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Use of flood resistant materials: Mud, Lime and bamboo

Use of flood resistant materials: Mud, Lime and bamboo

Importance and properties of mud, lime and bamboo

            Mud, lime and bamboo are commonly used building materials. The have special properties that make them durable, long lasting and shock resident in terms of earth quake, floods and related catastrophic circumstances. These materials have unique special properties; therefore, architectures are home makers prefer to use these materials in the buildings (H. Panda 2011).These materials are also being used in Pakistan. Particularity, the materials are used in flood affected areas which indicates their durability, long lasting nature and strength. For that purpose, it is important to understand their properties.

            Lime is an inorganic material that contains elements such as carbonates; oxides as well as hydroxides predominate. These substances provide strengths to lime. Moreover, lime is calcium and it also the name of the natural mineral that is denoted as native explosion also produce greater amount of lime from inside ( Ghosh 2012).The volcanic abruption contains lime that spreads afterwards.  The word limehas long history of being used in buildings. It originates with its earliest use in building ass mortar. It has a property of sticking and adhering. Therefore, this material is still used in large quantities to construct the building.

            The heavy engineering works pertaining to the construction use lime materials that also include limestone products along with concrete and mortar. It is also used with chemical feed stocks as well as sugar refining. The history of the lime is very old. The lime in the industries and its use dates from prehistoric periods. The reason behind the use of lime in flood-affected areas is its properties to treat the water (Scheer 2005).  Therefore, the lime is used extensively for the treatment of the wastewater through the ferrous sulfate.

            The lime is derived form the rocks and minerals from which the lime develop its properties. Majorly, the limestone is composed of calcium carbonate. This is an important component of the limestone.  The lime can be cut, crushed as well as pulverized and can be chemically altered. It is important to note that the burning of calcination converts the calcium carbonate into the highly caustic material. This caustic material is known as quicklime, which is also known as calcium oxide. The light lime can also be developed with the solvent of the water.

            Therefore, lime can be used in both hard and relatively less hard form. The subsequent addition of water is added into the less caustic that develop slaked lime which is also known as hydrated lime. This process is also called slaking of lime. Therefore, the lime is used in those areas that are affected with water and the drainage of water is required (Kingston 2016).

            Mud is also used in the building and it is materials that are a mixture of water and the combination of substances such as soil, clay and salt. It is usually forms after the rainfall. Moreover, it is also formed near the water sources. It is not directly used in building as plaster on the walls and the bricks. However, it is used in internal and external development of the building such as roof.  It is to be noted that the ancient mud deposits have property to be harden over the geological time. Therefore, it forms sedimentary rock. For instance, these rocks are the shale or mudstone (Waite 2011).

            The bamboos are the plants and a subfamily of flowering. This flowering is perennial evergreen plants that are available in the grass family. The bamboos are considered as the largest members of the grass family in the world. This is the fast growing plants and the intermodal regions of the stem of the bamboos are usually hollow in shape. Moreover, the vascular bundles of the bamboos are in the cross section. The cross section of the bamboos is scattered and diverse throughout the stem. Therefore, these properties of the plants are essential for the constructing purpose. In addition, the dicotyledonous woody xylem is property that is also absent in the plants and that is important for construction as well. In addition to this are the absence of secondary growth which causes the wood and the stems of monocots. This also includes the palms and large bamboos in the plant family.

            This property of the plant made them columnar rather than tapering surface. Therefore, the structure of the tall buildings suites the plants for the use and it is the property of the bamboos that they grow fast and it includes some of the fastest growing plants on the planet. It is due to the unique rhizome dependent system that’s suitable for the planets (Weissman 2015). It is also to be noted that the certain species of the bamboo tree can be up to grow 91 cent meter. This is about within a twenty four hour period. This is up to a rate of almost four cent meter. This growth is very fast and the building structure can be essentially maintained through such a fast growth and the availability of the material.

            The bamboos trees are of the notable economic and cultural impacts and therefore it is very significance in South Asia and the Pakistan as well.  It is therefore used in the building materials and a food source. Moreover, it is a versatile raw product for the buildings. The bamboo has a higher level of compressive strength as compare to wood, concrete and steel. The detailed properties of both bamboo and mud are given as follows. The building material made up of mud and bamboo has following properties.

Stability Very good
Resistance to insects Low
Economic aspects Cost efficiency
Resistance to flood Very good
Resistance to hurricane Low to medium
Special properties Self-help construction with the use of the local materials
Level of Skills required Semi-skilled labor force
Resistance to earthquake Very good
Resistance to rain Low to medium
Suitability in climatic All except extremely wet

Table 1: Earthquake and flood resistance mud and bamboo structures

            The building materials that are made up of bamboo and mud have good stability. They are resistance to flood and economically they are cost efficiency. Therefore, these are used in those areas. Where there are floods and earthquake. Their ability of resist the insects are low. However, they are extremely strong in the flood (Philips 2012). Their level of resistance to hurricane is low to medium. Moreover, they are able to be self-help construction with the use of the local materials. This is also an important property of such materials. The low level of skill is required and they are easy to develop.

Use of mud, lime and bamboo in flood affected areas in Pakistan

            The mud, lime and bamboo in flood-affected areas in Pakistan are very common. Yasmmen Lari is famous architecture of Pakistan that has developed single mud houses. They are left standing in the state to accommodate large number of people that are affected. The Pakistan witness floods every year and the large number of people in Sindh, Punjab and other areas of Pakistan get affected ( 2016).Therefore the building of mud houses that are resistance to harsh weather is suitable for the people. The building of such houses gives those in rural areas a good shelter.

             A small amount of money is needed to replace their damaged houses due to earthquake and the floods.  The YasminLariw was rebuilding their mud house that was adversely affected due to floods. These mud houses were developed and made of natural materials ( 2010). These natural materials such as mud and bamboo and leave are the vital part of such construction. Mud is also used in the building and it is materials that are a mixture of water and the combination of substances such as soil, clay and salt. It is usually forms after the rainfall. Moreover, it is also formed near the water sources ( 2014).

            The bamboo is also used by the Yasminlari. This is the fast growing plants and the intermodal regions of the stem of the bamboos are usually hollow in shape. The Yasminlari has developed 40000 low cost mud houses for the people. This is huge number of houses that served large number of people ( Gillin 2012). Even in flood and earth quake, these houses are stable and able to provide the protection and the shelters to its residence. The above mentioned properties are essential to maintain construction durability and the long lasting impact.

            The construction of the 40,000 low-cost houses and the shelters are made up of just mud, lime as well as bamboo and these areas have provided good shelter and the protection for the victim people. These materials are easily available, one does not need the wood, cement, and steel to build the strong homes, as they are available in the cities ( 2016) .She was the first woman to qualify as an excellent architecture in Pakistan. She has utilized her architecture skills affectively to maintain its exposure in the rural and flood affected areas.

                It is to be noted that her team of architects and the related people are very talented and engineers have started the experimentation for the development of the new houses. The new materials are used in the in disaster relief ( 2015). The food factor is important. The occurrence great flood of 2010 was an important and alarming event. Approximately 2,000 people dead. Moreover, hundreds of thousands of where people homeless on and there was a dire need of the construction of the buildings and the use of such equipment that is suitable in the flood conditions.  That was a bitter situation. The shelters in the Sindh Province has witnessed flood after flood. Nothing is done in order to make sure that the people are safe.

                The prominent work of her is in Darya Khan Sheikh. There is a village in that area which is located on the banks of the Indus River. This area is also very rich in heritage and the foundation of her helped to rebuild that was occurred due to the devastation of the year 2010 ( 2014).The village was badly damages and the flooded with up to four feet of water which is considerable depth in the wake of such floods. The houses in the region were intact, their grain and water was safe ink, and that was a good sign. She built lot of houses in the region, her efforts were worth considering, and the same efforts are needed to  do on other areas of Pakistan. One would like to conclude with the famous phrase that where is there is will there is a way. The phrase actually well applicable while using flood resistant material. The flood resistant material is suitable way using by many countries against flood notably by Pakistan. 


Ghosh, G K. Bamboo: The Wonderful Grass. APH Publishing Corporation, 2012.

Gillin, Jaime. Q&A with Pakistan’s First Female Architect. 2012. (accessed May 9, 2016). Pakistan: A Traditional Future. Appril 2016. (accessed May 9, 2016). Pakistani architect pioneers fresh approach to disaster relief . 2014. (accessed May 9, 2016). Rebel Architecture: A Traditional Future. 2014. (accessed 2016). Glasgow projects secure £112,000 for victims of flooding in Pakistan. 2010. (accessed 2016).

H. Panda. Yasmeen Lari has built over 40,000 low-cost shelters using just mud, lime and bamboo. “You don’t need wood, cement and steel to build strong homes,” she says. Asia Pacific Business Press Inc, 2011.

Kingston, William. Tales of the Sea. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2016. Get Introduced to the First lady of Pakistani Architecture-Yasmin Lari. 2015. (accessed May 2016).

Philips , Andy . So You Want to be a Mud Engineer: An Introduction to Drilling Fluids Technology. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.

Scheer , Jo . How to Build With Bamboo: 19 Projects You Can Do at Home. Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2005. Pakistani architect calls for radical rethink on rebuilding after disasters. 2016. (accessed May 9, 2016).

Waite, Tom . WILD with Latitude: An Ecologist’s Years with Bush Bums, Anarchists, and Other Arctic Wildlife., Inc, 2011.

Weissman, Adam. Clay and Lime Renders, Plasters and Paints: A How-To Guide to Using Natural Finishes (Sustainable Building). UIT Cambridge Ltd, 2015.

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Freedom and Responsibility

Freedom and Responsibility


The Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson

On writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson has revolves around the human liberty and equality for all the humans as the theme of the Declaration was based on “all the men are created equal.” To develop a balanced and peaceful American society, the Declaration of Independence considered as the basics that laid down the foundation of a society where every person have equal independence.

After reading the document declaration of independence, I agree with the thoughts and views of the Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the British State. He wrote the declaration of independence for the freedom and equality of the people of the world. The declaration of independence is the most worth valuing document in the history of US. Congress asked Thomas Jefferson to write a document that is based on the freedom, and then Thomas Jefferson wrote the declaration of independence. The congress wants a document that consists on the declaration of the colonies that why the colonies had to become independent of Britain. In the document, he explains about the Americans that they believed on their rights. He stated he argues and opinions in the document that all human being are free. They have right to live freely. They are free to seek the happiness. He was in favor of the common men. He wants to introduce the sense of freedom among the human beings by his document. It explains why the colonies should break away from Britain. It focuses on the thought that people have rights for everything and cannot be taken away them theses rights. It describes the list of the complaints that were against the kings and there are argues that colonies have to be free for the protection of the colonists rights. At the end of the declaration, the delegates signed their names. I agree with the thoughts of the Thomas Jefferson that he wrote marvelous documents for the betterment of the colonists. It was approved on July 4, 1776.

 The worth and value of the documents have still importance because it says that the Americans believe in equal rights for all human beings belongs to any cast, creed, race, and country. Therefore, in writing the declaration of Independence, the focus was given to the equality and independence of humans. After more than two centuries, the importance of this declaration still exists and be seen in the American society. The idea of “all the men are created equal” made great revolutions in the history of America as in Northern states it was used to free slaves. Abraham Lincoln also used it to justify the equal rights in civil war. Martin Luther king used it as the core of his African-American Civil Rights movement, women used it to gain their right of vote and still it is used to maintain balance in a diversified American society.


The World Is Too Much with Us is written by William Wordsworth

It is the fact that with the advancing world we are becoming digitalized and started to become more independent on the technology and in these consequences, we are moving away from the nature, which God have purely created for us. In the poem, William Wordsworth argues the same thing that in attempt of becoming modern, we are ignoring the nature, which is purely created for us.

After reading the poem “The World Is Too Much with Us” it opens the reality that the modern people have become disconnected from the world of nature. The poem is written in 1807. He presented his ideas that happiness can be achieved by connecting the world. William Words Worth is the poet of nature. He loved the natural beauty and wrote the poems about nature. In the poem, the world is too much with us, he describes that the people have been disconnected with the natural beauty that god has granted us. People have been connected with the technology and social media that takes away from them to nature.

The poem is a sonnet that is written in a romantic thematic style. The elements of the poem make it distinctive and differentiate to words worth beliefs and system. In the opening lines, he depicts a realm where human beings are able to feel the beauty of nature without the tensions and problems of society. He said that we were wasting our happiness and engaged only in the social activities. Men are always busy in worries of earning and do not spend time for the natural beauty. He says that men are materialistic and only take care of earning money. The next four lines describe that we are unaware of feeling the cool breeze. We do not appreciate the beauty of nature and the elements of beauty. The poet says that natural beauty is the source of decrease the worries and tensions of the world. If the man enjoys the natural beauty, he can forget the worries of society.

The interesting thing about this poem is that with every passage of movement, this poem becoming more and truer as William Wordsworth written this poem 1807 when technology was not common. However, if we evaluate this poem according to the present situation, it seems truer our world has been changed into a digital world and we all are busy with materialistic things and going far and far from the nature. In short, it can be said that William words worth is purely a poet of nature and wants to spread his views about nature that people should enjoy the natural beauty to forgive all the problems of a daily routine.


The Things They Carried written by Tim O’Brien

The things they carried is written by Tim O’Brien. A novel describes the platoon of American soldiers in the Vietnam Warthe book is based on his personal experiences as a soldier. The story is based on the army soldiers. The writer has highlighted the life of the soldier during the war and trying to express that the life of a soldier is full of countless challenges and threat of death but even in such circumstances they remains determined and fight firmly with the circumstances.

            After reading the story of the novel, it clears that the story defines the situation and condition of the soldiers. The characters of the story mainly bore two types of burden: Emotional burden and physical burden. Narrator tells the story of the novel. The story opens with the lists of the things the soldiers of the army carrying in the Vietnam War. The writer of the story describes his own experiences about the War. He describes about the personal luggage that he possesses. Author of the novel describes that the luggage that is used in the war is different from person to person that is based on the needs and necessities of the person. It helps the reader to get to aware and know the customs and souls in a deeper way. It describes the normal lives of the soldiers. He names the things that are mentioned in the list like photographs, drugs, condoms, books, bible, and all life stories telling property. By describing the physical burden, he tells the emotional pressure that had to wear all the soldiers. It contains the feelings and emotions of love tear, hate, grief etc. they have with them shameful memories, secrets of cowardice during the war. Readers can feel all these emotions while reading the story of the novel. All the things and emotions that a person has personally pull them apart. In the end of the novel, the author stated that the team is struggling to find their main causes to remain what they were before the hell when the earth was started.

Through this novel the writer wants to realize us the worth of soldier by addressing the challenging circumstances which they have to face especially during the war time. The writer has beautifully addressed the physical as well as emotional struggle of the soldiers. This novel has dignified the lives of the soldier with a propose to realize the readers that every soldier is respectable even though he belongs to your enemies because he does not fight for himself but he fights for the love he has for his homeland and this is the natural and purest feelings of human.

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Impact of data protection restrictions imposed by European Community’s Directive

Impact of data protection restrictions imposed by European Community’s Directive

                The European Community’s Directive that deals in Data Protection has strictly limited the use of the database information base is restricted for access. The restrictions pertain to the user and the way the information will be accessed. It is to be noted that some of the restrictions is related to registration. The registration includes registering all databases along with the containment of personal information of the companies with their respective countries. These companies are operating in these countries.

             Moreover, these companies also collect data. However, after the restrictions these countries can only be able to collect the data with the consent of the subjects. In addition the telling to the subjects of the database as well as the intended as well as the actual use of the databases is very important. The impact of such restriction is both positive and the negative on the global companies. The information security will strengthen and the unauthorized and illegal use of information will be eliminated (, 2016).

            However, easy and frequent access to this information will be limited. In my opinion, the restrictions are right and the should the United States must bring its laws into agreement with the EU directives.   After all, the security of the information is the major purpose and it should fulfill. The illegal access to the information and use must be eliminated in order to protect the information sharing rights.

Reference: (2016). Protection of personal data. Retrieved 2016, from

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Credit Scoring and Data Mining

Credit Scoring and Data Mining

Question 2: Data Mining Academic Paper Review

Personal health indexing based on medical examinations: A data mining approach

Ling Chen, Xue Li, Yi Yang, Hanna Kurniawati, Quan Z. Sheng, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Nicole Huang

Chen, L., Li, X., Yang, Y., Kurniawati, H., Quan Z. Sheng, H.-Y. H., & Huang, N. (2016). Personal health indexing based on medical examinations: A data mining approach. Decision Support Systems , 81, 54–65.

Data Mining Problem

The whole world population is increasing day by day and the health practices are more in demand. These practices shorten whenever new disease or issue in personal health care segment approaches the society. The latest issue is while measuring the personal health index (PHI). Geriatric medical examination (GME) is only method globally used for elderly health care monitoring is about to lose its leadership in the market. The devices reading the personal health index are many in the technological world, enriched with data mining features. The problem considered over here is to predict the personal health index. Further, the PHI prediction was not possible with error enriched medical records. Those medical records are infrequent and almost incomplete not motivating for health care sector.

The data mining techniques used

The understanding of Geriatric medical examination (GME) was important to explore the predictive sector of health index. The complete evaluation of these records was possible to use common techniques of data mining rather creative one. The study was important because authors used classification methods of data mining to explore those GME records necessary for the predicting personal health index (PHI) in most appropriate way.

The results reported

The prediction of PHI is different with clean cases as compared to noisy cases. The clean cases with some targeted disease individuals and noisy cases are some no-targeted cases.  Both cases are different while predicting gaps. The noisy case always showed the gap between PHI while predicting it.

Critical discussion

The model of classification of data mining showed that the method is best and explicit in delivery process management. The disease category grouping is another way that showed that the method is reliable to use. The other best thing with the method that it considered experiment setup in the best way by considering Linear support vector machines (LinSVM) and logistic regression (VR) approach in the same report. The class-weighted versions are best one showed exactly same approach towards the ultimate goal of predicting PHI. The last perspective was good to treat both noisy and clean cases at the same range because it may evaluate the required aspect inappropriate manner. 

Question 3: The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the network of interconnected things such as Sensors

Predictive and descriptive analytics

My choice of the internet of things (IoT) is personal health care and its development by using different analytic and disruptive perspective. The health care sector is wide one because it has been targeting human population for long. The use of formal model along the best exploitation of service model can handle things in detail. The objects, services as well as the recommendation plan for health care are something entirely based of IoT in depth. The descriptive analytics showed that how it can evaluate the IoT through standard communication protocols. The health care via the internet-of-things is possible to eradicate through immediate evaluation of technology and this time with mobile. The communication is easy to exploit the best health care advantages extract from health care practices normally. The IoT is used to share activities based on personal health care aspect. Mostly the help of third party services is beneficial while using the IoT as the medium (Mashal, Alsaryrah, & Chung, 2016).

Evaluate the performance of the analytical models

            The usefulness of third party services may address issues through IoT services recommendation. The best system is one that may allow things as one of best way by utilizing things in detail. The recommendation of services is about to show the same strength while using the services. The model used for the health care protection can explore the user aspect in detail for best implication by exploring user as ownership of communication model. The graph approach is the only way to identify needs and demands of users along with some issues if the user is facing by using the service. The graph approach is there because it can enhance recommendation perspective because it may believe to give IOT as a medium. Another model is being used by different applications IoT inappropriate way. The first aspect is about the content-base filtering as CB. The CB is a common system in which the content or text is required to get access towards the user profile. The CB flirtation is the best way being used today and best as compare to many other techniques over there. The content-based filtering known as CB is there because it can evaluate process is the best way to assure the user safety. The content filtering is a little bit different from the collaborative filtering because collaborative filtering does not only depend on upon texts only (Mashal, Alsaryrah, & Chung, 2016).


There are issues when data miners’ engineers think for the future. The first perspective is the challenge of approach as well as the future development at the time when it is best with the differential aspect. The IoTSRS termed as IoT service recommendation is about to show that what is the difference between active and non-active user. The active user is only who is superior as compared to non-active because it depends on upon the heterogeneous controlling that is challenging for the effective implementation of the IoT (Mashal, Alsaryrah, & Chung, 2016).

Opportunity and challenges

            The challenge is to manage item based console as compared to the user based because Item based console required a different mechanism for different platforms. The opportunity over here is to collect data of user’s at a large rate so that data can use at different ranges with perfect combinations. One is recommending that health care at a personal level through data approach is possible when Content Based (CB) amalgamates with the Collaborative filtering (CF) (Mashal, Alsaryrah, & Chung, 2016).

Question No 4: Explain the following concepts

Information Value of a variable

The predictive value of the variable is possible through information value aspect because it is entirely a compare and contrast aspect. There are different values of different variables but those values are merely used as comparing aspect between one variable to another. The information value of variable determines the weight of evidence inappropriate way. The information value is the best by-product with the output aspect of flow of table of information. The way is all about the exploration of data through information required for the data mining aspect of values. The list of data categories are there at one column exactly reflects information value perspective at other (Zhang, Ji, & Liu, 2010).

Validation data set in a decision tree context

The validation set is always applicable up to the consent employing through decision tree induction in best way. The decision tree induction is a best way to explore the usage of technique although it have sopme computationa overhead.  The technique is all about the validation aspect to assure that how normal decision and complex decision can validate through approach. The decision tree concept through algorithms is about the vaildation perspective through data approach. The basic approach is there to show up by giving the proper way towards validation and refining of date in such way that many academics can argue. The bagging concept in data analysis form can address issues by selecting aim and applying the technique (Zhang, Ji, & Liu, 2010).

Outlier truncation

            The outlier is about the influences about the inflated error rates because there are several aspects for measuring the distortions of parameter in approach. The statistics estimates are there as well to show that how the nonparametric tests are employed by the Outlier truncation in appropriate way. The general perspective is about the data point that can argue with seldom data error. The effects of Outlier truncation is about the statistical analyses in best way. The any aspect of Outlier truncation if neglected it can show some statistical computations errors and faulty analysis on such basis. (Zhang, Ji, & Liu, 2010)

LGD in the Basel context

Loss Given Default is amount of values mostly unable to contol by banks ad other financial mindsets through institutions whenever borrower defaults on his borrowings. Several academics have many methods  for calcuulating the exposure on banks if the borrower defaults. Basel credit risk model is one of best model suggested by academics (Basel Committee on Banking Supervision , 2005).

According to model EL = PD * EAD * LGD the ecpected loss can predicts in case of such default

EL= Expected Loss

EAD= Exposure At Default

LGD= Loss Given Defeault

PD= Probability of Default

For instance if banks and financial institutions take EAD as percentage that the formula would be

EL = PD * LGD.


Basel Committee on Banking Supervision . (2005). An Explanatory Note on the Basel II IRB Risk Weight Functions . Retrieved May 06, 2016, from

Chen, L., Li, X., Yang, Y., Kurniawati, H., Quan Z. Sheng, H.-Y. H., & Huang, N. (2016). Personal health indexing based on medical examinations: A data mining approach. Decision Support Systems , 81, 54–65.

Mashal, I., Alsaryrah, O., & Chung, T.-Y. (2016). Performance evaluation of recommendation algorithms on Internet of Things services. Physica A , 451, 646-656.

Zhang, Y., Ji, L., & Liu, F. (2010). Local Housing Market Cycle and Loss Given Default: Evidence From Sub-Prime Residential Mortgages. International Monetary Fund.

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Speaking Treason Fluently

Tim Wisely is a racial critic, who comes from a privilege background. The thirty-six years writer has written various books, win which he has not only documented his personal experiences, but also events and statistics, which supports his ideas, arguments and claims. Speaking Treason Fluently, is the collection, of Tim’s work, and his rattle, against various discriminatory practices, which hurt the egalitarian cause. It is imperative to understand that Tim, who comes from a rich, white and privilege background, not only discuss the impact, of these unfair racial practices, on colored people, but primarily, his focus is White Class, who is ignorant of the fact that their privilege is actually hurting society. In his book, he has mentioned and discussed, in great detail, various events. The reviewer give the example of 9/11 incident, in which many Americans have killed. Tim argues and the reviewer agrees that unity, showed by various Americans racial and ethnic groups, was phony and unreal. This was because different ethnic and racial groups live in different realities and under different conditions, which never allow them to truly amalgamate. Another example, which Tim gave and reviewer agreed with, was regarding the Hurricane Katrina. Tim asserted the because of the affects were not white, therefore, the government responded very slowly, which actually aggravated the situation. Because of fewer resources, as a result of devastation, people involved in looting and killings, this eventually provoked a military response. Another example, Tim gives, is regarding Affirmative Action, which is strongly resisted, in US. This is because Americans, White Americans, are not willing to accept such progressive idea, which address social injustice and inequality, in economic terms.  The paper provides the description of ethnic and racial group of the demonstrations of the different cultural values of the society.  The roles and responsibilities of each groups provides the credibility for their living standards in the society.   The effects of white are that initiates the execution of white people in the society and reviews of values that are prevailing in the live of peoples.

American Society is an unjust society, where racial exploitation and discrimination exists in various manifestations. However, most of the Americans, especially White Americans, are not willing to understand this stern reality. The flippant attitude, of White Americans, has roots in the preconceived notions, regarding different various matters and subjects. This is because, most of the White Americans are the beneficiary of this prevailing social and political system and as a beneficiary it is extremely difficult or hard for them to boldly take a stance, against the prevailing conditions or environment. In the book, which is actually collection of his works and discussion on various incidences, Tim has thoroughly discussed how imperative it is acknowledge the existing reality and how essential it is change that existing reality. The social and economic evolution has stunned and because institutional discrimination, America is not able to reach it potential. This is not only slowing down the natural process, but further disintegrating society. The incidents, which have been mentioned and discussed, by Tim Wise, are Duke Lacrosse scandal, 9/11, Hurricane Katrina and Affirmative Action. All these incidents are associated, in one way or another, with racial and ethnic problem in US. In some of the incidences, Sate’s discriminatory policies and approach has been discussed in detail. In addition, the consequences or the ramifications, of these events and incidences have been discussed thoroughly. For instance, the United States institutions have not responded, during Katrina Hurricane in manner, in which they have responded, if the affects were white. Speaking treason fluently provides the in-depth execution of institutional discriminations and disintegrating of society for future exploration. Unjust society as well as exploitation of racial discrimination is the major challenge that are prevailing the reviews to demonstrate various manifestations that are leads some issues.  The Katrina and manner of hurricane indicates the effects of white in the prevailing society.  Effects of white helps are to distinguish values of cultures.

In American history, prejudice has stayed one of the essential and critical issues. Most claim that American Civil War was pursued to spare the union and to free African American Slaves, however generally oppose this idea. They assert that White Americans never truly needed to address, entire heatedly, the issue of prejudice and separation. Thusly, regardless of the American Civil War and Constitutional Amendments, which gave African Americans or Black Americans political and social liberties, the condition or situation, did not change financial, economic wellbeing, of African Americans. Along these lines, in the mid 60s, we saw the ascent of social-political developments, requesting more social liberties, for the minorities individuals. Tim Wise is of the perspective that these issues or difficulties, relating to race ethnicity, still exist, which really derides the lawful and protected advancements, jumped out at diminish racial and ethnic separation and isolation, on state and societal level. In the book, Speaking Treason Fluently, Tim has not just shared his own encounters, in regards to the benefits of normal White male, additionally he has examined and insinuated occasions and rates, which bolsters his contentions and perspective point. For example, he specifies that White Americans are insensible of racial truths and the practices, which quite mistreat other racial and ethnic gatherings. He additionally expresses that framework itself is intended to encourage White Americans and treat them uniquely in contrast to the rest. In any case, the political and social changes are happening and to support this contention, Tim has given the example, of Obama, who has been chosen President. The critical issues and challenges are prevailing in the society provides the indication how the country reposed towards the specific challenges in essential and adequate manner.  The social-political developments as well as demonstrations of requesting more social liberties are the main accent describes in the certain events. The mistreatment of ethnic and racial gathering gives the inside and out examination to highlight the real unions in American history.

American Society is an unmerited society, where racial abuse and partition exists in various signs. In any case, an extensive bit of the Americans, especially White Americans, are not willing to fathom this stern reality. The brazen air, of White Americans, has roots in the suspicions, regarding different distinctive matters and subjects. This is in light of the fact that, most of the White Americans are the beneficiary of this larger social and political system and as a beneficiary it is to an extraordinary degree troublesome or hard for them to emphatically take a position, against the general conditions or environment. In the book, which is truly amassing of his works and trade on various rates, Tim has through and through discussed how essential it is perceive the present reality and how basic it is change that present reality. The social and monetary advancement has entranced and in light of the fact that institutional isolation, America is not prepared to accomplish it potential. This is sponsorship off the trademark methodology, and in addition further separating society. For example, the United States associations have not responded, in the midst of Katrina Hurricane in route, in which they have responded, if the impacts were white. The trade rates and also work gathering depicted in this audit to give the key estimations of specialists. The abuse of racial and murmurs of independent demonstrate the assessment of white American in the general public. The principle issues connected with the ethnic and racial separation where state decided certain techniques to determine such issues basically. The outcome of such separation has differing sway on the general public response of white. The events which have been said and talked in regards to, by Tim Wise, are Duke Lacrosse shock, 9/11, Hurricane Katrina and Affirmative Action. Each one of these scenes is connected, in by one means or another, with racial and ethnic issue in US. In a segment of the rates, Sate’s biased methodologies and approach has been inspected in purpose of interest. Also, the results or the outcomes, of these events and rates have been discussed through and through.
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Financial Markets

have experience of working for an insurance company as an Associate to the Financial Analyst. The nature of my position is not verycritical, but I have exposure to the very bottom-line operations of the insurance company.

Nature of Job:

As financial Analyst Associate, I am responsible to provide support to the financial analyst Team in carrying out the daily operations of the Finance analyst department.Specifically my duties as financial analyst Associate include:

  1. Providing support in the maintenance and enhancement of the division’s models for financing planning with looking for opportunities for the automation of main process components
  2. Providing support in the monthly and quarterly analysis of the financial and operational results
  3. Providing support to the team for the estimating and forecasting for annual plans.
  4. Providing support for the fulfillment of the management needs for the reporting of financial position.

Daily Responsibilities:

  1. Work on the designated task related to the capital market
  2. Provide detailed research report on the implications of a specific security, or stock investment by the insurance company.
  3. Make presentation, and present it to the team.
  4. Evaluate the presentations given by teammates, and raise appropriate concerns about it.
  5. Make changes to my presentation as per the concerns of the teammates.
  6. Submit a one-page synopsis of the completed approved report.

Experience Acquired:

The experience I have had at the insurance company while working as assistant in the team of financial analysts had changed me as a professional. Firstly, I was very afraid because of the high competencies of the professional team around me, but with the help of the insight I usually got from the course of Financial Markets Course, I changed not only my working style, but also increased my knowledge base.

In my first days at the insurance company, I faced many challenges regarding knowledge of financial markets, financial terms adopted for use in the company, and expertise regarding the analysis. In the financial analysis team, we associates were required primarily to provide support to the team in terms of the different researches, analysis, and then forecasting for the best financing models. For this, we were required to look for opportunities of the best financing options in terms of equity as well as debt financing for the company.

As I was a new recruit, I was way behind my colleagues, and teammates in terms of the professional knowledge and expertise. However, I did not make this my weakness. I used my over time to work on building my knowledge base regarding the best options of financing available in the capital markets. In addition, the course of “Financial Markets” also aided me to get gain knowledge in this regard.

At one day, I was asked to make a report on the Mutual Funds being offered in US markets. At that time, I remembered that the mutual funds were covered in my course as well. So, I immediately consult my course book, and looked for the material regarding Mutual Funds Market. from this book, I got detailed data regarding the mutual funds market. I also used search engine to get comprehensive data regarding mutual funds market. A brief detail of my insight on Mutual Fund market that I got from the course is described below as:

Mutual Funds Market:

The US Mutual funds Market has about $16 trillion in assets, and is one of the largest, even the Largest in the world at the 2014-year end. The increment in the total net assets value is amounted to $818 billion from 2013-year end. This was primarily due to the increment in the bond and stock prices. The value of the new cash flow, which entered this market in 2014, is amounted to $102 billion. The lower interest rates, improved conditions of the US economy, and the population demographics of the US contributed and derived the investor demand to increase. (, 2014)

The major portion of the Mutual Funds assets in the year-end 2014 was held by Equity Funds, which amounted to 52% of the total Mutual funds assets. Whereas the next most held mutual funds assets was accounted to the Bond Market.

This was a basic knowledge and facts abut the Mutual funds Market, which I gained during my course. However, I was required to recommend a best suitable choice of mutual fund for my company. For this, using my knowledge from the class lectures, I browsed for the Morningstar stewardship analysis report on mutual funds. (Morningstar, 2016) This also helped me a lot.

My insurance company wanted to invest in mutual fund because it required long-term capital gains, and as per my knowledge gained from the course, mutual funds can take a big portion from returns, which are spread over a shorter period in lieu of their sales charges. Therefore, it was not initially regarded by me as the wrong investment choice.

Common Stock Funds:

The next step important step is to look for the alignment for the company’s goals and risk tolerance with the mutual funds available. With the fair amount of risk tolerance available as per the direction of themanager, and a period of more than five years, the company was looking for long period high returns, which is provided by mutual funds in common stock or equity markets. (Northcott, 2009)

Balanced and income Funds:

If in case, I was required to look for any mutual fund, which would generate immediate income, I also incorporated a small detail about the income funds available. (, 2016)Moreover, for low risk funds, I incorporated brief detail about the Balanced Funds as well. (, 2016)

The charges of the mutual funds are their main income. Different types of investments have different types of charges. In case we have a investment with from or back end load fees, then the charge would be 3 to 6% of the total invested amount. The front-end load fee would have to be paid at the time of initialinvestment, whereas the back-end load fee would have the charges paid by us at the end or sale of our investment.(, 2016)

Other than this, I also incorporated the various fees, like management expense ratio (higher ratio, lower returns), management fees, administrative fees, and 12b-1 fees.

For the evaluation of the funds past performance, as per the outline of my course, I evaluated its performance with the general market returns, and its volatile, and its turnover.

The course Financial Markets, not only helped me get the primary knowledge about the mutual funds market. It also provided me with a new habit of checking onto my course outline for any detail of the information I needed. This has helped me a lot. Now, with the benefit I have gained from one time reverting to my course book, I have started paying more attention to my lectures of all courses, in case it would be required at my company.

Kansas Visit

After visiting Federal Reserve Bank, we gained lots of information regarding different financial markets. This is good to visit for investigating financial market with navigation of different movies. This is helpful to let us know different approaches and techniques to survive in financial market for a long run. This was good to know history of Federal Reserve Bank and derive important financial aspects. The most important thing is to observe crises and approaches to fix by the management of this bank.

This was a great opportunity for me to have information and see different financial aspects closely. This was a great chance for me due to my teachers to see different financial theories and implementations. I would like to thank all my teachers who let me to come here and navigate different financial operations. In addition, we visited world war museum and saw ancient things. I was wonderful trip for me as I enjoyed with colleagues and teachers.

Regarding this trip, it was combination of learning process and enjoyments. This was a good initiative, taken by teachers to conduct such activities and have a good time. This was a god opportunity and I will look forward to attend the same actives to enjoy and enhance my learning in future.

References: (2016, April 27). Who is the FDIC? Retrieved April 27, 2016, from (2014). 2014 Investment Company Fact Book. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from

Morningstar. (2016, April 27). Stewardship Grades. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from morningstar:

Northcott, A. (2009). The Mutual Funds Book: How to Invest in Mutual Funds & Earn High Rates of Returns Safely. Atlantic Publishing Company. (2016, April 27). Income Fund. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from (2016, April 27). Mutual Fund Fees and Expenses. Retrieved april 27, 2016, from (2016, April 27). Sustainable & Responsible Mutual Fund Chart. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from

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Employee Compensation and recognition

Part A: Employee Satisfaction

  1. Research questionnaire

The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)

How satisfied you are with this aspect of my job?

5 = Extremely Satisfied

4 = Very Satisfied

3 = Satisfied

2 = Somewhat Satisfied

1 = Not Satisfied


The Job Descriptive Index (JDI)

5 = Extremely Satisfied

4 = Very Satisfied

3 = Satisfied

2 = Somewhat Satisfied

1 = Not Satisfied

Source: Yeager, S. L. (1981). Dimensionality of the job decriptive index. Academy of managemnt journal, 24(1), 205-212.

  • Survey

The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)

Sr. No Designation Mean score
  Functional level manager 4
  Supervisor 3.33
  Office Clerk 2.92

            The survey was conducted with three employees. Functional level manager, supervisor and office clerk participated in the survey. The participants belonged to the middle and lower level management. It was important to include employees from different level of management to assess their perceptions about the job satisfaction and the level of compensation that is currently given to them. The results of the survey reveal that the highest mean score belongs to functional level manager followed by supervisor and office clerk. Their mean scores were 4, 3.33 and 2.92 respectively.

The Job Descriptive Index (JDI)

  Functional level manager Supervisor Office Clerk
  Mean score Mean score Mean score
Co-workers 4.05 3.21 3.1
Promotion 4.55 4.1 3.9
Pay 4.25 2.33 2.5
Work 4 4.21 3.7
Supervision 4.1 3.3 4
Grand average 4.19 3.43 3.44

            The job descriptive index provide mean score based on five factors related to compensation that include co-workers, promotion, pay, work and supervision. The functional level manger has highest mean score followed by Office Clerk and Supervisor. This implies that the compensation level and the job descriptive index are favorably perceived by the functional level manager follow by Office Clerk and supervisor. Their grand mean score are 4.19, 3.44 and 3.43.

Compensation evaluation

            Based on job satisfaction and job decretive indexes, it is recommended that the compensation and job description be majorly improved for office clerk.  The job satisfaction score of the office clerk is quite low which indicate that the compensation in terms of hourly wage, bonus and pension is needed to increase. Profit sharing, bonuses and overtime and total pay is also needed to be increase. The mean score at managerial level is high that is the indication that; at managerial level, the job description is well designed and the compensation is given adequately.

Part 2: Salary Survey

Office Clerk



            The salary survey indicates that the average hourly rate for office clerk is US dollar 8.99 and 16.53. This is the rate which given by majority of the companies in the market. In addition, the average tip for the same position is US dollar 0.75. The over time is also an important element in the compensation plan. The bonus is up to US dollar zero to US dollar 1093. The bonus can be given on quarterly, half yearly and annual basis. The profit sharing ranges from US dollar 6.30 to US dollar 3394.  Hence, the total pay of the same position ranges from US dollar 19029 to US dollar 37370. Therefore, it is also recommended that the same level of compensation is needed to give to the position of office clerk. This is the same level of the compensation that is mostly given to the office clerks in the market and the same level that is needed to be giving to the same position.

Part 3: Benefits Package

            The new compensation package is based upon five different elements. These elements are hourly rate, hourly tip, overtime, bonus and profit sharing. These major and important elements are needed to be included in the compensation plan. The total budget for a single employee ranges between the UD dollars 19,000 to 37,000, which is based on the salary survey in the market and the compensation level that is generally provided in the market. Hourly rate and overtime is mandatory and the bonus, profit sharing and hourly tips are optional (, 2016).  

            Hence, this compensation package is the most appropriate package to retain and acquire clerical employees in the organization. It is important to consider the competent prices in the market. The lack of competent salary package and the related compensation plan adversely affect the performance of the employees and the organization. Therefore, the pay scale is evaluated with the evaluation of the job description

            Diversity in the compensation is required (Milkovich, 2013).  Salary and the basic elements in the compensation plan are not enough.  Therefore, hourly rate, hourly tip, overtime, bonus and profit sharing were included in the plan and which are quite suitable for this position. The diversity provides more than one particular compensation package that is necessary for the employees and the organization as well. If the performance of the employees will be better, it will definitely affect the performance of the organization. Therefore, it can be said that the role of compensation it is important to consider the revised compensation plan.


Milkovich, G. (2013). Compensation. McGraw-Hill Education. (2016). Office Clerk, General Salary (United States). Retrieved from,_General/Hourly_Rate

Yeager, S. L. (1981). Dimensionality of the job decriptive index. Academy of managemnt journal, 24(1), 205-212.

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Marketing Mix Strategy Santander Bank

Marketing Mix Strategy

Santander Bank


In this study, we will discuss about marketing mix strategy of Santander bank of the United Kingdom.  This bank has been successful due to its differentiated strategy. However, the most prominent aspects are product, price, placement and promotions, which are quite different from other banks in banking industry. The strategy is effective, which is a big cause of success for this bank. 

Marketing Mix

  • Product/Service

The Santander bank contains different financial services for customers around the globe. The management has a plan to conduct segmentation regarding these services. This segmentation includes individual customers, universities, companies, private banking, corporations and different institutions. The prominent services for this segmentation are current account, loans, credit cards, loans, mortgages, investments and many other associations. The strategy revolves around the customer, as quality is not to be compromised. (Grut, 2015)

  • Price

The Santander bank uses penetration-pricing strategy for its customers around the globe. This is a fact that this bank has gain success due to its low pricing strategy to grab new customers is well. For Instance, in University sector, the penetration pricing of different services has been justified to grab new and existing students for a long run. The strategy of this bank revolves around low process to make customers loyalty, build trust and gain immense satisfaction. (, 2016)

  • Place

Target places of different products and services for customers are Bottle, London, Glasgow, Newcastle, Leicester, Manchester, Bradford and MLITON KEYNES. The strategy of this bank is to have its products and services at top business sites of the United Kingdom through best possible distribution channels.  This effective placement has let people to involve in different real world projects and develop their skills and experience. The purpose is to contain customers from every important business site to increase business and provide excellent customers assistant to achieve their goals for long run. (Groenfeldt, 2016)

  • Promotion

The management of this bank often provides different benefits in form of different offers. For Instance, recently, this bank has provided exclusive coupon offer for customer to get their 150 pounds.  In addition, the promotion of extra checking account is in limelight in the United Kingdome. Moreover, the management uses modern media channels to grab and convince the customers. The strategy is to use modern social media channels and emailing services to let the customers know about new deals and offers. The Santander bank has gained immense response from customers. (Groenfeldt, 2016)


The Santander bank in the United Kingdom is successful due to its effective marketing strategy. The study has emphasized on different marketing mix aspects such as product, price, place and promotion.  The management of Santander bank emphasized on its marketing mix strategy and it can be modified according to new financial trends in the United Kingdom market. 


Groenfeldt, T. (2016) To Prosper, Banks Need To Move From Products To Customer Financial Wellness, 23 February, [Online], Available: [2 May 2016].

Grut, O.W. (2015) The boss of a $100 million VC fund that’s seen 820 pitches in the last year explains what’s hot in tech right now, 7 November, [Online], Available: [2 May 2016]. (2016) Santander’s Money Market Savings Account Named One Of 2016’s Best By NerdWallet, 12 April, [Online], Available: [2 May 2016].

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Employee Compensation and recognition

Part A: Employee Satisfaction

  1. Research questionnaire 

The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)

How satisfied you are with this aspect of my job?

5 = Extremely Satisfied

4 = Very Satisfied

3 = Satisfied

2 = Somewhat Satisfied

1 = Not Satisfied


The Job Descriptive Index (JDI)

5 = Extremely Satisfied

4 = Very Satisfied

3 = Satisfied

2 = Somewhat Satisfied

1 = Not Satisfied

Source: Yeager, S. L. (1981). Dimensionality of the job decriptive index. Academy of managemnt journal, 24(1), 205-212.

  1. Survey 

The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)

Sr. NoDesignationMean score

Functional level manager4

Supervisor 3.33

Office Clerk 2.92

The survey was conducted with three employees. Functional level manager, supervisor and office clerk participated in the survey. The participants belonged to the middle and lower level management. It was important to include employees from different level of management to assess their perceptions about the job satisfaction and the level of compensation that is currently given to them. The results of the survey reveal that the highest mean score belongs to functional level manager followed by supervisor and office clerk. Their mean scores were 4, 3.33 and 2.92 respectively. 

The Job Descriptive Index (JDI)

Functional level managerSupervisorOffice Clerk

Mean score Mean score Mean score 
Promotion 4.554.13.9
Pay 4.252.332.5
Grand average 4.193.433.44

The job descriptive index provide mean score based on five factors related to compensation that include co-workers, promotion, pay, work and supervision. The functional level manger has highest mean score followed by Office Clerk and Supervisor. This implies that the compensation level and the job descriptive index are favorably perceived by the functional level manager follow by Office Clerk and supervisor. Their grand mean score are 4.19, 3.44 and 3.43. 

Compensation evaluation

Based on job satisfaction and job decretive indexes, it is recommended that the compensation and job description be majorly improved for office clerk.  The job satisfaction score of the office clerk is quite low which indicate that the compensation in terms of hourly wage, bonus and pension is needed to increase. Profit sharing, bonuses and overtime and total pay is also needed to be increase. The mean score at managerial level is high that is the indication that; at managerial level, the job description is well designed and the compensation is given adequately. 

Part 2: Salary Survey

Office Clerk 



The salary survey indicates that the average hourly rate for office clerk is US dollar 8.99 and 16.53. This is the rate which given by majority of the companies in the market. In addition, the average tip for the same position is US dollar 0.75. The over time is also an important element in the compensation plan. The bonus is up to US dollar zero to US dollar 1093. The bonus can be given on quarterly, half yearly and annual basis. The profit sharing ranges from US dollar 6.30 to US dollar 3394.  Hence, the total pay of the same position ranges from US dollar 19029 to US dollar 37370. Therefore, it is also recommended that the same level of compensation is needed to give to the position of office clerk. This is the same level of the compensation that is mostly given to the office clerks in the market and the same level that is needed to be giving to the same position. 

Part 3: Benefits Package

The new compensation package is based upon five different elements. These elements are hourly rate, hourly tip, overtime, bonus and profit sharing. These major and important elements are needed to be included in the compensation plan. The total budget for a single employee ranges between the UD dollars 19,000 to 37,000, which is based on the salary survey in the market and the compensation level that is generally provided in the market. Hourly rate and overtime is mandatory and the bonus, profit sharing and hourly tips are optional (, 2016).  

Hence, this compensation package is the most appropriate package to retain and acquire clerical employees in the organization. It is important to consider the competent prices in the market. The lack of competent salary package and the related compensation plan adversely affect the performance of the employees and the organization. Therefore, the pay scale is evaluated with the evaluation of the job description

Diversity in the compensation is required (Milkovich, 2013).  Salary and the basic elements in the compensation plan are not enough.  Therefore, hourly rate, hourly tip, overtime, bonus and profit sharing were included in the plan and which are quite suitable for this position. The diversity provides more than one particular compensation package that is necessary for the employees and the organization as well. If the performance of the employees will be better, it will definitely affect the performance of the organization. Therefore, it can be said that the role of compensation it is important to consider the revised compensation plan. 


Milkovich, G. (2013). Compensation. McGraw-Hill Education. (2016). Office Clerk, General Salary (United States). Retrieved from,_General/Hourly_Rate

Yeager, S. L. (1981). Dimensionality of the job decriptive index. Academy of managemnt journal, 24(1), 205-212.

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Human Resource Management Data Management

Human Resource Management Data Management

Activity 1

  1. Give an ‘explanation’ of least two reasons why the organization needs to collect HR data

An organization needs to collect HR data for various purposes. 

  1. HR collect accurate data with propose to support the organizational operations in various ways such as to improve and ensure the best recruitment, to train the employees and to give them promotion on the base of their maintained date(Burke & Cooper, 2006).
  2. One of the most important reasons to HR data is that the HR department use this data as a raw material or a basic to monitor the opportunities issues as well as to fulfill the legal requirements. This HR data could be in the form of contractual agreement in which the HR follow the minimum wages law, employees’ rights define by the law so that company could justify its position(Harris & Ogbonna, 2003). 
  1. Identify at least two types of data that are collected within the organization and explain how each supports HR practices
Types of DataExplanation of how Data supports HR Practices
1-Employees Performance Management Data 

This data is used in further performance related things such as in appraisal and learning development of employees(Harris & Ogbonna, 2003). 

2-Legal Management Data 

The reason of maintaining this type of HR data is to meet and fulfill the legal requirement. In the case of any this data is used to defend company as well as this data is used to take a legal action against the employee in case of any he breaches the organization.  This data supports management to monitor the legislation compliance(Purce, 2014). 

2.1. A description of at least two methods of storing records and the benefits of each 

X2 Methods for Storing RecordsThe Benefits of the Methods
1-Manual:Manually storing data is one of the commonly used methods for storing records. This data is usually in paper form. 

The major benefit of this data is that there is no need any technical expertise in storing data in the manual form. This data cannot be crashed and do not lose its accuracy(Purce, 2014). 
2-Electronic MethodIn Electronic method, Data is stored on electronic devices. The computer is used to store data.

An electronic method of storing data has many benefits such as it allows the HR to store data with pace. It also has more flexibility of the information available; It is easy to track. It requires less space. It has great efficiency as well as it is easy to maintain and update(Colakoglu & Hong, 2006). 

2.2. Explaining the legal requirements, give a statement of at least two essential items of UK legislation relating to the recording, storage and accessibility of HR data (AC 2.2) e.g. Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA), Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FOI)

  1. Data Protection Act

The DPT is restricted the use of information as it is to control that how an organization or government use the data. Therefore according to the DPA any organization cannot breach the employee by using its data for wrongful purposes as it has to follow the DPA rules to use data(Begin, 1992). 

  1. Freedom of Information Act

This act allows the HR to request any required information record on any subject of the public sector organization. The request for the data is managed through the various regulation that depends on the request information(Begin, 1992). 

Activity 2 –

Using your organization information OR the CIPD Survey Reports to identify a specific area of data.  

3.1. Analyze the data and present your findings in a way that will assist an aspect of Decision-making in the area of data selected

An introduction to the HR area being investigated.(Discuss why it was a critical business area for investigation, issue/problem/area for improvement)

For the following analyses, looking in the details of the young people who are being selected by the different companies. It can be seen that most of the companies prefer the young person to offer jobs. The reason behind that is there are many factors, which different companies think. However, it can be seen that a scale is mentioned that why companies are willing to ire the young people. The HR is one of the most important departments for the company as it selects the key resources for the specific jobs. This gives the importance to HR. However looking at the table, we can see that companies think young people are cost effective for the company. 40 percent believe that they can grow with the company that why they prefer young employees and so on.   



  1. An explanation of how you analyzed and interpreted the data. (*Methods used and why – Include examples of statistical data, tables, charts, graphs you analyzed)

According to the graph, it can be seen that what are the main reasons the company’s overall are willing to hire the young persons. We can analyze that the table describes about the private sector, public sector and the voluntaric section as well. We can see that the results are very unique as we come to know about the reasons what are the main issues that the companies offers the jobs to the young people. 23 % says that young people are cost effective for the company. 40 percent believe that they can grow with the company that why they prefer young employees. 17 percent of the companies thought that they are transferring the knowledge as they have learned from the new books and the latest knowledge can be reflected from the young generation. Further, it can be seen that 20 % of the companies also believe that by hiring the young generation the diversified work force can be seen and that will be good for the company. However, it can be seen that the detailed table is given in this regard.     

  • Your findings, presented so that they enable decision making. (Findings, conclusions, and recommendations)

As we can see that in the above table all the details are given that what type of companies are looking for the young people. A detailed analysis is shown in the above table and by looking at this, we can examine that why HR practices are real important in this case. The practices are to important for the companies policies to be established that the maximum efforts by the HR manager need to enhance the profits of the company. Here the management needs to be looked in the details that what type of employees need to be hired for the company it is not right just to have the young employees. The mixture is required as the key experienced persons needs to be in the company if they want to grow themselves.  


Begin, J. P. (1992). Comparative human resource management (HRM): a systems perspective1. International Journal of Human Resource Management , 379-408.

Burke, R. J., & Cooper, C. L. (2006). Reinventing HRM: challenges and new directions. Routledge.

Colakoglu, S. D., & Hong, Y. (2006). Measuring HRM effectiveness: Considering multiple stakeholders in a global context. Human Resource Management Review , 209-218.

Harris, L. C., & Ogbonna, E. (2003). Strategic human resource management, market orientation, and organizational performance. Journal of business research , 156-166.

Lengnick-Hall, M., & Lengnick-Hall., C. (2002). Human resource management in the knowledge economy: New challenges, new roles, new capabilities. Berrett-Koehler Publishers,.

Purce, J. (2014). The impact of corporate strategy on human resource management. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals) , 67-74.

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What is Copyright?

Copyright is a legal right that is created by the country law; according to the law, the creator of the grants allow the exclusive rights to his original work that there could be use and distribution of his work. They right are limited by some limitation; there are the fair uses, and there is the major limitation, which may limit to share the original expression, of the ideas. Copyright may also be known as intellectual property that may apply to certain forms of the work; copyright may work in the tangible form, in which there is the license of the work or the rights to use the work. The duration of copyright is 50 to 100 years.

  1. What are the period the authors may retain the rights over their work?

There are many publications, which reserves some rights, there may wish to retain some right. The authors have the bundles of the rights; they may transfer the rights to the publication. However, it depends on the author that whether they want to retain all rights and license publication or not. There are some rights, which can retain by some specific rights, the right to make the reproduction, the right to borrow the portion, the right to add work, right to make the presentation, the right to add the material for thesis or dissertation, etc.

  1. What is Crown Copyright? Why is it in disuse?

Crown copyright is the form of the copyright claim, which is used by the government and this is some Commonwealth realms. However, there are the special copyrights in the rules that are for the crown, state and government departments are the example of state entities. In the crown, rights there is the material, which is covered by the servants, government departments and the minister, agencies, etc. The crown copyright is under the section 163 of copyright as design and patient act 1988. Moreover, there is largely fallen into disuse of crown copyright because of charging a fee.

  1. Give an example of Fair Dealing:

Fair dealing is dealing with the copyrights as the using of the material in any way; the rights are reserved to the copyright owner (Cabrera, Alliance, Ostroff, & Schofield, 2015). The material could be used for the transformative purpose, there could be a criticism, parody and the comment upon someone work, fair use may sometimes be done without the permission of the writer (Stamp, 2011). An example may be given as when a person copies all the work, which is available for sales or a movie, which is copied, the concept can be same like movies of Hollywood are copied by Bollywood. Example, The Bollywood movie Sarkar (2005) is copied by Godfather (1972) (Stim, 2013).


Cabrera, N., Alliance, A., Ostroff, J., & Schofield, B. (2015). Understanding Rights Reversion: When, Why, and How to Regain Copyright and Make Your Book More Available. Authors Alliance.

Stamp, M. (2011). Practical Company Law and Corporate Transactions. Sweet & Maxwell.

Stim, R. (2013). Getting Permission: How to License & Clear Copyrighted Materials Online & Off. Nolo.

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Apple Corporate Governance & Stock Buyback

Answer 1

The corporate structure of Apple includes the corporate executives, shareholders and board of directors. The senior management team was comprised of 8 executives. The board is comprised of three committees; the audit committee; the nominating committee and the compensation committee which is chaired by Andrea Jung. Each of these committees has 3 to 4 members which also include the chairperson.

The senior executive structure is as follows,

  • Tim Cook – CEO (also previously the COO)
  • Eduardo Cue – SVP (Internet Software & Services)
  • Peter Oppenhiemer – SVP (CFO)
  • Craig Federighi – SVP (Software Engineering)
  • Daniel Riccio – SVP (Hardware Engineering)
  • Philip Schiller – SVP (Worldwide Marketing)
  • Jeffery Williams – SVP (current COO)

The advantage of this structure is that there is a strong hierarchal control which provides strong control over the organization and its operations. The disadvantage of this structure is that there is very limited flexibility in terms of responding to the business requirements and needs as well as market demand. This can be improved by enhancing the collaboration and communication among different sections of the organization.

Answer 2

During its time on the market, Apple has attracted some institutional shareholders which include; BlackRock Institutional Trust Company, Fidelity Management & Research, State Street Global Advisors, Vanguard Group and others. On the other hand, the board of directors and executives also own a good number of shares. Enough executive ownership will allow the company to be well aligned with its long-term and short-term goals.

Share Ownership as of 26th December 2013

Executives                  Number of common stock shared

Tim Cook                    87,316

Eduardo Cue               3,120

Peter Oppenheimer     4,834

Daniel Riccio              12,258

Jeffery Williams          317


William Campbell       48,112

Millard Drexler           1,533

Al Gore                       101.920

Robert Iger                  5,616

Andrea Jung                22,980

Arthur Levinson          240,040

Ronald Sugar              1,718

However, too much executive ownership can put less control in the hands of other shareholders, and their interest might be overlooked by the executive shareholders. This can discourage them as the executive shareholders will only have access to the control of the operations of the business and the rights of other shareholders will be ignored. The balance of this power is the key here.

Answer 3

            Apple’s executive compensation structure involves the compensation committee which has the responsibility to make decisions regarding the structure of executive compensation. If the executives don’t get the incentive they will not be able to operate in the shareholders’ best interests.

Screenshot (3).png

In 2013, the company didn’t announce a stock award “or” bonus to any of its executive shareholders. Through the compensation, the executives and directors are rewarded by either salary bonus or a stock award. Due to the recent financial crisis of 2007-08, there has been a lot of discussion about the remuneration of the executives and other workers. According to my information, the Securities and Exchange Commission has now ruled that the companies must show the ratio of CEO’s pay to the median of workers’ pay. The executive compensation is usually set by the market terms, however, due to interlocking broads and the executives who own a much larger share in the companies, still have a considerable influences over the regulations associated with compensation.

Answer 4

If I am one of the shareholders of Apple, then I would vote against the stock buyback proposal. The company’s main focus has always been innovation, and it has never relied on financial engineering.  Company’s ability to invest heavily in research and development is what that made it so successful in the market. Icahn’s proposal is based on short-term analysis, however; the management has to look into long-term concerns as well. For the time being, Apple had already done enough to increase the returns of shareholders when in 2012 the board of directors went for stock repurchase worth $45 billion and a quarterly dividend. Next year, the shareholder’s returns were again increased up to $100 billion.

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Criticism on Globalization


 Normally people look for the benefits of the globalization, but this assignment is about Criticism on Globalization in which we will discuss all of the bad effects of the globalization. Many groups in the world are criticizing the globalization where all the aspects of globalization are being discussed and give different views why this globalization has bad effects on the business and individuals (Kwok, 2012). What are the problems that people are facing due to this globalization in the world what are the things that are affecting individuals and businesses in the world by globalization? There are many topics under discussion relating to the bad economic effects of the globalization environmental bad effects of the globalization social bad effects of the globalization and some other effects of the globalization of the businesses and the societies. We are going to discuss some of the bad effects of the globalization here that are related to the individuals, societies, and the business.

Economic Effects

 Some of the economists who are very popular and well experienced in the world suggesting that globalization does not work well for all the economies in the world. They said that normally it is expected that this globalization will result in economic growth however this is not the case in all the situations. In some situations, this globalization works against the development of the economy. The best example of this is Africa where the economy is badly affected because of the globalization (Wu, 2006).

            Globalization makes some companies more powerful as they started working in different countries and sometimes in the most of the countries of the world. This power makes them stronger, so they are in power and small business cannot produce or manufacture products in the low cost and or of that quality so the small businesses are affected very badly by the globalization in the world.

 International corporations or big companies who are involved in petroleum gas and other things like that has the power to decide the prices of their products they are in a position to manipulate the prices. Big business groups neglect some countries that have less performance or quality of production. Therefore, they are in the position of monopoly, they gain the power to work in their way, and they sometimes use unethical ways for their businesses. 

            Globalization and international business are introducing new ways for trade new markets for trading and facilities for trading. They are using the new technologies for trading in all over the world these includes using ships and airplanes for trade from one country to the other countries they are using modern machines and other equipment for manufacturing and trading which is the cause of increased prices in all over the world. This inflation in the world is just because of the globalization in the world.

Environmental effects

The critics of globalization are quite confident because of their arguments about the environmental effects. It is a fact that globalization has expanded markets to various extents, also, it is the reality that globalization made environment polluted. The level of pollution is rising because of globalization. In my perspective, the globalization has shifted people to large economies. In other words, the people are going to those places and countries in massive numbers for business and employment opportunities. A large number of people is using fuel and petrol for making their transport and conveyance drive. In this way, the excess use of fuel and gasoline cause the real means of environmental damage. On the other hand, the globalization has made industries to collapse the environment of soils (Christoff & Eckersley, 2013). The lands or soils are the preferred place for industries for wasting the material. In this way, the globalization is influencing the environment and supporting the critics of globalization. It is very imperative to understand that plastic is the major source of pollution and way to enhance the environmental effects of globalization. The use of plastic is large in the areas of packaging industries and for the purpose of exports. It is a fact that successful countries and markets are exporting a large number of products to other countries. This issue should be resolved because we cannot stay healthy and safe because of it. Therefore, it is quite right that plastic waste is the great means of pollutions in globalization and it is increasing the environmental effect too.

Social effects

It is a fact that critics of globalization have a point of social effects of globalization. One would try to discuss the social effect of globalization comprehensively. The main component is the growing inequality in social effects of globalization. In my perspective, it would vary from country to country because of the changing economy situation of the countries in the international market.  In less progressive countries, there is a chance of perception that inequality is increasing.  The people may think that progressive countries are earning more money in this globalization factor. On the other hand, the great and progressive economies would be well satisfied (Howard-Hassmann, 2010). In other words, some could have negative and some could have a positive impact as well.  The second social effect could be the change in languages of the people. It means that people would lose the original class of the language. The language factor could move to death, and people could lose their reputation.  In the same way, the cultural factor is included in the social effects. The globalization can enhance the chance that people would influence the culture and cultural impacts. Some of the cultural lovers could criticize that our culture is losing its reputation and fame because of the globalization. One can understand that culture is the reason of unity in most of the countries. Also, the globalization may have the negative impact on the unity of the people and no doubt; it is one of the major effects of this specific factor.


  After studying the bad effects of the globalization, we can say that it has many of bad effects that are social economical environmental and some other effects that are very harmful to the businesses, for the societies, for individuals and the whole environment in the world. Although this globalization has many of the good effects it is also very harmful to human beings and even for the animals and plant in the world. We should stop this globalization of we should stop the bad effects of the globalization in the world. This study can well define why and how this globalization is harmful to the economy and society in the world.


Christoff, P., & Eckersley, R. (2013). Globalization and the Environment. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Howard-Hassmann, R. E. (2010). Can Globalization Promote Human Rights? Penn State Press.

Kwok, P.-l. (2012). Globalization, Gender, and Peacebuilding: The Future of Interfaith Dialogue. Paulist Press.

Wu, Y. (2006). Economic Growth, Transition, and Globalization in China. Edward Elgar Publishing.

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Multiple regression assignment

Multiple regression assignment


                        Is the relationship between the percentage of Republicans and the percentage of education increases statistically significant? Would we accept or reject the null hypothesis based on this finding?
Is the relationship between the state gross domestic product and the percentage of education increases statistically significant? Would we accept or reject the null hypothesis based on this finding?


Looking at the data analysis on the regression table, we can see that the percentage of Republicans and the percentage of education are not statistically significant. The reason is the value we come to know is 3.90 which means it is more than 0.05 and there is no relation in between them. Further, the null hypothesis is accepted as there is no relation in between. We can see that relationship between the state gross domestic product and the percentage of education increases is also not significant as the value is 2.15 and is more than 0.05. here the Null hypothesis is accepted as well.


                        What is the direction of the relationship between the percentage of Republicans in the legislature and the state education funding increases?
What is the direction of the relationship between state gross domestic product and the state education funding increases?
Interpret these relationships. What does it tell us about how the independent and control variable affect the dependent variable?

It can be seen that the direction of the relationship between the percentage of Republicans in the legislature and the state education funding increases have the positive direction between the variables. However if relationship between state gross domestic product and the state education funding increases the direction is positive as well as there is no negative value. Here the independent variables are important if we look as a whole. We come to know that the direction is positive that means the it is good for the research however; the relationship is strong and good fit.   


                        Is the F ratio for the model statistically significant? What does the F ratio’s statistical significance or lack of significance tell us about the value of the overall model in predicting education funding increases?

Yes, we can see that F ratio for the model is statistically significant. Here if we look into the details then we come to know that the value of F is positive and is good in number, this means that the model is good fit. This means that the model is good between the independent and the dependent variables.


                        In your multiple regression results, what is the value for Standard Error under “Regression Statistics.” What does this value tells us about the accuracy of the predictions made based on this model?

Discussing about the standard error in the table we can see that the values for both the independent in the study have the error less than 1 percent, which shows that the data is good enough, and free of errors as well. The accuracy of the model is good enough as the error is not grater.  


                        Looking at the results generated for Question 1, what is the adjusted R Square? What does this value indicate about the predictive power of the model?

Looking at the adjusted R2 we can see that the value is 0.86 which means that there is 86% effect of independent variables on the dependent variable in the research. This shows that the model is powerful and good enough as effect is 86%.


                        A researcher wants to expand upon his/her research into variables that influence state education funding. The researcher’s primary independent variable continues to be the percentage of Republicans in the legislature. However, the researcher also wants to control for the economic strength of the state. Therefore, he/she includes a variable measuring the gross domestic product for each state for the most recent year. The data is below.

Analyze the data using multiple regression analysis. Upload the Excel file with the data and the results.

%Republican State GDP Education Funding Increase
38 334 5
42 336 6
55 301 2
29 311 4
66 317 3
33 316 3
43 332 6
59 308 3
62 305 2
71 300 1
44 336 5
65 316 3
57 312 4
44 335 6
32 332 5
66 302 1
32 337 5
42 339 6
53 310 3
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Binary Regression Assignment

Binary Regression Assignment


A researcher wants to investigate whether there is a relationship between the percentage of seats held by Republicans in the state legislature and the percentage increase in education funding in the latest state budget.
Identify the dependent variable in this scenario. Explain your answer.

            The dependent variable in this scenario would be the ‘education funding increase’ because its value is dependent or changed when changing the independent variable. This means that the education funding increase that is being tested in the scientific methods research and then measured the value in the experimented in the research. That is why the education-funding increase is highly dependent on the % of the republicans in the given scenario.


A researcher wants to investigate whether there is a relationship between the percentage of seats held by Republicans in the state legislature and the percentage increase in education funding in the latest state budget.
Which is the independent variable in this scenario? Explain your answer.

            The independent variable in this scenario is the ‘% of the republicans’ which is the variable which is controlled or manipulated in order to examine the  difference of values in the dependent variable so that the relationship would examine in an accurate manner through cause and effect channel. That is why the % republicans serve as the independent variable in which there is no restriction from any other variable in the above-mentioned scenario.


Use the statistical results you generated in Problem 3 to answer the questions below.
What is the direction of the relationship as indicated in the results? What does this tell us about the relationship between the percentage of Republican legislators and education funding increases?

            There is a positive direction of the relationship as indicated in the results, which indicates that change in the independent variable or the ‘% of republicans’ would definitely bring the change into the dependent variable or the ‘education funding increase’. This means that for increasing the funds for the specific purpose it is very necessary to increase the percentage of the republicans, which shows the positive direction.


Use the statistical results you generated in Problem 3 to answer the questions below.
What was the reported F ratio? Interpret this value. Is it statistically significant based on the .05 standard? What does this tell us about the overall value of the model?

            The reported F ratio according to the data analysis came out to be the 0.777, which tells that, tells us that are a good fit for the independent or the percentage republicans and the dependent variable or the increasing in the funds. As compared to the standards set for the significance value like 0.005, this value is less than these standards, which clearly reveals that there is a significant relationship between the independent and the dependent variable. This value tells us about the rigorous research according to the model for the overall value that suggests that percentage of the republicans has a strong role in increasing the funds.


Use the statistical results you generated in Problem 3 to answer the questions below. 
What was the reported Standard Error for the model (look under Regression Statistics)? Interpret this value. What does it tell us about the accuracy of the model’s prediction?

            The reported standards error came out to be the 1.22, which shows that there was an insignificant or not much error in the process of conducting the entire research. The another important thing that we interpret from the value of the standard error of the whole or the overall model of the research is that the research conducted was relatively accurate as according to the error value. This interprets that the data resources, problem stalemates and the designing of the independent along with the dependent variables are up to the mark.


Use the statistical results you generated in Problem 3 to answer the questions below.
What was the reported Adjusted R Square? Interpret this value. What does it tell us about the predictive power of the model?

            The adjusted R square value came out to be 0.468 or the 46.8% which interprets that the independent variable or the % of the republicans influence to a serious extent to the dependent variable or the increasing funds to less than 50%. Thus, the value interprets about the predictive power of the model that according to the legislative seats defined in the given scenario, the ability of prediction is increased largely according to the model, which is integrated into the value of the Adjusted R Square.  


The researcher randomly selected 20 U.S. states. He collected data on the percentage of legislative seats held by Republicans and the percentage increase in education funding in the latest budget. The data is below. Enter the data into Microsoft Excel and run a binary regression analysis. 
After you have done so, save the file with the data and results below.

%Republican Education Funding Increase
38 5
42 6
55 2
29 4
66 3
33 3
43 6
59 3
62 2
71 1
44 5
65 3
57 4
44 6
32 5
66 1
32 5
42 6
53 3
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Chemistry Work

Question No: 1

  1.  Highest melting point:


Reason: London dispersion force are strong force to bind atoms together..

  • Highest melting point:

Reason: Hydrogen bonding is very strong bonding to hold atoms together.

Melting Point -182 -183 -13.4 90
Forces of attraction Vander Waal forces London dispersion force Dipole-dipole interaction Hydrogen bonding

Highest melting points:


Forces of attraction:

HCO > HCN > C2 H6> CH4

Question No: 2

Order of Viscosity:

Least to most viscous

CH3                CH4OH              CH3OCH3               C2H6

Question No: 3

Reaction of ammonia with water gives NH4 and OH molecules.

                                                                     NH3 + H2O                                 NH4 + OH

Question No: 4


N2O5(g) + H2O(l)                    2HNO3(aq)


CH4 + 4Cl                            CCl4 + 4 HCl

Question No: 5

Molar mass of ethanol = 46.07g/mole

Total mass of ethanol = 225g

Moles of ethanol is =?

Molar mass =




Question No: 6

Avogadro number = 6.022×10^23

Moles of ethanol = 2.0

Atoms of hydrogen =?

1 mole of C2H5OH contain 6.02 X 10^23 molecules 
1 molecule of ethanol contains 6 hydrogen atoms 
1mol of ethanol contains 6.02 X 10^23 x 6 hydrogen atoms 
2 moles of ethanol contain 6.02 X 10^23 x 6 x 2 hydrogen atoms 
= 7.224 x 10^24

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Communication Engineering & Electromagnetic Compatibility


Introduction. 3

Multi-user Radio Communication systems. 4

Optical fiber systems. 5

Microwave. 6

VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) 7

Short range wireless systems. 8

Telecommunication and EMC Directives. 9

Emissions: Radiated Emissions, Conducted Emissions, Mains Harmonics. 9

EMC Measurements, Screened Enclosures, Test Areas. 10

EMC Design Considerations. 11

Shielding Theory. 14

Conclusion. 15

References. 15

Figure 1. 11

Figure 2. 12


Two last decades are showing growth and improvement in wireless communication and connectivity. The wireless system has been successful due to the improvement of theories. New technologies have been replacing wires and improving communication. All communication modes are replacing the wires. Many technologies have become recognized with the passage of time. Wide area network, personal area network, and local area networks have recognized with the passage of time. Local area network is used to provide access to the buildings. It has replaced the traditional networks.

 Providing mobile access to a large number of customers has solved many problems. Designing signal processing algorithms in cellular devices is not free from the challenges. Signal processing algorithms are important and critical elements for all wireless technologies. They are critical for their success. Chanel of wireless is a shared resource. There are plenty of users at the lone location. With the help of wireless technologies, they can access to the communication. One user interfaces and interacts with another user in these wireless technologies. For enhancing communication and efficiency of communication between users, it is necessary to have same protocol fort all the users.

 This common protocol should have a sharing access for all the users. They should provide resources access to all of the users. There is different user’s protocol in this technology. These are three multiple users protocols are used at different levels. These are known as frequency division, time division as well as code division. This paper has focused on the direct sequence technology that is famous for the three generations. In a cellular system for outdoor, area of coverage is divided into different cells. 

These cells are the regions for it. Each cell is capable of supporting particular user’s subset to the system of cellular. The structure of cellular exploits the channel of communication at a different location separated from another.

 Communication channel reuse helps to support different users at a time. It is different from the technology that recognizes the whole region as a one cell. A base station is used to support each cell. The base station is responsible for operating within the cell. It helps to serve calls from or to the users present in the respective cells. Distribution and size of cells are recognized by the area of the base and geographical regions. A user of a mobile can travel from one cell to another cell. Base stations have a connection with the switching office for a mobile telephone. It serves as group controller.

These technologies have multilayer architectures. Three most common layers present in each application are known as the application layer, network layer, and physical layer. The network layers help to control the actual transport of data from destination to the source and from source to the destination. The communication sessions are controlled by the network layers. In the designing of wireless networks, application and network layers are critical. These layers play their vital role in the designing of wireless technologies. Application of user operates in the application layer. It is important to design the layer of network physically.

Multi-user Radio Communication systems

            There are different communication techniques for the single users. These are very helpful for communication for single users but now the wireless technology has improved towards the multi users. Now multiuser can connect with each other with the help of communication technologies. The system resource is divided into different users in the multiple user systems. One of the important sources in this system is bandwidth. This system can take benefit from the falloff of signal power with distance to use again this bandwidth in geographically separated area or location. There are different methods for channelization for different users interface. There are different capacity limits under different channels. A channel for multiuser is known as a channel where multiple users can connect with each other. There are two common types of such type of channels. These channels are known as multiuser channel and transmission channel.  A broadcast channel is helpful for sending transmitters to different users. It sends one to different receivers. The power of transmission and its bandwidth is divided according to the number of receivers.

            The television as well as radio transmission are known as the broadcast channel. With the help of radio, only one transmission is provided to different receivers. You can receive the transmission with the help of radio. It is important to note that television also falls within this type of channel. Television also provides access to multiple users and receivers through the same channel. On the other hand, multiple access channels are used to send a different number of transmissions to only one receiver. The power of transmission of one channel may vary from one channel to another channel. The bandwidth of the receiver is divided into different and multiple users (Goldsmith, 2005).


Optical fiber systems

            Optical fiber system works in the manner that it has only one transmission on the fiber’s one end and another receiver on the other end of the fiber. It helps in communication. This type of system is helpful in communicating by providing transmission from one end of the fiber towards the other end of the fiber. There is a different requirement for designing this type of system. It is important to have the proper bandwidth. It is important for improving the efficiency of this system. It is important to improve the efficiency of the system for proper communication. Resources should be efficient enough to provide all necessary communication channels to the receivers and the transmission. It is important to have the desired output and input for providing the reasonable communication. Clarity of information is very important in this system. LED is considered to contain less power a compared to the lasers. The power of the resources matters in this regard. Laser have tighter and smaller output of the light. It helps it to make it perfect for long distances. It helps in the clarity of the transmission. A bandwidth of the resource is also important for improving the efficiency of this type of system. LED has much less bandwidth as compared to then lasers. It is important to note that this is the reason why lasers are perfect as compared to the LEDs. One advantage of LED over laser is that it is much cheaper as compared to the laser technology. The laser is very expensive. It requires complex designing and resources. It is more difficult to create the cavity of the laser inside the devices. It is important in this regard to separate the chip from the wafer of semiconductor. It is a lengthy process and more time and expertise are required for performing this activity. This is the reason why laser is costly than the LED technology. Due to cheap nature of LED, it can be used 


Microwave cane is defined as the cellular communication, which is expected to have the fastest growth in the future, as in past, there was the focus on the microwave technology, and presently, there is six satellite system that is developed in the telecommunication industry. The future system of the microwave will provide the personal voice and data communication system, from one part to the part of the world. The system is focused so that it could be made wireless so that it could be involved in the consumer daily life.

However, in the modern age, the microwave wireless courses are being implemented and students are giving the knowledge and introduction about the subject. There are the different components of the microwave system, involved to give the knowledge about eth facts to the engineers. The antenna is the key component of the microwave system, as through antenna the microwave system can become wireless, the signals are amplified by the processes and the information can be recover through using the antenna, therefore, the antenna can say to be the important part.

There are different types of antennas in the microwave system, which may depend on or have the different frequency ranges; the one common type of the antenna is microstrip antenna, rectangular patch. Microwave engineering is considered the important aspects of the lives, as this weapon control system, can give many advantages to the human lives, microwave computer must have the active circuit design. The instructors, in this case, are giving knowledge to the microwave engineers, so that in future, maximum researchers can be done on this segment. Moreover, it is important for the new students to understand about the electromagnetic waves, the microwave radio relay on transmitting analog and digital signals (Gustrau, 2012).

widely at many places (, 2012).

VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal)

VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) can be described as satellite communication systems, which give benefit to the people, at the home from and the business unit. However, there is the interface between the outside computer and the user computer; there are the outside antenna and the transceiver, which receives and sends the signals from the transponder in the sky. However, it could be known as a satellite transponder, each user can be interconnected through this device, messages can be sent to each other, moreover, work can be done and guidelines can be provided. There can be long communications, so the benefits are there. There is need to go to the hub station first and the satellite user can handle the VSAT data, through voice or the video signals.

VSAT can also be used by the home users as benefits are for them, private companies are offering the own VSAT system, private companies can get the advantages as they can get the control over the own communication system, there will be no dependence on the other companies. However, there could be the speed in the work and the telephone services can be serving in the better way. Data security can also connect to the system so that the advantages can be there.

There are the trends of the VSAT networks, in the United States, many of the companies and organizations are taking advantages, however, VSAT also aims to resolve the issues, as it provides the regulatory framework, that is supportive. There are the technical insights that can be useful for the technical insight on the networking, the technology can be better influenced if VSAT is being focused, and there are other important aspects, which can be related with VSAT. However, the risks can also be known, there are the techniques, that how the network design engineers can be benefited (Wrobel & Wrobel, 2009).

Short range wireless systems

            The short range wireless system can also be used as one of the important types under the wireless technology. It is important to note that it has the different design and working. It is also used for the purpose of communication. Short range wireless system, as the name emphasized is used for communicating for short ranges like short distances. Lengths of the signals, in this case, may vary from few centimeters to the few meters. On the other hand, medium range wireless may increase the traveling of the signals up t0 100 meters.

  On the other hand, small range wireless only contains the traveling area or distance of few meters. Bluetooth is one of an important type of short-range wireless technology. With the help of Bluetooth, one can send and other can receive the files =, pictures, songs and other material from one device to another. Bluetooth works only in near places. As we move from one place to another, Bluetooth is unable to detect the signals. It is important to note that Bluetooth has used for transmitting data and voice from one to another place. It can be used for communicating with different devices. It can work mostly on mobile devices. It can also work for communication in computers, laptops, tablets and other devices. Short range wireless technology is highly used in the mobile devices including a smart phone. Infrared is another important wireless technology. It is also used for a short range of communication between different devices. These are beyond the capturing lights of human eyes. These wavelengths cannot be seen with the naked eyes. Its wavelength varies from 1530 to 1565 micrometers. 

It is widely used mow days for the purpose of communication for short distances as a wireless technology. Signals of infrared cannot penetrate the walls. They require a line of sight for better communication. It cannot carry signals beyond 10 meters. It is important to note that these are used for the source of light in the cables for fiber optics. Both of this system in the short range of wireless are using widely in different places for making communication easy for the short ranges. It is helping people to reduce their distances and locations.  These are benefiting a large number of people (Frenzel, 2012).

Telecommunication and EMC Directives

Telecommunication and EMC Directives is the new approach that applies across the European countries, however, these directives are applied on the electrical or electronically products, the EMC Directives can be characteristic of the equipment to provide the electrical energies, the energy interaction and transmission, in this way can give the benefits, to the engineers and the companies. However, the excess or unwanted energies can be prevented by the transmitter, so that there could no issues. There are the protection requirements followed in this process or telecommunication and EMC directives. There are the EMC Directives regulations and different types of equipment, which can be used in the process; there are the new approaches in the EMC Directives and telecommunication services, so that maximum advantages can be derived from the processes (Williams, 2011).

Emissions: Radiated Emissions, Conducted Emissions, Mains Harmonics

EMC testing involves emissions and immunity. Main types of emission are:

  • Radiated emissions

The emissions are checked to basic commercial and industrial levels on a range of 30 MHz to 1 GHz. Some measure at low frequency whole other at high and even higher than 1 GHz. Some also measure below 30 MHz i.e. while measuring TV systems. (, 2016)

  • Conducted emissions

This is also a part of development testing and involves the use of transducers such as closed field probes, bug detectors, and current probes. 

Closed filed probes are cheap to buy and easy to use. The bug detectors have an insulated sensing tip that touches the surface of cable that has to be measured. (, 2016)

  • Main harmonics

The harmonics are used to deviate the current and voltage from waveforms present in the system. Traditionally harmonic pollution as a concern of large industries but nowadays harmonics are concerned with smaller products as well (, 2016). 

EMC Measurements, Screened Enclosures, Test Areas

In order to prevent adverse effects from EMCs, countermeasure, controls and measurement, screening and testing is done. The testing is done in-house by use of a testing table. (, 2016)

 There are basically four types of EMC tests that are carried out:

  • Diagnostics

This is done during the development stage of the product. Different layouts, screening, and filters are compared. This continues as development progresses otherwise it useless. The diagnostic is done at a diagnose test facility that is full time available until the development is completed.

  • Pre-compliance

Once a prototype is available, some preliminary tests are carried out at similar standards in order to avoid surprises that might be shocking, avoid worst-case configuring and to define immunity test failure criteria.

  • full compliance

This is a standards setup done in-house. In this process, the manufacturer carries out each and every test he wishes to do. Whether the activity would be carried in-house or externally depends on upon available budgets, skills, resources and applicable standards.

  • Production Control

The commissioner’s explanatory guidelines require the manufacturers to take all appropriate measure in order to ensure product compliance.  The main focus is on comparative testing which is carried out by less skilled works. A repeated testing detects all expected changes that might occur in a product.

There are some minimum standards that are required to be followed. This is related to emissions, generator tracking and immunity.

The acceptable emission frequency is set between 150 kHz to 1 GHz. In some cases, the bottom range might be extended. Secondly, generator tracking is another necessary accessory for the spectrum.  If a generator is added to the spectrum analyzer, the measuring capability is quite enhanced.

For immunity as a minimum ESD, simulator is required. This is required for all electrical products produced. However, the test is quite difficult (, 2016)

EMC Design Considerations

Electromagnetic compatibility is defined as the ability of a system to satisfactorily function in its EME without creating electromagnetic disturbance into that environment. A tolerable amount of disturbance is, however, acceptable. For high-speed applications like EMC Custom connectors and cables are used. These include Amphenol NeXLev Mezzanine connector and Amphenol XCede Backplane Connector shown in figure 1 and 2 (, 2016).


Figure 1



Figure 2


Flex circuits are also used as cables and connectors in assembling electronic circuits like EMC.

Below are some examples of these Flex circuits.

Single Layer 1


Double Layer 1





Multiple Layers 1



Rigid Flex 1


In order to pass multiple signals between boards, ribbon cables are used. Due to their skin effect, they have limited frequency response. As cable length increases, rise time becomes longer.


Ribbon Cable 1


Various techniques are applied in order to reduce radiation from cables such as twisting differential wire pairs, shielding the cable with foil which acts as a conductive layer and a choke might be added as well.

RIBBON twist

Twisted Cable 1


RIBBON shielded3

Shielded Ribbon 1


The two main steps of EMC are EMI and EMS. EMI are set standards by regulatory authorities. EMS is standards set according to the application. These can be regulated as well as unregulated. (, 2016)

Shielding Theory

All electronic high-speed devices involve shielding in one way or the other. Shielding protects the device from external sources of interfaces. A metallic enclosure reduces radiated emissions and improves the immunity of radiation by almost 40db. However, at board level, for a good EMC shielded enclosures are bad substitutes.

The cat of shielding involves reflecting, absorbing and redirecting electromagnetic fields. 

EMC can be achieved at any different design level. For power transients, primary protection and filtering are provided at the circuit level. The design techniques also limit the damage. (, 2016)


In the end, telecommunication and EMC Directives is the new approach that applies across the European countries, however, these directives are applied on the electrical or electronically products. For enhancing communication and efficiency of communication between users, it is necessary to have same protocol fort all the users.

References (2016, Oct 26). EMI, RFI, and Shielding Concepts. Retrieved from (2016, Oct 01). EMC testing. Retrieved from / (2016, Oct 01). Test Performance Record for LAPEM. Retrieved from (2016, Oct 01). Measurement techniques and test methods: developments, costs, and options. Retrieved from

Frenzel, L. (2012, October 11). The Fundamentals Of Short-Range Wireless Technology. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from

Goldsmith, A. (2005). Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press.

Gustrau, F. (2012). RF and Microwave Engineering: Fundamentals of Wireless Communications. John Wiley & Sons. (2016, Oct 01). EMC Design. Retrieved from (2016, Oct 01). Automotive EMI Shielding –. Retrieved from (2016, Oct 01). Basics in EMC/EMI and Power Quality. Retrieved from (2012). Fiber Optic Transmitters and Receivers (Transceivers). Retrieved October 31, 2016, from

Williams, T. (2011). EMC for Product Designers. Newnes.

Wrobel, L. A., & Wrobel, S. M. (2009). Disaster Recovery Planning for Communications and Critical Infrastructure. Artech House.

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Visualization for Des

Lab 4

Question 1:

Produce  plots of arrays containing the digits of your student ID and your library

borrowing barcode and also the code given the question coding


My student Id is 2440064 so we can assume the library borrowing barcode

plot of the this id is in fig file name is question 1.fig

Question 2:

plot the graph for the f , g this also have the specific condition…….?


The plot of this matlab question is given in file  question 2(a)(b).


Question 4


The solution in form of matlab plot is given in file name question 4


Can you explain where the number 2^1/3comes from?


when you have to find the plot in the question 4 you can see it the value of it is almost -0.753 so which is lying in between these graph which is draw so that is show very discreetly hen the curve of the integral solution is given in it

Question 6:

Given a particular value for\y at any point, determine the largest interval of existence or integral curve.


The interval of this integral curve is exist is showing the values of the y and it also depend on the value of the C so which  is depend on the value of dual properties so this is may from the negative infinity to positive infinity but In which depend on the negative two to positive two so this the existence limitation

Question 7:


so its shows that when we have all the values are not real number so its mean which is not equilbra condition


yes its also show that the linerlised for this equilibram equation its also not liner because imaginary solution of this equation doesn,t give the linear solution so which is non linerlized


there are manily two types which are linear or non linear so in this solution also some of values are the linear and the other values are the non linear such as in which the 1 is the real number and the imaginary part is showing which is the non linear so these are the classification of this solution.


This system can be plot by using the or taking the critical point of this and draw it or plot itor the other method is to draw this by using the to get out the eigen values and draw it and an other method is plot this by using with saddle method.


if u taking this from the time interval to the infinity and in which we can take this as the interval so which has all the change solution in which so which gives all the values in between the t to infinity


after taking the limit aor taking the upper or division is taking in form of X so which is the proof of its solution just like if we are taking limit of X over X so same as done with its gives the proof about it

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The Case for Skip-Level Management

The Case for Skip-Level Management



This article has highlighted that executives that develop and coach people are 3 times more effective. It has concluded that only 11% companies have coaching staff. Many companies face difficulties in creating a development plan between every one and senior leadership. Employees have relationship with their manager’s boss and direct manager. Skip level management is not similar to mentorship programs. Skip level program of management include committed leadership. Leadership should care about the values and culture of the organization. Second important function of skip level management is right managers. Third most important objective of skip level management is frequent conversation. It is required for improving performance of the employees. It is necessary to have communication between executive regarding focus of communication and managers.


How skip level management is different from traditional management?

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Research Type and Research Question And Literature Review

Research Type and Research Question

The type of the research will be qualitative and qualitative data analyses tools will be employed to investigate the problem under investigation. The research study is designed to explore the adverse impacts of increased use of drug consumption on the health of the students. Thus, the qualitative research is suitable and supporters the exploratory nature of the investigation. Research question will be established to address the purpose of the study.

Research questions:

RQ1: What are the adverse health effects of increased used of drug consumption in youth? 

RQ2: How youth contracts the habit of substance abuse?

RQ3: What is the role of the youth, parents and teachers to prevent drug abuse?

Literature review:

            Use of drug is a common phenomenon today. Large number of people is involved in misuse of drugs. Drug abuse is a use of drug in a patterned form which is harmful for the user and the other people in the society (, 2014). Misuse of drugs has several harmful impacts. The harmful impacts range from social, physical and psychological. There are also certain drugs that are completely banned in the societies. Thus, if such drugs are used, the penalties are imposed with realm to the criminal justice. Besides, the misuse of the drugs, an important consideration is misuse of drugs by the students.  

            There is substantial number of students that are involved in the use of the drugs such as alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine and substituted amphetamines. There are different reasons behind substance abuse, however, the most common factors tat contribute in the use of the drugs in the students include  learning of behavior form other, depression, studies pressure and gradual addiction of the drugs with which the user consume the drug with no control on himself/herself. The use of the drug in the students is a serious issue. The health of the students is severely impacted (International, 2010). Proper treatment and cure from affective medical treatment is essential and adequate in that regard.

            The contraction of cardiovascular Seizures, problems in immune system and Nausea are some of the common symptoms in that regard (Stern, Koch, & Andrews, 2011). The contraction of Cardiovascular Seizures is a common system in which the arresting of the heart is a common issue. It impacts the central communication system between the heart and the central nervous system. This happens due to lack of blood supply that flow form brain and heart. Thus the students are not in position to concentrate in the study which ultimately impacts their educational performance. Nausea is a feeling of sickness, in which the students vomit and he/she has severe headache.

            The epilepsy disease is also very dangerous. It is a group of disease that is characterized by the epileptic seizures. Its systems are vagarious shaking. These systems are dangerous for the students which have studies (Shorvon, Perucca, Fish, & Dodson, 2004). The shaking and disorder is an important symptom that is dangerous to concentrate on the studies. The health impacts are so severe that a formal treatment is needed to overcome the symptoms. It is a disease that has serious implications and could impact the health of the students. Therefore, proper treatment is required in order to affectively cure the disease.

            This is also a severe illness which has adverse impact on the health of the students and their studies. The sick condition of the students does not let them concentrate on the studies. Another important and severe illness is the impact on the immune system (Blum, 2013). The immune system plays a central and important role in the body to defend against the viral and other attack. If the immune system is weak, it impacts the health condition of the students. They contract many illnesses. Besides, such health diseases, another important factor are the use of substandard drugs.

            Such use of the substandard drugs is extremely dangers to health. It is also witnessed that the deaths of the students are also occurred. Therefore, such use of drugs must be avoided (Kleiman, Caulkins, & Hawken, 2011). The adolescence patterns of the drinking are also severe. The excessive dirking is another important problem and students are often involved in such kind of abuses. The abnormal drinking patterns also lead to other misuse of the drugs. Thus, this habit is extremely dangerous and inappropriate for the users. The responsibility of the families is necessary to keep an eye on the students to avoid excessive use of the alcohol. Youth is more inclined towards the excessive use of the drugs.

            The young generation has energy and they wanted to create and explore different things in life. Thus, their inclination towards the consumption of the alcohol is severe. They use alcohol for relief and pleasure. The alcohol consumption ultimately leads towards the addiction (, 2015). The addiction is very dangerous that trap the youth in the vicious circle of the consumption of the alcohol. Thus, this addiction ultimately leads to the contraction of several illnesses and diseases. The use of the alcohol is also used as an escape route forms the responsibilities of the life. The medical experts say that the addiction can be break with a gradual treatment.

            The alcohol abuse has several symptoms that may range from hallucinations to paranoia, dilated pupils, chills and sweating and behavior changes. These medical symptoms are frequency seen in the students who are involved in accretive use of the drugs (, 2006). Some time, the disease become chronic and its take lot of time and effort to deal with such illnesses. Alcohol use is prevalent up to 58.2% among high school students. These students further take admission in the higher education and this habit severally impact their health.

            Besides alcohol abuse, the smoking is also an important issue. The smoking is also a common factor and the risk of the contraction of the cancer is an important factor to be considered (Stolle, Sack, & Thomasius, 2009). The cancer ultimately destroys the lungs and the humans are not in position to breathe. Thus, the impact of the smoking is severe it severely impacts the health of the students. The risk of the contraction of the cancer is high and the cancer has several types. The most common are mouth and stomach cancer. Thus, care and prevention both are required in order to prevent the cancer.

            The responsibility imposes on both the students and the teachers and parents. The collective responsibility is necessary in order to prevent such kind of drug abuse (Green, Bekman, Miller, Perrott, Brown, & Aarons, 2011). Its impacts are severe on health as well as on the societies and the individuals. The young generation is the future of the nation and it is very important to save youth form the drug abuse. The addiction of the drug is severe and it has severe impacts on the mental and physical health of the students.


Blum, S. (2013). The Immune System Recovery Plan: A Doctor’s 4-Step Program to Treat. New York : Simon and Schuster . (2014, November 7). Prescription Drug Abuse Adolescents and young adults. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from

Green, A. E., Bekman, N. M., Miller, E. A., Perrott, J. A., Brown, S. A., & Aarons, G. A. (2011). Parental Awareness of Substance Use Among Youths in Public Service Sectors. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs , 72 (1), 44–52.

International, N. (2010). Nursing Diagnoses 2009-2011, Custom: Definitions and Classification. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Kleiman, M. A., Caulkins, J. P., & Hawken, A. (2011). Drugs and Drug Policy: What Everyone Needs to Know. England : Oxford University Press. (2015, July 25). ALCOHOL, DRUGS AND YOUTH. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from (2006, January 12). Why Do Adolescents Drink, What Are the Risks, and How Can Underage Drinking Be Prevented? Retrieved October 21, 2016, from

Shorvon, S., Perucca, E., Fish, D., & Dodson, W. E. (2004). The Treatment of Epilepsy. Manchester : Black Well .

Stern, R. M., Koch, K. L., & Andrews, P. (2011). Nausea: Mechanisms and Management. England : Oxford.

Stolle, M., Sack, P.-M., & Thomasius, R. (2009). Binge Drinking in Childhood and Adolescence. Epidemiology, Consequences, and Interventions , 106 (19), 323–328.

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Social Construction Of Reality

Social Construction Of Reality

The social life of the person and the society is very important. The more important is the structure of the socialism in the society. As according to the theory of the social construction of reality is the understanding of the world with the help of social and communication theories. These two theories are applied together to define the social construction of the world. The theory depends on the human being’s behavior and the methods which are developed over the time to run this world and through modern languages.

The social life of the person is very important to live within the society a person should know the rules and regulations of the social life. The social life depends on many different factors like behavior, attitude, and demographic elements. The core focus of the social construction is to uncover the different ways which the societies and different human groups used to establish the system of their life.

The history of the social construction is not much old as this theory was first appeared in 1966, but later the more comprehensive and precise theories were proposed to support the base of the social construction. But the most authentic social construction theory which is valid now a day is the Thomas Theorem which states that if the man or the person defines the boundary or the constraints of situations which are real, then those are the results of their consequences. This theory explains the meaning and purpose of the social construction very briefly.

This theory plays an important role when it comes to understanding the human social behavior. As there is always a reason behind every human behavior or the incident in the social life of the person. The goal is to study that incident and how it effects the person life and the other people in the society.

There are several examples through which the social construction can be understood some of them are discuss below, and it highlights the impact of social construction on the human life and society. Coin is the best example of the social construction of whenever person pays for the cup of tea or coffee the currency either in the shape of coin or paper rotates in the society. This coin has some value only because of the social construction as it came into reality because of the social interaction of the human beings. So this means the coin is equivalent to the value of the cup of tea.

Just like that traffic lights also are the result of social construction. As the people stop right when the red light shows up on the traffic signal. This means that the red light has value in the society and that is the result of the social interaction of the people in the society. Societies are the one who makes the rules and regulations to make the life systematic and the social construction is the consequences of those rules that become a reality.

There is another example of the social construction which supports the Thomas theory of social construction. Mostly these examples belong to the rules made by the societies. Like wearing clothes now this is the major component of human life.

But just wearing clothes is not enough as the fashion industry is growing rapidly people are adopting the diverse nature of culture. As a result of this, the social construction takes place. The fashion changes almost every month which identifies that the social interaction among the human beings from a different part of the world is increasing and the world has become the global village.

Driving either on the left-hand side or the right-hand side is also the result of social interactions of the person with each other depending on the country in which the person lives in.

In other words, it is clear that the social construction developed over the passage of time when the people get to interact with each other socially. But there is not a constraint that it happens only when the people interact with each other beside the Social Construction is also the result of the person social life.

So when the person engages him or herself in the social life, then the social construction take place. In general, we can say either the person or the group of human beings interact with each other socially then the social construction occurs, and it is commonly the consequences of the results that occur when the social life is developed.

The social construction does not depend on the recent events as it depends on the background or the chain events happening over the time. The person learns from the interaction with the society and spends money to gather the experience that’s how the social interactions are developed over the time.

The wealthy person has a reality of social construction, and that is his pride. Just like that, a worker who works on low wages has also learned through his experience, but his social construction is different. Because the way he spends money is entirely different from the wealthy person due to which he become a bit sensitive and have a negative impact on the society.

So from the above discussion, it is clear that our reality does not depend on the objective of the situation rather it depends on the subjective situation like the interpretation of the reality. It means if the society defines a person attitude or behavior he might and might not act like. It depends on the person either he or she makes it a label for themselves or not.

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pH between the stomach and intestines

pH between the stomach and intestines


The overview of compound reveals in the paper that gives finding and results to obtain required outcomes.  The difference in Ph between the stomach and intestines creates because each part of digestion system plays the dominant role in the process of digestion. The ph recognized as the alkaline level in small intestine and mouth as well. However, the ph in the stomach has the certain level of acidic. Certain enzymes work at different ph optimum levels. On the other hand, digestion of protein happens in the stomach, not on the small intestine. The ph differences in stomach and intestine have taken place by the system of digestion.  Protein digestion actives in the stomach, but no digestion has taken places of nutrients that occurring in the small intestine.

Results and discussion:

Ph is the measurement of concentration solution with the hydrogen ion. If the stomach of the ph gets 3.0 higher, then it means more acids of secrets have recognized to keep the ph below 3.0 adequately. When acid and heartburn reflux interferes the medication with the acid of the stomach by an increase in ph above as 3.0. It reveals certain chemical combinations that would be problematic for the digestive track. On the other hand, undigested food particles cross into the membranes of the intestine that leads to cause the body. Also, it would become, allergic to many foods. It means that it was normally able to digest health stomach ph. Therefore, it leads to the gluten allergies, IBS as well as other allergy symptoms.

NSAIDS include diclofenac, ibuprofen, aspirin, and naprosyn.  The NSAIDS relating problems of the intestine of arthritis suffered who take several pills. The NSAIDS is undermining the defenses of a stomach, whereas enzymes like cyclooxygenase 1, or COX-1 all blocks.  Such enzymes help in the prevention of ulcers that enhanced the flow of blood in the stomach as well as increasing protective production of the mucous. The shortage of such enzymes in the stomach unable to develop lining protective and it could be vulnerable to stomach acid attack. Acetylsalicylic acid like aspiring could be included to get protective of a stomach and small intestine (, 2015).

References: (2015). NSAIDS. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

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Housing Bubble 2008

Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Background. 4

Identification. 6

Causes. 7

Side effects. 8

The housing Collapse. 8

The credit Crisis. 9

Conclusion. 10

References. 11

Housing Bubble (2008)


The Housing bubble in the USA was the worst ever downfall in the housing sector in the country. It can be seen that almost half of the US states were affected by this housing bubble. The scenario that happened was that in early 2006 the houses prices actually rose in the beginning, however, at the 2006 and 2006 they begin to decline and it reaches the lowest level on 2012. It can be seen that on December 2008 the report says that the price index for the US home prices gets to its lowest in the history of US.

However, it can be seen that main cause of it was the Credit default swaps in the country.  It is observed that there were many reasons the housing prices went high and at a sudden all fell down, some of the crisis of the reasons is the collateralized debt obligation, foreign markets, mortgages, Hedge fund, credit and the treasuries. Due to a housing bubble in the market, the housing industry was not the only sector, which was disturbed in the US (White, 2009).

It can be seen that the housing industry, foreign exchange markets, manufacturing industry as well as the service industry of the country were very disturbed. It can be said that every department, which is concerned with the finances, was heavily disturbed. The government regulators are involved. The rating companies do have their own responsibility and the regulation authorities are not up to the mark. These are a couple of reasons, which can be hedged out from the housing bubble in the US. 


Looking at the past early 2000 it can be noticed that prices of the land and the US houses begin to rise. It is the reason that the tax was not too much which focused. However, the banks and the third-party institutes were in the possession that they were giving more and more mortgages to the common people. Here it needs to be known that the mortgages are only applicable to the persons who are having good credit history or who is having a good job.

The main thing was that the investors in the US and abroad was looking for the investment with the low risk and high profits. Here the mortgages people come. The third party who takes the mortgages from the bank and become direct with the clients is one of the best things. It can be seen that if the person default then the house is yours. The point here to discuss is that the large financial institutions were backing up the mortgages. In addition, they issued mortgage-backed securities in the market as it consists of hundreds and thousands of different mortgages at the same time (HOLT, 2009).

How about we audit how the emergency unfurled. Issues initially surfaced in “outlandish” or “adaptable” home-contract loaning. Capricious home loans bolstered a keep running up in townhouse and house costs. House costs topped and rotated toward the ground. Imaginative loan specialists and originators had extended the volume of unusual home loans with high default dangers (reflected in nonprime appraisals), which are the lodging business sector’s likeness garbage bonds. Borrowers with the deficient salary in respect to their obligations started to default.

            A significant number of these borrowers had depended on having the capacity to obtain against higher house estimation later on with a specific end goal to meet their month-to-month contract installments, or on having the capacity to “flip” their property at a value that would more than reimburse their home loan. Default rates on nonprime-contracts rose to surprising highs. That is the point at which the inconvenience began for the money related industry. The high hazard on the home loans caused issues down the road for home loan holders, the money related establishments to whom the regularly scheduled installments were owed.

Vulnerability about future money streams weakened the liquidity, or capacity to resale, their securities. Firms straightforwardly holding contracts saw lessened money streams. Firms holding securitized contract packs (frequently called “contract upheld securities”) also observed the desire of proceeding with decreases in trade streams reflected out declining market values for their securities (Wallison & Pinto, 2009).

They actually bundle those mortgages make the security and sell that pool to the different investors throughout the world. However, on these securities, the higher rate of interest was given. That was the reason many of the investors jumps into it and they feel it safe as the big financial institutes are involved and they are said to be the safe investment as well. We can see that the top class security that was shown in the market with the high returns and it was safe as well, due to this the market went up and up and the price of the houses in the US begin to rise.

Here the reasons were the third party institutes jumped in and they were giving the loans. The houses on the mortgages to the average people as well. This was the main thing that the securities with the banks and the different institutions were not too good at the time when they were offering thousands and thousands of mortgages all over. 


Here this was the time when the most of the investors from all over the world were putting their money into the securities, which were backed up by the big institutions, and the risk was too low as it was considered as the safe treasury. However, on the other side, it can be seen that the returns were too high as the houses of the US begin to rise and rise. Here the ultimate point in the mind of the lender was what so ever if the mortgage is defaulted than what will happen, they will be the sole owner of the house and as the prices are too high, that is the reason they will earn it more. This was the best option in the investor’s mind (LANDLER, 2008).

On the other side, the credit rating agencies were also saying that this is the safe investment and they were giving the AAA rating to the securities, which shows that it is the best option too, invest in here. Now the point was that investors want to buy more and more and more of these securities so that they could earn many profits. Here the point was that in order to produce more mortgages the lenders need to give the houses on mortgages more as the demand for those securities was at its boom.

Now, what happened were the lenders wanted the more mortgages in the town but there were very fewer persons who have the good credit score. Now we could see that the lenders have dropped their standards and what they were doing that they were providing the houses on the low regulations and to the average persons as well. However, the situation was that some of the companies were trying to generate the mortgages so much that they were not even identifying and verifying the securities or the income, job of the person. Here what the bad thing happens as there were millions of people in the market who could not pass the mortgage criteria but right now, they are into their own houses (Trulia, 2016).

What happen is that more and more people were having the mortgages and the credit rating companies were saying that the securities are good as the investors are also taking it more and more. Here the price of the houses rise and rise, On the other hand, the reality was that the security actually becomes weaker and weaker day by day as the persons behind the mortgages who need to pay the money to the lenders were becoming large in numbers whose credit rating is not so good and cannot afford the installment.


Here we can see that the taxes are low, investment is safe and the requirement or the demand is high which makes it look like the security safer than ever before. However, this was not the actual thing. The fact was the recession started as the prices went higher and higher and at the end, the people could not pay for they’re expensive here what happen was that the houses come in the market and they grew and grew. At that time, there were no buyers in the market. Here what happen was that the supply increases and the demand decrease (, 2013).

This was the point from where and due to what the houses prices begin to fall at that time. Some of the new mortgagers stopped the mortgages the reason was that the house price begins to fall and they were paying a very large amount. Therefore, they left and the prices begin to decrease even faster than ever before. This was the time when the big financial institutes stop to bu6y the houses securities from the market. In addition, it can be seen that some of the big lenders were facing the bankruptcy at that time (Grovum, 2013).

 It can be seen that the top investors who have purchased the securities on the high rates they could see that the prices fell immediately, therefore, they have faced to loss and that was the reason they sell the securities as well which shows that the security becomes weaker and weaker day by day. Here it was the point when the financial system was collapsed and it could be seen that some of the big financial institutes have declared the bankruptcy at that point.

This was the time when the every government was disturbed, the credit market, stock market, forex market collapsed in real. This was the time where the important steps need to be taken by the government.

Side effects

The housing Collapse

Market analysts say not everybody can – or ought to – purchase a house, however, that did not stop Wall Street firms, banks amid the lodging the bubble house when the main route at costs and benefits was up. These exchanges are known as “subprime” home loan advances. They largely have financing costs which above loan fees accessible credit borrowers. A few banks and different foundations were even avid to loan cash to planned buyers with credit history which is spoor as related past who might don’t ordinarily meet all requirements for advances (Tanneeru, 2009).

All over, there is nothing wicked or unlawful about a high intrigue “subprime” advance. It is an instance of loan specialist going out on a limb and getting a higher financing cost in kind. Nonetheless, about the subprime in the 2006 assortment, which expanded the danger of the bowering bank in the monetary records? “main home loans dropped in 2004 up till 64%, however  Brookings examine notes in 2005 the 56 percent in 2006 and 52 percent,”

All things being equal, numerous banks and business firms kept packaging the home loans, a hefty portion of them awful advances, and Wall Street continued getting them and offering them to financial specialists. Furthermore, the general populations who could have put a brake on the expanding measure of hazard. We did not consider with these home loans that individuals may lose their employments, the financing cost may go up and the lodging costs may go down. The organizations that direct the U.S. money related division were not focusing. “For whatever length of time that everybody was paying their home loan, that was fine,” said Ali Velshi, CNN’s main business reporter.

“Prepare to have your mind blown. Every one of the three happened.” Housing costs began slanting descending, and by 2007, the air pocket had blasted. “You’re a mortgage holder or a bank, and you’re attempting to offer your property, yet everything else on the square is available to be purchased, as well,” Velshi said. “Everything fell like we’ve never observed.” 

Crisis in the credit

Somewhere down as awful credits, numerous institutes and loaning foundations froze. A significant number of them were over-utilized, specialists say; they had acquired past what was capable and were currently on the snare. The most of the problem that can be seen is the persons were unable to have the credit from the bank at that time as the crisis was at the peak and the banks were in the situation of the bankruptcy. However, it can be seen that the financial crisis is seen that the forex market and stock has been dropped as well (Tanneeru, 2009).

The issue with dumping the advances available is that “it brings down the cost, and any other person who has them is abruptly fit as a fiddle. demise winding of costs,” and it spread like an infection over the monetary area, from amazing banks and the forex markets ,Lehman Brothers and the others companies  to nearby and local banks and financier as the nation over. shareholders got some answers concerning the terrible credits these organizations were conveying, they hauled their cash out the business sectors plunged.

In the interim, incapacitated by their terrible resources and hoping to accumulate money, banks quit loaning. The American budgetary framework was adequately solidified. “It was a flawless tempest,” Velshi said. It did not make a difference in the event that you were a person with great credit, a solid business or another bank. “It was an absence of control, it was eagerness and innovativeness in the money related industry, and it was an American dream that got off track.


It is proved that the housing bubble was one of the worst disasters the country has faced in the past. The can be seen that there was a fake hype in the market which was backed up by the financial institutes and the standards were torn into pieces which created the terrible situation at the end. Looking at the causes, we come to know that the supply of houses in US increases and just due to that, the whole financial system collapsed. Hence, we can say that the standards were not up to the mark.

We can analyze that this kind of securities is very risky in fact, investors jumps into such kind of products to attract the customers. However, it needs to be looked deep inside that what is the real reason for the higher prices of the housing sector in the country. At the end, I would like to say that financial system of the country should be strong so that there would be no effect on it.

References (2013). The origins of the financial crisis. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

Grove, J. (2013). 2008 financial crisis impact still hurting states. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

HOLT, J. (2009). A Summary of the Primary Causes of the Housing Bubble and the Resulting Credit Crisis: A Non-Technical Paper. The Journal of Business Inquiry , 8 (1), 120-129.

LANDLER, M. (2008). U.S. housing collapse spreads overseas. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

Tanner, M. (2009). How a ‘perfect storm’ led to the economic crisis. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

Trulia. (2016). Here’s how the US housing market has been impacted by the 2008 crash. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

Wallison, P. J., & Pinto, E. J. (2009). A Government-Mandated Housing Bubble. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

White, L. H. (2009). Housing Finance and the 2008 Financial Crisis. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from

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Question No: 1

Month Motorcycle Sales
January 9
February 7
March 10
April 8
May 7
June 12
July 10
August 11
September 12
October 10
November 14
December 16


Three month moving average forecast (for April to January) =  


= 26/3

Moving average demand = 26/3


Five month moving average forecast (for June through January) =  


= 31/5

Moving average demand = 31/5


D = Demand in period

F = forecast for period

For April through January

Total demand =   = 26

Forecast for period = 26/3 = 8.66

n = 3



= 5.78

For June through January


Total demand of period =

n= 5


= 4.96

According to MAD calculations dealer should use first forecast from April through January for the next year.

Question No: 12-2

Month Demand for soft Shag Carpet (1000 yd)
1 5
2 6
3 6
4 8
5 14
6 10
7 9
8 12


Three month moving average forecast for months 4 through 9

Three month moving average forecast (for 4 to 9) =

=   = 21/3

= 7


 Weighted three month moving average forecast for a month 4 through 9\

Weighted moving average forecast = WMA = ∑Wi Di

As Wi = 0.55 , 0.33 , 0.12

WMA = 0.55(5) + 0.33(10) + 0.12(6)

= 6.77

Demand from WMA

=  17   x 1.55

= 26.35



= 6.45

Forecast using MAD =    = -3.84

Forecast using weighted moving average forecast is much more greater than using demand method. The forecast for the next year is near about 6.45 increasing for next month.

Question No: 12-3


Year Quarter Demand for Fertilizer (ton)
1 1 105
  2 150
  3 93
  4 121
2 5 140
  6 170
  7 105
  8 150
3 9 150
  10 170
  11 110
  12 130

Three-quarter month moving average forecast for quarter 4 through 13

Three-quarter month moving average forecast (for 4 to 13) =




Error = D – F

= 105 – 116 = -11

=150-116 = 34

=93-116 = -23


Five-quarter month moving average forecast for quarters 6 through 13

Five-quarter month moving average forecast (for 6 to 13) =


= = 121.8

Error = D – F

Error=105 – 121.8

=150-121.8 =-16.8

=93 -121.8 =28.8

=121-121.8 = 0.8



Weighted three-quarter moving average forecast for a month

Weighted three-quarter moving average forecast = WMA = ∑ W i Di

As W i = 0.50, 0.33, 0.17

WMA = 0.50(105) + 0.33(150) + 0.17(93)



E = Σ e

E = 131.6

According to above calculation the most accurate forecast is 121 with the absolute minimum error difference of 0.8.

  Question No: 12-5

Semester Students Enrolled in OM
1 270
2 310
3 250
4 290
5 370
6 410
7 400
8 450


 Three semesters moving average forecast for semester =  

 For first 3 semesters =    = 830 / 3 = 276.6

For next 3 semester =  = 1070 / 3 = 356.6


Exponentially smoothed forecast

Ft+1 = a Di + (1 – a) F i

a  = 0.2

F2 = a Di + (1 – a) F 1

F2 = 0.2 (270)  + (1 – 0.2) (270)

= 54 + 216

F3 = a D2 + (1 – a) F 2

= 0.2 (310)  + (1 – 0.2) (310)

= 62+ 248

\F4 = a D3 + (1 – a) F 3

= 0.2 (250)  + (1 – 0.2) (250)

= 50 + 200


F5 = a D4 + (1 – a) F 4

= 0.2 (290)  + (1 – 0.2) (290)

= 58 + 232

F6 = a D5 + (1 – a) F 5

= 0.2 (370)  + (1 – 0.2) (370)

74 + 296=

F7 = a D6 + (1 – a) F 6

= 0.2 (410)  + (1 – 0.2) (410)

= 82 + 328

F8 = a D7 + (1 – a) F 7

= 0.2 (400)  + (1 – 0.2) (400)

=  80 + 320 = 400

F9 = a D8 + (1 – a) F 8

= 0.2 (450)  + (1 – 0.2) (450)

=  90+  360


c) Forecast using MAD =

MAD =  

D = 830

F =276.6

n= 3

=     = 184

According to Above calculation MAD  forecast of Exponential smoothing function is slightly greater than using MA.

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Series Convergence and divergence Test

Question No: 1

Using limit test,

If the limit o an / b n is infinite, and sum of bn diverges, then the sum of an   also diverges.

      an , b > 0 for all n



 > 0

  =  > 0

By the limit test, the series diverges.

 Question No: 2

Ratio Test:

   < 1 series converges.

   > 1 series diverges.

   = 1 another test.

 an+1 =

= 1

Another test

 Now using

Root test

 <1 series convergent

 >1 series diverges

 = 1 another test


 = 1

Therefore root test can’t be applied.
Using Comparison Test

 > 0



=  converges therefore by using limit comparison test the whole equation converges and these points.

Question No: 3

Three condition of integral test for real valued function

Y =

  1.  For integral test the f  is continuous, positive and decreasing function on given limits (1 ,∞)
  2. Suppose an =   f  (n)

Then series  is convergent if and only If the improper integral  is convergent.


If is convergent, Then  is convergent.

If integral is divergent, Then  is divergent series .


Integral test to determine series is convergent or divergent.

f (x) =  

 =  d n

Calculating integral of given function at (0, ∞)

=  dn

= |½ log (2n + 1)|1

= ∞

This shows that the series    diverges at (0, ∞).