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Thinking As a Hobby written by William Golding

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Essay

Thinking As a Hobby written by William Golding

Thinking As a Hobby is written by William Golding in which he describes that three levels of thoughts by telling the practices and attempts of communication. In my opinions, the author has greatly explains the grade one people. The author describes the story with the help of narrator and then reaches on the conclusion. The conclusion is based on the thoughts of the author that elaborates the nature of human being. The childhood of the narrator is related with the teachers that were hypocritical. He describes that the teachers were not act upon the things that they were said. There were contradicts in his sayings and acting. While he reaches in his teen age there were the differences between religious beliefs. He had a girlfriend in the teenage her name was Ruth. He says that there are three types of thinkers. Grade three thinkers believe at their feelings. They think with their feelings and emotions. They think without analyzing. They do not use mind and brain in making any decision. They listen of their hearts and emotions. Grade two thinkers have contradicts in their actions and words like their teachers. Grade 1 are the most extraordinary people in society. They people use brain and mind in making decisions. They use logic and have analytical approach. They pay less attention on feelings and emotions. The author was very curious to find the people of grade one. Finally, he met the person one day, in oxford, near a small bridge. He then concludes that the grade three people are called immature and grade two people are called incomplete but the grade one –people ate called extraordinary people in the society. They think first and then act in every matter of the life. They are remembered for their outstanding qualities for years.

It is concluded that a man should try to become and to be in the list of grade one because they are the great persons of society.

Poetry

Holy Sonnet 14 written by John Donne

Holy Sonnet is written by John Donne in which the speaker direct asks with God that to intensify the struggle to restore the soul of speaker. After reading the poem it is said that the poet is beautifully describes the pray and hymn. He direct talks with God to purify his soul’ he knows that his soul is embodied in the sins and he feels burden due to sins and want to free from his soul from sins.  It is not enough to knock the door only. The speakers ask the three –person to God that betters his heart. The poet wants to better his soul. He requests to God that make him a new person and change his heart and soul. The poet wants to get rid of his sins to make his soul new. He said to God that enters in his soul furiously and angrily. He said to God that he deserves of all the punishments. He is not willing that he is treated gently and politely. He says that he is ready to face all the punishments because he has committed all the sins but now he wants to purification to make his soul new. The speaker of the poem admits and agrees with the belief that he loves God very much and he desires to be loved by God. The poet asks God that untie divorce and break that knot again. He says that he would never free and will never be chaste and purify until the God ravishes him.

It is concluded that the poet has used many literary figures in the poem to explain the meanings of the sense. The speaker is truly wanted to purify his soul from sins. He desires to wash his soul and to make it new for good deeds and to acquire God’s Love.

Drama

Oedipus Rex is written by Sophocles

Oedipus Rex is written by Sophocles. After reading the drama, It is analyzed that the play is a grand masterpiece of the writer. A great play opens when Thebes is struck by a plague. The people of the state said to king Oedipus to divide them from its horror. Antigone and Ismene are the daughters of the Oedipus. Their brothers killed one another in a war. The play has never surpassed for the raw and the horrified power with which its hero fights to answer the eternal question like who am i?

 The story of the play is about a king that who acts in ignorance, kills his father, and marries with her mother. It is a Greek tragedy. It describes all about the king that his son kills his father, snatches his wife, and marries him.

The play is great work of art that describes the situation and condition of the Greek. The play is absolutely the description of the Greek traditions. It explains the issues and problems of the Greek period of that century. It is great tragedy and the writer uses the literary figures in his writings to explain the real sense of the tragedy. 

It is concluded that the play is a great tragedy and describes the Greek period. The writer has beautifully presented of all the elements in a sequence. There are lot of things and points that are worth mentioning. After reading the play, it is clear that it opens the bitter reality of the society and that society is involved in many crises that are unfolded.

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English 150 Final Exam

What pivotal events have defined or changed your life (i.e. starting college, returning to college, a career change, an illness, a move, or a change in family structure)?  How do you think your life would be different if these events had not occurred?  How might your life still be the same?  

There are so many event in my which aided me to improve my life but I believe that getting education in outside my country is one of the most prominent event in my life that has completely changed my life. I always enjoy my studies and I always love to learn new things therefore, because of enthusiasm to learn knowledge I have a good student. However my thirst to explore new things, meet with new people and learn knowledge never ends and it always keep me warm to move forward.

After finishing my schooling in my country I decided to go abroad for foreign studies and then the journey that changed my life was started. I came to aboard for higher education but It is not the education that has changed my life but my experience to meet with the people from different cultures, different regions of the world and with different religion has given great exposure to my life.

The life that I had been living in my country since my birth is much different than the life I have been living since I have left my country for higher education. After leaving my country I have experienced some good things and some bad things but overall I think that I have learnt a lot because obviously the good things have enhanced my knowledge and the bad things given me lesson and experience.

In my country I was living somehow an aimless life because I was not having responsibilities and I was very careless as my father and mother mutually take care of all the matter and we have servants to do other things for us. However, since I have left my country proposed to get higher education in foreign countries, I feel a great change in my personality. I have become responsible as well as I do everything with great care because here I am alone and I have realized that I have to face challenges by myself. In the starting days I badly miss my parents but with time I came to learn that I have to face challenges to learn something. With this enthusiasm to learn more to become a respectful person in my family, to support my family as well as to help my country, I decided to remains determined to face all the challenges in aboard land. This thing has helped me to achieve some maturity in my personality and I started to feel strong in myself.

Secondly, I would love to share one thing that more than any other thing we should give respect to humanity. I feel that before meeting with the people from different countries and different religions we have a different set of mind about them but when I interact with them, I realized that we all human are same but we are just divided into different regions and religions and at this fact I remind the last Sermon of Holly Prophet in which he said that only those are better who are good in their behavior. Therefore I can proudly say that I have learnt to respect humanity and this fact has changed my views and my thoughts about the people who belong to other religion and regions of the world.

I also feel that this thing has brought great change into my personality because as I arrived here I found some very helping people who have helped me to improve my skills in realistic ways. I feel that this is the real difference in the education because I found that what I have learnt in my country was just limited to the knowledge of book but here I have learnt knowledge through theory as well as through the practical which helped me to learn better than ever before.

There is another thing which I want to share as after coming abroad I have learnt about the cultural differences and at once I believed that it would be so hard to live in a place with different cultural and social aspects among different people. Most interestingly I came to realize that God has gifted great ability to the human to be adjusted according to the circumstances. I believe that this a very important thing because if I look into my future, I can see that I would have to meet with the different people therefore, it would be very helpful for me to interact effectively and confidently when I will have some awareness about their cultural aspects because everyone has some deep relations with his cultural and social aspects. Therefore, I have realized that to work in a global setting, my experience of getting education with people from different regions and religions has given me platform to get ready for my future.

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World War I

Introduction 

War always comes up with massive destruction that resulted in the loss of precious human lives and the financial loss that comes up with the damage of residential houses, building, the destruction of flora and fauna etc. The other losses such as environmental pollution due to the hazardous gases from the bombing remains in the air for long time and disturb the health. 

Subsequently, the World War I was the most deadly and most destructive event of that time in the history of human as millions of precious human lives were lost, millions of people became paralyzed and countless people lost their houses. 

Thesis statement

Considering the World War I as a prominent in the history of human, the following writing is proposed to discuss various aspects of World War I. for the following writing the argument is planned to discuss that the World War I is remembered as one of the most destructive and bad event in the history of human as it took away lives of millions of people. It is also consider biggest mistake of human which resulted in nothing but massive destruction. This divided the entire world and penalized the development of the world as it pushed the world 100 years back. It was a different type of war therefore; the efforts which were made to protect the soldiers were badly failed as the war was full of uncertainties. In psychological aspect, it seems that the war was nothing but a blood shedding where human were killing human mercilessly as the element of humanity seems disappeared in the events of the war. Almost all the socialists people opposed this war as majorly they all believe that war is not the solution of problems but it will bring destruction. The most prominent experience was the racial diversity as people from almost all races took part in this war. 

 How the war was expressed, imagined, remembered in literature (fiction, poetry)?

In different literatures the war is expressed differently in which the element of favoritism seems prominent. However in almost all the literatures, the one thing seems prominent as the World War I was just like a doomed day as blood shedding was everywhere, the most parts of Europe and some parts of Middle East were full with the human’s bodies and the corps were watering by blood than water. The atmosphere was polluted with the dust and hazardous gasses of bombing and the bullets were flying everywhere. It was like a doomed day as most of the literatures has expressed that even having feelings for the others, soldier were helpless in front of their duties and killing others. Grayzel has quoted a story in which she had quoted the words of a soldier who took part in the war and explained that “3 German soldiers were appeared as they were badly bleeding and were screaming for help and were crying for mercy but I had to follow the order and we had no feelings and so we left them to die”(Grayzel, 2012).

How effective were attempts to protect soldiers in the war?

World War I was the deadliest ever event in the history since it took place as there were around 60 million soldiers from all over the world participated. These soldiers fought war in various location of the world including Greece, Iraq, France, China, North Sea, Pacific Ocean, etc. They had to face great uncertainties. However it was believed that they soldiers were well equipped but unfortunately, there preparation for the war was not enough as they had to meet with uncertainties in the war. However the training were made to train the soldiers to protect themselves in the challenging situations but these trainings were not enough in front of the deadliest weapons and environmental conditions(Grayzel, 2012). 

This war was a terrible experience for all even they succeed to won the war of they have lost the war because it was the uncertainties hit them everywhere. It was found that the helmets which were used to protect the soldiers were not effective to resist against the rifles and the half body armors were also not contributed to protect the soldiers.  Especially the Adrian and Brodiewere badly affected as their helmets were failed to protect them. However somehow the full body armors were seem effective to protect the soldiers but they were too heavy to carry therefore they were not used effectively as they resisted the soldiers to everywhere. 

Overall around ten million soldiers died during the World War and it is said that they died for nothing. According to the study it is found that the curator and zoologist of the armor collection and Met’s arms were also not effective however these techniques were effective to save some lives. The United Stated Armor body program was badly failed as it was found ineffective to millions of soldiers’ lives. The failure of the efforts to protect the soldier can be imagined as in starting month France had to lost around 250,000 soldiers as all the efforts to protect the soldiers were badly failed. However in these efforts only America somehow seems to protect some of their soldier through the American Expeditionary Force as it is stated that through this program the deaths batter cut around 26,000 deaths(Grayzel, 2012). 

How did psychology explain what was happening in the war?

The psychology explains that the World war was not ended with the ending announcement but it remained continue until the witness of the war remains alive because those who were killed people and those who became the victims, never forget the events of the World War I. It is found that the rate of psychological breakdown was extremely high among those who returned from the battle field also it was found that those who left their post were suffering badly from the mental stress of war.  

It can also be imagined that how horrific the war was as the suicide became a major issue among the soldier who returned from the war. In this war, there are many incidents in which a large number of family members were fighting together therefore, to see the dead body of the family members and friend put them in great shock. The suicide ratio was highest among Americans and Germans and around four thousand soldiers from Germany killed themselves(Grayzel, 2012). 

It was also found that it was quit hard for returning soldiers to readjust to civilian life therefore, most of them were found in physical trauma in result of losing their families and friends. It was even hard for the soldiers to share their experience. The psychological impact of the war were remained continue for a generation.  

The term “Shell Shock” was also emerged in the starting period of the war as the soldiers share their experience under the fire of World War I. After the war the shell shock became the military priorities as psychiatric causalities battered the power of front line units. 

 Why were people opposed to the war?

Antiwar movement was seen in almost all the countries and most prominently the pacifist or the socialist groups and the radical unions were prominent to protect against the war. In Britain Independent Labor Party opposed the war as they consider it as an in-humanistic approach. Women rights groups also opposed the War in which the Women Social and Political Union was prominent. In America Women also protested against the war and in January 1915 the Women’s Peace Party called the neutral countries to help to restore the world peace by stopping war and in this regards, 150 countries Peace Conference was held in Netherland(Grayzel, 2012). 

The Industrial Workers of the World also opposed the war and started an antiwar movement in USA. Most of the people believet that the idea of War is not in the favor of the world and they asked to solve problems through the table talk. However the Americans were not in favor of the America to join war because they believe that it is the European issue and America should remain away. The German and Irish immigrants were not in favor that America get involved in the war. Some people believe that getting involved in the war would disturb the relations of America with other countries and it would penalized the economy growth. 

What was the experience of non-combatants in the war?

The experience of the noncombat was very bad as they had to subject to army discipline but they were not heaving weapons and they were not allowed to participate in battles. Their tasks were to provide the physical labor to the army in British Isles and overseas. However those who rejected to follow the orders were badly punished through the court martialled and they were sent to jail. They also had to face the terrible physical and emotional experiences(Grayzel, 2012). 

What was the experience of colonial troops in the war?

The most considerable part of the war experience was that there was racial diversity as people from all over the world and from all the races were fighting in the war. The war experience for the colonies, radical groups and dominions was profoundly transformative at various levels. Most of them had to face racist attitude and hate from the locals. For the Imperial defense the colonial were regularly used by the British but they were not asked to fight against the white races. Subsequently, the Indian troops was not given permission to fight in South African(Grayzel, 2012).

Conclusion 

The World War I is no doubt was one of the most deadly events in the history of human. The aforementioned discussion has shown that this war is still remembered as a dark period of human history which is full of the greatest event and cruelest events of human executions. Every country was affected by it and the soldiers even from the winning countries never forget this event. This event brought great changing to the world. The psychological effects of the war were remained with the generation. The people who opposed the war were found right at the end as the war was ended with nothing but massive destruction, the mountains of dead bodies, the streams of blood, the burning houses, the destroyed crops and the hazardous gasses contaminated atmosphere were left behind. 

Bibliography

Grayzel, S. R. (2012). The First World War: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford/St. Martin’s.

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US Law

The US patriot act

The US Patriot Act is the one of the greatest act that has been established in the recent years. This was made by the President George W. Bush and it was made on 26 October 2001. It was made for the security and protection of the citizens. There were many reforms and good doing that fall in this act. Some of the major titles are Enhancing domestic security against terrorism, Anti-money-laundering to prevent terrorism, Removing obstacles to investigating terrorism, Increased information sharing for critical infrastructure protection, Improved intelligence, Border security, Surveillance procedures and many more (Justice.gov, 2016).

We can see that by implementing the act the country is much safer. There are many reforms that have been made due to this act and that have much more benefits for the country than ever before. What I can see that there are no sacrifices that are been made according to the law. In my opinion there are best practices that are been implemented by the police and the state to protect their citizen. 

What I believe is that there must be good changes that can be made according to my opinion. For example, there should be more random checking and the crime should be eliminated according to the act. The police persons and we also knew that the smuggling, intoxications and the people who are not following the rules of the state. They should be caught in every case and the police officers who allow them to do that should be suspended forever. 

I can personally give the sacrifice if they would stop me randomly and ask for the checking of the car or mine. This will be appreciated because due to this, there will be terror on the persons who are going against the law and the illegal acts will be reduced by this. 

11-Miranda

Yes in my opinion, Miranda rights are still necessary. It was a good step taken by the State and it should be kept in progress. Before this right, we have seen that in many cases people were forced to speak something. By doing this there were many problems in the past as the person is confused and might say anything wrong and by doing that the data is been written and is been used against them. That his own statement goes against the person. That’s the reason in my opinion Miranda rights should be there so that is there is any problem the person could be remain silent and further steps can be taken in this regards (Nolo.com, 2016). 

There were many changes made in the Miranda but there are some major change that have been made and that will be discussed. What we can see is that the biggest point in the Miranda was that a person could remain silent. However, we can see that it has been changed. Now there is no right for the person to remain silent. This change was made due to the some incidents.

If we look at the Miranda law then we come to know that it was a good stance that a person could remain quite as he will contact his lawyer in court or he do not want to give any kind of explanation to the police officers. Living in the Free State that right must be prevailing there so that there would be no pressure on the victim that you need to speak in any case. However, we know that the terrorist attacks and suicide is becoming common and the state needs to change the law so that no one could be left behind but still there are some rules, which needs to be followed. 

  The purpose of the Miranda law is good and looking then it actually gives the security to the citizens so that there would be no harm to the society that is the best thing by implementing. 

References

Justice.gov. (2016). The USA PATRIOT Act: Preserving Life and Liberty . Retrieved May 3, 2016, from https://www.justice.gov/archive/ll/highlights.htm

Nolo.com. (2016). Miranda Rights: What Happens If Police Don’t ‘Read Your Rights. Retrieved May 3, 2016, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/police-questioning-miranda-warnings-29930.html

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electromagnetic pulse attack

Introduction

            The power is a need of modern world in this era. In this study, we will discuss the energy security and possible threats regarding the electromagnetic pulse attack. The emphasis of the study is in history, definitions, impacts, solutions and different alternatives regarding this destructive attack. The study has been conducted in the context of the United States of America.

Background

            This is a fact that use of energy in different countries has been increased with the passage of time. In addition, energy has also been used in different nuclear devices, which may be destructive for both, power and humanity. It relates more to the United States of America, as threats have been highlighted by the security and power agencies. The most important thing is to come up with awareness and strategic consideration.

Engagement

            To engage with the energy security and possible electromagnetic attack, the government should create the awareness and try to reduce the use of power in a whole country. This is all about to secure and save power for future without any uncertainty. The society can be engaged to contain the energy security for a long run in the country.

Solutions

            The hydropower and biomass are the two prominent and workable solutions to contain the save and green energy for people in the country. However, there is a need to limit the use of energy on the nuclear weapon. On the other hand, identification of resources and the inclusion of technology to renew the energy is a perfect solution.

Results

            Through the alternative resources of the energy, the world will become safer than now. For Instance, through the limited use or abundant of nuclear consideration and other alternatives for power, the sustainability of both, earth and life can be gained from a long run. In addition, other consideration or alternatives can help people to use cheaper energy.

Where is Happen & Why?

            This has been revealed that the electronic pulse attack may end the modern life in the United States of America. This is a fact that this attack may cause the loss of electricity in the country permanently. The government and the different power agencies are trying to deal with this possible electromagnetic pulse attack, as it can also cause a catastrophic damage on the United States of America.

When is happen?

            In 1962, the high altitude test was conducted in the Pacific Ocean. This has been revealed that the effect of this test was destruction, as different concerns were raised over EMP. Therefore, the testing of different nuclear devices in different countries, including the United States, may cause this destructive effect for a long run. 

Definition of energy security

            The energy security refers to the cheaper energy for a long run in a country. This is good for a country to invest the timely to supply the energy regarding the different economy projects. This is all about to save the energy for emergency cases in a country. For Instance, in a case of the magnetic attack, this saved energy can be used as the alternative in the United States of America.

Definition of Electromagnetic pulse attack

The electromagnetic pulse refers the burst of radiation. After the conduction the nuclear test, the radiation may destroy the electronic and magnetic fields. In addition, it may damage the current and voltage systems in a country.  Due to high altitude detonation, the threat of this pulse attack is always here.

History electromagnetic pulse attack

The electromagnetic pulse attack was identified during the early weapon testing. In 1945, America conducted a nuclear test. All the signal lines were shielded. IN result, it has been revealed that all important record in the electronic devices was damaged. Similarly, the instrumentation was failed due to the British nuclear test in 1952.

Descript electromagnetic pulse attack?

Electromagnetic pulse attack contains three different categories. These are E1, E2, and E3. For Instance, E1 contain high voltages in different electronic conductors. It causes the electrical breakdowns in the different electronic machines and systems. E2 refers to Gamma rays due to neutrons. Moreover, the E3 is a low pulse comparatively, and it can destroy the magnetic field of the earth.

High altitude nuclear EMPs (HEMP)

Due to the nuclear weapon testing, the high altitude explosions can be observed. In 1958 and 1962, the Soviet Union and the Unites States conducted these tests. The high altitude nuclear EMP release the gamma rays in nanoseconds. These rays at high altitudes are more destructive and can cause the electromagnetic pulse attack on a macro level.

How are used

            The EMPs are used through the different electronic devices. This is a fact the use of these EMPs can be seen at the micro level, especially in the different health organizations. This is to mention that these produced at the time of need through different electronic devices.

For what are used?

            Different organizations consider the EMPs to use the gamma rays. For Instance, these rays are used to treat the cancer patients. To kill the mutated cells, the gamma rays are productive. Furthermore, these rays are used for transmitting the waves and signals of different radio devices.

Electromagnetic pulse attack as energy security

            This is a fact that all the electronic mechanisms are power based. Therefore, a country can use the electronic pulse attack for a different electronic mechanism in the different countries. The purpose is to save the energy for the own country. However, it is destructive and not made for the destruction of other devices in different countries.

Example or events of Electromagnetic pulse attack

            For example, in the United States of America, every person using mobile phone should be concerned over the EMPs. The rapid acceleration of different charged particular is in the limelight. Another example is regarding the solar storm due to the electrometric pulse in 1859. In North America and Europe, several electronic devices and systems were destroyed.

Advantages

Regarding the benefits of an electromagnetic pulse, it can be used to contain rapid recovery and cancer therapies. Moreover, another benefit is to deal with the chronic pain in human. This has been revealed that immense muscles spasms can be reduced through these electromagnetic pulses.

Disadvantages

            It has immense disadvantages. However, the disadvantages are the loss of power, destruction of different electronic devices, systems, and mechanism. The testing of a nuclear weapon is costly and destructive for any country. In addition, the limited use of gamma rays cannot justify the immense destruction.

Conclusion

In this study, we have discussed the electromagnetic pulse attack and the energy security. The most important thing  for the United states to depict the responsibility ad limit its nuclear testing process, as it can help it to reduce the chances of this destructive pulse attract.

References

Burke, S., & Schneider, E. (2015, July 22). Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Pulse? Retrieved October 10, 2016, from Slate: http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2015/07/emp_threats_could_an_electro_magnetic_pulse_weapon_wipe_out_the_power_grid.html

Farrell, A. E., Zerriffi, H., & Dowlatabadi, H. (2004). ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE AND SECURITY. Annual Review of Environment and Resources , 29, 421-469.

Perotoni, M. B., Barreto, R. M., & Manfrin, S. K. (2015, November 20). Cyber-Attacks Based in Electromagnetic Effects. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from Enigma: http://www.enigmajournal.unb.br/index.php/enigma/article/view/45

Robison, R. (2014, January 29). Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP): The Clock Is Ticking. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from The Daily Signal: http://dailysignal.com/2014/01/29/electromagnetic-pulse-emp-clock-ticking/

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MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

ALEKS Pie Completion Worth 400 points

The primary goal of this class is for you to complete the entire pie by the end of the term. Points for pie completion will be added to your score at the end of the term.

ALEKS

Emphasis on Lab Work. On-ground sections of the course will be taught in a computer lab, with three (3) hours of lab time using ALEKS for every one (1) hour of traditional instruction. Thus, students in an on- ground section of the course will log about three (3) of the required five (5) weekly hours in ALEKS during class. To get full credit for the ALEKS participation points, on-ground students will have to put in two (2) additional hours using ALEKS outside of class. Online students will also utilize ALEKS in the same or similar manner. All students will start the term by taking a comprehensive ALEKS assessment to identify where they need to focus their efforts. As you master each assigned topic, your progress will be plotted on a pie chart. Your goal will be to fill in the entire pie. Forty (40) percent of your final grade will be based on how much of the pie you fill in. Weekly Lab Requirement. Students are expected to spend at least five (5) hours per week working with ALEKS. The instructor will be able to see how much time you’ve spent in ALEKS and what topics you’ve worked on. Weekly ALEKS time will count toward 10% of your final grade. If you work in ALEKS for five (5) or more hours, you will earn ten (10) points. If you spend less time working in ALEKS, you’ll receive partial credit in direct proportion to the time you spend, at 2.0 points per hour. Please note that five (5) hours is the minimum requirement each week. Generally, the more time you can spend working on the pie, the more you will progress. We recommend that students spend at least six (6) hours each week in ALEKS. If you fill in the ALEKS pie early, your instructor will provide instructions on how to access an expansion pie with advanced topics covered in the next math course, so that you can continue to learn new material while meeting the ALEKS lab requirement. Pacing and Weekly Objectives. While each student will work through a unique ALEKS pathway, this course is being taught in the context of an 11-week term. To assist students in pacing their efforts, weekly objectives have been established. These appear as white dots on your pie chart. Halfway through the term, all students will complete a Midterm Exam, based on the weekly objectives for the first four (4) weeks. Repeating Exams. Students may repeat the Midterm and the Final Exam one (1) time each. Please note that students who score poorly on the Midterm Exam should consult their instructor before taking the exam a second time. Typically, students who score poorly on the Midterm Exam have not completed at least sixty (60) topics in their ALEKS pie. Those in this situation are advised to complete at least sixty (60) topics in the ALEKS pie before retaking the Midterm Exam. Discussion Requirement. Students taking the course on-ground will receive points for class participation and attendance, based on the criteria set by the instructor. Students taking the course online must participate in the online discussion boards each week in Blackboard to earn points for discussion. Discussion makes up 10% of the overall final grade.

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

Due Week 10 and worth 140 points

Imagine you are a manager at a major bottling company. Customers have begun to complain that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in your company contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of product. Your boss wants to solve the problem at hand and has asked you to investigate. You have your employees pull thirty (30) bottles off the line at random from all the shifts at the bottling plant. You ask your employees to measure the amount of soda there is in each bottle. Note: Use the data set provided by your instructor to complete this assignment.

Bottle Number

Ounces Bottle Number

Ounces Bottle Number

Ounces

1 14.5 11 15 21 14.1

2 14.6 12 15.1 22 14.2

3 14.7 13 15 23 14

4 14.8 14 14.4 24 14.9

5 14.9 15 15.8 25 14.7

6 15.3 16 14 26 14.5

7 14.9 17 16 27 14.6

8 15.5 18 16.1 28 14.8

9 14.8 19 15.8 29 14.8

10 15.2 20 14.5 30 14.6

Write a two to three (2-3) page report in which you:

1. Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

2. Construct a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

3. Conduct a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces

is supported. Clearly state the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

4. Provide the following discussion based on the conclusion of your test:

a. If you conclude that there are less than sixteen (16) ounces in a bottle of soda, speculate

on three (3) possible causes. Next, suggest the strategies to avoid the deficit in the

future.

Or

b. If you conclude that the claim of less soda per bottle is not supported or justified, provide

a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Include your speculation on the

reason(s) behind the claim, and recommend one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating

this issue in the future.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

 Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. No citations and references are required, but if you use them, they must follow APA format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

 Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

 Calculate measurements of central tendency and dispersal.

 Determine confidence intervals for data.

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

 Describe the vocabulary and principles of hypothesis testing.

 Discuss application of course content to professional contexts.

 Use technological tools to solve problems in statistics.

 Write clearly and concisely about statistics using proper writing mechanics.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.

Points: 140 Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

Criteria

Unacceptable

Below 60% F

Meets

Minimum

Expectations

60-69% D

Fair

70-79% C

Proficient

80-89% B

Exemplary

90-100% A

1. Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles. Weight: 20%

Did not submit or incompletely calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Insufficiently calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Partially calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Satisfactorily calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

Thoroughly calculated the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.

2. Construct a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles. Weight: 25%

Did not submit or incompletely constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Insufficiently constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Partially constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Satisfactorily constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

Thoroughly constructed a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.

3. Conduct a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Clearly state the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test. Weight: 30%

Did not submit or incompletely conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Did not submit or incompletely stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Insufficiently conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Insufficiently stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Partially conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Partially stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Satisfactorily conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Satisfactorily stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

Thoroughly conducted a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Thoroughly stated the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.

4a. If you conclude that there are less than sixteen (16) ounces in a bottle of soda, speculate on three (3) possible causes. Next, suggest the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future. Or

Did not submit or incompletely speculated on three (3) possible causes. Did not submit or incompletely suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Insufficiently speculated on three (3) possible causes. Insufficiently suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Partially speculated on three (3) possible causes. Partially suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Satisfactorily speculated on three (3) possible causes. Satisfactorily suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

Thoroughly speculated on three (3) possible causes. Thoroughly suggested the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.

MAT 300 – Assignments and Rubrics

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

4b. If you conclude that the claim of less soda per bottle is not supported or justified, provide a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Include your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and recommend one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future. Weight: 15%

Or Did not submit or incompletely provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Did not submit or incompletely included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and did not submit or incompletely recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Insufficiently provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Insufficiently included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and insufficiently recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Partially provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Partially included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and partially recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Satisfactorily provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Satisfactorily included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and satisfactorily recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

Or Thoroughly provided a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Thoroughly included your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and thoroughly recommended one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.

5. Writing / Support for ideas Weight: 5%

Never uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Rarely uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Partially uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Mostly uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

Consistently uses reasons and evidence that logically support ideas.

6. Writing / Grammar and mechanics Weight: 5%

Serious and persistent errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Numerous errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Partially free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Mostly free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

MAT 300 – Student Notes

© 2014 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

Weekly Course Schedule

The purpose of the course schedule is to give you, at a glance, the required preparation, activities, and

evaluation components of your course. For more information about your course, whether on-ground or

online, access your online course shell.

The expectations for a 4.5 credit hour course are for students to spend 13.5 hours in weekly work. This

time estimate includes preparation, activities, and evaluation regardless of the delivery mode.

Instructional Materials

In order to be fully prepared, obtain a copy of the required textbooks and other instructional materials

prior to the first day of class. When available, Strayer University provides a link to the first three (3)

chapters of your textbook(s) in eBook format. Check your online course shell for availability.

Review the online course shell or check with your professor to determine whether Internet-based

assignments and activities are used in this course.

Strayer students are encouraged to purchase their course materials through our designated Strayer

Bookstore. http://www.strayerbookstore.com If a lab is required for the course, the Strayer Bookstore is

the only vendor that sells the correct registration code so that Strayer students may access labs

successfully.

Discussions

To earn full credit in an online threaded discussion, students must have one original post and a minimum

of one other post per discussion thread.

Please note: Material in the online class will be made available three weeks at a time to allow students to

work ahead, however, faculty will be focused on and responding only to the current calendar week. As it

is always possible that students could lose their work due to unforeseen circumstances, it is a best

practice to routinely save a working draft in a separate file before posting in the course discussion area.

Professors hold discussions during class time for on-ground students. Check with your professor if any

additional discussion participation is required in the online course shell outside of class hours.

Tests

Tests (quizzes, midterm and final exams, essay exams, lab tests, etc.) are available for student access

and completion through the online course shell. Check the online course shell to determine how students

are expected to take the tests. Do not change these questions or their point values in any way. This

disrupts the automated grade book preset in the online course shell.

 Online students are to complete the test by Monday 9:00 a.m. Details regarding due dates are

posted in the Blackboard Calendar tool.

 On-ground students are to complete the tests after the material is covered and before the next

class session.http://www.strayerbookstore.com/

MAT 300 – Student Notes

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MAT 300 Student Version 1144 (1261 3-24-2014)

Assignments

A standardized performance grading rubric is a tool your professor will use to evaluate your written

assignments. Review the rubric before submitting assignments that have grading rubrics associated with

them to ensure you have met the performance criteria stated on the rubric.

Grades are based on individual effort. There is no group grading; however, working in groups in the

online or on-ground classroom is acceptable.

Assignments for online students are always submitted through the online course shell. On-ground

professors will inform students on how to submit assignments, whether in paper format or through the

online course shell.

Resources

The Resource Center navigation button in the online course shell contains helpful links. Strayer University

Library Resources are available here as well as other important information. You should review this area

to find resources and answers to common questions.

Technical support is available for the following:

 For technical questions, please contact Strayer Online Technical Support by logging in to your

iCampus account at https://icampus.strayer.edu/login and submitting a case under “Student

Center,” then “Submit Help Ticket.” If you are unable to log in to your iCampus account, please

contact Technical Support via phone at (877) 642-2999.

 For concerns with your class, please access the Solution Center by logging in to your iCampus

account at https://icampus.strayer.edu/login and submitting a case under “Student Center,” then

“Submit Help Ticket.” If you are unable to log in to your iCampus account, please contact the IT

Help Desk at (866) 610-8123 or at mailto:IThelpdesk@Strayer.edu.

TurnItIn.com is an optional online tool to assess the originality of student written work. Check with your

professor for access and use instructions.

The Strayer Policies link on the navigation bar in the online course shell contains academic policies. It is

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attendance at​ orlando’s newest disneylike​ attraction, lego​ world, has been as​ follows:

OPER ATIONS MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

TWELFTH EDITION

O PER

A T

IO N

S M A

N A

G E

M E

N T

Su stain

ability an d

Su p

ply C h

ain M

an agem

en t

TWELFTH EDITION

JAY HEIZER | BARRY RENDER | CHUCK MUNSON

HEIZER RENDER MUNSON

www.pearsonhighered.com

IMPROVING RESULTS A proven way to help individual students achieve

the goals that educators set for their course.

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AN EXPERIENCED PARTNER From Pearson, a long-term partner with a true grasp

of the subject, excellent content, and an eye on the future of education.

Pearson’s MyLab™

O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

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T W E L F T H E D I T I O N

O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

HEIZER J A Y

RENDER B A R R Y

Jesse H. Jones Professor of Business Administration Texas Lutheran University

Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management Graduate School of Business Rollins College

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

C H U C K

MUNSON Professor of Operations Management Carson College of Business Washington State University

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Vice President, Business Publishing: Donna Battista Editor-in-Chief: Stephanie Wall Acquisitions Editor: Daniel Tylman Editorial Assistant: Linda Albelli Vice President, Product Marketing: Maggie Moylan Director of Marketing, Digital Services and Products:

Jeanette Koskinas Field Marketing Manager: Lenny Ann Kucenski Product Marketing Assistant: Jessica Quazza Team Lead, Program Management: Ashley Santora Program Manager: Claudia Fernandes Team Lead, Project Management: Jeff Holcomb Senior Project Manager: Jacqueline A. Martin Operations Specialist: Carol Melville Creative Director: Blair Brown Art Director: Janet Slowik

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Manager of Learning Applications: Paul DeLuca Director, Digital Studio: Sacha Laustsen Digital Studio Manager: Diane Lombardo Digital Studio Project Manager: Andra Skaalrud Digital Studio Project Manager: Regina DaSilva Digital Studio Project Manager: Alana Coles Digital Studio Project Manager: Robin Lazrus Digital Content Project Lead: Courtney Kamauf Full-Service Project Management and Composition:

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Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks, logos, or icons that may appear in this work are the property of their respective owners, and any references to third-party trademarks, logos, icons, or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, authors, licensees, or distributors.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Heizer, Jay. [Production and operations management] Operations management; sustainability and supply chain management / Jay Heizer, Jesse H. Jones Professor of Business Administration, Texas Lutheran University, Barry Render, Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management, Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Chuck Munson, Professor of Operations Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University. — Twelfth edition. pages cm Original edition published under the Title: Production and operations management. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-13-413042-2 — ISBN 0-13-413042-1 1. Production management. I. Render, Barry. II. Munson, Chuck. III. Title. TS155.H3725 2015 658.5–dc23 2015036857

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-413042-1

ISBN 13: 978-0-13-413042-2

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To Karen Heizer Herrmann, all a sister could ever be

To Donna, Charlie, and Jesse

J.H.

B.R.

To Kim, Christopher, and Mark Munson for their unwavering support, and to Bentonville High School teachers Velma Reed and Cheryl Gregory,

who instilled in me the importance of detail and a love of learning C.M.

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ABOUT THE A U T H O R S

JAY HEIZER

BARRY RENDER

Professor Emeritus, the Jesse H. Jones Chair of Business Administration, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, Texas. He received his B.B.A. and M.B.A. from the University of North Texas and his Ph.D. in Management and Statistics from Arizona State University. He was previously a member of the faculty at the University of Memphis, the University of Oklahoma, Virginia Commonwealth University, and the University of Richmond. He has also held visiting positions at Boston University, George Mason University, the Czech Management Center, and the Otto-Von-Guericke University, Magdeburg.

Dr. Heizer’s industrial experience is extensive. He learned the practical side of operations management as a machinist apprentice at Foringer and Company, as a production planner for Westinghouse Airbrake, and at General Dynamics, where he worked in engineering administration. In addition, he has been actively involved in consulting in the OM and MIS areas for a variety of organizations, includ- ing Philip Morris, Firestone, Dixie Container Corporation, Columbia Industries, and Tenneco. He holds the CPIM certification from APICS—the Association for Operations Management.

Professor Heizer has co-authored 5 books and has published more than 30 arti- cles on a variety of management topics. His papers have appeared in the Academy of Management Journal , Journal of Purchasing , Personnel Psychology , Production & Inventory Control Management , APICS—The Performance Advantage , Journal of Management History , IIE Solutions, and Engineering Management , among others. He has taught operations management courses in undergraduate, graduate, and executive programs.

Professor Emeritus, the Charles Harwood Professor of Operations Management, Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. He received his B.S. in Mathematics and Physics at Roosevelt University, and his M.S. in Operations Research and Ph.D. in Quantitative Analysis at the University of Cincinnati. He previously taught at George Washington University, University of New Orleans, Boston University, and George Mason University, where he held the Mason Foundation Professorship in Decision Sciences and was Chair of the Decision Sciences Department. Dr. Render has also worked in the aerospace indus- try for General Electric, McDonnell Douglas, and NASA.

Professor Render has co-authored 10 textbooks for Pearson, including Managerial Decision Modeling with Spreadsheets , Quantitative Analysis for Management , Service Management , Introduction to Management Science , and Cases and Readings in Management Science . Quantitative Analysis for Management, now in its 13th edition, is a leading text in that discipline in the United States and globally. Dr.  Render’s more than 100 articles on a variety of management topics have appeared in Decision Sciences , Production and Operations Management , Interfaces , Information and Management , Journal of Management Information Systems , Socio-Economic Planning Sciences , IIE Solutions , and Operations Management Review , among others.

Dr. Render has been honored as an AACSB Fellow and was twice named a Senior Fulbright Scholar. He was Vice President of the Decision Science Institute Southeast Region and served as Software Review Editor for Decision Line for six years and as Editor of the New York Times Operations Management special issues for five years. For nine years, Dr. Render was President of Management Service Associates of Virginia, Inc., whose technology clients included the FBI, NASA, the U.S. Navy, Fairfax County, Virginia, and C&P Telephone. He is currently Consulting Editor to Pearson Press .

Dr. Render has received Rollins College’s Welsh Award as leading Professor and was selected by Roosevelt University as the recipient of the St. Claire Drake Award for Outstanding Scholarship. Dr. Render also received the Rollins College MBA Student Award for Best Overall Course, and was named Professor of the Year by full-time MBA students.

vi

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Professor of Operations Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. He received his BSBA summa cum laude in finance, along with his MSBA and Ph.D. in operations management, from Washington University in St. Louis. For two years, he served as Associate Dean for Graduate Programs in Business at Washington State. He also worked for three years as a financial analyst for Contel Telephone Corporation.

Professor Munson serves as a senior editor for Production and Operations Management , and he serves on the editorial review board of four other journals . He has published more than 25 articles in such journals as Production and Operations Management , IIE Transactions, Decision Sciences , Naval Research Logistics , European Journal of Operational Research , Journal of the Operational Research Society , and Annals of Operations Research. He is editor of the book The Supply Chain Management Casebook: Comprehensive Coverage and Best Practices in SCM , and he has co-authored the research monograph Quantity Discounts: An Overview and Practical Guide for Buyers and Sellers . He is also coauthor of Managerial Decision Modeling with Spreadsheets (4th edition), published by Pearson.

Dr. Munson has taught operations management core and elective courses at the undergraduate, MBA, and Ph.D. levels at Washington State University. He has also conducted several teaching workshops at international conferences and for Ph.D. students at Washington State University. His major awards include being a Founding Board Member of the Washington State University President’s Teaching Academy (2004); winning the WSU College of Business Outstanding Teaching Award (2001 and 2015), Research Award (2004), and Service Award (2009 and 2013); and being named the WSU MBA Professor of the Year (2000 and 2008).

CHUCK MUNSON

ABOUT THE AUTHORS vii

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PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management 1

Chapter 1 Operations and Productivity 1 Chapter 2 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment 29 Chapter 3 Project Management 59 Chapter 4 Forecasting 105

PART TWO Designing Operations 159

Chapter 5 Design of Goods and Services 159 ◆ Supplement 5 Sustainability in the Supply Chain 193

Chapter 6 Managing Quality 213 ◆ Supplement 6 Statistical Process Control 245

Chapter 7 Process Strategy 279 ◆ Supplement 7 Capacity and Constraint Management 307

Chapter 8 Location Strategies 337 Chapter 9 Layout Strategies 367 Chapter 10 Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement 407

PART THREE Managing Operations 441

Chapter 11 Supply Chain Management 441 ◆ Supplement 11 Supply Chain Management Analytics 471

Chapter 12 Inventory Management 487 Chapter 13 Aggregate Planning and S&OP 529 Chapter 14 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP 563 Chapter 15 Short-Term Scheduling 599 Chapter 16 Lean Operations 635 Chapter 17 Maintenance and Reliability 659

PART FOUR Business Analytics Modules 677

Module A Decision-Making Tools 677 Module B Linear Programming 699 Module C Transportation Models 729 Module D Waiting-Line Models 747 Module E Learning Curves 775 Module F Simulation 791

ONLINE TUTORIALS

1. Statistical Tools for Managers T1-1 2. Acceptance Sampling T2-1 3. The Simplex Method of Linear Programming T3-1 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Transportation Problems T4-1 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling T5-1

Brief Table of Contents

ix

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Table of Contents

About the Authors vi Preface xxiii

Chapter 1 Operations and Productivity 1

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: HARD ROCK CAFE 2 What Is Operations Management? 4 Organizing to Produce Goods and Services 4 The Supply Chain 6 Why Study OM? 6 What Operations Managers Do 7 The Heritage of Operations Management 8 Operations for Goods and Services 11

Growth of Services 11

Service Pay 12

The Productivity Challenge 13 Productivity Measurement 14

Productivity Variables 15

Productivity and the Service Sector 17

Current Challenges in Operations Management 18 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 19 Summary 20 Key Terms 20 Ethical Dilemma 20 Discussion Questions 20 Using Software for Productivity Analysis 21 Solved Problems 21 Problems 22 CASE STUDIES 24

Uber Technologies, Inc. 24

Frito-Lay: Operations Management in Manufacturing Video Case 25

Hard Rock Cafe: Operations Management in Services Video Case 25

Endnotes 26 Rapid Review 27 Self Test 28

Chapter 2 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment 29

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: BOEING 30 A Global View of Operations and Supply

Chains 32 Cultural and Ethical Issues 35

Developing Missions and Strategies 35 Mission 36

Strategy 36

Achieving Competitive Advantage Through Operations 36 Competing on Diff erentiation 37

Competing on Cost 38

Competing on Response 39

Issues in Operations Strategy 40 Strategy Development and Implementation 41

Key Success Factors and Core Competencies 41

Integrating OM with Other Activities 43

Building and Staffi ng the Organization 43

Implementing the 10 Strategic OM Decisions 44

Strategic Planning, Core Competencies, and Outsourcing 44 The Theory of Comparative Advantage 46

Risks of Outsourcing 46

Rating Outsource Providers 47

Global Operations Strategy Options 49 Summary 50 Key Terms 50 Ethical Dilemma 51 Discussion Questions 51 Using Software to Solve Outsourcing

Problems 51 Solved Problems 52 Problems 53 CASE STUDIES 55

Rapid-Lube 55

Strategy at Regal Marine Video Case 55

Hard Rock Cafe’s Global Strategy Video Case 55

Outsourcing Off shore at Darden Video Case 56

Endnotes 56 Rapid Review 57 Self Test 58

Chapter 3 Project Management 59

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: BECHTEL GROUP 60 The Importance of Project Management 62

PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management 1

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Project Planning 62 The Project Manager 63

Work Breakdown Structure 64

Project Scheduling 65 Project Controlling 66 Project Management Techniques: PERT and CPM 67

The Framework of PERT and CPM 67

Network Diagrams and Approaches 68

Activity-on-Node Example 69

Activity-on-Arrow Example 71

Determining the Project Schedule 71 Forward Pass 72

Backward Pass 74

Calculating Slack Time and Identifying the Critical Path(s) 75

Variability in Activity Times 77 Three Time Estimates in PERT 77

Probability of Project Completion 79

Cost-Time Trade-Off s and Project Crashing 82 A Critique of PERT and CPM 85 Using Microsoft Project to Manage Projects 86 Summary 88 Key Terms 88 Ethical Dilemma 89 Discussion Questions 89 Using Software to Solve Project Management

Problems 89 Solved Problems 90 Problems 93 CASE STUDIES 98

Southwestern University: (A) 98

Project Management at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 99

Managing Hard Rock’s Rockfest Video Case 100

Endnotes 102 Rapid Review 103 Self Test 104

Chapter 4 Forecasting 105

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: WALT DISNEY PARKS & RESORTS 106

What is Forecasting? 108 Forecasting Time Horizons 108

Types of Forecasts 109

The Strategic Importance of Forecasting 109 Supply-Chain Management 109

Human Resources 110

Capacity 110

Seven Steps in the Forecasting System 110 Forecasting Approaches 111

Overview of Qualitative Method 111

Overview of Quantitative Methods 112

Time-Series Forecasting 112 Decomposition of a Time Series 112

Naive Approach 113

Moving Averages 114

Exponential Smoothing 116

Measuring Forecast Error 117

Exponential Smoothing with Trend Adjustment 120

Trend Projections 124

Seasonal Variations in Data 126

Cyclical Variations in Data 131

Associative Forecasting Methods: Regression and Correlation Analysis 131 Using Regression Analysis for Forecasting 131

Standard Error of the Estimate 133

Correlation Coeffi cients for Regression Lines 134

Multiple-Regression Analysis 136

Monitoring and Controlling Forecasts 138 Adaptive Smoothing 139

Focus Forecasting 139

Forecasting in the Service Sector 140 Summary 141 Key Terms 141 Ethical Dilemma 141 Discussion Questions 142 Using Software in Forecasting 142 Solved Problems 144 Problems 146 CASE STUDIES 153

Southwestern University: (B) 153

Forecasting Ticket Revenue for Orlando Magic Basketball Games Video Case 154

Forecasting at Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 155

Endnotes 156 Rapid Review 157 Self Test 158

PART TWO Designing Operations 159

Chapter 5 Design of Goods and Services 159

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: REGAL MARINE 160 Goods and Services Selection 162

Product Strategy Options Support Competitive Advantage 163

Product Life Cycles 164

Life Cycle and Strategy 164

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Product-by-Value Analysis 165

Generating New Products 165 Product Development 166

Product Development System 166

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 166

Organizing for Product Development 169

Manufacturability and Value Engineering 170

Issues for Product Design 171 Robust Design 171

Modular Design 171

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) 171

Virtual Reality Technology 172

Value Analysis 173

Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 173

Product Development Continuum 173 Purchasing Technology by Acquiring a Firm 174

Joint Ventures 174

Alliances 175

Defi ning a Product 175 Make-or-Buy Decisions 176

Group Technology 177

Documents for Production 178 Product Life-Cycle Management (PLM) 178

Service Design 179 Process–Chain–Network (PCN) Analysis 179

Adding Service Effi ciency 181

Documents for Services 181

Application of Decision Trees to Product Design 182

Transition to Production 184 Summary 184 Key Terms 185 Ethical Dilemma 185 Discussion Questions 185 Solved Problem 186 Problems 186 CASE STUDIES 189

De Mar’s Product Strategy 189

Product Design at Regal Marine Video Case 189

Endnotes 190 Rapid Review 191 Self Test 192

Supplement 5 Sustainability in the Supply Chain 193

Corporate Social Responsibility 194 Sustainability 195

Systems View 195

Commons 195

Triple Bottom Line 195

Design and Production for Sustainability 198 Product Design 198

Production Process 200

Logistics 200

End-of-Life Phase 203

Regulations and Industry Standards 203 International Environmental Policies and Standards 204

Summary 205 Key Terms 205 Discussion Questions 205 Solved Problems 206 Problems 207 CASE STUDIES 208

Building Sustainability at the Orlando Magic’s Amway Center Video Case 208

Green Manufacturing and Sustainability at Frito-Lay Video Case 209

Endnotes 210 Rapid Review 211 Self Test 212

Chapter 6 Managing Quality 213

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ARNOLD PALMER HOSPITAL 214

Quality and Strategy 216 Defi ning Quality 217

Implications of Quality 217

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award 218

ISO 9000 International Quality Standards 218

Cost of Quality (COQ) 218

Ethics and Quality Management 219

Total Quality Management 219 Continuous Improvement 220

Six Sigma 221

Employee Empowerment 222

Benchmarking 222

Just-in-Time (JIT) 224

Taguchi Concepts 224

Knowledge of TQM Tools 225

Tools of TQM 226 Check Sheets 226

Scatter Diagrams 227

Cause-and-Eff ect Diagrams 227

Pareto Charts 227

Flowcharts 228

Histograms 229

Statistical Process Control (SPC) 229

The Role of Inspection 230 When and Where to Inspect 230

Source Inspection 231

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Service Industry Inspection 232

Inspection of Attributes versus Variables 233

TQM in Services 233 Summary 235 Key Terms 235 Ethical Dilemma 235 Discussion Questions 236 Solved Problems 236 Problems 237 CASE STUDIES 239

Southwestern University: (C) 239

The Culture of Quality at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 240

Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines Video Case 240

Quality at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company Video Case 242

Endnotes 242 Rapid Review 243 Self Test 244

Supplement 6 Statistical Process Control 245

Statistical Process Control (SPC) 246 Control Charts for Variables 248

The Central Limit Theorem 248

Setting Mean Chart Limits ( x -Charts) 250

Setting Range Chart Limits ( R-Charts) 253

Using Mean and Range Charts 254

Control Charts for Attributes 256

Managerial Issues and Control Charts 259

Process Capability 260 Process Capability Ratio ( C p ) 260

Process Capability Index ( C pk ) 261

Acceptance Sampling 262 Operating Characteristic Curve 263

Average Outgoing Quality 264

Summary 265 Key Terms 265 Discussion Questions 265 Using Software for SPC 266 Solved Problems 267 Problems 269 CASE STUDIES 274

Bayfi eld Mud Company 274

Frito-Lay’s Quality-Controlled Potato Chips Video Case 275

Farm to Fork: Quality at Darden Restaurants Video Case 276

Endnotes 276 Rapid Review 277 Self Test 278

Chapter 7 Process Strategy 279

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: HARLEY-DAVIDSON 280 Four Process Strategies 282

Process Focus 282

Repetitive Focus 283

Product Focus 284

Mass Customization Focus 284

Process Comparison 286

Selection of Equipment 288 Process Analysis and Design 288

Flowchart 289

Time-Function Mapping 289

Process Charts 289

Value-Stream Mapping 290

Service Blueprinting 292

Special Considerations for Service Process Design 293

Production Technology 294 Machine Technology 294

Automatic Identifi cation Systems (AISs) and RFID 295

Process Control 295

Vision Systems 296

Robots 296

Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) 296

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) 296

Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) 297

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) 297

Technology in Services 298 Process Redesign 298 Summary 299 Key Terms 299 Ethical Dilemma 300 Discussion Questions 300 Solved Problem 300 Problems 301 CASE STUDIES 302

Rochester Manufacturing’s Process Decision 302

Process Strategy at Wheeled Coach Video Case 302

Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process— Guaranteed! Video Case 303

Process Analysis at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 304

Endnotes 304 Rapid Review 305 Self Test 306

Supplement 7 Capacity and Constraint Management 307

Capacity 308 Design and Eff ective Capacity 309

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Capacity and Strategy 311

Capacity Considerations 311

Managing Demand 312

Service-Sector Demand and Capacity Management 313

Bottleneck Analysis and the Theory of Constraints 314 Theory of Constraints 317

Bottleneck Management 317

Break-Even Analysis 318 Single-Product Case 319

Multiproduct Case 320

Reducing Risk with Incremental Changes 322 Applying Expected Monetary Value (EMV)

to Capacity Decisions 323 Applying Investment Analysis to Strategy-Driven

Investments 324 Investment, Variable Cost, and Cash Flow 324

Net Present Value 324

Summary 326 Key Terms 327 Discussion Questions 327 Using Software for Break-Even Analysis 327 Solved Problems 328 Problems 330 CASE STUDY 333

Capacity Planning at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 333

Endnote 334 Rapid Review 335 Self Test 336

Chapter 8 Location Strategies 337

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: FEDEX 338 The Strategic Importance of Location 340 Factors That Aff ect Location Decisions 341

Labor Productivity 342

Exchange Rates and Currency Risk 342

Costs 342

Political Risk, Values, and Culture 343

Proximity to Markets 343

Proximity to Suppliers 344

Proximity to Competitors (Clustering) 344

Methods of Evaluating Location Alternatives 344 The Factor-Rating Method 345

Locational Cost–Volume Analysis 346

Center-of-Gravity Method 348

Transportation Model 349

Service Location Strategy 350 Geographic Information Systems 351 Summary 353

Key Terms 353 Ethical Dilemma 354 Discussion Questions 354 Using Software to Solve Location Problems 354 Solved Problems 355 Problems 357 CASE STUDIES 362

Southern Recreational Vehicle Company 362

Locating the Next Red Lobster Restaurant Video Case 362

Where to Place the Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 363

Endnote 364 Rapid Review 365 Self Test 366

Chapter 9 Layout Strategies 367

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: McDONALD’S 368 The Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions 370 Types of Layout 370 Offi ce Layout 371 Retail Layout 372

Servicescapes 375

Warehouse and Storage Layouts 375 Cross-Docking 376

Random Stocking 377

Customizing 377

Fixed-Position Layout 377 Process-Oriented Layout 378

Computer Software for Process-Oriented Layouts 382

Work Cells 383 Requirements of Work Cells 383

Staffi ng and Balancing Work Cells 384

The Focused Work Center and the Focused Factory 386

Repetitive and Product-Oriented Layout 386 Assembly-Line Balancing 387

Summary 392 Key Terms 392 Ethical Dilemma 392 Discussion Questions 392 Using Software to Solve Layout Problems 393 Solved Problems 394 Problems 396 CASE STUDIES 402

State Automobile License Renewals 402

Laying Out Arnold Palmer Hospital’s New Facility Video Case 402

Facility Layout at Wheeled Coach Video Case 404

Endnotes 404 Rapid Review 405 Self Test 406

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Chapter 10 Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement 407

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: RUSTY WALLACE’S NASCAR RACING TEAM 408

Human Resource Strategy for Competitive Advantage 410 Constraints on Human Resource Strategy 410

Labor Planning 411 Employment-Stability Policies 411

Work Schedules 411

Job Classifi cations and Work Rules 412

Job Design 412 Labor Specialization 412

Job Expansion 413

Psychological Components of Job Design 413

Self-Directed Teams 414

Motivation and Incentive Systems 415

Ergonomics and the Work Environment 415 Methods Analysis 417 The Visual Workplace 420 Labor Standards 420

Historical Experience 421

Time Studies 421

Predetermined Time Standards 425

Work Sampling 427

Ethics 430 Summary 430 Key Terms 430 Ethical Dilemma 431 Discussion Questions 431 Solved Problems 432 Problems 434 CASE STUDIES 437

Jackson Manufacturing Company 437

The “People” Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines Video Case 437

Hard Rock’s Human Resource Strategy Video Case 438

Endnotes 438 Rapid Review 439 Self Test 440

PART THREE Managing Operations 441

Chapter 11 Supply Chain Management 441

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: DARDEN RESTAURANTS 442 The Supply Chain’s Strategic Importance 444 Sourcing Issues: Make-or-Buy and

Outsourcing 446 Make-or-Buy Decisions 447

Outsourcing 447

Six Sourcing Strategies 447 Many Suppliers 447

Few Suppliers 447

Vertical Integration 448

Joint Ventures 448

Keiretsu Networks 448

Virtual Companies 449

Supply Chain Risk 449 Risks and Mitigation Tactics 450

Security and JIT 451

Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 451 Issues in Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 451

Opportunities in Managing the Integrated Supply Chain 452

Building the Supply Base 454 Supplier Evaluation 454

Supplier Development 454

Negotiations 455

Contracting 455

Centralized Purchasing 455

E-Procurement 456

Logistics Management 456 Shipping Systems 456

Warehousing 457

Third-Party Logistics (3PL) 458

Distribution Management 459 Ethics and Sustainable Supply Chain

Management 460 Supply Chain Management Ethics 460

Establishing Sustainability in Supply Chains 460

Measuring Supply Chain Performance 461 Assets Committed to Inventory 461

Benchmarking the Supply Chain 463

The SCOR Model 463

Summary 464 Key Terms 465 Ethical Dilemma 465 Discussion Questions 465 Solved Problems 465 Problems 466 CASE STUDIES 467

Darden’s Global Supply Chains Video Case 467

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Supply Chain Management at Regal Marine Video Case 467

Arnold Palmer Hospital’s Supply Chain Video Case 468

Endnote 468 Rapid Review 469 Self Test 470

Supplement 11 Supply Chain Management Analytics 471

Techniques for Evaluating Supply Chains 472 Evaluating Disaster Risk in the Supply Chain 472 Managing the Bullwhip Eff ect 474

A Bullwhip Eff ect Measure 475

Supplier Selection Analysis 476 Transportation Mode Analysis 477 Warehouse Storage 478 Summary 479 Discussion Questions 480 Solved Problems 480 Problems 482 Rapid Review 485 Self Test 486

Chapter 12 Inventory Management 487

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: AMAZON.COM 488 The Importance of Inventory 490

Functions of Inventory 490

Types of Inventory 490

Managing Inventory 491 ABC Analysis 491

Record Accuracy 493

Cycle Counting 493

Control of Service Inventories 494

Inventory Models 495 Independent vs. Dependent Demand 495

Holding, Ordering, and Setup Costs 495

Inventory Models for Independent Demand 496 The Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model 496

Minimizing Costs 497

Reorder Points 501

Production Order Quantity Model 502

Quantity Discount Models 505

Probabilistic Models and Safety Stock 508 Other Probabilistic Models 511

Single-Period Model 513 Fixed-Period (P) Systems 514 Summary 515 Key Terms 515 Ethical Dilemma 515

Discussion Questions 515 Using Software to Solve Inventory Problems 516 Solved Problems 517 Problems 520 CASE STUDIES 524

Zhou Bicycle Company 524

Parker Hi-Fi Systems 525

Managing Inventory at Frito-Lay Video Case 525

Inventory Control at Wheeled Coach Video Case 526

Endnotes 526 Rapid Review 527 Self Test 528

Chapter 13 Aggregate Planning and S&OP 529

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: FRITO-LAY 530 The Planning Process 532 Sales and Operations Planning 533 The Nature of Aggregate Planning 534 Aggregate Planning Strategies 535

Capacity Options 535

Demand Options 536

Mixing Options to Develop a Plan 537

Methods for Aggregate Planning 538 Graphical Methods 538

Mathematical Approaches 543

Aggregate Planning in Services 545 Restaurants 546

Hospitals 546

National Chains of Small Service Firms 546

Miscellaneous Services 546

Airline Industry 547

Revenue Management 547 Summary 550 Key Terms 550 Ethical Dilemma 551 Discussion Questions 551 Using Software for Aggregate Planning 552 Solved Problems 554 Problems 555 CASE STUDIES 559

Andrew-Carter, Inc. 559

Using Revenue Management to Set Orlando Magic Ticket Prices Video Case 560

Endnote 560 Rapid Review 561 Self Test 562

Chapter 14 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP 563

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: WHEELED COACH 564 Dependent Demand 566

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Dependent Inventory Model Requirements 566 Master Production Schedule 567

Bills of Material 568

Accurate Inventory Records 570

Purchase Orders Outstanding 570

Lead Times for Components 570

MRP Structure 571 MRP Management 575

MRP Dynamics 575

MRP Limitations 575

Lot-Sizing Techniques 576 Extensions of MRP 580

Material Requirements Planning II (MRP II) 580

Closed-Loop MRP 581

Capacity Planning 581

MRP in Services 583 Distribution Resource Planning (DRP) 584

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 584 ERP in the Service Sector 587

Summary 587 Key Terms 587 Ethical Dilemma 587 Discussion Questions 588 Using Software to Solve MRP Problems 588 Solved Problems 589 Problems 592 CASE STUDIES 595

When 18,500 Orlando Magic Fans Come to Dinner Video Case 595

MRP at Wheeled Coach Video Case 596

Endnotes 596 Rapid Review 597 Self Test 598

Chapter 15 Short-Term Scheduling 599

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ALASKA AIRLINES 600 The Importance of Short-Term Scheduling 602 Scheduling Issues 602

Forward and Backward Scheduling 603

Finite and Infi nite Loading 604

Scheduling Criteria 604

Scheduling Process-Focused Facilities 605 Loading Jobs 605

Input–Output Control 606

Gantt Charts 607

Assignment Method 608

Sequencing Jobs 611 Priority Rules for Sequencing Jobs 611

Critical Ratio 614

Sequencing N Jobs on Two Machines: Johnson’s Rule 615

Limitations of Rule-Based Sequencing Systems 616

Finite Capacity Scheduling (FCS) 617 Scheduling Services 618

Scheduling Service Employees with Cyclical Scheduling 620

Summary 621 Key Terms 621 Ethical Dilemma 621 Discussion Questions 622 Using Software for Short-Term Scheduling 622 Solved Problems 624 Problems 627 CASE STUDIES 630

Old Oregon Wood Store 630

From the Eagles to the Magic: Converting the Amway Center Video Case 631

Scheduling at Hard Rock Cafe Video Case 632

Endnotes 632 Rapid Review 633 Self Test 634

Chapter 16 Lean Operations 635

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION 636

Lean Operations 638 Eliminate Waste 638

Remove Variability 639

Improve Throughput 640

Lean and Just-in-Time 640 Supplier Partnerships 640

Lean Layout 642

Lean Inventory 643

Lean Scheduling 646

Lean Quality 649

Lean and the Toyota Production System 649 Continuous Improvement 649

Respect for People 649

Processes and Standard Work Practice 650

Lean Organizations 650 Building a Lean Organization 650

Lean Sustainability 652

Lean in Services 652 Summary 653 Key Terms 653 Ethical Dilemma 653 Discussion Questions 653 Solved Problem 653 Problems 654

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CASE STUDIES 655 Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines Video Case 655

JIT at Arnold Palmer Hospital Video Case 656

Endnote 656 Rapid Review 657 Self Test 658

Chapter 17 Maintenance and Reliability 659

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: ORLANDO UTILITIES COMMISSION 660

The Strategic Importance of Maintenance and Reliability 662

Reliability 663 System Reliability 663

Providing Redundancy 665

Maintenance 667

Implementing Preventive Maintenance 667

Increasing Repair Capabilities 670

Autonomous Maintenance 670

Total Productive Maintenance 671 Summary 671 Key Terms 671 Ethical Dilemma 671 Discussion Questions 671 Using Software to Solve Reliability Problems 672 Solved Problems 672 Problems 672 CASE STUDY 674

Maintenance Drives Profi ts at Frito-Lay Video Case 674

Rapid Review 675 Self Test 676

PART FOUR Business Analytics Modules 677

Module A Decision-Making Tools 677

The Decision Process in Operations 678 Fundamentals of Decision Making 679 Decision Tables 680 Types of Decision-Making Environments 681

Decision Making Under Uncertainty 681

Decision Making Under Risk 682

Decision Making Under Certainty 683

Expected Value of Perfect Information (EVPI) 683

Decision Trees 684 A More Complex Decision Tree 686

The Poker Decision Process 688

Summary 689 Key Terms 689 Discussion Questions 689 Using Software for Decision Models 689 Solved Problems 691 Problems 692 CASE STUDY 696

Warehouse Tenting at the Port of Miami 696

Endnote 696 Rapid Review 697 Self Test 698

Module B Linear Programming 699

Why Use Linear Programming? 700 Requirements of a Linear Programming

Problem 701 Formulating Linear Programming Problems 701

Glickman Electronics Example 701

Graphical Solution to a Linear Programming Problem 702

Graphical Representation of Constraints 702

Iso-Profi t Line Solution Method 703

Corner-Point Solution Method 705

Sensitivity Analysis 705 Sensitivity Report 706

Changes in the Resources or Right-Hand-Side Values 706

Changes in the Objective Function Coeffi cient 707

Solving Minimization Problems 708 Linear Programming Applications 710

Production-Mix Example 710

Diet Problem Example 711

Labor Scheduling Example 712

The Simplex Method of LP 713 Integer and Binary Variables 713

Creating Integer and Binary Variables 713

Linear Programming Applications with Binary Variables 714

A Fixed-Charge Integer Programming Problem 715

Summary 716 Key Terms 716 Discussion Questions 716 Using Software to Solve LP Problems 716 Solved Problems 718 Problems 720 CASE STUDIES 725

Quain Lawn and Garden, Inc. 725

Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines Video Case 726

Endnotes 726 Rapid Review 727 Self Test 728

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Module C Transportation Models 729

Transportation Modeling 730 Developing an Initial Solution 732

The Northwest-Corner Rule 732

The Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method 733

The Stepping-Stone Method 734 Special Issues in Modeling 737

Demand Not Equal to Supply 737

Degeneracy 737

Summary 738 Key Terms 738 Discussion Questions 738 Using Software to Solve Transportation

Problems 738 Solved Problems 740 Problems 741 CASE STUDY 743

Custom Vans, Inc. 743

Rapid Review 745 Self Test 746

Module D Waiting-Line Models 747

Queuing Theory 748 Characteristics of a Waiting-Line System 749

Arrival Characteristics 749

Waiting-Line Characteristics 750

Service Characteristics 751

Measuring a Queue’s Performance 752

Queuing Costs 753 The Variety of Queuing Models 754

Model A (M/M/1): Single-Server Queuing Model with Poisson Arrivals and Exponential Service Times 754

Model B (M/M/S): Multiple-Server Queuing Model 757

Model C (M/D/1): Constant-Service-Time Model 762

Little’s Law 763

Model D (M/M/1 with Finite Source): Finite-Population Model 763

Other Queuing Approaches 765 Summary 765 Key Terms 765 Discussion Questions 765 Using Software to Solve Queuing Problems 766 Solved Problems 766 Problems 768 CASE STUDIES 771

New England Foundry 771

The Winter Park Hotel 772

Endnotes 772 Rapid Review 773 Self Test 774

Module E Learning Curves 775

What Is a Learning Curve? 776 Learning Curves in Services and

Manufacturing 777 Applying the Learning Curve 778

Doubling Approach 778

Formula Approach 779

Learning-Curve Table Approach 779

Strategic Implications of Learning Curves 782 Limitations of Learning Curves 783 Summary 783 Key Term 783 Discussion Questions 783 Using Software for Learning Curves 784 Solved Problems 784 Problems 785 CASE STUDY 787

SMT’s Negotiation with IBM 787

Endnote 788 Rapid Review 789 Self Test 790

Module F Simulation 791

What Is Simulation? 792 Advantages and Disadvantages of Simulation 793 Monte Carlo Simulation 794 Simulation with Two Decision Variables:

An Inventory Example 797 Summary 799 Key Terms 799 Discussion Questions 799 Using Software in Simulation 800 Solved Problems 801 Problems 802 CASE STUDY 805

Alabama Airlines’ Call Center 805

Endnote 806 Rapid Review 807 Self Test 808

Appendix A1 Bibliography B1 Name Index I1 General Index I7

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ONLINE TUTORIALS

1. Statistical Tools for Managers T1-1

Discrete Probability Distributions T1-2 Expected Value of a Discrete Probability Distribution T1-3

Variance of a Discrete Probability Distribution T1-3

Continuous Probability Distributions T1-4 The Normal Distribution T1-4

Summary T1-7 Key Terms T1-7 Discussion Questions T1-7 Problems T1-7 Bibliography T1-7

2. Acceptance Sampling T2-1

Sampling Plans T2-2 Single Sampling T2-2

Double Sampling T2-2

Sequential Sampling T2-2

Operating Characteristic (OC) Curves T2-2 Producer’s and Consumer’s Risk T2-3 Average Outgoing Quality T2-5 Summary T2-6 Key Terms T2-6 Solved Problem T2-7 Discussion Questions T2-7 Problems T2-7

3. The Simplex Method of Linear Programming T3-1

Converting the Constraints to Equations T3-2 Setting Up the First Simplex Tableau T3-2 Simplex Solution Procedures T3-4 Summary of Simplex Steps for Maximization

Problems T3-6 Artifi cial and Surplus Variables T3-7 Solving Minimization Problems T3-7 Summary T3-8 Key Terms T3-8 Solved Problem T3-8

Discussion Questions T3-8 Problems T3-9

4. The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Transportation Problems T4-1

MODI Method T4-2 How to Use the MODI Method T4-2 Solving the Arizona Plumbing Problem with MODI T4-2

Vogel’s Approximation Method: Another Way to Find an Initial Solution T4-4

Discussion Questions T4-8 Problems T4-8

5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling T5-1

Introduction T5-2 Service Delivery Example: Meals-for-ME T5-2

Objectives of Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-2

Characteristics of Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-3 Classifying Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-3 Solving Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-4

Routing Service Vehicles T5-5 The Traveling Salesman Problem T5-5 Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem T5-8 The Vehicle Routing Problem T5-9 Cluster First, Route Second Approach T5-10

Scheduling Service Vehicles T5-11 The Concurrent Scheduler Approach T5-13

Other Routing and Scheduling Problems T5-13 Summary T5-14 Key Terms T5-15 Discussion Questions T5-15 Problems T5-15 Case Study: Routing and Scheduling of

Phlebotomists T5-17 Bibliography T5-17

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Welcome to your operations management (OM) course. In this book, we present a state-of-the- art view of the operations function. Operations is an exciting area of management that has a profound effect on productivity. Indeed, few other activities have as much impact on the quality of our lives. The goal of this text is to present a broad introduction to the field of operations in a realistic, practical manner. Even if you are not planning on a career in the operations area, you will likely be working with people in operations. Therefore, having a solid understanding of the role of operations in an organization will be of substantial benefit to you. This book will also help you understand how OM affects society and your life. Certainly, you will better understand what goes on behind the scenes when you attend a concert or major sports event; purchase a bag of Frito-Lay potato chips; buy a meal at an Olive Garden or a Hard Rock Cafe; place an order through Amazon.com; board a flight on Alaska Airlines; or enter a hospital for medical care. More than one and a half million readers of our earlier editions seem to have endorsed this premise.

We welcome comments by email from our North American readers and from students using the International edition, the Indian edition, the Arabic edition, and our editions in Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish, Indonesian, and Chinese. Hopefully, you will find this material useful, interest- ing, and even exciting.

New to This Edition We’ve made significant revisions to this edition, and want to share some of the changes with you.

Five New Video Case Studies Featuring Alaska Airlines In this edition, we take you behind the scenes of Alaska Airlines, consistently rated as one of the top carriers in the country. This fascinating organization opened its doors—and planes— so we could examine leading edge OM in the airlines industry. We observe: the quality pro- gram at Alaska Air (Chapter 6); the process analysis behind the airline’s 20-minute baggage retrieval guarantee (Chapter 7); how Alaska empowers its employees (Chapter 10); the air- line’s use of Lean, 5s, kaizen, and Gemba walks (Chapter 16); and the complexities of sched- uling (Module B).

Our prior editions focused on integrated Video Case Studies for the Orlando Magic basketball team, Frito-Lay, Darden Restaurants, Hard Rock Cafe, Arnold Palmer Hospital, Wheeled Coach Ambulances, and Regal Marine. These Video Case Studies appear in this edition as well, along with the five new ones for Alaska Airlines. All of our videos are created by the authors, with the outstanding coauthorship of Beverly Amer at Northern Arizona University, to explicitly match with text content and terminology.

Preface

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xxiv PREFACE

Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets We continue to provide two free decision support software programs, Excel OM for Windows and Mac and POM for Windows, to help you and your students solve homework problems and case studies. These excellent packages are found in MyOMLab and at our text’s Student Download Page.

Many instructors also encourage students to develop their own Excel spreadsheet models to tackle OM issues. With this edition, we provide numerous examples at chapter end on how to do so. “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” examples now appear in Chapters 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 13, Supplement 6, Supplement 7, and Modules A, B, and F. We hope these eleven samples will help expand students’ spreadsheet capabilities.

Video Case Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed! Alaska Airlines is unique among the nine major U.S. carriers not only for its extensive flight coverage of remote towns throughout Alaska (it also covers the U.S., Hawaii, and Mexico from its pri- mary hub in Seattle). It is also one of the smallest independent airlines, with 10,300 employees, including 3,000 flight attendants and 1,500 pilots. What makes it really unique, though, is its abil- ity to build state-of-the-art processes, using the latest technology, that yield high customer satisfaction. Indeed, J. D. Power and Associates has ranked Alaska Airlines highest in North America for seven years in a row for customer satisfaction.

Alaska Airlines was the first to sell tickets via the Internet, first to offer Web check-in and print boarding passes online, and first with kiosk check-in. As Wayne Newton, Director of System Operation Control, states, “We are passionate about our pro- cesses. If it’s not measured, it’s not managed.”

One of the processes Alaska is most proud of is its baggage han- dling system. Passengers can check in at kiosks, tag their own bags with bar code stickers, and deliver them to a customer service agent at the carousel, which carries the bags through the vast under- ground system that eventually delivers the bags to a baggage han- dler. En route, each bag passes through TSA automated screening and is manually opened or inspected if it appears suspicious. With the help of bar code readers, conveyer belts automatically sort and transfer bags to their location (called a “pier”) at the tarmac level. A baggage handler then loads the bags onto a cart and takes it to Al

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Using Software for Productivity Analysis

This section presents three ways to solve productivity problems with computer software. First, you can create your own Excel spreadsheets to conduct productivity analysis. Second, you can use the Excel OM software that comes with this text. Third, POM for Windows is another program that is available with this text .

Program 1.1

Actions Copy C7 to B7, Copy B14 to C14, Copy C15 to B15, and Copy D14 to D15

Create a row for each of the inputs used for the productivity measure. Put the output in the last row.

=C5*C6

=B10/B7

Enter the values for the old system in column B and the new system in Column C.

Productivity = Output/Input

=(C14-B14)/B14=C10/(C8+C9)

X USING EXCEL OM Excel OM is an Excel “add-in” with 24 Operations Management decision support “Templates.” To access the templates, double- click on the Excel OM tab at the top of the page, then in the menu bar choose the appropriate chapter (in this case Chapter 1 ), from either the “Chapter” or “Alphabetic” tab on the left. Each of Excel OM’s 24 modules includes instructions for that particular module. The instructions can be turned on or off via the “instruction” tab in the menu bar.

P USING POM FOR WINDOWS POM for Windows is decision support software that includes 24 Operations Management modules. The modules are accessed by double-clicking on Module in the menu bar, and then double-clicking on the appropriate (in this case Productivity ) item. Instructions are provided for each module just below the menu bar.

CREATING YOUR OWN EXCEL SPREADSHEETS Program 1.1 illustrates how to build an Excel spreadsheet for the data in Example 2.

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PREFACE xxv

Expanding and Reordering Our Set of Homework Problems We believe that a vast selection of quality homework problems, ranging from easy to challeng- ing (denoted by one to four dots), is critical for both instructors and students. Instructors need a broad selection of problems to choose from for homework, quizzes, and exams—without reus- ing the same set from semester to semester. We take pride in having more problems—by far, with 807—than any other OM text. We added dozens of new problems this edition. The following table illustrates the selection by chapter.

Further, with the majority of our adopters now using the MyOMLab learning system in their classes, we have reorganized all the homework problems—both those appearing in the printed text, as well as the Additional Homework Problems that are available in MyOMLab—by topic heading. We are identifying all problems by topic (see the following example).

The list of all problems by topic also appears at the end of each boxed example, as well as in the Rapid Review that closes each chapter. These handy references should make it easier to assign problems for homework, quizzes, and exams. A rich set of assignable problems and cases makes the learning experience more complete and pedagogically sound.

CHAPTER 5 | DESIGN OF GOODS AND SERVICES 187

Problems 5.4–5.8 relate to Product Development

• • 5.4 Construct a house of quality matrix for a wrist- watch. Be sure to indicate specific customer wants that you think the general public desires. Then complete the matrix to show how an operations manager might identify specific attributes that can be measured and controlled to meet those customer desires.

• • 5.5 Using the house of quality, pick a real product (a good or service) and analyze how an existing organization satis- fies customer requirements.

• • 5.6 Prepare a house of quality for a mousetrap.

• • 5.7 Conduct an interview with a prospective purchaser of a new bicycle and translate the customer’s wants into the specific hows of the firm.

• • • • 5.8 Using the house of quality sequence, as described in Figure 5.4 on page 169, determine how you might deploy resources to achieve the desired quality for a product or service whose production process you understand.

Problems 5.9–5.17 relate to Defining a Product

• • 5.9 Prepare a bill of material for (a) a pair of eyeglasses and its case or (b) a fast-food sandwich (visit a local sandwich

Problems 5.21–5.28 relate to the Application of Decision Trees to Product Design

• • 5.21 The product design group of Iyengar Electric Supplies, Inc., has determined that it needs to design a new series of switches. It must decide on one of three design strategies. The market forecast is for 200,000 units. The better and more sophisticated the design strategy and the more time spent on value engineering, the less will be the variable cost. The chief of engineering design, Dr. W. L. Berry, has decided that the following costs are a good estimate of the initial and variable costs connected with each of the three strategies: a) Low-tech: A low-technology, low-cost process consisting of

hiring several new junior engineers. This option has a fixed cost of $45,000 and variable-cost probabilities of .3 for $.55 each, .4 for $.50, and .3 for $.45.

b) Subcontract: A medium-cost approach using a good outside design staff. This approach would have a fixed cost of $65,000 and variable-cost probabilities of .7 of $.45, .2 of $.40, and .1 of $.35.

c) High-tech: A high-technology approach using the very best of the inside staff and the latest computer-aided design technol- ogy. This approach has a fixed cost of $75,000 and variable- cost probabilities of .9 of $.40 and .1 of $.35.

What is the best decision based on an expected monetary value (EMV) criterion? ( Note: We want the lowest EMV, as we are dealing with costs in this problem.) PX

• • 5.22 MacDonald Products, Inc., of Clarkson, New York, has the option of (a) proceeding immediately with production of

Problem 5.3 is available in MyOMLab.

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Chapter Number of Problems

15 27

16 12

17 24

Module A 32

Module B 42

Module C 18

Module D 39

Module E 33

Module F 25

Chapter Number of Problems

Supplement 7 45

8 34

9 27

10 46

11 8

Supplement 11 20

12 53

13 26

14 32

Chapter Number of Problems

1 18

2 12

3 33

4 59

5 28

Supplement 5 19

6 21

Supplement 6 55

7 17

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Jay, Barry, and Chuck’s OM Blog As a complement to this text, we have created a companion blog, with coordinated features to help teach the OM course. There are teaching tips, highlights of OM items in the news (along with class discussion questions and links), video tips, guest posts by instructors using our text, sample OM syllabi from dozens of colleges, and much more—all arranged by chapter. To learn more about any chapter topics, visit www.heizerrenderOM.wordpress.com . As you prepare your lectures and syllabus, scan our blog for discussion ideas, teaching tips, and classroom exercises.

Lean Operations In previous editions, we sought to explicitly differentiate the concepts of just-in-time, Lean, and Toyota Production System in Chapter 16. However, there is significant overlap and interchangea- bility among those three concepts, so we have revised Chapter 16 to incorporate the three concepts into an overall concept of “Lean.” The chapter suggests that students view Lean as a comprehen- sive integrated operations strategy that sustains competitive advantage and results in increased returns to all stakeholders.

Chapter-by-Chapter Changes To highlight the extent of the revisions in this edition, here are a few of the changes, on a chapter- by-chapter basis.

Chapter 1 : Operations and Productivity We updated Table 1.4 to reflect employment in various sectors and expanded our discussion of Lean operations. Our new case, Uber Technologies, introduces productivity by discussing the dis- ruptive nature of the Uber business model. In addition, there is a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for both labor productivity and multifactor productivity.

Chapter 2 : Operations Strategy in a Global Environment We have updated Figure 2.1 to better reflect changes in the growth of world trade and Figure 2.5 to reflect product life cycle changes. The Minute Lube case has been revised as Rapid Lube. Example 1 (National Architects) has been expanded to clarify factor rating calculations and is also demonstrated with a “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” presentation.

Chapter 3 : Project Management We rewrote and updated the Bechtel Global Company Profile and added a new section on well- defined projects with the “agile” and “waterfall” approaches. There are two new OM in Action boxes: “Agile Project Management at Mastek,” and “Behind the Tour de France.”

Chapter 4 : Forecasting We created a new table comparing the MAD, MSE, and MAPE forecasting error measures. There is also a new OM in Action box called “NYC’s Potholes and Regression Analysis.”

Chapter 5 : Design of Goods and Services We expanded our treatment of concurrent engineering and added two new discussion questions. Solved Problem 5.1 has been revised.

Supplement 5: Sustainability in the Supply Chain We wrote a new introductory section on Corporate Social Responsibility. There is also a new OM in Action box called “Blue Jeans and Sustainability” and 10 new homework problems.

Chapter 6 : Managing Quality We added new material to expand our discussion of Taguchi’s quality loss function. There is a new sec- tion on SERVQUAL, and a new video case study, “Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines,” appears here.

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Supplement 6: Statistical Process Control We added a figure on the relationship between sample size and sampling distribution. We also added raw data to Examples S2 and S3 to illustrate how ranges are computed. There is a new Excel spreadsheet to show students how to make their own c -chart, and we have added three new homework problems.

Chapter 7 : Process Strategy We wrote a new section on machine technology and additive manufacturing. There are two new discussion questions and three new homework problems. Our second new video case study is called “Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed!”

Supplement 7: Capacity and Constraint Management We added a new Table S7.1, which compares and clarifies three capacity measurements, with an example of each. There is a new treatment of expected output and actual output in Example S2. The discussion of bottleneck time versus throughput time has also been expanded. Example S3, capacity analysis with parallel processes, has been revised. We have also added a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for a break-even model. Finally, we updated the Arnold Palmer Hospital capacity planning case with recent data.

Chapter 8 : Location Strategies We added two new OM in Action boxes: “Iowa—Home of Corn and Facebook” and “Denmark’s Meat Cluster.” We changed the notation for the center-of-gravity model to simplify the equa- tion and provided a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” presentation for the center-of- gravity example.

Chapter 9 : Layout Strategies We created a new Muther grid for office relationship charting and added a spread of five layouts showing how offices have evolved over time. There is a new OM in Action box called “Amazon Lets Loose the Robots,” and there is a new graphic example of Proplanner’s Flow Path Calculator. We have included a formula for idle time as a second measure of balance assignment efficiency and added new technology issues to the Arnold Palmer Hospital video case.

Chapter 10 : Human Resources, Job Design, and Work Measurement We added a new OM in Action box, “The Missing Perfect Chair,” and revised the Operations Chart as a service example. Our third new video case study is “The ‘People’ Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines.”

Chapter 11 : Supply Chain Management We added “outsourcing” as a supply chain risk in Table 11.3.

Supplement 11: Supply Chain Management Analytics We added a major section on the topic of Warehouse Storage, with a new model for allocating inven- tory to storage locations. There is a new discussion question and three new homework problems.

Chapter 12 : Inventory Management New Programs 12.1 and 12.2 illustrate “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” for both the production run model and the single-period inventory model. The Excel function NORMSINV is introduced throughout the chapter. The Quantity Discount Model section is totally rewritten to illustrate the feasible solution shortcut. Solved Problem 12.5 is likewise redone with the new approach.

Chapter 13 : Aggregate Planning and S&OP We added a new OM in Action box, “Revenue Management Makes Disney the ‘King’ of the Broadway Jungle.” We also provided a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for the transportation method for aggregate planning, using the Solver approach.

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Chapter 14 : Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and ERP The MRP II example now includes greenhouse gasses.

Chapter 15 : Short-Term Scheduling We begin this chapter with a new Global Company Profile featuring Alaska Airlines and the scheduling issues it faces in its northern climate. We have added two new graphics to help illus- trate Forward and Backward Scheduling. There is also a new section called Performance Criteria, detailing how the choice of priority rule depends on four quantifiable criteria. We now explicitly define the performance criteria for sequencing jobs as separate numbered equations. Also, we provide an explicit formula for job lateness. There is a new OM in Action box called “Starbucks’ Controversial Scheduling Software.”

Chapter 16 : Lean Operations This chapter saw a major reorganization and rewrite with an enhanced focus on Lean operations. There is more material on supplier partnerships and building lean organizations. A new OM in Action box describes the use of kaizen at San Francisco General Hospital, and we have added a new video case study called “Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines.”

Chapter 17 : Maintenance and Reliability There are no major changes in this chapter.

Module A: Decision-Making Tools We added a discussion of “big data” and a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example on how to evaluate a decision table.

Module B: Linear Programming There is a new section on integer and binary programming, two new homework problems, and a new video case study called “Using LP to Meet Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines.” The corner point method is now covered before the iso-profit line approach.

Module C: Transportation Models There are no major changes to Module C.

Module D: Waiting-Line Models The limited population model (Model D) has been replaced by the finite population model, M/M/1 with finite source. This standardizes the queuing notation to match the M/M/1, M/M/s, and M/D/1. We have also expanded the coverage of Little’s Law and added six new homework problems.

Module E: Learning Curves There are no major changes to Module E.

Module F: Simulation We added a new “Creating Your Own Excel Spreadsheets” example for a simulation problem.

Student Resources To liven up the course and help students learn the content material, we have made available the following resources:

◆ Forty-one exciting Video Case Studies (videos located at MyOMLab ): These Video Case Studies feature real companies (Alaska Airlines, The Orlando Magic, Frito-Lay, Darden Restaurants, Regal Marine, Hard Rock Cafe, Ritz-Carlton, Wheeled Coach, and Arnold Palmer Hospital) and

xxviii PREFACE

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allow students to watch short videos, read about the key topics, and answer questions. These case studies can also be assigned without using class time to show the videos. Each of them was developed and written by the text authors to specifi cally supplement the book’s content. Instruc- tors who wish to use these in class, and who don’t have access to MyOMLab, should contact their Pearson Publishing Representative for access to the MyOMLab materials.

◆ POM for Windows software (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer): POM for Windows is a powerful tool for easily solving OM problems. Its 24 modules can be used to solve most of the homework problems in the text.

◆ Excel OM problem-solving software (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www.pearsonhighered.com/heizer): Excel OM is our exclusive user-friendly Excel add-in. Excel OM automatically creates worksheets to model and solve problems. Users select a topic from the pull-down menu and fi ll in the data, and then Excel will display and graph (where appropri- ate) the results. This software is great for student homework, what-if analysis, and classroom demonstrations. This edition includes a new version of Excel OM that is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2013 for Windows, Excel 2011 and 2016 for Mac, and earlier versions of Excel. Professor Howard Weiss, Temple University, developed both Excel OM for Windows and Mac, and POM for Windows to accompany our text and its problem set.

◆ Excel OM data fi les (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer): These data fi les are prepared for specifi c examples and allow users to solve all the marked text examples without reentering any data.

◆ Active Models (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www.pearsonhighered .com/heizer): These 28 Active Models are Excel-based OM simulations, designed to help students understand the quantitative methods shown in the textbook examples. Students may change the data in order to see how the changes aff ect the answers.

◆ Virtual tours (located at MyOMLab): These company tours provide direct links to companies— ranging from a hospital to an auto manufacturer—that practice key OM concepts. After touring each Web site, students are asked questions directly related to the concepts discussed in the chapter.

◆ Online Tutorial Chapters (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer ): “Statistical Tools for Managers,” “Acceptance Sampling,” “The Simplex Method of Linear Programming,” “The MODI and VAM Methods of Solving Trans- portation Problems,” and “Vehicle Routing and Scheduling” are provided as additional material.

◆ Additional practice problems (located at MyOMLab): These problems provide problem-solving experience. They supplement the examples and solved problems found in each chapter.

◆ Additional case studies (located at MyOMLab and at the Student Download Page, www .pearsonhighered.com/heizer ): Over two dozen additional case studies supplement the ones in the text. Detailed solutions appear in the Solutions Manual.

◆ Virtual offi ce hours (located at MyOMLab): Professors Heizer, Render, and Munson walk stu- dents through all 89 Solved Problems in a series of 5- to 20-minute explanations. These have been updated with this new edition.

Instructor Resources At the Instructor Resource Center, www.pearsonhighered.com/irc , instructors can easily register to gain access to a variety of instructor resources available with this text in downloadable format. If assistance is needed, our dedicated technical support team is ready to help with the media sup- plements that accompany this text. Visit http://247.pearsoned.com for answers to frequently asked questions and toll-free user support phone numbers.

The following supplements are available with this text:

Instructor’s Resource Manual The Instructor’s Resource Manual, updated by co-author Chuck Munson, contains many useful resources for instructors—PowerPoint presentations with annotated notes, course outlines, video notes, blog highlights, learning techniques, Internet exercises and sample answers, case analysis ideas, additional teaching resources, and faculty notes.

PREFACE xxix

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Instructor’s Solutions Manual The Instructor’s Solutions Manual, written by the authors, contains the answers to all of the dis- cussion questions, Ethical Dilemmas , Active Models, and cases in the text, as well as worked-out solutions to all the end-of-chapter problems, additional homework problems, and additional case studies.

PowerPoint Presentations An extensive set of PowerPoint presentations, created by Professor Jeff Heyl of Lincoln University, is available for each chapter. With well over 2,000 slides, this set has excellent color and clarity.

Test Bank / TestGen® Computerized Test Bank The test bank, updated by James Roh, contains a variety of true/false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions, along with a selection of written problems, for each chapter. Test questions are annotated with the following information:

◆ Diffi culty level ◆ Type: multiple-choice, true/false, short-answer, essay, problem ◆ Learning objective ◆ AACSB (see the description that follows)

TestGen®, Pearson Education’s test-generating software, is PC/MAC compatible and preloaded with all the test bank questions. The test program permits instructors to edit, add, and delete ques- tions from the test bank to create customized tests.

The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)

The test bank has connected select questions to the general knowledge and skill guidelines found in the AACSB Assurance of Learning standards.

AACSB is a not-for-profit corporation of educational institutions, corporations, and other organizations devoted to the promotion and improvement of higher education in business admin- istration and accounting. A collegiate institution offering degrees in business administration or accounting may volunteer for AACSB accreditation review. The AACSB makes initial accredi- tation decisions and conducts periodic reviews to promote continuous quality improvement in management education. Pearson Education is a proud member of the AACSB and is pleased to provide advice to help you apply AACSB assurance of learning standards.

What are AACSB assurance of learning standards? One of the criteria for AACSB accredita- tion is quality of the curricula. Although no specific courses are required, the AACSB expects a curriculum to include learning experiences in the following areas:

◆ Written and oral communication ◆ Ethical understanding and reasoning ◆ Analytical thinking ◆ Information technology ◆ Interpersonal relations and teamwork ◆ Diverse and multicultural work environments ◆ Refl ective thinking ◆ Application of knowledge

Questions that test skills relevant to these guidelines are appropriately tagged. For example, a question regarding clothing manufactured for U.S. firms by 10-year olds in Asia would receive the Ethical understanding and reasoning tag.

Tagged questions help you measure whether students are grasping the course content that aligns with the AACSB guidelines noted. In addition, the tagged questions may help instructors identify potential applications of these skills. This in turn may suggest enrichment activities or other educational experiences to help students achieve these skills.

xxx PREFACE

AACSB

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Video Package Designed and created by the authors specifically for their Heizer/Render/Munson texts, the video package contains the following 41 videos:

◆ Frito-Lay: Operations Management in Manufacturing ( Chapter 1 ) ◆ Hard Rock Cafe: Operations Management in Services ( Chapter 1 ) ◆ Strategy at Regal Marine ( Chapter 2 ) ◆ Hard Rock Cafe’s Global Strategy ( Chapter 2 ) ◆ Outsourcing Off shore at Darden ( Chapter 2 ) ◆ Project Management at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 3 ) ◆ Managing Hard Rock’s Rockfest ( Chapter 3 ) ◆ Forecasting Ticket Revenue for Orlando Magic Basketball Games ( Chapter 4 ) ◆ Forecasting at Hard Rock Cafe ( Chapter 4 ) ◆ Product Design at Regal Marine ( Chapter 5 ) ◆ Building Sustainability at the Orlando Magic’s Amway Center ( Supplement 5 ) ◆ Green Manufacturing and Sustainability at Frito-Lay ( Supplement 5 ) ◆ Quality Counts at Alaska Airlines ( Chapter 6 ) ◆ The Culture of Quality at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 6 ) ◆ Quality at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company ( Chapter 6 ) ◆ Frito-Lay’s Quality-Controlled Potato Chips ( Supplement 6 ) ◆ Farm to Fork: Quality at Darden Restaurants ( Supplement 6 ) ◆ Alaska Airlines: 20-Minute Baggage Process—Guaranteed! ( Chapter 7 ) ◆ Process Strategy at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 7 ) ◆ Process Analysis at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 7 ) ◆ Capacity Planning at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Supplement 7 ) ◆ Locating the Next Red Lobster Restaurant ( Chapter 8 ) ◆ Where to Place the Hard Rock Cafe ( Chapter 8 ) ◆ Facility Layout at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 9 ) ◆ Laying Out Arnold Palmer Hospital’s New Facility ( Chapter 9 ) ◆ The “People” Focus: Human Resources at Alaska Airlines ( Chapter 10 ) ◆ Hard Rock’s Human Resource Strategy ( Chapter 10 ) ◆ Darden’s Global Supply Chains ( Chapter 11 ) ◆ Supply Chain Management at Regal Marine ( Chapter 11 ) ◆ Arnold Palmer Hospital’s Supply Chain ( Chapter 11 ) ◆ Managing Inventory at Frito-Lay ( Chapter 12 ) ◆ Inventory Control at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 12 ) ◆ Using Revenue Management to Set Orlando Magic Ticket Prices ( Chapter 13 ) ◆ When 18,500 Orlando Magic Fans Come to Dinner ( Chapter 14 ) ◆ MRP at Wheeled Coach ( Chapter 14 ) ◆ From the Eagles to the Magic: Converting the Amway Center ( Chapter 15 ) ◆ Scheduling at Hard Rock Cafe ( Chapter 15 ) ◆ Lean Operations at Alaska Airlines ( Chapter 16 ) ◆ JIT at Arnold Palmer Hospital ( Chapter 16 ) ◆ Maintenance Drives Profi ts at Frito-Lay ( Chapter 17 ) ◆ Scheduling Challenges at Alaska Airlines (Module B)

PREFACE xxxi

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ALABAMA John Mittenthal University of Alabama Philip F. Musa University of Alabama at Birmingham William Petty University of Alabama Doug Turner Auburn University

ALASKA Paul Jordan University of Alaska

ARIZONA Susan K. Norman Northern Arizona University Scott Roberts Northern Arizona University Vicki L. Smith-Daniels Arizona State University Susan K. Williams Northern Arizona University

CALIFORNIA Jean-Pierre Amor University of San Diego Moshen Attaran California State University–Bakersfi eld Ali Behnezhad California State University–Northridge Joe Biggs California Polytechnic State University Lesley Buehler Ohlone College Rick Hesse Pepperdine Ravi Kathuria Chapman University Richard Martin California State University–Long Beach Ozgur Ozluk San Francisco State University Zinovy Radovilsky California State University–Hayward Robert J. Schlesinger San Diego State University

V. Udayabhanu San Francisco State University Rick Wing San Francisco State University

COLORADO Peter Billington Colorado State University–Pueblo Gregory Stock University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

CONNECTICUT David Cadden Quinnipiac University Larry A. Flick Norwalk Community Technical College

FLORIDA Joseph P. Geunes University of Florida Rita Gibson Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Jim Gilbert Rollins College Donald Hammond University of South Florida Wende Huehn-Brown St. Petersburg College Adam Munson University of Florida Ronald K. Satterfi eld University of South Florida Theresa A. Shotwell Florida A&M University Jeff Smith Florida State University

GEORGIA John H. Blackstone University of Georgia Johnny Ho Columbus State University John Hoft Columbus State University John Miller Mercer University

Nikolay Osadchiy Emory University Spyros Reveliotis Georgia Institute of Technology

ILLINOIS Suad Alwan Chicago State University Lori Cook DePaul University Matt Liontine University of Illinois–Chicago Zafar Malik Governors State University

INDIANA Barbara Flynn Indiana University B.P. Lingeraj Indiana University Frank Pianki Anderson University Stan Stockton Indiana University Jerry Wei University of Notre Dame Jianghua Wu Purdue University Xin Zhai Purdue University

IOWA Debra Bishop Drake University Kevin Watson Iowa State University Lifang Wu University of Iowa

KANSAS William Barnes Emporia State University George Heinrich Wichita State University Sue Helms Wichita State University Hugh Leach Washburn University

xxxii PREFACE

Acknowledgments We thank the many individuals who were kind enough to assist us in this endeavor. The following professors provided insights that guided us in this edition (their names are in bold) and in prior editions:

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M.J. Riley Kansas State University Teresita S. Salinas Washburn University Avanti P. Sethi Wichita State University

KENTUCKY Wade Ferguson Western Kentucky University Kambiz Tabibzadeh Eastern Kentucky University

LOUISIANA Roy Clinton University of Louisiana at Monroe L. Wayne Shell (retired) Nicholls State University

MARYLAND Eugene Hahn Salisbury University Samuel Y. Smith, Jr. University of Baltimore

MASSACHUSETTS Peter Ittig University of Massachusetts Jean Pierre Kuilboer University of Massachusetts–Boston Dave Lewis University of Massachusetts–Lowell Mike Maggard (retired) Northeastern University Peter Rourke Wentworth Institute of Technology Daniel Shimshak University of Massachusetts–Boston Ernest Silver Curry College Yu Amy Xia Northeastern University

MICHIGAN Darlene Burk Western Michigan University Damodar Golhar Western Michigan University Dana Johnson Michigan Technological University Doug Moodie Michigan Technological University

MINNESOTA Rick Carlson Metropolitan State University John Nicolay University of Minnesota Michael Pesch St. Cloud State University Manus Rungtusanatham University of Minnesota Kingshuk Sinha University of Minnesota Peter Southard University of St. Thomas

MISSOURI Shahid Ali Rockhurst University Stephen Allen Truman State University Sema Alptekin University of Missouri–Rolla Gregory L. Bier University of Missouri–Columbia James Campbell University of Missouri–St. Louis Wooseung Jang University of Missouri–Columbia Mary Marrs University of Missouri–Columbia A. Lawrence Summers University of Missouri

NEBRASKA Zialu Hug University of Nebraska–Omaha

NEVADA Joel D. Wisner University of Nevada, Las Vegas

NEW JERSEY Daniel Ball Monmouth University Leon Bazil Stevens Institute of Technology Mark Berenson Montclair State University Grace Greenberg Rider University Joao Neves The College of New Jersey Leonard Presby William Paterson University

Faye Zhu Rowan University

NEW MEXICO William Kime University of New Mexico

NEW YORK Theodore Boreki Hofstra University John Drabouski DeVry University Richard E. Dulski Daemen College Jonatan Jelen Baruch College Beate Klingenberg Marist College Donna Mosier SUNY Potsdam Elizabeth Perry SUNY Binghamton William Reisel St. John’s University Kaushik Sengupta Hofstra University Girish Shambu Canisius College Rajendra Tibrewala New York Institute of Technology

NORTH CAROLINA Coleman R. Rich Elon University Ray Walters Fayetteville Technical Community College

OHIO Victor Berardi Kent State University Andrew R. Thomas University of Akron

OKLAHOMA Wen-Chyuan Chiang University of Tulsa

OREGON Anne Deidrich Warner Pacifi c College Gordon Miller Portland State University

PREFACE xxxiii

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xxxiv PREFACE

John Sloan Oregon State University

PENNSYLVANIA Henry Crouch Pittsburgh State University Jeff rey D. Heim Pennsylvania State University James F. Kimpel University of Pittsburgh Ian M. Langella Shippensburg University Prafulla Oglekar LaSalle University David Pentico Duquesne University Stanford Rosenberg LaRoche College Edward Rosenthal Temple University Susan Sherer Lehigh University Howard Weiss Temple University

RHODE ISLAND Laurie E. Macdonald Bryant College John Swearingen Bryant College Susan Sweeney Providence College

SOUTH CAROLINA Jerry K. Bilbrey Anderson University Larry LaForge Clemson University Emma Jane Riddle Winthrop University

TENNESSEE Joseph Blackburn Vanderbilt University Hugh Daniel Lipscomb University

Cliff Welborn Middle Tennessee State University

TEXAS Warren W. Fisher Stephen F. Austin State University Garland Hunnicutt Texas State University Gregg Lattier Lee College Henry S. Maddux III Sam Houston State University Arunachalam Narayanan Texas A&M University Ranga V. Ramasesh Texas Christian University Victor Sower San Houston State University Cecelia Temponi Texas State University John Visich-Disc University of Houston Dwayne Whitten Texas A&M University Bruce M. Woodworth University of Texas–El Paso

UTAH William Christensen Dixie State College of Utah Shane J. Schvaneveldt Weber State University Madeline Thimmes (retired) Utah State University

VIRGINIA Andy Litteral University of Richmond Arthur C. Meiners, Jr. Marymount University Michael Plumb Tidewater Community College

WASHINGTON Mark McKay University of Washington

Chris Sandvig Western Washington University John Stec Oregon Institute of Technology

WASHINGTON, DC Narendrea K. Rustagi Howard University

WEST VIRGINIA Charles Englehardt Salem International University Daesung Ha Marshall University John Harpell West Virginia University James S. Hawkes University of Charleston

WISCONSIN James R. Gross University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh Marilyn K. Hart (retired) University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh Niranjan Pati University of Wisconsin–La Crosse X. M. Saff ord Milwaukee Area Technical College Rao J. Taikonda University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

WYOMING Cliff Asay University of Wyoming

INTERNATIONAL Steven Harrod Technical University of Denmark Robert D. Klassen University of Western Ontario Ronald Lau Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

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PREFACE xxxv

In addition, we appreciate the wonderful people at Pearson Education who provided both help and advice: Stephanie Wall, our superb editor-in-chief; Lenny Ann Kucenski, our dynamo mar- keting manager; Linda Albelli, our editorial assistant; Courtney Kamauf and Andra Skaalrud for their fantastic and dedicated work on MyOMLab; Jeff Holcomb, our project manager team lead; Claudia Fernandes, our program manager; Jacqueline Martin, our senior project manager; and Heidi Allgair, our project manager at Cenveo® Publisher Services. We are truly blessed to have such a fantastic team of experts directing, guiding, and assisting us.

In this edition, we were thrilled to be able to include one of the country’s premier airlines, Alaska Airlines, in our ongoing Video Case Study series. This was possible because of the wonderful efforts of COO/EVP-Operations Ben Minicucci, and his superb management team. This included John Ladner (Managing Director, Seattle Station Operations), Wayne Newton (Managing Director, Station Operations Control), Mike McQueen (Director, Schedule Planning), Chad Koehnke (Director, Planning and Resource Allocation), Cheryl Schulz (Executive Assistant to EVP Minicucci), Jeffrey Butler (V.P. Airport Operations & Customer Service), Dan Audette (Manager of Operations Research and Analysis), Allison Fletcher (Process Improvement Manager), Carlos Zendejas (Manager Line-Flying Operations, Pilots), Robyn Garner (Flight Attendant Trainer), and Nikki Meier and Sara Starbuck (Process Improvement Facilitators). We are grateful to all of these fine people, as well as the many others that participated in the develop- ment of the videos and cases during our trips to the Seattle headquarters.

We also appreciate the efforts of colleagues who have helped to shape the entire learning pack- age that accompanies this text. Professor Howard Weiss (Temple University) developed the Active Models, Excel OM, and POM for Windows software; Professor Jeff Heyl (Lincoln University) created the PowerPoint presentations; and Professor James Roh (Rowan University) updated the test bank. Beverly Amer (Northern Arizona University) produced and directed the video series; Professors Keith Willoughby (Bucknell University) and Ken Klassen (Brock University) contrib- uted the two Excel-based simulation games; and Professor Gary LaPoint (Syracuse University) developed the Microsoft Project crashing exercise and the dice game for SPC. We have been fortu- nate to have been able to work with all these people.

We wish you a pleasant and productive introduction to operations management.

JAY HEIZER Texas Lutheran University 1000 W. Court Street Seguin, TX 78155 Email: jheizer@tlu.edu

BARRY RENDER Graduate School of Business Rollins College Winter Park, FL 32789 Email: brender@rollins.edu

CHUCK MUNSON Carson College of Business Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-4746 Email: munson@wsu.edu

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xxxvi PREFACE

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT, 12TH EDITION ISBN: 0-13-413042-1

PART I INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 1. Operations and Productivity 2. Operations Strategy in a Global

Environment 3. Project Management 4. Forecasting

PART II DESIGNING OPERATIONS 5. Design of Goods and Services S5. Sustainability in the Supply Chain 6. Managing Quality S6. Statistical Process Control 7. Process Strategy S7. Capacity and Constraint Management 8. Location Strategies 9. Layout Strategies 10. Human Resources, Job Design, and

Work Measurement

PART III MANAGING OPERATIONS 11. Supply Chain Management S11. Supply Chain Management Analytics 12. Inventory Management 13. Aggregate Planning and S&OP 14. Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

and ERP 15. Short-Term Scheduling 16. Lean Operations 17. Maintenance and Reliability

PART IV BUSINESS ANALYTICS MODULES A. Decision-Making Tools B. Linear Programming C. Transportation Models D. Waiting-Line Models E. Learning Curves F. Simulation

ONLINE TUTORIALS 1. Statistical Tools for Managers 2. Acceptance Sampling 3. The Simplex Method of Linear

Programming 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of

Solving Transportation Problems 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT, 10TH EDITION ISBN: 0-13-418198-0

PART I INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 1. Operations and Productivity 2. Operations Strategy in a Global

Environment 3. Project Management 4. Forecasting

PART II DESIGNING OPERATIONS 5. Design of Goods and Services S5. Sustainability in the Supply Chain 6. Managing Quality S6. Statistical Process Control 7. Process Strategy S7. Capacity and Constraint Management 8. Location Strategies 9. Layout Strategies 10. Human Resources, Job Design, and

Work Measurement

PART III MANAGING OPERATIONS 11. Supply Chain Management S11. Supply Chain Management Analytics 12. Inventory Management 13. Aggregate Planning and S&OP 14. Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

and ERP 15. Short-Term Scheduling 16. Lean Operations 17. Maintenance and Reliability

ONLINE TUTORIALS 1. Statistical Tools for Managers 2. Acceptance Sampling 3. The Simplex Method of Linear

Programming 4. The MODI and VAM Methods of

Solving Transportation Problems 5. Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

TWO VERSIONS ARE AVAILABLE This text is available in two versions: Operations Management , 12th edition, a hardcover, and Principles of Operations Management , 10th edition, a paperback. Both books include the identi- cal core Chapters 1 – 17 . However, Operations Management , 12th edition also includes six business analytics modules in Part IV .

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O P E R A T I O N S MANAGEMENT Sustainability and Supply Chain Management

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11

CHAPTER O U T L I N E

1 ◆ What Is Operations Management? 4 ◆ Organizing to Produce Goods

and Services 4 ◆ The Supply Chain 6 ◆ Why Study OM? 6 ◆ What Operations Managers Do 7 ◆ The Heritage of Operations Management 8

◆ Operations for Goods and Services 11 ◆ The Productivity Challenge 13 ◆ Current Challenges in Operations

Management 18 ◆ Ethics, Social Responsibility, and

Sustainability 19

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE: Hard Rock Cafe

C H

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PART ONE Introduction to Operations Management

Operations and Productivity

1010 OMOM STRATEGY DECISIONS

• • Design of Goods and Services • • Managing Quality • • Process Strategy • • Location Strategies • • Layout Strategies

• • Human Resources • • Supply-Chain Management • • Inventory Management • • Scheduling • • Maintenance

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Operations managers throughout the world are producing products every day to provide for the well-being of society. These products take on a multitude of forms. They may be washing machines at Whirlpool, motion pictures at DreamWorks, rides at Disney World, or food at Hard Rock Cafe. These firms produce thousands of complex products every day—to be

delivered as the customer ordered them, when the customer wants them, and where the cus-

tomer wants them. Hard Rock does this for over 35 million guests worldwide every year. This is a

challenging task, and the operations manager’s job, whether at Whirlpool, DreamWorks, Disney,

or Hard Rock, is demanding.

Operations Management at Hard Rock Cafe

GLOBAL COMPANY PROFILE Hard Rock Cafe

C H A P T E R 1

2

Hard Rock Cafe in Orlando, Florida, prepares over 3,500 meals each day. Seating more than 1,500 people, it is one of the largest restaurants in the world. But Hard Rock’s operations managers serve the hot food hot and the cold food cold.

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Operations managers are interested in the attractiveness of the layout, but they must be sure that the facility contributes to the efficient movement of people and material with the necessary controls to ensure that proper portions are served.

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3

Orlando-based Hard Rock Cafe opened its first restau-

rant in London in 1971, making it over 45 years old and the

granddaddy of theme restaurants. Although other theme

restaurants have come and gone, Hard Rock is still going

strong, with 150 restaurants in more than 53 countries—and

new restaurants opening each year. Hard Rock made its

name with rock music memorabilia, having started when Eric

Clapton, a regular customer, marked his favorite bar stool

by hanging his guitar on the wall in the London cafe. Now

Hard Rock has 70,000 items and millions of dollars invested

in memorabilia. To keep customers coming back time and

again, Hard Rock creates value in the form of good food and

entertainment.

The operations managers at Hard Rock Cafe at Uni-

versal Studios in Orlando provide more than 3,500 custom

products—in this case meals—every day. These products

are designed, tested, and then analyzed for cost of

Lots of work goes into designing, testing, and costing meals. Then suppliers deliver quality products on time, every time, for well-trained cooks to prepare quality meals. But none of that matters unless an enthusiastic waitstaff, such as the one shown here, holding guitars previously owned by members of U2, is doing its job.

Efficient kitchen layouts, motivated personnel, tight schedules, and the right ingredients at the right place at the right time are required to delight the customer.

Lots of work goes into designing testing and costing

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ingredients, labor requirements, and customer satisfaction.

On approval, menu items are put into production—and then

only if the ingredients are available from qualified suppliers.

The production process, from receiving, to cold storage,

to grilling or baking or frying, and a dozen other steps, is

designed and maintained to yield a quality meal. Operations

managers, using the best people they can recruit and train,

also prepare effective employee schedules and design

efficient layouts.

Managers who successfully design and deliver goods

and services throughout the world understand operations.

In this text, we look not only at how Hard Rock’s manag-

ers create value but also how operations managers in other

services, as well as in manufacturing, do so. Operations

management is demanding, challenging, and exciting. It

affects our lives every day. Ultimately, operations managers

determine how well we live.

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4

What Is Operations Management? Operations management (OM) is a discipline that applies to restaurants like Hard Rock Cafe as well as to factories like Ford and Whirlpool. The techniques of OM apply throughout the world to virtually all productive enterprises. It doesn’t matter if the application is in an office, a hospital, a restaurant, a department store, or a factory—the production of goods and ser- vices requires operations management. And the efficient production of goods and services requires effective applications of the concepts, tools, and techniques of OM that we introduce in this book.

As we progress through this text, we will discover how to manage operations in an economy in which both customers and suppliers are located throughout the world. An array of informa- tive examples, charts, text discussions, and pictures illustrates concepts and provides informa- tion. We will see how operations managers create the goods and services that enrich our lives.

In this chapter, we first define operations management , explaining its heritage and exploring the exciting role operations managers play in a huge variety of organizations. Then we discuss production and productivity in both goods- and service-producing firms. This is followed by a discussion of operations in the service sector and the challenge of managing an effective and efficient production system.

Production is the creation of goods and services. Operations management (OM) is the set of activi- ties that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs. Activities creating goods and services take place in all organizations. In manufacturing firms, the production activities that create goods are usually quite obvious. In them, we can see the creation of a tangible product such as a Sony TV or a Harley-Davidson motorcycle.

In an organization that does not create a tangible good or product, the production func- tion may be less obvious. We often call these activities services . The services may be “hidden” from the public and even from the customer. The product may take such forms as the transfer of funds from a savings account to a checking account, the transplant of a liver, the filling of an empty seat on an airplane, or the education of a student. Regardless of whether the end product is a good or service, the production activities that go on in the organization are often referred to as operations, or operations management .

Organizing to Produce Goods and Services To create goods and services, all organizations perform three functions (see Figure 1.1 ). These functions are the necessary ingredients not only for production but also for an organization’s survival. They are:

1. Marketing , which generates the demand, or at least takes the order for a product or ser- vice (nothing happens until there is a sale).

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CHAPTER 4: Developing Through the Life Span

Life is a journey, from womb to tomb. So it is for me, and so it will be for you. My story, and yours, began when a man and a woman contributed 20,000+ genes to an egg that became a unique person. Those genes coded the protein building blocks that, with astonishing precision, formed our bodies and predisposed our traits. My grandmother bequeathed to my mother a rare hearing-loss pattern, which she, in turn, gave to me (the least of her gifts). My father was an amiable extravert, and sometimes I forget to stop talking. As a child, my talking was impeded by painful stuttering, for which Seattle Public Schools gave me speech therapy.

Along with my parents’ nature, I also received their nurture. Like you, I was born into a particular family and culture, with its own way of viewing the world. My values have been shaped by a family culture filled with talking and laughter, by a religious culture that speaks of love and justice, and by an academic culture that encourages critical thinking (asking, What do you mean? How do you know?).

We are formed by our genes, and by our contexts, so our stories will differ. But in many ways we are each like nearly everyone else on Earth. Being human, you and I have a need to belong. My mental video library, which began after age 4, is filled with scenes of social attachment. Over time, my attachments to parents loosened as peer friendships grew. After lacking confidence to date in high school, I fell in love with a college classmate and married at age 20. Natural selection disposes us to survive and perpetuate our genes. Sure enough, two years later a child entered our lives and I experienced a new form of love that surprised me with its intensity.

But life is marked by change. That child now lives 2000 miles away, and one of his two siblings has found her calling in South Africa. The tight rubber bands linking parent and child have loosened, as yours likely have as well.

Change also marks most vocational lives, which for me transitioned from a teen working in the family insurance agency, to a premed chemistry major and hospital aide, to (after discarding my half-completed medical school applications) a psychology professor and author. I predict that in 10 years you, too, will be doing things you do not currently anticipate.

Stability also marks our development. When I look in the mirror I do not see the person I once was, but I feel like the person I have always been. I am the same person who, as a late teen, played basketball and discovered love. A half-century later, I still play basketball and still love (with less passion but more security) the life partner with whom I have shared life’s griefs and joys.

We experience a continuous self, but that self morphs through stages—growing up, raising children, enjoying a career, and, eventually, life’s final stage, which will demand my presence. As I wend my way through this cycle of life and death, I am mindful that life’s journey is a continuing process of development, seeded by nature and shaped by nurture, animated by love and focused by work, begun with wide-eyed curiosity and completed, for those blessed to live to a good old age, with peace and never-ending hope.

Across the life span we grow from newborn to toddler, from toddler to teenager, and from teen to mature adult. At each stage of life’s journey there are physical, cognitive, and social milestones. Let’s begin at the very beginning.

Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues

4-1: What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists?

Developmental psychology examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span, with a focus on three major issues:

· 1.  Nature and nurture:  How does our genetic inheritance (our nature) interact with our experiences (our nurture) to influence our development? How have your nature and your nurture influenced your life story?

· 2.  Continuity and stages:  What parts of development are gradual and continuous, like riding an escalator? What parts change abruptly in separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?

· 3.  Stability and change:  Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age?

developmental psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

“Nature is all that a man brings with him into the world; nurture is every influence that affects him after his birth.”

Francis Galton, English Men of Science, 1874

We will reflect on these three developmental issues throughout this chapter.

Prenatal Development and the Newborn

4-2: What is the course of prenatal development, and how do teratogens affect that development?

Conception

Nothing is more natural than a species reproducing itself. And nothing is more wondrous. With humans, the process starts when a woman’s ovary releases a mature egg—a cell roughly the size of the period at the end of this sentence. Like space voyagers approaching a huge planet, the 200 million or more deposited sperm begin their race upstream, approaching a cell 85,000 times their own size. The relatively few reaching the egg release digestive enzymes that eat away its protective coating. As soon as one sperm penetrates that coating and is welcomed in the egg’s surface blocks out the others. Before half a day elapses, the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse. The two have become one.

Consider it your most fortunate of moments. Among 200 million sperm, the one needed to make you, in combination with that one particular egg, won the race. And so it was for innumerable generations before us. If any one of our ancestors had been conceived with a different sperm or egg, or died before conceiving, or not chanced to meet the partner or … the mind boggles at the improbable, unbroken chain of events that produced you and me.

Prenatal Development

Fewer than half of all fertilized eggs, called zygotes, survive beyond the first 2 weeks (Grobstein, 1979; Hall, 2004). But for you and me, good fortune prevailed. One cell became 2, then 4—each just like the first—until this cell division had produced some 100 identical cells within the first week. Then the cells began to differentiate—to specialize in structure and function. How identical cells do this—as if one decides “I’ll become a brain, you become intestines!”—is a puzzle that scientists are just beginning to solve.

zygote the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

About 10 days after conception, the zygote attaches to the mother’s uterine wall, beginning approximately 37 weeks of the closest human relationship. The zygote’s inner cells become the embryo. The outer cells become the placenta, the life-link that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to embryo. Over the next 6 weeks, the embryo’s organs begin to form and function. The heart begins to beat.

embryo the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

By 9 weeks after conception, an embryo looks unmistakably human. It is now a fetus (Latin for “offspring” or “young one”). During the sixth month, organs such as the stomach have developed enough to give the fetus a chance of survival if born prematurely.

fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

At each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors affect our development. By the sixth month, microphone readings taken inside the uterus reveal that the fetus is responsive to sound and is exposed to the sound of its mother’s muffled voice (Ecklund-Flores, 1992; Hepper, 2005). Immediately after birth, newborns prefer her voice to another woman’s or to their father’s (Busnel et al., 1992; DeCasper et al., 1984, 1986, 1994). They also prefer hearing their mother’s language. If she spoke two languages during pregnancy, they display interest in both (Byers-Heinlein et al., 2010). And just after birth, the melodic ups and downs of newborns’ cries bear the tuneful signature of their mother’s native tongue (Mampe et al., 2009). Babies born to French-speaking mothers tend to cry with the rising intonation of French; babies born to German-speaking mothers cry with the falling tones of German. Would you have guessed? The learning of language begins in the womb.

In the two months before birth, fetuses demonstrate learning in other ways, as when they adapt to a vibrating, honking device placed on their mother’s abdomen (Dirix et al., 2009). Like people who adapt to the sound of trains in their neighborhood, fetuses get used to the honking. Moreover, four weeks later, they recall the sound (as evidenced by their blasé response, compared with the reactions of those not previously exposed).

Sounds are not the only stimuli fetuses are exposed to in the womb. In addition to transferring nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus, the placenta screens out many harmful substances, but some slip by. Teratogens, agents such as toxins, viruses, and drugs, can damage an embryo or fetus. This is one reason pregnant women are advised not to drink alcoholic beverages. A pregnant woman never drinks alone. As alcohol enters her bloodstream, and her fetus’, it depresses activity in both their central nervous systems. Alcohol use during pregnancy may prime the woman’s offspring to like alcohol and may put them at risk for heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder during their teens. In experiments, when pregnant rats drank alcohol, their young offspring later displayed a liking for alcohol’s taste and odor (Youngentob et al., 2007, 2009).

teratogens (literally, “monster maker”) agents, such as toxins, chemicals, and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

Even light drinking or occasional binge drinking can affect the fetal brain (Braun, 1996; Ikonomidou et al., 2000; Sayal et al., 2009). Persistent heavy drinking puts the fetus at risk for birth defects and for future behavior problems, hyperactivity, and lower intelligence. For 1 in about 800 infants, the effects are visible as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), marked by a small, misproportioned head and lifelong brain abnormalities (May & Gossage, 2001). The fetal damage may occur because alcohol has what Chapter 2 called an epigenetic effect: It leaves chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off (Liu et al., 2009).

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.

Prenatal development

zygote:  conception to 2 weeks
embryo:  2 weeks through 8 weeks
fetus:  9 weeks to birth

“You shall conceive and bear a son. So then drink no wine or strong drink.”

Judges 13:7

“I felt like a man trapped in a woman’s body. Then I was born.”

Comedian Chris Bliss

The Competent Newborn

4-3: What are some newborn abilities, and how do researchers explore infants’ mental abilities?

Babies come with software preloaded on their neural hard drives. Having survived prenatal hazards, we as newborns came equipped with automatic reflex responses ideally suited for our survival. We withdrew our limbs to escape pain. If a cloth over our face interfered with our breathing, we turned our head from side to side and swiped at it.

New parents are often in awe of the coordinated sequence of reflexes by which their baby gets food. When something touches their cheek, babies turn toward that touch, open their mouth, and vigorously root for a nipple. Finding one, they automatically close on it and begin sucking—which itself requires a coordinated sequence of reflexive tonguing, swallowing, and breathing. Failing to find satisfaction, the hungry baby may cry—a behavior parents find highly unpleasant and very rewarding to relieve.

The pioneering American psychologist William James presumed that newborns experience a “blooming, buzzing confusion,” an assumption few people challenged until the 1960s. Then scientists discovered that babies can tell you a lot—if you know how to ask. To ask, you must capitalize on what babies can do—gaze, suck, turn their heads. So, equipped with eye-tracking machines and pacifiers wired to electronic gear, researchers set out to answer parents’ age-old questions: What can my baby see, hear, smell, and think?

Prepared to feed and eat

Consider how researchers exploit habituation—a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation. We saw this earlier when fetuses adapted to a vibrating, honking device placed on their mother’s abdomen. The novel stimulus gets attention when first presented. With repetition, the response weakens. This seeming boredom with familiar stimuli gives us a way to ask infants what they see and remember.

habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.

Indeed, even as newborns, we prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness. We turn our heads in the direction of human voices. We gaze longer at a drawing of a face-like image. We prefer to look at objects 8 to 12 inches away, which—wonder of wonders—just happens to be the approximate distance between a nursing infant’s eyes and its mother’s (Maurer & Maurer, 1988).

Within days after birth, our brain’s neural networks were stamped with the smell of our mother’s body. Week-old nursing babies, placed between a gauze pad from their mother’s bra and one from another nursing mother, have usually turned toward the smell of their own mother’s pad (MacFarlane, 1978). What’s more, that smell preference lasts. One experiment capitalized on the fact that some nursing mothers in a French maternity ward used a chamomile-scented balm to prevent nipple soreness (Delaunay-El Allam, 2010). Twenty-one months later, their toddlers preferred playing with chamomile-scented toys! Their peers who had not sniffed the scent while breast feeding showed no such preference. (This makes me wonder: Will adults, who as babies associated chamomile scent with their mother’s breast, become devoted chamomile tea drinkers?)

Infancy and Childhood

As a flower unfolds in accord with its genetic instructions, so do we humans. Maturation—the orderly sequence of biological growth—decrees many of our commonalities. We stand before walking. We use nouns before adjectives. Severe deprivation or abuse can retard our development, but the genetic growth tendencies are inborn. Maturation (nature) sets the basic course of development; experience (nurture) adjusts it. Once again, we see genes and scenes interacting.

maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.

“It is a rare privilege to watch the birth, growth, and first feeble struggles of a living human mind.”

Annie Sullivan, in Helen Keller’s The Story of My Life, 1903

Physical Development

4-4: During infancy and childhood, how do the brain and motor skills develop?

Brain Development

The formative nurture that conspired with nature began at conception, with the prenatal environment in the womb. Nurture continues outside the womb, where our early experiences foster brain development.

In your mother’s womb, your developing brain formed nerve cells at the explosive rate of nearly one-quarter million per minute. From infancy on, brain and mind—neural hardware and cognitive software—develop together. On the day you were born, you had most of the brain cells you would ever have. However, the wiring among these cells—your nervous system—was immature: After birth, these neural networks had a wild growth spurt branching and linking in patterns that would eventually enable you to walk, talk, and remember.

From ages 3 to 6, the most rapid brain growth was in your frontal lobes, which enable rational planning. During those years, your ability to control your attention and behavior developed rapidly (Garon et al., 2008; Thompson-Schill et al., 2009).

Frontal lobe development continues into adolescence and beyond. The last cortical areas to develop are the association areas—those linked with thinking, memory, and language. As they develop, mental abilities surge (Chugani & Phelps, 1986; Thatcher et al., 1987). The neural pathways supporting language and agility proliferate into puberty. Then, a use-it-or-lose-it pruning processshuts down unused links and strengthens others (Paus et al., 1999; Thompson et al., 2000).

Stringing the circuits young

Your genes dictated your overall brain architecture, rather like the lines of a coloring book, but experience fills in the details (Kenrick et al., 2009). So how do early experiences leave their “marks” in the brain? Mark Rosenzweig and David Krech opened a window on that process when they raised some young rats in solitary confinement in an impoverished environment, and others in a communal playground that simulated a natural environment. When the researchers later analyzed the rats’ brains, those who died with the most toys had won. The rats living in the enriched environment had usually developed a heavier and thicker brain cortex.

Rosenzweig was so surprised by this discovery that he repeated the experiment several times before publishing his findings (Renner & Rosenzweig, 1987; Rosenzweig, 1984). So great are the effects that, shown brief video clips, you could tell from the rats’ activity and curiosity whether their environment had been impoverished or enriched (Renner & Renner, 1993). After 60 days in the enriched environment, the rats’ brain weights increased 7 to 10 percent and the number of synapses mushroomed by about 20 percent (Kolb & Whishaw, 1998).

Such results have motivated improvements in environments for laboratory, farm, and zoo animals—and for children in institutions. Stimulation by touch or massage also benefits infant rats and premature babies (Field et al., 2007). “Handled” infants of both species develop faster neurologically and gain weight more rapidly. By giving preemies massage therapy, neonatal intensive care units help them to go home sooner (Field et al., 2006).

Nature and nurture together sculpt our synapses. Brain maturation provides us with an abundance of neural connections. Experiences—sights and smells, touches and tugs—activate and strengthen some neural pathways while others weaken from disuse. Like forest pathways, popular tracks are broadened and less-traveled ones gradually disappear. The result by puberty is a massive loss of unemployed connections.

Here at the juncture of nurture and nature is the biological reality of early childhood learning. During early childhood—while excess connections are still on call—youngsters can most easily master such skills as the grammar and accent of another language. We seem to have a critical period for some skills. Lacking any exposure to spoken, written, or signed language before adolescence, a person will never master any language. Likewise, lacking visual experience during the early years, a person whose vision is restored by cataract removal will never achieve normal perceptions. Without stimulation, the brain cells normally assigned to vision will die during the pruning process or be diverted to other uses. The maturing brain’s rule: Use it or lose it.

critical period an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development.

Although normal stimulation during the early years is critical, the brain’s development does not end with childhood. As we saw in Chapter 2’s discussion of brain plasticity, our neural tissue is ever changing and new neurons are born. If a monkey pushes a lever with the same finger several thousand times a day, brain tissue controlling that finger changes to reflect the experience. Human brains work similarly. Whether learning to keyboard or skateboard, we perform with increasing skill as our brain incorporates the learning (Ambrose, 2010).

“Genes and experiences are just two ways of doing the same thing—wiring synapses.”

Joseph LeDoux, The Synaptic Self, 2002

Motor Development

The developing brain enables physical coordination. As an infant’s muscles and nervous system mature, skills emerge. With occasional exceptions, the sequence of physical (motor) development is universal. Babies roll over before they sit unsupported, and they usually crawl on all fours before they walk. These behaviors reflect not imitation but a maturing nervous system; blind children, too, crawl before they walk.

There are, however, individual differences in timing. In the United States, for example, 25 percent of all babies walk by 11 months of age, 50 percent within a week after their first birthday, and 90 percent by age 15 months (Frankenburg et al., 1992). The recommended infant back-to-sleep position (putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of a smothering crib death) has been associated with somewhat later crawling but not with later walking (Davis et al., 1998; Lipsitt, 2003).

In the eight years following the 1994 launch of a U.S. Back to Sleep educational campaign, the number of infants sleeping on their stomach dropped from 70 to 11 percent—and SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) deaths fell by half (Braiker, 2005).

Genes guide motor development. Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day (Wilson, 1979). Maturation—including the rapid development of the cerebellum at the back of the brain—creates our readiness to learn walking at about age 1. Experience before that time has a limited effect. The same is true for other physical skills, including bowel and bladder control. Before necessary muscular and neural maturation, neither pleading nor punishment will produce successful toilet training.

Brain Maturation and Infant Memory

Can you recall your first day of preschool or your third birthday party? Our earliest memories seldom predate our third birthday. We see this infantile amnesia in the memories of some preschoolers who experienced an emergency fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker. Seven years later, they were able to recall the alarm and what caused it—if they were 4 to 5 years old at the time. Those experiencing the event as 3-year-olds could not remember the cause and usually misrecalled being already outside when the alarm sounded (Pillemer, 1995). Other studies have confirmed that the average age of earliest conscious memory is 3.5 years (Bauer, 2002, 2007). As children mature, from 4 to 6 to 8 years, childhood amnesia is giving way, and they become increasingly capable of remembering experiences, even for a year or more (Bruce et al., 2000; Morris et al., 2010). The brain areas underlying memory, such as the hippocampus and frontal lobes, continue to mature into adolescence (Bauer, 2007).

Although we consciously recall little from before age 4, our brain was processing and storing information during those early years. In 1965, while finishing her doctoral work in psychology, Carolyn Rovee-Collier observed an infant memory. She was a new mom, whose colicky 2-month-old, Benjamin, could be calmed by moving a crib mobile. Weary of hitting the mobile, she strung a cloth ribbon connecting the mobile to Benjamin’s foot. Soon, he was kicking his foot to move the mobile. Thinking about her unintended home experiment, Rovee-Collier realized that, contrary to popular opinion in the 1960s, babies are capable of learning. To know for sure that her son wasn’t just a whiz kid, she repeated the experiment with other infants (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1999). Sure enough, they, too, soon kicked more when hitched to a mobile, both on the day of the experiment and the day after. They had learned the link between moving legs and moving mobiles. If, however, she hitched them to a different mobile the next day, the infants showed no learning, indicating that they remembered the original mobile and recognized the difference. Moreover, when tethered to the familiar mobile a month later, they remembered the association and again began kicking.

Traces of forgotten childhood languages may also persist. One study tested English-speaking British adults who had no conscious memory of the Hindi or Zulu they had spoken as children. Yet, up to age 40, they could relearn subtle sound contrasts in these languages that other people could notlearn (Bowers et al., 2009). What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words, the nervous system and our two-track mind somehow remembers.

Cognitive Development

4-5: From the perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, and today’s researchers, how does a child’s mind develop?

Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Somewhere on your life journey, you became conscious. When was that, and how did your mind unfold from there? Developmental psychologist Jean Piaget [pee-ah-ZHAY] spent his life searching for the answers to such questions. His interest began in 1920, when he was in Paris developing questions for children’s intelligence tests. While administering the tests, Piaget became intrigued by children’s wrong answers, which were often strikingly similar among same-age children. Where others saw childish mistakes, Piaget saw intelligence at work.

cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

A half-century spent with children convinced Piaget that a child’s mind is not a miniature model of an adult’s. Thanks partly to his work, we now understand that children reason differently than adults, in “wildly illogical ways about problems whose solutions are self-evident to adults” (Brainerd, 1996).

Jean Piaget (1896–1980)

Piaget’s studies led him to believe that a child’s mind develops through a series of stages, in an upward march from the newborn’s simple reflexes to the adult’s abstract reasoning power. Thus, an 8-year-old can comprehend things a toddler cannot, such as the analogy that “getting an idea is like having a light turn on in your head,” or that a miniature slide is too small for sliding, and a miniature car is much too small to get into.

Piaget’s core idea is that the driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences. To this end, the maturing brain builds schemas, concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences. By adulthood we have built countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love.

schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

To explain how we use and adjust our schemas, Piaget proposed two more concepts. First, we assimilate new experiences—we interpret them in terms of our current understandings (schemas). Having a simple schema for dog, for example, a toddler may call all four-legged animals dogs. But as we interact with the world, we also adjust, or accommodate, our schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences. Thus, the child soon learns that the original dog schema is too broad and accommodates by refining the category.

assimilation interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.

accommodation adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking

Piaget believed that children construct their understanding of the world while interacting with it. Their minds experience spurts of change, followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive plateau to the next, each with distinctive characteristics that permit specific kinds of thinking.  TABLE 4.1  summarizes the four stages in Piaget’s theory.

Table 4.1: Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Typical Age RangeDescription of StageDevelopmental Phenomena
Birth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotorExperiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping)·  Object permanence·  Stranger anxiety
About 2 to about 6 or 7 yearsPreoperationalRepresenting things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning·  Pretend play·  Egocentrism
About 7 to 11 yearsConcrete operationalThinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations· Conservation· Mathematical transformations
About 12 through adulthoodFormal operationalAbstract reasoning·  Abstract logic·  Potential for mature moral reasoning

Sensorimotor Stage

In the sensorimotor stage, from birth to nearly age 2, babies take in the world through their senses and actions—through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. As their hands and limbs begin to move, they learn to make things happen.

sensorimotor stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

Very young babies seem to live in the present: Out of sight is out of mind. In one test, Piaget showed an infant an appealing toy and then flopped his beret over it. Before the age of 6 months, the infant acted as if the toy ceased to exist. Young infants lack object permanence—the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived. By 8 months, infants begin exhibiting memory for things no longer seen. If you hide a toy, the infant will momentarily look for it. Within another month or two, the infant will look for it even after being restrained for several seconds.

object permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.

So does object permanence in fact blossom at 8 months, much as tulips blossom in spring? Today’s researchers think not. They believe object permanence unfolds gradually, and they see development as more continuous than Piaget did. Even young infants will at least momentarily look for a toy where they saw it hidden a second before (Wang et al., 2004).

Researchers also believe Piaget and his followers underestimated young children’s competence. Consider these simple experiments:

·  Baby physics: Like adults staring in disbelief at a magic trick (the “Whoa!” look), infants look longer at an unexpected and unfamiliar scene of a car seeming to pass through a solid object, a ball stopping in midair, or an object violating object permanence by magically disappearing (Baillargeon, 1995, 2008; Wellman & Gelman, 1992).

·  Baby math: Karen Wynn (1992, 2000) showed 5-month-olds one or two objects. Then she hid the objects behind a screen, and visibly removed or added one. When she lifted the screen, the infants sometimes did a double take, staring longer when shown a wrong number of objects. But were they just responding to a greater or smaller mass of objects, rather than a change in number (Feigenson et al., 2002)? Later experiments showed that babies’ number sense extends to larger numbers, to ratios, and to such things as drumbeats and motions (Libertus & Brannon, 2009; McCrink & Wynn, 2004; Spelke & Kinzler, 2007). If accustomed to a Daffy Duck puppet jumping three times on stage, they showed surprise if it jumped only twice.

Clearly, infants are smarter than Piaget appreciated. Even as babies, we had a lot on our minds.

Preoperational Stage

Piaget believed that until about age 6 or 7, children are in a preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations (such as imagining an action and mentally reversing it). For a 5-year-old, the milk that seems “too much” in a tall, narrow glass may become an acceptable amount if poured into a short, wide glass. Focusing only on the height dimension, this child cannot perform the operation of mentally pouring the milk back. Before about age 6, said Piaget, children lack the concept of conservation—the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape.

preoperational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

conservation the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

PRETEND PLAY A child who can perform mental operations can think in symbols and therefore begins to enjoy pretend play. Contemporary researchers have found that symbolic thinking appears at an earlier age than Piaget supposed. Judy DeLoache (1987) showed children a model of a room and hid a miniature stuffed dog behind its miniature couch. The 2½-year-olds easily remembered where to find the miniature toy, but they could not use the model to locate an actual stuffed dog behind a couch in a real room. Three-year-olds—only 6 months older—usually went right to the actual stuffed animal in the real room, showing they could think of the model as a symbol for the room. Piaget did not view the stage transitions as abrupt shifts. Even so, he probably would have been surprised to see symbolic thinking at such an early age.

EGOCENTRISM Piaget contended that preschool children are egocentric: They have difficulty perceiving things from another’s point of view. Asked to “show Mommy your picture,” 2-year-old Gabriella holds the picture up facing her own eyes. Three-year-old Gray makes himself “invisible” by putting his hands over his eyes, assuming that if he can’t see his grandparents, they can’t see him. Children’s conversations also reveal their egocentrism, as one young boy demonstrated (Phillips, 1969, p. 61):

“Do you have a brother?”

“Yes.”

“What’s his name?”

“Jim.”

“Does Jim have a brother?”

“No.”

egocentrism in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view.

Like Gabriella, TV-watching preschoolers who block your view of the TV assume that you see what they see. They simply have not yet developed the ability to take another’s viewpoint. Even we adults may overestimate the extent to which others share our opinions and perspectives, a trait known as the curse of knowledge. We assume that something will be clear to others if it is clear to us, or that e-mail recipients will “hear” our “just kidding” intent (Epley et al., 2004; Kruger et al., 2005). Children are even more susceptible to such egocentrism.

THEORY OF MIND When Little Red Riding Hood realized her “grandmother” was really a wolf, she swiftly revised her ideas about the creature’s intentions and raced away. Preschoolers, although still egocentric, develop this ability to infer others’ mental states when they begin forming a theory of mind (a term first coined by psychologists David Premack and Guy Woodruff [1978], to describe chimpanzees’ seeming ability to read intentions).

theory of mind people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.

As the ability to take another’s perspective gradually develops, preschoolers come to understand what made a playmate angry, when a sibling will share, and what might make a parent buy a toy. And they begin to tease, empathize, and persuade. Between about 3½ and 4½, children worldwide come to realize that others may hold false beliefs (Callaghan et al., 2005; Sabbagh et al., 2006). Jennifer Jenkins and Janet Astington (1996) showed Toronto children a Band-Aids box and asked them what was inside. Expecting Band-Aids, the children were surprised to discover that the box actually contained pencils. Asked what a child who had never seen the box would think was inside, 3-year-olds typically answered “pencils.” By age 4 to 5, the children’s theory of mind had leapt forward, and they anticipated their friends’ false belief that the box would hold Band-Aids. Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty understanding that another’s state of mind differs from their own.

Concrete Operational Stage

By age 6 or 7, said Piaget, children enter the concrete operational stage. Given concrete (physical) materials, they begin to grasp conservation. Understanding that change in form does not mean change in quantity; they can mentally pour milk back and forth between glasses of different shapes. They also enjoy jokes that use this new understanding:

concrete operational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

Mr. Jones went into a restaurant and ordered a whole pizza for his dinner. When the waiter asked if he wanted it cut into 6 or 8 pieces, Mr. Jones said, “Oh, you’d better make it 6, I could never eat 8 pieces!” (McGhee, 1976)

Piaget believed that during the concrete operational stage, children become able to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation. When my daughter, Laura, was 6, I was astonished at her inability to reverse simple arithmetic. Asked, “What is 8 plus 4?” she required 5 seconds to compute “12,” and another 5 seconds to then compute 12 minus 4. By age 8, she could answer a reversed question instantly.

Formal Operational Stage

By about age 12, our reasoning expands from the purely concrete (involving actual experience) to encompass abstract thinking (involving imagined realities and symbols). As children approach adolescence, said Piaget, many become capable of thinking more like scientists. They can ponder hypothetical propositions and deduce consequences: If this, then that. Systematic reasoning, what Piaget called formal operational thinking, is now within their grasp.

formal operational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.

Although full-blown logic and reasoning await adolescence, the rudiments of formal operational thinking begin earlier than Piaget realized. Consider this simple problem:

If John is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?

Formal operational thinkers have no trouble answering correctly. But neither do most 7-year-olds (Suppes, 1982).

An Alternative Viewpoint: Lev Vygotsky and the Social Child

As Piaget was forming his theory of cognitive development, Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) was also studying how children think and learn. He noted that by age 7, they increasingly think in words and use words to solve problems. They do this, he said, by internalizing their culture’s language and relying on inner speech (Fernyhough, 2008). Parents who say “No, no!”when pulling a child’s hand away from a cake are giving the child a self-control tool. When the child later needs to resist temptation, he may likewise say “No, no!” Second-graders who muttered to themselves while doing math problems grasped third-grade math better the following year (Berk, 1994). Whether out loud or inaudibly, talking to themselves helps children control their behavior and emotions and master new skills.

Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934)

Where Piaget emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the physical environment, Vygotsky emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the socialenvironment. If Piaget’s child was a young scientist, Vygotsky’s was a young apprentice. By mentoring children and giving them new words, parents and others provide a temporary scaffoldfrom which children can step to higher levels of thinking (Renninger & Granott, 2005). Language, an important ingredient of social mentoring, provides the building blocks for thinking, noted Vygotsky (who was born the same year as Piaget, but died prematurely of tuberculosis).

Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory

What remains of Piaget’s ideas about the child’s mind? Plenty—enough to merit his being singled out by Time magazine as one of the twentieth century’s 20 most influential scientists and thinkers and rated in a survey of British psychologists as the last century’s greatest psychologist (Psychologist, 2003). Piaget identified significant cognitive milestones and stimulated worldwide interest in how the mind develops. His emphasis was less on the ages at which children typically reach specific milestones than on their sequence. Studies around the globe, from aboriginal Australia to Algeria to North America, have confirmed that human cognition unfolds basically in the sequence Piaget described (Lourenco & Machado, 1996; Segall et al., 1990).

However, today’s researchers see development as more continuous than did Piaget. By detecting the beginnings of each type of thinking at earlier ages, they have revealed conceptual abilities Piaget missed. Moreover, they view formal logic as a smaller part of cognition than he did. Piaget would not be surprised that today, as part of our own cognitive development, we are adapting his ideas to accommodate new findings.

“Assessing the impact of Piaget on developmental psychology is like assessing the impact of Shakespeare on English literature.”

Developmental psychologist Harry Beilin (1992)

CLOSE UP: Autism Spectrum Disorder and “Mind-Blindness”

Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a disorder marked by social deficiencies, have been increasing. Once believed to affect 1 in 2500 children, ASD now affects 1 in 110 American children and about 1 in 100 in Britain (CDC, 2009; Lilienfeld & Arkowitz, 2007; NAS, 2011). The increase in ASD diagnoses has been offset by a decrease in the number of children considered “cognitively disabled” or “learning disabled,” which suggests a relabeling of children’s disorders (Gernsbacher et al., 2005; Grinker, 2007; Shattuck, 2006). A massive $6.7 billion National Children’s Study now under way aims to enroll 100,000 pregnant women in 105 countries and to follow their babies until they turn 21. Researchers hope this study will help explain the rising rates of ASD, as well as premature births, childhood obesity, and asthma (Belluck, 2010; Murphy, 2008).

autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind.

The underlying source of ASD’s symptoms seems to be poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to let us take another’s viewpoint. This effect appears to result from ASD-related genes interacting with the environment (State  Šestan, 2012). People with ASD are therefore said to have an impaired theory of mind (Rajendran & Mitchell, 2007; Senju et al., 2009). They have difficulty inferring others’ thoughts and feelings. They do not appreciate that playmates and parents might view things differently. Mind reading that most of us find intuitive (Is that face conveying a smirk or a sneer?) is difficult for those with ASD. Most children learn that another child’s pouting mouth signals sadness, and that twinkling eyes mean happiness or mischief. A child with ASD fails to understand these signals (Frith & Frith, 2001). In hopes of a cure, desperate parents have sometimes subjected children to ineffective therapies (Shute, 2010).

Autism spectrum disorder

This speech-language pathologist is helping a boy with ASD learn to form sounds and words. ASD is marked by deficient social communication and difficulty grasping others’ states of mind.

Ozier Muhammad/The New York Times/Redux

ASD (formerly referred to as “autism”) has differing levels of severity. “High- functioning” individuals have normal intelligence, and they often have an exceptional skill or talent in a specific area. But they lack social and communication skills, and they tend to become distracted by minor and unimportant stimuli (Remington et al., 2009). Those at the spectrum’s lower end are unable to use language at all.

ASD afflicts four boys for every girl. Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen believes this hints at one way to understand this disorder. He has argued that ASD represents an “extreme male brain” (2008, 2009). Although there is some overlap between the sexes, he believes that boys are better “systemizers.” They tend to understand things according to rules or laws, for example, as in mathematical and mechanical systems. Children exposed to high levels of the male sex hormone testosterone in the womb may develop more masculine and autistic traits (Auyeung et al, 2009).

In contrast, girls are naturally predisposed to be “empathizers,” Baron-Cohen contends. They are better at reading facial expressions and gestures, though less so if given testosterone (van Honk et al, 2011).

Biological factors, including genetic influences and abnormal brain development, contribute to ASD (State  Šestan, 2012). Childhood MMR vaccinations do not (Demicheli et al., 2012). Based on a fraudulent 1998 study—the most damaging medical hoax of the last 100 years” (Flaherty, 2011)—some parents were misled into thinking that the childhood MMR vaccine increased risk of ASD. The unfortunate result was a drop in vaccination rates and an increase in cases of measles and mumps. Some unvaccinated children suffered long-term harm or even death.

Twin and sibling studies provide some evidence for biology’s influence. If one identical twin is diagnosed with ASD, the chances are 50 to 70 percent that the co-twin will also receive this diagnosis (Lichtenstein et al., 2010; Sebat et al., 2007). A younger sibling of a child with ASD also is at a heightened risk (Sutcliffe, 2008). Random genetic mutations in sperm-producing cells may also play a role. As men age, these mutations become more frequent, which may help explain why an over-40 man has a much higher risk of fathering a child with ASD than does a man under 30 (Reichenberg et al., 2007). Researchers are now sleuthing ASD’s telltale signs in the brain’s synaptic and gray matter (Crawley, 2007; Ecker et al., 2010; Garber, 2007).

“Autism” case number 1

In 1943, Donald Gray Triplett, an “odd” child with unusual gifts and social deficits, was the first person to receive the diagnosis of a previously unreported condition, which psychiatrist Leo Kanner termed “autism.” (After a 2013 change in the diagnosis manual, his condition is now called autism spectrum disorder.) In 2010, at age 77, Triplett was still living in his native home and Mississippi town, where he often played golf (Donvan & Zucker, 2010).

Biology’s role in ASD also appears in brain-function studies. People without ASD often yawn after seeing others yawn. And as they view and imitate another’s smiling or frowning, they feel something of what the other is feeling. Not so among those with ASD, who are less imitative and show much less activity in brain areas involved in mirroring others’ actions (Dapretto et al., 2006; Perra et al., 2008; Senju et al., 2007). When people with ASD watch another person’s hand movements, for example, their brain displays less-than-normal mirroring activity (Oberman & Ramachandran, 2007; Théoret et al., 2005). Scientists are continuing to explore and vigorously debate the idea that the brains of people with ASD have “broken mirrors” (Gallese et al., 2011).

Seeking to “systemize empathy,” Baron-Cohen and his Cambridge University colleagues (2007; Golan et al., 2010) collaborated with Britain’s National Autistic Society and a film production company. Knowing that television shows with vehicles have been popular among kids with ASD, they created animations with toy vehicle characters in a pretend boy’s bedroom, grafting emotion-conveying faces onto toy trams, trains, and tractors. After the boy leaves for school, the characters come to life and have experiences that lead them to display various emotions ( www.thetransporters.com ). The children were surprisingly able to generalize what they had learned to a new, real context. By the intervention’s end, their previously deficient ability to recognize emotions on real faces equaled that of children without ASD.

Implications for Parents and Teachers

Future parents and teachers, remember this: Young children are incapable of adult logic. Preschoolers who block one’s view of the TV simply have not learned to take another’s viewpoint. What seems simple and obvious to us—getting off a teeter-totter will cause a friend on the other end to crash—may be incomprehensible to a 3-year-old. Also remember that children are not passive receptacles waiting to be filled with knowledge. Better to build on what they already know, engaging them in concrete demonstrations and stimulating them to think for themselves. Finally, accept children’s cognitive immaturity as adaptive. It is nature’s strategy for keeping children close to protective adults and providing time for learning and socialization (Bjorklund & Green, 1992).

“Childhood has its own way of seeing, thinking, and feeling, and there is nothing more foolish than the attempt to put ours in its place.”

Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1798

Social Development

4-6: How do parent-infant attachment bonds form?

From birth, babies are social creatures, developing an intense bond with their caregivers. Infants come to prefer familiar faces and voices, then to coo and gurgle when given a parent’s attention. After about 8 months, soon after object permanence emerges and children become mobile, a curious thing happens: They develop stranger anxiety. They may greet strangers by crying and reaching for familiar caregivers. “No! Don’t leave me!” their distress seems to say. Children this age have schemas for familiar faces; when they cannot assimilate the new face into these remembered schemas, they become distressed (Kagan, 1984). Once again, we see an important principle: The brain, mind, and social-emotional behavior develop together.

stranger anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.

Origins of Attachment

One-year-olds typically cling tightly to a parent when they are frightened or expect separation. Reunited after being apart, they shower the parent with smiles and hugs. No social behavior is more striking than the intense and mutual infant-parent bond. This attachment bond is a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers. Infants become attached to those—typically their parents—who are comfortable and familiar. For many years, psychologists reasoned that infants became attached to those who satisfied their need for nourishment. It made sense. But an accidental finding overturned this explanation.

attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

Stranger anxiety

Body Contact

During the 1950s, University of Wisconsin psychologists Harry Harlow and Margaret Harlow bred monkeys for their learning studies. To equalize experiences and to isolate any disease, they separated the infant monkeys from their mothers shortly after birth and raised them in sanitary individual cages, which included a cheese-cloth baby blanket (Harlow et al., 1971). Then came a surprise: When their blankets were taken to be laundered, the monkeys became distressed.

The Harlows recognized that this intense attachment to the blanket contradicted the idea that attachment derives from an association with nourishment. But how could they show this more convincingly? To pit the drawing power of a food source against the contact comfort of the blanket, they created two artificial mothers. One was a bare wire cylinder with a wooden head and an attached feeding bottle, the other a cylinder wrapped with terry cloth.

When raised with both, the monkeys overwhelmingly preferred the comfy cloth mother. Like other infants clinging to their live mothers, the monkey babies would cling to their cloth mothers when anxious. When exploring their environment, they used her as a secure base, as if attached to her by an invisible elastic band that stretched only so far before pulling them back. Researchers soon learned that other qualities—rocking, warmth, and feeding—made the cloth mother even more appealing.

Human infants, too, become attached to parents who are soft and warm and who rock, feed, and pat. Much parent-infant emotional communication occurs via touch (Hertenstein et al., 2006), which can be either soothing (snuggles) or arousing (tickles). Human attachment also consists of one person providing another with a secure base from which to explore and a safe haven when distressed. As we mature, our secure base and safe haven shift—from parents to peers and partners (Cassidy & Shaver, 1999). But at all ages we are social creatures. We gain strength when someone offers, by words and actions, a safe haven: “I will be here. I am interested in you. Come what may, I will support you” (Crowell & Waters, 1994).

Familiarity

Contact is one key to attachment. Another is familiarity. In many animals, attachments based on familiarity form during a critical period—an optimal period when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development (Bornstein, 1989). As noted earlier, humans seem to have a critical period for language. Goslings, ducklings, and chicks have a critical period for attachment, called imprinting, which falls in the hours shortly after hatching, when the first moving object they see is normally their mother. From then on, the young fowl follow her, and her alone.

imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

Konrad Lorenz (1937) explored this rigid attachment process. He wondered: What would ducklings do if he was the first moving creature they observed? What they did was follow him around: Everywhere that Konrad went, the ducks were sure to go. Although baby birds imprint best to their own species, they also will imprint on a variety of moving objects—an animal of another species, a box on wheels, a bouncing ball (Colombo, 1982; Johnson, 1992). Once formed, this attachment is difficult to reverse.

Children—unlike ducklings—do not imprint. However, they do become attached to what they’ve known. Mere exposure to people and things fosters fondness. Children like to reread the same books, rewatch the same movies, and reenact family traditions. They prefer to eat familiar foods, live in the same familiar neighborhood, and attend school with the same old friends. Familiarity is a safety signal. Familiarity breeds content.

Attachment Differences

4-7: How have psychologists studied attachment differences, and what have they learned?

What accounts for children’s attachment differences? To answer this question, Mary Ainsworth (1979) designed the strange situation experiment. She observed mother-infant pairs at home during their first six months. Later she observed the 1-year-old infants in a strange situation (usually a laboratory playroom). Such research has shown that about 60 percent of infants display secure attachment. In their mother’s presence they play comfortably, happily exploring their new environment. When she leaves, they become distressed; when she returns, they seek contact with her.

Other infants avoid attachment or show insecure attachment, marked either by anxiety or avoidance of trusting relationships. They are less likely to explore their surroundings; they may even cling to their mother. When she leaves, they either cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent to her departure and return (Ainsworth, 1973, 1989; Kagan, 1995; van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg, 1988).

Ainsworth and others found that sensitive, responsive mothers—those who noticed what their babies were doing and responded appropriately—had infants who exhibited secure attachment (De Wolff & van IJzendoorn, 1997). Insensitive, unresponsive mothers—mothers who attended to their babies when they felt like doing so but ignored them at other times—often had infants who were insecurely attached. The Harlows’ monkey studies, with unresponsive artificial mothers, produced even more striking effects. When put in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the deprived infants were terrified.

But is attachment style the result of parenting? Or are other factors also at work?

Temperament and Attachment

How does temperament—a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity—affect attachment style? Temperament is genetically influenced. Shortly after birth, some babies are noticeably difficult—irritable, intense, and unpredictable. Others are easy—cheerful, relaxed, and feeding and sleeping on predictable schedules (Chess & Thomas, 1987).

temperament a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

The genetic effect appears in physiological differences. Anxious, inhibited infants have high and variable heart rates and a reactive nervous system. When facing new or strange situations, they become more physiologically aroused (Kagan & Snidman, 2004). One form of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter serotonin predisposes a fearful temperament and, in combination with unsupportive caregiving, an inhibited child (Fox et al., 2007).

Temperament differences typically persist. Consider:

·  The most emotionally reactive newborns have tended also to be the most reactive 9-month-olds (Wilson & Matheny, 1986; Worobey & Blajda, 1989).

·  Exceptionally inhibited and fearful 2-year-olds often were still relatively shy as 8-year-olds; about half became introverted adolescents (Kagan et al., 1992, 1994).

·  The most emotionally intense preschoolers have tended to be relatively intense young adults (Larsen & Diener, 1987). In one long-term study of more than 900 New Zealanders, emotionally reactive and impulsive 3-year-olds developed into somewhat more impulsive, aggressive, and conflict-prone 21-year-olds (Caspi, 2000).

Such evidence supports the conclusion that our biologically rooted temperament helps form our enduring personality (McCrae et al., 2000, 2007; Rothbart et al., 2000).

Parenting studies that neglect such inborn differences, noted Judith Harris (1998), do the equivalent of “comparing foxhounds reared in kennels with poodles reared in apartments.” To separate the effects of nature and nurture on attachment, we would need to vary parenting while controlling temperament. (Pause and think: If you were the researcher, how might you have done this?)

Full-time dad

Dutch researcher Dymphna van den Boom’s solution was to randomly assign 100 temperamentally difficult 6- to 9-month-olds to either an experimental group, in which mothers received personal training in sensitive responding, or to a control group, in which they did not. At 12 months of age, 68 percent of the experimental group infants were rated securely attached, as were only 28 percent of the control group infants. Other studies have confirmed that intervention programs can increase parental sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, infant attachment security (Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., 2003; Van Zeijl et al., 2006).

As many of these examples indicate, researchers have more often studied mother care than father care, but fathers are more than just mobile sperm banks. Despite the widespread attitude that “fathering a child” means impregnating, and “mothering” means nurturing, nearly 100 studies worldwide have shown that a father’s love and acceptance are comparable to a mother’s love in predicting an offspring’s health and well-being (Rohner & Veneziano, 2001). In one mammoth British study following 7259 children from birth to adulthood, those whose fathers were most involved in parenting (through outings, reading to them, and taking an interest in their education) tended to achieve more in school, even after controlling for other factors such as parental education and family wealth (Flouri & Buchanan, 2004). Fathers matter.

Children’s anxiety over separation from parents peaks at around 13 months, then gradually declines. This happens whether they live with one parent or two, are cared for at home or in a day-care center, live in North America, Guatemala, or the Kalahari Desert. Does this mean our need for and love of others also fades away? Hardly. Our capacity for love grows, and our pleasure in touching and holding those we love never ceases. The power of early attachment does nonetheless gradually relax, allowing us to move into a wider range of situations, communicate with strangers more freely, and stay emotionally attached to loved ones despite distance.

“Out of the conflict between trust and mistrust, the infant develops hope, which is the earliest form of what gradually becomes faith in adults.”

Erik Erikson (1983)

Attachment Styles and Later Relationships

Developmental theorist Erik Erikson (1902–1994), working with his wife, Joan Erikson, believed that securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust—a sense that the world is predictable and reliable. He attributed basic trust not to environment or inborn temperament, but to early parenting. He theorized that infants blessed with sensitive, loving caregivers form a lifelong attitude of trust rather than fear.

basic trust according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.

Although debate continues, many researchers now believe that our early attachments form the foundation for our adult relationships (Birnbaum et al., 2006; Fraley, 2002). Our adult styles of romantic love tend to exhibit secure, trusting attachment; insecure-anxious attachment; or insecure-avoidant attachment (Feeney & Noller, 1990; Rholes & Simpson, 2004; Shaver & Mikulincer, 2007). Feeling insecurely attached to others during childhood, for example, may take two main forms in adulthood (Fraley et al., 2011). One is anxiety, in which people constantly crave acceptance but remain vigilant to signs of possible rejection. The other is avoidance, in which people experience discomfort getting close to others and use avoidant strategies to maintain distance from others.

Adult attachment styles can also affect relationships with one’s own children. Avoidant people’s discomfort with closeness makes parenting more stressful and unsatisfying (Rholes et al., 2006). But say this for those (nearly half of all humans) who exhibit insecure attachments: Anxious or avoidant tendencies have helped our groups detect or escape dangers (Ein-Dor et al., 2010).

Deprivation of Attachment

4-8: How does childhood neglect or abuse affect children’s attachments?

If secure attachment fosters social trust, what happens when circumstances prevent a child’s forming attachments? In all of psychology, there is no sadder research literature. Babies locked away at home under conditions of abuse or extreme neglect are often withdrawn, frightened, even speechless. The same is true of those reared in institutions without the stimulation and attention of a regular caregiver, as was tragically illustrated during the 1970s and 1980s in Romania. Having decided that economic growth for his impoverished country required more human capital, Nicolae Ceauşescu, Romania’s Communist dictator, outlawed contraception, forbade abortion, and taxed families with fewer than five children. The birthrate indeed skyrocketed. But unable to afford the children they had been coerced into having, many families abandoned them to government-run orphanages with untrained and overworked staff. Child-to-caregiver ratios often were 15 to 1, so the children were deprived of healthy attachments with at least one adult. When tested after Ceauşescu was assassinated in 1989, these children had lower intelligence scores and double the 20 percent rate of anxiety symptoms found in children assigned to quality foster care settings (Nelson et al., 2009). Dozens of other studies across 19 countries have confirmed that orphaned children tend to fare better on later intelligence tests if raised in family homes. This is especially so for those placed at an early age (van IJzendoorn et al., 2008).

“What is learned in the cradle lasts to the grave.”

French proverb

Most children growing up under adversity (as did the surviving children of the Holocaust) are resilient; they become normal adults (Helmreich, 1992; Masten, 2001). So do most victims of childhood sexual abuse, notes Harvard researcher Susan Clancy (2010), while emphasizing that using children for sex is revolting and never the victim’s fault.

But others, especially those who experience no sharp break from their abusive past, don’t bounce back so readily. The Harlows’ monkeys raised in total isolation, without even an artificial mother, bore lifelong scars. As adults, when placed with other monkeys their age, they either cowered in fright or lashed out in aggression. When they reached sexual maturity, most were incapable of mating. If artificially impregnated, females often were neglectful, abusive, even murderous toward their first-born. Another primate experiment confirmed the abuse-breeds-abuse phenomenon in rhesus monkeys: 9 of 16 females who had been abused by their mothers became abusive parents, as did no female raised by a nonabusive mother (Maestripieri, 2005).

The deprivation of attachment

In humans, too, the unloved may become the unloving. Most abusive parents—and many condemned murderers—have reported being neglected or battered as children (Kempe & Kempe, 1978; Lewis et al., 1988). Some 30 percent of people who have been abused later abuse their children—a rate lower than that found in the primate study, but four times the U.S. national rate of child abuse (Dumont et al., 2007; Kaufman & Zigler, 1987).

Although most abused children do not later become violent criminals or abusive parents, extreme early trauma may nevertheless leave footprints on the brain. Abused children exhibit hypersensitivity to angry faces (Pollak, 2008). As adults, they exhibit stronger startle responses (Jovanovic et al., 2009). If repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, normally placid golden hamsters grow up to be cowards when caged with same-sized hamsters, or bullies when caged with weaker ones (Ferris, 1996). Such animals show changes in the brain chemical serotonin, which calms aggressive impulses. A similarly sluggish serotonin response has been found in abused children who become aggressive teens and adults. “Stress can set off a ripple of hormonal changes that permanently wire a child’s brain to cope with a malevolent world,” concluded abuse researcher Martin Teicher (2002).

Such findings help explain why young children who have survived severe or prolonged physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, or wartime atrocities are at increased risk for health problems, psychological disorders, substance abuse, and criminality (Freyd et al., 2005; Kendall-Tackett et al., 1993, 2004; Wegman & Stetler, 2009). Abuse victims are at considerable risk for depression if they carry a gene variation that spurs stress-hormone production (Bradley et al., 2008). As we will see again and again, behavior and emotion arise from a particular environment interacting with particular genes.

We adults also suffer when our attachment bonds are severed. Whether through death or separation, a break produces a predictable sequence. Agitated preoccupation with the lost partner is followed by deep sadness and, eventually, the beginnings of emotional detachment and a return to normal living (Hazan & Shaver, 1994). Newly separated couples who have long ago ceased feeling affection are sometimes surprised at their desire to be near the former partner. Deep and longstanding attachments seldom break quickly. Detaching is a process, not an event.

Day Care

4-9: How does day care affect children?

Developmental psychologists’ research has uncovered no major impact of maternal employment on children’s development, attachments, and achievements (Friedman & Boyle, 2008; Goldberg et al., 2008; Lucas-Thompson et al., 2010).

Contemporary research now focuses on the effects of differing quality of day care on different types and ages of children (Vandell et al., 2010). Sandra Scarr (1997) explained: Around the world, “high-quality child care consists of warm, supportive interactions with adults in a safe, healthy, and stimulating environment.…Poor care is boring and unresponsive to children’s needs.” Even well-run orphanages can produce healthy, thriving children. In Africa and Asia, where more and more children are losing parents to AIDS and other diseases, orphanages typically are unlike those in Ceauşescu’s Romania, and the children living in quality orphanages fare about as well as those living in communities (Whetten et al., 2009).

Children thrive under varied types of responsive caregiving. Westernized attachment features one or two caregivers and their offspring, but multiple caregivers are the norm in other cultures, such as the Efe of Zaire (Field, 1996; Whaley et al., 2002). Even before an Efe mother holds her newborn, the baby is passed among several women. In the weeks to come, the infant will be constantly held (and fed) by other women and will form strong multiple attachments.

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cell structure and function answer key

This contains 100% correct material for UMUC Biology 103 LAB03. However, this is an Answer Key, which means, you should put it in your own words. Here is a sample for the Pre lab questions answered:

Pre-Lab Questions

1. Identify the major similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (2 pts)

Prokaryotes tend to be less complex than eukaryotic cells, with fewer organelles and (generally) fewer requirements for survival. Eukaryotes have a nucleus, while prokaryotes do not. Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have DNA, a cell membrane, and cytoplasm.

2. Where is the DNA housed in a prokaryotic cell? Where is it housed in a eukaryotic cell? (2 pts)

DNA is housed in the nucleus in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, and thus DNA exists freely in the cytoplasm.

3. Identify three structures which provide support and protection in a eukaryotic cell. (2 pts)

The cell membrane, the cytoplasm, and the cytoskeleton (microtubules, microfilaments, etc.).

The rest of the questions are answered as well:


Experiment 1: Cell Structure and Function

Post-Lab Questions

1.    Label each of the arrows in the following slide image:

2.    What is the difference between the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

3.    Would an animal cell be able to survive without a mitochondria? Why or why not?

4.    What could you determine about a specimen if you observed a slide image showing the specimen with a cell wall, but no nucleus or mitochondria?

5.    Hypothesize why parts of a plant, such as the leaves, are green, but other parts, such as the roots, are not. Use scientific reasoning to support your hypothesis.

Experiment 2: Osmosis – Direction and Concentration Gradients

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

Table 3: Sucrose Concentration vs. Tubing Permeability

Band ColorSucrose %Initial Volume (mL)Final Volume (mL)Net Displacement (mL)
Yellow    
Red    
Blue    
Green    

Hypothesis:

Post-Lab Questions

1.    For each of the tubing pieces, identify whether the solution inside was hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic in comparison to the beaker solution in which it was placed.

2.    Which tubing increased the most in volume? Explain why this happened.

3.    What do the results of this experiment this tell you about the relative tonicity between the contents of the tubing and the solution in the beaker?

4.    What would happen if the tubing with the yellow band was placed in a beaker of distilled water?

5.    How are excess salts that accumulate in cells transferred to the blood stream so they can be removed from the body? Be sure to explain how this process works in terms of tonicity.

6.    If you wanted water to flow out of a tubing piece filled with a 50% solution, what would the minimum concentration of the beaker solution need to be? Explain your answer using scientific evidence.

7.    How is this experiment similar to the way a cell membrane works in the body? How is it different? Be specific with your response.

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commercial research firms like nielsen and j. d. power and associates are sources of

marketing research

10

Chapter

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

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Chapter 10 – Marketing Research

Learning Objectives

LO 10-1 Identify the five steps in the marketing research process.

LO 10-2 Describe the various secondary data sources.

LO 10-3 Describe the various primary data collection techniques.

LO 10-4 Summarize the differences between secondary data and primary data.

LO 10-5 Examine the circumstances in which collecting information on consumers is ethical.

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These questions are the learning objectives guiding the chapter and will be explored in more detail in the following slides.

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Disney

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Ask students: How did Disney conduct research and what did they learn? Students should realize that exploratory research was very important.

How should Disney deal with the backlash among privacy experts and some consumers?

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Marketing Research

DATA

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Consists of a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recoding, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas

The marketing research function links firms and organizations to their customers through data.

By collecting data from customers, firms can better deliver products and services designed to meet their needs

Collecting

Recording

Analyzing

Interpreting

Decision Making

The Marketing Research Process

Defining the objectives and research needs

Designing the research

Collecting the data

Analyzing data and developing insights

Developing and implementing an action plan

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Answers to some research questions are readily accessible, as a simple data search would show.

Step 1: Defining Objectives and Research Needs

What information is needed to answer specific research questions?

How should that information be obtained?

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To determine whether to conduct research, two questions must be addressed: What? How?

Step 2: Designing the Research

Type of data

Type of research

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In this step, researchers identify the type of data needed and determine the type of research necessary to collect it.

Step 3: Collecting the Data

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After answering why and how, researchers must determine where they can find the data. Discuss how the types of data required determine the methods used to collect them. If you can connect to your college library, look at some of the data sources at your own school. Dabases like mintel, tablebase, ABI inform, and Business Source Premier are excellent sources of data.

Group activity: As a group, tackle a problem for a company (e.g., local retailer who appears to be losing customers). For this problem, list several research questions that secondary data can answer. Then list several questions that require primary data.

Step 4: Analyzing Data and Developing Insights

Converting data into information to explain, predict, and/or evaluate a particular situation.

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The problem today is not too little data but, in many instances, too much. Firms are drowning in data, and their challenge is to convert that data into information.

For example, consider data from a cookie taste test. Suppose the average mean for the group who saw the national brand cookie was 5.4 (1=poor taste and 7=great taste) and the store brand cookie was 2.3. These two means are significantly different. It would be important for the students to realize that the data helps marketing managers make decisions—in this case—creating and cultivating that the brand is important.

Step 5: Developing and Implementing an Action Plan

Executive Summary

Body

Conclusions

Limitations

Supplements including tables, figures, appendices

Digital Vision/Getty Images

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A typical marketing research report would start with a two page executive summary.

This would highlight the objectives of the study, methodology, and key insights.

The body of the report would go through the objectives of the study, issues examined, methodology, analysis and results, insights, and managerial implications.

We would end with conclusions and any limitations or caveats.

Many consultants today provide an executive summary, PowerPoint presentation of the report, questionnaire, and tabulated study results

What are the steps in the marketing research process?

What is the difference between data and information?

check yourself-1

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Define objectives and research needs, designing the research project, deciding on the data collection process and collecting the data, analyze and interpret the data, prepare the findings for presentation.

Data can be defined as raw numbers or other factual information that, on their own, have limited value to marketers. However, when the data are interpreted, they become information.

External Secondary Data Syndicated Data

NameServices Provided
Nielsen (http://www.nielsen.com)With its Market Measurement Services, the company tracks the sales of consumer packaged goods, gathered at the point of sale in retail stores of all types and sizes.
IRI (http://www.iriworldwide.com)InfoScan store tracking provides detailed information about sales, share, distribution, pricing, and promotion across a wide variety of retail channels and accounts.
JD. Power and Associates (http://www.jdpower.com)Widely known for its automotive ratings, it produces quality and customer satisfaction research for a variety of industries.
Mediamark Research Inc. (http://www.mediamark.com)Supplies multimedia audience research pertaining to media and marketing planning for advertised brands.
National Purchase Diary Panel (http://www.npd.com)Based on detailed records consumers keep about their purchases (i.e., a diary), it provides information about product movement and consumer behavior in a variety of industries.
NOP World (http://www.nopworld.com)The mKids US research study tracks mobile telephone ownership and usage, brand affinities, and entertainment habits of American youth between 12 and 19 years of age.
Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com)Promotes itself as a one-stop shop for market research and data from most leading publishers, consultants, and analysts.
Roper Center for Public Opinion Research (http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu)The General Social Survey is one of the nation’s longest running surveys of social, cultural, and political indicators.
Simmons Market Research Bureau (http://www.smrb.com)Reports on the products American consumers buy, the brands they prefer, and their lifestyles, attitudes, and media preferences.
Yankelovich (http://www.yankelovich.com)The MONITOR tracks consumer attitudes, values, and lifestyles shaping the American marketplace.

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Secondary data are plentiful and free, whereas syndicated data generally are more detailed but can be very costly.

Ask students: Why might firms subscribe to a data service and collect their own primary and secondary data at the same time?

External Secondary Data Scanner Research

IRI

Courtesy The Nielsen Co

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Students may not remember a time before grocery stores used scanners, but highlight how the installation of scanners created a huge new data source for marketers.

Ask students: What can researchers take from scanner data?

Students might note that researchers can discover which consumers purchase what products together and how often.

They also can immediately track the impact of any price or promotional adjustments.

This web link brings you to IRI homepage—explore their many products with the students.

External Secondary Data Panel Research

Group of consumers

Survey or sales receipts

What are they buying

or not buying?

©BananaStock/PunchStock

Flying Colours Ltd/Getty Images

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In recent years, response rates to marketing research surveys have declined, which has increased usage of research panels.

Internal Secondary Data

Data Warehouse

Data Mining

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Every day, consumers provide wide-ranging data that get stored in increasingly large databases.

Ask students: How might firms and organizations collect information about you? Do you always know when you are providing such data? Who uses these data?

In the United States, firms use opt-out programs, so when consumers fill out a registration form or application, the firm automatically has permission to market to that customer and share information with its partners, unless consumers explicitly revoke this permission.

In contrast, the EU regulations state that customers must opt-in to such information uses.

What is the difference between internal and external secondary research?

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Secondary data might come from free or very inexpensive external sources, such as census data, information from trade associations, and reports published in magazines. Secondary sources can also be accessed through internal sources, including the company’s sales invoices, customer lists, and other reports generated by the company itself.

Qualitative versus Quantitative Data Collection Techniques

Jump to Appendix 1 long image description

Qualitative research

Data

collection

research

Quantitative research

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Managers commonly use several exploratory research methods: observation, in-depth interviewing, focus group interviews, and projective techniques.

If the firm is ready to move beyond preliminary insights, it likely is ready to engage in conclusive research, which provides the information needed to confirm those insights and which managers can use to pursue appropriate courses of action.

Observation

In-Depth interviews

Focus groups

Social media

Experiments

Scanner

Survey

Panel

Data Collection

Qualitative Research

Observation

Social Media

In-depth interview

Focus group

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Example of observation: When a museum wanted to know which exhibits people visited most often, it conducted a unique study to determine the wear patterns in the floor. This “human trace” evidence allowed the museum to study flow patterns.

Interviews provide extremely valuable information, because researchers can probe respondents to elicit more information about interesting topics. Focus groups similarly provide a snapshot of customers’ opinions and allow some follow-up but also are relatively fast and inexpensive to conduct.

Video: “The Brave New World of Shopper-Tracking Technology”

Ask students: What are the advantages to a company in tracking a customer’s behavior inside a store?

Ask students: What are the advantages to a company of combining a customer’s in-store behavior with their online shopping behavior?

WSJ: http://live.wsj.com/video/the-brave-new-world-of-shopper-tracking-technology/7503B9D6-2F0D-40B8-9684-E293BA3E9207.html#!7503B9D6-2F0D-40B8-9684-E293BA3E9207

What are the types of qualitative research?

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Observation, In-Depth Interviews, Focus Groups, and Social Media.

Survey Research

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Marketing research relies heavily on questionnaires, and questionnaire design is virtually an art form.

Ask students: What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of question (unstructured and structured)?

Group activity: Create a questionnaire. First determine the form of the questions (i.e., structured versus unstructured).

On the basis of these questions, what types of analysis will you be able to perform on your collected data?

Web Surveying

Response rates are relatively high

Respondents may lie less

It is inexpensive

Results are processed and received quickly

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Ask students: Do you fill out Internet surveys? If so, were you honest in your responses.

Ask students whether they took their time with the survey and gave quality responses.

Using Web Surveying

How do firms successfully use web surveying?

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc/John Flournoy, photographer

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The Internet offers researchers a new way to reach customers, but its use requires adaptations and new research methods.

Experimental Research

AP Photo/Mary Altaffer

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Using an experiment, McDonald’s would “test” the price of a new menu item to determine which is the most profitable.

An example of an experiment could involve two groups of subjects. One tastes cookies with a national brand and the other with a store brand. Each group rates the cookie on a seven point scale from poor to great taste. The group with the branded name tends to rate the cookie as better tasting, demonstrating the power of a brand name.

Group Activity: Ask students to design a taste test experiment for Coke vs. Pepsi.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary and Primary Data

TypeExamplesAdvantagesDisadvantages
Secondary Research
Primary Research

Census data

Sales invoices

Internet information

Books

Journal articles

Syndicated data

Saves time in collecting data because they are readily available

Free or inexpensive (except for syndicated data)

May not be precisely relevant to information needs

Information may not be timely

Sources may not be original, and therefore usefulness is an issue

Methodologies for collecting data may not be appropriate

Data sources may be biased

Observed consumer behavior

Focus group interviews

Surveys

Experiments

Specific to the immediate

data needs and topic at hand

Offers behavioral insights generally not available from secondary research

Costly = Time consuming

Requires more sophisticated training and experience to design study and collect data

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

24

A summary of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of research.

What are the types of quantitative research?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of primary and secondary research?

check yourself-4

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

Experiments, Survey, Scanner, and Panel

See Exhibit 10.9

The Ethics of Using Customer Information

Strong ethical orientation

Adhere to ethical practices

© McGraw-Hill Education

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A strong ethical orientation must be an integral part of a firm’s marketing strategy and decision making.

It is extremely important for marketers to adhere to ethical practices when conducting marketing research.

26

Under what circumstances is it ethical to use consumer information in marketing research?

What challenges do technological advances pose for the ethics of marketing research?

check yourself-5

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

Many customers demand increasing control over the information that has been collected about them. Companies must disclose their privacy practices to customers before using information.

As technology continues to advance though, the potential threats to consumers’ personal information grow in number and intensity.

Glossary-1

Data are raw numbers or other factual information that, on their own, have limited value to marketers.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education

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Data are raw numbers or other factual information that, on their own, have limited value to marketers.

28

Glossary-2

Experimental research is a type of quantitative research that systematically manipulates one or more variables to determine which variables have a causal effect on another variable.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

Experimental research is a type of quantitative research that systematically manipulates one or more variables to determine which variables have a causal effect on another variable.

29

Glossary-3

Marketing research consists of a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recording, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

Marketing research consists of a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recording, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas.

30

Glossary-4

Panel research is a type of quantitative research that involves collecting information from a group of consumers (the panel) over time.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

Panel research is a type of quantitative research that involves collecting information from a group of consumers (the panel) over time.

31

Glossary-5

Scanner research is a type of quantitative research that uses data obtained from scanner readings of UPC codes at check-out counters.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

Scanner research is a type of quantitative research that uses data obtained from scanner readings of UPC codes at check-out counters.

32

Glossary-6

A survey is a systematic means of collecting information from people that generally uses a questionnaire.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

A survey is a systematic means of collecting information from people that generally uses a questionnaire.

33

Glossary-7

Syndicated data are data available for a fee from commercial research firms such as Information Resources Inc. (IRI), National Purchase Diary Panel, and ACNielsen.

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

Syndicated data are data available for a fee from commercial research firms such as Information Resources Inc. (IRI), National Purchase Diary Panel, and ACNielsen.

34

Appendix 1 Qualitative versus Quantitative Data Collection Techniques

Data collection research consists of qualitative research (observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups and social media) and quantitative research (experiments, survey, scanner, and panel).

Return to slide

© McGraw-Hill Education

‹#›

Categories
someone to write my essay what should i write my college essay about write my essay

to start a new line in a cell, press the ____ keys.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

1

Chapter 10: Patterns of Inheritance, Mendel Laws

Multiple-Choice Questions

2) Which of the following statements best represents the theory of pangenesis developed by Hippocrates? A) Pregnancy is a spontaneous event, and the characteristics of the offspring are determined by the gods. B) Particles called pangenes, which originate in each part of an organism’s body, collect in the sperm or eggs and are passed on to the next generation. C) Offspring inherit the traits of either the mother or the father, but not both. D) Fertilization of plants is dependent on an animal. E) Heritable traits are influenced by the environment and the behaviors of the parents. 3) Which of the following statements regarding hypotheses about inheritance is false? A) The theory of pangenesis incorrectly suggests that reproductive cells receive particles from somatic cells. B) Contrary to the theory of pangenesis, somatic cells do not influence eggs or sperm. C) The blending hypothesis does not explain how traits that disappear in one generation can reappear in later generations. D) The blending hypothesis suggests that all of the traits of the offspring come from either the mother or the father. E) Aristotle suggested that inheritance is the potential to produce body features. 4) Mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on A) peas. B) roses. C) guinea pigs. D) fruit flies. E) clones. 5) Varieties of plants in which self-fertilization produces offspring that are identical to the parents are referred to as A) hybrids. B) the F2 generation. C) monohybrid crosses. D) independent crosses. E) true-breeding. 6) Which of the following statements regarding cross-breeding and hybridization is false? A) The offspring of two different varieties are called hybrids. B) Hybridization is also called a cross. C) The parental plants of a cross are the P generation. D) The hybrid offspring of a cross are the P1 generation. E) The hybrid offspring of an F1 cross are the F2 generation. 7) A monohybrid cross is A) the second generation of a self-fertilized plant. B) a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties have only one trait in common. C) a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one character. D) a triploid plant that results from breeding two very different plants. E) a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties have only one prominent trait. 8) Which of the following statements regarding genotypes and phenotypes is false? A) The genetic makeup of an organism constitutes its genotype. B) An organism with two different alleles for a single trait is said to be heterozygous for that trait. C) Alleles are alternate forms of a gene. D) An allele that is fully expressed is referred to as recessive. E) The expressed physical traits of an organism are called its phenotype.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

2

9) Research since Mendel’s time has established that the law of the segregation of genes during gamete formation A) applies to all forms of life. B) applies to all sexually reproducing organisms. C) applies to all asexually reproducing organisms. D) applies only to unicellular organisms. E) is invalid. 10) All the offspring of a cross between a black-eyed mendelien and an orange-eyed mendelien have black eyes. This means that the allele for black eyes is ________ the allele for orange eyes. A) codominant to B) recessive to C) more aggressive than D) dominant to E) better than 11) All the offspring of a cross between a black-eyed mendelien and an orange-eyed mendelien have black eyes. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a cross between two orange-eyed mendeliens? A) 3 black-eyed:1 orange-eyed B) 0 black-eyed:1 orange-eyed C) 1 black-eyed:3 orange-eyed D) 1 black-eyed:0 orange-eyed E) 1 black-eyed:1 orange-eyed 12) The alleles of a gene are found at ________ chromosomes. A) the same locus on homologous mitochondrial B) the same locus on heterologous C) different loci on homologous D) different loci on heterologous E) the same locus on homologous 13) The phenotypic ratio resulting from a dihybrid cross showing independent assortment is expected to be A) 1:2:1. B) 3:1. C) 9:1:1:3. D) 3:9:9:1. E) 9:3:3:1. 14) If A is dominant to a and B is dominant to b, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of the cross: AaBb × AaBb? A) 16:0:0:0 B) 8:4:2:2 C) 4:4:4:4 D) 1:1:1:1 E) 9:3:3:1 15) Mendel’s law of independent assortment states that A) chromosomes sort independently of each other during mitosis and meiosis. B) genes sort independently of each other in animals but not in plants. C) independent sorting of genes produces polyploid plants under some circumstances. D) each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation. E) genes are sorted concurrently during gamete formation. 16) Imagine that we mate two black Labrador dogs with normal vision and find that three of the puppies are like the parents, but one puppy is chocolate with normal vision and another is black with PRA (progressive retinal atrophy, a serious disease of vision).

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

3

We can conclude that A) both of the parents are homozygous for both traits. B) one of the parents is homozygous for both traits. C) the same alleles that control coat color can also cause PRA. D) the alleles for color and vision segregate independently during gamete formation. E) the alleles for color and vision segregate dependently during gamete formation. 17) A testcross is A) a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait of interest. B) a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual heterozygous for the trait of interest. C) a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous dominant for the trait of interest. D) a mating between two individuals heterozygous for the trait of interest. E) a mating between two individuals of unknown genotype. 18) Using a six-sided die, what is the probability of rolling either a 5 or a 6? A) 1/6 × 1/6 = 1/36 B) 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/3 C) 1/6 + 1/6 = 2/3 D) 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/12 E) 1/6 19) Assuming that the probability of having a female child is 50% and the probability of having a male child is also 50%, what is the probability that a couple’s first-born child will be female and that their second-born child will be male? A) 20% B) 25% C) 50% D) 75% E) 100% 20) A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be ________ to transmit it to offspring. A) heterozygous for the trait and able B) heterozygous for the trait and unable C) homozygous for the trait and able D) homozygous for the trait and unable E) heterozygous for the trait and unlikely 21) Dr. Smith’s parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith’s parents could have which of the following genotypes? A) DD and dd B) dd and dd C) Dd and Dd D) DD and DD E) Dd and DD 22) Most genetic disorders of humans are caused by A) multiple alleles. B) recessive alleles. C) drinking during pregnancy. D) a mutation that occurs in the egg, sperm, or zygote. E) dominant alleles.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

4

23) The vast majority of people afflicted with recessive disorders are born to parents who were A) both affected by the disease. B) not affected at all by the disease. C) slightly affected by the disease, showing some but not all of the symptoms. D) subjected to some environmental toxin that caused the disease in their children. E) affected by the disease but had subclinical symptoms. 24) Which of the following statements best explains why dominant alleles that cause lethal disorders are less common than recessive alleles that cause lethal disorders? A) Lethal disorders caused by dominant alleles are usually more severe than lethal disorders caused by recessive alleles. B) Unlike lethal disorders caused by recessive alleles, lethal disorders caused by dominant alleles usually cause the death of the embryo. C) Most individuals carrying a lethal dominant allele have the disorder and die before they reproduce, whereas individuals carrying a lethal recessive allele are more likely to be healthy and reproduce. D) The presence of a lethal dominant allele causes sterility. E) Many lethal recessive alleles cause enhanced disease resistance when they are present in the heterozygous state, and carriers of these alleles have more children, on average, than other people. 25) Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling allow for ________ and ________ of the fetus so that it can be tested for abnormalities. A) imaging . . . biochemical testing B) imaging . . . karyotyping C) sexing . . . imaging D) karyotyping . . . biochemical testing E) direct observation . . . biochemical testing 26) Which of the following statements regarding prenatal testing is false? A) Results from chorionic villus sampling come faster than from amniocentesis. B) Chorionic villus sampling is typically performed later in the pregnancy than amniocentesis. C) Ultrasound imaging has no known risk. D) The complication rate for chorionic villus sampling is about 2% and for amniocentesis is about 1%. E) Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis are usually reserved for pregnancies with higher than usual risks of complications. 27) Which of the following statements regarding genetic testing is false? A) Genetic testing before birth requires the collection of fetal cells. B) Carrier testing helps determine if a person carries a potentially harmful disorder. C) Most children with recessive disorders are born to healthy parents. D) The screening of newborns can catch inherited disorders right after birth. E) Most human genetic diseases are treatable if caught early. 28) For most sexually reproducing organisms, Mendel’s laws A) cannot strictly account for most patterns of inheritance. B) explain the reasons why certain genes are dominant. C) help us understand the global geographic patterns of genetic disease. D) indicate if a particular genotype will cause a certain phenotype. E) clarify the phenomenon of incomplete dominance. 29) Which of the following statements is false? A) Incomplete dominance supports the blending hypothesis. B) Heterozygotes for hypercholesterolemia have blood cholesterols about twice normal. C) The four blood types result from various combinations of the three different ABO alleles. D) ABO blood groups can provide evidence of paternity. E) The impact of a single gene on more than one character is called pleiotropy.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

5

30) All the offspring of a cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant have pink flowers. This means that the allele for red flowers is ________ to the allele for white flowers. A) dominant B) codominant C) pleiotropic D) incompletely dominant E) recessive 31) Imagine that beak color in a finch species is controlled by a single gene. You mate a finch homozygous for orange (pigmented) beak with a finch homozygous for ivory (unpigmented) beak and get numerous offspring, all of which have a pale, ivory-orange beak. This pattern of color expression is most likely to be an example of A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance. E) crossing over. 32) Which of the following is an example of incomplete dominance in humans? A) sickle-cell disease B) hypercholesterolemia C) skin color D) ABO blood groups E) phenylketonuria 33) The expression of both alleles for a trait in a heterozygous individual illustrates A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance. E) blending inheritance. 34) A person with AB blood illustrates the principle of A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance. E) blending inheritance. 35) Which of the following statements regarding sickle-cell disease is false? A) Sickle-cell disease is common in tropical Africa. B) Persons who are heterozygous for sickle-cell disease are also resistant to malaria. C) Sickle-cell disease causes white blood cells to be sickle-shaped. D) All of the symptoms of sickle-cell disease result from the actions of just one allele. E) About one in ten African-Americans is a carrier of sickle-cell disease. 36) Sickle-cell disease is an example of A) codominance and pleiotropy. B) codominance and blended inheritance. C) multiple alleles, pleiotropy, and blended inheritance. D) codominance and multiple alleles. E) multiple alleles and pleiotropy.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

6

37) Which of the following terms refers to a situation where a single phenotypic character is determined by the additive effects of two or more genes? A) incomplete dominance B) codominance C) pleiotropy D) polygenic inheritance E) blending inheritance 38) Which of the following is essentially the opposite of pleiotropy? A) incomplete dominance B) codominance C) multiple alleles D) polygenic inheritance E) blending inheritance 39) The individual features of all organisms are the result of A) genetics. B) the environment. C) genetics and cytoplasmic determinants. D) the environment and individual needs. E) genetics and the environment. 40) The chromosome theory of inheritance states that A) chromosomes that exhibit mutations are the source of genetic variation. B) the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for patterns of inheritance. C) the behavior of chromosomes during mitosis accounts for inheritance patterns. D) humans have 46 chromosomes. E) the inheritance pattern of humans is predetermined from chromosomes. 41) Genes located close together on the same chromosomes are referred to as ________ genes and generally ________. A) associated . . . sort independently during meiosis B) linked . . . sort independently during meiosis C) homologous . . . are inherited together D) linked . . . do not sort independently during meiosis E) codependent . . . do not sort independently during meiosis 42) Linked genes generally A) follow the laws of independent assortment. B) do not follow the laws of independent assortment. C) show incomplete dominance. D) reflect a pattern of codominance. E) show pleiotropy. 43) You conduct a dihybrid cross and then testcross the generation. A ________ ratio would make you suspect that the genes are linked. A) 3:1 B) 1:2:1 C) 1:1:1:1 D) 7:7:1:1 E) 9:3:3:1

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 10

Patterns of Inheritance

7

44) Crossing over ________ genes into assortments of ________ not found in the parents. A) recombines unlinked . . . genes B) recombines linked . . . alleles C) combines unlinked . . . alleles D) combines linked . . . genes E) recombines unlinked . . . chromosomes 45) The mechanism that “breaks” the linkage between linked genes is A) incomplete dominance. B) pleiotropy. C) codominance. D) independent assortment. E) crossing over. 46) Which of the following kinds of data could be used to map the relative position of three genes on a chromosome? A) the frequencies with which the genes exhibit incomplete dominance over each other B) the frequencies of mutations in the genes C) the frequencies with which the genes are inherited from the mother and from the father D) the frequencies with which the genes are heterozygous E) the frequencies with which the corresponding traits occur together in offspring 47) What is the normal complement of sex chromosomes in a human male? A) two X chromosomes B) two Y chromosomes C) two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome D) one X chromosome and one Y chromosome E) one Y chromosome 48) The sex chromosome complement of a normal human male is A) XO. B) XX. C) XY. D) YY. E) YO. 49) How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete? A) one B) two C) three D) four E) five 50) How is sex determined in most ants and bees? A) by the X-Y system B) by the Z-W system C) by the number of chromosomes D) by the size of the sex chromosome E) by the X-O system

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 11

Molecular Biology of the Gene

1

Chapter 11: Molecular Biology of the Gene Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following statements regarding viruses is false? A) A virus is generally considered to be alive because it is cellular and can reproduce on its own. B) The host cell provides most of the tools and raw materials for viral multiplication. C) Once a person is infected with the herpes virus, the virus remains permanently latent in the body. D) Viruses can enter a host cell when the protein molecules on the outside of the virus fit into receptor molecules on the outside of the cell. E) Herpesviruses and the virus that causes AIDS can remain latent inside our cells for long periods of time. 2) Which of the following people conducted the experiments that demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophages? A) Watson and Crick B) Hershey and Chase C) Franklin D) Griffith E) Pauling 3) One type of virus that infects bacteria is called a A) phage. B) mage. C) rhinovirus. D) filovirus. E) coronavirus. 4) When a T2 bacteriophage infects an Escherichia coli cell, which part of the phage enters the bacterial cytoplasm? A) the whole phage B) only the RNA C) only the DNA D) the protein “headpiece” and its enclosed nucleic acid E) the tail fibers 5) The way that genetic material of a bacteriophage enters a bacterium is most like the way that A) a drug is injected with a hypodermic needle. B) a person swallows a pill. C) skin lotion is rubbed onto the hands. D) sugar dissolves in water. E) water soaks into a sponge. 6) The monomers of DNA and RNA are A) amino acids. B) monosaccharides. C) nucleotides. D) fatty acids. E) nucleic acids. 7) Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false? A) DNA uses the sugar deoxyribose. B) DNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil. C) DNA is a nucleic acid. D) One DNA molecule can include four different nucleotides in its structure. E) DNA molecules have a sugar-phosphate backbone.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 11

Molecular Biology of the Gene

2

8) Which of the following statements regarding RNA is false? A) RNA uses the sugar dextrose. B) RNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil. C) RNA is a nucleic acid. D) One RNA molecule can include four different nucleotides in its structure. E) RNA molecules have a sugar-phosphate backbone. 9) Which of the following statements regarding the structure of DNA is false? A) The DNA molecule has a uniform diameter. B) In a DNA molecule, adenine bonds to thymine and guanine to cytosine. C) The DNA molecule is in the form of a double helix. D) Watson and Crick received a Nobel Prize for their description of the structure of DNA. E) The sequence of nucleotides along the length of a DNA strand is restricted by the base-pairing rules. 10) How would the shape of a DNA molecule change if adenine paired with guanine and cytosine paired with thymine? A) The DNA molecule would be longer. B) The DNA molecule would be shorter. C) The DNA molecule would be circular. D) The DNA molecule would have regions where no base-pairing would occur. E) The DNA molecule would have irregular widths along its length. 11) The shape of a DNA molecule is most like A) a set of railroad tracks. B) a diamond ring. C) a twisted rope ladder. D) a gold necklace. E) the letter X. 12) Which of the following statements regarding a DNA double helix is always true? A) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of uracil, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine. B) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of uracil. C) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of guanine, and the amount of thymine is equal to the amount of cytosine. D) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of cytosine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of thymine. E) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine. 13) DNA replication A) occurs through the addition of nucleotides to the end of the DNA molecule. B) results in the formation of four new DNA strands. C) produces two daughter DNA molecules that are complementary to each other. D) uses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand. E) begins when two DNA molecules join together to exchange segments. 14) If one strand of DNA is CGGTAC, the corresponding strand would be A) GCCTAG. B) CGGTAC. C) GCCAUC. D) TAACGT. E) GCCATG.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 11

Molecular Biology of the Gene

3

15) The copying mechanism of DNA is most like A) using a photographic negative to make a positive image. B) mixing flour, sugar, and water to make bread dough. C) joining together links to make a chain. D) carving a figure out of wood. E) threading beads onto a string. 16) When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains A) none of the parent DNA. B) 25% of the parent DNA. C) 50% of the parent DNA. D) 75% of the parent DNA. E) 100% of the parent DNA 17) Multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells serve to A) remove errors in DNA replication. B) create multiple copies of the DNA molecule at the same time. C) shorten the time necessary for DNA replication. D) reduce the number of “bubbles” that occur in the DNA molecule during replication. E) assure the correct orientation of the two strands in the newly growing double helix. 18) Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA strand? A) helicase B) primase C) ligase D) single-stranded binding protein E) DNA polymerase 19) Why does a DNA strand grow only in the 5′ to 3′ direction? A) because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 3′ end of the growing molecule B) because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 5′ end of the growing molecule C) because mRNA can only read a DNA molecule in the 5′ to 3′ direction D) because the DNA molecule only unwinds in the 5′ to 3′ direction E) because DNA polymerase requires the addition of a starter nucleotide at the 5′ end 20) Which of the following options best depicts the flow of information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular component? A) RNA → DNA → RNA → protein B) DNA → RNA → protein C) protein → RNA → DNA D) DNA → amino acid → RNA → protein E) DNA → tRNA → mRNA → protein 21) The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called A) translation. B) transcription. C) initiation. D) elongation. E) promotion. 22) The “one gene-one polypeptide” theory states that A) the synthesis of each gene is catalyzed by one specific enzyme. B) the synthesis of each enzyme is catalyzed by one specific gene. C) the function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific polypeptide. D) each polypeptide catalyzes a specific reaction.

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 11

Molecular Biology of the Gene

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E) the function of each polypeptide is to regulate the synthesis of each corresponding gene. 23) Experiments have demonstrated that the “words” of the genetic code (the units that specify amino acids) are A) single nucleotides. B) two-nucleotide sequences. C) three-nucleotide sequences. D) nucleotide sequences of various lengths. E) enzymes. 24) The directions for each amino acid in a polypeptide are indicated by a codon that consists of ________ nucleotide(s) in an RNA molecule. A) 5 B) 4 C) 3 D) 2 E) 1 25) We would expect that a 15-nucleotide sequence will direct the production of a polypeptide that consists of A) 2 amino acids. B) 3 amino acids. C) 4 amino acids. D) 5 amino acids. E) 6 amino acids. 26) A base substitution mutation in a gene does not always result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this? A) the fact that the mutation affects only the sequence of the protein’s amino acids, so the protein stays the same B) the double-ring structure of adenine and guanine C) a correcting mechanism that is part of the mRNA molecule D) the fact that such mutations are usually accompanied by a complementary deletion E) the fact that some amino acids are specified from more than one codon 27) Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the linking together of RNA nucleotides to form RNA? A) RNA polymerase B) RNA ligase C) a ribozyme D) reverse transcriptase E) tRNA 28) Which of the following occurs when RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter DNA? A) elongation of the growing RNA molecule B) termination of the RNA molecule C) addition of nucleotides to the DNA template D) initiation of a new RNA molecule E) initiation of a new polypeptide chain 29) ________ marks the end of a gene and causes transcription to stop. A) RNA polymerase B) RNA ligase C) A terminator D) Reverse transcriptase E) Methionine

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 11

Molecular Biology of the Gene

5

30) Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells? A) on the plasma membrane B) in the nucleus C) in the cytoplasm D) in chromatophores E) in the cell wall 31) Which of the following statements about eukaryotic RNA is true? A) Introns are added to the RNA. B) Exons are spliced together. C) A small cap of extra nucleotides is added to both ends of the RNA. D) A long tail of extra nucleotides is removed from the 5′ end of the RNA. E) The modified RNA molecule is transported into the nucleus. 32) Which of the following takes place during translation? A) the conversion of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins B) the conversion of genetic information from DNA nucleotides into RNA nucleotides C) the addition of nucleotides to a DNA template D) the conversion of genetic information from the language of proteins to the language of enzymes E) DNA replication 33) Which of the following is a function of tRNA? A) joining to several types of amino acid B) recognizing the appropriate anticodons in mRNA C) transferring nucleotides to rRNA D) helping to translate codons into nucleic acids E) joining to only one specific type of amino acid 34) Which of the following is not needed in order for translation to occur? A) DNA template B) ribosomes C) tRNA D) various enzymes and protein “factors” E) sources of energy, including ATP 35) Which of the following statements about ribosomes is false? A) A ribosome consists of two subunits. B) Subunits of RNA are made of proteins and ribosomal RNA. C) The ribosomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the same in structure and function. D) Each ribosome has two binding sites for tRNA. E) Ribosomes coordinate the functioning of mRNA and tRNA. 36) Which of the following statements is false? A) Translation consists of initiation, elongation, and termination. B) During polypeptide initiation, an mRNA, the first amino acid attached to its tRNA, and the two subunits of a ribosome are brought together. C) An mRNA molecule transcribed from DNA is shorter than the genetic message it carries. D) During the first step of initiation, an mRNA molecule binds to a small ribosomal subunit. E) During the second step of initiation, a large ribosomal subunit binds to a small ribosomal subunit. 37) Which of the following options most accurately lists the sequence of events in translation? A) codon recognition → translocation → peptide bond formation → termination B) peptide bond formation → codon recognition → translocation → termination C) codon recognition → peptide bond formation → translocation → termination

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 11

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D) codon recognition → peptide bond formation → termination → translocation E) peptide bond formation → translocation → codon recognition → termination 38) Which of the following statements regarding the flow of genetic information is false? A) Polypeptides form proteins that determine the appearance and function of the cell and organism. B) Eukaryotic mRNA is processed in several ways before export out of the nucleus. C) The codons in a gene specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. D) Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. E) Ribosomes function as factories that coordinate the functioning of mRNA and tRNA. 39) Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called A) a mutation. B) an advantage. C) a codon. D) a translation. E) an anticodon. 40) Consider the following sentence: “The dog did not eat.” Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a base substitution mutation? A) The dog did not et. B) The dog dog did not eat. C) The did dog not eat. D) The doe did not eat. E) The dog did not. 41) Consider the following sentence: “The dog did not eat.” Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a reading frame mutation? A) The dog dog did not eat. B) The did dog not eat. C) The dod idn ote at. D) The did not eat. E) The dog did dog did not eat. 42) A physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a(n) A) reverse transcriptase. B) terminator. C) transposon. D) mutagen. E) anticodon. 43) A protein shell enclosing a viral genome is known as a(n) A) capsule. B) envelope. C) phage. D) capsid. E) prophage. 44) Which of the following features characterizes the lytic cycle of a viral infection? A) The cycle typically ends when the host bacterium divides. B) The cycle typically leads to the lysis of the host cell. C) The viral DNA is inserted into a bacterial chromosome. D) The virus reproduces outside of the host cell. E) The viral genes typically remain inactive once they are inside the host cell.

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45) Which of the following statements is false? A) Some prophage genes can cause the transformation of a nonpathogenic bacterium into a form that causes human disease. B) Sometimes an environmental signal can trigger a switchover from the lysogenic to the lytic cycle. C) The lysogenic cycle always occurs inside of host cells. D) The lysogenic cycle typically results in the rapid lysis of all infected cells. E) During a lysogenic cycle, viral DNA replication typically occurs without destroying the host cell. 46) Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a(n) A) capsid. B) prophage. C) envelope. D) phage. E) genome. 47) The envelope of a flu virus A) helps the virus enter the cell. B) is coded by viral genes. C) helps the virus insert its DNA into the host cell genome. D) changes rapidly, thereby helping the virus evade an immune system response. E) accounts for viral resistance to antibiotics. 48) Which of the following statements about herpesviruses is false? A) Herpesviruses reproduce inside the host cell’s mitochondria. B) Herpesviruses acquire their envelopes from the host cell nuclear membrane. C) Herpesviruses are DNA viruses. D) Herpesviruses may remain latent for long periods of time while inside the host cell nucleus. E) Herpesviruses may cause cold sores or genital sores to appear during times of physical or emotional stress. 49) Which of the following statements about plant viruses is false? A) Once in a plant, a virus can spread from cell to cell through plasmodesmata. B) The genetic material in most plant viruses is RNA. C) Preventing infections and breeding resistant plants can control viral infection in plants. D) To infect a plant, a virus must first get past the plant’s epidermis. E) There are many successful ways to rid infected plants of a virus. 50) Which of the following statements regarding viral diseases is false? A) RNA viruses tend to have an unusually high rate of mutation because their RNA genomes cannot be corrected by proofreading. B) New viral diseases often emerge when a virus infects a new host species. C) Very few new human diseases have originated in other animals because the genetic differences are too great. D) Some new viral diseases arise as a result of a mutation of existing viruses. E) AIDS was around for decades before becoming a widespread epidemic. 51) What will be the most likely cause of a new avian flu pandemic like the 1918-1919 flu pandemic that killed approximately 40 million people worldwide? A) sexual promiscuity B) intravenous drug use and abuse C) easy viral transmission from person to person D) blood transfusions with tainted blood E) increased international travel at affordable rates

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52) What kind of virus is HIV? A) a herpesvirus B) a paramyxovirus C) a retrovirus D) a complex virus E) a provirus 53) Which of the following enzymes does HIV use to synthesize DNA on an RNA template? A) ligase B) RNA polymerase C) terminator enzyme D) reverse transcriptase E) DNA convertase 54) HIV does the greatest damage to A) the adrenal glands. B) pancreatic cells. C) nervous tissue. D) gametes. E) white blood cells. 55) How do viroids harm the plants that are infected with them? A) by increasing the plants’ metabolic rate B) by altering the plants’ growth C) by reducing the plants’ seed production D) by preventing leaf production E) by destroying the root system 56) Which of the following statements about the treatment or prevention for a prion infection is true? A) Antibiotic therapies such as penicillin are very effective cures. B) High doses of anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen reduce the symptoms of prion infections. C) Corticosteroid therapy is the only drug therapy that can reverse the effects of a prion infection. D) Preventative vaccines have recently been shown to be effective in preventing prion infections. E) There is no known treatment or cure for prion infections. 57) In the 1920s, Frederick Griffith conducted an experiment in which he mixed the dead cells of a bacterial strain that can cause pneumonia with live cells of a bacterial strain that cannot. When he cultured the live cells, some of the daughter colonies proved able to cause pneumonia. Which of the following processes of bacterial DNA transfer does this experiment demonstrate? A) transduction B) conjugation C) transformation D) transposition E) crossing over 58) Transduction A) is the direct transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another. B) occurs when a bacterium acquires DNA from the surrounding environment. C) is the result of crossing over. D) occurs when a phage transfers bacterial DNA from one bacterium to another. E) requires DNA polymerase. 59) Conjugation A) is the direct transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another. B) occurs when a bacterium acquires DNA from the surrounding environment.

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C) is the result of crossing over. D) occurs when a phage transfers bacterial DNA from one bacterium to another. E) requires DNA polymerase. 60) Conjugation, transformation, and transduction are all ways that bacteria A) reduce their DNA content. B) increase the amount of RNA in the cytoplasm. C) change their ribosomes to eukaryotic ribosomes. D) increase their genetic diversity. E) alter their oxygen requirements. 61) A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus from his computer. Without knowing it, you infect your computer with the virus when you open the email. This process of spreading the computer virus using emails is most like which of the following processes? A) binary fission B) conjugation C) transduction D) transformation E) mitosis 62) When a bacterial cell with a chromosome-borne F factor conjugates with another bacterium, how is the transmitted donor DNA incorporated into the recipient’s genome? A) It is substituted for the equivalent portion of the recipient’s chromosome by the process of crossing over. B) It circularizes and becomes one of the recipient cell’s plasmids. C) The genes on the donor DNA of which the recipient does not have a copy are added to the recipient chromosome; the remainder of the donor DNA is degraded. D) The DNA of the recipient cell replicates, and the donor DNA is added to the end of the recipient DNA. E) The donor and recipient DNA are both chopped into segments by restriction enzymes, and a new, composite chromosome is assembled from the fragments 63) In many bacteria, genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried on A) factors. B) R plasmids. C) dissimilation plasmids. D) transposons. E) exons. 64) Conjugation between a bacterium that lacks an F factor (F-) and a bacterium that has an F factor on its chromosome (F+) would typically produce which of the following results? A) The F- bacterium ends up carrying one or more plasmids from the F+ bacterium; the F+ bacterium is unchanged. B) The F+ bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F- bacterium, and the F- bacterium ends up with an unaltered chromosome. C) The F+ bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F- bacterium, and the F- bacterium ends up with a chromosome that lacks those genes. D) The F- bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F+ bacterium, and the F+ bacterium ends up with an unaltered chromosome. E) The F- bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F+ bacterium, and the F+ bacterium ends up with a chromosome that lacks those genes. 65) A functional F factor that is an R plasmid must contain all of the following elements except A) genes for making sex pili. B) genes for making the enzymes needed for conjugation. C) a site for making the proteins needed for conjugation.

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D) a site where DNA replication can begin. E) genes for enzymes that confer resistance to antibiotics. 66) Which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids? A) nitrogen fixation by genetically engineered plants B) widespread use of childhood vaccination in developing countries C) improper use of restriction enzymes in research and medical facilities D) increased carcinogen exposure from excessive fossil fuel burning E) heavy use of antibiotics in medicine and in agriculture

BSC1005 Biology General Chapter 12

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Chapter 12: How Genes Are Controlled

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Which of the following statements about the problems created by cloning is false? A) Cloned animals are less healthy than animals created by natural methods. B) Cloning does not increase genetic diversity in the cloned species. C) Cloning endangered species may de-emphasize the need to preserve critical natural habitats. D) Cloned animals live longer compared to naturally bred animals. E) Cloning leads to malfunctions in gene regulation. 2) The fact that the nucleus from an adult somatic cell can be used to create all of the cell types in a new organism demonstrates that development depends upon A) the control of gene expression. B) the timing of mitosis and meiosis. C) the timing of meiosis and cell migrations. D) the deposition of materials in the extracellular matrix. E) the position of cells within an embryo. 3) The term “gene expression” refers to the A) fact that each individual of a species has a unique set of genes. B) fact that individuals of the same species have different phenotypes. C) process by which genetic information flows from genes to proteins. D) fact that certain genes are visible as dark stripes on a chromosome. E) flow of information from parent to offspring. 4) A gene operon consists of A) a transcribed gene only. B) a promoter only. C) a regulatory gene only. D) transcribed genes, an operator, and a promoter. E) transcribed genes, a promoter, and a regulatory gene. 5) In a prokaryote, a group of genes with related functions, along with their associated control sequences, defines A) an allele. B) an operon. C) a locus. D) a transposon. E) a chromosome. 6) The lac operon in E. coli A) prevents lactose-utilizing enzymes from being expressed when lactose is absent from the environment. B) coordinates the production of tryptophan-utilizing enzymes when it is present. C) allows the bacterium to resist antibiotics in the penicillin family. D) regulates the rate of binary fission. E) uses activators to initiate the production of enzymes that break down lactose. 7) Proteins that bind to DNA and turn on operons by making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to a promoter are called A) regulators. B) inhibitors. C) operators. D) activators. E) repressors.

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8) The lac operon of E. coli is ________ when the repressor is bound to lactose. A) active B) inactive C) elongated D) cloned E) unregulated 9) The expression of the tryptophan operon is controlled by A) a repressor that is active when it is alone. B) a repressor that is inactive when it binds to lactose. C) a repressor that is active when it binds to tryptophan. D) an activator that turns the operon on by binding to DNA. E) an activator that permanently deletes genes in the tryptophan operon. 10) Which of the following is likely to occur in E. coli cells that are grown in skim milk? A) The lac operon is shut off and the cells will not produce lactose-utilizing enzymes. B) The trp repressor is activated and the cells will produce lactose-utilizing enzymes. C) The trp operon is turned on but the bacteria will not produce lactose-utilizing enzymes. D) The trp operon and the lac operon are both switched off. E) The trp operon and the lac operon are both switched on. 11) A single cell, the zygote, can develop into an entirely new organism with many different specialized cells. Which of the following statements about this process is false? A) Additional genetic information for the formation of specialized cells is passed on to the developing embryo via the placenta. B) The descendant cells specialize by a process known as cellular differentiation. C) The zygote contains all of the genetic information required for the development of many different cell types. D) Only some of the genes in the zygote are expressed in all of its descendant cells. E) Differentiation of the zygote into a multicellular organism results from selective gene expression. 12) The genes for the enzymes of glycolysis A) are active in all metabolizing cells, but the genes for specialized proteins are expressed only in particular cell types. B) are inactive in all metabolizing cells, but the genes for specialized proteins are expressed in all cell types. C) and the genes for all specialized proteins are expressed in all metabolizing cells. D) and the genes for specialized proteins are expressed in all nonembryonic cell types. E) and the genes for all specialized proteins are expressed in all embryonic cells. 13) Which of the following statements regarding DNA packing is false? A) A nucleosome consists of DNA wound around a protein core of eight histone molecules. B) DNA packing tends to promote gene expression. C) Histones account for about half the mass of eukaryotic chromosomes. D) Highly compacted chromatin is generally not expressed at all. E) Prokaryotes have proteins analogous to histones. 14) The relationship between DNA and chromosomes is most like A) an egg yolk inside of an egg. B) a dozen eggs packaged within an egg carton. C) a spoon cradling some peas. D) thread wrapped around a spool. E) the candy shell surrounding the chocolate in a piece of M & M candy. 15) In female mammals, the inactive X chromosome in each cell A) becomes a nucleotroph corpus. B) can be activated if mutations occur in the active X chromosome.

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C) is broken down, and its nucleotides are degraded and reused. D) is absorbed and used in energy production. E) becomes a Barr body. 16) The tortoiseshell pattern on a cat A) usually occurs in males. B) is the result of a homozygous recessive condition. C) results from X chromosome inactivation. D) is a result of alleles on the Y chromosome. E) occurs in male cats 25% of the time and in female cats 50% of the time. 17) Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells use ________ to turn certain genes on or off. A) DNA ligase B) RNA transcriptase C) intron segments D) regulatory proteins E) nucleosome packing 18) Enhancers are A) adjacent to the gene that they regulate. B) required to turn on gene expression when transcription factors are in short supply. C) the site on DNA to which activators bind. D) required to facilitate the binding of DNA polymerases. E) the products of transcription factors. 19) Silencers are sites in DNA that A) bind RNA promoters to promote the start of transcription. B) bind enhancers to promote the start of transcription. C) bind repressor proteins to inhibit the start of transcription. D) bind activators to inhibit the start of transcription. E) release mRNA. 20) RNA splicing involves the A) addition of a nucleotide “cap” to the molecule. B) addition of a nucleotide “tail” to the molecule. C) removal of introns from the molecule. D) removal of exons from the molecule. E) addition of introns to the molecule. 21) The coding regions of a gene (the portions that are expressed as polypeptide sequences) are called A) introns. B) exons. C) redundant coding sections. D) proto-oncogenes. E) nucleosomes. 22) Which of the following permits a single gene to code for more than one polypeptide? A) retention of different introns in the final version of the different mRNA strands B) alternative RNA splicing C) protein degradation D) genetic differentiation E) addition of different types of caps and tails to the final version of the mRNA strands

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23) Small pieces of RNA that can regulate mRNA transcription are called A) microRNA. B) minuteRNA. C) miniRNA. D) monoRNA. E) minorRNA. 24) miRNA can be used by A) researchers to induce the production of more mRNA. B) researchers to stimulate the production of DNA. C) researchers to artificially turn on gene expression. D) viruses to stop the production of new proteins. E) cells to prevent infections from double-stranded RNA viruses. 25) Which of the following statements regarding RNA and proteins is false? A) Some genes are edited before they are translated. B) Some polypeptides are edited to make them functional. C) The length of time that mRNA remains functional in the cytoplasm is quite variable. D) In eukaryotes, the lifetime of a protein is closely regulated. E) In eukaryotes, one gene controls the production of just one functioning protein. 26) All of the following mechanisms are used to regulate protein production except A) controlling the start of polypeptide synthesis. B) protein activation. C) protein breakdown. D) DNA editing. E) the breakdown of mRNA. 27) The textbook authors’ analogy between the regulation of gene expression and the movement of water through pipes includes all of the following except A) the web of control that connects different genes. B) pretranscriptional events. C) post-transcriptional events. D) the editing of RNA. E) the multiple mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated. 28) Which of the following mechanisms of controlling gene expression occurs outside of the nucleus? A) adding a cap and tail to RNA B) transcription C) DNA packing/unpacking D) RNA splicing E) translation 29) Which of the following statements about fruit fly development is false? A) One of the earliest development events is the determination of the head and tail ends of the egg. B) The location of the head and tail ends of the egg is primarily determined by the location of sperm entry during fertilization. C) Cell signaling plays an important role in the development of fruit flies. D) Homeotic genes regulate batteries of other genes that direct the anatomical identity of body parts. E) Cascades of gene expression routinely direct fruit fly development. 30) A homeotic gene A) turns on the genes necessary for synthesis of proteins. B) serves as a master control gene that functions during embryonic development by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.

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C) represses gene transcription and promotes mRNA translation. D) produces a product that controls the transcription of other genes. E) is found only in adult somatic cells. 31) Which of the following statements about microarrays is false? A) Microarrays enable scientists to determine the activity of thousands of genes at once. B) Microarrays use tiny portions of double-stranded RNA fragments from a large number of genes. C) Microarrays are used to determine which genes are active in different tissues or in tissues of different states of health. D) Microarrays use fluorescently labeled cDNA molecules to identify particular genes expressed at a particular time. E) Microarrays help scientists understand how genes interact, particularly during embryonic development. 32) Animal development is directed by A) cell receptors that detect transcription factors. B) the availability of certain “key” nutrients as cells divide. C) signal transduction pathways. D) cell-to-cell signaling. E) cell-to-cell signaling and signal transduction pathways. 33) To initiate a signal transduction pathway, a signal binds to a receptor protein usually located in the A) cytosol. B) nucleus. C) plasma membrane. D) ER. E) cytoplasm. 34) Transcription factors attach to A) DNA. B) signal molecules. C) plasma membrane receptors. D) proteins. E) mRNA. 35) A signal outside a cell triggers changes in the transcription and translation inside the cell through the process of A) post-translational editing. B) signal transduction pathways. C) protein activation. D) protein breakdown. E) X chromosome inactivation. 36) The basis of cellular differentiation is A) the operon. B) cellular specialization. C) selective gene expression. D) cloning. E) mutation. 37) Yeast are able to communicate with each other A) by close cell-to-cell contact. B) with signal transduction pathways. C) only if they can touch each other and have merged cell walls. D) with pseudopodia. E) only when a yeast cell has died and released its internal organelles into the external environment.

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38) Signal transduction pathways A) are found strictly in multicellular organisms for cell-to-cell communication. B) first appeared in animals when primates began to walk upright. C) are limited for use in sexual identification. D) originally evolved in vertebrates. E) are mechanisms of communication that evolved in the ancient prokaryotes. 39) Most differentiated cells retain A) only a tiny fraction of their original set of genes. B) only a tiny fraction of their original set of genes, but can regenerate lost genes as needed. C) a complete set of their genes, but lose the ability to express most of those genes. D) a complete set of their genes, and retain the ability to express those genes under certain circumstances. E) the ability to dedifferentiate, but then cannot return to their original differentiated state. 40) Why can some plants be cloned from a single cell? A) Plant cells do not differentiate even when mature, so any cell can grow into an entire plant. B) Plant cells can dedifferentiate and give rise to all of the specialized cells required to produce an entire plant. C) Plant cells are able to retrieve genes lost to the environment during development. D) Plant cells can produce genes to replace those lost during development. E) Plant cells are capable of self-renewal by utilizing cellular components from adjacent cells . 41) Which of the following processes occurs when a salamander regenerates a lost limb? A) Oncogenes that cause accelerated cell division are turned on. B) Certain cells in the limb dedifferentiate, divide, and then redifferentiate to form a new limb. C) A new salamander develops from the lost limb. D) The homeotic genes of the regenerating cells turn off. E) The cell cycle is arrested and apoptosis begins. 42) The cloning of Dolly the sheep A) demonstrated that the nuclei from differentiated mammalian cells can retain their full genetic potential. B) demonstrated that differentiated cells contain only a fraction of their full genetic potential. C) demonstrated, for the first time, that eggs are haploid and body cells are diploid. D) revealed that cloned mammals most resemble the egg donor. E) revealed that cloned mammals most resemble the sperm donor. 43) Cloning to produce embryonic stem cells is called A) regenerative cloning. B) transplantational cloning. C) reproductive cloning. D) therapeutic cloning. E) dedifferentiation. 44) Which of the following mammals has not yet been cloned and brought through the complete gestation cycle? A) cow B) human C) pig D) dog E) cat 45) Which of the following possible uses of reproductive cloning is still considered by most to be an unresolved ethical issue? A) the production of genetically identical animals for experimentation B) the production of potentially valuable drugs C) the production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans D) the improvement of the quality of farm animals E) the production of genetically identical humans for therapeutic purposes.

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46) Which of the following statements regarding stem cells is false? A) Embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate. B) Embryonic stem cells can give rise to all the different specialized cells in the body. C) Adult, but not embryonic, stem cells can be grown in laboratory culture. D) Adult stem cells are present in adult tissues. E) Adult stem cells are partway along the road to differentiation. 47) Adult stem cells have limited therapeutic potential A) because they are fully differentiated. B) because they lack a complete set of genes. C) due to their excessive numbers in tissues. D) because scientists have no reliable method of identification. E) because their developmental potential is limited to certain tissues. 48) A gene that can cause cancer when present in a single copy in a cell is called a(n) A) oncogene. B) enhancer gene. C) silencer gene. D) carcinogen. E) proto-oncogene. 49) Which of the following statements about proto-oncogenes is false? A) Proto-oncogenes are normal genes with the potential to become oncogenes. B) Many proto-oncogenes code for growth factors. C) A mutation must occur in a cell’s DNA for a proto-oncogene to become an oncogene. D) A mutation in a tumor-suppressor gene can stop cell division immediately. E) One of the earliest clues to understanding cancer was the discovery of a virus that causes cancer in chickens. 50) Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to normal cells becoming cancerous? A) the conversion of a proto-oncogene to an oncogene B) damage to a tumor-suppressor gene C) the acquisition of an oncogene from a virus D) one or more of the cell’s genes being removed by a virus E) excessive replication of proto-oncogenes 51) Cancer of the colon is caused by A) a single gene mutation. B) several somatic cell mutations. C) exposure of colon cells to a mutagen. D) lack of vitamin K. E) the proto-oncogene, lac. 52) The development of colon cancer occurs slowly and is more prominent in the elderly than the young. This is most likely because A) cancer cells don’t have mitochondria, so they grow slowly. B) four or more somatic mutations must occur to give rise to the cancer, which takes time. C) cancer cells suppress the growth of each other in a tissue. D) cancer cells have to wait until new blood vessels grow into the area, which takes much time. E) most cancer mutations interfere with mitosis, so cell division occurs more slowly. 53) Mutations in the proto-oncogenes ras and p53 A) increase protein synthesis by the cell. B) are rarely associated with cancers. C) can improve the chance of avoiding cancer as one ages. D) can enhance further mutations, which can develop into cancer.

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E) disrupt normal regulation of the cell cycle. 54) Mutations in the p53 gene can lead to cancer by A) causing the production of excessive amounts of relay proteins. B) turning off a gene for a protein that inhibits cell division. C) increasing the production of glycogen, which nourishes the cell cycle. D) promoting the expression of mRNA that can interact with DNA, resulting in new mutations. E) increasing the production of growth hormones, which trigger faster cell cycles. 55) The carcinogen known to cause the most cases of cancer is A) plutonium. B) ultraviolet light. C) alcohol. D) salt. E) tobacco. 56) Which of the following statements regarding cancer risk factors is false? A) Factors that alter DNA and make cells cancerous are called carcinogens. B) Mutagens are usually not carcinogens. C) X-rays and ultraviolet radiation are two of the most potent carcinogens. D) Eating 20-30 grams of plant fiber daily and reducing the intake of animal fat can reduce your risk of developing colon cancer. E) Broccoli and cauliflower are thought to be especially rich in substances that help prevent cancer.

  • Chapter 10 Mendel Laws_TestQ11.4.16
  • Chapter 11 Molecular Biology of the gene_TestQ11.16.16
  • Chapter 12 Gene Regulation_TestQ11.23.16
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smiles, head nods, eye contact, and clapping from audience members are all forms of

Consider the Audience

• Analyzing the audience is central to the speechmaking process; consider your audience at every step of the way in preparing and presenting your speech. • Gather information about your audience by asking questions or surveying them more formally. • Summarize and analyze the information you have gathered.

Select and Narrow Your Topic

• Consider the audience: Who are your listeners and what do they expect? • Consider the occasion: What is the reason for the speech? • Consider your own interests and skills: What are your strengths?

Determine Your Purpose

• Decide whether your general speech purpose is to inform, to persuade, or

to entertain, or a combination of these goals. • Decide on your specific purpose:

What do you want your listeners to be able to do after you finish your speech? • Use your specific purpose to guide

you in connecting your message to your audience.

Develop Your Central Idea

• State your central idea for your speech in one sentence. • Your central idea should be a single idea

presented in clear, specific language. • Relate your central idea to your audience.

Generate Main Ideas

• Determine whether your central idea can be supported with logical divisions using a topical arrangement. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with reasons the idea is true. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with a series of steps.

Gather Supporting Material

• Remember that most of what you say consists of supporting material such

as stories, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions.

• The best supporting material both clarifies your major ideas and holds your listeners’ attention. • Supporting material that is personal, concrete, and appealing to the listeners’

senses is often the most interesting.

Organize Your Speech

• Remember the maxim: Tell us what you’re going to tell us (introduction); tell us (body); and tell us what you told us (conclusion). • Outline your main ideas by topic, chronologically, spatially, by cause and effect, or by problem and solution. • Use signposts to clarify the overall structure of your message.

Rehearse Your Speech

• Prepare speaking notes and practice using them well in advance of your speaking date. • Rehearse your speech out loud, standing as you would stand while delivering your speech. • Practice with well-chosen visual aids that are big, simple, and appropriate for your audience.

Deliver Your Speech

• Look at individual listeners. • Use movement and gestures that fit your natural style of speaking.

Why Do You Need This New Edition? If you’re wondering why you should buy this new edition of Public Speaking: An Audience- Centered Approach, here are eight good reasons!

1. We’ve kept the best and improved the rest. The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach continues its unique focus on the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point in the speech- making process, but is now an easier-to-use and more effec- tive learning tool than ever.

2. We’ve streamlined the book to 16 chapters, so that every chapter can be covered during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now combines an introduction to public speaking with an overview of the audience-centered model. Chapter 6 now combines information on gathering supporting mate- rial with advice on how to integrate supporting material into a speech.

3. New end-of-chapter Study Guides are designed to help you retain and apply chapter concepts. Study Guides feature chapter summaries; “Using What You’ve Learned” questions posing realistic scenarios; “A Question of Ethics” to reinforce the importance of ethical speaking; and referrals to selected online resources that help you find resources to use in your own speeches.

4. More tables and Recap boxes summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. These frequent reviews help you check understanding, study for exams, and rehearse material to aid retention.

5. The eighth edition continues our popular focus on control- ling speaking anxiety, developed through expanded and updated coverage of communication apprehension in Chapter 1 and reinforced with tips and reminders in “Confidently Connecting with Your Audience” features in the margins of every chapter.

6. New and expanded coverage of key communication theories and current research, including studies of anxiety styles in Chapter 1, introductions to social judgment theory in Chapter 14, and emotional response theory in Chapter 15, help you apply recent theories and findings.

7. Every chapter of the eighth edition boasts engaging fresh examples to help you connect concepts to your own life and interests, including new references to contemporary technology such as social media sites in Chapter 4 and iPads in Chapter 12.

8. New speeches, including Barack Obama’s inaugural speech, contribute to an impressive sample speech appendix that will inspire and instruct you as you work with your own material.

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Public Speaking

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8 Public SpeakingAN AUDIENCE-CENTERED APPROACH Steven A. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

Susan J. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beebe, Steven A.

Public speaking : an audience-centered approach / Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe. — 8th ed. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-78462-2 (alk. paper)

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—QGD—14 13 12 11

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-78462-2 www.pearsonhighered.com ISBN-10: 0-205-78462-3

Dedicated to our parents, Russell and Muriel Beebe and Herb and Jane Dye

And to our children, Mark, Matthew, and Brittany Beebe

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1 Speaking with Confidence 3 2 Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 3 Listening to Speeches 49 4 Analyzing Your Audience 77 5 Developing Your Speech 111 6 Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 7 Organizing Your Speech 161 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 9 Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203

10 Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 11 Delivering Your Speech 235 12 Using Presentation Aids 265 13 Speaking to Inform 289 14 Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 15 Using Persuasive Strategies 337 16 Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373

Epilogue 390

Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 392

Appendix B Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400

Brief Contents

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xi

Contents

Preface xxiii

Speaking with Confidence 3 Why Study Public Speaking? 4

Empowerment 4 ● Employment 4

The Communication Process 5 Communication as Action 5 ● Communication as Interaction 6 ● Communication as Transaction 7

The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 7 LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Martin Luther King Jr. 8

Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker 9

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SAMPLE OUTLINE 24

Gather Visual Supporting Material 25

Organize Your Speech 25

Select and Narrow Your Topic 20 Determine Your Purpose 21

Determine Your General Purpose 21 ● Determine Your Specific Purpose 21

Develop Your Central Idea 22 Generate the Main Ideas 22 Gather Supporting Material 23

Gather Interesting Supporting Material 23

Understand Your Nervousness 10 ● How to Build Your Confidence 13

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Begin with the End in Mind 17

An Overview of Audience-Centered Public Speaking 17 Consider Your Audience 19

Gather and Analyze Information about Your Audience 19 ● Consider the Culturally Diverse Backgrounds of Your Audience 19

Rehearse Your Speech 27

Deliver Your Speech 27

SAMPLE SPEECH 29

STUDY GUIDE 30

SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Confidence as a Public Speaker 33

Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 Speaking Freely 37

Free Speech and the U.S. Constitution 37 ● Free Speech in the Twentieth Century 37 ● Free Speech in the Twenty-first Century 38

Speaking Ethically 39 Have a Clear, Responsible Goal 39

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mohandas Gandhi 40

Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning 40 ● Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences 41 ● Be Honest 41 ● Don’t Plagiarize 42

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Remember That You Will Look More Confident Than You May Feel 42

SAMPLE ORAL CITATION 44

Speaking Credibly 44

STUDY GUIDE 46

SPEECH WORKSHOP Avoiding Plagiarism 47

Listening to Speeches 49 Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening 51

Managing Information Overload 52 ● Overcoming Personal Concerns 53 ● Reducing Outside Distractions 53 ● Overcoming Prejudice 54 ● Using Differences between Speech Rate and Thought Rate 54 ● Managing Receiver Apprehension 55

How to Become a Better Listener 55 Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears 56 ● Listen Mindfully 57

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS César Chávez 58

Listen Skillfully 59 ● Listen Ethically 62

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Improving Listening and Critical Thinking Skills 63 Separate Facts from Inferences 63 ● Evaluate the Quality of Evidence 64 ● Evaluate the Underlying Logic and Reasoning 65

Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches 65 Understanding Criteria for Evaluating Speeches 66 ● Identifying and Analyzing Rhetorical Strategies 68 ● Giving Feedback to Others 69 ● Giving Feedback to Yourself 70

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Look for Positive Listener Support 71

STUDY GUIDE 72

SPEECH WORKSHOP Evaluating a Speaker’s Rhetorical Effectiveness 74

Analyzing Your Audience 77 Gathering Information about Your Audience 79 Analyzing Information about Your Audience 80

Look for Audience Member Similarities 81 ● Look for Audience Member Differences 82 ● Establish Common Ground with Your Audience 82

Adapting to Your Audience 82

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Winston Churchill 83

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Learn as Much as You Can about Your Audience 83

Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak 84 Demographic Audience Analysis 84 ● Psychological Audience Analysis 94 ● Situational Audience Analysis 96

Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak 99

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Consider Your Audience 99

Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues 100 ● Responding to Nonverbal Cues 101 ● Strategies for Customizing Your Message to Your Audience 101

Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak 103 Nonverbal Responses 104 ● Verbal Responses 104 ● Survey Responses 104 ● Behavioral Responses 105

STUDY GUIDE 106

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing Communication Strategies to Adapt to Your Audience 108

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Developing Your Speech 111 Select and Narrow Your Topic 112

Guidelines for Selecting a Topic 113

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Select an Interesting Topic 113

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Frederick Douglass 115

Strategies for Selecting a Topic 115 ● Narrowing the Topic 117

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Select and Narrow Your Topic 117

Determine Your Purpose 118 General Purpose 118 ● Specific Purpose 119

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Determine Your Purpose 121

Develop Your Central Idea 121 A Complete Declarative Sentence 122 ● Direct, Specific Language 122

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Develop Your Central Idea 123 ● A Single Idea 123 ● An Audience-Centered Idea 123

Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas 124 Generating Your Main Ideas 124 ● Previewing Your Main Ideas 125

Meanwhile, Back at the Computer . . . 126

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Generate Your Main Ideas 127

STUDY GUIDE 128

SPEECH WORKSHOP Strategies for Selecting a Speech Topic 130

Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 Sources of Supporting Material 134

Personal Knowledge and Experience 134 ● The Internet 134 ● Online Databases 135 ● Traditional Library Holdings 137 ● Interviews 139

Research Strategies 141 Develop a Preliminary Bibliography 141 ● Locate Resources 142 ● Assess the Usefulness of Resources 142 ● Take Notes 143

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Gather Supporting Material 143

Identify Possible Presentation Aids 144

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Types of Supporting Material 144 Illustrations 145

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Eleanor Roosevelt 146

Descriptions and Explanations 147 ● Definitions 148 ● Analogies 149 ● Statistics 150 ● Opinions 152

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Prepare Early 153

The Best Supporting Material 154

STUDY GUIDE 156

SPEECH WORKSHOP Identifying a Variety of Supporting Material for Your Speech 158

Organizing Your Speech 161 Organizing Your Main Ideas 163

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Organize Your Message 163

Organizing Ideas Topically 163 ● Ordering Ideas Chronologically 164 ● Arranging Ideas Spatially 166 ● Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect 166

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Desmond Tutu 166

Organizing Ideas by Problem-Solution 167 ● Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization 169

Subdividing Your Main Ideas 170 Integrating Your Supporting Material 170

Prepare Your Supporting Material 170 ● Organize Your Supporting Material 171

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Organize Your Speech 172

Incorporate Your Supporting Material into Your Speech 173

Developing Signposts 173

SAMPLE INTEGRATION OF SUPPORTING MATERIAL 173

Transitions 174 ● Previews 175 ● Summaries 176

Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids 177

STUDY GUIDE 178

SPEECH WORKSHOP Organizing Your Ideas 180

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Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Be Familiar with Your

Introduction and Conclusion 184

Purposes of Introductions 184 Get the Audience’s Attention 184 ● Give the Audience a Reason to Listen 185 ● Introduce the Subject 185 ● Establish Your Credibility 186 ● Preview Your Main Ideas 186

Effective Introductions 187 Illustrations or Anecdotes 187 ● Startling Facts or Statistics 188 ● Quotations 188 ● Humor 189 ● Questions 190 ● References to Historical Events 191 ● References to Recent Events 192 ● Personal References 192 ● References to the Occasion 192 ● References to Preceding Speeches 193

Purposes of Conclusions 193 Summarize the Speech 193 ● Provide Closure 194

Effective Conclusions 195 Methods Also Used for Introductions 196 ● References to the Introduction 196 ● Inspirational Appeals or Challenges 196

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Patrick Henry 197

STUDY GUIDE 198

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing the Introduction and Conclusion to Your Speech 200

Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203 Developing Your Preparation Outline 204

The Preparation Outline 204 ● Sample Preparation Outline 206

Revising Your Speech 207

SAMPLE PREPARATION OUTLINE 208

Developing Your Delivery Outline and Speaking Notes 209 The Delivery Outline 210

SAMPLE DELIVERY OUTLINE 210

Sample Delivery Outline 211 ● Speaking Notes 212

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Your Well-Prepared Speaking Notes When You Rehearse 212

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mark Twain 213

STUDY GUIDE 214

SPEECH WORKSHOP Outlining Your Speech 215

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Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 Differentiating Oral and Written Language Styles 218 Using Words Effectively 219

Use Specific, Concrete Words 219 ● Use Simple Words 220 ● Use Words Correctly 220 ● Use Words Concisely 221

Adapting Your Language Style to Diverse Listeners 221 Use Language That Your Audience Can Understand 222 ● Use Appropriate Language 222 ● Use Unbiased Language 222

Crafting Memorable Word Structures 223 Creating Figurative Images 224 ● Creating Drama 225 ● Creating Cadence 225

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS John F. Kennedy 228

Analyzing an Example of Memorable Word Structure 228

Using Memorable Word Structures Effectively 229

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Words to Manage Your Anxiety 229

STUDY GUIDE 230

SPEECH WORKSHOP Conducting a “Language Style Audit” of Your Speech 232

Delivering Your Speech 235 The Power of Speech Delivery 236

Listeners Expect Effective Delivery 236 ● Listeners Make Emotional Connections with You through Delivery 237 ● Listeners Believe What They See 238

Methods of Delivery 238 Manuscript Speaking 238 ● Memorized Speaking 239 ● Impromptu Speaking 240 ● Extemporaneous Speaking 241

Characteristics of Effective Delivery 242

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Marcus Tullius Cicero 242

Eye Contact 243 ● Gestures 243 ● Movement 246 ● Posture 247 ● Facial Expression 248 ● Vocal Delivery 248 ● Personal Appearance 253

Audience Diversity and Delivery 253

DON’T GET LOST IN TRANSLATION 255

Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips 256 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Re-create the Speech Environment When You Rehearse 257

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DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Rehearse Your Speech 257

Delivering Your Speech 257

DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Deliver Your Speech 257

Responding to Questions 258

STUDY GUIDE 261

SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Speech Delivery 263

Using Presentation Aids 265 The Value of Presentation Aids 266

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Ronald Reagan 267

Types of Presentation Aids 268 Three-Dimensional Presentation Aids 268 ● Two-Dimensional Presentation Aids 269 ● PowerPoint™ Presentation Aids 274 ● Tips for Using PowerPoint™ 275 ● Audiovisual Aids 277

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Practice with Your Presentation Aids to Boost Your Confidence 277

Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids 279 Make Them Easy to See 279 ● Keep Them Simple 279 ● Select the Right Presentation Aid 280 ● Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Presentation Aids 280

Guidelines for Using Presentation Aids 280 Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Make Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not with Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Explain Your Presentation Aids 281 ● Do Not Pass Objects among Members of Your Audience 282 ● Use Animals with Caution 282 ● Use Handouts Effectively 282 ● Time the Use of Visuals to Control Your Audience’s Attention 283 ● Use Technology Effectively 284 ● Remember Murphy’s Law 284

STUDY GUIDE 285

SPEECH WORKSHOP A Checklist for Using Effective Presentation Aids 287

Speaking to Inform 289 Types of Informative Speeches 290

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Oprah Winfrey 291

Speeches about Objects 292 ● Speeches about Procedures 293 ● Speeches about People 294 ● Speeches about Events 295 ● Speeches about Ideas 295

Strategies to Enhance Audience Understanding 296 Speak with Clarity 296 ● Use Principles and Techniques of Adult Learning 297 ● Clarify Unfamiliar Ideas or Complex Processes 298 ● Appeal to a Variety of Learning Styles 299

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Strategies to Maintain Audience Interest 300 Motivate Your Audience to Listen to You 300 ● Tell a Story 301 ● Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners 301 ● Use the Unexpected 301

SAMPLE INFORMATIVE SPEECH 302

Strategies to Enhance Audience Recall 303 Build In Redundancy 303 ● Make Your Key Ideas Short and Simple 304 ● Pace Your Information Flow 304 ● Reinforce Key Ideas 304

Developing an Audience-Centered Informative Speech 305 Consider Your Audience 305 ● Select and Narrow Your Informational Topic 305 ● Determine Your Informative Purpose 306 ● Develop Your Central Idea 306 ● Generate Your Main Ideas 306

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Focus on Your Information Rather Than on Your Fear 307

Gather Your Supporting Materials 307 ● Organize Your Speech 307 ● Rehearse Your Presentation 307 ● Deliver Your Speech 307

STUDY GUIDE 309

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Vivid Word Picture 311

Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 Persuasion Defined 314

Changing or Reinforcing Audience Attitudes 314 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Beliefs 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Values 315 ● Changing or Reinforcing Audience Behaviors 316

How Persuasion Works 316 Aristotle’s Traditional Approach: Using Ethos, Logos, and Pathos to Persuade 316 ● ELM’S Contemporary Approach: Using a Direct or Indirect Path to Persuade 317

How to Motivate Listeners 319 Use Cognitive Dissonance 319 ● Use Listener Needs 322 ● Use Positive Motivation 324 ● Use Negative Motivation 324

How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech 326 Consider the Audience 326 ● Select and Narrow Your Persuasive Topic 327

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Elizabeth Cady Stanton 327

Determine Your Persuasive Purpose 328 ● Develop Your Central Idea and Main Ideas 328 ● Gather Supporting Material 331

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Breathe to Relax 332

Organize Your Persuasive Speech 332 ● Rehearse and Deliver Your Speech 332

STUDY GUIDE 333

SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing a Persuasive Speech 335

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Using Persuasive Strategies 337 Enhancing Your Credibility 338

Elements of Your Credibility 338 ● Phases of Your Credibility 339

Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade 340 Understanding Types of Reasoning 341 ● Persuading the Culturally Diverse Audience 345 ● Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence 347 ● Using Evidence Effectively 348 ● Avoiding Faulty Reasoning 349

Using Emotion to Persuade 351

LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Franklin Delano Roosevelt 351

Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade 352 ● Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues 355

Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 356 Persuading the Receptive Audience 356 ● Persuading the Neutral Audience 357 ● Persuading the Unreceptive Audience 357

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Enhance Your Initial Credibility 358

Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages 359 Problem–Solution 360 ● Refutation 361 ● Cause and Effect 362 ● The Motivated Sequence 363

SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH 366

STUDY GUIDE 369

SPEECH WORKSHOP Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas 371

Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373 Public Speaking in the Workplace 374

Group Presentations 374 ● Public-Relations Speeches 377

CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Seek a Variety of Speaking Opportunities 378

Ceremonial Speaking 378 Introductions 378 ● Toasts 379 ● Award Presentations 379 ● Nominations 380 ● Acceptances 380 ● Keynote Addresses 381 ● Commencement Addresses 382 ● Commemorative Addresses and Tributes 382 ● Eulogies 383

After-Dinner Speaking: Using Humor Effectively 383

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LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Dave Barry 384

Humorous Topics 384 ● Humorous Stories 385 ● Humorous Verbal Strategies 386 ● Humorous Nonverbal Strategies 387

STUDY GUIDE 388

SPEECH WORKSHOP Introducing a Speaker 389

Epilogue 390

Speaking in Small Groups 392 Solving Problems in Groups and Teams 393

1. Identify and Define the Problem 393 ● 2. Analyze the Problem 394 ● 3. Generate Possible Solutions 394 ● 4. Select the Best Solution 395 ● 5. Test and Implement the Solution 395

Participating in Small Groups 395 Come Prepared for Group Discussions 395 ● Do Not Suggest Solutions before Analyzing the Problem 396 ● Evaluate Evidence 396 ● Help Summarize the Group’s Progress 396 ● Listen and Respond Courteously to Others 396 ● Help Manage Conflict 396

Leading Small Groups 397 Leadership Responsibilities 397 ● Leadership Styles 398

Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400 I Have a Dream, Martin Luther King Jr. 400 Delivering the Gift of Freedom to Future Generations (Inaugural Address), Barack Obama 402 Find Your Passion, and Find a Way to Get Paid to Follow It, Anne Lynam Goddard 406 Sticky Ideas: Low-Tech Solutions to a High-Tech Problem, Richard L. Weaver, II 410

Land of the Free Because of the Homeless, Shaunna Miller 414

Endnotes 417 Index 431

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The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach is writ-ten to be the primary text in a course intended to help students become bet-ter public speakers. We are delighted that since the first edition of the book was published two decades ago, educators and students of public speaking have found our book a distinctively useful resource to enhance public-speaking skills. We’ve worked to make our latest edition a preeminent resource for helping students enhance their speaking skills by adding new features and retaining the most success- ful elements of previous editions.

New to the Eighth Edition We’ve refined and updated the book you are holding in your hands to create a pow- erful and contemporary resource for helping speakers connect to their audience. We’ve added several new features and revised features that both instructors and stu- dents have praised.

Streamlined Organization In response to suggestions from instructors who use the book, we’ve consolidated re- lated topics to reduce the book to a total of 16 chapters, allowing instructors to in- clude every chapter during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now offers a preview of the audience-centered speaking model as well as introducing students to the history and value of public speaking and starting the process of building their confidence as public speakers. Chapter 6 now not only shows stu- dents how to gather sup- porting material, but also immediately provides them advice and examples for ef- fective ways to integrate their supporting materials into a speech.

Preface

Learn, compare,

collect the

facts! . . . Always

have the courage to

say to yourself—

I am ignorant.

—IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV

132

Sources of Supporting Material Personal Knowledge and

Experience The Internet Online Databases Traditional Library Holdings Interviews

Research Strategies Develop a Preliminary Bibliography Locate Resources Assess the Usefulness of Resources

Take Notes Identify Possible Presentation Aids

Types of Supporting Material Illustrations Descriptions and Explanations Definitions Analogies Statistics Opinions

The Best Supporting Material

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6 Gathering and UsingSupporting Material

A pple pie is your specialty. Your family and friends relish your flaky crust,spicy filling, and crunchy crumb topping. Fortunately, not only do you havea never-fail recipe and technique, but you also know where to go for the best ingredients. Fette’s Orchard has the tangiest pie apples in town. For your crust,

you use only Premier shortening, which you buy at Meyer’s Specialty Market. Your

crumb topping requires both stone-ground whole-wheat flour and fresh creamery

butter, available on Tuesdays at the farmer’s market on the courthouse square.

Chapter 6 covers the speech-development step highlighted in Figure 6.1 on

page 134: Gather Supporting Material. Just as making your apple pie requires

that you know where to find specific ingredients, creating a successful speech re-

quires a knowledge of the sources, research strategies, and types of supporting

material that speechmakers typically use.

After studying this chapter you should be able to do the following:

1. List five potential sources of supporting material for a speech.

2. Explain five strategies for a logical research process.

3. List and describe six types of supporting material.

4. List and explain six criteria for determining the best supporting material to use in a speech.

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Alexandra Exter (1882–1949), Sketch for a Scenic Design, ca. 1924, gouache on paper. Photo: M. E. Smith/Private Collection. © DeA Picture Library/Art Resource, N. Y.

xxiii

xxiv Preface

Updated Features In the eighth edition, we have added more marginal Recap boxes and tables to summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. Students can use the Recaps and tables to check their understanding, review for exams, and to reference key advice as they prepare their speeches.

New End-of-Chapter Study Guides We’ve provided a new, consolidated Study Guide at the end of each chapter. This practical feature helps students to review and check their understanding of chapter topics. The Study Guide summarizes the content of each major section of the chapter; restates the chapter’s best ideas for being an audience-centered speaker; poses discussion- sparking scenarios that show how chapter concepts might apply in real speaking and ethical situations; and points readers in the direction of relevant online resources that they can use as speakers.

Purposes of Introductions It is important to begin and end your speech in a way that is memorable and that also provides the repetition audiences need. A good introduction gets the audience’s attention, gives the audience a reason to listen, intro- duces your subject, establishes your credibility, and pre- views your main ideas.

Introducing your subject and previewing the body of your speech can be accomplished by includ- ing your central idea and preview statement in the introduction.

Being Audience-Centered ● Introductions and conclusions provide audiences

with important first and final impressions of speaker and speech.

● As a speaker, your task is to ensure that your in- troduction convinces your audience to listen to you.

● A credible speaker is one whom the audience judges to be a believable authority and a compe-

k E bli hi dibili l i

Being Audience-Centered ● If your audience is linguistically diverse or com-

posed primarily of listeners whose first language is not English, it may be preferable not to use humor in your introduction. Because much humor is cre- ated verbally, it may not be readily understood and it rarely translates well.

Using What You’ve Learned ● Nakai is planning to give his informative speech on

Native American music, displaying and demon- strating the use of such instruments as the flute, the Taos drum, and the Yaqui rain stick. He asks you to suggest a good introduction for the speech. How do you think he might best introduce his speech?

A Question of Ethics ● Marty and Shanna, who are in the same section of a

public-speaking class, are discussing their upcoming speeches. Marty has discovered an illustration that she thinks will make an effective introduction. When she tells Shanna about it, Shanna is genuinely enthu- siastic In fact she thinks it would make a great in-

STUDY GUIDE

198 CHAPTER 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech

TABLE 4.3 Adapting Your Message to Different Types of Audiences

Type of Audience Example How to Be Audience-Centered

Interested Mayors who attend a talk by the gov- ernor about increasing security and reducing the threat of terrorism

Acknowledge audience interest early in your speech; use the interest they have in you and your topic to gain and maintain their attention.

Uninterested Junior-high students attending a lecture about retirement benefits

Make it a high priority to tell your lis- teners why your message should be of interest to them. Remind your listeners throughout your speech how your mes- sage relates to their lives.

Favorable A religious group that meets to hear a group leader talk about the importance of their beliefs

Use audience interest to move them closer to your speaking goal; you may be more explicit in telling them in your speech conclusion what you would like them to do.

Unfavorable Students who attend a lecture by the university president explaining why tuition and fees will increase 15 percent next year

Be realistic in what you expect to ac- complish; acknowledge listeners’ oppos- ing point of view; consider using facts to refute misperceptions they may hold.

Voluntary Parents attending a lecture by the new principal at their children’s school

Anticipate why listeners are coming to hear you, and speak about the issues they want you to address.

Captive Students in a public-speaking class Find out who will be in your audience and use this knowledge to adapt your message to them.

We’ve updated the extended example that appears in Developing Your Speech Step by Step boxes throughout the book. We’ve also updated our popular Learning from Great Speakers features, which identify specific tips and lessons students can learn from great speakers, and our practical Speech Workshop worksheets, which end each chapter and guide students in implementing chapter advice. These worksheets are designed as aids to help students with what they are most concerned about: developing and delivering their own speeches with confidence.

New Speeches We’ve added new annotated student speeches and speech examples throughout the book. In addition, nearly every speech in our revised Appendix B is new, selected to provide readers with a variety of positive models of effective speeches.

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P Adapting to Your Audience To ethically use information to help an audience understand your message, consider your:

• listeners

• speech goal

• speech content

• delivery

Avoid pandering to listeners or making up information.

Organizing Your Ideas Use this worksheet to help you identify the overall organizational strategy for your speech.

GENERAL PURPOSE:

____ To inform

____ To persuade

____ To entertain

SPECIFIC PURPOSE:

At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to ___________________________

SPEECH WORKSHOP 180 CHAPTER 7 Developing Your Speech

Preface xxv

New Examples and Illustrations New examples and illustrations integrated in every chapter provide both classic and contemporary models to help students master the art of public speaking. As in previous editions, we draw on both stu- dent speeches and speeches delivered by well-known people.

New Material in Every Chapter In addition to these new and expanded features, each chapter has been revised with new examples, illustrations, and references to the latest research conclusions. Here’s a summary of the changes and revisions we’ve made:

Chapter 1: Speaking with Confidence ● The chapter now includes a preview of the audience-centered speaking

process to offer a more complete introduction to public speaking. ● New research on biological causes and effects of speech anxiety provides

advice for channeling physiological arousal in ways that help the speaker. ● A new discussion of anxiety styles helps readers choose confidence-building

tips that are most effective for their style. ● A new figure and a new discussion of the timing of speech anxiety help speak-

ers to time their use of confidence-building strategies for maximum effect.

Chapter 2: Speaking Freely and Ethically ● A revised and updated discussion of free speech helps students understand

the evolution of interpretation of the First Amendment. ● New examples throughout the chapter keep material current and relevant to

readers. ● A new section, Speaking Credibly, reinforces the importance of ethics and

remaining audience-centered and connects concepts across chapters of the book.

Chapter 3: Listening to Speeches ● A new introduction to working memory theory helps students understand

how to cope with information overload that can impede listening. ● A new summary of research on the importance of awareness of one’s own

listening guides students to assess how well they stay on-task as listeners. ● The chapter is streamlined by removing discussion of note-taking, a skill

most students at this level have learned in other contexts. ● A new Listening Ethically section helps to reinforce the importance of ethics

introduced in the previous chapter.

Chapter 4: Analyzing Your Audience ● Our discussion of methods for gathering information has been updated to

include use of the Internet and social media. ● New definitions of race, ethnicity, and culture help readers to clarify the im-

portance of adapting to the audience’s cultural diversity.

Chapter 5: Developing Your Speech ● A new speech, in the Developing Your Speech Step by Step featured in several

chapters, provides an extended example of how to implement audience- centered speechmaking concepts.

Speech Assignment Given

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You Begin Your Speech

Speech

High

Low

● Updated lists of potential speech topics can spark students’ own topic brainstorms. ● New material helps students to clarify and distinguish among the general purpose,

specific purpose, and central idea of their speeches. ● New examples throughout the chapter keep material current and relevant to readers.

Chapter 6: Gathering and Using Supporting Material ● This streamlined chapter combines two previously separate chapters to show students

not only where to find supporting material but also how to most effectively use the material they find.

● A thoroughly updated section on sources of information guides students to use Inter- net sources, online databases, traditional library holdings and more, without rehashing research basics students have learned in other contexts.

● The revised end-of-chapter Speech Workshop offers students structured guidance for planning their use of supporting materials.

Chapter 7: Organizing Your Speech ● New examples provide clear demonstrations of how to use popular organizational

patterns, establish main ideas, integrate supporting material, and signal transitions with signposts.

Chapter 8: Introducing and Concluding Your Speech ● New examples of effective introductions and conclusions from both student and

seasoned speakers show students how to implement the techniques described in the chapter.

Chapter 9: Outlining and Revising Your Speech

● We’ve moved our discussion of editing to Chapter 10, where it helps students to focus on the process of rehearsing with a preparation outline as a way to guide them in revising their speeches.

● We’ve included a new Sample Preparation Outline and Delivery Outline to give students complete models of the best practices in organization and revision.

Chapter 10: Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style

● A discussion of editing your speech, formerly in Chapter 9, helps students to under- stand how to make their speeches more effective by keeping their words concise.

● New examples throughout the chapter clarify discussions of memorable word struc- tures, including similes, metaphors, inversion, suspension, parallelism, antithesis, and alliteration.

Chapter 11: Delivering Your Speech

● New information offers guidance in using eye contact effectively. ● A new table summarizes recommendations for working with a translator when speak-

ing to audiences who do not speak English. ● We’ve streamlined the chapter by removing discussion of adapting speech delivery for

television. ● A revised end-of-chapter Speech Workshop offers students structured guidance for

evaluating how to improve their speech delivery.

xxvi Preface

Chapter 12: Using Presentation Aids ● Updated information on two-dimensional presentation aids suggests more effective,

economical technological alternatives when using photographs, slides, and overhead transparencies.

● We’ve added new information on the latest research about using PowerPoint™. ● New discussions of using video aids and audio aids include references to current stor-

age technology, such as iPods and iPads, as well as current content sources, such as YouTube.

Chapter 13: Speaking to Inform ● A new section shows readers how to appeal to a variety of listener learning styles when

speaking to inform. ● Another new section shows the applicability of every step of the audience-centered

model of public speaking to informative speeches.

Chapter 14: Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking ● A clarified definition helps students to understand key elements of persuasion. ● New and expanded discussion of ELM persuasion theory and how it compares to Aris-

totle’s classical theory focuses on how persuasive speakers can effectively apply both theories.

● A new discussion and figure on social judgment theory help students to apply theoret- ical concepts to their own real-life speaking situations.

● An expanded section How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech shows students how to apply every step of the audience-centered speaking model to their persuasive speeches.

Chapter 15: Using Persuasive Strategies ● Our updated discussion of credibility helps students to plan how to establish and sup-

port their own credibility at various phases of their speech. ● New examples help to clarify explanations of strategies for organizing persuasive

messages, including refutation, cause and effect, and the motivated sequence. ● A new Sample Persuasive Speech gives students a complete model of how to use the

motivated sequence and other principles of persuasion.

Chapter 16: Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes ● New chapter opening examples reinforce the value of public speaking with dollars-

and-cents evidence. ● New examples throughout the chapter demonstrate models of speeches for ceremonial

occasions including award acceptances, commencement addresses, and eulogies, as well as humorous speaking.

Successful Features Retained in This Edition The goal of the eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach remains the same as that of the previous seven editions: to be a practical and user-friendly guide to help speakers connect their hearts and minds with those of their listeners. While adding powerful new features and content to help students become skilled public speakers, we have also endeavored

Preface xxvii

to keep what students and instructors liked best. Specifically, we retained five areas of focus that have proven successful in previous editions: our audience-centered approach; our focus on over- coming communication apprehension; our focus on ethics; our focus on diversity; and our focus on skill development. We also continue our partnership with instructors and students by offer- ing a wide array of print and electronic supplements to support teaching and learning.

Our Audience-Centered Approach The distinguishing focus of the book is our audience-centered approach. Over 2,300 years ago, Aristotle said, “For of the three elements in speechmaking—speaker, subject, and person ad- dressed—it is the last one, the hearer, that determines the speaker’s end and object.” We think Aristotle was right. A good speech centers on the needs, values, and hopes of the audience, who should be foremost in the speaker’s mind during every step of the speech development and de- livery process. Thus, in a very real sense, the audience writes the speech. Effective and ethical public speaking does not simply tell listeners only what they want to hear—that would be a manipulative, speaker-centered approach. Rather, the audience-centered speaker is ethically responsive to audience interests without abandoning the speaker’s end and object.

It is not unusual or distinctive for a public-speaking book to discuss audience analysis. What is unique about our audience-centered approach is that our discussion of audience analy- sis and adaptation is not confined to a single chapter; rather, we emphasize the importance of considering the audience throughout our entire discussion of the speech preparation and delivery process. From the opening overview of the public-speaking process until the final chapter, we illuminate the positive power of helping students relate to their audience by keep- ing their listeners foremost in mind.

Preparing and delivering a speech also involves a sequence of steps. Our audience-centered model integrates the step-by-step process of speech preparation and delivery with the ongoing

process of considering the audience. Our audience-centered model of public speaking, shown here and intro- duced in Chapter 1, reappears throughout the text to remind students of the

steps involved in speech preparation and delivery, while simultaneously emphasizing the importance of considering the audience. Viewing the

model as a clock, the speaker begins the process at the 12 o’clock position with “Select and Narrow Topic” and moves around the

model clockwise to “Deliver Speech.” Each step of the speech preparation and delivery process touches the center portion of the model, labeled “Consider the Audience.” Arrows connect- ing the center with each step of the process illustrate how the audience influences each of the steps involved in designing and presenting a speech. Arrows pointing in both directions around the central process of “Consider the Audience” repre- sent how a speaker may sometimes revise a previous step be-

cause of further information or thought about the audience. A speaker may, for example, decide after having gathered support-

ing material for a speech that he or she needs to go back and revise the speech purpose. Visual learners will especially appreciate the

illustration of the entire public-speaking process provided by the model. The colorful, easy-to-understand synopsis will also be appreci-

ated by people who learn best by having an overview of the entire process before beginning the first step of speech preparation.

After introducing the model in the very first chapter of the book, we continue to emphasize the centrality of considering the audience by revisiting it at appropriate points throughout the book. A highlighted version of the model appears in several chapters, as a visual reminder of the place the chapter’s topic occupies in the audience-centered speech- making process. Similarly, highlighted versions appear in Developing Your Speech Step by Step boxes. Another visual reminder comes in the form of a miniature version of the model, the icon shown here in the margin. When you see this icon, it will remind you that the material

xxviii Preface

Deliver Speech

Generate Main Ideas

Develop Central

Idea

Gather Supporting

Material

Select and Narrow Topic

Rehearse Speech

Determine Purpose

Organize Speech

CONSIDER THE

AUDIENCE

CONSIDER THE

AUDIENCE

presented has special significance for considering your audience.

Our Focus on Communication Apprehension One of the biggest barriers that keeps a speaker, especially a novice public speaker, from connecting to his or her audience is apprehension. Fear of failure, forgetting, or fumbling words is a major distraction. In this edition, we help students to overcome their apprehension of speaking to others by focusing on their listeners rather than on their fear. We’ve updated and expanded our discussion of communication appre- hension in Chapter 1, adding the most contemporary research conclusions we can find to help stu- dents overcome the anxiety that many people experience when speaking publicly. To help students integrate confidence-boosting strategies through their study of public speaking, we offer students powerful pointers for managing anxiety in the Confidently Connecting with Your Audience features found in the margins of each chapter. To provide yet additional help for managing apprehension, we’ve distilled several seminal ideas keyed to our audience-centered model on the inside back cover. So, from Chapter 1 until the literal last page in the book, we help stu- dents manage their apprehension.

Our Focus on Ethics Being audience-centered does not mean that a speaker tells an audience only what they want to hear; if you are not true to your own values, you will have become a manipulative, unethical communicator rather than an audience-centered one. Audience-centered speakers articulate truthful messages that give audience members free choice in responding to a message, while they also use effective means of ensuring message clarity and credibility.

From the first chapter onward, we link being an audience-centered speaker with being an ethical speaker. Our principles and strategies for being rhetorically skilled are anchored in eth- ical principles that assist speakers in articulating a message that connects with their audience. We not only devote an entire chapter (Chapter 2) to being an ethical speaker, but we also offer reminders, tips, and strategies for making ethical speaking and listening an integral part of human communication. As part of the Study Guide at the end of each chapter, students and in- structors will find questions to spark discussion about and raise awareness of ethical issues in effective speechmaking.

Our Focus on Diversity Just as the topic of audience analysis is covered in most public-speaking textbooks, so is diversity. Sometimes diversity is discussed in a separate chapter; sometimes it is presented in “diversity boxes” sprinkled throughout a book. We choose to address diversity not as an add-on to the main discussion but rather as an integral part of being an audience-centered speaker. To be audience- centered is to acknowledge the various ethnic and cultural backgrounds, attitudes, beliefs, values, and other differences present when people assemble to hear a speech. We suggest that inherent in the process of being audience-centered is a focus on the diverse nature of listeners in contempo- rary audiences. The topic of adapting to diverse audiences is therefore not a boxed afterthought but is integrated into every step of our audience-centered approach.

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how much work is done on the gas in the process shown in the figure ?

70 J of work are done on the gas in the process shown in the figure. What is V_f in cm^3 ? I have a graph but I can’t post it here. My values are W=70J P=200kPa which is 200000Pa
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Suppose that 4.7 moles of a monatomic ideal gas (atomic mass = 8.5 × 10^-27 kg) are heated from 300K to 500K at a constant volume of 0.47 m^3. It may help you to recall that CVCV = 12.47 J/K/mole and CPCP = 20.79 J/K/mole for a monatomic ideal gas, and

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Physics
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An ideal gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston on top of it. The piston has a mass of 8,000 g and an area of 5.00 cm2 and is free to slide up and down, keeping the pressure of the gas constant. (a) How much work is done on the gas as the

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An ideal gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston on top of it. The piston has a mass of 8,000 g and an area of 5.00 cm2 and is free to slide up and down, keeping the pressure of the gas constant. (a) How much work is done on the gas as the

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A gas is confined to a container with a massless piston at the top. (Part C figure) A massless wire is attached to the piston. When an external pressure of 2.00 atm is applied to the wire, the gas compresses from 4.90 to 2.45 L. When the external pressure

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asked by Billy on February 9, 2016
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when 1240 J of heat are added to one mole of an ideal monatomic gas its temperature increases from 273K to 277K. Find the work done by the gas during the process.

asked by tired on November 12, 2013

physics
when 1240 J of heat are added to one mole of an ideal monatomic gas its temperature increases from 273K to 277K. Find the work done by the gas during the process.

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An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 6635 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

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An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 6635 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

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chemistry
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An ideal gas was slowly compressed at constant temperature to one-half it’s original volume. In the process, 150 kcal of heat was given off. How much work was done by the gas (in joules)?

asked by Austin on February 19, 2019
chemistry
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 8305 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by sam on October 27, 2016
chemistry
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 8905 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by cassie on June 21, 2012
chemistry
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 6365 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by meg on February 23, 2015
chemistry
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 °C to 225 °C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 8305 J. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by sam on October 27, 2016
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An ideal gas unergoes a cycle of processes as shown in d p-v diagram gases, which statement correctly escribe the situation a. The internal energy of the gas increases over one complete cycle b. Over the entire cycle, work is done by the gas. C. The gas

asked by Mutiyat on April 23, 2015

physics question
How much heat had to be put in during the process to increase the internal energy of the gas by 1.50×10^4 J ? Here is the given information and questions that I have already answered: n=.450 R=8.3145 (Point A) p=210^5 v=.010 (Point B) p=510^5 v=.070

asked by marie on December 9, 2007
Thermodynamics again.
For the following problem… I found the second pressure by solving P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2. The Volumes is const so those cancel and then i am able to find the P2. From there i looked at the 1st law and came up with delt U = Qin which = mCvdelta T but that is

asked by jody on June 16, 2007
Physics
A cylinder contains the helium gas with a volume of 0.1 m3 at a pressure of 220 kPa. The gas is compressed to a volume of 0.02 m3. The process is adiabatic and the specific heat ratio of the gas is 1.66. Determine (a) the pressure in the cylinder after

asked by Dia on December 18, 2011
Chemistry
A sample of carbon monoxide gas whose mass is 6.37 g is heated from 25 oC to 192 oC at a constant pressure of 4.12 bar. Calculate q (in J) for this process. I got an answer of ~1110J Calculate w (in J) for this process. I am unsure how to calculate work

asked by David on January 24, 2012
physics
Air is being compressed in a cylinder with a volume of 0.025 m^3 under a constant pressure of 3.0*10^5 Pa and the volume of the air in the cylinder is reduced to 0.020 m^3. a. By how much is the volume of the air reduced? b. How much work is done in the

asked by anonymous on February 19, 2007
physics
The temperature of 6.80 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 12.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by san on November 11, 2010
thermal physics
The temperature of 7.10 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ÄEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ÄK in

asked by chirayu on April 9, 2009
physics
The temperature of 4.60 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by tony on April 21, 2011
physics
The temperature of 7.10 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ÄEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ÄK in

asked by sweety on April 8, 2009
physics
The temperature of 2.10 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 17.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by Anonymous on April 23, 2012

physics
The temperature of 4.60 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by niki on April 22, 2011
physics
The temperature of 7.10 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ÄEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ÄK in

asked by sweety on April 8, 2009
physics
The temperature of 4.60 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K in an adiabatic process. What are (a) the work W done by the gas, (b) the energy transferred as heat Q, (c) the change ΔEint in internal energy of the gas, and (d) the change ΔK in

asked by tony on April 21, 2011
chemistry
calculate the internal energy change for each of the following. a. one hundred(100.)joules of work are required to compress a gas. at the same time the gas releases 23 J of heat. b. a piston is compressed from a volume of 8.30 L to 2.80 L against a

asked by kathy on March 11, 2008
physics
We start with 5.00 moles of an ideal monatomic gas with an initial temperature of 123C. The gas expands and, in the process, absorbs an amount of heat equal to 1300J and does an amount of work equal to 2040J. What is the final temperature of the gas? Use

asked by Annie on October 4, 2009
Physics
The process shown on the PV diagram is A P – V graph with a vertical line with an arrow pointing up.The process shown on the PV diagram is: adiabatic. isothermal. isochoric isobaric.

asked by ayala on February 4, 2014
College Physics
The rms speed of the molecules in 1.7 g of hydrogen gas is 1700 m/s. What is the total translational kinetic energy of the gas molecules? What is the thermal energy of the gas? 500 J of work are done to compress the gas while, in the same process, 1700 J

asked by Helly on April 26, 2010
Physics
A gas is sealed in a container with rigid walls that allow heat to flow through them. A thermal process takes place on the gas. What would be the best model for the type of process?

asked by Peter on June 21, 2012
chemistry
A 7.56-g sample of gas is in a balloon that has a volume of 10.5 L. Under an external pressure of 1.05 atm, the balloon expands to a volume of 15.00 L. Then the gas is heated from 0.00 degree C to 25 C. If the specific heat of the gas is 0.909 J/g*C, what

asked by Devin on July 13, 2013
chemistry
How many liters of CO2 gas are contained in a 3.16 liters of a gas mixture which is 8.1% (v/v) CO2? They never gave us the formula or a process to figure this out in class. Will you please help?

asked by Anon on November 13, 2014

Physics
A sample of helium behaves as an ideal gas as it is heated at constant pressure from 273 K to 353 K. If 25.0 J of work is done by the gas during this process, what is the mass of helium present?

asked by Sean on May 13, 2011
Physics
A gas is taken though a single process in which its volume decreases by .25 m^3 as the temp of the gas rises 2deg C. Which of the following people are more likely to have reached the correct conclusion? a. Bob Identifies this process as adiabatic b. Jill

asked by Joel on November 30, 2010
Chemistry
An 80.0 g sample of a gas was heated from 25 degree C to 225 degree C. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 7495 J. What is the specific heat of the gas? J/(g∗C)

asked by Nate on October 22, 2013
Physics
A sample of helium behaves as an ideal gas as it is heated at constant pressure from 273 K to 373 K. If 15.0 J of work is done by the gas during this process, what is the mass of helium present? I am not sure what equations to use for this problem….

asked by Katy on May 4, 2010
Physics
What is the gas pressure inside the box shown in the figure? I have a picture but website wouldn’t allow me to post the link for the picture. So I am trying my best to describe it. it is a u-shape tube and it is holding mercury in it. One side has 16cm of

asked by ana on November 15, 2009
physics
A cylinder that has a 40.0 cm radius and is 50.0 cm deep is filled with air at 20.0°C and 1.00 atm shown in figure (a). A 25.0 kg piston is now lowered into the cylinder, compressing the air trapped inside shown in figure (b). Finally, a 71.0 kg man

asked by loli on February 15, 2011
chemistry
300 milimole of perfect gas occupies 13 lit at 320 k ,calculate the work done in joule ,when the gasexpands A)isothermally against a constant pressure of .20 atm Isothermal and reversible process c)Into vaccum until volume of gas is increased by 3 ltr

asked by Dhruvi on December 8, 2016
stat mech
how to solve this problem 3. Five moles of an ideal monatomic gas with an initial temperature of 127 °C expand and, in the process, absorb 1200 J of heat and do 2100 J of work. What is the final temperature of the gas?

asked by acinad on June 23, 2014
Chemistry
Given that W = -PatmΔV, if a gas expands into a vacuum, the sign of W is ? 1. Positive: work is being done on the gas 2. Negative: work is being done on the gas 3. Positive: work is being done by the gas 4. Negative: work is being done by the gas 5. ZERO:

asked by Melodie on June 21, 2016
Physics
There is gas in a gas container. A valve on the container will be opened and a quarter of the gas quantity will be released to the outer range. Due to this process the temperature of the gas will be decreased by 20%. What is the decrease of the gas

asked by Buma on October 22, 2017

Physics
The two ropes shown in the bird’s-eye view of (Figure 1) are used to drag a crate 3.7 m across the floor. How much work is done by the force fk→? How much work is done by the force T1→? How much work is done by the force T2→?

asked by Tommy on July 22, 2015
statistics
An engineering company believes it has developed a faster way to complete the assembly of an industrial machine. The present process takes an average of 6.5 hours to complete and the times it takes to complete the process are approximately normally

asked by amy on November 29, 2011
Physics
A 1250 kg car traveling at 20 m/s suddenly runs out of gas while approaching the valley shown in the figure below. What will be the car’s speed as it coasts into the gas station on the other side of the valley? (Assume that no energy is loss to friction.)

asked by jack on December 10, 2014
Biology
Hi Im just wondering what are the similarites and differences between gas exchange and cellular respiration ? similarities: Both are involved in energy production. Gas x supplies o2 to the mito which creates usable energy for the body. differences;

asked by Jim_R on July 6, 2009
physics
A pendulum clock that works perfectly on Earth is taken to the Moon. (a)Does it run fast or slow there? (b) if the clock is started at 12:00:00 am, what will it read after one Earth day(24hrs)? Assume that the free-fall acceleration on the Moon is 1.63

asked by steph on March 21, 2007
Chemistry
An oil whose density is 0.775g/mL was used in a open-end manometer to measure the pressure of a gas in a flask, as shown in figure (b). If the height of the oil column is 7.68cm and Pbar = 760.0mmHg. What is the pressure of the gas in the flask in mmHg?

asked by Chris on November 18, 2011
Physics
Two massless springs (S1 and S2) are arranged such that one hangs vertically downward and the other is vertically upward, as shown in figure (a). When a 0.275-kg mass is suspended from S1, it stretches by an amount Δx1 = 0.062 m, as shown in figure (b).

asked by Anonymous on October 23, 2014
Chemistry
Consider an ideal gas encloesd in a 1.00 L container at an internal pressure of 10.0 atm. Calculate the work, w, if the gas expands against a constant external pressure of 1.00 atm to a final volume of 20.0 L. w = __ J now calculate the work done if this

asked by Eric on February 9, 2012
Physics
Two equal-volume compartments of a box are joined by a thin wall as shown in the figure. The left compartment is filled with 0.050 mole of helium gas at 403 K, and the right compartment contains 0.025 mole of helium gas at 213 K. The right compartment also

asked by Lyra on February 3, 2014
Chem 1
An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 degrees celsius to 225 degrees celsius. During this process, 346j of work was done by the system and its internal energy increased by 7785j. What is the specific heat of the gas?

asked by wen on April 1, 2014

thermo
Consider a cylinder containing air at 1200 kPa and 350 C and then, the air is expanded to 140 kPa with a reversible adiabatic process. Calculate the speci c work (kJ=Kg) done by the gas. Assume calorically perfect gas.

asked by john on March 30, 2010
thermo
Consider a cylinder containing air at 1200 kPa and 350 C and then, the air is expanded to 140 kPa with a reversible adiabatic process. Calculate the speci c work (kJ=Kg) done by the gas. Assume calorically perfect gas

asked by john on March 31, 2010
Chemistry
An open-ended mercury manometer is used to measure the pressure exerted by a trapped gas as shown in the figure. Atmospheric pressure is 750. mmHg. What is the pressure (in mmHg or torr) of the trapped gas if h =23 cm? I got 893.462, but that wasn’t right.

asked by Anonymous on December 5, 2012
Physics
The Spinning Figure Skater. The outstretched hands and arms of a figure skater preparing for a spin can be considered a slender rod pivoting about an axis through its center . When his hands and arms are brought in and wrapped around his body to execute

asked by Karla on March 27, 2007
phys hmwk help
A gas is taken though a single process in which its volume decreases by .25 m^3 as the temp of the gas rises 2deg C. Which of the following people are more likely to have reached the correct conclusion? a. Bob ids this process as adiabatic b. Jill ids this

asked by Jarod on November 14, 2010

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simplify the rational expression. state any restrictions on the variable.

Simplify the rational expression. State any restrictions on the variable.

(n^4-11n^2+30)/(n ^4 -7n^2+10)

My answer is

n^2-6/n^2-2 except +-sqrt5 and +-sqrt2

0 0 1,113
asked by steve
Feb 6, 2017
(n^4-11n^2+30)/(n ^4 -7n^2+10)
numberator roots:
n^2=11+-sqrt(121-120) /2
=11+-1 /2= 6,5
(n^2-6)(n^2-5)
roots of denominator (by insptection,5,2
(n^2-5)(N^2-2)

so you are left with (n^2-6)/(n^2-2)

you are correct

0 0
👨‍🏫
bobpursley
Feb 6, 2017
Thank you very much

0 0
posted by steve
Feb 6, 2017

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jiskha

  1. Find the measure of <s.

63�‹
153�‹
68�‹
148�‹

  1. If a and b are parallel lines, and m�Ú3 = 128�‹, what is the measure of <8?

134�‹
52�‹
54�‹
49�‹


  1. Select the measure of the complement or supplement of the angle. If there is no complement or supplement, select no complement or supplement.

55.1�‹

124.9�‹
119.9�‹
49.9�‹
no complement or supplement

  1. The measure of <4 is 125�‹. Find the measure of <1.

50�‹
130�‹
125�‹
55�‹

0 0 1,375
asked by Princess Anna
Jan 28, 2014
Number three was already answered. Why did you repost it?

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Jan 28, 2014
http://www.jiskha.com/display.cgi?id=1390879720

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Jan 28, 2014
I didn’t know somebody posted the same thing!

0 0
posted by Princess Anna
Jan 28, 2014
Is 1# 63

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 4, 2016

number one is 63

0 0
posted by Cute-kitty101
Feb 9, 2016
what number 2

0 0
posted by Laila
Feb 16, 2016

2 is b 153

0 0
posted by dab on em 🙂
May 3, 2016
So wats the answers???

0 0
posted by Anonymous
May 10, 2016
Anyone got the answers?

0 0
posted by Ethan is Bae and I have no friends
Jan 13, 2017

1.A
2.B
3.A
4.D
100%

8 0
posted by Momo
Jan 18, 2017
1.A
2.B
3.A
4.D
100%
Momo is right

7 1
posted by anndreana
Jan 18, 2017
1.A
2.B
3.A
4.D
100 percent correct

6 1
posted by – Anonymous
Jan 29, 2017
1.A
2.B
3.A
4.D
100 percent correct

6 2
posted by kaliyah
Feb 6, 2018
Find the complement of an angle with measure 72°. the answer to this is 18 because 90°-72° = 18°

18° is the measure of the ‘complement’… of an angle with measure 72°

0 0
posted by iamiphoneluverioi
Apr 24, 2018

Thanks, guys <3

0 0
posted by Vaeh <3
Jan 23, 2019

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which of the following statements is true about the internet?

Which of the following statements is true?

All search engines will provide the same results when you enter the same query.

All search engines use the same amount of advertisements.

Some search engines are also browsers. (MY ANSWER)

Search engines often provide different results, even when you enter the same query.

1 0 449
asked by LOVE
Feb 24, 2016
I think there is a better answer.

0 0
posted by Reed
Feb 24, 2016
a
c
d
c

1 0
posted by JAZZZZMIN
Mar 28, 2017
jazzzzmin is right i got a 100

1 0
posted by hmmmmmmm?
Feb 9, 2018
thx jasmine much appreciated

0 0
posted by :}
Apr 3, 2018

what number is that

0 0
posted by hi
Sep 17, 2018
Thanks. Jazz

0 0
posted by Elijah
Oct 24, 2018

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ksp of calcium iodate

“Determination of a Solubility Product Constant”

Purpose of Experiment:

According to the textbook, the purpose of this experiment is to determine the solubility product constant Ksp for Ca(IO3)2.xH2O by investigating the dissolved iodate ion concentration in saturated solutions of calcium iodate.

Procedure:

First we added 50 mL of 0.240 M KI, 10 mL of Ca(IO3)2 in water solution 1 and 10 mL of 1 M HCl to a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask for each trail. Adding the components will make the solution turn brown. Moreover, we had to set up a buret and titrate Na2S2O3 until the solution turns into a yellow. Then finally add 10 drops of 1% starch indicator which will turn the solution to blue-black and we kept titrating until the solution just turns colorless. Then we recorded all buret readings. To sum, we repeated the procedure about 4 to 6 times until we obtained the accurate values.

Then we will make titrations of saturated calcium iodate in KIO3. Add 50 mL of 0.240 M KI, 10 mL of Ca(IO3)2 in KIO3 (solution 2) and 10 mL of 1 M HCl to a 250 mL erlenmeyer flask. The solution will turn to brown. Then we set up a buret and titrate Na2S2O3 until the solution turns to yellow. Then finally add 10 drops of 1% starch indicator which will change the solution to dark blue and keep titrating until the solution just turns colorless. And we recorded all the buret readings.

Observation:

After we added all the components to the Erlenmeyer flask, the solution turned to brown and by titrating Na2S2O3, the solution turned to yellow and finally we add the starch indicator and we also will continue titrating until the solution turns colorless.

Data for the saturated Calcium Iodate titration in water (Solution 1):

1234
Final Buret Reading10.5mL25 mL30.5X
Initial Buret Reading0 mL10.5 mL25.5X
Vol. of Na2S2O3 used10.5 mL14.5 mL5.5X
[Na2S2O3]0.05 L0.05 L0.05X
1234
mol S2O32-5.22*10^-4L7.25*10^-4L2.75*10^-4LX
mol IO3-8.75*10^-5L1.208*10^-4L4.583*10^-5LX
vol. of Ca(IO3)20.01L0.01L0.01LX
[IO3-]8.75*10^-3L1.208*10^-2L4.583*10^-3LX
[Ca2+]4.375*10^-3L6.04*10^-3L2.2915*10^-3LX
Ksp3.35*10^-3L8.814*10^-7L4.813*10^-8LX

Data for saturated Calcium Iodate in KIO3 (Solution 2):

1234
Final Buret Reading28L38.548X
Initial Buret Reading028L38.5X
Vol. of Na2S2O3 used28L10.5 L9.5X
[Na2S2O3]0.050.050.05X
1234
Mol S203- reacted (L)0.0014L5.25*10^-4L4.75*10^-4LX
Mol IO3- reacted0.00023(mol)8.75*10^-57.92*10^-5X
Vol. of Ca(IO3-)2 (with KIO3) used0.01L0.01L0.01LX
Mol IO3- from KIO3.0000056(mol/L).0000056(mol/L).0000056(mol/L)X
Mol IO3- from Ca(IO3)22.44*10^-48.19*10^-57.3*10^-5X
[IO3-] from Ca(IO3)20.022448.19*10^-37.36*10^-3X
[Ca2+]1.122*10^-24.095*10^-33.68*10^-3X
Ksp5.94*10^-63.135*10^-72.31*10^-7X
Total1234
[IO3-]2.3*10^-28.75*10^-37.92*10^-3X

Conclusion:

Overall, our data indicated that Ca(IO3)2.H2O is actually more soluble in water. Since we didn’t get the accurate values from the beginning, we had to redo the experiment to get more accurate results and values. However, the Ksp Data remained constant and similar. Also, we could have used sodium iodate as another salt option. We were able to determine and investigate the [IO3-] and the [Ca2+] and refer to the values to obtain Ksp.

Questions:

Q3: It will be different because Ksp of Ca(IO3)(IO-3) and if Ca(Io2)2 in H2O then the concentration of Ca2+ and (IO-3) is higher so the value of Ksp is high.

Q4: Another salt solution that could have been used to provide a common ion effect is Cacl2.

Q5: From Le Chatelier’s principle we would predict that the molar solubility of calcium idotae would be smaller so adding CaCl2 Ca(No3)2 the equilibrium shifts towards left. Also, dirty glassware.

Q6: Saturated Solution – Chemical solution containing maximum concentration of solute dissolved in a solvent so, additional solute will not dissolve in the saturated solution.

Calculations:

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closing entries examples and solutions

Comprehensive Problem, Chapters 1-5 *Solutions for Requirements 1 and 5 are omitted in this problem

Chapter 5 Merchandising Operations

Req. 2 Comprehensive Problem Chs 1-5 St. Paul Technology

Worksheet

For the Month Ended January 31, 2012 ADJUSTED

ACCOUNT TITLE

TRIAL BALANCE ADJUSTMENTS TRIAL BALANCE INCOME STATEMENT BALANCE SHEET

DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT DEBIT CREDIT

Cash $16,260 $16,260 $16,260

Accounts receivable 18,930 18,930 18,930

Inventory 65,000 (e) $1,540 6,3460 63,460

Supplies 2,580 (a) 1,400 1,180 1,180

Building 188,090 188,090 188,090

Accum. Depre. – building

$35,300 (b) 3,800 $39,100 $39,100

Furniture 44,800 44,800 44,800

Accum. Depre. – furniture

5,500 (b) 4,600 10,100 10,100

Accounts payable 27,900 27,900 27,900

Salary payable 0 (d) 1,100 1,100 1,100

Unearned sales revenue 6,480 (c) $4,420 2,060 2,060

Note payable, long-term 85,000 85,000 85,000

Tarsus, capital 152,190 152,190 152,190

Tarsus, drawing 9,100 9,100 9,100

Sales revenue 179,930 (c) 4,420 184,350 $184,350

Sales discounts 7,100 7,100 7,100 Sales returns and allowances 8,080 8,080 8,080

Cost of goods sold 101,900 (e) 1,540 103,440 103,440

Selling expense 21,380 (a) 700 24,180 24,180

(b) 950*

(b) 1,150*

General expense 9,080 (a) 700 17,180 17,180

(b) 2,850*

(b) 3,450*

(d) 1,100

$492,300 $492,300 $16,860 $16,860 $501,800 $501,800 $159,980 $184,350 $341,820 $317,450

Net income 24,370 24,370

$184,350 $184,350 $341,820 $341,820

*Students may combine the b-1 and b-2 amounts as $2,100 Selling expense and $6,300 General expense.

Comprehensive Problem, Chapters 1-5 *Solutions for Requirements 1 and 5 are omitted in this problem

Chapter 5 Merchandising Operations

(continued) Comprehensive Problem Chs 1-5 Req. 3 (financial statements)

St. Paul Technology

Income Statement

Month Ended January 31, 2012

Revenue:

Sales revenue $184,350

Less: Sales returns and allowances

$88,080

Sales discounts 7,100 15,180

Net sales revenue $169,170

Cost of goods sold 103,440

Gross profit $65,730

Operating expenses:

Selling expense $24,180

General expense 17,180 41,360

Net income $24,370

St. James Technology

Statement of Owner’s Equity

Month Ended January 31, 2012

Tarsus, capital, January 1, 2012 $152,190

Net income 24,370

176,560

Drawing (9,100)

Tarsus, capital, January 31, 2012 $167,460

Comprehensive Problem, Chapters 1-5 *Solutions for Requirements 1 and 5 are omitted in this problem

Chapter 5 Merchandising Operations

(continued) Comprehensive Problem Chs 1-5 Req. 3 (financial statements)

St. Paul Technology

Balance Sheet

January 31, 2012

ASSETS

Current assets:

Cash $ 16,260

Accounts receivable 18,930

Inventory 63,460

Supplies 1,180

Total current assets 99,830

Plant assets:

Building $188,090

Accumulated depreciation— building

(39,100) 148,990

Furniture $44,800

Accumulated depreciation— furniture

(10,100) 34,700

Total assets $283,520

LIABILITIES

Current liabilities:

Accounts payable $27,900

Salary payable 1,100

Unearned sales revenue 2,060

Total current liabilities 31,060

Long-term liabilities:

Note payable, long-term 85,000

Total liabilities 116,060

OWNER’S EQUITY

Tarsus, capital 167,460

Total liabilities and owner’s equity $283,520

Comprehensive Problem, Chapters 1-5 *Solutions for Requirements 1 and 5 are omitted in this problem

Chapter 5 Merchandising Operations

(continued) Comprehensive Problem Chs 1-5 Req. 4 (adjusting and closing entries)

Journal Entry

DATE ACCOUNTS AND EXPLANATIONS POST. REF. DEBIT CREDIT

Adjusting Entries

2012

a. Jan 31 Selling expense 700

General expense 700

Supplies 1,400

b. 31 Selling expense 950

General expense 2,850

Accumulated depreciation—

building 3,800

b. 31 Selling expense 1,150

General expense 3,450

Accumulated depreciation—

furniture 4,600

c. 31 Unearned sales revenue 4,420

Sales revenue 4,420

d. 31 General expense 1,100

Salary payable 1,100

e. 31 Cost of goods sold 1,540

Inventory 1,540

Comprehensive Problem, Chapters 1-5 *Solutions for Requirements 1 and 5 are omitted in this problem

Chapter 5 Merchandising Operations

(continued) Comprehensive Problem Chs 1-5 Req. 4 (adjusting and closing entries)

Journal Entry

DATE ACCOUNTS AND EXPLANATIONS

POST.

REF. DEBIT CREDIT

Closing Entries

Jan 31 Sales revenue 184,350

Sales discounts 7,100

Sales returns and allowances

8,080

Income summary 169,170

31 Income summary 144,800

Cost of goods sold 103,440

Selling expense 24,180

General expense 17,180

31 Income summary

($169,170 − $144,800) 24,370

Tarsus, capital 24,370

31 Tarsus, capital 9,100

Tarsus, drawing 9,100

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statics final

I have attached all of the weekly lectures below to help with the creation of the final paper. 

The Final Paper provides you with an opportunity to integrate and reflect on what you have learned during the class.

The question to address is: “What have you learned about statistics?” In developing your responses, consider—at a minimum—and discuss the application of each of the course elements in analyzing and making decisions about data (counts and/or measurements).

In your paper,

  • Discuss the following course elements:
    • Descriptive statistics
    • Inferential statistics
    • Hypothesis development and testing
    • Selection of appropriate statistical tests
    • Evaluating statistical results.

The Final Paper

  • Must be three to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use at least three scholarly sources in addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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who is affected by electronic theft of a song

Who is affected by electronic theft of a song?
3,106 results
Computer Applications
Who is affected by the electronic theft of song? Please help 1) Just the singer 2) Just the songwriter 3) Only the record company 4) the singer, the songwriter, the record company, producers and ultimately the consumers

asked by Angeluhh on May 3, 2018
Computer Science
a)385 data loss incidents took place b)110 million people were affected by personal data loss incidents c)3% of all data loss incidents were caused by hard copy theft/loss d)20% of all data loss incidents were caused by portable media theft/loss e)15% of

asked by Sue on January 16, 2011
Math
Can please someone check my answer: a)385 data loss incidents took place b)110 million people were affected by personal data loss incidents c)3% of all data loss incidents were caused by hard copy theft/loss d)20% of all data loss incidents were caused by

asked by Sue on February 8, 2011
Computer Science
Can please someone check my answer: a)385 data loss incidents took place b)110 million people were affected by personal data loss incidents c)3% of all data loss incidents were caused by hard copy theft/loss d)20% of all data loss incidents were caused by

asked by Sue on February 7, 2011
English
Plagiarism is borrowing wrring from other people or literary theft. I said literay theft. Please check my answer tanks 🙂

asked by Anonymous on November 11, 2007

English
what wud have been another really good Canadian song sung at the Olympics? Is this one good: Sarah Mclachlan: I will remember you I have to add as well, why I think it is good. I think that this song is good because it has a lot of deep feel in it and it’s

asked by Sara on February 15, 2010
Introduction to Graphic Design
Hello! Thanks for checking my question out! __ 10. Which of the following are reasons why it is important to properly recycle electronic equipment? Select all that apply. (3 points) a) Recycling electronic equipment conserves natural resources. b)

asked by Da Fash on September 26, 2017
math
In a Sing Thing, the first 4 singers sand song 1, the next 4 sand Song 2, and so forth. Song number 73 sang Song? A. 18 B. 19 C. 20 C. 73 I got 15 but I don’t know.

asked by John on August 12, 2014
childcare
I am trying to hand in a resource file for the academic portion of a CDA. I need to hand in song lyrics to children’s songs. 2 have to be multi cultural. every time I do research on a particular song. Some part of the info is missing and I can not submit

asked by Danielle on December 17, 2010
stats
A survey shows that 60% of people who listen to a song on the internet will buy the song. A sample of 30 people who listened to a song is taken. What will be the mean and standard deviation of the number who will buy the song?

asked by Anonymous on March 6, 2012
history
who wrote the song bobby magee. who sang the origional version of this song. In what year did the song become popular

asked by sandra on March 20, 2014
4th grade-music
In the song, “Somebody” by Reba M cEntire, I have to retell the story bein told in the song. Is the song about finding somebody special to fall in love with?

asked by Elaine on September 22, 2009
music history
Hi, I’m having some problems in a song in bangla named ‘Mago Babna’. Because i’m a foreigner, i don’t know this song. So will you pls write this song for me? I really need this earlier. Thank you.

asked by Jahanara on December 10, 2014
music
The teacher wants specific terms for each element of a song after listening to the song. Tempo, Harmony, Melody, Dynamics, Form, Rhythem,and Timbre. What are they? Is there examples of a song broke down any where?

asked by CRR on December 1, 2008
Music
—Okay! I know lots of you out there like music! does anyone know any good Anti-bullying song? Please have a song that will work with the following -Guitarist -Bassist -singer -drummer -violin (optianal) – try to make it a upbeat song Thanks everyone!

asked by Andy on May 5, 2009

English
Project. 1. Listen to the song carefully and sing the song all together. 2. Working in pairs, one person should take the part of a shopkeeper, and the other should be a customer. Then based on the lyric, each should sing his or her part. 3. For the blank

asked by John on October 20, 2008
criminal
The federal CAN-SPAM Act, which took effect January 1, 2004, regulates sending what? A. viruses from one computer to another B. commercial electronic mail messages C. electronic mail to government computers D. electronic mail to minors

asked by Doubledare on June 1, 2014
Physiology
For discussion of endocrine disorders 1.Diabetes insipidus Hormone affected? Too much or too little? 2.Graves’ disease Hormone affected? Too much or too little? 3.Acromegaly Hormone affected? Too much or too little? 4.Addison’s disease Hormone

asked by ivy on May 18, 2011
Business Math 2
Megan Green is interested in taking out a personal loan for $1,550. However, last year an identity theft scam left her with poor credit. Since then she has learned about the perils of identity theft from personal experience as well as from a variety of

asked by Nina on April 26, 2011
English
Could you please check which tense is best in the following sentences? Thank you. (The poet remembers a walk he went on with his sister, during which he was struck by the song of a Highland Lass.) 1) The poet doesn’t know the song she is singing. 2) As a

asked by Henry2 on November 7, 2011
English
Love-Charm Song (Ojibway) I can make That man bashful I wonder What can be the matter That he is so bashful. Song of a Maiden Disappointed in Love (Blackfoot) My lover looked like an eagle from a distance, But alas! When he came nearer I saw that he was

asked by E on January 23, 2015
Music Literacy
Could someone help me write 1 song using the rhythm with stick notation and a second notation of the same song adding note heads and some lines to give an indication of relative pitch with solfa names? Thanks this is Kodaly….the song could be any famous

asked by Anonymous on February 22, 2009
English
Can you recommend me internet sites where I can both listen to and read the news in English? I need to practise the vocabulary used when reporting news, especially that concerning car accidents. Here are some more sentences I’m not sure of. 1) John

asked by Mike on February 13, 2011
business
Select the statement which reflects the employer position on electric monitoring. a.) An employee’s actions during work time are at the discretion of the Company. b.) Employees should be notified of any electronic monitoring and its purpose. c.)Electronic

asked by Dee on August 27, 2013
Minds at work
A person that has a sevre overreation to an intense emotion might be experiencing a a. galvanic skin response b. sympathetic rebound c. suppressed emotion d. parasympathetic rebound if you relearn a song that you heard as a child, your savings score for

asked by Kate on February 11, 2011

English
I need to write an interpretation and meaning on the song “embers” by max richter(search it on youtube! :)). Since I also need to choreograph a dance to this song for my dance class, I have decided to rename the song(which is my dance routine’s name) as

asked by Bethany on January 17, 2015
English
I need to write an interpretation and meaning on the song “embers” by max richter(search it on youtube). Since I also need to choreograph a dance to this song for my dance class, I have decided to rename the song(which is my dance routine’s name) as

asked by Bethany on January 17, 2015
English Writing
Can someone help me write thesis statement for my paper on how the song’s use of figurative language contributes to its appeal to its listeners? The song is “Every Rose Has Its Thorn”. I know there is a lot of metaphor used in the song. but cannot come

asked by Jess on June 28, 2017
Song of Solomon
Thank you for your earlier responses… I have another question to ask…. Have you ever read the “Song of Songs” by Ariel and Chana Bloch? If yes, compared to the Bible’s version of the “Song of Solomon” (aka Song of Songs) which version do you prefer and

asked by trish on April 21, 2009
Statistics
This problem does not make any sense to me!!! I would greatly appreciate your assistance, thanks. A recent survey showed 4.6 percent of the sample of 250 had suffered some kind of identity theft in the past 12 months. a. Construct a 90 percent confidence

asked by Tasha on October 31, 2011
music
Hi, I am looking for an old english song, but I don’t remember the song title, its a slow love song and the only thing i remember is that the singers are all male and there are more than one, some asian looking probably japanese and also caucasians. The

asked by nic on April 26, 2008
math
There are 24 electronic games in each case of electronic games. Find the number of electronic games in 15,000 cases and express your answer using a number multiplied by the power of ten . How do I get the answer for this problem?

asked by haylie butler on August 22, 2013
Binomial Math
The manager of Toy World has decided to accept a shipment of electronic games if there is no more than 1 defective electronic game in a random sample of size 17. What is the probability that he will accept the shipment if 15% of the electronic games is

asked by Bersy on January 27, 2013
Math
In a Sing Thing, the first 4 singers sang Song 1, the next 4 sang Song 2, and so forth. Singer number 73 sang Song ? A. 18 B. 19 C. 20 D. 73 I got B, is that correct?

asked by Emily on August 6, 2018
Math
You’re friend tells you about a new online music site called ComboAl- bum that lets you choose any 10 songs from their song library for 9:99. ComboAlbum’s advertising says their song catalogue is so large there are over 10; 000; 000 diff erent song

asked by John on October 1, 2012

Music
Explain how music and culture influence one another. Provide an example of a song or album that affected culture. Provide examples of songs with cultural references.

asked by Samantha on October 12, 2011
music

  1. Explain how music and culture influence one another. Provide an example of a song or album that affected culture. Provide examples of songs with cultural references?

asked by Anonymous on June 17, 2011
thermo
an open container with 10L of water at 1 bar and 20 C is used for cooling electronic parts.Each electronic part has a mass of 01.kg and an average specific heat of 0.14 kJ/kg-K. The electronic parts are initially at 300 degrees Celcius and are required to

asked by brad on September 29, 2015
English II B
What is the term for a magazine that is published on the computer? 1. computerized slide show 2. online publication 3. electronic portfolio 4. electronic bulletin board

asked by Carl on April 3, 2014
Music
So I can’t follow links, but I am doing a slideshow about losing someone you care deeply about, (yes it is for school) and I am trying to find a certain song. It is country, I cannot remember the name of the song or the artist, but i know that it is two

asked by imissbobby♥ on March 24, 2014
Ethics

  1. Direct misconduct by a police officer, such as extorting money from drug dealers, would be an example of which of the following forms of misconduct? A. Nonfeasance B. Misfeasance C. Malfeasance D. All of the above im confused between C and D 2. A law

asked by Any on February 24, 2014
Math
Suki’s has 54 rock songs,92 dance songs,and 12 classical songs on her play list.If Suki’s music player randomly selects a song from the playlist,what is the experimental probability that the song will not be a classical song?Explain your answer.

asked by Brooke on September 3, 2015
Applied statistics for business and economics
Only 0.02% of credit card holders of a company report the loss or theft of their credit cards each month. The company has 15,000 credit cards in the city of Memphis. Use the Poisson probability tables to answer the following questions. What is the

asked by Todd on October 24, 2010
music
can u help me found a song that’s online that has the music so i can play the song on my clarient it called bruno mars grenade can any1 help me found the music for that song on a clarient…. please

asked by eva on December 28, 2010
Math
A song plays 12 times each day. If the song is 4 1/5 minutes long how many minutes a day is the song played? CAN ANYBODY HELP????

asked by Cassidy on January 29, 2014

English-
I posted earlier but i wanted to added something… I need have to find a song that share similar views as Transcendentalists Here are some views of the Transcendentalists: -Intuition -they think we can understand ourselves through nature. –

asked by Karen on November 1, 2010
Educational technology

  1. Which of the following is an example of tangible property? A a method for creating ice cream that your friend. B*** an idea for an invention that your dad mentioned briefly but did not write down C song lyrics printed into a song book D a quicker system

asked by Jezziedut on May 24, 2018
english
If you are using a song title in an essay is it in italics or quotes? If you are using lyrics from a song is it in italics or quotes? Song titles and lyrics should be enclosed in quotation marks. okay, thanx

asked by Linda on January 4, 2007
Music
So, I have to split a song into its form, like ABAA, ABBA, and so on. I need help with doing that to the song “Wake Me Up” by Avicii. I get confused whenever I try to. Please help me?

asked by Anonymous on April 24, 2014
music
in the song day-o the song is part of the________ section music and sug by____________?

asked by boby on September 9, 2009
prealgebra
you play a CD with 11 songs using the shuffle settings. find the probability that the CD player plays song 3 first then song 5.

asked by vivkvivkf on April 11, 2012
History
Which two groups of people most directly benefited from Song innovations and the Song dynasty’s open-border policy?

asked by Phoenix on December 20, 2016
3rd grade-music
The song “Minnie the Moocher” by Cab Halloway-retell what the story is about. Use details in song to support your thinking.

asked by Elaine on November 1, 2008
Math
Between each song is a 0.05-minute break. How long does it take to listen to the CD from the beginning of the first song?

asked by Arianna on October 30, 2018
3rd grade-music
How can you prove the genre of the song, “Hello Muddah Hello Faddah”, using the lyrics in the song?

asked by Elaine on January 7, 2009

Tech
What information do you consider critical for adults to know when it comes to identity theft? What information can make an impact on how parents participate online? Use the Identity Theft resource sheet to start to develop content for your presentation.

asked by Anonymous on February 19, 2016
Music
I want to make a song with the theme of “Planet Earth”, although I’m not good at singing, so I’m just looking for a beat song. Can anyone of you suggest a genre or what instruments should I use?

asked by Wenmar on October 20, 2007
Music-PLEASE ANSWER!
I need a variety of tutors opinions and choices of what song they like the best. just write the name of the song amongst with the artist PLEASE SPREAD THE WORD ACROSS AND ANSWER BELOW ASAP!

asked by HS on April 27, 2013
health
How does technology, such as the EMR….the Electronic Medical Record, Electronic Charting, PACS, etc., impact the care and treatment of a patient? What are your thoughts about what it does to the quality of healthcare delivery we currently enjoy,

asked by linda on January 31, 2010
business
What will be the long-term impact of electronic contracting on the nation’s business? What are the potential pitfalls you see with electronic contracting?

asked by Anonymous on August 3, 2009
technology
For my talent show, I need to record my song. How do we put the song on a CD?

asked by Celest on April 17, 2013
English
Please check my revised answers regarding “dangling modifers”. As the flock of birds was flying over the oak tree, the farmer saw that they had damaged his crops. Ironing out all wrinkles, the pants looked much more presentable. The pants looked much more

asked by MiMi on May 17, 2007
Contract Law
Hello, I have a question. Does Electronic Commerce Act, 2000 require companies to do business through electronic means? And it says provide statutory( which means legal) reference. I think that it doesn’t require the companies to do business through

asked by Yana on November 16, 2009
music
Can someone tell me the lyrics for “That Lucky Old Sun” by Gillespie and Smith? Need to identify main idea of the song with supporting details using specific examples from the song.

asked by elaine on October 18, 2008
3rd grade music
Song, “America” by Neil Diamond. In stanza 7, “Got a dream they’ve come to share” what does this line mean and what do the people have in common.Use examples from song to support answer.

asked by elaine on November 8, 2008

Spanish
I have to a write a song using all of the irregular preterite verb forms of hacer, tener, estar, and poder. I know what each of the verbs mean but I am having trouble coming up with ideas for the song. Help?

asked by Anonymous on February 2, 2014
Health
We have to do an assignment where we pick a song and then change most of the words to go along with definitions. The chapter I was given is special senses. ( only eye & ear though ) I was thinking of doing a country song. But any ideas?

asked by Gabby on September 10, 2012
math
A company produces three types of color TVs: Models X, Y and Z. Each model X requires 2 hours of electronic work and 2 hours of assembly work. Each Y model requires 1 hour of electronic work and 3 hours of assembly work. Each model Z requires 3 hours of

asked by justin on October 1, 2012
math
A company produces three types of color TVs: Models X, Y and Z. Each model X requires 2 hours of electronic work and 2 hours of assembly work. Each Y model requires 1 hour of electronic work and 3 hours of assembly work. Each model Z requires 3 hours of

asked by Jen on February 18, 2012
American Dream Project
I have to do an american dream project and as part of it we have to pick a song that goes with our american dream or “The American Dream” My american dream is to go to college and become a vet. Im not sure at the moment if I want the song to be about my

asked by Nicky on September 8, 2008
Chemistry-help needed
I am asked to draw the ‘dot and cross’ diagram to show the ionic bonding in sodium chloride. I am asked to show only the outer electronic structure. Sodium has 2.8.1 electronic configuration. After losing 1 electron to chlorine, it has 2.8 electronic

asked by carrie on March 26, 2009
english
i need help analyzing this poem by robert frost. what is the theme? emotions? and is the meaning that man is trying to control nature or fix it? THE AIM WAS SONG Before man came to blow it right The wind once blew itself untaught, And did its loudest day

asked by beckii on October 24, 2007
MGT
You purchase an electronic item and it does not fulfill the promises that the company advertised. In addition, this electronic item causes injury to you. Assume that this civil case will be taken all the way to the appellate court. Outline and describe the

asked by Bob on December 12, 2008
SICAT.CES NCIII Electronics

  1. Why is it important to commission electronic equipment? 2.What do we mean when we say start- up and commission electronic system?

asked by Richard S. del Rosario on August 23, 2011
media and the culture
Write a 500- to 550-word essay response for Part Two. Comprehensive writing skills must be used. Explain the effect of relationships among television, movies, and electronic games with culture. Include the following: • How culture is reflected in movies

asked by amanda on November 13, 2011

SCIENCE
what are the benefits of copper to the industry, economy, and society? what are all the organisms that are affected by copper? what is meant by the term Bioaccumulation? Include the names of any organisms that are affected and how they are affected by

asked by LOUIS on February 27, 2013
Math Problem Solving
You have a $9000 motorcycle and a $850 bicycle. The probability that your motorcycle will be stolen next year is .02, but the probability that your bike will be snatched is .1. The insurance company offers you theft protection for your motorcycle for $200

asked by Scott on September 28, 2011
chemistry
The electronic configuration of manganese is: 1s22s22p63d54s2. a)What is the maximum oxidation state of manganese? b)Explain how the electronic configuration shows that Mn is a transition element

asked by Sabrine on July 26, 2017
SCIENCE URGENT HELP
what are the benefits of copper to the industry, economy, and society? what are all the organisms that are affected by copper? what is meant by the term Bioaccumulation? Include the names of any organisms that are affected and how they are affected by

asked by Louis on February 26, 2013
Reading

  1. Walt Whitman’s excerpt from Song of Myself can be considered an expression of A. populism. C. imagism. B. romanticism. D. conventionalism. 2. Which one of the following poems has the rhyme scheme AA BB CC DD . . .? A. “since feeling is first” B.

asked by Tyree McCoy on June 3, 2008
English
In the song: How Come, How Long By: Stevie Wonder… 1) What are the two types of abuse evident in the song? 2) Discuss the meaning of the line “she had a college degree, smart as anyone could be; there was not enough education in her world that could save

asked by Sarah on August 22, 2011
Song of Myself+English
Has anyone read Song of Myself by Walt Whitman?? I can’t find any themes for it. So hard to understand. Would slavery be a theme? I need atleast 4 themes associated with Song of Myself.

asked by Chopsticks on February 19, 2009
music
my music teacher said that remember any song that you can my question is which song is easy and nice for school presentation so others can also enjoy please i need help on monday i’ve presentation .

asked by study song on September 10, 2009
music
in the song day-o the song is part of the________ section music and sug by____________? i forgot my music book at school so in HELP PLEASE

asked by tat on September 9, 2009
language arts
Melissa was not going to let Randy own the whole chorus . Q . the sentence means that Melissa ? A. wont let randy decide who will record the song . B. doesnt want randy to write the whole chorus c. wont let randy take credit for writing the whole song d

asked by sammi on April 10, 2013

MATH
A disc jockey has 12 songs to play. Seven are slow songs, and five are fast songs. Each song is to be played only once. In how many ways can the disc jockey play the 12 songs if The songs can be played in any order. The first song must be a slow song and

asked by Jen on July 26, 2011
song interpretation
my daughter got an assignment to prove the genre of the song hello muddah hello faddah using the song as proof. what does this mean I looked up the word genre in the dictionary and that was a waste can u pls help me…..thanks

asked by Glen on January 7, 2009
engilsh
What is the theme in the song ,Song Of The Chattahoochee

asked by Cheerleader57 on November 5, 2018
english
identify what the second metaphor compares Our song is a slamming screen door Sneakin’ out late, tapping on your window When we’re on the phone, and you talk real slow Cause it’s late and your mama don’t know Our song is the way you laugh, on the first

asked by sun on April 20, 2016
Chemistry AP
what does this mean (we are on quantum) The figure below represents part of the emission spectrum for a one-electron ion in the gas phase. All the lines result from electronic transmissions from excited states to the n = 3 state. the graph is like this A B

asked by Robin on October 21, 2008
3rd grade music
In “Pick Yourself” by Jerome Kern & Dorothy Fields, what is the songwriter encouraging you to do? Give 2 supporting details from song.Also, give an example on how the song could inspire me to think or act differently.

asked by elaine on November 14, 2008
English 🙂
Odysseus alone will listen o the Serens song because he : A: wants to tell his men what they sing. B: is following Cicle’s advice. C: wishes to be the only one to enjoy the Sirens’ song. D: doesn’t want to offend the Sirens. Answer is C ?

asked by Ciara on March 27, 2013
3rd grade music
Compare the character in the song, “I Got Plenty O’ Nuttin” to the character in the song, “Busted” by Ray Charles.

asked by Elaine on October 26, 2008
music
What is the meaning of the song maria from west side story? What is the meaning of the song sandy from grease

asked by Courtney on October 24, 2010
dance
for dance i need to have a song but my song is too long how do i cut songs??? Eliminate verses. just get someone to turn it off when you are done the dance

asked by anonymous on May 14, 2007

ICT….PLEASE HELP
helloo, i want to ask if you have any answers or any websites to do with the advantages of of electronic displays rather than a paper display? why is it better?? please help meeeeeeeee! thnkyou One thing that comes to mind quickly: Electronic displays can

asked by sheromeya on September 29, 2006
Statistics
Which of the following statements about the correlation coefficient r are true? I. It is not affected by changes in the measurement units of the variables. II. It is not affected by which variable is called x and which is called y. III. It is not affected

asked by John on November 12, 2012
History
During the Song Dynasty, Jurchen invaders from the North forced the Song to withdraw past the a.Gobi Desert b.Himalayas c.Yellow River d.Yangtze River e.Mekong Delta

asked by Billy on October 10, 2012
Science
what are some health risks of copper to humans? what are the environmental riks of copper? what are the benefits of copper to the industry, economy, and society? what are all the organisms that are affected by copper? what is meant by the term

asked by Louis on February 26, 2013
English Intolerance task:
Hey guys once again. I have trouble between choosing the Johnny Rebel song of “Nigger Hatin Me” OR “Kajun Ku Klux Klan” which one and why? (note: ill need to have some points on how intolerance is demostrated throughout the song lyrics like what types of

asked by Shivi on March 7, 2011

Categories
write my essay write my essay for me write my essay for me cheap

under a perpetual inventory system, acquisition of merchandise for resale is debited to the

Test Bank for Accounting Principles, Eleventh Edition

5 – 13

Accounting for Merchandising Operations

CHAPTER 5

ACCOUNTING FOR MERCHANDISING OPERATIONS

Summary of Questions by LEARNING Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy
ItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBTItemLOBT
True-False Statements
1.1C10.3C19.5K28.5Ksg37.2K
2.1C11.3C20.5K29.5Ksg38.3K
3.1K12.3K21.5Ca30.6Ksg39.3K
4.1K13.4C22.5Ca31.7Ksg40.4C
5.1K14.4K23.5Ca32.7Ksg41.5K
6.2K15.4K24.5Ka33.7Ksg42.5K
7.2K16.5K25.5Ka34.7K
8.3C17.5K26.5APsg35.1K
9.3C18.5K27.5Ksg36.1K
Multiple Choice Questions
43.1K73.2AP103.3K133.5APa163.7AP
44.1K74.3AP104.3C134.5APa164.7AP
45.1C75.3AP105.3C135.5APsg165.1AP
46.1K76.3AP106.3K136.5APsg166.2K
47.1K77.3C107.3K137.5APsg167.2K
48.1C78.3C108.4C138.5APst168.2K
49.1K79.3AP109.4C139.5APsg169.3K
50.1K80.3AP110.4K140.5APst170.4K
51.1C81.3C111.1C141.5APsg171.6AP
52.1K82.3C112.4C142.5APst172.5K
53.1C83.3C113.5AP143.5APsg173.6K
54.1C84.3K114.5K144.5APa,st174.7K
55.1C85.3K115.5C145.5AP175.8K
56.1K86.3C116.5Ca146.6K176.8K
57.1C87.3C117.5Ca147.6K177.8K
58.2K88.3K118.5APa148.7AP178.8K
59.2K89.3K119.5K149.7AP179.8K
60.2C90.3C120.5C150.7AP180.8K
61.2K91.3K121.5K151.7C1818K
62.2C92.3AP122.5Ka152.7K1828K
63.2C93.3C123.5Ka153.7K183.8K
64.2C94.3C124.5APa154.7K184.8K
65.2AP95.3C125.5APa155.7AP185.8K
66.2AP96.3C126.5Ka156.7AP186.8K
67.2C97.3C127.5Ca157.7K187.8K
68.2K98.3C128.5Ka158.7C188.8K
69.2AP99.3AP129.5Ka159.7C189.8K
70.2AP100.3AP130.5APa160.7K
71.2K101.3AP131.5APa161.7K
72.2AP102.3K132.5APa162.7C

sg This question also appears in the Study Guide.

st This question also appears in a self-test at the student companion website.

a This question covers a topic in an appendix to the chapter.

Summary of Questions by LEARNING Objectives and Bloom’s Taxonomy
Brief Exercises
190.1AP193.3AP196.5AP199.7AP
191.2AP194.3AP197.5AP200.7AP
192.2,3AP195.4AP198.7APa201.7AP
Exercises
202.1C207.2,3AN212.4AP217.5APa222.7AP
203.2,3AP208.2AP213.4AP218.5Ca223.7AP
204.2,3AP209.3AP214.5AN219.5APa224.7AP
205.2E210.3AP215.5AP220.5APa221.7AP
206.2,3AP211.4AP216.5APa221.6APa226.7AP
Completion Statements
227.1K229.1K231.2K233.3K235.5K
228.1K230.2K232.3K234.3K236.5K
Matching Statements
237.1K
Short-Answer Essay
238.3K240.3K242.1K244.1K
239.1K241.5K243.5K245.1K

SUMMARY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE

ItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemTypeItemType
Learning Objective 1
1.TF35.TF46.MC51.MC56.MC202.Ex239.SA
2.TF36.TF47.MC52.MC57.MC227.C242.SA
3.TF43.MC48.MC53.MC111.MC228.C244.SA
4.TF44.MC49.MC54.MC165.MC229.C245.SA
5.F45.MC50.MC55.MC190.BE237.MA
Learning Objective 2
6.TF60.MC65.MC70.MC157.MC204.Ex230.C
7.TF61.MC66.MC71.MC158.MC205.Ex231.C
37.TF62.MC67.MC72.MC203.Ex206.Ex
58.MC63.MC68.MC73.MC166.BE207.Ex
59.MC64.MC69.MC156.MC167.BE208.Ex
Learning Objective 3
8.TF75.MC83.MC91.MC99.MC107.MC209.Ex
9.TF76.MC84.MC92.MC100.MC169.MC210.Ex
10.TF77.MC85.MC93.MC101.MC192.BE232.C
11.TF78.MC86.MC94.MC102.MC193.BE233.C
12.TF79.MC87.MC95.MC103.MC194.BE234.C
38.TF80.MC88.MC96.MC104.MC203.Ex240.SA
39.TF81.MC89.MC97.MC105.MC204.Ex
74.MC82.MC90.MC98.MC106.MC206.Ex

SUMMARY OF Learning OBJECTIVES BY QUESTION TYPE

Learning Objective 4
13.TF15.TF108.MC110.MC170.MC211.Ex213.Ex
14.TF40.TF109.MC112.MC195.BE212.Ex
Learning Objective 5
16.TF26.TF117.MC127.MC137.MC172.MC235.C
17.TF27.TF118.MC128.MC138.MC173.MC236.C
18.TF28.TF119.MC129.MC139.MC196.BE241.SA
19.TF29.TF120.MC130.MC140.MC197.BE243.SA
20.TF41.TF121.MC131.MC141.MC215.Ex
21.TF42.TF122.MC132.MC142.MC216.Ex
22.TF113.MC123.MC133.MC143.MC217.Ex
23.TF114.MC124.MC134.MC144.MC218.Ex
24.TF115.MC125.MC135.MC145.MC219.Ex
25.TF116.MC126.MC136.MC171.MC220.Ex
Learning Objective a6a34.TF175.MC178.MC181.MC184.MC187.MCa225.Exa146.MC176.MC179.MC182.MC185.MC188.MCa147.MC177.MC180.MC183.MC186.MC189.MCLearning Objective a7
a30.TFa149.MCa154.MCa159.MCa164.MCa201.BEa225.Ex
a31.TFa150.MCa155.MCa160.MCa174.MCa221.Exa226.Ex
a32.TFa151.MCa156.MCa161.MCa198.BEa222.Ex
a33.TFa152.MCa157.MCa162.MCa199.BEa223.Ex
a148.MCa153.MCa158.MCa163.MCa200.BEa224.Ex
Learning Objective 8
175.MC177.MC179.MC181.MC183.MC185.MC
176.MC178.MC180.MC182.MC184.MC

Note: TF = True-False BE = Brief Exercise C = Completion

MC = Multiple Choice Ex = Exercise SA = Short-Answer

MA = Matching

CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies. Because of inventory, a merchandising company has sales revenue, cost of goods sold, and gross profit. To account for inventory, a merchandising company must choose between a perpetual and a periodic inventory system.

2. Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system. The company debits the Inventory account for all purchases of merchandise, and freight-in, and credits it for purchase discounts and purchase returns and allowances.

3. Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system. When a merchandising company sells inventory, it debits Accounts Receivable (or Cash) and credits Sales Revenue for the selling price of the merchandise. At the same time, it debits Cost of Goods Sold and credits Inventory for the cost of the inventory items sold. Sales returns and allowances and sales discounts are debited and are contra revenue accounts.

4. Explain the steps in the accounting cycle for a merchandising company. Each of the required steps in the accounting cycle for a service company applies to a merchandising company. A worksheet is again an optional step. Under a perpetual inventory system, the company must adjust the Inventory account to agree with the physical count.

5. Distinguish between a multiple-step and a single-step income statement. A multiple-step income statement shows numerous steps in determining net income, including nonoperating activities sections. A single-step income statement classifies all data under two categories, revenues or expenses, and determines net income in one step.

a6. Prepare a worksheet for a merchandising company. The steps in preparing a worksheet for a merchandising company are the same as for a service company. The unique accounts for a merchandiser are Inventory, Sales Revenue, Sales Returns and Allowances, Sales Discounts, and Cost of Goods Sold.

a7. Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system. In recording purchases under a periodic system, companies must make entries for (a) cash and credit purchases, (b) purchase returns and allowances, (c) purchase discounts, and (d) freight costs. In recording sales, companies must make entries for (a) cash and credit sales, (b) sales returns and allowances, and (c) sales discounts.

TRUE-FALSE STATEMENTS

1. Retailers and wholesalers are both considered merchandisers.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

2. The steps in the accounting cycle are different for a merchandising company than for a service company.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

3. Sales minus operating expenses equals gross profit.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

4. Under a perpetual inventory system, the cost of goods sold is determined each time a sale occurs.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

5. A periodic inventory system requires a detailed inventory record of inventory items.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

6. Freight terms of FOB Destination means that the seller pays the freight costs.

Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

7. Freight costs incurred by the seller on outgoing merchandise are an operating expense to the seller.

Ans: T, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

8. Sales revenues are earned during the period cash is collected from the buyer.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

9. The Sales Returns and Allowances account and the Sales Discount account are both classified as expense accounts.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

10. The revenue recognition principle applies to merchandisers by recognizing sales revenues when the performance obligation is satisfied.

Ans: T, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

11. Sales Returns and Allowances and Sales Discounts are both designed to encourage customers to pay their accounts promptly.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

12. To grant a customer a sales return, the seller credits Sales Returns and Allowances.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

13. A company’s unadjusted balance in Inventory will usually not agree with the actual amount of inventory on hand at year-end.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

14. For a merchandising company, all accounts that affect the determination of income are closed to the Income Summary account.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

15. A merchandising company has different types of adjusting entries than a service company.

Ans: F, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

16. Nonoperating activities exclude revenues and expenses that result from secondary or auxiliary operations.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

17. Operating expenses are different for merchandising and service enterprises.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

18. Net sales appears on both the multiple-step and single-step forms of an income statement.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

19. A multiple-step income statement provides users with more information about a company’s income performance.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

20. The multiple-step form of income statement is easier to read than the single-step form.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

21. Inventory is classified as a current asset in a classified balance sheet.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

22. Gain on sale of equipment and interest expense are reported under other revenues and gains in a multiple-step income statement.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

23. The gross profit section for a merchandising company appears on both the multiple-step and single-step forms of an income statement.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

24. In a multiple-step income statement, income from operations excludes other revenues and gains and other expenses and losses.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

25. A single-step income statement reports all revenues, both operating and other revenues and gains, at the top of the statement.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

26. If net sales are $800,000 and cost of goods sold is $600,000, the gross profit rate is 25%.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

27. Gross profit represents the merchandising profit of a company.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

28. Gross profit is a measure of the overall profitability of a company.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

29. Gross profit rate is computed by dividing cost of goods sold by net sales.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

a30. In a worksheet, cost of goods sold will be shown in the trial balance (Dr.), adjusted trial balance (Dr.) and income statement (Dr.) columns.

Ans: T, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

a31. Freight-in is an account that is subtracted from the Purchases account to arrive at cost of goods purchased.

Ans: F, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a32. Under a periodic inventory system, the acquisition of inventory is charged to the Purchases account.

Ans: T, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

a33. Under a periodic inventory system, freight-in on merchandise purchases should be charged to the Inventory account.

Ans: F, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

a34. Purchase Returns and Allowances and Purchase Discounts are subtracted from Purchases to produce net purchases.

Ans: T, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

35. Inventory is reported as a long-term asset on the balance sheet.

Ans: F, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

36. Under a perpetual inventory system, inventory shrinkage and lost or stolen goods are more readily determined.

Ans: T, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

37. The terms 2/10, n/30 state that a 2% discount is available if the invoice is paid within the first 10 days of the next month.

Ans: F, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

38. Sales revenue should be recorded in accordance with the matching principle.

Ans: F, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

39. Sales returns and allowances and sales discounts are subtracted from sales in reporting net sales in the income statement.

Ans: T, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

40. A merchandising company using a perpetual inventory system will usually need to make an adjusting entry to ensure that the recorded inventory agrees with physical inventory count.

Ans: T, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

41. If a merchandising company sells land at more than its cost, the gain should be reported in the sales revenue section of the income statement.

Ans: F, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

42. The major difference between the balance sheets of a service company and a merchandising company is inventory.

Ans: T, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

Answers to True-False Statements

ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.ItemAns.
1.T7.T13.T19.T25.Ta31.F37.F
2.F8.F14.T20.F26.Ta32.T38.F
3.F9.F15.F21.T27.Ta33.F39.T
4.T10.T16.F22.F28.Fa34.T40.T
5.F11.F17.F23.F29.F35.F41.F
6.T12.F18.T24.T30.T36.T42.T

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

43. Net income is gross profit less

a. financing expenses.

b. operating expenses.

c. other expenses and losses.

d. other expenses.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

44. An enterprise which sells goods to customers is known as a

a. proprietorship.

b. corporation.

c. retailer.

d. service firm.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

45. Which of the following would not be considered a merchandising company?

a. Retailer

b. Wholesaler

c. Service firm

d. Dot Com firm

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

46. A merchandising company that sells directly to consumers is a

a. retailer.

b. wholesaler.

c. broker.

d. service company.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

47. Two categories of expenses for merchandising companies are

a. cost of goods sold and financing expenses.

b. operating expenses and financing expenses.

c. cost of goods sold and operating expenses.

d. sales and cost of goods sold.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

48. The primary source of revenue for a wholesaler is

a. investment income.

b. service fees.

c. the sale of merchandise.

d. the sale of fixed assets the company owns.

Ans: C, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

49. Sales revenue less cost of goods sold is called

a. gross profit.

b. net profit.

c. net income.

d. marginal income.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

50. After gross profit is calculated, operating expenses are deducted to determine

a. gross margin.

b. net income.

c. gross profit on sales.

d. net margin.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

51. Cost of goods sold is determined only at the end of the accounting period in

a. a perpetual inventory system.

b. a periodic inventory system.

c. both a perpetual and a periodic inventory system.

d. neither a perpetual nor a periodic inventory system.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

52. Which of the following expressions is incorrect?

a. Gross profit – operating expenses = net income

b. Sales revenue – cost of goods sold – operating expenses = net income

c. Net income + operating expenses = gross profit

d. Operating expenses – cost of goods sold = gross profit

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

53. Detailed records of goods held for resale are not maintained under a

a. perpetual inventory system.

b. periodic inventory system.

c. double entry accounting system.

d. single entry accounting system.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

54. A perpetual inventory system would likely be used by a(n)

a. automobile dealership.

b. hardware store.

c. drugstore.

d. convenience store.

Ans: A, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

55. Which of the following is a true statement about inventory systems?

a. Periodic inventory systems require more detailed inventory records.

b. Perpetual inventory systems require more detailed inventory records.

c. A periodic system requires cost of goods sold be determined after each sale.

d. A perpetual system determines cost of goods sold only at the end of the accounting period.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

56. In a perpetual inventory system, cost of goods sold is recorded

a. on a daily basis.

b. on a monthly basis.

c. on an annual basis.

d. with each sale.

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

57. If a company determines cost of goods sold each time a sale occurs, it

a. must have a computer accounting system.

b. uses a combination of the perpetual and periodic inventory systems.

c. uses a periodic inventory system.

d. uses a perpetual inventory system.

Ans: D, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

58. Under a perpetual inventory system, acquisition of merchandise for resale is debited to the

a. Inventory account.

b. Purchases account.

c. Supplies account.

d. Cost of Goods Sold account.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

59. The journal entry to record a return of merchandise purchased on account under a perpetual inventory system would credit

a. Accounts Payable.

b. Purchase Returns and Allowances.

c. Sales Revenue.

d. Inventory.

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

60. The Inventory account is used in each of the following except the entry to record

a. goods purchased on account.

b. the return of goods purchased.

c. payment of freight on goods sold.

d. payment within the discount period.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

61. A buyer would record a payment within the discount period under a perpetual inventory system by crediting

a. Accounts Payable.

b. Inventory.

c. Purchase Discounts.

d. Sales Discounts.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

62. If a purchaser using a perpetual system agrees to freight terms of FOB shipping point, then the

a. Inventory account will be increased.

b. Inventory account will not be affected.

c. seller will bear the freight cost.

d. carrier will bear the freight cost.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

63. Freight costs paid by a seller on merchandise sold to customers will cause an increase

a. in the selling expense of the buyer.

b. in operating expenses for the seller.

c. to the cost of goods sold of the seller.

d. to a contra-revenue account of the seller.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

64. Paden Company purchased merchandise from Emmett Company with freight terms of FOB shipping point. The freight costs will be paid by the

a. seller.

b. buyer.

c. transportation company.

d. buyer and the seller.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

65. Glenn Company purchased merchandise inventory with an invoice price of $9,000 and credit terms of 2/10, n/30. What is the net cost of the goods if Glenn Company pays within the discount period?

a. $8,100

b. $8,280

c. $8,820

d. $9,000

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $9,000 ( (1 – .02) ( $8,820

66. Scott Company purchased merchandise with an invoice price of $3,000 and credit terms of 1/10, n/30. Assuming a 360 day year, what is the implied annual interest rate inherent in the credit terms?

a. 20%

b. 24%

c. 18%

d. 36%

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: [360 ( (30 ( 10)] ( 1% ( 18%

67. If a company is given credit terms of 2/10, n/30, it should

a. hold off paying the bill until the end of the credit period, while investing the money at 10% annual interest during this time.

b. pay within the discount period and recognize a savings.

c. pay within the credit period but don’t take the trouble to invest the cash while waiting to pay the bill.

d. recognize that the supplier is desperate for cash and withhold payment until the end of the credit period while negotiating a lower sales price.

Ans: B, LO: 2, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

68. In a perpetual inventory system, the amount of the discount allowed for paying for merchandise purchased within the discount period is credited to

a. Inventory.

b. Purchase Discounts.

c. Purchase Allowance.

d. Sales Discounts.

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

69. Jake’s Market recorded the following events involving a recent purchase of merchandise:

Received goods for $60,000, terms 2/10, n/30.

Returned $1,200 of the shipment for credit.

Paid $300 freight on the shipment.

Paid the invoice within the discount period.

As a result of these events, the company’s inventory increased by

a. $57,624.

b. $57,918.

c. $57,924.

d. $59,100.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: [($60,000 ( $1,200( .98)] ( 300 ( $57,924

70. Costner’s Market recorded the following events involving a recent purchase of merchandise:

Received goods for $40,000, terms 2/10, n/30.

Returned $800 of the shipment for credit.

Paid $200 freight on the shipment.

Paid the invoice within the discount period.

As a result of these events, the company’s inventory

a. increased by $38,416.

b. increased by $38,612.

c. increased by $38,616.

d. increased by $39,400.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: [($40,000 ( $800) ( .98] ( $200 ( $38,616

71. Under the perpetual system, cash freight costs incurred by the buyer for the transporting of goods is recorded in

a. Freight Expense.

b. Freight – In.

c. Inventory.

d Freight – Out.

Ans: C, LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

72. Glover Co. returned defective goods costing $5,000 to Mal Company on April 19, for credit. The goods were purchased April 10, on credit, terms 3/10, n/30. The entry by Glover Co. on April 19, in receiving full credit is:

a. Accounts Payable 5,000

Inventory 5,000

b. Accounts Payable 5,000

Inventory 150

Cash 5,150

c. Accounts Payable 5,000

Purchase Discounts 120

Inventory 4,850

d. Accounts Payable 5,000

Inventory 120

Cash 4,850

Ans: A, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

73. McIntyre Company made a purchase of merchandise on credit from Marvin Company on August 8, for $9,000, terms 3/10, n/30. On August 17, McIntyre makes the appropriate payment to Marvin. The entry on August 17 for McIntyre Company is:

a. Accounts Payable 9,000

Cash 9,000

b. Accounts Payable 8,730

Cash 8,730

c. Accounts Payable 9,000

Purchase Returns and Allowances 270

MC. 73 (Cont.)

Cash 8,730

d. Accounts Payable 9,000

Inventory 270

Cash 8,730

Ans: D, LO: 2, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $9,000 ( .97 ( $8,730

74. On July 9, Sheb Company sells goods on credit to Wooley Company for $5,000, terms 1/10, n/60. Sheb receives payment on July 18. The entry by Sheb on July 18 is:

a. Cash 5,000

Accounts Receivable 5,000

b. Cash 5,000

Sales Discounts 50

Accounts Receivable 4,950

c. Cash 4,950

Sales Discounts 50

Accounts Receivable 5,000

d. Cash 5,050

Sales Discounts 50

Accounts Receivable 5,000

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $5,000 ( .99 ( $4,950

75. On November 2, 2014, Kasdan Company has cash sales of $6,000 from merchandise having a cost of $3,600. The entries to record the day’s cash sales will include:

a. a $3,600 credit to Cost of Goods Sold.

b. a $6,000 credit to Cash.

c. a $3,600 credit to Inventory.

d a $6,000 debit to Accounts Receivable.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

76. A credit sale of $4,000 is made on April 25, terms 2/10, n/30, on which a return of $250 is granted on April 28. What amount is received as payment in full on May 4?

a. $3,675

b. $3,750

c. $3,920

d $4,000

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: ($4,000 ( $250) ( .98 ( $3,675

77. The entry to record the receipt of payment within the discount period on a sale of $2,000 with terms of 2/10, n/30 will include a credit to

a. Sales Discounts for $40.

b. Cash for $1,960.

c. Accounts Receivable for $2,000.

d. Sales Revenue for $2,000.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

78. The collection of a $6,000 account within the 2 percent discount period will result in a

a. debit to Sales Discounts for $120.

b. debit to Accounts Receivable for $5,880.

c. credit to Cash for $5,880.

d. credit to Accounts Receivable for $5,880.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $6,000 ( .02 ( $120

79. Company X sells $900 of merchandise on account to Company Y with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. If Company Y remits a check taking advantage of the discount offered, what is the amount of Company Y’s check?

a. $630

b. $720

c. $810

d. $882

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $900 ( .98 ( $882

80. Cleese Company sells merchandise on account for $5,000 to Langston Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Langston Company returns $1,000 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What is the amount of the check?

a. $3,920

b. $4,000

c. $4,900

d. $4,920

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: ($5,000 ( $1,000) ( .98 ( $3,920

81. The collection of a $1,500 account after the 2 percent discount period will result in a

a. debit to Cash for $1,470.

b. debit to Accounts Receivable for $1,500.

c. debit to Cash for $1,500.

d. debit to Sales Discounts for $30.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

82. The collection of a $1,000 account after the 2 percent discount period will result in a

a. debit to Cash for $980.

b. credit to Accounts Receivable for $1,000.

c. credit to Cash for $1,000.

d. debit to Sales Discounts for $20.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

83. In a perpetual inventory system, the Cost of Goods Sold account is used

a. only when a cash sale of merchandise occurs.

b. only when a credit sale of merchandise occurs.

c. only when a sale of merchandise occurs.

d. whenever there is a sale of merchandise or a return of merchandise sold.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

84. Sales revenues are usually considered earned when

a. cash is received from credit sales.

b. an order is received.

c. goods have been transferred from the seller to the buyer.

d. adjusting entries are made.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

85. A sales invoice is a source document that

a. provides support for goods purchased for resale.

b. provides evidence of incurred operating expenses.

c. provides evidence of credit sales.

d. serves only as a customer receipt.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

86. Sales revenue

a. may be recorded before cash is collected.

b. will always equal cash collections in a month.

c. only results from credit sales.

d. is only recorded after cash is collected.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

87. The journal entry to record a credit sale is

a. Cash

Sales Revenue

b. Cash

Service Revenue

c. Accounts Receivable

Service Revenue

d. Accounts Receivable

Sales Revenue

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

88. Sales Returns and Allowances is increased when

a. an employee does a good job.

b. goods are sold on credit.

c. goods that were sold on credit are returned.

d. customers refuse to pay their accounts.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

89. The Sales Returns and Allowances account is classified as a(n)

a. asset account.

b. contra asset account.

c. expense account.

d. contra revenue account.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

90. A credit granted to a customer for returned goods requires a debit to

a. Sales Revenue and a credit to Cash.

b. Sales Returns and Allowances and a credit to Accounts Receivable.

c. Accounts Receivable and a credit to a contra-revenue account.

d. Cash and a credit to Sales Returns and Allowances.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

91. If a customer agrees to retain merchandise that is defective because the seller is willing to reduce the selling price, this transaction is known as a sales

a. discount.

b. return.

c. contra asset.

d. allowance.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

92. A credit sale of $3,600 is made on July 15, terms 2/10, n/30, on which a return of $200 is granted on July 18. What amount is received as payment in full on July 24?

a. $3,332

b. $3,440

c. $3,528

d $3,600

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: ($3,600 ( $200) ( .98 ( $3,332

93. When goods are returned that relate to a prior cash sale,

a. the Sales Returns and Allowances account should not be used.

b. the cash account will be credited.

c. Sales Returns and Allowances will be credited.

d. Accounts Receivable will be credited.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

94. The Sales Returns and Allowances account does not provide information to management about

a. possible inferior merchandise.

b. the percentage of credit sales versus cash sales.

c. inefficiencies in filling orders.

d. errors in overbilling customers.

Ans: B, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

95. A Sales Returns and Allowances account is not debited if a customer

a. returns defective merchandise.

b. receives a credit for merchandise of inferior quality.

c. utilizes a prompt payment incentive.

d. returns goods that are not in accordance with specifications.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

96. As an incentive for customers to pay their accounts promptly, a business may offer its customers

a. a sales discount.

b. free delivery.

c. a sales allowance.

d. a sales return.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

97. The credit terms offered to a customer by a business firm are 2/10, n/30, which means that

a. the customer must pay the bill within 10 days.

b. the customer can deduct a 2% discount if the bill is paid between the 10th and 30th day from the invoice date.

c. the customer can deduct a 2% discount if the bill is paid within 10 days of the invoice date.

d. two sales returns can be made within 10 days of the invoice date and no returns thereafter.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

98. A sales discount does not

a. provide the purchaser with a cash saving.

b. reduce the amount of cash received from a credit sale.

c. increase a contra-revenue account.

d. increase an operating expense account.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

99. Company A sells $2,500 of merchandise on account to Company B with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. If Company B remits a check taking advantage of the discount offered, what is the amount of Company B’s check?

a. $1,750

b. $2,000

c. $2,250

d. $2,450

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

Solution: $2,500 ( .98 ( $2,450

100. Kern Company sells merchandise on account for $8,000 to Block Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Block Company returns $1,600 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What is the amount of the check?

a. $6,272

b. $6,400

c. $7,840

d. $7,872

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

Solution: ($8,000 ( $1,600) ( .98 ( $6,272

101. Carter Company sells merchandise on account for $4,000 to Hannah Company with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. Hannah Company returns $600 of merchandise that was damaged, along with a check to settle the account within the discount period. What entry does Carter Company make upon receipt of the check?

a. Cash 3,400

Accounts Receivable 3,400

b. Cash 3,332

Sales Returns and Allowances 668

Accounts Receivable 4,000

c. Cash 3,332

Sales Returns and Allowances 600

Sales Discounts 68

Accounts Receivable 4,000

d. Cash 3,920

Sales Discounts 80

Sales Returns and Allowances 600

Accounts Receivable 3,400

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

102. Which of the following would not be classified as a contra account?

a. Sales Revenue

b. Sales Returns and Allowances

c. Accumulated Depreciation

d. Sales Discounts

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

103. Which of the following accounts has a normal credit balance?

a. Sales Returns and Allowances

b. Sales Discounts

c. Sales Revenue

d. Selling Expense

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

104. With respect to the income statement,

a. contra-revenue accounts do not appear on the income statement.

b. sales discounts increase the amount of sales.

c. contra-revenue accounts increase the amount of operating expenses.

d. sales discounts are included in the calculation of gross profit.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

105. When a seller grants credit for returned goods, the account that is credited is

a. Sales Revenue.

b. Sales Returns and Allowances.

c. Inventory.

d. Accounts Receivable.

Ans: D, LO: 3, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

106. The respective normal account balances of Sales Revenue, Sales Returns and Allowances, and Sales Discounts are

a. credit, credit, credit.

b. debit, credit, debit.

c. credit, debit, debit.

d. credit, debit, credit.

Ans: C, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

107. All of the following are contra revenue accounts except

a. sales revenue.

b. sales allowances.

c. sales discounts.

d. sales returns.

Ans: A, LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

108. A merchandising company using a perpetual system will make

a. the same number of adjusting entries as a service company does.

b. one more adjusting entry than a service company does.

c. one less adjusting entry than a service company does.

d. different types of adjusting entries compared to a service company.

Ans: B, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

109. In preparing closing entries for a merchandising company, the Income Summary account will be credited for the balance of

a. sales revenue.

b. inventory.

c. sales discounts.

d. freight-out.

Ans: A, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

110. A merchandising company using a perpetual system may record an adjusting entry by

a. debiting Income Summary.

b. crediting Income Summary.

c. debiting Cost of Goods Sold.

d. debiting Sales Revenue.

Ans: C, LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: FSA

111. The operating cycle of a merchandiser is

a. always one year in length.

b. generally longer than it is for a service company.

c. about the same as for a service company.

d. generally shorter than it is for a service company.

Ans: B, LO: 1, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

112. When the physical count of Rosanna Company inventory had a cost of $4,350 at year end and the unadjusted balance in Inventory was $4,500, Rosanna will have to make the following entry:

a. Cost of Goods Sold 150

Inventory 150

b. Inventory 150

Cost of Goods Sold 150

c. Income Summary 150

Inventory 150

d. Cost of Goods Sold 4,500

Inventory 4,500

Ans: A, LO: 4, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $4,500 ( $4,350 ( $150

113. Arquette Company’s financial information is presented below.

Sales Revenue $ ???? Cost of Goods Sold 540,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 40,000 Gross Profit ????

Net Sales 900,000

The missing amounts above are:

Sales Revenue Gross Profit

a. $940,000 $360,000

b. $860,000 $360,000

c. $940,000 $420,000

d. $860,000 $420,000

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Business Economics

Solution: $900,000 ( $40,000 ( $940,000; $900,000 ( $540,000 ( $360,000

114. The sales revenue section of an income statement for a retailer would not include

a. Sales discounts.

b. Sales revenue.

c. Net sales.

d. Cost of goods sold.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

115. The operating expense section of an income statement for a wholesaler would not include

a. freight-out.

b. utilities expense.

c. cost of goods sold.

d. insurance expense.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

116. Income from operations will always result if

a. the cost of goods sold exceeds operating expenses.

b. revenues exceed cost of goods sold.

c. revenues exceed operating expenses.

d. gross profit exceeds operating expenses.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

117. Indicate which one of the following would appear on the income statement of both a merchandising company and a service company.

a. Gross profit

b. Operating expenses

c. Sales revenues

d. Cost of goods sold

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

118. Conrad Company reported the following balances at June 30, 2014:

Sales Revenue $16,200

Sales Returns and Allowances 600

Sales Discounts 300

Cost of Goods Sold 7,500

Net sales for the month is

a. $7,800

b. $15,300.

c. $15,600.

d. $16,200.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 1, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $16,200 ( $600 ( $300 ( $15,300

119. Income from operations appears on

a. both a multiple-step and a single-step income statement.

b. neither a multiple-step nor a single-step income statement.

c. a single-step income statement.

d. a multiple-step income statement.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

120. Gross profit does not appear

a. on a multiple-step income statement.

b. on a single-step income statement.

c. to be relevant in analyzing the operation of a merchandiser.

d. on the income statement if the periodic inventory system is used because it cannot be calculated.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

121. Which of the following is not a true statement about a multiple-step income statement?

a. Operating expenses are similar for merchandising and service enterprises.

b. There may be a section for nonoperating activities.

c. There may be a section for operating assets.

d. There is a section for cost of goods sold.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

122. Which one of the following is shown on a multiple-step but not on a single-step income statement?

a. Net sales

b. Net income

c. Gross profit

d. Cost of goods sold

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

123. All of the following items would be reported as other expenses and losses except

a. freight-out.

b. casualty losses.

c. interest expense.

d. loss from employees’ strikes.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

124. If a company has net sales of $700,000 and cost of goods sold of $455,000, the gross profit percentage is

a. 25%.

b. 35%.

c. 65%.

d. 100%.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: ($700,000 ( $455,000) ( $700,000 ( 35%

125. A company shows the following balances:

Sales Revenue $2,500,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 450,000

Sales Discounts 50,000

Cost of Goods Sold 1,400,000

What is the gross profit percentage?

a. 30%

b. 44%

c. 56%

d. 70%

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $2,500,000 ( $450,000 ( $50,000 ( $2,000,000; ($2,000,000 ( $1,400,000) ( $2,000,000 ( 30%

126. The gross profit rate is computed by dividing gross profit by

a. cost of goods sold.

b. net income.

c. net sales.

d. sales revenue.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

127. In terms of liquidity, inventory is

a. more liquid than cash.

b. more liquid than accounts receivable.

c. more liquid than prepaid expenses.

d. less liquid than store equipment.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

128. On a classified balance sheet, inventory is classified as

a. an intangible asset.

b. property, plant, and equipment.

c. a current asset.

d. a long-term investment.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

129. Gross profit for a merchandiser is net sales minus

a. operating expenses.

b. cost of goods sold.

c. sales discounts.

d. cost of goods available for sale.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

130. During 2014, Parker Enterprises generated revenues of $90,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $45,000, operating expenses of $18,000 and a loss on the sale of equipment of $3,000.

Parker’s gross profit is

a. $24,000.

b. $27,000.

c. $45,000.

d. $90,000.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 2, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

131. During 2014, Parker Enterprises generated revenues of $90,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $45,000, operating expenses of $18,000 and a loss on the sale of equipment of $3,000.

Yoder’s income from operations is

a. $18,000.

b. $27,000.

c. $45,000.

d. $90,000.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

132. During 2014, Parker Enterprises generated revenues of $90,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $45,000, operating expenses of $18,000 and a loss on the sale of equipment of $3,000.

Yoder’s net income is

a. $24,000.

b. $27,000.

c. $45,000.

d. $90,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

133. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 60,000

Sales Revenue 225,000

Cost of Goods Sold 135,000

Gross profit would be

a. $30,000.

b. $90,000.

MC. 133 (Cont.)

c. $165,000.

d. $225,000.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $225,000 ( $135,000 ( $90,000

134. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 60,000

Sales Revenue 225,000

Cost of Goods Sold 135,000

The gross profit rate would be

a. .133.

b. .400.

c. .600.

d. .733.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: ($225,000 ( $135,000) ( $225,000 ( .40

135. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 26,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales 300,000

Cost of Goods Sold 158,000

Gross profit would be

a. $104,000.

b. $116,000.

c. $130,000.

d. $142,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $300,000 ( $26,000 ( $12,000 ( $262,000; $262,000 ( $158,000 ( $104,000

136. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 26,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 300,000

Cost of Goods Sold 158,000

The gross profit rate would be

a. .347.

b. .397.

c. .473.

d. .542.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $300,000 ( $26,000 ( $12,000 ( $262,000; ($262,000 ( $158,000) ( $262,000 ( .397

137. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 18,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 320,000

Cost of Goods Sold 174,000

The amount of net sales on the income statement would be

a. $290,000.

b. $302,000.

c. $308,000.

d. $320,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $320,000 ( $18,000 ( $12,000 ( $290,000

138. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 18,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 320,000

Cost of Goods Sold 174,000

Gross profit would be

a. $26,000.

b. $116,000.

c. $128,000.

d. $134,000.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $320,000 ( $18,000 ( $12,000 ( $290,000; $290,000 ( $174,000 ( $116,000

139. Financial information is presented below:

Operating Expenses $ 90,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 18,000

Sales Discounts 12,000

Sales Revenue 320,000

Cost of Goods Sold 174,000

The gross profit rate would be

a. .363.

b. .400.

c. .456.

d. .503.

Ans: B, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $320,000 ( $18,000 ( $12,000 ( $290,000;($290,000 ( $174,000) ( $290,000 ( .40

140. If a company has sales revenue of $630,000, net sales of $600,000, and cost of goods sold of $390,000, the gross profit rate is

a. 35%.

b. 38%

c. 62%.

d. 65%.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: ($600,000 ( $390,000) ( $600,000 ( 35%

141. Dawson’s Fashions sold merchandise for $40,000 cash during the month of July. Returns that month totaled $1,000. If the company’s gross profit rate is 40%, Murray’s will report monthly net sales revenue and cost of goods sold of

a. $39,000 and $23,400.

b. $39,000 and $24,000.

c. $40,000 and $23,400.

d. $40,000 and $24,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

142. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s gross profit for August, 2014 is

a. $20,000.

b. $21,000.

c. $23,000.

d. $24,000.

Ans: D, LO:5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $36,000 ( $24,000

143. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s nonoperating income (loss) for the month of August, 2014 is

a. $0.

b. $1,000.

c. $2,000.

d. $3,000.

Ans: D, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $1,000 ( $2,000 ( $3,000

144. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s operating income for the month of August, 2014 is

a. $20,000.

b. $21,000.

c. $23,000.

d. $24,000.

Ans: A, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $36,000 ( $4,000 ( $20,000

145. During August, 2014, Baxter’s Supply Store generated revenues of $60,000. The company’s expenses were as follows: cost of goods sold of $36,000 and operating expenses of $4,000. The company also had rent revenue of $1,000 and a gain on the sale of a delivery truck of $2,000.

Baxter’s net income for August, 2014 is

a. $20,000.

b. $21,000.

c. $23,000.

d. $24,000.

Ans: C, LO: 5, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $60,000 ( $36,000 ( 4,000 ( $1,000 ( $2,000 ( $23,000

a146. In a worksheet for a merchandising company, Inventory would appear in the

a. trial balance and adjusted trial balance columns only.

b. trial balance and balance sheet columns only.

c. trial balance, adjusted trial balance, and balance sheet columns.

d. trial balance, adjusted trial balance, and income statement columns.

Ans: C, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a147. The Inventory account balance appearing in a perpetual inventory worksheet represents the

a. ending inventory.

b. beginning inventory.

c. cost of merchandise purchased.

d. cost of merchandise sold.

Ans: A, LO: 6, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a148. The following information is available for Dennehy Company:

Sales Revenue $390,000 Freight-In $30,000

Ending Inventory 37,500 Purchase Returns and Allowances 15,000

Purchases 270,000 Beginning Inventory 45,000

Dennehy’s cost of goods sold is

a. $262,500.

b. $285,000.

MC. 148 (Cont.)

c. $292,500.

d. $345,000.

Ans: C, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $45,000 + $270,000 ( $15,000 + $30,000 ( $37,500 ( $292,500

,

a149. At the beginning of September, 2014, Stella Company reported Inventory of $8,000. During the month, the company made purchases of $35,600. At September 30, 2014, a physical count of inventory reported $8,400 on hand. Cost of goods sold for the month is

a. $35,200.

b. $35,600.

c. $36,000.

d. $43,600.

Ans: A, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $8,000 + $35,600 ( $8,400 ( $35,200

,

a150. At the beginning of the year, Hunt Company had an inventory of $750,000. During the year, the company purchased goods costing $2,400,000. If Hunt Company reported ending inventory of $900,000 and sales of $3,750,000, the company’s cost of goods sold and gross profit rate must be

a. $1,500,000 and 66.7%.

b. $2,250,000 and 40%.

c. $1,500,000 and 40%.

d. $2,250,000 and 60%.

Ans: B, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $$750,000 +$2,400,000 ( $900,000 ( $2,250,000; ($3,750,000 ( $2,250,000) ( $3,750,000 ( 40%

a151. During the year, Slick’s Pet Shop’s inventory decreased by $25,000. If the company’s cost of goods sold for the year was $500,000, purchases must have been

a. $475,000.

b. $500,000.

c. $525,000.

d. Unable to determine.

Ans: A, LO: 7, Bloom: C, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: Problem Solving, IMA: FSA

Solution: $500,000 ( $25,000 ( $475,000

a152. Cost of goods available for sale is computed by adding

a. beginning inventory to net purchases.

b. beginning inventory to the cost of goods purchased.

c. net purchases and freight-in.

d. purchases to beginning inventory.

Ans: B, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Industry/Sector Perspective, AICPA FN: Measurement, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Business Economics

a 153. The Freight-In account

a. increases the cost of merchandise purchased.

b. is contra to the Purchases account.

c. is a permanent account.

d. has a normal credit balance.

Ans: A, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a 154. Net purchases plus freight-in determines

a. cost of goods sold.

b. cost of goods available for sale.

c. cost of goods purchased.

d. total goods available for sale.

Ans: C, LO: 7, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Easy, Min: 1, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

a155. Goldblum Company has the following account balances:

Purchases $96,000

Sales Returns and Allowances 12,800

Purchase Discounts 8,000

Freight-In 6,000

Delivery Expense 10,000

The cost of goods purchased for the period is

a. $80,800.

b. $88,000.

c. $94,000.

d. $104,000.

Ans: C, LO: 7, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Medium, Min: 3, AACSB: Analytic, AICPA BB: Legal/Regulatory, AICPA FN: Reporting, AICPA PC: None, IMA: Reporting

Solution: $96,000 ( $8,000 + $6,000 ( $94,000

,

a156. McKendrick Shoe Store has a beginning inventory of $45,000. During the period, purchases were $195,000; purchase returns, $6,000; and freight-in $15,000. A physical count of inventory at the end of the period revealed that $30,000 was still on hand. The cost of goods available for sale was

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bgsu instructure

COVER

Course:QS 4650Spring 2015
Project Title (provide brief title in adjacent cell):
Team Members: (teams form at assignment 1, in place at assignment 2). Typically 8-10 persons are on team, and team leader/assistant leader may remain constant, while other functions rotate.
DMAIC Worksheet Status: This identifies the worksheets to be completed, and by whom, for each assignment, congruent with rollout of work in tab 2. DMAIC worksheets are both numbered and un-numbered, to be completed as assignments throughout the course per tab 2. Each assignment must be managed and completed by the team under the leadership of the team leader (s) with all cooperating to assist. All team members should be shown with responsibilities and status of work for each assignment submitted by team.
Worksheet/AssignStatusDue DateWho Is ResponsibleComments/Other
1.1 Team Demo
1.2 Proj Charter
1.3 Prob Desc
1.4 PPP PDCA
1.5 DMAIC Meth
1.6 KPI Data
1.7 SIPOC
1.8 A3
EROL’s***
IROL’s***
DMAIC Critiques
Personal Critique*
Audit*
Power Point
Bibliography**
FACR**
Team Model/MgmtTeam leader/assistant 1 or 2
Functions with * and ** may be combined if team is smaller–ideally 10 people compose team. *** can be done by assistant team leader if team is smaller. Otherwise all un-numbered functions are assigned to one (usually different) person on team for each assignment. All will do at least one numbered DMAIC worksheet (upper listing) each assignment as well as a un-numbered task at the lower area (note there are nine un-nmbered tasks, all in yellow, including the team leadership functions).

1Intro

Course Syllabus, General Information
QS 4650. Leadership For Lean Six Sigma (3) II. Leadership focus around individual tools and techniques as foundation of continuous improvement in the lean and six sigma environment. The scientific application of common lean and six sigma tools will be applied as a transformational and improvement strategy. Team-based project configuring e-portfolio in ISO 9000 infrastructure. Prerequisites: QS 3600 and QS 3650.
Dr. John W. Sinn, Professor. Email jwsinn@bgsu.edu; related e-text and assignment materials are located at http://www2.bgsu.edu/colleges/technology/faculty/sinn/TQTT.htm
1. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY, ASSESSING STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES, ASSIGNMENTS
Aside from instructor-provided writings, no specific, single, text is used, but the course relies upon student research, via assignments, along with instructor-provided content. Assignments address content identified in student and instructor research and writings, and all deliver/lead work, as learning, in systematic, disciplined ways. Each assignment is designed equivalent to be roughly equal to traditional course tests. Most course content (exception is EROL content which students research on their own) is provided at website provided above, freely available to students. Most work (beginning at assignment 2) is intentionally done in teams, similar to how actual organizational work is completed–all done around a simulated project using fictional information configured by students in teams.
2. COURSE OUTCOMES
1. Organize, manage, effectively apply and develop further where needed and appropriate, multiple quality tools for improvement (DMAIC lean sigma analysis systems) similar to the way they are used in organizations. 2. Conduct, and develop, a model lean sigma analysis project system, as a technical project applying quality tools/DMAIC worksheets, both independently and compiled as collective team portfolio at each assignment. 3. Compile a review of literature, resulting in a bibliography of appropriate sources abstracted to validate findings, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations (FACR’s) tied to quality tools/DMAIC worksheets. 4. Critique/assess your/others’ work for improvement in a electronic environment, leading to effective management and communication of ideas and objectives’ accomplishment, independently and as a team. 5. Build and present a portfolio, including a power point presentation, throughout course, first done independently by each student, and eventually compiled in team for each assignment, to document accomplishments.
3. ***ASSESSMENT SYSTEM/ASSIGNMENT RESPONSIBILITIES SUMMARY
Student Activity%**Potential Points?*How Many, Other?*When?
ROL’s internal (IROL)15%app 6 pts each/45 totAll do two per assignment, 7-8 topicsEach assignment
ROL’s external (EROL)15%app 6 pts each/45 totAll do two per assignment, 7-8 topicsEach assignment
Bibliography5%15 points totalAll contribute, rotationally one compilesAcross the course
DMAIC WS/Critique20%60 points totalAll do two WS’s+critique, rotationally one compilesTwo each/topic
Personal Critique5%15 points totalEach assignment, 7-8 topicsAcross the course
Audit5%15 points totalOne for team, rotating assignmentEach assignment
Power Point Pres10%30 points totalOne for team, rotating assignmentAcross the course
FACR systems5%15 points totalOne for team, rotating assignmentAcross the course
Book Review5%15 points totalOne per individualDue finals week
Team Portfolio/Model15%45 points totalOne, compiled in team, starting assignment 2Across the course
*See due dates in syllabus tab 2–all done in team starting assignment 2–individuals also graded separately when appropriate.
**Total points approximately 300, but audit feedback is letter grade each assignment–may be different for team/individuals.
***Audit tab 11 explains how feedback is provided–articulated with this listing/cover page for assigning work each assignment.

2 ConRO

Content, Rollout, Deliverables
Course content will be supplied, on a timely basis, as needed. As is noted in the rollout below, across the course there will be eight separate toolkit assignments drawn from the Lean, Six Sigma, Quality Transformation Toolkit (LSSQTT), along with other specifics explained in tabs and notes below. LSSQTT readings are located at http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/technology/faculty/sinn/TQTT.htm. All work to be completed relates directly to LSSQTT content, and is also heavily oriented to DMAIC worksheets based in MS Excel, to be posted in a timely manner as needed across the course in Canvas.
Assignment #/ ReadingWeek (Date)LSSQTT Title, Other Topic (topics and assignments may intentionally continue over time, accumulatively)DMAIC Tool Worksheet (Ext ROL can relate to this work)
Assignment #1 LSSQTT Tool 1Week 1 (1-12 to 1-23)Review/understand syllabus; Engage all in Canvas, online; Start assignment #1: “Team Building, Leadership, Communicating The Project And Change”; Pay close attention to announcements/discussions in CanvasAll DMAIC 1 worksheets started, completed (some may be finished at assignment 2, 3
Assignment #2 LSSQTT Tool 23Week 3 (1-26 to 2-6)Continue improving, all understand course requirements, syllabus; “Economic Considerations, Cost Related Documentation And Quality Relationships”; Watch Canvas announcements/discussions and use new content in all IROL/EROL’s; Teams beginning to form, compile assignmentAll do Data Coll Tut individually; Do DMAIC 1, start 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.8, FACR–All assigned/done in teams
Assignment #3 LSSQTT Tool 15Week 5 (2-9 to 2-20)“Genealogy Of Selected Lean, Six Sigma, Quality Management Tools”; ROL topics relate to model system project, teams maturing, improving; Watch Canvas announcement/discussions; rotationally assign team members to compile all work in portfolioAll do DMAIC 3.2 individually; Do all DMAIC 1’s and 2’s, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, FACR; rotate, compile
Assignment #4 LSSQTT Tool 25Week 7 (2-23 to 3-6)“Data, Basis For Kaizen, Six Sigma, Quality Systems, Service”; ROL topics relate to model system project, teams maturing, continuous improvement noted; Watch Canvas announcement/discussions; rotationally assign team members to compile all work in portfolioAll do DMAIC 3.5; Continue 1’s & 2’s; Do 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, FACR; Rotate and compile, ppt and portfolio
Assignment #5 LSSQTT Tool 24Week 10 (3-9 to 3-27)“Ongoing Process Control Plan (OPCP), Foundational Infrastructure For Quality Communication”; Teams formed and fully functioning, improving; and be sure to research new content in all IROL and EROL topics; rotationally assign team members to compile all work in portfolioAll do 3.1.1, 3.1.2 or 3.1.3. Do 4.1/4.2, 5.6, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11 FACR; Rotate, compile; update all
Assignment #6 LSSQTT Tool 26Week 12 (3-30 to 4-10)“Failure Mode And Effects Analysis (FMEA), Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Base For Reliable Quality Communication”; research new content in all IROL and EROL topics; rotationally assign team members to compile all work in portfolioAll do DMAIC 5.5. Mature, refine all DMAIC sheets, FACR; Rotate, compile, support team
Assignment #7 TBM and/or QSRWeek 14 (4-13 to 4-24)Time-based Management (TBM) and Quality System Requirements (QSR) ppt’s posted for ROL’s; Assure that all persons on team are identified by work in portfolio cover sheet; research new content in all IROL and EROL topicsAll do DMAIC 5.4. Mature, refine all DMAIC sheets, FACR; Rotate, compile, support team
Assignment #8 LSSQTT Tool 27Week 16 (4-27 to 5-8)Book review, team projects completed; “Information Technology, Maintenance And Safety: Pivotal Manufacturing And Non-manufacturing Services”; Team portfolios/ppt’s evolving, all team work and compiling clearly identifiedAll do DMAIC 4.1.1. Mature, refine all DMAIC sheets, FACR; Rotate, compile, support team
Notes to help all understand the content, course rollout and deliverables:
1. This can/may be modified by instructor, with careful communication, to best accomplish course outcomes.
2. Each two week cycle has two internal ROL’s; two external ROL’s; and, two DMAIC critiques.
3. Details for each weekly assignment, done in two week cycles driven by LSSQTT readings, are shown in tabs below.
4. Additional details for each assignment will be provided in Canvas as preparation for posting areas for work submissions.
5. All work is placed in bi-weekly Excel portfolio, based on tabs below, synthesized/reassembled at each assignment.
6. All work submitted at/done in Canvas–important to pay attention to/use this as main course communication tool.
7. LSSQTT readings are available at http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/technology/faculty/sinn/TQTT.htm
8. DMAIC worksheets will be furnished in Canvas, along with examples of past work to help guide teams.

3IROL

Review of literature (IROL) Internal Critique Assignment
One IROL is due with each assignment. IROL assignment has 7-8 separate reviews, based on course rollout, with each person critiquing a separate unique section of the assigned LSSQTT reading for that assignment cycle (see tab 2 below). Deliverables for internal LSSQTT sections include items 1-4 below, each done as a box using template format provided here. During each reading assignment, two separate ROL templates should be prepared and posted in Canvas by required date of the assignment cycle, one for each section reviewed, and all part of the broader portfolio for that assignment cycle. Compiling of all IROL reading materials will be assigned at the team level. Note that if you have taken a course with Dr. Sinn in the past, and have used the same reading, please critique different material.
1. ABSTRACT/BIG IDEAS. Internal critiques abstract readings referenced which are approximately 100-150 words, each, and which capture the thrust of content and concept, as an overview, provided by the author in the LSSQTT. Abstract should explain main points, or “big ideas” covered by the author, with a brief overview/explanation of each.
2. STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES/QUESTIONS. Provide the main strengths and weaknesses, and questions, which were evident as a result of the reading. If you were to rewrite/rework the reading, what would you develop further, and/or expand upon, change to be even stronger, and in what ways. What questions did the reading cause you to raise, and what are your responses.
3. PROJECT/MODEL RELATIONSHIP. Reflect on, consider longer term model project all are moving toward in last half of the course. While fairly general at the outset, since the project is only being defined in “sketchy” ways, as the course moves along, sections reviewed should be increasingly targeted toward the project, intentionally. By the time the course concludes, most sections should be congruent with the project.
4. POWER POINT and PORTFOLIO PRESENTATION. Your work should be prepared as a professional portfolio (Excel documentation) and power point presentation which can stand alone to communicate effectively what needs to be stated as deliverables. The portfolio and power point should include all appropriate individual work based on teams being fully formed at about assignment 2-3, and all on the team contributing to meeting objectives.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

4EROL

External Review of literature (EROL) External Critique Assignment
EROL assignment has 7-8 separate reviews, based on course rollout, with each person critiquing a separate external article related to the assigned LSSQTT reading for that assignment cycle (see tab 2 below). Deliverables for each external article include items 1-5 below, each done as a box using template format. During each reading assignment, two separate external ROL templates should be prepared and posted in Canvas by the required date of the assignment cycle, one for each article reviewed, and all part of the broader portfolio. Compiling of all EROL reading materials will be assigned at the team level. Note that if you have taken a course with Dr. Sinn in the past, and have used the same reading, please critique different material.
1. BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRIES. Critiques should include a bibliographic entry done according to APA format. This should be developed into a full scale reference list incrementally (see tab 5). Compiling of all IROL bibliographic materials will be assigned at the team level.
2. ABSTRACT/BIG IDEAS. External critiques abstract articles referenced which are approximately 100-150 words, each, and which capture the thrust of content and concept, as an overview, provided by the author of the article. Abstract should explain main points, or “big ideas” covered by the author, with a brief overview/explanation of each.
3. STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES/QUESTIONS. Provide the main strengths and weaknesses, and questions, which were evident as a result of the reading. If you were to rewrite/rework the reading, what would you develop further, and/or expand upon, change to be even stronger, and in what ways. What questions did the reading cause you to raise, and what are your responses.
4. PROJECT RELATIONSHIP. Reflect on, consider longer term model project all are moving toward in last half of the course. While fairly general at the outset, since the project is only being defined in “sketchy” ways, as the course moves along, articles reviewed should be increasingly targeted toward the project, intentionally. By the time the course concludes, most articles should be congruent with the project.
5. POWER POINT and PORTFOLIO PRESENTATION. Your work should be prepared as a professional portfolio (Excel documentation) and power point presentation which can stand alone to communicate effectively what needs to be stated as deliverables. The portfolio and power point should include all appropriate individual work based on teams being fully formed at about assignment 2-3, and all on the team contributing to meeting objectives.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

5AnnBib

Annotated Bibliography
At each assignment, it is anticipated that all will conduct external ROL’s as detailed in the EROL tab to address this part of the ongoing work. As each EROL (and related bibliographic work) is completed, the documentation of key information must be logged in routinely to develop a individual bibliographic listing first, and then eventually a team bibliographic listing collectively. The key documentation information, expected, is identified below based on the form and format provided, and you will need to insert additional lines/boxes with each additional assignment source (s). The annotated bibliography should be completed according to APA format, and utilizing all articles and book reviews completed throughout the course, and eventually should reflect all sources/information reviewd by the team. Note that you do not need to do annotations for Dr. Sinn’s work (IROL).
APA Bibliographic Information For Each ROL SourceKey Concepts/Ideas Presented By Author

6DMAIC CA

DMAIC Critique Assignment (CA)
DMAIC CA assignment has two separate reviews, based on course rollout over the term, for each person on the team. One review is the work as assigned within the team, to be brought forward each assignment cycle and managed/synthesized to be part of the team portfolio (note that a single DMAIC review can be provided with several sheets summarized if a person was assigned multiple worksheets at the team level–but information must be clearly delineated for each sheet according to crieria below). The other DMAIC review is the separate/individual work as assigned for all to complete, usually a single DMAIC sheet with data, done for most assignment cycles. Team assigned DMAIC worksheets will be presented as one cumulative summary in the team portfolio–based on compiling of all DMAIC CA materials as assigned at the team level. Format remains the same for each of the two parts of this work–as defined below.
1. BIG IDEA “QUESTIONS”. Critiquer provides “BIG” ideas developed relative to doing DMAIC worksheet, pertaining to course ideas and goals. Big ideas are commonly focused on questions relative to the DMAIC worksheet reviewed, and could include: a) how might this worksheet be used in the workplace to aid in improvement projects? b) how does this worksheet relate to a broader lean sigma system for improvement? c) what specific training might be necessary for people on a team in the workplace, to assure timely and accurate completion of the worksheet?
2. MAIN FINDINGS BASED ON WORKSHEET COMPLETION. Provide main findings based on completion of DMAIC worksheet, using real or simulated data (care should be taken not to use data which may appear like other’s). Questions to be addressed could include: a) what does the data tell us? b) how do we interpret data for improvement in a project? c) how might we collect better data based on what we see in the findings? Data findings and analysis should also be used to demonstrate application of worksheet to address project objectives via the FACR worksheet.
3. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) FOR COMPLETING WORKSHEET. A step by step procedure should be listed, in order, sufficient for preparing/supporting others in the use and application of this worksheet. This procedure should be referred to as the SOP for the worksheet.
4. STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES. Main strengths and weaknesses are identified relative to course focus. That is, if you were to rewrite/rework the DMAIC worksheet, what would you change, and/or what would you add or delete.Minimum areas to be addressed should include: a) what changes in procedures could aid in improvement, and ease of use? b) what changes in format could aid in ease of use, improvement in the sheet? c) how might procedures and/or format be used differently to help train/prepare persons in the workplace to better be able to use the sheets?
5. PROJECT/FACR RELATIONSHIP. Reflect on, consider longer term model project all are moving toward in last half of the course. While fairly general at the outset, since the project is only being defined in “sketchy” ways early on, as the course moves along, worksheets reviewed should be increasingly targeted toward the project, intentionally. Specific references in support of the FACR work, although completed separately and likely be someone else, should be included. By the time the course concludes, most worksheets should be congruent with, and in support of, both the project in general and the FACR worksheet in particular.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

7PC

Personal Critique (PC)
PC helps all see how each other complete and assess work, leading to best practices–it is not a “grading assignment”. PC requires one review for each reading (see tab 2 below), critiquing one different individual every assignment cycle, automatically assigned, in Canvas, in previous cycle. PC format/general requirements are explained below. No PC is due for the first assignment cycle–and it is anticipated that the PC will be assigned at the team level, rotationally.
1. General Details. Who was critiqued, what was the assignment ROL topic provided by the instructor, when was the PC posted in Canvas, and so on?
2. BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRIES. Was bibliographic information included, and properly done according to APA guidelines? Is a bibliography being built for the entire course, showing each work cumulatively (each person should be building a total reference list as part of the course).
3. ABSTRACT/BIG IDEAS. Based on your review of abstracts/big ideas for ROL’s, was it clear what the reviewer found–with sufficient detail and analysis provided? Was the ROL relevant to the broader project and model being pursued? Was interest generated for you to read the materials critiqued? List multiple questions you raised based on the abstract and big ideas reviewed for this PC.
4. STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES. Based on your review of the strengths and weaknesses for the ROL’s, was it clear what the reviewer concluded–with sufficient detail and analysis provided? Would you pursue reading materials critiqued based on conclusions reached? List questions you raised based on the strengths and weaknesses presented in the reviews.
5. PROJECT RELATIONSHIP. Based particularly on the ROL provided by the critiquer, was this professionally prepared, clear–with sufficient details provided, able to “stand alone”, not requiring preparer presence to explain? Were all parts of the assignment completed, and done appropriately to effectively communicate to you and others?
6. FINDINGS ANALYZED, OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT. Based on the materials you reviewed, what recommendations would you offer to the preparer for improvement. Note that it is unacceptable to say that no recommendations are offered. As with all parts of this and all assignments, it is anticipated that there will be substantial responses offered for each area.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

8ProjMod

Team Model Assignment
The team model assignment is to be done between about mid term and final, although it can be started before mid term if individuals agree, collectively to do so. All work in teams of 8-10 to build a model system which is the optimal organizational entity to facilitate new product development and launch organizationally–with assignment deliverables further detailed below. The project can be either a real or simulated project, but all on team must agree and support whatever is pursued–up front.
1. GENERAL TEAM DEMOGRAPHICS. Team should include a general worksheet (or multiples) which details who is on the team, their backgrounds, and their general role in the project.
2. ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT. The model should be based on a simulated or real organization, with general information included to be number and type of employees; history and evolution; types of product; locations of facilities; strategic plan highlights; among others.
3. MAIN COMPONENTS’ FUNCTIONING FOR COMPETITIVENESS. A detailed description of each of the main components in the model should be done, including the main areas covered in each assignment cycle. This should address not only each individual component, but also relationship of components, which will help assure competitiveness organizationally.
4. GRAPHICAL DEPICTION, DESCRIPTION OF MAIN COMPONENTS. There should be a graphical depiction of the overall model, and a contextual description of main components. Flow chart is the recommended graphical depiction method, although others can be used, but all main components’ function, and how they relate to the broader model, must be included.
5. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN. Based on growth anticipated in the model, include a plan for implementation at other organizational locations, with a projected implementation budget, timeline, key performance measures, training required, and other main features related to launching and sustainment over time. The implementation plan should also be articulated directly with all parts above, to show how the system will be managed over time.
6. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. The model should include a annotated bibliography completed according to APA format, and utilizing articles and book reviews completed for the course, as well as new ideas developed in addition to these.Note that this part of the assignment should be intentionally related to the ROL course assignments–as well as all other components and functions of team work.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

9PortPpt

Portfolio, Power Point
As is noted in the ROL and assignment tabs, a portfolio should be developed. This should be based around individual work, evolving toward a team portfolio, by each person, consistent with the model project assignment. Both the Excel and power point portions of the portfolio are anticipated to evolve iteratively throughout the course, along the lines identified below, and including all other tab assignment elements. The power point presentation is assigned by the team leader/team to be updated by a team member, rotationally at each assignment.
1. GENERAL DETAILS. The portfolio has an Excel workbook and a power point presentation, both interactive and supportive, explanatory of one another–consider that the power point is a quick overview, an “Executive Summary”, to explain the workbook portion of the portfolio. Please note that as all work is being completed, it will be important to indicate where and how you intend to use the work in your portfolio presentation (since this is audited as part of the full assignment).
2. ORGANIZATION, COVER PAGE. Work examples should be provided, taken directly from weekly/biweekly assignments. When doing weekly work, consider what the organization of the portfolio should be, starting with a cover page in the Excel workbook to explain all details, similar to a table of contents. Again, the Excel longer detailed version, should be explained in power point.
3. BIBLIOGRAPHIC LISTING. This should be a direct take-off of all regular assignments, and it should reflect APA format in a highly organized and systematic manner.
4. ABSTRACT/BIG IDEAS/STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES. Team should create a synthesis of all abstracts and big ideas which demonstrates the ability to conceptually summarize and capture main ideas in work. Key strengths and weaknesses noted throughout the course may also be included here. Part of the challenge is to evaluate information and to include only the best of the best, keeping it as short as possible, but with useful and relevant information for the future.
5. PROJECT/MODEL RELATIONSHIP. Incrementally, evolutionarily, as teams become engaged around the major project, all need to reflect what has been done to contribute to the team, but provided as a individual effort to the compiler for the team portfolio/power point presentation.
6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT/FACR. Based on the materials provided, what recommendations would you offer for self-improvement? It is anticipated that this will include references to various assignments, and be refelctive of findings and analysis throughout the course–best done with the FACR, routinely. Anticipated to be driven by ROL and DMAIC CA information, the detailed and systematic documentation can, again, demonstarte your ability to make effective decisions and recommendations based on analysis and review of information.
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

10Aud

Audit Checklist, QS 4650; Spring 2015Assignment 1
Person/ CourseBib APAInt ROL CritExt ROL CritDM-AIC CritPers CritPort PrepPPT PrepSelf Asses AuditDMAIC Work SheetsFA-CRWrit-ing QualBig IdeasDetail Ex-plainQues Rais-ed?On TimeFor-matAssig-nment GradeCOMMENTS/OTHER
QS 3710
Team Self Assessment/Continuous Improvement At This Assignment
This audit/assessment tool will be used in two ways in the course: first it is used by the team as a self-improvement tool; second it is used by the instructor as feedback to the teams, based on the completed portfolio submitted at each assignment. Your self assessment of the work submitted should be provided to the rotationally assigned, and written here, for each assignment. When considering what A, B, C type grade to assign yourself, reflect on criteria as laid out above/below, and outcomes in “Intro” syllabus tab to arrive at your own grade and assessment. Team should address specific areas which you are striving to improve, and how this will come about, individually and collectively. Remove these directions before submitting–and remember to assign a specific, overall, grade to yourself–consistent with the completion of the columns above (you should actually place an X in those boxes where deficiencies may exist), similar to how the instructor will assess your work at each assignment cycle.
Explanation of general audit/assessment actions (feedback to be provided by instructor):
1. Feedback will typically be provided by the instructor, beginning Friday at the end of the two week assignment cycle.
2. Persons enrolled in two courses submit dual assignment/template completions (one for each course), all done in a single portfolio.
3. Each two week cycle has two internal ROL’s; two external ROL’s; two DMAIC critiques; two personal critiques, all driven by LSSQTT.
4. Most categories above are intentionally aligned with assessment rubrics from syllabus–be sure to review these carefully if there are questions.
5. Additional explanation and details related to specific assignments will be furnished by instructor as needed at each assignment.
6. X indicates that work was not adequately completed in the category shown–communication with instructor is advised.
7. Errors can occur for various reasons in instructor observations–some correctable based on participant input–and grades can change up/down.
8. Persons enrolled in two courses submit dual assignment/template completions (one for each course), but a single portfolio is encouraged.
9. Categories in red above are most substantive for assessment points/outcomes at “course info” tab–others are contextual but of different order.

11FACR

Findings, Analysis, Conclusions and Recommendations (FACR)
FACR’s are used to document results for each individual DMAIC tool–and related ROL’s. Generally these are associated with a specific objective, although they may address more than one objective in the work and project. The goal is to determine how effectively the tool application worked, and in what ways? Also, what was found when it was used, what could be concluded, and what was the recommendation based on use? Note that rows can be added to (and inserted) and a general summary statement should be added at the bottom of the FACR.
FACR’s should be done for all DMAIC tools and related ROL content, and all on the team, per syllabus assignment rollout, although final compilation is assigned by the team leader as the project team forms up. Iterations for different information and/or data sets for the same worksheet are intentionally to be configured as multiple sets of data for the same worksheet, as a way to “test” and/or further develop (often done using simulated data at the first half of the course, matured later in team). It is also true that worksheets can/should be modified and improved as part of the work of the team, if recommended by them. ROL content, when significant, should also be referenced as part of FACR.
All first use the worksheet independently, as a separate exercize. After all on team have used the worksheet, and posted in the appropriate Canvas area, one person on the team is assigned to compile all worksheet data and documentation. After all separate worksheets for a given DMAIC tool are compiled, all DMAIC worksheets are synthesized in the FACR system as part of the team portfolio. As each DMAIC toolset is completed across the semester and course, these are added, cumulatively. Note that typically a single line is used for each objective, directly below this box.
MemberProject ObjectiveAnalysis MethodFindingsConclusion,Recommendation
Person doing work–to compile the final worksheetSpecific project objective statedOften called the “methodology”, what DMAIC tool/worksheet was used and how? Note that frequently multiple worksheets contribute to the same analysis method used. ROL information reviewed may be included here as part of the analysis.What was found when the DMAIC worksheet (s) was/were used. Note that this is what is often referred to as “the basis” for what we can conclude as being accomplished. What content in ROL’s was important for solving the problem?What can be concluded based on what was found–and were any additional methodological analyses used to derive this conclusion? Note that recommendations can only be made where a logical flow of analysis, findings and conclusions have been established.Frequently, given the nature of the work, it is not fully conclusive at this stage and therefore many times we must go back and apply other tools and methods, continuing the work to be able to reach legitimate conclusions.
FACR SummaryDMAIC tools used, and what was found, concluded, how analyzed, and recommendations provided, are summarized in a “synthesized” manner here. The FACR should be treated similar to the methodology of any project, or applied research, as a key problem solving strategy. This FACR is also frequently/typically one of the key components used by management to assess the success of a project. Significant/pivotal ROL content and information should also be referenced.

12BkRev

Book Review/Critique Assignment (BRC)
The Book Review Critique (BRC) assignment should be done between about mid term and final, with each person reviewing/critiquing a book. All do one review related to course content, per their choice, but the text should be substantive, consisting of a minimum of 10 chapters and 250-300 pages or more. General requirements are explained below, with all documentation to be completed in template provided. The book review assignment should be posted, in it’s entirety, by early in the final week of the course. There are differences in the graduate and undergraduate student assignments–and this can result in possible extra credit for undergraduate students.
1. BASELINE ASSIGNMENT GRADE DETERMINATION. Graduate students doing the assignment should review and report on all chapters. Undergraduate students must complete 2 chapters, minimum, and all other components of the assignment. Additional chapters reviewed, at the option of the student, done to the standard outlined below, may result in a better grade.
2. BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY. Include a bibliographic entry done according to APA format.
3. TOTAL TEXT ABSTRACT. Provide a single abstract, approximately 200-300 words, capturing the thrust of content and concept, as an overview, based on the author of the text.
4. CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER ABSTRACTS and BIG IDEAS. Each chapter should have a single abstract which is approximately 100-150 words, and which captures the thrust of content and concept, as an overview, provided by the author of the text, using a separate box for each chapter. Additionally, “Big Ideas” are commonly presented as part of the abstract, focused around questions the critiquer posits relative to what the author has provided.
5. STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES. Provide the main strengths, relative to Lean Six Sigma Systems Analysis and Quality and Change ideas, presented in the text. That is, if you were to rewrite the article, what would you develop further, and/or expand upon, change to be even stronger, and in what ways–this may or may not be related to big ideas presented as part 4.
6. VALUE ADDED. Critiquer should answer the question, “what is the value added in this text, for colleagues as we grow the knowledge base, specifically, in Lean Six Sigma Systems Analysis and Quality and Change, and generally in technology management?”
7. COMPARISONS TO OTHER TEXTS. Answer the question, “what is the relationship of this text to other related texts, for colleagues as we grow the knowledge base in Lean Six Sigma Systems Analysis and Quality and Change ideas, and generally in technology management?”
Instructions for Changing Format
To delete rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “edit” pulldown above and come down to delete, select entire row, and OK.
To add rows place/click the cursor on the row desired, go to “insert” pulldown above and come down to row, and click–row will be added.
To create rows go to “format” pulldown above and come down to cells; at “text control” select wrap text and merge cells; and then OK.
To expand an existing row, allowing more lines of text, click on line (number at left) of text/box and move downward to desired size.

13emails

QS 6260-7260; emails
PersonBGSU email address(es)
Daniel Adkinsadkinsd@bgsu.edu
Lucas Balistrerilucasb@bgsu.edu
Jeremy Espinozajbespin@bgsu.edu
Andrew Frostamfrost@bgsu.edu
Roger Gregoryrgregor@bgsu.edu
Robert Kupkarkupka@bgsu.edu
Jodi Lamson-Scribnerjlamson@bgsu.edu
Matthew Leopoldleopolm@bgsu.edu
James McDowelljmcdowe@bgsu.edu
Shawn McMahonshawnm@bgsu.edu
James Mehallowjmehall@bgsu.edu
Todd Minniefieldtdminni@bgsu.edu
Matthew Misconinmmiscon@bgsu.edu
Trenton Morrelltmorrel@bgsu.edu
Adam Nicelyanicely@bgsu.edu
Edwin Penningtonpenniec@bgsu.edu
Cory Pfeffenbergercmpfeff@bgsu.edu
William Stuartwstuart@bgsu.edu
Craig Wreedecwreede@bgsu.edu
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justine earned $26 000

Justine earned $26,000 during the first year of her job at city hall. After each year she received a 3% raise. Find her total earnings during the first five years on the job.

2 0 1,083
asked by Angel
Apr 13, 2016
This is a GP
where a = 26000
and r = 1.03

sum(5) = 26000(1.03^5 – 1)/(1/03-1
= $138,037.53

5 0
posted by Reiny
Apr 13, 2016