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‘Brews Brothers Pty Ltd’

Brews Brothers Pty Ltd’

Introduction:

Brews Brothers Pty Ltd is a business that works as a bar, Microbrewery and jazz club. Brew Brothers are seeking to have a new design for the brewing process. Brews brothers have proposed an effective design to construct an effective brewing structure that can help them to increase customers as well as will help them in earning the profits. This report contains the set of derived equations regarding limiting parameters. Moreover, this report will discuss the findings related to design and process of brewing.

Technical Analysis:

The project is based on six different sections that include the important points and requirement to know that parameters for the project are clear and in a correct manner. The major equipment of the project includes; mash, copper with gas heater, fomenters, storage tanks and pumps.

The first is mash/ lauter tun which is a cylindrical closed tank and its parameters are ;

Mash tun volume = VM (m3)

Mash tun Diameter = DM (m)

Mash tun Height = HM (m)

Parameters of the Copper cylindrical closed tank are

Copper volume = VC (m3)

Copper Diameter = DC (m)

Copper Height = HC (m)

Parameters of the fermenter which is a cylindrical closed tank having conical based are;

VF – Copper volume (m3) – total volume (including conical base)

θ = 450 (conical angle)

Fermenter Diameter = DF (m3)

Fermenter Height = HF (m)

Fermenter Cone Height= hF (m3)

Parameters for the storage tank, which is the closed tank, are given below; (GUPTA, 2012)

Storage Tank Volume = VS (m3)

Storage Tank Diameter = DS (m)

Storage Tank Height = DS (m)

There would be four kinds of brew so the process required having four storage tanks with weekly consumption rate of ~ 400L/week including the spare tank so the total storage is

Total storage volume = VT

Parameters related to production are given below and there will be ~ 1600L /week of brewing.

Beer produced in a week (L) – minimum 1600 L = VB

Volume of Water/week = VW (L)

Malted barley = MB (Kg)

Al the equipment are spaced with the 0.5 m with each other and from the ground and chiller is in the shape of the cube. Parameters related to lautering are;

The time of transfer = TL (S)

Volume of disposing grains = VG (L)

Parameters regarding the pumps are;

Volumetric flow rate = VFRA (L/sec)

Requirement of Head = hA (m)

Power of pump = PA (kW)

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Figure shows the density of ingredients that are used in the brewing process

Information regarding parameter is important especially while designing the structure of the plant (Kutz, 2015). With the help this information, the expected problem can be resolved. Moreover, this information is helpful to identify the total required cost of the project that Brews brother will incur (Lees, 2012).

Conclusion:

             To construct a structure regarding specific purpose like to introduce a new Brewing process for the peoples it is very important to conduct the in-depth research and to perform analysis, feasible condition for the structure. According to the research, it is found that all the equipment must have a space of 0.5 m between each other and from the ground. The structure will need a spare storage tank along with the four other tanks and each of the equipment or parts has a specific size.

Reference:

Gupta, m. K. (2012). Power plant engineering. Phi learning pvt. Ltd.

Kutz, m. (2015). Handbook of measurement in science and engineering, volume 2. John wiley & sons.

Lees, f. (2012). Lees’ loss prevention in the process industries: hazard identification, assessment and control. Butterworth-heinemann.

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Overall, how did you find the debate?

Overall, how did you find the debate? Was it useful?

One cannot ignore the advantages of consumer marketing through some physical product over there. The factor is about the physical aspect means the visibility of the product that may attract the consumer. Nevertheless, in this age of post-modern one should not ignore the blessings of direct consumer marketing. The big positive argument about the direct consumer marketing is cost effective technique. The cost effective way is just one that I have found after the debate. The cost effective technique is useful because each company is searching for the cost-effective method in a best way. The next thing got by the project is about personalization of product.

2. What did you learn from the project?  

I have learned that history of marketing and consumer selling does not have such direct method as now a day Internet is providing. For example, the use of project at social media forums is about to control the mechanism to allow the consumer to be a king. The conventional marketing aspect is a little bit complex to understand because there is no direct link between consumer and project. The next way relevant to my learning is about the meeting the demands of society by collaborating with organizations. The next thing got from the project is the usage of technology in health care and its effective way in lowering health issues. 

3. Did you face any limitation or problem during preparation for the debate? Please explain.

No, I have never found in limitation while doing the project. The best thing and first one is a history of consumer marketing. The history is same in all relevant literature here in books as well the other research material one found at the virtual platform. When I was searching material and formatting it on slides, I have an idea to get Direct to consumer (DTC) sub-aspect in a major debate. The next level is approach about the use of DTC in Pharmaceutical. It is major debate and argument while presenting to the class. The best things then I come to know news over there about medicine’ risk and benefit analysis.

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What are environmental consequences of NAFTA?

  1. What are environmental consequences of NAFTA?

Due to North American Free Trade Agreement, people are facing some problems relate to their way of life. Moreover, NAFTA is also affecting the local sovereignty and environment as well.  According to the report was released on the 20the anniversary of NAFTA, the trade of agriculture products in increasing that making farmers cut down the forest so that they get more land for agriculture. Moreover, due to the free trade, industrial pollution is also increasing that affecting the environment.  NAFTA is also increasing pollution related to trucks, according to the report, the greenhouse gas emission is increasing day by day now it has reached to a level of 7 billion metric tons in the year 1990, in the year 2005 it has reached to 8.3 billion.  In short, agreements like NAFTA around the world are affecting the environment or ecosystem (McAuliff, 2014).

  • How free trade negative impacts for Mexico are major concerns for people?

NAFTA has some negative impact on the people of U.S. NAFTA affects the manufacturers of the U.S. in the sense that manufacturers are forced to move towards the Mexico where they can find labor at low cost in order to compete with other companies working in an industry. Due to NAFTA, most of the Mexican people lost their jobs because NAFTA removed the tariffs that cause exporting of corns and grains to Mexico a low cost. Due to NAFTA, Maquiladora workers were exploited, the environment of the Mexico is deteriorated just because of NAFTA.  Trucks in Mexico that are not working according to the standards are promoted due to the free trade agreement to export agriculture products using roads (Amadeo, 2016).

Reference:

Amadeo, K. (2016, March 23). Disadvantages of NAFTA. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from useconomy: http://useconomy.about.com/od/tradepolicy/p/NAFTA_Problems.htm

Mcauliff, M. (2014, November 3). NAFTA Report Warns Of Trade Deal Environmental Disasters. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from huffingtonpost: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/11/nafta-environment_n_4938556.html

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Financials

Q1

          Exchange rate   Prices in  
  Assumptions   US dollar prices   (R$/$)   Brazilian reais  
  Existing sales price per unit   $400.00                   4.0000                     1,600  
                 
  If the reais falls in value, the new implied US$ price:              
       New dollar price if no reais price change   $355.56                   4.5000                     1,600  
                 
  If the US$ price is changed to keep US$ price:              
       New reais price is current US$ price at new exchange rate: $400.00                   4.5000                     1,800  
                 
  Direct cost per unit in the US, percent of price   65%          
  Direct cost per unit in the US   $260.00                     4.0000                       1,040  
                 
  Unit volume                     40,000          
  Decrease in unit volume from price increase   -15.0%          
       New lower unit volume                     34,000          
                 
  Alternative #1: Maintain same price in reais:              
                 
  Sales revenue  (R$680 x 50,000 ) / (R$4.000/$)   $14,222,222          
  Less direct costs (US$120 x 50,000)             10,400,000          
  Contribution margin in US dollars   $3,822,222          
                 
  Alternative #2: Raise price in reais (and accept lower volume):          
                 
  Sales revenue  (R$800 x 40,000 ) / (R$4.000/$)   $13,600,000          
  Less direct costs (US$120 x 40,000)               8,840,000          
  Contribution margin in US dollars   $4,760,000          
                 
  Alternative 2 is acceptable              
  • What is the current reais price of the exports to Brazilian customers?

1600 is the current price of in Reais.

  • What will be dollar revenue to Dell after devaluation if Dell does not change the current reais price to Brazilian customers?

The Dollar Value would be $3,822,222

  • What will be the dollar revenue to Dell after devaluation if Dell does not change the current dollar price of the exports?

The Dollar Value would be$4,760,000

  • If you are the advisor, what would be your recommendation to Dell? Explain.

I would recommend Alternative 2

Q2

                         
   Before Exchange Rate Change  After Exchange Rate Change  
  Balance Sheet of Bangkok Ingot, Ltd. Translated Translated  
  Thai Baht Exchange Rate Accounts Exchange Rate Accounts  
  Assets Statement (THB/UK£) British pounds (THB/UK£) British pounds  
  Cash                     5,000                     35.71 £140.00                     45.45 £110.00  
  Accounts receivable                   25,000                     35.71                             700                     45.45                             550  
  Inventory                   35,000                     35.71                             980                     45.45                             770  
  Net plant & equipment                   45,000                     35.71                         1,260                     45.45                             990  
       Total                 110,000 £3,080.00 £2,420.00  
   
  Liabilities & Net Worth  
  Accounts payable                   25,000                     35.71 £700.00                     45.45 £550.00  
  Long-term debt                   40,000                     35.71                         1,120                     45.45                             880  
  Invested capital                   45,000                     35.71                         1,260                     35.71                         1,260  
  CTA account (loss)                            –                                  –   -£270.00  
       Total                 110,000 £3,080.00 £2,420.00  
   
  December 31st  End of Quarter  
  a.  Calculation of Actg Exposures: Thai Baht                         35.71                         45.45  
       Exposed assets (all assets)                 110,000 £3,080.00 £2,420.00  
       Less exposed liabilities (c.liabs + lt debt)                 (65,000)                        (1,820)                        (1,430)  
       Net exposure                   45,000 £1,260.00 £990.00  
   
  b.  Change in translation exposure: Gain (Loss) -£270.00  
   
   
  NE Assets £1,260.00  
  % change in british pound -21.4%  
       Translation gain (loss) -£270.00  
                         
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Bond Valuation

Question 1:

You purchased a bond with the following characteristics: $1,000 par value 5.5% coupon semiannual payments 18 years to maturity Bond was priced to yield 6%. For the first three years after you purchased, the bond interest rates remained constant at 6%. Then interest rates dropped to 5.4% and remained at that rate for five years. Then rates dropped further to 4.8% and remained at that rate for two more years. Rates dropped even lower to 4% and remained at that rate until the bond matured.

Assume that all coupon interest payments were reinvested at the prevailing markets rate(s). Calculate the realized yield of this investment.

Answer:

Par value $1000
Coupon rate 5.50%
Coupon Payment $55
Years to Maturity 18
interest rate 6%

For the calculation of yield to maturity:

Bond Price

For the first three years with 6%

PV of a Bond
53.39806 51.84278 50.33279

For the next five years with the yield 5.4%

49.44028 48.14049 46.87486 45.64252 44.44257

For the next two years with the 4.8%:

44.42865 43.38735

For the next eight years with 4% rate

44.23447 43.36712 42.51679 41.68313 40.86581 40.06452 39.27894 38.50877

The present value of the par value:

587.4

Total Bond Price = 1395.844

YTM:

YTM = 2.71%

Question 2:

You purchased another bond with the following characteristics: $1,000 par value 6.5% coupon, annual payments 25 years to maturity Callable in 7 years at $1,065. You paid $1063.92 for the bond. Macaulay duration is 13.34 years Assume market rates drop by 50 basis points.

  1. What will be the new bond price?

Answer:

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.34 * 0.005

= 0.0667%

New Bond Price = 1000.0667

  • Using modified duration; estimate the value of the bond following the decrease in interest rates.

Answer:

YTM:

Bond Price= $13.46397 $207.138
Bond Price = $220.602
YTM = 29.57%
Modified Duration= 13.18406

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.18 * 0.005

= 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 1000.066

  • The estimate (from part b), is fairly close to the actual (in part a). What explains the difference in the two values? Be specific.

Answer:

The difference is because of the difference in the computations of the durations which is done by different formulas, Macaulay’s and modified duration in the both computations.

  • Calculate the effective duration of this bond. Use shifts of 50 basis points.

Answer:

Decrease in basis points by 50 points by Modified duration

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.18 * 0.005

= 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 1000.066

Increase in basis points

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= -13.18 * 0.005

= – 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 999.93

  • Calculate the yield to call.

Answer:

YTC= 0.07%

f. Of the three duration measures (Macaulay, modified, effective) which is the most appropriate measure for this bond? Why?

Answer:

The effective duration is the most appropriate duration measure as it also considers the effect of the change in the coupon amount and cash flows as the result of the change in the interest rate.

Question 3:

 Discuss how bond convexity is different for non-callable and callable bonds.

Answer:

Bond convexity is the effect of duration of bonds on its interest rates. Callable bonds show negative convexity with lower rate of interest. This negative convexity results from their short options. They are negatively yield on their lower rate of interest. On the other hand, non-callable bond shows increase in prices due to decrease in interest rates. Callable bond does not show significant change in price by changing its interest rate. Non-callable bonds show positive convexity.

Question 4:

 Why is convexity your friend?

Answer:

Convexity is my friend because it helps me to identify risk. It is a tool for managing risk. It provides identification of market risk at which bond should be exposed.

Question 5:

 You manage a portfolio of bonds for the Kentucky Teacher Retirement System. The weighted-average maturity of all bonds in the portfolio is 18.5 years. According to the actuaries, you must maintain that average maturity (i.e. you cannot increase or decrease the overall weighted-average maturity of the bonds in the portfolio). McWeber, Zenger and Gnan is a Regensburg-based economic Think Tank. They have forecasted a sharp rise in the U.S. yield curve. The result would be a significant increase in both short-term and long-term interest rates in this country. Understanding the negative impact that increasing rates have on bond values, you are concerned. What are changes that you can make to the bond portfolio to minimize the effects of the interest rate risks?

Answer:

I would like to make few changes in the bonds portfolio. I would like to short-term bonds in portfolio. Short-term bonds do not show much effect due to change in interest rate risks. On the other hand, long-term bonds show significant effect due change in interest rates. Common phenomenon rise in interest rates highly affects bonds with more duration. I would like to diversify portfolio by adding few treasury securities.

Question 6:

 Early last year you purchased 500 shares of Mrs. Davis Cookie Company, Inc. (Stock symbol CC). You paid $62 per share. The current stock price is $85 per share. You do not want to sell your stock but you want to protect all of your unrealized gain ($23). You believe that the stock may continue to rise by another 4% – 5% and you want your portfolio to benefit from any such price gains. The following options (puts and call) with July expirations are available.

calls  
Strike Premium Strike premium
82.5 5.75 82.5 1.05
85 4 85 1.40
87.5 2.45 87.5 2.85
90 1.40 90 5.30
92.5 .70 92.5 8.15
95 0.32 95 12.65

Devise a strategy using options from the above table that is appropriate, given your parameters. Provide a drawing/graph that depicts that strategy.

Answer:

The strategy that should be used should have the gain on the call and put premium by exercising the call options that are below 85, the market price, and the put options that are above the market price.

7. From the table above, calculate the intrinsic value and the time value of the

following options:

Answer:

  1. 82.5 Call
  2. Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-82.5 = 2.5

  • Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 2.5

= 3.25

  • 85 Call

Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-85 = 0

Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 87.5 Call

Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-87.5 = 0 (is zero for less than zero)

Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 82.5 Put

Intrinsic value: Strike value-Market price

=82.5-85 = 0 (is zero for less than zero)

Time value of put option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 92.5 Put

Intrinsic value: Strike value-Market price

=92.5-85 = 7.5

Time value of put option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 7.5

= -1.75

Question 8:

 Consider the following annual bond:

Coupon rate: 6.5% YTM: 7.5% Time: 30 years

a. Calculate the duration of this bond.

b. A bond is initially immunized at the point of duration. Show that immunization

Occurs (interest rate risk and reinvestment rate risk offset) at the point of

Duration. Use these interest rates: 7%, 7.5%, 8%.

Answer:

  •  

Par value=1000

Coupon payment= 1000*6.5%=65

Bond price= C/(1+i)1+C/(1+i)2+……. M/(1+i)n

Bond Price= C*[1-[1/1+i) n]]/1 +M/ (1+I)N

Bond price= 942.0429444

Bond price *maturity=28261.28833

Duration=942.0429444/28261.28833

=0.033333333

(b)

Bond price= 946.9884804 If YTM=7% by using formula C*[1-[1/1+i) n]]/1 +M/ (1+I)N.

Bond price at YTM 7.5% = 942.0429444

Bond price= 938.791964 at YTM, 8%.

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Business And IT Alignment In Higher Education Sector

Abstract

In this paper, we have discussed about the business and the IT alignment in the higher education (BITA). The aim of the paper is to look at the significance of the BITA in the Higher education sector. As we have seen that higher education, sector is not implementing much BITA in them but still critical review has been added and the future implementations have noted. Business IT alignment is the state in which the business organizations and the IT use each other to achieve the objectives of the business. BITA is a successful tool which is been introduced all over the world and it is a successful ne because in it the Business strategies, implementations and the IT are interlinked so that there would be better results found. The financial performance is been improved, the marketplace competitiveness his achieved through this. First the BITA have been explained in the detail and the historic spin have been given as the authors have been discussed who have given this concept. Further, the model and the functions have been discussed in the details. If we look at the distinctive competitiveness then it includes the main area of the business on which it is able to survive in the market. Every business has some distinctive competencies on which they are in the market. The 4 quadrants and the 12 components have been explained in the paper, which were given by the key authors of BITA in their strategic model. The four quadrants of the models have been explained as the business strategy, the IT strategy, Business infrastructure and the IT infrastructure. All the relationships in-between the data have been given. The relationships have been explained in the model. The results somehow show that there is too much importance of the BITA ion the higher education. Some of the institutes in the higher education have been used the alignment in the IT and they are successful. Some of the sectors which are not been using BITA are not doing good in the sector that is what it is been seen. The use of BITA in the higher education sector would be increased so that it will be beneficial for the higher education sector and the country.  At the end    Further the relationship of BITA with the higher education have been mentioned in the detail and the analysis have been done in this regard we have seen the gap in the discussion part.  

Table of contents

Introduction. 3

Business strategy. 4

Business infrastructure. 5

Information Technology strategy. 5

Information Technology Infrastructure. 5

Functional integration. 6

Strategy Execution. 7

Technology Potential 7

Competitive Potential 7

Service Level 7

Organization IT Infrastructure. 7

IT Infrastructure Strategy. 7

IT Organization Infrastructure. 8

Organization Infrastructure Strategy. 8

BITA in education organizations. 8

BITA in Higher education. 9

Conclusion. 14

References. 16

Business and IT alignment in higher education sector

Introduction

Business IT alignment is the state in which the business organizations and the IT use each other to achieve the objectives of the business. The financial performance is been improved, the marketplace competitiveness his achieved through this. Some of the concepts says that the alignment in between the business organizations and the IT so that the financial performance and the objectives of the business could be achieved (Hinkelmann, Gerber, & Karagiannis, 2016). There were many problems and differences in between both of the categories like the business organizations and the IT. The main reason they do not align together before was due to many differences in the culture, objectives, incentives, performance and so on. BITA is a successful tool which is been introduced all over the world and it is a successful ne because in it the Business strategies, implementations and the IT are interlinked so that there would be better results found.

If we look at the historic review then we come to know that it and the businesses have changed their perspective a lot. The concept was developed over a decade by McLean and Soden, 1977; IBM, 1981; Earl, 1983; Mills, 1986; Brancheau and Wetherbe, 1987; Parker and Benson, 1988; Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990 and 1996; Dixon and John, 1991; Niederman, et. al., 1991; Watson and Brancheau, 1991; Liebs, 1992; Luftman, Lewis & Oldach, 1993; Chan and Huff, 1993 With the passage of time the orientation in between the IT and the business organizations have been taken place and more strategic alignments have been seen in the past couple of years. It have been seen that there are four domains of the strategic choice, which are IT strategy, Business strategy, organizational process and infrastructure and IT, process and infrastructure. There are some of the internal and external components also which the model actually describes in the study. In this Era, the alignment of IT and the business are very important.

Business IT arrangement addresses the amount IT and business frameworks are in concordance with each other. Arrangement results in an association between the CIO and CEO in creating and accomplishing their methodologies and objectives. Accomplishing arrangement prompts enhanced authoritative execution. Among the few studies that concentrated on building up an instrument for measuring business–IT arrangement, we found that the investigation of the most thorough. Their instrument depended on the key arrangement development (SAM) model created by Luftman (2004) which comprised of six development components: correspondence, competency, administration, organization, innovation extension, and abilities.

If we talk about the good organizations then we come to know that the agile organizations are successful in today’s world and the best thing what they do is the IT interference in their business processes. By doing this the top management become more efficient and quickly decides what to do and what not to do. By looking at this, we come to know that it is an ongoing thing and it needs to be implemented in the organizations so that the strategic fit can be achieved. The IT and the business organizations must be in contact, they should be aligned, and the competitive advantage can be seen in this regard. We have seen in different sectors this strategy is been implemented and they are successful in their businesses (Gu, 2012).

It is a great challenge in the today’s world that everything is been changing so rapidly that it is very difficult to align with the IT. There is a Strategic alignment model, which have been given in the different studies. It actually has the four quadrants and further it have three components in each quadrant. If we see the alignment t in between all these twelve components then we can see that how they all are aligned and how the IT and the business could be aligned. The basic model is been divided in to two segments namely as one part for the business and the second part for the IT. However, the models have been adopted from (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990).

Business strategy

The two components in the figure we can see are the Business and the IT. By looking at the business part, we can see the business strategy and the business infrastructure. On the other side, we can see that there is IT and there are two quadrants, which are IT strategy and the IT infrastructure indeed. In this component of business strategy, we can see that there are three components, which lie in between it, which are business governance, business scope and the distinctive strategies. In the business scope, everything comes in it that actually affects the business, such as products, services, markets, customers, suppliers, competitors, regulators etc (Jim, 2015).

If we look at the distinctive competitiveness then it includes the main area of the business on which it is able to survive in the market. Every business has some distinctive competencies on which they are in the market. This can be the human source, any business strategy, any special business or so (Michael, 1997). The main aim in here is to compete other and if that is done then it will be achieved. If we look at the third component of the business strategy then it is the business governance. By looking at in depth, we come to know that the relationships between the company management and the shareholders come under this head. The regulations among the strategic business partners and the government also includes in this component (Papp, 2004). 

Business infrastructure

In the second quadrant which is business infrastructure thee components lies. The components are the administrative structure, human resource skills and the business process. In the administrative structure, it tells that how business is being run. The formulation has been told over here. The vertical, horizontal, matrix, centralized or de centralized is been implemented in the business.  In the business prices, all the activities are involves that how business is being run, what are the requirements and what needs to be done, in order to gain the competitive advantage for the business. In the human resource component it deals with the all type of activities that are been connected with the human resource directly or indirectly such as the hiring, firing of the employee, payrolls, train, motivate etc (Papp, 2004).

Information Technology strategy

By looking in the model, the third quadrant is the IT strategy and it consists of three components namely systematic competencies, technology scope and IT governance components. In the IT scope simply the technologies and the applications lies in between that. In the systematic competencies the major edge of the IT have been discusses that how it is been different. If we look in to this component, which is IT governance, and it includes the risks and the responsibilities, how to deal with the business collaborates, taking care of the IT management so that everything would stay in order (Papp, 2004).

Information Technology Infrastructure

In the model, the last quadrant, which we can see, is the IT infrastructure.  It includes the three components, which are process, skills and architecture. In the architecture part all the policies, applications, data management integration and priorities come. In the process component, all the processes have been described in here. The personal development to the applications that needs to be managed and to take care of all the IT relates things. The last component is the skills part and in here all the activities which are been done as we talk about the IT have been discussed and it comes under the skills part (Papp, 2004).

Business–IT arrangement is a versatile procedure instead of an occasion. Accomplishing arrangement requires a continuous exertion of key arranging, objective realignment, and execution of best practice in supporting and molding business procedures. While the greater part of the writing has concentrated on the fit between firms is IT and business methodology, the arrangement issues should be tended to at vital, strategic, and operational levels. Key arrangement meets an associations’ future IT needs; strategic arrangement permits the association to distribute its IT assets viably; operational arrangement guarantees adequacy and productivity of IT in supporting the association’s operations every day (Wu, 2008).

The significance of arrangement has been generally perceived and very much recorded; nevertheless, numerous organizations today are still misaligned, and this has prompted terrible disappointments, including crossed out or excess tasks, frameworks that don’t address the issues of the business, disappointed business clients, and high IS expenses. As (Holland and Skarke, 2001) recommended, change in arrangement in numerous organizations today can be ascribed to C-level officials’ better comprehension of the estimation of IT and their dynamic support in IT basic leadership (economist.com, 2014). The top explanations behind misalignment included absence of a nearby working relationship amongst IT and business, absence of powerful prioritization of IT needs, powerlessness of IT to meet its duties, IT’s absence of comprehension of business, absence of senior official backing of IT, and absence of administration in IT administration. The five variables that influenced the social measurement of IT arrangement recognized by Reich and Benbasat (2010) included shared area learning amongst business and IT administrators, IT usage achievement, correspondence amongst IT and business officials, associations amongst business and IT arranging forms, and vital strategies for success. (Hussin et al, 2014) exploration of 256 UK producing firms found that the main considerations that affected arrangement were IT development, specialized IT advancement, and the CEO’s product learning (Yang, 2003).

Functional integration

In this part, the linkage between the model and the linkage will be explained so that we come to know in the detail that what kind of alignment is there. The linkage between all the components and the quadrants are necessary because nothing can work alone and it needs to be integrated. Strategic fit is the first linkage and explained the need of the business that what the position in the market place is. There are eight different perspectives in the model, which will be separated, and they will be combined with the different models so that the relationship and the alignment can be seen (Kotler & Murphy, 1981).

In it, every prospect carries three different components, which can be seen as they are showing the alignment between the components. The components, which can be seen, are Pivot, Anchor and area of impact. In the prospects where anchor is been placed it is shown the strongest area of the business indeed.  The Pivot actually states the weak area of the business and the point which needs to be changed with the re alignment. The area of impact is the point which is directly impacted through the changes it also says the pivot area which have been done through the re alignment (Ahmad, 2007).

Strategy Execution

 The first point of view is the system execution viewpoint. In this viewpoint, the grapple territory is business methodology. The feeble zone is the business foundation, which is the thing that should be changed. The subsequent range of effect is the data innovation framework. This implies the data innovation design is going to experience changes that must happen in view of changes in the business forms. This point of view spotlights on data innovation arranging or change of the business (Kretovics, 2010). The objectives of this point of view incorporate diminishing deferrals and mistakes, improving administrations and sparing time (e.g. printed material steering or assignment redefinition) (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990).

Technology Potential

The next point of view is the innovation potential viewpoint. This point of view is additionally determined by business procedure yet the turn is data innovation methodology. This outcomes, in the data innovation foundation as the range of effect. This demonstrates the estimation of data innovation and that its quality is its fundamental commitment to the business’ last item or administration. The relationship that exists between the business and its clients is key and the data innovation procedure drives the point of view (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990 and 1996).

Competitive Potential

The third point of view is the focused potential viewpoint. The stay in this point of view is data innovation procedure, the turn range is business methodology, and association foundation is the affected space (Stokes, 2015). This point of view spotlights on how developing new data advancements can affect and empower new business systems. These new business techniques convey an upper hand to the business in the commercial center (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990 and 1996).

Service Level

The service level point of view is the fourth individual viewpoint. In this point of view, the grapple is data innovation system, the turn data, innovation foundation, and the region of effect is hierarchical framework. The center of this point of view is the manner by which data innovation can enhance the how the items and administrations are conveyed. This point of view likewise evaluates how data innovation can enhance the organizations own procedures. Dragging out this point of view can bring about data innovation outsourcing (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990 and 1996).

Organization IT Infrastructure

The following point of view is the association, data innovation, base viewpoint. The stay is association foundation, the turn is data innovation base, and the affected space is data innovation technique. This point of view results in procedure changes from data innovation and the utilization of quality to the business forms (Papp, 2004).

IT Infrastructure Strategy

Information technology, infrastructure strategy is the following viewpoint. The center of this viewpoint is the change of data innovation system taking into account the execution of rising and existing data innovation frameworks. The stay of this point of view is data innovation base, which drives the turn, data innovation technique, and along these lines affecting business methodology (Papp, 2004).

IT Organization Infrastructure

The seventh point of view is the data innovation, association base viewpoint. The stay of this point of view is likewise IT foundation, with the turn being authoritative framework and the effect territory being business system. Albeit like IT framework system, IT in this point of view is the main impetus and engineer by which the dreams and procedures are completed (Papp, 2004).

Organization Infrastructure Strategy

The last individual point of view is the association framework, procedure viewpoint. Business framework is the stay, business technique the turn, and IT system the influenced region. This last point of view adventures the capacities to improve new items and administrations, affect procedure, and grow new connections. It additionally empowers improvement to business technique (the pivot) consequently changing the IT methodology (Papp, 2004).

BITA in education organizations

 There is much importance of IT in the educational sector as it is one of the most important sectors, which is to be chosen. IT is been used in the teaching techniques which are very useful and effective indeed (Gilbert, 1994). It is expected that with the IT alignments students will perform better as they will have the maximum tools that they can use. In this way, they will interact more with the teachers rather than to stay focused on the lecture (Albrecht, 2004). The exploration for the students will be unlimited as they are not bound and with the help of IT, they will be discovering new things. However it is seen that the use of IT have not been implemented at its full in the class rooms and the educational sectors which is not a positive thing and need to be have a proper control so that students could have the advantage of the IT in the educational departments (Alexander, 2000).

By applying the hypothesis of learning incorporation, (Kearns and Sabherwal, 2009) gave, an exhaustive system that inspected the relationship among coordination conduct, arrangement, IT arranging and undertakings, and business influence of IT. Their study affirmed that business–IT arrangement was impacted by IT chiefs’ cooperation in business arranging and business supervisors’ interests in key IT arranging. Besides, arrangement was observed to be emphatically connected with the achievement of IT arranging and undertakings, which prompted a positive business effect of IT. Luftman proposed a structure called vital arrangement development (SAM) to survey the degree to which business and IT capacities adjust. Concentrating on analyzing authoritative practices connected with arrangement, SAM gives associations an apparatus to assess the development of their key decisions and arrangement exercises and distinguish zones in which they can accomplish a more elevated amount of arrangement. Ensuing exploration incorporated a benchmark study by Luftman that utilized SAM at 50 Global 2000 organizations to make a benchmark for business–IT arrangement and recognize particular suggestions for enhancing arrangement (Altbach, 2011).

It is also seen that the use of IT is maximum at the level of higher education system but still there are couple of lacking in the systems, which needs to be reviewed. There are great capabilities that can be used in the positive manner and that will be helpful in the betterment of the higher education sector. The study by the ECAR says that the IT aligns are well aligned in the higher education sector and that is very good. There are some of the institutes, that are not very well aligned with the IT but majority of them, which have been seen, are aligned. The ECAR study has some of the results that they have brought. It has been seen that there is much differences in between the higher educational level institutes. Some of the main findings which states that the institutions are very much aligned with IT are been given as

  • The clear vision and the priorities
  • The institutional IT plan have been published
  • There is effective IT governance process
  • Planning is the important part for the institutions
  • The dynamic environmental climates
  •  IT strategic planning is been effective in the institutions
  •  There are clear and documented objectives with respect to IT aligns
  • There is great communication between the teachers, shareholders and the management with respect to IT aligns

BITA in Higher education

Review from the past

For the case of the higher education, the recommended framework is the enterprise architecture in which the competitive advantage is achieved through the advantage means of the IT skills and the Business critical success factors (Barrow, 2011). The alignment is possible for the successfully for the technological aspects and the business expertise in the higher education system (Bowen, 2015). In the non-commercial environment or in the higher education academic world the relationship of the business and the IT has not achieved the remarkable results as it supposed to be. In order to maintain the successful integration of the BITA in the higher education the core compositions of the task forces units, interdepartmental decision-making committees and the personnel liaison with the activities or operations of the interdepartmental decision-making.

The research has shown or highlighted the different issues of the integration of the BITA with the systematic alignment of the higher education. The higher education in some parts of the world as both the sections of the small institutions of music or fine arts and the high-level research and the teaching universities as well (Michael, 1997). . the essence of the competitive advantage for the educational institutions or the organization s while implementing the strategy of the BITA in the higher education is to choose the dynamic model of the business success factors as well as the critical technological technical training for the development of the IT skills and the organizational success (Niu, 2010). The environmental uncertainty in the higher education model is causing the problems in the BITA largely since the results in the text have related to the negative correlation dynamics (Kretovics, 2010).

According to the Henderson & VENKATRAMAN, who were the pioneers of the alignment of the business and IT, it is preferable that the transformation process in the business is necessary to achieve the organizational success. The alignment of the business and the technology in the higher education is possible only by imposing the condition of the architecture of the enterprise in the positions that is fit into the model of the organization. the identification and the reduction of the risks in the alignment of the technology and the business tools in the higher education is critically analyzed under the head of the risk model of the enterprise framework.

The technical uncertainties are identified and then reduced as the part of the evaluating techniques of the structure of the organization as per the context of the system. the second risk in this context is the organizational risk in which the skills, abilities and the knowledge in the higher education is evaluated according to the requirements of the alignment of the both technological revolutionaries and the business skills of the personnel. The last uncertainty is the business risk in which the evaluation of the feature or attributes of the business are made according to the highly implementation or the adopting feature of the business. Then the alignment is possible for the successfully for the technological aspects and the business expertise in the higher education system (Bowen, 2015).

The leveraged means of strategic investigation for the alignment of the business-IT especially in the education sector or the higher education is achieved via the framework of the businesses in strategically terms. In this way, the higher education would make the better system for itself. This framework would be accepted in the intra industry context to achieve the organizational success of the higher education. That is why the core message behind the theory of the Henderson & VENKATRAMAN is the relevant strategic framework (Gu, 2012). The success of the IT is related to the condition that the senior most authority in the higher education perceives that the success factors for the skills of the IT would be responsible for the successful change in the educational organizations.

The accomplishments can be achieved only when these three critical factors in the educational organization go hand with hand among each other. The corresponding structure of the information system would ultimately develop and monitored that coordinates these sets of activities with the alignment with these three critical factors. The first issue is the organizational type and its status approach to the IT critical success factors in the higher education. However, this issue is not as much significant as the issue of the environmental uncertainty while aligning the BITA in the higher education organizational structure. However, the size of the organizations in higher education has not to do much with the alignment or not affecting much the alignment of the BITA and that is according to the expected results mentioned in various researches in these topics. 

The explanation given for this rational is clear that although the educational organizations vary in the size or the enrollment of the students in the organization, they still possess the same sought of organizational structure or the undifferentiated educational organizations practices like the validation or selection the courses the students want to study.  The projects could be assigned by the higher education with the IT approach to the appropriateness of the funding and the business dimensions in the higher education. The higher education in some parts of the world as both the sections of the small institutions of music or fine arts and the high-level research and the teaching universities as well (Michael, 1997). The environment in all over the world plays an effective a un replacement diversion that cannot be predicted. The contemporary settings of the business with regard to the IT challenges they have to face is enormously revolutionaries. The surprising part is that when and how in the higher education system, the model of the dynamic variations is adjusted. For an instance, it is commonly said in the literature review that the harmony among the IT sector and the decision-making choices must be present in the higher education (Lock, 2016).

when we talk about the countries like the USA it is very essential for the students studying in the university receiving the higher education, the training is the significant prospect that completes the worthy of t he degree. The main proportions of the training in the IT departments and the business critical success factors allow the trainers and the students to have the critical analysis in how the organizational success through the skills of the IT and the business is necessary. the most important concept in this perspective is that the elementary techniques that are  bow a day’s been involved by the business giants in their respective industry through the dynamic ease of the core capabilities ort resources in the human resources division are redirecting towards the technological revolutionaries framework

If the organizational culture were strong for the institutions, which are indulged in providing the healthy non-fragile IT skills for the technical knowledge seekers the growth of the institution would be in the hands. The major thing that one cannot miss while implanting the BITA in the higher education is the planning and monitoring phase of the BITA in the system. It is very important for the researchers and the authoritative personnel to check the right modules depending upon the uncertainty of the system while enforcing the technological framework chosen by the businesses in their business strategy. the main concerns of the higher education providers is that the return on investment ROI would be at the optimal point while incorporating the information system in the institutions. however if the higher education feel at some point that the return on investment or ROI is not in the prolonging range of the optimal level, the difficulties could be the ultimate result (Wu, 2008). 

Now the point that must be considered at the serious way is that the returns that any organization conceived always time consuming process and it is the universal reality, the mission of the organizations in the majority of the industries is the fruitful proofs in this scenario. The turning point of consideration through which the game starts changing in the higher education comes when the major stakeholders have the conflicting viewpoints in the information-sharing phase. The one cannot judged the symptoms of the effectiveness of the BITA in the higher education process until one should be aware of the all the detail study and the knowledge seeking procedures. Consequently, what should be the great decision-making influence over the entire debate that could be done thoroughly? However, in this very case there are no as such turning threats, which can provide the major harm to the entire educational, technological, and the corporate world by the non-stigmatic abilities. The luxurious choices in the advanced educational processes would be the very suitable choice if the major breakthrough in the world of valuable IT culture. The knowledge of both the directions of the picture is the core need of the situation when the communication and the response of the individuals would be at the highest or maximum efficiency in the mean terminologies of the BITA.

Significance of the BITA

The studies have shown that if the alignment of the IT and the business in the higher education is put together, the remarkable results could achieve. The research has not received the significance in the alignment of the IT and the business in the higher education. The increased organizational performance would be the ultimate result if the IT core capabilities with the suitable integration of the business skills were become the integral part of the systematic approach of the higher education in the various institutions sin all over the world (Jim, 2015).

However, the size of the organizations in higher education has not to do much with the alignment or not affecting much the alignment of the BITA and that is according to the expected results mentioned in various researches in these topics. The duty of the business decision-makers is equally strong as the duty of the IT professional provide with the sufficient resources of the technical training. Therefore, the clear side of both the pictures is the part of the analytical analysis while aligning the business and the information technology in the higher education. It is commonly said in the literature review that the harmony among the IT sector and the decision-making choices must be present in the higher education (Lock, 2016).  The search for the solution as the BITA in the higher education would ultimately lead to the organization towards the improvement in the investments done in the technology advancements in the institutions (Newman, 2015).

As we can see that, there is much importance of the BITA in the higher education sector as we have review the literature. This study is been conducted so that it could be shown the significance and the details of the previous works that have been done and what needs to be done now. We have seen the extensive literature in the past that how BITA is been implemented in the different sectors and how it should be implemented in the Higher education sector so that the positive results could be found out. Further, we have seen that there are positive results in the HE, which have implemented BITA fully, and there is some of the lacking in the institutions, which have not implemented it fully so there is a gap and that needs to be fulfilled. The further studies and implementations should be there so that they could have the competitive advantage. 

Let us try the different methodology through which the ultimate goals in this approach of the BITA would achieve in the higher education could be made. The one source is obvious that the resulting intervening variable is the importance of the role of the information technology towards the mutual ignoring methods. The sense of the business version in the higher education is not the claim of the top-level management but in the comprehensive way, the results would be the right sizing. The term Holy Grail is used for the organizations of the education, which are authentically integrating the business strategy along with the vision, or the mission of the organization and the   IT culture of the higher educational organization. The main difference in both these sectors is the integration according to the corporate or the business culture of the IT industry. The logical reasoning is the liable relevant technique in which few of the characteristics are the binary part of the systems that we need no to analyze. The first distinguishing reference point is the transformation process of the business model as the effective tool or resource through the alignment of the information technology or the information systems (Hotchkiss, 2016).

The tool, which is considered to be the most reflexive in the transformation of the transformation of the businesses using the valid IT structure, is the core demand of the contemporary choices of the higher education contextual models. The services provided to the major stake holders such as the customers in the marketing division of the business is evaluated on the external dimension and the internal dimension so that the capturing of the resources at the nice assertive side (Gu, 2012). The communication between the business and the important stakeholders would refine in the highest capturing pint and the chance of the occurrence of the loss would very lowest. The next important feature is the rotation or the job rotation through using the resource of the HR within the organization in which the idea of the cross-functional team of the IT and the corporate professional are changed their positions on the regular intervals. The interchange of the IT personnel at the significance position in the higher education system with the personnel of the business critical factors handling personnel’s would be the smoothening impact in a very positive way to the organizational success. 

There must be the minimum requirements of the knowledge that must be possessed by the IT experts in context to the business critical factors and similarly the knowledge minimum criteria must be possessed by the business experts of the knowhow of the IT tools or techniques at the sufficient level in the higher education systems. In this way, the communication, which would be achieved, is the highest trademark of the BITA result in the higher educations. The alignment by adopting these characteristics the alignment would be completed in a way by the interrogative style of the harmony between the two important units of the higher education, which are the IT, and the business division. In short the attributes mentioned in the above discussion are the pre-requisites of the achieving the true sense of the alignment between the IT and the business in the higher education (Kretovics, 2010). The goal of this review paper would be closed to the meetings requirement in the alignment of the IT and the business in the educational organization providing the higher education.  The next attribute of the BITA in the higher education is that the awareness to both the department of the IT and the Business professional, which is the very significant factor, mentioned in various places of the literature in context to the making money.

The startup approach of the training and the awareness is very important in all the levels of the higher education whole system analysis to have the sound version of the awareness and the training providing facilities for both the IT and the business personnel in an organization. when the employees working in the organization would able to know the methods, approaches and the view points of the making o generating the optimum revenue from the skilled approach of the IT skills and the knowledge business development or growth is at the highest returning point stake. The money for any organization is the most important indicator for the growth in the institutions or organizational dynamics and therefore thee employees of the company in the higher education organization would able to know the pros and cons of the spending the useless and the beneficial money in the form of investment in order to achieve the organizational success. In the rest of the characteristic, we have analyzed the analytical reasoning such as the vibrant policies that are the most part of the corporate culture especially in the less developed countries, which are always willing to provide the higher education to its citizen in the well-organized form.

(Sledgianowski et al, 2002) created and approved an instrument to quantify development of IT business arrangement in light of SAM. It utilizes the six classifications for surveying arrangement. Taking into account how the association scores in these classes, one of the five levels of vital arrangement development is doled out to the association. The five procedure levels, are (from most reduced to most noteworthy) Initial/Ad Hoc, Committed, Established Focused, Improved/Managed, and Optimized. Other than serving as an instrument for arrangement appraisal SAM is additionally a storehouse of best practices. Organizations ought to embrace the best practices in SAM to enhance their arrangement.

Since the SAM instrument had not beforehand been cross approved, our study took a corroborative way to deal with cross-accept the instrument utilizing another example. With a specific end goal to consider the relationship between IS key arrangement and the six-arrangement development builds, we expected to look at the exploration model. As of now, no exhaustive structure has been utilized to inspect the components affecting a company’s IS key arrangement. The reason behind our examination model is that different studies have analyzed connections between IS vital arrangement and correspondence, coordinated arranging practices, IT asset distribution, authoritative culture, and shared space learning. These builds are predictable with the arrangement development develops; consequently, we trust that by inspecting the relationship between the six arrangement development develops we will build up a far-reaching model of the forerunners of IS vital arrangement.

The essence of the position that these educational institutions in the less developed countries choose should be according the vibrant culture dynamics like in all over the world. the practices in many of the educational organizations in the world for the higher education is that the vibrant organizational culture enforces the IT skills and the skills for the business operations are the equal interchangeable at the times when the organizations required the results from the system. Therefore, the great advantage of the vibrant corporate culture in the education sector is that the unity of the information towards the internal matters of the organization and the external approach or the inter-industry is the same (Yang, 2003). The lasting effects are the gigantic for the higher education when they made the mind choosing the option of the IT alignment with the business sector of the higher education. The establishment of the decision-making skills among the employees and the controlling of those decisions in the most effective way is the relevant or the useful part of the discussion in the alignment of both the IT and the business in the higher education. One cannot denial of the fact that the latest tools in the decision-making approach are comprised of the redesigning of the work for the higher rate of the accomplishments under the given circumstances. The governance of their business partnerships and the IT governance must also have the integration among each other so that the solid consolidation would be found in the symmetric information transformation process (Hotchkiss, 2016).

Recent advancements and technologies

As we have seen that it is not an old concept in this sector and that is the reason the implementation of BITA is not been much implicated in the sectors. If we look on the Higher Education then there is a problem that there is very less institutions, which are fully observing the BITA in the institutes. However, some of the advancements can be seen in this sector such as IT usage fully as everything is online and the business decisions and the analytical part are connected to the IT. Some of the technological advancements are also there so that there would be no problems related IT (Hotchkiss, 2016). The best technologies are been introduces but still what we see is the technologies are still far to go. We have seen that the technologies, structure and the processes are the three main components of the businesses. If they are integrated then it will be easy to do the operations of the business because everything would be linked and will be easy to go on with the advancements.

Future directions

As we can see that, there is much importance of the BITA in the higher education sector as we have review the literature. This study is been conducted so that it could be shown the significance and the details of the previous works that have been done and what needs to be done now. We have seen the extensive literature in the past that how BITA is been implemented in the different sectors and how it should be implemented in the Higher education sector so that the positive results could be found out. Further, we have seen that there are positive results in the HE, which have implemented BITA fully, and there is some of the lacking in the institutions, which have not implemented it fully so there is a gap and that needs to be fulfilled. The further studies and implementations should be there so that they could have the competitive advantage. 

Conclusion

If we conclude the discussion then we can see that the different aspects of the business and IT alliances have been discussed. The history has been discussed and the pioneers of the study have been mentioned in the paper. Further, we can see that the strategic fit model have been explained fully so that there would be no confusions left and it have been explained in detail as well. If we look in to the introduction, the business and IT alignment have been discussed many times. Te educational sectors have been discussed that what the impact of BITA on the educational institutes is. As we have seen from the different studies, we come to know that there are many institutes, which have alignment with the educational institutes. However still a big gap is there which do not have IT aligns with the educational institutes and which is hurting them as they can be in the better position if they would include in the sector and the institute.

The technology along with the business expertise in the educational sector is the vital source of attaining the competitive advantage within the industry of the academia for the specific organization. The creative model in this perspective is the great exemplary characteristic for the integration of the intra organizational sources. The synergistic model in which, the new version of the leveraged competitive advantage is achieved for the education institutions in the regard of the higher study, Meeting the targets of the goals or objectives of the organization through the alignment process, of the IT resources and the business techniques. The model of the cross sectional approach, of the collaborative teams in the view of highlighting the relevant resources, is in the core positions for the distinctive activities, of the organization. The concept of creating the value in the business model of the higher education institutions is all depending on the alignment of the technology with the useful corporate knowledge of the resources of the organization, which are the workers or the employees. The strategic alignment of the IT and the business in the higher education is the result of these factors.

We have further seen that the impact and the relation of the BITA on the higher education. We have seen that there is a great impact as the different studies have been reviewed and much of the data have been extracted in this. We can clearly see that most of the higher institutes have been using the Alignment between the businesses and the IT and they are much successful in this as they have the latest technology and they are doing good and up to the mark. Further, we have also experienced that some of the institutes are not up to the mark in this sense as they are not using any BITA in their higher education institutes and due to that, they are not performing to well as compared to the other persons in the higher education which are aligned with the IT. 

The higher education has the huge need in the contemporary context of building the portfolio management in which the business and especially the IT skills are the core positions of the significance in making the suitable and the right investments. The organizations of the higher education should possess the proper analytical and reasoning planning about the placement of the portfolio regardless of the size of the organizations that as it is already stated in the above discussion about the process and the structure of the higher education is more or less is same. The change of management should be adjusted according to the strengths and the weaknesses that are the viable tool in order to address the changes in the environment. The span of control in the higher education settings must be according to the projected sources required in the alignment process of the IT with the business. No other choice would be acceptable at any level from the experts in the relevant field, because of the dynamic view of the external resources.

If we see that, we have discussed the implementations of the BITA in the higher education sector and different sectors have been discussed too. We have also seen that the institutions, which have implemented the BITA, are more successful than those who have not. As the integration and the IT is been involved all the systems work more efficiently and the competitive edge is been gained in this case. However, there is very few works done in the higher education sector regarding BITA. It needs to be improving so that there would be more integration and this sector would become more and more successful in the coming time.   

There are different aspects, which needs to be considered while doing alignment. There are many key elements, which needs to come in between the data. The governance needs to be checked at the both ends so that there would be no problems at all. All the systems and the stakes of the owners need to be protected. In the scope and the architecture the nature of the business is taken care of and the structure that is been prevailed in the system needs to be checked and the important thing is to look after at both ends. There should be good means of communication in between the both business and the IT should be implemented correctly so that there would be no problems in the system and it could be communicated effectively.

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Luftman, J., Lewis, P., & Oldach, S. (1993). “Transforming the Enterprise: The Alignment of Business and Information Technology Strategies,” IBM Systems Journal, 32(1), 198-221.

Chan, Y., & Huff, S. (1993). “Strategic Information Systems Alignment,” Business Quarterly, 58(1), 51-56.

Papp, R. (2004). “Assessing Strategic Alignment in Real Time” Journal of Informatics Education Research, (6, 1).

Stokes, P. J. (2015). Higher Education and Employability: New Models for Integrating Study and Work. Harvard Education Press.

Støren, L. A. (2014). Entrepreneurship in higher education: Impacts on graduates’ entrepreneurial intentions, activity and learning outcome. Education + Training, 55(8/9), 795 – 813.

Støren, L. A. (2014). Entrepreneurship in higher education: Impacts on graduates’ entrepreneurial intentions, activity and learning outcome. Education + Training, 55(8/9), 795 – 813.

Su, H. J. (2010). Sustainability of higher education institutions in Taiwan. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 11(2), 163 – 172.

Tian, X. (2014). Business models for higher education: an Australian perspective. Journal of Management Development, 33(10), 932 – 948.

Tian, X. (2014). Business models for higher education: an Australian perspective. Journal of Management Development, 33(10), 932 – 948.

Whiteley, T. (1995). Enterprise in Higher Education – an overview from the Department for Education and Employment. Education + Training, 4 – 8.

Wu, S. (2008). The impact of higher education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in China. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15(4), 752 – 774.

Yang, R. (2003). Globalisation and Higher Education Development: A Critical Analysis. International Review of Education, 269-291.

Zeinabadi, H. (789-803). Developmental patterns of privatization in higher education: a comparative study. Higher Education, 64(6), 789-803.

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Use of flood resistant materials: Mud, Lime and bamboo

Use of flood resistant materials: Mud, Lime and bamboo

Importance and properties of mud, lime and bamboo

            Mud, lime and bamboo are commonly used building materials. The have special properties that make them durable, long lasting and shock resident in terms of earth quake, floods and related catastrophic circumstances. These materials have unique special properties; therefore, architectures are home makers prefer to use these materials in the buildings (H. Panda 2011).These materials are also being used in Pakistan. Particularity, the materials are used in flood affected areas which indicates their durability, long lasting nature and strength. For that purpose, it is important to understand their properties.

            Lime is an inorganic material that contains elements such as carbonates; oxides as well as hydroxides predominate. These substances provide strengths to lime. Moreover, lime is calcium and it also the name of the natural mineral that is denoted as native lime.is explosion also produce greater amount of lime from inside ( Ghosh 2012).The volcanic abruption contains lime that spreads afterwards.  The word limehas long history of being used in buildings. It originates with its earliest use in building ass mortar. It has a property of sticking and adhering. Therefore, this material is still used in large quantities to construct the building.

            The heavy engineering works pertaining to the construction use lime materials that also include limestone products along with concrete and mortar. It is also used with chemical feed stocks as well as sugar refining. The history of the lime is very old. The lime in the industries and its use dates from prehistoric periods. The reason behind the use of lime in flood-affected areas is its properties to treat the water (Scheer 2005).  Therefore, the lime is used extensively for the treatment of the wastewater through the ferrous sulfate.

            The lime is derived form the rocks and minerals from which the lime develop its properties. Majorly, the limestone is composed of calcium carbonate. This is an important component of the limestone.  The lime can be cut, crushed as well as pulverized and can be chemically altered. It is important to note that the burning of calcination converts the calcium carbonate into the highly caustic material. This caustic material is known as quicklime, which is also known as calcium oxide. The light lime can also be developed with the solvent of the water.

            Therefore, lime can be used in both hard and relatively less hard form. The subsequent addition of water is added into the less caustic that develop slaked lime which is also known as hydrated lime. This process is also called slaking of lime. Therefore, the lime is used in those areas that are affected with water and the drainage of water is required (Kingston 2016).

            Mud is also used in the building and it is materials that are a mixture of water and the combination of substances such as soil, clay and salt. It is usually forms after the rainfall. Moreover, it is also formed near the water sources. It is not directly used in building as plaster on the walls and the bricks. However, it is used in internal and external development of the building such as roof.  It is to be noted that the ancient mud deposits have property to be harden over the geological time. Therefore, it forms sedimentary rock. For instance, these rocks are the shale or mudstone (Waite 2011).

            The bamboos are the plants and a subfamily of flowering. This flowering is perennial evergreen plants that are available in the grass family. The bamboos are considered as the largest members of the grass family in the world. This is the fast growing plants and the intermodal regions of the stem of the bamboos are usually hollow in shape. Moreover, the vascular bundles of the bamboos are in the cross section. The cross section of the bamboos is scattered and diverse throughout the stem. Therefore, these properties of the plants are essential for the constructing purpose. In addition, the dicotyledonous woody xylem is property that is also absent in the plants and that is important for construction as well. In addition to this are the absence of secondary growth which causes the wood and the stems of monocots. This also includes the palms and large bamboos in the plant family.

            This property of the plant made them columnar rather than tapering surface. Therefore, the structure of the tall buildings suites the plants for the use and it is the property of the bamboos that they grow fast and it includes some of the fastest growing plants on the planet. It is due to the unique rhizome dependent system that’s suitable for the planets (Weissman 2015). It is also to be noted that the certain species of the bamboo tree can be up to grow 91 cent meter. This is about within a twenty four hour period. This is up to a rate of almost four cent meter. This growth is very fast and the building structure can be essentially maintained through such a fast growth and the availability of the material.

            The bamboos trees are of the notable economic and cultural impacts and therefore it is very significance in South Asia and the Pakistan as well.  It is therefore used in the building materials and a food source. Moreover, it is a versatile raw product for the buildings. The bamboo has a higher level of compressive strength as compare to wood, concrete and steel. The detailed properties of both bamboo and mud are given as follows. The building material made up of mud and bamboo has following properties.

Stability Very good
Resistance to insects Low
Economic aspects Cost efficiency
Resistance to flood Very good
Resistance to hurricane Low to medium
Special properties Self-help construction with the use of the local materials
Level of Skills required Semi-skilled labor force
Resistance to earthquake Very good
Resistance to rain Low to medium
Suitability in climatic All except extremely wet

Table 1: Earthquake and flood resistance mud and bamboo structures

            The building materials that are made up of bamboo and mud have good stability. They are resistance to flood and economically they are cost efficiency. Therefore, these are used in those areas. Where there are floods and earthquake. Their ability of resist the insects are low. However, they are extremely strong in the flood (Philips 2012). Their level of resistance to hurricane is low to medium. Moreover, they are able to be self-help construction with the use of the local materials. This is also an important property of such materials. The low level of skill is required and they are easy to develop.

Use of mud, lime and bamboo in flood affected areas in Pakistan

            The mud, lime and bamboo in flood-affected areas in Pakistan are very common. Yasmmen Lari is famous architecture of Pakistan that has developed single mud houses. They are left standing in the state to accommodate large number of people that are affected. The Pakistan witness floods every year and the large number of people in Sindh, Punjab and other areas of Pakistan get affected (Aljazeera.com 2016).Therefore the building of mud houses that are resistance to harsh weather is suitable for the people. The building of such houses gives those in rural areas a good shelter.

             A small amount of money is needed to replace their damaged houses due to earthquake and the floods.  The YasminLariw was rebuilding their mud house that was adversely affected due to floods. These mud houses were developed and made of natural materials (Gla.ac.u 2010). These natural materials such as mud and bamboo and leave are the vital part of such construction. Mud is also used in the building and it is materials that are a mixture of water and the combination of substances such as soil, clay and salt. It is usually forms after the rainfall. Moreover, it is also formed near the water sources (Chinadialogue.net 2014).

            The bamboo is also used by the Yasminlari. This is the fast growing plants and the intermodal regions of the stem of the bamboos are usually hollow in shape. The Yasminlari has developed 40000 low cost mud houses for the people. This is huge number of houses that served large number of people ( Gillin 2012). Even in flood and earth quake, these houses are stable and able to provide the protection and the shelters to its residence. The above mentioned properties are essential to maintain construction durability and the long lasting impact.

            The construction of the 40,000 low-cost houses and the shelters are made up of just mud, lime as well as bamboo and these areas have provided good shelter and the protection for the victim people. These materials are easily available, one does not need the wood, cement, and steel to build the strong homes, as they are available in the cities (Tribune.com.pk 2016) .She was the first woman to qualify as an excellent architecture in Pakistan. She has utilized her architecture skills affectively to maintain its exposure in the rural and flood affected areas.

                It is to be noted that her team of architects and the related people are very talented and engineers have started the experimentation for the development of the new houses. The new materials are used in the in disaster relief (Peacepak.pk 2015). The food factor is important. The occurrence great flood of 2010 was an important and alarming event. Approximately 2,000 people dead. Moreover, hundreds of thousands of where people homeless on and there was a dire need of the construction of the buildings and the use of such equipment that is suitable in the flood conditions.  That was a bitter situation. The shelters in the Sindh Province has witnessed flood after flood. Nothing is done in order to make sure that the people are safe.

                The prominent work of her is in Darya Khan Sheikh. There is a village in that area which is located on the banks of the Indus River. This area is also very rich in heritage and the foundation of her helped to rebuild that was occurred due to the devastation of the year 2010 (Frameweb.com 2014).The village was badly damages and the flooded with up to four feet of water which is considerable depth in the wake of such floods. The houses in the region were intact, their grain and water was safe ink, and that was a good sign. She built lot of houses in the region, her efforts were worth considering, and the same efforts are needed to  do on other areas of Pakistan. One would like to conclude with the famous phrase that where is there is will there is a way. The phrase actually well applicable while using flood resistant material. The flood resistant material is suitable way using by many countries against flood notably by Pakistan. 

Reference:

Ghosh, G K. Bamboo: The Wonderful Grass. APH Publishing Corporation, 2012.

Gillin, Jaime. Q&A with Pakistan’s First Female Architect. 2012. http://www.dwell.com/interviews/article/qa-pakistans-first-female-architect (accessed May 9, 2016).

Aljazeera.com. Pakistan: A Traditional Future. Appril 2016. http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/rebelarchitecture/2014/06/pakistan-traditional-future-201462911924137552.html (accessed May 9, 2016).

Chinadialogue.net. Pakistani architect pioneers fresh approach to disaster relief . 2014. https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/7242-Pakistani-architect-pioneers-fresh-approach-to-disaster-relief- (accessed May 9, 2016).

Frameweb.com. Rebel Architecture: A Traditional Future. 2014. http://www.frameweb.com/news/rebel-architecture-a-traditional-future (accessed 2016).

Gla.ac.u. Glasgow projects secure £112,000 for victims of flooding in Pakistan. 2010. http://www.gla.ac.uk/news/archiveofnews/2010/september/headline_173205_en.html (accessed 2016).

H. Panda. Yasmeen Lari has built over 40,000 low-cost shelters using just mud, lime and bamboo. “You don’t need wood, cement and steel to build strong homes,” she says. Asia Pacific Business Press Inc, 2011.

Kingston, William. Tales of the Sea. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2016.

Peacepak.pk. Get Introduced to the First lady of Pakistani Architecture-Yasmin Lari. 2015. http://www.peacepak.pk/get-introduced-to-the-first-lady-of-pakistani-architecture-yasmin-lari/ (accessed May 2016).

Philips , Andy . So You Want to be a Mud Engineer: An Introduction to Drilling Fluids Technology. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.

Scheer , Jo . How to Build With Bamboo: 19 Projects You Can Do at Home. Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2005.

Tribune.com.pk. Pakistani architect calls for radical rethink on rebuilding after disasters. 2016. http://tribune.com.pk/story/1034930/pakistani-architect-calls-for-radical-rethink-on-rebuilding-after-disasters/ (accessed May 9, 2016).

Waite, Tom . WILD with Latitude: An Ecologist’s Years with Bush Bums, Anarchists, and Other Arctic Wildlife. Booklocker.com, Inc, 2011.

Weissman, Adam. Clay and Lime Renders, Plasters and Paints: A How-To Guide to Using Natural Finishes (Sustainable Building). UIT Cambridge Ltd, 2015.

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IFRS Requirements

IFRS Requirements

            The international Financial Reporting Standard is a global language to strengthen the accounting or financial systems of different international firms. This is all about standardization of financial statements of different organizations in order to make them understandable and precise. This is a fact that this financial reporting has taken its place in different countries with replacements of traditional accounting standards. (Ifrs.org, 2015)

            The main requirements of this standard are financial position statement, income statements, equity changes statements and cash flow statements. Regarding cash flow statements, the main requirement is to depict the change in balance sheet and income statements to justify its impact on cash, financial operations and investments. The current operating results and changes in balance sheet have been considered as main requirements of the international Financial Reporting Standard for statements of cash flow. (Ifrs.org, 2015)

            Relative to Generally Accepted Accounting Principle, it provides guidelines and rules to perform different financial activities in different organizations. The big differences are regarding rules and principles. We can say that GAAP is rule based and IFRS is a principle-based system. The international Financial Reporting Standard regarding cash flow does not provide immense details of different accounting operations than GAAP. GAAP let the financial experts to navigate the cash flow and its impacts on overall all financial system deeply. (Trott, 2015)

            In addition, this has been observed that the IFRS does not have effective considerations regarding comprehensive income than GAAP. The comparison between GAAP and IFRS can be justified with a possible risk that can occur when navigate IFRS as compared to GAAP. In end, an effective cash flow can be practiced well in GAAP as compared to IFRS. However, with great improvisation in accounting systems, it is also very handy and effective. (Trott, 2015)

References

Ifrs.org. (2015, December 10). IFRS: 2015 and beyond. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from IFRS: http://www.ifrs.org/alerts/pressrelease/pages/ifrs-2015-and-beyond.aspx

Trott, E. (2015, May 4). Exceptions for Private Companies Are Damaging the GAAP Brand. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from CFO: http://ww2.cfo.com/gaap-ifrs/2015/05/exceptions-private-companies-damaging-gaap-brand/

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Evaluating The Job Position Of Credit Risk Management

Evaluating The Job Position Of Credit Risk Management

Risk management position

            Risk management is defined as the identification, assessment and prioritizing of the risks. This process if followed by the economic and coordinated application of the minimization, monitoring and controlling the probability and the impact of unfortunate events. The risk management maximizes the realization of the opportunities. Therefore, the risk management bears the responsibility to assure that the uncertainty does not negatively impact the organizational goals.  The risk comes from various forms. The technological change, change in the business conditions, failure of the projects and the catastrophic events are some of the type of the risk that impedes the performance of the business and negatively impacts the profitability ( Coleman, 2011).

            Therefore, this is the responsibility of the risk management to mitigate or eliminate the risks. The risk management is a crucial position in the organization. The risk manager and their team is responsible for early detecting of the risk and taking important and immediate steps to avoid that risks. Otherwise, the occurring of the risk could adversely impact the business and its financial condition. The internal and the external environment of the business is always subject to vary and changes frequently occurs that impact the business. Therefore, it is important to manage the risk. Therefore, the risk management position in the organization is very important in the realm of risk mitigation and elimination in order to prevent financial losses and agitation in the organization.

Job duties and responsibilities

            There are diverse job duties and responsibilities of the position of the risk manager. The risk manager id responsible for establishing as well as monitor the key risk indicators of the organization with which he/she operates. Moreover, he/she is also responsible for implementing corrective action plans for the organization to mitigate or eliminate the risks. This is very important and crucial for the better management of the business and the organization.   This is included in the duty to analyze transactions and to prepare internal reports for the organization. The management of the financial information of the organization regarding the potential fraud risks is also necessary( Crouhy, 2014).

He/she is obliged to maintain reports of the organization about the significant risks and to develop and present the recommendation to mitigate or to eliminate such risks. Creation of the policies, procedures is important to sort out the potential risks of the organizations.

            In addition, the control assessments are also done by the risk manager in order to identify the risks. Internal control framework is necessary for the internal management of the organization to sort out internal risks. Therefore, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the organizations’ internal control framework is necessary in order to address the risks of the company. The accomplishment of the company’s goals and objectives are important to be aligned with this. Lastly, he/she is also responsible for providing training and development along with technical support to the management of the organization and the employees regarding the risk management and strategies and the programs.

Critical success factors

            There are diverse critical success factors for the position of the risk management. If the candidate possesses such factors he/she would be definitely successful in performing his/her job.The first and the important factor is an ability to perform the internal audit. The internal auditing can be performed in a number of areas in the organizations. These areas include but not limited to strategic management and marketing, human resources, finance, marketing, internal and external business environment and the business planning. To down and bottom up risk assessment is also an important factor that scrutiny every kind of the risk that is going to happen in the organizations. Therefore, such kind of complete risk assessment is necessary to be effective risk manager or the related position ( Curtis, 2016).

            The Proper channel of risk identification in the organization is needed to address the risk. For that purpose, different kinds of the strategies could be adopted. These strategies include but not limited to the questionnaire, interviews or observations. This should be the ability of the risk assessor to identify which opportunity is more appropriate in order to identify the risk. The management of the risk inventories is extremely important. The risk inventories needed to be updated in order to make sure that the organization is in the position to delay with every kind of risk that is going to be occurring possibly in the organization.

            The risk manager must keep an eye on the different type of the risks that an organization went through. Therefore, he/she must update that list of the risk. Management of the risk velocity and the scope is necessary. The only identification of the risk is not enough. The risk manager must evaluate its scope and the velocity with which it occurs. Therefore, both kinds of the things are important to be noted that the keen observation and interaction with the management is also important in order to make sure that the risk is managed appropriately ( Pritchard, 2014).

Credit risk philosophy and loan loss target

            The major risk philosophy of the position of risk management is centered on the following theme:

            “In the realm of conducting risk management position, I am exposed to a variety of risks that is going to be encountered by my organization and these risks include but nut not limited to including market, external and internal business environment, credit, financial, liquidity, operational as well as other risks. These risks are material and require comprehensive controls to mitigate or eliminate and they need constant oversight as well. These risks are monitored by my core business responsibility and the management along with our independent risk groups that are operating in our organization”

            This philosophy is important to address all kinds of the risks that are going to be encountered by the organization. Therefore, philosophy paves the way for addressing such risk and their mitigation and elimination process. The organizations face multiple risks and they are not subject to the specific kind of risk that is going to hit the organizations.  Therefore, it is important that the philosophy supports a holistic approach to addressing the possibility of occurring multiple risks in the organization to better dealt with the potential occurring of the risks.

 Relationships with operating units

            The risk management position requires constant interactions with the multiple operating units. These operating units include sales group, internal auditors, and compliance people along with national bank regulators.  It is important that the risk management is done in accordance with the day to day activities and the responsibilities that are going to be perfumed with such groups. The interaction with sales group, internal auditors and compliance people along with national bank regulator needed to execute in accordance with the regional and national laws governing the risk management. Therefore, the relationships with the operating units are an important aspect of the risk management job ( Tuttle , 2014).

Sales group

            Sales groups are engaged in the selling of the products of the organization in large number. The mitigation of the risks is equally important in sales group to estimate the exact number of sales that are required to fulfill the demand of the customers. The demand anticipation and the seasonal changes and the business cycles impact the sales teams and the groups. They must aware of the demand fluctuation and the change in the needs and the wants of the consumers. The risk management position must provide them authentic information about the possible demand of the market. The utilization of big data is an important factor in that regard.

            The big data is used to assess the customer and transactional information to anticipate the needs and the wants of the consumers and the likely fluctuation in the future that could be the major risk for the business. The risk manager or the related personnel must identify such information and provide correct information to the sales groups. It is important for the business and the sales groups to be equipped with right information and the level of the inventories that are adequate in order to deliver the right amount of sales products. Therefore, the relationships with the sales groups are an important aspect of the risk management job.

Internal auditors

            The internal auditors are those people who are responsible for making an audit of the organization. These auditors are internally appointed and responsible for making audit of the different operations of the organizations e.g. marketing human resources, management, finance, and operations. Therefore, the risk management position requires making constant interaction with the internal auditor. It is necessary to make sure that the internal auditors are equipped with right information regarding the conducts of the operations of the company. The risk manager is responsible providing information about the internal business environment of the organization and the external as well. Although an internal auditor is well aware of the internal business conditions of the organization, the risk manager is also important in order to provide the internal auditor with the possible risk that could also impact the internal auditing process of the organizations. The sudden fluctuation in the internal business conditions is an important factor in that regard. Therefore, the relationships with the internal auditors are an important aspect of the risk management job.

Compliance people

            The compliance department of the organization makes sure that the organization, the employees adhere to the rules, and regulations of the securities exchange commission and the financial industry regulatory authority. Lack of compliance may result in the lawsuits and the litigation procedures. Therefore, the risk manager works with close monitoring of the compliance standards that govern in the organization in order to make sure that the risk of lack of compliance is eliminated. The lack of compliance leads to distortion of the company’s goodwill, its image and the financial losses due to court proceedings and the litigation procedure. The risk management job also requires that the compliance people must inform about the risks that are associated with the lack of implementation of compliance standards in the organizations. Therefore, the relationships with the compliance people are an important aspect of the risk management job.

National bank regulators

            National bank regulation is important for the governing procedures of the organizations. The different kind of regulations regarding interest rates, tariffs, excise duties and other regulations are important in order to run the financial matters. Therefore, the risks associated with debt equity and other funding from financial institutions are important to scrutinize but the risk manager to avoid any discrepancies. The risk manager informs about the current and updated regulations of the National bank and            prevent any uncertainties for the organization to acquire debt equity and to deal with other matters governing the organizations.Therefore, the relationships with the national bank regulations are an important aspect of the risk management job.        

References:

Coleman, T. (2011). A Practical Guide to Risk Management. Research Foundation of CFA Institute .

Crouhy, M. (2014). The Essentials of Risk Management, Second Edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

Curtis, G. (2016). Get A Job In Compliance. Retrieved 2016, from investopedia.com: http://www.investopedia.com/articles/financialcareers/07/compliance-job.asp

Pritchard PMP PMI-RMP EVP, C. (2014). Risk Management: Concepts and Guidance, Fifth Edition. Auerbach Publications.

Tuttle , B. (2014). How to get a job in compliance with little or no experience. Retrieved 2016, from news.efinancialcareers.com: http://news.efinancialcareers.com/us-en/140343/how-to-get-a-job-in-compliance/

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Bond Valuation

Question 1:

You purchased a bond with the following characteristics: $1,000 par value 5.5% coupon semiannual payments 18 years to maturity Bond was priced to yield 6%. For the first three years after you purchased, the bond interest rates remained constant at 6%. Then interest rates dropped to 5.4% and remained at that rate for five years. Then rates dropped further to 4.8% and remained at that rate for two more years. Rates dropped even lower to 4% and remained at that rate until the bond matured.

Assume that all coupon interest payments were reinvested at the prevailing markets rate(s). Calculate the realized yield of this investment.

Answer:

Par value $1000
Coupon rate 5.50%
Coupon Payment $55
Years to Maturity 18
interest rate 6%

For the calculation of yield to maturity:

Bond Price

For the first three years with 6%

PV of a Bond
53.39806 51.84278 50.33279

For the next five years with the yield 5.4%

49.44028 48.14049 46.87486 45.64252 44.44257

For the next two years with the 4.8%:

44.42865 43.38735

For the next eight years with 4% rate

44.23447 43.36712 42.51679 41.68313 40.86581 40.06452 39.27894 38.50877

The present value of the par value:

587.4

Total Bond Price = 1395.844

YTM:

YTM = 2.71%

Question 2:

You purchased another bond with the following characteristics: $1,000 par value 6.5% coupon, annual payments 25 years to maturity Callable in 7 years at $1,065. You paid $1063.92 for the bond. Macaulay duration is 13.34 years Assume market rates drop by 50 basis points.

  1. What will be the new bond price?

Answer:

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.34 * 0.005

= 0.0667%

New Bond Price = 1000.0667

  • Using modified duration; estimate the value of the bond following the decrease in interest rates.

Answer:

YTM:

Bond Price= $13.46397 $207.138
Bond Price = $220.602
YTM = 29.57%
Modified Duration= 13.18406

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.18 * 0.005

= 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 1000.066

  • The estimate (from part b), is fairly close to the actual (in part a). What explains the difference in the two values? Be specific.

Answer:

The difference is because of the difference in the computations of the durations which is done by different formulas, Macaulay’s and modified duration in the both computations.

  • Calculate the effective duration of this bond. Use shifts of 50 basis points.

Answer:

Decrease in basis points by 50 points by Modified duration

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.18 * 0.005

= 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 1000.066

Increase in basis points

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= -13.18 * 0.005

= – 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 999.93

  • Calculate the yield to call.

Answer:

YTC= 0.07%

f. Of the three duration measures (Macaulay, modified, effective) which is the most appropriate measure for this bond? Why?

Answer:

The effective duration is the most appropriate duration measure as it also considers the effect of the change in the coupon amount and cash flows as the result of the change in the interest rate.

Question 3:

 Discuss how bond convexity is different for non-callable and callable bonds.

Answer:

Bond convexity is the effect of duration of bonds on its interest rates. Callable bonds show negative convexity with lower rate of interest. This negative convexity results from their short options. They are negatively yield on their lower rate of interest. On the other hand, non-callable bond shows increase in prices due to decrease in interest rates. Callable bond does not show significant change in price by changing its interest rate. Non-callable bonds show positive convexity.

Question 4:

 Why is convexity your friend?

Answer:

Convexity is my friend because it helps me to identify risk. It is a tool for managing risk. It provides identification of market risk at which bond should be exposed.

Question 5:

 You manage a portfolio of bonds for the Kentucky Teacher Retirement System. The weighted-average maturity of all bonds in the portfolio is 18.5 years. According to the actuaries, you must maintain that average maturity (i.e. you cannot increase or decrease the overall weighted-average maturity of the bonds in the portfolio). McWeber, Zenger and Gnan is a Regensburg-based economic Think Tank. They have forecasted a sharp rise in the U.S. yield curve. The result would be a significant increase in both short-term and long-term interest rates in this country. Understanding the negative impact that increasing rates have on bond values, you are concerned. What are changes that you can make to the bond portfolio to minimize the effects of the interest rate risks?

Answer:

I would like to make few changes in the bonds portfolio. I would like to short-term bonds in portfolio. Short-term bonds do not show much effect due to change in interest rate risks. On the other hand, long-term bonds show significant effect due change in interest rates. Common phenomenon rise in interest rates highly affects bonds with more duration. I would like to diversify portfolio by adding few treasury securities.

Question 6:

 Early last year you purchased 500 shares of Mrs. Davis Cookie Company, Inc. (Stock symbol CC). You paid $62 per share. The current stock price is $85 per share. You do not want to sell your stock but you want to protect all of your unrealized gain ($23). You believe that the stock may continue to rise by another 4% – 5% and you want your portfolio to benefit from any such price gains. The following options (puts and call) with July expirations are available.

calls  
Strike Premium Strike premium
82.5 5.75 82.5 1.05
85 4 85 1.40
87.5 2.45 87.5 2.85
90 1.40 90 5.30
92.5 .70 92.5 8.15
95 0.32 95 12.65

Devise a strategy using options from the above table that is appropriate, given your parameters. Provide a drawing/graph that depicts that strategy.

Answer:

The strategy that should be used should have the gain on the call and put premium by exercising the call options that are below 85, the market price, and the put options that are above the market price.

7. From the table above, calculate the intrinsic value and the time value of the

following options:

Answer:

  1. 82.5 Call
  2. Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-82.5 = 2.5

  • Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 2.5

= 3.25

  • 85 Call

Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-85 = 0

Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 87.5 Call

Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-87.5 = 0 (is zero for less than zero)

Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 82.5 Put

Intrinsic value: Strike value-Market price

=82.5-85 = 0 (is zero for less than zero)

Time value of put option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 92.5 Put

Intrinsic value: Strike value-Market price

=92.5-85 = 7.5

Time value of put option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 7.5

= -1.75

Question 8:

 Consider the following annual bond:

Coupon rate: 6.5% YTM: 7.5% Time: 30 years

a. Calculate the duration of this bond.

b. A bond is initially immunized at the point of duration. Show that immunization

Occurs (interest rate risk and reinvestment rate risk offset) at the point of

Duration. Use these interest rates: 7%, 7.5%, 8%.

Answer:

  •  

Par value=1000

Coupon payment= 1000*6.5%=65

Bond price= C/(1+i)1+C/(1+i)2+……. M/(1+i)n

Bond Price= C*[1-[1/1+i) n]]/1 +M/ (1+I)N

Bond price= 942.0429444

Bond price *maturity=28261.28833

Duration=942.0429444/28261.28833

=0.033333333

(b)

Bond price= 946.9884804 If YTM=7% by using formula C*[1-[1/1+i) n]]/1 +M/ (1+I)N.

Bond price at YTM 7.5% = 942.0429444

Bond price= 938.791964 at YTM, 8%.

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Corporate Bonds

Introduction

            In this report, I have analyzed bond market of United States. For analyzing this market, I have selected corporate sector. Investment in Corporate sector is based on gaining high returns. In this sector, many bonds are operating in the market. These bonds have different prices and yields. Recommendations of buying and selling bonds are based according to the criteria of an investor. If the investor wants high yield on bond then he has to select bonds with high yields. If an investor wants to invest in high credit rating bonds then he has to select bonds with high credit ratings. I have selected three bonds for purchasing and two bonds for selling. The purpose of investment in bonds should be to maximize returns.

            Before deciding about bonds investment, it is important to analyze factors that affect the bonds market. It will help to make wise investment decisions in the bonds market. Before analyzing trends in corporate bonds and providing recommendations, it is essential to identify corporate bonds first. Corporate bonds are bonds offered by Corporations to fulfill their corporate needs and to increase their money. There can be many reasons for issuing corporate bonds by the Corporations. There are few features of these types of bonds. These bonds are issued at 1000 par value. Usually, all coupon bonds have structured coupon rate. Usually, Corporate bonds have the option to call back by the issuer any time. (Pimco.co.uk, 2012)

            The risk of bond can be analyzed from its maturity as well as its callable option. Companies usually sell bonds on premium if it contains the option of call back anytime.

Findings of bond market

            ARAB REP EGYPT is the first bond that is providing the yield of 4% and its price is 103.64. This has the credit rating of AAA. Coupon payment on this bond is semi-annually. This bond is trading in the corporate sector as one of dominant bond in the market. One of the advantage of investing in this bond is high yield as compared to other bonds. Corporate bonds usually provide high yields to the investors. Below the table is showing the detail of this bond in the corporate sector. (Finance.yahoo.com, 2014). U.S market has a contribution of major players in the corporate bonds. Corporate bonds market is diversified into different industries. Below the graph is showing that financial sector has a maximum contribution in corporate bonds.  

Source: http://www.sifma.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8589959712

Source: http://www.sifma.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8589959712

BANK NOVA SCOTIA is another corporate bond in the market. Its price is 102 and it has the coupon rate of 2% for investors. This bond is highly recognized in the market due to high credit rating. High credit rating increases confidence of investor in the bond. High credit rating provides him surety that his money or investment in the bond would not a loss. 

            BRITISH COLUMBIA PROV CDA is another bond trading in the corporate sector of the bond. Its yield is highest and recorded as 161.04. It is generating highest return among these three bonds in the sane sector. Its coupon rate is 7%. One advantage of investing in this bond is strong credit rating. The credit rating for this bond is again AAA.  It is also paying yield on a semiannual basis. It is available in the market in reasonable price.

 I have selected bond of ALION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CO for selling. Its credit rating is CCC. It does not have good credit worthiness. It is providing high coupon rate in lower price. The market price for this bond is 99. Bonds with this credit rating have a high risk of default. In the case of bonds default, investor lost their entire investment. The purpose of selling this bond is due to its lower credit rating. This bond is very risky. Investment in this type of bonds should be discouraged.

            ALPHA NATURAL RESOURCES INC is another bond that has the lower credit rating. It is recommended to sell this bond. Its market price is 97.50 and its yield is only 2%. The reason for selling this bond is due to its bad credit rating. Its credit rating is CCC. This credit rating is not good for investors.  

Recommendations

            In this section, I have provided recommendations for purchasing and selling bonds in the corporate sector. Many investors found it difficult to decide about their buying and purchasing habits of the bond. Investors should analyze the relationship between prices as well as interest rates of the bonds. Investors should understand that there exists an inverse relationship between bonds prices as well as their interest rates. If interest rate will higher, in the market value of the sane bond will drop. So, the purpose of investing in the bonds should not be based on higher interest rate. The Higher interest rate will drop its price in the market. Before making a purchasing decision of bonds, only price or interest rates are not enough.

            Another important indicator in the bonds purchasing and selling decision is its credit rating. Bonds include many risks with them. For reducing these risks, it is important to analyze their credit ratings.

            Credit rating is another important indicator for accessing the risk of the bond. In above findings, I have sold out bonds with bad credit ratings. One of important risk in bonds market is default risk. Corporations may default and it affects on investors decision and investment in their bonds (LAMBERT, 2014). Investors should also analyze credit worthiness of the bonds for purchasing them. They should try to purchase bonds with strong credit rating. They should sell bonds having a high risk of default. Many professional organizations and institutions can provide help in investing in these bonds. These professional organizations can help to reduce overall risk in the corporate sector. One advantage of investing is bonds are to gain a semiannual return. Bonds provide returns two times in a year.

            The purpose of raising corporate bonds for investors is to raise money by the Corporations. Usually, all corporate bonds carry the higher risk of default as compared to other bands like government or treasury. Default risk is affected by the issuing Corporation. That is why before investing in corporate bonds, it is advisable to analyze creditworthiness of issuing company. Investors can take the better idea of their returns and risk after analyzing credit worthiness or credit rating of their issuing company. Corporation with low credit rating usually offers bonds with high yield to attract more investors. On the other hand, Corporation with strong credit rating can attract investors towards its bonds by offering low yield or interest rate.

            Maturity date should also be analyzed for investment in these bonds. A bond with high maturity will contain more risk as compared to the bond with lower maturity. Investment decision can be made by corporate bonds holders with the help of maturity date. They should analyze that whether an issuer is paying more returns in case of high maturity or not. Investors should analyze all these recommendations for making an investment in corporate bonds. The purchasing and selling of the bonds are involving the stock exchange. The corporate bonds are having the greater amount of the risk involved and will be having the risk to lose your amount. The major concern is the corporate bonds market selling, purchasing, and working on the scenario. The issue remains the strength of the corporate bonds. The corporate bond is riskier in nature and will be having the stance of the evaluating the stance.

Conclusion

            It is concluded that Corporate bonds should be selected based on their credit rating, yield, maturity as well as yields. It is essential to invest in strong credit rating bonds. Recommendation of purchasing bonds is also given to investors in Cornpone bonds sector. It is concluded that corporate bonds have high risk. The credit rating of the corporate bonds is the scenario to be concluded.  The yield is the maturity of the working the corporate bonds. The recommendations are provided to the purchasing the bonds. These bonds are high-risk bonds. These risks are high of the bonds. The bonds are higher risk bonds. The high-risk bonds will have the high-risk high profit logic to be implemented and will be scenario for the high-risk profit which is dealt. The scenario is the high-risk profit would be taken to the high-risk timing. The high risk of the corporate bond is the factor involved. The high-risk profit is involved in the corporate bonds. The higher the risk the higher will be the profit. The risk is involved in the scenario. The corporate bonds are the risk involves in them and risk is higher. The risk is involved in the corporate bonds.    

Appendix

ARAB REP EGYPT As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 103.64
Coupon (%): 4.45
Maturity Date: 42262
Yield to Maturity (%): -0.201
Current Yield (%): 4.294
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 38791
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
BANK NOVA SCOTIA As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 102.51
Coupon (%): 2.125
Maturity Date: 43719
Yield to Maturity (%): 1.576
Current Yield (%): 2.073
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 42074
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 500
Minimum Trade Qty: 10
Dated Date: 41893
Settlement Date: 41977
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROV CDA As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 161.04
Coupon (%): 7.25
Maturity Date: 49919
Yield to Maturity (%): 3.295
Current Yield (%): 4.502
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 35490
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 461
Minimum Trade Qty: 25
Dated Date: 35306
Settlement Date: 41977
ALION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CO As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 99.88
Coupon (%): 10.25
Maturity Date: 42036
Yield to Maturity (%): 10.679
Current Yield (%): 10.263
Fitch Ratings: CCC
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 39295
Type: Corporate
Callable: Yes
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 250
Minimum Trade Qty: 5
Dated Date: 39121
Settlement Date: 41977
ALPHA NATURAL RESOURCES INC As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 97.5
Coupon (%): 2.375
Maturity Date: 42109
Yield to Maturity (%): 9.451
Current Yield (%): 2.436
Fitch Ratings: CCC
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 39736
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 10
Minimum Trade Qty: 1
Dated Date: 39545
Settlement Date: 41977


References

Finance.yahoo.com. (2014). Bond Center. Retrieved May 7, 2016, from https://screener.finance.yahoo.com/z1?b=1&so=a&sf=m&tc=1&stt=-&pr=0&cpl=-1&cpu=-1&yl=-1&yu=-1&ytl=-1&ytu=-1&mtl=-1&mtu=-1&rl=-1&ru=-1&cll=-1

LAMBERT, S. (2014, August 11). Investing in corporate bonds: how income-hungry investors can tap firms direct or invest through funds . Retrieved May 7, 2016, from http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/guides/article-1714423/Corporate-bonds-A-guide-investing.html

Pimco.co.uk. (2012, March). What Are Corporate Bonds and What Benefits Do They Offer? Retrieved May 7, 2016, from http://www.pimco.co.uk/EN/Education/Pages/CorporateBonds.aspx

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To Determine the Impact of Enterprise Risk Management in Supply Chain of Automobile Industry A case of Toyota motors corporation

To determine the impact of enterprise risk management in supply chain of automobile industry

A case of Toyota motors corporation

There are certain risks in supply chain need to be identified in managing the overall supply chain operations. The potential risk to an organization associated with the externals and end to end risk. Such risks include natural disasters, labor unavailability, lawsuits, war, crime, terrorism, and sabotage.  In addition, supplier risk linked with the losses of financials, physical and regulatory risk and upstream, supplier risk as well.  Supply chain risk management is a method to manage a risk in the business by evaluating and predicting any financial risks as well as supplier risk to reduce and minimize the risks. Towards supply chain risk, internal enterprise face challenges in demand variability, testing unavailability, operational risk, financial uncertainty,   cargo damage or theft and design uncertainty need to be identified in the managing supply chain execution in risk management.  (Burt, 2011).

It has been common now that in a business environment, risks are very common now and the supply chain management is the riskiest part of the business to make or break the product. For the identification of risk in the supply chain, the firm identifies routes for shipments with an optimizing network of transportation, recognition of location and number of suppliers, origins and number of shipments and logistical executions.

More than 3338,875 people are working in this industry and have the best production department in the world. Toyota has just in time manufacturing and has very good relationship with its suppliers as it is always focusing on improving its quality because Toyota never compromised on quality; therefore, it has best quality supply management (Cecere, 2014).

The lean manufacturing system is the way of making things at the Toyota corporations. The supply chain management of Toyota Company based on the Toyota production system TPS, which expresses the functions of lean manufacturing.  The supply chain model of Toyota Company specifically associated with the execution of order fulfillment, customer services, sourcing and procurements, production operations, inventory management and optimization of transportation modes in managing supply chain risk management. (Rao Tummala, 2011)

It is generally considered the manufacturing or the production process of an automobile industry is very complex and it may contain more than 20,000 parts. To sustain in the competitive environment of business, the Toyota formulates total supplier partnering hierarchy.  Such partnering hierarchy of Toyota motors initiates the execution of interlocking structures, compatible capabilities, joint improvement activities, trust and mutual understanding, sharing of information and kaizen reveals the major consolidations to manage risk within supply chain management. (Zhao, Huo, Sun, & Zhao, 2013)

There is certain risk associated with the Toyota company supply chain such risk link with the probability of natural disasters that disrupts the supply chain operations. In addition, changes in technological trends, political uncertainty in a global environment, warehouse inadequacies and enterprise underperformance are the risk happening within supply chain operations.  The procurement of automobile manufacturing parts are taken from globally that reveals the risk of global supplier relationship uncertainty, In addition, this thing had helped a lot for Toyota by earning the trust and partnership with a supplier (Fabbe-Costes & Jahre, 2008).

Toyota supply chain

 Improvement in supply chain management is the main focus of Toyota to confront he challenges in the supply chain management. Toyota Motor Corporation conducting successful business practices towards supply chain management. The main principles of the supply chain of Toyota based on the kaizen implementation, lean manufacturing, KANBAN and just in time executions to retain the competitive edge in supply chain management. Efficiency in business functions obtained through optimization of supply chain and retains customer values as well. Toyota has several suppliers of tiers so that Just in time culture created and quality would not be compromised (Ferguson & Souza, 2010).

Toyota production system and lean manufacturing system is the main components of Toyota in their supply chain management. In the Inbound logistics the Third party, logistics are helping Toyota to get their material. A cluster of suppliers is made by the company according to their own convenience based on the geographical location. In addition, the process is made according to which the supplier transfers the materials to the company. When this process is done, returnable containers are reloaded and the truck in reverse route and the process continues (Paulsson & Nilsson, 2011). The implication of just in time inventory system helps in incorporating with the total quality management, continuous improvements, elimination of wastages and reduction in inventory through the involvement of suppliers in the process of production planning.

Production Phase

In the production concept of Toyota, that reveals the major consolidations of Toyota production system and relationship with the suppliers. Elimination of waste is the main focus of the company to confirm the risk in the supply chain. Making the vehicles ordered by customers in the quickest as well as the most efficient way to retain the values of customers. With the effective implementation of the just in time that improves productivity by elimination of inconsistencies as well as unreasonable requirements as well on the production line.

Supply chain risk management

To manage the risk in supply chain reveals the difficulties that how to become resilient in effective lead time.  Managing risk in the supply chain, the forms need to implement, business continuous planning by the development of probability of risk occurrences. The main contingency options based on the collaboration with the suppliers, postponement, redundancy optimization, alternate considerations of sourcing requirements and historic risk analysis reduce the chances of risk occurrences.  Business partner security, procedural security, training, and education to employees and physical security to enhance the credibility of supply chain risk management.   A three-step process helps in generating protection of business from risk, first prioritize, identify and then mitigate the risk in the supply chain management. (Paulsson & Nilsson, 2011).

Risk managed by the Toyota motors in the supply chain

The main problem is how to manage them effectively if the risk causes actual loss how to recover from that loss. Well, we took the real case example of the Toyota motors corporation. As we already know about Toyota and its lean business process that how it thrives to achieve continuous innovation and collaboration with well-known reputed suppliers. To manage the in Toyota motors of their supply chain the company mad major initiatives in their supply chain processes.  Business continuity management through employees and supplier is to make practice effectiveness of plan if any risk happens in future. Building a disaster-resilient supply chain together with suppliers is to prioritize the probability of risk for early recovery.  This shows that how the Toyota company implements supply chain risk management initiates in their existing supply chain for the continuity of the supply chain operations. 

When the earthquake and tsunami in Japan hinted, there was a loss of too much production in the world’s best automobile company but Toyota promised that it would manage to lower that risk next time (Ferguson & Souza, 2010).

The problem was caused that due to the natural disasters caused in the country. The company’s part supplier was unable to deliver their supplies on time or at the expected quantity, which caused a huge loss for its company and took six months to recover from this loss. This reveals that need of contingency measurements to avoid the happening of the risk of natural disasters. The happening of natural disasters disrupts the networks of supply chain management. Training and plan maintenance, effective communication to external and internal stakeholders, business recovery resumptions helps in integrating to generate effective outcome within the supply chain risk management.

Toyota’s plan involved asking that supplier to spread their production into the multiple locations and made warehouses, which can store extra inventory buffers for them. In addition, they kept looking for best alternative options (Fabbe-Costes & Jahre, 2008).

Even with the best-laid plans, organizations seek the challenges in the supply chain. Effective responding to events required urgent attention to managing operations and reputation. The crises associated with the natural disasters, labor disputes, failures of information technology and major fires.    Crisis management compromises the overall tactical and strategic response of organization to respond efficiently to actualize threats in essential and adequate manner. Critical incident planning as well risks preparedness should be intake to confront the challenges in good manner. 

Toyota will not only make its effort in its home country but in the other countries like in the Europe and the USA as well and the suppliers who did not share information of their suppliers. Because of the competitive reasons that have ensured that in the case of any mishap, they will not face any problem or will recover within the two weeks if any problem caused (Choi & Cheng, 2011).

Because companies like automobiles have huge supply-chain if one part goes, missing the whole, finished product becomes unable to supply. In addition, the Toyota’s vice president Shinchi sasaki is taking the main leadership role so that future problems like this should be avoided. Therefore, for managing risks all other companies should take lessons from Toyota (Fabbe-Costes & Jahre, 2008).

Conclusion

Thus to sum up all discussion about the risk management in the supply chain has immense importance for the optimization of supply chain networks.  Natural disasters, as well as demand variability, is the major risk associated with the organization, need to be confronted by effective respond to risk events.  Business continuity planning BCP is to become supply chain resilient to confront the risk in a good manner. The collaboration with the suppliers, postponement, redundancy optimization and physical security helps in generating effective outcome with happening of risk. Towards Toyota motor corporations, kaizen implementation, lean manufacturing, KANBAN system and Toyota production systems and just in time executions are the main supply chain principles implemented in the company to respond the risk in the supply chain operations?

Reference

Burt, D. (2011). Proactive Purchasing in the Supply Chain: The Key to World-Class Procurement. McGraw-Hill Education.

Cecere, L. M. (2014). Supply Chain Metrics that Matter (Wiley Corporate F&A). Wiley.

Cetinkaya, B. (2011). Sustainable Supply Chain Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Choi, T.-M., & Cheng, T. E. (2011). Supply Chain Coordination under Uncertainty. Springer.

Fabbe-Costes, N., & Jahre, M. (2008). Supply chain integration and performance: a review of the evidence. The International Journal of Logistics Management , 0957-4093.

Ferguson, M. E., & Souza, G. C. (2010). Closed-Loop Supply Chains: New Developments to Improve the Sustainability of Business Practices (Supply Chain Integration Modeling, Optimization and Application). CRC Press.

Manuj, I., & Mentzer, J. T. (2008). Global supply chain risk management strategies. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management .

Paulsson, U., & Nilsson, C.-H. (2011). Estimation of disruption risk exposure in supply chains. Int. J. Business Continuity and Risk Management , 2 (1), 1-19.

Rao Tummala, T. S. (2011). Assessing and managing risks using the Supply Chain Risk. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal .

Zhao, L., Huo, B., Sun, L., & Zhao, X. (2013). The impact of supply chain risk on supply chain integration and company performance: a global investigation. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal .

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Management Of Financial Institutions

Management of Financial Institutions

1.As a senior loan officer at Joshua Bankcorp you have the following loan applications waiting for review. The bank uses Altman’s Z score, default probabilities, mortality rates and RAROC to assess loan acceptability. The bank’s cost of equity (the RAROC benchmark) is 9 percent. The bank’s loan policy states that the maximum probability of default for loans by type is as follow:

Loan Type and Maturity Maximum Allowable Default Probability
AAA-rated 0.50%
A-rated 1.25

[Note: In all of the following 4 loan applications (a through d), you have to identify whether you accept or reject the loan applications and why?]

  1. An AAA-rated, one-year C&I loan from a firm with a liquidity ratio of 2.15, a debt-to-asset ratio of 45 percent, volatility in earnings of 0.13, and a profit margin of 12 percent. Joshua Bankcorp uses a linear probability model to evaluate AAA-rated loans as follows:

PD = –0.08X1 + 0.15X2 +1.2X3 – 0.45 X4

Where,  X1= Liquidity ratio; X2=Debt-to-asset ratio; X3=Volatility in earnings; X4= Profit Margin

PD = –0.08(2.15) + 0.15(.45) +1.2(.13) – 0.45(.12)

PD= -.175+.0675+.156-.054= -.0055

Accept loan

  • An AA-rated, one-year C&I loan from a firm with the following financial statement information (in millions of dollars):
Assets   Liabilities and Equity  
Cash Accounts receivables Inventory Plant & Equipment $ 40  120  210 1,100 Accounts payable Notes payable Accruals Long-term debt Equity (retained earnings = $200) $ 55    60    70  550  735
Total Assets       $1,470 Total liabilities and equity $1,470

Also assume sales = $1,250 million, cost of goods sold = $930 million, and the market value of equity is equal to 2.2 times the book value of equity. Joshua Bankcorp uses the Altman’s Z-scoremodel to evaluate AA-rated loans. 

1250-1100=150

Loan unacceptable

  • An A-rated corporate loan with a maturity of three years. A-rated corporate loans are evaluated using the mortality rate approach. A schedule of historical defaults (annual and cumulative) experienced by the bank on it’s A-rated corporate loans is as follows:
  Years after Issuance    
Loan Type A-rated Corporate loans Annual default Cumulative default 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years
0.10% 0.10 0.25% 0.325 0.40% 0.595 0.65% 1.858

1.858>.5

Loan not acceptable

  • A $2 million, 5-year loan to BBB-rated corporation in the computer parts industry. Joshua Bankcorp uses a RAROC model and charges a servicing fee of 75 basis points. The duration of the loan is 4.5 years. The cost of funds for the bank is 8 percent. Based on four years of historical data, the bank has estimated the maximum change in the risk premium on the computer parts industry to be approximately 5.5%. The current market rate for loans in this industry is 10%.

4.5 x 2 / 75 = 9/75

Loan Acceptable

2.As a senior loan officer at Marisa Financial Corp, you have a loan application from a firm in the biotech industry. While the loan has been approved on the basis of an individual loan, you must evaluate the loan based on its impact on the risk of the overall loan portfolio. The Marisa Financial Corp uses the following three methods to assess its loan portfolio risk. Should Marisa  Financial Corp. grant this loan based on the following 3 criteria and why or why not? 

  1. Concentration Limits – The Marisa Financial Corp currently has lent an amount equal to 40 percent of its capital to the biotech industry and does not lend to a firm in any sector that generates losses in excess of 2 percent of capital. The average historical losses in the biotech industry total 5 percent.

Losses less than industry 5%

lend a loan

  • Loan Volume-based Model – National and Marisa Financial Corp’s loan portfolio allocations are as follows.

Allocation of Loan Portfolios in Different Sectors (%)

               Sectors NationalMarisa Financial Corp            
                Commercial       30%                         40%                       
                 Real Estate       50%                         45%                       
                Consumer       20%                         15%    

     Marisa Financial does not want to deviate from the national average by more than 12.25 percent.

Commercial 70%

Real estate 95%

Consumer 35%                                                      

Grant loan to commercial and real estate sector not to the consumer sector

  • Loan Loss Ratio-based Model – Based on regression analysis on historical loan losses, the Marisa Financial Corp estimates the following loan loss ratio models:

                                   XC&I = 0.001 + 0.85XL; and 

                                   Xcon = 0.003 + 0.65XL

         where XC&I = loss rate in the commercial sector, Xcon = loss rate in the consumer (household) sector, and XL = loss rate for its total loan portfolio. Marisa Financial Corp’s total increase in the loan loss ratio is expected to be 12 percent next year.

XCL=0.001+13.35%=14.35%

Xcon=0.003+12.76%=15.76%

No loan to be granted

3.Bank of Marconi has the following balance sheet (in millions).

                        Assets     Liabilities and Equity  
                        Cash    $9   Deposits $75
                        Loans  95   Purchased funds 40
                        Securities    26   Equity    15
                        Total assets $130   Total liabilities and equity $130

Bank of Marconi’s securities portfolio includes $16 million in T-bills and $10 million in GNMA (Government National Mortgage Association) securities. Bank of Marconihas a $20 million line of credit to borrow in the repo market and $5 million in excess cash reserves (above reserve requirements) with the Fed. Bank of Marconicurrently has borrowed $22 million in Fed funds and $18 million from the Fed discount window to meet seasonal demands.

  1. What is the Bank of Marconi’s total available (sources of) liquidity? What is the Bank of Marconi’s current total uses of liquidity? What is the net liquidity of Bank of Marconi?

Net Liquidity=9-75= -64

  • Calculate the financing gap of Bank of Marconi. What is its financing requirement?

Gap=95-40=35

  • Bank of Marconiexpects a net deposit drain of $20 million. Show the Bank of Marconi‘s balance sheet  if the following conditions occur:
    • Bank of Marconipurchases liabilities to offset this expected drain.

The liabilities would decrease which would encourage the injection of fresh equity

  1. The stored liquidity management method is used to meet the expected drain (Bank of Marconidoes not want the cash balance to fall below $5 million, and securities can be sold at their fair value).

If securities are drawn out it can be seen that the sales should be of $87(95+4-11)

        4. Suppose Bank Kevin, a U.S. Financial Institution (FI)  has the following assets and liabilities:

            $500 million                            $1,000 million
           U.S. loans (one year)               U.S. CDs (one year)
            in dollars                                       in dollars                   

                            Assets                                                   Liabilities                  

                           $300 million equivalent

                           U.K. loans (one year)

                           (loans made in pounds)                                            

                           $200 million equivalent

                           Turkish loans (one year)

                           (loans made in Turkish lira)                                                     

The promised one-year U.S. CD rate is 4 percent, to be paid in dollars at the end of the year; the one-year, default risk–free loans in the United States (U.S.) are yielding 6 percent; default risk– free one-year loans are yielding 8 percent in the United Kingdom (U.K.); and default risk–free one-year loans are yielding 10 percent in Turkey. The exchange rate of dollars for pounds at the beginning of the year is $1.6/£1, and the exchange rate of dollars for Turkish lira at the beginning of the year is $0.5533/TRY1.

=200*.5533=101.22

  1. Calculate the dollar proceeds from Bank Kevin’s loan portfolio at the end of the year, the return on Bank Kevin’s loan portfolio, and the net interest margin for Bank Kevin if the spot foreign exchange rate has not changed over the year.

=101.22-12.22=99

  • Calculate the dollar proceeds from Bank Kevin’s loan portfolio at the end of the year, the return on Bank Kevin’s loan portfolio, and the net interest margin for Bank Kevin if the pound spot foreign exchange rate falls to $1.45/£1 and the lira spot foreign exchange rate falls to $0.52/TRY1 over the year.

=101.22*1.45=152.34

  • Calculate the dollar proceeds from Bank Kevin’s loan portfolio at the end of the year, the return on Bank Kevin’s loan portfolio, and the net interest margin for Bank Kevin if the pound spot foreign exchange rate rises to $1.70/£1 and the lira spot foreign exchange rate rises to $0.58/TRY1 over the year.

=101.22*1.7=185.34

5. Blake and George (BG) Bankcorp wants to obtain the DEAR on its trading portfolio. The portfolio consists of the following securities.

      Fixed-income securities: 

  1. BG Bankcorp has a $1 million position in a six-year zero bonds with a face value of $1,543,302. The bond is trading at a yield to maturity of 7.50 percent. The historical mean change in daily yields is 0.0 percent, and the standard deviation is 22 basis points.
  1. BG Bankcorp also holds a 12-year zero bond with a face value of $1,000,000. The bond is trading at a yield to maturity of 6.75 percent. The price volatility if the potential adverse move in yields is 65 basis points.

     Foreign exchange contracts:

BG Bankcorp  has a €2.0 million long trading position in spot euros at the close of business on a particular day. The exchange rate is €0.80/$1, or $1.25/€, at the daily close. Looking back at the daily changes in the exchange rate of the euro to dollars for the past year, BG Bankcorp finds that the volatility or standard deviation (σ) of the spot exchange rate was 55.5 basis points (bps).

      Equities:

BG Bankcorp holds a $2.5 million trading position in stocks that reflect the U.S. stock market index (e.g., the S&P 500). The β = 1. Over the last year, the standard deviation of the stock market index was 175 basis points (bps).

Correlations (ρij) among Assets are given below:

______________________________________________________________________________________

Six-year zero-coupon      12-year zero-coupon      €/$                   U.S. stock index

Six-year, zero-coupon             –                                  0.75                   -0.2                   0.40
12-year, zero-coupon              –                                    –                        -0.3                  0.45
€/$                                            –                                    –                        –                      0.25
U.S. stock index                       –                                    –                         –                       –

Calculate the DEAR (Daily Earnings at Risk) of this trading portfolio of BG Bankcorp.

Beta=.75-.2-.3+.4+.4=1.45

6.Jakob& Jon (J&J) National Bank has issued the following off-balance-sheet items: 

  • A one-year loan commitment of $1 million with an up-front fee of 40 basis points. The back-end fee on the unused portion of the commitment is 55 basis points. The bank’s base rate on loans is 8 percent, and loans to this customer carry a risk premium of 2 percent. The bank requires a compensating balance on this loan of 10 percent to be placed in demand deposits and must maintain reserve requirements on demand deposits of 8 percent. The customer is expected to draw down 75 percent of the commitment at the beginning of the year. 
  • A one-year loan commitment of $500,000 with an up-front fee of 25 basis points. The back-end fee on the unused portion of the commitment is 30 basis points. Loans to this customer carry a risk premium of 2.5 percent. The bank will not require a compensating balance on this loan. The customer is expected to draw down 90 percent of the commitment at the beginning of the year.
  • A three-month commercial letter of credit on behalf of one of its AA-rated customers who is planning to import $400,000 worth of goods from the Germany. The bank charges an up-front fee of 75 basis points on commercial letters of credit (LC) to AA-rated customers. 
  • A standby letter of credit (SLC) to one of its A-rated customers who is planning to issue $5 million of 270-day commercial paper for an effective yield of 5 percent. The corporation expects to save 50 basis points on the interest rate by using the SLC. The bank charges an up-front fee of 40 basis points on SLCs to A-rated customers to back the commercial paper issue?
  1. What up-front fees does the J&J National Bank earn on each of these? 

Total upfront fees=10%+25%+75%=110% from this portfolio

  • What other income does the J&J National Bank earn on these off-balance-sheet activities?

Brokerage and trading profits are some other profits from these ventures

  • Calculate the returns on each of the off-balance-sheet activities assuming that the takedowns on the loan commitments are at the expected percentage and the customers holding the letters of credit do not default on their obligations.

110%/5=22% returns

7.The operations department of a major financial institution (Tamim & Rita Bank) is planning to reorganize several of its back-office functions. Its current operating expense is $1.5 million, of which $1 million is for staff expenses. The FI uses a 12 percent cost of capital to evaluate costsaving projects.

  1. One way of reorganizing is to outsource a portion of Tamim & Rita Bank’s data entry functions.  This will require an initial investment of approximately $500,000 after taxes. The Tamim & Rita Bank expects to save $150,000 in annual operating expenses after taxes for the next seven years. Should it undertake this project?

5000000-150000=350000 should be undertaken

  • Another option is to automate the entire process by installing new state-of-the-art computers and software. The Tamim & Rita Bank expects to realize more than $500,000 per year in after-tax savings, but the initial investment will be approximately $3 million. In addition, the life of this project is limited to seven years, at which time new computers and software will need to be installed. Using this seven-year planning horizon, should the Tamim & Rita Bank invest in this project? What level of after-tax savings would be necessary to make this plan comparable in value creation to the plan in part (a)?

NPV of the first alternative

Npv(12%,cashflows 1.5 million)=1.05million

NPV of the second alternative

Npv(12%,cashflows 1million)=.93 million

NPV of the Third alternative

Npv(12%,cashflows .5 million)=.32 million

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5th Generation of Wireless Broadband Technology

5th Generation of Wireless Broadband Technology

5G is the 5th generation of wireless broadband technology in the next future. It is based on the EEE802.11ac standard. It is introduced to provide better speed and coverage rather than other 3G and 4G. It operates with a 5 GHz signal. Huawei Company plays a vital role in the Chinese mobile market and believes that the speed will be 100x faster than 4G LTE offers. It will increase and expand the connection of network top thousands of connection. It also has been improved and better for greater coverage.

The improvements and developments lead to further enable changes for example pervasive computing and the internet of things. It is not properly scheduled for launch until 2020. Some manufacturers are incorporating elements of the coming standards specifications into their productions of the company. 

After the 4G telecommunication system, it has been focused on the development in the field of technology and telecommunication. Thus, the 5th generation takes place in the market for the development of the wireless system. The new generation of the 5 G technology required reliable deployment. It will start from fruition around 2020 with deployment.   (www.radio-electronics.com, 2016)

Status

The present status of the 5G technology has importance in the early development stages of the wireless system. Various companies are trying to be though part of the system. It is noted that various universities have set up 5G research units. The purpose is to develop and focus the technologies for 5G.

Further, the standard bodies and 3GPP are familiar with the development but they are not successful in the planning of the 5G system still. Mostly technologies that are used for 5G will start to come and participate in the system that is used and applied for 4G and then it will be included in the 5G system in a solid and concrete manner. It will be incorporated into the new 5G cellular system.

The main issue with 5G technology is that there is the wide expansion in the requirements. It is commonly said that the 5G is not a mobile technology only it is ubiquitous access to high and low data rate services. (MCKINNON, 2015)

Overview

Cellular telecommunications have included different generations in his system. Each system tried to improvement and development. 5G also improved its system. There is described the purposes and development in the 4th generations that caused of 5G in the market of telecommunication.

First generation

In the first generation, the phones were analog and these were the first mobiles to be used. They offered very low levels of efficiency and security in the cellular mobile phones.

Second generation

The second generation based and depended on digital technology. It provides better security system and efficiency. It also provided text messages and data rate communication in a low level. (Hu, 2013)

Third generation

The basic purpose of this generation was to provide high-speed data to the customers in the market. The technology was developed and increased to allow data up to 14 MBPS.

Fourth generation

The fourth generation was based on all the IP technology that is capable of delivering data rates up to 1GPS.

Fifth generation

The fifth generation requires providing important gains over the previous system to deliver the proper business case for mobile operators to invest in any new system of the mobiles.

Specifications

5G has some parameters that include network capacity, peak data rate, cell edge data rate and latency. All of these have suggested performance like 10000 times capacity of the current network, 10 Gbps, 100 Mbps and < 1ms.

Concepts about 5G

  • It is a pervasive network.
  • It has group cooperative relay.
  • It is based on cognitive radio technology.
  • It is wireless mesh and dynamic ad-hoc networking.
  • It has smart antennas.

Current research

There are different key areas that are being observed in research organizations. These are under describe

Technology included Millimeter- Wave

It includes the Millimeter-Wave technology that is used to high the frequency spectrum. It is also applied to provide the possibility of having much-expanded channel bandwidth that is possibly 1-2 GHZ.

Future PHY/ MAC

Waveform provides flexibility for 5G mobile telecommunication system. It has various advantages and limitations. It is much possible that the adaptive schemes will be employed in the system.

Duplex methods

There are lot f candidate and employees that forms of the duplex. It would enable the 5G system sudden transformation and reception in the same way.

Dense network

It decreases the size of cells that is caused by providing the as a whole effectiveness in the available spectrum.

It is concluded that 5G includes various technologies and techniques in the cellular system of the telecommunication system. It is needed to bring change in the system. The system will provide advantages and benefits to the companies and institutions as well as customers in the market. The properties of the 5G are unique and different from other generations.

References

Hu, K. ( 2013, AUG 26). Huawei’s CEO: The Innovation Journey To 5G And Beyond. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesasia/2013/08/26/huaweis-ceo-the-innovation-journey-to-5g-and-beyond/#39b564b25ca2

MCKINNON, J. (2015, Oct 22). FCC Proposes Rules for 5G Network. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/fcc-proposes-rules-for-5g-network-1445533829

Radio-electronics.com. (2016). 5G Mobile Wireless Technology. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/5g-mobile-cellular/technology-basics.php

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John Stoltenberg says, “Various researchers have found that 25 to 60% of college-age males are already so predisposed [to rape] by their own admission

The experience is true because it is based upon the ways as initiated by the feminist. The social-science perspective ideally relates to pornography because it is suggested as a big platform to introduce the high-hostile aspect in detail. The experiments have introduced the rape-prone mindset mostly in men rather women. The increased levels of aggression are necessary to produce according to my experience when a man faces certain types of pornography perspective.

The increased levels self-reported mode in the male platform is trickier indeed in such way that is recommended with normal groups. The intention of such way described by the writer was proved with the nationwide boycott of Deep Throat film in 1980. It proved that college-aged males are more open towards rape cases rather the female part of the society. The adult books and videos stores are also there and have large customer basis because the same percentage as explored by the author proved the visitors ratio as well.

The openness of the intention of males according to given percentage as suggested by the author cannot address issues in social class, community class and most important at racial class. The desire towards these acts was high from the time when the Pornography included in the pleasure perspective at law level. The law was not present at that time when there was aggression about activities listed in college-age males as it shown in differentiation strategy. The Civil-rights Ant pornography Ordinance is the only solution according to my perspective so that there should be rift between different activities most importantly activities of adult nature. The less expose towards adult content whether a college student or not, can enhance the nature of experiences with adult content and automatically it can negate the voice of rape mindsets in society.

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Thesis

QUESTION 2

Write one essay chosen from the following topics relating to the unit on men and women. Be sure that you have an opening paragraph with a thesis, supporting paragraphs, and a closing paragraph.

2. Discuss the ways in which several authors describe love and courtship. You may share some personal experiences to back up your essay.

In the literature, the love is usually reflects as a major theme of the literary attempt. Similarly in the following essay, love is one of the major themes that remain prominent in the story. However, different writers describe the theme of love in a different style. In some stories the lovers even having very feeling of love, do not meet with each other but they remember for their love but in some stories the writers have described love as nothing but a lustful thing. Subsequently, the thesis of the essay is that the love is connected with the luck.

In Porphyria’s lover the theme of love is used in term restraint and freedom that ultimately neither speaker nor porphyria has any real agency. The writer has also described the Porphyria’s love for the speaker as “worship” whereas the speakers love for her is defined as objectifying and violent. In the end even porphyria died but the writer has reflected as her wish to be with her lover is fulfilled when she died in the hands of her lover.  This reflects the good luck of Porphyria as she met with her lover but it was the bad luck for the speaker as when he came to know about Porphyria’s deep love for him, she is no more alive.

In another story “Love Is a Fallacy” the writer Max Schulman has described love in a different way as he described that love is associated with the luck as the intelligent boy tried his best to impress Polly as He cleverly made a deal with Petey when he asked him to choose in between Polly and Raccoon Coat. Petey choose recon coat than Polly and the intelligent boy though that now his way towards Polly is clear but at the end Polly said to him that she like Petey. In this story the love is defined as luck as Petey even though a dumb boy but he is lucky as at the end he got Polly and Raccoon coat whereas the intelligent get nothing because of his bad luck.

In different stories, the theme of love is described differently by different writers. However in most of the stories the writers has associated love with luck such as it was the luck of the Prophyria as she finally got her love and died in her hand and his lover founds to have bad luck as when he came to know about Porphyria’s love for him, she died. Similarly, the intelligent boy in “Love is a Fallacy” do everything what he can to get his lover Polly but he found bad luck and Petey’s luck shined as even he did nothing but his lover herself came to him.

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Corporate Bonds

Introduction

            In this report, I have analyzed bond market of United States. For analyzing this market, I have selected corporate sector. Investment in Corporate sector is based on gaining high returns. In this sector, many bonds are operating in the market. These bonds have different prices and yields. Recommendations of buying and selling bonds are based according to the criteria of an investor. If the investor wants high yield on bond then he has to select bonds with high yields. If an investor wants to invest in high credit rating bonds then he has to select bonds with high credit ratings. I have selected three bonds for purchasing and two bonds for selling. The purpose of investment in bonds should be to maximize returns.

            Before deciding about bonds investment, it is important to analyze factors that affect the bonds market. It will help to make wise investment decisions in the bonds market. Before analyzing trends in corporate bonds and providing recommendations, it is essential to identify corporate bonds first. Corporate bonds are bonds offered by Corporations to fulfill their corporate needs and to increase their money. There can be many reasons for issuing corporate bonds by the Corporations. There are few features of these types of bonds. These bonds are issued at 1000 par value. Usually, all coupon bonds have structured coupon rate. Usually, Corporate bonds have the option to call back by the issuer any time. (Pimco.co.uk, 2012)

            The risk of bond can be analyzed from its maturity as well as its callable option. Companies usually sell bonds on premium if it contains the option of call back anytime.

Findings of bond market

            ARAB REP EGYPT is the first bond that is providing the yield of 4% and its price is 103.64. This has the credit rating of AAA. Coupon payment on this bond is semi-annually. This bond is trading in the corporate sector as one of dominant bond in the market. One of the advantage of investing in this bond is high yield as compared to other bonds. Corporate bonds usually provide high yields to the investors. Below the table is showing the detail of this bond in the corporate sector. (Finance.yahoo.com, 2014). U.S market has a contribution of major players in the corporate bonds. Corporate bonds market is diversified into different industries. Below the graph is showing that financial sector has a maximum contribution in corporate bonds.

Source: http://www.sifma.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8589959712

Source: http://www.sifma.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8589959712

BANK NOVA SCOTIA is another corporate bond in the market. Its price is 102 and it has the coupon rate of 2% for investors. This bond is highly recognized in the market due to high credit rating. High credit rating increases confidence of investor in the bond. High credit rating provides him surety that his money or investment in the bond would not a loss. 

            BRITISH COLUMBIA PROV CDA is another bond trading in the corporate sector of the bond. Its yield is highest and recorded as 161.04. It is generating highest return among these three bonds in the sane sector. Its coupon rate is 7%. One advantage of investing in this bond is strong credit rating. The credit rating for this bond is again AAA.  It is also paying yield on a semiannual basis. It is available in the market in reasonable price.

 I have selected bond of ALION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CO for selling. Its credit rating is CCC. It does not have good credit worthiness. It is providing high coupon rate in lower price. The market price for this bond is 99. Bonds with this credit rating have a high risk of default. In the case of bonds default, investor lost their entire investment. The purpose of selling this bond is due to its lower credit rating. This bond is very risky. Investment in this type of bonds should be discouraged.

            ALPHA NATURAL RESOURCES INC is another bond that has the lower credit rating. It is recommended to sell this bond. Its market price is 97.50 and its yield is only 2%. The reason for selling this bond is due to its bad credit rating. Its credit rating is CCC. This credit rating is not good for investors.  

Recommendations

            In this section, I have provided recommendations for purchasing and selling bonds in the corporate sector. Many investors found it difficult to decide about their buying and purchasing habits of the bond. Investors should analyze the relationship between prices as well as interest rates of the bonds. Investors should understand that there exists an inverse relationship between bonds prices as well as their interest rates. If interest rate will higher, in the market value of the sane bond will drop. So, the purpose of investing in the bonds should not be based on higher interest rate. The Higher interest rate will drop its price in the market. Before making a purchasing decision of bonds, only price or interest rates are not enough.

            Another important indicator in the bonds purchasing and selling decision is its credit rating. Bonds include many risks with them. For reducing these risks, it is important to analyze their credit ratings.

            Credit rating is another important indicator for accessing the risk of the bond. In above findings, I have sold out bonds with bad credit ratings. One of important risk in bonds market is default risk. Corporations may default and it affects on investors decision and investment in their bonds (LAMBERT, 2014). Investors should also analyze credit worthiness of the bonds for purchasing them. They should try to purchase bonds with strong credit rating. They should sell bonds having a high risk of default. Many professional organizations and institutions can provide help in investing in these bonds. These professional organizations can help to reduce overall risk in the corporate sector. One advantage of investing is bonds are to gain a semiannual return. Bonds provide returns two times in a year.

            The purpose of raising corporate bonds for investors is to raise money by the Corporations. Usually, all corporate bonds carry the higher risk of default as compared to other bands like government or treasury. Default risk is affected by the issuing Corporation. That is why before investing in corporate bonds, it is advisable to analyze creditworthiness of issuing company. Investors can take the better idea of their returns and risk after analyzing credit worthiness or credit rating of their issuing company. Corporation with low credit rating usually offers bonds with high yield to attract more investors. On the other hand, Corporation with strong credit rating can attract investors towards its bonds by offering low yield or interest rate.

            Maturity date should also be analyzed for investment in these bonds. A bond with high maturity will contain more risk as compared to the bond with lower maturity. Investment decision can be made by corporate bonds holders with the help of maturity date. They should analyze that whether an issuer is paying more returns in case of high maturity or not. Investors should analyze all these recommendations for making an investment in corporate bonds.

Conclusion

            It is concluded that Corporate bonds should be selected based on their credit rating, yield, maturity as well as yields. It is essential to invest in strong credit rating bonds. Recommendation of purchasing bonds is also given to investors in Cornpone bonds sector. It si concluded that corporate bonds have high risk.

Appendix

ARAB REP EGYPT As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 103.64
Coupon (%): 4.45
Maturity Date: 42262
Yield to Maturity (%): -0.201
Current Yield (%): 4.294
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 38791
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
BANK NOVA SCOTIA As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 102.51
Coupon (%): 2.125
Maturity Date: 43719
Yield to Maturity (%): 1.576
Current Yield (%): 2.073
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 42074
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 500
Minimum Trade Qty: 10
Dated Date: 41893
Settlement Date: 41977
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROV CDA As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 161.04
Coupon (%): 7.25
Maturity Date: 49919
Yield to Maturity (%): 3.295
Current Yield (%): 4.502
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 35490
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 461
Minimum Trade Qty: 25
Dated Date: 35306
Settlement Date: 41977
ALION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CO As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 99.88
Coupon (%): 10.25
Maturity Date: 42036
Yield to Maturity (%): 10.679
Current Yield (%): 10.263
Fitch Ratings: CCC
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 39295
Type: Corporate
Callable: Yes
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 250
Minimum Trade Qty: 5
Dated Date: 39121
Settlement Date: 41977
ALPHA NATURAL RESOURCES INC As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 97.5
Coupon (%): 2.375
Maturity Date: 42109
Yield to Maturity (%): 9.451
Current Yield (%): 2.436
Fitch Ratings: CCC
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 39736
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 10
Minimum Trade Qty: 1
Dated Date: 39545
Settlement Date: 41977


References

Finance.yahoo.com. (2014). Bond Center. Retrieved May 7, 2016, from https://screener.finance.yahoo.com/z1?b=1&so=a&sf=m&tc=1&stt=-&pr=0&cpl=-1&cpu=-1&yl=-1&yu=-1&ytl=-1&ytu=-1&mtl=-1&mtu=-1&rl=-1&ru=-1&cll=-1

LAMBERT, S. (2014, August 11). Investing in corporate bonds: how income-hungry investors can tap firms direct or invest through funds . Retrieved May 7, 2016, from http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/guides/article-1714423/Corporate-bonds-A-guide-investing.html

Pimco.co.uk. (2012, March). What Are Corporate Bonds and What Benefits Do They Offer? Retrieved May 7, 2016, from http://www.pimco.co.uk/EN/Education/Pages/CorporateBonds.aspx

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Thinking As a Hobby written by William Golding

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Essay

Thinking As a Hobby written by William Golding

This is the interesting thing that human develops his through and ideas by his interactive participation in his culture and society. Considering this, it is true that our thoughts and ideas reflect the culture however the preferences and ideas somehow changes within the time but overall they remains centered around the society and culture. In the following poem the writer has addressed the same thing as he argues that in the reflection of the society and culture we accept the things without analyzing the facts.

Thinking As a Hobby is written by William Golding in which he describes that three levels of thoughts by telling the practices and attempts of communication. In my opinions, the author has greatly explains the grade one people. The author describes the story with the help of narrator and then reaches on the conclusion. The conclusion is based on the thoughts of the author that elaborates the nature of human being. The childhood of the narrator is related with the teachers that were hypocritical. He describes that the teachers were not act upon the things that they were said. There were contradicts in his sayings and acting. While he reaches in his teen age there were the differences between religious beliefs. He had a girlfriend in the teenage her name was Ruth. He says that there are three types of thinkers. Grade three thinkers believe at their feelings. They think with their feelings and emotions. They think without analyzing. They do not use mind and brain in making any decision. They listen of their hearts and emotions. Grade two thinkers have contradicts in their actions and words like their teachers. Grade 1 are the most extraordinary people in society. They people use brain and mind in making decisions. They use logic and have analytical approach. They pay less attention on feelings and emotions. The author was very curious to find the people of grade one. Finally, he met the person one day, in oxford, near a small bridge. He then concludes that the grade three people are called immature and grade two people are called incomplete but the grade one –people are called extraordinary people in the society. They think first and then act in every matter of the life. They are remembered for their outstanding qualities for years.

It is concluded that a man should try to become and to be in the list of grade one because they are the great persons of society. Through this essay the core purpose of the writer is to encourage the reader to become the people of the grade one who are extraordinary because they think first and then they act and their thinking is based on facts and figures as they do not believe about the things without analyzing the facts.

Poetry

Holy Sonnet 14 written by John Donne

The relationship of human with the God is an unavoidable thing as everyone believes on God but in different ways.  Subsequently, in the following poem the writer has addressed the human relations with God and he described this relation by addressing and describing hymn and pray.

Holy Sonnet is written by John Donne in which the speaker direct asks with God that to intensify the struggle to restore the soul of speaker. After reading the poem it is said that the poet is beautifully describes the pray and hymn. He direct talks with God to purify his soul’ he knows that his soul is embodied in the sins and he feels burden due to sins and want to free from his soul from sins.  It is not enough to knock the door only. The speakers ask the three –person to God that betters his heart. The poet wants to better his soul. He requests to God that make him a new person and change his heart and soul. The poet wants to get rid of his sins to make his soul new. He said to God that enters in his soul furiously and angrily. He said to God that he deserves of all the punishments. He is not willing that he is treated gently and politely. He says that he is ready to face all the punishments because he has committed all the sins but now he wants to purification to make his soul new. The speaker of the poem admits and agrees with the belief that he loves God very much and he desires to be loved by God. The poet asks God that untie divorce and break that knot again. He says that he would never free and will never be chaste and purify until the God ravishes him.

It is concluded that the poet has used many literary figures in the poem to explain the meanings of the sense. The speaker is truly wanted to purify his soul from sins. He desires to wash his soul and to make it new for good deeds and to acquire God’s Love. Through this poem, the writer wants to convey that there is always a door open from the God but the condition is that the person is determined to improve his actions and seek for the true forgiveness.

Drama

Oedipus Rex is written by Sophocles

Sometimes, the misunderstanding and the social evil forced human to do something he even cannot think about to do and when he realized about what he did he has left nothing than feeling sorry on what he did. Similarly in the play Oedipus Rex, the writer has addressed the effect of social evil that tragically and redundantly caused a great tragedy.

Oedipus Rex is written by Sophocles. After reading the drama, It is analyzed that the play is a grand masterpiece of the writer. A great play opens when Thebes is struck by a plague. The people of the state said to king Oedipus to divide them from its horror. Antigone and Ismene are the daughters of the Oedipus. Their brothers killed one another in a war. The play has never surpassed for the raw and the horrified power with which its hero fights to answer the eternal question like who am i?

 The story of the play is about a king that who acts in ignorance, kills his father, and marries with her mother. It is a Greek tragedy. It describes all about the king that his son kills his father, snatches his wife, and marries her.

The play is great work of art that describes the situation and condition of the Greek. The play is absolutely the description of the Greek traditions. It explains the issues and problems of the Greek period of that century. It is great tragedy and the writer uses the literary figures in his writings to explain the real sense of the tragedy. 

It is concluded that the play is a great tragedy and describes the Greek period. The writer has beautifully presented of all the elements in a sequence. There are lot of things and points that are worth mentioning. After reading the play, it is clear that it opens the bitter reality of the society and that society is involved in many crises that are unfolded. Through this novel the writer wants to convey a message that social evils are the major threat for the society as they forced the human to do what he can even never think about to do.

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Freedom and Responsibility

Freedom and Responsibility

Essay

The Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson

On writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson has revolves around the human liberty and equality for all the humans as the theme of the Declaration was based on “all the men are created equal.” To develop a balanced and peaceful American society, the Declaration of Independence considered as the basics that laid down the foundation of a society where every person have equal independence.

After reading the document declaration of independence, I agree with the thoughts and views of the Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the British State. He wrote the declaration of independence for the freedom and equality of the people of the world. The declaration of independence is the most worth valuing document in the history of US. Congress asked Thomas Jefferson to write a document that is based on the freedom, and then Thomas Jefferson wrote the declaration of independence. The congress wants a document that consists on the declaration of the colonies that why the colonies had to become independent of Britain. In the document, he explains about the Americans that they believed on their rights. He stated he argues and opinions in the document that all human being are free. They have right to live freely. They are free to seek the happiness. He was in favor of the common men. He wants to introduce the sense of freedom among the human beings by his document. It explains why the colonies should break away from Britain. It focuses on the thought that people have rights for everything and cannot be taken away them theses rights. It describes the list of the complaints that were against the kings and there are argues that colonies have to be free for the protection of the colonists rights. At the end of the declaration, the delegates signed their names. I agree with the thoughts of the Thomas Jefferson that he wrote marvelous documents for the betterment of the colonists. It was approved on July 4, 1776.

 The worth and value of the documents have still importance because it says that the Americans believe in equal rights for all human beings belongs to any cast, creed, race, and country. Therefore, in writing the declaration of Independence, the focus was given to the equality and independence of humans. After more than two centuries, the importance of this declaration still exists and be seen in the American society. The idea of “all the men are created equal” made great revolutions in the history of America as in Northern states it was used to free slaves. Abraham Lincoln also used it to justify the equal rights in civil war. Martin Luther king used it as the core of his African-American Civil Rights movement, women used it to gain their right of vote and still it is used to maintain balance in a diversified American society.

Poetry

The World Is Too Much with Us is written by William Wordsworth

It is the fact that with the advancing world we are becoming digitalized and started to become more independent on the technology and in these consequences, we are moving away from the nature, which God have purely created for us. In the poem, William Wordsworth argues the same thing that in attempt of becoming modern, we are ignoring the nature, which is purely created for us.

After reading the poem “The World Is Too Much with Us” it opens the reality that the modern people have become disconnected from the world of nature. The poem is written in 1807. He presented his ideas that happiness can be achieved by connecting the world. William Words Worth is the poet of nature. He loved the natural beauty and wrote the poems about nature. In the poem, the world is too much with us, he describes that the people have been disconnected with the natural beauty that god has granted us. People have been connected with the technology and social media that takes away from them to nature.

The poem is a sonnet that is written in a romantic thematic style. The elements of the poem make it distinctive and differentiate to words worth beliefs and system. In the opening lines, he depicts a realm where human beings are able to feel the beauty of nature without the tensions and problems of society. He said that we were wasting our happiness and engaged only in the social activities. Men are always busy in worries of earning and do not spend time for the natural beauty. He says that men are materialistic and only take care of earning money. The next four lines describe that we are unaware of feeling the cool breeze. We do not appreciate the beauty of nature and the elements of beauty. The poet says that natural beauty is the source of decrease the worries and tensions of the world. If the man enjoys the natural beauty, he can forget the worries of society.

The interesting thing about this poem is that with every passage of movement, this poem becoming more and truer as William Wordsworth written this poem 1807 when technology was not common. However, if we evaluate this poem according to the present situation, it seems truer our world has been changed into a digital world and we all are busy with materialistic things and going far and far from the nature. In short, it can be said that William words worth is purely a poet of nature and wants to spread his views about nature that people should enjoy the natural beauty to forgive all the problems of a daily routine.

Drama

The Things They Carried written by Tim O’Brien

The things they carried is written by Tim O’Brien. A novel describes the platoon of American soldiers in the Vietnam Warthe book is based on his personal experiences as a soldier. The story is based on the army soldiers. The writer has highlighted the life of the soldier during the war and trying to express that the life of a soldier is full of countless challenges and threat of death but even in such circumstances they remains determined and fight firmly with the circumstances.

            After reading the story of the novel, it clears that the story defines the situation and condition of the soldiers. The characters of the story mainly bore two types of burden: Emotional burden and physical burden. Narrator tells the story of the novel. The story opens with the lists of the things the soldiers of the army carrying in the Vietnam War. The writer of the story describes his own experiences about the War. He describes about the personal luggage that he possesses. Author of the novel describes that the luggage that is used in the war is different from person to person that is based on the needs and necessities of the person. It helps the reader to get to aware and know the customs and souls in a deeper way. It describes the normal lives of the soldiers. He names the things that are mentioned in the list like photographs, drugs, condoms, books, bible, and all life stories telling property. By describing the physical burden, he tells the emotional pressure that had to wear all the soldiers. It contains the feelings and emotions of love tear, hate, grief etc. they have with them shameful memories, secrets of cowardice during the war. Readers can feel all these emotions while reading the story of the novel. All the things and emotions that a person has personally pull them apart. In the end of the novel, the author stated that the team is struggling to find their main causes to remain what they were before the hell when the earth was started.

Through this novel the writer wants to realize us the worth of soldier by addressing the challenging circumstances which they have to face especially during the war time. The writer has beautifully addressed the physical as well as emotional struggle of the soldiers. This novel has dignified the lives of the soldier with a propose to realize the readers that every soldier is respectable even though he belongs to your enemies because he does not fight for himself but he fights for the love he has for his homeland and this is the natural and purest feelings of human.

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paragraph with a thesis

Question 3

Write one essay chosen from the following topics relating to the unit on family. Be sure that you have an opening paragraph with a thesis, supporting paragraphs, and a closing paragraph. 1. Explore the ways in which family problems compare and contrast in different cultures. Feel free to give personal insight about your own culture and be sure that you use support from one or more of the readings in this unit. Or 2. Compare and contrast any two mothers in the unit on family.

Without family, there is no prosperity. This study revolves around family and different cultural impacts on it. This is a fact that different families contain different cultures in different societies. For Instance, a family in a particular society depicts its particular traditions and various culture aspects. Different cultural aspects such as living styles, food, behavior, and norms are always different due to cultural differences. This study will consider some insights regarding my culture.

My family represents a culture of my region. For Instance, we are living in a society where people love to make a relationship with each other. In addition, there are different traditional events, which are pertinent to our history in our society. These events and traditions have the great impact on our family, as we participate in these events. Interestingly, children in our family adopt this culture is well, as they are taught to adopt culture apart with modern society trends. In addition, our culture depicts majestic hospitality for guests, which has been considered as prominent norm. I belong to a family in which people help each other and try to involve in both, happiness and grief. Moreover, our family depicts a regional culture, which is also pertinent to national culture. In other words, values and believes have been justified in our family.  As a member of my family, I always intend to demonstrate my values and norms in other societies.

In the end, the most important thing for a family is to sustain good relation with people to let other know about our culture. For me, I am representative of my family and culture. This is necessary to retain the culture in a family, as it also represents our region, nation, and country. Culture and family interacts with each other, which has to be depicted in a society. We as a family give value to our culture and represent it in the world with lot of pride.

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Impact of data protection restrictions imposed by European Community’s Directive

Impact of data protection restrictions imposed by European Community’s Directive

                The European Community’s Directive that deals in Data Protection has strictly limited the use of the database information base is restricted for access. The restrictions pertain to the user and the way the information will be accessed. It is to be noted that some of the restrictions is related to registration. The registration includes registering all databases along with the containment of personal information of the companies with their respective countries. These companies are operating in these countries.

             Moreover, these companies also collect data. However, after the restrictions these countries can only be able to collect the data with the consent of the subjects. In addition the telling to the subjects of the database as well as the intended as well as the actual use of the databases is very important. The impact of such restriction is both positive and the negative on the global companies. The information security will strengthen and the unauthorized and illegal use of information will be eliminated (Ec.europa.eu, 2016).

            However, easy and frequent access to this information will be limited. In my opinion, the restrictions are right and the should the United States must bring its laws into agreement with the EU directives.   After all, the security of the information is the major purpose and it should fulfill. The illegal access to the information and use must be eliminated in order to protect the information sharing rights.

Reference:

Ec.europa.eu. (2016). Protection of personal data. Retrieved 2016, from ec.europa.eu: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/

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EU Directive on Data Protection

EU Directive on Data Protection

Data base protection, laws by EU community’s directive will be beneficial for the US and global companies, as the company’s data will be preserved, and transitions they did will be preserved. The laws will strengthen the provisions, as individuals or companies will be secured, when they will know that their data is protected they will provide the personal data and genuine content. It will not provide the competitors with the one’s personal applications and security. Many of the companies had faced losses and competitive advantages as their data is not secured, however, the law can secure the privacy, employee’s information, application and software that exists in businesses process. By adding the security application one can grow or expand in the market, the sales processes will also increases, when the clients know that companies are providing them with secure content, and then demands for goods will be increases. The company can be update and can meet the current standards, as company will be able to provide the current demand, software interoperability will be ensured. Many countries across the world can earn profit and get competitive advantages if they are under the law of EU community protection, as better business management can lead the company the company to plan better business processes (Montia, 2012).

However, if proper training is not given to the employees, who maintain the data, then there could be difficulties faced by the companies, and employees can reveal the data. There could be management complexities if the data base protection system, is not fully managed or ensured.

Reference:

Montia, G. (2012, Jan 30). EU data protection proposals – pros and cons. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://www.insurancedaily.co.uk/2012/01/30/eu-data-protection-proposals-pros-and-cons/

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Reflection Paper

U,Inc.’

FOUNDATION

Mission:

To provide the best quality electronic products with the best software to customers

Vision:

To design best personal computers with the best operating system with the help of professional software for the people around the world.

ASSESSMENT

Assets/Strengths:

Assets are the important part of the business; there are almost four types of assets; fixed assets, current assets, tangible assets and intangible asset. From current assets point of view, my strengths are; investment of my business that is I am going to invest in China where I can find lower labor cost that can help me to achieve large revenue. My bank balance is also a current asset. From my fixed assets point of view, U, Inc. has a huge building including furniture, equipment, machines etc. are the fixed assets. These fixed assets are also called tangible assets. From the intangible asset point of view, intangible assets are the good will of the U, Inc. image of the company in the mind of consumers, software that I am using for the producing electronic devices etc.

Weaknesses/Liabilities:

Like every person have some weaknesses, businesses also have some weak points. Weaknesses of U, Inc. includes the liabilities I have.  For starting the business I have borrowed a large amount of money from the bank that I am liable to pay within 10 years. There are two types of liabilities, current liabilities, and long-term liabilities. I am only liable to pay the long-term liability within 10 years and I am not liable to pay any current liability like short-term bank loans etc. On borrowing the money, I become able to start the business that is U, Inc. currently I am generating revenues that will help me to pay all the debt of the bank.

CUSTOMER BASE

I am offering people electronic equipment like personal computers, laptops, desktop, mobile phones, and Operating system etc. to the customers around the world. People around the world either living a house, performing a job in every field student, professionals, and youngsters are the customers of my products. Customers must have skills to use the operating system that I am offering with my desktop and other electronic devices like laptops and mobile phone applications. I have a lot of employees that are working different departments I have in my company; human resource department, accounting department, finance department, manufacturing department and resources department etc. Employees are highly skilled and know well about their duties and responsibilities. Employees are loyal to me and are satisfied as I am providing them with handsome salary according to their skills, experience, and job description. I have some potential customers; young people; professional and students. These are potential customers because the need high-quality mobile phone that helps them in communication and in studies, a laptop that helps them in studies and in professional life.

PRODUCT LINE

I am offering Laptops, mobile phones, personal computers, desktops, operating system etc. Electronic devices to the people around the world. My offerings include special product at premium prices and the general products that are available at low cost.  I am differentiating my products by bringing in technological advancement and innovation in my products. As my products are related to technology, I bring in innovations according to the demand of customers. I have a specific operating system and application for mobile phones and computers that no one use or find in other competitors phone or computers. I am going to extend the product line that is introducing innovative iPad’s that has a specific operating system and protection that no one can imitate it. As the demand for the technological products is increasing this product would defiantly help me to achieve the competitive advantage.

CAPITAL INVESTMENT AND PROFIT

I am currently investing in research and development department in the sense that wants to research the products I offer to the people, what they think about it and perceive about it and want they want to Improve. Moreover, I am investing money in finding out potential market like china where I can find workers to assemble the manufactured electronic product at low cost it will help me to earn large amount of money. With the help of investment, I become able to read the mind of customers and to bring in innovation according to their demand. Now I am producing products with different features and with different colors etc. this strategy increased my sale as compared to last year. As the sales of my products increasing, I am earning more profit. My investment on research department also helping me to get feedback from people or customers that help me to bring in technological advancement and innovation in electronic products. I have performance appraisal system in my company for the employees so that they can get motivate by getting a reward and can improve their performance to perform in the best possible way. In future, I need to develop performance appraisal system for the employees for times in a year to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the U, Inc.

GROWTH OBJECTIVES

From the growth point of view, I need to improve my two skills the one is to bring in assertiveness in my behavior because I want lower level employees to increase their focus on their work and to follow my instruction without any unwillingness. Another skill that I want to improve is the handling people in the organization. Due to a chain of command, people sometimes cannot share their ideas and plan with me so I find an opportunity to organize meeting one in a month so I managers and employees can be able to share their idea, view, and plans with me. Moreover, this would help e to improve the communication system in the organization. I will implement is plan within a year.

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‘To win employees’

Q1.

‘To win employees’ sustained, energetic commitment to the strategy execution process, management must be resourceful in designing and using motivational incentives.’ Crafting and Executing strategy. Thompson, Gamble, Peteraf, Janes & Sutton. Assess the importance of financial and non-financial rewards in the motivation of employees stating how the alignment of strategy and individual motivation can improve the execution of strategy.         

            Motivation is a process in which the employees set objectives goals or objectives, take necessary action and finally attain the set goals. The valued reward system being the part of the organizational culture would satisfy the needs of the employees in the execution of the strategy, the organization has chosen to achieve the competitive edge. The organizational; goal would set by using the financial and non-financial approaches like increase in the market share or profitability and the increase in the quality of the core products or services.

It is essential for the choosing the unique strategy that the organizational culture must drive the business strategy which is fitted into the activities and difficult for competitors to match this strategy. The total reward for the employees working in the organization is the sum of both the financial (incentives, compensation, benefits) as well as the non-financial rewards (praise from the employer and attention from their leaders or strategic leadership). The practice of reward as the integral part of the organizational culture will increase the motivation among employees, which ultimately leads to the flexibility in the behaviour of employees at different level in an organization.

            In this perspective the approach of the Balanced Scorecard can be sued which is the systematic pattern measuring the performance of an organization. The execution of the strategy of an organization will be efficiently defining the objectives, process, and goasl, which are the part of the organizational culture in order to achieve. . The Balanced Scorecard integrates the motivation necessary for the employees working in an organization by using the appropriate mixture of approaches in which the short-term and long-term non-financial and the financial performance measurement techniques used in the whole organization, as the integral part of the strategy of the organization.

            While analyzing the strategic leadership and balanced score card approach, the techniques in the financial performance measurement of an organization, such as net income and return on the earnings, indicate the evaluation of the organizational strategy in achieving the better results in the form of shareholders worth.  However, financial techniques are not enough for the evaluation of the strategy, which will executed in the organization. Therefore, the firms monitor nonfinancial measurement techniques to understand whether in the organizational culture core capabilities are developing or destroying the motivation of the employees.

            The performance is check based on customers, procedures, employees, and the other systems in the organization for effectively implement the strategy. For growth and development of the future, the core nonfinancial measures are the necessary part or the indicators of financial performance the organization in order to execute the strategy the company has chosen aligning in the business model.

            This tells the importance of the financial and non-financial rewards that will make the improvements by using effectively these indicators and the better financial results or the performance would definitely achieved in this way in the future. While execution of the strategy in the organizational level, the motivation of the employee through the financial and the non-financial rewards, the decreases in the nonfinancial pointers which includes the customer satisfaction as well as the loyalty of the customers for the organization and the quality of the organizational processes generally decrease the performance of the organization in the future.

The organization while executing the business strategy looks for the evaluation of the intangible assets to get the success from the competitors in the form of the competitive advantage. The intangible assets that are the part of the organizational culture include the customer loyalty, the motivation or skills of the employees working in the organization and the core strategic processes in the system. 

            Therefore while analyzing this perspective the balanced score card approach helps the organization in a great way measurement of the intangible or the knowledge assets. The framework is provide to motivate the employees by identifying the non-financial and the financial rewards such as the strategic leadership, benefits, property and inventory in way or the other. That is why the financial and the non-financial rewards by creating the maximum value for the organization used as the effective resources for the execution of the strategy in the organization in a better way.

Q 2 (a) Identify the key factors likely to affect the formation of the culture of an organization using an appropriate model to support your answer.     

These are some key factors, which affects the formation of the organization. These are some of the major points and needs to be remembered whenever you need to change the culture.

Here are the key factors likely to affect the formation of the culture:

The working group

            The working groups show up in associations in various structures. The working power is made by a formal power, the associations being systems of working gatherings. The variables that decide the development of the gathering can be delimitated into the individual qualities (identity, experience, preparing, and state of mind), situational variables (the assignments to satisfy, accessible space, the method for giving the grants separately the gathering in general or the person).

The style of leadership of the managers

            This has a significant impact upon the way of life of a gathering. On the off chance that the director is far off towards his/her subordinates, this state of mind can have a negative effect upon the way of life. The trust in the supervisor, the encapsulation of the boss in a positive case can affect positively the viability of the gathering.

The organizational characteristics

            They can influence, additionally, the kind of society that it is produce. The associations vary concurring characteristics as measure and multifaceted nature. Between the unpredictability of the association’s way of life and the span of the organization (that can be communicate through the business figure, capital, number of workers) there is an immediate relative report. In addition, the huge associations tend to higher degrees of specialization and towards a greater unoriginal character.    

Q 2 (b) Assess why employees may resist change when senior management, want to change organizational culture to aid effective strategy implementation.                                       

            Employees resist in many ways and there are many reasons they want to resist. No one wants to come out of his or her shell. Some of the reasons are stated below that why this happens.

Fear of failure

            Imperviousness to change might be establishing in fear. Amid times of progress, a few workers may feel the need to stick to the past in light of the fact that it was a more secure, unsurprising time. In the event that what they did in the past functioned admirably for them, they may oppose changing their conduct out of trepidation that they will not accomplish as much later on.

Creatures of habit

            Doing things in the same normal, unsurprising way is agreeable. Requesting that individual’s change the way they work or believe is requesting that they move outside their usual range of familiarity.

No obvious need

            A few representatives may see a change just from the point of view of the effect it has on them and their specific employments. Not seeing the 10,000-foot view, they may neglect to perceive the positive effect of the change on the association in general. In this way, they may discover the change troublesome and superfluous.

Loss of control

            Natural schedules help representatives build up a feeling of control over their workplace. Being request that change the way they work may make representatives feel feeble and annoying

Concern about support system

            Representatives working inside unsurprising schedules know their emotionally supportive network will back them up amid testing times. Changing the hierarchical structures may shake their trust in their emotionally supportive network. They may stress over working for another boss, with new representatives or on new tasks since they expect that in the event that they attempt and fall flat, there will be nobody there to bolster them.

Closed minded

            A few workers appear to have the state of mind, “Kindly don’t mistake me for any truths or supporting documentation about this change–I’ve officially decided!” Employees with this demeanour approach the alter process with their opinions immovably made up, mumbling, “No chance to get!” amid examinations and clarifications without bounds.

Unwillingness to learn

            A few workers, reluctant to attempt new schedules, express an unwillingness to learn anything new. They may say, “I definitely know all that I have to know.” Like safe workers who have effectively made up their brains that the change will not be profitable, representatives hesitant to gain some new useful knowledge block the association’s development and adjustment to change. They likewise obstruct their very own development and advancement.

Q 3 it has been suggested that the successful management of strategic change is a key requirement for successful strategy implementation and that the first step to successful change management is to overcome employee resistance.

Given this statement

(a) Identify why change is necessary for successful strategy execution and why employees are likely to resist change                         

            Strategy Change is very necessary in the organization if one wants to make it a successful and sustainable organization. An organization is running on old patterns, culture, technology then it can never compete in the market. They need to change themselves a lot in order to sustain a good position in the market. The most important thing in here is that yes, change is too much important but on the same hand it is very difficult to implement in to the organization. It takes a good hard time and resources to be implementing.

            For instance the resources are met, time is been allotted, hard work is there. Still there is one biggest problem, which the organizations face always. That is the resistance from the employees. The employees never want to see any changes, as they are comfortable that they are doing and how they are doing. They never like change and this is one of the negative things in the organization. There are couples of reasons behind that such as fear of failure, loss of control, close-minded, unwillingness to learn and so on. Most of the time what happen is that they do not need to learn anything, which is the negative aspect of their life. Sometimes they think that the control will be lost as the system will change which is also v bad part of anyone personality. Another major reason, which we have seen, is the fear of failure. As the things are, new people hesitate to look up and explore it. Changes have been made. People hesitate to accept the change to quickly. They do not want to accept as they have fear that who knows the work they are doing is right or wrong.

(b) Analyze the necessary steps that senior management should take in order to successfully, manage strategic change.                               

There are different steps management needs to take in order to implement successful change. Some of the steps have been written and shown below.

Management Support for Change

            The analysis of steps require consent from senior manager actually show that how it can respond in perfect way. It is important that administration indicates support for changes and exhibits that backing when imparting and connecting with staff. Workers build up a solace level when they see administration supporting the procedure.

Case for Change

            Nobody needs to change for change purpose, so it is critical to make a case for change. A case for change can originate from various sources. It can be an after-effect of information gathered on deformity rates, consumer loyalty study, worker fulfilment overview, and client remark cards, business objectives because of a key arranging session or spending plan weights.

Utilizing information is the ideal approach to recognize regions that need to enhance and change activities.

 Employee Involvement

            All change endeavours ought to include workers at some level. Authoritative change, whether extensive or little, should be clarify and conveyed, particularly changes that influence how representatives perform their employments.

            Whether it is changing a work process, enhancing consumer loyalty or discovering approaches to decrease costs, representatives have encounters that can advantage the change arranging and usage process. Since workers are normally nearest to the procedure, it is vital that they comprehend the why behind a change and take an interest in making the new process.

Communicating the Change

            Imparting change ought to be organized and precise. Workers are helpless before administration to illuminate them of changes. At the point when there is poor correspondence and the talk plant begins spreading bits of gossip about change, it can make imperviousness to the change. Being proactive in interchanges can minimize resistance and make representatives feel like they are a piece of the procedure.

 Implementation

            Once a change is arranged, it is essential to have great correspondence about the rollout and usage of the change. A course of events ought to make for the execution and ought to roll out improvements in the request that influence the procedure and the representatives who deal with the procedure.

A successful course of events will take into consideration all new gear, supplies or preparing to occur before completely executed. Executing without a sensible request can make disappointment for those in charge of the work process.

Follow-up

            At whatever point a change has made, it is constantly great to catch up after execution and survey how the change is functioning and if the change conveyed the outcomes that were proposed.

            In some cases, changes surpass target desires yet there are events that progressions simply do not fill in as arranged. When this is the situation, administration ought to recognize that it did not work and make alterations until the sought result is accomplished.

Removing Barriers

            Some of the time representatives experience obstructions when executing changes. Boundaries can be with different workers, different offices, insufficient preparing, lacking gear or supply needs. Some of the time administration likewise needs to manage safe or troublesome representatives.

Q4.

(a) Assess how good leadership and a healthy organisational culture contributes to the strategy implementation process.                  

            There is a great role of the leadership in the change management. the importance of the leadership defines that it is the most significant contributor the change management in  successful manner. The life cycle of the organization tells that the leaders are engaged in a great way in the changes that are occurring in the management. The reason behind this engagement in the change from the leaders is that the leaders against change that is affecting the organization achieve the maximum acceptance. the change is identified from the leader starting from the top most level in the form of bright vision and the aspiring the role models to develop the necessary changes.

            The achievement of the change using the simple approach or the complex methodologies is all-dependent on the culture and the environment of the organization. If the activities of the organization are integrated smoothly the changes in the management would not be a complicated task from the manager point of view. Similarly, the task for the mangers will be difficult if the activities are not integrating smoothly. The successful implementation of the change management requires the intense level of dedication or the commitment from the leader mangers.

            Despite the fact that the changes in the management would occur in the single section or the single unit, the role of the manger is to maintain the same level of the commitment that si used for the change in the whole organization. in this way, the change is made according the settings of the people or the things in the organization that sets the effective tone for the change management. Since all the eyes are on the leaders in the process of the change management in the organization, it is the core duty or the responsibility to make steps that are very effective and set the right examples for the followers. 

            The support and the direction from the leaders in the change management plays an effective role since the motivation that the rest of the employees will pick is from the leaders that bring the change in the management. the model behaviour in which the employees would desire to have the commitment as their leaders would come only after following this way.

(b) Explain how an unhealthy organisational culture starts in an organisation and why it may be difficult for employees to prevent the negative outcomes of such a culture before they damage the organisation.                               

            Unhealthy organisational culture starts in an organisation when there is no scope or trend for adopting the necessary changes in the organizational culture and get advantage from the opportunities comes ahead for the organization and prevents the threats, which are the uncertain and can provide the harm to the organization. The unhealthy culture takes place when the organizations lack in the ability to understand the importance of the change management and its advantages over the organizational culture.

            The other reasons for the unhealthy culture in the organization are no clear vision and the planning for addressing the changes, no real defined governance which manages the changes in the agents or the committees, when there is no committed and the dedicated leadership in the organization. The other reasons are when there is huge deficit of the stakeholder, which are informed, the lack in the communication through the flexible approach and the integrated workforce that helps the organization to have the strong impact of the people.

            All these key factors described in above-mentioned discussion play an important role in the organization and therefore, it becomes very difficult for the employees at times to cope with these wrong dealing in the organization due to the lack of guidelines or instructions to follow in the organizational culture.  The employees become the part of this wrong organizational culture. There is nothing for them to follow for the change management like the effective leadership from the managers, the committed workforce and support from the leaders.

Q5.

Since the only constant in the lives of leader-managers will be change, the ability to handle strategic change is a fundamental skill.

Discuss this statement identifying key drivers of change in modern organisations and identify how leaders-managers should prepare for the management of the key drivers identified.                                   

            The factors which are considered very significant for the successful management change are list and explained in detail in below discussion         

  1. Planning:  The first important factor in the change management in the contemporary organization is the planning in which the developing and list of documentation must be ready in order to set the objectives that must be achieve by the change management and the processes while achieving those objectives.

      The leader mangers must plan in a context that what are the current implications of the strategy and what future planning must be the integral part of the organization. The clear vision is the second most important factor that must considered from the leaders’ mangers. The changes that the organization would consider in the vision after some time must also handled in   way that the answer of the initiatives that the mangers took and the results on the organizational strategy must provided by the mangers.

  • Classified and Transparent Governance: The second important indicator of the contemporary change management is the classified and the transparent governance. The establishing appropriate structures of the organization, the relevant and updated roles, and responsibilities of the employees that is very necessary for the change that slot in the major stakeholders and provide the necessary support the changing external efforts.

      The things that must be considered from the leader manger are included the changes in the governance in the form of the committees and the agents. The practical outcomes or the results, the quality checks and the accurate decision-making with regard to policy and the procedures in the change management must consider.

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  • Commitment and dedication of the Leadership: The third important factor, which is classifying as a very important for the management change, is the commitment and the dedication of the leadership in the organization.  the first thing in this perspective we have analyzed is the ongoing, relevant and the dynamic commitment at the top level of the management present in any organization and across the board for the authoritative leadership in an organisation to guide organisational attitudes, motivation and the  behaviour, and lead by the unique or the differentiated example to follow.

      The things that the leader manger should incorporate are effective and the dynamic role, the high visibility for the sake of the support to the other management members in the organization and the setting the example for the employees to follow intelligently.

  • Awareness among Stakeholders: The fourth vital element, which is a necessary factor in the change management, is the awareness among the stakeholders. In the contemporary setting of the culture of the organization is the planning in the organizational change management encourages the participation of the major stakeholder and these parties to the effective change in management show commitment. By the evaluation or assessment of the employing an open, flexible and reviewing communication dimension to create the maximum awareness and the maximum amount of understanding of the change required or necessary right through the culture of the organisation.

      The things that the mangers must consider include the communication, which will be flexible in nature and the purpose of the change in the communication, must clarify by the leader manger in way that everyone in the organization have the influence.

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  • Integrated Workforce: The last most important factor in the change management in the contemporary organization is the integrated workforce. The integrated workforce has used widely by the different organizations for identifying the human impacts for developing the core changes and implementation of the plans to integrate the workforce or the employees of the organization to support the changing that are developing on the continuous basis in the organisation.

            The important factors that the leader manger must take into the account are organizational needs or the assessments in the required needs of the organization and the impact of the people in the change management.

            Q6.

Strategic planning is easy.  Implementing and executing strategy effectively is difficult.

Discuss this statement identifying the requirements for building an organisation capable of executing strategy effectively.                                 

            Strategic planning is easy.  Implementing and executing strategy effectively is difficult. While analyzing this statement we have come across few requirements in the issues the that organizations has to face for the effective implementation of the strategy that fits into the organization culture

  1. The integration of the organizational culture with the strategically operations in order to meet the upcoming challenges

            For the effective strategy to be implementing in the organization it is very necessary that the execution of the strategy is solid. The execution is the representation of the disciplined procedures that is rooted into the culture of the organization. Then the strategy is use for the specific purpose and it is implementing in the business model of the organization. Without having, the solid planning in the implementation phase of the strategy the execution of the specific strategy would not do in the professional manner.   Therefore, the goals set into the organizational culture can achieved while having the appropriate approach in the planning of the strategy that is the core part of the organizational culture.

            Therefore, the logical approach must be the part of the execution of the strategy so that the effective practical results come for the organization. Even with the design or the development of the solid executions planning phase, the guaranteed of the success is still not in the hands of the organization.  However, the significant part in the successful execution of the strategy that integrates to the organizational culture is the organization must select the different and unique approach in its strategy in order to have the successful execution.

  • The reward system and the incentives the employees receive in the organizational setting and relationship with the performance or attaining the competitive advantage

            Although there is no doubt that, the execution of the strategy is critical for the better performance of the organization or the competitive edge. There are still many challenges like the reward system effectiveness in the organizational culture. The biasness should remove on the seniority basis. The rewards system in the organization should be based on the performance of the employees regard less to the

Although execution is critical to strategic success, making strategy work presents a formidable challenge. A host of factors, including politics, inertia, and resistance to change, routinely can get in the way of execution success.

  • The ability to tackle problems in using the innovative methods in the problem solving techniques as the part of the organizational structure

      The organization would not able to cope with resources effectively until the resources are equipped with the right approach in performing the necessary operations of the business. if the organizational cultural support with the effective use of the resources while taking into account the dynamic approach is received to the organization, the execution of the current strategy would be perfect. This means that the logical execution of the planning phase along with the innovative organisational culture is the two necessary parts of the successful execution of the strategy.

      The next thing in the successful execution of the strategy is the ability of the organization from the mangerial structure point of view to address the changes that are prevailing in the outside environment of the organization. In this way, the best results for the organization would achieve. The poor culture of the organization can be eliminating through the logical planning, which ultimately made the execution of the strategy in a successful way.

  • The effective dealing of challenges the organization has to face with respect to the change management

            The part of the management is very important in this section because apart from making the logical plans for the execution of the sound strategy that works best for the organization. It is also very necessary that the people or the management is up to the challenges that the organization is facing through the lack of the resources as compared to the competitors for the effective implementation of the strategy. so it is the core responsibility ort the duty of the sound management that the tasks which are set for dealing those challenges must be aligned to the corporate culture so that the strategy that the organization want to execute effectively done in the smooth management processes.

            The execution of the strategy must be as sound and as effective as the steps management takes for the formulation of the strategy that fits into the roots of the business operations in order for the organization to perform in the better way. The changes in the management must be spontaneous in order to make the clear objectives for the execution of the strategy in an organized way.

Q7.

“The strategic direction chosen by the organisation can be assessed on three key criteria namely, suitability, acceptability and feasibility.”    

Johnson and Scholes

Discuss                                                                                                      

            Suitability

            It is very important to consider the suitability among other choices while making the analysis of the strategy of the organization. The consistency is check in this way from the number of issues the organization is facing while implementing the strategy. The feature that drives the organization through the core operations of the business has discussed through the suitability factor in the organizational strategy. The consistency in the core competencies is also evaluating through the suitability while executing the strategy of the organization. The issue, which the implantation of the strategy deals, is the cultural patterns and the core values of the organization in a way that the effective use of the core capabilities must be necessary for the specific organization.

            The suitability deal with all these concerns such as the cultural patterns and the structure of the organization is concerned. The assessment of the organizational suitability is the competencies and the core resources the company used in the most efficient way than its competitors. For this, the organizational strategy plays an important or the significant role in determining the strengths or the effective competencies through which the objective of identifying the suitability of the resources sued in the organizational both internal way and the external way. Apart from checking the core internal competencies, the major weakness are analyzed trough the suitability factor in the organization.

            The last thing we have checked in this perspective of the suitability with respect to the organizational strategy in achieving the competitive advantage is the potential of the strategy in for the purpose of the exploitation of these core resources of the organization. The potential of the strategy is check while making full use of the relevant opportunities and avoiding the dangerous or the uncertain threat in the organizational strategy.

Feasibility

            The feasibility analyzes the practical implications of the organizational strategy in a way that whether the strategy the company or organization has selected would be able to develop or achieved the core competencies, core resources in the organizational operations. To get the competitive advantage from the competitors it is very important for the organization to check the practicality of the strategy while analyzing the core competencies that are the part of the organizational culture. therefore it is evaluated by using the feasibility factor what core strategy the organization should select that uses the resources in easy way and the cost efficient way. the integration of the resources with the business strategy and the organizational culture plays an important role in this section in order to analyze the feasibility of the strategy the organization has selected.

            The feasibility also analyzes the organizational management and structure like  the skills or abilities of the employees, the technology the company is using and the brand name the organization has developed match to the strategic choices while looking at the relevant resources or competencies. The skills, abilities which are part of the human resources management evaluates the company operations through the technique of the system the company is using which match the organizational strategy.

Acceptability

            In the acceptability we checks the strategic results which have come around are whether integration or being accepted by the main stakeholders of the organization.  The strategy the organization has chosen is check with aspect to the business.  The business operations integration with the profit generation capacity is the focus of the evaluation of the acceptability of the strategy the company is perusing in order to satisfy the main stakeholders of the organization.

            For the acceptability, the forecasting techniques and the risk evaluation are tools for the satisfaction of the employees and the other stakeholders. The profitability if in the optimum level, then the strategy is accepted both the employees working in the organization as well as the stakeholders of the company. Similarly, if the profitability of the specific organization does not match to the optimum expectations of the employees and the other important parties that have the strong connection with the business.

            The other important factor that is concerned in the acceptability aspect is the environment or the conditions provide to the employees are aligned to the organization culture for the successful execution of the business. The acceptance of the working environment or the conditions must also need to be incorporate in the assessment of the acceptability factor, as it is the necessary part for achieving the higher performance in the organization.

Q8.

(a)Evaluate the usefulness of Ansoffs product market growth matrix as a tool of determination of strategic direction.                                                

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            The ANSOFF matrix is the matrix that is very useful in the intensive growth model approach while providing the direction of which strategy to select.

            Let us see the market penetration first, which is the strategy that will fit into the business models of those organizations who want take the low level of risks in order to expand their business. The growth by selecting this strategy would be quite low because the organizations are taking the safe side with the products that are the same and the markets are the same as well. For the internal resources the organizations uses the discounts, packages and other things in order to make the market penetration the effective part of the organization. the marketing strategy would be taken under this strategy by offering the loyalty schemes and the concessions in the price strategy of the organization.

            The next strategy is the product development that the organizations use to take some sought of risks in order to expand their business. The technique used in this strategy is that the company offers the same products but the market, which is target by the company, is entirely new. The different sought of variants as the resources for the product development are used and the new products are the new services in the relevant field are use by the organization as the growth strategy by the organizations.

            Then we have analyzed the market penetration, which shows that is a little more risky strategy for the organizations since the new markets are offer from the companies by having the same sough of products. It is not an easy strategy, which will match the organizational structure since a huge risk is involved while entering into the new markets. for this strategy the external analysis or the PEST analysis would be analyzed by the organizations in which the macro level changes to the organizations are evaluated. Another approach use in this perspective is the marketing mix approach in which product, price, place and promotions is evaluated which tells the directions of the strategy to choose for the organization.

            The next strategy is the diversification strategy, which would fit for those organizations who are the risk lovers. The extreme risk is involved in pursuing this strategy since the products and the new markets the organization is going to target.

(b) Discuss the relevance, if any, of the matrix to a public sector organisation not driven by a profit motive.                                                                       

            The public sector organization, which is not drive by the motive of the profitability, would be better to choose the market penetration strategy. Since the risk involved in this strategy is not very high it would be the better options for the public organization who is working with the organizational culture of not earning the profits. The next important indicator o the market penetration strategy for the public sector organization is the encouragement to the customers that the current product would be providing more utility within the same target market. teh Boston matrix could play the effective role in this part since the direction of the strategy will be received by the public organization through which unit or division the investment should increase or which unit needs less investment.

            The other reason is that the growth by selecting this strategy would be quite low because the organizations are taking the safe side with the products that are the same and the markets are the same as well. For the internal resources the organizations uses the discounts, packages and other things in order to make the market penetration the effective part of the organization.

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Speaking Treason Fluently

Tim Wisely is a racial critic, who comes from a privilege background. The thirty-six years writer has written various books, win which he has not only documented his personal experiences, but also events and statistics, which supports his ideas, arguments and claims. Speaking Treason Fluently, is the collection, of Tim’s work, and his rattle, against various discriminatory practices, which hurt the egalitarian cause. It is imperative to understand that Tim, who comes from a rich, white and privilege background, not only discuss the impact, of these unfair racial practices, on colored people, but primarily, his focus is White Class, who is ignorant of the fact that their privilege is actually hurting society. In his book, he has mentioned and discussed, in great detail, various events. The reviewer give the example of 9/11 incident, in which many Americans have killed. Tim argues and the reviewer agrees that unity, showed by various Americans racial and ethnic groups, was phony and unreal. This was because different ethnic and racial groups live in different realities and under different conditions, which never allow them to truly amalgamate. Another example, which Tim gave and reviewer agreed with, was regarding the Hurricane Katrina. Tim asserted the because of the affects were not white, therefore, the government responded very slowly, which actually aggravated the situation. Because of fewer resources, as a result of devastation, people involved in looting and killings, this eventually provoked a military response. Another example, Tim gives, is regarding Affirmative Action, which is strongly resisted, in US. This is because Americans, White Americans, are not willing to accept such progressive idea, which address social injustice and inequality, in economic terms.  The paper provides the description of ethnic and racial group of the demonstrations of the different cultural values of the society.  The roles and responsibilities of each groups provides the credibility for their living standards in the society.   The effects of white are that initiates the execution of white people in the society and reviews of values that are prevailing in the live of peoples.

American Society is an unjust society, where racial exploitation and discrimination exists in various manifestations. However, most of the Americans, especially White Americans, are not willing to understand this stern reality. The flippant attitude, of White Americans, has roots in the preconceived notions, regarding different various matters and subjects. This is because, most of the White Americans are the beneficiary of this prevailing social and political system and as a beneficiary it is extremely difficult or hard for them to boldly take a stance, against the prevailing conditions or environment. In the book, which is actually collection of his works and discussion on various incidences, Tim has thoroughly discussed how imperative it is acknowledge the existing reality and how essential it is change that existing reality. The social and economic evolution has stunned and because institutional discrimination, America is not able to reach it potential. This is not only slowing down the natural process, but further disintegrating society. The incidents, which have been mentioned and discussed, by Tim Wise, are Duke Lacrosse scandal, 9/11, Hurricane Katrina and Affirmative Action. All these incidents are associated, in one way or another, with racial and ethnic problem in US. In some of the incidences, Sate’s discriminatory policies and approach has been discussed in detail. In addition, the consequences or the ramifications, of these events and incidences have been discussed thoroughly. For instance, the United States institutions have not responded, during Katrina Hurricane in manner, in which they have responded, if the affects were white. Speaking treason fluently provides the in-depth execution of institutional discriminations and disintegrating of society for future exploration. Unjust society as well as exploitation of racial discrimination is the major challenge that are prevailing the reviews to demonstrate various manifestations that are leads some issues.  The Katrina and manner of hurricane indicates the effects of white in the prevailing society.  Effects of white helps are to distinguish values of cultures.

In American history, prejudice has stayed one of the essential and critical issues. Most claim that American Civil War was pursued to spare the union and to free African American Slaves, however generally oppose this idea. They assert that White Americans never truly needed to address, entire heatedly, the issue of prejudice and separation. Thusly, regardless of the American Civil War and Constitutional Amendments, which gave African Americans or Black Americans political and social liberties, the condition or situation, did not change financial, economic wellbeing, of African Americans. Along these lines, in the mid 60s, we saw the ascent of social-political developments, requesting more social liberties, for the minorities individuals. Tim Wise is of the perspective that these issues or difficulties, relating to race ethnicity, still exist, which really derides the lawful and protected advancements, jumped out at diminish racial and ethnic separation and isolation, on state and societal level. In the book, Speaking Treason Fluently, Tim has not just shared his own encounters, in regards to the benefits of normal White male, additionally he has examined and insinuated occasions and rates, which bolsters his contentions and perspective point. For example, he specifies that White Americans are insensible of racial truths and the practices, which quite mistreat other racial and ethnic gatherings. He additionally expresses that framework itself is intended to encourage White Americans and treat them uniquely in contrast to the rest. In any case, the political and social changes are happening and to support this contention, Tim has given the example, of Obama, who has been chosen President. The critical issues and challenges are prevailing in the society provides the indication how the country reposed towards the specific challenges in essential and adequate manner.  The social-political developments as well as demonstrations of requesting more social liberties are the main accent describes in the certain events. The mistreatment of ethnic and racial gathering gives the inside and out examination to highlight the real unions in American history.

The narrative talks about the institutional racism. The institutional racism is something that is important in routine specifically in the United States. The author pondered that how the political rise of Barack Obama was the latest talk about the institutional racism in America. Further, the way of implications of Hurricane Katrina was another stance. American Society is an unmerited society, where racial abuse and partition exists in various signs. In any case, an extensive bit of the Americans, especially White Americans, are not willing to fathom this stern reality. The brazen air, of White Americans, has roots in the suspicions, regarding different distinctive matters and subjects. This is in light of the fact that, most of the White Americans are the beneficiary of this larger social and political system and as a beneficiary; it is to an extraordinary degree troublesome or hard for them to emphatically take a position, against the general conditions or environment. In the book, which is truly amassing of his works and trade on various rates, Tim has through and through discussed how essential it is perceive the present reality and how basic it is change that present reality. The social and monetary advancement has entranced and in light of the fact that institutional isolation, America is not prepared to accomplish it potential. The way is to explore hidden perspective so that racial implications can explore further with possible outcomes. This is sponsorship off the trademark methodology, and in addition further separating society. For example, the United States associations have not responded, in the midst of Katrina Hurricane in route, in which they have responded, if the impacts were white. The trade rates and also work gathering depicted in this audit to give the key estimations of specialists. The abuse of racial and murmurs of independent demonstrate the assessment of white American in the public. The principle issues connected with the ethnic and racial separation where state decided certain techniques to determine such issues. The outcome of such separation has differing sway on the general public response of white. The events, which have been said and talked in, regards to, by Tim Wise, are Duke Lacrosse shock, 9/11, Hurricane Katrina and Affirmative Action. Each one of these scenes is connected, in by one means or another, with racial and ethnic issue in US. In a segment of the rates, Sate’s biased methodologies and approach has been inspected in purpose of interest. Also, the results or the outcomes, of these events and rates have been discussed through and through.


Source:

http://www.amazon.com/Speaking-Treason-Fluently-Anti-Racist-Reflections/dp/1593762070
http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/3047652-speaking-treason-fluently
https://www.buffalolib.org/vufind/Record/1742450/Reviews/
http://www.socialjusticematters.org/books-we-ve-read/speakingtreasonfluentlyantiracistreflectionsfromanangrywhitemalebytimwise