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $9,000 ( (1 – .02) ( $8,820

66. Scott Company purchased merchandise with an invoice price of $3,000 and credit terms of 1/10, n/30. Assuming a 360 day year, what is the implied annual interest rate inherent in the credit terms?

a. 20%

b. 24%

c. 18%

d. 36%

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: [360 ( (30 ( 10)] ( 1% ( 18%

67. If a company is given credit terms of 2/10, n/30, it should

a. hold off paying the bill until the end of the credit period, while investing the money at 10% annual interest during this time.

b. pay within the discount period and recognize a savings.

c. pay within the credit period but don’t take the trouble to invest the cash while waiting to pay the bill.

d. recognize that the supplier is desperate for cash and withhold payment until the end of the credit period while negotiating a lower sales price.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

68. In a perpetual inventory system, the amount of the discount allowed for paying for merchandise purchased within the discount period is credited to

a. Inventory.

b. Purchase Discounts.

c. Purchase Allowance.

d. Sales Discounts.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

69. Jake’s Market recorded the following events involving a recent purchase of merchandise:

Received goods for $60,000, terms 2/10, n/30.

Returned $1,200 of the shipment for credit.

Paid $300 freight on the shipment.

Paid the invoice within the discount period.

As a result of these events, the company’s inventory increased by

a. $57,624.

b. $57,918.

c. $57,924.

d. $59,100.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: [($60,000 ( $1,200( .98)] ( 300 ( $57,924

70. Costner’s Market recorded the following events involving a recent purchase of merchandise:

Received goods for $40,000, terms 2/10, n/30.

Returned $800 of the shipment for credit.

Paid $200 freight on the shipment.

Paid the invoice within the discount period.

As a result of these events, the company’s inventory

a. increased by $38,416.

b. increased by $38,612.

c. increased by $38,616.

d. increased by $39,400.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: [($40,000 ( $800) ( .98] ( $200 ( $38,616

71. Under the perpetual system, cash freight costs incurred by the buyer for the transporting of goods is recorded in

a. Freight Expense.

b. Freight – In.

c. Inventory.

d Freight – Out.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

72. Glover Co. returned defective goods costing $5,000 to Mal Company on April 19, for credit. The goods were purchased April 10, on credit, terms 3/10, n/30. The entry by Glover Co. on April 19, in receiving full credit is:

a. Accounts Payable 5,000

Inventory 5,000

b. Accounts Payable 5,000

Inventory 150

Cash 5,150

c. Accounts Payable 5,000

Purchase Discounts 120

Inventory 4,850

d. Accounts Payable 5,000

Inventory 120

Cash 4,850

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

73. McIntyre Company made a purchase of merchandise on credit from Marvin Company on August 8, for $9,000, terms 3/10, n/30. On August 17, McIntyre makes the appropriate payment to Marvin. The entry on August 17 for McIntyre Company is:

a. Accounts Payable 9,000

Cash 9,000

b. Accounts Payable 8,730

Cash 8,730

c. Accounts Payable 9,000

Purchase Returns and Allowances 270

MC. 73 (Cont.)

Cash 8,730

d. Accounts Payable 9,000

Inventory 270

Cash 8,730

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $9,000 ( .97 ( $8,730

74. On July 9, Sheb Company sells goods on credit to Wooley Company for $5,000, terms 1/10, n/60. Sheb receives payment on July 18. The entry by Sheb on July 18 is:

a. Cash 5,000

Accounts Receivable 5,000

b. Cash 5,000

Sales Discounts 50

Accounts Receivable 4,950

c. Cash 4,950

Sales Discounts 50

Accounts Receivable 5,000

d. Cash 5,050

Sales Discounts 50

Accounts Receivable 5,000

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $5,000 ( .99 ( $4,950

75. On November 2, 2014, Kasdan Company has cash sales of $6,000 from merchandise having a cost of $3,600. The entries to record the day’s cash sales will include:

a. a $3,600 credit to Cost of Goods Sold.

b. a $6,000 credit to Cash.

c. a $3,600 credit to Inventory.

d a $6,000 debit to Accounts Receivable.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

76. A credit sale of $4,000 is made on April 25, terms 2/10, n/30, on which a return of $250 is granted on April 28. What amount is received as payment in full on May 4?

a. $3,675

b. $3,750

c. $3,920

d $4,000

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: ($4,000 ( $250) ( .98 ( $3,675

77. The entry to record the receipt of payment within the discount period on a sale of $2,000 with terms of 2/10, n/30 will include a credit to

a. Sales Discounts for $40.

b. Cash for $1,960.

c. Accounts Receivable for $2,000.

d. Sales Revenue for $2,000.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

78. The collection of a $6,000 account within the 2 percent discount period will result in a

a. debit to Sales Discounts for $120.

b. debit to Accounts Receivable for $5,880.

c. credit to Cash for $5,880.

d. credit to Accounts Receivable for $5,880.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $6,000 ( .02 ( $120

79. Company X sells $900 of merchandise on account to Company Y with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. If Company Y remits a check taking advantage of the discount offered, what is the amount of Company Y’s check?

a. $630

b. $720

c. $810

d. $882

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $900 ( .98 ( $882

80. Cleese Company sells merchandise on account for $5,000 to Langston Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Langston Company returns $1,000 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What is the amount of the check?

a. $3,920

b. $4,000

c. $4,900

d. $4,920

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: ($5,000 ( $1,000) ( .98 ( $3,920

81. The collection of a $1,500 account after the 2 percent discount period will result in a

a. debit to Cash for $1,470.

b. debit to Accounts Receivable for $1,500.

c. debit to Cash for $1,500.

d. debit to Sales Discounts for $30.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

82. The collection of a $1,000 account after the 2 percent discount period will result in a

a. debit to Cash for $980.

b. credit to Accounts Receivable for $1,000.

c. credit to Cash for $1,000.

d. debit to Sales Discounts for $20.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

83. In a perpetual inventory system, the Cost of Goods Sold account is used

a. only when a cash sale of merchandise occurs.

b. only when a credit sale of merchandise occurs.

c. only when a sale of merchandise occurs.

d. whenever there is a sale of merchandise or a return of merchandise sold.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

84. Sales revenues are usually considered earned when

a. cash is received from credit sales.

b. an order is received.

c. goods have been transferred from the seller to the buyer.

d. adjusting entries are made.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

85. A sales invoice is a source document that

a. provides support for goods purchased for resale.

b. provides evidence of incurred operating expenses.

c. provides evidence of credit sales.

d. serves only as a customer receipt.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

86. Sales revenue

a. may be recorded before cash is collected.

b. will always equal cash collections in a month.

c. only results from credit sales.

d. is only recorded after cash is collected.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

87. The journal entry to record a credit sale is

a. Cash

Sales Revenue

b. Cash

Service Revenue

c. Accounts Receivable

Service Revenue

d. Accounts Receivable

Sales Revenue

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

88. Sales Returns and Allowances is increased when

a. an employee does a good job.

b. goods are sold on credit.

c. goods that were sold on credit are returned.

d. customers refuse to pay their accounts.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

89. The Sales Returns and Allowances account is classified as a(n)

a. asset account.

b. contra asset account.

c. expense account.

d. contra revenue account.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

90. A credit granted to a customer for returned goods requires a debit to

a. Sales Revenue and a credit to Cash.

b. Sales Returns and Allowances and a credit to Accounts Receivable.

c. Accounts Receivable and a credit to a contra-revenue account.

d. Cash and a credit to Sales Returns and Allowances.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

91. If a customer agrees to retain merchandise that is defective because the seller is willing to reduce the selling price, this transaction is known as a sales

a. discount.

b. return.

c. contra asset.

d. allowance.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

92. A credit sale of $3,600 is made on July 15, terms 2/10, n/30, on which a return of $200 is granted on July 18. What amount is received as payment in full on July 24?

a. $3,332

b. $3,440

c. $3,528

d $3,600

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: ($3,600 ( $200) ( .98 ( $3,332

93. When goods are returned that relate to a prior cash sale,

a. the Sales Returns and Allowances account should not be used.

b. the cash account will be credited.

c. Sales Returns and Allowances will be credited.

d. Accounts Receivable will be credited.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

94. The Sales Returns and Allowances account does not provide information to management about

a. possible inferior merchandise.

b. the percentage of credit sales versus cash sales.

c. inefficiencies in filling orders.

d. errors in overbilling customers.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

95. A Sales Returns and Allowances account is not debited if a customer

a. returns defective merchandise.

b. receives a credit for merchandise of inferior quality.

c. utilizes a prompt payment incentive.

d. returns goods that are not in accordance with specifications.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

96. As an incentive for customers to pay their accounts promptly, a business may offer its customers

a. a sales discount.

b. free delivery.

c. a sales allowance.

d. a sales return.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

97. The credit terms offered to a customer by a business firm are 2/10, n/30, which means that

a. the customer must pay the bill within 10 days.

b. the customer can deduct a 2% discount if the bill is paid between the 10th and 30th day from the invoice date.

c. the customer can deduct a 2% discount if the bill is paid within 10 days of the invoice date.

d. two sales returns can be made within 10 days of the invoice date and no returns thereafter.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

98. A sales discount does not

a. provide the purchaser with a cash saving.

b. reduce the amount of cash received from a credit sale.

c. increase a contra-revenue account.

d. increase an operating expense account.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

99. Company A sells $2,500 of merchandise on account to Company B with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. If Company B remits a check taking advantage of the discount offered, what is the amount of Company B’s check?

a. $1,750

b. $2,000

c. $2,250

d. $2,450

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

Solution: $2,500 ( .98 ( $2,450

100. Kern Company sells merchandise on account for $8,000 to Block Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Block Company returns $1,600 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What is the amount of the check?

a. $6,272

b. $6,400

c. $7,840

d. $7,872

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

Solution: ($8,000 ( $1,600) ( .98 ( $6,272

101. Carter Company sells merchandise on account for $4,000 to Hannah Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Hannah Company returns $600 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What entry does Carter Company make upon receipt of the check?

a. Cash 3,400

Accounts Receivable 3,400

b. Cash 3,332

Sales Returns and Allowances 668

Accounts Receivable 4,000

c. Cash 3,332

Sales Returns and Allowances 600

Sales Discounts 68

Accounts Receivable 4,000

d. Cash 3,920

Sales Discounts 80

Sales Returns and Allowances 600

Accounts Receivable 3,400

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

102. Which of the following would not be classified as a contra account?

a. Sales Revenue

b. Sales Returns and Allowances

c. Accumulated Depreciation

d. Sales Discounts

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

103. Which of the following accounts has a normal credit balance?

a. Sales Returns and Allowances

b. Sales Discounts

c. Sales Revenue

d. Selling Expense

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

104. With respect to the income statement,

a. contra-revenue accounts do not appear on the income statement.

b. sales discounts increase the amount of sales.

c. contra-revenue accounts increase the amount of operating expenses.

d. sales discounts are included in the calculation of gross profit.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

105. When a seller grants credit for returned goods, the account that is credited is

a. Sales Revenue.

b. Sales Returns and Allowances.

c. Inventory.

d. Accounts Receivable.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

106. The respective normal account balances of Sales Revenue, Sales Returns and Allowances, and Sales Discounts are

a. credit, credit, credit.

b. debit, credit, debit.

c. credit, debit, debit.

d. credit, debit, credit.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

107. All of the following are contra revenue accounts except

a. sales revenue.

b. sales allowances.

c. sales discounts.

d. sales returns.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

108. A merchandising company using a perpetual system will make

a. the same number of adjusting entries as a service company does.

b. one more adjusting entry than a service company does.

c. one less adjusting entry than a service company does.

d. different types of adjusting entries compared to a service company.

Ans: B, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

109. In preparing closing entries for a merchandising company, the Income Summary account will be credited for the balance of

a. sales revenue.

b. inventory.

c. sales discounts.

d. freight-out.

Ans: A, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

110. A merchandising company using a perpetual system may record an adjusting entry by

a. debiting Income Summary.

b. crediting Income Summary.

c. debiting Cost of Goods Sold.

d. debiting Sales Revenue.

Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

111. The operating cycle of a merchandiser is

a. always one year in length.

b. generally longer than it is for a service company.

c. about the same as for a service company.

d. generally shorter than it is for a service company.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

112. When the physical count of Rosanna Company inventory had a cost of $4,350 at year end and the unadjusted balance in Inventory was $4,500, Rosanna will have to make the following entry:

a. Cost of Goods Sold 150

Inventory 150

b. Inventory 150

Cost of Goods Sold 150

c. Income Summary 150

Inventory 150

d. Cost of Goods Sold 4,500

Inventory 4,500

Ans: A, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $4,500 ( $4,350 ( $150

113. Arquette Company’s financial information is presented below.

Sales Revenue $ ???? Cost of Goods Sold 540,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 40,000 Gross Profit ????

Net Sales 900,000

The missing amounts above are:

Sales Revenue Gross Profit

a. $940,000 $360,000

b. $860,000 $360,000

c. $940,000 $420,000

d. $860,000 $420,000

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

Solution: $900,000 ( $40,000 ( $940,000; $900,000 ( $540,000 ( $360,000

114. The sales revenue section of an income statement for a retailer would not include

a. Sales discounts.

b. Sales revenue.

c. Net sales.

d. Cost of goods sold.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

115. The operating expense section of an income statement for a wholesaler would not include

a. freight-out.

b. utilities expense.

c. cost of goods sold.

d. insurance expense.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

116. Income from operations will always result if

a. the cost of goods sold exceeds operating expenses.

b. revenues exceed cost of goods sold.

c. revenues exceed operating expenses.

d. gross profit exceeds operating expenses.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

117. Indicate which one of the following would appear on the income statement of both a merchandising company and a service company.

a. Gross profit

b. Operating expenses

c. Sales revenues

d. Cost of goods sold

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

118. Conrad Company reported the following balances at June 30, 2014:

Sales Revenue $16,200

Sales Returns and Allowances 600

Sales Discounts 300

Cost of Goods Sold 7,500

Net sales for the month is

a. $7,800

b. $15,300.

c. $15,600.

d. $16,200.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 1, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $16,200 ( $600 ( $300 ( $15,300

119. Income from operations appears on

a. both a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

b. neither a multiple-step nor a single-step income statement.

c. a single-step income statement.

d. a multiple-step income statement.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

120. Gross profit does not appear

a. on a multiple-step income statement.

b. on a single-step income statement.

c. to be relevant in analyzing the operation of a merchandiser.

d. on the income statement if the periodic inventory system is used because it cannot be calculated.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

121. Which of the following is not a true statement about a multiple-step income statement?

a. Operating expenses are similar for merchandising and service enterprises.

b. There may be a section for nonoperating activities.

c. There may be a section for operating assets.

d. There is a section for cost of goods sold.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

122. Which one of the following is shown on a multiple-step but not on a single-step income statement?

a. Net sales

b. Net income

c. Gross profit

d. Cost of goods sold

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

123. All of the following items would be reported as other expenses and losses except

a. freight-out.

b. casualty losses.

c. interest expense.

d. loss from employees’ strikes.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

124. If a company has net sales of $700,000 and cost of goods sold of $455,000, the gross profit percentage is

a. 25%.

b. 35%.

c. 65%.

d. 100%.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: ($700,000 ( $455,000) ( $700,000 ( 35%

125. A company shows the following balances:

Sales Revenue $2,500,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 450,000

Sales Discounts 50,000

Cost of Goods Sold 1,400,000

What is the gross profit percentage?

a. 30%

b. 44%

c. 56%

d. 70%

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $2,500,000 ( $450,000 ( $50,000 ( $2,000,000; ($2,000,000 ( $1,400,000) ( $2,000,000 ( 30%

126. The gross profit rate is computed by dividing gross profit by

a. cost of goods sold.

b. net income.

c. net sales.

d. sales revenue.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

127. In terms of liquidity, inventory is

a. more liquid than cash.

b. more liquid than accounts receivable.

c. more liquid than prepaid expenses.

d. less liquid than store equipment.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

128. On a classified balance sheet, inventory is classified as

a. an intangible asset.

b. property, plant, and equipment.

c. a current asset.

d. a long-term investment.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

129. Gross profit for a merchandiser is net sales minus

a. operating expenses.

b. cost of goods sold.

c. sales discounts.

d. cost of goods available for sale.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

130. During 2014, Parker Enterprises generated revenues of $90,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $45,000, operating expenses of $18,000 and a loss on the sale of equipment of $3,000.

Parker’s gross profit is

a. $24,000.

b. $27,000.

c. $45,000.

d. $90,000.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

131. During 2014, Parker Enterprises generated revenues of $90,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $45,000, operating expenses of $18,000 and a loss on the sale of equipment of $3,000.

Yoder’s income from operations is

a. $18,000.

b. $27,000.

c. $45,000.

d. $90,000.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

132. During 2014, Parker Enterprises generated revenues of $90,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $45,000, operating expenses of $18,000 and a loss on the sale of equipment of $3,000.

Yoder’s net income is

a. $24,000.

b. $27,000.

c. $45,000.

d. $90,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

133. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 60,000

Sales Revenue 225,000

Cost of Goods Sold 135,000

Gross profit would be

a. $30,000.

b. $90,000.

MC. 133 (Cont.)

c. $165,000.

d. $225,000.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $225,000 ( $135,000 ( $90,000

134. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 60,000

Sales Revenue 225,000

Cost of Goods Sold 135,000

The gross profit rate would be

a. .133.

b. .400.

c. .600.

d. .733.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: ($225,000 ( $135,000) ( $225,000 ( .40

135. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 26,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales 300,000

Cost of Goods Sold 158,000

Gross profit would be

a. $104,000.

b. $116,000.

c. $130,000.

d. $142,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $300,000 ( $26,000 ( $12,000 ( $262,000; $262,000 ( $158,000 ( $104,000

136. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 26,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 300,000

Cost of Goods Sold 158,000

The gross profit rate would be

a. .347.

b. .397.

c. .473.

d. .542.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $300,000 ( $26,000 ( $12,000 ( $262,000; ($262,000 ( $158,000) ( $262,000 ( .397

137. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 18,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 320,000

Cost of Goods Sold 174,000

The amount of net sales on the income statement would be

a. $290,000.

b. $302,000.

c. $308,000.

d. $320,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $320,000 ( $18,000 ( $12,000 ( $290,000

138. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 18,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 320,000

Cost of Goods Sold 174,000

Gross profit would be

a. $26,000.

b. $116,000.

c. $128,000.

d. $134,000.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $320,000 ( $18,000 ( $12,000 ( $290,000; $290,000 ( $174,000 ( $116,000

139. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 18,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 320,000

Cost of Goods Sold 174,000

The gross profit rate would be

a. .363.

b. .400.

c. .456.

d. .503.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $320,000 ( $18,000 ( $12,000 ( $290,000;($290,000 ( $174,000) ( $290,000 ( .40

140. If a company has sales revenue of $630,000, net sales of $600,000, and cost of goods sold of $390,000, the gross profit rate is

a. 35%.

b. 38%

c. 62%.

d. 65%.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: ($600,000 ( $390,000) ( $600,000 ( 35%

141. Dawson’s Fashions sold merchandise for $40,000 cash during the month of July. Returns that month totaled $1,000. If the company’s gross profit rate is 40%, Murray’s will report monthly net sales revenue and cost of goods sold of

a. $39,000 and $23,400.

b. $39,000 and $24,000.

c. $40,000 and $23,400.

d. $40,000 and $24,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

142. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s gross profit for August, 2014 is

a. $20,000.

b. $21,000.

c. $23,000.

d. $24,000.

Ans: D, LO:5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $36,000 ( $24,000

143. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s nonoperating income (loss) for the month of August, 2014 is

a. $0.

b. $1,000.

c. $2,000.

d. $3,000.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $1,000 ( $2,000 ( $3,000

144. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s operating income for the month of August, 2014 is

a. $20,000.

b. $21,000.

c. $23,000.

d. $24,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $36,000 ( $4,000 ( $20,000

145. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s net income for August, 2014 is

a. $20,000.

b. $21,000.

c. $23,000.

d. $24,000.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $36,000 ( 4,000 ( $1,000 ( $2,000 ( $23,000

a146. In a worksheet for a merchandising company, Inventory would appear in the

a. trial balance and adjusted trial balance columns only.

b. trial balance and balance sheet columns only.

c. trial balance, adjusted trial balance, and balance sheet columns.

d. trial balance, adjusted trial balance, and income statement columns.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a147. The Inventory account balance appearing in a perpetual inventory worksheet represents the

a. ending inventory.

b. beginning inventory.

c. cost of merchandise purchased.

d. cost of merchandise sold.

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a148. The following information is available for Dennehy Company:

Sales Revenue $390,000 Freight-In $30,000

Ending Inventory 37,500 Purchase Returns and Allowances 15,000

Purchases 270,000 Beginning Inventory 45,000

Dennehy’s cost of goods sold is

a. $262,500.

b. $285,000.

MC. 148 (Cont.)

c. $292,500.

d. $345,000.

Ans: C, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $45,000 + $270,000 ( $15,000 + $30,000 ( $37,500 ( $292,500

,

a149. At the beginning of September, 2014, Stella Company reported Inventory of $8,000. During the month, the company made purchases of $35,600. At September 30, 2014, a physical count of inventory reported $8,400 on hand. Cost of goods sold for the month is

a. $35,200.

b. $35,600.

c. $36,000.

d. $43,600.

Ans: A, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $8,000 + $35,600 ( $8,400 ( $35,200

,

a150. At the beginning of the year, Hunt Company had an inventory of $750,000. During the year, the company purchased goods costing $2,400,000. If Hunt Company reported ending inventory of $900,000 and sales of $3,750,000, the company’s cost of goods sold and gross profit rate must be

a. $1,500,000 and 66.7%.

b. $2,250,000 and 40%.

c. $1,500,000 and 40%.

d. $2,250,000 and 60%.

Ans: B, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $$750,000 +$2,400,000 ( $900,000 ( $2,250,000; ($3,750,000 ( $2,250,000) ( $3,750,000 ( 40%

a151. During the year, Slick’s Pet Shop’s inventory decreased by $25,000. If the company’s cost of goods sold for the year was $500,000, purchases must have been

a. $475,000.

b. $500,000.

c. $525,000.

d. Unable to determine.

Ans: A, LO: 7, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $500,000 ( $25,000 ( $475,000

a152. Cost of goods available for sale is computed by adding

a. beginning inventory to net purchases.

b. beginning inventory to the cost of goods purchased.

c. net purchases and freight-in.

d. purchases to beginning inventory.

Ans: B, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

a 153. The Freight-In account

a. increases the cost of merchandise purchased.

b. is contra to the Purchases account.

c. is a permanent account.

d. has a normal credit balance.

Ans: A, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a 154. Net purchases plus freight-in determines

a. cost of goods sold.

b. cost of goods available for sale.

c. cost of goods purchased.

d. total goods available for sale.

Ans: C, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a155. Goldblum Company has the following account balances:

Purchases $96,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 12,800

Purchase Discounts 8,000

Freight-In 6,000

Delivery Expense 10,000

The cost of goods purchased for the period is

a. $80,800.

b. $88,000.

c. $94,000.

d. $104,000.

Ans: C, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $96,000 ( $8,000 + $6,000 ( $94,000

,

a156. McKendrick Shoe Store has a beginning inventory of $45,000. During the period, purchases were $195,000; purchase returns, $6,000; and freight-in $15,000. A physical count of inventory at the end of the period revealed that $30,000 was still on hand. The cost of goods available for sale was

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h2so4(aq)+naoh(aq)→

balance this equation NaOH H2SO4 = NaSO4 H2O
42,295 results
Chemistry
balance this equation NaOH + H2SO4 = NaSO4 + H2O

asked by Amir on March 15, 2012
Chemistry
When we mix NaOH and H2SO4 we get the equation OH-(aq) + H+(aq) –> H2O(l) and if we mix H2CO3 and NaOH we get the equation 2OH-(aq) + H2CO3 –> 2H2O(l) + CO3-2(aq) Why aren’t the two equations the same? ie only one mol of NaOH reacts in the first equation

asked by Fiona on May 12, 2007
Chemistry
A solution of 0.211 M NaOH is used to titrate 24.0 mL of a H2SO4 solution. If 19.0 mL of the NaOH solution is required to reach the endpoint, what is the molarity of the H2SO4 solution? H2SO4(aq)+2NaOH(aq)→2H2O(l)+NaSO4(aq)

asked by Ava on July 22, 2016
chemistry
What mass of sodium hydroxide pellets must be poured into a waste drum containing 20.0 L o 3.0 mol/L sulphuric acid to completely neutralize the waste acid solution? Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. okay, so here is the work I already

asked by julie on December 15, 2014
Chemistry
When 25.3 mL of 0.100 M NaOH was reacted with 18.8 mL of H2SO4 of unknown molarity, the final solution was 0.029207 M in H2SO4. What is the molarity of the original H2SO4 solution? The equation for the reaction is: 2 NaOH + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2 H2O

asked by Haley on May 20, 2017

College-Chemistry
NaOH(s)+ H2SO4(aq)=Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) Consider the unbalanced equation above.A 0.900 g sample of impure NaOH was dissolved in water and required 37.0 mL of 0.145 M H2SO4 solution to react with the NaOH in the sample. What was the mass percent of NaOH in

asked by Tiffany on February 26, 2010
Chemistry
In a silphuric acid (H2SO4)-Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) acid-base titration, 17.3mL of 0.126M NaOH is needed to neutralize 25mL of H2SO4 of unknown concentration. What is the morality of the H2SO4 solution? H2SO4 (aq)+ NaOH (aq) = Na2SO4 (aq) + H2O (l)

asked by Dawn on July 1, 2014
Chemistry
How many milimetres of 0.114 M sulphuric acid solution provide the sulfuric acid required to react with the sodium hydroxide in 32.3 ml of 0.122 M NaOH according to the following equation? H2SO4 + 2 NAOH —> Na2SO4 + 2 H20 A millimeter is a unit of

asked by Cadi Almond on September 11, 2006
Chemistry URGENT/DR BOB
Can someone may sure that I balanced the following groups of equations correctly. Write an equation to show how acetic acid reacts with water to produce ions in solution. C2H4O2 + H2O >>>>>>> H3O + C2H3O Write an equation for the neutralization of HCl and

asked by jazz on April 23, 2014
chemistry
balance H2SO4 + NaOH –> H2O + Na2SO4

asked by will.i.am on January 8, 2013
Chemistry
Calculate the molarity of the H2SO4 solution if 17.45 mL of NaOH was necessary to reach the endpoint of titration. The molarity of the NaOH solution was 0.425 M and 26.30 mL of H2SO4 was added to the Erlenmeyer flask. H2SO4(aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) —–> Na2SO4

asked by Audrey on February 25, 2017
chemistry
balance H2SO4 + NaOH –> H2O + Na2SO4 so i know you need 2 Na on each side but then I cant figure out the #’s for O or H

asked by will.i.am on January 8, 2013
chemistry
I think it is a trick question as I can not balance this equation . Balance this equation Na(CO3)2+H2SO4=NA(SO4)2+H2O+CO2

asked by Julia on November 14, 2017
Chemistry
Calculate the molarity of 25.00ml H2SO4 solution if 32.48ml of 0.1068M NaOH is required to titrate? Balanced equation is H2SO4(aq)+2NaOH(aq)=Na2SO4(aq)+2 H2O (l)

asked by Jake on October 22, 2014
Chemistry
What would be the equation for NaOH + H2SO4 be? Would the porducts be H2O + NaHSo4 or H2O + Na2SO4? If it’s the second one, which I think it is, where does that extra H go?

asked by Macy on October 13, 2015

Chemistry help
NaOH+H2SO4-> H2o+Na2SO4? How many moles of NaOH required to neutralize 1 mole H2SO4?

asked by Lee on April 14, 2012
Chemistry
NaOH+H2SO4-> H2o+Na2SO4? How many moles of NaOH required to neutralize 1 mole H2SO4?

asked by Lee on April 12, 2012
Chemsitry
A mixture of 10.00 mL of H2SO4 and 30.00 mL of HCl required 20.00 mL of 2.500 M NaOH for complete reaction. When 30.00 mL of H2SO4 and 10.00 mL of HCl were used, 28.00 mL of 2.500 M NaOH were required. What were the concentrations of the acids? [Both were

asked by Anonymous on October 11, 2015
Chemistry II
A 12.00 mL sample of sulfuric acid from an automobile battery requires 34.62 mL of 2.42 M sodium hydroxide solution for complete neutralization. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid? H2SO4 + 2NaOH ==> Na2SO4 + 2H2O molarity NaOH x liters NaOH = mols

asked by Jayd on April 25, 2007
chemistry check
A) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. I got H2SO4 + KOH —> H2OH + KSO4 B) Write the ionic equation for the reaction. H2 + S2O4-2 + K + OH- —> H2 + OH + K2SO4-2 C) Write the net ionic

asked by jon on March 22, 2007
Chemistry
Wow, ok, that helps a LOT!! I guess you can’t very easily balance an equation that can never happen! 🙂 Thanks a lot! Just to make things clear, wouldn’t it have to be Mg3(PO4)2, from balancing the charges? Because PO4 is -2 and Mg is +3, so it would need

asked by Lacey on April 11, 2007
chemistry
could someone check my answers to see if they are right? Balance the following equation and give the value of the stoichiometric coefficient marked with a question mark. 6 KNO3+ _ S + ? H2O _ H2SO4+ _ N2+ _ K2SO4 answer:6KNO3 + 5S + 2H2O –> 3 K2SO4 + 3N2

asked by key on January 24, 2007
chemistry
Q: I just did an online chemisty lab for Oxidation States of Manganese and I’m stuck. I have three test tubes that have been prepared as follows: Tube 1- Starting PH 13.82 2 mL of KMnO4 1 mL of NaOH Tube 2- Starting PH 7 2 mL of KMnO4 Tube 3- Starting PH 0

asked by jo on July 27, 2010
chemistry
Given the reaction: H2SO4 = 2NaOH -> NaSO4 = 2H20. Determine the # of moles of sulfuric acid id needed to completely react with 2.3 L of 0.5 M of NaOH. Then determine the concentration of the solution if 3.0 L of it are used instead.

asked by sarah on November 4, 2012
chemistry
Given the reaction: H2SO4 = 2NaOH -> NaSO4 = 2H20. Determine the # of moles of sulfuric acid id needed to completely react with 2.3 L of 0.5 M of NaOH. Then determine the concentration of the solution if 3.0 L of it are used instead.

asked by sarah on November 4, 2012

Chemistry
1) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between Cu(NO3)2 * 3 H2O and NaOH. Underline the formula for the precipitate produced by this reaction. (The water of hydration in Cu(NO3)2 * 3 H2O appears as liquid water on the right side of the

asked by Sarah on May 17, 2010
Organic Chemistry
I have a Lab assignment that requires the synthesis of carboxylic acid and our final product is Benzoic Acid. The following equation was provided: C7H8 + KMnO4 —> MnO2 1) KMnO4, OH-, heat 2) H3O+ We were asked to balance the equation including the

asked by Sal on November 7, 2014
chemistry
need to calculate the mass (m ) of NaoH with C% = 15 % , to balance 176 g of H2SO4 so i though to use this method C% = mass of h2s04 / mass of h2so4 + mass of Naoh which is unknown mass of Naoh = c% x mass of h2so4 / 100 is this the right method or not ?

asked by auro on March 18, 2011
chemistry
need to calculate the mass (m ) of NaoH with C% = 15 % , to balance 176 g of H2SO4 so i though to use this method C% = mass of h2s04 / mass of h2so4 + mass of Naoh which is unknown mass of Naoh = c% x mass of h2so4 / 100 is this the right method or not ?

asked by auro on March 18, 2011
chem
Sulfuric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide according to this equation: H2S04 + 2 NaOH Na2(SO4) + 2 H2O A 10.00 mL sample of the H2SO4 solution required 13.71 mL of 0.309 M NaOH for neutralization. Calculate the molarity of the acid.

asked by Liang9506 on November 21, 2012
chemistry am i right
Balance and complete equation H2SO4 + Na2CO3 —> Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2

asked by Amily on January 12, 2015
chemistry
how to balance this partial equation given below k2cr2o7+h2so4+kI–>k2so4+cr2(so4)3+h2o+I2

asked by xyz on May 12, 2015
chemistry
how to balance this partial equation given below k2cr2o7+h2so4+kI–>k2so4+cr2(so4)3+h2o+I2

asked by xyz on May 12, 2015
chemistry
25cm3 of a solution of NaOH required 28cm3 of 1.0mol/dm3 H2SO4 to neutralise it: a) write an equation for the reaction. b) how many molesof H2SO4 were needed? c) how many moles of NaOH were thus nuetralised?

asked by tinashe on March 1, 2017
Chem
How do I go about solving this reaction? H2SO4 + NaCO3 = NaSO4 +CO2 + H2O If 150.0g of sulfuric acid is spilled, what is the minimum number of sodium carbonate that have to be added to complete the reaction?

asked by Sheff on October 30, 2010

chemistry
balance the equations 1)Mg3N2+N2+H2O=Mg(OH)2+NH3 2)KMnO4+H2S+H2SO4=KHSO4+H2O+MnSO4 3)AS2O3+SnCl2+HCL=SnCl4+AS+H2O

asked by vishal on June 22, 2013
Chemistry (molarity) (sorta an emergency)
I’m doing a titration lab and writing a lab report where I’m sort of stuck on how exactly to find the concentration of HCl. These are the following info I have from the lab, Equation: HCl(aq)+NaOH(aq)-> H2O(l)+NaCl(aq) -Calculated molarity of NaOH solution

asked by Ray on November 13, 2016
chemistry
Balance each of the following neutralization reactions. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer. Part A: HNO3(aq) + Ba(OH)2(s) —> Ba(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) Part B: H2SO4(aq) + Al(OH)3 —> Al2(SO4)3(aq) + H2O(l)

asked by Lisa on April 1, 2012
chemistry
Balance each of the following neutralization reactions. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer. Part A: HNO3(aq) + Ba(OH)2(s) —> Ba(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) Part B: H2SO4(aq) + Al(OH)3 —> Al2(SO4)3(aq) + H2O(l)

asked by Lisa on April 1, 2012
chemistry
When 25.0 mL of 1.0 M H2SO4 is added to 50.0 mL of 1.0 M NaOH at 25.0 °C in a calorimeter, the temperature of the aqueous solution increases to 33.9 °C. Assuming the specific heat of the solution is 4.18 J/(g·°C), that its density is 1.00 g/mL, and

asked by nobody on March 14, 2013
Chemistry
Kmno4+h2so4+feso4=k2so4+mnso4+fe2(so4)3+h2o balance by partial equation method

asked by Bela on March 23, 2019
Chem. To Dr. Bob from Earlier Question or anyone
Dr. Bob, earlier you gave me the equation H2SO4 + NaHCO3 -> H2O + CO2 + Na2CO3 to balance. However, the S is not in the products, so it can’t be balanced.

asked by CMM on November 30, 2009
Chemistry
Balance this chemical equation. K4Fe(CN)6 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 —> KHSO4 + Fe2(SO4)3 + MnSO4 + HNO3 + CO2 + H2O

asked by Peter on November 10, 2012
Chemistry
What volume of 0.01 M NaOH should be required to raise the pH of a litre of 25 mM H2SO4 to 4.0? I started out by attempting to find the initial pH of H2SO4 and determined I need 2.57 units of pH to raise it to 4. I know that somewhere I use the HH

asked by Sara on September 22, 2013
Chemisty
Consider the reaction of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, with sodium hydroxide, NaOH. H2SO4(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) -> 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq). Suppose a beaker contains 35.0mL of 0.175M H2SO4. How many moles of NaOH are needed to react completely with sulfuric acid? Thank

asked by Mandy on October 22, 2014

Chemistry
How do I do these? 1. Balance the equation for the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid. Zn + HCl ZnCl2 + H2 2. Balance the equation for the reaction between iron (steel wool) and oxygen (water). Fe + O2 Fe2O3 3. Balance the equation for the

asked by IWouldAlwaysOpenUpTheDoor on December 23, 2017
chemistry
Balance each of the following equations a)CH4+CL2……>CCl4+HCl b)AL(OH)3+H2SO4…..>Al2(SO4)3+H2O c)Fe+H2O……>fe3O4+H2 d)Al4C3+HCl……>AlCl3+CH4 e)C2H6+O2……>CO2+H2O f)P2H4…….>PH3+P4 g)S2Cl2+NH3……>N4S4+NH4CL+S8

asked by faisal on April 15, 2012
chemistry
How do I balance a redox reaction for NaI + H2SO4 = H2S + I2 + Na2SO4 + H2O? I don’t understand how to balance the electron loss for Iodine.

asked by max on May 16, 2012
chemistry
balance the following equations and write an equation for the mole to mole relationship and the mass relationship a. Na + H2O > NaOH + H2 b. HCl + KOH > KCl + H2O

asked by shaggy on April 20, 2008
CHEMISTRY
25cm^3 of a solution of NaOH required 28cm^3 of 1.0 mol dm^-3 H2SO4 to neutralise it. a)Write an equation for the reaction. b)How many moles of H2SO4 were needed? c)How many moles of NaOH were thus neutralised? d)How many moles of NaOH are there in 25cm^3

asked by Ava on October 20, 2013
chem
I have to balance an equation and I had to make the equation from an experiment we did. So far, my equation looks like this and I know what I have is correct: Cu(NO3)2+H20+NaOH—–>Cu(OH)2 I think I probably need an N or a Na on the right side. What do

asked by Abby on March 5, 2007
Chemistry
Anyone able to balance/do the equation: C8H7O2COOH + NaOH -> I can’t figure out the products. C8H7O2COOH + NaOH =>C8H7O2COONa + H2O acid + base ==> salt + H2O Merci buckets. 😀 Oui, oui! Oui, oui! is C8H7O2COONa an acidic salt or basic salt?

asked by Ariel on October 26, 2006
chemistry
If it requires 30.0 milliliters of 1.2 molar HCl to neutralize 20.0 milliliters of NaOH, what is the concentration of the NaOH solution? Balanced equation: NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O 0.60 M NaOH 0.80 M NaOH 1.3 M NaOH 1.8 M NaOH

asked by Magan on June 22, 2011
science
i need help with more questions in the packet heres my question the poisonous gas hydrogen sulfide, H2S, can be neutralized with a base such as sodium hydroxide, NaOH. THE unbalanced equation for this reaction follows: NaOH(aq)+H2S(g)→Na2S(aq)+H2O(l) a

asked by maddy on January 12, 2015
Organic Chemistry
So im trying to make 1-acetylcyclohexane from ethenylcyclohexane..and i have to make it in 4 stepsi got the first two steps but the last two is what i am unsure of.. 1) Br2 2) 2 equiv NaNH2 3) ?? 4) ?? i know the 1st two steps but im having trouble

asked by UCI Student on February 6, 2013

chemistry
if 36.23mL of a standard 0.1959M NaOh solution is required to neutralize 25.00mL of H2SO4. what is the Molarity of the acid solution, balance the equation. Please help with calculation. Thank you for your help.

asked by kate- Please help on September 1, 2012
11th grade Chemistry

[mole-mole]

How many moles of NaOH are needed to react with 5.0 moles of sulfuric acid, H2SO4??? Equation: H2SO4 + 2 NaOH —> Na2 SO4 +2 H2 O

asked by Jenny on March 30, 2009
chemistry
write the ionic equation and the balanced net-ionic equation for the following equations: Al2O3(s) + 6 HCl(aq) = 2 AlCl3(aq) + 3 H2O(l) And H2SO3(aq) + 2 KOH(aq) = K2SO3(aq) + 2 H2O and 2 HC2H3O2(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) = Ca(C2H3O2)2(aq) + 2 H2O and the final

asked by Emaan on March 27, 2013
chemistry
H2SO4(aq) + NaOH(aq)-> Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) Consider the unbalanced equation above. What is the concentration of the original sulfuric acid solution if 60.5 mL of the acid reacts with 18.0 mL of 0.110 M sodium hydroxide?

asked by jade on March 12, 2012
Chemistry
If there were 197g of sulfuric acid in your car battery, how many grams of baking soda would you need to completely neutralize the acid. Here is the balanced equation: H2SO4(aq) + NaHCO3(s)….NaSO4(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H20(l)

asked by Courtney on October 21, 2012
Chemistry
The question says write a reaction for the ionization of the following compound in water. Identify the acid, the base, the conjugate acid, and the conjugate base in each of them. 1. H2SO4 2. KOH 3. CH3COOH 4. NH3 5. HNO3 My guesses are: H2SO4 + H2O -> H3O+

asked by Samantha on May 31, 2009
Chemistry 12
a) Use the standard reduction potentials table to balance the following redox equation: H2O2 + I + H = H2O + I2 b) Balance the following redox equation by the oxidation number method: Ag + HNO3 = AgNO3 + NO + H2O

asked by Laura on May 24, 2011
organic chem
(b) One of your illustrious colleagues continues his/her education and finally obtains employment with a renowned pharmaceutical company as an organic chemist. He or she is asked to synthesize pantothenic acid because the company wants to use it to prepare

asked by adam on April 26, 2011
Chemistry 12
“Add the ionic equations for part one and three, compare the results with the ionic equation for part two” Part 1: NaOH(s) = Na+(aq) +OH-(aq) + heat Part 2: NaOH(s) + H+(aq) +Cl-(aq) = Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + H2O(l) + heat Part 3: Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) + H+(aq) +

asked by Avery on December 9, 2015
CHEMISTRY HELP ASAP
Balance the following equation. (for a balanced eq. aA + bB → cC + dD, enter your answer as the integer abcd) MnO4−(aq) + SO32−(aq) + H+(aq) → Mn2+(aq) + SO42−(aq) + H2O(l) i got 2525 and its going in as incorrect Now you get to balance this

asked by Trina on December 14, 2012

Chemistry
Balance the following equation. (for a balanced eq. aA + bB → cC + dD, enter your answer as the integer abcd) MnO4−(aq) + SO32−(aq) + H+(aq) → Mn2+(aq) + SO42−(aq) + H2O(l) i got 2525 and its going in as incorrect Now you get to balance this

asked by Trina on December 14, 2012
Chem
NaOH (s) + H2O (l) —–> NaOH (aq) I`m having a hard time balancing this. Can you even balance this?

asked by Lena on April 6, 2009
Chemistry
How would you balance this equation?? Ba(NO3)2 + NH2SO3H + H2O -> Ba(NH2SO3)2 + HNO3 Would you have to make the H2O 0, ultimately removing H2O from the equation (is that even allowed?), or is there another way of balancing it??

asked by Georgia on November 8, 2015
chemistry
5.0 mL of H2SO4 solution was titrated with 0.20 M NaOH standard solution. The volume of NaOH needed to reach the equivalent point was 9.5 mL. 1. In this titration setup, what is the titrant? and what is the analyte? 2. What is the number of mole of H2SO4

asked by hj3s on November 12, 2014
Chemistry
Given the reaction 2 Na2 02 (s) + 2 H2o(i) —- 4 NaOH(s) + 02(g) triangle H= -109 KJ determine the following reactions. 16 Na2o2(s)+ 16 H2o(i)———- 32 NaOH(s) + 8 O2(g) 2 NaOH(s)—-+ 1/2 o2(g)——-Nao2(s)+ H2o(I)

asked by Grace Peterson on October 26, 2013
organic chem
(b) One of your illustrious colleagues continues his/her education and finally obtains employment with a renowned pharmaceutical company as an organic chemist. He or she is asked to synthesize pantothenic acid because the company wants to use it to prepare

asked by adam on April 26, 2011
Chemistry
For H2SO4 + 2NaOH = 2H2O + Na2SO4 n(H2SO4) = 9.65g/98g/mol = 0.098 n(NaOH) = 6.10g/40g/mol = 0.15 mol 1 mole of H2SO4 is = to 1 mole of Na2SO4. H2SO4 yields 0.098 mol of Na2SO4. 2 moles of NaOH is = to 1 mole of Na2SO4. NaOH yields 0.076 moles of Na2SO4.

asked by Anonymous on April 5, 2018
Chemisty
A 25-mL sample of 0.160M solution of NaOH is titrated with 17 mL of an unknown solution of H2SO4. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid solution? A. 0.004M H2SO4 B. 0.235M H2SO4 C. 0.117M H2SO4 D. 0.002M H2SO4

asked by Elizabeth on February 18, 2014
chemistry
Suppose 70.00 mL of a lithium hydroxide, LiOH, solution requires 55.42 mL of a 0.1050 M solution of propanoic acid, C2H5COOH, for neutralization. LiOH + C2H5COOH ® C2H5COOLi + H2O What is the concentration of the base solution? 0.08313 M 0.1663 M 0.3325 M

asked by hope on October 9, 2010
Chemistry
If the percent yeild of the following equation is 55%, how many grams of H2SO4 are produced when 4.88 x 10^24 molecules of SO3 are combined with excess water? SO3(g)+H2O(l)->H2SO4(aq). what would be the formula to solve this equation

asked by Sean on April 10, 2016

chemistry
how do i balance SO3 + H2O = H2SO4

asked by ariana on March 7, 2013
Reaction Descriptions
Complete the table below: Enter all letters containing appropriate descriptions for each of the equations below. a. precipitation reaction b. neutralization reaction c. oxidation reduction reaction d. molecular equation e. complete (total) ionic equation

asked by Jerry on January 12, 2011
chemistry
We are determining the molarity of HCl by titration of HCl. What would be the complete equation and the net ionic equation? THanks What are you titrating it with? Won’t that make a difference in the equation we write? It’s titration of HCl with NaOH.

asked by bria on September 17, 2006
Chem
How do you balance the following: KI->K + I2 Na + H2O -> H2 + NaOH Ch4 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O

asked by Bubba on November 25, 2008
Chemistry
Hello, If I add water to a solid, how do i represent it in a equation with phases? for example the NaNO3 was the solid in this case and H2O was the liquid, does NaNO3 turns into an aqueous or stays as solid when I write the equation? Which one would be

asked by Sherlique on December 31, 2016
chemistry
A 25.0-mL sample of H2SO4 is neutralized with NaOH. What is the concentration of the H2SO4 if 35.0 mL of 0.150 M NaOH are required to completely neutralize the acid?

asked by tiya on March 2, 2014
Chemistry
100 g of water is added into 10.6 m NaOH solution. The diluted NaOH solution is then neutralized completely with H2SO4 solution. Density of NaOH is 1.08 g/ml. Calculate: i. the mol fraction of NaOH in the diluted NaOH solution. ii. mol of H2SO4 required.

asked by Ann on June 28, 2016
chemistry
how do u do a redox balance of the following reaction : Fe(NH4)2(SO4)26H2O + H2C2O4 + K2C2O4 + H2O2 -> K3Fe(C2O4)33 H2O + (NH4)2SO4 + H2SO4 +H2O i only know Fe2+ -> Fe3+ +1e-

asked by danny on May 1, 2008
college Chemistry
A 21.18 mL of 0.250 M NaOH is titrated with a H2SO4 solution. The initial volume of H2SO4 was 13.28 and the final volume of H2SO4 was 28.29 mL when the solution turned very slightly pink. What is the concentration of NaOH?

asked by Ivy on December 6, 2010
college Chemistry
A 21.18 mL of 0.250 M NaOH is titrated with a H2SO4 solution. The initial volume of H2SO4 was 13.28 and the final volume of H2SO4 was 28.29 mL when the solution turned very slightly pink. What is the concentration of NaOH?

asked by Ivy on December 7, 2010

Chemistry Help Pls!!!
A 21.18 mL of 0.250 M NaOH is titrated with a H2SO4 solution. The initial volume of H2SO4 was 13.28 and the final volume of H2SO4 was 28.29 mL when the solution turned very slightly pink. What is the concentration of NaOH?

asked by Jerome on December 6, 2010
science
NaOH + HSO -+ Which of the following is the number of moles of NaOH required to neutralize 1 mole of H2SO4 in the equation above?

asked by Jasmine on December 18, 2014
chemistry
determine the quantity of NaOh whose percentage is 15 % to balance 176 g of H2SO4

asked by auro on March 17, 2011
Chem
A sample contains an unknown amount of tartaric acid, H2C4H4O6. If 0.3888 g of the sample requires 37.74 mL of 0.1000 M NaOH to neutralize the H2C4H4O6 completely, what is the percentage of H2C4H4O6 in the sample? The molar mass of H2C4H4O6 is 150.09

asked by Jamal on October 23, 2017
Chemistry, reactions w/ water
Write the equation for the reaction of each of the following with water. a) HCl b) CH3COOH c) NaOH d) NH3 Are these correct? a. HCl (aq) + H2O (l) –> H3O+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) b. CH3COOH (aq) + H2O (l) –> CH3COO- (aq) + H3O+ (aq) c. NaOH (aq) + H2O (l) –>

asked by Marissa on May 6, 2008
Chemistry
I get that you’re supposed to balance; however, I was confused on how to do the reduction and oxidation electron equations (the simplist way). Looked at too many examples online but nothing was clear. 1) Cu + HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + NO2 + H2O 2.) KMnO4 + H2SO4

asked by J on May 17, 2017
Chemistry
1) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between Cu(NO3)2 * 3 H2O and NaOH. Underline the formula for the precipitate produced by this reaction. (The water of hydration in Cu(NO3)2 * 3 H2O appears as liquid water on the right side of the

asked by Sarah on May 17, 2010
CHEMISTRY PLEASE HELP APPRECIATE IT LOTS!
7.) How many moles of fluroine are required to react with 12 g of sodium iodide? I already balanced it but am confused to go from here F2 + 2 NAi —- 2 NaF + I2 12 g NaI + 2 mol NAI/149.89 gNAi * 1 mol NAF/1 mol NAi * 1 mol F2 / 2 mol NaF 1.) how many

asked by Anon on February 18, 2016
chem
balance the equation:(i can balance the equation but the problem i have is finding the formula for the last part HC2H3O2(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) -> H2O(l) + find the formula here the last part would be CaOC2H3O2? im a little confused. did the O fromt he H2O come

asked by hannah on November 28, 2010
science
Is this balanced correctly NaOH + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + H2O? In this equation, Sodium (Na) and Hydrogen (H) atoms are not balanced. There are 2 atoms of Sodium (Na) on Right Hand Side, so we can multiply NaOH with 2 on Left Hand Side. This balances the Sodium

asked by duane on July 11, 2014

Chemistry
A 2.00 g impure sample of MgO (molar mass 40.3 grams) was completely dissolved in 50.0 mL of 1.000 M H2SO4. The excess acid was back-titrated with 25.0 mL of 0.800 M NaOH. Calculate the percent purity of the MgO sample. [80.6 %] MgO(s) + H2SO4(aq)

asked by Anonymous on October 11, 2015
Chemistry
Classify each of the following as a redox reaction or a non-redox reaction. Zn+CuCl2 -> ZnCl2+Cu HCl+NaOH -> H2O+NaCl 2CO+O2 -> 2CO2 SO3+H2O -> H2SO4

asked by Anon on December 2, 2012
chemistry
Complete and balance the equations for each of the following reactions. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer. Part A: KHCO3(s) + HCl(aq) —> Part B: Ca(s) +H2SO4(aq) —> Part C: H2SO4(aq) + Al(OH)3(aq)

asked by Lisa on April 1, 2012
chemistry
Calculate (a) the moles and (b) the mass of magnesium carbonate at the start if 0.2 moles of sulfuric acid is added to the magnesium carbonate and the excess sulfuric acid made up to a 250 cm3 solution. 25 cm3 of this solution required 0.03 moles of sodium

asked by sabs on October 9, 2014
COLLEGE CHEMISTRY
If 0.340 mol of solid CaCO3 and 410 mL of 0.829 M aqueous H2SO4 are reacted stoichiometrically according to the balanced equation, how many milliliters of 0.829 M aqueous H2SO4 remain? Round your answer to 3 significant figures. H2SO4(aq) + CaCO3(s) →

asked by Anonymous on February 25, 2010

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ksp of cocl2

A 0.170-mole quantity of CoCl2 is added to a liter of 1.20 M NH3 solution. What is the concentration of Co2 ions at equilibrium? Assume the formation constant (Kf) of Co(NH3)62 is 5.0× 1031 M–6.

I don’t really know how to start. At first I thought about setting up an ICE chart and getting it to equal to the Keq =Kf*Ksp, but then I can’t find the Ksp for CoCl2.

0 0 508
asked by Alexis
Apr 14, 2014
CoCl2 is soluble; therefore, it has no Ksp.

The easiest way to do these is to note that with a Kf so extremely high you know the solution at equilibrium will be far to the right; therefore, we set up an ICE chart and make the reaction go 100% to the right. That is an ok assumption because of the huge Kf for the complex ion.
…….Co^2+ + 6NH3 ==> [Co(NH3)6]^2+
I…..0.170….1.20……..0
C….-0.170…-1.02…….0.170
E……..0…..0.18…….0.170


Then you turn the thing around and set up and ICE chart in reverse. Completed it looks like this and you start with 0.170 of the complex and zero of Co^2+and 0.18 for NH3 (just the E line of the first equilibrium).
……..Co^2+ + 6NH3 –> [Co(NH3)6]^2+
I……..0…….0.18……0.170
C……..x…….+6x……..-x
E……..x…..0.18+6x…..0.170-x

Now set up the Kf =
[{Co(NH3)6}^2+]/(Co^2+)(NH3)^6
Substitute the E line into this Kf expression and solve for x = (Co^2+).
Making the assumption that 0.170-x = 0.170 and (0.18+6x)^6 = (0.18)^6 makes it easier to work and doesn’t affect the answer because x is very small.

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posted by DrBob222
Apr 14, 2014

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acetic acid and barium hydroxide net ionic equation

net ionic equation. Aqueous acetic acid (HC2H3O2) is neutralized by aqueous barium hydroxide.

i got H^+(g) + OH^-(g) –> H_2O(l) but it is wrong. are my states of matter wrong?

0 0 957
asked by rebekah
Oct 13, 2012
Yes, your states of matter are wrong. Since they are aqueous solutions, hydrogen and hydroxide should be written as (aq) not (g) since niether are gases.

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posted by Mary
Oct 13, 2012
Also you didn’t balance the equation.
2HC2H3O2 + Ba(OH)2 ==> Ba(C2H3O2)2 + 2H2O
So I would write the nt ionic equation as
2H^+(aq) + 2OH^-(aq) ==> 2H2O(l)

0 3
posted by DrBob222
Oct 13, 2012

Categories
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webassign cu

http://www.webassign.net/images/thinsp.gif

In Lab 9, students performed acid-base titrations. Redox reactions can also be used in titrations. An example is the titration of ascorbic acid (H2C6H6O6) in lemon juice using triiodide (I3–). A starch indicator will turn the solution blue-black at the endpoint. The half-reactions involved are shown below.

C6H6O6 + 2 H+ + 2 e– → H2C6H6O6    +0.06 V
I3– + 2 e– → 3 I–    +0.53 V

(a) What is the net redox reaction that occurs? (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

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(b) What is the stoichiometry of H2C6H6O6 to I3–?

3:1 8:3     2:1 1:1 1:2 3:8 1:3

(c) Use the data given below to determine the amount of ascorbic acid in lemon juice. (Note: The recommended daily allowance of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is 90 mg.)

Data Table P6: Titration of ascorbic acid in lemon juice with triiodide
concentration of I3–0.0210 M
volume lemon juice83.44 mL
mass lemon juice84.94 g
equivalence volume of I3–14.93 mL
mmol of I3–mmol
mmol of H2C6H6O6mmol
mass of H2C6H6O6mg              

Determine the errors (if any) with each galvanic cell set-up when the anode is on the left. (Select all that apply.)

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05a.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05d.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05b.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05e.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-05c.png

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

Consider your experimental results from part A of this lab. Suppose your strongest reducing agent were added to your strongest oxidizing agent. (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answers.)

(a) Write the half-reaction for your strongest reducing agent.

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Mg  →  Mg2+ + 2e1-

Correct.

(b) Write the half-reaction for your strongest oxidizing agent.

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MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e-  →  Mn2+ +4H2O

Correct.

(c) Note the number of electrons in each half reaction.

In order to balance the number of electrons lost and gained, the oxidation half-reaction must be multiplied by and the reduction half-reaction must be multiplied by

(d) Write the net redox reaction.

chemPad

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·

·

·

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 Assemble a battery, represented by the diagram below with the cathode in compartment A, with Sn2+/Sn and Cu2+/Cu couples in which the voltage reads positive. (Use the . Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

http://www.webassign.net/ncsugenchem102labv1/11-post-04.gif

(a) What half-reaction occurs in compartment A?

chemPad

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Sn  →  Sn2+ +2e-

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(b) What half-reaction occurs in compartment B?

chemPad

Help

·

·

·

·

·

·

Cu2+ +2e-  →  Cu

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(c) Write the net redox reaction.

chemPad

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·

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Sn + Cu2+  →  Sn2+ + Cu

Correct.

Mg –> Mg^

MnO_4^- +

Sn –> Sn^+

Cu^2+ +2e^

Sn + Cu^+

Categories
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the table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers

Midterm Exam

Create an Excel worksheet with a list of your answers from 1-100. Put your answer choice for each question in a second column using a CAPITAL LETTER.

On a separate sheet or beginning in a third column, include any calculations used to solve the questions. This includes any functions you use to assist you.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Solve the problem. 1) Alex and Juana went on a 25-mile canoe trip with their class. On the first day they traveled 17 miles. What

percent of the total distance did they canoe? A) 68% B) 1% C) 0.68% D) 100%

2) On a test, if 115 questions are answered and 41% of them are correct, what is the number of correct answers? A) 53 B) 74 C) -24 D) 47

Determine whether the given value is a statistic or a parameter. 3) A sample of 120 employees of a company is selected, and the average age is found to be 37 years.

A) Parameter B) Statistic

4) After taking the first exam, 15 of the students dropped the class. A) Parameter B) Statistic

5) After inspecting all of 55,000 kg of meat stored at the Wurst Sausage Company, it was found that 45,000 kg of the meat was spoiled.

A) Statistic B) Parameter

6) A health and fitness club surveys 40 randomly selected members and found that the average weight of those questioned is 157 lb.

A) Statistic B) Parameter

Determine whether the given value is from a discrete or continuous data set. 7) The number of freshmen entering college in a certain year is 621.

A) Discrete B) Continuous

8) The temperature of a cup of coffee is 67.3°F. A) Continuous B) Discrete

9) The weight of Bill’s pack as he sets off on a backpacking trip is 48.3 lb. A) Discrete B) Continuous

10) The number of limbs on a 2-year-old oak tree is 21. A) Discrete B) Continuous

Determine whether the given description corresponds to an observational study or an experiment. 11) A marketing firm does a survey to find out how many people use a product. Of the one hundred people

contacted, fifteen said they use the product. A) Experiment B) Observational study

1

12) A clinic gives a drug to a group of ten patients and a placebo to another group of ten patients to find out if the drug has an effect on the patients’ illness.

A) Experiment B) Observational study

13) A sample of fish is taken from a lake to measure the effect of pollution from a nearby factory on the fish. A) Observational study B) Experiment

14) A political pollster reports that his candidate has a 10% lead in the polls with 10% undecided. A) Observational study B) Experiment

Identify which of these types of sampling is used: random, stratified, systematic, cluster, convenience. 15) The name of each contestant is written on a separate card, the cards are placed in a bag, and three names are

picked from the bag. A) Systematic B) Random C) Convenience D) Cluster E) Stratified

Provide an appropriate response. 16) An education expert is researching teaching methods and wishes to interview teachers from a particular school

district. She randomly selects ten schools from the district and interviews all of the teachers at the selected schools. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; yes. The sample is not random because teachers in small schools are more likely to be selected than teachers in larger schools. It is a simple random sample because all samples have the same chance of being selected.

B) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all teachers have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples have the same chance of being selected.

C) No; no. The sample is not random because teachers in small schools are more likely to be selected than teachers in larger schools. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample that includes teachers from schools that were not selected.

D) Yes; no. The sample is random because all teachers have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample that includes teachers from schools that were not selected.

17) A psychology student wishes to investigate differences in political opinions between business majors and political science majors at her college. She randomly selects 100 students from the 260 business majors and 100 students from the 180 political science majors. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all students have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 200 have the same chance of being selected.

B) No; no. The sample is not random because political science majors have a greater chance of being selected than business majors. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample consisting of 50 business majors and 150 political science majors.

C) No; yes. The sample is not random because political science majors have a greater chance of being selected than business majors. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 200 have the same chance of being selected.

D) Yes; no. The sample is random because all students have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample consisting of 50 business majors and 150 political science majors.

2

18) A computer company employs 100 software engineers and 100 hardware engineers. The personnel manager randomly selects 20 of the software engineers and 20 of the hardware engineers and questions them about career opportunities within the company. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; no. The sample is not random because not all employees have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample consisting of 30 software engineers and 10 hardware engineers.

B) Yes; no. The sample is random because all employees have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample consisting of 30 software engineers and 10 hardware engineers.

C) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all employees have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 40 have the same chance of being selected.

D) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all employees have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 40 have the same chance of being selected.

19) The personnel manager at a company wants to investigate job satisfaction among the female employees. One evening after a meeting she talks to all 30 female employees who attended the meeting. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) Yes; no. The sample is random because all female employees have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing female employees who did not attend the meeting.

B) No; no. The sample is not random because not all female employees have the same chance of being selected. Those that didn’t attend the meeting have no chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing female employees who did not attend the meeting.

C) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all female employees have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 30 have the same chance of being selected.

D) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all female employees have the same chance of being selected. Those that didn’t attend the meeting have no chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 30 female employees have the same chance of being selected.

20) A polling company obtains an alphabetical list of names of voters in a precinct. They select every 20th person from the list until a sample of 100 is obtained. They then call these 100 people. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all voters have the same chance of being selected. The second person on the list has no chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 100 voters have the same chance of being selected.

B) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all voters have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 100 voters have the same chance of being selected.

C) Yes; no. The sample is random because all voters have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing the second person on the list.

D) No; no. The sample is not random because not all voters have the same chance of being selected. The second person on the list has no chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing the second person on the list.

3

21) A researcher obtains an alphabetical list of the 2560 students at a college. She uses a random number generator to obtain 50 numbers between 1 and 2560. She chooses the 50 students corresponding to those numbers. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; no. The sample is not random because not all students have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing the the first 50 students on the list.

B) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all students have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 50 students have the same chance of being selected.

C) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all students have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 50 students have the same chance of being selected.

D) Yes; no. The sample is random because all students have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing the first 50 students on the list.

22) An electronics store receives a shipment of eight boxes of calculators. Each box contains ten calculators. A quality control inspector chooses a box by putting eight identical slips of paper numbered 1 to 8 into a hat, mixing thoroughly and then picking a slip at random. He then chooses a calculator at random from the box selected using a similar method with ten slips of paper in a hat. He repeats the process until he obtains a sample of 5 calculators for quality control testing. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all calculators have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 5 calculators have the same chance of being selected.

B) No; no. The sample is not random because not all calculators have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing 5 calculators from the same box.

C) Yes; no. The sample is random because all calculators have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing 5 calculators from the same box.

D) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all calculators have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 5 calculators have the same chance of being selected.

Identify the type of observational study (cross-sectional, retrospective, prospective). 23) A statistical analyst obtains data about ankle injuries by examining a hospital’s records from the past 3 years.

A) Prospective B) Cross-sectional C) Retrospective D) None of these

24) Researchers collect data by interviewing athletes who have won olympic gold medals from 1992 to 2008. A) Cross-sectional B) Retrospective C) Prospective D) None of these

25) A researcher plans to obtain data by following those in cancer remission since January of 2005. A) Retrospective B) Prospective C) Cross-sectional D) None of these

26) A town obtains current employment data by polling 10,000 of its citizens this month. A) Retrospective B) Prospective C) Cross-sectional D) None of these

4

Provide an appropriate response. 27) The following frequency distribution analyzes the scores on a math test. Find the class boundaries of scores

interval 40-59.

Scores Number of students 40-59 2 60-75 4 76-82 6 83-94 15 95-99 5

A) 39.5, 58.5 B) 40.5, 59.5 C) 40.5, 58.5 D) 39.5, 59.5

28) The following frequency distribution analyzes the scores on a math test. Find the class midpoint of scores interval 40-59.

Scores Number of students 40-59 2 60-75 4 76-82 6 83-94 15 95-99 5

A) 50.5 B) 48.5 C) 49.0 D) 49.5

29) The frequency distribution below summarizes the home sale prices in the city of Summerhill for the month of June. Find the class boundaries for class 80.0-110.9.

(Sale price in thousand $) Frequency 80.0 – 110.9 2 111.0 – 141.9 5 142.0 – 172.9 7 173.0 – 203.9 10 204.0 – 234.9 3 235.0 – 265.9 1

A) 79.90, 110.95 B) 80.00, 110.95 C) 79.95, 110.95 D) 79.90, 111.0

5

Construct the cumulative frequency distribution that corresponds to the given frequency distribution. 30)

Weight (oz) Number of Stones

1.2-1.6 5 1.7-2.1 2 2.2-2.6 5 2.7-3.1 5 3.2-3.6 13

A)

Weight (oz) Cumulative

Frequency 1.2-1.6 5 1.7-2.1 7 2.2-2.6 12 2.7-3.1 17 3.2-3.6 30

B)

Weight (oz) Cumulative

Frequency Less than 1.7 5 Less than 2.2 7 Less than 2.7 12 Less than 3.2 17 Less than 3.7 28

C)

Weight (oz) Cumulative

Frequency Less than 2.2 7 Less than 3.2 17 Less than 3.7 30

D)

Weight (oz) Cumulative

Frequency Less than 1.7 5 Less than 2.2 7 Less than 2.7 12 Less than 3.2 17 Less than 3.7 30

6

Provide an appropriate response. 31) The frequency distribution for the weekly incomes of students with part-time jobs is given below.

Construct the corresponding relative frequency distribution. Round relative frequencies to the nearest hundredth of a percent if necessary.

Income ($) Frequency 200-300 55 301-400 70 401-500 73 501-600 68

More than 600 10 A)

Income ($) Relative

Frequency 201-300 15.5% 301-400 22.1% 401-500 31.3% 501-600 16.2%

More than600 14.9%

B)

Income ($) Relative

Frequency 200-300 25.98% 301-400 24.91% 401-500 3.65% 501-600 19.64%

More than 600 26.07% C)

Income ($) Relative

Frequency 200-300 12.5% 301-400 20.1% 401-500 37.3% 501-600 15.2%

More than 600 14.9%

D)

Income ($) Relative

Frequency 200-300 19.93% 301-400 25.36% 401-500 26.45% 501-600 24.64%

More than 600 3.62%

7

32) The scores on a recent statistics test are given in the frequency distribution below. Construct the corresponding relative frequency distribution. Round relative frequencies to the nearest hundredth of a percent if necessary.

Scores Frequency 0-60 3 61-70 10 71-80 11 81-90 4 91-100 1

A)

Scores Relative

Frequency 0-60 0.21% 61-70 0.24% 71-80 0.55% 81-90 0.03% 91-100 -0.03%

B)

Scores Relative

Frequency 0-60 10.34% 61-70 34.48% 71-80 37.93% 81-90 13.79% 91-100 3.45%

C)

Scores Relative

Frequency 0-60 12.5% 61-70 20.1% 71-80 37.3% 81-90 15.2% 91-100 14.9%

D)

Scores Relative

Frequency 0-60 15.5% 61-70 22.1% 71-80 31.3% 81-90 16.2% 91-100 14.9%

33) Sturges’ guideline suggests that when constructing a frequency distribution, the ideal number of classes can be approximated by 1 + (log n)/(log 2), where n is the number of data values. Use this guideline to find the ideal number of classes when the number of data values is 148.

A) 7 B) 10 C) 8 D) 9

8

34) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged between 25 and 40. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number. Approximately what percentage of the people aged 25-40 had a systolic blood pressure reading between 110 and 119 inclusive?

A) 3.5% B) 0.35% C) 35% D) 30%

35) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged between 25 and 40. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number. Approximately what percentage of the people aged 25-40 had a systolic blood pressure reading between 110 and 139 inclusive?

A) 59% B) 39% C) 89% D) 75%

9

36) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged between 25 and 40. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number. What class width was used to construct the relative frequency distribution?

A) 100 B) 10 C) 11 D) 9

37) The histogram below represents the number of television sets per household for a sample of U.S. households. How many households are included in the histogram?

A) 90 B) 95 C) 100 D) 110

10

38) The histogram below represents the number of television sets per household for a sample of U.S. households. What is the minimum number of households having the same number of television sets?

A) 100 B) 20 C) 5 D) 1

Construct the dotplot for the given data. 39) A store manager counts the number of customers who make a purchase in his store each day. The data are as

follows. 10 11 8 14 7 10 10 11 8 7

5 10 15 A)

5 10 15

B)

5 10 15

C)

5 10 15

D)

5 10 15

11

Use the data to create a stemplot. 40) The attendance counts for this season’s basketball games are listed below.

227 239 215 219 221 233 229 233 235 228 245 231

A) 21 22 23 24

5 9 1 7 8 9 1 3 3 5 9 5

B) 21 22 23 24

5 7 9 1 8 9 1 3 3 5 9 5

Solve the problem. 41) A car dealer is deciding what kinds of vehicles he should order from the factory. He looks at his sales report for

the preceding period. Choose the vertical scale so that the relative frequencies are represented.

Vehicle Sales Economy 20

Sports 5 Family 35 Luxury 10

Truck 30

Construct a Pareto chart to help him decide. A) B)

12

C) D)

Find the mean for the given sample data. Unless indicated otherwise, round your answer to one more decimal place than is present in the original data values.

42) Listed below are the amounts of time (in months) that the employees of a restaurant have been working at the restaurant. Find the mean.

1 5 6 8 11 14 17 46 61 90 99 126 143 167 A) 56.7 months B) 52.9 months C) 31.5 months D) 61.1 months

Find the median for the given sample data. 43) The number of vehicles passing through a bank drive-up line during each 15-minute period was recorded. The

results are shown below. Find the median number of vehicles going through the line in a fifteen-minute period. 25 27 25 28 28 25 30 27 35 31 31 29 24 31 25 20 15 27 27 27

A) 28 vehicles B) 31 vehicles C) 26.85 vehicles D) 27 vehicles

Find the mode(s) for the given sample data. 44) The weights (in ounces) of 14 different apples are shown below.

5.0 6.5 6.0 6.2 6.6 5.0 6.5 4.5 5.8 6.2 5.0 4.5 6.2 6.3

A) no mode B) 5.0 oz, 6.2 oz C) 5.0 oz D) 6.2 oz

Find the midrange for the given sample data. 45) Bill kept track of the number of hours he spent exercising each week. The results for 15 weeks are shown below.

Find the midrange. 7.1 6.8 7.1 7.2 7.8 7.9 6.5 8.4 8.5 7.2 8.5 6.8 7.9 9.0 7.8

A) 7.50 hr B) 7.75 hr C) 2.5 hr D) 7.8 hr

13

Find the mean of the data summarized in the given frequency distribution. 46) A company had 80 employees whose salaries are summarized in the frequency distribution below. Find the

mean salary.

Salary ($) Employees 5,001-10,000 17

10,001-15,000 12 15,001-20,000 12 20,001-25,000 15 25,001-30,000 24 A) $16,706.25 B) $17,500 C) $20,418.75 D) $18,562.50

47) The manager of a bank recorded the amount of time each customer spent waiting in line during peak business hours one Monday. The frequency distribution below summarizes the results. Find the mean waiting time. Round your answer to one decimal place.

Waiting time (minutes)

Number of customers

0 – 3 10 4 – 7 13

8 – 11 12 12 – 15 5 16 – 19 7 20 – 23 1 24 – 27 2

A) 13.5 min B) 7.1 min C) 9.3 min D) 9.4 min

Find the range for the given sample data. 48) Fred, a local mechanic, recorded the price of an oil and filter change at twelve competing service stations. The

prices (in dollars) are shown below. 32.99 24.95 26.95 28.95 18.95 28.99 30.95 22.95 24.95 26.95 29.95 28.95

A) $32.99 B) $12.00 C) $14.04 D) $10.05

Find the variance for the given data. Round your answer to one more decimal place than the original data. 49) The owner of a small manufacturing plant employs six people. As part of their personnel file, she asked each

one to record to the nearest one-tenth of a mile the distance they travel one way from home to work. The six distances are listed below:

26 32 29 16 45 19 A) 5043.6 mi2 B) 107.0 mi2 C) 18.9 mi2 D) 15.8 mi2

Find the standard deviation for the given sample data. Round your answer to one more decimal place than is present in the original data.

50) Listed below are the amounts of weight change (in pounds) for 12 women during their first year of work after graduating from college. Positive values correspond to women who gained weight and negative values correspond to women who lost weight.

15 -5 14 8 -1 10 -6 1 0 4 -3 9 A) 7.2 lb B) 6.9 lb C) 7.6 lb D) 7.4 lb

14

Find the coefficient of variation for each of the two sets of data, then compare the variation. Round results to one decimal place.

51) Listed below are the systolic blood pressures (in mm Hg) for a sample of men aged 20-29 and for a sample of men aged 60-69.

Men aged 20-29: 117 122 129 118 131 123 Men aged 60-69: 130 153 141 125 164 139

A) Men aged 20-29: 4.6% Men aged 60-69: 10.2 % There is substantially more variation in blood pressures of the men aged 60-69.

B) Men aged 20-29: 4.4% Men aged 60-69: 8.3% There is substantially more variation in blood pressures of the men aged 60-69.

C) Men aged 20-29: 7.6% Men aged 60-69: 4.7% There is more variation in blood pressures of the men aged 20-29.

D) Men aged 20-29: 4.8% Men aged 60-69: 10.6% There is substantially more variation in blood pressures of the men aged 60-69.

Find the standard deviation of the data summarized in the given frequency distribution. 52) The manager of a bank recorded the amount of time each customer spent waiting in line during peak business

hours one Monday. The frequency distribution below summarizes the results. Find the standard deviation. Round your answer to one decimal place.

Waiting time (minutes)

Number of customer

0-3 13 4-7 13

8-11 10 12-15 11 16-19 0 20-23 3

A) 7.0 min B) 5.6 min C) 5.3 min D) 5.9 min

Use the empirical rule to solve the problem. 53) The systolic blood pressure of 18-year-old women is normally distributed with a mean of 120 mmHg and a

standard deviation of 12 mmHg. What percentage of 18-year-old women have a systolic blood pressure between 96 mmHg and 144 mmHg?

A) 95% B) 99.7% C) 68% D) 99.99%

Solve the problem. 54) The ages of the members of a gym have a mean of 44 years and a standard deviation of 12 years. What can you

conclude from Chebyshev’s theorem about the percentage of gym members aged between 26 and 62? A) The percentage is at most 55.6% B) The percentage is at least 33.3% C) The percentage is approximately 33.3% D) The percentage is at least 55.6%

Solve the problem. Round results to the nearest hundredth. 55) Scores on a test have a mean of 66 and a standard deviation of 9. Michelle has a score of 57. Convert Michelle’s

score to a z-score. A) 1 B) -9 C) 9 D) -1

15

56) The mean of a set of data is 4.11 and its standard deviation is 3.03. Find the z score for a value of 10.86. A) 2.45 B) 2.23 C) 2.53 D) 2.01

57) The mean of a set of data is -2.91 and its standard deviation is 3.88. Find the z score for a value of 2.80. A) 1.47 B) 1.62 C) 1.77 D) 1.32

Find the number of standard deviations from the mean. Round your answer to two decimal places. 58) The test scores on the Chapter 10 mathematics test have a mean of 52 and a standard deviation of 10. Andrea

scored 86 on the test. How many standard deviations from the mean is that? A) 0.49 standard deviations above the mean B) 3.40 standard deviations below the mean C) 0.49 standard deviations below the mean D) 3.40 standard deviations above the mean

Find the z-score corresponding to the given value and use the z-score to determine whether the value is unusual. Consider a score to be unusual if its z-score is less than -2.00 or greater than 2.00. Round the z-score to the nearest tenth if necessary.

59) A test score of 48.4 on a test having a mean of 66 and a standard deviation of 11. A) -1.6; unusual B) 1.6; not unusual C) -1.6; not unusual D) -17.6; unusual

Construct a boxplot for the given data. Include values of the 5-number summary in all boxplots. 60) The normal monthly precipitation (in inches) for August is listed for 20 different U.S. cities. Construct a boxplot

for the data set. 0.4 1.0 1.5 1.6 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.7 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.2 7.0

A) B)

C) D)

Express the indicated degree of likelihood as a probability value. 61) “It will definitely turn dark tonight.”

A) 1 B) 0.5 C) 0.30 D) 0.67

Answer the question. 62) What is the probability of an event that is certain to occur?

A) 1 B) 0.95 C) 0.99 D) 0.5

63) What is the probability of an impossible event? A) 0 B) -1 C) 1 D) 0.1

16

Find the indicated probability. 64) A bag contains 4 red marbles, 3 blue marbles, and 7 green marbles. If a marble is randomly selected from the

bag, what is the probability that it is blue?

A) 3 14

B) 1 3

C) 1 7

D) 1 11

65) A bag contains 2 red marbles, 3 blue marbles, and 5 green marbles. If a marble is randomly selected from the bag, what is the probability that it is blue?

A) 3 10

B) 1 3

C) 1 5

D) 1 7

66) A bag contains 6 red marbles, 3 blue marbles, and 5 green marbles. If a marble is randomly selected from the bag, what is the probability that it is blue?

A) 3 14

B) 1 3

C) 1 5

D) 1 11

67) Two 6-sided dice are rolled. What is the probability that the sum of the two numbers on the dice will be 4?

A) 1 12

B) 2 3

C) 11 12

D) 3

68) Two 6-sided dice are rolled. What is the probability that the sum of the two numbers on the dice will be 5?

A) 1 9

B) 5 6

C) 8 9

D) 4

69) Two 6-sided dice are rolled. What is the probability that the sum of the two numbers on the dice will be 3?

A) 1 18

B) 1 2

C) 17 18

D) 2

Estimate the probability of the event. 70) Of 1232 people who came into a blood bank to give blood, 397 people had high blood pressure. Estimate the

probability that the next person who comes in to give blood will have high blood pressure. A) 0.322 B) 0.373 C) 0.29 D) 0.241

Answer the question, considering an event to be “unusual” if its probability is less than or equal to 0.05. 71) Is it “unusual” to get a 12 when a pair of dice is rolled?

A) Yes B) No

72) Is it “unusual” to get 11 when a pair of dice is rolled? A) Yes B) No

From the information provided, create the sample space of possible outcomes. 73) Both Fred and Ed have a bag of candy containing a lemon drop, a cherry drop, and a lollipop. Each takes out a

piece and eats it. What are the possible pairs of candies eaten? A) LD-LD CD-LD LP-LP LD-CD CD-CD LD-LP LP-CD CD-LP LP-LD B) LD-CD LD-CD LD-CD LD-LP LD-LP LD-LP CD-LP CD-LP CD-LP C) CD-LD LD-LP LP-CD LP-LP LD-LD D) LD-LD CD-LD LP-LP LD-LP CD-CD LD-LP LP-CD CD-LD LP-LD

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Answer the question. 74) In a certain town, 10% of people commute to work by bicycle. If a person is selected randomly from the town,

what are the odds against selecting someone who commutes by bicycle? A) 9 : 1 B) 1 : 9 C) 9 : 10 D) 1 : 10

75) If an apple is hanging from a string and three flies land on it, find the probability that all three are on points that are within the same hemisphere.

A) 0.25 B) 4 C) 0.125 D) 0.333

Determine whether the events are disjoint. 76) Go to a formal dinner affair.

Wear blue jeans. A) Yes B) No

Find the indicated complement. 77) The probability that Luis will pass his statistics test is 0.49. Find the probability that he will fail his statistics test.

A) 0.51 B) 0.96 C) 0.25 D) 2.04

78) If a person is randomly selected, find the probability that his or her birthday is not in May. Ignore leap years.

A) 334 365

B) 31 365

C) 31 334

D) 11 12

Find the indicated probability. 79) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Occasional

smoker Regular

smoker Heavy

smoker Total Men 431 50 71 49 601

Women 382 48 86 39 555 Total 813 98 157 88 1156

If one of the 1156 people is randomly selected, find the probability that the person is a man or a heavy smoker. A) 0.554 B) 0.596 C) 0.511 D) 0.557

80) Of the 64 people who answered “yes” to a question, 6 were male. Of the 70 people that answered “no” to the question, 8 were male. If one person is selected at random from the group, what is the probability that the person answered “yes” or was male?

A) 0.537 B) 0.582 C) 0.094 D) 0.104

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81) The manager of a bank recorded the amount of time each customer spent waiting in line during peak business hours one Monday. The frequency table below summarizes the results.

Waiting Time (minutes)

Number of Customers

0-3 9 4-7 10

8-11 12 12-15 4 16-19 4 20-23 2 24-27 2

If we randomly select one of the customers represented in the table, what is the probability that the waiting time is at least 12 minutes or between 8 and 15 minutes?

A) 0.558 B) 0.651 C) 0.093 D) 0.727

82) A 6-sided die is rolled. Find P(3 or 5).

A) 1 3

B) 1 36

C) 1 6

D) 2

83) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Occasional

smoker Regular

smoker Heavy

smoker Total Men 334 50 68 32 484

Women 357 30 89 37 513 Total 691 80 157 69 997

If one of the 997 people is randomly selected, find the probability of getting a regular or heavy smoker. A) 0.227 B) 0.100 C) 0.442 D) 0.157

Is Event B dependent or independent of Event A? 84) A: You cook your chicken improperly.

B: You get salmonella poisoning. A) Dependent B) Independent

Find the indicated probability. 85) In one town, 66% of adults have health insurance. What is the probability that 4 adults selected at random from

the town all have health insurance? Round to the nearest thousandth if necessary. A) 0.19 B) 2.64 C) 0.061 D) 0.66

86) A study conducted at a certain college shows that 65% of the school’s graduates find a job in their chosen field within a year after graduation. Find the probability that 11 randomly selected graduates all find jobs in their chosen field within a year of graduating. Round to the nearest thousandth if necessary.

A) 0.009 B) 7.150 C) 0.169 D) 0.013

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87) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Light smoker

Heavy smoker Total

Men 425 38 35 498 Women 381 32 43 456

Total 806 70 78 954

If two different people are randomly selected from the 954 subjects, find the probability that they are both women. Round to four decimal places.

A) 0.2282 B) 0.2285 C) 0.000004809 D) 0.1595

Find the indicated probability. Round to the nearest thousandth. 88) A sample of 4 different calculators is randomly selected from a group containing 18 that are defective and 40

that have no defects. What is the probability that at least one of the calculators is defective? A) 0.785 B) 0.774 C) 0.215 D) 0.180

Find the indicated probability. Express your answer as a simplified fraction unless otherwise noted. 89) The following table contains data from a study of two airlines which fly to Small Town, USA.

Number of flights which were on time

Number of flights which were late

Podunk Airlines 33 6 Upstate Airlines 43 5

If one of the 87 flights is randomly selected, find the probability that the flight selected arrived on time.

A) 76 87

B) 43 87

C) 11 76

D) None of the above is correct.

90) The following table contains data from a study of two airlines which fly to Small Town, USA.

Number of flights which were on time

Number of flights which were late

Podunk Airlines 33 6 Upstate Airlines 43 5

If one of the 87 flights is randomly selected, find the probability that the flight selected arrived on time given that it was an Upstate Airlines flight.

A) 43 48

B) 43 87

C) 11 76

D) None of the above is correct.

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91) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Light smoker

Heavy smoker Total

Men 391 61 65 517 Women 312 72 80 464

Total 703 133 145 981

If one of the 981 subjects is randomly selected, find the probability that the person chosen is a nonsmoker given that it is a woman. Round to the nearest thousandth.

A) 0.672 B) 0.318 C) 0.444 D) 0.373

92) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Light smoker

Heavy smoker Total

Men 320 81 70 471 Women 374 76 87 537

Total 694 157 157 1008

If one of the 1008 subjects is randomly selected, find the probability that the person chosen is a woman given that the person is a light smoker. Round to the nearest thousandth.

A) 0.484 B) 0.075 C) 0.142 D) 0.256

Evaluate the expression.

93) 9! 7!

A) 72 B) 2! C) 9 7

D) 63,000

94) 10P5 A) 30,240 B) 252 C) 2 D) 5

95) 7C3 A) 35 B) 70 C) 2 D) 24

96) 9C3 A) 84 B) 168 C) 3 D) 720

Solve the problem. 97) How many ways can an IRS auditor select 3 of 9 tax returns for an audit?

A) 84 B) 504 C) 6 D) 729

98) The organizer of a television show must select 5 people to participate in the show. The participants will be selected from a list of 30 people who have written in to the show. If the participants are selected randomly, what is the probability that the 5 youngest people will be selected?

A) 1 142,506

B) 1 17,100,720

C) 1 120

D) 4 15

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99) A tourist in France wants to visit 6 different cities. How many different routes are possible? A) 720 B) 6 C) 120 D) 36

100) A tourist in France wants to visit 8 different cities. If the route is randomly selected, what is the probability that she will visit the cities in alphabetical order?

A) 1 40,320

B) 1 8

C) 40,320 D) 1 64

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Categories
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classify each of the following as a redox reaction or a non-redox reaction.

Classify each of the following as a redox reaction or a non-redox reaction.

Zn+CuCl2 -> ZnCl2+Cu
HCl+NaOH -> H2O+NaCl
2CO+O2 -> 2CO2
SO3+H2O -> H2SO4

1 0 903
asked by Anon
Dec 2, 2012
Here is a site that will show you how to assign oxidation numbers to each element. Do that with each equation. Redox equations will have some that change oxidation state; non-redox will not.
For example, the first one is a redox equation. Zn changes from zero on the left to +2 on the right. Cu changes from +2 on the left to zero on the right.
http://www.chemteam.info/Redox/Redox-Rules.html

0 1
posted by DrBob222
Dec 2, 2012
NO SE

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 27, 2015
1234

0 1
posted by John
Nov 10, 2015
A trick is to just look for the element in the equation that is paired on one side, but not on the other. This being said, the following answers are correct.

Redox:
2CO+O2 = 2CO2
Zn+CuCl2 = ZnCl2+Cu
Non-Redox:
SO3+H2O = H2SO4
HCl+NaOH = H2O +NaCl

3 0
posted by Bekah
Nov 8, 2016