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## the projected rate of increase in enrollment at a new college is estimated by

The projected rate of increase in enrollment at a new college is estimated by dE/dt = 6,000(t+1)^-3/2 where E(t) is the projected enrollment in t years. If the enrollment is 3,000 now (t=0), find the projected enrollment 15 years from now.

0 0 247
asked by Jess
Nov 21, 2013
dE/dt = 6,000(t+1)^-3/2
E(t) = -12000(t+1)^-1/2 + c
3000 = -12000+c
c = 15000

E(t) = 15000 – 12000/√(t+1)
E(15) = 15000 – 12000/4 = 12000

0 0
posted by Steve
Nov 21, 2013

Categories

## a major purpose of preparing closing entries is to

Kelsey Allerton began a music business in July 2016.

Allerton prepares monthly financial statements and uses the accrual basis of accounting. The following transactions are Allerton

​Company’s only activities during July through​ October:

 Jul 14 Bought music on account for \$ 25, with payment to the supplier due in 90 days. Aug3Sep16Oct 22 Performed a job on account for Jimmy Jones for \$40, collectible from Jones in 30 days, Used up all the music purchased on July 14.Collected the \$40 receivable from JonesPaidthe \$25 owes to the supplier from the July 14 transaction.

In which month should Allerton record the cost of the music as an​ expense?

A. August

B. July

C. September

D. October

2) On January 1 of the current​ year, Bamber Company paid \$ 1,500in rent to cover six months

(Januarylong dash June). Bamber recorded this transaction as​ follows:

 Journal Entry Date Accounts Debit Credit Jan 1 Prepaid Rent 1,500 Cash 1,500

Bamber adjusts the accounts at the end of each month. Based on these​ facts, the adjusting entry at the end of January should include

A. a debit to Prepaid Rent for \$ 250

B. a credit to Prepaid Rent for \$ 1,250

C. a debit to Prepaid Rent for \$ 1,250

D. a credit to Prepaid Rent for \$ 250

.

3) On January 1 of the current​ year, Bamber Company paid \$ 1,500 in rent to cover six months​ (January -​ June). Bamber recorded this transaction as​ follows:

 Journal Entry Date Accounts Debit Credit Jan 1 Prepaid Rent 1,500 Cash 1,500

Bamber adjusts the accounts at the end of each month. Bamber’s adjusting entry at the end of February should include a debit to Rent Expense in the amount of

A. \$0

B. \$ 1,500

C. \$ 500

D. \$ 250

4) An adjusting entry recorded June salary expense that will be paid in July. Which statement best describes the effect of this adjusting entry on the​ company’s accounting​ equation?

A. Assets are not​ affected, liabilities are​ increased, and​ stockholders’ equity is increased.

B. Assets are​ decreased, liabilities are not​ affected, and​ stockholders’ equity is decreased.

C. Assets are​ decreased, liabilities are​ increased, and​ stockholders’ equity is decreased.

D. Assets are not​ affected, liabilities are​ increased, and​ stockholders’ equity is decreased.

5) What is the effect on the financial statements of recording depreciation on​ equipment?

A. Net income is not​ affected, but assets and​ stockholders’ equity are decreased.

B. Net​ income, assets, and​ stockholders’ equity are all decreased.

C. Net income and assets are​ decreased, but​ stockholders’ equity is not affected.

D. Assets are​ decreased, but net income and​ stockholders’ equity are not affected.

6) For 2016, NestorCompany had revenues in excess of expenses. Which statement describes Nestor’s closing entries at the end of 2016 (assume there is only one closing entry for both revenue and​ expenses)?

A. Revenues will be​ debited, expenses will be​ credited, and retained earnings will be debited.

B. Revenues will be​ debited, expenses will be​ credited, and retained earnings will be credited.

C. Revenues will be​ credited, expenses will be​ debited, and retained earnings will be credited.

D. Revenues will be​ credited, expenses will be​ debited, and retained earnings will be debited.

7) A major purpose of preparing closing entries is to

A. zero out the liability accounts.

B. adjust the asset accounts to their correct current balances.

C. close out the Supplies account.

D. update the Retained Earnings account.

8) Selected data for the Dublin Company​ follow:

 Current assets . . . . . . . . \$25,200 Current liabilities . . . . . . \$21,000 Long-term assets . . . . . . 175,000 Long-term liabilites . . . . 102,000 Total revenues . . . . . . . . 194,000 Total expenses . . . . . . . 160,000

Based on these​ facts, what are Dublin’’s current ratio and debt​ ratio? ​(Ratios have been rounded to three decimal​ places.)

Current ratio                             Debt ratio

A. 1.213 0.206

B. 1.200 0.614

C. 1.628 0.614

D. 9,533 0.833

9) Unadjusted net income equals \$ 6, 000

.

Calculate what net income will be after the following​ adjustments:

 1 Salaries payable to​ employees, \$ 550 2 Interest due on note payable at the​ bank, \$ 125 3 Unearned revenue that has been​ earned, \$ 600 4 Supplies​ used, \$ 225
 Adjusted net income amounts to. \$______________.

10) Salary Payable at the beginning of the month totals \$ 24,000. During the​ month, salaries of

\$ 128,000 were accrued as expense. If ending Salary Payable is \$ 14,000, what amount of cash did the company pay for salaries during the​ month?

A. \$ 166,000

B. \$ 143,000

C. \$ 90,000

D. \$ 138,000

Categories

## why did the cow want a divorce

Why did the cow want a divorce? Having trouble with this page (158)
6,271 results
9th grade
Why did the cow want a divorce? Having trouble with this page (158)

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A 25,000 kilogram train is traveling down a track at 20 meters per second. A cow wanders onto the tracks 75 meters ahead of the train, causing the conductor to slam on the brakes. The rain skids to a stop. If the brakes can provide 62,500 Newtons of

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A 25,000 kilogram train is traveling down a track at 20 meters per second. A cow wanders onto the tracks 75 meters ahead of the train, causing the conductor to slam on the brakes. The rain skids to a stop. If the brakes can provide 62,500 Newtons of

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math who helps me step by step
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FIFTH EDITION

DEVELOPMENT and

SOCIAL CHANGE

For Karen, with love and gratitude

FIFTH EDITION

DEVELOPMENT and

SOCIAL CHANGE A GLOBAL

PERSPECTIVE

PHILIP MCMICHAEL Cornell University

FOR INFORMATION:

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

McMichael, Philip.

Development and social change: a global perspective / Philip McMichael. —5th ed.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-4129-9207-7 (pbk.: alk. paper)

1. Economic development projects—History. 2. Economic development—History. 3. Competition, International—History. I. Title.

HC79.E44M25 2012 306.309—dc23 2011036148

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

11 12 13 14 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Brief Contents

About the Author

Preface to the Fifth Edition

A Timeline of Development

Acknowledgments

Abbreviations

1. Development: Theory and Reality

Part I. The Development Project (Late 1940s to Early 1970s)

2. Instituting the Development Project

3. The Development Project: International Framework

4. Globalizing Developments

Part II. The Globalization Project (1980s to 2000s)

5. Instituting the Globalization Project

6. The Globalization Project in Practice

7. Global Countermovements

Part III. Millennial Reckonings (2000s to Present)

8. The Globalization Project in Crisis

9. The Sustainability Project

10. Rethinking Development

Notes

References

Glossary/Index

Detailed Contents

About the Author

Preface to the Fifth Edition

A Timeline of Development

Acknowledgments

Abbreviations

1. Development: Theory and Reality Development: History and Politics Development Theory

Naturalizing Development Global Context Agrarian Questions Ecological Questions

Social Change The Projects as Framework

The Development Experience Conclusion

Part I. The Development Project (Late 1940s to Early 1970s)

2. Instituting the Development Project Colonialism

The Colonial Division of Labor Social Reorganization under Colonialism

Decolonization Colonial Liberation

Decolonization and Development Postwar Decolonization and the Rise of the Third World Ingredients of the Development Project

The Nation-State Economic Growth

Framing the Development Project National Industrialization: Ideal and Reality

Economic Nationalism

Import-Substitution Industrialization Summary

3. The Development Project: International Framework The International Framework

U.S. Bilateralism: The Marshall Plan (Reconstructing the First World) Multilateralism: The Bretton Woods System Politics of the Postwar World Order

Remaking the International Division of Labor The Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs)

The Food-Aid Regime The Public Law 480 Program Food Dependency

Remaking Third World Agricultures The Global Livestock Complex The Green Revolution Anti-rural Biases of the Development Project

Summary

4. Globalizing Developments Third World Industrialization in Context

The World Factory The Strategic Role of Information Technologies The Export-Processing Zone The Rise of the New International Division of Labor (NIDL) From the NIDL to a Global Labor Force Global Sourcing

Agricultural Globalization The New Agricultural Countries (NACs)

Global Finance The Offshore Money Market Banking on Development

Summary

Part II. The Globalization Project (1980s to 2000s)

5. Instituting the Globalization Project Securing the Global Market Empire The Debt Regime

Debt Management Reversing the Development Project Challenging the Development State

The Globalization Project Global Governance

Liberalization and the Reformulation of Development The Making of a Free Trade Regime

The World Trade Organization The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

Summary

6. The Globalization Project in Practice Poverty Governance Outsourcing Displacement

Labor: The New Export Informalization Global Recolonization Summary

7. Global Countermovements Environmentalism

Sustainable Development Earth Summits Managing the Global Commons Environmental Resistance Movements

Feminism Feminist Formulations Women and the Environment Women, Poverty, and Fertility Women’s Rights

Cosmopolitan Activism Food Sovereignty Movements Summary

Part III. Millennial Reckonings (2000s to Present)

8. The Globalization Project in Crisis Legitimacy Crisis

Microfinance, or Poverty Capital Post-Washington Consensus? The Latin Rebellion Arab Spring?

Geopolitical Transitions Financial Crisis Food Crises

Ecological Crisis Conclusion

9. The Sustainability Project The Problem of Climate Change

The Pentagon The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) The Stern Review and Grassroots Initiatives

Stabilizing Ecosystems The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)

The Centrality of Agriculture International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for

Development (IAASTD) Feeding the World

The Agro-Ecology Project The World Bank World Development Report (2008)

The Global Land Grab Biofuels Green Technology Summary

10. Rethinking Development Development in the Gear of Social Change

Nonmarket Values Politicizing Inequality New Geography of Inequality The Analytical and Political “Purchase” of Development

Paradigm Change Degrowth Economics Transition Towns The Commons

Conclusion

Notes

References

Glossary/Index

About the Author

Philip McMichael grew up in Adelaide, South Australia, and he completed undergraduate degrees in economics and in political science at the University of Adelaide. After traveling in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan and doing community work in Papua New Guinea, he pursued his doctorate in sociology at the State University of New York at Binghamton. He has taught at the University of New England (New South Wales), Swarthmore College, and the University of Georgia, and he is presently International Professor of Development Sociology at Cornell University. Other appointments include Visiting Senior Research Scholar in International Development at the University of Oxford (Wolfson College), and Visiting Scholar, School of Political Science and International Relations at the University of Queensland. His book Settlers and the Agrarian Question: Foundations of Capitalism in Colonial Australia (1984) won the Social Science History Association’s Allan Sharlin Memorial Award in 1985. McMichael edited The Global Restructuring of Agro-Food Systems (1994), Food and Agrarian Orders in the World Economy (1995), New Directions in the Sociology of Global Development (2005) with Frederick H. Buttel, Looking Backward and Looking Forward: Perspectives on Social Science History (2005) with Harvey Graff and Lesley Page Moch, Contesting Development: Critical Struggles for Social Change (2010), and The Politics of Biofuels, Land and Agrarian Change (2011) with Jun Borras and Ian Scoones. He has served as chair of his department, as director of Cornell University’s International Political Economy Program, as chair of the American Sociological Association’s Political Economy of the World-System Section, as president of the Research Committee on Agriculture and Food for the International Sociological Association, and as a board member of Cornell University Press. He has also worked with the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and its Committee on Food Security, the UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), the international peasant coalition Vía Campesina, and the International Planning Committee for Food Sovereignty. He and his wife, Karen Schachere, have two children, Rachel and Jonathan.

T

Preface to the Fifth Edition

he fifth edition of this text updates the material in a world in substantial transition. The original framework and perspective of the first edition remain intact, although the

attempt to organize development as a global project is fraught with instability and possibly planet-threatening trends. Accordingly, a new section outlining an emergent “sustainability project” has been added. The thread that weaves together this story of colonialism, developmentalism, globalization, and sustainability is that development is a project of rule, with environmental consequences. It takes different forms in different historical periods, and these have been laid out as changing sets of political-economic and political-ecological relations, animated by powerful discourses of discipline, opportunity, and sustainability. While this text may have the appearance of an economic argument, it is important to note that the framework is essentially political and world-historical in that it attempts to understand the intersection between the development enterprise and power relations in ordering the world and its ecological foundations. This account of development focuses on social and political transformations, and the various ways in which development is realized through social and spatial inequalities. It also considers these processes from the perspective of social movements, and how their resistances problematize the dominant vision of economism as a form of rule and as an increasingly evident threat to ecological stability.

The conceptual framework posits “development” as a political construct devised by dominant actors such as metropolitan states, multilateral institutions, and political and economic elites to order the world and contain opposition. Development and globalization are presented as projects with coherent organizing principles (e.g., economic nationalism, market liberalization), yet unrealistic in their vision and potential for accomplishment, since they are realized through inequality. The theoretical subtext of the development project is organized by extended Polanyian cycles of regulation and resistance. In the mid-twentieth century, a form of “embedded liberalism” (market regulation within a maturing nation-state system to contain labor and decolonization movements) informed social-democratic (developmentalist) goals within a Cold War context of economic and military aid to the Third World. This “development era” ended with a “countermobilization” of corporate interests dedicated to instituting a “self-regulating market” on a global scale from the 1970s onwards. The dominant discourse of neoliberalism proposed market liberalization, privatization, freedom of capital movement and access, and so on. This globalization project had a “test run” during the debt regime of the 1980s, and was institutionalized with the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995. A further countermobilization—to the deprivations of the globalization project—has gathered momentum through maturing global justice movements in the 1990s, the Latin American and Arab rebellions of the new century, and a growing “legitimacy deficit” for the global development establishment. This is symbolized in the collapse of the Washington Consensus following the 1997 Asian-originating global financial crisis, recovery of the trope of “poverty reduction” in the Millennium

Development Goals (MDGs) initiative of 2000, stalemate at the WTO, and growing antipathy toward the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) among countries of the global South. Neoliberalism is at a crossroads, complicated by serious security concerns: with a social component—in mushrooming slums; an economic dimension—in both financial volatility and the casualization of employment; a political element—in acts of terrorism; and an ecological aspect—in the evidence of global climate change. How the current cycle of opposition and creative development alternatives will unfold is yet to be determined, but it is possible to see an emergent sustainability project which includes both security concerns— largely of those with political and economic power—and grassroots initiatives toward rethinking the values that define development.

The fifth edition has two major revisions. The first is the introduction of an explicit discussion of the origins and role of development theory. The purpose here is to (a) introduce basic theoretical concepts that organize our understanding of development, (b) situate these theoretical concepts in the era of decolonization and the optimism of the development decades, (c) examine how subsequent transformations in world ordering call such foundational development theory into question, and (d) indicate to the reader how the author has organized the narrative according to social change theory that allows transformation in conceptions of development.

The second major revision considers current events as indicative of fundamental transitions in development possibilities. These events, outlined in Chapter 8, include the conjunction of food, energy, financial, and climate crises, as well as a redistribution of political-economic power as registered in the rise of the Group of 21 (G-21)—in particular the BRICS—and the challenge to U.S. supremacy. Structural adjustment of states in the global North, combined with social rebellion in the Middle East and the aforementioned crises in several dimensions, call into question the assumptions and institutions associated with the “Globalization Project” and its neoliberal dictates. Chapter 9 provides the outlines of the “Sustainability Project” as an emergent set of practices and institutions governing the next iteration/ordering of “development,” which is no longer about improving on the past so much as managing the future. The chapter considers the significance of a series of high-profile reports, initiatives, and green technologies—together these investigations and experiments reveal an array of disparate attempts to manage the future, and point toward a future ecological/climate regime.

The subject of development is difficult to teach. Living in relatively affluent surroundings, most university students understandably situate their society on the “high end” of a development continuum—at the pinnacle of human economic and technological achievement. And they often perceive the development continuum and their favorable position on it as “natural”—a well-deserved reward for embracing modernity. It is difficult to put one’s world in historical perspective from this vantage point. It is harder still to help students grasp a world perspective that goes beyond framing their experience as an “evolved state”—the inevitable march of progress.

In my experience, until students go beyond simple evolutionary views, they have difficulty valuing other cultures and social possibilities that do not potentially mirror their own. When they do go beyond the evolutionary perspective, they are better able to evaluate their own culture sociologically and to think reflexively about social change, development, and global

inequalities. This is the challenge we face.

Ancillaries

For the Instructor

The password-protected Instructor Site at www.sagepub.com/mc michael5e gives instructors access to a full complement of resources to support and enhance their courses. The following assets are available on the instructor site:

An essay test question bank that provides a number of essay questions to test students’ comprehension of the topics PowerPoint slides for each chapter that are integrated with the book’s distinctive features and incorporate key tables, figures, and photos, for use in lecture and review Chapter summaries and outlines that provide valuable tools for use in handouts and lectures Tables and figures from the book in an easily downloadable format, for use in handouts and presentations A timeline of globalization and development from the printed text in a digital formathttp://www.sagepub.com/mc michael5e

A Timeline of Development

I

Acknowledgments

wish to express my thanks to the people who have helped me along the way, beginning with the late Terence Hopkins (my graduate school mentor), and James Petras and

Immanuel Wallerstein. The late Giovanni Arrighi played a critical role in encouraging me to cultivate “analytical nerve.” For the first three editions, which include acknowledgment of the various people who were so helpful, special mention still goes to the original editor-in-chief, Steve Rutter, for his remarkable vision and his enthusiasm and faith in this project, as well as friends and colleagues who made significant contributions to improving this project—the late Fred Buttel, Harriet Friedmann, Richard Williams, Michelle Adato, Dale Tomich, Farshad Araghi, Rajeev Patel, Dia Da Costa, Gayatri Menon, and Karuna Morarji—and my undergraduate and graduate students (particularly my remarkable teaching assistants) at Cornell.

For this fifth edition, I have been fortunate to have the encouragement and understanding of publisher for sociology at SAGE, David Repetto, and the thoughtful guidance of editorial assistants for sociology, Maggie Stanley and Lydia Balian. Also, special thanks go to senior project editor, Laureen Gleason, and to editorial and marketing specialists Theresa Accomazzo and Erica DeLuca for their work behind the scenes, and especially to Anna Socrates, my fastidious copyeditor. Graduate student Ian Bailey provided much-needed and thorough research support when I needed it most and turned a critical eye on the first chapter. And Gary Hytrek prompted me to make more explicit my conceptual framework, despite my skepticism toward formal theorizing. Great thanks are also due to the reviewers of this edition: Pamela Altman, Dennis Canterbury, Julie Guthman, Robert Hard, Syndee Knight, and P. Pushkar.

Abbreviations

AfDB African Development Bank AGRA Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa ALBA Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas AoA Agreement on Agriculture (WTO) APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation BAIR Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Industrializing Regime BIP Border Industrialization Program BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa CAFTA Central American Free Trade Agreement CBD Convention on Biodiversity CDM Clean development mechanism

CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination againstWomen CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research COMECON Council for Mutual Economic Assistance COP conference of parties ECA Export Credit Agency ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America EOI export-oriented industrialization EPZ export processing zone EU European Union FAO Food and Agricultural Organization (UN) FDI foreign direct investment FLO Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International FTA Free Trade Agreement FTAA Free Trade Area of the Americas GAD gender and development GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDI Gender Development Index GDL global division of labor GDP gross domestic product GEF Global Environmental Facility GEM gender empowerment measure

GHG greenhouse gas emissions GLOBALGAP Retailer Produce Working Group on Good Agricultural Practices GNH gross national happiness GNP gross national product GPI genuine progress indicator HDI Human Development Index HIPC heavily indebted poor countries HYV high-yielding variety

IAASTD International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology forDevelopment ICT information and communication technologies IDS Institute for Development Studies IEA International Energy Agency IFI international financial institutions IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute IIED International Institute for Environment and Development IMF International Monetary Fund IPCC Inter-Governmental Plan on Climate Change IPR intellectual property rights ISI import-substitution industrialization LDC least developed countries LDCF less developed countries fund MA millennium ecosystem assessment MDGs millennium development goals MNEA Middle East North African states MICs middle-income countries NAC new agricultural country NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NAM Non-Aligned Movement NAPA National adaptation programme of action NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development NGO nongovernmental organization NIC newly industrializing country NIDL new international division of labor NIEO new international economic order NTE nontraditional export OAU Organization for African Unity ODA Overseas Development Assistance OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PRSP poverty reduction strategy papers RAI Responsible agricultural investment REDD Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation SAL structural adjustment loan SAP structural adjustment policies SEZ special economic zone TFN Transnational Feminist Network TIE Transnationals Information Exchange TNB transnational bank TNC transnational corporation TPN Transnational Policy Network TRIMs trade-related aspects of investment measures TRIPs trade-related intellectual property rights UNASUR Union of South American Nations UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNDP United Nations Development Program UNEP United Nations Environment Program UNFCCC United Nations Convention on Climate Change WEEE waste from electrical and electronic equipment WEF World Economic Forum WHO World Health Organization WID Women in Development WSF World Social Forum WTO World Trade Organization

D

1 Development

Theory and Reality

evelopment, today, is increasingly about how we survive the future, rather than how we improve on the past. While ideas of human progress, development stages, or visions of

improvement will still guide social theory and policy making, how we manage “energy descent” and adapt to serious ecological deficits and climatic disruption will define our existence. How will this shift change our understanding and practice of development?

A central issue is how effectively policy makers (in states and development agencies) recognize the need for wholesale public coordination of planning to minimize and adapt to inevitable climatic changes. Plenty of new ideas, practices, and policies are surfacing, but more as a cacophony rather than a strategic endeavor to reverse our ecological footprint. (See Glossary/Index for bolded definitions.) While the Chinese government is strategic in promoting green technology, China—the major offshore assembly zone for global commodities—is now the leading source of global greenhouse gas emissions. China averages \$150 billion worth of environmental damage annually, due to its breakneck economic growth.1 Climate summits have so far only confirmed the intransigence of governments held hostage to domestic growth policies—whether these governments are from the global North or the global South. This division, and which nation belongs to which “bloc”—and therefore is most responsible for emissions—only distracts authorities from substantive action. Another crisis also confronts twenty-first century nation-states, namely, the global crisis of unemployment and debt, which compounds the challenges of development futures.

Not only are there increasingly evident biophysical limits to development as we know it, but development is now compromised by mushrooming public austerity policies across the nation-state system. Such policies, tested in the global South from the 1980s, are now affecting the societies of the global North. All over, the development ideal of a social contract between governments and citizens is crumbling as hard-won social rights and entitlements erode—this is evident in contemporary European and U.S. political and social disorder as citizens protest cut-backs, as well as in the Middle Eastern uprisings against repressive regimes and joblessness (see Chapter 8). Arguably, “development” is not only in crisis but is at a significant turning point in its short history as a master concept of (Western- based) social science and cultural life.

This book is a guide to the rise and transformation of development as a vector of global social change over the last two centuries. From one (long-term) angle, it appears increasingly comet-like: a brilliant lodestar for the world, but perhaps destined to burn out as its energy- intensive foundations meet their limits. From another (immediate) angle, the energy dilemma forces renewed critical thinking about how humans might live sustainably on the planet. These

perspectives are the subject of Chapter 9, “The Sustainability Project.” Here we are concerned with the source and maturation of “development” as a master concept.

Development: History and Politics

Development had its origins in the colonial era, as Europeans began constructing systems of government—domestic and imperial—and concentrating within the emerging national states an industrial system fueled by the products of colonial labor regimes. As European political economies matured within this broader context, “development” emerged as the definitive concept. Global in its origins, the meaning of development nevertheless focused on European accomplishments. While such accomplishments came with massive social—and often violent —upheaval, they have been represented in theory as a set of idealized outcomes to be emulated by other countries. Accordingly, the “end” of development justifies the means of getting there, however disruptive socially and ecologically the process may be.

At this point it is helpful to work with Michael Cowan and Robert Shenton’s distinction between development as an imminent and/or universal social process, and development as a political intervention. In the nineteenth century, development was understood philosophically as the improvement of humankind (in the form of knowledge-building, technological change, wealth accumulation). European political elites interpreted development practically, as a way to socially engineer emerging national societies. Elites formulated government policy to manage the social transformations attending the rise of capitalism and industrial technologies, so development was identified with both industrialization and the regulation of its disruptive social impacts. These impacts began with the displacement of rural populations by land enclosures for cash cropping, a process that generated “undesirables,” such as menacing paupers, restless proletarians, and unhealthy factory towns.2 Development, then, meant balancing technological change and class formation with social intervention, that is, managing the citizen-subjects who experienced wrenching social transformations. At the same time, such transformations became the catalyst of competing political visions—liberal, socialist, conservative—of the ideal society.

In Europe’s colonies, the inhabitants appeared undeveloped—by self-defined European standards. In this context, development (as “evolution”) ideologically justified imperial intervention, whether to plunder or civilize. Either way, the social engineering impulse framed the European colonization of the non-European world. Not only did the extraction of colonial resources facilitate European industrialization, but European colonial administrators managed subject populations as they experienced their own version of wrenching social transformations. Thus development assumed an additional, normative meaning, namely, the “white man’s burden”—the title of a poem by English poet Rudyard Kipling—imparting honor to an apparently noble task. The implied racism remains a part of the normative understanding (and world consequence) of development.

Under these circumstances, development extended modern social engineering to colonies incorporated into the European orbit. Subject populations were exposed to a variety of new disciplines, including forced labor schemes, schooling, and segregation in native quarters. Forms of colonial subordination differed across time and space, but the overriding object

was either to adapt or marginalize colonial subjects to the European presence. In this sense, development was a power relationship. For example, British colonialism introduced the English factory-model “Lancaster school” to the (ancient) city of Cairo in 1843 to educate Cairo’s emerging civil service. Egyptian students learned the new disciplines necessary to a developing society that was busily displacing peasant culture with plantations of cotton for export to English textile mills and managing an army of migrant labor building an infrastructure of roads, canals, railways, telegraphs, and ports.3 Through the colonial relation, industrialism was transforming both English and Egyptian society, producing new forms of social discipline among laboring populations and middle-class citizen-subjects. And, while industrialism produced new class inequalities within each society, colonialism racialized international inequality. In other words, development introduced new class and racial hierarchies within and across societies.

While development informed modern narratives in the age of industrialism and empire, it only became formalized as a project in the mid-twentieth century. This period was the high tide of decolonization, as the Western—British, Italian, German, French, Dutch, Portuguese, and Belgian—and Japanese empires collapsed, and when a standardizing concept, “development,” as an emancipatory promise, became the new global ontology (a way of seeing/ordering the world).

In 1945, the United Nations, with the intent of expanding membership as colonies gained independence as sovereign states, institutionalized the System of National Accounts. A universal quantifiable measure of development, the Gross National Product (GNP), was born. At this point, the colonial rule of subjects under the guise of civilizing inferior races morphed into the development project, based on the ideal of self-governing states composed of citizens united by the ideology of nationalism. By the twentieth century’s end, the global development project focused on market governance of and by self-maximizing consumers.

Development Theory

Specifying development as consumption privileges the market as the vehicle of social change. The underlying philosophy—deriving from a popular (but limiting) interpretation of Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations4 and formalized in neoclassical economic theory—is that markets maximize individual preferences and allocate resources efficiently. Whether this theory reflects reality or not, it is a deeply held belief that is now institutionalized in much development policy across the world. Why is this the case?

Naturalizing Development

There are two ways to answer this question. First, a belief in markets is a central tenet of liberal Western philosophy. Hungarian philosopher Karl Polanyi noted that modern liberalism rests on a belief in a natural propensity for self-gain, which translates in economic theory as the market principle—realized as consumer preference.5 Self-gain, expressed through the market, drives the aspiration for improvement, aggregated as development. Second, as

Polanyi noted, to naturalize (competitive) market behavior as a transhistorical attribute discounts other human attributes, or values—such as cooperation, redistribution, and reciprocity. For Polanyi, and other classical social theorists, economic individualism is quite novel in the history of human societies and specific to nineteenth-century European developments, rather than being an innate human characteristic.

While these other values are clearly evident today in human interactions, the aspiration for improvement, normalized now as a private motivation, informs development. That is, well-being and self-improvement are squarely centered on access to goods and services through the marketplace. Initial (dating from the mid-twentieth century) formulations of development paired private consumption with public provisions—infrastructure, education, health, water supply, commons, clean air, and so forth. The mid-twentieth century was the heyday of the welfare, or development, state. But from the last quarter of the twentieth century, increasingly all provisioning has been subjected to privatization, as the market becomes the medium through which we consume and develop. To this end, development has become synonymous with consumption.

This outcome was prefigured in one of the most influential theories of development emerging in the post–World War II world. In 1960, economist Walt Rostow published The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto,6 outlining a development theory that celebrates the Western model of free enterprise—in contrast to a state-planned economy. The “stages” traversed a linear sequence, beginning with “Traditional Society” (agrarian, limited productivity) and moving through “Preconditions for Take-off” (state formation, education, science, banking, profit-systematization), “Take-off” (normalization of growth, with investment rates promoting the expanded reproduction of industry), and “Maturity” (the second industrial revolution that moved from textiles and iron to machine-tools, chemicals, and electrical equipment)—and finally to the “Age of High Mass-Consumption,” which is characterized by the movement from basic to durable goods, urbanization, and the rising level of white-collar versus blue-collar work.

This evolutionary sequence, distilled from the U.S. experience, represents the consumer society as the terminal stage of a complex historical process. Rostow also held out the U.S. model as the goal to which other (i.e., developing) societies should aspire, which partly explains Rostow’s subtitle—expressing the Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union at the time. The theorization of development as a series of evolutionary stages naturalizes the process, whether it occurs on a national (development era) or an international (globalization era) stage. Mass consumption was a final goal to be realized through membership of the “free world” at the time, and by implication, U.S. assistance would be available to spur the Third World of post-colonial, developing nations into progress along the stages.

However, note that Rostow’s “development blueprint” depended on a political context. That is, markets were not so natural that they did not require creating, securing, and protecting (by a development state). Development was neither spontaneous or inevitable, rather it required an institutional complex on a world scale (a development project) to nurture it along, complete with trade, monetary, and investment rules, aid regimes, and a military umbrella—all of which were supplied through post-war multilateral institutions and bilateral

arrangements led by the United States. In this way, theory came to imitate reality, which in turn is shaped by theory—informing public discourse and translating into policy implementation.

Global Context

Reality, of course, is more complicated than it first appears. Rostow’s prescriptions artificially separated societies from one another. While this may have expressed the idealism of mid-twentieth century nationalism, to assign stages of growth to societies without accounting for their unequal access to offshore resources discounted a fundamental historic relationship between world regions that have been shaped by colonial and investment patterns. Not only did European powers once depend on their colonies for resources and markets, these patterns continued in the post-colonial era. Because of continuing First World dependence on raw materials from the Third World, some societies were more equal than others in their capacity to traverse Rostow’s stages, as we shall see in Chapter 4.

It was this reality that stimulated dependency analysis and world-system analysis. The concept of “dependency” emerged in the mid-twentieth century from several quarters—an empirical observation by economist Hans Singer that “peripheral” countries were exporting more and more natural resources to pay for increasingly expensive manufactured imports; an argument by Singer’s collaborator, Argentinean economist Raúl Prebisch, that Latin American states should therefore industrialize behind protective tariffs on manufactured imports; and earlier Marxist theories of exploitative imperialist relations between the European and the non-European world.7 “Dependency” referred to the unequal economic relations between metropolitan societies and non-European peripheries—a factor accounting for the development of the former at the expense of the underdevelopment of the latter. As economist Andre Gunder Frank put it:

[H]istorical research demonstrates that contemporary underdevelopment is in large part the historical product of past and continuing economic and other relations between the satellite underdeveloped and the now-developed metropolitan countries. … When we examine this metropolis-satellite structure, we find that each of the satellites … serves as an instrument to suck capital or economic surplus out of its own satellites and to channel part of this surplus to the world metropolis of which all are satellites.8

World-system analysis, advanced by sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein, deepened the concept of dependency by elevating the scope of the modern social system to a global scale. States became political units competing for—or surrendering—resources within a world division of labor. Here regional labor forces occupy a skill/technological hierarchy associated with state strength or weakness in the capitalist world-economy.9 From this perspective, the “core” concentrates capital-intensive or intellectual production and the “periphery” is associated with lower-skilled labor-intensive production, whether plantation labor or assembly of manufactured goods. As we shall see, this kind of geographical hierarchy is increasingly complicated by what journalist Thomas Friedman calls “flat world”

processes (an example is India’s Information Technology boom).10 While “dependency” broadens the analysis of development processes to world-scale

relationships, challenging the assumption that societies are aligned along a self-evident spectrum of growth stages, it implies a “development-centrism”—where (idealized western) development is the term of reference. In this regard Wallerstein has argued that given the power hierarchy of the world-system, (idealized western) “development” represents a “lode- star” or master concept of modern social theory.11 As such, the privileging of “development” denied many other collective/social strategies of sustainability or improvement in other cultures. Nevertheless, while measuring all societies against a conception of (industrial) development may have seemed the appropriate goal for modernization and dependency theory at mid-century, from the vantage point of the twenty-first century it is quite problematic. The growing recognition that the planet cannot sustain the current urban-industrial trends in China and India is one dramatic expression of this new reality.

Agrarian Questions

Urbanization is a defining outcome of development and the “stages of growth” metaphor, where “tradition” yields to “modernity” as industrialization deepens and nurtures it. Political scientist Samuel Huntington, writing about the process of modernization in Political Order and Changing Societies (1968), claimed, “Agriculture declines in importance compared to commercial, industrial, and other nonagricultural activities, and commercial agriculture replaces subsistence agriculture.”12 While this sequence is clearly in evidence, the way in which it has played out raises questions about the model of separate national development (leaving aside the problem of artificial boundary drawing of “nations” in the colonial world). Rather than commercial agriculture replacing subsistence agriculture in country by country, millions of small producers have been unable to survive because of foreign impact—in the form of colonialism, foreign aid, and unequal market relations—expressing the global power relations identified by dependency and world-system analysts. How we perceive these changes is the ultimate question: Even as social changes occur within nations, does that mean the change is “internally” driven? Thus, if subsistence agriculture declines or disappears, is this because it does not belong on a society’s “development ladder”?13 Or is it because of a deepening exposure of smallholders to unequal world market competition by agribusiness— where agricultural productivity ratios across high- and low-input farming systems have risen from 10 to 1 before 1940 to 2000 to 1 in the twenty-first century?14

Rather than simply developing “internally,” Britain progressively outsourced its agriculture to the colonies, replacing subsistence agriculture there with plantations for commercial export. Such a global process played out in the North American continent as well, and partly accounts for the commercial dynamism of U.S. agriculture by the twentieth century (informing Rostow’s model). Therefore, modeling the rise of commercial agriculture as a question of domestic transformation is only partially valid. Nevertheless, the absence of peasantries in the First World is a key register for development theory. A logical extrapolation (if not historical analysis) would therefore define peasant cultures elsewhere as remnants of “Traditional Society.” As such, and according to this development model, peasant

cultures are destined to disappear, whether because of urban gravitational pull, green revolution technologies, eviction by land grabs, or unequal competition from First World agribusiness exports.

Thus small farming cultures became development “baselines”—in theory, and in practice, given modern technology’s drive to replace labor and control production. Unrecognized is the superior capacity or potential in surviving agrarian cultures for managing and sustaining their ecosystems than commercial agriculture, which overrides natural limits with chemicals and other technologies that deplete soil fertility, hydrological cycles, and biodiversity.15 The current “global land grab” depends on representing small-holdings across the global South as “underutilized” land that would be better employed by conversion to commercial agricultural estates producing foods and biofuels largely for export.16 Such activities raise the question as to whether and to what extent development—as modeled—is inevitable or intentional, and national or international?

Ecological Questions

In addition, this particular example of agricultural land usage also underscores a significant ecological blindspot in development theory. Where the passage from subsistence to commercial agriculture is represented as improvement (of single-crop productivity), it is an insufficient measure if it does not take into account the “externals.” These are the significant social and environmental impacts such as disruption of agrarian cultures and ecosystems, the deepening of dependency on fossil fuel, and modern agriculture’s responsibility for up to a third of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). It is this consequence that challenges the veracity of linear projections of development, and also the wisdom of replacing a long-standing knowledge-intensive culture/ecology (farming) with an industrialized economic sector (agriculture).

One key example of this ecological blindspot is its reproduction in the Human Development Index (HDI), constructed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The HDI overcame the singular emphasis on economic growth as development, but carried forward the absence of the ecological dimension:

The concept of human development focuses on the ends rather than the means of development and progress. The real objective of development should be to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. Though this may appear to be a simple truth, it is often overlooked as more immediate concerns are given precedence.17

While the HDI is known for its more robust measurement of (human) development, its data sources have lacked environmental content. This is particularly so given that humanity has now overshot the earth’s biocapacity (see Figure 1.1). Focusing on the outcomes of development discounts how we live on the earth, that is, measuring what practices are sustainable or not. It was only in 2011 that the UNDP began to embrace an ecological sensibility. Thus the Human Development Report (2011) is “about the adverse repercussions

of environment degradation for people, how the poor and disadvantaged are worst affected, and how greater equity needs to be part of the solution.”18

Figure 1.1 Humanity’s Ecological Footprint

Source: Global Footprint Network 2010 National Footprint Accounts, see http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/newsletter/bv/ humanity_now_demanding_1.4_earthsUS:official&channel=np&prmd =ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=aPv_TYmj EOqy0AHx7LGvDg&ved=0CDMQsA Q&biw=1125&bih=821

Given the UNDP’s reputation for questioning conventional wisdom, this new focus is a counterpoint to the 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, which noted that the last half century of human action has had the most intensive and extensive negative impact on world ecosystems ever, and yet this has been accompanied by continuing global gains in human well-being.19 Known as the “environmentalist’s paradox” (since we might expect ecosystem degradation to negatively affect human well-being), researchers have noted that average measures of well-being may reduce the validity of this claim, but perhaps more significantly “technology has decoupled well-being from nature” and time lags will only tell.20 In other words, mastery of nature may be effective in the short-term in generating rising consumption patterns, but also in masking the long-term implications of ecosystem stress. What such research suggests is that development needs a robust sustainability dimension. It is in this context that this book ends with an account of an emerging Sustainability Project.

DEVELOPMENT PARADOXES

The environmentalist’s paradox, when inverted, is—in fact—a “development paradox.” Former World Bank economist Herman Daly formulated this as an “impossibility theorem,” namely, that the universalization of U.S.-style high mass consumption economy wouldhttp://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/newsletter/bv/humanity_now_demanding_1.4_earthsUS:official&channel=np&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=aPv_TYmjEOqy0AHx7LGvDg&ved=0CDMQsAQ&biw=1125&bih=821

require several planet Earths. Either way, the ultimate paradox here is that the environment is not equipped to absorb its unrelenting exploitation by the current growth model of endless accumulation. In other words, development as we know it is undermining itself.

Three of the nine planetary operational boundaries have been crossed already—climate change, biodiversity, and the nitrogen cycle—while others such as fresh water use and oceanic acidification are at serious tipping points. Meanwhile, the costs of ecological degradation are borne disproportionately by the poor—the very same people targeted by the development industry. Two paradoxical formulations follow: (1) development expands opportunity/prosperity but is realized through inequality; and (2) development targets poverty but often magnifies it. Related to these formulations is the notion (advanced by the World Bank in 1992) that economic growth is a condition for sustainable development, which the UK Stern Review of 2006 termed a paradox: since the cost of climate change adaptation would be far greater if we wait for higher future levels of wealth to address the problem.

Some subsidiary paradoxes include such questions as these: Are low-carbon cultures that live with rather than seek to master nature backward? Are non-western cultures judged poor in what makes western cultures rich? Is frugality poverty? Why is malnutrition common to western and non-western cultures (see Figure 1.2)? Are non-western cultures rich in what western cultures are now poor (non-monetized items such as open space, leisure, solidarity, ecological knowledge)? Should we measure living standards only in monetary terms?

Sources: Foster (2011), Stern (2006), Daly (1990).

Figure 1.2 Percentage of Population That Is Malnourished and Overweight

Source: Adapted from New Internationalist 353 (2003): 20.

Social Change

As we have seen, development theory provides a blueprint, and justification, for universalizing a process originating within Europe—but as “greater Europe,” since European industrialization depended on displacing non-European industry and capturing non-European resources (minerals, raw materials, labor, and foodstuffs). Justification of this exploitation meant representing colonial intervention as a civilizing mission to those opposing colonialism on moral grounds. Of course colonial subjects resisted—for example, the successful late- eighteenth-century slave uprising in the French colony of Saint Domingue (forming the Haitian free state), but also the unsuccessful Amritsar rebellion put down savagely by British forces in India in 1919. Such uprisings marked a long-term politics of decolonization, with colonial subjects gaining moral and material power as countermovements to European empires, which in turn became increasingly costly to maintain. Resistance to colonialism—including substantial peasant mobilizations from China to Mexico to Kenya—was matched with labor uprisings and political organization during the late-colonial era. The British faced widespread labor strikes in their West Indian and African colonies in the 1930s, and this pattern continued over the next two decades in Africa as British and French colonial subjects protested conditions in cities, ports, mines, and on the railways.21

In other words, large-scale social changes accompanying industrial development involve definitive power struggles. Colonial rule generated a politics of decolonization, including class conflict, identity/cultural claims, and the desire for equality and sovereignty. The colonial project was certainly anchored in class relations as empires subordinated colonial labor forces and resources to service imperial needs. But this economic relation was accompanied by fundamental racial politics that both justified subjugation and fueled resistances across the colonial world. Added to the mix was the human rights dimension, whereby the desire for equality and sovereignty driving European social changes resonated in anti-colonial movements. While all three dimensions inform social struggles today, including gender and indigenous rights, they are all conditioned by the global development project that emerged in the mid-twentieth-century postcolonial era. Here, decolonization led to a universal realization of sovereignty in the (European-based) form of the nation-state, and expressed in the establishment of the United Nations organization in 1945.

The divided racial legacy of colonialism certainly did not disappear, but a very diverse world was bound together now by a universal principle: an international governmental structure enshrining the meaning and measurement of development as a national standard. This was institutionalized in the UN System of National Accounts by which monetized economic activity was recorded as Gross National Product (GNP). Outside of the Communist bloc (also known as the Second World), as national economic growth and income levels became the measure of development, so First- and Third-World societies came to be governed by the market (and its metrics), with varying degrees of public regulation.

The “market society” was the product of modern capitalism and its drive to commodify social relations, expressed in monetary exchanges. As Karl Marx pointed out, even human labor power came to be commodified via the wage contract, as villagers lost their means of livelihood and were forced to work for wages.22 Karl Polanyi extended this observation to

land and currency, noting that with the rise of nineteenth-century market society each of these substances came to be traded for a price. He argued that neither labor, land, nor money were produced for sale, and so were really “fictitious commodities.” For this reason, when these substances are treated as commodities, workers, farmers, and businesses are exposed to exploitative or uncertain conditions. That is, their labor, farming, or entrepreneurship experience competitive relations beyond their control, by a market with seemingly independent authority. Under these circumstances, Polanyi proposed that social movements would inevitably arise to protect society from unregulated markets (a “double movement”)— in effect, to re-embed markets within social controls. For Polanyi, the proof of this pudding was establishment of the twentieth-century welfare state, which became a model for the development state. It arose out of a European-wide social mobilization to protect the rights of workers, farmers, and businesses from the ill effects of unrestrained markets.23

The Projects as Framework

Within the terms of this broad social change theory, then, the postcolonial world order emerged from the combined force of decolonization politics and the new model of publicly regulated capitalist markets (as distinct from the communist model of a state-planned economy). Development as an ideal and as a policy carried forward the social welfare dimension, reinforced by the UN Declaration of Universal Human Rights (1948), through which governments were enjoined to protect civil rights through a social contract between state and citizen. This contract defined the era of the development project (1940s–1980), rooted in public regulation of markets as servants of states. The following era of the globalization project (1980s–through the present) saw markets regain ascendancy—with states as servants—and the incorporation of the “good market, bad state” mantra into public discourse. The tension between these poles continues in the emerging sustainability project (2000s onward) as the world transitions to a new project governed by a “climate regime.”

This book frames the story of development around these three projects, as a clarifying method to underline the point that the meaning and practice of development changes with changing political-economic (and environmental) conditions. The transition from the development to the globalization project involved a political countermovement “from above” by powerful business and financial interests and their allies to reduce or eliminate public regulation of corporations and their ability to operate across national borders. Deregulation of markets has been the ultimate goal, legitimized by neo-liberal economic theory. And subsequent controversies over the impact of globalization at the turn of the twenty-first century have been generated by social mobilization “from below,” driven by economic destabilization and intensification of social inequalities as markets have been disembedded from social controls.24

The development paradox, where poverty accompanies economic growth, is evident in the control of 50 percent of the world’s income by the wealthiest 10 percent of the world’s population, as well as in the deepening food crisis rendering over a billion people chronically hungry.25 In India—with annual economic growth rates around 8 percent and projections of overtaking China’s by 2013—almost half of its children under the age of five

were malnourished in 2010. The paradox can be qualified by public action—when in 2009, child malnutrition was 42.5 percent in India, it was just 7 percent in China.26

The current market malaise and combination of crises—food, energy, climate, social— suggests the world is in transition toward another project, which I term the Sustainability Project. The dynamic that links these projects, and accounts for their succession, can be thought of as a series of Polanyian “double movements” (politicization of market rule via social mobilization). The colonial project accompanying the rise of capitalist markets yielded to the development project as social and decolonization countermovements challenged the ascendancy of the market in their respective territories. Then the development project yielded to a globalization project intent on restoring market sway and reducing the power of states and citizens to the status of servants and consumers respectively.

Currently, the crisis of the globalization project (addressed in Chapter 8) is stimulating a wide range of sustainability initiatives, from the global to the local scale, that are geared to containing or reducing environmental degradation and climate warming. How these may coalesce into some kind of world ordering is not yet clear. Whether we will see or make a more authoritarian world order built on energy and climate security claims, or some decentralized ecologically-based social organization, are some of the possibilities that are informing debate (see Chapter 9). In the meantime, it is important to situate our condition via some “development coordinates.”

The Development Experience

Development is not an activity that other societies do to catch up to the “developed societies.” That nomenclature is unfortunate, since it suggests there is a state of development enjoyed by a minority of the world’s population that is the goal and envy of the rest of the world. It forgets that development is an endless process, not an end. Indeed, some argue that the West is busy “undeveloping” as jobs relocate to growth areas like China and India, as public infrastructure decays, and social services such as education and health care dwindle. From this perspective, development—at the national level—does not look like a linear process, nor is it a model outcome.

From a global perspective, development redistributes jobs to lower-wage regions. While transnational firms thereby enhance profitability, Northern consumers (at least those with incomes) enjoy access to low-cost products that are produced offshore. In this sense, development has been identified—for its beneficiaries—as consumption. This of course corresponds with Rostow’s final growth stage, but not as a national characteristic—rather as a global relationship. Much of what we consume today has global origins. Even when a product has a domestic “Made in …” label, its journey to market probably combines components and labor from production and assembly sites located around the world. Sneakers, or parts thereof, might be produced in China or Indonesia, blue jeans assembled in the Philippines, a cell phone or portable media player put together in Singapore, and a watch made in Hong Kong. The British savor organic vegetables from western China, the Chinese eat pork fed with Brazilian soy, and North Americans consume fast foods that may include chicken diced in Mexico or hamburger beef from cattle raised in Costa Rica. And, depending

on taste, our coffee is from Southeast Asia, the Americas, or Africa. We readers may not be global citizens yet, but we are certainly global consumers.

But global consumers are still a minority. While over three-quarters of the world’s population can access television images of the global consumer, only half of that audience has access to sufficient cash or credit to consume. Television commercials depict people everywhere consuming global commodities, but this is just an image. We know that 20 percent of the world’s population consume 86 percent of all goods and services, while the poorest 20 percent consume just 1.3 percent.27 Distribution of, and access to, the world’s material wealth is extraordinarily uneven. Almost half of the ex-colonial world dwells now in slums. Over 3 billion people cannot, or do not, consume in the Western style. Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano observes,

Advertising enjoins everyone to consume, while the economy prohibits the vast majority of humanity from doing so. … This world, which puts on a banquet for all, then slams the door in the noses of so many, is simultaneously equalizing and unequal: equalizing in the ideas and habits it imposes and unequal in the opportunities it offers.28

And yet it is important also to note that while we may be accustomed to a commercial culture, and view it as the development “standard,” other cultures and peoples are noncommercial, not comfortable with commercial definition, or are simply marginal to commercial life. Contrary to media images, global consumerism is neither accessible to—nor possible for—a majority of humans, nor is it a universal aspiration.

Nevertheless, the global marketplace binds consumers, producers, and even those marginalized by resource consumption. Consumers everywhere are surrounded, and often identified by, world products. One of the most ubiquitous, and yet invisible, world products is coltan, a metallic ore used in consumer electronics, such as computers and cell phones, in addition to nuclear reactors. It comes predominantly from the Congo, where militarized conflict over this valuable resource caused nearly 4 million deaths, and mining has negative environmental consequences for forests and wild-life. Such ethical issues, similar to those associated with “blood diamonds,” have driven some electronics corporations to mine coltan elsewhere in Africa.29

The global marketplace is a matrix of networks of commodity exchanges. In any one network, there is a sequence of production stages, located in a number of countries at sites that provide inputs of labor and materials contributing to the fabrication of a final product (see Figure 1.3). These networks are called commodity chains. The chain metaphor illuminates the interconnections among producing communities dispersed across the world. And it allows us to understand that, when we consume a product, we often participate in a global process that links us to a variety of places, people, and resources. While we may experience consumption individually, it is a fundamentally social—and environmental—act.

Commodity chains enable firms to switch production sites for flexible management of their operations (and costs). Any shopper at The Gap, for example, knows that this clothing retailer competes by changing its styles on a short-term cycle. Such flexibility requires access through subcontractors to labor forces, increasingly feminized, which can be intensified or let

go as orders and fashion changes. Workers for these subcontractors often have little security —or rights—as they are one of the small links in this global commodity chain stretching across an unregulated global workplace.

The world was shocked in 2010 when 18 Chinese migrant workers between 17 and 25 years old attempted suicide at Foxconn factories in three Chinese provinces. Foxconn recorded profits that year in excess of some of its corporate customers, such as Microsoft, Dell, and Nokia. Foxconn—responsible for producing iPhone 4, the iPod, and iPad 2— captures 50 percent of the world electronics market share in manufacturing and service.30

Figure 1.3 A Commodity Chain for Athletic Shoes

Source: Adapted from Bill Ryan and Alan During, “The Story of a Shoe,” World Watch, March/April 1998.

CASE STUDY Waste and the Commodity Chain

The disconnect between development theory and the environment is dramatized by the problem of waste, concealed in plain sight. The fact that consumption simultaneously produces waste is neither something consumers want to acknowledge, nor does it feature in

measures of economic growth. And yet waste in general, and electronic waste (e-waste) in particular, are huge and problematic by-products of our lifestyle. The household electronics sector is now the fastest growing segment of municipal waste streams, as computing and communication technologies rapidly evolve. The UN estimates the annual global generation of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) runs at a rate of between 20–50 million tons. In 2009, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) reported that e-waste could increase by 500 percent over the next decade in rising middle-income countries. The toxicity of this waste is extraordinary: From 1994–2003, for example, disposal of personal computers released 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium into landfills worldwide.

Cellular, or mobile, phones (1.2 billion sold globally in 2007) leach more than 17 times the U.S. federal threshold for hazardous waste. And yet the noxious ingredients (including silver, copper, platinum, and gold) are valued on secondhand markets, just as discarded e-waste may be recycled for reuse in poorer markets—sometimes by businesses such as Collective Good, which donate a portion of the profits to the Red Cross or the Humane Society. Refurbishing phones occurs from Ghana to India, where labor costs are lower and environmental regulations are less. About 70 percent of the world’s discarded e-waste finds its way through informal networks to China, where it is scavenged for usable parts—often by children with no protection—and abandoned to pollute soil and groundwater with toxic metals. Africa is one of the largest markets for discarded phones, while China sells between 200–300 million phones annually to dealers in India, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Thailand, from where they may pass on to buyers in Laos, Cambodia, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. Just as water seeks its own level, unregulated markets enable toxic waste to leach into the global South. While there are regulations regarding hazardous waste, the 170-nation agreement called the Basel Convention is ambiguous on the question of restricting the movement of e-waste from North to South.

Why is the current fixation on the virtual, or “de-materialized” information economy unable to recognize the dependence on offshore manufacturing and disposal of waste—both of which pose social and environmental hazards?

Sources: Schwarzer et al. (2005); Widmer et al. (2005); Mooallem (2008); Leslie (2008); Salehabadi (2011).

Not everything we consume has such global origins, but the trend toward these worldwide supply networks is powerful. Our food, clothing, and shelter, in addition to other consumer comforts, have increasingly long supply chains. Take food, for example. Britain was the first nation to deliberately “outsource” a significant part of its food supply to its empire in the 1840s. In spite of the fact that the British climate is ideal for fruit production, 80 percent of pears and almost 70 percent of apples consumed by Britons now come from Chile, Australia, the United States, South Africa, and throughout the European Union.31 The Dutch concept of “ghost acres” refers to additional land offshore used to supply a national diet. Britons are estimated to use about 4.1 million hectares of ghost acres to grow mainly animal feed.32 Ghost acres include “food miles,” prompting the remark, “This form of global sourcing … is

not only energy-inefficient, but it is also doubtful whether it improves global ‘equity,’ and helps local farmers to meet the goals of sustainable development.”33 In other words, much commercial agriculture today is dedicated to supplying the global consumer rather than improving production for domestic consumers. It is extraverted, rather than introverted as in the Rostow schema. Thus,

Half of all [Guatemala’s] children under five are malnourished—one of the highest rates of malnutrition in the world. Yet the country has food in abundance. It is the fifth largest exporter of sugar, coffee, and bananas. Its rural areas are witnessing a palm oil rush as international traders seek to cash in on demand for biofuels created by U.S. and EU mandates and subsidies. But despite being a leading agro-exporter, half of Guatemala’s 14 million people live in extreme poverty, on less than \$2 a day.34

Globalization deepens the paradox of development by virtue of its sheer scale. Integrating the lives of consumers and producers across the world does not necessarily mean universalizing the benefits of development. The distance between consumers, and producers and their environments, means it is virtually impossible for consumers to recognize the impact of their consumption on people and environments elsewhere. At the other end, producers experience the social distance in the difficulty in voicing concerns about working conditions or the health of their habitats. Bridging this distance has become the focus of initiatives such as fair trade, or brand boycotts organized by activist movements or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), to enhance transparency with information to support more responsible consumption.

CASE STUDY Consuming the Amazon

In a recent report, Eating Up the Amazon, Greenpeace noted that “Europe buys half the soya exported from the Amazon state of Matto Grosso, where 90% of rainforest soya is grown. Meat reared on rainforest soya finds its way on to supermarket shelves and fast food counters across Europe.” As the Greenpeace website claimed, “nuggets of Amazon forest were being served up on a platter at McDonald’s restaurants throughout Europe.” Following this dramatic report, McDonald’s slapped a moratorium on purchasing soya grown in newly deforested regions of the rainforest, and entered into an alliance with Greenpeace, and other food retailers, to develop a zero deforestation plan, involving the government in monitoring the integrity of the forest and of its inhabitants, some of whom had been enslaved and subjected to violence. The global soy traders, Cargill, ADM, Bunge, Dreyfus, and Maggi, made a two-year commitment to the alliance.

What is all this about? Quite simply, like many nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) today, Greenpeace made the lifestyle connection and ecological relation embodied in chicken nuggets explicit. Documenting the ways in which the Brazilian soy boom—with all its social and environmental consequences—is a product of the fast food diet, Greenpeace made visible what is routinely invisibilized by an impersonal marketplace. By tracing the soy chain—with the aid of satellite images, aerial surveillance, classified government documents, and on-ground observation—Greenpeace reconstructed the geography of the

soy trade, bringing the ethical dimensions of their diet to consumers’ notice. While traders can escape the notice of the consuming public, retailers have become “brand sensitive” in an era in which information technology has created a new public space, and consumers have the ability to choose not to consume products that come with baggage.

What is the value of fast food compared with the value of preserving one of the richest and most biologically diverse rainforests on the planet—especially given that the scientific journal Nature recently warned that 40 percent of the Amazon rainforest will disappear by 2050 if current trends continue?

Source: Greenpeace, Eating Up the Amazon, 2006. Available at www.greenpeace.org.

With only 6 percent of the world adult population, North America holds 34 percent of household wealth (in monetary terms). Europe and high-income Asia-Pacific countries also have disproportionate wealth, whereas the overall share of wealth of Africans, Chinese, Indians, and other lower-income countries in Asia is substantially less than their population share, sometimes by a factor of more than ten.35 Standardizing development measures reinforces the belief that there is a high correlation between GNP and social well-being. Clive Hamilton, executive director of the Australian Institute think tank, notes, “The evidence shows that, beyond a certain point, increased income does not result in increased well- being.”36

CONCLUSION

Development, conventionally associated with economic growth, is a recent phenomenon. With the rise of European capitalism, state bureaucrats pursued economic growth to finance their needs for military protection and political legitimacy. But “development,” as such, was not yet a worldwide strategy. It became so only in the mid-twentieth century, as newly independent states embraced development as an antidote to colonialism, with varying success.

The mid-twentieth-century development project (1940s–1970s) was an internationally orchestrated program of nationally-sited economic growth across the Cold War divide, involving superpower-provided financial, technological, and military assistance. Development was a United Nations ideal, as formerly colonized subjects gained political independence, and governments implemented a human rights–based social contract with their citizens. This book traces the implementation of this project, noting its partial successes and ultimate failure, in its own terms, to equalize conditions across the world, and the foreshadowing of its successor, the globalization project, in laying the foundations of a global market that progressively overshadowed the states charged with development in the initial post–World War II era.

The globalization project (1970s–2000s) superimposed open markets across national boundaries, liberalizing trade and investment rules, and privatizing public goods and services. Corporate rights gained priority over the social contract and redefined developmenthttp://www.greenpeace.org

as a private undertaking. The neoliberal doctrine (“market freedoms”) underlying the globalization project has been met with growing contention, symbolized by the anti-neoliberal social revolt in Latin America over the last decade and the recent Middle-East rebellions, and the growing weight and assertiveness of China (and India) in the world political economy. Polanyi’s double movement is alive and well.

Whether the global market will remain dominant is still to be determined. In the meantime an incipient sustainability project, heavily influenced by the climate change emergency, is forming, with China leading the green technology race and a myriad of environmental and justice movements across the world pushing states, business leaders, and citizens toward a new formulation of development as “managing the future” sustainably.

FURTHER READING

Crow, Ben, and Suresh K. Lodha. The Atlas of Global Inequalities. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

Payne, Anthony, and Nicola Phillips. Development. Cambridge: Polity, 2010. Perrons, Diane. Globalization and Social Change: People and Places in a Divided World.

London: Routledge, 2004. Sage, Colin. Environment and Development. London: Routledge, 2011. Willis, Katie. Theories and Practices of Development. London: Routledge, 2011.

SELECT WEBSITES

Eldis Gateway to Development Information: www.eldis.org Global Exchange: www.globalexchange.org New Internationalist: www.newint.org Raj Patel: www.RajPatel.org UNDP Human Development Reports: http://hdr.undp.org/en/ World Bank Development Report: http://wdronline.worldbank.org/http://www.eldis.orghttp://www.globalexchange.orghttp://www.newint.orghttp://www.RajPatel.orghttp://hdr.undp.org/en/http://wdronline.worldbank.org/

PART I

The Development Project (Late 1940s to Early 1970s)

D

2 Instituting the Development Project

evelopment emerged during the colonial era. While it may have been experienced by nineteenth century Europeans as something specifically European, over time it came to

be viewed as a universal necessity. Understanding why this was so helps to answer the question “what is development?”

As we have seen in Chapter 1, development (as social engineering) framed European colonization of the non-European world. Not only did the extraction of colonial resources facilitate European industrialization, but this process also required colonial administrators to manage subject populations adjusting to the extractive economy and monocultures, administering colonial rule for their masters, and experiencing physical, as well as psychic displacement. Under these circumstances, development assumed an additional meaning: the proverbial “white man’s burden,” a dimension that has persisted in various ways.

Non-European cultures were irrevocably changed through colonialism, and the postcolonial context was founded on inequality. When newly independent states emerged, political leaders had to negotiate an unequal international framework not of their making but through which their governments acquired political legitimacy. How that framework emerged is the subject of this chapter. But first we must address the historical context of colonialism.

Colonialism

Our appeal to history begins with a powerful simplification. It concerns the social psychology of European colonialism, built largely around stereotypes that have shaped perceptions and conflict for at least five centuries. (Colonialism is defined and explained in the box below, and the European colonial empires are depicted in Figure 2.1.) One such perception was the idea among Europeans that non-European native people or colonial subjects were “backward” and trapped in stifling cultural traditions. The experience of colonial rule encouraged this image, as the juxtaposition of European and non-European cultures invited comparison—but through the lens of Europe’s powerful missionary and military-industrial apparatus. This comparison was interpreted—or misinterpreted—as European cultural superiority. It was easy to take the next step and view the difference as “progress,” something the colonizers had, and could impart to their subjects.

Categories

## at equilibrium the concentrations in this system were found to be

At equilibrium, the concentrations in this system were found to be [N2] = [O2] = 0.100 M and [NO] = 0.500 M.
N2(g) + O2(g) <-> 2NO(g)
If more NO is added, bringing its concentration to 0.800 M, what will the final concentration of NO be after equilibrium is re-established?

Kc = 0.800 M/[0.100M][0.100M] = 80 M?

0 0 1,310
asked by David
Mar 5, 2012
the extra NO being added threw me off..
or is it supposed to be like Kc = 0.800M^2/[0.100M][0.100M] = 64 M?

0 0
posted by David
Mar 5, 2012
No and no.
First, since the values quoted are equilibrium values, we need to calculate Kc (by the way, 80 is not an equilibrium value).
…………N2 + O2 ==> 2NO
equil…….0.1..0.1…..0.5
Kc = (NO)^2/(N2)(O2)
Kc = (0.5)^2/(0.1)(0.1)
Kc = 25 is what I have.

Then we set up another ICE chart.
…………N2 + O2 ==> 2NO
initial…..0.1…0.1….0.8
change…..+x…..+x…..-2x
equil……0.1+x..0.1+x…0.8-x

Kc = 25 = (NO)^2/(N2)(O2)
25 = ((0.8-2x)^2/(0.1+x)(0.1x)
Solve for x.
By the way, you need NOT go through a quadratic if you notice that you can take the square root of both sides.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Mar 5, 2012
why does the equil end up being 0.8-x instead of 0.8 – 2x? and i solved for x but it gave me 2 different answers did I do something wrong?

0 0
posted by David
Mar 5, 2012
First, it wasn’t -2x because I made a typo.It’s obvious from the initial value and the change value that it SHOULD be 0.800-2x and, in fact, I wrote (0.800-2x)^2 when I substituted into the K expression.
You ALWAYS get two answers when you solve a quadratic. Most of the time it is obvious which is the right one and which is the wrong one. For example, I would expect, although I didn’t go through the math, if you take the two x values you have, multiply by 2 and subtract from 0.800 that one will be a positive number and one a negative number. The one giving a negative number when subtracted from 0.800 will be the one to throw away since you can’t have negative concns.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Mar 6, 2012

Cngkreng jkt .

0 0
posted by Dewi ,untari
Mar 6, 2012
I don’t know how to do the last algebra part that DrBob22 did not explain.
I have not taken algebra since 2 years ago it would have been helpful to see…
I haven’t found out the math part anywhere!

0 0
posted by Kassandra
Feb 16, 2014
How do we construct an ICE chart for the concns of the dissociated ions to form a precipitate so we can calculate the final concns of ions in solution?

0 0
posted by Tomas
Sep 10, 2015

Categories

## which of the following is a true statement?

Which of the following is a true statement about the power of congress?
25,096 results
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check my work

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asked by anonymous on March 19, 2011
american government
Consider the following features of Congress (including some that no longer apply), and discuss the policy implications of each. Does they (a) lead to more or less logical and coherent policies? (b) lead to more or less representation of various local and

asked by dora on October 19, 2012
Government

1. The main purpose of a legislature, whether it be the Indiana General Assembly or the US Congress, is to MAKE laws. True False 2. Indiana’s two US Senators are Richard Lugar (R) and Dan Coats (R) True False 3. Currently in the US House of

asked by Alison on July 4, 2016

Categories

## write the equation for the reaction associated with the ka2 of sulfuric acid, h2so4.

Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO32â€“.
70,477 results
Chemistry Equation
1) Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. 2)Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO3^(2-).

asked by Mizuhara on October 13, 2014
Chemistry
Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO32–.

asked by Darrin on January 27, 2013
Chemistry
Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Ka2 of sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Write the equation for the reaction associated with the Kb2 of carbonate, CO32–.

asked by Jessica on January 27, 2013
chemistry
write the equation of the neutralization of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and write the net ionic equation for the reaction

asked by Doss on October 25, 2011
chemistry
I want to know if someone could let me know if I have written my balanced equations correct for the following questions. Write a balanced equation for the reaction of zinc with sulfuric acid. Zn + H2SO4 >>> Zn(S04) +H2 Write a balanced equation for the

asked by jazz on April 21, 2014

Chemistry
I need some help with writing reactions. I have the following to write out: a. the hydration of copper sulfate b. the reaction of liquid sulfuric acid to form aqueous sulfuric acid c. the reaction of calcium oxide w/ water to form calcium hydroxide For a,

asked by Nikki on October 4, 2009
chemistry
calcium nitrate + sulfuric acid =caso4+? write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states. Ca(NO3)2 + H2SO4 ==> CaSO4 + 2HNO3 You don’t have enough information to provide states. CaSO4 will be a solid so you write CaSO4(s). H2SO4 will

asked by walter on July 30, 2007
Chemistry
In the formation of acid rain, sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen and water in the air to form sulfuric acid. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. 2 SO2 + 1 O2 + 2 H2O –> 2 H2SO4 If 5.45 g SO2 react with excess oxygen and water, how many

asked by ChaCha on February 3, 2008
chem
which one of the following statements about sulfuric acid is correct? A. sulfuric acid is a known muriatic acid B. sulfuric acid is a strong oxidizing agent C. sulfuric acid has little effect on metals D. sulfuric acid is dangerous to living organisms B

asked by alf on August 5, 2005
Chemistry
Write the balanced neutralization reaction between H2SO4 and KOH in aq. solution. .350 L of .410 M H2SO4 is mixed with .300 L of .230 M KOH. What concentration of sulfuric acid remains after neutralization? __ M H2SO4

asked by Chelsea on October 4, 2013
chemistry
write a balanced chemical equation for calcium nitate plus sulfuric acid produces calcium sulphate and ? This is a metathetical reaction, I think more properly called a double displacement reaction now. Just change + and – partners. Ca(NO3)2 + H2SO4 ==>

asked by walter on August 9, 2007
Chemisty
Consider the reaction of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, with sodium hydroxide, NaOH. H2SO4(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) -> 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq). Suppose a beaker contains 35.0mL of 0.175M H2SO4. How many moles of NaOH are needed to react completely with sulfuric acid? Thank

asked by Mandy on October 22, 2014
AP CHEMISTRY
Phosphoric acid is triprotic acid (three ionizable hydrogens). The values of its stepwise ionization constants are Ka1= 7.5E-5, Ka2= 6.2E-8, and Ka3= 4.2E-13 1) Write the chemical equation for the first ionization reaction of phosphoric acid with water

asked by NIKITA on February 15, 2012
chemistry
Sulfuric acid is a strong acid and dissociates in water as shown in Reaction 4. Equation label: (4) Help Please!!!! H2SO4(aq) = 2H+(aq) + SO42-(aq) What is the hydrogen ion concentration, in mol dm−3, when 1.50 g of sulfuric acid is dissolved in water to

asked by jim on February 13, 2013
chemistry
The reaction SO2 + H2O =H2SO4 Is the last step in the commercial production of sulfuric acid . the enthalpy change for this reaction is -227 KJ . In designing a sulfuric acid plant is it necessary to provide for heating or cooling of the reaction mixture ?

asked by mathew on November 12, 2014

CHEMISTRY
18cm^3 of 1.0M H2SO4 just reacted with 24cm^3 of 1.5M NaOH to form sodium sulfate & water. Calculate the amounts in moles of sulfuric acid & sodium hydroxide reacting & write an equation for the reaction.

asked by Janey on October 12, 2013
Chemistry
How many milimetres of 0.114 M sulphuric acid solution provide the sulfuric acid required to react with the sodium hydroxide in 32.3 ml of 0.122 M NaOH according to the following equation? H2SO4 + 2 NAOH —> Na2SO4 + 2 H20 A millimeter is a unit of

asked by Cadi Almond on September 11, 2006
chemistry check
A) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. I got H2SO4 + KOH —> H2OH + KSO4 B) Write the ionic equation for the reaction. H2 + S2O4-2 + K + OH- —> H2 + OH + K2SO4-2 C) Write the net ionic

asked by jon on March 22, 2007
chem
the balance equation for the reaction of aqueous sulfuric acid with aqueous ammonia is 2NH3(aq)+ H2SO4(aq) -> (NH4)2SO4(aq) 1. what volume of 0.250M sulfuric acid solution would be needed to react completely with 18.00mL of 0.350M ammonia solution? 2. what

asked by Jen on April 15, 2014
Chemistry
A chemist needs a 50% of sulfuric acid. She mix 2 liters of 20% of sulfuric acid with a sample of 60% of sulfuric acid. Write a equatoin that models the situation and use it to find how much the 50% of the sulfuric acid she needs to use?

asked by James on February 25, 2016
Honors Chemistry
I need someone to check these questions. I know its a lot of questions. 2NH3 + Ag+ Ag(NH3)2+ a. What is the Lewis acid in this equation? [Ag+] b. What is the Lewis base in this equation? [NH3] Given H2SO4 is sulfuric acid, HNO3 is nitric acid, and H3PO4 is

asked by Elizabeth on May 7, 2012
CHEMISTRY HELP PLEASEEEE
Sulfuric acid is a diprotic acid, strong in the first ionization step and weak in the second (Ka2=1.1X10^-2). Using appropriate calculations, determine whether it is feasible to titrate 10.00mL of 0.1 M H2SO4 to two distinct equivalence points with 0.1 M

asked by Emma on October 18, 2016
Chemistry 400/ Chem 1A
A chemist mixes 5.216 g of potassium permanganate, 2.318 g of ethanol, and excess sulfuric acid. These chemicals react as follows: 4 KMnO4 + 5 C2H5OH + 6 H2SO4 —> 4 MnSO4 + 5 CH3COOH + 2 K2SO4 + 11 H20 What mass of sulfuric acid is consumed in this

asked by Joey on September 15, 2014
Chemistry
Given the balanced neutralization equation: H2SO4+2KOH→K2SO4+2H2O How many moles of potassium hydroxide (KOH) are required to neutralize 4.5 mol of sulfuric acid (H2SO4)? Assume that the sulfuric acid completely dissociates in water. 2 mols of KOH = 1

asked by Mariah on June 30, 2016
chemistry
write a balanced equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium metal

asked by ryan on May 12, 2012

chemistry
Methanol + Butanoic acid + Sulfuric acid = Pinapple Methanol + Salicylic acid + Sulfuric acid = wintergreen Ethanol + Methanoic acid + Sulfuric acid = rum How to write the chemical formulae for each?

asked by Anonymous on April 24, 2008
chemistry
write a balanced formula equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium metal

asked by trista on May 13, 2008
CHem Part 2
Part of the SO2 that is introduced into the atmosphere by combustion of sulfur containing compounds ends up beingh converted to sulfuric acid. 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) —> 2H2SO4 (aq) How much sulfuric acid can be formed from 5 moles of SO2, 2 moles of O2 and an

asked by Kim on November 1, 2006
Chemistry
Write the balanced equation for the double replacement reaction of: Barium chloride and Sulfuric acid

asked by Kristy on March 10, 2012
chemistry
500.0 g of ammonia react with 51.0 moles of sulfuric acid to produce ammonium sulfate. How many moles of excess sulfuric acid are left over after the reaction is complete? 2 NH3 (aq) + H2SO4(aq) → (NH4)2SO4 (aq)

asked by Anonymous on March 22, 2011
chemistry
For the reaction SO3 plus H2O>>H2SO4, how many grams of sulfuric acid can be produced from 200.g of sulfuric trioxide and 100.g of water??

asked by Whittney on March 18, 2008
Organic Chemistry 1
Write an equation for the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with aqueous sulfuric acid to produce carbon dioxide.

asked by Brianna on March 17, 2010
chemistry
Sulfuric acid is dripped onto samples of three metals: silver, =zinc, and aluminium a) Use the activity series to determine whether a reaction will occur with each metal b) Write a chemical equation for each reaction that occurs

asked by Michelle on January 11, 2015
Chemistry URGENT/DR BOB
Can someone may sure that I balanced the following groups of equations correctly. Write an equation to show how acetic acid reacts with water to produce ions in solution. C2H4O2 + H2O >>>>>>> H3O + C2H3O Write an equation for the neutralization of HCl and

asked by jazz on April 23, 2014
Chemistry
Ca3(PO4)2 + 3 H2SO4 -> 3 CaSO4 + 2 H3PO4 What masses of calcium sulfate and phosphoric acid can be produced from the reaction of 1.0 kg calcium phosphate with 1.0 kg concentrated sulfuric acid (98% H2SO4 by mass)?

asked by Anonymous on August 16, 2010

chemistry help
sulfuric acid is a strong acid and dissociates in water as shown in reaction H2SO4(aq)=2H^+(aq)+SO4^2-(aq) what is the hydrogen ion concentration, in mol dm^-3,when 1.50g of sulfuric acid is dissolved in water to give 0.500dm^3 of solution ?show all of

asked by zak on December 30, 2012
chemistry
The equivalent weights of X and Y are _ g/equiv. H+ and g/equiv. –OH, respectively, for the following reaction: Z (Note: Report your answer with 4 significant figures.) X Y Z Answer #1 Answer #2 benzoic acid calcium hydroxide 2 C6H5COOH + Ca(OH)2

asked by Evani on October 22, 2011
chemistry
What mass of sodium hydroxide pellets must be poured into a waste drum containing 20.0 L o 3.0 mol/L sulphuric acid to completely neutralize the waste acid solution? Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. okay, so here is the work I already

asked by julie on December 15, 2014
Chemistry
Write the net ionic equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. I got 2H^+ + 2OH^-1 ==> 2H2O. Is this correct?? Thanks.

asked by Lucy on December 2, 2007
chemistry
In a soda acid fire extinguisher, concentrated sulfuric acid reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate to produce carbon dioxide, sodium sulfate and water. How many moles of sodium hydrogen carbonate are produced from a reaction of 0.4 moles of sulfuric acid?

asked by student_14579 on January 19, 2015
Chemistry II
A 12.00 mL sample of sulfuric acid from an automobile battery requires 34.62 mL of 2.42 M sodium hydroxide solution for complete neutralization. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid? H2SO4 + 2NaOH ==> Na2SO4 + 2H2O molarity NaOH x liters NaOH = mols

asked by Jayd on April 25, 2007
Chemistry 104
The reaction of hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and lead results in the production of lead sulfate in an acidic aqueous solution. Write the balanced equation for this reaction.

asked by Sophie on May 3, 2013
chemistry
Commercially available concentrated sulfuric acid is 18.0 M H2SO4. Calculate the volume (in mL) of concentrated sulfuric acid required to prepare 1.60 L of 0.320 M H2SO4 solution.

asked by Jen on September 21, 2010
Chemistry
But in the answer options: a) -27.4 kJ b) -72.8 kJ c) -78.4 kJ d) -84.6kJ I attempted this problem in the other way.When using the q =mcdT,I added the mass of both water and sulfuric acid. q = (300g +10.65g)(4.184J/g.K)(6.55C) = 8513.43 J Then, I

asked by Meenaakshi on March 22, 2012
chem
In order to neutralize the acid in 10.0 mL of 18.0 mol/L sulfuric acid that was spilled on a laboratory bench, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) was used. The container of baking soda had a mass of 155.00g before this use, and out of curiosity it’s mass was

asked by Jennifer on February 15, 2016

AP Chem
Consider the following unbalanced equation: Ca3(Po4)2+H2SO–>CaSO4+H3PO What masses of calcium sulfate and phosphoric acid can be produced from the reaction of 1.0 kg calcium phosphate with 1.0 kg concentrated sulfuric acid (98% H2SO4 by mass)? I’m so

asked by Robyn on November 4, 2008
chemistry
In the formation of acid rain, sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen and water in the air to form sulfuric acid. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (Type your answer using the format CH4 for CH4.)

asked by skyler on February 2, 2012
chemistry
A student weighed out 1.5g of salicylic acid into a flask and then added 4ml of acetic an hydride to react. He also added 5 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid. Density of acetic an hydride is 1.08g/ml and sulfuric acid is 1.85g/ml (sulfuric acid is a

asked by Anonymous on April 19, 2010
Chemistry
Enough concentrated sulfuric acid solution was added to provide 3 grams of sulfuric acid which dissolved i4 grams of pure fluorapatite. How much excess sulfuric acid was used? (report answer in grams of H2SO4

asked by Mae on March 27, 2016
Chemistry
Calculate the volume of 1.78M sulfuric acid that would be needed to neutralize 62.4 mL of a 2.09 M aqueous ammonia solution. The equation for the reaction is H2SO4(aq) + 2 NH3(aq) —> 2 NH4(aq)+ SO4 ^-2 (aq)

asked by Brea on April 16, 2012
Chemistry
A volume of 40.0 of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the solution if 20.2 of 1.50M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is 2KOH(aq)+H2SO4(aq)—>K2SO4(aq)+2H2O(l)

asked by Lindsey on July 22, 2012
AP Chemistry
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very strong diprotic acid. If 0.036 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 576 mililiter of solution, what is the molarity of H+?

asked by J. A on September 30, 2012
Chemistry
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very diprotic acid. If 0.046 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 638 mililiter of solution,what is the molarity of H+? Answer in units of M.

asked by Cheyenne on September 23, 2010
Chemistry
Determine the volume of 0.240 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is shown below. H2SO4(aq) + 2 KOH(aq)—> K2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) a) 26 mL of 0.240 M H2SO4 b) 143 mL of 0.14 M

asked by Rebekah on March 18, 2011
Chemistry (repost)
Determine the volume of 0.240 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is shown below. H2SO4(aq) + 2 KOH(aq)—> K2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) a) 26 mL of 0.240 M H2SO4 b) 143 mL of 0.14 M

asked by Rebekah on March 19, 2011

chemistry
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very strong diprotic acid. If 0.062 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 200 mililiter of solution, what is the molarity of H+? Answer in units of M

asked by cheri on September 13, 2012
Chemistry
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very strong diprotic acid. If 0.065 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 456 mililiter of solution, what is the molarity of H+? Answer in units of M.

asked by May (PLEASE HELP) on October 11, 2010
Chemistry
A volume of 70.0mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide(KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the solution if 19.2mL of 1.50M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is 2KOH+H2SO4->K2SO4+2H20

asked by Peter on September 18, 2010
Chemistry
Determine the volume of 0.250 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is: H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) = K2SO49aq) + 2H2O(l) Find: 205 mL of 0.130 M H2SO4

asked by Kelsey G on November 30, 2010
Chemistry
Please help !!!! The acid impurity in your unknown was benzoic acid. a) Write an equation for the reaction that occurs during the NaOH extraction. b) Write an equation for the reaction that occurs after the addition of HCL. Thanks.

asked by Amanda on February 8, 2010
Chemistry
Which of the following can we predict from an equilibrium constant for a reaction? 1 The extent of a reaction 2 Whether the reaction is fast or slow 3 Whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 only e. 1 and 3

asked by IBY on May 13, 2010
Chemistry – Density
Automobile batteries contain sulfuric acid. Calculate the number of grams of sulfuric acid in 0.500L of battery acid if the solution has a density of 1.28g/mL and is 38% H2SO4 (small numbers) by mass? Can you please answer this for me? double post.

asked by Tracey on October 5, 2006
Chemistry
When hot and concentrated, sulfuric acid is a fairly strong oxidizing agent. Write a balanced net ionic equation for the oxidation of metallic copper to Cu(II) ion by hot concentrated H2SO4, in which the sulfur is reduced to SO2.

asked by Jen on June 30, 2011
college chem
Two questions where I have to write a balanced net ionic equation. 1. Write a balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of sodium chromate and silver nitrate are mixed 2. Write a balanced net ionic equaion reaction for

asked by kelly on June 2, 2009
chemistry
Sulfuric acid reacts with hydrogen iodide to produce sulfur dioxide, iodine and water. a) write total ionic equation b)write net ionic equation

asked by help please! on April 23, 2010

chemisty
Sulfuric acid reacts with hydrogen iodide to produce sulfur dioxide, iodine and water. a) write total ionic equation b)write net ionic equation

asked by help! on April 22, 2010
Chemistry
Sodium + Sulfuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid + Magnesium Hydroxide a.write the formula b. supply the product c.type of reaction d. balancing

asked by Lance on September 11, 2016
AP Chem
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a very strong diprotic acid. If 0.054 moles of sulfuric acid is mixed with water to make 667 milliliter of solution,what is the molarity of H+? Answer in units of M doing mole/liter doesn’t work

asked by Nick on April 1, 2012
Chem
If 25.0 cm3 of 0.50M sulfuric acid reacted with exactly 12.5 cm3 of sodium hydroxide, calculate the concentration of the alkali. I first balanced the chemical equation between sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. H2SO4 + 2NaOH –> 2H2O + Na2SO4 I converted

asked by Maddy on September 8, 2017
chem help
i just don’t know where to begin/how a) Write a balanced chemical equation for: potassium carbonate + magnesium chloride b) Write a balanced chemical equation for: sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate c) Write a balanced chemical equation for: sodium sulfate

asked by thad on January 15, 2013
Chemistry
Determine the volume of 0.250 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is: H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) = K2SO49aq) + 2H2O(l) Find: 15 mL of 0.250 M H2SO4

asked by Kelsey G on November 30, 2010
Chemistry

1. A lab tech needs 1.00 L of 0.125 mol/L sulfuric acid solution for a quantitative analysis experiment. A commercial 5.00 mol/L sulfuric acid solution is available from a chemical supply company. Write out what steps he/she would follow to prepare the

asked by AlphaPrimes on April 2, 2016
Chemisty
A 25-mL sample of 0.160M solution of NaOH is titrated with 17 mL of an unknown solution of H2SO4. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid solution? A. 0.004M H2SO4 B. 0.235M H2SO4 C. 0.117M H2SO4 D. 0.002M H2SO4

asked by Elizabeth on February 18, 2014
12th grade chemistry
It is required to titrate ethanol solution .Being available a 0.2mol/l potassium dichromate solution and 4mol/l sulfuric acid solution on the presence of a convenient indicator. a)indicate the glassware used for titration. b)give a brief description of the

asked by andy on July 12, 2016
pcc
A volume of 40.0mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 21.7mL of 1.50 M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is

asked by jose on July 15, 2013

Chemistry
A volume of 80.0mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 21.7mL of 1.50 M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is

asked by carley on February 24, 2014
College Chemistry
A 20.0 Ml sample of sulfuric acid is titrated with 25.0 ML of 1.0 M NaOH solution. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid? H2SO4+ 2NaOH yields Na2SO4 + H2O

asked by Sa ndra on December 6, 2010
Chemistry
How to prepare 50ml 0.04N H2SO4 from solution 0.025N sulfuric acid by adding 0.4N sulfuric acid

asked by Manoj on May 25, 2017
Chemistry
Potassium permanganate reacts with sulfuric acid as per the equation shown below. Indicate the amount of excess reactant after the reaction of 7.24g KMnO4 and 10.32g H2SO4? 4KMnO4+6H2SO4 = 2K2SO4 +4MnSO4 +6H2O + 5O2

asked by Missy on September 14, 2010
Chemistry
sulfuric acid can be prepared by a multistep process summarized as: 2 SO2 + O2 + 2 H2O–> 2 H2SO4 What mass of sulfuric acid could be produced daily by a process using 38 kg per day of sulfuric dioxide with a 70% conversion efficiency (“yield”), assuming

asked by Anonymous on February 24, 2017
chemistry
write the formula of each acid and identify each as a diprotic, a triprotic, or a monoprotic acid sulfuric acid,perchloric acid,phosphoric acid,hydrofluoric acid,acetic acid

asked by courtney on May 14, 2011
chemistry 112
A volume of 60.0mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 19.2mL of 1.50 M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is

asked by Sam on October 7, 2014
Chemistry
How many resonance structures do these following acids have? H2CO3-carbonic acid H3PO4-phosphoric acid H2SO4-sulfuric acid HNO3-nitric acid CH3COOH- acetic acid CH2ClCOOH- chloroacetic acid CHCl2COOH- dichloroacetic acid CCl3COOH- trichloroacetic acid

asked by Joseph on November 4, 2014
CHEMISTRY
a) Write the formula for each component in a buffer solution of acetic acid and its’ salt. b) The Ka, for hypochlorous acid, HClO, is 7.2 x l0^–4 at 25°C. What is pKa? Write the equation for the reaction to which Ka applies.

asked by jess on October 26, 2015
Gen Chem 1
A tanker truck carrying 2.01×10^3kg of concentrated sulfuric acid solution tips over and spills its load. The sulfuic acid is 95.0% H2SO4 by mass and has a density of 1.84g/L. Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)is used to neutralize the the sulfuric acid spill. How

asked by Rachel on October 6, 2010

Chem 101
why must we used sulfuric acid H2SO4, in 2KAl(OH)4 + H2SO4->2Al(OH)3(s)+K2SO4 +2H2O and 2Al(OH)(s)+3H2SO4->Al2(SO4)3+6H2O rather than hydrochloric acid,HCl,or nitric acid, HNO3?

asked by Nida McLaurin on July 21, 2013
Chemistry – Density
Automobile batteries contain sulfuric acid. Calculate the number of grams of sulfuric acid in 0.500L of battery acid if the solution has a density of 1.28g/mL and is 38% H2SO4 (small numbers) by mass? Can you please answer this for me? density = 1.28 g/mL

asked by Tracey on October 5, 2006
Chem
How do I go about solving this reaction? H2SO4 + NaCO3 = NaSO4 +CO2 + H2O If 150.0g of sulfuric acid is spilled, what is the minimum number of sodium carbonate that have to be added to complete the reaction?

asked by Sheff on October 30, 2010
Chemistry
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid according to BaO2(s)+ H2SO4(aq)—> BaSO4(s)+ H2O2(aq) How many milliliters of 3.00 M H2SO4(aq) are needed to react completly with 85.1g of BaO2(s)?

asked by Jason on November 22, 2010
chemisty
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid according to BaO2(s)+H2SO4(aq)=BaSO4(s)+H2O2(aq) How many milliliters of 5.00 M H2SO4(aq) are needed to react completely with 30.5 g of BaO2(s)?

asked by Bob on February 28, 2013
Chemistry
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid according to BaO2+H2SO4 -> BaSO4 +H2O2 How many milliliters of 3.50 M H2SO4(aq) are needed to react completely with 12.1 g of BaO2(s)?

asked by Anonymous on October 3, 2012
Chemistry
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the reaction of barium peroxide with sulfuric acid according to BaO2+H2SO4 -> BaSO4 +H2O2 How many milliliters of 3.50 M H2SO4(aq) are needed to react completely with 12.1 g of BaO2(s)?

asked by Anonymous on October 3, 2012
Chemistry
If you mixed water and dilute sulfuric acid, rather than concentrated sulfuric acid, would the exothermic reaction be greater or less than the exothermic reaction that occurs during hydration of a concentrated sulfuric acid? If so, why?

asked by Michelle on March 22, 2009
chem
Determine the volume of 0.240 M KOH solution required to neutralize each of the following samples of sulfuric acid. The neutralization reaction is shown below. H2SO4(aq) + 2 KOH(aq)–> K2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) (a) 26 mL of 0.240 M H2SO4 thanks

asked by Abby on March 11, 2011
Chemistry
A volume of 60.0 of aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 25.2 mL of 1.50M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is 2KOH+H2SO4–>K2SO4+2H2O. I cant seem to

asked by Paris on June 25, 2011

Chemistry
A volume of 50.0 mL of aqueous potassium hydroxide was titrated against a standard solution of sulfuric acid. What was the molarity of the KOH solution if 19.2 mL of 1.50 M H2SO4 was needed? The equation is 2KOH(aq) +H2SO4(aq)-» K2SO4(aq)+2H2O(l)

asked by Ellen on October 3, 2010
chemistry
Potassium permanganate reacts with sulfuric acid as per the equation shown below. Indicate the excess reactant after the reaction of 7.60 g KMnO4 and 10.32 g H2SO4. 4 KMnO4 (aq) + 6H2SO4 (aq) + 2K2SO4 (aq) + 4MnSO4 (aq)+ 6H2) (l) + 5O2 (g) I have no idea

asked by Some kid on September 19, 2009
Chemistry
Can someone check my answers for me thank you. I have the equation balanced below. 2H2O + K2SO4 –> H2SO4 + 2KOH Ionic equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. 2H+ + SO4^2- + 2K+ + 2OH- –> 2K+ + SO4^2- + 2H2O Net equation

asked by Susie on January 13, 2008
Chemistry
In an acid-base neutralization reaction 28.74 mL of 0.500 M potassium hydroxide reacts with 50.00 mL of sulfuric acid solution. What is the concentration of the H2SO4 solution? Please help with this question, thank you.

asked by Trever on September 19, 2010
chem 1411
What volume (in mL) of a 0.750M solution of hydrochloric acid can produced by the reaction of 25.0g of NaCl with an excess of sulfuric acid? NaCl+H2SO4= HCl+ NaHSO4

asked by JACI WINLOW on October 18, 2016

Categories

## what is the tone in the following excerpt from the gift of the magi

What is the tone in the following excerpt from “The Gift of the Magi” ? There was clearly nothing to do but flop down on the shabby little couch and howl. So Della did it. Which instigates the moral reflection that life is made up of sobs,sniffles, and smiles, with sniffles predominating.
a. ironic and witty*** b. joyous and poetic c. pessimistic and dejected

0 0 289
asked by Anonymous
May 9, 2018
I disagree.

Flopping down and howling is not ironic and witty.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
May 9, 2018
Answer “a” was correct. It was “ironic and witty”

0 0
posted by Anonymous
May 9, 2018
That’s why literature is so interesting. We all have our own interpretations of some writings.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
May 9, 2018
who is even ms sue and why does she have so much free time and “know everything” lmao

0 0
posted by sunmi
Jun 5, 2018

A.ironic and witty
A.obvious
A.his

0 0
posted by your welcome
Jun 16, 2018

Categories

## how to calculate case mix index

Case Mix Management

CMI usage and calculations

By: Deborah Balentine M.Ed, RHIA, CCS-P

*

What is a Case-Mix?

• Age
• Gender
• Type of Insurance
• Diagnosis
• Risk Factors
• Treatments received
• Resources used

*

The case mix of a patient population is a description of that population based on any number of the following characteristics:

Purposes

• To determine reimbursement.
• DRGs
• APCS
• MPFS
• To describe a population being served.
• To identify differences in practice patterns or coding complexity.

*

Case-mix methodologies are used for a number of purposes with the most common usage being for reimbursement. Case-mix methodology is used to determine relative weights and base payments for DRGs and APCs. Case-mix methodology is used with the MPFS when calculating the Geographic Practice Cost Index (GCPI).

Case-mix methodology can be used for statistical purposes to describe or identify a particular patient population.

Case-mix methodology can also be used to identify differences in coding practice patterns and the complexity of the coding because surgical cases are generally more resource extensive than medical cases.

Severity of Illness Classifications

• Extent of the disease
• Risk of mortality
• Need for intervention
• Urgency of care
• Intensity of resources
• Difficulty of treatment

*

The most common case mix methodology is to group cases by diagnoses and procedures. The major criticism to this type of grouping is that the diagnoses and procedures do not accurately measure the severity of an illness. The APR-DRG case-mix methodology was developed to address those concerns.

Severity of Illness Classfications

• Adjusted Clinical Groups
• National Association of Children’s Hospital and Related Institutions (NACHRI)
• Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey
• Atlas System

*

Severity of Illness Classifications includes the following:

Adjusted Clinical Groups – classifies individuals into groups that are likely to have similar resource requirements.

National Association of Children’s Hospitals and Related Institutions (NACHRI) – classifies diseases based on the progression of the disease, the anticipated course of the disease, and treatment goals.

Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey – classifies by severity of the disease and health status measures. Also uses patient feedback to obtain a total picture of the disease process.

Atlas System – uses information abstracted from the medical record from all points of care including ancillary service data excluding diagnosis data.

Diagnostic/Procedural/Severity Classifications

• Resource Utilization Groups (RUGs)
• Functional Related Group System (IRFPPS)
• Home Health Resource Grouping System (HHPPS)

*

Some case mix classifications use a combination of diagnoses and procedures and severity of illness in their methodology. These systems are:

Resource Utilization Groups – used in the skilled nursing facility prospective payment system (SNFPPS). Includes clinical factors such as cognition, sensory deficits and psychological well-being

Functional Related Group System – used in the inpatient rehabilitation prospective payment system (IRFPPS). Includes clinical factors such as activities of daily living (ADLs) and spinal cord injury data.

Home Health Resource Grouping System – used in the home health prospective payment system (HHPPS). Includes measuring the extent of pain, respiratory status, and integrity of the Integumentary system. Also uses social factors such as residential and caregiver demographics.

Risk Adjustment

• Age and gender adjustments
• Clinical risk adjustments
• Situation-specific adjustments
• Adjustments for specific clinical conditions
• Adjustments by specialty type

*

Any method used to compare the severity of illness in one group of patients in comparison to the severity of illness in another group of patients. Used make a fair comparison of diverse populations and treatment patterns. Types of risk adjustments include:

Case-Mix Index

• Classification by Disease Conditions and/or Procedures
• Determines patterns of resource use
• Used to determine anticipated reimbursement.
• Comparison to other facilities

*

The most commonly used case mix index uses disease staging as the basis for classifying patient with similar conditions to determine patterns of resource use. This type of case mix is also used by a facility to determine anticipated reimbursement and to compare the results to other facilities.

The case mix index is the average of the relative weights of all cases treated at a given facility. The theoretical average CMI is 1.000. CMI’s over 1.000 signify more complex cases and CMI’s less than 1.000 signify less complex cases. Surgical cases have a higher CMI than medical cases.

Factors that influence Case-Mix

• Changes in Relative Weights
• Changes in Services
• Accuracy in Documentation and Coding
• Accuracy in DRG/APC assignment

*

Factors that influence a facility’s case mix index include:

Changes made in relative weight values

Changes in the type of services offered or provided by the facility

Accuracy of documentation and coding in DRG or APC assignment

Calculating Case-Mix Indexes

• Calculating Total CMS Relative Weight
• Calculating Case Mix Index
• Calculating Medicare Payment
• Determining the Highest Relative Weight

*

Case Mix Analysis begins with the calculation of the Case Mix Index. The Case-Mix Index is the average of the relative weights of all cases treated at a given facility or by a given physician. The Case Mix index average is set at 1.0000.

Calculating Case-Mix Index

• Services to be measured
• Relative Weight
• # of Cases

*

When calculating the Case Mix Index for a group of procedures, you will need the following information:

Services to be measured – Most facilities calculate their case-mix index by using the most resource extensive procedures or by the reason for the admission (PDx).

Relative Weights are determined by Medicare or other third-party payers

# of Cases or Patients served for a particular service or procedure.

Case Mix Formulas

• Calculating Total CMS Relative Weights
• Calculating Medicare/Third-Party Payment
• Calculating Case-Mix Index
• Determining the Highest Relative Weight for a group of cases

*

Calculating Total CMS Relative Weight – Multiply the “CMS Relative Weight” by the total number of cases (patients) in the DRG group.

Calculating Medicare Payment – Multiply the reimbursement per case by the number of cases performed

Calculating Case Mix Index – Add up the total number of CMS Relative Weights and divide by the total number of patients.

Determining the Highest Relative Weight – The highest relative weight is the DRG with the highest total relative weight.

Calculating Total CMS Relative Weight

Multiply the “CMS Relative Weight” by the total number of cases (patients) in the DRG group

*

Example One

A facility has 29 Medicare cases that are assigned to DRG 69 which has a relative weight of 1.0005. What is the Total Relative Weight for the cases?

*

Answer

29.0145

1.0005 x 29

*

Example Two

A facility has 15 Medicare cases that are assigned to DRG 117 which has a relative weight of 0.7789. What is the Total Relative Weight for all of the cases?

*

Answer

11.6835

0.7789 x 15

*

Calculating Medicare Payment

Multiply the reimbursement per case by the number of cases performed

*

Example Three

A facility has 22 Medicare cases which are reimbursed at \$6,175 per case.

What is the total Medicare

reimbursement for all of the cases?

*

Answer

\$135,850.00

\$6,175 x 22

*

Example Four

A facility has 59 Medicare cases that are assigned to DRG 175 which has a relative weight of 0.9557.

If the hospital PPS rate is \$4,200, what is the total reimbursement for all of the cases?

*

This calculation sometimes requires a second step in which you must determine the DRG payment first

Answer

\$236,822.46

Step One: Calculate the reimbursement per case

0.9557 x \$4,200 (PPS rate) = \$4,013.94

Step Two: Multiply by the number of cases

\$4,013.94 x 59 = \$236,822.46

*

Calculating Case Mix Index

The total number of CMS Relative Weights divided by the total number of patients served.

*

Example Five

The top ten DRG surgical procedures performed by a facility have a total CMS Relative Weight of 45.8775.

If the total number of patients served is 29, what is the Case-Mix Index for the facility?

*

Answer

1.5819

44.8775 / 29 = 1.5819

*

Example Six

The top ten DRG medical procedures performed by a facility have a total CMS Relative Weight of 23.6651

If the number of patients served is 55, what is the Case-Mix Index for the facility?

*

Answer

0.4302

23.6651 / 55 = 0.43027 or 0.43028

*

Surgical DRG Cases have higher CMI’s than DRG medical cases.

Recap

• The case mix of a patient population is a description of that population based on any number of characteristics.
• Case-Mix indexes are used to describe a population that is being served, to determine reimbursement, and to identify differences in practice patterns or coding complexity.
• The most commonly used Case-Mix Index uses disease conditions and/or procedures to determine resource use.

*

Recap (cont.)

• Severity of Illness case-mix methodologies were developed to address concerns that traditional case-mix methodologies do not capture the severity of an illness.
• Risk Adjustment is any method used to compare the severity of illness in one group of patients in comparison to the severity of illness in another group of patients. Used make a fair comparison of diverse populations and treatment patterns

*

*

*

The case mix of a patient population is a description of that population based on any number of the following characteristics:

*

Case-mix methodologies are used for a number of purposes with the most common usage being for reimbursement. Case-mix methodology is used to determine relative weights and base payments for DRGs and APCs. Case-mix methodology is used with the MPFS when calculating the Geographic Practice Cost Index (GCPI).

Case-mix methodology can be used for statistical purposes to describe or identify a particular patient population.

Case-mix methodology can also be used to identify differences in coding practice patterns and the complexity of the coding because surgical cases are generally more resource extensive than medical cases.

*

The most common case mix methodology is to group cases by diagnoses and procedures. The major criticism to this type of grouping is that the diagnoses and procedures do not accurately measure the severity of an illness. The APR-DRG case-mix methodology was developed to address those concerns.

*

Severity of Illness Classifications includes the following:

Adjusted Clinical Groups – classifies individuals into groups that are likely to have similar resource requirements.

National Association of Children’s Hospitals and Related Institutions (NACHRI) – classifies diseases based on the progression of the disease, the anticipated course of the disease, and treatment goals.

Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey – classifies by severity of the disease and health status measures. Also uses patient feedback to obtain a total picture of the disease process.

Atlas System – uses information abstracted from the medical record from all points of care including ancillary service data excluding diagnosis data.

*

Some case mix classifications use a combination of diagnoses and procedures and severity of illness in their methodology. These systems are:

Resource Utilization Groups – used in the skilled nursing facility prospective payment system (SNFPPS). Includes clinical factors such as cognition, sensory deficits and psychological well-being

Functional Related Group System – used in the inpatient rehabilitation prospective payment system (IRFPPS). Includes clinical factors such as activities of daily living (ADLs) and spinal cord injury data.

Home Health Resource Grouping System – used in the home health prospective payment system (HHPPS). Includes measuring the extent of pain, respiratory status, and integrity of the Integumentary system. Also uses social factors such as residential and caregiver demographics.

*

Any method used to compare the severity of illness in one group of patients in comparison to the severity of illness in another group of patients. Used make a fair comparison of diverse populations and treatment patterns. Types of risk adjustments include:

*

The most commonly used case mix index uses disease staging as the basis for classifying patient with similar conditions to determine patterns of resource use. This type of case mix is also used by a facility to determine anticipated reimbursement and to compare the results to other facilities.

The case mix index is the average of the relative weights of all cases treated at a given facility. The theoretical average CMI is 1.000. CMI’s over 1.000 signify more complex cases and CMI’s less than 1.000 signify less complex cases. Surgical cases have a higher CMI than medical cases.

*

Factors that influence a facility’s case mix index include:

Changes made in relative weight values

Changes in the type of services offered or provided by the facility

Accuracy of documentation and coding in DRG or APC assignment

*

Case Mix Analysis begins with the calculation of the Case Mix Index. The Case-Mix Index is the average of the relative weights of all cases treated at a given facility or by a given physician. The Case Mix index average is set at 1.0000.

*

When calculating the Case Mix Index for a group of procedures, you will need the following information:

Services to be measured – Most facilities calculate their case-mix index by using the most resource extensive procedures or by the reason for the admission (PDx).

Relative Weights are determined by Medicare or other third-party payers

# of Cases or Patients served for a particular service or procedure.

*

Calculating Total CMS Relative Weight – Multiply the “CMS Relative Weight” by the total number of cases (patients) in the DRG group.

Calculating Medicare Payment – Multiply the reimbursement per case by the number of cases performed

Calculating Case Mix Index – Add up the total number of CMS Relative Weights and divide by the total number of patients.

Determining the Highest Relative Weight – The highest relative weight is the DRG with the highest total relative weight.

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

This calculation sometimes requires a second step in which you must determine the DRG payment first

*

*

*

*

*

*

Surgical DRG Cases have higher CMI’s than DRG medical cases.

Categories

## which is not one of the differences between literary works and dramatic works

LA
When did William Shakespeare live?

A. in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century
b. in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century
c.in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century

Answer A

1. Which is NOT one of the differences between literary works and dramatic works?
a. Dialogue is used.
b. Stage directions are given.
c. The content is meant to be performed on stage.

Answer B

1. Which of the following is NOT a major point of view?

a.first-person
b.third-person
c. fourth-person limited

Answer C

1. In Act I of Romeo and Juliet, why does Romeo wish to attend a party at a Capulet’s house?
a. because Juliet is there
b. because he wants to fight
c.because Rosaline is supposed to be there

Answer C

1. Select the word that is a synonym of forfeit.
a.penalty
b.surplus
c.augment

Answer A

1. What does an aside and the chorus have in common?
a.They both sing.
b.They are both forms of dramatic speech.
c.They both address the audience.

ANSWER B

1. Identify the type of dramatic speech that is given by one character addressing other character(s) for a relatively long amount of time. a.dialogue
b.solo
c.monologue

ANSWER C

1. What does the Prince declare at the end of Act I, Scene 1 in Romeo and Juliet?
a.He declares that any Capulet or Montague who fights next will be punished by death.
b.He declares a party at the Capulets’ house.
c.He declares a truce between the feuding families.

ANSWER A

1. In Act I of Romeo and Juliet, who wants to marry Juliet?
a.Mercutio
b.Benvolio
c.Paris
ANSWER C
2. When speaking of nuptials, what is being discussed?

a.money
b.a wedding
c.a birth

ANSWER B

0 0 1,050
asked by Shawn
Feb 19, 2015

0 0
posted by Reed
Feb 19, 2015

# 3 and #10 are correct.

0 0
posted by Reed
Feb 19, 2015
William Shakespeare died in early 1600’s did he not so what is your thought on that

0 0
posted by Shawn
Feb 19, 2015
1-99 AD = 1st century
100-199 AD = 2nd century
200-200 AD = 3rd century
Etc.

What do you think?

0 0
👩‍🏫
Writeacher
Feb 19, 2015

It’s 2015, the 21st century, is it not?

0 0
posted by Reed
Feb 19, 2015
Hmmm. I shouldn’t try to post answers on my phone, huh? =)

200-299 = 3rd century

So Shawn … what do you think about that first question?

0 0
posted by Writeacher
Feb 19, 2015
1 is A but it is not century

2 is A

5 is A

6 is C

0 0
posted by Marylyn
Mar 4, 2016
number 8 is c

0 0
posted by kit
Feb 9, 2017

1. b
2. a
3. c
4. c
5. a
6. d
7. c
8. a
9. c
10. b

these are all 100% correct. i just took the quiz. these are the answers for CA honors english 1b unit 2: romeo and juliet lesson 3: romeo and juliet: act 1, continued

6 0
posted by Anon
Feb 13, 2017

Anon is right

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Feb 15, 2017
anon is right for all except 6. 6 is C

0 0
posted by Bob
Feb 15, 2017
Anon is right, I can confirm

0 0
posted by Anonymouse
Feb 22, 2017
1B 2A 3C 4C 5A 6C 7C 8A 9C 10B

2 0
posted by Zolita
Mar 1, 2017
anon is right

0 0
posted by alyse
Mar 6, 2017

Anon is right but 6 is c because there is no d option

0 0
posted by Took the quiz
Mar 13, 2017

1. B. in the late 1500s and early 1600s
2. A. Dialogue is used.
3. C. fourth-person limited
4. C. because Rosaline is supposed to be there
5. A. penalty
6. C. They both address the audience.
7. C. monologue
8. A. He declares that any Capulet or Montague who fights next will be punished by death.
9. C. Paris
10. B. a wedding
100% correct answers
Source(s):
Just took it. XD 5 0
posted by Long-time Connexus Student
Jan 29, 2018
Thanks long time connexus student you are a life saver 1 0
posted by Valeria
Feb 2, 2018
Thanks!! Correct^^ 0 0
posted by DingDong
Feb 5, 2018
Long time connexes student is right. 0 0
posted by Unicorns
Feb 19, 2018

Long-time connects student is right!

1 0
posted by Artsskinned
Feb 21, 2018
thanks!!! 10000 percent correct!

1 0
posted by nobody
Feb 26, 2018
Lol. Thanks i copied the first one and got 80 percent next time ill read other peoples comments.

1 0
posted by Your mom
Feb 28, 2018
Long time is right

1 0
posted by JHADOAIH
Mar 1, 2018
Those answers are right! Thanks, Long Time!

1 0
posted by Get Grammarly
Mar 6, 2018

thanks guys, you really helped me bring my grade up.

2 0
posted by ph_diddy
Feb 7, 2019
gggggrowing up is hhhaaaarrrrd

1 0
posted by Anonymous
Mar 11, 2019

Categories

## complete and balance the following molecular equation. hbr(aq)+ca(oh)2(aq)â†’

Chemistry
For the following,
2HBr (aq) + Ba(OH)2 (aq) —> 2H2O (l) + BaBr2 (aq)
write the net ionic equation including the phases

0 0 913
asked by Chelsea
Oct 4, 2013
I showed you how to do the last one. You try this one. Just follow the rule.
weak acids, weak bases, water, insoluble substances(solids; i.e., ppts), gases all written as molecules.
All others written as ions.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Oct 4, 2013
2HBr (aq) +OH^-(aq)—-> 2H2O (l)+Br2^-(aq)???

0 0
posted by Chelsea
Oct 4, 2013
2HBr (aq) + Ba(OH)2 (aq) —> 2H2O (l) + BaBr2 (aq)
No, HBr is a strong acid. Ba(OH)2 is a strong base and you’ve handled that ok. Bromide exists as Br^- and not Br2^- so the way you do that is 2Br^-
Why don’t we do this the long way?
You have the balanced molecular equation. Next step is to convert it to the total ionic e3quation like this.
2H^+ + 2Br^- + 2K^+ + 2OH^- ==> H2O + Ba^2+ + 2Br^-
Now cancel the ions common to both sides; i.e., 2H^+ does not cancel, 2Br^- does, 2K^+ does, 2OH^- does not.. Net ionic equation is
2H^+(aq) + 2OH^-(aq) ==> 2H2O(l)

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Oct 4, 2013

Categories

## webassign cu

In Lab 9, students performed acid-base titrations. Redox reactions can also be used in titrations. An example is the titration of ascorbic acid (H2C6H6O6) in lemon juice using triiodide (I3–). A starch indicator will turn the solution blue-black at the endpoint. The half-reactions involved are shown below.

 C6H6O6 + 2 H+ + 2 e– → H2C6H6O6 +0.06 V I3– + 2 e– → 3 I– +0.53 V

(a) What is the net redox reaction that occurs? (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

chemPad

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(b) What is the stoichiometry of H2C6H6O6 to I3–?

3:1 8:3     2:1 1:1 1:2 3:8 1:3

(c) Use the data given below to determine the amount of ascorbic acid in lemon juice. (Note: The recommended daily allowance of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is 90 mg.)

 Data Table P6: Titration of ascorbic acid in lemon juice with triiodide concentration of I3– 0.0210 M volume lemon juice 83.44 mL mass lemon juice 84.94 g equivalence volume of I3– 14.93 mL mmol of I3– mmol mmol of H2C6H6O6 mmol mass of H2C6H6O6 mg

Determine the errors (if any) with each galvanic cell set-up when the anode is on the left. (Select all that apply.)

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

There is nothing wrong with this diagram. The electrodes are in the wrong solution. The electrons are traveling the wrong direction down the wire. The salt bridge ions are migrating to the incorrect electrode. The electrons are traveling through the salt bridge. The electrodes and solutions are in the wrong compartment.

Consider your experimental results from part A of this lab. Suppose your strongest reducing agent were added to your strongest oxidizing agent. (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answers.)

(a) Write the half-reaction for your strongest reducing agent.

chemPad

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·

·

·

Mg  →  Mg2+ + 2e1-

Correct.

(b) Write the half-reaction for your strongest oxidizing agent.

chemPad

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MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e-  →  Mn2+ +4H2O

Correct.

(c) Note the number of electrons in each half reaction.

In order to balance the number of electrons lost and gained, the oxidation half-reaction must be multiplied by and the reduction half-reaction must be multiplied by

(d) Write the net redox reaction.

chemPad

Help

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Assemble a battery, represented by the diagram below with the cathode in compartment A, with Sn2+/Sn and Cu2+/Cu couples in which the voltage reads positive. (Use the . Use the lowest possible coefficients. Omit states-of-matter from your answer.)

(a) What half-reaction occurs in compartment A?

chemPad

Help

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·

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Sn  →  Sn2+ +2e-

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(b) What half-reaction occurs in compartment B?

chemPad

Help

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Cu2+ +2e-  →  Cu

Your answer contains an ambiguous or incomplete reaction equation. Check all the components on the reactant-side of the equation. Check all the components on the product-side of the equation.

(c) Write the net redox reaction.

chemPad

Help

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Sn + Cu2+  →  Sn2+ + Cu

Correct.

Mg –> Mg^

MnO_4^- +

Sn –> Sn^+

Cu^2+ +2e^

Sn + Cu^+

Categories

## the table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers

Midterm Exam

Create an Excel worksheet with a list of your answers from 1-100. Put your answer choice for each question in a second column using a CAPITAL LETTER.

On a separate sheet or beginning in a third column, include any calculations used to solve the questions. This includes any functions you use to assist you.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Solve the problem. 1) Alex and Juana went on a 25-mile canoe trip with their class. On the first day they traveled 17 miles. What

percent of the total distance did they canoe? A) 68% B) 1% C) 0.68% D) 100%

2) On a test, if 115 questions are answered and 41% of them are correct, what is the number of correct answers? A) 53 B) 74 C) -24 D) 47

Determine whether the given value is a statistic or a parameter. 3) A sample of 120 employees of a company is selected, and the average age is found to be 37 years.

A) Parameter B) Statistic

4) After taking the first exam, 15 of the students dropped the class. A) Parameter B) Statistic

5) After inspecting all of 55,000 kg of meat stored at the Wurst Sausage Company, it was found that 45,000 kg of the meat was spoiled.

A) Statistic B) Parameter

6) A health and fitness club surveys 40 randomly selected members and found that the average weight of those questioned is 157 lb.

A) Statistic B) Parameter

Determine whether the given value is from a discrete or continuous data set. 7) The number of freshmen entering college in a certain year is 621.

A) Discrete B) Continuous

8) The temperature of a cup of coffee is 67.3°F. A) Continuous B) Discrete

9) The weight of Bill’s pack as he sets off on a backpacking trip is 48.3 lb. A) Discrete B) Continuous

10) The number of limbs on a 2-year-old oak tree is 21. A) Discrete B) Continuous

Determine whether the given description corresponds to an observational study or an experiment. 11) A marketing firm does a survey to find out how many people use a product. Of the one hundred people

contacted, fifteen said they use the product. A) Experiment B) Observational study

1

12) A clinic gives a drug to a group of ten patients and a placebo to another group of ten patients to find out if the drug has an effect on the patients’ illness.

A) Experiment B) Observational study

13) A sample of fish is taken from a lake to measure the effect of pollution from a nearby factory on the fish. A) Observational study B) Experiment

14) A political pollster reports that his candidate has a 10% lead in the polls with 10% undecided. A) Observational study B) Experiment

Identify which of these types of sampling is used: random, stratified, systematic, cluster, convenience. 15) The name of each contestant is written on a separate card, the cards are placed in a bag, and three names are

picked from the bag. A) Systematic B) Random C) Convenience D) Cluster E) Stratified

Provide an appropriate response. 16) An education expert is researching teaching methods and wishes to interview teachers from a particular school

district. She randomly selects ten schools from the district and interviews all of the teachers at the selected schools. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; yes. The sample is not random because teachers in small schools are more likely to be selected than teachers in larger schools. It is a simple random sample because all samples have the same chance of being selected.

B) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all teachers have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples have the same chance of being selected.

C) No; no. The sample is not random because teachers in small schools are more likely to be selected than teachers in larger schools. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample that includes teachers from schools that were not selected.

D) Yes; no. The sample is random because all teachers have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample that includes teachers from schools that were not selected.

17) A psychology student wishes to investigate differences in political opinions between business majors and political science majors at her college. She randomly selects 100 students from the 260 business majors and 100 students from the 180 political science majors. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all students have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 200 have the same chance of being selected.

B) No; no. The sample is not random because political science majors have a greater chance of being selected than business majors. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample consisting of 50 business majors and 150 political science majors.

C) No; yes. The sample is not random because political science majors have a greater chance of being selected than business majors. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 200 have the same chance of being selected.

D) Yes; no. The sample is random because all students have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample consisting of 50 business majors and 150 political science majors.

2

18) A computer company employs 100 software engineers and 100 hardware engineers. The personnel manager randomly selects 20 of the software engineers and 20 of the hardware engineers and questions them about career opportunities within the company. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; no. The sample is not random because not all employees have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample consisting of 30 software engineers and 10 hardware engineers.

B) Yes; no. The sample is random because all employees have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample consisting of 30 software engineers and 10 hardware engineers.

C) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all employees have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 40 have the same chance of being selected.

D) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all employees have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 40 have the same chance of being selected.

19) The personnel manager at a company wants to investigate job satisfaction among the female employees. One evening after a meeting she talks to all 30 female employees who attended the meeting. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) Yes; no. The sample is random because all female employees have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing female employees who did not attend the meeting.

B) No; no. The sample is not random because not all female employees have the same chance of being selected. Those that didn’t attend the meeting have no chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing female employees who did not attend the meeting.

C) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all female employees have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of size 30 have the same chance of being selected.

D) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all female employees have the same chance of being selected. Those that didn’t attend the meeting have no chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 30 female employees have the same chance of being selected.

20) A polling company obtains an alphabetical list of names of voters in a precinct. They select every 20th person from the list until a sample of 100 is obtained. They then call these 100 people. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all voters have the same chance of being selected. The second person on the list has no chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 100 voters have the same chance of being selected.

B) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all voters have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 100 voters have the same chance of being selected.

C) Yes; no. The sample is random because all voters have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing the second person on the list.

D) No; no. The sample is not random because not all voters have the same chance of being selected. The second person on the list has no chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing the second person on the list.

3

21) A researcher obtains an alphabetical list of the 2560 students at a college. She uses a random number generator to obtain 50 numbers between 1 and 2560. She chooses the 50 students corresponding to those numbers. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; no. The sample is not random because not all students have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing the the first 50 students on the list.

B) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all students have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 50 students have the same chance of being selected.

C) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all students have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 50 students have the same chance of being selected.

D) Yes; no. The sample is random because all students have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing the first 50 students on the list.

22) An electronics store receives a shipment of eight boxes of calculators. Each box contains ten calculators. A quality control inspector chooses a box by putting eight identical slips of paper numbered 1 to 8 into a hat, mixing thoroughly and then picking a slip at random. He then chooses a calculator at random from the box selected using a similar method with ten slips of paper in a hat. He repeats the process until he obtains a sample of 5 calculators for quality control testing. Does this sampling plan result in a random sample? Simple random sample? Explain.

A) No; yes. The sample is not random because not all calculators have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 5 calculators have the same chance of being selected.

B) No; no. The sample is not random because not all calculators have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing 5 calculators from the same box.

C) Yes; no. The sample is random because all calculators have the same chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample because some samples are not possible, such as a sample containing 5 calculators from the same box.

D) Yes; yes. The sample is random because all calculators have the same chance of being selected. It is a simple random sample because all samples of 5 calculators have the same chance of being selected.

Identify the type of observational study (cross-sectional, retrospective, prospective). 23) A statistical analyst obtains data about ankle injuries by examining a hospital’s records from the past 3 years.

A) Prospective B) Cross-sectional C) Retrospective D) None of these

24) Researchers collect data by interviewing athletes who have won olympic gold medals from 1992 to 2008. A) Cross-sectional B) Retrospective C) Prospective D) None of these

25) A researcher plans to obtain data by following those in cancer remission since January of 2005. A) Retrospective B) Prospective C) Cross-sectional D) None of these

26) A town obtains current employment data by polling 10,000 of its citizens this month. A) Retrospective B) Prospective C) Cross-sectional D) None of these

4

Provide an appropriate response. 27) The following frequency distribution analyzes the scores on a math test. Find the class boundaries of scores

interval 40-59.

Scores Number of students 40-59 2 60-75 4 76-82 6 83-94 15 95-99 5

A) 39.5, 58.5 B) 40.5, 59.5 C) 40.5, 58.5 D) 39.5, 59.5

28) The following frequency distribution analyzes the scores on a math test. Find the class midpoint of scores interval 40-59.

Scores Number of students 40-59 2 60-75 4 76-82 6 83-94 15 95-99 5

A) 50.5 B) 48.5 C) 49.0 D) 49.5

29) The frequency distribution below summarizes the home sale prices in the city of Summerhill for the month of June. Find the class boundaries for class 80.0-110.9.

(Sale price in thousand \$) Frequency 80.0 – 110.9 2 111.0 – 141.9 5 142.0 – 172.9 7 173.0 – 203.9 10 204.0 – 234.9 3 235.0 – 265.9 1

A) 79.90, 110.95 B) 80.00, 110.95 C) 79.95, 110.95 D) 79.90, 111.0

5

Construct the cumulative frequency distribution that corresponds to the given frequency distribution. 30)

Weight (oz) Number of Stones

1.2-1.6 5 1.7-2.1 2 2.2-2.6 5 2.7-3.1 5 3.2-3.6 13

A)

Weight (oz) Cumulative

Frequency 1.2-1.6 5 1.7-2.1 7 2.2-2.6 12 2.7-3.1 17 3.2-3.6 30

B)

Weight (oz) Cumulative

Frequency Less than 1.7 5 Less than 2.2 7 Less than 2.7 12 Less than 3.2 17 Less than 3.7 28

C)

Weight (oz) Cumulative

Frequency Less than 2.2 7 Less than 3.2 17 Less than 3.7 30

D)

Weight (oz) Cumulative

Frequency Less than 1.7 5 Less than 2.2 7 Less than 2.7 12 Less than 3.2 17 Less than 3.7 30

6

Provide an appropriate response. 31) The frequency distribution for the weekly incomes of students with part-time jobs is given below.

Construct the corresponding relative frequency distribution. Round relative frequencies to the nearest hundredth of a percent if necessary.

Income (\$) Frequency 200-300 55 301-400 70 401-500 73 501-600 68

More than 600 10 A)

Income (\$) Relative

Frequency 201-300 15.5% 301-400 22.1% 401-500 31.3% 501-600 16.2%

More than600 14.9%

B)

Income (\$) Relative

Frequency 200-300 25.98% 301-400 24.91% 401-500 3.65% 501-600 19.64%

More than 600 26.07% C)

Income (\$) Relative

Frequency 200-300 12.5% 301-400 20.1% 401-500 37.3% 501-600 15.2%

More than 600 14.9%

D)

Income (\$) Relative

Frequency 200-300 19.93% 301-400 25.36% 401-500 26.45% 501-600 24.64%

More than 600 3.62%

7

32) The scores on a recent statistics test are given in the frequency distribution below. Construct the corresponding relative frequency distribution. Round relative frequencies to the nearest hundredth of a percent if necessary.

Scores Frequency 0-60 3 61-70 10 71-80 11 81-90 4 91-100 1

A)

Scores Relative

Frequency 0-60 0.21% 61-70 0.24% 71-80 0.55% 81-90 0.03% 91-100 -0.03%

B)

Scores Relative

Frequency 0-60 10.34% 61-70 34.48% 71-80 37.93% 81-90 13.79% 91-100 3.45%

C)

Scores Relative

Frequency 0-60 12.5% 61-70 20.1% 71-80 37.3% 81-90 15.2% 91-100 14.9%

D)

Scores Relative

Frequency 0-60 15.5% 61-70 22.1% 71-80 31.3% 81-90 16.2% 91-100 14.9%

33) Sturges’ guideline suggests that when constructing a frequency distribution, the ideal number of classes can be approximated by 1 + (log n)/(log 2), where n is the number of data values. Use this guideline to find the ideal number of classes when the number of data values is 148.

A) 7 B) 10 C) 8 D) 9

8

34) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged between 25 and 40. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number. Approximately what percentage of the people aged 25-40 had a systolic blood pressure reading between 110 and 119 inclusive?

A) 3.5% B) 0.35% C) 35% D) 30%

35) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged between 25 and 40. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number. Approximately what percentage of the people aged 25-40 had a systolic blood pressure reading between 110 and 139 inclusive?

A) 59% B) 39% C) 89% D) 75%

9

36) A nurse measured the blood pressure of each person who visited her clinic. Following is a relative-frequency histogram for the systolic blood pressure readings for those people aged between 25 and 40. The blood pressure readings were given to the nearest whole number. What class width was used to construct the relative frequency distribution?

A) 100 B) 10 C) 11 D) 9

37) The histogram below represents the number of television sets per household for a sample of U.S. households. How many households are included in the histogram?

A) 90 B) 95 C) 100 D) 110

10

38) The histogram below represents the number of television sets per household for a sample of U.S. households. What is the minimum number of households having the same number of television sets?

A) 100 B) 20 C) 5 D) 1

Construct the dotplot for the given data. 39) A store manager counts the number of customers who make a purchase in his store each day. The data are as

follows. 10 11 8 14 7 10 10 11 8 7

5 10 15 A)

5 10 15

B)

5 10 15

C)

5 10 15

D)

5 10 15

11

Use the data to create a stemplot. 40) The attendance counts for this season’s basketball games are listed below.

227 239 215 219 221 233 229 233 235 228 245 231

A) 21 22 23 24

5 9 1 7 8 9 1 3 3 5 9 5

B) 21 22 23 24

5 7 9 1 8 9 1 3 3 5 9 5

Solve the problem. 41) A car dealer is deciding what kinds of vehicles he should order from the factory. He looks at his sales report for

the preceding period. Choose the vertical scale so that the relative frequencies are represented.

Vehicle Sales Economy 20

Sports 5 Family 35 Luxury 10

Truck 30

Construct a Pareto chart to help him decide. A) B)

12

C) D)

Find the mean for the given sample data. Unless indicated otherwise, round your answer to one more decimal place than is present in the original data values.

42) Listed below are the amounts of time (in months) that the employees of a restaurant have been working at the restaurant. Find the mean.

1 5 6 8 11 14 17 46 61 90 99 126 143 167 A) 56.7 months B) 52.9 months C) 31.5 months D) 61.1 months

Find the median for the given sample data. 43) The number of vehicles passing through a bank drive-up line during each 15-minute period was recorded. The

results are shown below. Find the median number of vehicles going through the line in a fifteen-minute period. 25 27 25 28 28 25 30 27 35 31 31 29 24 31 25 20 15 27 27 27

A) 28 vehicles B) 31 vehicles C) 26.85 vehicles D) 27 vehicles

Find the mode(s) for the given sample data. 44) The weights (in ounces) of 14 different apples are shown below.

5.0 6.5 6.0 6.2 6.6 5.0 6.5 4.5 5.8 6.2 5.0 4.5 6.2 6.3

A) no mode B) 5.0 oz, 6.2 oz C) 5.0 oz D) 6.2 oz

Find the midrange for the given sample data. 45) Bill kept track of the number of hours he spent exercising each week. The results for 15 weeks are shown below.

Find the midrange. 7.1 6.8 7.1 7.2 7.8 7.9 6.5 8.4 8.5 7.2 8.5 6.8 7.9 9.0 7.8

A) 7.50 hr B) 7.75 hr C) 2.5 hr D) 7.8 hr

13

Find the mean of the data summarized in the given frequency distribution. 46) A company had 80 employees whose salaries are summarized in the frequency distribution below. Find the

mean salary.

Salary (\$) Employees 5,001-10,000 17

10,001-15,000 12 15,001-20,000 12 20,001-25,000 15 25,001-30,000 24 A) \$16,706.25 B) \$17,500 C) \$20,418.75 D) \$18,562.50

47) The manager of a bank recorded the amount of time each customer spent waiting in line during peak business hours one Monday. The frequency distribution below summarizes the results. Find the mean waiting time. Round your answer to one decimal place.

Waiting time (minutes)

Number of customers

0 – 3 10 4 – 7 13

8 – 11 12 12 – 15 5 16 – 19 7 20 – 23 1 24 – 27 2

A) 13.5 min B) 7.1 min C) 9.3 min D) 9.4 min

Find the range for the given sample data. 48) Fred, a local mechanic, recorded the price of an oil and filter change at twelve competing service stations. The

prices (in dollars) are shown below. 32.99 24.95 26.95 28.95 18.95 28.99 30.95 22.95 24.95 26.95 29.95 28.95

A) \$32.99 B) \$12.00 C) \$14.04 D) \$10.05

Find the variance for the given data. Round your answer to one more decimal place than the original data. 49) The owner of a small manufacturing plant employs six people. As part of their personnel file, she asked each

one to record to the nearest one-tenth of a mile the distance they travel one way from home to work. The six distances are listed below:

26 32 29 16 45 19 A) 5043.6 mi2 B) 107.0 mi2 C) 18.9 mi2 D) 15.8 mi2

Find the standard deviation for the given sample data. Round your answer to one more decimal place than is present in the original data.

50) Listed below are the amounts of weight change (in pounds) for 12 women during their first year of work after graduating from college. Positive values correspond to women who gained weight and negative values correspond to women who lost weight.

15 -5 14 8 -1 10 -6 1 0 4 -3 9 A) 7.2 lb B) 6.9 lb C) 7.6 lb D) 7.4 lb

14

Find the coefficient of variation for each of the two sets of data, then compare the variation. Round results to one decimal place.

51) Listed below are the systolic blood pressures (in mm Hg) for a sample of men aged 20-29 and for a sample of men aged 60-69.

Men aged 20-29: 117 122 129 118 131 123 Men aged 60-69: 130 153 141 125 164 139

A) Men aged 20-29: 4.6% Men aged 60-69: 10.2 % There is substantially more variation in blood pressures of the men aged 60-69.

B) Men aged 20-29: 4.4% Men aged 60-69: 8.3% There is substantially more variation in blood pressures of the men aged 60-69.

C) Men aged 20-29: 7.6% Men aged 60-69: 4.7% There is more variation in blood pressures of the men aged 20-29.

D) Men aged 20-29: 4.8% Men aged 60-69: 10.6% There is substantially more variation in blood pressures of the men aged 60-69.

Find the standard deviation of the data summarized in the given frequency distribution. 52) The manager of a bank recorded the amount of time each customer spent waiting in line during peak business

hours one Monday. The frequency distribution below summarizes the results. Find the standard deviation. Round your answer to one decimal place.

Waiting time (minutes)

Number of customer

0-3 13 4-7 13

8-11 10 12-15 11 16-19 0 20-23 3

A) 7.0 min B) 5.6 min C) 5.3 min D) 5.9 min

Use the empirical rule to solve the problem. 53) The systolic blood pressure of 18-year-old women is normally distributed with a mean of 120 mmHg and a

standard deviation of 12 mmHg. What percentage of 18-year-old women have a systolic blood pressure between 96 mmHg and 144 mmHg?

A) 95% B) 99.7% C) 68% D) 99.99%

Solve the problem. 54) The ages of the members of a gym have a mean of 44 years and a standard deviation of 12 years. What can you

conclude from Chebyshev’s theorem about the percentage of gym members aged between 26 and 62? A) The percentage is at most 55.6% B) The percentage is at least 33.3% C) The percentage is approximately 33.3% D) The percentage is at least 55.6%

Solve the problem. Round results to the nearest hundredth. 55) Scores on a test have a mean of 66 and a standard deviation of 9. Michelle has a score of 57. Convert Michelle’s

score to a z-score. A) 1 B) -9 C) 9 D) -1

15

56) The mean of a set of data is 4.11 and its standard deviation is 3.03. Find the z score for a value of 10.86. A) 2.45 B) 2.23 C) 2.53 D) 2.01

57) The mean of a set of data is -2.91 and its standard deviation is 3.88. Find the z score for a value of 2.80. A) 1.47 B) 1.62 C) 1.77 D) 1.32

Find the number of standard deviations from the mean. Round your answer to two decimal places. 58) The test scores on the Chapter 10 mathematics test have a mean of 52 and a standard deviation of 10. Andrea

scored 86 on the test. How many standard deviations from the mean is that? A) 0.49 standard deviations above the mean B) 3.40 standard deviations below the mean C) 0.49 standard deviations below the mean D) 3.40 standard deviations above the mean

Find the z-score corresponding to the given value and use the z-score to determine whether the value is unusual. Consider a score to be unusual if its z-score is less than -2.00 or greater than 2.00. Round the z-score to the nearest tenth if necessary.

59) A test score of 48.4 on a test having a mean of 66 and a standard deviation of 11. A) -1.6; unusual B) 1.6; not unusual C) -1.6; not unusual D) -17.6; unusual

Construct a boxplot for the given data. Include values of the 5-number summary in all boxplots. 60) The normal monthly precipitation (in inches) for August is listed for 20 different U.S. cities. Construct a boxplot

for the data set. 0.4 1.0 1.5 1.6 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.7 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.2 7.0

A) B)

C) D)

Express the indicated degree of likelihood as a probability value. 61) “It will definitely turn dark tonight.”

A) 1 B) 0.5 C) 0.30 D) 0.67

Answer the question. 62) What is the probability of an event that is certain to occur?

A) 1 B) 0.95 C) 0.99 D) 0.5

63) What is the probability of an impossible event? A) 0 B) -1 C) 1 D) 0.1

16

Find the indicated probability. 64) A bag contains 4 red marbles, 3 blue marbles, and 7 green marbles. If a marble is randomly selected from the

bag, what is the probability that it is blue?

A) 3 14

B) 1 3

C) 1 7

D) 1 11

65) A bag contains 2 red marbles, 3 blue marbles, and 5 green marbles. If a marble is randomly selected from the bag, what is the probability that it is blue?

A) 3 10

B) 1 3

C) 1 5

D) 1 7

66) A bag contains 6 red marbles, 3 blue marbles, and 5 green marbles. If a marble is randomly selected from the bag, what is the probability that it is blue?

A) 3 14

B) 1 3

C) 1 5

D) 1 11

67) Two 6-sided dice are rolled. What is the probability that the sum of the two numbers on the dice will be 4?

A) 1 12

B) 2 3

C) 11 12

D) 3

68) Two 6-sided dice are rolled. What is the probability that the sum of the two numbers on the dice will be 5?

A) 1 9

B) 5 6

C) 8 9

D) 4

69) Two 6-sided dice are rolled. What is the probability that the sum of the two numbers on the dice will be 3?

A) 1 18

B) 1 2

C) 17 18

D) 2

Estimate the probability of the event. 70) Of 1232 people who came into a blood bank to give blood, 397 people had high blood pressure. Estimate the

probability that the next person who comes in to give blood will have high blood pressure. A) 0.322 B) 0.373 C) 0.29 D) 0.241

Answer the question, considering an event to be “unusual” if its probability is less than or equal to 0.05. 71) Is it “unusual” to get a 12 when a pair of dice is rolled?

A) Yes B) No

72) Is it “unusual” to get 11 when a pair of dice is rolled? A) Yes B) No

From the information provided, create the sample space of possible outcomes. 73) Both Fred and Ed have a bag of candy containing a lemon drop, a cherry drop, and a lollipop. Each takes out a

piece and eats it. What are the possible pairs of candies eaten? A) LD-LD CD-LD LP-LP LD-CD CD-CD LD-LP LP-CD CD-LP LP-LD B) LD-CD LD-CD LD-CD LD-LP LD-LP LD-LP CD-LP CD-LP CD-LP C) CD-LD LD-LP LP-CD LP-LP LD-LD D) LD-LD CD-LD LP-LP LD-LP CD-CD LD-LP LP-CD CD-LD LP-LD

17

Answer the question. 74) In a certain town, 10% of people commute to work by bicycle. If a person is selected randomly from the town,

what are the odds against selecting someone who commutes by bicycle? A) 9 : 1 B) 1 : 9 C) 9 : 10 D) 1 : 10

75) If an apple is hanging from a string and three flies land on it, find the probability that all three are on points that are within the same hemisphere.

A) 0.25 B) 4 C) 0.125 D) 0.333

Determine whether the events are disjoint. 76) Go to a formal dinner affair.

Wear blue jeans. A) Yes B) No

Find the indicated complement. 77) The probability that Luis will pass his statistics test is 0.49. Find the probability that he will fail his statistics test.

A) 0.51 B) 0.96 C) 0.25 D) 2.04

78) If a person is randomly selected, find the probability that his or her birthday is not in May. Ignore leap years.

A) 334 365

B) 31 365

C) 31 334

D) 11 12

Find the indicated probability. 79) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Occasional

smoker Regular

smoker Heavy

smoker Total Men 431 50 71 49 601

Women 382 48 86 39 555 Total 813 98 157 88 1156

If one of the 1156 people is randomly selected, find the probability that the person is a man or a heavy smoker. A) 0.554 B) 0.596 C) 0.511 D) 0.557

80) Of the 64 people who answered “yes” to a question, 6 were male. Of the 70 people that answered “no” to the question, 8 were male. If one person is selected at random from the group, what is the probability that the person answered “yes” or was male?

A) 0.537 B) 0.582 C) 0.094 D) 0.104

18

81) The manager of a bank recorded the amount of time each customer spent waiting in line during peak business hours one Monday. The frequency table below summarizes the results.

Waiting Time (minutes)

Number of Customers

0-3 9 4-7 10

8-11 12 12-15 4 16-19 4 20-23 2 24-27 2

If we randomly select one of the customers represented in the table, what is the probability that the waiting time is at least 12 minutes or between 8 and 15 minutes?

A) 0.558 B) 0.651 C) 0.093 D) 0.727

82) A 6-sided die is rolled. Find P(3 or 5).

A) 1 3

B) 1 36

C) 1 6

D) 2

83) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Occasional

smoker Regular

smoker Heavy

smoker Total Men 334 50 68 32 484

Women 357 30 89 37 513 Total 691 80 157 69 997

If one of the 997 people is randomly selected, find the probability of getting a regular or heavy smoker. A) 0.227 B) 0.100 C) 0.442 D) 0.157

Is Event B dependent or independent of Event A? 84) A: You cook your chicken improperly.

B: You get salmonella poisoning. A) Dependent B) Independent

Find the indicated probability. 85) In one town, 66% of adults have health insurance. What is the probability that 4 adults selected at random from

the town all have health insurance? Round to the nearest thousandth if necessary. A) 0.19 B) 2.64 C) 0.061 D) 0.66

86) A study conducted at a certain college shows that 65% of the school’s graduates find a job in their chosen field within a year after graduation. Find the probability that 11 randomly selected graduates all find jobs in their chosen field within a year of graduating. Round to the nearest thousandth if necessary.

A) 0.009 B) 7.150 C) 0.169 D) 0.013

19

87) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Light smoker

Heavy smoker Total

Men 425 38 35 498 Women 381 32 43 456

Total 806 70 78 954

If two different people are randomly selected from the 954 subjects, find the probability that they are both women. Round to four decimal places.

A) 0.2282 B) 0.2285 C) 0.000004809 D) 0.1595

Find the indicated probability. Round to the nearest thousandth. 88) A sample of 4 different calculators is randomly selected from a group containing 18 that are defective and 40

that have no defects. What is the probability that at least one of the calculators is defective? A) 0.785 B) 0.774 C) 0.215 D) 0.180

Find the indicated probability. Express your answer as a simplified fraction unless otherwise noted. 89) The following table contains data from a study of two airlines which fly to Small Town, USA.

Number of flights which were on time

Number of flights which were late

Podunk Airlines 33 6 Upstate Airlines 43 5

If one of the 87 flights is randomly selected, find the probability that the flight selected arrived on time.

A) 76 87

B) 43 87

C) 11 76

D) None of the above is correct.

90) The following table contains data from a study of two airlines which fly to Small Town, USA.

Number of flights which were on time

Number of flights which were late

Podunk Airlines 33 6 Upstate Airlines 43 5

If one of the 87 flights is randomly selected, find the probability that the flight selected arrived on time given that it was an Upstate Airlines flight.

A) 43 48

B) 43 87

C) 11 76

D) None of the above is correct.

20

91) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Light smoker

Heavy smoker Total

Men 391 61 65 517 Women 312 72 80 464

Total 703 133 145 981

If one of the 981 subjects is randomly selected, find the probability that the person chosen is a nonsmoker given that it is a woman. Round to the nearest thousandth.

A) 0.672 B) 0.318 C) 0.444 D) 0.373

92) The table below describes the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers.

Nonsmoker Light smoker

Heavy smoker Total

Men 320 81 70 471 Women 374 76 87 537

Total 694 157 157 1008

If one of the 1008 subjects is randomly selected, find the probability that the person chosen is a woman given that the person is a light smoker. Round to the nearest thousandth.

A) 0.484 B) 0.075 C) 0.142 D) 0.256

Evaluate the expression.

93) 9! 7!

A) 72 B) 2! C) 9 7

D) 63,000

94) 10P5 A) 30,240 B) 252 C) 2 D) 5

95) 7C3 A) 35 B) 70 C) 2 D) 24

96) 9C3 A) 84 B) 168 C) 3 D) 720

Solve the problem. 97) How many ways can an IRS auditor select 3 of 9 tax returns for an audit?

A) 84 B) 504 C) 6 D) 729

98) The organizer of a television show must select 5 people to participate in the show. The participants will be selected from a list of 30 people who have written in to the show. If the participants are selected randomly, what is the probability that the 5 youngest people will be selected?

A) 1 142,506

B) 1 17,100,720

C) 1 120

D) 4 15

21

99) A tourist in France wants to visit 6 different cities. How many different routes are possible? A) 720 B) 6 C) 120 D) 36

100) A tourist in France wants to visit 8 different cities. If the route is randomly selected, what is the probability that she will visit the cities in alphabetical order?

A) 1 40,320

B) 1 8

C) 40,320 D) 1 64

22

Categories

## a filibuster to block a vote on a bill is possible

A filibuster to block a vote on a bill is possible

a.Only in the house, which is almost unrestrained.

b.Only in the senate, which is almost unrestrained.

c.Mostly in the house, but occasionally in the senate.

d.Mostly in the senate, but occasionally in the house.

Unlike a joint committee, a conference committee

a.Works out a compromise bill between the house and senate versions of a bill

b.Is composed of members of both houses

c.Is set up to serve a temporary purpose

d.Is inverstigative in nature

1 0 825
asked by Gisselle
Sep 25, 2017
We’ll be glad to check your answers.

0 0
👩‍🏫
Ms. Sue
Sep 25, 2017
C and B

0 0
posted by Robert
Sep 26, 2017
The first one is B. The second one is C. Just swap up Robert’s answers.

0 0
posted by Pro answerer
Nov 2, 2017
These are the amswers for the practice for Unit 3 Lesson 9
1) B
2) A
3) A
4) C
5) B
6) A
7) C
8) D
9) D
10) A
11) B
12) C
13) D
14) C
15) C
16) B
17) A
18) D
19) B
20) C
I just took the practice. These are 100% correct!

4 0
posted by Joy
Feb 14, 2018

@Joy is 100% correct just took the practice and made 20/20 100% thanks

0 0
posted by cymlife
Feb 18, 2018
Joy Is Correct THANKS 20/20 100% YAY!!!

0 0
posted by JJ
Sep 11, 2018
Joy is right. thanks

0 0
posted by Yeet
Sep 27, 2018
Do u also have the test ANSWERE in Google forms also

0 0
posted by Unicorns
Nov 6, 2018

Categories

## william f. baxter addresses environmental ethics by noting

Help your students think outside the classroom impact of environmental ethics issues Updated several times a day, Cengage Learning’s Global Environmental Ethics Watch is an ideal one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects.

t d t thi k t id th l

Easily direct students to the resources most important to your course via specialized portals that focus on environmental issues such as animal welfare, ecofeminism, environmental economics, food ethics, and more.

Link to the latest information on key environmental issues from trusted academic journals, news outlets, and magazines, as well as to statistics, primary sources, case studies, podcasts, videos and much more.

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JOSEPH R. DESJARDINS College of Saint Benedict/St. John’s University

Environmental Ethics

An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy

F I FTH ED IT ION

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One summer morning, while driving through the countryside, my four-year-old son asked, “Daddy, what are trees good for?” Sensing a precious moment of parenthood,

I began gently to explain that as living things they don’t need to be good for anything, but that trees do provide homes to many other living things, that they make and

clean the air that we breathe, that they can be majestic and beautiful. “But daddy,” he said, “I’m a scientist and I know more than you because you forgot the most

important thing. Trees are good for climbing.” I hope that I have not missed too many other such obvious truths in writing

this book, which I dedicate to Michael and Matthew.

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Contents

PREFACE x i

I Basic Concepts 1

1 Science, Politics, and Ethics 3

Discussion: Global Climate Change 3

Discussion Topics 6

1.1 Introduction: Why Philosophy? 6

1.2 Science and Ethics 8

1.3 Philosophy, Politics, and Ethical Relativism 15

1.4 Environmental Ethics: An Overview 16

1.5 Summary 18

Notes 19

Discussion Questions 19

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 20

2 Ethical Theories and the Environment 21

Discussion: Why Protect Endangered Species? 21

Discussion Topics 22

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Philosophial Ethics: Getting Comfortable with the Topic 24

2.3 The Natural Law Tradition—Teleology and Virtues 27

2.4 Contemporary Perspectives on Teleology 30

2.5 The Utilitarian Tradition 33

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2.6 Contemporary Perspectives on Utilitarianism 36

2.7 Deontology: An Ethics of Duty and Rights 37

2.8 Contemporary Perspectives on Deontological Ethics 38

2.9 Environmental Ethics and Religious Principles 40

The Good of God’s Creation 41

Finding the Divine in Nature 41

The Ultimate Respect for and Value of Life 42

Social Justice Ministries 42

Stewardship 43

2.10 Summary and Conclusions 43

Notes 44

Discussion Questions 44

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 45

II Environmental Ethics as Applied Ethics 47

3 Ethics and Economics: Managing Public Lands 49

Discussion: BP’s Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill 49

Discussion Topics 50

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Conservation or Preservation? 51

3.3 Managing the National Forests 54

3.4 Pollution and Economics 59

3.5 Ethical Issues in Economic Analysis 62

3.6 Cost-Benefit Analysis 64

3.7 Ethical Analysis and Environmental Economics 66

3.8 Summary and Conclusions 71

Notes 71

Discussion Questions 73

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 73

4 Sustainability and Responsibilities to the Future 74

Discussion: Sustainability: Fad or Future? 74

Discussion Topics 76

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Do We Have Responsibilities to Future Generations? 78

4.3 What do We Owe Future Generations? 81

4.4 Consumption and Sustainable Development 88

4.5 Summary and Conclusions 92

vi CONTENTS

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Notes 92

Discussion Questions 94

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 94

5 Responsibilities to the Natural World: From Anthropocentric to Nonanthropocentric Ethics 95

Discussion: Industrial Farming: Mass Producing Animals as Food 95

Discussion Topics 97

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 Moral Standing in the Western Tradition 98

5.3 Early Environmental Ethics 101

5.4 Moral Standing 105

5.5 Do Trees Have Standing? 108

5.6 Peter Singer and the Animal Liberation Movement 110

5.7 Tom Regan and Animal Rights 112

5.8 Ethical Implications of Animal Welfare 114

5.9 Critical Challenges 115

5.10 Summary and Conclusions 119

Notes 119

Discussion Questions 121

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 122

III Theories of Environmental Ethics 123

6 Biocentric Ethics and the Inherent Value of Life 125

Discussion: Synthetic Biology and the Value of Life 125

Discussion Topics 127

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 Instrumental Value and Intrinsic Value 129

6.3 Biocentric Ethics and the Reverence for Life 132

6.4 Ethics and Character 135

6.5 Taylor’s Biocentric Ethics 136

6.6 Practical Implications 140

6.7 Challenges and Developments 143

6.8 Summary and Conclusions 145

Notes 146

Discussion Questions 147

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 148

CONTENTS vii

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7 Wilderness, Ecology, and Ethics 149

Discussion: Wilderness Management: Fighting Fires in Yellowstone 149

Discussion Topics 151

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 The Wilderness Ideal 153

7.3 The Wilderness “Myth”: The Contemporary Debate 157

7.4 From Ecology to Philosophy 163

7.5 From Ecology to Ethics 169

7.6 Varieties of Holism 171

7.7 Summary and Conclusions 173

Notes 173

Discussion Questions 175

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 176

8 The Land Ethic 177

Discussion: Hunting, Ethics, and the Environment 177

Discussion Topics 178

8.1 Introduction 179

8.2 The Land Ethic 180

8.3 Leopold’s Holism 183

8.4 Criticisms of the Land Ethic: Facts and Values 185

8.5 Criticisms of the Land Ethic: Holistic Ethics 189

8.6 Callicott’s Revisions 195

8.7 Summary and Conclusions 199

Notes 200

Discussion Questions 201

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 202

9 Radical Environmental Philosophy: Deep Ecology and Ecofeminism 203

Discussion: Environmental Activism or Ecoterrorism? 203

Discussion Topics 205

9.1 Introduction 205

9.2 Deep Ecology 207

9.3 The Deep Ecology Platform 208

9.4 Metaphysical Ecology 209

9.5 From Metaphysics to Ethics 212

9.6 Self-Realization And Biocentric Equality 216

viii CONTENTS

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9.7 Criticisms of Deep Ecology 218

9.8 Ecofeminism: Making Connections 221

9.9 Ecofeminism: Recent Developments 224

9.10 Summary and Conclusions 227

Notes 228

Discussion Questions 231

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 231

10 Environmental Justice and Social Ecology 232

Discussion: Environmental Refugees 232

Discussion Topics 233

10.1 Introduction 233

10.2 Property Rights and Libertarian Justice 234

10.3 Justice as Fairness 238

10.4 Environmental Justice and Environmental Racism 240

10.5 Murray Bookchin’s Social Ecology 243

10.6 Critical Reflections 246

10.7 Summary and Conclusions 248

Notes 249

Discussion Questions 251

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 252

11 Pluralism, Pragmatism, and Sustainability 253

Discussion: Carbon Mitigation and Stabilization Wedges 253

Discussion Topics 254

11.1 Introduction: Agreement and Disagreement in Environmental Ethics 255

11.2 Moral Pluralism and Moral Monism 256

11.3 Environmental Pragmatism 259

11.4 Conclusion: Sustainability Revisited 263

Notes 265

Global Environmental Ethics Watch 265

GLOSSARY 267

INDEX 271

CONTENTS ix

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Preface

One winter evening some years ago, I reread Aldo Leopold’s A Sand CountyAlmanac. This occurred a few months after I had moved to rural Minnesota from suburban Philadelphia. I came upon Leopold’s entry for February:

There are two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm. One is the danger of supposing that breakfast comes from the grocery, and the other that heat comes from the furnace. To avoid the first danger, one should plant a garden, preferably where there is no grocer to confuse the issue. To avoid the second, he should lay a split of good oak on the andirons, preferably where there is no furnace.

This passage struck me in a way that it never could have had I still been living in a metropolitan area. The fact that it was 27 degrees below zero outside, and I was sitting in front of a roaring oak fire might have had something to do with this. I recognized that there are more than just two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm; one other concerns divorcing your life from your work. That evening, I realized that teaching courses on environmental and ecological issues would mean more to me now, personally and professionally, than it could have in the city. This book grows out of a commitment to integrate more fully my life with my work.

The primary aim of this book is simple: to provide a clear, systematic, and comprehensive introduction to the philosophical issues underlying environmen- tal and ecological controversies. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, it is fair to say that human beings face environmental challenges unprecedented in the history of this planet. Largely through human activity, the very climate of the Earth is changing, and life on Earth faces the greatest mass extinctions since the end of the dinosaur age sixty-five million years ago. The natural resources that sustain life on this planet—air, water, and soil—are being polluted or depleted at alarming rates. Human population growth is increasing exponentially. When the first edition of this book was begun in 1990, the world population was 5.5 billion people.

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By 2012 it will have grown to 7 billion, a 27 percent increase in just over twenty years. The prospects for continued degradation and depletion of natural resources multiply with this population growth. Toxic wastes that will plague future genera- tions continue to accumulate worldwide. The world’s wilderness areas—its forests, wetlands, mountains, and grasslands—are being developed, paved, drained, burned, and overgrazed out of existence.

The tendency in our culture is to treat such issues as simply scientific, techno- logical, or political problems. But they are much more than that. These environ- mental and ecological controversies raise fundamental questions about what we as human beings value, about the kind of beings we are, the kinds of lives we should live, our place in nature, and the kind of world in which we might flourish. In short, environmental problems raise fundamental questions of ethics and philosophy. This book seeks to provide a systematic introduction to these philosophical issues.

OVERVIEW

A significant amount of philosophically interesting and important research on environmental and ecological issues has been conducted during the past few dec- ades. The structure of this book reflects the way the fields of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy have developed during that period.

Two initial chapters introduce the relevance of philosophy for environmental concerns and some traditional ethical theories and principles. Chapters 3 and 4 sur- vey topics that essentially fit an “applied ethics” model. Traditional philosophical theories and methodologies are applied to environmental issues with the aim of clarification and evaluation. The applied ethics model, it seems to me, accounts for much of the early work in environmental ethics.

Philosophers soon recognized that traditional theories and principles were inadequate to deal with new environmental challenges. In response, philosophers began to extend traditional concepts and principles, so that they might become environmentally relevant. Chapter 5 examines attempts to extend moral standing to such things as individual animals, future generations, trees, and other natural objects. Within much of this thinking, traditional theories and principles remain essentially intact, but their scope and range are extended to cover topics not previously explored by philosophers.

Many philosophers working in this field have come to believe that ethical extensionism is an inadequate philosophical response to environmental issues and controversies. To many of these thinkers, traditional ethical theories and principles are part of a worldview that has been responsible for much environmental and ecological destruction. What is needed, in their eyes, is a more radical philosophi- cal approach that includes rethinking metaphysical, epistemological, and political, as well as ethical, concepts. At this point, the field once identified as environmental ethics is better conceived of as environmental philosophy. The final seven chapters examine more comprehensive environmental and ecological philosophies. These views include biocentrism (the view that all living things deserve moral standing),

xii PREFACE

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ecocentrism (the view that shifts away from traditional environmental concerns to a more holistic and ecological focus), deep ecology, social ecology, and ecofeminism.

THE FIFTH EDITION

One strong temptation in writing a new edition is to create a much longer book. Keeping pace with new developments, including all the latest cases and environ- mental controversies, and embracing new ideas would all lead one to include more and more material. But one important lesson we learn from ecology is to recognize that not every change is an improvement and not all growth is devel- opment. My primary goal for this book remains what it was in the first edition, now nearly twenty years ago: to provide a clear and concise introduction to the philosophical issues underlying environmental controversies. This book has proved popular for use in courses taught outside of philosophy, which I take as some measure of success in achieving this goal.

This new edition attempts to respond to suggestions and advice from faculty and students who have been using this book. I owe a great debt to all the generous people who have contributed recommendations for this edition. The primary goal of this new edition is to keep apace of recent developments in the field, without sacrificing the original goal of writing a concise introductory text. I continue to seek a balance between philosophical depth and practical relevance. Admittedly, students do not always appreciate the details of philosophical debates and would rather we “get to the point.” But if there is any lesson to be drawn from the present political climate of rancorous partisan disagreement, it is that the world needs more, not less, careful and considered judgment.

Changes to this edition include new or significantly revised and updated dis- cussion cases at the start of most chapters. New material includes cases on global climate change, BP’s Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill, Synthetic Biology, Animals and Food, Sustainability, Hunting, Environmental Refugees, and Carbon Mitigation. I hope this new material will keep the book fresh for students and faculty alike. But the same basic format remains. Previous editions developed what has proven to be a coherent structure for presenting and teaching the content of environmental ethics and, for the most part, I have kept that structure as is.

But I have also done some minor restructuring of this edition to achieve greater clarity and coherence. I have combined the previous Chapter 9 (Deep Ecology) and Chapter 11 (Ecofeminsim) into a single chapter. I agree with reviewers who believe that neither field has developed much in the past decade, and that the material was no longer as cutting-edge as it had been. But both deep ecology and ecofeminism present intriguing and philosophically interesting perspectives that deserve attention, and each has had a significant impact on contemporary environmentalism. I have combined them into a single chapter because each is an example of a type of envi- ronmentalism—what I call radical environmentalism—which rejects reform in favour of more dramatic, radical social change.

PREFACE xiii

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Careful readers will notice several other minor changes. The section on eth- ical relativism has been moved from the chapter on ethical theory (Chapter 2) into Chapter 1, so that it can be included in a new section on “Philosophy, Politics, and Ethical Relativism.” Chapter 1 also discusses the present partisan political climate in that same context, and backs away from a previous concern with an over-reliance on science in setting environmental policy. If only that were now the case that I thought it was two decades ago.

Finally, what previously was an epilogue has become a more extended discussion of pluralism, pragmatism, and sustainability. When I first added the epi- logue, issues of pluralism and pragmatism were just emerging as a serious topic among environmental philosophers. I have tried to extend this discussion to include some final reflections on sustainability. It seems to me that while theorists continue to debate the relative merits of various environmental philosophies, the issue that motivates us all—environmental destruction—marches on. The philosophical debates concerning pluralism and pragmatism, in my opinion, share with the issue of sustainable development an urgent need that something be done in the mean- time. Those who address these three topics seek a reasoned way to proceed even when a unified consensus on more theoretical issues remains elusive.

TO STUDENTS AND TEACHERS

Writing a book like this carries two intellectual dangers. One is the danger of supposing that students are as motivated by and interested in abstract philosophical issues as their teachers. The other is that in pointing to the immense practical relevance of environmental ethics, I ignore or understate the importance of care- ful and rigorous conceptual analysis. I have tried to address these dangers in a number of ways.

Each chapter begins with a description of a contemporary environmental controversy that can be used as an entry into the philosophical discussion that follows. These discussion cases describe issues that are at the forefront of the con- temporary environmental scene, and they implicitly raise fundamental ethical and philosophical questions. My hope is that after some directed reflection and discussion, students will see the need to address philosophical questions in devel- oping their own environmental and ecological positions. Each chapter also ends with a series of discussion questions that can be used either as the basis for a chapter review or as the basis for further study.

To avoid the second danger, I have tried to follow the philosophical debates far enough to provide an accurate example of how philosophers reason and how reasoning can make progress. There can be no substitute for a careful study and reading of the many primary sources that I have used in this book. But the nature of this book requires that these debates not be so comprehensive that readers get lost in, or bored by, the detail.

I have not always been successful in my own teaching at balancing a relevant introduction to the issues with an in-depth analysis. Without a clear context to

xiv PREFACE

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motivate the need to know, students often get lost in philosophical analysis. On the other hand, without depth, students can become convinced too easily that they now know all the answers. Class time spent providing context, of course, takes away from time spent developing analysis; time spent following through on the debates prevents the forest from being seen for all the trees.

I wrote this book to address that tension. I suspect that for many teachers, the book provides a context and introduction, allowing them to use class time for fuller development of selected issues. They might do this in a number of ways: by reading classic or contemporary primary sources; by studying more empirical resources such as the Worldwatch publications; by keeping current on environ- mental controversies on the Web; by using some of the many excellent videos on environmental topics that are now available; and by addressing the claims of more activist groups ranging from the Sierra Club to Earth First!. However individual instructors choose to develop their courses, I hope that this book can provide a context to ensure that students remain as connected to the important philosophical issues as they so often are to the practical environmental ones.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I owe my greatest debts to those thinkers who are doing the original research in this field. I have tried to acknowledge their work at every turn, but if I have missed someone, I hope this general acknowledgment will suffice.

Through the years many reviewers have provided thorough, insightful, and tremendously helpful advice. Some have been willing to help on more than one occasion, and I must especially acknowledge Claudia Card of the University of Wisconsin, Arthur Millman of the University of Massachusetts in Boston, and Ellen Klein of the University of North Florida. Although their advice improved this book immeasurably, the usual disclaimers of responsibility apply. I have espe- cially benefited from advice offered by Holmes Rolston and Ernie Diedrich. My thanks also to previous edition reviewers Mary Brentwood, California State University, Sacramento; Douglas Browning, University of Texas, Austin; Larry D. Harwood, Viterbo University; Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston; Donald Hubin, Ohio State University; Dale Jamieson, University of Colorado; Kathie Jenni, University of Redlands; Sheldon Krimsky, Tufts University; Donald C. Lee, University of New Mexico; Eugene G. Maurakis, University of Richmond; Jon McGregor, Arizona State University; Greg Peterson, South Dakota State University; Wade Robinson, Rochester Institute of Technology; Arthur Skidmore, Kansas University; William O. Stephens, Creighton University; Charles Taliaferro, Saint Olaf College; Eugene Troxell, San Diego State University; and Charles Verharen, Howard University. And thanks to the new edition reviewers Benita Beamon, University of Washington; Joseph Chartkoff, Michigan State University; Johnna Fisher, University of British Columbia; Andre Goddu, Stonehill College; Gail Grabowsky, Chaminade University; Benjamin Hale, University of Colorado; Susan Mooney, Stonehill College; Paul Ott, Loyola University, Chicago; Kyle

PREFACE xv

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Powys, Michigan State University; Patrick Walsh, University of Manitoba; Wei-Ming Wu, Butte College; and Jason Wyckoff, Marquette University.

My students at the College of St. Benedict and St. John’s University worked through early versions of this text. We were all students in those classes, and their comments helped substantively and pedagogically. The College of St. Benedict provided financial support for research during the writing of this book. Everyone associated with Wadsworth Publishing has once again provided generous, skillful, and intelligent support.

Global Environmental Ethics Watch

Updated several times a day, the Global Environmental Ethics Watch is a focused portal into GREENR—our Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources—an ideal one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects. This resource center keeps courses up-to-date with the most current news on environmental ethics. Users get access to information from trusted aca- demic journals, news outlets, and magazines, as well as statistics, an interactive world map, videos, primary sources, case studies, podcasts, and much more. Please contact your Cengage Learning Representative for information on how to get your students access to the Global Environmental Ethics Watch.

xvi PREFACE

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P A R T I

Basic Concepts

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1

Science, Politics, and Ethics

DISCUSSION: Global Climate Change

Scientists have long known that carbon dioxide is one of several atmospheric gases, along with water vapor, ozone, methane, and nitrous oxide which are responsible for maintaining stability in the Earth’s temperature. These so-called “greenhouse gases” function much as the glass in a greenhouse, which admits warming sunlight while preventing the warmer air from radiating back outside. This greenhouse effect is the reigning scientific explanation for how the atmo- sphere regulates the Earth’s temperature.

For over a century it has been under- stood that human activities, primarily those associated with burning fossil fuels in automobiles and industry, have been adding significant amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a major by-product of burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gasoline, and as human use of such fuels has increased, so too has the amount of carbon dioxide increased. By the 1980s,

some observers were claiming that increases in greenhouse gases could lead, and likely was leading, to an increase in global temperatures, or “global warming.” Many people predicted that an increase in global temperatures would cause considerable environmental dam- age and human suffering and, as a result, recommended policy changes to minimize the use of fossil fuels and otherwise limit the discharge of greenhouse gases.

The natural process associated with global warming is straightforward. Sunlight strikes the Earth’s surface and is radiated back as heat into the atmo- sphere. The Earth’s atmosphere is com- posed primarily of nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent). But many of the remaining trace elements, especially carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and ozone, have molecular structures that absorb the radiated heat and reflect it back into the atmosphere and back onto the Earth. The initial global warming

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some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

hypothesis claimed that because green- house gases trap heat in the atmosphere, an increase in the amount of greenhouse gases will result in an increase in the heat reflected back, thus increasing global temperature. In turn, an increase in global temperature could lead to such conse- quences as a rise in ocean levels due to melting of snow and ice in the Earth’s polar regions, climatic shifts, worldwide droughts and famine, shifts in oceanic currents, and massive extinctions of plant and animal life as a result of ecosystem disruptions.

Given such dire predictions, many environmentalists have advocated for significant policy and lifestyle changes, particularly involving reduction in CO2 emissions. Many recommended that countries should reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and support international treaties mandating CO2 reductions. Gov- ernments should create incentive pro- grams to reduce the use of carbon-based fuels, including taxes and carbon-trading credits. Governments should also provide incentives and subsidies for alternative energy sources. Institutions such as busi- nesses and universities should pledge to become “carbon-neutral.” Virtually every aspect of modern industrial economies would be affected by policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions.

Critics have challenged each step in this line of reasoning. While some early critics challenged the very idea of a greenhouse effect or the reality of increasing global temperatures, more recent critics have focused on the role of human activities in increasing the green- house effect and affecting climate change. While any cold spell or blizzard will be cited by some as evidence against global warming, scientific data has increasingly persuaded most observers that average overall global temperatures are increasing, even if not everyone agrees on the significance of the increase. Skeptics tend now to suggest that fluc- tuations in CO2 and other greenhouse gas levels are within normal limits when viewed over the long range. They suggest that the Earth’s climate has always fluc- tuated, and there is nothing to show that any changes presently occurring are not

within this normal range or that they are caused by humans. Many critics also dispute the catastrophic predictions based on the alleged fact of global warming. For example, increased temperatures could result in greater cloud cover due to increased evaporation, thereby reducing the overall amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth’s surface, thus reducing temperatures. Increasing temperatures could simply shift global climate making previously inhospitable areas more tem- perate and livable. The bottom line is that no one knows for certain what slightly increased global temperatures will bring about. Whatever changes occur will occur slowly, thereby giving the ever-adaptable human species plenty of time to adapt.

Further, critics reject many of the pro- posed policy changes that are offered by defenders of global warming. Less devel- oped countries argue that the costs of any reduction in worldwide CO2 levels will fall disproportionately on the poor. Having achieved high standards of living through fossil-fuel based economies, the rich now want to limit economic development of poorer countries in the name of reducing their carbon footprint. Furthermore, the economic changes required by a massive shift away from fossil fuels are likely to create as many new problems as would be avoided and, frankly, there really is no viable alternative to coal, natural gas, and oil to power the Earth’s economies.

As these debates developed, there has been a shift away from the language of “global warming” in favor of the lan- guage of “global climate change.” The rationale is that global warming refers to the average mean surface temperature, while global climate change refers to a broad range of climatic changes that would result from an increase in the average global temperature. Predictions made decades ago that increasing atmo- spheric carbon dioxide would lead to an increase in global temperatures have been proven true. But the consequences of those increased average temperatures are still evolving. An increase in greenhouse gases and an increase in overall average surface temperature does not necessarily result in warmer temperatures every- where and at all times. The complex

4 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

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relationships between air temperature, rainfall, ocean temperature, ocean cur- rents, and ocean levels could result in weather patterns that include lower tem- peratures in some places and fiercer win- ter storms. Defenders of this language change claim that greater clarity and pre- cision can be brought to these debates by speaking of global climate change rather than global warming.

Critics see this as a rhetorical ploy to shift attention away from lack of evidence for warming and allow environmentalists to claim that any change in the weather or climate is evidence for the result of increased CO2 emissions. If every weather event can be claimed as evidence of global climate change, then this alleged problem can never be tested and this suggests that it is not a scientifically validated empirical claim after all. In addition, while “global climate change” rhetorically suggests major and catastrophic changes, the fact is that the global climate is constantly changing and always has. Global climate change is the norm, not the problem it is made out to be.

At first glance, it might appear that debates about global warming are pri- marily scientific debates. The greenhouse effect would seem to involve questions about such phenomena as solar radiation and the structure of certain molecules in such science disciplines as atmospheric science, physics, and chemistry. Science would also seem to be the proper domain for determining the degree to which human activity is causing an increase in CO2 and other greenhouse gases. By measuring and comparing such things as the amount of CO2 at various levels of the polar ice cap or the growth rate found in the rings of old or fossilized trees, scien- tists can determine the degree of correla- tion between the amount of atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures in earlier periods of Earth’s history. Using such cor- relations, science predicts future tem- peratures based on anticipated CO2 levels. Over shorter terms, science can also trace trends in global temperatures, relative size of glaciers, ocean levels and tem- peratures, and habitat change, especially in northern climates.

In other words, resolving debates about global warming would seem to be

a matter of determining the facts, and facts, as we usually understand things, are the proper domain of science. If we simply do more and better science, gather more data, establish greater patterns of correlation and causality, and confirm more predictions, we will arrive at stron- ger conclusions and reach consensus on policy options. Many also conclude that if there is a scientific consensus on the facts of global warming and climate change, the practical conclusions for what we ought to do about it logically follow.

But despite increasing scientific study, disputes remain, and they remain because debates about global warming are not simply about the science and facts. Espe- cially within the United States, global warming has emerged as something of a political litmus test, as partisan as debates over big government, taxes, and abortion. One’s view on global warming seems to be determined as much by one’s political beliefs as by the facts. A 2008 Gallup poll reported that the gap between Democrats and Republicans has steadily increased during the past decade on such statements as “the effects of global warming have already begun,” “global warming is due more to human activities than natural causes,” and “global warming is occurring.” In each case, Republicans are much less convinced by the science of global warming than Democrats. The Congressional elections of 2010 produced Republican leaders who made skepticism about global warming a central political tenet. Within a month of becoming the new chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, Congressman Fred Upton denied that climate change is human caused. Republican Congressman John Shimkus, who sits on both the House Energy and Commerce Committee and the Subcommittee on Energy and Environ- ment, expressed his skepticism about cli- mate change in terms of his belief in God’s promise to Noah that the Earth would not be destroyed by a flood for a second time.1

The prospect of global warming and global climate change raise fundamental questions concerning what we ought to do, both individually and as a society, about what we value, and about how we ought to live our lives. That is, they raise

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 5

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fundamental questions not only for sci- ence but for ethics as well. Knowledge of the facts alone does not determine what should be done. Political debates about global warming also raise important questions on what we should believe, and the degree to which we should rely on science when making policy decisions. In other words, the prospect of global warming, like so many other environmen- tal issues, requires us to ask fundamental philosophical questions: What should we believe andwhy?What shouldwe do, both as individuals and as a society?What dowe value? What should we do when beliefs and values conflict? How should we live our lives?

DISCUSSION TOPICS: 1. Individuals seldom have the ability to

evaluate by themselves the validity of a scientific claim and often have to trust the judgments of experts. Consider how often you must trust the judg- ments of doctors and engineers for example. What evidence would per- suade you to trust those scientists who claim that global warming or global climate change is a factual event?What evidence would cause you to doubt those scientists? Where do you get your own information about global

warming? Is this a reliable source? Are the advocates on both sides of these debates equally worthy of trust? How would you distinguish between scien- tific “experts” who are persuaded by global warming and those who are skeptical?

2. Hundreds of college and university presidents have signed the “Presidents’ Climate Commitment,” which pledges their schools to achieve “climate neutrality as soon as possible.” (http:// www.presidentsclimatecommitment. org/) Has your school’s president signed this commitment? Why or why not? What steps, if any, has your school taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions? Do you support this commitment by your school?

3. Do you think that more developed countries such as the United States, Canada, England, and Germany have a greater responsibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions than devel- oping countries such as China, India, and Brazil? What arguments can be offered for each side of this debate?

4. Would you support a tax on carbon emissions, and therefore higher prices for electricity and gasoline, as a means to reduce greenhouse gases? Why, or why not?

1 .1 I NTRODUCT ION : WHY PH ILOSOPHY?

In the early decades of the twenty-first century it is fair to say that human beings face environmental challenges unprecedented in the history of this planet. Largely through human activity, life on Earth faces the greatest number of mass extinctions since the end of the dinosaur age 65 million years ago. Some esti- mates suggest that more than 100 species are becoming extinct every day and that this rate could double or triple within the next few decades.2 The natural resources that sustain life on our planet—the climate, air, water, and soil—are being changed, polluted, or depleted at alarming rates. Human population growth is increasing exponentially. World population reached 7 billion people in 2011, just 12 years after reaching 6 billion. Although it took all of human history until 1804 for world population to first reach 1 billion people, the most recent increase of 1 billion took just 12 years. The rate of population increase is slowing somewhat. It is estimated that it may take 15 years to add the next

6 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

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1 billion people. Unfortunately, however, disease, famine, poverty, and war are among the factors contributing to this decline in the rate of growth. The pros- pects for continued degradation and depletion of natural resources multiply with population growth. Not only are there more people using more resources, but the lifestyles of that growing population place increasing demands on the bio- sphere. Toxic wastes that will plague future generations continue to accumulate worldwide. Some forms of nuclear waste will remain deadly for tens of thousands of years. The world’s wilderness areas—its forests, wetlands, topsoils, mountains, and grasslands—are being developed, paved, drained, burned, and overgrazed out of existence. Destruction of large areas of the ozone layer and a significant increase in greenhouse gases that could result in global warming demonstrate that human activity threatens to disrupt the very atmosphere and climate of the planet Earth.

Complicating matters is the fact that many environmental topics, from global warming to land use, from energy policy to food production, have become embroiled in bitter partisan politics, especially within the United States. The days in which a Republican President (Richard Nixon) and a Democratic Congress could be unified in passing sweeping environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Endangered Species Act within a three-year period, are a distant memory.

Faced with such a potentially catastrophic environmental future, we are challenged with momentous decisions. But how do we even begin making the right decisions, especially in such a political climate as the present? We should also acknowledge that many of our present environmental challenges are the result of decisions made, not by thoughtless or dishonorable people, but in good faith by previous generations. In fact, many of those decisions had very beneficial consequences to both prior and present generations in the form of adequate food, affordable energy, and increased life expectancy. But these deci- sions have had devastating consequences as well. How can we be sure that the decisions about energy policy, population, and food production that we likewise make in good faith will not have equally ambiguous consequences? Before making such momentous decisions, it seems only reasonable that we should step back to reflect on the decision-making process itself.

In many ways, philosophical ethics is just this process of stepping back to reflect on our decision making. Philosophical ethics involves a self-conscious stepping back from our own lives to reflect on what type of life we should live, how we should act, and what kind of people we should be. This textbook will introduce environmental ethics by working across two levels of thought: the practical level of deciding what we should do and how we should live, and the more abstract and academic level of stepping back to think about how we decide what to do and what to value. As used in this book, philosophical ethics involves elements of practical normative ethics—deciding what one ought or ought not do—and critical thinking—evaluating the reasoning used to justify and defend such practical decisions.

Philosophical ethics in the West is exemplified by Socrates’s questioning of Athenian society and an individual’s role within it. When speaking with a self-proclaimed authority on what the gods expect of humans, Socrates set the

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 7

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standard of philosophical reasoning 2,500 years ago by refusing to accept a con- clusion based solely on the words of an authority. When the religious authority Euthyphro claimed that he knew many things about the gods’ desires of which most people were ignorant, Socrates responded with what is perhaps the most crucial philosophical call: “Let us examine what we are saying” so that we might all come to learn for ourselves what is true.

This textbook invites you on a similar Socratic journey with respect to envi- ronmental topics. Let us examine what is being said so that we might think for ourselves and better understand what is true and what we ought to do. This text introduces the many ways in which ethics and philosophy can contribute to the creation of a sane and judicious environmental policy. Environmental challenges such as global warming raise fundamental scientific and political questions, but they raise important philosophical questions as well. Ethics is the branch of phi- losophy that addresses questions on fundamental values, and these will be the primary focus of this book. However, as we shall see, engaging in a full analysis of environmental issues will require that we also address a wide range of ques- tions from other branches of philosophy. Topics such as the allocation and distribution of environmental benefits and dangers raise important questions of social justice and political philosophy. Issues of moral standing for future generations, animals, and other nonhuman forms of life and the nature of such abstract entities as species and ecosystems raise important questions in epis- temology and metaphysics.

A basic assumption of this book is that environmental policy ought to be decided in the political arena and not by experts in scientific laboratories, corpo- rate boardrooms, or government bureaucracies. But to say this is not to say that all political opinions are equal. In an era when name-calling, shouting matches, and demonization of those with whom one disagrees passes for political debate, the need for critical thinking—careful, logical examination of controversial issues—has never been greater. Philosophical ethics will ask you to put aside what you hear from political pundits and commentators on Fox News or the Daily Show, sus- pend your assumptions and what you think you already know, and think carefully in as unbiased and balanced way as you can.

Thus an implicit goal of this textbook is to empower citizens to become full and thoughtful participants in these critical public policy debates. Familiarity with the ethical and philosophical issues involved in such debates is an important first step in this direction. Every position staked out in an environmental controversy will involve philosophical assumptions. Your challenge is to separate the good arguments from the bad, the rational conclusions from the unproven. Join with Socrates to examine what we are saying so that we might come to know what is true.

1 .2 SC IENCE AND ETH ICS

Environmentalists have long had an ambiguous relationship with science and technology. On one hand, science provides exactly the type of unbiased and rational source of information that citizens need for informed and rational policy

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making. Trusting science seems a reasonable strategy. Technology offers hope for addressing most, if not all, environmental challenges. On the other hand, science and technology have also played a major role in bringing about some of the worst environmental problems that we face. Blind trust of science and technol- ogy can appear as unreasonable as blind trust of political pundits. Surely science and technology must be a major partner in addressing environmental chal- lenges, but it is important that we not abdicate decision-making responsibility to science alone and that we think carefully about the proper role of science and technology.

One of the pivotal events of the modern environmental movement was the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962. This book focused inter- national attention on the deadly effects of DDT and other chemical pesticides. The continued indiscriminate use of these “elixirs of death” would, according to Carson, lead to a time when death and poisoning would silence the “voices of spring.” This book profoundly influenced the public’s attitude toward chemical pollution and environmental protection. For the first time, widespread public doubt was raised about the safety and desirability of technological solutions to environmental problems.

Although chemical agents have been used to control pests and fertilize crops since the beginning of agriculture, the decades immediately after World War II witnessed tremendous development in the discovery, production, and use of synthetic chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Increasing population growth and a corresponding increase in demand on agriculture, along with a decrease in the number of farmers, led to intense pressures to increase agricultural productivity. One large part of this effort involved the use of chemicals to limit crop loss from pests and to enhance the growth of crops. Before the publication of Silent Spring, the only question generally asked about chemical pesticides and fertilizers, by both scientists and the public, concerned their effectiveness: Do they eliminate undesirable pests without harming humans or their crops? Do they increase yield? After Carson’s work, the long-term consequences to both humans and the natural world, as well as the political and ethical implications of chemically enhanced agriculture, came to the forefront.

Even seemingly innocuous issues such as fertilizer and pesticide use can raise philosophical questions. For example, do we have any ethical responsibility to preserve the various life forms around us? Is there anything wrong with defining some living organisms as pests and working to eradicate them? Philosophical assumptions are involved wherever we stand in this debate. Should pesticides be proved safe before they are used, or should the burden of proof rest with those who predict danger? Answering this question also involves issues in ethics and political philosophy.

Relying on science or technology (or on economics or the law) without also considering the ethical and philosophical issues involved can raise as many problems as it solves. Leaving environmental decisions to the “experts” in science and tech- nology does not mean that these decisions will be objective and value-neutral. It means only that the values and philosophical assumptions that do decide the issue will be those that these experts hold.

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 9

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Whereas this book relies on philosophical ethics for guidance, many people look instead to science and technology for answers. If only we could develop safe, inexpensive, and effective chemical pesticides. If only we could engineer a carbon sequestration process to contain the carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuels. If only we could engineer more efficient solar panels or harness the energy potential of geothermal, wind, or tidal power. If only we could develop hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the internal combustion engine. If only we could master cold fusion.

For many people in our culture, and especially for many in policy-making positions, science and technology offer the only hope for solving environmental problems. Because environmental problems often involve highly technical mat- ters, it is only reasonable to turn to experts in these technical areas for answers. Who better than meteorologists to tell us about the effects of global climate change? Who better than chemists to tell us about the safety and effectiveness of pesticides? Because science offers objective and factual answers in an area in which emotions run high and controversies abound, many believe that science is the obvious place to turn for help with environmental concerns. The only alternative to looking to science seems to be a pessimistic surrender to the type of controversy and disagreement so typical of talk television.

As Rachel Carson’s writing suggests, we take risks when we treat environmen- tal problems merely as technical problems awaiting solution from some specialized discipline. This is partly because the dimensions of environmental issues are seldom limited to the specific boundaries of any one particular discipline. Pesticide pollu- tion, for example, involves agriculture, various branches of biology and chemistry, medicine, economics, politics, and law. Global climate change involves an equally diverse group of disciplines. But it is impossible to find an environmental issue that does not raise basic questions of value. Approaching any serious environ- mental issue with the hope of finding a technical quick fix guarantees only a narrow and parochial understanding of what is at stake. Carson’s Silent Spring testifies to the dangers inherent in this approach. As seen in these examples, tech- nological or scientific “solutions” have often inflicted as many new problems as they have solved.

Turning to science for help in understanding how the world works is a hallmark of a reasonable and educated citizen. But turning to science and tech- nology for solutions to problems that are fundamentally ethical and political may not be. For example, in response to increasing levels of CO2 and global warming, some have proposed technological and geo-engineering solutions on a massive scale. Manipulating the biophysical processes of both the atmosphere and the ocean have been proposed means to lessen the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. Skepticism about such grand experiments seems, as someone like Rachel Carson might advise, to be the mark of a reasonable and educated citizen.

But the danger in over-reliance on science and technology extends well beyond this technological complexity. Science is not as value-neutral as many assume. Our culture has a profound belief in science as the ultimate authority on questions of knowledge and truth. Although it is important not to overstate

10 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

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this point (science, of course, does have tremendous potential for helping us to understand and solve environmental problems), science is not always the purely objective and value-neutral resource that so many assume it to be.

For example, economics plays a dominant role in many environmental con- troversies. It is fair to say that economics is the primary tool relied on in making most major public policy decisions concerning the environment. The rationale for this reliance is that the social science of economics provides an objective methodology for analyzing social costs and benefits. Chapter 3 in this book, however, offers an in-depth analysis of the role of economics in environmental policy and demonstrates that the supposedly value-neutral science of economics is heavily value-laden. That chapter will show how such economic concepts as utility, happiness, costs, benefits, and self-interest involve controversial assumptions in philosophy and ethics.

This is not the place for a full discussion of the issue of scientific objectivity, but several points should give us pause when we are tempted to turn solely to science and technology for solutions to environmental problems. In some ways, science is nothing more than a detailed, careful, verified, and documented approach to knowledge. Science demands that its practitioners minimize assump- tions, seek to eliminate bias, verify results, and limit conclusions to what the evidence supports. In this sense, the scientific method has a real “ethic” that aims to ensure arrival at an impartial, accurate, and rational result. To the degree that scientific practice measures up to this ethic, we can have confidence in the rationality of its results. This unbiased approach to knowledge also provides a vital alternative to the vitriolic rhetoric so common in contemporary political debates.

Nevertheless, this method may have hidden assumptions that can influence scientific practice. For example, Chapter 9 considers the claim that modern science is dominated by models imported from physics. In that view, we best understand something (a physical object, for example) when we reduce that object to its simplest elements (such as atoms and electrons) and investigate the forces that work on those elements (for example, gravity and electromagnetism). According to critics, however, that reductionist approach is inappropriate for other fields. Social sciences such as economics, sociology, and political science may well distort reality if they reduce “society” to a mere collection of individuals mechanically driven by the forces of self-interest.3 What is more relevant to our concerns is that some biologists believe that the physics model is particularly misleading in the study of ecosystems. The reductionist tendency can ignore or distort the com- plex relations that exist within an ecosystem. Reductionism literally fails to see the forests for the trees.

Likewise, a commitment to mechanistic explanations can distort our under- standing of ecological relationships. For example, debates that concern our understanding of animal behavior are sometimes framed in mechanistic terms. Either animal behavior is caused by environmental conditioning, or it is con- trolled by genetic programming. Either way, the explanation can be stated as invariable, deterministic, mechanistic “laws of nature.” Again, for many biolo- gists this represents a distorted and oversimplified account of animal behavior.

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 11

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Even the simplest organism is capable of changing its environment as much as it and its progeny are changed by the environment.

Biological and environmental changes seem to occur as much through ran- dom chance as according to deterministic laws.4 Accordingly, a policy of wildlife management based on a mechanistic model of animal behavior would have differ- ent consequences and recommendations from a policy that assumes that change rather than constancy is the norm. Thus, despite the commitment of science to the values of impartiality and objectivity, the practice of science is not always the unbiased procedure it is taken to be.

Science is also sometimes understood not as a method or procedure but as a body of information or facts. Surely facts are objective, and if science discovers the facts, scientific knowledge must be objective, or so the myth of scientific objectivity would have us believe. How comfortable should we be when we rely solely on scientific information to meet environmental challenges? Even when the facts are established through a careful, methodical, and verified procedure, we need to recognize that the facts seldom tell the whole story. Reliance on well-established scientific information can be risky if that informa- tion fails to give us a complete explanation. Perhaps the greatest obstacle to getting the whole story is not science’s inability to get answers but science’s limits in asking questions. Before relying on scientific answers to solve environ- mental problems, we need to know what questions the scientists are asking, and the questions they ask are often determined by factors that lie outside the realm of science.

For example, political leaders in my hometown have recently been faced with a proposal to build a four-lane road through a major wetland and rare and environmentally sensitive oak woodland. Before debating the specifics of this proposal, the local city council requested that the city engineer conduct a study and provide a recommendation. The city engineer returned with a recommen- dation that the road should be built because the facts demonstrated that a road was needed. Thus the public received a recommendation for what we should do based on the facts determined by a scientific study. What “facts” led to this con- clusion? The city engineer produced a report full of graphs and numbers reflect- ing projections about population growth, housing density, traffic counts, and construction costs. The engineer admitted that environmental and neighborhood concerns were not included because they could not be measured in a scientific and objective manner.

Recognize what happens in such a situation. Society is faced with a decision that raises several concerns. Some of those concerns can be measured and quan- tified scientifically while others cannot. Given this, policy makers have two options. They can ignore the concerns that cannot be measured scientifically and decide solely on the basis of “scientific fact,” or they can reject science as the appropriate basis for decision making. In this all too common situation, public officials nearly always defer to the judgment of science.

Amory Lovins, an internationally recognized energy scientist, makes a similar point when he reminds us that the “answers you get depend on the questions you ask.”5 Lovins uses an example from energy policy to develop this point.

12 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

Copyright 201 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

If we define our energy problem as a supply problem, we can easily conclude that we are running out of energy and need new energy sources. Science can docu- ment the facts of resource depletion; calculate the known reserves of coal, oil, and uranium; compare the technological advantages of various energy sources; and predict the costs and efficiencies of coal, oil, nuclear-powered generating plants, and so forth. We might thus imagine collecting a significant amount of relevant scientific data on the various alternatives of energy production. We can also imagine that, given these facts, one alternative (for example, nuclear reactors) might emerge as the most reasonable option. This decision, we can well imagine, is based on the objective, neutral facts of science.6

But if we define our energy problem as a question of demand, we come up with different answers. We begin to ask questions about energy use, matching energy sources with energy use, energy efficiencies, appropriate technologies, and the like. A scientist who asks these questions is more likely to focus on such issues as home heating, insulation, efficiency of electric motors, lighting, appliances, fuel-efficient cars, mass transportation, hydrogen fuel cells and solar power. Clearly, the information emerging from efforts to answer these ques- tions, which is every bit as factual and objective as the information coming from supply questions, will suggest different energy policies. These facts might well prove that heating homes with electricity is quite unreasonable, even if the source of that electricity is safe and efficient compared to alterna- tive sources.

Thus we have a situation in which two sets of facts, each equally valid and objective from a scientific standpoint, lead to quite different policy recommen- dations. One set supports building new power plants, and the other set supports a greater emphasis on appropriate technologies. In such a scenario, the scientific facts alone tell us nothing about which alternative we ought to choose.

Later chapters will examine the more general difficulties involved with rea- soning from facts to values. Philosophers have long recognized that descriptions of the world do not, in themselves, commit us to particular conclusions about how the world should be. Simply acknowledging the gap between statements of fact and statements of value is enough to caution us about an over-reliance on science and technology. We need to be especially careful in determining which questions the environmental scientists are asking. If the questions are lim- ited, the answers will also be limited, and so will the policy recommendations that society adopts on the basis of those answers.

Where, then, do scientists get their questions? The answer is that scientific questions are formed to a large degree by the people who pay for scientific research. Contemporary, state-of-the-art scientific research is an expensive enterprise. Typically, it is funded by government and private industry. The proj- ects that get funded are those that answer the questions being asked by govern- ment and industry. We should not be surprised, for example, when scientists working for the chemical industry respond to the problem of resistant strains of insects by recommending the use of new (and typically more expensive) chemical pesticides. Science conducted under these conditions may not always

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 13

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supply the answers that government and industry want, but the likelihood of its supplying radically different answers is seriously restricted. Continuing with the Lovins energy example, most of what is known about nuclear energy is derived from research supported by the U.S. government. Specifically, the Department of Defense has spent billions of dollars developing nuclear weapons. In fact, the standard design for a nuclear power plant is a modified version of the nuclear reactor that powers submarines. Thus the knowledge that we possess about nuclear energy is directly traceable to political decisions made in a quite different context. (So too is our knowledge about chemical pesticides. Much of that research began during the world wars with research on chemical weapons.)

This is not to suggest that such knowledge is somehow less reasonable or valid than it might be. However, we need to acknowledge that the environmen- tal decisions we make are dependent on the information, technology, and finan- cial resources we have available and that these depend on the types of questions the scientists are asking. Imagine the knowledge and technology that we would have in the area of solar power, for example, if the money spent on nuclear weapons and nuclear research in the last sixty years had been spent instead on solar energy research.

A reasonable caution is that we not over-generalize the expertise of scien- tists. We should not deceive ourselves into thinking that because science demands objectivity and neutrality, all its uses are objective and value-neutral. Even if the scientific enterprise is committed to impartial and objective methods, and even if its findings are valid, the practical uses that we make of scientific information may not be reasonable. We also should not deceive ourselves into thinking that because many environmental problems involve technical issues, they do not raise ethical questions as well. The myth of objectivity that some- times surrounds science can obscure these points. One role of environmental philosophy is to make explicit the hidden value assumptions of alternative envi- ronmental policies. Sometimes this will require examining the value assumptions implicit in science and technology.

Nevertheless, it also would equally be a mistake to think that some abstract ethical theory can resolve environmental controversies. Ethical and philosophical analysis done in the abstract, ignorant of science, technology, and other relevant disciplines, will not have much to contribute to the resolution of environmental problems. Looking to philosophical ethics for a quick fix is just as short-sighted as over-reliance on science.

How we understand our world and, therefore, how and what we value are significantly shaped by what science tells us about that world. The best approach is to recognize that both science and ethics are essential if we hope to make meaningful progress in meeting the environmental challenges that confront us. We can capture this perspective by adapting an old philosophical adage: “Science without ethics is blind; ethics without science is empty.” This textbook is a survey of the variety of ways in which philosophers attempt to provide such a vision for environmental science and environmental policy.

14 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

Copyright 201 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

1 .3 PH ILOSOPHY , POL IT ICS ,

AND ETH ICA L RELAT IV I SM

If environmental decisions should rightfully be made in the political realm rather than left exclusively to scientific experts, it might seem naïve for a person to hold out much hope for environmental progress from politics. Given the present partisan political climate in the United States, perhaps it is naïve to think that environmental challenges can be rationally resolved in the political arena. But the only alternative to rational political discourse, seems to be to leave such deci- sions to those who shout the loudest, pay the most for lobbyists, and manipulate the media the best. Can we trust politics to make sane environmental decisions?

Let us return to Socrates for a philosophical perspective on this issue. Early in Plato’s Republic, Socrates and his companions are engaged in a philosophical examination of justice. After several speakers offer their account of justice, the sophist Thrasymachus breaks into the discussion and offers a cynical answer: “Justice is nothing other than the advantage of the stronger.” In other words, right and wrong, justice and injustice, is whatever those who have power say they are. Or as we might say, might makes right. All talk of ethics, justice, morality, according to this skeptic, is but a smokescreen for what really is happening behind the scenes. Political decision making is nothing other than power politics— competing interest groups asserting their own preferences and the winners defining what is right and wrong. There is no independent, rational, objective means for determining right and wrong. In modern political terms, this view would be called political realism. In philosophical terms, this is a version of what is called ethical relativism, and it is worth examining at the start of this book.

Thrasymachus’s assertion represents the most serious challenge to any study of ethics. Underlying the view of people who agree with Thrasymachus, ethics is futile because ethical values are, ultimately, a matter of personal opinion and belief. For this reason, they believe, ethical controversies cannot have rational answers. Ethics is simply a matter of personal opinion and, therefore, political disagreements can only be resolved through the exercise of power: political, economic, military, and physical. He who shouts the loudest wins the debate. “Justice is the advantage of the stronger.”

According to ethical relativism it is not possible to make unbiased, objective ethical judgments. The relativist holds that ethical standards depend on—that is, are relative to—an individual’s beliefs, feelings, culture, religion, and so forth. Because those beliefs, feelings, cultures, and religions differ, there is no rational way to resolve ethical disagreements. A relativist would deny the existence of independent rational norms by which we can evaluate ethical judgments and reach an unbiased conclusion.

Is there an alternative to this? Are we unrealistically naïve to think that civil dialogue can lead to reasoned conclusions and an unbiased consensus? Socrates rejected Thrasymachus’s skepticism and argued that careful, logical, reasoned dialogue can distinguish, on rational grounds, right from wrong, justice from injustice. Let us follow the Socratic model and examine this skeptical position.

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND ETHICS 15

Copyright 201 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

First, we should not confuse the fact that people disagree about ethical issues with the philosophical claim that objective agreement is impossible. People in different cultures and from differing backgrounds hold different beliefs about many things, including—but not limited to—questions of ethics. But it would be a mistake to conclude that there is no right answer simply because two cultures hold different beliefs. For example, some people may believe that the planet Earth is flat and lies at the center of the universe. But we have no reason to conclude that because people disagree, there are no objective standards for evaluating these beliefs. So, too, is it a mistake to reason that because cultures disagree about values, no correct answer exists. Believing that the planet Earth is flat does not make it flat, and believing that murder is right does not make it right.

We should also be careful not to ask too much of ethical reasoning. Few controversies that are examined in this book can be resolved with moral certainty. It is tempting to think that if ethics cannot “prove” a conclusion beyond doubt, then no objective conclusion exists. But this standard of proof, though it may be applicable in mathematics and a few other areas, is surely inap- propriate in ethics. Just as sciences such as medicine, ecology, and meteorology offer rational and objective judgments without proving these judgments beyond any doubt, so too does ethics involve standards of reasoning that are different from those found in mathematics.

Finally, we should point out the implications of relativism. A consistent relativist must believe that there is no objective basis for praising friendship, love, freedom, and democracy, while condemning hatred, murder, slavery, and totalitarianism. The relativist must accept the conclusion that no objective grounds exist for denouncing a tyrant or praising a hero. A consistent ethical relativist must deny that rational persuasion and dialogue in ethics are possible. A consistent relativist is left with Thrasymachus’s position, that right and wrong is defined by those with power, and those without power have no (rational) recourse when they disagree. We are left with power versus power. Although some people may talk like ethical relativists, few of us could live our lives as consistent relativists. Perhaps this practical contradiction is the most telling refu- tation of the relativist position. If we don’t want to leave all political disagree- ment to power conflicts, we must assume, naïvely perhaps, that rational dialogue and progress is possible.

1 .4 ENVIRONMENTAL ETH ICS : AN OVERVIEW

Perhaps the only way to truly resolve the question of relativism and rationality in ethics is in the practice of ethics. Is there a rational way to resolve ethical dis- putes? Is ethical progress possible? Can we trust the political realm to approach, if not reach, ethically valid and responsible outcomes? Or, should we be content with Thrasymachus and try to become the strongest so that we might be able to impose our views on others? Let us engage in the practice of environmental ethics and work through a wide variety of ethical issues concerning the environ- ment to see if rational progress is possible.

16 PART I BASIC CONCEPTS

Copyright 201 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

In general, environmental ethics is a systematic account of the moral rela- tions between human beings and their natural environment. Environmental ethics assumes that ethical norms can and do govern human behavior toward the natural world. A theory of environmental ethics, then, must go on to explain what these norms are, to whom or to what humans have responsibilities, and how these responsibilities are justified.

Different theories of environmental ethics offer various answers to these ques- tions. A brief survey of some of the answers will serve as an overview of this text- book. Some philosophers argue that our responsibilities to the natural environment are only indirect—that the responsibility to preserve resources, for example, is best understood in terms of the responsibilities that we owe to other humans. Anthropo- centric (“human-centered”) ethics holds that only human beings have moral value. Thus, although we may be said to have responsibilities regarding the natural world, we do not have direct responsibilities to the natural world.

Many issues that arose in the early decades of the environmental movement, such as air and water pollution, toxic wastes, and the abuse of pesticides, grew out of anthropocentric ethics. Pesticide-contaminated food and polluted drinking water pose direct threats to human well-being. Thus anthropocentric environ- mental ethics involves simply applying standard ethical principles to new social problems. Chapter 3 provides some examples of this approach.

One extension of anthropocentric ethics is to consider future generations of human beings as objects of our moral responsibilities. This approach remains anthropocentric in that only human beings count morally, but it extends our responsibilities to include some to humans who do not yet exist. This extension requires that we ask not only ethical questions but also epistemological and metaphysical. It makes sense to ask about my responsibilities to other people, but does it make sense to say that I have a responsibility to people who do not, and may never, exist? For example, do people in the present have a responsibility to people who might be alive in 100,000 years, such that we should change the way we store nuclear wastes? Various problems highlighted by the early environ- mental movement, such as resource conservation and nuclear waste disposal, were regarded from this ethical perspective. Chapter 4 addresses various philo- sophical and ethical issues concerning our responsibilities to future generations.

Categories

## arrange the following elements in order of decreasing atomic size.

Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing atomic radius:

Cs, Sb, S, Pb, Se

*(list from largest to smallest…or…”the correct ranking cannot be determined”)

***I think the answer ‘should be’, from largest to smallest:

Cs, Pb, Sb, Se, S????

Am I correct in my thinking????

1 0 823
asked by K
Nov 13, 2007
My periodic chart lists covalnt radius, as you have them listed as follows (all in Angstroms):
2.35; 1.47; 1.40;, 1.17; 1.02. Looks right to me.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Nov 13, 2007
this order came up being correct. Thank you

0 0
posted by K
Nov 13, 2007
S, Se Sb, Pb, Cs

0 0
posted by Li
Nov 19, 2007
Determine the mass of a ball with a velocity of 35.1 m/s and a wavelength of 8.92 x 10-34 m.

0 0
posted by oria
Jul 17, 2011

Categories

## bhs 220

Running head: STATISTICS 1

STATISTICS 2

Case 4: Drawing Inferences about Population Means and Proportions

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Hypotheses Testing Procedure

The testing procedure is used to find out if the hypothesis statement should be rejected or accepted. The first step is to state the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. After stating, the second step involves selecting the test statistics and the required level of significance. Then the decision rules are stated to the null should be accepted or rejected. This involves determining the critical value or the level of significance. The critical value is used to divide the accepted from the non-accepted region. After stating the decision rules, the fourth .step involves computing the test and making the decision after comparing the calculated test statistics with the critical value. If the calculated value is within the non-acceptable region (s), the H0 should be rejected. Finally, the decision is made based on the computed test statistic.

Null and Alternative Hypotheses

The null hypothesis assumes that cholesterol treatment does not have any effect on the participant. On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis tests whether cholesterol treatment has any effect on the cholesterol level on the participant. The null hypothesis (H0): Treatment does not reduce the cholesterol level in human body. The null hypothesis assumes that there is no relationship between the increase/decrease in the cholesterol level. The alternative hypothesis (H1) can be formulated as follows: Treatment reduces cholesterol level in human body. In this case, the alternative hypothesis tests whether treatment can minimize the cholesterol level according to the collected data (Cook, Netuveli, & Sheikh, 2004).

Test Statistics

I will apply the chi-square test to evaluate the effectiveness of the cholesterol test on the participants. The chi test formula can be presented as, where k= predetermined degree of freedom, g= observed value, and E= the expected number of individuals.” The formula shows the relationship between the treatment and no treatment for cholesterol. Also, the test provides a single value to represent the two different variables (the treatment and the expected). The chi test values can be calculated as shown below:

 Cholesterol Decreased No Cholesterol Decrease Total Treatment = 33.40 = 18 56 No treatment = 34.60 = 28 58 Total participants 68 46 144

Chi test=+++=3.2

Calculating the P-Value

According to Norman and Streiner (2014), “P-value is used to determine the probability that the null hypothesis is falsely rejected.” Both z-scores and p-values are associated with the normal distribution. The P-value can be used to determine the “likely” or “unlikely” of the impact of treatment on the level of cholesterol (assuming the null hypothesis is true). On the other hand, when the p-value is small, the null hypothesis is rejected. On the other hand, According to Norman, and Streiner (2014), ‘P-value is greater than the required significance level, the H0 is not rejected” Finally, the degrees of freedom are determined using the following formula: (Rows – 1) x (columns – 1) = 1.

Therefore, the p-value = 0.075

There is no Enough Evidence

According to Norman, & Streiner (2014), “A small p-value indicates a large variation which means that there is a large difference between the observed and the expected data.” This means that the observed vary from the expected if the treatment does not improve the condition. On the other hand, a small p-value of 0.0750 means that there is there is enough evidence to conclude that the treatment is effective. The results mean that cholesterol treatment is effective which provide a basis to reject the null hypothesis (Norman, & Streiner, 2014).

References

Cook A., Netuveli, G., & Sheikh, A. (2004). Basic skills in statistics: A guide for healthcare professionals. London, GBR: Class Publishing. eISBN: 9781859591291.

Norman, G. R., & Streiner, D. L. (2014).Biostatistics: The Bare Essentials [4th ed., e-Book]. Shelton, Connecticut: PMPH-USA, Ltd. eISBN-13: 978-1-60795-279-4

Categories

## a delegative style of leadership is useful when all team members __________.

 a delegative style of leadership is useful when all team members __________.
Categories

## tecumseh’s “let the white race perish” speech is

Student ID: 21973473

Exam: 986829RR – Lesson 6 Nonfiction

When you have completed your exam and reviewed your answers, click Submit Exam. Answers will not be recorded until you hit Submit Exam. If you need to exit before completing the exam, click Cancel Exam.

Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

1. Sojourner’s vision of God is an example of a/an A. exterior narrative.

B. epiphany.

C. myth.

D. simile.

2. In emphasizing the importance of individual thinking and basing one’s beliefs on one’s own experiences, Sojourner shows she has much in common with A. Matthias.

B. Chief Seattle.

C. Chief Pontiac.

D. Thoreau.

3. Chief Seattle contrasts the religions of the whites and of his people by saying the Native American religion exists “in the hearts of the people,” while the religion of the whites is written on tablets of stone by A. lightning atop a mountain.

B. Moses.

C. seekers after truth.

D. an angry God.

4. Thoreau writes, “When our lives cease to be inward and private, conversation degenerates” to become A. mere gossip.

B. mindless and sterile.

C. seeking an advantage over others.

D. a fantasy about a fiction.

5. When Chief Seattle refers several times to the angry young men in his tribe, he’s A. urging his audience to unite against the whites.

B. trying to convince his audience to be more peaceable.

C. making veiled threats.

D. blaming the tribal leaders.

6. The story of The Wolf used by Chief Pontiac is an example of A. a myth.

B. a simile.

C. personification.

D. an autobiography.

7. The major theme of “Life without Principle” is A. freedom.

B. government.

C. religion.

D. economics.

8. Tecumseh’s “Let the white race perish” speech is A. an appeal to the emotions of his listeners.

B. a plea to the people’s reason.

C. a satire on the white race and its traditions.

D. a logical list of reasons why the whites should be resisted.

9. The Narrative of Sojourner Truth was written down by A. Robert Matthews (Matthias).

B. Isabella Baumfree.

C. Charles Ardinburgh.

D. Olive Gilbert.

10. For Sojourner Truth, deciding which parts of Scripture came from those who wrote the Bible, and not from God, depended on A. her feelings about slavery.

B. her inner witness.

C. her mother’s Bible lessons.

D. the authority of theologians.

11. The religious revivals of nineteenth-century America included people who became very excited, claiming that God spoke to them directly. These people were called A. enthusiasts.

B. literalists.

C. revivalists.

D. Bible beacons.

12. What one thing does Thoreau say stifles poetry and philosophy? A. Business

B. Goverment

C. Laws

D. Crime

13. A grandson of the slave master John Ardinburgh declared that a “good funeral” for Bomefree would include a jug of whiskey. Sojourner Truth saw the jug as offering A. too little too late.

B. mere hypocrisy.

C. sin over atonement.

D. an opiate for slaves.

14. At first, Sojourner Truth was happy to have many children because A. it provided more slaves for her owner.

B. they were the only things that gave her joy.

C. they could help her with her daily tasks.

D. it took her mind off her problems.

15. As in Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown,” the autobiographical story of Sojourner Truth is written on all of these levels, except A. interior narrative.

B. social commentary.

C. dramatic narrative.

D. exterior commentary.

16. In “Life without Principle,” Thoreau writes, “If my wants should be much increased, the labor required to supply them would become a drudgery.” What does this statement mean? A. The more you have, the more you want.

B. If you don’t want much, you don’t have to spend as much time being miserable working to get it.

C. Work is meaningful only when you think about what you’ll be able to do with the money you earn.

D. Slavery was wrong because it meant that some people worked hard to satisfy other people’s wants.

17. Thoreau believes that people should work because A. it will give them time to think about important things.

B. it will keep them out of trouble.

C. God said so in the Bible.

D. they love what they do.

18. What did Thoreau have in common with John Thornton in The Call of the Wild? A. An enjoyment of solitude

B. A love of hunting

C. A dislike of government

D. A mistrust of religion

19. The statement “There was snow on the ground, . . . and a large old-fashioned sleigh was seen to drive up to the door of the late Col. Ardinburgh” is an example of

End of exam

A. social commentary.

B. exterior narrative.

C. interior monologue.

D. metaphor.

20. In “Life without Principle,” Thoreau writes, “I would have had him deal with his privatest experience, as the poet does.” What does this statement mean? A. Courtrooms are places where people traditionally lie.

B. People talk only about trivial things.

C. People should speak from their hearts and say what’s on their minds.

D. Speeches should employ figurative (poetic) language to get their points across.

Categories

## c xy4 ds, c is the right half of the circle x2 + y2 = 16 oriented counterclockwise

Current Score : – / 0 Due : Wednesday, November 19 2014 04:00 PM CST

1. –/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.2.002.

Evaluate the line integral, where C is the given curve.

2. –/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.2.003.MI.SA.

This question has several parts that must be completed sequentially. If you skip a part of the question, you will not receive any points for the skipped part, and you will not be able to come back to the skipped part.

Tutorial Exercise Evaluate the line integral, where C is the given curve.

is the right half of the circle x2 + y2 = 25 oriented counterclockwise

3. –/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.2.007.

Evaluate the line integral, where C is the given curve.

C consists of line segments from (0, 0) to (5, 1) and from (5, 1)

to (6, 0)

Review Problems for Test #2 (Homework)

Rustom Hamouri Math 344, section 11795, Fall 2014 Instructor: Buma Fridman

WebAssign

xy ds, C: x = t2, y = 2t, 0 ≤ t ≤ 1

C

xy4 ds, C

C

(x + 5y) dx + x2 dy,

4. –/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.2.010.

Evaluate the line integral, where C is the given curve.

is the line segment from

5. –/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.2.020.

Evaluate the line integral where C is given by the vector function r(t).

6. –/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.3.004.

Determine whether or not F is a conservative vector field. If it is, find a function f such that F = ∇f. If it is not, enter NONE.

f(x, y) = + K

xyz2 ds, C

C (−2, 6, 0) to (0, 7, 1)

F · dr,

C

F(x, y, z) = (x + y)i + (y − z)j + z3k

r(t) = t2 i + t3 j + t2 k, 0 ≤ t ≤ 1

7. –/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.3.005.

Determine whether or not F is a conservative vector field. If it is, find a function f such that F = ∇f. If it is not, enter NONE.

f(x, y) = + K

8. –/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.3.011.

Consider F and C below.

(a) Find a function f such that F = ∇f.

(b) Use part (a) to evaluate along the given curve C.

F(x, y) = ex cos y i + ex sin y j

F(x, y) = 4xy2 i + 4x2y j

C: r(t) = t + sin πt, t + cos πt , 0 ≤ t ≤ 11 2

1 2

f(x, y) =

∇f · dr

9. –/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.3.015.

Consider F and C below.

(a) Find a function f such that F = ∇f.

(b) Use part (a) to evaluate along the given curve C.

10.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.3.020.

Find the work done by the force field F in moving an object from P to Q.

11.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.3.029.

Determine whether or not the given set is open, connected, and simply-connected. (Select all that apply.)

open

connected

simply-connected

F(x, y, z) = yzexzi + exzj + xyexzk, C: r(t) = (t2 + 3)i + (t2 − 4)j + (t2 − 5t)k, 0 ≤ t ≤ 5

f(x, y, z) =

F · dr

C

F(x, y) = e−y i − xe−y j

P(0, 2), Q(3, 0)

12.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.4.506.XP.

Use Green’s Theorem to evaluate (Check the orientation of the curve before applying

the theorem.)

13.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.4.001.MI.

Evaluate the line integral by the two following methods.

C is counterclockwise around the circle with center the origin and radius 7

(a) directly

(b) using Green’s Theorem

F · dr.

C

F(x, y) = e2x + x2y, e2y − xy2

C is the circle x2 + y2 = 1 oriented clockwise

14.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.4.003.

Evaluate the line integral by the two following methods.

(a) directly

(b) using Green’s Theorem

15.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.4.007.MI.

Use Green’s Theorem to evaluate the line integral along the given positively oriented curve.

C is the boundary of the region enclosed by the parabolas

16.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.5.001.

Consider the given vector field.

(a) Find the curl of the vector field.

curl F =

(b) Find the divergence of the vector field.

div F =

xy dx + x2y3 dy

C is counterclockwise around the triangle with vertices (0, 0), (1, 0), and (1, 4)

5y + 3e dx + 10x + 9 cos y2 dy

C x

y = x2 and x = y2

17.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.5.007.

Consider the vector field.

(a) Find the curl of the vector field.

curl F =

(b) Find the divergence of the vector field.

div F =

18.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.5.013.

Determine whether or not the vector field is conservative. If it is conservative, find a function f such that F = ∇f. (If the vector field is not conservative, enter DNE.)

+ K

19.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.5.511.XP.

Determine whether or not the vector field is conservative. If it is, find a function f such that F = ∇f. If the vector field is not conservative, enter NONE.

+ K

F(x, y, z) = 9ex sin y, 3ey sin z, 8ez sin x

F(x, y, z) = 12xy2z2i + 8x2yz3j + 12x2y2z2k

f(x, y, z) =

F(x, y, z) = y cos xy i + x cos xy j − 2 sin z k

20.–/0 pointsSEssCalcET2 13.4.019.

Use one of the formulas below to find the area under one arch of the cycloid

x = t − sin t, y = 1 − cos t.

A = x dy = − y dx = x dy − y dx

C

C

1 2

C

Categories

## axiaecampus phoenix eud

CJS 240

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice Version 2 08/06/07

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus CJS 240

Program Council

The Academic Program Councils for each college oversee the design and development of all University of Phoenix curricula. Council members include full-time and practitioner faculty members who have extensive experience in this discipline. Teams of full-time and practitioner faculty content experts are assembled under the direction of these Councils to create specific courses within the academic program. Copyright

Copyright © 2007 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. University of Phoenix

® is a registered

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® , Windows

® , and Windows NT

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are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other company and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Use of these marks is not intended to imply endorsement, sponsorship, or affiliation. Edited in accordance with University of Phoenix

® editorial standards and practices.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 3

Course Syllabus Course Title: CJS 240—Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Required Texts Siegel, L. J. and Welsh, B. C. (2005). Juvenile delinquency: The core. (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA:

Thomson Wadsworth. Axia College’s Writing Style Handbook, available online at https://axiaecampus.phoenix.edu/Writing_Style_Handbook_AxiaUOP.pdf Please Note: All required text and materials are found on the Materials tab of the student web page. The student web page can be accessed through the Axia College of University of Phoenix Student and Faculty Web site at https://axiaecampus.phoenix.edu/https://axiaecampus.phoenix.edu/Writing_Style_Handbook_AxiaUOP.pdfhttps://axiaecampus.phoenix.edu/

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 4

Course Overview

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is a general orientation to the concept of delinquency and the field of juvenile justice. Students will examine the nature of delinquency, as well as a variety of theories and suspected causes of delinquent behavior. Students will study factors related to delinquency and/or prevention including gender, youthful behavior, family, peers, drug use, school, and community.. This course will also familiarize students with the evolution of juvenile justice and key players in the juvenile justice process. Additionally, students will develop an understanding of the juvenile court process, as well as juvenile detention, restitution, prevention and treatment.

TOPICS AND OBJECTIVES

Childhood Development and Delinquency

 Discuss juvenile accountability.

 Identify the risk factors associated with chronic offenders.

 Identify the pros and cons of Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and self-report data.

Individual Theories of Delinquency

 Differentiate between general deterrence, specific deterrence, and situational crime prevention.

 Discuss individual theories of delinquency.

Sociological Theories of Delinquency

 Give examples of social disorganization.

 Discuss the impact of social structure theories on delinquency prevention.

 Identify examples of the application of sociological theories of delinquency.

Gender Differences and Family Impact

 Critique the child protection system.

 Describe current explanations for gender differences and delinquency.

 Discuss gender discrimination in the juvenile justice system.

 Explain how family makeup and behavior influence delinquency.

The Juvenile Justice System

 Examine issues within the juvenile court process.

 Identify the main components of a comprehensive juvenile justice strategy.

 Compare and contrast the juvenile and adult justice systems.

Juvenile Corrections and Treatment

 Explain the roles and responsibilities of juvenile probation officers.

 Explain community-based treatment efforts.

 Summarize important issues impacting institutionalized juveniles.

 Discuss the importance of aftercare programs.

Peers, Juvenile Gangs, and School

 Discuss the impact of adolescent peer relations.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 5

 Describe the relationship between academic performance and delinquency.

 Recognize theories of gang development.

 Explain methods to control gang activity.

Drug Use and Control

 Describe the key reasons for youth drug use.

 Explain the relationship between drug use and delinquency.

 Assess the major drug control strategies.

The Juvenile Delinquent and the System

 Discuss the future of juvenile justice.

 Debate a contemporary issue in juvenile justice.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 6

Point Values for Course Assignments

Week One: Childhood Development and Delinquency

Discussion Questions 10

Participation 10

CheckPoint: Statistics 30

Week Two: Individual Theories of Delinquency

CheckPoint: Delinquency Deterrence Response 30

Assignment: Individual Theories 100

Week Three: Sociological Theories of Delinquency

Discussion Questions 10

Participation 10

CheckPoint: Sociological Theories Response 30

Week Four: Gender Differences and Family Impact

CheckPoint: Case Study Critique 30

Assignment: Gender and Family 100

Week Five: The Juvenile Justice System

Discussion Questions 10

Participation 10

CheckPoint: The Justice Systems 30

Week Six: Juvenile Corrections and Treatment

CheckPoint: Probation Presentation 30

Assignment: Corrections and Treatment 100

Week Seven: Peers, Juvenile Gangs, and School

Discussion Questions 10

Participation 10

CheckPoint: Gang Development and Control 30

Week Eight: Drug Use and Control

CheckPoint: Drug Use and Delinquency Response 30

Assignment: Drug Czar Presentation 100

Week Nine: The Juvenile Delinquent and the System

Capstone Discussion Question 20

Participation 10

Final Project: Justice System Position Paper 250

Point Totals 1,000

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 7

Policies and Procedures All students in this course are required to abide by the policies and procedures described in the Policies section of the Student Web Page. To view these policies, students must be logged in to the Student Web Page. The same information can be accessed via the Policies link located in the Materials section of the Classroom tab on the Student Web Page.https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/policies/

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 8

Week One

Childhood Development and Delinquency

 Discuss juvenile accountability.

 Identify the risk factors associated with chronic offenders.

 Identify the pros and cons of Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and self-report data.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read objectives and welcome.

 Read instructor’s bio and post your own bio.

 Due Date: Day 1 [post to the Chat Room forum]

2. Read Appendix A regarding the final project requirements.

3. Read Ch. 1, 2, & 3 of the Juvenile Delinquency: The Core text.

4. Discussion Question 1

 Due Date: Day 2 [post to the Main forum]

 Post your response to the following: Are juveniles truly capable of understanding the seriousness and consequences of their actions? If so, at what age are they capable of understanding? At what age should juveniles be tried as adults? Explain your answer.

5. Discussion Question 2

 Due Date: Day 4 [post to the Main forum]

 Post your response to the following: Is the commission of delinquent activities a normal process of growing up or are there specific factors that initiate this type of behavior? If some delinquent activities are part of growing up, what factors contribute to the progression of delinquent behavior from normal adolescent behavior to chronic offending? Explain your answer.

6. CheckPoint: Statistics

 Resource: Appendix B

 Due Date: Day 5 [post to the Individual forum]

 Complete the UCR and Self-Report Data matrix in Appendix B. To complete this matrix, you will need to list two pros and two cons of UCR data and two pros and two cons of self-report data. Additionally, find one Web resource of official information and one Web resource of unofficial information about the occurrence of delinquency in the United States. Copy and paste the URL addresses into Appendix B.

 Post Appendix B as an attachment.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 9

Week Two

Individual Theories of Delinquency

 Differentiate between general deterrence, specific deterrence, and situational crime prevention.

 Discuss individual theories of delinquency.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. CheckPoint: Delinquency Deterrence Response

 Due Date: Day 4 [Individual] forum

 Write a 300- to 350-word response explaining how the threat of punishment either does or does not deter juvenile delinquency. Provide examples of general deterrence, specific deterrence, and situational crime prevention strategies. Additionally, identify which concept or concepts of deterrence you believe offer the best method of controlling juvenile crime.

2. Assignment: Individual Theories

 Resource: pp. 47-80 of Juvenile Delinquency

 Due Date: Day 7 [Individual] forum

 Write a 500- to 750-word paper in APA format explaining why some adolescents are motivated to commit crimes while others in similar circumstances are not. Support your explanation by applying at least two of the individual theories of delinquency listed below:

o Routine activities theory o General deterrence theory o Specific deterrence theory o Biochemical theory o Neurological theory o Genetic theory o Psychodynamic theory o Behavioral theory o Cognitive theory

 Cite at least two sources to support your explanation.

 Post your paper as a Microsoft ® Word attachment.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 10

Week Three

Sociological Theories of Delinquency

 Give examples of social disorganization.

 Discuss the impact of social structure theories on delinquency prevention.

 Identify examples of the application of sociological theories of delinquency.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read Ch. 4, 6, & 7 of Juvenile Delinquency.

2. Discussion Question 1

 Due Date: Day 2 [Main] forum

 Post your response to the following: Describe a community in your city or state that currently exemplifies the concept of social disorganization. What solutions might you implement to revitalize that community?

3. Discussion Question 2

 Due Date: Day 4 [Main] forum

 Post your response to the following: During the 1960s, social structure theories strongly influenced the development of delinquency prevention programs. Why did many of the earliest programs fail? What is being done differently today in the development of promising prevention programs?

4. CheckPoint: Sociological Theories Response

 Resource: pp. 101-105 of Juvenile Delinquency

 Due Date: Day 5 [Individual] forum

 Research the Internet to find federal, state, or local programs with elements that exemplify the application of each of the sociological theories listed below:

o Social structure theories o Social process theories o Social conflict theories

 Write a 100-word description for each program. You should have one program that exemplifies social structure theories, one that exemplifies social process theories, and one that exemplifies social conflict theories. Include the programs’ main elements and explain the aspects of each program that address the focus of the theory.

 Cite your references in APA format.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 11

Week Four

Gender Differences and Family Impact

 Critique the child protection system.

 Describe current explanations for gender differences and delinquency.

 Discuss gender discrimination in the juvenile justice system.

 Explain how family makeup and behavior influence delinquency.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. CheckPoint: Case Study Critique

 Resource: Appendix C

 Due Date: Day 4 [Individual] forum

 Read the case study provided in Appendix C.

 Write a 200- to 350-word response answering the following questions:

o What are some of the possible reasons caseworkers were not aware of the conditions in the Jackson home?

o From the information presented in the case study, should the nine members of the Division of Youth and Family Services staff have been fired? Why or why not?

o Do you believe justice was served in this case? Why or why not? o Could this situation have been prevented? If so, how? If not, why?

2. Assignment: Gender and Family

Ch. 6 & 7 discuss the impact gender and family can have on delinquency. In addition, you have read briefly about gender and the juvenile justice system.

 Due Date: Day 7 [Individual] forum

 Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in APA format answering the following questions:

o How does gender affect delinquency?

 What are some current explanations for gender differences?

o How does family affect delinquency?

 How does family makeup affect delinquency?

 How does family behavior impact delinquency?

o Are delinquent females treated differently by members of the juvenile justice system?

 Are they treated unfairly?

 Do they benefit from being female? Why or why not?

 Post your paper as a Microsoft ® Word attachment.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 12

Week Five

The Juvenile Justice System

 Examine issues within the juvenile court process.

 Identify the main components of a comprehensive juvenile justice strategy.

 Compare and contrast the juvenile and adult justice systems.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read Ch. 11, 13, & 14 of Juvenile Delinquency.

2. Discussion Question 1

 Due Date: Day 2 [Main] forum

 Review pp. 320-324 and pp. 332-335 of Juvenile Delinquency.

 Your instructor will divide the class into three discussion clusters and assign each cluster one of the following controversial issues:

o Confidentiality in juvenile proceedings o Waiver to adult court o Death penalty for juveniles

 Post your response to the question below for the cluster to which you are assigned:

o Confidentiality in juvenile proceedings

 What do you feel is more important—freedom of press to publish pictures and names of juvenile offenders or juveniles’ rights to private court proceedings? Explain your answer.

o Waiver to adult court

 Should certain juvenile offenders be waived to adult courts? Why or why not?

o Death penalty for juveniles

 Should juveniles who commit serious capital crimes under the age of 16 be eligible for the death penalty? Why or why not?

 Consider reviewing the discussions in the other clusters to gain a deeper understanding of these three issues. In addition, the CheckPoint this week will ask you to further discuss these issues. Reviewing and taking notes on the discussions in the other clusters will help you save time with the CheckPoint later this week.

3. Discussion Question 2

 Due Date: Day 4 [Main] forum

 Post your response to the following: What are the benefits of a comprehensive juvenile justice strategy? What aspects of a comprehensive strategy contribute to those benefits? What are the drawbacks to implementing a comprehensive juvenile justice strategy?

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 13

 Consider discussing specific programs that contribute to a comprehensive juvenile justice strategy that you may be familiar with or have heard about in the media, such as D.A.R.E., teen courts, drug courts, or Big Brothers/Big Sisters.

4. CheckPoint: The Justice Systems

 Resource: Appendix D

 Due Date: Day 5 [Individual] forum

 Complete the System Comparison Matrix, the 200- to 300-word response on controversial issues in the juvenile court system, and the selection of your final project position in Appendix D.

 Post Appendix D as an attachment.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 14

Week Six

Juvenile Corrections and Treatment

 Explain the roles and responsibilities of juvenile probation officers.

 Explain community-based treatment efforts.

 Summarize important issues impacting institutionalized juveniles.

 Discuss the importance of aftercare programs.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. CheckPoint: Probation Presentation

 Due Date: Day 4 [Individual] forum

 Create an informative 5- to 7-slide Microsoft ® PowerPoint

presentation about probation

and the roles and responsibilities of probation officers. Take on the role of a juvenile probation officer recruiter and address the presentation to an audience of individuals who are interested in applying for the position of a juvenile probation officer. Your presentation should include:

o General information regarding probation

 What is probation?

 Who is on probation?

 What are the conditions of probation?

o Roles and responsibilities of juvenile probation officers

 What are the duties of probation officers?

 When do probation officers become involved in the court process?

 What are the responsibilities of probation officers?

 Prepare detailed speaker notes for each of the slides.

 Post your presentation as a Microsoft ® PowerPoint

® attachment.

2. Assignment: Corrections and Treatment

 Due Date: Day 7 [Individual] forum

 Write a 350- to 700-word paper in APA format summarizing information on juvenile corrections and community-based treatment programs. Include the following in your paper:

o Community-based treatment

 Describe two or three community-based treatment efforts.

 Briefly explain the purpose and importance of the community-based treatment efforts you described.

o Institutionalization

 Describe two or three issues affecting institutionalized juveniles.

 Address why the juvenile justice system should be concerned with those issues.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 15

o Aftercare programs

 Describe two of the three Intensive Aftercare Programs (IAP) discussed in the text.

 Address the importance of aftercare programs.

 Post your paper as a Microsoft ® Word attachment.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 16

Week Seven

Peers, Juvenile Gangs, and School

 Discuss the impact of adolescent peer relations.

 Describe the relationship between academic performance and delinquency.

 Recognize theories of gang development.

 Explain methods to control gang activity.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read Ch. 8 & 10 of Juvenile Delinquency.

2. Read Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school at the following Web site: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/188947.pdf

3. Discussion Question 1

 Due Date: Day 2 [Main] forum

 Post your response to the following: How do peers impact delinquency? Do delinquents simply seek out antisocial and delinquent peers as friends or does having delinquent peers cause an individual to become delinquent? Explain your answer.

4. Discussion Question 2

 Due Date: Day 4 [Main] forum

 Post your response to the following: How is school failure related to delinquency? Do delinquents fail at school or is school failure responsible for delinquency? Explain your answer.

5. CheckPoint: Gang Development and Control

 Resource: Appendix E

 Due Date: Day 5 [Individual] forum

 Complete the Gang Development and Gang Control tables in Appendix E.

 Post Appendix E as an attachment.

References

Baker, M. L., Nady Sigmon, J., & Nugent, M. E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in

school. U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency

Prevention Web site. Retrieved March 16, 2007, from

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 17

Week Eight

Drug Use and Control

 Describe the key reasons for youth drug use.

 Explain the relationship between drug use and delinquency.

 Assess the major drug control strategies.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. CheckPoint: Drug Use and Delinquency Response

 Due Date: Day 4 [Individual] forum

 Research the University Library for two current, scholarly journal articles that highlight reasons for youth drug use and the association between drug use and delinquency.

 Write a 200- to 350-word response answering the following questions:

o According to the articles:

 What are the main reasons for youth drug use?

 In what ways does drug use relate to delinquency?

 Cite the articles in APA format.

2. Assignment: Drug Czar Presentation

 Resource: p. 256 of Juvenile Delinquency

 Due Date: Day 7 [Individual] forum

 Read the “Applying What You Have Learned” scenario on p. 256 of Juvenile Delinquency.

 Create a 7- to 10-slide Microsoft ® PowerPoint

presentation illustrating the advantages

and disadvantages of the three drug control policy strategies presented at the open hearing in the scenario. Take on the role of the drug czar in the presentation. Present the policy or policies that you, as the drug czar, believe to be the best strategies for reducing youth drug use.

 Include detailed speaker notes for each slide.

 Cite at least two sources in APA format to support your statements.

 Post your presentation as a Microsoft ® PowerPoint

® attachment.

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 18

Week Nine

The Juvenile Delinquent and the System

 Discuss the future of juvenile justice.

 Debate a contemporary issue in juvenile justice.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Capstone Discussion Question

The future of the juvenile justice system is in debate. There has been a movement to get tough on juvenile crime at the same time that researchers are seeing more public support for prevention and intervention methods.

 Due Date: Day 3 [Main] forum

 Post your response to the following: What are your thoughts on the future of the juvenile justice system? Should there be a juvenile justice system? Why or why not? Should there be a focus on a comprehensive juvenile justice strategy or should the juvenile justice system focus on one particular area? Explain your answer.

2. Final Project: Justice System Position Paper

Throughout this course, you have become acquainted with explanations of juvenile delinquency, correlates of juvenile delinquency, and the intricacy of the juvenile justice system. For your final project, you are asked to assess one of the major debatable issues regarding the juvenile justice system.

 Resource: Appendix A

 Due Date: Day 7 [Individual] forum

 Write a 1,750- to 2,100-word position paper in APA format arguing one of the following positions:

o The juvenile justice system should focus on rehabilitation. o The juvenile justice system should focus on punishment.

 Include the following in your paper:

o Why should the juvenile justice system adopt the focus you have chosen?

 What evidence supports your position?

o How will the specific focus you have chosen impact

 law enforcement?

 court processes?

 probation?

 corrections?

 community services?

 intervention programs?

o What are some arguments for the opposing side?

CJS 240 Introduction to Juvenile Justice

Course Syllabus Page 19

 Why are those arguments not as valid as your arguments?

 Provide evidence to support your claims.

o How do the advantages of the juvenile justice system adopting the specific focus you have chosen outweigh the disadvantages?

 Cite at least five sources to support your position.

 Post your paper as a Microsoft ® Word attachment.

Categories

## complete these brÃ¸nsted-lowry reactions.

Complete the Bronsted lowry reactions

HPO42-+H+<–>

HPO42-+OH-<–>

0 0 1,467
asked by Sharon
Feb 21, 2014
HPO42-+H+<–> H2PO4^-

HPO42-+OH-<–> PO4^3- + H2O

1 1
posted by DrBob222
Feb 21, 2014
wrong dude

0 1
posted by Bobiswrong
Feb 22, 2016
it’s actually right

0 0
posted by Bobisright
Apr 5, 2016
Bob really was correct those are both the correct answers

0 0
posted by DrKate
Aug 23, 2016

Categories

## which of the following electron configurations of neutral atoms represent excited states?

Which of the following electron configurations of neutral atoms represent excited states?

( ) [Xe]6s24f1
( ) 2s2
( ) 1s22s22p63s23p63d2
( ) [Ar]4s23d3
( ) [Kr]5s14d5

0 0 1,590
asked by Garcia
Nov 11, 2012
Add spaces to make your problem more readable. Don’t run the numbers together.
1) 6s2 4f1?
2) 2s2
3) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2
4)4s2 3d3
5)5s1 4d5

Here is how you do this. I’ll do the first one or two.

# 3 is Ca.

I’ll be glad to check the others for you.

0 0
posted by DrBob222
Nov 11, 2012
I have counted the electrons for all of the five electron configurations. I have determined that as you mentioned [Xe]6s2 4f1 is the excited state of Lu. I also managed to find that the configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 is the excited configuration of Ca. But I am told that there are three excited electron configurations given. I cannot find the third.

0 0
posted by Garcia
Nov 13, 2012
Basically what I have found is:
1) excited Lu
2) He
3) excited Ca
4) V
5) Mo

0 0
posted by Garcia
Nov 13, 2012
2s2 is the excited version of He. The ground state version is 1s2

0 0
posted by Emilee
Oct 5, 2014

12345

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 6, 2014
[Xe]6s24f1
2s2

0 0
posted by Sarah
Nov 6, 2017
ds

0 0
posted by Anonymous
Oct 29, 2018

Categories

## snhuconnect

PSY 520 Milestone One Guidelines

Note that you are required to use Southern New Hampshire University students as research participants by using the PSY 510/520 Lounge in SNHUConnect (link is located in the left-hand navigation menu). You are strictly prohibited from using individuals outside of Southern New Hampshire University as research participants.

In PSY 520, you will be collecting and analyzing data in an attempt to answer your research question. Before you do this, however, it is important that you have your research proposal (i.e., your PSY 510 paper) in a very strong shape. Your research proposal will form the building block for the full research paper that you will submit in this course.

As you revise your PSY 510 paper, be sure to take into account the feedback from your instructor from PSY 510. In addition, use the list below as a guide for how to revise your paper into an exemplary research proposal. As you revise your paper, be sure to think about how you will go from a proposal to an actual research project as you will be using your research proposal from PSY 510 to help complete your final project for this course, a research manuscript.

To help see the flow of the PSY 510 and PSY 520 projects, you can review this document.

Paper Element

Characteristics of an Exemplary Paper

 The beginning of the paper clearly explains the general purpose of the research, and it relates the research to a real-world issue.

 This section should be interesting to read and entice the reader.

Problem Statement

 This section should review relevant research on the topic.

 The literature needs to be an integrated discussion of research on the topic, not a one-by-one summary of all the articles you found.

 The literature should build towards your research question and hypothesis. In other words, research that is most relevant to your research question and hypothesis should be discussed. Research only tangentially related to your research question should not be included.

Literature Review

 This should be clearly stated at the end of your literature review.

 Because the problem statement introduced the general research question and the literature review builds toward the research

question, when you state your specific research question it should not surprise the reader.

Research Question

Hypothesis

 Your hypothesis should be clearly stated.

 It should be supported by your literature review, so it should not be a surprise to the reader. In other words, your hypothesis is not just a guess of what you will find; it is an educated guess supported by research.

 Your proposed participants, materials, and procedures should be clearly described.

 Keep in mind that you will rewrite this section in Milestone Four once your data collection is complete.

Methods

Data Analysis Plan

 This section will not be included in your final paper, since you will ultimately explain what you actually did in your Results section.

Anticipated Results

 This section will ultimately be rewritten in Milestone Four once you have analyzed your data.

Overall

 Be sure to follow APA style. Use your style manual!

 The entire paper should flow. Even though it is broken into

sections, each section should flow into the next and the paper

should read as one coherent, integrated paper.

 Be sure to proofread carefully. It is very unlikely that your

instructor corrected every typo and grammatical mistake. One of the best techniques is to read the paper out loud so as to catch awkward phrasing.

Guidelines for Submission: Submit a copy of your PSY 510 research proposal reflecting any new edits to be graded pass/fail.

Categories

## nurse as a scientist detective and manager of the healing environment

Revised  2013

University  Mission  Congruent  to  Department  of  Nursing  Mission

Western  Governors  University  Mission

Western  Governors  Department  of  Nursing  Mission

Improve  quality;  expand  access  to  postsecondary   educational  opportunities  by  providing  a  means  for   individuals  to  learn,  independent  of  time  or  place,  and   to  earn  competency-­‐based  degrees  and  other   credentials  that  are  credible  to  both  academic   institutions  and  employer.

The  mission  of  the  Department  of  Nursing  is  to  make  a  positive   difference  in  the  lives  of  our  students  and  the  practice  of  nursing,   primarily  through  a  professionally  supported,  competency-­‐based   and  personalized  student-­‐focused  learning  model  that  assists   working  adults  achieve  success  in  educational  goals  and  a   sustained  professional  commitment.    The  Department  of  Nursing   is  committed  to  the  formation  of  confident,  caring,  and  competent   professional  nurses  prepared  to  meet  emerging  healthcare  needs   of  diverse  populations.

University  Goals  Congruent  with  Department  of  Nursing  Goals

Western  Governors  University  Goals

Western  Governors  Department  of  Nursing  Goals

• Provision  of  competency-­‐based  programs   • Adherence  to  a  student-­‐centric  model   • Use  of  technology  to  improve  quality  and

efficiency   • Use  of  external  learning  resources,  combined

with  mentoring  and  progress  management;     • Adherence  to  an  executive  governance  structure   • Oversight  by  external  Councils

• Competency-­‐based  bachelor’s  and  master’s  degree   programs  that  allow  nurses  to  demonstrate  their   professional  knowledge  and  skills

• Broad  access  to  education  for  nurses  where  they  live  and   work

• Professional  preparation  for  new  nursing  practice  roles  and   additional  education

Revised  2013

WGU  Department  of  Nursing  Philosophy

We  envision  nursing  as  a  caring  interaction  between  the  nurse,  who  is  a  member  of  an  interdisciplinary  team,  and  the  patient   who  is  a  member  of  a  family  and  community.  This  caring  interaction  occurs  across  the  lifespan,  from  infancy  through  old  age.   Nurses  identify  and  strengthen  clients’  potential  to  move  toward  health  and  help  clients  shape  their  environment  to  promote   well-­‐being.  We  believe  that  healthcare  begins  in  the  community,  prior  to  diagnosis  of  illness,  by  promoting  health  and   wellness  through  advocacy,  community  assessment,  and  preventative  care.  Nurses  use  appropriate  technologies  and  current   evidence  to  develop  their  plans  of  care,  whether  in  the  community,  the  clinic,  an  acute  care  facility,  or  an  extended  care   facility.  Nurses  assume  leadership  for  clinical  and  ethical  decision-­‐making.     We  believe  that  the  global  nature  of  communities  and  healthcare  delivery  necessitates  that  nurses  be  able  to  engage  with   patients,  families,  and  communities  who  have  diverse  ways  of  responding  to  their  healthcare  needs.  We  recognize  that  the   definition  of  family  has  expanded  to  include  a  variety  of  different  compositions  and  roles  and  is  the  fundamental  vehicle  for   how  clients  are  supported,  interact  with  the  world  around  them,  access  resources,  and  engage  in  healthcare.     We  recognize  that  students,  particularly  adult  learners,  have  preferred  learning  styles,  bring  previous  experience  to  the   learning  environment,  and  develop  competency  at  different  paces.  Learners  seek  to  make  sense  of  new  educational   experiences  in  light  of  their  past  and  existing  knowledge  and  then  apply  their  new  findings  to  real  situations.  Therefore,   nursing  education  should  provide  opportunities  where  students  engage  in  real  world  application  to  demonstrate  competency   in  cognitive  knowledge,  clinical  reasoning,  and  ethical  comportment.

Revised  2013

Conceptual  Framework

There  are  10  unifying  themes  that  have  guided  the  development  of  the  nursing  programs  at  Western   Governors  University.  These  themes  are  depicted  visually  in  the  conceptual  model  below.

Revised  2013

BSN   MSN   Nurse  as  Detective:  The  nurse  uses  clinical  imagination  coupled  with   nursing  science  to  detect  subtle  changes  and  deviations  from  expected   patterns  of  being  to  prevent  or  control  adverse  outcomes.

Nurse  as  Detective:  The  nurse  uses  clinical  imagination  coupled   with  nursing  science  to  judge  and  determine  the  consequence  of   subtle  changes  and  deviations  from  expected  patterns  of  being   to  prevent  or  control  adverse  outcomes.

Nurse  as  Scientist:  The  nurse  participates  in  scientific  inquiry  to  inform   healthcare  decisions;  and  critiques,  disseminates  and  implements   evidence  to  influence  practice.

Nurse  as  Scientist:  The  nurse  uses  translational  science  to   influence  healthcare  decisions;  to  prescribe  and  implement  best   practice  and  broadly  disseminate  the  findings.

Nurse  as  Manager  of  the  Healing  Environment:     The  healing  environment  is  global  in  nature  and  includes  considerations   of  healthcare  policy,  finance  and  regulations.  Acknowledging  this,  the   nurse  creates,  coordinates,  and  advocates  for  a  respectful,   interdisciplinary  environment  that  promotes  optimal  well-­‐being  and   affirms  the  dignity  of  the  human  experience

Nurse  as  manager  of  the  Healing  Environment:   The  healing  environment  is  global  in  nature  and  includes  social,   cultural,  political  and  economic  influences.    Acknowledging  this,   the  nurse,  as  a  member  of  the  inter-­‐professional  community,   influences  public  policy  and  promotes  social  justice  in  the  human   health  experience.

Revised  2013

Operational  Definitions  of  Threaded  Curriculum  Concepts

Compassionate  Patient-­‐centered  care  is  the  provision  of  holistic  care  with  respect  for  values,  preferences  and  needs  of  the  patient,  family  and   community  in  the  journey  to  well-­‐being  cross  the  lifespan.     Cultural  competency  is  providing  care  that  is  acceptable  to  patients,  families  and  communities  from  diverse  cultural,  ethnic,  and  social  backgrounds.       Evidence  based  practice  is  integrating  the  “best  current  evidence  with  clinical  expertise  and  patient/family  preferences  and  values  for  delivery  of   optimal  healthcare”  (QSEN,  2009)     Genomics  and  Genethics  include  knowledge  about  the  genetic  basis  of  health  and  illness,  the  variables  that  impact  the  responses  to  genomic   information  and  related  ethical  issues.     Informatics/Technology    Informatics  is  the  engineering,  storing,  organizing  and  manipulation  of  data  to  support  the  provision  of  safe,  effective  quality  care.  Technology  is  the   continuously  changing  array  of  devices  and  software  used  for  patient  care.     Leadership/Education   Leadership  is  the  process  of  identifying  and  prioritizing  goals  to  achieve  optimal  quality  outcomes.  Education  is  assessing  learning  needs  and   facilitating  acquisition  of  knowledge,  skills  and  abilities.     Safety  and  Quality  care  minimizes  risk  of  harm  to  patients,  families,  communities  and  providers  through  analyses  of  systems  effectiveness  and   individual  performance  while  continually  measuring  quality  of  care  in  terms  of  cost,  structure,  process,  and  outcomes.     Communication  is  effective  interaction  with  patients,  families,  communities,  professional  colleagues  and  other  health  care  team  members.     Teamwork  and  collaboration  is  effective  engagement  with  nursing  and  interprofessional  teams  to  foster  open  communication,  mutual  respect  and   shared  decision  making  to  achieve  quality  patient  care.     Professional/Legal/Ethical  is  effective  decision-­‐making  and  reflection  within  a  framework  of  social  justice  and  law,  advocacy,  and  standards  of   practice  to  promote  the  common  good.

Revised  2013

BSN  PROGRAM  OUTCOMES   MSN  PROGRAM  OUTCOMES

The  WGU  Bachelor’s  Degree  in  Nursing  Program  Graduate  Will:       The  WGU  Master’s  Degree  in  Nursing  Program  Graduate  Will:   1. Communicate  effectively  in  oral,  written,  interpersonal  and  electronic

modes.   1. Employ  appropriate  patient-­‐  care  technologies  and  information  management

strategies  to  lead  change  and  improve  quality  care  outcomes.   2. Use  clinical  reasoning  to  provide  safe,  quality,  nursing  care  based  on  the

best  available  evidence  and  ethical  principles.   2. Integrates  clinical  reasoning  with  organizational,  patient-­‐centered,  culturally

appropriate  strategies  to  plan,  deliver,  and  evaluate  evidence-­‐based  practice.     3. Assume  accountability  for  providing  and  ensuring  safe,  efficient,  quality

care  congruent  with  ethical,  professional  and  legal  standards.   3. Design  innovative  nursing  practices  to  impact  quality  outcomes  for  individuals,

populations,  and  systems  congruent  with  ethical,  professional  and  legal  standards.   4. Synthesize  theoretical,  clinical  and  empirical  knowledge  from  nursing,

scientific,  community  and  humanistic  disciplines  within  the  practice  of   nursing.  Synthesizes  theoretical  and  empirical  knowledge  drawing  from  the   arts  and  sciences  to  understand  the  human  experience  as  a  social  advocate,   and  professional  nurse.

4. Assemble  scientific  findings  from  nursing,  biopsychosocial  fields,  genetics,  public   health,  and  organizational  sciences  for  the  continual  improvement  of  nursing  care   across  diverse  settings.

5. Provide  compassionate,  patient-­‐centered  care  to  individuals,  families,  and   communities  from  a  variety  of  cultures  across  the  lifespan.

5. Utilize  applied  research  outcomes  within  the  practice  setting,  navigating  and   integrating  care  services  across  healthcare  systems.

6. Apply  leadership  and  education  skills  to  engage  others  in  creating  and   promoting  a  healing  environment  for  continued  self-­‐improvement.

6. Design  organization  and  leadership  systems  that  promote  high  quality  patient-­‐care   delivery  and  advance  life-­‐long  learning.

7. Engage  in  inter-­‐professional  collaboration  to  improve  safety  and  quality  of   healthcare.

7. Construct  interprofessional  teams  to  communicate,  coordinate,  collaborate  and   consult  with  other  health  professionals  to  advance  a  culture  of  excellence.

8. Incorporate  knowledge  of  genomics  and  genethics  into  the  care  of  patients,   families  and  communities.

8. Integrate  scientific  knowledge  including  that  from  genetics  and  genethics  in  the   continual  improvement  of  nursing  care  across  diverse  settings  and  populations.

9. Use  information  technology  to  communicate,  mitigate  error  and  make   decisions  related  to  the  provision  of  patient  care  and  support  incorporation   of  nursing  knowledge  in  the  development  of  patient  care  technology.

9. Provide  oversight  and  guidance  in  the  integration  of  technology  to  manage  care,   identify  performance  measures  and  standards  that  improve  quality  and  safety   outcomes.