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IFRS Requirements

IFRS Requirements

            The international Financial Reporting Standard is a global language to strengthen the accounting or financial systems of different international firms. This is all about standardization of financial statements of different organizations in order to make them understandable and precise. This is a fact that this financial reporting has taken its place in different countries with replacements of traditional accounting standards. (, 2015)

            The main requirements of this standard are financial position statement, income statements, equity changes statements and cash flow statements. Regarding cash flow statements, the main requirement is to depict the change in balance sheet and income statements to justify its impact on cash, financial operations and investments. The current operating results and changes in balance sheet have been considered as main requirements of the international Financial Reporting Standard for statements of cash flow. (, 2015)

            Relative to Generally Accepted Accounting Principle, it provides guidelines and rules to perform different financial activities in different organizations. The big differences are regarding rules and principles. We can say that GAAP is rule based and IFRS is a principle-based system. The international Financial Reporting Standard regarding cash flow does not provide immense details of different accounting operations than GAAP. GAAP let the financial experts to navigate the cash flow and its impacts on overall all financial system deeply. (Trott, 2015)

            In addition, this has been observed that the IFRS does not have effective considerations regarding comprehensive income than GAAP. The comparison between GAAP and IFRS can be justified with a possible risk that can occur when navigate IFRS as compared to GAAP. In end, an effective cash flow can be practiced well in GAAP as compared to IFRS. However, with great improvisation in accounting systems, it is also very handy and effective. (Trott, 2015)

References (2015, December 10). IFRS: 2015 and beyond. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from IFRS:

Trott, E. (2015, May 4). Exceptions for Private Companies Are Damaging the GAAP Brand. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from CFO:

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EU Directive on Data Protection

EU Directive on Data Protection

Data base protection, laws by EU community’s directive will be beneficial for the US and global companies, as the company’s data will be preserved, and transitions they did will be preserved. The laws will strengthen the provisions, as individuals or companies will be secured, when they will know that their data is protected they will provide the personal data and genuine content. It will not provide the competitors with the one’s personal applications and security. Many of the companies had faced losses and competitive advantages as their data is not secured, however, the law can secure the privacy, employee’s information, application and software that exists in businesses process. By adding the security application one can grow or expand in the market, the sales processes will also increases, when the clients know that companies are providing them with secure content, and then demands for goods will be increases. The company can be update and can meet the current standards, as company will be able to provide the current demand, software interoperability will be ensured. Many countries across the world can earn profit and get competitive advantages if they are under the law of EU community protection, as better business management can lead the company the company to plan better business processes (Montia, 2012).

However, if proper training is not given to the employees, who maintain the data, then there could be difficulties faced by the companies, and employees can reveal the data. There could be management complexities if the data base protection system, is not fully managed or ensured.


Montia, G. (2012, Jan 30). EU data protection proposals – pros and cons. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from

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Reflection Paper




To provide the best quality electronic products with the best software to customers


To design best personal computers with the best operating system with the help of professional software for the people around the world.



Assets are the important part of the business; there are almost four types of assets; fixed assets, current assets, tangible assets and intangible asset. From current assets point of view, my strengths are; investment of my business that is I am going to invest in China where I can find lower labor cost that can help me to achieve large revenue. My bank balance is also a current asset. From my fixed assets point of view, U, Inc. has a huge building including furniture, equipment, machines etc. are the fixed assets. These fixed assets are also called tangible assets. From the intangible asset point of view, intangible assets are the good will of the U, Inc. image of the company in the mind of consumers, software that I am using for the producing electronic devices etc.


Like every person have some weaknesses, businesses also have some weak points. Weaknesses of U, Inc. includes the liabilities I have.  For starting the business I have borrowed a large amount of money from the bank that I am liable to pay within 10 years. There are two types of liabilities, current liabilities, and long-term liabilities. I am only liable to pay the long-term liability within 10 years and I am not liable to pay any current liability like short-term bank loans etc. On borrowing the money, I become able to start the business that is U, Inc. currently I am generating revenues that will help me to pay all the debt of the bank.


I am offering people electronic equipment like personal computers, laptops, desktop, mobile phones, and Operating system etc. to the customers around the world. People around the world either living a house, performing a job in every field student, professionals, and youngsters are the customers of my products. Customers must have skills to use the operating system that I am offering with my desktop and other electronic devices like laptops and mobile phone applications. I have a lot of employees that are working different departments I have in my company; human resource department, accounting department, finance department, manufacturing department and resources department etc. Employees are highly skilled and know well about their duties and responsibilities. Employees are loyal to me and are satisfied as I am providing them with handsome salary according to their skills, experience, and job description. I have some potential customers; young people; professional and students. These are potential customers because the need high-quality mobile phone that helps them in communication and in studies, a laptop that helps them in studies and in professional life.


I am offering Laptops, mobile phones, personal computers, desktops, operating system etc. Electronic devices to the people around the world. My offerings include special product at premium prices and the general products that are available at low cost.  I am differentiating my products by bringing in technological advancement and innovation in my products. As my products are related to technology, I bring in innovations according to the demand of customers. I have a specific operating system and application for mobile phones and computers that no one use or find in other competitors phone or computers. I am going to extend the product line that is introducing innovative iPad’s that has a specific operating system and protection that no one can imitate it. As the demand for the technological products is increasing this product would defiantly help me to achieve the competitive advantage.


I am currently investing in research and development department in the sense that wants to research the products I offer to the people, what they think about it and perceive about it and want they want to Improve. Moreover, I am investing money in finding out potential market like china where I can find workers to assemble the manufactured electronic product at low cost it will help me to earn large amount of money. With the help of investment, I become able to read the mind of customers and to bring in innovation according to their demand. Now I am producing products with different features and with different colors etc. this strategy increased my sale as compared to last year. As the sales of my products increasing, I am earning more profit. My investment on research department also helping me to get feedback from people or customers that help me to bring in technological advancement and innovation in electronic products. I have performance appraisal system in my company for the employees so that they can get motivate by getting a reward and can improve their performance to perform in the best possible way. In future, I need to develop performance appraisal system for the employees for times in a year to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the U, Inc.


From the growth point of view, I need to improve my two skills the one is to bring in assertiveness in my behavior because I want lower level employees to increase their focus on their work and to follow my instruction without any unwillingness. Another skill that I want to improve is the handling people in the organization. Due to a chain of command, people sometimes cannot share their ideas and plan with me so I find an opportunity to organize meeting one in a month so I managers and employees can be able to share their idea, view, and plans with me. Moreover, this would help e to improve the communication system in the organization. I will implement is plan within a year.

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Maturity 5

Continuous Capability Improvement

The consistent improvement is all about the competency measurement to show the proper process utilization. The consistent improvement is all about the ways that can develop activities in measuring different tasks in the best way. The consistent movement of knowledge sharing from one platform within the organization to other can create change in required terms and conditions for the human development. The organizational approach towards such individual’s development can enhance the way of protection at one hand and way of delivery at other. The individual perspective is liable to approach through the best way towards the organizational success.

The role of working groups in continuous capability improvement is a way that can explore things in a righteous way. The way that is admiring for individuals and other working groups to show that how it can evaluate the commitment towards the human development. The focuses of such ways are entirely upon the improvement listed for the capability measurement as one individual shows. The intention towards getting something good means it is to provide the required terms and conditions to allow measurements by evaluating other factors of improvements. The competency-based process is requiring for skill exploration and personal methods to assure personal improvement.

The work group improvements are there to allow activity management so that it may address issues for any kinds of organizational improvement. The organization is one but its objectives may be numerous because it can handle activities through proper activity management way. The way recommended for the continuous improvement is about to show the reality that is recommended for the process. The work groups are so much focused that it showed capability and allow performance for the operating processes with proper operating capability.

Organizational performance Alignment

The organizational performance alignment is about the result orientation to show the exact information so that business objectives can achieve. The whole elements from individuals to group levels at the organization can explore the way of delivering process. The qualitative based measurement process is about the way that is admirable to allow activities in required form. The areas  over here are about the complete picture of performance by taking the consent from the upper management. It may allow us for best business objectives that can argue with the workforce activities in strategic management. The organizational business objectives are there properly ensured through unit division and assure that business objective has direct linkage with them. 

There are many levels in an organization that can attract individuals with business objectives to assure through process management. There are different activities at different levels and those activities are vertically dealing with organizational policies from the collection of individuals from one aspect to another. The appropriate professionals are there because those professionals divide work according to working capacity. The assurance of objectives can enhance the level of knowledge sharing because alignment activities are difficult to enforce. The relevant law procedures directed the organizational change could motivate individuals as well as different social groups so that alignment should make ideally.

The quantitatively analyzed perspective is another way that may address issues in required format. There are several operational managers and activists liable to respond according to organizational perspective to allow activities in required form. The quality efficiency, as well as the performance experts, are major elements that can address issues in the proper way if these schools can deal with organizational objectives in the proper way.

Continuous Workforce Innovation

The purpose of the organization is to grow and growing is not possible unless or until it shows some workforce practices and latest technologies in the environment. The most promising environment is one that is liable to respond through immediate new practices only applicable from the top of the organization. The approval of innovation aspects is a must thing because it can manage a variety of issues and across the board change without lowering the policies. The practices at human and technological aspect are basic innovative techniques not possible through introducing new media plan. The media and methods of innovations are bound to respond because there is no or least level of creativity. The compensation schemes are normal practices and these practices are about to show the same level approach in the way that is not so required by developing methods.

Once the innovative technique is applied, it cannot grow only with implementation and growing plan because the workforce is all about the policies and best practice to communicate. The researchers at academic level showed that innovative workforce is possible only when it required improved workforce and its issues. The purpose of such practice is only there according to some issues because it can communicate or coordinate through new developments in workforce practices. The technological aspect of the organization is all about the new ways to manage to get a competitive advantage. The competitive environment is possible only when it acquire something new for the company and best for the organization as the whole. The exploration of potential applications about the innovative workforce is possible by showing several activities at one level.

Most of those activities are about the research management attitude because workforce practices can bring change in the organization. The supplier management is another way to change.

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Business plan

Section 1

Cover memo

Bugshan hospital

Internal communication


From: XYZ

Date: 8 April 2016

Re: Business plan for establishing inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah.

This paper contains information about business plan for starting a psychology service in the private hospital in Saudi Arabia. Selected city for this proposal is Jeddah. In this paper, feasibility analysis, operating plan and risk are covered for this proposed business. The mission of this new business is to serve the community by providing them a good mental health. The purpose of starting this business in Saudi Arabia is there is less number of hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Selection of city was appropriate for this proposed business. Jeddah only contains one hospital that is providing this service to patients with inpatient unit. I hope that you will find information in this business plan effective for providing operating and financial help for this hospital. Bugshan hospital should participate in financial and operating help for this proposed business.

Title page

A proposal

To establish

Inpatient unit


Psychiatry department in privet hospital

Submitted by:


Bugshan hospital

Planning department

April 2016

Table of contents

Description of the Initiative                                                                4

Market analysis                                                                                   5

Marketing plan                                                                                    6

Finance resource requirement plan                                                      7

Financial feasibility analysis                                                               8

Implementation/Operating plan                                                          11

Key performance measures                                                                 12                                           

Strengths and weaknesses summary including risk                            13

How one can read business plan                                                         13

A successful business plan                                                                  14

Executive Summary

Bugshan Hospital in Jeddah is one of the most renowned hospitals in the region and of Saudi Arabia for their medical services and patient care. By considering the need of the mental health in the Jeddah region, the department of Psychiatry Bugshan hospital proposed to establish a new inpatient unit of Psychiatry for providing good mental health. It is expected that this business is a potentiated Capital Investment opportunity

Psychiatry department has planned to provide a specialized treatment for the people suffering with psychological, emotional and behavioral disorders. The core purpose of this project is to help and treat the mental patient through the possibly best medical treatments. The skilled professional doctors will be hired to treat the patient with a purpose to add value to live a normal life.

Bugshan Hospital has a to develop an In-patient Care department in hospital which is proposed to deal as a General Clinics for General Adult Psychiatry and Clinic for Paediatric Psychiatry.

Patients will be admitted within the hospital as average number of inpatients for offering a variety of therapeutic techniques to get well quickly and they will be provided secure therapeutic environment. In treatment, a special procedure involves for treatment is Electroconvulsive therapy, Psychometric testing, Cognitive behavior therapy, Psychotherapy.

Psychiatry department in Bugshan Hospital is the first inpatient unit by department of Psychiatry in Jeddah city by a private hospital and second overall psychiatry hospital as one is situated as Jeddah National Hospital. In business point of view this will investment plan will not only earn a good reputation but it will give great financially benefits to the investors. Market analysis in Jeddah city shows a high demand for this treatment unit as social life have many problems which are increasing the number of mental patient day by day.

Taking a total perspective, inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah will have professionally skilled and experienced doctors, paramedical staff and advanced medical equipment’s, patient friendly environment to meet all the required standards. As the medical science and technology is changing rapidly due to the modern research and inventions, therefore this idea is well suited to utilize these newly developed medical tactics and technology for the betterment of human.

Bugshan hospital department of Psychiatry is aimed to get itself developed into one of the best healthcare institutions in Jeddah with the specialists of the relevant field and the mission is to provide compassionate healthcare of the highest quality at an affordable cost to serve the nation and humanity. However to make this plan successful, there is need to focus on the weaknesses such as the unavailability of the staff in the local market. If theses weakness will be affectively addressed then this business plan could receive great success.

Description of Initiative

The purpose of starting a Psychiatry department in Bugshan Hospital is to provide patients good mental health. Mental health of patients is important for their development. It provides better community participation. In this department, our business would provide different services to patients including behavior disorder, psychiatric disease, emotional problems, etc. This department would provide treatment to adolescents and children in their mental disturbance like suicide attempts, mood disorder, disruptive behavior, anxiety disorder etc. This proposed project is important because, in Saudi Arabia, problems related to mental health have been increasing. Mental illness has become important issue in Saudi Arabia. For better participation of people in the development of the community is associated with their mental development. They can perform better if they are mentally strong. The importance of this project is to provide better prosperity of life to patients. It has researched that only one hospital in Jeddah is providing this inpatient service to its patients. This department only has limited space for treatment. It only consisted of 20 beds (AD & DO., 2002).

Organizational Structure

The Bugshan Hospital will come up with good organizational structure. The organizational involve all following stakeholders. These are director general, secretary of DG, Office Director, Committees, Assistant Director, financial department, radiology department, medical department, medical record department and hospital affair department.

In addition, different sections are workforce, surgery, training, information, specialized programs sections, media affair section, supplier section and establishment of the Hospital.

The management intends to have different departments in the company and enable effective communication process. The organizational structure seems good, as it is based on coordination of different departments. There will be inclusion of all departments in this structure, which will carry different business operations (Almoshawah, 2010).

 The inclusion of all medical departments cannot be compromised in this project, as it is the main purpose of this new development. For Instance, there will be all facilities for patients, which justified this organizational structure. The most important thing is coordination, which each department will have with others.

The finance department will look after all other departments regarding the financial resources and costing. Effective communication in this organizational structure will help this department to share the knowledge and feasibility reports with other departments in order have all necessary aspects.  This is a fact that this organizational structure will be a base for this develop, which enhances the chances of success after completion (Bahri, 2012).

Relative to organizational structure, the consideration of the management is to have a complete unit in form of complete organizational structure. The hospital already exist and the most important thing will be the retention of old departments, coordination and communication process. Obviously, the management intends to have flexible structure, which can be modified according to time and situation.  The organizational structure is pertinent to mission and vision of a company, as it reliable and can be made as a baseline for strategic decision-making (Cain, 2012).

Section 2

Market analysis

Market analysis has conducted for analyzing the demand for this service in the city. Current problems in mental health in Saudi Arabia indicate high demand for this service. The proposed business plan is to establish this service in Jeddah. In a research, the author concluded high rate of emotional disorders in young people in Saudi Arabia. Many studies have conducted for analyzing the rate of emotional disorders in children in school. He concluded that average age for this disease is 17 years and mostly students are female. From these studies, 16 to 59% studies concluded significant emotional and mental symptoms in students of secondary school. (Koenig, et al., 2014).

            Another study having a sample size of 609 concluded that 46.6% men have mental illness and 53.4% women. It was concluded from the study that 1/3rd of patients have the problem of mental illness. It was concluded that rate is high ion young people from age 15 to age 65 years. It was also concluded from the study that rate is high in widows and divorced women in Saudi Arabia. (AD & DO., 2002)  Another study concluded that current services have weaknesses in satisfying demand of patients (Almoshawah, 2010). This is the reason why more services are required in this area. Market research has provided high demand of Psychiatry service in Saudi Arabia. Demand for service is higher than its present or current supply in the country especially.

Market analysis has concluded that there is the presence of psychological disorder in Saudi Arabia patients. Due to the limitation of hospitals having this department, patients are facing challenges in fighting this disease. There is the need to open this department in the hospital so that patients can get better services in the city of Jeddah.

Marketing plan

             In this section, marketing activities of this proposed business have provided. Marketing plan provided detail of pricing strategies and advertising techniques. Prices of services would be based on income level of patients. This department is going to start in Bugshan hospital that is the private hospital in Saudi Arabia. Private hospital charges high prices as compared to government hospitals. There would be different services. Prices would range from the severity of the disease. Services include treatment of behavior disorder, mental illness, suicide attempts, mood disorders, psychotic disorders etc (Elbashier, 2006).

             Each service would have the different price. Prices would be based on a strategy of not too high and not too less for the hospital. It will match with existing pricing strategy of the hospital. Market share would be gained due to the good reputation of the hospital. Bugshan hospital is one of the main private hospital in Jeddah. Market share would be obtained by proving high-quality services to customers with better satisfaction. Innovation would be one of the effective strategy for improving the market share of this proposed business. Our qualified professionals would increase the satisfaction of patients. We will provide training to our professionals to increase market share and patients recovery rate (Jerman & Završnik, 2013).

                        Different marketing strategies would be effective for this business. One of effective marketing strategy would be the word of mouth. After getting satisfactory services, patients would recommend this to their friends and relatives. Social media marketing is another competitive marketing strategy. Patients would be able to take appointment from their doctors using the internet. Social media marketing would cover advertisement on Facebook, twitter, web page, etc. This business would motivate customers by satisfying their diversified demand.

            Other marketing strategies would include advertising on television and radio. Customers would provide the good image of services. Customer’s feedback and suggestions would be other important marketing strategies for this business. Their suggestions would be considered for better results in future. Patients would be treated with care in hospitals. They would be given treatment after accessing their information (Parker, 2010).

Financial resource planning

            Availability of finance is the important requirement for every new or existing business. Finance provides directions to management. It provides them information that how they can plan for their resources. For starting, a new department in existing hospital would require different expenses. This department would contain the requirement of 100 beds. These include expenses for buying machinery and equipment, beds, chairs and all other utilities including medicines. Other expenses would include the hiring of professionals and nurses. Marketing and advertising expenses would also be included in this category. Other expenses would include insurance expenses.

            Revenue sources in this business would include treatment of different diseases in patients. Revenue would be collected from selling services to customers at reasonable prices through doctors. The total cost of starting this new department is approximately 1 million. It also covered the cost of hiring skilled and trained professionals. Planning of resources is necessary for operations of business. Planning provides better ideas of decision making to businesses. No need of land is required in this project because this unit was established in Bugshan hospital. We have requested hospital to satisfy the demand of finance for starting this new department. This new department would also improve growth of the hospital. This business can be operated if finance requirement is met (Zimmerman & Ng, 2012).

Despite having a huge need of capital for this department, this is important for this hospital to come up with good budgeting techniques. The management of this hospital contains a plan to raise funds from different resources despite having a reasonable revenue. This is a fact that the current financial resouyrces and allocations are not pertinent to build this department. This justifies the need to identify different resources.

Financial resource planning

            Availability of finance is the important requirement for every new or existing business. Finance provides directions to management. It provides them information that how they can plan for their resources. For starting, a new department in existing hospital would require different expenses. This department would contain the requirement of 100 beds.

            These include expenses for buying machinery and equipment, beds, chairs and all other utilities including medicines. Other expenses would include the hiring of professionals and nurses. Marketing and advertising expenses would also be included in this category. Other expenses would include insurance expenses (Zimmerman & Blythe, 2013).

            Revenue sources in this business would include treatment of different diseases in patients. Revenue would be collected from selling services to customers at reasonable prices through doctors. The total cost of starting this new department is approximately 1 million. It also covered the cost of hiring skilled and trained professionals.

            Planning of resources is necessary for operations of business. Planning provides better ideas of decision making to businesses. No need of land is required in this project because this unit was established in Bugshan hospital. We have requested hospital to satisfy the demand of finance for starting this new department.

            This new department would also improve growth of the hospital. This business can be operated if finance requirement is met. Despite having a huge need of capital for this department, this is important for this hospital to come up with good budgeting techniques. The management of this hospital contains a plan to raise funds from different resources despite having reasonable revenue.

            This is a fact that the current financial resources and allocations are not pertinent to build this department. This justifies the need to identify different resources. The financial plan is pertinent to strategy, mission and vision of this hospital. The financial management has a plan to measure the budget with current financial performances in different departments.

            This is vital for the hospital management to make a budget according to different section in this particular department. The initial estimation is $2.5 million, which will well enough to build the department. To have best utilization of budget, the management will use variance analysis and mid course correlations. This will help the management to relate all unit cost in this department with the budget. Moreover, the revenues are going to be more than 4 million for first year after the completion (Umar Iqbal, 2013).

$1 million is estimated for development and construction process. One million has been estimated for hiring new employees, training and all other maintenance expenses and installation of machinery. The rest of five hundred thousand is estimated for marketing other operational costs such as medical services.

            The financial planning includes the conventional budget. This is better option for financial department to include to consider previous year figures, the managers, incremental charges and top management. The financial management will estimate charges in different situation in development. However, these charges are to include in budget.

The management of this hospital has a plan to make developments with sanctions. Different unites of the department will be divided according to their cost and technical equipments for the patients. The hospital management will contain the financial reserves for further expansion and developments according to need and time (Malshe, Al-Khatib, Al-Habib, & Ezzi, 2012).

            The estimation of working capital is necessary to consider for the financial department in this hospitals to have best utilization of budget and cash flows. The cost consideration will revolve around the labor costs, material costs, overhead costs and other possible financial costs. Thus, the financial plan is effective for this hospital to create a new department. However, the most important thing is to depict workable implementation, which is a base for this development.

Section 3

          Traditional Project Analysis      
INPUT DATA:                KEY OUTPUT:  
Land initial cost   $0 NPV $363,958
Land opportunity cost (and salvage value) $0 IRR 14.7%
Building/equipment cost   $2,500,000 MIRR 14.7%
Build/equipment salvage value $1,500,000 Payback 5.1
Procedures per day   20 Break Even Units 630
Average net revenue per procedure $600    
Procedures per year   7000    
Labor costs     $70,400    
Utilities costs     $30,000    
Incremental overhead   $33,000    
Supply cost ($/procedure)   $500    
Inflation rate on charges   3.0%    
Inflation rate on costs   3.0%    
Tax rate     0.0%    
Revenues lost from inpatient surgeries $500,000    
Reduction in inpatient surgery costs $500,000    
Cost of capital   10.0%    

Project Inputs

It can be seen that if there is no initial and no opportunity cost then the building and equipment costs $2,500,000 and the salvage value of the building is $1,500,000, the procedures that are in place are 20 and the net revenue per procedure is $600. It can be seen that the per year procedures become 7000 and the annual cost of labor becomes $70,400 and the Utilities cost is $30,000 and the overhead increment is $33,000 the supply cost of completing one procedure is $500 and the rate of inflation on revenues is the same as the rate of inflation on costs, that inflation rate is 3%. There is no tax rate as it is a nonprofit organizational project. The loss of revenue in patient surgeries per year is $500,000 and the reduction in the costs of patient’s surgery costs is also $500,000. The cost of capital for this project is 10%.

Project Outputs

When taking the above variables as inputs it can be seen that the NPV from this project is $363,958 and the IRR is 14.7% and the MIRR from this project is 14.7% too. The payback period is 5.1 years. All the financials prove that the project is acceptable

Break-even analysis shows that if the annual number of complete procedures is 630 then the hospital can reach it breakeven. It can be observed that the results are far above that number so the hospital is in profit. It is vital for any organization to attain profit or move past break even as it is an essential component of this study.

Cash Flow

The cash flow illustrates an outflow in form of investment of $2,500,000 and the other outflows in the remaining 5 years. It can be said that the project yields a positive NPV and an IRR that is more than the required rate of return. The Payback period of the project is late. It is almost 5.09 years for a project completing in 6 years.

What If Analysis

It can be observed in the scenario analysis that the worst case scenario has a negative NPV value and the best case has a huge positive cash flow.

Scenario Summary        
    Current Values: Worst Case Best Case Most Likely
Changing Cells:        
  Average net revenue per procedure $1,000 $800 $1,200 $1,000
  Procedures per day 20 10 25 20
  Build/equipment salvage value $5,000,000 $4,000,000 $6,000,000 $5,000,000
Result Cells:        
  NPV $1,236,361.41 ($5,140,091.56) $7,012,424.36 $1,236,361.41

 Value that changes in terms of Average revenue per procedure, Procedures per day and salvage value of machinery

Section 4

Implementation and operation Plan

To achieve the effective resulted from the business plan of establishing inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah is directly linked to the effective implementation of the business plan. Following process will take place in the implementation of the business:

Business Operations

Memo to the Head of Hospital for permission

At the initial state, the business is required to get permission from the authority of the Bughashan Hospital to establish a 100 bed inpatient hospital for the psychiatrist patient.  In this process of implementation, a memo will be written to the head of the hospital that will brief the business plan of establishing the psychiatrist inpatient department by addressing the need and advantages of the psychiatrist department.     

This project is planned to start in an ongoing hospital, therefore, there is no need to gain property. Therefore, after the getting permission, the second important step will be to arrange the resources for the hospital operations and then to hire the staff for the restaurant operations.

Business Process

The process will start as the patient will arrange meeting with the CRM officer and according to the meeting time, the patient will meet the senior doctor. Senior doctor will decide whether the patient has to admit or not. In case of admission, the required medical tests will be taken by the Paramedical staff, the technologist officer will develop a report and then on the advice of Senior and junior doctors, the process of treatment will take place. Following are some of the important departments.

Resource Management Department

The resource management will be manage by the procurement officer who will be responsible to make sure the availability of the resources such as Medical Technology, the availability of beds and to maintain the resources during the hospital operations.

Department Head

Department head will take care of the psychiatrist management and he will works as a bridge in between the employees and Hospital management to make sure the working of the hospital according to the standard. He will be answerable about the performance of the hospital in front of the hospital management. He will have three assistance officers. The HR department will make sure the availability of the staff. HR will timely measure the performance of the staff. They will also arrange any training required for the staff to integrate their knowledge as well as they will manage the issues of the staff.

 Seniors and Juniors Doctor

To run the hundred bed hospital there is need to make sure the availability of the senior and junior doctors all the time. Therefore, the 6 senior doctors will be hire and 6 junior doctors will be hired and their shift will be divided into 8 hours. Every time two senior and two junior doctors will be available to treat the patients.

Paramedical Staff

Total 36 nurses will be hired who will work in 3 shifts of eight hours. At a time 12 nurses will be available to look after the patients.

Medical Technicians will also be hired to operate the Medical technology. For this aspect 6 medical technician officer and 3 senior technicians will be hired so that every time 1 senior technologist to develop the report and two officers will be available to operate the medical technology. 

Customer relationship officer

3 customer relationship officers will be hired. They will communicate with the patients and will arrange patient doctor meeting. He will also manage the internet facility to arrange online meeting. 

Accounts department

Accounts department will manage all the in and out transactions. They will also be liable to pay salaries to the staff. In accounts department 6 officers will be hire. Every time 2 accounts officers will be available.

Key Performance Measure

Patient Feedback

Patient feedback will be considered as the most important performance measure. This will be helpful to make a firm idea about the performance of the of the Inpatient Psychiatrist department.

Peers Feedback

The seniors will be asked about their juniors whether they are learning properly and making improvement. Secondly, the juniors will also be asked about the seniors whether they are cooperating with their juniors and help them to learn.

Some of the following dimensions will also be analyzed to measure the performance of the inpatient Psychiatrist Department.

  • Health Service outcomes
  • Quality compare with the other Hospitals of same discipline
  • Safety
  • Financial outputs
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Business Responsiveness
  • Relationship among the staff members

Strength of Business

As it is mentioned above that the old researches has found that more than 60% of the people are suffering from the mental problems and there is only one hospital is working and it has low capacity as there is only 20 beds space. Considering this aspect, the planned hospital will be of 100 beds which is the strength. Moreover, people have fewer options therefore the greater demand will give success to the business. Another considerable strength is that to start a large project, there is no need to purchase or to get land on rent which saves huge investment. The proposed business is going to be started in an ongoing and famous hospital therefore, the positive image of the hospital will be a strength of the business as the new department would not have to strive hard to build its trust.


This is a new business but expectations are very high but the staff will be new and at the starting stage, the staff will be less experienced as well as they will require time to build relationship. It would be dangerous for the hospital. Staff arrangement is challenging because in local market staff is not available. This factor will increase the cost of business.


Risk are always associated with any new business subsequently, this new project has some risks. The most important risk associated to the business is that it is a large project, and if the marketing will not be done appropriately then the patient will not come to the business. Secondly, the cultural factor would be a risk as most of the people in Saudi Arab do not allow their women to go to the male doctors. Moreover, it is expected that to find the professional staff would be a challenge, because in Saudi Arab, it would be hard to find the medical and paramedical staff.


BUGSHAN hospital In Jeddah Time and duration
Memo to the Head of Hospital for permission (1 month) From July 1, 2016 to July 30, 2016
Resource Management Department (1 Year) From October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017
Department Head (6 months) From July 1, 2016 to August 1, 2016
 Seniors and Juniors Doctor (1 Year) From July 1, 2016 to June 29, 2017
Order of beds ( 6 months) From August 1, 2016 to January 30, 2017
Paramedical Staff (3 months) From October 1, 2016 to December 2, 2016
Customer relationship officer (6 months) From October 1, 2016 to March 3, 2017
Accounts department (3 months) From November 1, 2016 to January 30, 2017


AD, A.-K., & DO., O. (2002). Prevalence of mental illness among Saudi adult primary-care patients in Central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal , 23 (6), 721-724.

Almoshawah, S. A. (2010). An Evaluation of Psychiatrist View Towards the Mental Health Services in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences , 5 (1), 36 – 48.

Cain, K. (2012, October 29). Measuring Marketing Effectiveness: 6 Metrics You Need to Track. Retrieved April 30, 2015, from

Elbashier, A. (2006). Export Marketing in the Middle East. The Importance of Cultural Differences. European Journal of Marketing , 17 (1), 68 – 81.

Jerman, D., & Završnik, B. (2013). Can Marketing management affct consumer behaviour. Economics Management Information Technology , 1 (4).

Koenig, H. G., Zaben, F. A., Sehlo, M. G., Khalifa, D. A., Ahwal, M. S., Qureshi, N. A., et al. (2014). Mental Health Care in Saudi Arabia: Past, Present and Future. Open Journal of Psychiatry , 4 (1), 113-130.

Malshe, A., Al-Khatib, J., Al-Habib, M., & Ezzi, S. (2012). Exploration of sales-marketing interface nuances in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Business Research , 65 (8), 1119–1125.

Parker, C. (2010). 301 Ways to Use Social Media To Boost Your Marketing. McGraw Hill Professional.

Umar Iqbal, A. Z. (2013, June 3). Role Of Brand Loyalty And Its Factors Marketing Essay. Retrieved Feburary 20, 2015, from

Zimmerman, A., & Blythe, J. (2013). Business to Business Marketing Management: A Global Perspective. Routledge.

Zimmerman, J., & Ng, D. (2012). Social Media Marketing All-in-One For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.


Proforma Balance Sheet

ASSETS   1 2 3 4
Current Assets        
Cash   $54 $57 $59 $64
Net accounts receivable $367 $396 $426 $435
Inventory   $177 $191 $203 $205
Temporary investment $12 $12 $12 $12
Prepaid expenses $2 $2 $2 $2
  Total Current Assets $612 $658 $702 $718
Fixed Assets        
Long-term investments $42 $43 $43 $46
Land   $656 $656 $684 $727
Buildings (net of depreciation) $903 $928 $983 $1,021
Plant & equipment (net) $608 $631 $642 $654
Furniture & fixtures (net) $61 $65 $68 $72
  Total Net Fixed Assets $2,270 $2,323 $2,420 $2,520
TOTAL ASSETS $2,882 $2,981 $3,122 $3,238
Current Liabilities        
Accounts payable $246 $252 $258 $277
Short-term notes $24 $25 $26 $28
Current portion of long-term notes $14 $14 $14 $15
Accruals & other payables $14 $14 $14 $14
  Total Current Liabilities $298 $305 $312 $334
Long-term Liabilities        
Mortgage   $897 $931 $978 $1,021
Other long-term liabilities $443 $485 $527 $576
  Total Long-term Liabilities $1,340 $1,416 $1,505 $1,597
Capital stock $300 $300 $300 $300
Retained earnings $944 $960 $1,005 $1,007
  Total Shareholders’ Equity $1,244 $1,260 $1,305 $1,307
TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY $2,882 $2,981 $3,122 $3,238

Proforma Income Statement

REVENUE   2010 2011 2012 2013
Gross sales   $500 $650 $720 $850
  Less sales returns and allowances 200 230 280 320
Net Sales   $300 $420 $440 $530
Beginning inventory $350 $360 $420 $435
  Plus goods purchased / manufactured 120 165 185 190
Total Goods Available $470 $525 $605 $625
  Less ending inventory 360 420 435 440
Total Cost of Goods Sold $110 $105 $170 $185
Gross Profit (Loss) $190 $315 $270 $345
  Salaries and wages $35 $41 $46 $52
  Commissions 12 14 16 18
  Advertising 10 12 14 20
  Depreciation 14 15 16 16
  Other 5 6 6 7
Total Selling Expenses $76 $88 $98 $113
  Salaries and wages $12 $14 $16 $18
  Employee benefits 4 5 5 6
  Payroll taxes 2 3 3 4
  Insurance 6 6 7 7
  Rent 8 8 9 9
  Utilities 2 2 2 3
  Depreciation & amortization 3 4 4 5
  Office supplies 1 1 1 1
  Travel & entertainment 3 3 3 4
  Postage 1 1 1 2
  Equipment maintenance & rental 0 0 1 1
  Interest 0 1 1 2
  Furniture & equipment 3 4 4 5
Total General/Administrative Expenses $45 $52 $57 $67
Total Operating Expenses $121 $140 $155 $180
Net Income Before Taxes $69 $175 $115 $165
  Taxes on income 22 32 26 28
Net Income After Taxes $47 $143 $89 $137
Extraordinary gain or loss $0 $0 $43 $0
Income tax on extraordinary gain 0 0 12 0
NET INCOME (LOSS) $47 $143 $120 $137
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Importance of prototyping in interactive system design

Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Prototype. 4

Hi-fi prototypes. 5

Lo-fi prototypes. 5

Paper prototypes. 6

Video prototypes. 6

Different approaches to functionality in prototypes. 7

Prototypes and participatory design. 7

Trade-offs in prototyping. 8

Prototyping strategies. 9

Horizontal prototypes. 9

Vertical prototypes. 9

Task-oriented prototypes. 10

Scenario-based prototypes. 10

Conclusion. 10

Bibliography. 12

Importance of prototyping in interactive system design


“A decent Design is superior to anything you think.” (Rex, Raskin, 2000).

Designing a thing is all about making choices. Prototype has a great importance in some fields such as engineering, automobile design, creativity skills and so. Different tools and techniques will be discussed. Further, the types of the prototypes will be discussed and we can see that it is important for the system designs. The main purpose of the prototype is to give an idea to the maker of the product that how the design or the product will look like (Benyon, 2010).

Prototyping deals with system development where a prototype is developed or produced as an early approximation to test the systems or products. This prototyping process continues until the required level is achieved in developing a system or producing a product. Therefore, keeping this aspect in view, one can see that prototyping is also very important in interactive system design. Interactive system design develops method through use of a technology so that a task is completed as per requirement. Therefore, prototyping is very crucial in interactive system design, as it helps to improve the design and processes related to it (Benyon, 2010).

We have begun with the detail explanation of the prototype that what it is. Going further it is been linked with the interactive system design in every part so that we could know the importance of the Prototypes. Going further different types of prototypes have been discussed and different approaches have been linked towards the interactive system designs. (Benyon, 2010) Different strategies of prototypes have been also discussed in this paper so that the importance of prototype could be identified and we could know that in the interactive system design prototype is the main element and have a great importance to.


We characterize a prototype as a solid representation of part or the majority of an intelligent framework. A prototype is an unmistakable antiquity, not a dynamic depiction that requires understanding. Designers, and supervisors, designers, clients and end-users, can utilize these relics to imagine and reflect upon the last framework. Note that prototypes might be characterized contrastingly in different fields. For instance, an engineering prototype is a downsized prototype of the last building. This is unrealistic for intuitive framework models: the originator may restrain the measure of data the prototype can deal with, yet the genuine interface must be exhibited at full scale (Beaudouin-Lafon, 2015).

Therefore, a prototype interface to a database may handle just a little pseudo database yet should in any case exhibit a full-measure presentation and association systems. Full-scale, unique models, for example, a hand-made dress specimen, are another kind of model. These as a rule require an extra outline stage with a specific end goal to mass-create the last plan (Störrle, 2014). Some intuitive framework prototypes start as standout prototypes, which are then appropriated generally (since the expense of copying programming is so low). Nevertheless, best programming prototypes advance into the last item and afterward keep on evolving as new forms of the product are discharged.

A prototype is a solid however fractional representation or execution of a framework plan. Prototypes are utilized broadly as a part of most plan and development areas. Lim et al. (2008) present a perspective of prototypes as ‘devices for navigating a configuration space where all conceivable outline options and their bases can be investigated (Narahara, 2015).

Hi-fi prototypes

Hi-fi prototypes are comparable in look and feel, if not inexorably in usefulness, to the expected last item. They are created in programming, whether in the advancement environment which will be utilized for execution or as a part of bundles that will permit intelligent impacts to be ridiculed up effortlessly. Hi-fi prototyping has the accompanying components:

  • It is helpful for point-by-point assessment of the primary outline components (content, visuals, intelligence, usefulness and media) – for instance, Hi-fi prototypes can be utilized as a part of ease of use studies to set up whether individuals can figure out how to utilize the framework inside a predetermined measure of time.
  • It frequently constitutes a vital stage in customer acknowledgment – as a sort of conclusive configuration record which the customer must consent to before the last execution.
  • It is largely formed genuinely well into the venture when thoughts are starting to solidify, unless there is some essential issue that should be determined before some other work can continue.

Lo-fi prototypes

A lo-fi prototype – regularly termed paper models, since that they are normally produced using then again, have the accompanying components:

  • They are more centered on the expansive basic configuration thoughts for example, substance, frame and structure, the “tone” of the outline, key usefulness prerequisites and navigational structure.
  • They are intended to create rapidly, and discarded as fast.
  • They catch early plan thinking and ought to help, not prhorizontal t, the procedure of creating and assessing numerous conceivable outline arrangements.

 Paper prototypes

Paper prototypes are broadly utilized as a part of practice. A review of 172 ease of use experts led in 2002 asked how vital they considered the strategy to be in their work (Snyder, 2003). The reactions are appeared in the graph underneath “pointless” alternative was incorporated however no one picked it. (The rates do not entirety to 100 for every penny in view of adjusting.)

The principle down to earth issues with outlining paper prototypes are as per the following:

■ Robustness – if a paper prototype is to be taken care of by loads of individuals it should be sufficiently intense to survive.

■ Scope – concentrate on expansive issues and key components; on the off chance that you are attempting to recount excessively point by point a story it can be hard for clients to get it.

■ Instructions – there is an exchange off between adding enough detail for somebody to have the capacity to utilize the prototype without the planner helping and including so much detail that it needs somebody to talk the individual through it.

■ Flexibility – have parts of the paper prototype customizable so individuals seeing it can ‘upgrade it’ on the fly, e.g. by utilizing sticky notes to speak to parts of the screen where the client can move components around or include new things.

Video prototypes

For more than 20 years analysts have highlighted the capability of video as an apparatus inside the participatory outline process, from beginning perception, through thoughts era and configuration investigation, what Mackay et al. called ‘video conceptualizing’ and ‘video prototyping’ (2000). Vertelney’s strategy (1989) includes the making of a physical fake up prototype of the item; a video is then shot with a performing artist cooperating (or ‘acting’) with the prototype just as it were completely utilitarian (Wiemann & Brauner, 2016). The item’s showcase elements are recreated in a movement program, and are superimposed (or composited) on the video, guaranteeing synchronization to give the appearance that the item is really reacting to the individual’s activities.

 Different approaches to functionality in prototypes

There are different sorts of prototype that it is valuable to recognize. A full prototype gives full usefulness, yet at a lower execution than the objective framework. A flat prototype plans to go over the entire framework, yet bargains just with top-level capacities; such an extensive amount the subtle element is excluded. Interestingly, a vertical prototype executes the full scope of elements, starts to finish, and yet is connected to just a little number of elements of the general framework. Blends of these are normal. Developmental and incremental prototypes in the end form into the full framework (Aromaa, 2016).

Prototypes and participatory design

Lo-fi prototypes are a crucial piece of participatory outline since individuals cannot generally comprehend formal models, yet they can investigate and assess thoughts through drawing in with prototyped frameworks. Individuals can likewise be straightforwardly required in prototype configuration. Amid the improvement of the HIC, we ran a workshop with schoolchildren from a school in Dumfries and Galloway in Scotland. It was chosen to utilize the current situations as boosts in a participatory configuration workshop with a gathering of 20 secondary school understudies (Sauer, 2008). Situation as a premise, we went through a morning working with the understudies. The situation was adjusted to make it more significant to the members – the understudies were requested that envision that they and a gathering of companions had won a trek to the city for the day and needed to arrange their exercises.

 Trade-offs in prototyping

Likewise, with such a large number of parts of configuration, the creator needs to consider the exchange offs as far as time, assets, the point of the assessment, the phase of the venture et cetera. In reality, when pondering how and what to model, the creator ought to think as far as the PACT components – individuals, exercises, settings and advancements. Who is the prototype went for? What is the architect attempting to accomplish with the model? What phase of the task are things at and what is the setting for the utilization of the model? What advances (hi-fi or lo-fi) are suitable?

Rosson and Carroll (2002) highlight some of these exchanges off:

■ High-quality illustrations and activity can be utilized to make persuading and energizing prototypes however may likewise prompt untimely duty to some configuration choice.

■ Detailed extraordinary reason prototypes answer particular inquiries concerning an outline, however fabricating a significant prototype for every issue is costly.

■ Realistic prototypes expand the legitimacy of client test information, however may delay testing, or require development of disposable models.

■ Iterative refinement of an execution empowers ceaseless testing and input, yet may debilitate thought of radical changes.

Prototyping strategies

Horizontal prototypes

The motivation behind a horizontal prototype is to create one whole layer of the configuration in the meantime. This sort of prototyping is most regular with expansive programming improvement groups, where fashioners with various aptitude sets address distinctive layers of the product engineering (Zhao, 2015). Flat prototypes of the client interface are valuable to get a general photo of the framework from the client’s viewpoint and location issues, for example, consistency (comparable capacities are available through comparative client orders), scope (all required capacities are upheld) and excess (the same capacity is/is not open through various client summons).

Vertical prototypes

The reason for a vertical prototype is to guarantee that the planner can actualize the full, working framework, from the client interface layer down to the hidden framework layer. Vertical prototypes are frequently worked to evaluate the achievability of an element portrayed in a level, undertaking focused or situation-based model. For instance, when we built up the thought of attractive rules in the CPN2000 framework to encourage the arrangement of graphical items (Beaudouin-Lafon and Mackay, 2000), we actualized a vertical prototype to test the communication system as well as the design calculation and the execution. We realized that we could just incorporate the specific communication procedure if we could actualize an adequately quick reaction.

Task-oriented prototypes

Numerous client interface originators start with an assignment examination to recognize the individual errands that the client must achieve with the framework. Every errand requires a comparing set of usefulness from the framework. Assignment based prototypes are sorted out as a progression of undertakings, which permits both originators and clients to test every errand freely, deliberately working through the whole framework.

Scenario-based prototypes

Scenario-based prototypes are as if errand arranged ones, aside from that they don’t stretch individual, autonomous undertakings, yet rather take after a more sensible situation of how the framework would be utilized as a part of a genuine setting. Situations are stories that depict an arrangement of occasions and how the client responds (Pereira, 2015). A decent situation incorporates both normal and irregular circumstances, and ought to investigate examples of movement after some time. Bodker (1995) has built up an agenda to guarantee that no critical issues have been forgotten.


Prototyping is an important component of interactive system design. There are many forms of the prototypes and they can be helpful in the different ways. Prototypes actually increase the creativity of the designer. It gives the idea that how things will work and the evolution is been seen before launching the product or the design.

The Prototypes are concrete and they need to be look like the original design because it plays very important role and that needs because if the prototype is successful then the design will be launched in the market, so it needs to be perfect.

Envisionment and prototyping the best thing for the designers and the people both as it is very important aspect. It can take hours or days to build but it have a great importance and it needs to build before finalizing the design. The main idea behind the prototype is to build the parallel system and so that we could come to know that, what the design would be after launching the design.

The key feature in the design needs to be tested in the prototype so that the actual results could be shown and if any kind of changes is needed, they can be amended. The structure, concept, the interaction, and design everything needs to be tested so that it could be further launched in the reality. People should take healthy part in that so that the best thing is created so that design not has any problems and could be used in the future. Finally, every strategy should be used while testing the prototype so that no aspect is left behind and the best design could be created.


Aromaa, S. (2016). Suitability of virtual prototypes to support human factors/ergonomics. Applied Ergonomics , 11-16.

Beaudouin-Lafon, M. (2015). Prototyping Tools and Techniques. Retrieved may 3, 2016, from

Benyon, D. (2010). Designing Interactive Systems. Pearson.

Benyon, D., & Turner, P. (2005). Interactive Systems: People, Activities, Contexts, Technologies. Addison-Wesley.

Narahara, T. (2015). Design exploration through interactive prototypes using sensors. Computers & Graphics , 25-35.

Pereira, R. (2015). A value-oriented and culturally informed approach to the design. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies , 66–82.

Sauer, J. (2008). Designing interactive consumer products: Utility of paper prototypes. Applied Ergonomics , 71–85.

Störrle, H. (2014). Cost-effective evolution of research prototypes into end-user. Science of Computer Programming , 1-14.

Wiemann, S., & Brauner, J. (2016). Design and prototype of an interoperable online air quality. Environmental Modelling & Software , 354e366.

Zhao, J. (2015). Design and implementation of virtual refueling simulation prototype. Annals of Nuclear Energy , 87–92.

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Grid of 16 types of personality profile

Grid of 16 types of personality profile


This is leads adequate percentage follow in the personality trait assessment values.   The preserver of success as well as desired of originality to whatever wanted to needed. Best efforts identified for the formulations of work developments.    Forceful, quietly, concerned for others and conscientious where respected for the principles of firm. Followed and honored   for the clear convictions to serve the common goods essentially.


My personal profile result associated with the ESTJ.  In this regard ESTJ lies under the sensitive types and extroverts as well. Therefore the execution of ESTJ derives practical, matter of fact, realistic, towards the implications of natural leader for mechanics as well as business adequately. Thus the development of good administrators, in accordance with the especially towards managing the remembrance is to consideration for the others’ feelings as well as points of view reflected.  Therefore the execution of apply themselves when necessary has to be recognized. Like is to organize for the running activities in well manner.

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Negotiation Paper

Negotiation Paper

A student has to negotiate at many places like a professional marketer or businessman and he is expected to yield good results. Like negotiations at business and professional level, every negotiation at all levels is worthwhile. By all levels mean that negotiation is not confined to any specific situation but it is useful for any situation. A student can also be involved in negotiations and those negotiations are important for him because of value out of negotiations. In this paper, my negotiation with laptop retailer was discussed which I was going to purchase for educational and recreational use. Therefore, a good and effective laptop means that I would not be worry if it can result into bad performance.  Under different heads below, negotiation has been analyzed. 

Negotiation setting:

Negotiation was taken place in two intervals following a brief visit of the retail shop during laptop market visit. It means that if brief visit also included then it negotiation would consist of three steps. During the market visit, I visited many retail and some wholesale shops along with some specialty shops. During the visit, I analyzed retail shops in terms of variety of laptop unites with them and initiative driven nature of retailers. Under these parameters, I selected ABC retail shop. Then, second phase of negotiation came when I took information from him on cell phone and email. Third, phase of negotiation took place in the retail ship which resulted in final purchase of the product. All parts of negotiations were important and these parts make up the negotiation setting although the most important was third stage when purchase was made. 

Participants involved:

In the negotiations, mainly two participants were present, i.e. me and the retailer. Secondly, a salesman was also there to assist the retailer and that salesman was also advising me in an attempt to convince me for the purchase. However, this paper discusses the negotiation between the two main participants. 

Issues at hand:

The issue at hand for the negotiation is purchase of laptop and it seems to be totally my interest. I want to purchase laptop and the retailer wants to sell me laptop. So, negotiation has purpose at each of the two sides of negotiation. My concerns during purchasing laptop included best match between quality and cost so that I could enjoy maximum superior quality out of this purchase. On the other hand, I was also concerned about after sale services so that in case of any inconvenience or bad performance I could file my complaint. On retailer side, issues surrounded convincing me for the purchase while he was just trying to convince me for purchase of laptop of any brand. It was because he had variety of laptop brands with him. 

Planning and preparation that took place:

Planning and preparation for negotiation consisted of getting information about suitable retailer and different brands of laptop. For this purpose, I took information from number of sources including internet, friends, laptop market, and print reviews of different brands in newspapers etc. on the other hand, retailer’s planning and preparation consisted of coming up with different options and alternatives to convince me for the purchase (Root, 2016).  

Negotiation strategy:

So far as negotiation strategy was concerned, I used silence and time tactic for this purchase (Steele, 2016). I remained silent most of the time and took time to respond to what retailer was saying me to convince. So in simple, my strategy was to be careful enough so that retailer could not get benefit of my first ever negotiation for this purchase. This is not an expert strategy but I have found it useful for this negotiation with laptop retailer. 

Negotiation Description:

Objectively describing actual events that occurred 

It is important to discuss actual events that occurred during the course of negotiations because it is important to look into the ways that come during the process. I have noted one thing which is very distinct which is about carefulness of both parties. When I visited the market to select suitable retailer I came to know that every retailer was quite professional. The ABC retailer which was selected for the purchase had distinctive qualities. He welcomed me and let me decide which I wanted to say and ask. During initial steps, I noted that he convinced me through information and he did not tell a single word which was not professional. I asked very childish questions and he responded with calmness. I asked fake questions by saying that I purchased a laptop which got heated very much. I further said that often laptops had graphic card problems and I was very doubtful about these problems. But he did not categorically deny these faults and problems and said that these problems might occur and there were incidents that such problems would occur. His intentions and strategy were not intensive or assertive but he was just clearing mind. At this point, I felt that I was heavily influenced by him. 

During email and cell phone contact, he proved to be good listener. Then for final purchase, I came to his retail shop and I was full of investigative questions. I knew his personality and way of communication therefore; I came with planning and after well preparation. I asked specifications of different models of laptops. He replied with detailed information on specifications. I was concerned about the processor speed, Ram, and Hard Disk. Moreover, I was also concerned with graphic card of the laptop. He told me with different specifications but there was found tradeoff between hard disk and processor. My priority was graphic card because it assisted whole system and efficiency of processor was also dependent on it. He provided me with plenty of alternatives and each alternative was answer to my demand and required specifications. This irritated me and I said that he had alternatives and he should not have responded with alternatives but with clear decision. I found that he was enjoying facility of alternatives and plenty of choices. However, those choices and alternatives were aligned with my desired choices. 

Functional Analysis:

Analysis of key events in the negotiation

Above description of key events occurred during the negotiation is useful to know the series of happening of events. In the following the analysis of these events would be given. Mainly, three main events have been important to be discussed in the following and those events are selection of retailer for purchase, contact through cell phone and email, and day of final purchase. I consider process of selection of retailer as important part of negotiation process. I would give him maximum marks for this phase as he utilized excellent skills to make me purchase laptop from him. At the time of contact through cell phone and email, I found him quite impressive. He did not leave a room for me to think to choose another retailer. During these phases of negotiation, my focus had been asking questions which meant I did not have arguments to favor my position. At the purchasing day, I asked questions and he kept presenting me different brands of laptop. This ultimately irritated me because this was not good negotiation skills from him because he should have answered my questions with solid arguments. There I felt that he was gaining benefit of his position as I had little options before his plenty of options. 

Integration of readings, theory, and concepts appropriate

The analysis and description of the purchase negotiations for laptop have been provided above and in the following appropriate readings and theories and concepts have been noted. The relationship theory of retail is associated with it because I felt that I am in relationship with the retailer in the result of interactions with him (Hadjikhani & Bengtson, 2004). This occurs especially when e new customer like me has interaction with the retailer. There is another concept in retail purchasing and that is about regarding difference between committed and less committed customer. During this negotiation process I have found me committed customer because I show trust on retailer and I have selected the retailer after close observation and analysis. Like a committed customer, I valued plenty of access to information and it is concept that less committed customer observed less changes if he had been exposed of little information. On the contrary, more committed customers gave importance to access to plenty of information (Steenhaut & Kenhove, 2005). Another concept which is related with retail purchasing is opportunism in which both parties want to take maximum benefit of the purchase (Al-Khatib, Malshe, Sailors, & Clark III, 2011). In this negotiation, both were trying to get maximum benefit out of the deal but there seemed to be less role of opportunism because I was committed customer and we were negotiating in a bit loyal relationship. 

Discuss what should/could have been done differently 

Above analysis and description of negotiation deal provide room for betterment as well because it is found that there might be better deal on that day. During the purchase of laptop, retail also sold me accessories of laptop including couple of speakers, cooling pad, and smart keyboard. I now thought that I should have benefited from these accessories.  He asked me for my priority of graphic card then I told that I was concerned with heat effect of laptop. In the result, he sold me these accessories in which cooling pad was considered to be solution of my concern. He sold me these things to make me realize that I was in need of these things. In fact, I should have asked bundle discount from him. Although, I adopted silent and time strategy but it ended at over dependence on retailer. I just asked questions and he benefited of his position to show me different alternatives and options present with him. It might be due to his shop and environment. In this context, I should have been along with my friend who would have kept me assisted during the purchase (Hedges, 2013). I am not regretting of my purchase but just pointing out areas of improvement which could have or should have been done better. 

Summary Evaluation:

Lessons learnt for the future

This paper is reflection on a negotiation deal to purchase a laptop by me from a retailer. It has come to know that relationship theory of retail has been beneficial for making purchase with retailer. Having relationship with the retailer is helpful to win the trust but sole responsibility of good purchase always lies on the customer. I am satisfied with the purchase but I have learnt that over dependence on retailer is not good strategy. I used time and silent strategy for this purchase and this made me passive and exposed to retailer’s actions. Moreover, I learnt that in future, I should go with a friend so that I can better respond to requirements of retailer. Further, I should collect information as much as possible regarding the product to be purchased so that I can better negotiate (Buell, 2007). Although, both parties in the negotiation have been friendly but I consider opportunism as an effective concept because it can guarantee value for purchase. 

Summary of self-evaluation of negotiation style and strengths and weaknesses

I feel that my negotiation style needs improvements and I should be initiative oriented. In response to retailer’s many options, customer should rely on alternatives and options of competitors of retailer. This option can lead retailer to thin that the customer can choose another retailer as well. However, strength of my negotiation style is that I tend to build relationship after thorough interaction and it is helpful for strategic and future interactions with retailer. Weakness of my negotiation style is that I remain passive in negotiations which may be harmful if I interact with opportunist parties. Although, here only laptop was under purchase and this might be less important product but in the long run this strategy is less effective.


The negotiation paper concludes that negotiation is important part of practical life and everyone should learn the art of negotiation. One of the learning ways is to evaluate one’s negotiation style. This is what has been done in this paper in which live negotiation with retailer has been described, analyzed, and then learning outcomes have been found. This is found that negotiation styles should be changed according to the situation and this dynamism is secret of success. There is no hard and fast rule to negotiate but relationship and opportunist style both have been found effective in negotiation. Relationship style guarantees long term relationship while opportunist style guarantees maximum benefit out of the negotiation.


Al-Khatib, Jamal A., et al. “The impact of deceitful tendencies, relativism and opportunism on negotiation tactics: a comparative study of US and Belgian managers.” European Journal of Marketing 45.1/2 (2011): 133-152.

Buell, Barbara. Negotiation Strategy: Seven Common Pitfalls to Avoid. 2007. 3 May 2016. <>.

Hadjikhani, Amjad and Anna Bengtson. An Interaction Model for Consumer-Retailer Relationships. 2004. 3 May 2016. <>.

Hedges, Kristi. Six Surprising Negotiation Tactics That Get You The Best Deal. 2013. 3 May 2016. <>.

Root, George N. Planning Stage of the Negotiation Process. 2016. 3 May 2016. <>.

Steele, Jason. 11 Effective Negotiation Strategies & Tactics to Score a Great Deal. 2016. 3 May 2016. <>.

Steenhaut, Sarah and Patrick Van Kenhove. “Relationship Commitment and Ethical Consumer Behavior in a Retail Setting: The Case of Receiving Too Much Change at the Checkout.” Journal of Business Ethics 56.4 (2005): 335-353.

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Grid of 16 types of personality profile

Grid of 16 types of personality profile


This is leads adequate percentage follow in the personality trait assessment values.   The preserver of success as well as desired of originality to whatever wanted to needed. Best efforts identified for the formulations of work developments.    Forceful, quietly, concerned for others and conscientious where respected for the principles of firm. Followed and honored for the clear convictions to serve the common goods essentially. 


My personal profile result associated with the ESTJ.  In this regard ESTJ lies under the sensitive types and extroverts as well. Therefore the execution of ESTJ derives practical, matter of fact, realistic, towards the implications of natural leader for mechanics as well as business adequately. Thus the development of good administrators, in accordance with the especially towards managing the remembrance is to consideration for the others’ feelings as well as points of view reflected.  Therefore the execution of apply themselves when necessary has to be recognized. Like is to organize for the running activities in well manner.

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Business Process Maturity Model

Business Process Maturity Model

Business process maturity model sets its basis on the belief that superior process of management leads to the attainment of the agile business structure. The competencies that are achieved during the process make the business structure more valued, innovative, operationally affective and agile. Each phase in the model is built on the previous phase and contributes in developing efficiencies. The phases of the maturity model include acknowledgment of the operational efficiencies, processes awareness, into a processing automation and control, inter-process automation and control, enterprise valuation control and agile business structure.


Answer 1:

The basic criteria for the success of the business process maturity model are consist of six critical success factors. These factors include strategic alignment, culture and leadership, people, governance, methods and information technology. Without these critical success factors, it is not possible to achieve affective maturity. The strategic alignment means that the departmental and individual goals must be aligned with the overall vision and strategic objectives of the organization. The culture must embrace change and leadership must be participative and affective. People must be given the first priory. Employees must be empowered, and the business environment must be technologically advanced (, 2015). Moreover, governance means that the accountability and transparency must be present and decision making and reward process must be there to lead the organization. These initiatives are necessary for affective governing of the model (Liebowitz, 1995).The method includes the consistent approaches and techniques for the outcome. The ability of the techniques is an important feature in that regard. Lacking in any of the factors could lead to the ineffective achievement of the maturity model.

Answer 2:

The value of the assessment of the BPM maturity is evident. The assessment provides guidance that the organization could easily encounter the challenges that create hindrances to affective process management(, 2016). Recover assessment at each stage provide the idea that the journey towards value creation is ongoing along with other factors such as innovation, efficiencies in operations and processes, customer services and value deliverance(Panagacos, 2012). All such activities ultimately lead to the attainment of the agile business structure. Continuous and ongoing monitoring and evaluation of each stage are necessary in that regard. If the performance is not on the right track, the corrective actions can be taken to put the performance on the right path. 

Answer 3:

An organization can be in a more than one business maturity stage. For instance, if an organization has different subsidiaries or it has different business units that are dealing in different products and services, then it could be possible that the organization can be in a more than one maturity stage ( Adams & Wagner, 1986).  This will be dependent on the separate business model that is designed for that particular product or service. This is an important consideration to understand the business process maturity model. Thus, it depends on the nature of the business and in such instances, the assessment can be multiple ( Looy, 2014).


Adams, D. R., & Wagner, G. (1986). Computer Information Systems. South-Western Publishing Company.

Looy, A. V. (2014). Business Process Maturity: A Comparative Study on a Sample of Business Process Maturity Models (SpringerBriefs in Business Process Management). Springer. (2015). Having a BPM Maturity Model is Important for Long Lasting BPM Success. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from (2016, October 27). Internet Voting: Not Ready for Prime Time. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from

liebowitz. (1995). Integrating expert system throughout the undergraduted curriculumn. Journal of information system education, 7(1), 34-36.

Panagacos, T. (2012). The Ultimate Guide to Business Process Management: Everything you need to know and how to apply it to your organization. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

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Drug Abuse

Paper On

Drug Abuse




This source helps to understand the treatments which are necessary because the drug addiction is increasing each day. That’s why the health treatment is very important as drugs addiction can cause various kinds of different diseases that are why there are several kinds of treatments. These treatments help us to understand the behavior of the person during the drug addiction as it allows the physician to get to know about the level of drug the person is using along with the damage that drug has done to the health of that person. This can be the milestone in our research as for the public awareness this is very good because most people don’t know about the treatments which should be taken to get rid of the drug. Despite that there are a number of treatments available, there is not much information available that is user-friendly. Hence, the information provided should be easy to understand for the users so that they are not dependent for accessing the basic information from the medical experts. Another concern is that these treatments are not free of cost, especially considering that the drug issue is on the rise in Baltimore. The patients also have to take an appointment from the doctors, however; there are no long waiting times either.

To get rid of the drug addiction, there should be a proper plan use. This sour helps in our research by giving the basic strategy which should be used to reduce the drug consumption of the person. This can be done by either medical treatment or just stopping the person from using drugs. The strategy used is not for the short term process as it takes months to get rid of the drugs that’s why the strategy proposed in this case is the long term process. After the implementation of the plan, it is also important to check the response of the medicine against the drug either it’s positive or not because sometimes the medicine doesn’t work as the drugs are too strong inside the person. These programs need to provide more detailed information which is easily accessible for the users plus the information should be regularly updated as well. The work needs to be done at a faster pace as the growing number of drug addicts in Baltimore is too much high as compared to the actions taken to limit the substance abuse. For this purpose, more volunteers must also be introduced into these programs so that the work should be done quickly enough.

Needle exchange program is proposed to get rid of the drug and the AIDS. Our research will enter the phase of the needle exchange program after the identification of the drug, and its damage occurs to the person. Because measuring the damage occur inside the body is very important as it helps to take further steps more carefully because dealing with the drug-addicted body is very sensitive matter. This source explains all the social and political barrier which occur in the way of implementing the Needle exchange program in the person. It also discusses the benefits that come with this program and how the person can get rid of the drug addiction once and for all. The US Government has been showing zero tolerance on illicit drug usage and due to this, the NEPs have not been funded properly, despite the fact that these programs have been very helpful in restricting the spread of various diseases. According to various surveys, the war on drugs declared by the US government has not worked out at all and this has been a huge barrier for funding of NEPs. The shortage of funding makes it difficult for these programs to work appropriately.

This source explains the Human Resource (HR) section of our research. As to implement the Needle exchange program, one must ensure that the approval from the HR manager is taken. The HR manager is responsible for checking the work and its quality before approving it that’s why the Baltimore hospital has to take help from the HR department to determine if there is still any constraint from the patient side or the government side in implementing the needle exchange program. The permission from the patient site is very important as the Case Management which is explained in our research shows that the who management is involved while implementing this program and the work is developed over the period. It is important for us to understand what sort of measures are taken to rehabilitate the individuals who have been addicted to drugs in the past so that we can analyze what sort of actions are taken by the authorities to provide them with another chance at living a normal life just like other individuals.

This explains the issues that come up with the drug addiction as the worse issue is the lock up. A person who suffer from the drug addiction usually get him, or herself lock up in the prison where the other criminals don’t let him or her get any better. According to our research, this is the main cause why it’s very hard for the people to get rid of the drug because they live under the constant fear and stressful life which makes them the scare of the other people and they can’t survive in this world then. That’s why it’s important to discuss these issue publically, and this is the aim of our research to extract the useful data from the experiment.

This is another side of the research after highlighting the mental and physical effects of the drug we have to move on towards the most generic effects of these drug on our society. The drugs are not just dangerous to the health as it is also dangerous to the economy of the country which is not good because the economy should be strong while the drug business which is increasing rapidly is causing the huge risk for the economy. The reason behind this is that the drug addiction is bad and its business is totally illegal and banned by the government due to which if the business of the drug grows this means the economy of the country is in danger. The current strategy for the government is not letting the people enter into the drug dealing system in the first place and this can only be done with the help of creating awareness against the drug abuse as well as providing them opportunities for education and better jobs as well so that they can earn a respectable income and don’t get indulged into these activities.

In past few years the death ratio has increased rapidly in the Maryland United States, and after the investigation, the major cause of the death was the use of drugs like Heroin and weed. These drugs have done too much damage to the society that it’s now kind of impossible to get rid of them because the underworld people are doing the illegal business. They are growing it although police and other law enforcement are trying to overcome them, due to the extensive use of drugs by the young generation, their business is growing. Due to the extensive use, the death ratio of youngsters has boost up which is an alarming situation. This article provides insights into the issue that has been causing problems for the Baltimore community. This link provides information about what is the basic reason that why the death toll continues to climb in this region despite all the governmental policies and awareness programs.

This source put the highlight on another side of our research which is the treatment of the drug addicted person by taking that person into the custody. This means the person lives in the center which is specially made for the patient of drug addiction and they are treated there instead of other public hospitals. The management of the healthcare centers ensure that the patient of the drug addiction should get extra care and they keep the keen eye on them because they can use the drug through external source due to which the healthcare center is totally locked for the outsider. This article allows us to understand the differences between randomization into treatment against control conditions and the study suggests that the program participants show less crime and substance usage rates. This goes to show that the treatment programs are very helpful for this cause and these have to be taken to another level.

According to the ABC News Baltimore has become the drug capital in the US. This means that the drug business and consumption has increased in this area from past years and it’s not stopping. This is the alarming situation for the society and the government. As in our research, we will find the factors due to which this increase in the consumption of the heroin occur and who is affecting more because of this that’s why it’s important to notice the cause and effect of the heroin and the major dealers of the drug should be captured by the police. The identification of those criminals is also the part of our research. This article provides us information on what are the different types of drugs that are used by the addicts and how they affect the users. The article also explains about the source of these drugs. It is important for the authorities to halt the distribution of such substances otherwise their availability will cause definite problems for the Baltimore community.


This is one of the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) whose organizational structure and the program to give treatment to the drug addicted person. As this is one of the most developed organizations of the US when it comes to the treatment center for the drug addicts. As this center allows the families to leave their family member who is drug addicted and within a year they give him such treatment and care that he get rid of the drug addiction. This center deals with all kind of patients either they are heroin addicted, or weed addicted it’s the responsibility of the management to make sure the patient requires as soon as possible due to which they work real hard and the performance of the center is really good. This link further entails the transitional and housing programs that are available for the people who were drug addicts in the past and they are provided with an opportunity to live a regular life like other individuals and contribute towards the betterment of the society. This is important to understand what opportunities are provided to these individuals.


This is the center on addiction the purpose of this organization is to provide the healthcare facilities to the drug addict person, but at the same time, they spread awareness about the harmful effects of the drug addiction. To do so, we visited this healthcare center and carefully observed the treatment procedure of this healthcare sector as compared to the healthcare center of drugs. There were many new things in this health care center, and the campaign they do to stop the young generation from getting addicted to this dangerous drug is appreciable. The research phase includes the organizational behavior and structure of this healthcare center. The government should make sure that the organizations like this should be properly funded so that they can perform their duty in an effective manner.


Media plays an important role in our life that’s why to stop drug addiction in our society we can take help from the media. This phase of our research involves the media study over the drug addictions how the media is covering this issue and presenting it in front of the public. Is the way they are using is effective or not and how much the person is getting benefit from the media campaign to stop using the drug. This source also gives the information about the basic addiction abuse both economic and social. Social media can play an important role. This link provides information on what is drug addiction and why should we have to study this issue. The article also provides information on how are the drugs categorized and various other information that are relevant to the research paper.


There are several kinds of drugs which are used in this world, and the ratio is increasing because there is not an authentic law which can stop the production of the drug and its usage. Although there are laws they have loopholes through which criminals escape. In our research, we will find the facts and figures about the consumption of different kinds of drugs in a different region of this world which is very important. To understand this, the map is build which shows the red marks and the red marks indicates the area of the world where the drug consumption is most.


Overdose is an issue in almost every part of the world, and the death happens every year because of the overdose of the medicine. But there is another view of the picture which is the overdose of the drug as the drug slowly kills the person but if the drug is taken into the excessive quantity then it can be the result of the sudden death mostly this happen because of the sudden cardiac death the overdose is always danger even the medicine we should not take overdose. This all can be explained through this and it’s very important to know because the world health organization can force the country to take action against the drug addiction in their country. The government should provide more funding to the programs and must create more opportunities for the people so that they should abstain from these habits.


This website briefly explains the research different areas and how the drug addiction is spreading in the world. This article explains the expansion of the drug in the Asian region where the death because of drug addiction is increasing rapidly. Sometimes the death occurs because the quality of the drug is very poor and usually the poor people die because of it and the government should take action against it in order to stop the production of any illegal drug. Young has to educate on this real problem. The direct effect of the drug is on their health. This article further highlights the issues that are associated with the drug abuse in the Baltimore regions and what are the causes behind these issues.


Drug dealers are the wealthy person of the planet reason behind that this illegal business has strong roots and they can have some more strong roots in upcoming years because of the support of politicians and corrupt government officials because they are also have a fair share of the profits that are earned from this business. There is millions of dollar business going on every year all across the world. Although recently the Mexican drug dealer was taken down which took eighth-month long investigation as the money recover from the drug dealer was 2.5 million dollars. This specific drug dealer usually transfers the drugs from the Mexico to the Maryland. This tells us why the issue has been so persistent within this region despite all the governmental policies and awareness programs.


This source briefly explains the crisis through which Baltimore is going through against the drug addiction. The article covers some of the major aspects of our research which are how and why the drug addiction is increasing in the Baltimore and who are the real person behind all this. Although police are investigating but still they are not able to match the dots. That’s why the research also tells us that how this beautiful city is converted into the largest city in the consumption of drug in the United States. Thereof, the federal government has to work for the betterment of the society with clear policies on use of the drugs. The government should raise the fund for the NEPs and must also introduce more programs for the people who have been suffering from the drug abuse issues. It must also provide them with more opportunities to grow and play a productive role in the society.


As we know that using and selling the drug is illegal, there are some laws about this. So in our research, we are going to take the legal perspective about the illegal drugs as how much the punishment is on using the drugs. How much the on doing the business of drug in some countries like China there is the death penalty for doing the drug business due to which Chinese were able to get rid of the drug addiction. The government should make clear about the policies and use of the drugs. It should be allowed only for laboratory use or for pharmaceutical companies. Other than this, the use should be illegal.

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IS-LM Curve

Part I Review of the ISLM model. 
Consider the following IS-LM model:
C=200+0.25Y_D; I=150+0.25Y-1000i; G=250,T=200;
?(M/P)?^d=2Y-8000i; ?((M)/P)?^s=1600

1. Derive the IS relation. Set up the aggregate demand equation, setting it being equal to output (Y) and solve for the equilibrium output (Y*). The ultimate solution will be something like ‘Y* = 0000 – 0000i.’

As per given information;

2. Derive the LM relation. Set the real money demand being equal to real money supply, and solve for the equilibrium interest rate (i*). The ultimate solution will be something like ‘i* = 0000Y – 0000.’ 

Real Money Demand function is;

3. Solve for the equilibrium real output and the equilibrium interest rate by substituting either Y-equation or i-equation into the other, and solve for both Y* and i*. Now suppose that that government spending (G) increases from the initial value of 250 to G = 400 when all other variables remain the same as before. Variables remain the same as before.
By substitution values in equation ii we get;

Now when the G has increased from 250 to 400;

4. Calculate the new equilibrium Y* and i* 

To calculate new values, we will put the computed values in solved equations for Y and I;

5. Find the correct numerical value of C and I, using the equilibrium output and interest rate. 

Previous Equilibrium

Consumption = 200+0.25Y

Consumption = 200 +0.25 (600)
Consumption = 350

Investment = 150+0.25Y-1000i

150+150-1000 (0.5)


New Equilibrium

Consumption = 200+0.25Y

Consumption = 200+0.25(1133.34)

Consumption = 200+284

Consumption = 484

Investment = 150+0.25Y-1000i

Investment = 150+284-1000(0.083)

Investment = 351

6. Briefly state the effect of this expansionary fiscal policy on Y, I, and C. 

Because of the expansionary fiscal policy, not only investment has increased, but also consumption and output. This is because the increased expenditure has increased general employment level, which positively affected consumption. The increased consumption has also increased inflation, which acted as incentive for private sector and thus increased investment. After implementing expansionary Fiscal Policy, output has increased, whereas interest-rates has decreased.

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Momentum, Rotation, Torque and moment of Inertia

Problem 1 (a)

            The expression for the x component can be described as m1 v10-m2 v2o. The minus sign in the equation shows that the two of the particles are moving in the opposite direction. After the two particles are collided, each particle maintains a component for the velocity in the X direction. This direction can be developed with the trigonometry.

P 0x = p fx

M1 v1o – m2 v2o = m1 v1 COS θ1+m2 v2f COS θ2

Problem 1 (b)

            For the Y-component, as we know that both of the particles are moving in the same direction. There is no existence of initial linear momentum in the direction of the variable Y.

p I y = m1 V I y

p 2 y = m2 V 2 y

p oy = p fy

0= m1 v1f Sin θ 1+ m2 v2f Sin θ2

Problem 1 (c)

The values are given as follows

M1 = 1 kilogram

M2 = 3 kilogram

V1 = 10 m/s

The initial equation level is as under. The value of one kilogram is provided in the initial level of the equation 

pix  + p2x  = p I y + p 2 y

m1 V1x   + m2 V 2 y = m1 V I y   + m2 V 2 y

Pix  =  P f x

m1 v1x = (m1 + m2) vf   Cos θ

Piy  =  P f y

The M2 denotes the 3 kilograms that are necessary to put in the equation is as follows

m2 v2iy = (m1 + m2 ) vf  Sin θ


 = tan θ

Tan-1 () = θ

= 30.00

Vf =

Vf =

The final value is equal as follows

V = 2.9

Problem 1 (d)

            In the equation the m1 = 1 kilogram and the m2= 3 kilograms. These variables are necessary for the impulse factor in the unit rotation for m2 on m1

f x t = m1V1x   + m2 V2x

Problem 1 (e)

In the equation the m1 = 1 kilogram and the m2= 3 kilograms. These variables are necessary for the impulse factor in the unit rotation for m1 on m2

f x t = m2 V2y   +   m2 V 2 y

Problem 2:

Mass of truck is denoted by m1, and it is   2000.00 kilogram. Similarly, the mass of car is equal to 1200 kilogram. Moreover the calculated angle after accident is calculated as 51.34. Mean while the coefficient of friction is. = µ = 0.80. This is important information that is necessary to undertake. Now the Initial speeds of truck and car is needed to calculate.

  • The Kinetic energy of the system is given by the following equation = ½ mvf – ½ mvi2

F = µN

N= (m1 + m2) gram

N = (2000.00 + 1200.00)*9.80

The N is 31360.00


F = µN

F = 0.8.00 x 31360.00


Therefore the final velocity of truck is calculated as under

25800.00 = ½ mvf2 – ½ mvi2

2 * 25800.00/ 2000.00 = Vf 2 – V i2

25.80 = Vf 2 – V i2

Vf2 + Vi2 = 2g d

= 2.00 * 9.8.00 * 9.180


2 Vi2   = 179.928 – 25.8

Initial velocity of truck is thus calculated as 10.14 miles per second

Vf =

Vf =

= 8.630

M1 vix = (m1 + m2) vf   Cos θ

VI = (3200) 8.06 cos (51.34) /1200

Therefore the v1 is equal to the level of 10.23

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Test/ANOVA Assignment

Test/ANOVA Assignment


                        A consultant was hired to investigate whether there is a statistically significant difference between the numbers of home visits conducted by a case worker with a graduate degree as opposed to a bachelor’s degree during the previous week. The consultant collected data on a random sample of case workers in the state that fell into each category. 
Based on what has been covered in class, which difference of means test would be most appropriate to analyze this data?

According to my understanding, the most appropriate test in this case would be dependent samples test and independent sample test. The reason is all the variables will b explained and the in depth knowledge will be transferred in here.


                        A researcher collected data on the number of hours students spent studying for a midterm exam (Point A) vs. how much time they spent studying for the final exam (Point B). Perform a dependent samples test in Microsoft Excel on the following data:

Point A                         Point B

10                                 8

6                                   7

3                                   6

4                                   5

9                                    9

7                                    9

2                                    7

5                                    8

6                                   10

4                                    8

Upload the Excel file with the data and the results.

The excel file has been attached.


                        A researcher collected data on the amount that members of four different political parties (Republican, Democratic, Libertarian, and Green) contributed in political donations (measured in dollars) in 2012. Which type of statistical analysis discussed in class would be most appropriate for analyzing this data?

The type of statistical analysis best for this type of data in my understanding is the grouped tests. However, ANOVA will also help in understanding the data.


                        A researcher collected the following data from freshman and senior students at a university to test whether there is a statistically significant difference in how many hours the two groups spend working at off-campus jobs:

Rank (0=Freshman, 1=Senior                Hours Worked at Off-campus Job

0                                                              20

0                                                              11

0                                                                9

0                                                               15

0                                                                 8

0                                                                17

0                                                                12

0                                                                 13

0                                                                   7  

1                                                                  27

1                                                                  20

1                                                                  11

1                                                                  15

1                                                                  19 

1                                                                  13

1                                                                    9

1                                                                   16

Run the appropriate difference of means test in Microsoft Excel to test where there is a statistically significant difference. Upload the Excel file with the data, results, and your determination of whether the null hypothesis should be accepted or rejected.

Two different mean tests have been applied on the data and we can see that here the data is not significant at that point as in both tests the value is higher than 0.05. Further, it can be seen that null hypothesis is accepted in this case.


A researcher selected respondents of different educational levels to estimate how many hours per week they spend watch cable news programming (inclusive of CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, and C-SPAN). The study produced the following data:

Education  levelHours Watching

(1=Less than High School, 2=High School, 3=Some College, 4=Bachelors, 5=Post-Grad)

1                                                                                              15

1                                                                                              11

1                                                                                                9       

1                                                                                              17

2                                                                                              12

2                                                                                            8

2                                                                                          18

2                                                                                                      14

3                                                                                                 7

3                                                                                                        5

3                                                                                                10

3                                                                                           4

4                                                                                                11

4                                                                                                 6

4                                                                                                8

4                                                                                                5

5                                                                                          16

5                                                                                               11

5                                                                                               14

5                                                                                               12

Input this data into Microsoft Excel and analyze it using the appropriate difference of means test. Upload the Excel file with your data, results, and determination of whether or not the null hypothesis should be rejected.

The difference of mean test has been applied in the study, further, we can see that values are negative and greater that 0.05 as well. This shows the data is not significant here and that is the reason null hypothesis is accepted.


                        A researcher gives 14 research participants 10 votes each which they allocate among four presidential candidates: Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton, Gary Johnson, or Jill Stein. They can give all their votes to one candidate or they can distribute them among them all.
The researcher has the participants distribute their votes once and collects the results. Then the researcher shows the participants a three minute clip from a recent campaign speech by each of the candidates. The researcher then has the participants distribute their votes a second time and collects the data.
If the researcher wanted to evaluate whether the clips affected the participants’ opinions, what difference of means test should be used?

The mean test needs to be applied in this case. The reason behind it is the exact calculation can be driven by this. However the frequencies needs to be known as well in this case.

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a range 11  
b classes 6  
c LC UC  
  1.9 3.9  
  3.91 5.91  
  5.92 7.92  
  7.93 9.93  
  9.94 11.94  
  11.95 13.95  
  1.9 3.9 3
  3.91 5.91 4
  5.92 7.92 2
  7.93 9.93 2
  9.94 11.94 2
  11.95 13.95 3


Perceptions Expectations Diff Abs
Tangibles 5.4 1.42 3.98 3.98
Reliability 3.2 6.4 -3.2 3.2
Responsiveness 2.45 2.3 0.15 0.15
Assurance 5.6 3.3 2.3 2.3
Empathy 1.9 6.4 -4.5 4.5
Emphasizes should be on Tangibles
Emphasizes should be on Empathy
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Cost per order
Carrying cost per order


Orders/years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Order size 2000.00 1000.00 667.00 500.00 400.00 334.00 286.00 250.00 223.00
Processing cost                  –                                –                                  89.96      120.00      150.00      179.64      209.79      240.00      538.12
Cost of warehousing 2000.00 1000.00 667.00 500.00 400.00 334.00 286.00 250.00 223.00
Total cost 2000 1000 756.9550225 620 550 513.6407 495.7902 490 761.1166


Orders/years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Order size 2000.00 1000.00 667.00 500.00 400.00 334.00 286.00 250.00 223.00
Processing cost           60.00                     120.00                              179.91      240.00      300.00      359.28      419.58      480.00      538.12
Cost of warehousing 2000.00 1000.00 667.00 500.00 400.00 334.00 286.00 250.00 223.00
Total cost 2060.00 1120.00 846.91 740.00 700.00 693.28 705.58 730.00 761.12


Orders/years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Order size 2000.00 1000.00 667.00 500.00 400.00 334.00 286.00 250.00 223.00
processing cost            –              –                 89.96    120.00    150.00             179.64      209.79      240.00      538.12
Cost of warehousing 2000.00 1000.00 667.00 500.00 400.00 334.00 286.00 250.00 223.00
Total cost 2000 1000 756.9550225 620 550 513.6407186 495.7902 490 761.1166


Orders/year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Order size 2,000 1,000 667 500 400 334 286 250 223 200 182 167 154 143
Processing costs ($) 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600 660 720 780 840
Warehousing costs ($) 2,000 1,000 667 500 400 334 286 250 223 200 182 167 154 143
Interest costs ($) 7200 3600 2401.2 1800 1440 1202.4 1029.6 900 802.8 720 655.2 604.8 554.4 514.8
Sum of processing, warehousing, and interest costs ($) 9260 4720 3248.2 2540 2140 1896.4 1735.6 1630 1565.8 1520 1497.2 1491.8 1488.4 1497.8
Interest rate 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
Cost per nail 40                          


Orders/year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Order size 2,000 1,000 667 500 400 334 286 250 223
Processing costs ($) 0 0    89.96    120.00    150.00    179.64      209.79      240.00 538.12
Warehousing costs ($) 1,000 500 334 250 200 167 143 125 112
Interest cost 7,200 3,600 2,401 1,800 1,440 1,202 1,030 900 803
Sum of processing and warehousing costs ($) 8,200 4,100 2,825 2,170 1,790 1,549 1,382 1,265 1,453
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Picard iteration

Picard iteration

Question 1


find the first three picard iterates

for X(0)=1

(b) coding for making the plot of matlab which is for 4 values



(c)  the coding of the sequence arbitrary picard iteration



What would be involved in showing that Picard’s theorem applies to this IVP?


One reason of the picards theorem is very important it can be generalized to establish existence results of higher order ordinary differential equation and for system of differential equation. another one is that it is good introduction to the board class of existence that are based on fixed points


 What do you think solutions to this IVP are doing?


Actually IVP solution are provide in this question is about the initial limit for the simple differential equation actually which is totally helpful for find out the picard iteration which is we  find as we want. These iteration give us the solution .

Question 2:


for x(0)=3

Hence f(x)=sin(tx(t)) and its partial is

cleanly its show that the result of the x is not equal to the zero so which is cos(t x(t)) and the x^2(t)/2 so the picard theorem is applicable for the this IVP. so which is exist in it.

(b) (c)

Find the three Picard iteration

for X(0)=3


plot the first four iteration


for the 100th picard iteration


Does a global solution exist?

By the Picard-Lindelof theorem there is a unique local solution, and it is global if you can show that the solution does not blow up. The latter is easy to show by using the given bound on f. Namely, we have 12d x 2dt= xf(x,t)≤|x|(A+B|x|)≤A+(A+B)x2,12dx2dt=xf(x,t)≤|x|(A+B|x|)≤A+(A+B)x2,   giving an exponential bound on x2x2.

 so this  is the way we can find out the global solution exist and it can may be for some condition t.

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Errors of Euler and Implicit Euler

Lab 2

Question 1:

X0(t) = x2(t) 4t *x(t) + 4t2 4x(t) + 8t − 3 ,       x(0) = 1 ,


for t=0, and  

By using the forward Euler method

putting all these values in the forward Euler method

[(-1)2 – 4(0)(-1)+ (0)2 – 4(-1) + (0) – 3]

Now by taking t=1 and

now we can change in the so the value of t=0 and the  put in main equation

now we taking with these values and find the answer

so its showing by increasing the step size of the by one by one its change the values all the answer showed above.

Question 2:

using forward and backward Euler the solution of the initial value problem


Firstly same as we find the for forward Euler method

for t=0, and  

By using the forward Euler method

for t=1, and

for t=0, and

for t=1, and

Error of the function

X1 = 1.2+0.1[2]

X2 = 1.419+0.1[2 ]

X1 = 1.4+0.2[2 ]

X2 = 1.873+0.2[2 ]

For the backward Euler method formula

At the  t=0 and

Xn+1 =

x1 =1.18

At t=1 and

X2 =1.36

At t=0 and

X1 =1.51

now for the t=1 and

X2 =1.83

Error of Euler method

Question 3:

Investigate numerically what happened as you take above part.


suppose  x(t­0) = 0.1

X1 =0.332

At t=0 and

                                                   X1 =0.186

the upper numerical values shows all the smaller values for tht x(to). So all the result showing each of things happening

Question 4:


when we taking the values become the smaller then the values giving the point of exact answers mean that which is giving the batter result as the picard iteration is showing it. So its gives the exaltation values.

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Aircraft stability and control Effects on stability of Aircraft


Stability of aircraft is the ability of the plane to remain aligns with the path directed from control room until landing on the ground. Stability of plane may be disturbed by upward thrust and turbulent air flow on wings and tail of the plane. Stability can be controlled by controlling the properties of craft.

Aircraft stability and control:

Aircraft static stability is the performance of an aircraft to remain in symmetrical movement under the same conditions followed by it. The more precise description is the dynamic motion of flight in the atmosphere in a turbulent and straight way without any deviation from the original path directed to it from a control room. Under such condition, aircraft will remain directed to its destination without generating disturbances to the pilot. Stability of aircraft is the response of the craft to the aerodynamic forces and gravitational forces in addition to propulsive forces acting on the craft body. Stability of craft may vary due to an action of these unbalanced forces and the measure is caused by deviation from the equilibrium position.

The aspects of stability of craft are further divided into more sub-types, static and dynamic stability. Static stability is the initial tendency of an aircraft to return towards its initial original position, orientation with original speed. Aircraft tends to restore its initial equilibrium even after all the perturbation forces on the structure of craft. In these disturbed conditions control keep trying to deal with the issue generated during the previous successful flight of craft to simplify the problems, control first tries to identify the issue whether the aerodynamic and propulsive controls are adequate to trim the path of the vehicle (Cook, 2013).

Static stability may be positive negative or neutral. Positive static stability of an aircraft is the ability to return towards its original attitude after all the disturbances faced by craft. The precise example of such type that craft may hit by turbulence flow of air opposing it, in these conditions nose pitches up from normal motion line x-axis towards small  variation around the y-axis. Immediately after that the nose lowers and returns to its original position. Under neutral static stability, nose moves up with 5-7 degrees and then immediately returns to the normal line.

While in negative static stability, the nose of plane move 5-7 degrees upward and then immediately comes back to the main normal line of motion. Spiral stability is when an aircraft moves in spiral motion and after circulating around its center craft comes back to align across its position (Duncan, 1952).

Factors Affecting stability of Aircraft:

Flying aircraft encompasses two types of major problems that are overcoming the weight of the whole plane and controlling all objects in the plane. The static stability of an aircraft is significantly influenced by a distance of plane with the center of gravity besides this drag force also disturbs up to some extends. Air Drag force resists the motion of plane and lift force is generated by the wings and tail and this moment is named as trim.

As both forces are in same vertical direction, according to a law of equilibrium sum of all forces must be equal to zero. Therefore using equilibrium law

∑F Upward = W = L wing + L lift

For the thin airfoil at low angle of attack:

L w = q S w  ( a – a0 )

Where S w  is the area of wing  and a  is the angle of attack for aircraft

    q = ½ pv2

Where p is air density and v is the speed of the craft.

Main sources that affect the stability of aircraft are weight of craft, drag and upward thrust of air, compressibility of air and gravitational force.

The force from the tail acting on the plane is proportional to its angle of attack, including the

Control fixed stability:

 The most important results for the control stability can be calculated by involving terms and products of the drag coefficient and either vertical displacements of the plane center of gravity and Sine’s of all the angle of attack can be overlooked by when writing all effect of forces acting on the plane and displacement of location specified and pitching moment about the vehicle:

Cm = Cm0 + C l w ( ) -ήC [] + C mf

Where we assume that Cm0  = 0 because the tail of the plane is always symmetrical. While plane is moving along positive x- axis direction.

Figure 2 Thrust at wings and tail


Where slope of the Vehicle lift curve can be written as

C l = C La  +  ή   ( 1  – d) C La

C L a   = CL / a

Methods of control:

Path or trajectory of the plane can be controlled by different methods.

Control can be done in two main methods.

  1. By varying the direction and magnitudes of propulsive forces acting on the plane.
  2. By changing the relative positions and distances of all parts relatively. This may give rise to moment about the center of gravity of the aircraft and aircraft may rotate about axes and more generally it alters its attitude from the flight of the path with some difference.(Duncan, 1952)


Stability of plane can be affected by the thrust of the plane in opposite direction. The whole process of flight of plane can be controlled by controlling all the properties of plane and précised measurement of the weight of plane relative to the distance from the center of the earth.


Cook, M. V. (2013). Flight Dynamics Principles: A Linear Systems Approach to Aircraft Stability and Control. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Duncan, B. W. (1952). The Principles of the Control and Stability of Aircraft.

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Inn-Campus Tech VIC Tour 1.1: Introducing Virtual Learning Environments And Gamification

Summary of the Article

VIC Tour 1.1: Introducing Virtual Learning Environments And Gamification

The advancements in the realm of technology have given birth to new realities and utilities, which are facilitating individuals and corporations. The corporate sector has employed new technological instruments, tools and utilities to benefit from. One of such applications, of technology, is virtual tours of location and places. These tours are close to reality, giving real-time experience to those, who are interested in location. Real Estate industry, which is a very lucrative and strong industry, has also employed this technology to facilitate clients, as they can provide virtual tour of locations and buildings, through virtual modes.

Game Engines have created sophisticated technological instrument, which provide a virtual tour to its clients, of campus. This allows clients to inspect campus/location and they have direct access to evidence; does not have to rely on marketers’ provided evidence, which may be tempered. The article also asserts that video galleries serve the corporate cause better than image galleries. The article also discusses in detail the components, which are used for the development of VICTour, which include, Renderer, Game Physics, Lightning, Graphical User Interfaces and Head Up Displays (HUD) etc. The objective, of creating this system, remains to be convincing/persuading clients.

Relating Facts

In both situations, technology has been employed to give additional or provide close-to-reality experience to clients that are interested in certain real-estate, campus or building. In both situations, the objective is to benefit (through corporate activity), by providing additional information or virtual tour. However, the difference is that in Inn-Campus Tech scenario, the corporate plan has been developed or matured full and this may be the reasons that Inn-Campus Tech is facing challenges after implement their corporate design. The issue would be regarding the corporate design, which may have flaws, as it seems that it has only focused on summer, when dormitories are vacant and provide opportunity for companies like Inn-Campus Tech.

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CMOS means complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Transistor. CMOS circuits contain PMOS transistors and NMOS transistors. PMOS is built with p-type source and drain and a n-type substrate. Charge carriers in PMOS circuits are holes therefore PMOS always conduct at low voltage on contrary at high voltages PMOS will not conduct. The basic reason behind this conduction process is because PMOS transistors represents P type MOS transistor. P-type metal oxide semiconductor transistor uses P-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor MOSFET when used in circuits for logic operations. The basic process to generate P-channel is by applying voltage to the third terminal that is gate terminal of transistor.

Circuit Diagram:

Circuit diagram for PMOS NOR gate is as below. Two inputs A and B are given at Q1  and Q2 while the out of NOR gate is drawn across common point of Q3

Output of the whole circuit:

Y =  

 Truth Table:

 Two inputs are given on Q2 while the output is drawn across Q3.

Input A Input B Q1 Q2 Q3 Output
0 0 off off Off On
0 1 off on Off Off
1 0 On off off Off
1 1 on on Off off

Specification for the circuit:

Input voltage = 3.3V

Capacitive Load = 200fF

Switching frequency =1 GHz

All lengths and widths are positive integer multiples of specific number = 0.5 µm

Final value of output voltage = 0.4V

Time taken by all transistors < 150 p s

The current through Q1 should be close to 0.5 mA.

The current through Q2 should be close to 0.5 mA.

The current through Q3 should be close to 1.0 mA.

Zero to one transition:

Rise time = time taken to cross 0.4 volts – 3

One to zero transitions:

Time to make one to zero transition = 4ns

Fall time = time taken to cross 0.4 v – 4ns

Calculations at Q1:

V1 = 3.3V

I1 = 0.5mA

By using Ohm’s law V= IR

Resistance should be

R2 = (3.3 – 0) / 0.5

R2 = 6.6 Ω

P = I2R2

P = 0.52 x 6.6


Calculations at Q2:

V1 = 3.3V

I1 = 0.5mA

By using Ohm’s law V= IR

Resistance should be

R1 = (3.3 – 0) / 0.5

R1 = 6.6 Ω

P = I2R1

P = 0.52 x 6.6


Calculations at Q2:

V1 = 3.3V

I1 = 1.0 m A

By using Ohm’s law V= IR

Resistance should be

R2 = (3.3 – 0) / 1.0

R3 = 3.3 Ω

P = I2R3

P = 0.52 x 3.3

P = 0.825W

Estimate Rise and fall time:

t r =   

t r = capacitive load / input voltages

t r  = 200 x 10 -15 / 3.3

t r = 60.12 x 10-3

t r = 60ms

Rise time = 60ms – 3ns

Rise time = 57ps

B= 1/v2+

B = 0.0917

Fall time:

 tf =  

= 200 x 10-15 /0.0917

= 21.810 x 10-3

= 21.8 m s -4ns

=17 p s


Rising time and fall time both are under 150ps. Length of each resistance is approximately equal to 0.5um. Using these values of resistances and voltages applied to each transistor power factor for each transistor is different for Q 1 , Q 2, Q 3 .Graph of each power and current in circuit is linear graph.NOR gate gives inverted outputs. Output is on only when all A and B are zero-Rising

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Code of Ethics

Question 1:

Code of Ethics

The ASCE Code of Ethics was first adopted in 1914 and was recently updated in the year 2006. As per the ASCE bylaws, all members have to follow the code and they also have to report any practice that involves a violation. CPC or Committee on Professional Conduct assesses and investigates all the violations and their related complaints as per the procedural rules. If CPC needs to report something regarding the malpractice then the recommendation will be forwarded to the Executive Committee of ASCE for the purpose of the formal hearing. The Code of Ethics is comprised of 7 Canons which are as follows,

Canon 1 – Hold Safety Paramount

            The engineers should hold safety paramount at all times as public health and welfare is above everything else and is one of the prime principles of sustainable development. Hence they have to follow all the safety instructions first on a daily basis whenever they are performing their professional duties.

Canon 2 – Service with Competence

            All the engineers should only perform the duties or jobs regarding which they have full knowledge and expertise. This will not only allow the engineers to perform that job with optimum results but will also keep it safe for everyone else.

Canon 3 – Issue True statements

            In the case of any issue, it is the ethical duty of the engineers that they should make any public statements with full responsibility and in completely objective manner. They should always be truthful while they make such statement.

Canon 4 – Act as Faithful Agent

            It is the ethical duty of all the engineers that they should act in a very professional manner at all times either with the employees or with the clients and they should act like trustees or faithful agents or should prevent from any conflicting interests.

Canon 5 – Reputation by Merit

            It is the ethical duty of all the engineers to build their own professional reputation and on the basis of their services and must not indulge in unfair competition. They have to stay professional and must work in a professional manner and should also abstain from unproductive criticism.

Canon 6 – Uphold Professional Honor

            All the engineers must act in order to improve and uphold dignity, integrity, and honor within their profession. They should act with zero tolerance and must abstain from practices that involve corruption, bribery or fraud.

Canon 7 – Continue Professional Development

            It is the ethical duty of all the engineers to continue with their professional development right from the beginning of their careers till the end and must also provide opportunities for development for other engineers as well who are working under their supervision.


Question 2:

Code Violations with Safety Implications (adapted from NSPE Case No. 89-7)

Were Metzler’s obligations to Smith fulfilled?

As per ASCE Code 4a, Metzler’s obligations to Smith were fulfilled as he promptly informed Smith prior to telling the third party.

What about Metzler’s professional responsibility for public safety?

            As per ASCE Code 1b, Metzler should have sealed the design documents of the concerned area of the building but he only briefly told Smith about the issue.

Is there any information not supplied that would make an important difference in your judgment?

            Yes, after studying the case we can conclude that whether Smith did sell the building with the issue as identified by Metzler or not? If the building has been sold then Metzler has violated ASCE Code 1b as he should have sealed that portion of the building or should have told the third party about the issue.  


Question 3:

ASCE Code of Ethics & Student Honor Code

            The ASCE Code of Ethics and the Student Honor Code can be related with one another as they both define the code of ethics for engineers and students respectively. In the Student Honor Code, there are different types of cheating that are provided. Copying from another examination paper or letting someone copy yours, come under the ASCE Code 6 where the engineers should show zero tolerance for fraud and corruption. Other forms of cheating are unpermitted collaboration or aid among the students, plagiarism, resubmitting a paper for improvement in grades without prior knowledge, presenting some work as own work, help in making the assignments. All of these fall under the ASCE Code 6 as well as ASCE Code 5 where the engineers are not allowed to compete in an unfair environment.


Question 4:

William LeMessurier-The Fifty-Nine-Story Crisis: A Lesson in Professional Behavior

  1. Examples of ethical and unethical behavior

The example of ethical behavior from the case is, as William LeMessurier is one of the most reputable structural engineers, he shouldn’t have approved the design of the building which was completed in 1977 which is a direct violation of the ASCE Code 1a. However, the example of ethics displayed in the case is that when he had to report about the structural deficiency of the building to the board members for the necessary repairs as per the ASCE Code 1f.

  • Who was at fault?

In my opinion, William LeMessurier was at fault because he shouldn’t have approved the design in the first place. According to ASCE Code 1a, LeMessurier should have disapproved the design of Citicorp building and should have look for the improvements during its construction time.

  • Was the resolution of the issue handled adequately?

Yes, the resolution of the issue was handled adequately as the repairs were approved by the board in not time and the work was in full flow. The whole repair project was segregated into small steps and each of the steps was getting complete in the very short time period. However, the whole project was jeopardized when the hurricane hit during the repair project.


Question 5:

  1. The first step is to become an engineer intern and the second step is to gain professional experience. The third step is to acquire the knowledge about that are the requirements of the license agreement of each state as each state has different rules and regulations. The final step is to prepare for the Professional Engineering exam and in the end take the exam.
  2. Licensure is very important for the engineers as ASCE has raised the bar so that the public welfare and professional expertise can be advanced and the engineers can contribute to this as much as they can. This is why the educational requirements for the licensure for the future engineers have been raised.
  3. ASCE BOK2  – Outcome 22 (Attitudes)
  4. Curiosity – An engineer must have a curious attitude as it will allow him/her to look for details in each and every process or activity.
  5. Honesty – an engineer should be honest in all his/her practices as his/her actions are directly linked to the safety and welfare of the public.
  6. Thoughtfulness – an engineer should be thoughtful in his approach on daily basis and s/he look for minor details.
  7. Tolerance – At times there are other engineers who also introduce their ideas therefore, all the engineers should collectively work to make the project successful.
  8. Judgment – An engineer should be able to judge various scenarios and situations in order to make design safe for the public.

d) When we talk about raising the bar, then the requirement of a Master’s degree should be a must for the professional licensure. As the globe is facing more and more threats relating to the natural disasters and various other threats, therefore, it is important for today’s engineers to gain more expertise in this field so that more measures can be taken to tackle these issues.   

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Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations


            I have many expectations from this subject of “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations” being a graduate international student of the business school. The negotiation in conflict management is a proper area of academic and practical considerations. Therefore, the conflict management tools using the negotiation techniques always a great tactic in human resource management in which the practices of mediation are applied in day-to-day activities along with the professional life such as in the organizational behaviors.

            For instance, while interaction with the family or friends about going to the restaurant while making choices from whether to go to a Chinese restaurant or try a pizza this time, discussing with friends about going to a vacation at the Florida state or the Las Vegas, we make choices for resolving disagreements. Similarly while making decisions in the organization such as purchasing the new equipment or making modifications to the existing one also include the choices to settle down or come to an agreement. These all are the examples of the negotiation that are going into our lives whether we are aware or not.

            As I am an international student studying here this class of “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations” would provide a great opportunity for me to learn from a different aspect or point of view about the core concepts of the conflict management using the negotiation techniques. The basics bout conflict-management in which the opposition or usually the term of disagreement is used as a conflict occurs between the two rival parties wants an entirely different result. There is a chance of learning about various levels of conflicts such as the intrapersonal conflict or conflict within oneself such if I want to eat an ice cream but a conflict exist in my mind that ice cream could make obesity in me.

            The interpersonal conflict and the intergroup conflict are most important as far as conflict management in the professional or practical life. I am also hoping to understand the positive or the functional side of the conflict in which the positive outcome would accomplish through the ‘integrative negotiation or win-win or expanding the pie” strategy of conflict management. The awareness about the interests and the core problems are an integral part of the negotiation process that would be an interesting a phenomenon to occur in the disagreement process.

            There is also an aspect of the dysfunctional conflict or the “distributive bargain” or “fixed pie” in which the negative outcome is achieved most of the times. The importance of the need or desires of both the parties as the cause of the conflict in which both the parties try to reach a better position than existing one. The role of the mutual adjustments from both parties is also in the list of learning outcomes from this course, the proactive part of the “give and take” approach in every sought of the negotiation process and the mutual adjustments are the most important tool for the conflict management along with the flexible types of concessions. The intangible values that the negotiators perceive from the phase of the agreements are also significant in this regard.

            The expectations of mine from this subject most important style of negotiation using the dual dimension approach in which the cooperativeness in which the concerns for the others are mostly illustrated and the assertiveness in which the personal concerns or interests are put into the primary focus. The other significant tactic used as a mediating or the negotiation style as an importance of the collaborating style that would provide the high level of the benefits of mutual interest of goals would achieve.

Journal Entries


In this negotiation, the trust is one of the game, as every one wants to win but in the same time we could both lose, the best goal is not to beat the other company its when you both lose. The ethics is more important

Don’t burn bridges. As we were a group I learn that people were not as ethical as I thought when it comes to money, people can do what ever to get it even thought its gonna hurt the person reputation, we were truthful with the people we are negotiating with as there was 3 round so we did get there trust for the first 2 rounds and then we backed up one our words in the last round and won.

            The key elements that happened in the activity are the role of the trust and the ethical considerations one put into the negotiation process. From the dual concern model, I have learned that the position of my group was ‘Competing’ while looking the unethical behaviors, interests, intentions. We have managed to manipulate the trust factor as an important intangible value factor in the negotiation process. Since the rival party tried to outperform us, we eventually using the trust, concession factor makes the ‘win-lose’ or distributing bargain for us in which the zero-sum situation was created in the 3rd or final round from total three rounds of the negotiation.

            The significant thing I learned about negotiation from the simulation was knowledge about our strength and knowing the other actor’s weakness while using the power-oriented approach in which the maximum attention is toward the assertiveness while ignoring the cooperativeness. We have used our interest factor for getting our track to hard bargain while in the third round for winning the negotiation process at the expense of the rival party’s expense while creating the dominant position of our group eventually.

            The element that surprised me about my behavior was the process that leads me to avoid the competitive attitude in which I learned that there is another way of accomplishing my goal while avoiding the escalation of the specific means of commitment. The element that surprised about my opponents behavior for beating the rival party using inefficient negotiation skills exploiting the interest of others, such as that proved to be winner’s curse’ for our group.

            The thing that I learn about myself was that I could become a god negotiator with a little more effort in identifying the core concepts of the conflict management, in which both the parties to accomplish the various outcomes or results. The knowing of my ability that the aspirations according to my interest require a lot of patience, flexible position and balance power is analyzed. The thing, which I learned about others, was that people could go at each stage or even the rigid positions or commitment level to achieve the self-interest designed goals.

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, I would you do few things differently such as try to exploring the fact that the divergence of the mindset of both parties for achieving individual goals would not be a good strategy. Whereas it is also possible, that disagreement could lead towards the positive outcome for both the parties as well.

            This experience compares to others that I have had in similar in a way that my group had to manage the innovations or bringing the improvements in the negotiation style or approach or comparable in a way that I found the psychological growth in my personality. I was unaware of the real issues that both parties had in the conflict circumstances.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation in a way that I realized that the conflicts sometimes make us powerful enough in developing the self-control in our lives. I learned about the outcomes of the conflict as a concession as the dynamic process of haggling in which both parties must give and take to reach towards the position of compromise. There was great learning about the negotiation styles using the two horizon or dimensional model as assertiveness or cooperativeness in which we put five factors according to the situation ahead like competing in which just to focus on self-interests and accommodating in which care about others interest or concerns as well.


IN THIS NEGOTIATION was all about slicing the pie like what is said by reading chapter 3 in the book by (slicing the pie strategy) strategy 1: assess your BATNA and improve it. And Strategy 2: Determine your reservation point, but do not reveal it.

            The key elements happened in the activity were the how to engaged in the negotiation process from both the parties in getting the largest pie. For this, the firsts stage was the preparation was developed in which offers were made from parties, receiving counter offers, devising the best alternative opportunities in the negotiation and finally making concessions or shifting from the initial position. Then the most important element in that activity was the BATNA (Best Alternative to the Negotiated Agreement) in which the Best Alternative to the Negotiated Agreement was developed in which both the parties established the lowest level of the acceptable price in the negotiation agreement.

            The keys that I had learned about negotiation from the simulation were the importance of developing the alternatives in the negotiation process in which the party can know at what point we need to place a full stop or finishing the negotiation deal. The other key that I had to learn was that the power is essential in the deal making for walking far away from the deal id the opponent party does not want to come even near to our terms.

            The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that I got the knowledge about my bargaining range including the minimum level that I would ready to pay and the maximum range or amount that I would bear in the process of deal making. In the case of minimum range, I would shift from the position for giving something extra in that specific deal and similarly in the maximum range that I can afford to pay in which I could shift while shaving off from a rigid stance.  The thing that surprised about the behavior of my opponent was the way he sued the concession techniques such as the target range or amount as well as the reservation range while making an initiative in offering a concession in a deal to create a positive impact.

            The most important thing that I learned about myself was that how to reach a point where we accept the terms of the negotiation agreement using the principles of the negotiation as the integrative negotiation strategy while using the magnitudes of the discounts or concession in useful ways. The thing I learned from the others was that people usually prefer the fixed pie or the distributive bargain strategy of the negotiation.

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, I would you adopt the negotiation strategy differently in a  manner to make a ‘compromise situation’ choosing the middle ground in which the splitting the key differences are essential in this specific case which is a better approach for deal making rather avoiding the negotiation process of deal making.

            This experience compare to others that I have had in similar was there was a negotiation case in which only one core issues was involved in the deal making like financing. Therefore the distributive bargaining occurred as a result of the fixed pie circumstances. This situation would be comparable as integrative negotiation in which the resources that were available could easily be divided, having a situation I had won along with the opponent party.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation in which the long-term  sustainable relationship would maintain through the win-win situation for both the parties, the primary focus of the parties are the interest of each other while ignoring the positions. In the negotiation, the process for achieving the satisfaction that would make the complete value for the parties is analyzed as an outcome of the integrative negotiation. The negotiation style would be collaborative in this regard, in which the goals of both parties would meet in a value identification process.

  • New Recruit NEGOTIATION

IN THIS NEGOTIATION my goal as the recruiter is to reach an agreement with the candidate on all eight issues, IN THIS NEGOTIATION I learned to make more than one offer with the same value and let the person choose, and (sharing the reservation point you do not tell them what is your target, what surprised me about my behavior is that we both want to get the same thing but in the same time we have to give up something, I learned about my self in this negation that I could be better if I have another chance to do it again, by reading chapter 4 in the book( win-win negation: expanding the pie) by taking extra time to negotiate and focusing on a long-term relationship.

            The key elements that happened in the activity are the list of the multiple eight issues in which the integrative bargaining occur between me as a recruiter and the candidates who have applied for the job at a specific position in accompany. The resolution was created in a way that both the parties would take the key advantage of the negotiation agreement, in which the research would make from my side to develop  satisfactory situation for both the parties in a win-win situation. The objectiveness in the achievements of the standard was the primary goal in which the multiple ranges of the options were created that would provide a suitable gain for both the parties.

            The lessons I learn about negotiation from the simulation were while attaching the same value I chose the various range of offers while leaving the ball in the court of the opponent party from that various sought of offer I had given to them. Therefore, I did not let them guess my target point while sharing the reservation points with them. In this strategy, I made the value appropriately to all my primary interests in the process of valuation in the deal making.

            The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that there was an existence of the mutual goal in the recruitment process negotiation, while it was very necessary from both the parties point of views would be to involve in a give or take along with the concessions strategy to reach a mutual satisfaction long-term relationship. The surprising fact about the opponents behavior was that they had the issues like the salary or other benefits where they could make the healthy debate in the form of the integrative bargain style apart from the few differences in the agreement.

 The thing I learned about myself was that for maintaining the long-term sustainable relationship it is very necessary that do not always involved in the blame game whereas the most important strategy in this regard was that confronting the core issues or the problems were necessary rather than just confronting the people for that. The thing I learned about the about others was that people conceive both the disagreements along with the negotiation process as the same thing which is sometimes wrong. Therefore it is important to have a reminder that communication in an appropriate manner would be helpful in the future interaction with the same party. 

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, the thing I would do differently is making a winning environment for both parties in a way that would establish the smooth relationship between both the parties. There should be rejection or the acceptance of the viewpoints not the individual persons in the negotiation process. In any position, one must follow the interest as a primary focus.

This experience compares to others that I have had in similar include the negotiation is all about the identifying the solution be agreeable for both the parties in a given framework of the problem. Therefore making the excuses is not the ultimate option or offer while undermining the interests of the others in the comparable circumstances.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation that issues are the core objective that must be a target from the negotiator in the disagreements rather than focusing the people as a core problem in the disagreement process. This is an important outcome for developing the sustainable or strong relationship between the two parties. The negotiation style is, therefore, would be used as a collaborative or compromise in some cases would apply as an approach in which the primary focus would be on the interest which are underlying in the negotiation process. The understanding of the opponents fear or desires at such points in which they maintain a strong stance is important.


I will start by saying relationship did important to me in this exercise,I cant belive the person stole the car out of my parking lot even its her car but its illegal before she pays off her bills, but I didn’t want to take her to court because the court fees goanna is more than the bill and the legal fees, I tried to settle in the middle because I value there business since we opened the shop even thought we don’t have a good relationship together, but at the same time we all live in a small town, so reputation is everything, we have miscommunication in this situation,  also from the book in chapter 6 (Establishing trust and building a relationship) about the steps repairing broken trust, step 2: put the focus on the relationship which what I did.   Step3: apologize which she did apologias to me.

            The key elements happened in the activity include the trust in the relationship include the deterrence based or nature of the relationship while protecting the reputations. In this case, the deliberate types of mechanism would apply in building the trust in a relationship in which the major focus was on the future relationship in a manner that capitalization on the different terms of network. The focus on the relationship which what I did was that the psychological approaches used to maintaining the trusts include the exposure strategy, the physical existence, reciprocity of the values, and flattery of the situations and self-approach of disclosure. The situations that lead to the level of the mistrust includes the defections of one or both parties apologize which she did apologies to me, the total miscommunication, and the attribution of the dispositional style. The last thing is the concentration on the apple, which is bad.

            I learn about negotiation from the simulation the whole process for dealing in an effective manner about the relationship, which had broken. The personal interactive session or meeting is essential in this regard. The focus on the relationship is also included while making the apology at the demanding situation, using the situations as venting is important while getting offensive is not an important tool.

 The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that relationships as part of the negotiation always require some special adjustments especially dealing with the embedded types of the relationship. The rational approach would be a preferable one since it is a very important phase in protecting the reputation while using the halo effect or sometimes the forked-tail effect as well. The thing that surprised about the opponents include the relationships, which becomes the embedded from the material goods would usually rate as the concrete in one way or the other.

            I learned about myself that how repairing the lost reputation sometimes becomes significant in the negotiation process, the person oriented relationship building in which the factor of the trust also involve the negotiation factors as the counterpart strategy in which the person must show a high level of emotional intelligence in achieving the desired outcomes. The thing I leaned about others that people usually does not associate the relevant values along with the principles that are necessary for regaining the trust factor between the parties.

            If I had, the chance to do this negotiation over what would I do differently is compromised of identification along with the feelings of others that would apply a strategy of having the common goals or objectives to maintain the healthy relationships in future. The psychological strategy would include the similarity-attraction approach and the strategy of the self-disclosure to build the high level of trust.

            This experience compares to others that I have had in similar are comprised of avoiding the situations of the defections along with the breaches that would certainly lead to the situation of the mistrust between the parties. There must be focusing on the positive side of the picture rather relying or focusing only on the bad side of the apple as per the comparable circumstances?

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation is comprised of the concentration completely onto the building the sustainable relationship, apologizing if we are at the wrong side, not indulge in the defensive frame of mind at once while letting the things venting smoothly. The outcome, for developing the reputation again regarding the relationship includes the ways that would suit both parties in the future. The supportive nature of the negotiation style at this point is essential which includes the accommodating in which the concerns for others would take into account along with the compromise style of negotiation.


            In the end, it is concluded that I am very fortunate to learn a lot from this class of the “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations.” The most important aspect of conflict management that I have learned include the dual model of the conflict resolution in which the two approach or variables in the form of “assertiveness and cooperativeness” along with the five factors such as avoiding, competing, compromising, accommodating and collaborating are used.

            The assertiveness approach focuses on the self-interest or the concerns while ignoring the concerns of the others, while the dominant factor in this approach is the competing. The approach of the collaborating focusing on the concerns of the others while ignoring the interests of the others, the most dominant part of this approach is the accommodating. The best approach in my view would be the collaborating in which the win-win situation for both the parties would accomplish in which the maximum interest of multiple actors are accomplished. The integrative negotiation as the most useful style of the negotiation or conflict management technique is then analyzed in which the mutual goals are accomplished from the various or different core issues while long-term sustainable relationships are maintained from focusing on the interests not the positions of the problems. The people are not the focus in the process of the disagreements; the core objective would be on the issues of the disagreements not the people as the primary focus of the disagreements.

            The next important learning from the conflict management includes the BATNA that is the best alternative to the negotiated agreement, which is the lowest level of the range that the person is willing to pay in the deal making. The concepts related to that such as the target points, the point at which we want the agreement to be completed, the reservation point or the point at which we would not accept the agreement or the deal in any case and prefer to walk away from the situation. The other key concepts in this process include the surplus of the negotiator, which is calculated as a positive zone of the bargain in the negotiation process. The differences in the opposite point of views of the both the parties must be entertained in a manner that the most effective pattern would be the close the mutual point if still the deal would not make then there would be a certain deadlock.

            The conflict management teaches us that the change in the organizational actions must be according to the dynamic adaptability practices from the various challenges; the functional conflict would make the relationships between the parties more stable as well as strong in a way that problem-solving techniques become the easier. The conflict management theories help us to understand or identify the awareness of our self as well as about the others. The people usually become the realistic in their approach while having the egocentric approach is ignored from the negotiation skills.

            The other core concepts of the conflict management from the mediation and negotiation techniques, I have able to understand in this class are the reputation regarding the relationship with the others are analyzed. The rapport as a strong relationship with the embedded nature of relationship with the friends, business mates, and colleagues are analyzed through the focusing on the relationship for the future in the approach of the similarity-attraction as a tool of the psychological framework, making the communication level strong and focusing on the positive side of the picture. The arrangement of a personal meeting along with the apologizing to the others is included in the process of repairing the relationship as per the negotiation process for the trust, which is broken.

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Comparison of Stocks

Stocks Listed on Dow Jones & NASDAQ

Dow Jones NASDAQ
Company name International Business Machines Corporation The Home Depot, Inc., Inc. Yahoo! Inc.
Market Technology Services Services Technology
Industry Information Technology Services Home Improvement Stores Catalog & Mail Order Houses Internet Information Providers
Stock symbol IBM HD AMZN YHOO
Number of shares outstanding 955.84 Million 1.24 Billion 474.07 Million 951.78 Million
Enterprise value 145.87 Billion 168.54 Billion 387.96 Billion 34.97 Billion
Stock Price
Q1-2015  $                          160.50  $                           113.61  $               372.10  $                                   44.44
Q2-2015  $                          162.66  $                           111.13  $               434.09  $                                   39.29
Q3-2015  $                          144.97  $                           115.49  $               511.89  $                                   28.91
Q4-2015  $                          137.62  $                           132.25  $               675.89  $                                   33.26
Q1-2016  $                          151.45  $                           133.43  $               593.64  $                                   36.81
Q2-2016  $                          151.78  $                           127.69  $               715.62  $                                   37.56
Q3-2016  $                          158.85  $                           128.68  $               837.31  $                                   43.10
27-Oct-17  $                          153.35  $                           122.26  $               818.36  $                                   41.87

(Yahoo Finance, 2016) (Yahoo Finance, 2016) (Yahoo Finance, 2016) (Yahoo Finance, 2016)

  1. International Business Machines Corporation

IBM dealing in informational technology products and headquartered in New York provides its products and services worldwide. The two-year stock price shows that the company stock value is declining, however, it is a time that most of the analysts would suggest to hold or buy the stock as the company is expected to increase its earnings and consequently its market price. The projection of the company earnings for 2017 by various analysts shows a growth rate estimate of around 3%. However, this year the earnings are expected to decline up to 9%. The company exhibits strong potential of growth in future therefore the investors should hold on this stock for potential capital gain (, 2016).

  • The Home Depot, Inc.

Headquartered in Atlanta, USA, the company Home Depot inc. operates as a home improvement retailing company. The company is dealing in the sale of various building materials lawn and gardening products, home improvement products, and provide home maintenance and installation services to its customers. The company provides services majorly within USA, Canada and Mexico. The stock historical data shows that the company has steadily increased in value. The analysts have recommended a “strong buy” for this stock as it is expected to raise its value by a greater margin in near future. This is evident in the forecasted earnings growth rate for the company which is expected to get as high as 17% in 2014. This shows that the company future investments and expansion plans are going to be appreciated by the market in future and will result in greater earnings (, 2016).

  •, Inc.

The giant online retailer listed on NASDAQ is headquartered in North Seattle, USA. The company provides it is retailing business in North America and internationally through online platform. The company after establishing its base in the e-commerce has also started manufacturing of electronic devices like Kindle Reader etc. Other than this, the company also provides cloud-computing services through its web services. The giant expansion is evident from its tremendous increment in the market value. Within two years, the company has jumped from $373 to $818. This is also depicted in the analyst’s recommendation of the strong buy, which is because of the expected earnings growth this year, by 369%. In 2017, the company is expected to maintain its growth and expansion policy evident in the earnings growth rate of 80% that is expected to remain so until 2018. The company is at its peak now expanding and growing its business globally (, 2016).

  • Yahoo! Inc.

Listed on NASDAQ Stock Exchange, the company Yahoo! Inc. is headquartered in USA. The company provides many services related to information technology. The yahoo mail service and the yahoo search engine are one of the popular services of this company. Other than this, the company also provides online display advertising services on its properties, and Yahoo News. Yahoo Finance is another important service of this company, which aid the investors, and business community all over the world. The stock history of the company shows that the company stock prices went into a dip in the past two years but it has regained its value in the last few months. The analyst recommends holding or buying the stock as the company is expected to regain its value in the near future. This is evident in the 90% expected earnings growth rate by the analysts. In 2017, the company is expected to hold its growth rate in earnings to 60% (, 2016).

References: (2016, October 28). Amazon. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from (2016, October 28). Home Depot Inc. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from (2016, October 28). IBM. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from (2016, October 28). Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). Amazon. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from Yahoo Finance:

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). Home Depot Inc. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from Yahoo Finance:

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). IBM. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from Yahoo Finance:

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). Yahoo! Retrieved October 28, 2016, from Yahoo Finance:

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Question No: 1

  1. In heart discrimination studies carboxylic acid and ester shares discriminative properties. The carboxylic acid is used in oxidization of blood and helps the body absorb iron, which is the need for red blood cell production. Also due to the carboxylic acid, a drug is absorbed, glucuronidated or sulfated in the liver and secreted through the bile. This glucuronic acid is cleaved off by bacteria and drugs are reabsorbed in the body.

Ester + H2O                                          Acid + Alcohol

  •  Ester and carboxylic acid produce oxidation process in the body. This is cleavage of this molecule by taking up a molecule of water from liver and similarly, polypeptides are hydrolyzed by peptidases. Hydrolysis occurs in the liver and other tissues. Ester involves reaction with hydroxide ions and is very effective to dissolve different molecules, which are absorbed into blood cells circulating in the body.
  • Carboxylic ester hydrolyses to the parent carboxylic acid and alcohol. In both cases C-O bond between the acryl group and the oxygen that is cleaved. Splitting them into carboxylic acids and alcohols by the action of water dilute acid and dilute alkali.
  • Degradation which means a change of physical or chemical nature of the drug. Degradation may be due to loss of water molecules or loss of volatile components. Degradation may occur due to change in temperature or moist. To avoid degradation place the ester and carboxylic acid in normal temperature and away from high temperature or sunlight.
  • Drug distribution of carboxylic acid and ester in blood. The carboxylic acid reacts with water molecules and water molecules break into two products acid R-COOH (acid) and another product R-OH. General equation for whole hydrolysis process of carboxylic acid and ester can be written as given below,

R-COOR (ester) +H2 O                                   R-COOH (acid) + R-OH

Hydrolysis of ester with water of body can be explained as

Ester + H2O                                          Acid + Alcohol