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for what value of r would the potential difference across each of the bulbs be 2.4 v ?

Two bulbs are connected in parallel across a source of emf EMF = 10.0V with a negligible internal resistance. One bulb has a resistance of 3.0 Omega , and the other is 2.5 Omega . A resistor R is connected in the circuit in series with the two bulbs. What value of R should be chosen in order to supply each bulb with a voltage of 2.4 V ?For what value of R would the potential difference across each of the bulbs be 2.4 V ?

0 0 588
asked by sarah
Aug 23, 2012
The series resistor R should be chosen so as to have a voltage drop of 7.6V(10-2.4)across it.
The currents in the two bulbs:
i1=2.4/3.0 = 0.8A
i2=2.4/2.5 = 0.96A

Total current in the circuit = i1+i2
= 1.76A
R = 7.6V/1.76A
= 4.3 Ohms

1 0
posted by Ajayb
Aug 23, 2012
How do i solve this part:
What is the current through each individual bulb? Let I1 be the current through the bulb of resistance 3.0 Omega and I2 the current through the bulb of resistance 2.5 Omega?

0 0
posted by sarah
Aug 23, 2012
The current through each bulb is the voltage across it divided by its resistance. In this case the bulbs are in parallel and voltage across them is 2.4V.

0 0
posted by Ajayb
Aug 25, 2012

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what is the grooming process as it relates to online predators

What is the grooming process as it relates to online predators?

a.) the process by which online predators lure in minors to get them close enough to hurt them
b.) the process by which online predators are trained
c.) the process by which a cyber bully becomes an online predator
d.) the process of training yourself to avoid online predators*

What is an example of anonymous behavior online?

a.) only using your name on password- protected websites
b.) not offering an personal identifying information
c.) entering your home address on an online gaming site
d.) using your name online only with those you have met in person

2 1 2,725
asked by Mindy
Feb 27, 2014

  1. No
  2. Yes 1 1
    posted by Anonymous
    Feb 27, 2014
    What is the grooming process as it relates to online predators?

a.) the process by which online predators lure in minors to get them close enough to hurt them *
b.) the process by which online predators are trained
c.) the process by which a cyber bully becomes an online predator
d.) the process of training yourself to avoid online predators

2 2
posted by Mindy
Feb 27, 2014
Right.

1 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Feb 27, 2014
Thanks for checking! 🙂

1 1
posted by Mindy
Feb 27, 2014

You’re welcome.

1 1
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Feb 27, 2014
mmmmmm

1 1
posted by Anonymous
Jan 25, 2016
A
1&3
B

9 1
posted by abcd
Feb 10, 2016
“abcd” is 100% correct 🙂
A
1&3
B

18 0
posted by Drew
Feb 10, 2016
ty

3 0
posted by lamp
Feb 18, 2016

A AC B 100%

6 0
posted by Andrew
Mar 1, 2016
Andrew is correct

4 1
posted by Shun
Mar 22, 2016
Tysm every one!!

1 0
posted by Fox Girl
Nov 30, 2016
A
A &C
B
Thank you !!!!!!!

1 0
posted by Connections wiz
Jan 18, 2017
The answers are correct.

0 0
posted by Iko Matzou
Mar 1, 2017

Thanks everyone!!!

0 0
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Nov 24, 2017
100% correct

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posted by Di
Dec 2, 2017
yuh its
a
a, c
b

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Dec 4, 2018

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attendance at​ orlando’s newest disneylike​ attraction, lego​ world, has been as​ follows:

OPER ATIONS MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

TWELFTH EDITION

O PER

A T

IO N

S M A

N A

G E

M E

N T

Su stain

ability an d

Su p

ply C h

ain M

an agem

en t

TWELFTH EDITION

JAY HEIZER | BARRY RENDER | CHUCK MUNSON

HEIZER RENDER MUNSON

www.pearsonhighered.com

IMPROVING RESULTS A proven way to help individual students achieve

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O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

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T W E L F T H E D I T I O N

O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

HEIZER J A Y

RENDER B A R R Y

Jesse H. Jones Professor of Business Administration Texas Lutheran University

Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management Graduate School of Business Rollins College

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

C H U C K

MUNSON Professor of Operations Management Carson College of Business Washington State University

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Heizer, Jay. [Production and operations management] Operations management; sustainability and supply chain management / Jay Heizer, Jesse H. Jones Professor of Business Administration, Texas Lutheran University, Barry Render, Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management, Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Chuck Munson, Professor of Operations Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University. — Twelfth edition. pages cm Original edition published under the Title: Production and operations management. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-13-413042-2 — ISBN 0-13-413042-1 1. Production management. I. Render, Barry. II. Munson, Chuck. III. Title. TS155.H3725 2015 658.5–dc23 2015036857

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-413042-1

ISBN 13: 978-0-13-413042-2

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To Karen Heizer Herrmann, all a sister could ever be

To Donna, Charlie, and Jesse

J.H.

B.R.

To Kim, Christopher, and Mark Munson for their unwavering support, and to Bentonville High School teachers Velma Reed and Cheryl Gregory,

who instilled in me the importance of detail and a love of learning C.M.

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ABOUT THE A U T H O R S

JAY HEIZER

BARRY RENDER

Professor Emeritus, the Jesse H. Jones Chair of Business Administration, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, Texas. He received his B.B.A. and M.B.A. from the University of North Texas and his Ph.D. in Management and Statistics from Arizona State University. He was previously a member of the faculty at the University of Memphis, the University of Oklahoma, Virginia Commonwealth University, and the University of Richmond. He has also held visiting positions at Boston University, George Mason University, the Czech Management Center, and the Otto-Von-Guericke University, Magdeburg.

Dr. Heizer’s industrial experience is extensive. He learned the practical side of operations management as a machinist apprentice at Foringer and Company, as a production planner for Westinghouse Airbrake, and at General Dynamics, where he worked in engineering administration. In addition, he has been actively involved in consulting in the OM and MIS areas for a variety of organizations, includ- ing Philip Morris, Firestone, Dixie Container Corporation, Columbia Industries, and Tenneco. He holds the CPIM certification from APICS—the Association for Operations Management.

Professor Heizer has co-authored 5 books and has published more than 30 arti- cles on a variety of management topics. His papers have appeared in the Academy of Management Journal , Journal of Purchasing , Personnel Psychology , Production & Inventory Control Management , APICS—The Performance Advantage , Journal of Management History , IIE Solutions, and Engineering Management , among others. He has taught operations management courses in undergraduate, graduate, and executive programs.

Professor Emeritus, the Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management, Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. He received his B.S. in Mathematics and Physics at Roosevelt University, and his M.S. in Operations Research and Ph.D. in Quantitative Analysis at the University of Cincinnati. He previously taught at George Washington University, University of New Orleans, Boston University, and George Mason University, where he held the Mason Foundation Professorship in Decision Sciences and was Chair of the Decision Sciences Department. Dr. Render has also worked in the aerospace indus- try for General Electric, McDonnell Douglas, and NASA.

Professor Render has co-authored 10 textbooks for Pearson, including Managerial Decision Modeling with Spreadsheets , Quantitative Analysis for Management , Service Management , Introduction to Management Science , and Cases and Readings in Management Science . Quantitative Analysis for Management, now in its 13th edition, is a leading text in that discipline in the United States and globally. Dr.  Render’s more than 100 articles on a variety of management topics have appeared in Decision Sciences , Production and Operations Management , Interfaces , Information and Management , Journal of Management Information Systems , Socio-Economic Planning Sciences , IIE Solutions , and Operations Management Review , among others.

Dr. Render has been honored as an AACSB Fellow and was twice named a Senior Fulbright Scholar. He was Vice President of the Decision Science Institute Southeast Region and served as Software Review Editor for Decision Line for six years and as Editor of the New York Times Operations Management special issues for five years. For nine years, Dr. Render was President of Management Service Associates of Virginia, Inc., whose technology clients included the FBI, NASA, the U.S. Navy, Fairfax County, Virginia, and C&P Telephone. He is currently Consulting Editor to Pearson Press .

Dr. Render has received Rollins College’s Welsh Award as leading Professor and was selected by Roosevelt University as the recipient of the St. Claire Drake Award for Outstanding Scholarship. Dr. Render also received the Rollins College MBA Student Award for Best Overall Course, and was named Professor of the Year by full-time MBA students.

vi

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Professor of Operations Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. He received his BSBA summa cum laude in finance, along with his MSBA and Ph.D. in operations management, from Washington University in St. Louis. For two years, he served as Associate Dean for Graduate Programs in Business at Washington State. He also worked for three years as a financial analyst for Contel Telephone Corporation.

Professor Munson serves as a senior editor for Production and Operations Management , and he serves on the editorial review board of four other journals . He has published more than 25 articles in such journals as Production and Operations Management , IIE Transactions, Decision Sciences , Naval Research Logistics , European Journal of Operational Research , Journal of the Operational Research Society , and Annals of Operations Research. He is editor of the book The Supply Chain Management Casebook: Comprehensive Coverage and Best Practices in SCM , and he has co-authored the research monograph Quantity Discounts: An Overview and Practical Guide for Buyers and Sellers . He is also coauthor of Managerial Decision Modeling with Spreadsheets (4th edition), published by Pearson.

Dr. Munson has taught operations management core and elective courses at the undergraduate, MBA, and Ph.D. levels at Washington State University. He has also conducted several teaching workshops at international conferences and for Ph.D. students at Washington State University. His major awards include being a Founding Board Member of the Washington State University President’s Teaching Academy (2004); winning the WSU College of Business Outstanding Teaching Award (2001 and 2015), Research Award (2004), and Service Award (2009 and 2013); and being named the WSU MBA Professor of the Year (2000 and 2008).

CHUCK MUNSON

ABOUT THE AUTHORS vii

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PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management 1

Chapter 1 Operations and Productivity 1 Chapter 2 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment 29 Chapter 3 Project Management 59 Chapter 4 Forecasting 105

PART TWO Designing Operations 159

Chapter 5 Design of Goods and Services 159 ◆ Supplement 5 Sustainability in the Supply Chain 193

Chapter 6 Managing Quality 213 ◆ Supplement 6 Statistical Process Control 245

Chapter 7 Process Strategy 279 ◆ Supplement 7 Capacity and Constraint Management 307

Chapter 8 Location Strategies 337 Chapter 9 Layout Strategies 367 Chapter 10 Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement 407

PART THREE Managing Operations 441

Chapter 11 Supply Chain Management 441 ◆ Supplement 11 Supply Chain Management Analytics 471

Chapter 12 Inventory Management 487 Chapter 13 Aggregate Planning and S&OP 529 Chapter 14 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP 563 Chapter 15 Short-Term Scheduling 599 Chapter 16 Lean Operations 635 Chapter 17 Maintenance and Reliability 659

PART FOUR Business Analytics Modules 677

Module A Decision-Making Tools 677 Module B Linear Programming 699 Module C Transportation Models 729 Module D Waiting-Line Models 747 Module E Learning Curves 775 Module F Simulation 791

ONLINE TUTORIALS

1. Statistical Tools for Managers T1-1 2. Acceptance Sampling T2-1 3. The Simplex Method of Linear Programming T3-1 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Transportation Problems T4-1 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling T5-1

Brief Table of Contents

ix

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Table of Contents

About the Authors vi Preface xxiii

Chapter 1 Operations and Productivity 1

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: HARD ROCK CAFE 2 What Is Operations Management? 4 Organizing to Produce Goods and Services 4 The Supply Chain 6 Why Study OM? 6 What Operations Managers Do 7 The Heritage of Operations Management 8 Operations for Goods and Services 11

Growth of Services 11

Service Pay 12

The Productivity Challenge 13 Productivity Measurement 14

Productivity Variables 15

Productivity and the Service Sector 17

Current Challenges in Operations Management 18 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 19 Summary 20 Key Terms 20 Ethical Dilemma 20 Discussion Questions 20 Using Software for Productivity Analysis 21 Solved Problems 21 Problems 22 CASE STUDIES 24

Uber Technologies, Inc. 24

Frito-Lay: Operations Management in Manufacturing Video Case 25

Hard Rock Cafe: Operations Management in Services Video Case 25

Endnotes 26 Rapid Review 27 Self Test 28

Chapter 2 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment 29

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: BOEING 30 A Global View of Operations and Supply

Chains 32 Cultural and Ethical Issues 35

Developing Missions and Strategies 35 Mission 36

Strategy 36

Achieving Competitive Advantage Through Operations 36 Competing on Diff erentiation 37

Competing on Cost 38

Competing on Response 39

Issues in Operations Strategy 40 Strategy Development and Implementation 41

Key Success Factors and Core Competencies 41

Integrating OM with Other Activities 43

Building and Staffi ng the Organization 43

Implementing the 10 Strategic OM Decisions 44

Strategic Planning, Core Competencies, and Outsourcing 44 The Theory of Comparative Advantage 46

Risks of Outsourcing 46

Rating Outsource Providers 47

Global Operations Strategy Options 49 Summary 50 Key Terms 50 Ethical Dilemma 51 Discussion Questions 51 Using Software to Solve Outsourcing

Problems 51 Solved Problems 52 Problems 53 CASE STUDIES 55

Rapid-Lube 55

Strategy at Regal Marine Video Case 55

Hard Rock Cafe’s Global Strategy Video Case 55

Outsourcing Off shore at Darden Video Case 56

Endnotes 56 Rapid Review 57 Self Test 58

Chapter 3 Project Management 59

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: BECHTEL GROUP 60 The Importance of Project Management 62

PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management 1

xi

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xii TABLE OF CONTENTS

Project Planning 62 The Project Manager 63

Work Breakdown Structure 64

Project Scheduling 65 Project Controlling 66 Project Management Techniques: PERT and CPM 67

The Framework of PERT and CPM 67

Network Diagrams and Approaches 68

Activity-on-Node Example 69

Activity-on-Arrow Example 71

Determining the Project Schedule 71 Forward Pass 72

Backward Pass 74

Calculating Slack Time and Identifying the Critical Path(s) 75

Variability in Activity Times 77 Three Time Estimates in PERT 77

Probability of Project Completion 79

Cost-Time Trade-Off s and Project Crashing 82 A Critique of PERT and CPM 85 Using Microsoft Project to Manage Projects 86 Summary 88 Key Terms 88 Ethical Dilemma 89 Discussion Questions 89 Using Software to Solve Project Management

Problems 89 Solved Problems 90 Problems 93 CASE STUDIES 98

Southwestern University: (A) 98

Project Management at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 99

Managing Hard Rock’s Rockfest Video Case 100

Endnotes 102 Rapid Review 103 Self Test 104

Chapter 4 Forecasting 105

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: WALT DISNEY PARKS & RESORTS 106

What is Forecasting? 108 Forecasting Time Horizons 108

Types of Forecasts 109

The Strategic Importance of Forecasting 109 Supply-Chain Management 109

Human Resources 110

Capacity 110

Seven Steps in the Forecasting System 110 Forecasting Approaches 111

Overview of Qualitative Method 111

Overview of Quantitative Methods 112

Time-Series Forecasting 112 Decomposition of a Time Series 112

Naive Approach 113

Moving Averages 114

Exponential Smoothing 116

Measuring Forecast Error 117

Exponential Smoothing with Trend Adjustment 120

Trend Projections 124

Seasonal Variations in Data 126

Cyclical Variations in Data 131

Associative Forecasting Methods: Regression and Correlation Analysis 131 Using Regression Analysis for Forecasting 131

Standard Error of the Estimate 133

Correlation Coeffi cients for Regression Lines 134

Multiple-Regression Analysis 136

Monitoring and Controlling Forecasts 138 Adaptive Smoothing 139

Focus Forecasting 139

Forecasting in the Service Sector 140 Summary 141 Key Terms 141 Ethical Dilemma 141 Discussion Questions 142 Using Software in Forecasting 142 Solved Problems 144 Problems 146 CASE STUDIES 153

Southwestern University: (B) 153

Forecasting Ticket Revenue for Orlando Magic Basketball Games Video Case 154

Forecasting at Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 155

Endnotes 156 Rapid Review 157 Self Test 158

PART TWO Designing Operations 159

Chapter 5 Design of Goods and Services 159

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: REGAL MARINE 160 Goods and Services Selection 162

Product Strategy Options Support Competitive Advantage 163

Product Life Cycles 164

Life Cycle and Strategy 164

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii

Product-by-Value Analysis 165

Generating New Products 165 Product Development 166

Product Development System 166

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 166

Organizing for Product Development 169

Manufacturability and Value Engineering 170

Issues for Product Design 171 Robust Design 171

Modular Design 171

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) 171

Virtual Reality Technology 172

Value Analysis 173

Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 173

Product Development Continuum 173 Purchasing Technology by Acquiring a Firm 174

Joint Ventures 174

Alliances 175

Defi ning a Product 175 Make-or-Buy Decisions 176

Group Technology 177

Documents for Production 178 Product Life-Cycle Management (PLM) 178

Service Design 179 Process–Chain–Network (PCN) Analysis 179

Adding Service Effi ciency 181

Documents for Services 181

Application of Decision Trees to Product Design 182

Transition to Production 184 Summary 184 Key Terms 185 Ethical Dilemma 185 Discussion Questions 185 Solved Problem 186 Problems 186 CASE STUDIES 189

De Mar’s Product Strategy 189

Product Design at Regal Marine Video Case 189

Endnotes 190 Rapid Review 191 Self Test 192

Supplement 5 Sustainability in the Supply Chain 193

Corporate Social Responsibility 194 Sustainability 195

Systems View 195

Commons 195

Triple Bottom Line 195

Design and Production for Sustainability 198 Product Design 198

Production Process 200

Logistics 200

End-of-Life Phase 203

Regulations and Industry Standards 203 International Environmental Policies and Standards 204

Summary 205 Key Terms 205 Discussion Questions 205 Solved Problems 206 Problems 207 CASE STUDIES 208

Building Sustainability at the Orlando Magic’s Amway Center Video Case 208

Green Manufacturing and Sustainability at Frito-Lay Video Case 209

Endnotes 210 Rapid Review 211 Self Test 212

Chapter 6 Managing Quality 213

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ARNOLD PALMER HOSPITAL 214

Quality and Strategy 216 Defi ning Quality 217

Implications of Quality 217

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award 218

ISO 9000 International Quality Standards 218

Cost of Quality (COQ) 218

Ethics and Quality Management 219

Total Quality Management 219 Continuous Improvement 220

Six Sigma 221

Employee Empowerment 222

Benchmarking 222

Just-in-Time (JIT) 224

Taguchi Concepts 224

Knowledge of TQM Tools 225

Tools of TQM 226 Check Sheets 226

Scatter Diagrams 227

Cause-and-Eff ect Diagrams 227

Pareto Charts 227

Flowcharts 228

Histograms 229

Statistical Process Control (SPC) 229

The Role of Inspection 230 When and Where to Inspect 230

Source Inspection 231

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xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS

Service Industry Inspection 232

Inspection of Attributes versus Variables 233

TQM in Services 233 Summary 235 Key Terms 235 Ethical Dilemma 235 Discussion Questions 236 Solved Problems 236 Problems 237 CASE STUDIES 239

Southwestern University: (C) 239

The Culture of Quality at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 240

Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines Video Case 240

Quality at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company Video Case 242

Endnotes 242 Rapid Review 243 Self Test 244

Supplement 6 Statistical Process Control 245

Statistical Process Control (SPC) 246 Control Charts for Variables 248

The Central Limit Theorem 248

Setting Mean Chart Limits ( x -Charts) 250

Setting Range Chart Limits ( R-Charts) 253

Using Mean and Range Charts 254

Control Charts for Attributes 256

Managerial Issues and Control Charts 259

Process Capability 260 Process Capability Ratio ( C p ) 260

Process Capability Index ( C pk ) 261

Acceptance Sampling 262 Operating Characteristic Curve 263

Average Outgoing Quality 264

Summary 265 Key Terms 265 Discussion Questions 265 Using Software for SPC 266 Solved Problems 267 Problems 269 CASE STUDIES 274

Bayfi eld Mud Company 274

Frito-Lay’s Quality-Controlled Potato Chips Video Case 275

Farm to Fork: Quality at Darden Restaurants Video Case 276

Endnotes 276 Rapid Review 277 Self Test 278

Chapter 7 Process Strategy 279

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: HARLEY-DAVIDSON 280 Four Process Strategies 282

Process Focus 282

Repetitive Focus 283

Product Focus 284

Mass Customization Focus 284

Process Comparison 286

Selection of Equipment 288 Process Analysis and Design 288

Flowchart 289

Time-Function Mapping 289

Process Charts 289

Value-Stream Mapping 290

Service Blueprinting 292

Special Considerations for Service Process Design 293

Production Technology 294 Machine Technology 294

Automatic Identifi cation Systems (AISs) and RFID 295

Process Control 295

Vision Systems 296

Robots 296

Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) 296

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) 296

Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) 297

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) 297

Technology in Services 298 Process Redesign 298 Summary 299 Key Terms 299 Ethical Dilemma 300 Discussion Questions 300 Solved Problem 300 Problems 301 CASE STUDIES 302

Rochester Manufacturing’s Process Decision 302

Process Strategy at Wheeled Coach Video Case 302

Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process— Guaranteed! Video Case 303

Process Analysis at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 304

Endnotes 304 Rapid Review 305 Self Test 306

Supplement 7 Capacity and Constraint Management 307

Capacity 308 Design and Eff ective Capacity 309

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xv

Capacity and Strategy 311

Capacity Considerations 311

Managing Demand 312

Service-Sector Demand and Capacity Management 313

Bottleneck Analysis and the Theory of Constraints 314 Theory of Constraints 317

Bottleneck Management 317

Break-Even Analysis 318 Single-Product Case 319

Multiproduct Case 320

Reducing Risk with Incremental Changes 322 Applying Expected Monetary Value (EMV)

to Capacity Decisions 323 Applying Investment Analysis to Strategy-Driven

Investments 324 Investment, Variable Cost, and Cash Flow 324

Net Present Value 324

Summary 326 Key Terms 327 Discussion Questions 327 Using Software for Break-Even Analysis 327 Solved Problems 328 Problems 330 CASE STUDY 333

Capacity Planning at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 333

Endnote 334 Rapid Review 335 Self Test 336

Chapter 8 Location Strategies 337

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: FEDEX 338 The Strategic Importance of Location 340 Factors That Aff ect Location Decisions 341

Labor Productivity 342

Exchange Rates and Currency Risk 342

Costs 342

Political Risk, Values, and Culture 343

Proximity to Markets 343

Proximity to Suppliers 344

Proximity to Competitors (Clustering) 344

Methods of Evaluating Location Alternatives 344 The Factor-Rating Method 345

Locational Cost–Volume Analysis 346

Center-of-Gravity Method 348

Transportation Model 349

Service Location Strategy 350 Geographic Information Systems 351 Summary 353

Key Terms 353 Ethical Dilemma 354 Discussion Questions 354 Using Software to Solve Location Problems 354 Solved Problems 355 Problems 357 CASE STUDIES 362

Southern Recreational Vehicle Company 362

Locating the Next Red Lobster Restaurant Video Case 362

Where to Place the Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 363

Endnote 364 Rapid Review 365 Self Test 366

Chapter 9 Layout Strategies 367

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: McDONALD’S 368 The Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions 370 Types of Layout 370 Offi ce Layout 371 Retail Layout 372

Servicescapes 375

Warehouse and Storage Layouts 375 Cross-Docking 376

Random Stocking 377

Customizing 377

Fixed-Position Layout 377 Process-Oriented Layout 378

Computer Software for Process-Oriented Layouts 382

Work Cells 383 Requirements of Work Cells 383

Staffi ng and Balancing Work Cells 384

The Focused Work Center and the Focused Factory 386

Repetitive and Product-Oriented Layout 386 Assembly-Line Balancing 387

Summary 392 Key Terms 392 Ethical Dilemma 392 Discussion Questions 392 Using Software to Solve Layout Problems 393 Solved Problems 394 Problems 396 CASE STUDIES 402

State Automobile License Renewals 402

Laying Out Arnold Palmer Hospital’s New Facility Video Case 402

Facility Layout at Wheeled Coach Video Case 404

Endnotes 404 Rapid Review 405 Self Test 406

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Chapter 10 Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement 407

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: RUSTY WALLACE’S NASCAR RACING TEAM 408

Human Resource Strategy for Competitive Advantage 410 Constraints on Human Resource Strategy 410

Labor Planning 411 Employment-Stability Policies 411

Work Schedules 411

Job Classifi cations and Work Rules 412

Job Design 412 Labor Specialization 412

Job Expansion 413

Psychological Components of Job Design 413

Self-Directed Teams 414

Motivation and Incentive Systems 415

Ergonomics and the Work Environment 415 Methods Analysis 417 The Visual Workplace 420 Labor Standards 420

Historical Experience 421

Time Studies 421

Predetermined Time Standards 425

Work Sampling 427

Ethics 430 Summary 430 Key Terms 430 Ethical Dilemma 431 Discussion Questions 431 Solved Problems 432 Problems 434 CASE STUDIES 437

Jackson Manufacturing Company 437

The “People” Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines Video Case 437

Hard Rock’s Human Resource Strategy Video Case 438

Endnotes 438 Rapid Review 439 Self Test 440

PART THREE Managing Operations 441

Chapter 11 Supply Chain Management 441

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: DARDEN RESTAURANTS 442 The Supply Chain’s Strategic Importance 444 Sourcing Issues: Make-or-Buy and

Outsourcing 446 Make-or-Buy Decisions 447

Outsourcing 447

Six Sourcing Strategies 447 Many Suppliers 447

Few Suppliers 447

Vertical Integration 448

Joint Ventures 448

Keiretsu Networks 448

Virtual Companies 449

Supply Chain Risk 449 Risks and Mitigation Tactics 450

Security and JIT 451

Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 451 Issues in Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 451

Opportunities in Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 452

Building the Supply Base 454 Supplier Evaluation 454

Supplier Development 454

Negotiations 455

Contracting 455

Centralized Purchasing 455

E-Procurement 456

Logistics Management 456 Shipping Systems 456

Warehousing 457

Third-Party Logistics (3PL) 458

Distribution Management 459 Ethics and Sustainable Supply Chain

Management 460 Supply Chain Management Ethics 460

Establishing Sustainability in Supply Chains 460

Measuring Supply Chain Performance 461 Assets Committed to Inventory 461

Benchmarking the Supply Chain 463

The SCOR Model 463

Summary 464 Key Terms 465 Ethical Dilemma 465 Discussion Questions 465 Solved Problems 465 Problems 466 CASE STUDIES 467

Darden’s Global Supply Chains Video Case 467

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Supply Chain Management at Regal Marine Video Case 467

Arnold Palmer Hospital’s Supply Chain Video Case 468

Endnote 468 Rapid Review 469 Self Test 470

Supplement 11 Supply Chain Management Analytics 471

Techniques for Evaluating Supply Chains 472 Evaluating Disaster Risk in the Supply Chain 472 Managing the Bullwhip Eff ect 474

A Bullwhip Eff ect Measure 475

Supplier Selection Analysis 476 Transportation Mode Analysis 477 Warehouse Storage 478 Summary 479 Discussion Questions 480 Solved Problems 480 Problems 482 Rapid Review 485 Self Test 486

Chapter 12 Inventory Management 487

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: AMAZON.COM 488 The Importance of Inventory 490

Functions of Inventory 490

Types of Inventory 490

Managing Inventory 491 ABC Analysis 491

Record Accuracy 493

Cycle Counting 493

Control of Service Inventories 494

Inventory Models 495 Independent vs. Dependent Demand 495

Holding, Ordering, and Setup Costs 495

Inventory Models for Independent Demand 496 The Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model 496

Minimizing Costs 497

Reorder Points 501

Production Order Quantity Model 502

Quantity Discount Models 505

Probabilistic Models and Safety Stock 508 Other Probabilistic Models 511

Single-Period Model 513 Fixed-Period (P) Systems 514 Summary 515 Key Terms 515 Ethical Dilemma 515

Discussion Questions 515 Using Software to Solve Inventory Problems 516 Solved Problems 517 Problems 520 CASE STUDIES 524

Zhou Bicycle Company 524

Parker Hi-Fi Systems 525

Managing Inventory at Frito-Lay Video Case 525

Inventory Control at Wheeled Coach Video Case 526

Endnotes 526 Rapid Review 527 Self Test 528

Chapter 13 Aggregate Planning and S&OP 529

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: FRITO-LAY 530 The Planning Process 532 Sales and Operations Planning 533 The Nature of Aggregate Planning 534 Aggregate Planning Strategies 535

Capacity Options 535

Demand Options 536

Mixing Options to Develop a Plan 537

Methods for Aggregate Planning 538 Graphical Methods 538

Mathematical Approaches 543

Aggregate Planning in Services 545 Restaurants 546

Hospitals 546

National Chains of Small Service Firms 546

Miscellaneous Services 546

Airline Industry 547

Revenue Management 547 Summary 550 Key Terms 550 Ethical Dilemma 551 Discussion Questions 551 Using Software for Aggregate Planning 552 Solved Problems 554 Problems 555 CASE STUDIES 559

Andrew-Carter, Inc. 559

Using Revenue Management to Set Orlando Magic Ticket Prices Video Case 560

Endnote 560 Rapid Review 561 Self Test 562

Chapter 14 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP 563

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: WHEELED COACH 564 Dependent Demand 566

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Dependent Inventory Model Requirements 566 Master Production Schedule 567

Bills of Material 568

Accurate Inventory Records 570

Purchase Orders Outstanding 570

Lead Times for Components 570

MRP Structure 571 MRP Management 575

MRP Dynamics 575

MRP Limitations 575

Lot-Sizing Techniques 576 Extensions of MRP 580

Material Requirements Planning II (MRP II) 580

Closed-Loop MRP 581

Capacity Planning 581

MRP in Services 583 Distribution Resource Planning (DRP) 584

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 584 ERP in the Service Sector 587

Summary 587 Key Terms 587 Ethical Dilemma 587 Discussion Questions 588 Using Software to Solve MRP Problems 588 Solved Problems 589 Problems 592 CASE STUDIES 595

When 18,500 Orlando Magic Fans Come to Dinner Video Case 595

MRP at Wheeled Coach Video Case 596

Endnotes 596 Rapid Review 597 Self Test 598

Chapter 15 Short-Term Scheduling 599

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ALASKA AIRLINES 600 The Importance of Short-Term Scheduling 602 Scheduling Issues 602

Forward and Backward Scheduling 603

Finite and Infi nite Loading 604

Scheduling Criteria 604

Scheduling Process-Focused Facilities 605 Loading Jobs 605

Input–Output Control 606

Gantt Charts 607

Assignment Method 608

Sequencing Jobs 611 Priority Rules for Sequencing Jobs 611

Critical Ratio 614

Sequencing N Jobs on Two Machines: Johnson’s Rule 615

Limitations of Rule-Based Sequencing Systems 616

Finite Capacity Scheduling (FCS) 617 Scheduling Services 618

Scheduling Service Employees with Cyclical Scheduling 620

Summary 621 Key Terms 621 Ethical Dilemma 621 Discussion Questions 622 Using Software for Short-Term Scheduling 622 Solved Problems 624 Problems 627 CASE STUDIES 630

Old Oregon Wood Store 630

From the Eagles to the Magic: Converting the Amway Center Video Case 631

Scheduling at Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 632

Endnotes 632 Rapid Review 633 Self Test 634

Chapter 16 Lean Operations 635

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION 636

Lean Operations 638 Eliminate Waste 638

Remove Variability 639

Improve Throughput 640

Lean and Just-in-Time 640 Supplier Partnerships 640

Lean Layout 642

Lean Inventory 643

Lean Scheduling 646

Lean Quality 649

Lean and the Toyota Production System 649 Continuous Improvement 649

Respect for People 649

Processes and Standard Work Practice 650

Lean Organizations 650 Building a Lean Organization 650

Lean Sustainability 652

Lean in Services 652 Summary 653 Key Terms 653 Ethical Dilemma 653 Discussion Questions 653 Solved Problem 653 Problems 654

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CASE STUDIES 655 Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines Video Case 655

JIT at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 656

Endnote 656 Rapid Review 657 Self Test 658

Chapter 17 Maintenance and Reliability 659

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ORLANDO UTILITIES COMMISSION 660

The Strategic Importance of Maintenance and Reliability 662

Reliability 663 System Reliability 663

Providing Redundancy 665

Maintenance 667

Implementing Preventive Maintenance 667

Increasing Repair Capabilities 670

Autonomous Maintenance 670

Total Productive Maintenance 671 Summary 671 Key Terms 671 Ethical Dilemma 671 Discussion Questions 671 Using Software to Solve Reliability Problems 672 Solved Problems 672 Problems 672 CASE STUDY 674

Maintenance Drives Profi ts at Frito-Lay Video Case 674

Rapid Review 675 Self Test 676

PART FOUR Business Analytics Modules 677

Module A Decision-Making Tools 677

The Decision Process in Operations 678 Fundamentals of Decision Making 679 Decision Tables 680 Types of Decision-Making Environments 681

Decision Making Under Uncertainty 681

Decision Making Under Risk 682

Decision Making Under Certainty 683

Expected Value of Perfect Information (EVPI) 683

Decision Trees 684 A More Complex Decision Tree 686

The Poker Decision Process 688

Summary 689 Key Terms 689 Discussion Questions 689 Using Software for Decision Models 689 Solved Problems 691 Problems 692 CASE STUDY 696

Warehouse Tenting at the Port of Miami 696

Endnote 696 Rapid Review 697 Self Test 698

Module B Linear Programming 699

Why Use Linear Programming? 700 Requirements of a Linear Programming

Problem 701 Formulating Linear Programming Problems 701

Glickman Electronics Example 701

Graphical Solution to a Linear Programming Problem 702

Graphical Representation of Constraints 702

Iso-Profi t Line Solution Method 703

Corner-Point Solution Method 705

Sensitivity Analysis 705 Sensitivity Report 706

Changes in the Resources or Right-Hand-Side Values 706

Changes in the Objective Function Coeffi cient 707

Solving Minimization Problems 708 Linear Programming Applications 710

Production-Mix Example 710

Diet Problem Example 711

Labor Scheduling Example 712

The Simplex Method of LP 713 Integer and Binary Variables 713

Creating Integer and Binary Variables 713

Linear Programming Applications with Binary Variables 714

A Fixed-Charge Integer Programming Problem 715

Summary 716 Key Terms 716 Discussion Questions 716 Using Software to Solve LP Problems 716 Solved Problems 718 Problems 720 CASE STUDIES 725

Quain Lawn and Garden, Inc. 725

Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines Video Case 726

Endnotes 726 Rapid Review 727 Self Test 728

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xx TABLE OF CONTENTS

Module C Transportation Models 729

Transportation Modeling 730 Developing an Initial Solution 732

The Northwest-Corner Rule 732

The Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method 733

The Stepping-Stone Method 734 Special Issues in Modeling 737

Demand Not Equal to Supply 737

Degeneracy 737

Summary 738 Key Terms 738 Discussion Questions 738 Using Software to Solve Transportation

Problems 738 Solved Problems 740 Problems 741 CASE STUDY 743

Custom Vans, Inc. 743

Rapid Review 745 Self Test 746

Module D Waiting-Line Models 747

Queuing Theory 748 Characteristics of a Waiting-Line System 749

Arrival Characteristics 749

Waiting-Line Characteristics 750

Service Characteristics 751

Measuring a Queue’s Performance 752

Queuing Costs 753 The Variety of Queuing Models 754

Model A (M/M/1): Single-Server Queuing Model with Poisson Arrivals and Exponential Service Times 754

Model B (M/M/S): Multiple-Server Queuing Model 757

Model C (M/D/1): Constant-Service-Time Model 762

Little’s Law 763

Model D (M/M/1 with Finite Source): Finite-Population Model 763

Other Queuing Approaches 765 Summary 765 Key Terms 765 Discussion Questions 765 Using Software to Solve Queuing Problems 766 Solved Problems 766 Problems 768 CASE STUDIES 771

New England Foundry 771

The Winter Park Hotel 772

Endnotes 772 Rapid Review 773 Self Test 774

Module E Learning Curves 775

What Is a Learning Curve? 776 Learning Curves in Services and

Manufacturing 777 Applying the Learning Curve 778

Doubling Approach 778

Formula Approach 779

Learning-Curve Table Approach 779

Strategic Implications of Learning Curves 782 Limitations of Learning Curves 783 Summary 783 Key Term 783 Discussion Questions 783 Using Software for Learning Curves 784 Solved Problems 784 Problems 785 CASE STUDY 787

SMT’s Negotiation with IBM 787

Endnote 788 Rapid Review 789 Self Test 790

Module F Simulation 791

What Is Simulation? 792 Advantages and Disadvantages of Simulation 793 Monte Carlo Simulation 794 Simulation with Two Decision Variables:

An Inventory Example 797 Summary 799 Key Terms 799 Discussion Questions 799 Using Software in Simulation 800 Solved Problems 801 Problems 802 CASE STUDY 805

Alabama Airlines’ Call Center 805

Endnote 806 Rapid Review 807 Self Test 808

Appendix A1 Bibliography B1 Name Index I1 General Index I7

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xxi

ONLINE TUTORIALS

1. Statistical Tools for Managers T1-1

Discrete Probability Distributions T1-2 Expected Value of a Discrete Probability Distribution T1-3

Variance of a Discrete Probability Distribution T1-3

Continuous Probability Distributions T1-4 The Normal Distribution T1-4

Summary T1-7 Key Terms T1-7 Discussion Questions T1-7 Problems T1-7 Bibliography T1-7

2. Acceptance Sampling T2-1

Sampling Plans T2-2 Single Sampling T2-2

Double Sampling T2-2

Sequential Sampling T2-2

Operating Characteristic (OC) Curves T2-2 Producer’s and Consumer’s Risk T2-3 Average Outgoing Quality T2-5 Summary T2-6 Key Terms T2-6 Solved Problem T2-7 Discussion Questions T2-7 Problems T2-7

3. The Simplex Method of Linear Programming T3-1

Converting the Constraints to Equations T3-2 Setting Up the First Simplex Tableau T3-2 Simplex Solution Procedures T3-4 Summary of Simplex Steps for Maximization

Problems T3-6 Artifi cial and Surplus Variables T3-7 Solving Minimization Problems T3-7 Summary T3-8 Key Terms T3-8 Solved Problem T3-8

Discussion Questions T3-8 Problems T3-9

4. The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Transportation Problems T4-1

MODI Method T4-2 How to Use the MODI Method T4-2 Solving the Arizona Plumbing Problem with MODI T4-2

Vogel’s Approximation Method: Another Way to Find an Initial Solution T4-4

Discussion Questions T4-8 Problems T4-8

5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling T5-1

Introduction T5-2 Service Delivery Example: Meals-for-ME T5-2

Objectives of Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-2

Characteristics of Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-3 Classifying Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-3 Solving Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-4

Routing Service Vehicles T5-5 The Traveling Salesman Problem T5-5 Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem T5-8 The Vehicle Routing Problem T5-9 Cluster First, Route Second Approach T5-10

Scheduling Service Vehicles T5-11 The Concurrent Scheduler Approach T5-13

Other Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-13 Summary T5-14 Key Terms T5-15 Discussion Questions T5-15 Problems T5-15 Case Study: Routing and Scheduling of

Phlebotomists T5-17 Bibliography T5-17

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Welcome to your operations management (OM) course. In this book, we present a state-of-the- art view of the operations function. Operations is an exciting area of management that has a profound effect on productivity. Indeed, few other activities have as much impact on the quality of our lives. The goal of this text is to present a broad introduction to the field of operations in a realistic, practical manner. Even if you are not planning on a career in the operations area, you will likely be working with people in operations. Therefore, having a solid understanding of the role of operations in an organization will be of substantial benefit to you. This book will also help you understand how OM affects society and your life. Certainly, you will better understand what goes on behind the scenes when you attend a concert or major sports event; purchase a bag of Frito-Lay potato chips; buy a meal at an Olive Garden or a Hard Rock Cafe; place an order through Amazon.com; board a flight on Alaska Airlines; or enter a hospital for medical care. More than one and a half million readers of our earlier editions seem to have endorsed this premise.

We welcome comments by email from our North American readers and from students using the International edition, the Indian edition, the Arabic edition, and our editions in Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish, Indonesian, and Chinese. Hopefully, you will find this material useful, interest- ing, and even exciting.

New to This Edition We’ve made significant revisions to this edition, and want to share some of the changes with you.

Five New Video Case Studies Featuring Alaska Airlines In this edition, we take you behind the scenes of Alaska Airlines, consistently rated as one of the top carriers in the country. This fascinating organization opened its doors—and planes— so we could examine leading edge OM in the airlines industry. We observe: the quality pro- gram at Alaska Air (Chapter 6); the process analysis behind the airline’s 20-minute baggage retrieval guarantee (Chapter 7); how Alaska empowers its employees (Chapter 10); the air- line’s use of Lean, 5s, kaizen, and Gemba walks (Chapter 16); and the complexities of sched- uling (Module B).

Our prior editions focused on integrated Video Case Studies for the Orlando Magic basketball team, Frito-Lay, Darden Restaurants, Hard Rock Cafe, Arnold Palmer Hospital, Wheeled Coach Ambulances, and Regal Marine. These Video Case Studies appear in this edition as well, along with the five new ones for Alaska Airlines. All of our videos are created by the authors, with the outstanding coauthorship of Beverly Amer at Northern Arizona University, to explicitly match with text content and terminology.

Preface

xxiii

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xxiv PREFACE

Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets We continue to provide two free decision support software programs, Excel OM for Windows and Mac and POM for Windows, to help you and your students solve homework problems and case studies. These excellent packages are found in MyOMLab and at our text’s Student Download Page.

Many instructors also encourage students to develop their own Excel spreadsheet models to tackle OM issues. With this edition, we provide numerous examples at chapter end on how to do so. “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” examples now appear in Chapters 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 13, Supplement 6, Supplement 7, and Modules A, B, and F. We hope these eleven samples will help expand students’ spreadsheet capabilities.

Video Case Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed! Alaska Airlines is unique among the nine major U.S. carriers not only for its extensive flight coverage of remote towns throughout Alaska (it also covers the U.S., Hawaii, and Mexico from its pri- mary hub in Seattle). It is also one of the smallest independent airlines, with 10,300 employees, including 3,000 flight attendants and 1,500 pilots. What makes it really unique, though, is its abil- ity to build state-of-the-art processes, using the latest technology, that yield high customer satisfaction. Indeed, J. D. Power and Associates has ranked Alaska Airlines highest in North America for seven years in a row for customer satisfaction.

Alaska Airlines was the first to sell tickets via the Internet, first to offer Web check-in and print boarding passes online, and first with kiosk check-in. As Wayne Newton, Director of System Operation Control, states, “We are passionate about our pro- cesses. If it’s not measured, it’s not managed.”

One of the processes Alaska is most proud of is its baggage han- dling system. Passengers can check in at kiosks, tag their own bags with bar code stickers, and deliver them to a customer service agent at the carousel, which carries the bags through the vast under- ground system that eventually delivers the bags to a baggage han- dler. En route, each bag passes through TSA automated screening and is manually opened or inspected if it appears suspicious. With the help of bar code readers, conveyer belts automatically sort and transfer bags to their location (called a “pier”) at the tarmac level. A baggage handler then loads the bags onto a cart and takes it to Al

as ka

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Using Software for Productivity Analysis

This section presents three ways to solve productivity problems with computer software. First, you can create your own Excel spreadsheets to conduct productivity analysis. Second, you can use the Excel OM software that comes with this text. Third, POM for Windows is another program that is available with this text .

Program 1.1

Actions Copy C7 to B7, Copy B14 to C14, Copy C15 to B15, and Copy D14 to D15

Create a row for each of the inputs used for the productivity measure. Put the output in the last row.

=C5*C6

=B10/B7

Enter the values for the old system in column B and the new system in Column C.

Productivity = Output/Input

=(C14-B14)/B14=C10/(C8+C9)

X USING EXCEL OM Excel OM is an Excel “add-in” with 24 Operations Management decision support “Templates.” To access the templates, double- click on the Excel OM tab at the top of the page, then in the menu bar choose the appropriate chapter (in this case Chapter 1 ), from either the “Chapter” or “Alphabetic” tab on the left. Each of Excel OM’s 24 modules includes instructions for that particular module. The instructions can be turned on or off via the “instruction” tab in the menu bar.

P USING POM FOR WINDOWS POM for Windows is decision support software that includes 24 Operations Management modules. The modules are accessed by double-clicking on Module in the menu bar, and then double-clicking on the appropriate (in this case Productivity ) item. Instructions are provided for each module just below the menu bar.

CREATING YOUR OWN EXCEL SPREADSHEETS Program 1.1 illustrates how to build an Excel spreadsheet for the data in Example 2.

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PREFACE xxv

Expanding and Reordering Our Set of Homework Problems We believe that a vast selection of quality homework problems, ranging from easy to challeng- ing (denoted by one to four dots), is critical for both instructors and students. Instructors need a broad selection of problems to choose from for homework, quizzes, and exams—without reus- ing the same set from semester to semester. We take pride in having more problems—by far, with 807—than any other OM text. We added dozens of new problems this edition. The following table illustrates the selection by chapter.

Further, with the majority of our adopters now using the MyOMLab learning system in their classes, we have reorganized all the homework problems—both those appearing in the printed text, as well as the Additional Homework Problems that are available in MyOMLab—by topic heading. We are identifying all problems by topic (see the following example).

The list of all problems by topic also appears at the end of each boxed example, as well as in the Rapid Review that closes each chapter. These handy references should make it easier to assign problems for homework, quizzes, and exams. A rich set of assignable problems and cases makes the learning experience more complete and pedagogically sound.

CHAPTER 5 | DESIGN OF GOODS AND SERVICES 187

Problems 5.4–5.8 relate to Product Development

• • 5.4 Construct a house of quality matrix for a wrist- watch. Be sure to indicate specific customer wants that you think the general public desires. Then complete the matrix to show how an operations manager might identify specific attributes that can be measured and controlled to meet those customer desires.

• • 5.5 Using the house of quality, pick a real product (a good or service) and analyze how an existing organization satis- fies customer requirements.

• • 5.6 Prepare a house of quality for a mousetrap.

• • 5.7 Conduct an interview with a prospective purchaser of a new bicycle and translate the customer’s wants into the specific hows of the firm.

• • • • 5.8 Using the house of quality sequence, as described in Figure 5.4 on page 169, determine how you might deploy resources to achieve the desired quality for a product or service whose production process you understand.

Problems 5.9–5.17 relate to Defining a Product

• • 5.9 Prepare a bill of material for (a) a pair of eyeglasses and its case or (b) a fast-food sandwich (visit a local sandwich

Problems 5.21–5.28 relate to the Application of Decision Trees to Product Design

• • 5.21 The product design group of Iyengar Electric Supplies, Inc., has determined that it needs to design a new series of switches. It must decide on one of three design strategies. The market forecast is for 200,000 units. The better and more sophisticated the design strategy and the more time spent on value engineering, the less will be the variable cost. The chief of engineering design, Dr. W. L. Berry, has decided that the following costs are a good estimate of the initial and variable costs connected with each of the three strategies: a) Low-tech: A low-technology, low-cost process consisting of

hiring several new junior engineers. This option has a fixed cost of $45,000 and variable-cost probabilities of .3 for $.55 each, .4 for $.50, and .3 for $.45.

b) Subcontract: A medium-cost approach using a good outside design staff. This approach would have a fixed cost of $65,000 and variable-cost probabilities of .7 of $.45, .2 of $.40, and .1 of $.35.

c) High-tech: A high-technology approach using the very best of the inside staff and the latest computer-aided design technol- ogy. This approach has a fixed cost of $75,000 and variable- cost probabilities of .9 of $.40 and .1 of $.35.

What is the best decision based on an expected monetary value (EMV) criterion? ( Note: We want the lowest EMV, as we are dealing with costs in this problem.) PX

• • 5.22 MacDonald Products, Inc., of Clarkson, New York, has the option of (a) proceeding immediately with production of

Problem 5.3 is available in MyOMLab.

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Chapter Number of Problems

15 27

16 12

17 24

Module A 32

Module B 42

Module C 18

Module D 39

Module E 33

Module F 25

Chapter Number of Problems

Supplement 7 45

8 34

9 27

10 46

11 8

Supplement 11 20

12 53

13 26

14 32

Chapter Number of Problems

1 18

2 12

3 33

4 59

5 28

Supplement 5 19

6 21

Supplement 6 55

7 17

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Jay, Barry, and Chuck’s OM Blog As a complement to this text, we have created a companion blog, with coordinated features to help teach the OM course. There are teaching tips, highlights of OM items in the news (along with class discussion questions and links), video tips, guest posts by instructors using our text, sample OM syllabi from dozens of colleges, and much more—all arranged by chapter. To learn more about any chapter topics, visit www.heizerrenderOM.wordpress.com . As you prepare your lectures and syllabus, scan our blog for discussion ideas, teaching tips, and classroom exercises.

Lean Operations In previous editions, we sought to explicitly differentiate the concepts of just-in-time, Lean, and Toyota Production System in Chapter 16. However, there is significant overlap and interchangea- bility among those three concepts, so we have revised Chapter 16 to incorporate the three concepts into an overall concept of “Lean.” The chapter suggests that students view Lean as a comprehen- sive integrated operations strategy that sustains competitive advantage and results in increased returns to all stakeholders.

Chapter-by-Chapter Changes To highlight the extent of the revisions in this edition, here are a few of the changes, on a chapter- by-chapter basis.

Chapter 1 : Operations and Productivity We updated Table 1.4 to reflect employment in various sectors and expanded our discussion of Lean operations. Our new case, Uber Technologies, introduces productivity by discussing the dis- ruptive nature of the Uber business model. In addition, there is a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for both labor productivity and multifactor productivity.

Chapter 2 : Operations Strategy in a Global Environment We have updated Figure 2.1 to better reflect changes in the growth of world trade and Figure 2.5 to reflect product life cycle changes. The Minute Lube case has been revised as Rapid Lube. Example 1 (National Architects) has been expanded to clarify factor rating calculations and is also demonstrated with a “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” presentation.

Chapter 3 : Project Management We rewrote and updated the Bechtel Global Company Profile and added a new section on well- defined projects with the “agile” and “waterfall” approaches. There are two new OM in Action boxes: “Agile Project Management at Mastek,” and “Behind the Tour de France.”

Chapter 4 : Forecasting We created a new table comparing the MAD, MSE, and MAPE forecasting error measures. There is also a new OM in Action box called “NYC’s Potholes and Regression Analysis.”

Chapter 5 : Design of Goods and Services We expanded our treatment of concurrent engineering and added two new discussion questions. Solved Problem 5.1 has been revised.

Supplement 5: Sustainability in the Supply Chain We wrote a new introductory section on Corporate Social Responsibility. There is also a new OM in Action box called “Blue Jeans and Sustainability” and 10 new homework problems.

Chapter 6 : Managing Quality We added new material to expand our discussion of Taguchi’s quality loss function. There is a new sec- tion on SERVQUAL, and a new video case study, “Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines,” appears here.

xxvi PREFACE

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Supplement 6: Statistical Process Control We added a figure on the relationship between sample size and sampling distribution. We also added raw data to Examples S2 and S3 to illustrate how ranges are computed. There is a new Excel spreadsheet to show students how to make their own c -chart, and we have added three new homework problems.

Chapter 7 : Process Strategy We wrote a new section on machine technology and additive manufacturing. There are two new discussion questions and three new homework problems. Our second new video case study is called “Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed!”

Supplement 7: Capacity and Constraint Management We added a new Table S7.1, which compares and clarifies three capacity measurements, with an example of each. There is a new treatment of expected output and actual output in Example S2. The discussion of bottleneck time versus throughput time has also been expanded. Example S3, capacity analysis with parallel processes, has been revised. We have also added a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for a break-even model. Finally, we updated the Arnold Palmer Hospital capacity planning case with recent data.

Chapter 8 : Location Strategies We added two new OM in Action boxes: “Iowa—Home of Corn and Facebook” and “Denmark’s Meat Cluster.” We changed the notation for the center-of-gravity model to simplify the equa- tion and provided a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” presentation for the center-of- gravity example.

Chapter 9 : Layout Strategies We created a new Muther grid for office relationship charting and added a spread of five layouts showing how offices have evolved over time. There is a new OM in Action box called “Amazon Lets Loose the Robots,” and there is a new graphic example of Proplanner’s Flow Path Calculator. We have included a formula for idle time as a second measure of balance assignment efficiency and added new technology issues to the Arnold Palmer Hospital video case.

Chapter 10 : Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement We added a new OM in Action box, “The Missing Perfect Chair,” and revised the Operations Chart as a service example. Our third new video case study is “The ‘People’ Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines.”

Chapter 11 : Supply Chain Management We added “outsourcing” as a supply chain risk in Table 11.3.

Supplement 11: Supply Chain Management Analytics We added a major section on the topic of Warehouse Storage, with a new model for allocating inven- tory to storage locations. There is a new discussion question and three new homework problems.

Chapter 12 : Inventory Management New Programs 12.1 and 12.2 illustrate “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” for both the production run model and the single-period inventory model. The Excel function NORMSINV is introduced throughout the chapter. The Quantity Discount Model section is totally rewritten to illustrate the feasible solution shortcut. Solved Problem 12.5 is likewise redone with the new approach.

Chapter 13 : Aggregate Planning and S&OP We added a new OM in Action box, “Revenue Management Makes Disney the ‘King’ of the Broadway Jungle.” We also provided a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for the transportation method for aggregate planning, using the Solver approach.

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Chapter 14 : Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP The MRP II example now includes greenhouse gasses.

Chapter 15 : Short-Term Scheduling We begin this chapter with a new Global Company Profile featuring Alaska Airlines and the scheduling issues it faces in its northern climate. We have added two new graphics to help illus- trate Forward and Backward Scheduling. There is also a new section called Performance Criteria, detailing how the choice of priority rule depends on four quantifiable criteria. We now explicitly define the performance criteria for sequencing jobs as separate numbered equations. Also, we provide an explicit formula for job lateness. There is a new OM in Action box called “Starbucks’ Controversial Scheduling Software.”

Chapter 16 : Lean Operations This chapter saw a major reorganization and rewrite with an enhanced focus on Lean operations. There is more material on supplier partnerships and building lean organizations. A new OM in Action box describes the use of kaizen at San Francisco General Hospital, and we have added a new video case study called “Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines.”

Chapter 17 : Maintenance and Reliability There are no major changes in this chapter.

Module A: Decision-Making Tools We added a discussion of “big data” and a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example on how to evaluate a decision table.

Module B: Linear Programming There is a new section on integer and binary programming, two new homework problems, and a new video case study called “Using LP to Meet Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines.” The corner point method is now covered before the iso-profit line approach.

Module C: Transportation Models There are no major changes to Module C.

Module D: Waiting-Line Models The limited population model (Model D) has been replaced by the finite population model, M/M/1 with finite source. This standardizes the queuing notation to match the M/M/1, M/M/s, and M/D/1. We have also expanded the coverage of Little’s Law and added six new homework problems.

Module E: Learning Curves There are no major changes to Module E.

Module F: Simulation We added a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for a simulation problem.

Student Resources To liven up the course and help students learn the content material, we have made available the following resources:

◆ Forty-one exciting Video Case Studies (videos located at MyOMLab ): These Video Case Studies feature real companies (Alaska Airlines, The Orlando Magic, Frito-Lay, Darden Restaurants, Regal Marine, Hard Rock Cafe, Ritz-Carlton, Wheeled Coach, and Arnold Palmer Hospital) and

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allow students to watch short videos, read about the key topics, and answer questions. These case studies can also be assigned without using class time to show the videos. Each of them was developed and written by the text authors to specifi cally supplement the book’s content. Instruc- tors who wish to use these in class, and who don’t have access to MyOMLab, should contact their Pearson Publishing Representative for access to the MyOMLab materials.

◆ POM for Windows software (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer): POM for Windows is a powerful tool for easily solving OM problems. Its 24 modules can be used to solve most of the homework problems in the text.

◆ Excel OM problem-solving software (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www.pearsonhighered.com/heizer): Excel OM is our exclusive user-friendly Excel add-in. Excel OM automatically creates worksheets to model and solve problems. Users select a topic from the pull-down menu and fi ll in the data, and then Excel will display and graph (where appropri- ate) the results. This software is great for student homework, what-if analysis, and classroom demonstrations. This edition includes a new version of Excel OM that is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2013 for Windows, Excel 2011 and 2016 for Mac, and earlier versions of Excel. Professor Howard Weiss, Temple University, developed both Excel OM for Windows and Mac, and POM for Windows to accompany our text and its problem set.

◆ Excel OM data fi les (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer): These data fi les are prepared for specifi c examples and allow users to solve all the marked text examples without reentering any data.

◆ Active Models (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www.pearsonhighered .com/heizer): These 28 Active Models are Excel-based OM simulations, designed to help students understand the quantitative methods shown in the textbook examples. Students may change the data in order to see how the changes aff ect the answers.

◆ Virtual tours (located at MyOMLab): These company tours provide direct links to companies— ranging from a hospital to an auto manufacturer—that practice key OM concepts. After touring each Web site, students are asked questions directly related to the concepts discussed in the chapter.

◆ Online Tutorial Chapters (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer ): “Statistical Tools for Managers,” “Acceptance Sampling,” “The Simplex Method of Linear Programming,” “The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Trans- portation Problems,” and “Vehicle Routing and Scheduling” are provided as additional material.

◆ Additional practice problems (located at MyOMLab): These problems provide problem-solving experience. They supplement the examples and solved problems found in each chapter.

◆ Additional case studies (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer ): Over two dozen additional case studies supplement the ones in the text. Detailed solutions appear in the Solutions Manual.

◆ Virtual offi ce hours (located at MyOMLab): Professors Heizer, Render, and Munson walk stu- dents through all 89 Solved Problems in a series of 5- to 20-minute explanations. These have been updated with this new edition.

Instructor Resources At the Instructor Resource Center, www.pearsonhighered.com/irc , instructors can easily register to gain access to a variety of instructor resources available with this text in downloadable format. If assistance is needed, our dedicated technical support team is ready to help with the media sup- plements that accompany this text. Visit http://247.pearsoned.com for answers to frequently asked questions and toll-free user support phone numbers.

The following supplements are available with this text:

Instructor’s Resource Manual The Instructor’s Resource Manual, updated by co-author Chuck Munson, contains many useful resources for instructors—PowerPoint presentations with annotated notes, course outlines, video notes, blog highlights, learning techniques, Internet exercises and sample answers, case analysis ideas, additional teaching resources, and faculty notes.

PREFACE xxix

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Instructor’s Solutions Manual The Instructor’s Solutions Manual, written by the authors, contains the answers to all of the dis- cussion questions, Ethical Dilemmas , Active Models, and cases in the text, as well as worked-out solutions to all the end-of-chapter problems, additional homework problems, and additional case studies.

PowerPoint Presentations An extensive set of PowerPoint presentations, created by Professor Jeff Heyl of Lincoln University, is available for each chapter. With well over 2,000 slides, this set has excellent color and clarity.

Test Bank / TestGen® Computerized Test Bank The test bank, updated by James Roh, contains a variety of true/false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions, along with a selection of written problems, for each chapter. Test questions are annotated with the following information:

◆ Diffi culty level ◆ Type: multiple-choice, true/false, short-answer, essay, problem ◆ Learning objective ◆ AACSB (see the description that follows)

TestGen®, Pearson Education’s test-generating software, is PC/MAC compatible and preloaded with all the test bank questions. The test program permits instructors to edit, add, and delete ques- tions from the test bank to create customized tests.

The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)

The test bank has connected select questions to the general knowledge and skill guidelines found in the AACSB Assurance of Learning standards.

AACSB is a not-for-profit corporation of educational institutions, corporations, and other organizations devoted to the promotion and improvement of higher education in business admin- istration and accounting. A collegiate institution offering degrees in business administration or accounting may volunteer for AACSB accreditation review. The AACSB makes initial accredi- tation decisions and conducts periodic reviews to promote continuous quality improvement in management education. Pearson Education is a proud member of the AACSB and is pleased to provide advice to help you apply AACSB assurance of learning standards.

What are AACSB assurance of learning standards? One of the criteria for AACSB accredita- tion is quality of the curricula. Although no specific courses are required, the AACSB expects a curriculum to include learning experiences in the following areas:

◆ Written and oral communication ◆ Ethical understanding and reasoning ◆ Analytical thinking ◆ Information technology ◆ Interpersonal relations and teamwork ◆ Diverse and multicultural work environments ◆ Refl ective thinking ◆ Application of knowledge

Questions that test skills relevant to these guidelines are appropriately tagged. For example, a question regarding clothing manufactured for U.S. firms by 10-year olds in Asia would receive the Ethical understanding and reasoning tag.

Tagged questions help you measure whether students are grasping the course content that aligns with the AACSB guidelines noted. In addition, the tagged questions may help instructors identify potential applications of these skills. This in turn may suggest enrichment activities or other educational experiences to help students achieve these skills.

xxx PREFACE

AACSB

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Video Package Designed and created by the authors specifically for their Heizer/Render/Munson texts, the video package contains the following 41 videos:

◆ Frito-Lay: Operations Management in Manufacturing ( Chapter 1 ) ◆ Hard Rock Cafe: Operations Management in Services ( Chapter 1 ) ◆ Strategy at Regal Marine ( Chapter 2 ) ◆ Hard Rock Cafe’s Global Strategy ( Chapter 2 ) ◆ Outsourcing Off shore at Darden ( Chapter 2 ) ◆ Project Management at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 3 ) ◆ Managing Hard Rock’s Rockfest ( Chapter 3 ) ◆ Forecasting Ticket Revenue for Orlando Magic Basketball Games ( Chapter 4 ) ◆ Forecasting at Hard Rock Cafe ( Chapter 4 ) ◆ Product Design at Regal Marine ( Chapter 5 ) ◆ Building Sustainability at the Orlando Magic’s Amway Center ( Supplement 5 ) ◆ Green Manufacturing and Sustainability at Frito-Lay ( Supplement 5 ) ◆ Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines ( Chapter 6 ) ◆ The Culture of Quality at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 6 ) ◆ Quality at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company ( Chapter 6 ) ◆ Frito-Lay’s Quality-Controlled Potato Chips ( Supplement 6 ) ◆ Farm to Fork: Quality at Darden Restaurants ( Supplement 6 ) ◆ Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed! ( Chapter 7 ) ◆ Process Strategy at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 7 ) ◆ Process Analysis at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 7 ) ◆ Capacity Planning at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Supplement 7 ) ◆ Locating the Next Red Lobster Restaurant ( Chapter 8 ) ◆ Where to Place the Hard Rock Cafe ( Chapter 8 ) ◆ Facility Layout at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 9 ) ◆ Laying Out Arnold Palmer Hospital’s New Facility ( Chapter 9 ) ◆ The “People” Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines ( Chapter 10 ) ◆ Hard Rock’s Human Resource Strategy ( Chapter 10 ) ◆ Darden’s Global Supply Chains ( Chapter 11 ) ◆ Supply Chain Management at Regal Marine ( Chapter 11 ) ◆ Arnold Palmer Hospital’s Supply Chain ( Chapter 11 ) ◆ Managing Inventory at Frito-Lay ( Chapter 12 ) ◆ Inventory Control at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 12 ) ◆ Using Revenue Management to Set Orlando Magic Ticket Prices ( Chapter 13 ) ◆ When 18,500 Orlando Magic Fans Come to Dinner ( Chapter 14 ) ◆ MRP at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 14 ) ◆ From the Eagles to the Magic: Converting the Amway Center ( Chapter 15 ) ◆ Scheduling at Hard Rock Cafe ( Chapter 15 ) ◆ Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines ( Chapter 16 ) ◆ JIT at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 16 ) ◆ Maintenance Drives Profi ts at Frito-Lay ( Chapter 17 ) ◆ Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines (Module B)

PREFACE xxxi

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ALABAMA John Mittenthal University of Alabama Philip F. Musa University of Alabama at Birmingham William Petty University of Alabama Doug Turner Auburn University

ALASKA Paul Jordan University of Alaska

ARIZONA Susan K. Norman Northern Arizona University Scott Roberts Northern Arizona University Vicki L. Smith-Daniels Arizona State University Susan K. Williams Northern Arizona University

CALIFORNIA Jean-Pierre Amor University of San Diego Moshen Attaran California State University–Bakersfi eld Ali Behnezhad California State University–Northridge Joe Biggs California Polytechnic State University Lesley Buehler Ohlone College Rick Hesse Pepperdine Ravi Kathuria Chapman University Richard Martin California State University–Long Beach Ozgur Ozluk San Francisco State University Zinovy Radovilsky California State University–Hayward Robert J. Schlesinger San Diego State University

V. Udayabhanu San Francisco State University Rick Wing San Francisco State University

COLORADO Peter Billington Colorado State University–Pueblo Gregory Stock University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

CONNECTICUT David Cadden Quinnipiac University Larry A. Flick Norwalk Community Technical College

FLORIDA Joseph P. Geunes University of Florida Rita Gibson Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Jim Gilbert Rollins College Donald Hammond University of South Florida Wende Huehn-Brown St. Petersburg College Adam Munson University of Florida Ronald K. Satterfi eld University of South Florida Theresa A. Shotwell Florida A&M University Jeff Smith Florida State University

GEORGIA John H. Blackstone University of Georgia Johnny Ho Columbus State University John Hoft Columbus State University John Miller Mercer University

Nikolay Osadchiy Emory University Spyros Reveliotis Georgia Institute of Technology

ILLINOIS Suad Alwan Chicago State University Lori Cook DePaul University Matt Liontine University of Illinois–Chicago Zafar Malik Governors State University

INDIANA Barbara Flynn Indiana University B.P. Lingeraj Indiana University Frank Pianki Anderson University Stan Stockton Indiana University Jerry Wei University of Notre Dame Jianghua Wu Purdue University Xin Zhai Purdue University

IOWA Debra Bishop Drake University Kevin Watson Iowa State University Lifang Wu University of Iowa

KANSAS William Barnes Emporia State University George Heinrich Wichita State University Sue Helms Wichita State University Hugh Leach Washburn University

xxxii PREFACE

Acknowledgments We thank the many individuals who were kind enough to assist us in this endeavor. The following professors provided insights that guided us in this edition (their names are in bold) and in prior editions:

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M.J. Riley Kansas State University Teresita S. Salinas Washburn University Avanti P. Sethi Wichita State University

KENTUCKY Wade Ferguson Western Kentucky University Kambiz Tabibzadeh Eastern Kentucky University

LOUISIANA Roy Clinton University of Louisiana at Monroe L. Wayne Shell (retired) Nicholls State University

MARYLAND Eugene Hahn Salisbury University Samuel Y. Smith, Jr. University of Baltimore

MASSACHUSETTS Peter Ittig University of Massachusetts Jean Pierre Kuilboer University of Massachusetts–Boston Dave Lewis University of Massachusetts–Lowell Mike Maggard (retired) Northeastern University Peter Rourke Wentworth Institute of Technology Daniel Shimshak University of Massachusetts–Boston Ernest Silver Curry College Yu Amy Xia Northeastern University

MICHIGAN Darlene Burk Western Michigan University Damodar Golhar Western Michigan University Dana Johnson Michigan Technological University Doug Moodie Michigan Technological University

MINNESOTA Rick Carlson Metropolitan State University John Nicolay University of Minnesota Michael Pesch St. Cloud State University Manus Rungtusanatham University of Minnesota Kingshuk Sinha University of Minnesota Peter Southard University of St. Thomas

MISSOURI Shahid Ali Rockhurst University Stephen Allen Truman State University Sema Alptekin University of Missouri–Rolla Gregory L. Bier University of Missouri–Columbia James Campbell University of Missouri–St. Louis Wooseung Jang University of Missouri–Columbia Mary Marrs University of Missouri–Columbia A. Lawrence Summers University of Missouri

NEBRASKA Zialu Hug University of Nebraska–Omaha

NEVADA Joel D. Wisner University of Nevada, Las Vegas

NEW JERSEY Daniel Ball Monmouth University Leon Bazil Stevens Institute of Technology Mark Berenson Montclair State University Grace Greenberg Rider University Joao Neves The College of New Jersey Leonard Presby William Paterson University

Faye Zhu Rowan University

NEW MEXICO William Kime University of New Mexico

NEW YORK Theodore Boreki Hofstra University John Drabouski DeVry University Richard E. Dulski Daemen College Jonatan Jelen Baruch College Beate Klingenberg Marist College Donna Mosier SUNY Potsdam Elizabeth Perry SUNY Binghamton William Reisel St. John’s University Kaushik Sengupta Hofstra University Girish Shambu Canisius College Rajendra Tibrewala New York Institute of Technology

NORTH CAROLINA Coleman R. Rich Elon University Ray Walters Fayetteville Technical Community College

OHIO Victor Berardi Kent State University Andrew R. Thomas University of Akron

OKLAHOMA Wen-Chyuan Chiang University of Tulsa

OREGON Anne Deidrich Warner Pacifi c College Gordon Miller Portland State University

PREFACE xxxiii

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xxxiv PREFACE

John Sloan Oregon State University

PENNSYLVANIA Henry Crouch Pittsburgh State University Jeff rey D. Heim Pennsylvania State University James F. Kimpel University of Pittsburgh Ian M. Langella Shippensburg University Prafulla Oglekar LaSalle University David Pentico Duquesne University Stanford Rosenberg LaRoche College Edward Rosenthal Temple University Susan Sherer Lehigh University Howard Weiss Temple University

RHODE ISLAND Laurie E. Macdonald Bryant College John Swearingen Bryant College Susan Sweeney Providence College

SOUTH CAROLINA Jerry K. Bilbrey Anderson University Larry LaForge Clemson University Emma Jane Riddle Winthrop University

TENNESSEE Joseph Blackburn Vanderbilt University Hugh Daniel Lipscomb University

Cliff Welborn Middle Tennessee State University

TEXAS Warren W. Fisher Stephen F. Austin State University Garland Hunnicutt Texas State University Gregg Lattier Lee College Henry S. Maddux III Sam Houston State University Arunachalam Narayanan Texas A&M University Ranga V. Ramasesh Texas Christian University Victor Sower San Houston State University Cecelia Temponi Texas State University John Visich-Disc University of Houston Dwayne Whitten Texas A&M University Bruce M. Woodworth University of Texas–El Paso

UTAH William Christensen Dixie State College of Utah Shane J. Schvaneveldt Weber State University Madeline Thimmes (retired) Utah State University

VIRGINIA Andy Litteral University of Richmond Arthur C. Meiners, Jr. Marymount University Michael Plumb Tidewater Community College

WASHINGTON Mark McKay University of Washington

Chris Sandvig Western Washington University John Stec Oregon Institute of Technology

WASHINGTON, DC Narendrea K. Rustagi Howard University

WEST VIRGINIA Charles Englehardt Salem International University Daesung Ha Marshall University John Harpell West Virginia University James S. Hawkes University of Charleston

WISCONSIN James R. Gross University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh Marilyn K. Hart (retired) University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh Niranjan Pati University of Wisconsin–La Crosse X. M. Saff ord Milwaukee Area Technical College Rao J. Taikonda University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

WYOMING Cliff Asay University of Wyoming

INTERNATIONAL Steven Harrod Technical University of Denmark Robert D. Klassen University of Western Ontario Ronald Lau Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

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PREFACE xxxv

In addition, we appreciate the wonderful people at Pearson Education who provided both help and advice: Stephanie Wall, our superb editor-in-chief; Lenny Ann Kucenski, our dynamo mar- keting manager; Linda Albelli, our editorial assistant; Courtney Kamauf and Andra Skaalrud for their fantastic and dedicated work on MyOMLab; Jeff Holcomb, our project manager team lead; Claudia Fernandes, our program manager; Jacqueline Martin, our senior project manager; and Heidi Allgair, our project manager at Cenveo® Publisher Services. We are truly blessed to have such a fantastic team of experts directing, guiding, and assisting us.

In this edition, we were thrilled to be able to include one of the country’s premier airlines, Alaska Airlines, in our ongoing Video Case Study series. This was possible because of the wonderful efforts of COO/EVP-Operations Ben Minicucci, and his superb management team. This included John Ladner (Managing Director, Seattle Station Operations), Wayne Newton (Managing Director, Station Operations Control), Mike McQueen (Director, Schedule Planning), Chad Koehnke (Director, Planning and Resource Allocation), Cheryl Schulz (Executive Assistant to EVP Minicucci), Jeffrey Butler (V.P. Airport Operations & Customer Service), Dan Audette (Manager of Operations Research and Analysis), Allison Fletcher (Process Improvement Manager), Carlos Zendejas (Manager Line-Flying Operations, Pilots), Robyn Garner (Flight Attendant Trainer), and Nikki Meier and Sara Starbuck (Process Improvement Facilitators). We are grateful to all of these fine people, as well as the many others that participated in the develop- ment of the videos and cases during our trips to the Seattle headquarters.

We also appreciate the efforts of colleagues who have helped to shape the entire learning pack- age that accompanies this text. Professor Howard Weiss (Temple University) developed the Active Models, Excel OM, and POM for Windows software; Professor Jeff Heyl (Lincoln University) created the PowerPoint presentations; and Professor James Roh (Rowan University) updated the test bank. Beverly Amer (Northern Arizona University) produced and directed the video series; Professors Keith Willoughby (Bucknell University) and Ken Klassen (Brock University) contrib- uted the two Excel-based simulation games; and Professor Gary LaPoint (Syracuse University) developed the Microsoft Project crashing exercise and the dice game for SPC. We have been fortu- nate to have been able to work with all these people.

We wish you a pleasant and productive introduction to operations management.

JAY HEIZER Texas Lutheran University 1000 W. Court Street Seguin, TX 78155 Email: jheizer@tlu.edu

BARRY RENDER Graduate School of Business Rollins College Winter Park, FL 32789 Email: brender@rollins.edu

CHUCK MUNSON Carson College of Business Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-4746 Email: munson@wsu.edu

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xxxvi PREFACE

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT, 12TH EDITION ISBN: 0-13-413042-1

PART I INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 1. Operations and Productivity 2. Operations Strategy in a Global

Environment 3. Project Management 4. Forecasting

PART II DESIGNING OPERATIONS 5. Design of Goods and Services S5. Sustainability in the Supply Chain 6. Managing Quality S6. Statistical Process Control 7. Process Strategy S7. Capacity and Constraint Management 8. Location Strategies 9. Layout Strategies 10. Human Resources, Job Design, and

Work Measurement

PART III MANAGING OPERATIONS 11. Supply Chain Management S11. Supply Chain Management Analytics 12. Inventory Management 13. Aggregate Planning and S&OP 14. Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

and ERP 15. Short-Term Scheduling 16. Lean Operations 17. Maintenance and Reliability

PART IV BUSINESS ANALYTICS MODULES A. Decision-Making Tools B. Linear Programming C. Transportation Models D. Waiting-Line Models E. Learning Curves F. Simulation

ONLINE TUTORIALS 1. Statistical Tools for Managers 2. Acceptance Sampling 3. The Simplex Method of Linear

Programming 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of

Solving Transportation Problems 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT, 10TH EDITION ISBN: 0-13-418198-0

PART I INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 1. Operations and Productivity 2. Operations Strategy in a Global

Environment 3. Project Management 4. Forecasting

PART II DESIGNING OPERATIONS 5. Design of Goods and Services S5. Sustainability in the Supply Chain 6. Managing Quality S6. Statistical Process Control 7. Process Strategy S7. Capacity and Constraint Management 8. Location Strategies 9. Layout Strategies 10. Human Resources, Job Design, and

Work Measurement

PART III MANAGING OPERATIONS 11. Supply Chain Management S11. Supply Chain Management Analytics 12. Inventory Management 13. Aggregate Planning and S&OP 14. Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

and ERP 15. Short-Term Scheduling 16. Lean Operations 17. Maintenance and Reliability

ONLINE TUTORIALS 1. Statistical Tools for Managers 2. Acceptance Sampling 3. The Simplex Method of Linear

Programming 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of

Solving Transportation Problems 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

TWO VERSIONS ARE AVAILABLE This text is available in two versions: Operations Management , 12th edition, a hardcover, and Principles of Operations Management , 10th edition, a paperback. Both books include the identi- cal core Chapters 1 – 17 . However, Operations Management , 12th edition also includes six business analytics modules in Part IV .

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O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

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11

CHAPTER O U T L I N E

1 ◆ What Is Operations Management? 4 ◆ Organizing to Produce Goods

and Services 4 ◆ The Supply Chain 6 ◆ Why Study OM? 6 ◆ What Operations Managers Do 7 ◆ The Heritage of Operations Management 8

◆ Operations for Goods and Services 11 ◆ The Productivity Challenge 13 ◆ Current Challenges in Operations

Management 18 ◆ Ethics, Social Responsibility, and

Sustainability 19

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: Hard Rock Cafe

C H

A P

T E

R

PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management

Operations and Productivity

1010 OMOM STRATEGY DECISIONS

• • Design of Goods and Services • • Managing Quality • • Process Strategy • • Location Strategies • • Layout Strategies

• • Human Resources • • Supply-Chain Management • • Inventory Management • • Scheduling • • Maintenance

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Operations managers throughout the world are producing products every day to provide for the well-being of society. These products take on a multitude of forms. They may be washing machines at Whirlpool, motion pictures at DreamWorks, rides at Disney World, or food at Hard Rock Cafe. These firms produce thousands of complex products every day—to be

delivered as the customer ordered them, when the customer wants them, and where the cus-

tomer wants them. Hard Rock does this for over 35 million guests worldwide every year. This is a

challenging task, and the operations manager’s job, whether at Whirlpool, DreamWorks, Disney,

or Hard Rock, is demanding.

Operations Management at Hard Rock Cafe

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE Hard Rock Cafe

C H A P T E R 1

2

Hard Rock Cafe in Orlando, Florida, prepares over 3,500 meals each day. Seating more than 1,500 people, it is one of the largest restaurants in the world. But Hard Rock’s operations managers serve the hot food hot and the cold food cold.

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Operations managers are interested in the attractiveness of the layout, but they must be sure that the facility contributes to the efficient movement of people and material with the necessary controls to ensure that proper portions are served.

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M01_HEIZ0422_12_SE_C01.indd 2M01_HEIZ0422_12_SE_C01.indd 2 01/12/15 2:18 PM01/12/15 2:18 PM

3

Orlando-based Hard Rock Cafe opened its first restau-

rant in London in 1971, making it over 45 years old and the

granddaddy of theme restaurants. Although other theme

restaurants have come and gone, Hard Rock is still going

strong, with 150 restaurants in more than 53 countries—and

new restaurants opening each year. Hard Rock made its

name with rock music memorabilia, having started when Eric

Clapton, a regular customer, marked his favorite bar stool

by hanging his guitar on the wall in the London cafe. Now

Hard Rock has 70,000 items and millions of dollars invested

in memorabilia. To keep customers coming back time and

again, Hard Rock creates value in the form of good food and

entertainment.

The operations managers at Hard Rock Cafe at Uni-

versal Studios in Orlando provide more than 3,500 custom

products—in this case meals—every day. These products

are designed, tested, and then analyzed for cost of

Lots of work goes into designing, testing, and costing meals. Then suppliers deliver quality products on time, every time, for well-trained cooks to prepare quality meals. But none of that matters unless an enthusiastic waitstaff, such as the one shown here, holding guitars previously owned by members of U2, is doing its job.

Efficient kitchen layouts, motivated personnel, tight schedules, and the right ingredients at the right place at the right time are required to delight the customer.

Lots of work goes into designing testing and costing

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ingredients, labor requirements, and customer satisfaction.

On approval, menu items are put into production—and then

only if the ingredients are available from qualified suppliers.

The production process, from receiving, to cold storage,

to grilling or baking or frying, and a dozen other steps, is

designed and maintained to yield a quality meal. Operations

managers, using the best people they can recruit and train,

also prepare effective employee schedules and design

efficient layouts.

Managers who successfully design and deliver goods

and services throughout the world understand operations.

In this text, we look not only at how Hard Rock’s manag-

ers create value but also how operations managers in other

services, as well as in manufacturing, do so. Operations

management is demanding, challenging, and exciting. It

affects our lives every day. Ultimately, operations managers

determine how well we live.

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4

What Is Operations Management? Operations management (OM) is a discipline that applies to restaurants like Hard Rock Cafe as well as to factories like Ford and Whirlpool. The techniques of OM apply throughout the world to virtually all productive enterprises. It doesn’t matter if the application is in an office, a hospital, a restaurant, a department store, or a factory—the production of goods and ser- vices requires operations management. And the efficient production of goods and services requires effective applications of the concepts, tools, and techniques of OM that we introduce in this book.

As we progress through this text, we will discover how to manage operations in an economy in which both customers and suppliers are located throughout the world. An array of informa- tive examples, charts, text discussions, and pictures illustrates concepts and provides informa- tion. We will see how operations managers create the goods and services that enrich our lives.

In this chapter, we first define operations management , explaining its heritage and exploring the exciting role operations managers play in a huge variety of organizations. Then we discuss production and productivity in both goods- and service-producing firms. This is followed by a discussion of operations in the service sector and the challenge of managing an effective and efficient production system.

Production is the creation of goods and services. Operations management (OM) is the set of activi- ties that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs. Activities creating goods and services take place in all organizations. In manufacturing firms, the production activities that create goods are usually quite obvious. In them, we can see the creation of a tangible product such as a Sony TV or a Harley-Davidson motorcycle.

In an organization that does not create a tangible good or product, the production func- tion may be less obvious. We often call these activities services . The services may be “hidden” from the public and even from the customer. The product may take such forms as the transfer of funds from a savings account to a checking account, the transplant of a liver, the filling of an empty seat on an airplane, or the education of a student. Regardless of whether the end product is a good or service, the production activities that go on in the organization are often referred to as operations, or operations management .

Organizing to Produce Goods and Services To create goods and services, all organizations perform three functions (see Figure 1.1 ). These functions are the necessary ingredients not only for production but also for an organization’s survival. They are:

1. Marketing , which generates the demand, or at least takes the order for a product or ser- vice (nothing happens until there is a sale).

Categories
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calculate the average molar bond enthalpy of the carbon-bromine bond in a cbr4 molecule.

Given that
∆Hº(Br(g)) = 111.9 kJ/mol
∆Hº(C(g)) = 716.7 kJ/mol
∆Hº(CBr4(g)) = 29.4 kJ/mol
calculate the average molar bond enthalpy of the carbon-bromine bond in a CBr4 molecule.

0 0 284
asked by Kristen
Jan 23, 2013
I believe its products – reactants, but I am not sure. maybe Dr. Bob222 will come along and give you the right answer.

29.4- 828.6=-819.2kj/mol

Exothermic reaction.

0 1
posted by Devron
Jan 24, 2013

Categories
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process recordings social work

A process recording is a written tool used by field education experience students to examine the dynamics of social work interactions in time. Process recordings can help in developing and refining interviewing and intervention skills. By conceptualizing and organizing ongoing activities with social work clients, you are able to clarify the purpose of interviews and interventions, identify personal and professional strengths and weaknesses, and improve self-awareness. The process recording is also a useful tool in exploring the interpersonal dynamics and values operating between you and the client system through an analysis of filtering the process used in recording a session.

For this Assignment, you will submit a process recording of your field education experiences specific to this week.

Note: You are submitting a written transcript, not an audio or video recording.

The Assignment (2–4 pages):

  • Provide a transcript of what happened during your field education experience, including a dialogue of interaction with a client.
  • Explain your interpretation of what occurred in the dialogue, including social work practice theories, and explain how it might relate to diversity or cultural competence covered this week.
  • Describe your reactions and/or any issues related to your interaction with a client during your field education experience.
  • Explain how you applied social work practice skills when performing the activities during your process recording.
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“teens are less guilty by reason of adolescence” because their:

CHAPTER 4: Developing Through the Life Span

Life is a journey, from womb to tomb. So it is for me, and so it will be for you. My story, and yours, began when a man and a woman contributed 20,000+ genes to an egg that became a unique person. Those genes coded the protein building blocks that, with astonishing precision, formed our bodies and predisposed our traits. My grandmother bequeathed to my mother a rare hearing-loss pattern, which she, in turn, gave to me (the least of her gifts). My father was an amiable extravert, and sometimes I forget to stop talking. As a child, my talking was impeded by painful stuttering, for which Seattle Public Schools gave me speech therapy.

Along with my parents’ nature, I also received their nurture. Like you, I was born into a particular family and culture, with its own way of viewing the world. My values have been shaped by a family culture filled with talking and laughter, by a religious culture that speaks of love and justice, and by an academic culture that encourages critical thinking (asking, What do you mean? How do you know?).

We are formed by our genes, and by our contexts, so our stories will differ. But in many ways we are each like nearly everyone else on Earth. Being human, you and I have a need to belong. My mental video library, which began after age 4, is filled with scenes of social attachment. Over time, my attachments to parents loosened as peer friendships grew. After lacking confidence to date in high school, I fell in love with a college classmate and married at age 20. Natural selection disposes us to survive and perpetuate our genes. Sure enough, two years later a child entered our lives and I experienced a new form of love that surprised me with its intensity.

But life is marked by change. That child now lives 2000 miles away, and one of his two siblings has found her calling in South Africa. The tight rubber bands linking parent and child have loosened, as yours likely have as well.

Change also marks most vocational lives, which for me transitioned from a teen working in the family insurance agency, to a premed chemistry major and hospital aide, to (after discarding my half-completed medical school applications) a psychology professor and author. I predict that in 10 years you, too, will be doing things you do not currently anticipate.

Stability also marks our development. When I look in the mirror I do not see the person I once was, but I feel like the person I have always been. I am the same person who, as a late teen, played basketball and discovered love. A half-century later, I still play basketball and still love (with less passion but more security) the life partner with whom I have shared life’s griefs and joys.

We experience a continuous self, but that self morphs through stages—growing up, raising children, enjoying a career, and, eventually, life’s final stage, which will demand my presence. As I wend my way through this cycle of life and death, I am mindful that life’s journey is a continuing process of development, seeded by nature and shaped by nurture, animated by love and focused by work, begun with wide-eyed curiosity and completed, for those blessed to live to a good old age, with peace and never-ending hope.

Across the life span we grow from newborn to toddler, from toddler to teenager, and from teen to mature adult. At each stage of life’s journey there are physical, cognitive, and social milestones. Let’s begin at the very beginning.

Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues

4-1: What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists?

Developmental psychology examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span, with a focus on three major issues:

· 1.  Nature and nurture:  How does our genetic inheritance (our nature) interact with our experiences (our nurture) to influence our development? How have your nature and your nurture influenced your life story?

· 2.  Continuity and stages:  What parts of development are gradual and continuous, like riding an escalator? What parts change abruptly in separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?

· 3.  Stability and change:  Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age?

developmental psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

“Nature is all that a man brings with him into the world; nurture is every influence that affects him after his birth.”

Francis Galton, English Men of Science, 1874

We will reflect on these three developmental issues throughout this chapter.

Prenatal Development and the Newborn

4-2: What is the course of prenatal development, and how do teratogens affect that development?

Conception

Nothing is more natural than a species reproducing itself. And nothing is more wondrous. With humans, the process starts when a woman’s ovary releases a mature egg—a cell roughly the size of the period at the end of this sentence. Like space voyagers approaching a huge planet, the 200 million or more deposited sperm begin their race upstream, approaching a cell 85,000 times their own size. The relatively few reaching the egg release digestive enzymes that eat away its protective coating. As soon as one sperm penetrates that coating and is welcomed in the egg’s surface blocks out the others. Before half a day elapses, the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse. The two have become one.

Consider it your most fortunate of moments. Among 200 million sperm, the one needed to make you, in combination with that one particular egg, won the race. And so it was for innumerable generations before us. If any one of our ancestors had been conceived with a different sperm or egg, or died before conceiving, or not chanced to meet the partner or … the mind boggles at the improbable, unbroken chain of events that produced you and me.

Prenatal Development

Fewer than half of all fertilized eggs, called zygotes, survive beyond the first 2 weeks (Grobstein, 1979; Hall, 2004). But for you and me, good fortune prevailed. One cell became 2, then 4—each just like the first—until this cell division had produced some 100 identical cells within the first week. Then the cells began to differentiate—to specialize in structure and function. How identical cells do this—as if one decides “I’ll become a brain, you become intestines!”—is a puzzle that scientists are just beginning to solve.

zygote the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

About 10 days after conception, the zygote attaches to the mother’s uterine wall, beginning approximately 37 weeks of the closest human relationship. The zygote’s inner cells become the embryo. The outer cells become the placenta, the life-link that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to embryo. Over the next 6 weeks, the embryo’s organs begin to form and function. The heart begins to beat.

embryo the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

By 9 weeks after conception, an embryo looks unmistakably human. It is now a fetus (Latin for “offspring” or “young one”). During the sixth month, organs such as the stomach have developed enough to give the fetus a chance of survival if born prematurely.

fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

At each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors affect our development. By the sixth month, microphone readings taken inside the uterus reveal that the fetus is responsive to sound and is exposed to the sound of its mother’s muffled voice (Ecklund-Flores, 1992; Hepper, 2005). Immediately after birth, newborns prefer her voice to another woman’s or to their father’s (Busnel et al., 1992; DeCasper et al., 1984, 1986, 1994). They also prefer hearing their mother’s language. If she spoke two languages during pregnancy, they display interest in both (Byers-Heinlein et al., 2010). And just after birth, the melodic ups and downs of newborns’ cries bear the tuneful signature of their mother’s native tongue (Mampe et al., 2009). Babies born to French-speaking mothers tend to cry with the rising intonation of French; babies born to German-speaking mothers cry with the falling tones of German. Would you have guessed? The learning of language begins in the womb.

In the two months before birth, fetuses demonstrate learning in other ways, as when they adapt to a vibrating, honking device placed on their mother’s abdomen (Dirix et al., 2009). Like people who adapt to the sound of trains in their neighborhood, fetuses get used to the honking. Moreover, four weeks later, they recall the sound (as evidenced by their blasé response, compared with the reactions of those not previously exposed).

Sounds are not the only stimuli fetuses are exposed to in the womb. In addition to transferring nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus, the placenta screens out many harmful substances, but some slip by. Teratogens, agents such as toxins, viruses, and drugs, can damage an embryo or fetus. This is one reason pregnant women are advised not to drink alcoholic beverages. A pregnant woman never drinks alone. As alcohol enters her bloodstream, and her fetus’, it depresses activity in both their central nervous systems. Alcohol use during pregnancy may prime the woman’s offspring to like alcohol and may put them at risk for heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder during their teens. In experiments, when pregnant rats drank alcohol, their young offspring later displayed a liking for alcohol’s taste and odor (Youngentob et al., 2007, 2009).

teratogens (literally, “monster maker”) agents, such as toxins, chemicals, and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

Even light drinking or occasional binge drinking can affect the fetal brain (Braun, 1996; Ikonomidou et al., 2000; Sayal et al., 2009). Persistent heavy drinking puts the fetus at risk for birth defects and for future behavior problems, hyperactivity, and lower intelligence. For 1 in about 800 infants, the effects are visible as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), marked by a small, misproportioned head and lifelong brain abnormalities (May & Gossage, 2001). The fetal damage may occur because alcohol has what Chapter 2 called an epigenetic effect: It leaves chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off (Liu et al., 2009).

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.

Prenatal development

zygote:  conception to 2 weeks
embryo:  2 weeks through 8 weeks
fetus:  9 weeks to birth

“You shall conceive and bear a son. So then drink no wine or strong drink.”

Judges 13:7

“I felt like a man trapped in a woman’s body. Then I was born.”

Comedian Chris Bliss

The Competent Newborn

4-3: What are some newborn abilities, and how do researchers explore infants’ mental abilities?

Babies come with software preloaded on their neural hard drives. Having survived prenatal hazards, we as newborns came equipped with automatic reflex responses ideally suited for our survival. We withdrew our limbs to escape pain. If a cloth over our face interfered with our breathing, we turned our head from side to side and swiped at it.

New parents are often in awe of the coordinated sequence of reflexes by which their baby gets food. When something touches their cheek, babies turn toward that touch, open their mouth, and vigorously root for a nipple. Finding one, they automatically close on it and begin sucking—which itself requires a coordinated sequence of reflexive tonguing, swallowing, and breathing. Failing to find satisfaction, the hungry baby may cry—a behavior parents find highly unpleasant and very rewarding to relieve.

The pioneering American psychologist William James presumed that newborns experience a “blooming, buzzing confusion,” an assumption few people challenged until the 1960s. Then scientists discovered that babies can tell you a lot—if you know how to ask. To ask, you must capitalize on what babies can do—gaze, suck, turn their heads. So, equipped with eye-tracking machines and pacifiers wired to electronic gear, researchers set out to answer parents’ age-old questions: What can my baby see, hear, smell, and think?

Prepared to feed and eat

Consider how researchers exploit habituation—a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation. We saw this earlier when fetuses adapted to a vibrating, honking device placed on their mother’s abdomen. The novel stimulus gets attention when first presented. With repetition, the response weakens. This seeming boredom with familiar stimuli gives us a way to ask infants what they see and remember.

habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.

Indeed, even as newborns, we prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness. We turn our heads in the direction of human voices. We gaze longer at a drawing of a face-like image. We prefer to look at objects 8 to 12 inches away, which—wonder of wonders—just happens to be the approximate distance between a nursing infant’s eyes and its mother’s (Maurer & Maurer, 1988).

Within days after birth, our brain’s neural networks were stamped with the smell of our mother’s body. Week-old nursing babies, placed between a gauze pad from their mother’s bra and one from another nursing mother, have usually turned toward the smell of their own mother’s pad (MacFarlane, 1978). What’s more, that smell preference lasts. One experiment capitalized on the fact that some nursing mothers in a French maternity ward used a chamomile-scented balm to prevent nipple soreness (Delaunay-El Allam, 2010). Twenty-one months later, their toddlers preferred playing with chamomile-scented toys! Their peers who had not sniffed the scent while breast feeding showed no such preference. (This makes me wonder: Will adults, who as babies associated chamomile scent with their mother’s breast, become devoted chamomile tea drinkers?)

Infancy and Childhood

As a flower unfolds in accord with its genetic instructions, so do we humans. Maturation—the orderly sequence of biological growth—decrees many of our commonalities. We stand before walking. We use nouns before adjectives. Severe deprivation or abuse can retard our development, but the genetic growth tendencies are inborn. Maturation (nature) sets the basic course of development; experience (nurture) adjusts it. Once again, we see genes and scenes interacting.

maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.

“It is a rare privilege to watch the birth, growth, and first feeble struggles of a living human mind.”

Annie Sullivan, in Helen Keller’s The Story of My Life, 1903

Physical Development

4-4: During infancy and childhood, how do the brain and motor skills develop?

Brain Development

The formative nurture that conspired with nature began at conception, with the prenatal environment in the womb. Nurture continues outside the womb, where our early experiences foster brain development.

In your mother’s womb, your developing brain formed nerve cells at the explosive rate of nearly one-quarter million per minute. From infancy on, brain and mind—neural hardware and cognitive software—develop together. On the day you were born, you had most of the brain cells you would ever have. However, the wiring among these cells—your nervous system—was immature: After birth, these neural networks had a wild growth spurt branching and linking in patterns that would eventually enable you to walk, talk, and remember.

From ages 3 to 6, the most rapid brain growth was in your frontal lobes, which enable rational planning. During those years, your ability to control your attention and behavior developed rapidly (Garon et al., 2008; Thompson-Schill et al., 2009).

Frontal lobe development continues into adolescence and beyond. The last cortical areas to develop are the association areas—those linked with thinking, memory, and language. As they develop, mental abilities surge (Chugani & Phelps, 1986; Thatcher et al., 1987). The neural pathways supporting language and agility proliferate into puberty. Then, a use-it-or-lose-it pruning processshuts down unused links and strengthens others (Paus et al., 1999; Thompson et al., 2000).

Stringing the circuits young

Your genes dictated your overall brain architecture, rather like the lines of a coloring book, but experience fills in the details (Kenrick et al., 2009). So how do early experiences leave their “marks” in the brain? Mark Rosenzweig and David Krech opened a window on that process when they raised some young rats in solitary confinement in an impoverished environment, and others in a communal playground that simulated a natural environment. When the researchers later analyzed the rats’ brains, those who died with the most toys had won. The rats living in the enriched environment had usually developed a heavier and thicker brain cortex.

Rosenzweig was so surprised by this discovery that he repeated the experiment several times before publishing his findings (Renner & Rosenzweig, 1987; Rosenzweig, 1984). So great are the effects that, shown brief video clips, you could tell from the rats’ activity and curiosity whether their environment had been impoverished or enriched (Renner & Renner, 1993). After 60 days in the enriched environment, the rats’ brain weights increased 7 to 10 percent and the number of synapses mushroomed by about 20 percent (Kolb & Whishaw, 1998).

Such results have motivated improvements in environments for laboratory, farm, and zoo animals—and for children in institutions. Stimulation by touch or massage also benefits infant rats and premature babies (Field et al., 2007). “Handled” infants of both species develop faster neurologically and gain weight more rapidly. By giving preemies massage therapy, neonatal intensive care units help them to go home sooner (Field et al., 2006).

Nature and nurture together sculpt our synapses. Brain maturation provides us with an abundance of neural connections. Experiences—sights and smells, touches and tugs—activate and strengthen some neural pathways while others weaken from disuse. Like forest pathways, popular tracks are broadened and less-traveled ones gradually disappear. The result by puberty is a massive loss of unemployed connections.

Here at the juncture of nurture and nature is the biological reality of early childhood learning. During early childhood—while excess connections are still on call—youngsters can most easily master such skills as the grammar and accent of another language. We seem to have a critical period for some skills. Lacking any exposure to spoken, written, or signed language before adolescence, a person will never master any language. Likewise, lacking visual experience during the early years, a person whose vision is restored by cataract removal will never achieve normal perceptions. Without stimulation, the brain cells normally assigned to vision will die during the pruning process or be diverted to other uses. The maturing brain’s rule: Use it or lose it.

critical period an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development.

Although normal stimulation during the early years is critical, the brain’s development does not end with childhood. As we saw in Chapter 2’s discussion of brain plasticity, our neural tissue is ever changing and new neurons are born. If a monkey pushes a lever with the same finger several thousand times a day, brain tissue controlling that finger changes to reflect the experience. Human brains work similarly. Whether learning to keyboard or skateboard, we perform with increasing skill as our brain incorporates the learning (Ambrose, 2010).

“Genes and experiences are just two ways of doing the same thing—wiring synapses.”

Joseph LeDoux, The Synaptic Self, 2002

Motor Development

The developing brain enables physical coordination. As an infant’s muscles and nervous system mature, skills emerge. With occasional exceptions, the sequence of physical (motor) development is universal. Babies roll over before they sit unsupported, and they usually crawl on all fours before they walk. These behaviors reflect not imitation but a maturing nervous system; blind children, too, crawl before they walk.

There are, however, individual differences in timing. In the United States, for example, 25 percent of all babies walk by 11 months of age, 50 percent within a week after their first birthday, and 90 percent by age 15 months (Frankenburg et al., 1992). The recommended infant back-to-sleep position (putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of a smothering crib death) has been associated with somewhat later crawling but not with later walking (Davis et al., 1998; Lipsitt, 2003).

In the eight years following the 1994 launch of a U.S. Back to Sleep educational campaign, the number of infants sleeping on their stomach dropped from 70 to 11 percent—and SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) deaths fell by half (Braiker, 2005).

Genes guide motor development. Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day (Wilson, 1979). Maturation—including the rapid development of the cerebellum at the back of the brain—creates our readiness to learn walking at about age 1. Experience before that time has a limited effect. The same is true for other physical skills, including bowel and bladder control. Before necessary muscular and neural maturation, neither pleading nor punishment will produce successful toilet training.

Brain Maturation and Infant Memory

Can you recall your first day of preschool or your third birthday party? Our earliest memories seldom predate our third birthday. We see this infantile amnesia in the memories of some preschoolers who experienced an emergency fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker. Seven years later, they were able to recall the alarm and what caused it—if they were 4 to 5 years old at the time. Those experiencing the event as 3-year-olds could not remember the cause and usually misrecalled being already outside when the alarm sounded (Pillemer, 1995). Other studies have confirmed that the average age of earliest conscious memory is 3.5 years (Bauer, 2002, 2007). As children mature, from 4 to 6 to 8 years, childhood amnesia is giving way, and they become increasingly capable of remembering experiences, even for a year or more (Bruce et al., 2000; Morris et al., 2010). The brain areas underlying memory, such as the hippocampus and frontal lobes, continue to mature into adolescence (Bauer, 2007).

Although we consciously recall little from before age 4, our brain was processing and storing information during those early years. In 1965, while finishing her doctoral work in psychology, Carolyn Rovee-Collier observed an infant memory. She was a new mom, whose colicky 2-month-old, Benjamin, could be calmed by moving a crib mobile. Weary of hitting the mobile, she strung a cloth ribbon connecting the mobile to Benjamin’s foot. Soon, he was kicking his foot to move the mobile. Thinking about her unintended home experiment, Rovee-Collier realized that, contrary to popular opinion in the 1960s, babies are capable of learning. To know for sure that her son wasn’t just a whiz kid, she repeated the experiment with other infants (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1999). Sure enough, they, too, soon kicked more when hitched to a mobile, both on the day of the experiment and the day after. They had learned the link between moving legs and moving mobiles. If, however, she hitched them to a different mobile the next day, the infants showed no learning, indicating that they remembered the original mobile and recognized the difference. Moreover, when tethered to the familiar mobile a month later, they remembered the association and again began kicking.

Traces of forgotten childhood languages may also persist. One study tested English-speaking British adults who had no conscious memory of the Hindi or Zulu they had spoken as children. Yet, up to age 40, they could relearn subtle sound contrasts in these languages that other people could notlearn (Bowers et al., 2009). What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words, the nervous system and our two-track mind somehow remembers.

Cognitive Development

4-5: From the perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, and today’s researchers, how does a child’s mind develop?

Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Somewhere on your life journey, you became conscious. When was that, and how did your mind unfold from there? Developmental psychologist Jean Piaget [pee-ah-ZHAY] spent his life searching for the answers to such questions. His interest began in 1920, when he was in Paris developing questions for children’s intelligence tests. While administering the tests, Piaget became intrigued by children’s wrong answers, which were often strikingly similar among same-age children. Where others saw childish mistakes, Piaget saw intelligence at work.

cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

A half-century spent with children convinced Piaget that a child’s mind is not a miniature model of an adult’s. Thanks partly to his work, we now understand that children reason differently than adults, in “wildly illogical ways about problems whose solutions are self-evident to adults” (Brainerd, 1996).

Jean Piaget (1896–1980)

Piaget’s studies led him to believe that a child’s mind develops through a series of stages, in an upward march from the newborn’s simple reflexes to the adult’s abstract reasoning power. Thus, an 8-year-old can comprehend things a toddler cannot, such as the analogy that “getting an idea is like having a light turn on in your head,” or that a miniature slide is too small for sliding, and a miniature car is much too small to get into.

Piaget’s core idea is that the driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences. To this end, the maturing brain builds schemas, concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences. By adulthood we have built countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love.

schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

To explain how we use and adjust our schemas, Piaget proposed two more concepts. First, we assimilate new experiences—we interpret them in terms of our current understandings (schemas). Having a simple schema for dog, for example, a toddler may call all four-legged animals dogs. But as we interact with the world, we also adjust, or accommodate, our schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences. Thus, the child soon learns that the original dog schema is too broad and accommodates by refining the category.

assimilation interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.

accommodation adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking

Piaget believed that children construct their understanding of the world while interacting with it. Their minds experience spurts of change, followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive plateau to the next, each with distinctive characteristics that permit specific kinds of thinking.  TABLE 4.1  summarizes the four stages in Piaget’s theory.

Table 4.1: Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Typical Age RangeDescription of StageDevelopmental Phenomena
Birth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotorExperiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping)·  Object permanence·  Stranger anxiety
About 2 to about 6 or 7 yearsPreoperationalRepresenting things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning·  Pretend play·  Egocentrism
About 7 to 11 yearsConcrete operationalThinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations· Conservation· Mathematical transformations
About 12 through adulthoodFormal operationalAbstract reasoning·  Abstract logic·  Potential for mature moral reasoning

Sensorimotor Stage

In the sensorimotor stage, from birth to nearly age 2, babies take in the world through their senses and actions—through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. As their hands and limbs begin to move, they learn to make things happen.

sensorimotor stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

Very young babies seem to live in the present: Out of sight is out of mind. In one test, Piaget showed an infant an appealing toy and then flopped his beret over it. Before the age of 6 months, the infant acted as if the toy ceased to exist. Young infants lack object permanence—the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived. By 8 months, infants begin exhibiting memory for things no longer seen. If you hide a toy, the infant will momentarily look for it. Within another month or two, the infant will look for it even after being restrained for several seconds.

object permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.

So does object permanence in fact blossom at 8 months, much as tulips blossom in spring? Today’s researchers think not. They believe object permanence unfolds gradually, and they see development as more continuous than Piaget did. Even young infants will at least momentarily look for a toy where they saw it hidden a second before (Wang et al., 2004).

Researchers also believe Piaget and his followers underestimated young children’s competence. Consider these simple experiments:

·  Baby physics: Like adults staring in disbelief at a magic trick (the “Whoa!” look), infants look longer at an unexpected and unfamiliar scene of a car seeming to pass through a solid object, a ball stopping in midair, or an object violating object permanence by magically disappearing (Baillargeon, 1995, 2008; Wellman & Gelman, 1992).

·  Baby math: Karen Wynn (1992, 2000) showed 5-month-olds one or two objects. Then she hid the objects behind a screen, and visibly removed or added one. When she lifted the screen, the infants sometimes did a double take, staring longer when shown a wrong number of objects. But were they just responding to a greater or smaller mass of objects, rather than a change in number (Feigenson et al., 2002)? Later experiments showed that babies’ number sense extends to larger numbers, to ratios, and to such things as drumbeats and motions (Libertus & Brannon, 2009; McCrink & Wynn, 2004; Spelke & Kinzler, 2007). If accustomed to a Daffy Duck puppet jumping three times on stage, they showed surprise if it jumped only twice.

Clearly, infants are smarter than Piaget appreciated. Even as babies, we had a lot on our minds.

Preoperational Stage

Piaget believed that until about age 6 or 7, children are in a preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations (such as imagining an action and mentally reversing it). For a 5-year-old, the milk that seems “too much” in a tall, narrow glass may become an acceptable amount if poured into a short, wide glass. Focusing only on the height dimension, this child cannot perform the operation of mentally pouring the milk back. Before about age 6, said Piaget, children lack the concept of conservation—the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape.

preoperational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

conservation the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

PRETEND PLAY A child who can perform mental operations can think in symbols and therefore begins to enjoy pretend play. Contemporary researchers have found that symbolic thinking appears at an earlier age than Piaget supposed. Judy DeLoache (1987) showed children a model of a room and hid a miniature stuffed dog behind its miniature couch. The 2½-year-olds easily remembered where to find the miniature toy, but they could not use the model to locate an actual stuffed dog behind a couch in a real room. Three-year-olds—only 6 months older—usually went right to the actual stuffed animal in the real room, showing they could think of the model as a symbol for the room. Piaget did not view the stage transitions as abrupt shifts. Even so, he probably would have been surprised to see symbolic thinking at such an early age.

EGOCENTRISM Piaget contended that preschool children are egocentric: They have difficulty perceiving things from another’s point of view. Asked to “show Mommy your picture,” 2-year-old Gabriella holds the picture up facing her own eyes. Three-year-old Gray makes himself “invisible” by putting his hands over his eyes, assuming that if he can’t see his grandparents, they can’t see him. Children’s conversations also reveal their egocentrism, as one young boy demonstrated (Phillips, 1969, p. 61):

“Do you have a brother?”

“Yes.”

“What’s his name?”

“Jim.”

“Does Jim have a brother?”

“No.”

egocentrism in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view.

Like Gabriella, TV-watching preschoolers who block your view of the TV assume that you see what they see. They simply have not yet developed the ability to take another’s viewpoint. Even we adults may overestimate the extent to which others share our opinions and perspectives, a trait known as the curse of knowledge. We assume that something will be clear to others if it is clear to us, or that e-mail recipients will “hear” our “just kidding” intent (Epley et al., 2004; Kruger et al., 2005). Children are even more susceptible to such egocentrism.

THEORY OF MIND When Little Red Riding Hood realized her “grandmother” was really a wolf, she swiftly revised her ideas about the creature’s intentions and raced away. Preschoolers, although still egocentric, develop this ability to infer others’ mental states when they begin forming a theory of mind (a term first coined by psychologists David Premack and Guy Woodruff [1978], to describe chimpanzees’ seeming ability to read intentions).

theory of mind people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.

As the ability to take another’s perspective gradually develops, preschoolers come to understand what made a playmate angry, when a sibling will share, and what might make a parent buy a toy. And they begin to tease, empathize, and persuade. Between about 3½ and 4½, children worldwide come to realize that others may hold false beliefs (Callaghan et al., 2005; Sabbagh et al., 2006). Jennifer Jenkins and Janet Astington (1996) showed Toronto children a Band-Aids box and asked them what was inside. Expecting Band-Aids, the children were surprised to discover that the box actually contained pencils. Asked what a child who had never seen the box would think was inside, 3-year-olds typically answered “pencils.” By age 4 to 5, the children’s theory of mind had leapt forward, and they anticipated their friends’ false belief that the box would hold Band-Aids. Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty understanding that another’s state of mind differs from their own.

Concrete Operational Stage

By age 6 or 7, said Piaget, children enter the concrete operational stage. Given concrete (physical) materials, they begin to grasp conservation. Understanding that change in form does not mean change in quantity; they can mentally pour milk back and forth between glasses of different shapes. They also enjoy jokes that use this new understanding:

concrete operational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

Mr. Jones went into a restaurant and ordered a whole pizza for his dinner. When the waiter asked if he wanted it cut into 6 or 8 pieces, Mr. Jones said, “Oh, you’d better make it 6, I could never eat 8 pieces!” (McGhee, 1976)

Piaget believed that during the concrete operational stage, children become able to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation. When my daughter, Laura, was 6, I was astonished at her inability to reverse simple arithmetic. Asked, “What is 8 plus 4?” she required 5 seconds to compute “12,” and another 5 seconds to then compute 12 minus 4. By age 8, she could answer a reversed question instantly.

Formal Operational Stage

By about age 12, our reasoning expands from the purely concrete (involving actual experience) to encompass abstract thinking (involving imagined realities and symbols). As children approach adolescence, said Piaget, many become capable of thinking more like scientists. They can ponder hypothetical propositions and deduce consequences: If this, then that. Systematic reasoning, what Piaget called formal operational thinking, is now within their grasp.

formal operational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.

Although full-blown logic and reasoning await adolescence, the rudiments of formal operational thinking begin earlier than Piaget realized. Consider this simple problem:

If John is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?

Formal operational thinkers have no trouble answering correctly. But neither do most 7-year-olds (Suppes, 1982).

An Alternative Viewpoint: Lev Vygotsky and the Social Child

As Piaget was forming his theory of cognitive development, Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) was also studying how children think and learn. He noted that by age 7, they increasingly think in words and use words to solve problems. They do this, he said, by internalizing their culture’s language and relying on inner speech (Fernyhough, 2008). Parents who say “No, no!”when pulling a child’s hand away from a cake are giving the child a self-control tool. When the child later needs to resist temptation, he may likewise say “No, no!” Second-graders who muttered to themselves while doing math problems grasped third-grade math better the following year (Berk, 1994). Whether out loud or inaudibly, talking to themselves helps children control their behavior and emotions and master new skills.

Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934)

Where Piaget emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the physical environment, Vygotsky emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the socialenvironment. If Piaget’s child was a young scientist, Vygotsky’s was a young apprentice. By mentoring children and giving them new words, parents and others provide a temporary scaffoldfrom which children can step to higher levels of thinking (Renninger & Granott, 2005). Language, an important ingredient of social mentoring, provides the building blocks for thinking, noted Vygotsky (who was born the same year as Piaget, but died prematurely of tuberculosis).

Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory

What remains of Piaget’s ideas about the child’s mind? Plenty—enough to merit his being singled out by Time magazine as one of the twentieth century’s 20 most influential scientists and thinkers and rated in a survey of British psychologists as the last century’s greatest psychologist (Psychologist, 2003). Piaget identified significant cognitive milestones and stimulated worldwide interest in how the mind develops. His emphasis was less on the ages at which children typically reach specific milestones than on their sequence. Studies around the globe, from aboriginal Australia to Algeria to North America, have confirmed that human cognition unfolds basically in the sequence Piaget described (Lourenco & Machado, 1996; Segall et al., 1990).

However, today’s researchers see development as more continuous than did Piaget. By detecting the beginnings of each type of thinking at earlier ages, they have revealed conceptual abilities Piaget missed. Moreover, they view formal logic as a smaller part of cognition than he did. Piaget would not be surprised that today, as part of our own cognitive development, we are adapting his ideas to accommodate new findings.

“Assessing the impact of Piaget on developmental psychology is like assessing the impact of Shakespeare on English literature.”

Developmental psychologist Harry Beilin (1992)

CLOSE UP: Autism Spectrum Disorder and “Mind-Blindness”

Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a disorder marked by social deficiencies, have been increasing. Once believed to affect 1 in 2500 children, ASD now affects 1 in 110 American children and about 1 in 100 in Britain (CDC, 2009; Lilienfeld & Arkowitz, 2007; NAS, 2011). The increase in ASD diagnoses has been offset by a decrease in the number of children considered “cognitively disabled” or “learning disabled,” which suggests a relabeling of children’s disorders (Gernsbacher et al., 2005; Grinker, 2007; Shattuck, 2006). A massive $6.7 billion National Children’s Study now under way aims to enroll 100,000 pregnant women in 105 countries and to follow their babies until they turn 21. Researchers hope this study will help explain the rising rates of ASD, as well as premature births, childhood obesity, and asthma (Belluck, 2010; Murphy, 2008).

autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind.

The underlying source of ASD’s symptoms seems to be poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to let us take another’s viewpoint. This effect appears to result from ASD-related genes interacting with the environment (State  Šestan, 2012). People with ASD are therefore said to have an impaired theory of mind (Rajendran & Mitchell, 2007; Senju et al., 2009). They have difficulty inferring others’ thoughts and feelings. They do not appreciate that playmates and parents might view things differently. Mind reading that most of us find intuitive (Is that face conveying a smirk or a sneer?) is difficult for those with ASD. Most children learn that another child’s pouting mouth signals sadness, and that twinkling eyes mean happiness or mischief. A child with ASD fails to understand these signals (Frith & Frith, 2001). In hopes of a cure, desperate parents have sometimes subjected children to ineffective therapies (Shute, 2010).

Autism spectrum disorder

This speech-language pathologist is helping a boy with ASD learn to form sounds and words. ASD is marked by deficient social communication and difficulty grasping others’ states of mind.

Ozier Muhammad/The New York Times/Redux

ASD (formerly referred to as “autism”) has differing levels of severity. “High- functioning” individuals have normal intelligence, and they often have an exceptional skill or talent in a specific area. But they lack social and communication skills, and they tend to become distracted by minor and unimportant stimuli (Remington et al., 2009). Those at the spectrum’s lower end are unable to use language at all.

ASD afflicts four boys for every girl. Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen believes this hints at one way to understand this disorder. He has argued that ASD represents an “extreme male brain” (2008, 2009). Although there is some overlap between the sexes, he believes that boys are better “systemizers.” They tend to understand things according to rules or laws, for example, as in mathematical and mechanical systems. Children exposed to high levels of the male sex hormone testosterone in the womb may develop more masculine and autistic traits (Auyeung et al, 2009).

In contrast, girls are naturally predisposed to be “empathizers,” Baron-Cohen contends. They are better at reading facial expressions and gestures, though less so if given testosterone (van Honk et al, 2011).

Biological factors, including genetic influences and abnormal brain development, contribute to ASD (State  Šestan, 2012). Childhood MMR vaccinations do not (Demicheli et al., 2012). Based on a fraudulent 1998 study—the most damaging medical hoax of the last 100 years” (Flaherty, 2011)—some parents were misled into thinking that the childhood MMR vaccine increased risk of ASD. The unfortunate result was a drop in vaccination rates and an increase in cases of measles and mumps. Some unvaccinated children suffered long-term harm or even death.

Twin and sibling studies provide some evidence for biology’s influence. If one identical twin is diagnosed with ASD, the chances are 50 to 70 percent that the co-twin will also receive this diagnosis (Lichtenstein et al., 2010; Sebat et al., 2007). A younger sibling of a child with ASD also is at a heightened risk (Sutcliffe, 2008). Random genetic mutations in sperm-producing cells may also play a role. As men age, these mutations become more frequent, which may help explain why an over-40 man has a much higher risk of fathering a child with ASD than does a man under 30 (Reichenberg et al., 2007). Researchers are now sleuthing ASD’s telltale signs in the brain’s synaptic and gray matter (Crawley, 2007; Ecker et al., 2010; Garber, 2007).

“Autism” case number 1

In 1943, Donald Gray Triplett, an “odd” child with unusual gifts and social deficits, was the first person to receive the diagnosis of a previously unreported condition, which psychiatrist Leo Kanner termed “autism.” (After a 2013 change in the diagnosis manual, his condition is now called autism spectrum disorder.) In 2010, at age 77, Triplett was still living in his native home and Mississippi town, where he often played golf (Donvan & Zucker, 2010).

Biology’s role in ASD also appears in brain-function studies. People without ASD often yawn after seeing others yawn. And as they view and imitate another’s smiling or frowning, they feel something of what the other is feeling. Not so among those with ASD, who are less imitative and show much less activity in brain areas involved in mirroring others’ actions (Dapretto et al., 2006; Perra et al., 2008; Senju et al., 2007). When people with ASD watch another person’s hand movements, for example, their brain displays less-than-normal mirroring activity (Oberman & Ramachandran, 2007; Théoret et al., 2005). Scientists are continuing to explore and vigorously debate the idea that the brains of people with ASD have “broken mirrors” (Gallese et al., 2011).

Seeking to “systemize empathy,” Baron-Cohen and his Cambridge University colleagues (2007; Golan et al., 2010) collaborated with Britain’s National Autistic Society and a film production company. Knowing that television shows with vehicles have been popular among kids with ASD, they created animations with toy vehicle characters in a pretend boy’s bedroom, grafting emotion-conveying faces onto toy trams, trains, and tractors. After the boy leaves for school, the characters come to life and have experiences that lead them to display various emotions ( www.thetransporters.com ). The children were surprisingly able to generalize what they had learned to a new, real context. By the intervention’s end, their previously deficient ability to recognize emotions on real faces equaled that of children without ASD.

Implications for Parents and Teachers

Future parents and teachers, remember this: Young children are incapable of adult logic. Preschoolers who block one’s view of the TV simply have not learned to take another’s viewpoint. What seems simple and obvious to us—getting off a teeter-totter will cause a friend on the other end to crash—may be incomprehensible to a 3-year-old. Also remember that children are not passive receptacles waiting to be filled with knowledge. Better to build on what they already know, engaging them in concrete demonstrations and stimulating them to think for themselves. Finally, accept children’s cognitive immaturity as adaptive. It is nature’s strategy for keeping children close to protective adults and providing time for learning and socialization (Bjorklund & Green, 1992).

“Childhood has its own way of seeing, thinking, and feeling, and there is nothing more foolish than the attempt to put ours in its place.”

Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1798

Social Development

4-6: How do parent-infant attachment bonds form?

From birth, babies are social creatures, developing an intense bond with their caregivers. Infants come to prefer familiar faces and voices, then to coo and gurgle when given a parent’s attention. After about 8 months, soon after object permanence emerges and children become mobile, a curious thing happens: They develop stranger anxiety. They may greet strangers by crying and reaching for familiar caregivers. “No! Don’t leave me!” their distress seems to say. Children this age have schemas for familiar faces; when they cannot assimilate the new face into these remembered schemas, they become distressed (Kagan, 1984). Once again, we see an important principle: The brain, mind, and social-emotional behavior develop together.

stranger anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.

Origins of Attachment

One-year-olds typically cling tightly to a parent when they are frightened or expect separation. Reunited after being apart, they shower the parent with smiles and hugs. No social behavior is more striking than the intense and mutual infant-parent bond. This attachment bond is a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers. Infants become attached to those—typically their parents—who are comfortable and familiar. For many years, psychologists reasoned that infants became attached to those who satisfied their need for nourishment. It made sense. But an accidental finding overturned this explanation.

attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

Stranger anxiety

Body Contact

During the 1950s, University of Wisconsin psychologists Harry Harlow and Margaret Harlow bred monkeys for their learning studies. To equalize experiences and to isolate any disease, they separated the infant monkeys from their mothers shortly after birth and raised them in sanitary individual cages, which included a cheese-cloth baby blanket (Harlow et al., 1971). Then came a surprise: When their blankets were taken to be laundered, the monkeys became distressed.

The Harlows recognized that this intense attachment to the blanket contradicted the idea that attachment derives from an association with nourishment. But how could they show this more convincingly? To pit the drawing power of a food source against the contact comfort of the blanket, they created two artificial mothers. One was a bare wire cylinder with a wooden head and an attached feeding bottle, the other a cylinder wrapped with terry cloth.

When raised with both, the monkeys overwhelmingly preferred the comfy cloth mother. Like other infants clinging to their live mothers, the monkey babies would cling to their cloth mothers when anxious. When exploring their environment, they used her as a secure base, as if attached to her by an invisible elastic band that stretched only so far before pulling them back. Researchers soon learned that other qualities—rocking, warmth, and feeding—made the cloth mother even more appealing.

Human infants, too, become attached to parents who are soft and warm and who rock, feed, and pat. Much parent-infant emotional communication occurs via touch (Hertenstein et al., 2006), which can be either soothing (snuggles) or arousing (tickles). Human attachment also consists of one person providing another with a secure base from which to explore and a safe haven when distressed. As we mature, our secure base and safe haven shift—from parents to peers and partners (Cassidy & Shaver, 1999). But at all ages we are social creatures. We gain strength when someone offers, by words and actions, a safe haven: “I will be here. I am interested in you. Come what may, I will support you” (Crowell & Waters, 1994).

Familiarity

Contact is one key to attachment. Another is familiarity. In many animals, attachments based on familiarity form during a critical period—an optimal period when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development (Bornstein, 1989). As noted earlier, humans seem to have a critical period for language. Goslings, ducklings, and chicks have a critical period for attachment, called imprinting, which falls in the hours shortly after hatching, when the first moving object they see is normally their mother. From then on, the young fowl follow her, and her alone.

imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

Konrad Lorenz (1937) explored this rigid attachment process. He wondered: What would ducklings do if he was the first moving creature they observed? What they did was follow him around: Everywhere that Konrad went, the ducks were sure to go. Although baby birds imprint best to their own species, they also will imprint on a variety of moving objects—an animal of another species, a box on wheels, a bouncing ball (Colombo, 1982; Johnson, 1992). Once formed, this attachment is difficult to reverse.

Children—unlike ducklings—do not imprint. However, they do become attached to what they’ve known. Mere exposure to people and things fosters fondness. Children like to reread the same books, rewatch the same movies, and reenact family traditions. They prefer to eat familiar foods, live in the same familiar neighborhood, and attend school with the same old friends. Familiarity is a safety signal. Familiarity breeds content.

Attachment Differences

4-7: How have psychologists studied attachment differences, and what have they learned?

What accounts for children’s attachment differences? To answer this question, Mary Ainsworth (1979) designed the strange situation experiment. She observed mother-infant pairs at home during their first six months. Later she observed the 1-year-old infants in a strange situation (usually a laboratory playroom). Such research has shown that about 60 percent of infants display secure attachment. In their mother’s presence they play comfortably, happily exploring their new environment. When she leaves, they become distressed; when she returns, they seek contact with her.

Other infants avoid attachment or show insecure attachment, marked either by anxiety or avoidance of trusting relationships. They are less likely to explore their surroundings; they may even cling to their mother. When she leaves, they either cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent to her departure and return (Ainsworth, 1973, 1989; Kagan, 1995; van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg, 1988).

Ainsworth and others found that sensitive, responsive mothers—those who noticed what their babies were doing and responded appropriately—had infants who exhibited secure attachment (De Wolff & van IJzendoorn, 1997). Insensitive, unresponsive mothers—mothers who attended to their babies when they felt like doing so but ignored them at other times—often had infants who were insecurely attached. The Harlows’ monkey studies, with unresponsive artificial mothers, produced even more striking effects. When put in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the deprived infants were terrified.

But is attachment style the result of parenting? Or are other factors also at work?

Temperament and Attachment

How does temperament—a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity—affect attachment style? Temperament is genetically influenced. Shortly after birth, some babies are noticeably difficult—irritable, intense, and unpredictable. Others are easy—cheerful, relaxed, and feeding and sleeping on predictable schedules (Chess & Thomas, 1987).

temperament a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

The genetic effect appears in physiological differences. Anxious, inhibited infants have high and variable heart rates and a reactive nervous system. When facing new or strange situations, they become more physiologically aroused (Kagan & Snidman, 2004). One form of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter serotonin predisposes a fearful temperament and, in combination with unsupportive caregiving, an inhibited child (Fox et al., 2007).

Temperament differences typically persist. Consider:

·  The most emotionally reactive newborns have tended also to be the most reactive 9-month-olds (Wilson & Matheny, 1986; Worobey & Blajda, 1989).

·  Exceptionally inhibited and fearful 2-year-olds often were still relatively shy as 8-year-olds; about half became introverted adolescents (Kagan et al., 1992, 1994).

·  The most emotionally intense preschoolers have tended to be relatively intense young adults (Larsen & Diener, 1987). In one long-term study of more than 900 New Zealanders, emotionally reactive and impulsive 3-year-olds developed into somewhat more impulsive, aggressive, and conflict-prone 21-year-olds (Caspi, 2000).

Such evidence supports the conclusion that our biologically rooted temperament helps form our enduring personality (McCrae et al., 2000, 2007; Rothbart et al., 2000).

Parenting studies that neglect such inborn differences, noted Judith Harris (1998), do the equivalent of “comparing foxhounds reared in kennels with poodles reared in apartments.” To separate the effects of nature and nurture on attachment, we would need to vary parenting while controlling temperament. (Pause and think: If you were the researcher, how might you have done this?)

Full-time dad

Dutch researcher Dymphna van den Boom’s solution was to randomly assign 100 temperamentally difficult 6- to 9-month-olds to either an experimental group, in which mothers received personal training in sensitive responding, or to a control group, in which they did not. At 12 months of age, 68 percent of the experimental group infants were rated securely attached, as were only 28 percent of the control group infants. Other studies have confirmed that intervention programs can increase parental sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, infant attachment security (Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., 2003; Van Zeijl et al., 2006).

As many of these examples indicate, researchers have more often studied mother care than father care, but fathers are more than just mobile sperm banks. Despite the widespread attitude that “fathering a child” means impregnating, and “mothering” means nurturing, nearly 100 studies worldwide have shown that a father’s love and acceptance are comparable to a mother’s love in predicting an offspring’s health and well-being (Rohner & Veneziano, 2001). In one mammoth British study following 7259 children from birth to adulthood, those whose fathers were most involved in parenting (through outings, reading to them, and taking an interest in their education) tended to achieve more in school, even after controlling for other factors such as parental education and family wealth (Flouri & Buchanan, 2004). Fathers matter.

Children’s anxiety over separation from parents peaks at around 13 months, then gradually declines. This happens whether they live with one parent or two, are cared for at home or in a day-care center, live in North America, Guatemala, or the Kalahari Desert. Does this mean our need for and love of others also fades away? Hardly. Our capacity for love grows, and our pleasure in touching and holding those we love never ceases. The power of early attachment does nonetheless gradually relax, allowing us to move into a wider range of situations, communicate with strangers more freely, and stay emotionally attached to loved ones despite distance.

“Out of the conflict between trust and mistrust, the infant develops hope, which is the earliest form of what gradually becomes faith in adults.”

Erik Erikson (1983)

Attachment Styles and Later Relationships

Developmental theorist Erik Erikson (1902–1994), working with his wife, Joan Erikson, believed that securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust—a sense that the world is predictable and reliable. He attributed basic trust not to environment or inborn temperament, but to early parenting. He theorized that infants blessed with sensitive, loving caregivers form a lifelong attitude of trust rather than fear.

basic trust according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.

Although debate continues, many researchers now believe that our early attachments form the foundation for our adult relationships (Birnbaum et al., 2006; Fraley, 2002). Our adult styles of romantic love tend to exhibit secure, trusting attachment; insecure-anxious attachment; or insecure-avoidant attachment (Feeney & Noller, 1990; Rholes & Simpson, 2004; Shaver & Mikulincer, 2007). Feeling insecurely attached to others during childhood, for example, may take two main forms in adulthood (Fraley et al., 2011). One is anxiety, in which people constantly crave acceptance but remain vigilant to signs of possible rejection. The other is avoidance, in which people experience discomfort getting close to others and use avoidant strategies to maintain distance from others.

Adult attachment styles can also affect relationships with one’s own children. Avoidant people’s discomfort with closeness makes parenting more stressful and unsatisfying (Rholes et al., 2006). But say this for those (nearly half of all humans) who exhibit insecure attachments: Anxious or avoidant tendencies have helped our groups detect or escape dangers (Ein-Dor et al., 2010).

Deprivation of Attachment

4-8: How does childhood neglect or abuse affect children’s attachments?

If secure attachment fosters social trust, what happens when circumstances prevent a child’s forming attachments? In all of psychology, there is no sadder research literature. Babies locked away at home under conditions of abuse or extreme neglect are often withdrawn, frightened, even speechless. The same is true of those reared in institutions without the stimulation and attention of a regular caregiver, as was tragically illustrated during the 1970s and 1980s in Romania. Having decided that economic growth for his impoverished country required more human capital, Nicolae Ceauşescu, Romania’s Communist dictator, outlawed contraception, forbade abortion, and taxed families with fewer than five children. The birthrate indeed skyrocketed. But unable to afford the children they had been coerced into having, many families abandoned them to government-run orphanages with untrained and overworked staff. Child-to-caregiver ratios often were 15 to 1, so the children were deprived of healthy attachments with at least one adult. When tested after Ceauşescu was assassinated in 1989, these children had lower intelligence scores and double the 20 percent rate of anxiety symptoms found in children assigned to quality foster care settings (Nelson et al., 2009). Dozens of other studies across 19 countries have confirmed that orphaned children tend to fare better on later intelligence tests if raised in family homes. This is especially so for those placed at an early age (van IJzendoorn et al., 2008).

“What is learned in the cradle lasts to the grave.”

French proverb

Most children growing up under adversity (as did the surviving children of the Holocaust) are resilient; they become normal adults (Helmreich, 1992; Masten, 2001). So do most victims of childhood sexual abuse, notes Harvard researcher Susan Clancy (2010), while emphasizing that using children for sex is revolting and never the victim’s fault.

But others, especially those who experience no sharp break from their abusive past, don’t bounce back so readily. The Harlows’ monkeys raised in total isolation, without even an artificial mother, bore lifelong scars. As adults, when placed with other monkeys their age, they either cowered in fright or lashed out in aggression. When they reached sexual maturity, most were incapable of mating. If artificially impregnated, females often were neglectful, abusive, even murderous toward their first-born. Another primate experiment confirmed the abuse-breeds-abuse phenomenon in rhesus monkeys: 9 of 16 females who had been abused by their mothers became abusive parents, as did no female raised by a nonabusive mother (Maestripieri, 2005).

The deprivation of attachment

In humans, too, the unloved may become the unloving. Most abusive parents—and many condemned murderers—have reported being neglected or battered as children (Kempe & Kempe, 1978; Lewis et al., 1988). Some 30 percent of people who have been abused later abuse their children—a rate lower than that found in the primate study, but four times the U.S. national rate of child abuse (Dumont et al., 2007; Kaufman & Zigler, 1987).

Although most abused children do not later become violent criminals or abusive parents, extreme early trauma may nevertheless leave footprints on the brain. Abused children exhibit hypersensitivity to angry faces (Pollak, 2008). As adults, they exhibit stronger startle responses (Jovanovic et al., 2009). If repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, normally placid golden hamsters grow up to be cowards when caged with same-sized hamsters, or bullies when caged with weaker ones (Ferris, 1996). Such animals show changes in the brain chemical serotonin, which calms aggressive impulses. A similarly sluggish serotonin response has been found in abused children who become aggressive teens and adults. “Stress can set off a ripple of hormonal changes that permanently wire a child’s brain to cope with a malevolent world,” concluded abuse researcher Martin Teicher (2002).

Such findings help explain why young children who have survived severe or prolonged physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, or wartime atrocities are at increased risk for health problems, psychological disorders, substance abuse, and criminality (Freyd et al., 2005; Kendall-Tackett et al., 1993, 2004; Wegman & Stetler, 2009). Abuse victims are at considerable risk for depression if they carry a gene variation that spurs stress-hormone production (Bradley et al., 2008). As we will see again and again, behavior and emotion arise from a particular environment interacting with particular genes.

We adults also suffer when our attachment bonds are severed. Whether through death or separation, a break produces a predictable sequence. Agitated preoccupation with the lost partner is followed by deep sadness and, eventually, the beginnings of emotional detachment and a return to normal living (Hazan & Shaver, 1994). Newly separated couples who have long ago ceased feeling affection are sometimes surprised at their desire to be near the former partner. Deep and longstanding attachments seldom break quickly. Detaching is a process, not an event.

Day Care

4-9: How does day care affect children?

Developmental psychologists’ research has uncovered no major impact of maternal employment on children’s development, attachments, and achievements (Friedman & Boyle, 2008; Goldberg et al., 2008; Lucas-Thompson et al., 2010).

Contemporary research now focuses on the effects of differing quality of day care on different types and ages of children (Vandell et al., 2010). Sandra Scarr (1997) explained: Around the world, “high-quality child care consists of warm, supportive interactions with adults in a safe, healthy, and stimulating environment.…Poor care is boring and unresponsive to children’s needs.” Even well-run orphanages can produce healthy, thriving children. In Africa and Asia, where more and more children are losing parents to AIDS and other diseases, orphanages typically are unlike those in Ceauşescu’s Romania, and the children living in quality orphanages fare about as well as those living in communities (Whetten et al., 2009).

Children thrive under varied types of responsive caregiving. Westernized attachment features one or two caregivers and their offspring, but multiple caregivers are the norm in other cultures, such as the Efe of Zaire (Field, 1996; Whaley et al., 2002). Even before an Efe mother holds her newborn, the baby is passed among several women. In the weeks to come, the infant will be constantly held (and fed) by other women and will form strong multiple attachments.

Categories
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commercial research firms like nielsen and j. d. power and associates are sources of

marketing research

10

Chapter

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

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Chapter 10 – Marketing Research

Learning Objectives

LO 10-1 Identify the five steps in the marketing research process.

LO 10-2 Describe the various secondary data sources.

LO 10-3 Describe the various primary data collection techniques.

LO 10-4 Summarize the differences between secondary data and primary data.

LO 10-5 Examine the circumstances in which collecting information on consumers is ethical.

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These questions are the learning objectives guiding the chapter and will be explored in more detail in the following slides.

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Disney

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Ask students: How did Disney conduct research and what did they learn? Students should realize that exploratory research was very important.

How should Disney deal with the backlash among privacy experts and some consumers?

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Marketing Research

DATA

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Consists of a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recoding, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas

The marketing research function links firms and organizations to their customers through data.

By collecting data from customers, firms can better deliver products and services designed to meet their needs

Collecting

Recording

Analyzing

Interpreting

Decision Making

The Marketing Research Process

Defining the objectives and research needs

Designing the research

Collecting the data

Analyzing data and developing insights

Developing and implementing an action plan

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Answers to some research questions are readily accessible, as a simple data search would show.

Step 1: Defining Objectives and Research Needs

What information is needed to answer specific research questions?

How should that information be obtained?

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To determine whether to conduct research, two questions must be addressed: What? How?

Step 2: Designing the Research

Type of data

Type of research

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In this step, researchers identify the type of data needed and determine the type of research necessary to collect it.

Step 3: Collecting the Data

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After answering why and how, researchers must determine where they can find the data. Discuss how the types of data required determine the methods used to collect them. If you can connect to your college library, look at some of the data sources at your own school. Dabases like mintel, tablebase, ABI inform, and Business Source Premier are excellent sources of data.

Group activity: As a group, tackle a problem for a company (e.g., local retailer who appears to be losing customers). For this problem, list several research questions that secondary data can answer. Then list several questions that require primary data.

Step 4: Analyzing Data and Developing Insights

Converting data into information to explain, predict, and/or evaluate a particular situation.

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The problem today is not too little data but, in many instances, too much. Firms are drowning in data, and their challenge is to convert that data into information.

For example, consider data from a cookie taste test. Suppose the average mean for the group who saw the national brand cookie was 5.4 (1=poor taste and 7=great taste) and the store brand cookie was 2.3. These two means are significantly different. It would be important for the students to realize that the data helps marketing managers make decisions—in this case—creating and cultivating that the brand is important.

Step 5: Developing and Implementing an Action Plan

Executive Summary

Body

Conclusions

Limitations

Supplements including tables, figures, appendices

Digital Vision/Getty Images

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A typical marketing research report would start with a two page executive summary.

This would highlight the objectives of the study, methodology, and key insights.

The body of the report would go through the objectives of the study, issues examined, methodology, analysis and results, insights, and managerial implications.

We would end with conclusions and any limitations or caveats.

Many consultants today provide an executive summary, PowerPoint presentation of the report, questionnaire, and tabulated study results

What are the steps in the marketing research process?

What is the difference between data and information?

check yourself-1

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Define objectives and research needs, designing the research project, deciding on the data collection process and collecting the data, analyze and interpret the data, prepare the findings for presentation.

Data can be defined as raw numbers or other factual information that, on their own, have limited value to marketers. However, when the data are interpreted, they become information.

External Secondary Data Syndicated Data

NameServices Provided
Nielsen (http://www.nielsen.com)With its Market Measurement Services, the company tracks the sales of consumer packaged goods, gathered at the point of sale in retail stores of all types and sizes.
IRI (http://www.iriworldwide.com)InfoScan store tracking provides detailed information about sales, share, distribution, pricing, and promotion across a wide variety of retail channels and accounts.
JD. Power and Associates (http://www.jdpower.com)Widely known for its automotive ratings, it produces quality and customer satisfaction research for a variety of industries.
Mediamark Research Inc. (http://www.mediamark.com)Supplies multimedia audience research pertaining to media and marketing planning for advertised brands.
National Purchase Diary Panel (http://www.npd.com)Based on detailed records consumers keep about their purchases (i.e., a diary), it provides information about product movement and consumer behavior in a variety of industries.
NOP World (http://www.nopworld.com)The mKids US research study tracks mobile telephone ownership and usage, brand affinities, and entertainment habits of American youth between 12 and 19 years of age.
Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com)Promotes itself as a one-stop shop for market research and data from most leading publishers, consultants, and analysts.
Roper Center for Public Opinion Research (http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu)The General Social Survey is one of the nation’s longest running surveys of social, cultural, and political indicators.
Simmons Market Research Bureau (http://www.smrb.com)Reports on the products American consumers buy, the brands they prefer, and their lifestyles, attitudes, and media preferences.
Yankelovich (http://www.yankelovich.com)The MONITOR tracks consumer attitudes, values, and lifestyles shaping the American marketplace.

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Secondary data are plentiful and free, whereas syndicated data generally are more detailed but can be very costly.

Ask students: Why might firms subscribe to a data service and collect their own primary and secondary data at the same time?

External Secondary Data Scanner Research

IRI

Courtesy The Nielsen Co

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Students may not remember a time before grocery stores used scanners, but highlight how the installation of scanners created a huge new data source for marketers.

Ask students: What can researchers take from scanner data?

Students might note that researchers can discover which consumers purchase what products together and how often.

They also can immediately track the impact of any price or promotional adjustments.

This web link brings you to IRI homepage—explore their many products with the students.

External Secondary Data Panel Research

Group of consumers

Survey or sales receipts

What are they buying

or not buying?

©BananaStock/PunchStock

Flying Colours Ltd/Getty Images

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In recent years, response rates to marketing research surveys have declined, which has increased usage of research panels.

Internal Secondary Data

Data Warehouse

Data Mining

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Every day, consumers provide wide-ranging data that get stored in increasingly large databases.

Ask students: How might firms and organizations collect information about you? Do you always know when you are providing such data? Who uses these data?

In the United States, firms use opt-out programs, so when consumers fill out a registration form or application, the firm automatically has permission to market to that customer and share information with its partners, unless consumers explicitly revoke this permission.

In contrast, the EU regulations state that customers must opt-in to such information uses.

What is the difference between internal and external secondary research?

check yourself-2

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Secondary data might come from free or very inexpensive external sources, such as census data, information from trade associations, and reports published in magazines. Secondary sources can also be accessed through internal sources, including the company’s sales invoices, customer lists, and other reports generated by the company itself.

Qualitative versus Quantitative Data Collection Techniques

Jump to Appendix 1 long image description

Qualitative research

Data

collection

research

Quantitative research

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Managers commonly use several exploratory research methods: observation, in-depth interviewing, focus group interviews, and projective techniques.

If the firm is ready to move beyond preliminary insights, it likely is ready to engage in conclusive research, which provides the information needed to confirm those insights and which managers can use to pursue appropriate courses of action.

Observation

In-Depth interviews

Focus groups

Social media

Experiments

Scanner

Survey

Panel

Data Collection

Qualitative Research

Observation

Social Media

In-depth interview

Focus group

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Example of observation: When a museum wanted to know which exhibits people visited most often, it conducted a unique study to determine the wear patterns in the floor. This “human trace” evidence allowed the museum to study flow patterns.

Interviews provide extremely valuable information, because researchers can probe respondents to elicit more information about interesting topics. Focus groups similarly provide a snapshot of customers’ opinions and allow some follow-up but also are relatively fast and inexpensive to conduct.

Video: “The Brave New World of Shopper-Tracking Technology”

Ask students: What are the advantages to a company in tracking a customer’s behavior inside a store?

Ask students: What are the advantages to a company of combining a customer’s in-store behavior with their online shopping behavior?

WSJ: http://live.wsj.com/video/the-brave-new-world-of-shopper-tracking-technology/7503B9D6-2F0D-40B8-9684-E293BA3E9207.html#!7503B9D6-2F0D-40B8-9684-E293BA3E9207

What are the types of qualitative research?

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Observation, In-Depth Interviews, Focus Groups, and Social Media.

Survey Research

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Marketing research relies heavily on questionnaires, and questionnaire design is virtually an art form.

Ask students: What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of question (unstructured and structured)?

Group activity: Create a questionnaire. First determine the form of the questions (i.e., structured versus unstructured).

On the basis of these questions, what types of analysis will you be able to perform on your collected data?

Web Surveying

Response rates are relatively high

Respondents may lie less

It is inexpensive

Results are processed and received quickly

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Ask students: Do you fill out Internet surveys? If so, were you honest in your responses.

Ask students whether they took their time with the survey and gave quality responses.

Using Web Surveying

How do firms successfully use web surveying?

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc/John Flournoy, photographer

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The Internet offers researchers a new way to reach customers, but its use requires adaptations and new research methods.

Experimental Research

AP Photo/Mary Altaffer

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Using an experiment, McDonald’s would “test” the price of a new menu item to determine which is the most profitable.

An example of an experiment could involve two groups of subjects. One tastes cookies with a national brand and the other with a store brand. Each group rates the cookie on a seven point scale from poor to great taste. The group with the branded name tends to rate the cookie as better tasting, demonstrating the power of a brand name.

Group Activity: Ask students to design a taste test experiment for Coke vs. Pepsi.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary and Primary Data

TypeExamplesAdvantagesDisadvantages
Secondary Research
Primary Research

Census data

Sales invoices

Internet information

Books

Journal articles

Syndicated data

Saves time in collecting data because they are readily available

Free or inexpensive (except for syndicated data)

May not be precisely relevant to information needs

Information may not be timely

Sources may not be original, and therefore usefulness is an issue

Methodologies for collecting data may not be appropriate

Data sources may be biased

Observed consumer behavior

Focus group interviews

Surveys

Experiments

Specific to the immediate

data needs and topic at hand

Offers behavioral insights generally not available from secondary research

Costly = Time consuming

Requires more sophisticated training and experience to design study and collect data

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A summary of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of research.

What are the types of quantitative research?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of primary and secondary research?

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Experiments, Survey, Scanner, and Panel

See Exhibit 10.9

The Ethics of Using Customer Information

Strong ethical orientation

Adhere to ethical practices

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A strong ethical orientation must be an integral part of a firm’s marketing strategy and decision making.

It is extremely important for marketers to adhere to ethical practices when conducting marketing research.

26

Under what circumstances is it ethical to use consumer information in marketing research?

What challenges do technological advances pose for the ethics of marketing research?

check yourself-5

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Many customers demand increasing control over the information that has been collected about them. Companies must disclose their privacy practices to customers before using information.

As technology continues to advance though, the potential threats to consumers’ personal information grow in number and intensity.

Glossary-1

Data are raw numbers or other factual information that, on their own, have limited value to marketers.

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Data are raw numbers or other factual information that, on their own, have limited value to marketers.

28

Glossary-2

Experimental research is a type of quantitative research that systematically manipulates one or more variables to determine which variables have a causal effect on another variable.

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Experimental research is a type of quantitative research that systematically manipulates one or more variables to determine which variables have a causal effect on another variable.

29

Glossary-3

Marketing research consists of a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recording, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas.

Return to slide

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Marketing research consists of a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recording, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas.

30

Glossary-4

Panel research is a type of quantitative research that involves collecting information from a group of consumers (the panel) over time.

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Panel research is a type of quantitative research that involves collecting information from a group of consumers (the panel) over time.

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Glossary-5

Scanner research is a type of quantitative research that uses data obtained from scanner readings of UPC codes at check-out counters.

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Scanner research is a type of quantitative research that uses data obtained from scanner readings of UPC codes at check-out counters.

32

Glossary-6

A survey is a systematic means of collecting information from people that generally uses a questionnaire.

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A survey is a systematic means of collecting information from people that generally uses a questionnaire.

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Glossary-7

Syndicated data are data available for a fee from commercial research firms such as Information Resources Inc. (IRI), National Purchase Diary Panel, and ACNielsen.

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Syndicated data are data available for a fee from commercial research firms such as Information Resources Inc. (IRI), National Purchase Diary Panel, and ACNielsen.

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Appendix 1 Qualitative versus Quantitative Data Collection Techniques

Data collection research consists of qualitative research (observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups and social media) and quantitative research (experiments, survey, scanner, and panel).

Return to slide

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Categories
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smiles, head nods, eye contact, and clapping from audience members are all forms of

Consider the Audience

• Analyzing the audience is central to the speechmaking process; consider your audience at every step of the way in preparing and presenting your speech. • Gather information about your audience by asking questions or surveying them more formally. • Summarize and analyze the information you have gathered.

Select and Narrow Your Topic

• Consider the audience: Who are your listeners and what do they expect? • Consider the occasion: What is the reason for the speech? • Consider your own interests and skills: What are your strengths?

Determine Your Purpose

• Decide whether your general speech purpose is to inform, to persuade, or

to entertain, or a combination of these goals. • Decide on your specific purpose:

What do you want your listeners to be able to do after you finish your speech? • Use your specific purpose to guide

you in connecting your message to your audience.

Develop Your Central Idea

• State your central idea for your speech in one sentence. • Your central idea should be a single idea

presented in clear, specific language. • Relate your central idea to your audience.

Generate Main Ideas

• Determine whether your central idea can be supported with logical divisions using a topical arrangement. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with reasons the idea is true. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with a series of steps.

Gather Supporting Material

• Remember that most of what you say consists of supporting material such

as stories, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions.

• The best supporting material both clarifies your major ideas and holds your listeners’ attention. • Supporting material that is personal, concrete, and appealing to the listeners’

senses is often the most interesting.

Organize Your Speech

• Remember the maxim: Tell us what you’re going to tell us (introduction); tell us (body); and tell us what you told us (conclusion). • Outline your main ideas by topic, chronologically, spatially, by cause and effect, or by problem and solution. • Use signposts to clarify the overall structure of your message.

Rehearse Your Speech

• Prepare speaking notes and practice using them well in advance of your speaking date. • Rehearse your speech out loud, standing as you would stand while delivering your speech. • Practice with well-chosen visual aids that are big, simple, and appropriate for your audience.

Deliver Your Speech

• Look at individual listeners. • Use movement and gestures that fit your natural style of speaking.

Why Do You Need This New Edition? If you’re wondering why you should buy this new edition of Public Speaking: An Audience- Centered Approach, here are eight good reasons!

1. We’ve kept the best and improved the rest. The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach continues its unique focus on the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point in the speech- making process, but is now an easier-to-use and more effec- tive learning tool than ever.

2. We’ve streamlined the book to 16 chapters, so that every chapter can be covered during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now combines an introduction to public speaking with an overview of the audience-centered model. Chapter 6 now combines information on gathering supporting mate- rial with advice on how to integrate supporting material into a speech.

3. New end-of-chapter Study Guides are designed to help you retain and apply chapter concepts. Study Guides feature chapter summaries; “Using What You’ve Learned” questions posing realistic scenarios; “A Question of Ethics” to reinforce the importance of ethical speaking; and referrals to selected online resources that help you find resources to use in your own speeches.

4. More tables and Recap boxes summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. These frequent reviews help you check understanding, study for exams, and rehearse material to aid retention.

5. The eighth edition continues our popular focus on control- ling speaking anxiety, developed through expanded and updated coverage of communication apprehension in Chapter 1 and reinforced with tips and reminders in “Confidently Connecting with Your Audience” features in the margins of every chapter.

6. New and expanded coverage of key communication theories and current research, including studies of anxiety styles in Chapter 1, introductions to social judgment theory in Chapter 14, and emotional response theory in Chapter 15, help you apply recent theories and findings.

7. Every chapter of the eighth edition boasts engaging fresh examples to help you connect concepts to your own life and interests, including new references to contemporary technology such as social media sites in Chapter 4 and iPads in Chapter 12.

8. New speeches, including Barack Obama’s inaugural speech, contribute to an impressive sample speech appendix that will inspire and instruct you as you work with your own material.

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Public Speaking

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8 Public SpeakingAN AUDIENCE-CENTERED APPROACH Steven A. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

Susan J. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

E D

IT IO

N

Allyn & Bacon Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River

Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Editor-in-Chief, Communication: Karon Bowers Development Editor: Sheralee Connors Editorial Assistant: Megan Sweeney Marketing Manager: Blair Tuckman Media Producer: Megan Higginbotham Project Manager: Anne Ricigliano Project Coordination, Text Design, and Electronic Page Makeup: Nesbitt Graphics, Inc. Cover Design Manager: Anne Nieglos Cover Designer: Joseph DePinho Cover Art: William Low Manufacturing Buyer: Mary Ann Gloriande Printer and Binder: Quad Graphics/Dubuque Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color/Hagerstown

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beebe, Steven A.

Public speaking : an audience-centered approach / Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe. — 8th ed. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-78462-2 (alk. paper)

1. Public speaking. 2. Oral communication. I. Beebe, Susan J. II. Title. PN4129.15.B43 2012 808.5’1—dc22

2010054152

Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States. To obtain permission to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116, fax: (617) 671-2290. For information regarding permissions, call (617) 671-2295 or e-mail: permissionsus@pearson.com.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—QGD—14 13 12 11

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-78462-2 www.pearsonhighered.com ISBN-10: 0-205-78462-3

Dedicated to our parents, Russell and Muriel Beebe and Herb and Jane Dye

And to our children, Mark, Matthew, and Brittany Beebe

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ix

1 Speaking with Confidence 3 2 Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 3 Listening to Speeches 49 4 Analyzing Your Audience 77 5 Developing Your Speech 111 6 Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 7 Organizing Your Speech 161 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 9 Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203

10 Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 11 Delivering Your Speech 235 12 Using Presentation Aids 265 13 Speaking to Inform 289 14 Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 15 Using Persuasive Strategies 337 16 Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373

Epilogue 390

Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 392

Appendix B Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400

Brief Contents

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xi

Contents

Preface xxiii

Speaking with Confidence 3 Why Study Public Speaking? 4

Empowerment 4 ● Employment 4

The Communication Process 5 Communication as Action 5 ● Communication as Interaction 6 ● Communication as Transaction 7

The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 7 LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Martin Luther King Jr. 8

Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker 9

1

C H

A PT

E R

SAMPLE OUTLINE 24

Gather Visual Supporting Material 25

Organize Your Speech 25

Select and Narrow Your Topic 20 Determine Your Purpose 21

Determine Your General Purpose 21 ● Determine Your Specific Purpose 21

Develop Your Central Idea 22 Generate the Main Ideas 22 Gather Supporting Material 23

Gather Interesting Supporting Material 23

Understand Your Nervousness 10 ● How to Build Your Confidence 13

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Begin with the End in Mind 17

An Overview of Audience-Centered Public Speaking 17 Consider Your Audience 19

Gather and Analyze Information about Your Audience 19 ● Consider the Culturally Diverse Backgrounds of Your Audience 19

Rehearse Your Speech 27

Deliver Your Speech 27

SAMPLE SPEECH 29

STUDY GUIDE 30

SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Confidence as a Public Speaker 33

Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 Speaking Freely 37

Free Speech and the U.S. Constitution 37 ● Free Speech in the Twentieth Century 37 ● Free Speech in the Twenty-first Century 38

Speaking Ethically 39 Have a Clear, Responsible Goal 39

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mohandas Gandhi 40

Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning 40 ● Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences 41 ● Be Honest 41 ● Don’t Plagiarize 42

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Remember That You Will Look More Confident Than You May Feel 42

SAMPLE ORAL CITATION 44

Speaking Credibly 44

STUDY GUIDE 46

SPEECH WORKSHOP Avoiding Plagiarism 47

Listening to Speeches 49 Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening 51

Managing Information Overload 52 ● Overcoming Personal Concerns 53 ● Reducing Outside Distractions 53 ● Overcoming Prejudice 54 ● Using Differences between Speech Rate and Thought Rate 54 ● Managing Receiver Apprehension 55

How to Become a Better Listener 55 Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears 56 ● Listen Mindfully 57

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS César Chávez 58

Listen Skillfully 59 ● Listen Ethically 62

xii Contents

C H

A PT

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2

C H

A PT

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Improving Listening and Critical Thinking Skills 63 Separate Facts from Inferences 63 ● Evaluate the Quality of Evidence 64 ● Evaluate the Underlying Logic and Reasoning 65

Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches 65 Understanding Criteria for Evaluating Speeches 66 ● Identifying and Analyzing Rhetorical Strategies 68 ● Giving Feedback to Others 69 ● Giving Feedback to Yourself 70

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Look for Positive Listener Support 71

STUDY GUIDE 72

SPEECH WORKSHOP Evaluating a Speaker’s Rhetorical Effectiveness 74

Analyzing Your Audience 77 Gathering Information about Your Audience 79 Analyzing Information about Your Audience 80

Look for Audience Member Similarities 81 ● Look for Audience Member Differences 82 ● Establish Common Ground with Your Audience 82

Adapting to Your Audience 82

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Winston Churchill 83

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Learn as Much as You Can about Your Audience 83

Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak 84 Demographic Audience Analysis 84 ● Psychological Audience Analysis 94 ● Situational Audience Analysis 96

Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak 99

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Consider Your Audience 99

Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues 100 ● Responding to Nonverbal Cues 101 ● Strategies for Customizing Your Message to Your Audience 101

Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak 103 Nonverbal Responses 104 ● Verbal Responses 104 ● Survey Responses 104 ● Behavioral Responses 105

STUDY GUIDE 106

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing Communication Strategies to Adapt to Your Audience 108

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Developing Your Speech 111 Select and Narrow Your Topic 112

Guidelines for Selecting a Topic 113

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Select an Interesting Topic 113

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Frederick Douglass 115

Strategies for Selecting a Topic 115 ● Narrowing the Topic 117

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Select and Narrow Your Topic 117

Determine Your Purpose 118 General Purpose 118 ● Specific Purpose 119

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Determine Your Purpose 121

Develop Your Central Idea 121 A Complete Declarative Sentence 122 ● Direct, Specific Language 122

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Develop Your Central Idea 123 ● A Single Idea 123 ● An Audience-Centered Idea 123

Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas 124 Generating Your Main Ideas 124 ● Previewing Your Main Ideas 125

Meanwhile, Back at the Computer . . . 126

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Generate Your Main Ideas 127

STUDY GUIDE 128

SPEECH WORKSHOP Strategies for Selecting a Speech Topic 130

Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 Sources of Supporting Material 134

Personal Knowledge and Experience 134 ● The Internet 134 ● Online Databases 135 ● Traditional Library Holdings 137 ● Interviews 139

Research Strategies 141 Develop a Preliminary Bibliography 141 ● Locate Resources 142 ● Assess the Usefulness of Resources 142 ● Take Notes 143

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Gather Supporting Material 143

Identify Possible Presentation Aids 144

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Types of Supporting Material 144 Illustrations 145

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Eleanor Roosevelt 146

Descriptions and Explanations 147 ● Definitions 148 ● Analogies 149 ● Statistics 150 ● Opinions 152

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Prepare Early 153

The Best Supporting Material 154

STUDY GUIDE 156

SPEECH WORKSHOP Identifying a Variety of Supporting Material for Your Speech 158

Organizing Your Speech 161 Organizing Your Main Ideas 163

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Organize Your Message 163

Organizing Ideas Topically 163 ● Ordering Ideas Chronologically 164 ● Arranging Ideas Spatially 166 ● Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect 166

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Desmond Tutu 166

Organizing Ideas by Problem-Solution 167 ● Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization 169

Subdividing Your Main Ideas 170 Integrating Your Supporting Material 170

Prepare Your Supporting Material 170 ● Organize Your Supporting Material 171

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Organize Your Speech 172

Incorporate Your Supporting Material into Your Speech 173

Developing Signposts 173

SAMPLE INTEGRATION OF SUPPORTING MATERIAL 173

Transitions 174 ● Previews 175 ● Summaries 176

Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids 177

STUDY GUIDE 178

SPEECH WORKSHOP Organizing Your Ideas 180

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Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Be Familiar with Your

Introduction and Conclusion 184

Purposes of Introductions 184 Get the Audience’s Attention 184 ● Give the Audience a Reason to Listen 185 ● Introduce the Subject 185 ● Establish Your Credibility 186 ● Preview Your Main Ideas 186

Effective Introductions 187 Illustrations or Anecdotes 187 ● Startling Facts or Statistics 188 ● Quotations 188 ● Humor 189 ● Questions 190 ● References to Historical Events 191 ● References to Recent Events 192 ● Personal References 192 ● References to the Occasion 192 ● References to Preceding Speeches 193

Purposes of Conclusions 193 Summarize the Speech 193 ● Provide Closure 194

Effective Conclusions 195 Methods Also Used for Introductions 196 ● References to the Introduction 196 ● Inspirational Appeals or Challenges 196

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Patrick Henry 197

STUDY GUIDE 198

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing the Introduction and Conclusion to Your Speech 200

Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203 Developing Your Preparation Outline 204

The Preparation Outline 204 ● Sample Preparation Outline 206

Revising Your Speech 207

SAMPLE PREPARATION OUTLINE 208

Developing Your Delivery Outline and Speaking Notes 209 The Delivery Outline 210

SAMPLE DELIVERY OUTLINE 210

Sample Delivery Outline 211 ● Speaking Notes 212

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Your Well-Prepared Speaking Notes When You Rehearse 212

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mark Twain 213

STUDY GUIDE 214

SPEECH WORKSHOP Outlining Your Speech 215

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Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 Differentiating Oral and Written Language Styles 218 Using Words Effectively 219

Use Specific, Concrete Words 219 ● Use Simple Words 220 ● Use Words Correctly 220 ● Use Words Concisely 221

Adapting Your Language Style to Diverse Listeners 221 Use Language That Your Audience Can Understand 222 ● Use Appropriate Language 222 ● Use Unbiased Language 222

Crafting Memorable Word Structures 223 Creating Figurative Images 224 ● Creating Drama 225 ● Creating Cadence 225

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS John F. Kennedy 228

Analyzing an Example of Memorable Word Structure 228

Using Memorable Word Structures Effectively 229

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Words to Manage Your Anxiety 229

STUDY GUIDE 230

SPEECH WORKSHOP Conducting a “Language Style Audit” of Your Speech 232

Delivering Your Speech 235 The Power of Speech Delivery 236

Listeners Expect Effective Delivery 236 ● Listeners Make Emotional Connections with You through Delivery 237 ● Listeners Believe What They See 238

Methods of Delivery 238 Manuscript Speaking 238 ● Memorized Speaking 239 ● Impromptu Speaking 240 ● Extemporaneous Speaking 241

Characteristics of Effective Delivery 242

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Marcus Tullius Cicero 242

Eye Contact 243 ● Gestures 243 ● Movement 246 ● Posture 247 ● Facial Expression 248 ● Vocal Delivery 248 ● Personal Appearance 253

Audience Diversity and Delivery 253

DON’T GET LOST IN TRANSLATION 255

Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips 256 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Re-create the Speech Environment When You Rehearse 257

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DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Rehearse Your Speech 257

Delivering Your Speech 257

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Deliver Your Speech 257

Responding to Questions 258

STUDY GUIDE 261

SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Speech Delivery 263

Using Presentation Aids 265 The Value of Presentation Aids 266

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Ronald Reagan 267

Types of Presentation Aids 268 Three-Dimensional Presentation Aids 268 ● Two-Dimensional Presentation Aids 269 ● PowerPoint™ Presentation Aids 274 ● Tips for Using PowerPoint™ 275 ● Audiovisual Aids 277

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Practice with Your Presentation Aids to Boost Your Confidence 277

Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids 279 Make Them Easy to See 279 ● Keep Them Simple 279 ● Select the Right Presentation Aid 280 ● Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Presentation Aids 280

Guidelines for Using Presentation Aids 280 Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Make Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Explain Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Do Not Pass Objects among Members of Your Audience 282 ● Use Animals with Caution 282 ● Use Handouts Effectively 282 ● Time the Use of Visuals to Control Your Audience’s Attention 283 ● Use Technology Effectively 284 ● Remember Murphy’s Law 284

STUDY GUIDE 285

SPEECH WORKSHOP A Checklist for Using Effective Presentation Aids 287

Speaking to Inform 289 Types of Informative Speeches 290

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Oprah Winfrey 291

Speeches about Objects 292 ● Speeches about Procedures 293 ● Speeches about People 294 ● Speeches about Events 295 ● Speeches about Ideas 295

Strategies to Enhance Audience Understanding 296 Speak with Clarity 296 ● Use Principles and Techniques of Adult Learning 297 ● Clarify Unfamiliar Ideas or Complex Processes 298 ● Appeal to a Variety of Learning Styles 299

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Strategies to Maintain Audience Interest 300 Motivate Your Audience to Listen to You 300 ● Tell a Story 301 ● Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners 301 ● Use the Unexpected 301

SAMPLE INFORMATIVE SPEECH 302

Strategies to Enhance Audience Recall 303 Build In Redundancy 303 ● Make Your Key Ideas Short and Simple 304 ● Pace Your Information Flow 304 ● Reinforce Key Ideas 304

Developing an Audience-Centered Informative Speech 305 Consider Your Audience 305 ● Select and Narrow Your Informational Topic 305 ● Determine Your Informative Purpose 306 ● Develop Your Central Idea 306 ● Generate Your Main Ideas 306

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Focus on Your Information Rather Than on Your Fear 307

Gather Your Supporting Materials 307 ● Organize Your Speech 307 ● Rehearse Your Presentation 307 ● Deliver Your Speech 307

STUDY GUIDE 309

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Vivid Word Picture 311

Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 Persuasion Defined 314

Changing or Reinforcing Audience Attitudes 314 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Beliefs 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Values 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Behaviors 316

How Persuasion Works 316 Aristotle’s Traditional Approach: Using Ethos, Logos, and Pathos to Persuade 316 ● ELM’S Contemporary Approach: Using a Direct or Indirect Path to Persuade 317

How to Motivate Listeners 319 Use Cognitive Dissonance 319 ● Use Listener Needs 322 ● Use Positive Motivation 324 ● Use Negative Motivation 324

How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech 326 Consider the Audience 326 ● Select and Narrow Your Persuasive Topic 327

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Elizabeth Cady Stanton 327

Determine Your Persuasive Purpose 328 ● Develop Your Central Idea and Main Ideas 328 ● Gather Supporting Material 331

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Breathe to Relax 332

Organize Your Persuasive Speech 332 ● Rehearse and Deliver Your Speech 332

STUDY GUIDE 333

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Persuasive Speech 335

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Using Persuasive Strategies 337 Enhancing Your Credibility 338

Elements of Your Credibility 338 ● Phases of Your Credibility 339

Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade 340 Understanding Types of Reasoning 341 ● Persuading the Culturally Diverse Audience 345 ● Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence 347 ● Using Evidence Effectively 348 ● Avoiding Faulty Reasoning 349

Using Emotion to Persuade 351

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Franklin Delano Roosevelt 351

Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade 352 ● Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues 355

Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 356 Persuading the Receptive Audience 356 ● Persuading the Neutral Audience 357 ● Persuading the Unreceptive Audience 357

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Enhance Your Initial Credibility 358

Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages 359 Problem–Solution 360 ● Refutation 361 ● Cause and Effect 362 ● The Motivated Sequence 363

SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH 366

STUDY GUIDE 369

SPEECH WORKSHOP Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 371

Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373 Public Speaking in the Workplace 374

Group Presentations 374 ● Public-Relations Speeches 377

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Seek a Variety of Speaking Opportunities 378

Ceremonial Speaking 378 Introductions 378 ● Toasts 379 ● Award Presentations 379 ● Nominations 380 ● Acceptances 380 ● Keynote Addresses 381 ● Commencement Addresses 382 ● Commemorative Addresses and Tributes 382 ● Eulogies 383

After-Dinner Speaking: Using Humor Effectively 383

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LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Dave Barry 384

Humorous Topics 384 ● Humorous Stories 385 ● Humorous Verbal Strategies 386 ● Humorous Nonverbal Strategies 387

STUDY GUIDE 388

SPEECH WORKSHOP Introducing a Speaker 389

Epilogue 390

Speaking in Small Groups 392 Solving Problems in Groups and Teams 393

1. Identify and Define the Problem 393 ● 2. Analyze the Problem 394 ● 3. Generate Possible Solutions 394 ● 4. Select the Best Solution 395 ● 5. Test and Implement the Solution 395

Participating in Small Groups 395 Come Prepared for Group Discussions 395 ● Do Not Suggest Solutions before Analyzing the Problem 396 ● Evaluate Evidence 396 ● Help Summarize the Group’s Progress 396 ● Listen and Respond Courteously to Others 396 ● Help Manage Conflict 396

Leading Small Groups 397 Leadership Responsibilities 397 ● Leadership Styles 398

Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400 I Have a Dream, Martin Luther King Jr. 400 Delivering the Gift of Freedom to Future Generations (Inaugural Address), Barack Obama 402 Find Your Passion, and Find a Way to Get Paid to Follow It, Anne Lynam Goddard 406 Sticky Ideas: Low-Tech Solutions to a High-Tech Problem, Richard L. Weaver, II 410

Land of the Free Because of the Homeless, Shaunna Miller 414

Endnotes 417 Index 431

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The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach is writ-ten to be the primary text in a course intended to help students become bet-ter public speakers. We are delighted that since the first edition of the book was published two decades ago, educators and students of public speaking have found our book a distinctively useful resource to enhance public-speaking skills. We’ve worked to make our latest edition a preeminent resource for helping students enhance their speaking skills by adding new features and retaining the most success- ful elements of previous editions.

New to the Eighth Edition We’ve refined and updated the book you are holding in your hands to create a pow- erful and contemporary resource for helping speakers connect to their audience. We’ve added several new features and revised features that both instructors and stu- dents have praised.

Streamlined Organization In response to suggestions from instructors who use the book, we’ve consolidated re- lated topics to reduce the book to a total of 16 chapters, allowing instructors to in- clude every chapter during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now offers a preview of the audience-centered speaking model as well as introducing students to the history and value of public speaking and starting the process of building their confidence as public speakers. Chapter 6 now not only shows stu- dents how to gather sup- porting material, but also immediately provides them advice and examples for ef- fective ways to integrate their supporting materials into a speech.

Preface

Learn, compare,

collect the

facts! . . . Always

have the courage to

say to yourself—

I am ignorant.

—IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV

132

Sources of Supporting Material Personal Knowledge and

Experience The Internet Online Databases Traditional Library Holdings Interviews

Research Strategies Develop a Preliminary Bibliography Locate Resources Assess the Usefulness of Resources

Take Notes Identify Possible Presentation Aids

Types of Supporting Material Illustrations Descriptions and Explanations Definitions Analogies Statistics Opinions

The Best Supporting Material

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6 Gathering and UsingSupporting Material

A pple pie is your specialty. Your family and friends relish your flaky crust,spicy filling, and crunchy crumb topping. Fortunately, not only do you havea never-fail recipe and technique, but you also know where to go for the best ingredients. Fette’s Orchard has the tangiest pie apples in town. For your crust,

you use only Premier shortening, which you buy at Meyer’s Specialty Market. Your

crumb topping requires both stone-ground whole-wheat flour and fresh creamery

butter, available on Tuesdays at the farmer’s market on the courthouse square.

Chapter 6 covers the speech-development step highlighted in Figure 6.1 on

page 134: Gather Supporting Material. Just as making your apple pie requires

that you know where to find specific ingredients, creating a successful speech re-

quires a knowledge of the sources, research strategies, and types of supporting

material that speechmakers typically use.

After studying this chapter you should be able to do the following:

1. List five potential sources of supporting material for a speech.

2. Explain five strategies for a logical research process.

3. List and describe six types of supporting material.

4. List and explain six criteria for determining the best supporting material to use in a speech.

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Alexandra Exter (1882–1949), Sketch for a Scenic Design, ca. 1924, gouache on paper. Photo: M. E. Smith/Private Collection. © DeA Picture Library/Art Resource, N. Y.

xxiii

xxiv Preface

Updated Features In the eighth edition, we have added more marginal Recap boxes and tables to summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. Students can use the Recaps and tables to check their understanding, review for exams, and to reference key advice as they prepare their speeches.

New End-of-Chapter Study Guides We’ve provided a new, consolidated Study Guide at the end of each chapter. This practical feature helps students to review and check their understanding of chapter topics. The Study Guide summarizes the content of each major section of the chapter; restates the chapter’s best ideas for being an audience-centered speaker; poses discussion- sparking scenarios that show how chapter concepts might apply in real speaking and ethical situations; and points readers in the direction of relevant online resources that they can use as speakers.

Purposes of Introductions It is important to begin and end your speech in a way that is memorable and that also provides the repetition audiences need. A good introduction gets the audience’s attention, gives the audience a reason to listen, intro- duces your subject, establishes your credibility, and pre- views your main ideas.

Introducing your subject and previewing the body of your speech can be accomplished by includ- ing your central idea and preview statement in the introduction.

Being Audience-Centered ● Introductions and conclusions provide audiences

with important first and final impressions of speaker and speech.

● As a speaker, your task is to ensure that your in- troduction convinces your audience to listen to you.

● A credible speaker is one whom the audience judges to be a believable authority and a compe-

k E bli hi dibili l i

Being Audience-Centered ● If your audience is linguistically diverse or com-

posed primarily of listeners whose first language is not English, it may be preferable not to use humor in your introduction. Because much humor is cre- ated verbally, it may not be readily understood and it rarely translates well.

Using What You’ve Learned ● Nakai is planning to give his informative speech on

Native American music, displaying and demon- strating the use of such instruments as the flute, the Taos drum, and the Yaqui rain stick. He asks you to suggest a good introduction for the speech. How do you think he might best introduce his speech?

A Question of Ethics ● Marty and Shanna, who are in the same section of a

public-speaking class, are discussing their upcoming speeches. Marty has discovered an illustration that she thinks will make an effective introduction. When she tells Shanna about it, Shanna is genuinely enthu- siastic In fact she thinks it would make a great in-

STUDY GUIDE

198 CHAPTER 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech

TABLE 4.3 Adapting Your Message to Different Types of Audiences

Type of Audience Example How to Be Audience-Centered

Interested Mayors who attend a talk by the gov- ernor about increasing security and reducing the threat of terrorism

Acknowledge audience interest early in your speech; use the interest they have in you and your topic to gain and maintain their attention.

Uninterested Junior-high students attending a lecture about retirement benefits

Make it a high priority to tell your lis- teners why your message should be of interest to them. Remind your listeners throughout your speech how your mes- sage relates to their lives.

Favorable A religious group that meets to hear a group leader talk about the importance of their beliefs

Use audience interest to move them closer to your speaking goal; you may be more explicit in telling them in your speech conclusion what you would like them to do.

Unfavorable Students who attend a lecture by the university president explaining why tuition and fees will increase 15 percent next year

Be realistic in what you expect to ac- complish; acknowledge listeners’ oppos- ing point of view; consider using facts to refute misperceptions they may hold.

Voluntary Parents attending a lecture by the new principal at their children’s school

Anticipate why listeners are coming to hear you, and speak about the issues they want you to address.

Captive Students in a public-speaking class Find out who will be in your audience and use this knowledge to adapt your message to them.

We’ve updated the extended example that appears in Developing Your Speech Step by Step boxes throughout the book. We’ve also updated our popular Learning from Great Speakers features, which identify specific tips and lessons students can learn from great speakers, and our practical Speech Workshop worksheets, which end each chapter and guide students in implementing chapter advice. These worksheets are designed as aids to help students with what they are most concerned about: developing and delivering their own speeches with confidence.

New Speeches We’ve added new annotated student speeches and speech examples throughout the book. In addition, nearly every speech in our revised Appendix B is new, selected to provide readers with a variety of positive models of effective speeches.

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C A

P Adapting to Your Audience To ethically use information to help an audience understand your message, consider your:

• listeners

• speech goal

• speech content

• delivery

Avoid pandering to listeners or making up information.

Organizing Your Ideas Use this worksheet to help you identify the overall organizational strategy for your speech.

GENERAL PURPOSE:

____ To inform

____ To persuade

____ To entertain

SPECIFIC PURPOSE:

At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to ___________________________

SPEECH WORKSHOP 180 CHAPTER 7 Developing Your Speech

Preface xxv

New Examples and Illustrations New examples and illustrations integrated in every chapter provide both classic and contemporary models to help students master the art of public speaking. As in previous editions, we draw on both stu- dent speeches and speeches delivered by well-known people.

New Material in Every Chapter In addition to these new and expanded features, each chapter has been revised with new examples, illustrations, and references to the latest research conclusions. Here’s a summary of the changes and revisions we’ve made:

Chapter 1: Speaking with Confidence ● The chapter now includes a preview of the audience-centered speaking

process to offer a more complete introduction to public speaking. ● New research on biological causes and effects of speech anxiety provides

advice for channeling physiological arousal in ways that help the speaker. ● A new discussion of anxiety styles helps readers choose confidence-building

tips that are most effective for their style. ● A new figure and a new discussion of the timing of speech anxiety help speak-

ers to time their use of confidence-building strategies for maximum effect.

Chapter 2: Speaking Freely and Ethically ● A revised and updated discussion of free speech helps students understand

the evolution of interpretation of the First Amendment. ● New examples throughout the chapter keep material current and relevant to

readers. ● A new section, Speaking Credibly, reinforces the importance of ethics and

remaining audience-centered and connects concepts across chapters of the book.

Chapter 3: Listening to Speeches ● A new introduction to working memory theory helps students understand

how to cope with information overload that can impede listening. ● A new summary of research on the importance of awareness of one’s own

listening guides students to assess how well they stay on-task as listeners. ● The chapter is streamlined by removing discussion of note-taking, a skill

most students at this level have learned in other contexts. ● A new Listening Ethically section helps to reinforce the importance of ethics

introduced in the previous chapter.

Chapter 4: Analyzing Your Audience ● Our discussion of methods for gathering information has been updated to

include use of the Internet and social media. ● New definitions of race, ethnicity, and culture help readers to clarify the im-

portance of adapting to the audience’s cultural diversity.

Chapter 5: Developing Your Speech ● A new speech, in the Developing Your Speech Step by Step featured in several

chapters, provides an extended example of how to implement audience- centered speechmaking concepts.

Speech Assignment Given

A nx

ie ty

L ev

el

You Begin Your Speech

Speech

High

Low

● Updated lists of potential speech topics can spark students’ own topic brainstorms. ● New material helps students to clarify and distinguish among the general purpose,

specific purpose, and central idea of their speeches. ● New examples throughout the chapter keep material current and relevant to readers.

Chapter 6: Gathering and Using Supporting Material ● This streamlined chapter combines two previously separate chapters to show students

not only where to find supporting material but also how to most effectively use the material they find.

● A thoroughly updated section on sources of information guides students to use Inter- net sources, online databases, traditional library holdings and more, without rehashing research basics students have learned in other contexts.

● The revised end-of-chapter Speech Workshop offers students structured guidance for planning their use of supporting materials.

Chapter 7: Organizing Your Speech ● New examples provide clear demonstrations of how to use popular organizational

patterns, establish main ideas, integrate supporting material, and signal transitions with signposts.

Chapter 8: Introducing and Concluding Your Speech ● New examples of effective introductions and conclusions from both student and

seasoned speakers show students how to implement the techniques described in the chapter.

Chapter 9: Outlining and Revising Your Speech

● We’ve moved our discussion of editing to Chapter 10, where it helps students to focus on the process of rehearsing with a preparation outline as a way to guide them in revising their speeches.

● We’ve included a new Sample Preparation Outline and Delivery Outline to give students complete models of the best practices in organization and revision.

Chapter 10: Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style

● A discussion of editing your speech, formerly in Chapter 9, helps students to under- stand how to make their speeches more effective by keeping their words concise.

● New examples throughout the chapter clarify discussions of memorable word struc- tures, including similes, metaphors, inversion, suspension, parallelism, antithesis, and alliteration.

Chapter 11: Delivering Your Speech

● New information offers guidance in using eye contact effectively. ● A new table summarizes recommendations for working with a translator when speak-

ing to audiences who do not speak English. ● We’ve streamlined the chapter by removing discussion of adapting speech delivery for

television. ● A revised end-of-chapter Speech Workshop offers students structured guidance for

evaluating how to improve their speech delivery.

xxvi Preface

Chapter 12: Using Presentation Aids ● Updated information on two-dimensional presentation aids suggests more effective,

economical technological alternatives when using photographs, slides, and overhead transparencies.

● We’ve added new information on the latest research about using PowerPoint™. ● New discussions of using video aids and audio aids include references to current stor-

age technology, such as iPods and iPads, as well as current content sources, such as YouTube.

Chapter 13: Speaking to Inform ● A new section shows readers how to appeal to a variety of listener learning styles when

speaking to inform. ● Another new section shows the applicability of every step of the audience-centered

model of public speaking to informative speeches.

Chapter 14: Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking ● A clarified definition helps students to understand key elements of persuasion. ● New and expanded discussion of ELM persuasion theory and how it compares to Aris-

totle’s classical theory focuses on how persuasive speakers can effectively apply both theories.

● A new discussion and figure on social judgment theory help students to apply theoret- ical concepts to their own real-life speaking situations.

● An expanded section How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech shows students how to apply every step of the audience-centered speaking model to their persuasive speeches.

Chapter 15: Using Persuasive Strategies ● Our updated discussion of credibility helps students to plan how to establish and sup-

port their own credibility at various phases of their speech. ● New examples help to clarify explanations of strategies for organizing persuasive

messages, including refutation, cause and effect, and the motivated sequence. ● A new Sample Persuasive Speech gives students a complete model of how to use the

motivated sequence and other principles of persuasion.

Chapter 16: Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes ● New chapter opening examples reinforce the value of public speaking with dollars-

and-cents evidence. ● New examples throughout the chapter demonstrate models of speeches for ceremonial

occasions including award acceptances, commencement addresses, and eulogies, as well as humorous speaking.

Successful Features Retained in This Edition The goal of the eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach remains the same as that of the previous seven editions: to be a practical and user-friendly guide to help speakers connect their hearts and minds with those of their listeners. While adding powerful new features and content to help students become skilled public speakers, we have also endeavored

Preface xxvii

to keep what students and instructors liked best. Specifically, we retained five areas of focus that have proven successful in previous editions: our audience-centered approach; our focus on over- coming communication apprehension; our focus on ethics; our focus on diversity; and our focus on skill development. We also continue our partnership with instructors and students by offer- ing a wide array of print and electronic supplements to support teaching and learning.

Our Audience-Centered Approach The distinguishing focus of the book is our audience-centered approach. Over 2,300 years ago, Aristotle said, “For of the three elements in speechmaking—speaker, subject, and person ad- dressed—it is the last one, the hearer, that determines the speaker’s end and object.” We think Aristotle was right. A good speech centers on the needs, values, and hopes of the audience, who should be foremost in the speaker’s mind during every step of the speech development and de- livery process. Thus, in a very real sense, the audience writes the speech. Effective and ethical public speaking does not simply tell listeners only what they want to hear—that would be a manipulative, speaker-centered approach. Rather, the audience-centered speaker is ethically responsive to audience interests without abandoning the speaker’s end and object.

It is not unusual or distinctive for a public-speaking book to discuss audience analysis. What is unique about our audience-centered approach is that our discussion of audience analy- sis and adaptation is not confined to a single chapter; rather, we emphasize the importance of considering the audience throughout our entire discussion of the speech preparation and delivery process. From the opening overview of the public-speaking process until the final chapter, we illuminate the positive power of helping students relate to their audience by keep- ing their listeners foremost in mind.

Preparing and delivering a speech also involves a sequence of steps. Our audience-centered model integrates the step-by-step process of speech preparation and delivery with the ongoing

process of considering the audience. Our audience-centered model of public speaking, shown here and intro- duced in Chapter 1, reappears throughout the text to remind students of the

steps involved in speech preparation and delivery, while simultaneously emphasizing the importance of considering the audience. Viewing the

model as a clock, the speaker begins the process at the 12 o’clock position with “Select and Narrow Topic” and moves around the

model clockwise to “Deliver Speech.” Each step of the speech preparation and delivery process touches the center portion of the model, labeled “Consider the Audience.” Arrows connect- ing the center with each step of the process illustrate how the audience influences each of the steps involved in designing and presenting a speech. Arrows pointing in both directions around the central process of “Consider the Audience” repre- sent how a speaker may sometimes revise a previous step be-

cause of further information or thought about the audience. A speaker may, for example, decide after having gathered support-

ing material for a speech that he or she needs to go back and revise the speech purpose. Visual learners will especially appreciate the

illustration of the entire public-speaking process provided by the model. The colorful, easy-to-understand synopsis will also be appreci-

ated by people who learn best by having an overview of the entire process before beginning the first step of speech preparation.

After introducing the model in the very first chapter of the book, we continue to emphasize the centrality of considering the audience by revisiting it at appropriate points throughout the book. A highlighted version of the model appears in several chapters, as a visual reminder of the place the chapter’s topic occupies in the audience-centered speech- making process. Similarly, highlighted versions appear in Developing Your Speech Step by Step boxes. Another visual reminder comes in the form of a miniature version of the model, the icon shown here in the margin. When you see this icon, it will remind you that the material

xxviii Preface

Deliver Speech

Generate Main Ideas

Develop Central

Idea

Gather Supporting

Material

Select and Narrow Topic

Rehearse Speech

Determine Purpose

Organize Speech

CONSIDER THE

AUDIENCE

CONSIDER THE

AUDIENCE

presented has special significance for considering your audience.

Our Focus on Communication Apprehension One of the biggest barriers that keeps a speaker, especially a novice public speaker, from connecting to his or her audience is apprehension. Fear of failure, forgetting, or fumbling words is a major distraction. In this edition, we help students to overcome their apprehension of speaking to others by focusing on their listeners rather than on their fear. We’ve updated and expanded our discussion of communication appre- hension in Chapter 1, adding the most contemporary research conclusions we can find to help stu- dents overcome the anxiety that many people experience when speaking publicly. To help students integrate confidence-boosting strategies through their study of public speaking, we offer students powerful pointers for managing anxiety in the Confidently Connecting with Your Audience features found in the margins of each chapter. To provide yet additional help for managing apprehension, we’ve distilled several seminal ideas keyed to our audience-centered model on the inside back cover. So, from Chapter 1 until the literal last page in the book, we help stu- dents manage their apprehension.

Our Focus on Ethics Being audience-centered does not mean that a speaker tells an audience only what they want to hear; if you are not true to your own values, you will have become a manipulative, unethical communicator rather than an audience-centered one. Audience-centered speakers articulate truthful messages that give audience members free choice in responding to a message, while they also use effective means of ensuring message clarity and credibility.

From the first chapter onward, we link being an audience-centered speaker with being an ethical speaker. Our principles and strategies for being rhetorically skilled are anchored in eth- ical principles that assist speakers in articulating a message that connects with their audience. We not only devote an entire chapter (Chapter 2) to being an ethical speaker, but we also offer reminders, tips, and strategies for making ethical speaking and listening an integral part of human communication. As part of the Study Guide at the end of each chapter, students and in- structors will find questions to spark discussion about and raise awareness of ethical issues in effective speechmaking.

Our Focus on Diversity Just as the topic of audience analysis is covered in most public-speaking textbooks, so is diversity. Sometimes diversity is discussed in a separate chapter; sometimes it is presented in “diversity boxes” sprinkled throughout a book. We choose to address diversity not as an add-on to the main discussion but rather as an integral part of being an audience-centered speaker. To be audience- centered is to acknowledge the various ethnic and cultural backgrounds, attitudes, beliefs, values, and other differences present when people assemble to hear a speech. We suggest that inherent in the process of being audience-centered is a focus on the diverse nature of listeners in contempo- rary audiences. The topic of adapting to diverse audiences is therefore not a boxed afterthought but is integrated into every step of our audience-centered approach.

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what do you call it when someone pays back a loan quickly

What Do You Call It When Someone Pays Back a Loan Quickly?

I would Really Apreciate To Get The answer.

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Feb 8, 2008
I got: A Sudden Debt Payoff

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3,2

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A sudden debt payoff

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a sudden debt payoff

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a sudden debt payoff 😉

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A Sudden Debt Payoff

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what do you call when someone pays back a loan quickly

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Di ko din alam tolong

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x+y=5
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Bars

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a sudden debt pay off………………….

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statics final

I have attached all of the weekly lectures below to help with the creation of the final paper. 

The Final Paper provides you with an opportunity to integrate and reflect on what you have learned during the class.

The question to address is: “What have you learned about statistics?” In developing your responses, consider—at a minimum—and discuss the application of each of the course elements in analyzing and making decisions about data (counts and/or measurements).

In your paper,

  • Discuss the following course elements:
    • Descriptive statistics
    • Inferential statistics
    • Hypothesis development and testing
    • Selection of appropriate statistical tests
    • Evaluating statistical results.

The Final Paper

  • Must be three to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use at least three scholarly sources in addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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determine the ka of an acid whose 0.294 m solution has a ph of 2.80.

Determine the Ka of an acid whose 0.294 M solution has a pH of 2.80.

0 0 329
asked by rena
Jan 16, 2011
10^-2.80 = 0.001585

Ka = (0.001585)^2 / 0.294
= 8.544 x 10^-6

0 1
posted by V
Feb 27, 2017

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determine the mass of oxygen in a 7.2-g sample of al2(so4)3.

Determine the mass of oxygen in a 7.2-g sample of Al2(SO4)3
62,864 results
chem
Determine the mass of oxygen in a 7.2-g sample of Al2(SO4)3

asked by dave on April 18, 2016
chemestiry
Al2(SO4)3(aq) + BaCl2(aq) BaSO4(s) + AlCl3(aq) Consider the unbalanced equation above. A 0.680 g sample of impure Al2(SO4)3 reacts with excess BaCl2. If the sample produces 0.530 g of BaSO4, what is the mass percent of Al2(SO4)3 in the sample?

asked by edi on March 20, 2013
chemestiry
Al2(SO4)3(aq) + BaCl2(aq) BaSO4(s) + AlCl3(aq) Consider the unbalanced equation above. A 0.680 g sample of impure Al2(SO4)3 reacts with excess BaCl2. If the sample produces 0.530 g of BaSO4, what is the mass percent of Al2(SO4)3 in the sample?

asked by edi on March 20, 2013
chemestiry
Al2(SO4)3(aq) + BaCl2(aq) BaSO4(s) + AlCl3(aq) Consider the unbalanced equation above. A 0.680 g sample of impure Al2(SO4)3 reacts with excess BaCl2. If the sample produces 0.530 g of BaSO4, what is the mass percent of Al2(SO4)3 in the sample?

asked by edi on March 20, 2013
Chemistry
A 0.670 g sample of impure Al2(SO4)3 reacts with excess BaCl2. If the sample produces 0.760 g of BaSO4, what is the mass percent of Al2(SO4)3 in the sample?

asked by Tevin on February 23, 2014

chemisty
A mixture contains only NaCl and Al2(SO4)3. A 1.76-g sample of the mixture is dissolved in water, and an excess of NaOH is added, producing a precipitate of Al(OH)3. The precipitate is filtered, dried, and weighed. The mass of the precipitate is 0.126 g.

asked by hope on February 5, 2011
Chemistry
A mixture contains only NaCl and Al2(SO4)3. A 1.45-g sample of the mixture is dissolved in water and an excess of NaOH is added, producing a precipitate of Al(OH)3. The precipitate is filtered, dried, and weighed. The mass of the precipitate is 0.107 g.

asked by Melissa on September 18, 2010
chemisty
A mixture contains only NaCl and Al2(SO4)3. A 1.76-g sample of the mixture is dissolved in water, and an excess of NaOH is added, producing a precipitate of Al(OH)3. The precipitate is filtered, dried, and weighed. The mass of the precipitate is 0.126 g.

asked by hope on February 5, 2011
chemistry
A sample of aluminum sulfate 18-hydrate, Al2(SO4)3 · 18 H2O, containing 157.0 mg is dissolved in 1.000 L of solution. Calculate (a) molarity of Al2(SO4)3 (b) molarity of SO42- (c) molality of Al2(SO4)3, assuming that the density of the solution is 1.00

asked by Corinthia on September 20, 2011
chemistry
Hi, the question is: in each reaction, identify what have been oxidised and reduced. The equation is: 2Al + 3H2SO4 —> Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2 I am confused about the Al2(SO4)3 I know what oxides and reductions us I just don’t understant how Al2(SO4)3 balances

asked by Franky on October 6, 2011
science
When a 2.00 g sample of Al2(SO4)3·xH2O is heated to remove all water, a mass of 1.03 g remains. Determine the value of x.

asked by tim on September 17, 2015
Chemistry
The aluminum sulfate hydrate [Al2(SO4)3 . xH2O] contains8.10 percent Al by mass. Calculate x, that is, the number of water molecules associated with each Al2(SO4)3 unit.

asked by Destiny on February 19, 2019
Chemistry
What would be the steps to solving this problem? The aluminum sulfate hydrate [Al2(SO4)3 (times) xH2O] contains 8.20 % Al by mass. Calculate x, that is , the number of water molecules associated with each Al2(SO4)3 unit.

asked by Amy~ on August 26, 2010
chemistry
Al(s) + H2SO4(aq)-> Al2(SO4)3(aq) + H2(g) Consider the unbalanced equation above. What volume of 0.490 M H2SO4 is needed to react with excess aluminum to produce 1.60 g of Al2(SO4)3? Use a molar mass with at least as many significant figures as the data

asked by jade on March 12, 2012
CHEM
Consider the following reaction: 3Pb(NO3)2(aq) +Al2(SO4)3(aq) ¡÷ 3PbSO4(aq) + 2Al(NO3)3(aq) Determine the mass (in gram) of lead(II) sulphate (PbSO4) and aluminium nitrate [Al(NO3)3] formed in the solution when 8.84 g of lead(II) nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] was

asked by CHAN on December 30, 2014

science (chem)
consider the fo9rmula for Al2(SO4)3,which is used in perspirants: a. how many moles of sulfur are present i 3.0 moles of Al2(SO4)3 b. ow many moles of aluminum ions are present in 0.40 mole of Al2(SO4)3 for a and b i multiplied by 6.02*1023 power andgot

asked by kim on September 30, 2011
chemistry
consider the reaction, 2Al(OH)3+3H2SO4—->Al2(SO4)3+6H2O a. Given that 152g of H2SO4 reacts with 234g of Al(OH)3 Howmany grams of Al2(SO4)3 will be theoretical generated? b. which of the reactants is the limiting reagent? c. If the actuall yield was 135 g

asked by lucky on October 8, 2011
Chemistry 20
A student was experimentally checking the stoichiometry of a reaction. The student correctly predicted that the reaction should produce 1.82 g of al2(so4)3(s). When the student dried and weighed the al2(so4)3(s) produced, its mass was 1.94 g. The percent

asked by Tala on November 20, 2016
Chemistry
This is the equation for the formation of Al(OH)3: 6NaOH (aq) + Al2(SO4)3 (aq) ¨ 2Al(OH)3 (s) + 3Na2SO4 (aq) Would any side products be formed if NaOH was added quickly into Al2(SO4)3?

asked by Alan on March 22, 2010
chemistry
In a solution of Al2(SO4)3 the Al3+ concentration is .12 M. What mass of Al2(SO4)3 is in 50 mL of this solution. Please explain the steps. Thanks. The Al3+ part confuses me the most.

asked by Van M on August 26, 2011
Science
If a mineral sample has a mass of 10 g, how many grams of oxygen does it contain? You need more information than that to determine the amount of oxygen or any other element in the mineral. Your question is the same kind as, “My car was in the rain today.

asked by Casey on December 9, 2006
Chemistry….
Wouldn’t it be 30.234 instead of 2 0.234? since….2Al3+ +3SO4 2- —-> Al2(SO4)3 4.) A solution is prepared by dissolving 25.0 g of aluminum sulfate in enough water to make 125.0 mL of stock solution. A 10.0 mL aliquot (portion) of this stock solution

asked by Anonymous on October 25, 2013
chemistry please help!!
for thr reation: 2AlCl3 + 3H2SO4= Al2(SO4)3 + 6 HCl How many grams of H2SO4 are needed to produce 27.0 grams of Al2(SO4)3

asked by Lillian on November 14, 2010
Chemistry
For the following reaction: Al2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH = 2Al(OH)3 + 3Na2SO4 How many moles of Na2SO4 can be made with 3.2 moles of NaOH and excess Al2(SO4)3?

asked by Carrie on November 14, 2011
Chemistry
How many grams of aluminum sulfate, Al2( SO4)3 , will be formed from 0.98 g of sulfuric acid and enough aluminum according to the following reaction: H2SO4 + Al -> Al2(SO4)3 + H2

asked by ANonymous on November 16, 2011

chemistry
how many oxygen atoms are in 10 formula of Al2(SO4)3

asked by patricia on December 7, 2015
Chemistry Stiochiometry
PLEASE HELP how many grams of AL2(SO4)3 can be made by reacting 50ml 2.8M H2SO4 with 7.4g of AL(OH)3? 3 H2SO4 + 2 Al (OH)3 —-> 6 H20 + AL2(SO4)3

asked by Yasmine on June 4, 2018
chem grade 12
Consider the following substance: Al2(SO4)3 What is the oxidation number of: a) aluminum b) sulfur c)oxygen

asked by sam on January 31, 2012
Chemistry
Which has the highest, second highest, third highest, and lowest boiling points? 1.0.20 m MnSO4 2.9.6E-2 m Al2(SO4)3 3.8.4E-2 m Al2(SO4)3 4. 0.45 m Sucrose(nonelectrolyte) [I know it is m times i but not sure how to get “i”]

asked by Jack on May 13, 2015
Chemistry
so if the equation I’m using is 3CuSO4+2AL(NO3)3 arrow 3CU(NO3)2+Al2(SO4)3 how many moles of CuSO4 would be needed to produce 8 moles of Al2(SO4)3? Would the answer be 8?

asked by Marc on April 21, 2009
Chemistry
how would you prepare 250 mL of 0.69M Al2(SO4)3 solution from a 2.0M Al2(SO4)3 stock solution?

asked by Cass on July 30, 2014
Chemistry
how would you prepare 250 ml of 0.69m al2(so4)3 solution from a 2.0 al2(so4)3 stock solution

asked by Sam on July 29, 2014
Chemistry
How many oxygen atoms are in 6.70 g of Al2(SO4)3? Express your answer using scientific notation with two decimal places.

asked by Andres on September 4, 2011
Chemistry
How many oxygen atoms are in 6.70 g of Al2(SO4)3? Express your answer using scientific notation with two decimal places.

asked by Andres on September 4, 2011
Chemistry
How many oxygen atoms are in 6.70 g of Al2(SO4)3? Express your answer using scientific notation with two decimal places.

asked by Andres on September 4, 2011

Chemistry
How many oxygen atoms are in 6.70 g of Al2(SO4)3? Express your answer using scientific notation with two decimal places.

asked by Andres on September 4, 2011
Chemistry
Calculate the volume (in mL) of 9.0M H2SO4 that you would need to convert 0.070 moles of KAl(OH)4 to K2SO4 and Al2(SO4)3 according to the following equation: 2 KAl(OH)4 + 4 H2SO4->K2SO4 + Al2(SO4)3 + 8 H2O

asked by Cynthia on February 29, 2012
AP Chemistry
For the reaction ? Al + ? CuSO4 ↽⇀? Al2(SO4)3+? Cu a maximum of how many moles of Al2(SO4)3 could be formed from 5.49 mol of Al and 4.09 mol of CuSO4? Answer in units of mol

asked by Tina on September 13, 2011
AP Chemistry
For the reaction ? Al + ? CuSO4 ↽⇀? Al2(SO4)3+? Cu a maximum of how many moles of Al2(SO4)3 could be formed from 5.95 mol of Al and 1.31 mol of CuSO4? Answer in units of mol.

asked by Matt on September 19, 2012
chem
Baking powder consists of 4 ingredients – CaHPO4, NaAl(SO4)2, NaHCO3 and cornstarch. Using the guidelines below, determine the masses of each ingredient in a sample of baking powder using the following specifications:. (Tip: Parts i, ii v and vi below

asked by me on February 24, 2015
Chem = )
Write the complete ionic equation for BaCl2 + NaOH —-> Al2(SO4)3 + BaCl2 —> Al2(SO4)3 + NaOH —> NaOH + Zn(No3)2 —> BaCl2 + NaI —>

asked by Lauren on March 3, 2010
Chemistry
If 3.42 grams of Al2(SO4)3 are required, what mass of H2SO4 must be present?

asked by Asia on November 28, 2016
Chemistry
Alumminum hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid as follows: 2Al(OH)3+H2SO4–>Al2(SO4)+6H2O. Which reagent is the limiting reactant when 0.500 mol Al(OH)3 and 0.500 mol H2SO4 are allowed to react? How many moles of Al2(SO4)3 can form under these conditions?

asked by Chris Sung on October 29, 2010
ap chemistry

  1. Answer the following question that relate to the analysis of chemical compounds. (a) A compound containing the elements C, H, N, and O is analyzed. When a 1.2359g sample is burned in excess oxygen, 2.241g of CO2(g) is formed. The combustion analysis

asked by alk on December 27, 2007
Chemistry
1) Consider the following substance: V3N5. What is the oxidation number of vanadium and nitrogen? 2) Consider the following substance: Mn2O7. What is the oxadation number of manganese and oxygen? 3) Consider the following reaction: Al2(SO4)3. What is the

asked by Ryan on January 13, 2012

chemistry
A 36.1 mL sample of oxygen gas contains 0.529 mol of oxygen. If enough oxygen is added to the sample to obtain a volume of 50.5 mL, what must the final mass of the sample be? (The pressure and temperature is constant.)

asked by Br¥an on September 29, 2014
Chemistry
Calculate the mass of Al2(SO4)3 produced when 4.26kg of Al(NO3)3 is added to an excess of K2SO4.

asked by Donna on January 9, 2015
Chemistry
In a reaction vessel, 2.4 mol of Al(OH)3 and 5.3 mol of H2SO4 react. Products: Al2(SO4)3, H2O [I know…] Moles of Al2(SO4)3 in container:1.2mol Moles of H2O in container:7.2 mol [But not…] Moles of excess reactant in container:____mol how do i find it?

asked by Marriot on April 17, 2011
Chemistry

  1. Ca(OH)2(aq) + H3PO4(aq) à Ca3(PO4)2(aq) + H2O(l) a. If you have 13.7mol of Ca(OH)2, how many grams of H2O are produced? b. How many grams of H3PO4 are required to produce 102.3g Ca3(PO4)2? c. How many moles of Ca(OH)2 are needed to produce 82.9g of

asked by Sulon on March 26, 2011
chemistry
interpret the following balanced equation into Particles, Moles, Mass: 2Al+3CuSO4== AL2(SO4)3+ 3Cu

asked by Amber on April 24, 2013
chemistry
Aluminum reacts with sulfuric acid, which is the acid in car batteries. If 20.0 grams of Al is placed into a solution contain 115 gram of H2SO4, how many grams of hydrogen ga could be be produced? 2Al + 3H2SO4 —> Al(SO4)3 + 3H2 20.0g/27 = .741 .741 X 3/2

asked by mike on May 15, 2007
Chemistry 111
Calculate the number of moles of alumunium sulfer, oxygen atoms in 9.00 moles of Alumunium sulfate, Al2(SO4)3?

asked by kee on July 14, 2011
Chemistry
If 20.0 grams of Al is placed into a solution containing 115 grams of H2SO4, how many grams of hydrogen gas could be produced? 1. Write the balanced equation. 2Al + 3H2SO4 ==> Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2 2. Convert 20.0 g Al to mols. Remember mols = g/atomic mass 3.

asked by Britney on March 18, 2007
intro. to chemical equations
Al2(SO4)3 does the 3 apply to everything or just the SO4. thank you.

asked by Geff on May 31, 2009
Chemistry
In the following equations determine which reactant is the limiting and which reaactant is in excess. 1. KCL + HNO3—>KNO3 + HCL 22.0g 18.3g 2. 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2SO4—> Al2(SO4)3 + 6H2O where there is 25 g of Al(OH)3 and 25g H2SO4.

asked by Ashley on August 3, 2009

Chemistry
Calculate the mass percent of water in the hydrate Al2(SO4)3·18H2O to four sig. figs. I got this answer 60.23, but I just am confused on how to correctly write the units

asked by Anonymous on January 27, 2016
Chemistry AP
Determine the value of x in al2(so4)3 . xh2o when 4 grams of aluminum sulfate hydrate was heated and 3.5 grams remain. (show working please)

asked by Roger on February 17, 2017
Chem 22
molecular equation, and net ionic equation of K2SO4 + MgCl2 NiCl2 + NaOH MgCl2 + NaOH K2SO4 + NaOH Ba(OH)2 + NiCl2 Ba(OH)2 + MgCl2 Ba(OH)2 + K2SO4 Ba(OH)2 + NaOH Na2CrO4 + Sr(NO3)2 Na2CrO4 + Al2(SO4)3 K2CrO4 + Sr(NO3)2 K2CrO4 + Al2(SO4)3 AgNO3 + BaCl2

asked by Anonymous on December 3, 2010
Chemistry
“A 25.0% solution of Al2(SO4)3 has a density of 1.75 g/ml. What is the mass of dissolved solute in 40.0 ml of solution?” How would one set this problem up?

asked by Kathryn on December 8, 2010
CHEMISTRY
In a certain compound of copper and oxygen, a sample weighing 0.5424g contains 0.4831 g of Cu. How many moles of Cu in the sample? How many grams of Oxygen and how many moles of Oxygen are there in the sample? What is the mole ratio of Cu/O in the sample?

asked by Jester21 on February 18, 2013
chemistry
In a certain compound of copper and oxygen, a sample weighing 0.5424g contains 0.4831 g of Cu. How many moles of Cu in the sample? How many grams of Oxygen and how many moles of Oxygen are there in the sample? What is the mole ratio of Cu/O in the sample?

asked by Jester21 on February 18, 2013
chemistry
sometimes,instead of percentage composition, you will have the composition of a mass sample. using the actual mass of the sample, determine the empirical formula for compounds that have the following analyses. b. a 13.07g sample of an unknown substance is

asked by tula on February 23, 2013
Chemistry
I had a 1.094g of mystery Alum. “AB(SO4)c. dH2O” (I assume that that the Alum is KAl(SO4)2-12H2O but we don’t know A B c or d, we do know that mass percent of water is 51.9) After processing the alum (Ba(NO3)2 and HNO3 through a gooch crucible) we end up

asked by Graham on February 1, 2013
chemistry- DrBob
Last week i did a lab and i just wanted to show you my results because my computer was acting weird when i used the voltage probe.(I just needed you to check that the cathode and anodes and voltages make sense) CuSO4(cathode)and Al2(SO4)3 (anode)–[0.050V]

asked by Amy on May 16, 2008
Chemistry
Aluminum reacts with excess copper(II) sulfate according to the unbalanced reaction Al(s) + CuSO4(aq) −→ Al2(SO4)3(aq) + Cu(s) If 2.21 g of Al react and the percent yield of Cu is 40.8%, what mass of Cu is produced? Answer in units of g. I got

asked by Anonymous on December 3, 2012

chemistry 105
Sulfuric acid dissolves aluminum metal according to the following reaction: 2Al(s)+3H2SO4(aq)–>Al2(SO4)3(aq)+3H2(g) Suppose you wanted to dissolve an aluminum block with a mass of 14.7 g. What minimum mass of H2SO4(in g) would you need? What mass of H2

asked by julie on October 10, 2011
Chemistry 101
Sulfuric acid dissolves aluminum metal according to the following reaction: 2Al(s)+3H2SO4(aq)→Al2(SO4)3(aq)+3H2(g) Suppose you wanted to dissolve an aluminum block with a mass of 14.9g .What minimum mass of H2SO4 would you need? What mass of H2 gas would

asked by Sarah on February 24, 2015
Chemistry
An unlabeled bottle containing a solution was found in the lab. It contains one of the following: AgNo3, CaCl2, or Al2(SO4)3. Describe how you would test the solution to determine which solution it is. Include equations in your answer.

asked by Abigal on December 7, 2010
Chemistry
Sulfuric acid dissolves aluminum metal according to the following reaction: 2Al(s)+3H2SO4(aq)→Al2(SO4)3(aq)+3H2(g) Suppose you wanted to dissolve an aluminum block with a mass of 14.5g . 1.) What minimum mass of H2SO4 would you need? 2.)What mass of H2

asked by Katie on March 29, 2015
chemistry
Sulfuric acid dissolves aluminum metal according to the following reaction: 2Al(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) -> Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2(g) Suppose you wanted to dissolve an aluminum block with a mass of 15.9g . A)What minimum mass of H2SO4 (in g) would you need?

asked by leo on October 20, 2007
Chem1020
Sulfuric acid can dissolve aluminum metal according to the following reaction. 2Al(s)+3H2SO4(aq)→Al2(SO4)3(aq)+3H2(g) Suppose you wanted to dissolve an aluminum block with a mass of 23.7 g . Sulfuric acid can dissolve aluminum metal according to the

asked by Liselle on November 10, 2016
Chemistry
What is the percent of aluminum in Al2(SO4)3? A. 15.8% B. 28.1% C. 56.7% D. 54.0% C?

asked by quick help please on June 9, 2016
science
please balance Al+CuSO2=Al2(SO4)3+Cu

asked by taylor on December 10, 2008
Chemistry
Will or will no accor this reaction? Na + Al2(SO4)3

asked by Robert Patric on May 5, 2010
Chemistry
What is the precipitate of K2CrO4 + Al2(SO4)3 ?

asked by Racheal on December 31, 2011

9th grade science
balance Al+CuSO2=Al2(SO4)3+Cu

asked by taylor on December 10, 2008
chemistry
How many grams of Al2(SO4)3 are there in 600 ml of (1.50)M solution

asked by Anonymous on July 21, 2010
Chemistry
Is the number of water molecules associated with each Al2(SO4)3

asked by Sophiee on September 14, 2017
chemistry
How many grams of Al2(SO4)3 can be produced from 10.0g of CuSO4?

asked by Nicole on July 3, 2017
chemistry
What would be the maximum number of grams possible for Al2(SO4)3?

asked by Anonymous on February 7, 2011
science
I need help to find the answer to this problem: The formula for aluminum sulfate is Al2(SO4)3. Figure the molar mass of aluminum sulfate to the nearest gram?

asked by wizzkid01 on December 16, 2008
chemistry
In a certain compound of copper and oxygen, a sample weighing 0.5424 g contains 0.4831 g Cu. How many moles of copper are in the sample and the mass of oxygen in the sample?

asked by cook on March 31, 2011
science
How much potash alum is prepared by 6g Al2(SO4)3 & 1.5g K2SO4?

asked by Meena Garg on November 3, 2011
chemistry
What is the equation of the preparation of K3[Al(C2O4)3].3H2O using Al2(SO4)3?

asked by peter on March 24, 2010
CHemistry
What is the concentration of Sulfate ion in a 0.5 M solution of Al2(SO4)3?

asked by Praphul on June 17, 2014

science
How much potash alum is prepared by 6g Al2(SO4)3 & 1.5g K2SO4?

asked by Meena Garg on November 3, 2011
chemistry
if one can find the ratio of the number of moles of the elements in a compound to one another, one can find the formula of the compound. in certain compound of copper and oxygen, Cux Oy, we find that a sample weighing 0.5424g contains 0.4831g Cu. a. How

asked by Ana on June 23, 2010
Chemistry
Does Na2CO3 have a methatesis reaction with NaCl, NaIO3, or Al2(SO4)3. If it does which one and why.

asked by Mainland Community College on July 9, 2011
SCIENCE/CHEM
when the following equation is balanced , what is the sum of the co-efficients? AL2(SO4)^3+Ca(OH)2–>Al(OH)3+CaSO4

asked by Andy on May 12, 2010
chemistry 110
what combinations of Zn, Al, ZnSO4 and Al2(SO4)3 would you make to illustrate that Zn is less active than Al?

asked by shannon on October 28, 2010
chemistry
write chemical equations for the reactions when you put each Al, Fe, Cu in 0.5M Al2(SO4)3

asked by shannon on October 28, 2010
epcc
How many moles of aluminum ions are present in 0.80 mole of Al2(SO4)3

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Chemistry
An 800-mg sample containing sulfate was treated with slight excess of barium chloride, yielding a precipitate that contained 4.3 mg of co precipitated CaCO3. after ignition and cooling, the precipitate weighed 277.0 mg. Calculate the a.) apparent % SO4 b.)

asked by Jay-jay on May 12, 2013
chemistry
If 840 mL of 0.0140 M aqueous Al3+ and 500 mL of 0.0680 M aqueous Br- are reacted, what mass (g) of Br- is produced? Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3 CaBr2(aq) → 2 AlBr3(aq) + 3 CaSO4(s) Molar Mass (g) Br- 79.904 Al3+ 26.982 Br- 79.904 Molar Volume (L) 22.400 at STP

asked by ann on December 7, 2010
Chemistry
Sulfuric acid can dissolve aluminum metal according to the following reaction. 2Al(s)+3H2SO4(aq)→Al2(SO4)3(aq)+3H2(g) Suppose you wanted to dissolve an aluminum block with a mass of 24.4g . What minimum amount of H2SO4 in grams would you need?

asked by Kelsey on March 24, 2015

chemistry
what is the total molarity of all the ions present in 0.1M cuso4 and 0.1M al2(so4)3 solution?

asked by banda on September 30, 2015
chemistry
Determine the limiting reactant for this reaction if 3.027 grams of Aluminum are reacted with 60.00 mL of a solution that is 6 M KOH. Determine the amount of KAl(SO4)2•12 H2O that can be produced from this reaction. Molar mass Alum = 474 g/mol 2 Al (s) +

asked by Jonathan on March 29, 2015
chemistry
A 12.0g sample of carbohydrate contain 4.50g of carbon, 3.25g of oxygen, and some hydrogen. Determine the percent by mass of hydrogen in your product. Find the empirical formula for a compound that consists of aluminum and chlorine in which the aluminum is

asked by jhong on March 13, 2012
Chemistryor
Will Zn(NO3)2 react in a metathesis reaction with NACl, BACL2, NAIO3 or AL2(SO4)3

asked by Mainland Community College on July 9, 2011
Chemistry Help!!
Types of Reactions Worksheet Balance the following equations and indicate the type of reaction taking place: 1) 2 NH3 + 3 I2  N2I6 + 3 H2 Type of reaction: ________ 2) 3 Ca(OH)2 + Al2(SO4)3  3 Ca(SO4) + 2 Al(OH)3 Type of reaction:

asked by Theresa on December 8, 2014

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under a perpetual inventory system, acquisition of merchandise for resale is debited to the

Test Bank for Accounting Principles, Eleventh Edition

5 – 13

Accounting for Merchandising Operations

CHAPTER 5

ACCOUNTING FOR MERCHANDISING OPERATIONS

Summary of Questions by LEARNING Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy
ItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBT
True-False Statements
1.1C10.3C19.5K28.5Ksg37.2K
2.1C11.3C20.5K29.5Ksg38.3K
3.1K12.3K21.5Ca30.6Ksg39.3K
4.1K13.4C22.5Ca31.7Ksg40.4C
5.1K14.4K23.5Ca32.7Ksg41.5K
6.2K15.4K24.5Ka33.7Ksg42.5K
7.2K16.5K25.5Ka34.7K
8.3C17.5K26.5APsg35.1K
9.3C18.5K27.5Ksg36.1K
Multiple Choice Questions
43.1K73.2AP103.3K133.5APa163.7AP
44.1K74.3AP104.3C134.5APa164.7AP
45.1C75.3AP105.3C135.5APsg165.1AP
46.1K76.3AP106.3K136.5APsg166.2K
47.1K77.3C107.3K137.5APsg167.2K
48.1C78.3C108.4C138.5APst168.2K
49.1K79.3AP109.4C139.5APsg169.3K
50.1K80.3AP110.4K140.5APst170.4K
51.1C81.3C111.1C141.5APsg171.6AP
52.1K82.3C112.4C142.5APst172.5K
53.1C83.3C113.5AP143.5APsg173.6K
54.1C84.3K114.5K144.5APa,st174.7K
55.1C85.3K115.5C145.5AP175.8K
56.1K86.3C116.5Ca146.6K176.8K
57.1C87.3C117.5Ca147.6K177.8K
58.2K88.3K118.5APa148.7AP178.8K
59.2K89.3K119.5K149.7AP179.8K
60.2C90.3C120.5C150.7AP180.8K
61.2K91.3K121.5K151.7C1818K
62.2C92.3AP122.5Ka152.7K1828K
63.2C93.3C123.5Ka153.7K183.8K
64.2C94.3C124.5APa154.7K184.8K
65.2AP95.3C125.5APa155.7AP185.8K
66.2AP96.3C126.5Ka156.7AP186.8K
67.2C97.3C127.5Ca157.7K187.8K
68.2K98.3C128.5Ka158.7C188.8K
69.2AP99.3AP129.5Ka159.7C189.8K
70.2AP100.3AP130.5APa160.7K
71.2K101.3AP131.5APa161.7K
72.2AP102.3K132.5APa162.7C

sg This question also appears in the Study Guide.

st This question also appears in a self-test at the student companion website.

a This question covers a topic in an appendix to the chapter.

Summary of Questions by LEARNING Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy
Brief Exercises
190.1AP193.3AP196.5AP199.7AP
191.2AP194.3AP197.5AP200.7AP
192.2,3AP195.4AP198.7APa201.7AP
Exercises
202.1C207.2,3AN212.4AP217.5APa222.7AP
203.2,3AP208.2AP213.4AP218.5Ca223.7AP
204.2,3AP209.3AP214.5AN219.5APa224.7AP
205.2E210.3AP215.5AP220.5APa221.7AP
206.2,3AP211.4AP216.5APa221.6APa226.7AP
Completion Statements
227.1K229.1K231.2K233.3K235.5K
228.1K230.2K232.3K234.3K236.5K
Matching Statements
237.1K
Short-Answer Essay
238.3K240.3K242.1K244.1K
239.1K241.5K243.5K245.1K

SUMMARY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE

ItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemType
Learning Objective 1
1.TF35.TF46.MC51.MC56.MC202.Ex239.SA
2.TF36.TF47.MC52.MC57.MC227.C242.SA
3.TF43.MC48.MC53.MC111.MC228.C244.SA
4.TF44.MC49.MC54.MC165.MC229.C245.SA
5.F45.MC50.MC55.MC190.BE237.MA
Learning Objective 2
6.TF60.MC65.MC70.MC157.MC204.Ex230.C
7.TF61.MC66.MC71.MC158.MC205.Ex231.C
37.TF62.MC67.MC72.MC203.Ex206.Ex
58.MC63.MC68.MC73.MC166.BE207.Ex
59.MC64.MC69.MC156.MC167.BE208.Ex
Learning Objective 3
8.TF75.MC83.MC91.MC99.MC107.MC209.Ex
9.TF76.MC84.MC92.MC100.MC169.MC210.Ex
10.TF77.MC85.MC93.MC101.MC192.BE232.C
11.TF78.MC86.MC94.MC102.MC193.BE233.C
12.TF79.MC87.MC95.MC103.MC194.BE234.C
38.TF80.MC88.MC96.MC104.MC203.Ex240.SA
39.TF81.MC89.MC97.MC105.MC204.Ex
74.MC82.MC90.MC98.MC106.MC206.Ex

SUMMARY OF Learning OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE

Learning Objective 4
13.TF15.TF108.MC110.MC170.MC211.Ex213.Ex
14.TF40.TF109.MC112.MC195.BE212.Ex
Learning Objective 5
16.TF26.TF117.MC127.MC137.MC172.MC235.C
17.TF27.TF118.MC128.MC138.MC173.MC236.C
18.TF28.TF119.MC129.MC139.MC196.BE241.SA
19.TF29.TF120.MC130.MC140.MC197.BE243.SA
20.TF41.TF121.MC131.MC141.MC215.Ex
21.TF42.TF122.MC132.MC142.MC216.Ex
22.TF113.MC123.MC133.MC143.MC217.Ex
23.TF114.MC124.MC134.MC144.MC218.Ex
24.TF115.MC125.MC135.MC145.MC219.Ex
25.TF116.MC126.MC136.MC171.MC220.Ex
Learning Objective a6a34.TF175.MC178.MC181.MC184.MC187.MCa225.Exa146.MC176.MC179.MC182.MC185.MC188.MCa147.MC177.MC180.MC183.MC186.MC189.MCLearning Objective a7
a30.TFa149.MCa154.MCa159.MCa164.MCa201.BEa225.Ex
a31.TFa150.MCa155.MCa160.MCa174.MCa221.Exa226.Ex
a32.TFa151.MCa156.MCa161.MCa198.BEa222.Ex
a33.TFa152.MCa157.MCa162.MCa199.BEa223.Ex
a148.MCa153.MCa158.MCa163.MCa200.BEa224.Ex
Learning Objective 8
175.MC177.MC179.MC181.MC183.MC185.MC
176.MC178.MC180.MC182.MC184.MC

Note: TF = True-False BE = Brief Exercise C = Completion

MC = Multiple Choice Ex = Exercise SA = Short-Answer

MA = Matching

CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies. Because of inventory, a merchandising company has sales revenue, cost of goods sold, and gross profit. To account for inventory, a merchandising company must choose between a perpetual and a periodic inventory system.

2. Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system. The company debits the Inventory account for all purchases of merchandise, and freight-in, and credits it for purchase discounts and purchase returns and allowances.

3. Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system. When a merchandising company sells inventory, it debits Accounts Receivable (or Cash) and credits Sales Revenue for the selling price of the merchandise. At the same time, it debits Cost of Goods Sold and credits Inventory for the cost of the inventory items sold. Sales returns and allowances and sales discounts are debited and are contra revenue accounts.

4. Explain the steps in the accounting cycle for a merchandising company. Each of the required steps in the accounting cycle for a service company applies to a merchandising company. A worksheet is again an optional step. Under a perpetual inventory system, the company must adjust the Inventory account to agree with the physical count.

5. Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement. A multiple-step income statement shows numerous steps in determining net income, including nonoperating activities sections. A single-step income statement classifies all data under two categories, revenues or expenses, and determines net income in one step.

a6. Prepare a worksheet for a merchandising company. The steps in preparing a worksheet for a merchandising company are the same as for a service company. The unique accounts for a merchandiser are Inventory, Sales Revenue, Sales Returns and Allowances, Sales Discounts, and Cost of Goods Sold.

a7. Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system. In recording purchases under a periodic system, companies must make entries for (a) cash and credit purchases, (b) purchase returns and allowances, (c) purchase discounts, and (d) freight costs. In recording sales, companies must make entries for (a) cash and credit sales, (b) sales returns and allowances, and (c) sales discounts.

TRUE-FALSE STATEMENTS

1. Retailers and wholesalers are both considered merchandisers.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

2. The steps in the accounting cycle are different for a merchandising company than for a service company.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

3. Sales minus operating expenses equals gross profit.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

4. Under a perpetual inventory system, the cost of goods sold is determined each time a sale occurs.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

5. A periodic inventory system requires a detailed inventory record of inventory items.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

6. Freight terms of FOB Destination means that the seller pays the freight costs.

Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

7. Freight costs incurred by the seller on outgoing merchandise are an operating expense to the seller.

Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

8. Sales revenues are earned during the period cash is collected from the buyer.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

9. The Sales Returns and Allowances account and the Sales Discount account are both classified as expense accounts.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

10. The revenue recognition principle applies to merchandisers by recognizing sales revenues when the performance obligation is satisfied.

Ans: T, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

11. Sales Returns and Allowances and Sales Discounts are both designed to encourage customers to pay their accounts promptly.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

12. To grant a customer a sales return, the seller credits Sales Returns and Allowances.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

13. A company’s unadjusted balance in Inventory will usually not agree with the actual amount of inventory on hand at year-end.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

14. For a merchandising company, all accounts that affect the determination of income are closed to the Income Summary account.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

15. A merchandising company has different types of adjusting entries than a service company.

Ans: F, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

16. Nonoperating activities exclude revenues and expenses that result from secondary or auxiliary operations.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

17. Operating expenses are different for merchandising and service enterprises.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

18. Net sales appears on both the multiple-step and single-step forms of an income statement.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

19. A multiple-step income statement provides users with more information about a company’s income performance.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

20. The multiple-step form of income statement is easier to read than the single-step form.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

21. Inventory is classified as a current asset in a classified balance sheet.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

22. Gain on sale of equipment and interest expense are reported under other revenues and gains in a multiple-step income statement.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

23. The gross profit section for a merchandising company appears on both the multiple-step and single-step forms of an income statement.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

24. In a multiple-step income statement, income from operations excludes other revenues and gains and other expenses and losses.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

25. A single-step income statement reports all revenues, both operating and other revenues and gains, at the top of the statement.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

26. If net sales are $800,000 and cost of goods sold is $600,000, the gross profit rate is 25%.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

27. Gross profit represents the merchandising profit of a company.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

28. Gross profit is a measure of the overall profitability of a company.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

29. Gross profit rate is computed by dividing cost of goods sold by net sales.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

a30. In a worksheet, cost of goods sold will be shown in the trial balance (Dr.), adjusted trial balance (Dr.) and income statement (Dr.) columns.

Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

a31. Freight-in is an account that is subtracted from the Purchases account to arrive at cost of goods purchased.

Ans: F, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a32. Under a periodic inventory system, the acquisition of inventory is charged to the Purchases account.

Ans: T, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

a33. Under a periodic inventory system, freight-in on merchandise purchases should be charged to the Inventory account.

Ans: F, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

a34. Purchase Returns and Allowances and Purchase Discounts are subtracted from Purchases to produce net purchases.

Ans: T, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

35. Inventory is reported as a long-term asset on the balance sheet.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

36. Under a perpetual inventory system, inventory shrinkage and lost or stolen goods are more readily determined.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

37. The terms 2/10, n/30 state that a 2% discount is available if the invoice is paid within the first 10 days of the next month.

Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

38. Sales revenue should be recorded in accordance with the matching principle.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

39. Sales returns and allowances and sales discounts are subtracted from sales in reporting net sales in the income statement.

Ans: T, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

40. A merchandising company using a perpetual inventory system will usually need to make an adjusting entry to ensure that the recorded inventory agrees with physical inventory count.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

41. If a merchandising company sells land at more than its cost, the gain should be reported in the sales revenue section of the income statement.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

42. The major difference between the balance sheets of a service company and a merchandising company is inventory.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

Answers to True-False Statements

ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.
1.T7.T13.T19.T25.Ta31.F37.F
2.F8.F14.T20.F26.Ta32.T38.F
3.F9.F15.F21.T27.Ta33.F39.T
4.T10.T16.F22.F28.Fa34.T40.T
5.F11.F17.F23.F29.F35.F41.F
6.T12.F18.T24.T30.T36.T42.T

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

43. Net income is gross profit less

a. financing expenses.

b. operating expenses.

c. other expenses and losses.

d. other expenses.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

44. An enterprise which sells goods to customers is known as a

a. proprietorship.

b. corporation.

c. retailer.

d. service firm.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

45. Which of the following would not be considered a merchandising company?

a. Retailer

b. Wholesaler

c. Service firm

d. Dot Com firm

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

46. A merchandising company that sells directly to consumers is a

a. retailer.

b. wholesaler.

c. broker.

d. service company.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

47. Two categories of expenses for merchandising companies are

a. cost of goods sold and financing expenses.

b. operating expenses and financing expenses.

c. cost of goods sold and operating expenses.

d. sales and cost of goods sold.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

48. The primary source of revenue for a wholesaler is

a. investment income.

b. service fees.

c. the sale of merchandise.

d. the sale of fixed assets the company owns.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

49. Sales revenue less cost of goods sold is called

a. gross profit.

b. net profit.

c. net income.

d. marginal income.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

50. After gross profit is calculated, operating expenses are deducted to determine

a. gross margin.

b. net income.

c. gross profit on sales.

d. net margin.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

51. Cost of goods sold is determined only at the end of the accounting period in

a. a perpetual inventory system.

b. a periodic inventory system.

c. both a perpetual and a periodic inventory system.

d. neither a perpetual nor a periodic inventory system.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

52. Which of the following expressions is incorrect?

a. Gross profit – operating expenses = net income

b. Sales revenue – cost of goods sold – operating expenses = net income

c. Net income + operating expenses = gross profit

d. Operating expenses – cost of goods sold = gross profit

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

53. Detailed records of goods held for resale are not maintained under a

a. perpetual inventory system.

b. periodic inventory system.

c. double entry accounting system.

d. single entry accounting system.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

54. A perpetual inventory system would likely be used by a(n)

a. automobile dealership.

b. hardware store.

c. drugstore.

d. convenience store.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

55. Which of the following is a true statement about inventory systems?

a. Periodic inventory systems require more detailed inventory records.

b. Perpetual inventory systems require more detailed inventory records.

c. A periodic system requires cost of goods sold be determined after each sale.

d. A perpetual system determines cost of goods sold only at the end of the accounting period.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

56. In a perpetual inventory system, cost of goods sold is recorded

a. on a daily basis.

b. on a monthly basis.

c. on an annual basis.

d. with each sale.

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

57. If a company determines cost of goods sold each time a sale occurs, it

a. must have a computer accounting system.

b. uses a combination of the perpetual and periodic inventory systems.

c. uses a periodic inventory system.

d. uses a perpetual inventory system.

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

58. Under a perpetual inventory system, acquisition of merchandise for resale is debited to the

a. Inventory account.

b. Purchases account.

c. Supplies account.

d. Cost of Goods Sold account.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

59. The journal entry to record a return of merchandise purchased on account under a perpetual inventory system would credit

a. Accounts Payable.

b. Purchase Returns and Allowances.

c. Sales Revenue.

d. Inventory.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

60. The Inventory account is used in each of the following except the entry to record

a. goods purchased on account.

b. the return of goods purchased.

c. payment of freight on goods sold.

d. payment within the discount period.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

61. A buyer would record a payment within the discount period under a perpetual inventory system by crediting

a. Accounts Payable.

b. Inventory.

c. Purchase Discounts.

d. Sales Discounts.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

62. If a purchaser using a perpetual system agrees to freight terms of FOB shipping point, then the

a. Inventory account will be increased.

b. Inventory account will not be affected.

c. seller will bear the freight cost.

d. carrier will bear the freight cost.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

63. Freight costs paid by a seller on merchandise sold to customers will cause an increase

a. in the selling expense of the buyer.

b. in operating expenses for the seller.

c. to the cost of goods sold of the seller.

d. to a contra-revenue account of the seller.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

64. Paden Company purchased merchandise from Emmett Company with freight terms of FOB shipping point. The freight costs will be paid by the

a. seller.

b. buyer.

c. transportation company.

d. buyer and the seller.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

65. Glenn Company purchased merchandise inventory with an invoice price of $9,000 and credit terms of 2/10, n/30. What is the net cost of the goods if Glenn Company pays within the discount period?

a. $8,100

b. $8,280

c. $8,820

d. $9,000

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $9,000 ( (1 – .02) ( $8,820

66. Scott Company purchased merchandise with an invoice price of $3,000 and credit terms of 1/10, n/30. Assuming a 360 day year, what is the implied annual interest rate inherent in the credit terms?

a. 20%

b. 24%

c. 18%

d. 36%

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: [360 ( (30 ( 10)] ( 1% ( 18%

67. If a company is given credit terms of 2/10, n/30, it should

a. hold off paying the bill until the end of the credit period, while investing the money at 10% annual interest during this time.

b. pay within the discount period and recognize a savings.

c. pay within the credit period but don’t take the trouble to invest the cash while waiting to pay the bill.

d. recognize that the supplier is desperate for cash and withhold payment until the end of the credit period while negotiating a lower sales price.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

68. In a perpetual inventory system, the amount of the discount allowed for paying for merchandise purchased within the discount period is credited to

a. Inventory.

b. Purchase Discounts.

c. Purchase Allowance.

d. Sales Discounts.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

69. Jake’s Market recorded the following events involving a recent purchase of merchandise:

Received goods for $60,000, terms 2/10, n/30.

Returned $1,200 of the shipment for credit.

Paid $300 freight on the shipment.

Paid the invoice within the discount period.

As a result of these events, the company’s inventory increased by

a. $57,624.

b. $57,918.

c. $57,924.

d. $59,100.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: [($60,000 ( $1,200( .98)] ( 300 ( $57,924

70. Costner’s Market recorded the following events involving a recent purchase of merchandise:

Received goods for $40,000, terms 2/10, n/30.

Returned $800 of the shipment for credit.

Paid $200 freight on the shipment.

Paid the invoice within the discount period.

As a result of these events, the company’s inventory

a. increased by $38,416.

b. increased by $38,612.

c. increased by $38,616.

d. increased by $39,400.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: [($40,000 ( $800) ( .98] ( $200 ( $38,616

71. Under the perpetual system, cash freight costs incurred by the buyer for the transporting of goods is recorded in

a. Freight Expense.

b. Freight – In.

c. Inventory.

d Freight – Out.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

72. Glover Co. returned defective goods costing $5,000 to Mal Company on April 19, for credit. The goods were purchased April 10, on credit, terms 3/10, n/30. The entry by Glover Co. on April 19, in receiving full credit is:

a. Accounts Payable 5,000

Inventory 5,000

b. Accounts Payable 5,000

Inventory 150

Cash 5,150

c. Accounts Payable 5,000

Purchase Discounts 120

Inventory 4,850

d. Accounts Payable 5,000

Inventory 120

Cash 4,850

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

73. McIntyre Company made a purchase of merchandise on credit from Marvin Company on August 8, for $9,000, terms 3/10, n/30. On August 17, McIntyre makes the appropriate payment to Marvin. The entry on August 17 for McIntyre Company is:

a. Accounts Payable 9,000

Cash 9,000

b. Accounts Payable 8,730

Cash 8,730

c. Accounts Payable 9,000

Purchase Returns and Allowances 270

MC. 73 (Cont.)

Cash 8,730

d. Accounts Payable 9,000

Inventory 270

Cash 8,730

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $9,000 ( .97 ( $8,730

74. On July 9, Sheb Company sells goods on credit to Wooley Company for $5,000, terms 1/10, n/60. Sheb receives payment on July 18. The entry by Sheb on July 18 is:

a. Cash 5,000

Accounts Receivable 5,000

b. Cash 5,000

Sales Discounts 50

Accounts Receivable 4,950

c. Cash 4,950

Sales Discounts 50

Accounts Receivable 5,000

d. Cash 5,050

Sales Discounts 50

Accounts Receivable 5,000

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $5,000 ( .99 ( $4,950

75. On November 2, 2014, Kasdan Company has cash sales of $6,000 from merchandise having a cost of $3,600. The entries to record the day’s cash sales will include:

a. a $3,600 credit to Cost of Goods Sold.

b. a $6,000 credit to Cash.

c. a $3,600 credit to Inventory.

d a $6,000 debit to Accounts Receivable.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

76. A credit sale of $4,000 is made on April 25, terms 2/10, n/30, on which a return of $250 is granted on April 28. What amount is received as payment in full on May 4?

a. $3,675

b. $3,750

c. $3,920

d $4,000

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: ($4,000 ( $250) ( .98 ( $3,675

77. The entry to record the receipt of payment within the discount period on a sale of $2,000 with terms of 2/10, n/30 will include a credit to

a. Sales Discounts for $40.

b. Cash for $1,960.

c. Accounts Receivable for $2,000.

d. Sales Revenue for $2,000.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

78. The collection of a $6,000 account within the 2 percent discount period will result in a

a. debit to Sales Discounts for $120.

b. debit to Accounts Receivable for $5,880.

c. credit to Cash for $5,880.

d. credit to Accounts Receivable for $5,880.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $6,000 ( .02 ( $120

79. Company X sells $900 of merchandise on account to Company Y with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. If Company Y remits a check taking advantage of the discount offered, what is the amount of Company Y’s check?

a. $630

b. $720

c. $810

d. $882

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $900 ( .98 ( $882

80. Cleese Company sells merchandise on account for $5,000 to Langston Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Langston Company returns $1,000 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What is the amount of the check?

a. $3,920

b. $4,000

c. $4,900

d. $4,920

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: ($5,000 ( $1,000) ( .98 ( $3,920

81. The collection of a $1,500 account after the 2 percent discount period will result in a

a. debit to Cash for $1,470.

b. debit to Accounts Receivable for $1,500.

c. debit to Cash for $1,500.

d. debit to Sales Discounts for $30.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

82. The collection of a $1,000 account after the 2 percent discount period will result in a

a. debit to Cash for $980.

b. credit to Accounts Receivable for $1,000.

c. credit to Cash for $1,000.

d. debit to Sales Discounts for $20.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

83. In a perpetual inventory system, the Cost of Goods Sold account is used

a. only when a cash sale of merchandise occurs.

b. only when a credit sale of merchandise occurs.

c. only when a sale of merchandise occurs.

d. whenever there is a sale of merchandise or a return of merchandise sold.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

84. Sales revenues are usually considered earned when

a. cash is received from credit sales.

b. an order is received.

c. goods have been transferred from the seller to the buyer.

d. adjusting entries are made.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

85. A sales invoice is a source document that

a. provides support for goods purchased for resale.

b. provides evidence of incurred operating expenses.

c. provides evidence of credit sales.

d. serves only as a customer receipt.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

86. Sales revenue

a. may be recorded before cash is collected.

b. will always equal cash collections in a month.

c. only results from credit sales.

d. is only recorded after cash is collected.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

87. The journal entry to record a credit sale is

a. Cash

Sales Revenue

b. Cash

Service Revenue

c. Accounts Receivable

Service Revenue

d. Accounts Receivable

Sales Revenue

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

88. Sales Returns and Allowances is increased when

a. an employee does a good job.

b. goods are sold on credit.

c. goods that were sold on credit are returned.

d. customers refuse to pay their accounts.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

89. The Sales Returns and Allowances account is classified as a(n)

a. asset account.

b. contra asset account.

c. expense account.

d. contra revenue account.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

90. A credit granted to a customer for returned goods requires a debit to

a. Sales Revenue and a credit to Cash.

b. Sales Returns and Allowances and a credit to Accounts Receivable.

c. Accounts Receivable and a credit to a contra-revenue account.

d. Cash and a credit to Sales Returns and Allowances.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

91. If a customer agrees to retain merchandise that is defective because the seller is willing to reduce the selling price, this transaction is known as a sales

a. discount.

b. return.

c. contra asset.

d. allowance.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

92. A credit sale of $3,600 is made on July 15, terms 2/10, n/30, on which a return of $200 is granted on July 18. What amount is received as payment in full on July 24?

a. $3,332

b. $3,440

c. $3,528

d $3,600

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: ($3,600 ( $200) ( .98 ( $3,332

93. When goods are returned that relate to a prior cash sale,

a. the Sales Returns and Allowances account should not be used.

b. the cash account will be credited.

c. Sales Returns and Allowances will be credited.

d. Accounts Receivable will be credited.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

94. The Sales Returns and Allowances account does not provide information to management about

a. possible inferior merchandise.

b. the percentage of credit sales versus cash sales.

c. inefficiencies in filling orders.

d. errors in overbilling customers.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

95. A Sales Returns and Allowances account is not debited if a customer

a. returns defective merchandise.

b. receives a credit for merchandise of inferior quality.

c. utilizes a prompt payment incentive.

d. returns goods that are not in accordance with specifications.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

96. As an incentive for customers to pay their accounts promptly, a business may offer its customers

a. a sales discount.

b. free delivery.

c. a sales allowance.

d. a sales return.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

97. The credit terms offered to a customer by a business firm are 2/10, n/30, which means that

a. the customer must pay the bill within 10 days.

b. the customer can deduct a 2% discount if the bill is paid between the 10th and 30th day from the invoice date.

c. the customer can deduct a 2% discount if the bill is paid within 10 days of the invoice date.

d. two sales returns can be made within 10 days of the invoice date and no returns thereafter.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

98. A sales discount does not

a. provide the purchaser with a cash saving.

b. reduce the amount of cash received from a credit sale.

c. increase a contra-revenue account.

d. increase an operating expense account.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

99. Company A sells $2,500 of merchandise on account to Company B with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. If Company B remits a check taking advantage of the discount offered, what is the amount of Company B’s check?

a. $1,750

b. $2,000

c. $2,250

d. $2,450

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

Solution: $2,500 ( .98 ( $2,450

100. Kern Company sells merchandise on account for $8,000 to Block Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Block Company returns $1,600 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What is the amount of the check?

a. $6,272

b. $6,400

c. $7,840

d. $7,872

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

Solution: ($8,000 ( $1,600) ( .98 ( $6,272

101. Carter Company sells merchandise on account for $4,000 to Hannah Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Hannah Company returns $600 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What entry does Carter Company make upon receipt of the check?

a. Cash 3,400

Accounts Receivable 3,400

b. Cash 3,332

Sales Returns and Allowances 668

Accounts Receivable 4,000

c. Cash 3,332

Sales Returns and Allowances 600

Sales Discounts 68

Accounts Receivable 4,000

d. Cash 3,920

Sales Discounts 80

Sales Returns and Allowances 600

Accounts Receivable 3,400

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

102. Which of the following would not be classified as a contra account?

a. Sales Revenue

b. Sales Returns and Allowances

c. Accumulated Depreciation

d. Sales Discounts

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

103. Which of the following accounts has a normal credit balance?

a. Sales Returns and Allowances

b. Sales Discounts

c. Sales Revenue

d. Selling Expense

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

104. With respect to the income statement,

a. contra-revenue accounts do not appear on the income statement.

b. sales discounts increase the amount of sales.

c. contra-revenue accounts increase the amount of operating expenses.

d. sales discounts are included in the calculation of gross profit.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

105. When a seller grants credit for returned goods, the account that is credited is

a. Sales Revenue.

b. Sales Returns and Allowances.

c. Inventory.

d. Accounts Receivable.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

106. The respective normal account balances of Sales Revenue, Sales Returns and Allowances, and Sales Discounts are

a. credit, credit, credit.

b. debit, credit, debit.

c. credit, debit, debit.

d. credit, debit, credit.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

107. All of the following are contra revenue accounts except

a. sales revenue.

b. sales allowances.

c. sales discounts.

d. sales returns.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

108. A merchandising company using a perpetual system will make

a. the same number of adjusting entries as a service company does.

b. one more adjusting entry than a service company does.

c. one less adjusting entry than a service company does.

d. different types of adjusting entries compared to a service company.

Ans: B, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

109. In preparing closing entries for a merchandising company, the Income Summary account will be credited for the balance of

a. sales revenue.

b. inventory.

c. sales discounts.

d. freight-out.

Ans: A, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

110. A merchandising company using a perpetual system may record an adjusting entry by

a. debiting Income Summary.

b. crediting Income Summary.

c. debiting Cost of Goods Sold.

d. debiting Sales Revenue.

Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

111. The operating cycle of a merchandiser is

a. always one year in length.

b. generally longer than it is for a service company.

c. about the same as for a service company.

d. generally shorter than it is for a service company.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

112. When the physical count of Rosanna Company inventory had a cost of $4,350 at year end and the unadjusted balance in Inventory was $4,500, Rosanna will have to make the following entry:

a. Cost of Goods Sold 150

Inventory 150

b. Inventory 150

Cost of Goods Sold 150

c. Income Summary 150

Inventory 150

d. Cost of Goods Sold 4,500

Inventory 4,500

Ans: A, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $4,500 ( $4,350 ( $150

113. Arquette Company’s financial information is presented below.

Sales Revenue $ ???? Cost of Goods Sold 540,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 40,000 Gross Profit ????

Net Sales 900,000

The missing amounts above are:

Sales Revenue Gross Profit

a. $940,000 $360,000

b. $860,000 $360,000

c. $940,000 $420,000

d. $860,000 $420,000

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

Solution: $900,000 ( $40,000 ( $940,000; $900,000 ( $540,000 ( $360,000

114. The sales revenue section of an income statement for a retailer would not include

a. Sales discounts.

b. Sales revenue.

c. Net sales.

d. Cost of goods sold.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

115. The operating expense section of an income statement for a wholesaler would not include

a. freight-out.

b. utilities expense.

c. cost of goods sold.

d. insurance expense.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

116. Income from operations will always result if

a. the cost of goods sold exceeds operating expenses.

b. revenues exceed cost of goods sold.

c. revenues exceed operating expenses.

d. gross profit exceeds operating expenses.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

117. Indicate which one of the following would appear on the income statement of both a merchandising company and a service company.

a. Gross profit

b. Operating expenses

c. Sales revenues

d. Cost of goods sold

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

118. Conrad Company reported the following balances at June 30, 2014:

Sales Revenue $16,200

Sales Returns and Allowances 600

Sales Discounts 300

Cost of Goods Sold 7,500

Net sales for the month is

a. $7,800

b. $15,300.

c. $15,600.

d. $16,200.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 1, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $16,200 ( $600 ( $300 ( $15,300

119. Income from operations appears on

a. both a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

b. neither a multiple-step nor a single-step income statement.

c. a single-step income statement.

d. a multiple-step income statement.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

120. Gross profit does not appear

a. on a multiple-step income statement.

b. on a single-step income statement.

c. to be relevant in analyzing the operation of a merchandiser.

d. on the income statement if the periodic inventory system is used because it cannot be calculated.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

121. Which of the following is not a true statement about a multiple-step income statement?

a. Operating expenses are similar for merchandising and service enterprises.

b. There may be a section for nonoperating activities.

c. There may be a section for operating assets.

d. There is a section for cost of goods sold.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

122. Which one of the following is shown on a multiple-step but not on a single-step income statement?

a. Net sales

b. Net income

c. Gross profit

d. Cost of goods sold

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

123. All of the following items would be reported as other expenses and losses except

a. freight-out.

b. casualty losses.

c. interest expense.

d. loss from employees’ strikes.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

124. If a company has net sales of $700,000 and cost of goods sold of $455,000, the gross profit percentage is

a. 25%.

b. 35%.

c. 65%.

d. 100%.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: ($700,000 ( $455,000) ( $700,000 ( 35%

125. A company shows the following balances:

Sales Revenue $2,500,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 450,000

Sales Discounts 50,000

Cost of Goods Sold 1,400,000

What is the gross profit percentage?

a. 30%

b. 44%

c. 56%

d. 70%

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $2,500,000 ( $450,000 ( $50,000 ( $2,000,000; ($2,000,000 ( $1,400,000) ( $2,000,000 ( 30%

126. The gross profit rate is computed by dividing gross profit by

a. cost of goods sold.

b. net income.

c. net sales.

d. sales revenue.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

127. In terms of liquidity, inventory is

a. more liquid than cash.

b. more liquid than accounts receivable.

c. more liquid than prepaid expenses.

d. less liquid than store equipment.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

128. On a classified balance sheet, inventory is classified as

a. an intangible asset.

b. property, plant, and equipment.

c. a current asset.

d. a long-term investment.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

129. Gross profit for a merchandiser is net sales minus

a. operating expenses.

b. cost of goods sold.

c. sales discounts.

d. cost of goods available for sale.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

130. During 2014, Parker Enterprises generated revenues of $90,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $45,000, operating expenses of $18,000 and a loss on the sale of equipment of $3,000.

Parker’s gross profit is

a. $24,000.

b. $27,000.

c. $45,000.

d. $90,000.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

131. During 2014, Parker Enterprises generated revenues of $90,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $45,000, operating expenses of $18,000 and a loss on the sale of equipment of $3,000.

Yoder’s income from operations is

a. $18,000.

b. $27,000.

c. $45,000.

d. $90,000.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

132. During 2014, Parker Enterprises generated revenues of $90,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $45,000, operating expenses of $18,000 and a loss on the sale of equipment of $3,000.

Yoder’s net income is

a. $24,000.

b. $27,000.

c. $45,000.

d. $90,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

133. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 60,000

Sales Revenue 225,000

Cost of Goods Sold 135,000

Gross profit would be

a. $30,000.

b. $90,000.

MC. 133 (Cont.)

c. $165,000.

d. $225,000.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $225,000 ( $135,000 ( $90,000

134. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 60,000

Sales Revenue 225,000

Cost of Goods Sold 135,000

The gross profit rate would be

a. .133.

b. .400.

c. .600.

d. .733.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: ($225,000 ( $135,000) ( $225,000 ( .40

135. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 26,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales 300,000

Cost of Goods Sold 158,000

Gross profit would be

a. $104,000.

b. $116,000.

c. $130,000.

d. $142,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $300,000 ( $26,000 ( $12,000 ( $262,000; $262,000 ( $158,000 ( $104,000

136. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 26,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 300,000

Cost of Goods Sold 158,000

The gross profit rate would be

a. .347.

b. .397.

c. .473.

d. .542.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $300,000 ( $26,000 ( $12,000 ( $262,000; ($262,000 ( $158,000) ( $262,000 ( .397

137. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 18,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 320,000

Cost of Goods Sold 174,000

The amount of net sales on the income statement would be

a. $290,000.

b. $302,000.

c. $308,000.

d. $320,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $320,000 ( $18,000 ( $12,000 ( $290,000

138. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 18,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 320,000

Cost of Goods Sold 174,000

Gross profit would be

a. $26,000.

b. $116,000.

c. $128,000.

d. $134,000.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $320,000 ( $18,000 ( $12,000 ( $290,000; $290,000 ( $174,000 ( $116,000

139. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 18,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 320,000

Cost of Goods Sold 174,000

The gross profit rate would be

a. .363.

b. .400.

c. .456.

d. .503.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $320,000 ( $18,000 ( $12,000 ( $290,000;($290,000 ( $174,000) ( $290,000 ( .40

140. If a company has sales revenue of $630,000, net sales of $600,000, and cost of goods sold of $390,000, the gross profit rate is

a. 35%.

b. 38%

c. 62%.

d. 65%.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: ($600,000 ( $390,000) ( $600,000 ( 35%

141. Dawson’s Fashions sold merchandise for $40,000 cash during the month of July. Returns that month totaled $1,000. If the company’s gross profit rate is 40%, Murray’s will report monthly net sales revenue and cost of goods sold of

a. $39,000 and $23,400.

b. $39,000 and $24,000.

c. $40,000 and $23,400.

d. $40,000 and $24,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

142. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s gross profit for August, 2014 is

a. $20,000.

b. $21,000.

c. $23,000.

d. $24,000.

Ans: D, LO:5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $36,000 ( $24,000

143. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s nonoperating income (loss) for the month of August, 2014 is

a. $0.

b. $1,000.

c. $2,000.

d. $3,000.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $1,000 ( $2,000 ( $3,000

144. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s operating income for the month of August, 2014 is

a. $20,000.

b. $21,000.

c. $23,000.

d. $24,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $36,000 ( $4,000 ( $20,000

145. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s net income for August, 2014 is

a. $20,000.

b. $21,000.

c. $23,000.

d. $24,000.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $36,000 ( 4,000 ( $1,000 ( $2,000 ( $23,000

a146. In a worksheet for a merchandising company, Inventory would appear in the

a. trial balance and adjusted trial balance columns only.

b. trial balance and balance sheet columns only.

c. trial balance, adjusted trial balance, and balance sheet columns.

d. trial balance, adjusted trial balance, and income statement columns.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a147. The Inventory account balance appearing in a perpetual inventory worksheet represents the

a. ending inventory.

b. beginning inventory.

c. cost of merchandise purchased.

d. cost of merchandise sold.

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a148. The following information is available for Dennehy Company:

Sales Revenue $390,000 Freight-In $30,000

Ending Inventory 37,500 Purchase Returns and Allowances 15,000

Purchases 270,000 Beginning Inventory 45,000

Dennehy’s cost of goods sold is

a. $262,500.

b. $285,000.

MC. 148 (Cont.)

c. $292,500.

d. $345,000.

Ans: C, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $45,000 + $270,000 ( $15,000 + $30,000 ( $37,500 ( $292,500

,

a149. At the beginning of September, 2014, Stella Company reported Inventory of $8,000. During the month, the company made purchases of $35,600. At September 30, 2014, a physical count of inventory reported $8,400 on hand. Cost of goods sold for the month is

a. $35,200.

b. $35,600.

c. $36,000.

d. $43,600.

Ans: A, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $8,000 + $35,600 ( $8,400 ( $35,200

,

a150. At the beginning of the year, Hunt Company had an inventory of $750,000. During the year, the company purchased goods costing $2,400,000. If Hunt Company reported ending inventory of $900,000 and sales of $3,750,000, the company’s cost of goods sold and gross profit rate must be

a. $1,500,000 and 66.7%.

b. $2,250,000 and 40%.

c. $1,500,000 and 40%.

d. $2,250,000 and 60%.

Ans: B, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $$750,000 +$2,400,000 ( $900,000 ( $2,250,000; ($3,750,000 ( $2,250,000) ( $3,750,000 ( 40%

a151. During the year, Slick’s Pet Shop’s inventory decreased by $25,000. If the company’s cost of goods sold for the year was $500,000, purchases must have been

a. $475,000.

b. $500,000.

c. $525,000.

d. Unable to determine.

Ans: A, LO: 7, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $500,000 ( $25,000 ( $475,000

a152. Cost of goods available for sale is computed by adding

a. beginning inventory to net purchases.

b. beginning inventory to the cost of goods purchased.

c. net purchases and freight-in.

d. purchases to beginning inventory.

Ans: B, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

a 153. The Freight-In account

a. increases the cost of merchandise purchased.

b. is contra to the Purchases account.

c. is a permanent account.

d. has a normal credit balance.

Ans: A, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a 154. Net purchases plus freight-in determines

a. cost of goods sold.

b. cost of goods available for sale.

c. cost of goods purchased.

d. total goods available for sale.

Ans: C, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a155. Goldblum Company has the following account balances:

Purchases $96,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 12,800

Purchase Discounts 8,000

Freight-In 6,000

Delivery Expense 10,000

The cost of goods purchased for the period is

a. $80,800.

b. $88,000.

c. $94,000.

d. $104,000.

Ans: C, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $96,000 ( $8,000 + $6,000 ( $94,000

,

a156. McKendrick Shoe Store has a beginning inventory of $45,000. During the period, purchases were $195,000; purchase returns, $6,000; and freight-in $15,000. A physical count of inventory at the end of the period revealed that $30,000 was still on hand. The cost of goods available for sale was

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COVER

Course:QS 4650Spring 2015
Project Title (provide brief title in adjacent cell):
Team Members: (teams form at assignment 1, in place at assignment 2). Typically 8-10 persons are on team, and team leader/assistant leader may remain constant, while other functions rotate.
DMAIC Worksheet Status: This identifies the worksheets to be completed, and by whom, for each assignment, congruent with rollout of work in tab 2. DMAIC worksheets are both numbered and un-numbered, to be completed as assignments throughout the course per tab 2. Each assignment must be managed and completed by the team under the leadership of the team leader (s) with all cooperating to assist. All team members should be shown with responsibilities and status of work for each assignment submitted by team.
Worksheet/AssignStatusDue DateWho Is ResponsibleComments/Other
1.1 Team Demo
1.2 Proj Charter
1.3 Prob Desc
1.4 PPP PDCA
1.5 DMAIC Meth
1.6 KPI Data
1.7 SIPOC
1.8 A3
EROL’s***
IROL’s***
DMAIC Critiques
Personal Critique*
Audit*
Power Point
Bibliography**
FACR**
Team Model/MgmtTeam leader/assistant 1 or 2
Functions with * and ** may be combined if team is smaller–ideally 10 people compose team. *** can be done by assistant team leader if team is smaller. Otherwise all un-numbered functions are assigned to one (usually different) person on team for each assignment. All will do at least one numbered DMAIC worksheet (upper listing) each assignment as well as a un-numbered task at the lower area (note there are nine un-nmbered tasks, all in yellow, including the team leadership functions).

1Intro

Course Syllabus, General Information
QS 4650. Leadership For Lean Six Sigma (3) II. Leadership focus around individual tools and techniques as foundation of continuous improvement in the lean and six sigma environment. The scientific application of common lean and six sigma tools will be applied as a transformational and improvement strategy. Team-based project configuring e-portfolio in ISO 9000 infrastructure. Prerequisites: QS 3600 and QS 3650.
Dr. John W. Sinn, Professor. Email jwsinn@bgsu.edu; related e-text and assignment materials are located at http://www2.bgsu.edu/colleges/technology/faculty/sinn/TQTT.htm
1. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY, ASSESSING STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES, ASSIGNMENTS
Aside from instructor-provided writings, no specific, single, text is used, but the course relies upon student research, via assignments, along with instructor-provided content. Assignments address content identified in student and instructor research and writings, and all deliver/lead work, as learning, in systematic, disciplined ways. Each assignment is designed equivalent to be roughly equal to traditional course tests. Most course content (exception is EROL content which students research on their own) is provided at website provided above, freely available to students. Most work (beginning at assignment 2) is intentionally done in teams, similar to how actual organizational work is completed–all done around a simulated project using fictional information configured by students in teams.
2. COURSE OUTCOMES
1. Organize, manage, effectively apply and develop further where needed and appropriate, multiple quality tools for improvement (DMAIC lean sigma analysis systems) similar to the way they are used in organizations. 2. Conduct, and develop, a model lean sigma analysis project system, as a technical project applying quality tools/DMAIC worksheets, both independently and compiled as collective team portfolio at each assignment. 3. Compile a review of literature, resulting in a bibliography of appropriate sources abstracted to validate findings, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations (FACR’s) tied to quality tools/DMAIC worksheets. 4. Critique/assess your/others’ work for improvement in a electronic environment, leading to effective management and communication of ideas and objectives’ accomplishment, independently and as a team. 5. Build and present a portfolio, including a power point presentation, throughout course, first done independently by each student, and eventually compiled in team for each assignment, to document accomplishments.
3. ***ASSESSMENT SYSTEM/ASSIGNMENT RESPONSIBILITIES SUMMARY
Student Activity%**Potential Points?*How Many, Other?*When?
ROL’s internal (IROL)15%app 6 pts each/45 totAll do two per assignment, 7-8 topicsEach assignment
ROL’s external (EROL)15%app 6 pts each/45 totAll do two per assignment, 7-8 topicsEach assignment
Bibliography5%15 points totalAll contribute, rotationally one compilesAcross the course
DMAIC WS/Critique20%60 points totalAll do two WS’s+critique, rotationally one compilesTwo each/topic
Personal Critique5%15 points totalEach assignment, 7-8 topicsAcross the course
Audit5%15 points totalOne for team, rotating assignmentEach assignment
Power Point Pres10%30 points totalOne for team, rotating assignmentAcross the course
FACR systems5%15 points totalOne for team, rotating assignmentAcross the course
Book Review5%15 points totalOne per individualDue finals week
Team Portfolio/Model15%45 points totalOne, compiled in team, starting assignment 2Across the course
*See due dates in syllabus tab 2–all done in team starting assignment 2–individuals also graded separately when appropriate.
**Total points approximately 300, but audit feedback is letter grade each assignment–may be different for team/individuals.
***Audit tab 11 explains how feedback is provided–articulated with this listing/cover page for assigning work each assignment.

2 ConRO

Content, Rollout, Deliverables
Course content will be supplied, on a timely basis, as needed. As is noted in the rollout below, across the course there will be eight separate toolkit assignments drawn from the Lean, Six Sigma, Quality Transformation Toolkit (LSSQTT), along with other specifics explained in tabs and notes below. LSSQTT readings are located at http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/technology/faculty/sinn/TQTT.htm. All work to be completed relates directly to LSSQTT content, and is also heavily oriented to DMAIC worksheets based in MS Excel, to be posted in a timely manner as needed across the course in Canvas.
Assignment #/ ReadingWeek (Date)LSSQTT Title, Other Topic (topics and assignments may intentionally continue over time, accumulatively)DMAIC Tool Worksheet (Ext ROL can relate to this work)
Assignment #1 LSSQTT Tool 1Week 1 (1-12 to 1-23)Review/understand syllabus; Engage all in Canvas, online; Start assignment #1: “Team Building, Leadership, Communicating The Project And Change”; Pay close attention to announcements/discussions in CanvasAll DMAIC 1 worksheets started, completed (some may be finished at assignment 2, 3
Assignment #2 LSSQTT Tool 23Week 3 (1-26 to 2-6)Continue improving, all understand course requirements, syllabus; “Economic Considerations, Cost Related Documentation And Quality Relationships”; Watch Canvas announcements/discussions and use new content in all IROL/EROL’s; Teams beginning to form, compile assignmentAll do Data Coll Tut individually; Do DMAIC 1, start 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.8, FACR–All assigned/done in teams
Assignment #3 LSSQTT Tool 15Week 5 (2-9 to 2-20)“Genealogy Of Selected Lean, Six Sigma, Quality Management Tools”; ROL topics relate to model system project, teams maturing, improving; Watch Canvas announcement/discussions; rotationally assign team members to compile all work in portfolioAll do DMAIC 3.2 individually; Do all DMAIC 1’s and 2’s, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, FACR; rotate, compile
Assignment #4 LSSQTT Tool 25Week 7 (2-23 to 3-6)“Data, Basis For Kaizen, Six Sigma, Quality Systems, Service”; ROL topics relate to model system project, teams maturing, continuous improvement noted; Watch Canvas announcement/discussions; rotationally assign team members to compile all work in portfolioAll do DMAIC 3.5; Continue 1’s & 2’s; Do 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, FACR; Rotate and compile, ppt and portfolio
Assignment #5 LSSQTT Tool 24Week 10 (3-9 to 3-27)“Ongoing Process Control Plan (OPCP), Foundational Infrastructure For Quality Communication”; Teams formed and fully functioning, improving; and be sure to research new content in all IROL and EROL topics; rotationally assign team members to compile all work in portfolioAll do 3.1.1, 3.1.2 or 3.1.3. Do 4.1/4.2, 5.6, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11 FACR; Rotate, compile; update all
Assignment #6 LSSQTT Tool 26Week 12 (3-30 to 4-10)“Failure Mode And Effects Analysis (FMEA), Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Base For Reliable Quality Communication”; research new content in all IROL and EROL topics; rotationally assign team members to compile all work in portfolioAll do DMAIC 5.5. Mature, refine all DMAIC sheets, FACR; Rotate, compile, support team
Assignment #7 TBM and/or QSRWeek 14 (4-13 to 4-24)Time-based Management (TBM) and Quality System Requirements (QSR) ppt’s posted for ROL’s; Assure that all persons on team are identified by work in portfolio cover sheet; research new content in all IROL and EROL topicsAll do DMAIC 5.4. Mature, refine all DMAIC sheets, FACR; Rotate, compile, support team
Assignment #8 LSSQTT Tool 27Week 16 (4-27 to 5-8)Book review, team projects completed; “Information Technology, Maintenance And Safety: Pivotal Manufacturing And Non-manufacturing Services”; Team portfolios/ppt’s evolving, all team work and compiling clearly identifiedAll do DMAIC 4.1.1. Mature, refine all DMAIC sheets, FACR; Rotate, compile, support team
Notes to help all understand the content, course rollout and deliverables:
1. This can/may be modified by instructor, with careful communication, to best accomplish course outcomes.
2. Each two week cycle has two internal ROL’s; two external ROL’s; and, two DMAIC critiques.
3. Details for each weekly assignment, done in two week cycles driven by LSSQTT readings, are shown in tabs below.
4. Additional details for each assignment will be provided in Canvas as preparation for posting areas for work submissions.
5. All work is placed in bi-weekly Excel portfolio, based on tabs below, synthesized/reassembled at each assignment.
6. All work submitted at/done in Canvas–important to pay attention to/use this as main course communication tool.
7. LSSQTT readings are available at http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/technology/faculty/sinn/TQTT.htm
8. DMAIC worksheets will be furnished in Canvas, along with examples of past work to help guide teams.

3IROL

Review of literature (IROL) Internal Critique Assignment
One IROL is due with each assignment. IROL assignment has 7-8 separate reviews, based on course rollout, with each person critiquing a separate unique section of the assigned LSSQTT reading for that assignment cycle (see tab 2 below). Deliverables for internal LSSQTT sections include items 1-4 below, each done as a box using template format provided here. During each reading assignment, two separate ROL templates should be prepared and posted in Canvas by required date of the assignment cycle, one for each section reviewed, and all part of the broader portfolio for that assignment cycle. Compiling of all IROL reading materials will be assigned at the team level. Note that if you have taken a course with Dr. Sinn in the past, and have used the same reading, please critique different material.
1. ABSTRACT/BIG IDEAS. Internal critiques abstract readings referenced which are approximately 100-150 words, each, and which capture the thrust of content and concept, as an overview, provided by the author in the LSSQTT. Abstract should explain main points, or “big ideas” covered by the author, with a brief overview/explanation of each.
2. STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES/QUESTIONS. Provide the main strengths and weaknesses, and questions, which were evident as a result of the reading. If you were to rewrite/rework the reading, what would you develop further, and/or expand upon, change to be even stronger, and in what ways. What questions did the reading cause you to raise, and what are your responses.
3. PROJECT/MODEL RELATIONSHIP. Reflect on, consider longer term model project all are moving toward in last half of the course. While fairly general at the outset, since the project is only being defined in “sketchy” ways, as the course moves along, sections reviewed should be increasingly targeted toward the project, intentionally. By the time the course concludes, most sections should be congruent with the project.
4. POWER POINT and PORTFOLIO PRESENTATION. Your work should be prepared as a professional portfolio (Excel documentation) and power point presentation which can stand alone to communicate effectively what needs to be stated as deliverables. The portfolio and power point should include all appropriate individual work based on teams being fully formed at about assignment 2-3, and all on the team contributing to meeting objectives.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

4EROL

External Review of literature (EROL) External Critique Assignment
EROL assignment has 7-8 separate reviews, based on course rollout, with each person critiquing a separate external article related to the assigned LSSQTT reading for that assignment cycle (see tab 2 below). Deliverables for each external article include items 1-5 below, each done as a box using template format. During each reading assignment, two separate external ROL templates should be prepared and posted in Canvas by the required date of the assignment cycle, one for each article reviewed, and all part of the broader portfolio. Compiling of all EROL reading materials will be assigned at the team level. Note that if you have taken a course with Dr. Sinn in the past, and have used the same reading, please critique different material.
1. BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRIES. Critiques should include a bibliographic entry done according to APA format. This should be developed into a full scale reference list incrementally (see tab 5). Compiling of all IROL bibliographic materials will be assigned at the team level.
2. ABSTRACT/BIG IDEAS. External critiques abstract articles referenced which are approximately 100-150 words, each, and which capture the thrust of content and concept, as an overview, provided by the author of the article. Abstract should explain main points, or “big ideas” covered by the author, with a brief overview/explanation of each.
3. STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES/QUESTIONS. Provide the main strengths and weaknesses, and questions, which were evident as a result of the reading. If you were to rewrite/rework the reading, what would you develop further, and/or expand upon, change to be even stronger, and in what ways. What questions did the reading cause you to raise, and what are your responses.
4. PROJECT RELATIONSHIP. Reflect on, consider longer term model project all are moving toward in last half of the course. While fairly general at the outset, since the project is only being defined in “sketchy” ways, as the course moves along, articles reviewed should be increasingly targeted toward the project, intentionally. By the time the course concludes, most articles should be congruent with the project.
5. POWER POINT and PORTFOLIO PRESENTATION. Your work should be prepared as a professional portfolio (Excel documentation) and power point presentation which can stand alone to communicate effectively what needs to be stated as deliverables. The portfolio and power point should include all appropriate individual work based on teams being fully formed at about assignment 2-3, and all on the team contributing to meeting objectives.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

5AnnBib

Annotated Bibliography
At each assignment, it is anticipated that all will conduct external ROL’s as detailed in the EROL tab to address this part of the ongoing work. As each EROL (and related bibliographic work) is completed, the documentation of key information must be logged in routinely to develop a individual bibliographic listing first, and then eventually a team bibliographic listing collectively. The key documentation information, expected, is identified below based on the form and format provided, and you will need to insert additional lines/boxes with each additional assignment source (s). The annotated bibliography should be completed according to APA format, and utilizing all articles and book reviews completed throughout the course, and eventually should reflect all sources/information reviewd by the team. Note that you do not need to do annotations for Dr. Sinn’s work (IROL).
APA Bibliographic Information For Each ROL SourceKey Concepts/Ideas Presented By Author

6DMAIC CA

DMAIC Critique Assignment (CA)
DMAIC CA assignment has two separate reviews, based on course rollout over the term, for each person on the team. One review is the work as assigned within the team, to be brought forward each assignment cycle and managed/synthesized to be part of the team portfolio (note that a single DMAIC review can be provided with several sheets summarized if a person was assigned multiple worksheets at the team level–but information must be clearly delineated for each sheet according to crieria below). The other DMAIC review is the separate/individual work as assigned for all to complete, usually a single DMAIC sheet with data, done for most assignment cycles. Team assigned DMAIC worksheets will be presented as one cumulative summary in the team portfolio–based on compiling of all DMAIC CA materials as assigned at the team level. Format remains the same for each of the two parts of this work–as defined below.
1. BIG IDEA “QUESTIONS”. Critiquer provides “BIG” ideas developed relative to doing DMAIC worksheet, pertaining to course ideas and goals. Big ideas are commonly focused on questions relative to the DMAIC worksheet reviewed, and could include: a) how might this worksheet be used in the workplace to aid in improvement projects? b) how does this worksheet relate to a broader lean sigma system for improvement? c) what specific training might be necessary for people on a team in the workplace, to assure timely and accurate completion of the worksheet?
2. MAIN FINDINGS BASED ON WORKSHEET COMPLETION. Provide main findings based on completion of DMAIC worksheet, using real or simulated data (care should be taken not to use data which may appear like other’s). Questions to be addressed could include: a) what does the data tell us? b) how do we interpret data for improvement in a project? c) how might we collect better data based on what we see in the findings? Data findings and analysis should also be used to demonstrate application of worksheet to address project objectives via the FACR worksheet.
3. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) FOR COMPLETING WORKSHEET. A step by step procedure should be listed, in order, sufficient for preparing/supporting others in the use and application of this worksheet. This procedure should be referred to as the SOP for the worksheet.
4. STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES. Main strengths and weaknesses are identified relative to course focus. That is, if you were to rewrite/rework the DMAIC worksheet, what would you change, and/or what would you add or delete.Minimum areas to be addressed should include: a) what changes in procedures could aid in improvement, and ease of use? b) what changes in format could aid in ease of use, improvement in the sheet? c) how might procedures and/or format be used differently to help train/prepare persons in the workplace to better be able to use the sheets?
5. PROJECT/FACR RELATIONSHIP. Reflect on, consider longer term model project all are moving toward in last half of the course. While fairly general at the outset, since the project is only being defined in “sketchy” ways early on, as the course moves along, worksheets reviewed should be increasingly targeted toward the project, intentionally. Specific references in support of the FACR work, although completed separately and likely be someone else, should be included. By the time the course concludes, most worksheets should be congruent with, and in support of, both the project in general and the FACR worksheet in particular.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

7PC

Personal Critique (PC)
PC helps all see how each other complete and assess work, leading to best practices–it is not a “grading assignment”. PC requires one review for each reading (see tab 2 below), critiquing one different individual every assignment cycle, automatically assigned, in Canvas, in previous cycle. PC format/general requirements are explained below. No PC is due for the first assignment cycle–and it is anticipated that the PC will be assigned at the team level, rotationally.
1. General Details. Who was critiqued, what was the assignment ROL topic provided by the instructor, when was the PC posted in Canvas, and so on?
2. BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRIES. Was bibliographic information included, and properly done according to APA guidelines? Is a bibliography being built for the entire course, showing each work cumulatively (each person should be building a total reference list as part of the course).
3. ABSTRACT/BIG IDEAS. Based on your review of abstracts/big ideas for ROL’s, was it clear what the reviewer found–with sufficient detail and analysis provided? Was the ROL relevant to the broader project and model being pursued? Was interest generated for you to read the materials critiqued? List multiple questions you raised based on the abstract and big ideas reviewed for this PC.
4. STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES. Based on your review of the strengths and weaknesses for the ROL’s, was it clear what the reviewer concluded–with sufficient detail and analysis provided? Would you pursue reading materials critiqued based on conclusions reached? List questions you raised based on the strengths and weaknesses presented in the reviews.
5. PROJECT RELATIONSHIP. Based particularly on the ROL provided by the critiquer, was this professionally prepared, clear–with sufficient details provided, able to “stand alone”, not requiring preparer presence to explain? Were all parts of the assignment completed, and done appropriately to effectively communicate to you and others?
6. FINDINGS ANALYZED, OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT. Based on the materials you reviewed, what recommendations would you offer to the preparer for improvement. Note that it is unacceptable to say that no recommendations are offered. As with all parts of this and all assignments, it is anticipated that there will be substantial responses offered for each area.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

8ProjMod

Team Model Assignment
The team model assignment is to be done between about mid term and final, although it can be started before mid term if individuals agree, collectively to do so. All work in teams of 8-10 to build a model system which is the optimal organizational entity to facilitate new product development and launch organizationally–with assignment deliverables further detailed below. The project can be either a real or simulated project, but all on team must agree and support whatever is pursued–up front.
1. GENERAL TEAM DEMOGRAPHICS. Team should include a general worksheet (or multiples) which details who is on the team, their backgrounds, and their general role in the project.
2. ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT. The model should be based on a simulated or real organization, with general information included to be number and type of employees; history and evolution; types of product; locations of facilities; strategic plan highlights; among others.
3. MAIN COMPONENTS’ FUNCTIONING FOR COMPETITIVENESS. A detailed description of each of the main components in the model should be done, including the main areas covered in each assignment cycle. This should address not only each individual component, but also relationship of components, which will help assure competitiveness organizationally.
4. GRAPHICAL DEPICTION, DESCRIPTION OF MAIN COMPONENTS. There should be a graphical depiction of the overall model, and a contextual description of main components. Flow chart is the recommended graphical depiction method, although others can be used, but all main components’ function, and how they relate to the broader model, must be included.
5. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN. Based on growth anticipated in the model, include a plan for implementation at other organizational locations, with a projected implementation budget, timeline, key performance measures, training required, and other main features related to launching and sustainment over time. The implementation plan should also be articulated directly with all parts above, to show how the system will be managed over time.
6. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. The model should include a annotated bibliography completed according to APA format, and utilizing articles and book reviews completed for the course, as well as new ideas developed in addition to these.Note that this part of the assignment should be intentionally related to the ROL course assignments–as well as all other components and functions of team work.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

9PortPpt

Portfolio, Power Point
As is noted in the ROL and assignment tabs, a portfolio should be developed. This should be based around individual work, evolving toward a team portfolio, by each person, consistent with the model project assignment. Both the Excel and power point portions of the portfolio are anticipated to evolve iteratively throughout the course, along the lines identified below, and including all other tab assignment elements. The power point presentation is assigned by the team leader/team to be updated by a team member, rotationally at each assignment.
1. GENERAL DETAILS. The portfolio has an Excel workbook and a power point presentation, both interactive and supportive, explanatory of one another–consider that the power point is a quick overview, an “Executive Summary”, to explain the workbook portion of the portfolio. Please note that as all work is being completed, it will be important to indicate where and how you intend to use the work in your portfolio presentation (since this is audited as part of the full assignment).
2. ORGANIZATION, COVER PAGE. Work examples should be provided, taken directly from weekly/biweekly assignments. When doing weekly work, consider what the organization of the portfolio should be, starting with a cover page in the Excel workbook to explain all details, similar to a table of contents. Again, the Excel longer detailed version, should be explained in power point.
3. BIBLIOGRAPHIC LISTING. This should be a direct take-off of all regular assignments, and it should reflect APA format in a highly organized and systematic manner.
4. ABSTRACT/BIG IDEAS/STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES. Team should create a synthesis of all abstracts and big ideas which demonstrates the ability to conceptually summarize and capture main ideas in work. Key strengths and weaknesses noted throughout the course may also be included here. Part of the challenge is to evaluate information and to include only the best of the best, keeping it as short as possible, but with useful and relevant information for the future.
5. PROJECT/MODEL RELATIONSHIP. Incrementally, evolutionarily, as teams become engaged around the major project, all need to reflect what has been done to contribute to the team, but provided as a individual effort to the compiler for the team portfolio/power point presentation.
6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT/FACR. Based on the materials provided, what recommendations would you offer for self-improvement? It is anticipated that this will include references to various assignments, and be refelctive of findings and analysis throughout the course–best done with the FACR, routinely. Anticipated to be driven by ROL and DMAIC CA information, the detailed and systematic documentation can, again, demonstarte your ability to make effective decisions and recommendations based on analysis and review of information.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

10Aud

Audit Checklist, QS 4650; Spring 2015Assignment 1
Person/ CourseBib APAInt ROL CritExt ROL CritDM-AIC CritPers CritPort PrepPPT PrepSelf Asses AuditDMAIC Work SheetsFA-CRWrit-ing QualBig IdeasDetail Ex-plainQues Rais-ed?On TimeFor-matAssig-nment GradeCOMMENTS/OTHER
QS 3710
Team Self Assessment/Continuous Improvement At This Assignment
This audit/assessment tool will be used in two ways in the course: first it is used by the team as a self-improvement tool; second it is used by the instructor as feedback to the teams, based on the completed portfolio submitted at each assignment. Your self assessment of the work submitted should be provided to the rotationally assigned, and written here, for each assignment. When considering what A, B, C type grade to assign yourself, reflect on criteria as laid out above/below, and outcomes in “Intro” syllabus tab to arrive at your own grade and assessment. Team should address specific areas which you are striving to improve, and how this will come about, individually and collectively. Remove these directions before submitting–and remember to assign a specific, overall, grade to yourself–consistent with the completion of the columns above (you should actually place an X in those boxes where deficiencies may exist), similar to how the instructor will assess your work at each assignment cycle.
Explanation of general audit/assessment actions (feedback to be provided by instructor):
1. Feedback will typically be provided by the instructor, beginning Friday at the end of the two week assignment cycle.
2. Persons enrolled in two courses submit dual assignment/template completions (one for each course), all done in a single portfolio.
3. Each two week cycle has two internal ROL’s; two external ROL’s; two DMAIC critiques; two personal critiques, all driven by LSSQTT.
4. Most categories above are intentionally aligned with assessment rubrics from syllabus–be sure to review these carefully if there are questions.
5. Additional explanation and details related to specific assignments will be furnished by instructor as needed at each assignment.
6. X indicates that work was not adequately completed in the category shown–communication with instructor is advised.
7. Errors can occur for various reasons in instructor observations–some correctable based on participant input–and grades can change up/down.
8. Persons enrolled in two courses submit dual assignment/template completions (one for each course), but a single portfolio is encouraged.
9. Categories in red above are most substantive for assessment points/outcomes at “course info” tab–others are contextual but of different order.

11FACR

Findings, Analysis, Conclusions and Recommendations (FACR)
FACR’s are used to document results for each individual DMAIC tool–and related ROL’s. Generally these are associated with a specific objective, although they may address more than one objective in the work and project. The goal is to determine how effectively the tool application worked, and in what ways? Also, what was found when it was used, what could be concluded, and what was the recommendation based on use? Note that rows can be added to (and inserted) and a general summary statement should be added at the bottom of the FACR.
FACR’s should be done for all DMAIC tools and related ROL content, and all on the team, per syllabus assignment rollout, although final compilation is assigned by the team leader as the project team forms up. Iterations for different information and/or data sets for the same worksheet are intentionally to be configured as multiple sets of data for the same worksheet, as a way to “test” and/or further develop (often done using simulated data at the first half of the course, matured later in team). It is also true that worksheets can/should be modified and improved as part of the work of the team, if recommended by them. ROL content, when significant, should also be referenced as part of FACR.
All first use the worksheet independently, as a separate exercize. After all on team have used the worksheet, and posted in the appropriate Canvas area, one person on the team is assigned to compile all worksheet data and documentation. After all separate worksheets for a given DMAIC tool are compiled, all DMAIC worksheets are synthesized in the FACR system as part of the team portfolio. As each DMAIC toolset is completed across the semester and course, these are added, cumulatively. Note that typically a single line is used for each objective, directly below this box.
MemberProject ObjectiveAnalysis MethodFindingsConclusion,Recommendation
Person doing work–to compile the final worksheetSpecific project objective statedOften called the “methodology”, what DMAIC tool/worksheet was used and how? Note that frequently multiple worksheets contribute to the same analysis method used. ROL information reviewed may be included here as part of the analysis.What was found when the DMAIC worksheet (s) was/were used. Note that this is what is often referred to as “the basis” for what we can conclude as being accomplished. What content in ROL’s was important for solving the problem?What can be concluded based on what was found–and were any additional methodological analyses used to derive this conclusion? Note that recommendations can only be made where a logical flow of analysis, findings and conclusions have been established.Frequently, given the nature of the work, it is not fully conclusive at this stage and therefore many times we must go back and apply other tools and methods, continuing the work to be able to reach legitimate conclusions.
FACR SummaryDMAIC tools used, and what was found, concluded, how analyzed, and recommendations provided, are summarized in a “synthesized” manner here. The FACR should be treated similar to the methodology of any project, or applied research, as a key problem solving strategy. This FACR is also frequently/typically one of the key components used by management to assess the success of a project. Significant/pivotal ROL content and information should also be referenced.

12BkRev

Book Review/Critique Assignment (BRC)
The Book Review Critique (BRC) assignment should be done between about mid term and final, with each person reviewing/critiquing a book. All do one review related to course content, per their choice, but the text should be substantive, consisting of a minimum of 10 chapters and 250-300 pages or more. General requirements are explained below, with all documentation to be completed in template provided. The book review assignment should be posted, in it’s entirety, by early in the final week of the course. There are differences in the graduate and undergraduate student assignments–and this can result in possible extra credit for undergraduate students.
1. BASELINE ASSIGNMENT GRADE DETERMINATION. Graduate students doing the assignment should review and report on all chapters. Undergraduate students must complete 2 chapters, minimum, and all other components of the assignment. Additional chapters reviewed, at the option of the student, done to the standard outlined below, may result in a better grade.
2. BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY. Include a bibliographic entry done according to APA format.
3. TOTAL TEXT ABSTRACT. Provide a single abstract, approximately 200-300 words, capturing the thrust of content and concept, as an overview, based on the author of the text.
4. CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER ABSTRACTS and BIG IDEAS. Each chapter should have a single abstract which is approximately 100-150 words, and which captures the thrust of content and concept, as an overview, provided by the author of the text, using a separate box for each chapter. Additionally, “Big Ideas” are commonly presented as part of the abstract, focused around questions the critiquer posits relative to what the author has provided.
5. STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES. Provide the main strengths, relative to Lean Six Sigma Systems Analysis and Quality and Change ideas, presented in the text. That is, if you were to rewrite the article, what would you develop further, and/or expand upon, change to be even stronger, and in what ways–this may or may not be related to big ideas presented as part 4.
6. VALUE ADDED. Critiquer should answer the question, “what is the value added in this text, for colleagues as we grow the knowledge base, specifically, in Lean Six Sigma Systems Analysis and Quality and Change, and generally in technology management?”
7. COMPARISONS TO OTHER TEXTS. Answer the question, “what is the relationship of this text to other related texts, for colleagues as we grow the knowledge base in Lean Six Sigma Systems Analysis and Quality and Change ideas, and generally in technology management?”
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

13emails

QS 6260-7260; emails
PersonBGSU email address(es)
Daniel Adkinsadkinsd@bgsu.edu
Lucas Balistrerilucasb@bgsu.edu
Jeremy Espinozajbespin@bgsu.edu
Andrew Frostamfrost@bgsu.edu
Roger Gregoryrgregor@bgsu.edu
Robert Kupkarkupka@bgsu.edu
Jodi Lamson-Scribnerjlamson@bgsu.edu
Matthew Leopoldleopolm@bgsu.edu
James McDowelljmcdowe@bgsu.edu
Shawn McMahonshawnm@bgsu.edu
James Mehallowjmehall@bgsu.edu
Todd Minniefieldtdminni@bgsu.edu
Matthew Misconinmmiscon@bgsu.edu
Trenton Morrelltmorrel@bgsu.edu
Adam Nicelyanicely@bgsu.edu
Edwin Penningtonpenniec@bgsu.edu
Cory Pfeffenbergercmpfeff@bgsu.edu
William Stuartwstuart@bgsu.edu
Craig Wreedecwreede@bgsu.edu
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the title another evening at the club is close in meaning

The title “another evening at the club” is close in meaning to “just another evening at the club” given the events of the story, what is the significance of this
8,717 results
Language Arts
Can someone give me some easier questions that can simplify exactly what I am supposed to be answering in this question? The title “Another Evening at the Club” is close in meaning to “Just Another Evening at the Club.” Given the events of the story, what

asked by Abigail on February 28, 2017
English
The title “another evening at the club” is close in meaning to “just another evening at the club” given the events of the story, what is the significance of this meaning? I need help explaining this. I have no idea how to word it

asked by abby on May 20, 2016
English
The title “another evening at the club” is close in meaning to “just another evening at the club” given the events of the story, what is the significance of this meaning? I need help explaining this. I have no idea how to word it

asked by Jessica on June 16, 2016
English
The title “Another Evening at the Club” is close in meaning to “Just Another Evening at the Club.” Given the events of the story, what is the significance of this meaning?

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2017
English

  1. The train leaves at 7 this evening. 2. The train will leave at 7 this evening. 3. He meets the girl at 7 this evening. 4. He will meet the girl at 7 this evening. —————– #1 means #2, right? What about #3 and #4? Does #3 mean #4? Is #3

asked by rfvv on July 14, 2014

English
Thank you very much for your help…. ………………………….. 1. Why don’t we go to the movies this evening? 2. Why don’t we go to see a movie this evening? 3. Why don’t we go to a movie this evening? 4. Why don’t we go to see the movie this

asked by rfvv on December 1, 2015
English

  1. I may wear bright colors in the evening. 2. I may wear bright colored clothes in the evening. 3. I may wear colthes of bright colors in the evening. 4. I may wear bright color clothes in the evening. (Which ones are correct? Do you have some more

asked by John on August 27, 2009
English
Posted by rfvv on Monday, March 30, 2015 at 2:29am. Posted by rfvv on Thursday, March 27, 2014 at 3:16am. 1. In the evening, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 2. In the evenings, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 3. Evenings, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 4. Every

asked by rfvv on March 30, 2015
English
Posted by rfvv on Thursday, March 27, 2014 at 3:16am. 1. In the evening, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 2. In the evenings, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 3. Evenings, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 4. Every evening, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. (What is the

asked by rfvv on March 30, 2015
English
Hello. I’ll really appreciate some help. 1)Do you think it’s possible and natural to say “the spokesman aims to explain the situation at a news conference” (meaning – is going to)? 2)Are the sentences correct? If yes, which is more natural: “the party’s

asked by Ilma on February 2, 2012
English

  1. Are they playing soccer this weekend? 2. Will they play soccer this weekend? 3. Are they going to play soccer this weekend? [Is #1 grammatical? Are the three all the same in meaning?] 4. I am meeting the girl this evening. 5. I will meet the girl this

asked by rfvv on May 25, 2018
maths
kelvin and smith are incharged of counting people who gets of the lift they turn riding to floor an dback down counting as a go sfter two such trips each morning and two in evening their is an avarage taken the hotel manager wants tono the days avarage (a)

asked by sunny on December 16, 2011
English
which of the following terms best describes the actions of the husband in the short story “another evening at the club?” violent* *supportive *confused *patronizing

asked by amanda on May 25, 2017
math
one evening, three people play three rounds of a betting game with the undrestanding that the person who comes in last each round must double the money of the other two. After three rounds, each person has been last just once and each has $24. What were

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2010
English
I forgot to include a few more sentences. Thank you. 1.What did you eat last weekend/over last weekend? 2.See words on the back (of the photocopy) 3.I noticed later that you had written the missing words on the back of the photocopy. 4.What time did you go

asked by Franco on January 8, 2011

math
you work at a grocery store. your hourly wage is greater after 6pm than it is during the day. one week you work 20 daytime hours and 12 evening hours and earn $280. another week you work 30 daytime hours and 12 evening hours and earn a total of %276. what

asked by emily on April 2, 2010
English

  1. I will finish it by tomorrow evening. 2. I will have finished it by tomorrow evening. —————- Which one is grammatical?

asked by rfvv on July 15, 2014
English

  1. I will open the door. 2. The door will be opened by me. 3. The door shall be opened by me. (Which one is the passive voice of #1?) 4. He will finish the homework this evening. 5. The homework will be finished this evening by him. 6. The homework will be

asked by rfvv on December 10, 2009
English

  1. I will go to a concert this evening. 2. I shall go to a concert this evening. 3. I intend to go to a concert this evening. (What does Sentence 1 mean? Does #1 mean #2 or #3?) 4. I will give you the fountain pen. 5. You shall have the fountain pen. 6. He

asked by rfvv on December 12, 2009
Math
Reasoning It costs $7 for a matinee and $8 for an evening movie. With $56, would you be able to buy more matinee tickets or evening tickets? Explain.

asked by Quan on February 10, 2013
Math
You work at a grocery store. You hourly rate is greater after 6:00p.m. than it is during the day. One week you work 20 daytime hours and 20 evening hours and earn $280. Another week you work 30 daytime hours and 12 evening hours and earn a total of $276.

asked by Lynn on November 14, 2011
statistics

  1. At a local university, a sample of 49 evening students was selected in order to determine whether the average age of the evening students is significantly different from 21. The average age of the students in the sample was 23 years. The population

asked by raj on May 24, 2016
maths
One morning the temperature was 5°F Below zero .BY noon the temperature rose 20°f and then dropped by 8°f by evening .What was the evening temperature

asked by savitha on December 27, 2014
statistics
Lubbock, Texas ran a survey and determined that 27% of all households subscribed to the daily paper, 32% watched the evening news, and 9% did both. If a household is chosen at random, what is the probability that the evening paper was received or the news

asked by Kate on September 15, 2011
Correct grammar
Pick the correct answer which corrects the underlined portion of the following sentences in the simplest way possible – for grammar and/or style, without changing the basic meaning of each sentence. In the evening you can go to a restaurant and order a

asked by ME on October 13, 2011

English
Can you please check these sentences? Thank you. When I was “little” (young is better) could play the guitar quite well. Can you say “yesterday evening” in British English (instead of last evening?) He insisted that he hedn’t broken the vase. He insisted

asked by Henry2 on October 22, 2011
Algebra
A moving picture theater usually took in $220 an evening on ticket sales. The manager found out that by reducing the price of tickets by 5 cents, 200 more persons attended, and the box office receipts were $80 more an evening. How many persons attended

asked by Laura on May 3, 2014
Math
The temperature in the morning was -23.9 degrees farenight. It rose 30.3 degrees by noon and dropped 7.5 degrees by evening. What were the noon and evening tempertures ?

asked by Ángel on January 2, 2016
math
Francine use her computer for 2 1/8 hours Tuesday evening and for 2 1/4 hours on Wednesday evening. Which is the best estimate of time Francine use her computer on Tuesday and Wednesday evening? A. About 1 / 4 Hour B. About 3 hours C. About 4 hours D.

asked by destiny on April 11, 2017
English

  1. In the evening, Sonya will meet one of her friends. 2. In the evenings, Sonya will meet one of her friends. ————————- Thank you for your help. What is the difference between them. Does #1 mean “She will meet her friend this evening

asked by rfvv on March 27, 2014
Statistics
At a local university, when scheduling classes, the probability that there are no evening classes available on a certain day is 0.80. what is that probability that there is at least one evening class available on that day? Write one a number as your

asked by sam on October 2, 2015
Statistics
At a local university, when scheduling classes, the probability that there are no evening classes available on a certain day is 0.80. what is that probability that there is at least one evening class available on that day? Write one a number as your

asked by Obi on October 1, 2015
Language arts
It is evening on the front porch of a small cabin in the woods. A lantern placed on a porch table gives off a soft glow. The bussing of insects and croaking of frogs can be heard in the distance. Now and then there is the sound of water splashing, as if a

asked by Callie on February 27, 2015
Language arts
From “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” by Robert Frost Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow How many metrical feet are there in each of

asked by GymnasticsLover05 on January 30, 2019
math
A manager schedules employees to cover evening shifts. There are 9 shifts on Monday, 11 on Tuesday, 13 on Wednesday, 13 on Thursday, 15 on Friday, 16 on Saturday, and 12 on Sunday. If each employee can work an average of 4.5 shifts, how many employees

asked by taneisha on October 26, 2011

statistics
A manager schedules employees to cover evening shifts. There are 9 shifts on Monday, 11 on Tuesday, 13 on Wednesday, 13 on Thursday, 15 on Friday, 16 on Saturday, and 12 on Sunday. If each employee can work an average of 4.5 shifts, how many employees

asked by Anonymous on June 2, 2011
Statistics on Psychology
Hi there, I was looking for any assistance or help on how I would go about starting this assignment? Having difficulty understanding it. Thank you in advance. “A stats instructor is interested in investigating time of day his lectures were held on student’

asked by Evan on November 24, 2012
Statistics help?
Hi there, I was looking for any assistance or help on how I would go about starting this assignment? Having difficulty understanding it. Thank you in advance. “A stats instructor is interested in investigating time of day his lectures were held on student’

asked by Evan on November 26, 2012
physics
A brick wall with a thermal emissivity of 0.8 is heated by the sun all day and is at a temperature of 25 °C in early evening. A pedestrian walking past the wall feels its warmth radiating in to the cool evening air. The wall has surface area of 5m^2. What

asked by sand on January 3, 2012
English
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening by Robert Frost Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village, though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer To stop without a

asked by Emily on July 25, 2018
English
But at the ticket office he learns that it’s leaving early – that evening. ——————– Q1: What other verbs can we use instead of ‘learns’? the meaning of ‘learns’ here is . Q2: What is the function of ‘‘ in the sentence?

asked by rfvv on October 7, 2014
algebra
The ticket office makes $5 profit each evening ticket sold and $3 on each matinee ticket sold. The ticket office wants to sell at least 50 evening tickets per week and at least 40 matinee tickets per week. Its goal is to earn at least $250 profit in sales

asked by ankita on February 13, 2011
algebra
The ticket office makes $5 profit each evening ticket sold and $3 on each matinee ticket sold. The ticket office wants to sell at least 50 evening tickets per week and at least 40 matinee tickets per week. Its goal is to earn at least $250 profit in sales

asked by ankita on February 13, 2011
ENGLISH HELP!!! Correcting Grammar
What is the main verb in the following sentence? 1. This building, the largest on campus, houses most of the administration offices. a. building b. campus c. houses d. there is no main verb 2. My lady and I are taking a long walk through the park this

asked by ME on October 13, 2011
econ 112
A random sample of 400 morning shoppers showed that 130 were men. A random sample of 480 evening shoppers showed 187 to be men. Use a 5% level of significance to test for a significant difference in the proportion of morning and evening male shoppers. What

asked by Anonymous on June 27, 2013

English
What club are you in? I am in the broadcasting club. the dance club teh music club the billiards club the speech club the balloon art club the cross-stitch clbu the archery club the Western-style archery the reading club …… Could you name more clubs?

asked by John on March 10, 2009
Math
Ed is planning daily walking workouts on the same distance of 12 km in the morning and in the evening. Usually he is walking at constant rate, however he planned his rate to be 1 km/h more in the morning than in the evening. Given he is willing to spend 5

asked by Anonymous on March 3, 2019
English

  1. In the evening, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 2. In the evenings, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 3. Evenings, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 4. Every evening, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. (What is the difference of the four sentences in meaning?)

asked by rfvv on March 27, 2014
English
the RCY 1 club the RCY 2 club the RcY 3 club the yc gag club the science invention club the pop music yp club the reading essay the mountain climbing club the robot manufacture club the cartoon drawing club the badminton 1 club the badminton 3 club tµµ

asked by John on March 17, 2009
Math
I don’t understand this question, could someone solve/walk me through this? One afternoon in Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, the air temperature was −10ºC and the wind speed was 25 km/h. The air temperature dropped by 5ºC in the evening, but the

asked by Dennis on February 5, 2014
Mathematics
Francine used her computer for 2 1/8 hours Tuesday evening and for 2 1/4 hours on Wednesday evening. Which is the best estimate of the time Francine used her computer on Tuesday and Wednesday evenings? A) about 1/4 hour B) about 3hours C) about 4 hours D)

asked by Anna on December 27, 2016
Critical Thinking
Do I have this right? Jane or Tom will wake up Tanner this evening. Compound: Yes Conditional: Yes Antecedent: Jane or Tom Consequent: Will wake up Tanner this evening. Contradictory: Neither Jane or Tom will wake up Tanner. Contrapositive: ?

asked by Diane on November 16, 2007
Critical Thinking
If anyone could please help me with this!!Jane or Tom will wake up Tanner this evening. Compound: Yes Conditional: Yes Antecedent: Jane or Tom Consequent: Will wake up Tanner this evening. Contradictory: Neither Jane or Tom will wake up Tanner.

asked by Diane on November 16, 2007
statistics
The average age of evening students at a local college has been 21. A sample of 19 students was selected in order to determine whether the average age of students had increased. The average age of the students in the sample was 23 with a standard deviation

asked by carrie on January 4, 2011
Critical Thinking
Can anyone tell me what the Contrapositive is for this sentence? Jane or Tom will wake up Tanner this evening. Compound: Yes Conditional: Yes Antecedent: Jane or Tom Consequent: Will wake up Tanner this evening. Contradictory: Neither Jane or Tom will wake

asked by Diane on November 17, 2007

calculus
The Snowtree cricket behaves in a rather interesting way: The rate at which it chirps depends linearly on the temperature. One summer evening you hear a cricket chirping at a rate of 160 chirps/minute, and you notice that the temperature is 80°F. Later in

asked by Kita on January 19, 2015
English
Posted by rfvv on Monday, November 8, 2010 at 7:14am. 1. He is an early bird. 2. He is a morning person. 3. He is a late bird. 4. He is an evening person. (Does #1 mean #2? The opposite of #2 is #4, right? What about #3? What is the opposite of #1?)

asked by rfvv on November 8, 2010
English

  1. I think the gymnastics club is more popular than the dancing club. 2. I think the horse racing club is more popular than the archery club. 3. I think the figure skating club is the most popular club in my school. (Are they all grammatical?) 4. I think

asked by rfvv on November 26, 2012
English
Which sentence from Frankenstein most directly references the title character? A:Cerval spent the evening with us. B:This professor was very unlike his colleagues. C:His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful.*** D:Before

asked by anonymous on March 1, 2018
English
What do you do after school? 1. I go back home directly and do my homework in my room, and then I watch TV for two hours. 2. I go to an academy to learn math, Korean and English. After that I go back home as soon as possible to do my homework. 3. I often

asked by rfvv on March 21, 2011
English
yesterday morning yesterday afternoon yesterday evening yesterday night last night this morning this afternoon this evening this night tonight tomorrow morning tomorrow afternoon tomorrow evening tomorrow night next night (Which ones are wrong expressions?

asked by John on May 21, 2009
English
This time I included only the sentences I wasn’ sure of. 1)When describing one’s family, are all these alternatives possible? My family consists of/ is made up of/is composed of/is formed by three people: my father, my mother and I (or me?). In my family

asked by Franco on September 17, 2010
English
the video media yp club the print media yp club the information telecommunication yp the RCY club the English conversation club the environment guard club the quilt club the reading essay club / the reading and writing club the cartoon drawing club the

asked by rfvv on March 22, 2010
English
Early Inklings Short Essay by John Updike. The title, “Early Inklings” is an example of a pun (a witty play on words that suggest a double meaning) . Explain the pun and the meaning of the title. I don’t even know where to start… Also, How

asked by Tyler on January 28, 2011
economics
The Midnight Hours, a local nightclub earned 100,000 in accounting profits last year, this year the owner, who had invested 1,000,000 in the club, decide to close the club. What can you say about the economic profit (and the rate of return) in the

asked by Allan on December 7, 2009

Math
4:00 in the evening 10:00 during the day Are these times a. m. Or p. m.

asked by Hoor on August 7, 2014
Im very confused and need help- Language Arts

  1. The memory of cannon fire fades like evening mists 2. Footsteps echo softly on the grass above me 3.My bride kneels at a stone Part A) After reading the poem, what conclusion can you draw about the speaker? The speaker is a soldier, in his first battle,

asked by Harley on February 22, 2018
Algebra
Of 30 runners surveyed, 22 go running in the morning and 15 go running in the evening. Seven of the runners surveyed go running in both the morning and the evening. How many runners go running in the morning but not the evening?

asked by Anonymous on October 6, 2012
math
Of 30 runners surveyed ,23 go running in the morning and 15 go running in the evening . Seven of the runners surveyed go running in both the morning and the evening .How many runners go running in the morning but not the evening?

asked by Anonymous on October 6, 2012
English

  1. They moved in yesterday. 2. They moved out the day before yesterday. 3. They moved into yesterday. 4. They moved in the apartment yesterday evening. 5. They moved into the apartment yesterday evening. ————————– Are they all grammatical

asked by rfvv on June 5, 2017
English
Can you help me rephrase some lines of Eliot’s “The Preludes I-II”? 1) The poet is describing what he sees as the winter evening settles down. He also lets the reader smell what he smells, like the odour of the steaks in passageways (a synonym?). It

asked by Franco on January 21, 2010
Statistics
A sample of 25 concession stand purchases at the October 22 matinee of Bride of Chucky showed a mean purchase of $5.29 with a standard deviation of $3.02. For the October 26 evening showing of the same movie, for a sample of 25 purchases the mean was $5.12

asked by G. on June 19, 2008
English

  1. In the evenings, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 2. In the evening, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. 3. Every evening, Sonya’s father cooks dinner. (What is the difference among the three sentences?)

asked by rfvv on April 24, 2013
math
what magic trick does Mr. Utterbunk perform every evening?

asked by fonzy on March 17, 2010
Grammar
Can we go to the movies later this evening compound or simple sentence

asked by Sherdria on August 31, 2015

English
Could you please clarify these doubts for me? Thank you. 1.He admitted to eating all the biscuits. (I s “to” necessary??) 2.I’m worried about Brian’s arriving so late. (about Brian arriving so late/ that Brian arrives so late). Are the two forms in

asked by Henry2 on November 27, 2011
College Admission essay
Hi everyone, I have just written an essay about how I grew up into an adult and realized the type of person I would like to be. BUT I seriously have no idea for the title. I need an IMPLICIT title for it. The application deadline is getting really close

asked by Anonymous on January 24, 2016
COM/170
Is this sentence correct? An evening out can be a great way to clear one’s mind.

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Literature
Contrasting “The Road Not Taken” and “Stoppinb by Woods on a Snowy Evening”….help

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reading
the evening melted away like a snowflake.the answer is what simile oe personification

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English
What argument does frank use to persuade artie not to back out of the evening?

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Math pizzaz pre algraba
What magic tricj dies Mr.Utterbunk perform ever evening

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kuai or jai2
a kid earns $2 hr for babysitting.. If he works 3 1/4 hr one evening, how much does he earn?

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English

  1. He brushes teeth in the evening. 2. He brushes teeth in the evenings. 3. He will brush teeth in the evening. 4. He will brush teeth in the evenings. (What is the difference between #1 and #2, and #3 and #4?)

asked by rfvv on April 29, 2013
math
What magic trick dies mr.utterbunk perform every evening

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Math
A team of street pavers was assigned the task of paving two parking lots one twice the size of the other. They worked for the first half of the day on the larger parking lot. Then the team split into two groups of equal number. The first group continued

asked by Seerat on March 13, 2016
English
Would you check which club names are grammatical? 1. the history cultural experience club 2. the history culture experience club 3. the life prop club 4. the ceramic craft club 3 4-1. the ceramic crafts club 3 5. the ceramic arts club 3 6. the humanity

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French for HelloKitty1993
Now I’m waiting for YOU to do what you can and then I’ll be back later this evening to proofread it! Sra (aka Mme)

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English
What are the nouns in this sentence? Friday evening will be Ivy’s birthday celebration.

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English
this is a sentence from Another Evening at the Club The spectres of the eucalyptus trees ranged along the garden fence rocked before her gaze, with white egrets slumbering on their high branches like huge white flowers among the thin leaves The author most

asked by Fairytail on March 7, 2017
English
I did not really understand the poem, Moon Rondeau. Here is the lyrics: “Love is a door we shall open together.” So they told each other under the moon One evening when the smell of leaf mould And the beginnings of roses and potatoes Came on a wind. Late

asked by Priscilla on May 16, 2009
MATH
which channels is the most popular one for the evening news? WKOD 13%, WCLM 24%, WWCN 41% WANR 22% ?

asked by ann on July 15, 2017
Algebra
For babysitting, Elissa charges $3 per hour plus an additional $2 for transportation. One evening she was paid $17

asked by Anonymous on August 16, 2017
english
which figurative language does the peom evening star by edgar allan poe?

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e commerce or marketing, help pls
hi,good evening everyone can you help me on finding a clothing manufacturer resource system??? pls thank you

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poetry
Which figure of speech is used in the following quotation? “The winter evening settles down with smell of steaks in passageways”.

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sensory abilites of the dog
Please check my answer thanks Because dogs are pac animals, they prefer to eat A. Alone B. In the evening C. at dawn D. with others I said D

asked by sarjh on March 31, 2008
Language Arts – The Odyssey – Please Check Answers
Please help me with the following question: Read the excerpt from The Odyssey. Six benches were left empty in every ship that evening when we pulled away from death. And this new grief we bore with us to sea: our precious lives we had, but not our friends.

asked by Brady on September 26, 2014
English
Posted by rfvv on Monday, March 22, 2010 at 3:48am. the video media yp club the print media yp club the information telecommunication yp the RCY club the English conversation club the environment guard club the quilt club the reading essay club / the

asked by rfvv on March 22, 2010
statistics
A sample of 25 concession stand purchases at the October 22 matinee of Bride of Chucky showed a mean purchase of $5.29 with a standard deviation of $3.02. For the October 26 evening showing of the same movie, for a sample of 25 purchases the mean was $5.12

asked by Jennifer on March 1, 2010

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3pi/4

h(t)=cot t

a.) [pi/4,3pi/4] b.) [pi/6,pi/2]

Find the average rate of change of the function over the give n interval and intervals. Please show step by step instructions.

Thanks

0 0 376
asked by emmanuel
Aug 27, 2017
The average rate of change = ( y2 – y1 ) / ( x2 – x1 )

a.)

x1 = π / 4

x2 = 3 π / 4

y1 = cot ( π / 4 ) = 1

y2 = cot ( 3 π / 4 ) = – 1

( y2 – y1 ) / ( x2 – x1 ) =

( – 1 – 1 ) / ( 3 π / 4 – π / 4 ) =

  • 2 / ( 2 π / 4 ) =

( – 2 / 1 ) / ( 2 π / 4 ) =

  • 2 ∙ 4 / 1 ∙ 2 π =
  • 4 / π

b.)

x1 = π / 6

x2 = π / 2

y1 = cot ( π / 6 ) = √3

y2 = cot ( π / 2 ) = 0

( y2 – y1 ) / ( x2 – x1 ) =

( 0 – √3 ) / ( π / 6 – π / 2 ) =

  • √3 / ( π / 6 – 3 π / 6 ) =
  • √3 / ( – 2 π / 6 ) =

( – √3 / 1 ) / ( – 2 π / 6 ) =

  • √3 ∙ 6 / 1 ∙ ( – 2 π ) =
  • 6 ∙ √3 / – 2 π =
  • 2 ∙ 3 ∙ √3 / – 2 ∙ π =

3 √3 / π

1 0
posted by Bosnian
Aug 27, 2017
Of course in this case you can write:

The average rate of change = ( h2 – h1 ) / ( t2 – t1 )

t1 = π / 4

t2 = 3 π / 4

h1 = cot ( π / 4 ) = 1

h2 = cot ( 3 π / 4 ) = – 1

( h2 – h1 ) / ( t2 – t1 ) =

( – 1 – 1 ) / ( 3 π / 4 – π / 4 ) =

  • 2 / ( 2 π / 4 ) =

( – 2 / 1 ) / ( 2 π / 4 ) =

  • 2 ∙ 4 / 1 ∙ 2 π =
  • 2 ∙ 4 / 2 π =
  • 4 / π

b.)

t1 = π / 6

t2 = π / 2

h1 = cot ( π / 6 ) = √3

h2 = cot ( π / 2 ) = 0

( h2 – h1 ) / ( t2 – t1 ) =

( 0 – √3 ) / ( π / 6 – π / 2 ) =

  • √3 / ( π / 6 – 3 π / 6 ) =
  • √3 / ( – 2 π / 6 ) =

( – √3 / 1 ) / ( – 2 π / 6 ) =

  • √3 ∙ 6 / 1 ∙ ( – 2 π ) =
  • 6 ∙ √3 / – 2 π =
  • 2 ∙ 3 ∙ √3 / – 2 ∙ π =

3 √3 / π

0 0
posted by Bosnian
Aug 27, 2017
Bosnian, part b should be negative. Believe you solved as y2-y1/x1-x2 instead of y2-y1/x2-x1which would flip it to positive. Otherwise correct

0 0
posted by Taylor Brooks
Jan 17, 2019

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expand the logarithmic expression log8 a/2

Expand the logarithmic expression.

log8 a/2

My answer is log8a-log8 2

0 0 612
asked by Steve
Nov 22, 2016
but log8 2 = 1/3

so
log8 (a/2)
= log8 a – 1/3

0 0
posted by Reiny
Nov 22, 2016
Your answer is correct, the multiple choice answers are

  1. C
  2. D
  3. A
  4. A
  5. D
  6. B
  7. A
    And for the WorkPad questions, use the app called photomath 1 0
    posted by Lola
    Jan 2, 2019
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amphetamine (c9h13n) is a weak base with a pkb of 4.2.

Amphetamine (C9H13N) is a weak base with a pKb of 4.2.

Calculate the pH of a solution containing an amphetamine concentration of 215 mg/L.

I calculated the molarity as 1.5810^-3 and the Ka as 1.5810^-10. I did ICE and i got the pH as 6.3, but it was wrong. Do you know what I did wrong?

0 0 992
asked by Kyle
Mar 23, 2010
I think you treated amphetamine as a salt. Its a base. pKa of 4.2 makes Kb = 6.3 x 10^-5. If we represent amphetamine as RN, then
RN + HOH ==> RNH^+ + OH^-

Kb = (RNH^+)(OH^-)/(RN)
6.3 x 10^-5 = (x)(x)/1/59 x 10^-3
solve for x which is (OH^-), convert to pOH, then to pH. I get something like 10.5 but that’s a quickie. Check it out.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Mar 23, 2010

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ezekiel’s research (1995) found that ku klux klan and neo-nazi leaders believed that race

picture, sociologists encourage us to examine institutional discrimination, that is, to see how discrimination is woven into the fabric of society. Let’s look at two examples.

Home Mortgages. Bank lending provides an excellent illustration of institutional discrimina- tion. When a 1991 national study showed that minorities had a harder time getting mortgages, bankers said that favoring whites might look like discrimination, but it wasn’t: Loans go to those with better credit histories, and that’s what whites have. Researchers then compared the credit histories of the applicants. They found that even when applicants had identical credit, African Americans and Latinos were 60 percent more likely to be rejected (Thomas 1991, 1992).

A new revelation surfaced with the subprime debacle that threw the stock market into a tail- spin and led the U.S. Congress to put the next generation deeply in debt for the foibles of this one. Look at Figure 9.2 (on the next page). The first thing you will notice is that minorities are still more likely to be turned down for a loan. You can see that this happens whether their in- comes are below or above the median income of their community. Beyond this hard finding lies another just as devastating. In the credit crisis that caused so many to lose their homes, African

272 C h a p t e r 9 R A C E A N D E T H N I C I T Y

The Racist Mind

Sociologist Raphael Ezekiel wanted to get a close lookat the racist mind. The best way to study racismfrom the inside is to do participant observation (see pages 133–134). But Ezekiel is a Jew. Could he study these groups by participant observation? To find out, Ezekiel told Ku Klux Klan and neo-Nazi leaders that he wanted to interview them and attend their meetings. He also told them that he was a Jew. Surprisingly, they agreed. Ezekiel published his path-breaking research in a book, The Racist Mind (1995). Here are some of the insights he gained dur- ing his fascinating sociological adventure:

[ The leader] builds on mass anxiety about economic inse- curity and on popular tendencies to see an Establishment as the cause of economic threat; he hopes to teach peo- ple to identify that Establishment as the puppets of a con- spiracy of Jews. [He has a] belief in exclusive categories. For the white racist leader, it is profoundly true . . . that the socially defined collections we call races represent fun- damental categories. A man is black or a man is white; there are no in-betweens. Every human belongs to a racial category, and all the members of one category are radically different from all the members of other categories. More- over, race represents the essence of the person. A truck is a truck, a car is a car, a cat is a cat, a dog is a dog, a black is a black, a white is a white. . . .These axioms have a rock- hard quality in the leaders’ minds; the world is made up of racial groups. That is what exists for them.

Two further beliefs play a major role in the minds of leaders. First, life is war.The world is made of distinct racial groups; life is about the war between these groups. Second, events have secret causes, are never what they seem superficially. . . .Any myth is plausible, as long as it in- volves intricate plotting. . . . It does not matter to him what others say. . . . He lives in his ideas and in the little

world he has created where they are taken seriously. . . . Gold can be made from the tongues of frogs;Yahweh’s call can be heard in the flapping swastika banner. (pp. 66–67)

Who is attracted to the neo-Nazis and Ku Klux Klan? Here is what Ezekiel discovered:

[There is a] ready pool of whites who will respond to the racist signal. . . .This population [is] always hungry for activ- ity—or for the talk of activity—that promises dignity and meaning to lives that are working poorly in a highly competi- tive world. . . . Much as I don’t want to believe it, [this] move- ment brings a sense of meaning—at least for a while—to some of the discontented.To struggle in a cause that tran- scends the individual lends meaning to life, no matter how ill-founded or narrowing the cause. For the young men in the neo-Nazi group . . . membership was an alternative to at- omization and drift; within the group they worked for a cause and took direct risks in the company of comrades. . . .

When interviewing the young neo-Nazis in Detroit, I often found myself driving with them past the closed fac- tories, the idled plants of our shrinking manufacturing base.The fewer and fewer plants that remain can demand better educated and more highly skilled workers.These fa- therless Nazi youths, these high-school dropouts, will find little place in the emerging economy . . . a permanently underemployed white underclass is taking its place along- side the permanent black underclass.The struggle over race merely diverts youth from confronting the real issues of their lives. Not many seats are left on the train, and the train is leaving the station. (pp. 32–33)

For Your Consideration Use functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interac- tion to explain how the leaders and followers of these hate groups view the world. Use these same perspec- tives to explain why some people are attracted to the message of hate.

Down-to-Earth Sociology

institutional discrimination negative treatment of a minor- ity group that is built into a so- ciety’s institutions; also called systemic discrimination

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apea predictor exam

Chamberlain College of Nursing

Certification Review Study Plan Assignment

Guidelines with Scoring Rubric

Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to identify the student’s potential weaknesses for the future national FNP certification exam and NP practice. A certification review study plan will be created to address the student’s weaknesses, and help prepare them to pass the national FNP certification exam and the APEA Predictor exam. This study plan should be used throughout the course to guide the student.

Course Outcomes:

4. Demonstrate a command of essential knowledge needed for safe, quality primary care practice as a family nurse practitioner.

5. Demonstrate competencies essential of the family nurse practitioner role as leaders and advocates of holistic, safe, and quality care.

Due Date: This assignment is due by 11:59 pm MT Sunday of Week 1.

Total Points Possible: 100

Requirements:

– The student should review their APEA Pre Predictor exam results from the NR 603 course in detail.

– Results from the following knowledge areas must be reviewed: cardiovascular, dermatology, endocrine, EENT, gastroenterology, health promotion, hematology, men’s health, neurology, orthopedics, pediatrics, pregnancy, professional issues, psychiatry, respiratory, sexually transmitted infections, urology, and women’s health.

In addition the results from the following testing domains must be reviewed: assessment, diagnosis, evaluation, pharmacotherapeutics, and planning and intervention.

There must be a minimum of four knowledge areas and two testing domains included in the study plan (additional weak areas are encouraged to be included). At a minimum, the student should select the lowest scored four knowledge areas and the lowest scored two testing domains.

The study plan must include: at least six total learning goals based on the knowledge areas and testing domains (see above), and each goal must have at least four associated learning activities, a timeline for completion (within the current class timeframe), and a reflection.

Learning activities must be clearly identified and detailed. Learning activities may include:

· Practicing with subject specific and additional150 question exams in the APEA myQbank

· Additional time studying specific areas of the APEA review modules

· Watching a webinar

· Reading specific journal articles

· Attending a conference or workshop

· Working with preceptor in clinical setting to address identified weaknesses

· Reviewing case studies

· Going through a practice simulation

· Studying from the certification review textbook

· Attending a live certification review course

Preparing the Assignment:

The assignment may be completed in a table format (see below) or organized in such a way that each learning goal is clearly separated and easily identifiable. All parts of this assignment must be the student’s original work. APA format is not required.

Sample Study Plan:

Learning Goal (Identified from Pre Predictor exam)What do you want to accomplish?Learning ActivitiesHow are you going to accomplish your goal?TimelineWhen do you want to accomplish your goal?ReflectionHow will accomplishing your goal improve your certification preparation or make you a better nurse practitioner?
Improve my knowledge of respiratory function and diseases.1. Complete respiratory subject specific exams in the APEA myQbank. I will continue to practice with these until I consistently score at least 90%.2. Review respiratory/pulmonary in the Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care textbook.3. Read at least 4-advanced practice nursing/medical journal articles related to respiratory.4. Ask my preceptor to guide me through a detailed lung assessment at my clinical site.5. Attend the on ground FNP Intensive week 7 of this course, and focus on respiratory during the review.The majority of this goal will be accomplished by week 5, ahead of the first Predictor exam, and will be reviewed as necessary through week 8 of this course. Learning activity number 5 will be accomplished by week 8.Improving my respiratory assessment and diagnosis skills will ensure that I have the knowledge to make the best care decisions for my patients. Increasing my understanding about the disease process and medications will help me communicate with my colleagues, and recognize changes in my patients that I may not have recognized without this knowledge. Additionally, increasing my knowledge in this area will better prepare me to be successful on my national certification exam.

NR661 Certification Review & Study Plan Grading Rubric

Discussion Topic 1Comments
Learning GoalsThe assignment contains a minimum of 6 learning goals (4 based on the student’s lowest scored Pre Predictor knowledge areas, and 2 from the lowest scored testing domain areas).* 5-point deduction for each missing goal. Additionally, if there are not at least 4 goals from knowledge area and 2 from the testing domain area then a 10-point deduction will apply.30
Learning ActivitiesLearning activities support the learning goals. There must be at least 4 separate learning activities clearly identified for each learning goal.* 5-point deduction for each learning goal not supported by at least 4 separate clearly identified learning activities (up to 30 point maximum).30
ReflectionReflection identifies how accomplishing the learning goal will improve certification preparation or make the student a better nurse practitioner.* 5-point deduction for each missing reflection, or a reflection that does not include the above criteria (up to 30 point maximum).30
TimelineTimeline clearly identifies when the learning goal will be accomplished. All goals must be accomplished within the current class timeframe.*1-point deduction for each missing timeline, or a timeline that does not include the above criteria (up to 6 point maximum).6
OrganizationStudy plan is organized and grouped by learning goals in a table or other format that aligns all components of the study plan under each learning goal (see sample Study Plan in assignment instructions).* 4-point deduction if the above criteria is not met. Entire assignment must be organized this way or full deduction applies. No partial deductions.4
Late DeductionsThe student must submit this assignment by Sunday, 11:59 p.m. MT of week 1. Late assignments will incur a 10% daily deduction. An assignment will not be accepted after it exceeds three days late, and a zero grade will be assigned.
Total Quality Points Earned per Thread/100
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who is the speaker in sandburg’s “grass”?

Student ID: 21973473

Exam: 986828RR – Lesson 5 Poetry, Part 2

When you have completed your exam and reviewed your answers, click Submit Exam. Answers will not be recorded until you hit Submit Exam. If you need to exit before completing the exam, click Cancel Exam.

Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

1. In the last line of “God’s Grandeur,” we see an unusual and complicated use of A. repetition.

B. consonance.

C. alliteration.

D. assonance.

2. Which one of the following lines is written in iambic pentameter? A. “And sorry I could not travel both”

B. “When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me”

C. “Not that the pines are darker there”

D. “I lift my lamp beside the golden door”

3. In the poem “God’s Grandeur,” we find the words reck and rod. By analysis we can determine that the word rod probably comes from the Bible and means A. God’s wrath.

B. God’s power.

C. a principle of ethics.

D. a tool of correction.

4. A villanelle is A. a narrative poem written in blank verse.

B. a favorite technique of John Donne.

C. a formal poem using extensive repetition.

D. a type of complex sonnet.

5. A theological argument offered by Donne in “Death Be Not Proud” may be summarized as A. death cannot be overcome.

B. chance and fate rule all.

C. the human essence is immortal.

D. life is illusion.

6. Consider the line “(the soil)/ Is bare now, nor can feet feel, being shod.” By analysis, we deduce that Hopkins means people are out of touch with God because they’re A. out of touch with the earth.

B. depending on worthless machinery.

C. too concerned with property.

D. moving to cities.

7. Emily Dickinson’s poetry was rescued for posterity by A. the residents of Amherst.

B. a cleric from Boston.

C. her secret lover.

D. her sister.

8. Who is the speaker in Sandburg’s “Grass”? A. A conductor

B. A passenger

C. The grass

D. Napoleon

9. In “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night,” Dylan Thomas’s phrase “wild men” describes A. those who celebrate life.

B. people who deny death.

C. people who embrace death.

D. those who trade dignity for madness.

10. Which poet, who seems be using iambic pentameter, bends the meter most? A. Emily Dickinson

B. Gerard Manley Hopkins

C. Emma Lazarus

D. John Donne

This question is based on the following poem. How Doth the Little Crocodile How doth the little crocodile Improve his shining tail, And pour the waters of the Nile On every golden scale! How cheerfully he seems to grin, How neatly spreads his claws, And welcomes little fishes in With gently smiling jaws!

11. What is the rhyme scheme in “How Doth the Little Crocodile”? A. ABAB ABAB

B. ABBA ABBA

C. ABAB CDCD

D. AABB CCDD

12. Describing the chariot that bears the human soul as “frugal” is an example of A. realism.

B. denotation.

C. paradox.

D. epiphany.

13. The theme of the poem “Richard Cory” is that A. Richard Cory was a victim of fate.

B. a person’s inner reality is often hidden.

C. money can’t buy love.

D. surface glitter may be fool’s gold.

14. One difference between the English sonnet and the Italian sonnet is its A. meter.

B. rhyme scheme.

C. theme.

D. subject matter.

15. Which one of the following poems depends heavily on the use of allusion for effect? A. “Grass”

B. “Death, Be Not Proud”

C. “God’s Grandeur”

D. “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night”

16. In Donne’s sonnet, what does the phrase “one short sleep past” mean? A. Death is more permanent than sleep.

B. Death is unavoidable.

C. Death comes sooner than expected.

D. Death, like a nap, isn’t permanent.

17. Which one of the following elements is characteristic of the poem “Richard Cory”? A. Sonnet form

B. Surprise ending

C. Blank verse

D. Lack of rhyme scheme

End of exam

18. What type of poem is “Death, Be Not Proud”? A. Narrative

B. Discursive

C. Reflective

D. Descriptive

19. The form of the poem “God’s Grandeur” is that of A. blank verse.

B. an English sonnet.

C. an Italian sonnet.

D. a villanelle.

20. In “The New Colossus,” the Statue of Liberty is compared to a/an A. immigrant.

B. door.

C. mother.

D. European queen.

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meiklejohnian theory

Research theories which argue in favor of freedom of speech or press as communicated in the First Amendment. Three of these theories are addressed in your text: marketplace theory, self-government (Meiklejohnian) theory, and individual freedom (self-realization or fulfillment) theory. Other theories include absolutist theory, ad hoc balancing theory, preferred position balancing theory, and access theory. Select four of these theories to research in detail and compare and contrast the historical development and implications of these theories on speech and communication.

Then reflect on which theory best communicates your perspective and how it impacts your decision making in communication and media practices both personally and professionally.

Your paper should be 2-3 pages in length not including a cover page and a reference page. Support your statements with 3 scholarly references in addition to the course text. 

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cypresscollege blackboard

go to this website first to sign in: https://cypresscollege.blackboard.com/

Username: @01154830

Password: Sheehan123

Sign in first and then copy this url to look all the material about Annotated Bibliography: 

https://cypresscollege.blackboard.com/webapps/blackboard/execute/displayLearningUnit?course_id=_4141_1&content_id=_442033_1
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nai(aq)+hg2(c2h3o2)2(aq)→

NaI(aq)+Hg2(C2H3O2)2(aq)→

0 0 573
asked by vel
Sep 21, 2014
2NaI(aq) + Hg2(C2H3O2)2(aq) ==> Hg2I2(s) + 2NaC2H3O2(aq)

1 0
posted by DrBob222
Sep 21, 2014