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          Exchange rate   Prices in  
  Assumptions   US dollar prices   (R$/$)   Brazilian reais  
  Existing sales price per unit   $400.00                   4.0000                     1,600  
  If the reais falls in value, the new implied US$ price:              
       New dollar price if no reais price change   $355.56                   4.5000                     1,600  
  If the US$ price is changed to keep US$ price:              
       New reais price is current US$ price at new exchange rate: $400.00                   4.5000                     1,800  
  Direct cost per unit in the US, percent of price   65%          
  Direct cost per unit in the US   $260.00                     4.0000                       1,040  
  Unit volume                     40,000          
  Decrease in unit volume from price increase   -15.0%          
       New lower unit volume                     34,000          
  Alternative #1: Maintain same price in reais:              
  Sales revenue  (R$680 x 50,000 ) / (R$4.000/$)   $14,222,222          
  Less direct costs (US$120 x 50,000)             10,400,000          
  Contribution margin in US dollars   $3,822,222          
  Alternative #2: Raise price in reais (and accept lower volume):          
  Sales revenue  (R$800 x 40,000 ) / (R$4.000/$)   $13,600,000          
  Less direct costs (US$120 x 40,000)               8,840,000          
  Contribution margin in US dollars   $4,760,000          
  Alternative 2 is acceptable              
  • What is the current reais price of the exports to Brazilian customers?

1600 is the current price of in Reais.

  • What will be dollar revenue to Dell after devaluation if Dell does not change the current reais price to Brazilian customers?

The Dollar Value would be $3,822,222

  • What will be the dollar revenue to Dell after devaluation if Dell does not change the current dollar price of the exports?

The Dollar Value would be$4,760,000

  • If you are the advisor, what would be your recommendation to Dell? Explain.

I would recommend Alternative 2


   Before Exchange Rate Change  After Exchange Rate Change  
  Balance Sheet of Bangkok Ingot, Ltd. Translated Translated  
  Thai Baht Exchange Rate Accounts Exchange Rate Accounts  
  Assets Statement (THB/UK£) British pounds (THB/UK£) British pounds  
  Cash                     5,000                     35.71 £140.00                     45.45 £110.00  
  Accounts receivable                   25,000                     35.71                             700                     45.45                             550  
  Inventory                   35,000                     35.71                             980                     45.45                             770  
  Net plant & equipment                   45,000                     35.71                         1,260                     45.45                             990  
       Total                 110,000 £3,080.00 £2,420.00  
  Liabilities & Net Worth  
  Accounts payable                   25,000                     35.71 £700.00                     45.45 £550.00  
  Long-term debt                   40,000                     35.71                         1,120                     45.45                             880  
  Invested capital                   45,000                     35.71                         1,260                     35.71                         1,260  
  CTA account (loss)                            –                                  –   -£270.00  
       Total                 110,000 £3,080.00 £2,420.00  
  December 31st  End of Quarter  
  a.  Calculation of Actg Exposures: Thai Baht                         35.71                         45.45  
       Exposed assets (all assets)                 110,000 £3,080.00 £2,420.00  
       Less exposed liabilities (c.liabs + lt debt)                 (65,000)                        (1,820)                        (1,430)  
       Net exposure                   45,000 £1,260.00 £990.00  
  b.  Change in translation exposure: Gain (Loss) -£270.00  
  NE Assets £1,260.00  
  % change in british pound -21.4%  
       Translation gain (loss) -£270.00  
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Bond Valuation

Question 1:

You purchased a bond with the following characteristics: $1,000 par value 5.5% coupon semiannual payments 18 years to maturity Bond was priced to yield 6%. For the first three years after you purchased, the bond interest rates remained constant at 6%. Then interest rates dropped to 5.4% and remained at that rate for five years. Then rates dropped further to 4.8% and remained at that rate for two more years. Rates dropped even lower to 4% and remained at that rate until the bond matured.

Assume that all coupon interest payments were reinvested at the prevailing markets rate(s). Calculate the realized yield of this investment.


Par value $1000
Coupon rate 5.50%
Coupon Payment $55
Years to Maturity 18
interest rate 6%

For the calculation of yield to maturity:

Bond Price

For the first three years with 6%

PV of a Bond
53.39806 51.84278 50.33279

For the next five years with the yield 5.4%

49.44028 48.14049 46.87486 45.64252 44.44257

For the next two years with the 4.8%:

44.42865 43.38735

For the next eight years with 4% rate

44.23447 43.36712 42.51679 41.68313 40.86581 40.06452 39.27894 38.50877

The present value of the par value:


Total Bond Price = 1395.844


YTM = 2.71%

Question 2:

You purchased another bond with the following characteristics: $1,000 par value 6.5% coupon, annual payments 25 years to maturity Callable in 7 years at $1,065. You paid $1063.92 for the bond. Macaulay duration is 13.34 years Assume market rates drop by 50 basis points.

  1. What will be the new bond price?


Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.34 * 0.005

= 0.0667%

New Bond Price = 1000.0667

  • Using modified duration; estimate the value of the bond following the decrease in interest rates.



Bond Price= $13.46397 $207.138
Bond Price = $220.602
YTM = 29.57%
Modified Duration= 13.18406

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.18 * 0.005

= 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 1000.066

  • The estimate (from part b), is fairly close to the actual (in part a). What explains the difference in the two values? Be specific.


The difference is because of the difference in the computations of the durations which is done by different formulas, Macaulay’s and modified duration in the both computations.

  • Calculate the effective duration of this bond. Use shifts of 50 basis points.


Decrease in basis points by 50 points by Modified duration

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.18 * 0.005

= 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 1000.066

Increase in basis points

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= -13.18 * 0.005

= – 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 999.93

  • Calculate the yield to call.


YTC= 0.07%

f. Of the three duration measures (Macaulay, modified, effective) which is the most appropriate measure for this bond? Why?


The effective duration is the most appropriate duration measure as it also considers the effect of the change in the coupon amount and cash flows as the result of the change in the interest rate.

Question 3:

 Discuss how bond convexity is different for non-callable and callable bonds.


Bond convexity is the effect of duration of bonds on its interest rates. Callable bonds show negative convexity with lower rate of interest. This negative convexity results from their short options. They are negatively yield on their lower rate of interest. On the other hand, non-callable bond shows increase in prices due to decrease in interest rates. Callable bond does not show significant change in price by changing its interest rate. Non-callable bonds show positive convexity.

Question 4:

 Why is convexity your friend?


Convexity is my friend because it helps me to identify risk. It is a tool for managing risk. It provides identification of market risk at which bond should be exposed.

Question 5:

 You manage a portfolio of bonds for the Kentucky Teacher Retirement System. The weighted-average maturity of all bonds in the portfolio is 18.5 years. According to the actuaries, you must maintain that average maturity (i.e. you cannot increase or decrease the overall weighted-average maturity of the bonds in the portfolio). McWeber, Zenger and Gnan is a Regensburg-based economic Think Tank. They have forecasted a sharp rise in the U.S. yield curve. The result would be a significant increase in both short-term and long-term interest rates in this country. Understanding the negative impact that increasing rates have on bond values, you are concerned. What are changes that you can make to the bond portfolio to minimize the effects of the interest rate risks?


I would like to make few changes in the bonds portfolio. I would like to short-term bonds in portfolio. Short-term bonds do not show much effect due to change in interest rate risks. On the other hand, long-term bonds show significant effect due change in interest rates. Common phenomenon rise in interest rates highly affects bonds with more duration. I would like to diversify portfolio by adding few treasury securities.

Question 6:

 Early last year you purchased 500 shares of Mrs. Davis Cookie Company, Inc. (Stock symbol CC). You paid $62 per share. The current stock price is $85 per share. You do not want to sell your stock but you want to protect all of your unrealized gain ($23). You believe that the stock may continue to rise by another 4% – 5% and you want your portfolio to benefit from any such price gains. The following options (puts and call) with July expirations are available.

Strike Premium Strike premium
82.5 5.75 82.5 1.05
85 4 85 1.40
87.5 2.45 87.5 2.85
90 1.40 90 5.30
92.5 .70 92.5 8.15
95 0.32 95 12.65

Devise a strategy using options from the above table that is appropriate, given your parameters. Provide a drawing/graph that depicts that strategy.


The strategy that should be used should have the gain on the call and put premium by exercising the call options that are below 85, the market price, and the put options that are above the market price.

7. From the table above, calculate the intrinsic value and the time value of the

following options:


  1. 82.5 Call
  2. Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-82.5 = 2.5

  • Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 2.5

= 3.25

  • 85 Call

Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-85 = 0

Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 87.5 Call

Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-87.5 = 0 (is zero for less than zero)

Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 82.5 Put

Intrinsic value: Strike value-Market price

=82.5-85 = 0 (is zero for less than zero)

Time value of put option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 92.5 Put

Intrinsic value: Strike value-Market price

=92.5-85 = 7.5

Time value of put option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 7.5

= -1.75

Question 8:

 Consider the following annual bond:

Coupon rate: 6.5% YTM: 7.5% Time: 30 years

a. Calculate the duration of this bond.

b. A bond is initially immunized at the point of duration. Show that immunization

Occurs (interest rate risk and reinvestment rate risk offset) at the point of

Duration. Use these interest rates: 7%, 7.5%, 8%.



Par value=1000

Coupon payment= 1000*6.5%=65

Bond price= C/(1+i)1+C/(1+i)2+……. M/(1+i)n

Bond Price= C*[1-[1/1+i) n]]/1 +M/ (1+I)N

Bond price= 942.0429444

Bond price *maturity=28261.28833




Bond price= 946.9884804 If YTM=7% by using formula C*[1-[1/1+i) n]]/1 +M/ (1+I)N.

Bond price at YTM 7.5% = 942.0429444

Bond price= 938.791964 at YTM, 8%.

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Business And IT Alignment In Higher Education Sector


In this paper, we have discussed about the business and the IT alignment in the higher education (BITA). The aim of the paper is to look at the significance of the BITA in the Higher education sector. As we have seen that higher education, sector is not implementing much BITA in them but still critical review has been added and the future implementations have noted. Business IT alignment is the state in which the business organizations and the IT use each other to achieve the objectives of the business. BITA is a successful tool which is been introduced all over the world and it is a successful ne because in it the Business strategies, implementations and the IT are interlinked so that there would be better results found. The financial performance is been improved, the marketplace competitiveness his achieved through this. First the BITA have been explained in the detail and the historic spin have been given as the authors have been discussed who have given this concept. Further, the model and the functions have been discussed in the details. If we look at the distinctive competitiveness then it includes the main area of the business on which it is able to survive in the market. Every business has some distinctive competencies on which they are in the market. The 4 quadrants and the 12 components have been explained in the paper, which were given by the key authors of BITA in their strategic model. The four quadrants of the models have been explained as the business strategy, the IT strategy, Business infrastructure and the IT infrastructure. All the relationships in-between the data have been given. The relationships have been explained in the model. The results somehow show that there is too much importance of the BITA ion the higher education. Some of the institutes in the higher education have been used the alignment in the IT and they are successful. Some of the sectors which are not been using BITA are not doing good in the sector that is what it is been seen. The use of BITA in the higher education sector would be increased so that it will be beneficial for the higher education sector and the country.  At the end    Further the relationship of BITA with the higher education have been mentioned in the detail and the analysis have been done in this regard we have seen the gap in the discussion part.  

Table of contents

Introduction. 3

Business strategy. 4

Business infrastructure. 5

Information Technology strategy. 5

Information Technology Infrastructure. 5

Functional integration. 6

Strategy Execution. 7

Technology Potential 7

Competitive Potential 7

Service Level 7

Organization IT Infrastructure. 7

IT Infrastructure Strategy. 7

IT Organization Infrastructure. 8

Organization Infrastructure Strategy. 8

BITA in education organizations. 8

BITA in Higher education. 9

Conclusion. 14

References. 16

Business and IT alignment in higher education sector


Business IT alignment is the state in which the business organizations and the IT use each other to achieve the objectives of the business. The financial performance is been improved, the marketplace competitiveness his achieved through this. Some of the concepts says that the alignment in between the business organizations and the IT so that the financial performance and the objectives of the business could be achieved (Hinkelmann, Gerber, & Karagiannis, 2016). There were many problems and differences in between both of the categories like the business organizations and the IT. The main reason they do not align together before was due to many differences in the culture, objectives, incentives, performance and so on. BITA is a successful tool which is been introduced all over the world and it is a successful ne because in it the Business strategies, implementations and the IT are interlinked so that there would be better results found.

If we look at the historic review then we come to know that it and the businesses have changed their perspective a lot. The concept was developed over a decade by McLean and Soden, 1977; IBM, 1981; Earl, 1983; Mills, 1986; Brancheau and Wetherbe, 1987; Parker and Benson, 1988; Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990 and 1996; Dixon and John, 1991; Niederman, et. al., 1991; Watson and Brancheau, 1991; Liebs, 1992; Luftman, Lewis & Oldach, 1993; Chan and Huff, 1993 With the passage of time the orientation in between the IT and the business organizations have been taken place and more strategic alignments have been seen in the past couple of years. It have been seen that there are four domains of the strategic choice, which are IT strategy, Business strategy, organizational process and infrastructure and IT, process and infrastructure. There are some of the internal and external components also which the model actually describes in the study. In this Era, the alignment of IT and the business are very important.

Business IT arrangement addresses the amount IT and business frameworks are in concordance with each other. Arrangement results in an association between the CIO and CEO in creating and accomplishing their methodologies and objectives. Accomplishing arrangement prompts enhanced authoritative execution. Among the few studies that concentrated on building up an instrument for measuring business–IT arrangement, we found that the investigation of the most thorough. Their instrument depended on the key arrangement development (SAM) model created by Luftman (2004) which comprised of six development components: correspondence, competency, administration, organization, innovation extension, and abilities.

If we talk about the good organizations then we come to know that the agile organizations are successful in today’s world and the best thing what they do is the IT interference in their business processes. By doing this the top management become more efficient and quickly decides what to do and what not to do. By looking at this, we come to know that it is an ongoing thing and it needs to be implemented in the organizations so that the strategic fit can be achieved. The IT and the business organizations must be in contact, they should be aligned, and the competitive advantage can be seen in this regard. We have seen in different sectors this strategy is been implemented and they are successful in their businesses (Gu, 2012).

It is a great challenge in the today’s world that everything is been changing so rapidly that it is very difficult to align with the IT. There is a Strategic alignment model, which have been given in the different studies. It actually has the four quadrants and further it have three components in each quadrant. If we see the alignment t in between all these twelve components then we can see that how they all are aligned and how the IT and the business could be aligned. The basic model is been divided in to two segments namely as one part for the business and the second part for the IT. However, the models have been adopted from (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990).

Business strategy

The two components in the figure we can see are the Business and the IT. By looking at the business part, we can see the business strategy and the business infrastructure. On the other side, we can see that there is IT and there are two quadrants, which are IT strategy and the IT infrastructure indeed. In this component of business strategy, we can see that there are three components, which lie in between it, which are business governance, business scope and the distinctive strategies. In the business scope, everything comes in it that actually affects the business, such as products, services, markets, customers, suppliers, competitors, regulators etc (Jim, 2015).

If we look at the distinctive competitiveness then it includes the main area of the business on which it is able to survive in the market. Every business has some distinctive competencies on which they are in the market. This can be the human source, any business strategy, any special business or so (Michael, 1997). The main aim in here is to compete other and if that is done then it will be achieved. If we look at the third component of the business strategy then it is the business governance. By looking at in depth, we come to know that the relationships between the company management and the shareholders come under this head. The regulations among the strategic business partners and the government also includes in this component (Papp, 2004). 

Business infrastructure

In the second quadrant which is business infrastructure thee components lies. The components are the administrative structure, human resource skills and the business process. In the administrative structure, it tells that how business is being run. The formulation has been told over here. The vertical, horizontal, matrix, centralized or de centralized is been implemented in the business.  In the business prices, all the activities are involves that how business is being run, what are the requirements and what needs to be done, in order to gain the competitive advantage for the business. In the human resource component it deals with the all type of activities that are been connected with the human resource directly or indirectly such as the hiring, firing of the employee, payrolls, train, motivate etc (Papp, 2004).

Information Technology strategy

By looking in the model, the third quadrant is the IT strategy and it consists of three components namely systematic competencies, technology scope and IT governance components. In the IT scope simply the technologies and the applications lies in between that. In the systematic competencies the major edge of the IT have been discusses that how it is been different. If we look in to this component, which is IT governance, and it includes the risks and the responsibilities, how to deal with the business collaborates, taking care of the IT management so that everything would stay in order (Papp, 2004).

Information Technology Infrastructure

In the model, the last quadrant, which we can see, is the IT infrastructure.  It includes the three components, which are process, skills and architecture. In the architecture part all the policies, applications, data management integration and priorities come. In the process component, all the processes have been described in here. The personal development to the applications that needs to be managed and to take care of all the IT relates things. The last component is the skills part and in here all the activities which are been done as we talk about the IT have been discussed and it comes under the skills part (Papp, 2004).

Business–IT arrangement is a versatile procedure instead of an occasion. Accomplishing arrangement requires a continuous exertion of key arranging, objective realignment, and execution of best practice in supporting and molding business procedures. While the greater part of the writing has concentrated on the fit between firms is IT and business methodology, the arrangement issues should be tended to at vital, strategic, and operational levels. Key arrangement meets an associations’ future IT needs; strategic arrangement permits the association to distribute its IT assets viably; operational arrangement guarantees adequacy and productivity of IT in supporting the association’s operations every day (Wu, 2008).

The significance of arrangement has been generally perceived and very much recorded; nevertheless, numerous organizations today are still misaligned, and this has prompted terrible disappointments, including crossed out or excess tasks, frameworks that don’t address the issues of the business, disappointed business clients, and high IS expenses. As (Holland and Skarke, 2001) recommended, change in arrangement in numerous organizations today can be ascribed to C-level officials’ better comprehension of the estimation of IT and their dynamic support in IT basic leadership (, 2014). The top explanations behind misalignment included absence of a nearby working relationship amongst IT and business, absence of powerful prioritization of IT needs, powerlessness of IT to meet its duties, IT’s absence of comprehension of business, absence of senior official backing of IT, and absence of administration in IT administration. The five variables that influenced the social measurement of IT arrangement recognized by Reich and Benbasat (2010) included shared area learning amongst business and IT administrators, IT usage achievement, correspondence amongst IT and business officials, associations amongst business and IT arranging forms, and vital strategies for success. (Hussin et al, 2014) exploration of 256 UK producing firms found that the main considerations that affected arrangement were IT development, specialized IT advancement, and the CEO’s product learning (Yang, 2003).

Functional integration

In this part, the linkage between the model and the linkage will be explained so that we come to know in the detail that what kind of alignment is there. The linkage between all the components and the quadrants are necessary because nothing can work alone and it needs to be integrated. Strategic fit is the first linkage and explained the need of the business that what the position in the market place is. There are eight different perspectives in the model, which will be separated, and they will be combined with the different models so that the relationship and the alignment can be seen (Kotler & Murphy, 1981).

In it, every prospect carries three different components, which can be seen as they are showing the alignment between the components. The components, which can be seen, are Pivot, Anchor and area of impact. In the prospects where anchor is been placed it is shown the strongest area of the business indeed.  The Pivot actually states the weak area of the business and the point which needs to be changed with the re alignment. The area of impact is the point which is directly impacted through the changes it also says the pivot area which have been done through the re alignment (Ahmad, 2007).

Strategy Execution

 The first point of view is the system execution viewpoint. In this viewpoint, the grapple territory is business methodology. The feeble zone is the business foundation, which is the thing that should be changed. The subsequent range of effect is the data innovation framework. This implies the data innovation design is going to experience changes that must happen in view of changes in the business forms. This point of view spotlights on data innovation arranging or change of the business (Kretovics, 2010). The objectives of this point of view incorporate diminishing deferrals and mistakes, improving administrations and sparing time (e.g. printed material steering or assignment redefinition) (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990).

Technology Potential

The next point of view is the innovation potential viewpoint. This point of view is additionally determined by business procedure yet the turn is data innovation methodology. This outcomes, in the data innovation foundation as the range of effect. This demonstrates the estimation of data innovation and that its quality is its fundamental commitment to the business’ last item or administration. The relationship that exists between the business and its clients is key and the data innovation procedure drives the point of view (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990 and 1996).

Competitive Potential

The third point of view is the focused potential viewpoint. The stay in this point of view is data innovation procedure, the turn range is business methodology, and association foundation is the affected space (Stokes, 2015). This point of view spotlights on how developing new data advancements can affect and empower new business systems. These new business techniques convey an upper hand to the business in the commercial center (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990 and 1996).

Service Level

The service level point of view is the fourth individual viewpoint. In this point of view, the grapple is data innovation system, the turn data, innovation foundation, and the region of effect is hierarchical framework. The center of this point of view is the manner by which data innovation can enhance the how the items and administrations are conveyed. This point of view likewise evaluates how data innovation can enhance the organizations own procedures. Dragging out this point of view can bring about data innovation outsourcing (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1990 and 1996).

Organization IT Infrastructure

The following point of view is the association, data innovation, base viewpoint. The stay is association foundation, the turn is data innovation base, and the affected space is data innovation technique. This point of view results in procedure changes from data innovation and the utilization of quality to the business forms (Papp, 2004).

IT Infrastructure Strategy

Information technology, infrastructure strategy is the following viewpoint. The center of this viewpoint is the change of data innovation system taking into account the execution of rising and existing data innovation frameworks. The stay of this point of view is data innovation base, which drives the turn, data innovation technique, and along these lines affecting business methodology (Papp, 2004).

IT Organization Infrastructure

The seventh point of view is the data innovation, association base viewpoint. The stay of this point of view is likewise IT foundation, with the turn being authoritative framework and the effect territory being business system. Albeit like IT framework system, IT in this point of view is the main impetus and engineer by which the dreams and procedures are completed (Papp, 2004).

Organization Infrastructure Strategy

The last individual point of view is the association framework, procedure viewpoint. Business framework is the stay, business technique the turn, and IT system the influenced region. This last point of view adventures the capacities to improve new items and administrations, affect procedure, and grow new connections. It additionally empowers improvement to business technique (the pivot) consequently changing the IT methodology (Papp, 2004).

BITA in education organizations

 There is much importance of IT in the educational sector as it is one of the most important sectors, which is to be chosen. IT is been used in the teaching techniques which are very useful and effective indeed (Gilbert, 1994). It is expected that with the IT alignments students will perform better as they will have the maximum tools that they can use. In this way, they will interact more with the teachers rather than to stay focused on the lecture (Albrecht, 2004). The exploration for the students will be unlimited as they are not bound and with the help of IT, they will be discovering new things. However it is seen that the use of IT have not been implemented at its full in the class rooms and the educational sectors which is not a positive thing and need to be have a proper control so that students could have the advantage of the IT in the educational departments (Alexander, 2000).

By applying the hypothesis of learning incorporation, (Kearns and Sabherwal, 2009) gave, an exhaustive system that inspected the relationship among coordination conduct, arrangement, IT arranging and undertakings, and business influence of IT. Their study affirmed that business–IT arrangement was impacted by IT chiefs’ cooperation in business arranging and business supervisors’ interests in key IT arranging. Besides, arrangement was observed to be emphatically connected with the achievement of IT arranging and undertakings, which prompted a positive business effect of IT. Luftman proposed a structure called vital arrangement development (SAM) to survey the degree to which business and IT capacities adjust. Concentrating on analyzing authoritative practices connected with arrangement, SAM gives associations an apparatus to assess the development of their key decisions and arrangement exercises and distinguish zones in which they can accomplish a more elevated amount of arrangement. Ensuing exploration incorporated a benchmark study by Luftman that utilized SAM at 50 Global 2000 organizations to make a benchmark for business–IT arrangement and recognize particular suggestions for enhancing arrangement (Altbach, 2011).

It is also seen that the use of IT is maximum at the level of higher education system but still there are couple of lacking in the systems, which needs to be reviewed. There are great capabilities that can be used in the positive manner and that will be helpful in the betterment of the higher education sector. The study by the ECAR says that the IT aligns are well aligned in the higher education sector and that is very good. There are some of the institutes, that are not very well aligned with the IT but majority of them, which have been seen, are aligned. The ECAR study has some of the results that they have brought. It has been seen that there is much differences in between the higher educational level institutes. Some of the main findings which states that the institutions are very much aligned with IT are been given as

  • The clear vision and the priorities
  • The institutional IT plan have been published
  • There is effective IT governance process
  • Planning is the important part for the institutions
  • The dynamic environmental climates
  •  IT strategic planning is been effective in the institutions
  •  There are clear and documented objectives with respect to IT aligns
  • There is great communication between the teachers, shareholders and the management with respect to IT aligns

BITA in Higher education

Review from the past

For the case of the higher education, the recommended framework is the enterprise architecture in which the competitive advantage is achieved through the advantage means of the IT skills and the Business critical success factors (Barrow, 2011). The alignment is possible for the successfully for the technological aspects and the business expertise in the higher education system (Bowen, 2015). In the non-commercial environment or in the higher education academic world the relationship of the business and the IT has not achieved the remarkable results as it supposed to be. In order to maintain the successful integration of the BITA in the higher education the core compositions of the task forces units, interdepartmental decision-making committees and the personnel liaison with the activities or operations of the interdepartmental decision-making.

The research has shown or highlighted the different issues of the integration of the BITA with the systematic alignment of the higher education. The higher education in some parts of the world as both the sections of the small institutions of music or fine arts and the high-level research and the teaching universities as well (Michael, 1997). . the essence of the competitive advantage for the educational institutions or the organization s while implementing the strategy of the BITA in the higher education is to choose the dynamic model of the business success factors as well as the critical technological technical training for the development of the IT skills and the organizational success (Niu, 2010). The environmental uncertainty in the higher education model is causing the problems in the BITA largely since the results in the text have related to the negative correlation dynamics (Kretovics, 2010).

According to the Henderson & VENKATRAMAN, who were the pioneers of the alignment of the business and IT, it is preferable that the transformation process in the business is necessary to achieve the organizational success. The alignment of the business and the technology in the higher education is possible only by imposing the condition of the architecture of the enterprise in the positions that is fit into the model of the organization. the identification and the reduction of the risks in the alignment of the technology and the business tools in the higher education is critically analyzed under the head of the risk model of the enterprise framework.

The technical uncertainties are identified and then reduced as the part of the evaluating techniques of the structure of the organization as per the context of the system. the second risk in this context is the organizational risk in which the skills, abilities and the knowledge in the higher education is evaluated according to the requirements of the alignment of the both technological revolutionaries and the business skills of the personnel. The last uncertainty is the business risk in which the evaluation of the feature or attributes of the business are made according to the highly implementation or the adopting feature of the business. Then the alignment is possible for the successfully for the technological aspects and the business expertise in the higher education system (Bowen, 2015).

The leveraged means of strategic investigation for the alignment of the business-IT especially in the education sector or the higher education is achieved via the framework of the businesses in strategically terms. In this way, the higher education would make the better system for itself. This framework would be accepted in the intra industry context to achieve the organizational success of the higher education. That is why the core message behind the theory of the Henderson & VENKATRAMAN is the relevant strategic framework (Gu, 2012). The success of the IT is related to the condition that the senior most authority in the higher education perceives that the success factors for the skills of the IT would be responsible for the successful change in the educational organizations.

The accomplishments can be achieved only when these three critical factors in the educational organization go hand with hand among each other. The corresponding structure of the information system would ultimately develop and monitored that coordinates these sets of activities with the alignment with these three critical factors. The first issue is the organizational type and its status approach to the IT critical success factors in the higher education. However, this issue is not as much significant as the issue of the environmental uncertainty while aligning the BITA in the higher education organizational structure. However, the size of the organizations in higher education has not to do much with the alignment or not affecting much the alignment of the BITA and that is according to the expected results mentioned in various researches in these topics. 

The explanation given for this rational is clear that although the educational organizations vary in the size or the enrollment of the students in the organization, they still possess the same sought of organizational structure or the undifferentiated educational organizations practices like the validation or selection the courses the students want to study.  The projects could be assigned by the higher education with the IT approach to the appropriateness of the funding and the business dimensions in the higher education. The higher education in some parts of the world as both the sections of the small institutions of music or fine arts and the high-level research and the teaching universities as well (Michael, 1997). The environment in all over the world plays an effective a un replacement diversion that cannot be predicted. The contemporary settings of the business with regard to the IT challenges they have to face is enormously revolutionaries. The surprising part is that when and how in the higher education system, the model of the dynamic variations is adjusted. For an instance, it is commonly said in the literature review that the harmony among the IT sector and the decision-making choices must be present in the higher education (Lock, 2016).

when we talk about the countries like the USA it is very essential for the students studying in the university receiving the higher education, the training is the significant prospect that completes the worthy of t he degree. The main proportions of the training in the IT departments and the business critical success factors allow the trainers and the students to have the critical analysis in how the organizational success through the skills of the IT and the business is necessary. the most important concept in this perspective is that the elementary techniques that are  bow a day’s been involved by the business giants in their respective industry through the dynamic ease of the core capabilities ort resources in the human resources division are redirecting towards the technological revolutionaries framework

If the organizational culture were strong for the institutions, which are indulged in providing the healthy non-fragile IT skills for the technical knowledge seekers the growth of the institution would be in the hands. The major thing that one cannot miss while implanting the BITA in the higher education is the planning and monitoring phase of the BITA in the system. It is very important for the researchers and the authoritative personnel to check the right modules depending upon the uncertainty of the system while enforcing the technological framework chosen by the businesses in their business strategy. the main concerns of the higher education providers is that the return on investment ROI would be at the optimal point while incorporating the information system in the institutions. however if the higher education feel at some point that the return on investment or ROI is not in the prolonging range of the optimal level, the difficulties could be the ultimate result (Wu, 2008). 

Now the point that must be considered at the serious way is that the returns that any organization conceived always time consuming process and it is the universal reality, the mission of the organizations in the majority of the industries is the fruitful proofs in this scenario. The turning point of consideration through which the game starts changing in the higher education comes when the major stakeholders have the conflicting viewpoints in the information-sharing phase. The one cannot judged the symptoms of the effectiveness of the BITA in the higher education process until one should be aware of the all the detail study and the knowledge seeking procedures. Consequently, what should be the great decision-making influence over the entire debate that could be done thoroughly? However, in this very case there are no as such turning threats, which can provide the major harm to the entire educational, technological, and the corporate world by the non-stigmatic abilities. The luxurious choices in the advanced educational processes would be the very suitable choice if the major breakthrough in the world of valuable IT culture. The knowledge of both the directions of the picture is the core need of the situation when the communication and the response of the individuals would be at the highest or maximum efficiency in the mean terminologies of the BITA.

Significance of the BITA

The studies have shown that if the alignment of the IT and the business in the higher education is put together, the remarkable results could achieve. The research has not received the significance in the alignment of the IT and the business in the higher education. The increased organizational performance would be the ultimate result if the IT core capabilities with the suitable integration of the business skills were become the integral part of the systematic approach of the higher education in the various institutions sin all over the world (Jim, 2015).

However, the size of the organizations in higher education has not to do much with the alignment or not affecting much the alignment of the BITA and that is according to the expected results mentioned in various researches in these topics. The duty of the business decision-makers is equally strong as the duty of the IT professional provide with the sufficient resources of the technical training. Therefore, the clear side of both the pictures is the part of the analytical analysis while aligning the business and the information technology in the higher education. It is commonly said in the literature review that the harmony among the IT sector and the decision-making choices must be present in the higher education (Lock, 2016).  The search for the solution as the BITA in the higher education would ultimately lead to the organization towards the improvement in the investments done in the technology advancements in the institutions (Newman, 2015).

As we can see that, there is much importance of the BITA in the higher education sector as we have review the literature. This study is been conducted so that it could be shown the significance and the details of the previous works that have been done and what needs to be done now. We have seen the extensive literature in the past that how BITA is been implemented in the different sectors and how it should be implemented in the Higher education sector so that the positive results could be found out. Further, we have seen that there are positive results in the HE, which have implemented BITA fully, and there is some of the lacking in the institutions, which have not implemented it fully so there is a gap and that needs to be fulfilled. The further studies and implementations should be there so that they could have the competitive advantage. 

Let us try the different methodology through which the ultimate goals in this approach of the BITA would achieve in the higher education could be made. The one source is obvious that the resulting intervening variable is the importance of the role of the information technology towards the mutual ignoring methods. The sense of the business version in the higher education is not the claim of the top-level management but in the comprehensive way, the results would be the right sizing. The term Holy Grail is used for the organizations of the education, which are authentically integrating the business strategy along with the vision, or the mission of the organization and the   IT culture of the higher educational organization. The main difference in both these sectors is the integration according to the corporate or the business culture of the IT industry. The logical reasoning is the liable relevant technique in which few of the characteristics are the binary part of the systems that we need no to analyze. The first distinguishing reference point is the transformation process of the business model as the effective tool or resource through the alignment of the information technology or the information systems (Hotchkiss, 2016).

The tool, which is considered to be the most reflexive in the transformation of the transformation of the businesses using the valid IT structure, is the core demand of the contemporary choices of the higher education contextual models. The services provided to the major stake holders such as the customers in the marketing division of the business is evaluated on the external dimension and the internal dimension so that the capturing of the resources at the nice assertive side (Gu, 2012). The communication between the business and the important stakeholders would refine in the highest capturing pint and the chance of the occurrence of the loss would very lowest. The next important feature is the rotation or the job rotation through using the resource of the HR within the organization in which the idea of the cross-functional team of the IT and the corporate professional are changed their positions on the regular intervals. The interchange of the IT personnel at the significance position in the higher education system with the personnel of the business critical factors handling personnel’s would be the smoothening impact in a very positive way to the organizational success. 

There must be the minimum requirements of the knowledge that must be possessed by the IT experts in context to the business critical factors and similarly the knowledge minimum criteria must be possessed by the business experts of the knowhow of the IT tools or techniques at the sufficient level in the higher education systems. In this way, the communication, which would be achieved, is the highest trademark of the BITA result in the higher educations. The alignment by adopting these characteristics the alignment would be completed in a way by the interrogative style of the harmony between the two important units of the higher education, which are the IT, and the business division. In short the attributes mentioned in the above discussion are the pre-requisites of the achieving the true sense of the alignment between the IT and the business in the higher education (Kretovics, 2010). The goal of this review paper would be closed to the meetings requirement in the alignment of the IT and the business in the educational organization providing the higher education.  The next attribute of the BITA in the higher education is that the awareness to both the department of the IT and the Business professional, which is the very significant factor, mentioned in various places of the literature in context to the making money.

The startup approach of the training and the awareness is very important in all the levels of the higher education whole system analysis to have the sound version of the awareness and the training providing facilities for both the IT and the business personnel in an organization. when the employees working in the organization would able to know the methods, approaches and the view points of the making o generating the optimum revenue from the skilled approach of the IT skills and the knowledge business development or growth is at the highest returning point stake. The money for any organization is the most important indicator for the growth in the institutions or organizational dynamics and therefore thee employees of the company in the higher education organization would able to know the pros and cons of the spending the useless and the beneficial money in the form of investment in order to achieve the organizational success. In the rest of the characteristic, we have analyzed the analytical reasoning such as the vibrant policies that are the most part of the corporate culture especially in the less developed countries, which are always willing to provide the higher education to its citizen in the well-organized form.

(Sledgianowski et al, 2002) created and approved an instrument to quantify development of IT business arrangement in light of SAM. It utilizes the six classifications for surveying arrangement. Taking into account how the association scores in these classes, one of the five levels of vital arrangement development is doled out to the association. The five procedure levels, are (from most reduced to most noteworthy) Initial/Ad Hoc, Committed, Established Focused, Improved/Managed, and Optimized. Other than serving as an instrument for arrangement appraisal SAM is additionally a storehouse of best practices. Organizations ought to embrace the best practices in SAM to enhance their arrangement.

Since the SAM instrument had not beforehand been cross approved, our study took a corroborative way to deal with cross-accept the instrument utilizing another example. With a specific end goal to consider the relationship between IS key arrangement and the six-arrangement development builds, we expected to look at the exploration model. As of now, no exhaustive structure has been utilized to inspect the components affecting a company’s IS key arrangement. The reason behind our examination model is that different studies have analyzed connections between IS vital arrangement and correspondence, coordinated arranging practices, IT asset distribution, authoritative culture, and shared space learning. These builds are predictable with the arrangement development develops; consequently, we trust that by inspecting the relationship between the six arrangement development develops we will build up a far-reaching model of the forerunners of IS vital arrangement.

The essence of the position that these educational institutions in the less developed countries choose should be according the vibrant culture dynamics like in all over the world. the practices in many of the educational organizations in the world for the higher education is that the vibrant organizational culture enforces the IT skills and the skills for the business operations are the equal interchangeable at the times when the organizations required the results from the system. Therefore, the great advantage of the vibrant corporate culture in the education sector is that the unity of the information towards the internal matters of the organization and the external approach or the inter-industry is the same (Yang, 2003). The lasting effects are the gigantic for the higher education when they made the mind choosing the option of the IT alignment with the business sector of the higher education. The establishment of the decision-making skills among the employees and the controlling of those decisions in the most effective way is the relevant or the useful part of the discussion in the alignment of both the IT and the business in the higher education. One cannot denial of the fact that the latest tools in the decision-making approach are comprised of the redesigning of the work for the higher rate of the accomplishments under the given circumstances. The governance of their business partnerships and the IT governance must also have the integration among each other so that the solid consolidation would be found in the symmetric information transformation process (Hotchkiss, 2016).

Recent advancements and technologies

As we have seen that it is not an old concept in this sector and that is the reason the implementation of BITA is not been much implicated in the sectors. If we look on the Higher Education then there is a problem that there is very less institutions, which are fully observing the BITA in the institutes. However, some of the advancements can be seen in this sector such as IT usage fully as everything is online and the business decisions and the analytical part are connected to the IT. Some of the technological advancements are also there so that there would be no problems related IT (Hotchkiss, 2016). The best technologies are been introduces but still what we see is the technologies are still far to go. We have seen that the technologies, structure and the processes are the three main components of the businesses. If they are integrated then it will be easy to do the operations of the business because everything would be linked and will be easy to go on with the advancements.

Future directions

As we can see that, there is much importance of the BITA in the higher education sector as we have review the literature. This study is been conducted so that it could be shown the significance and the details of the previous works that have been done and what needs to be done now. We have seen the extensive literature in the past that how BITA is been implemented in the different sectors and how it should be implemented in the Higher education sector so that the positive results could be found out. Further, we have seen that there are positive results in the HE, which have implemented BITA fully, and there is some of the lacking in the institutions, which have not implemented it fully so there is a gap and that needs to be fulfilled. The further studies and implementations should be there so that they could have the competitive advantage. 


If we conclude the discussion then we can see that the different aspects of the business and IT alliances have been discussed. The history has been discussed and the pioneers of the study have been mentioned in the paper. Further, we can see that the strategic fit model have been explained fully so that there would be no confusions left and it have been explained in detail as well. If we look in to the introduction, the business and IT alignment have been discussed many times. Te educational sectors have been discussed that what the impact of BITA on the educational institutes is. As we have seen from the different studies, we come to know that there are many institutes, which have alignment with the educational institutes. However still a big gap is there which do not have IT aligns with the educational institutes and which is hurting them as they can be in the better position if they would include in the sector and the institute.

The technology along with the business expertise in the educational sector is the vital source of attaining the competitive advantage within the industry of the academia for the specific organization. The creative model in this perspective is the great exemplary characteristic for the integration of the intra organizational sources. The synergistic model in which, the new version of the leveraged competitive advantage is achieved for the education institutions in the regard of the higher study, Meeting the targets of the goals or objectives of the organization through the alignment process, of the IT resources and the business techniques. The model of the cross sectional approach, of the collaborative teams in the view of highlighting the relevant resources, is in the core positions for the distinctive activities, of the organization. The concept of creating the value in the business model of the higher education institutions is all depending on the alignment of the technology with the useful corporate knowledge of the resources of the organization, which are the workers or the employees. The strategic alignment of the IT and the business in the higher education is the result of these factors.

We have further seen that the impact and the relation of the BITA on the higher education. We have seen that there is a great impact as the different studies have been reviewed and much of the data have been extracted in this. We can clearly see that most of the higher institutes have been using the Alignment between the businesses and the IT and they are much successful in this as they have the latest technology and they are doing good and up to the mark. Further, we have also experienced that some of the institutes are not up to the mark in this sense as they are not using any BITA in their higher education institutes and due to that, they are not performing to well as compared to the other persons in the higher education which are aligned with the IT. 

The higher education has the huge need in the contemporary context of building the portfolio management in which the business and especially the IT skills are the core positions of the significance in making the suitable and the right investments. The organizations of the higher education should possess the proper analytical and reasoning planning about the placement of the portfolio regardless of the size of the organizations that as it is already stated in the above discussion about the process and the structure of the higher education is more or less is same. The change of management should be adjusted according to the strengths and the weaknesses that are the viable tool in order to address the changes in the environment. The span of control in the higher education settings must be according to the projected sources required in the alignment process of the IT with the business. No other choice would be acceptable at any level from the experts in the relevant field, because of the dynamic view of the external resources.

If we see that, we have discussed the implementations of the BITA in the higher education sector and different sectors have been discussed too. We have also seen that the institutions, which have implemented the BITA, are more successful than those who have not. As the integration and the IT is been involved all the systems work more efficiently and the competitive edge is been gained in this case. However, there is very few works done in the higher education sector regarding BITA. It needs to be improving so that there would be more integration and this sector would become more and more successful in the coming time.   

There are different aspects, which needs to be considered while doing alignment. There are many key elements, which needs to come in between the data. The governance needs to be checked at the both ends so that there would be no problems at all. All the systems and the stakes of the owners need to be protected. In the scope and the architecture the nature of the business is taken care of and the structure that is been prevailed in the system needs to be checked and the important thing is to look after at both ends. There should be good means of communication in between the both business and the IT should be implemented correctly so that there would be no problems in the system and it could be communicated effectively.


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Thinking As a Hobby written by William Golding



Thinking As a Hobby written by William Golding

This is the interesting thing that human develops his through and ideas by his interactive participation in his culture and society. Considering this, it is true that our thoughts and ideas reflect the culture however the preferences and ideas somehow changes within the time but overall they remains centered around the society and culture. In the following poem the writer has addressed the same thing as he argues that in the reflection of the society and culture we accept the things without analyzing the facts.

Thinking As a Hobby is written by William Golding in which he describes that three levels of thoughts by telling the practices and attempts of communication. In my opinions, the author has greatly explains the grade one people. The author describes the story with the help of narrator and then reaches on the conclusion. The conclusion is based on the thoughts of the author that elaborates the nature of human being. The childhood of the narrator is related with the teachers that were hypocritical. He describes that the teachers were not act upon the things that they were said. There were contradicts in his sayings and acting. While he reaches in his teen age there were the differences between religious beliefs. He had a girlfriend in the teenage her name was Ruth. He says that there are three types of thinkers. Grade three thinkers believe at their feelings. They think with their feelings and emotions. They think without analyzing. They do not use mind and brain in making any decision. They listen of their hearts and emotions. Grade two thinkers have contradicts in their actions and words like their teachers. Grade 1 are the most extraordinary people in society. They people use brain and mind in making decisions. They use logic and have analytical approach. They pay less attention on feelings and emotions. The author was very curious to find the people of grade one. Finally, he met the person one day, in oxford, near a small bridge. He then concludes that the grade three people are called immature and grade two people are called incomplete but the grade one –people are called extraordinary people in the society. They think first and then act in every matter of the life. They are remembered for their outstanding qualities for years.

It is concluded that a man should try to become and to be in the list of grade one because they are the great persons of society. Through this essay the core purpose of the writer is to encourage the reader to become the people of the grade one who are extraordinary because they think first and then they act and their thinking is based on facts and figures as they do not believe about the things without analyzing the facts.


Holy Sonnet 14 written by John Donne

The relationship of human with the God is an unavoidable thing as everyone believes on God but in different ways.  Subsequently, in the following poem the writer has addressed the human relations with God and he described this relation by addressing and describing hymn and pray.

Holy Sonnet is written by John Donne in which the speaker direct asks with God that to intensify the struggle to restore the soul of speaker. After reading the poem it is said that the poet is beautifully describes the pray and hymn. He direct talks with God to purify his soul’ he knows that his soul is embodied in the sins and he feels burden due to sins and want to free from his soul from sins.  It is not enough to knock the door only. The speakers ask the three –person to God that betters his heart. The poet wants to better his soul. He requests to God that make him a new person and change his heart and soul. The poet wants to get rid of his sins to make his soul new. He said to God that enters in his soul furiously and angrily. He said to God that he deserves of all the punishments. He is not willing that he is treated gently and politely. He says that he is ready to face all the punishments because he has committed all the sins but now he wants to purification to make his soul new. The speaker of the poem admits and agrees with the belief that he loves God very much and he desires to be loved by God. The poet asks God that untie divorce and break that knot again. He says that he would never free and will never be chaste and purify until the God ravishes him.

It is concluded that the poet has used many literary figures in the poem to explain the meanings of the sense. The speaker is truly wanted to purify his soul from sins. He desires to wash his soul and to make it new for good deeds and to acquire God’s Love. Through this poem, the writer wants to convey that there is always a door open from the God but the condition is that the person is determined to improve his actions and seek for the true forgiveness.


Oedipus Rex is written by Sophocles

Sometimes, the misunderstanding and the social evil forced human to do something he even cannot think about to do and when he realized about what he did he has left nothing than feeling sorry on what he did. Similarly in the play Oedipus Rex, the writer has addressed the effect of social evil that tragically and redundantly caused a great tragedy.

Oedipus Rex is written by Sophocles. After reading the drama, It is analyzed that the play is a grand masterpiece of the writer. A great play opens when Thebes is struck by a plague. The people of the state said to king Oedipus to divide them from its horror. Antigone and Ismene are the daughters of the Oedipus. Their brothers killed one another in a war. The play has never surpassed for the raw and the horrified power with which its hero fights to answer the eternal question like who am i?

 The story of the play is about a king that who acts in ignorance, kills his father, and marries with her mother. It is a Greek tragedy. It describes all about the king that his son kills his father, snatches his wife, and marries her.

The play is great work of art that describes the situation and condition of the Greek. The play is absolutely the description of the Greek traditions. It explains the issues and problems of the Greek period of that century. It is great tragedy and the writer uses the literary figures in his writings to explain the real sense of the tragedy. 

It is concluded that the play is a great tragedy and describes the Greek period. The writer has beautifully presented of all the elements in a sequence. There are lot of things and points that are worth mentioning. After reading the play, it is clear that it opens the bitter reality of the society and that society is involved in many crises that are unfolded. Through this novel the writer wants to convey a message that social evils are the major threat for the society as they forced the human to do what he can even never think about to do.

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Woodside Petroleum Limited


Woodside petroleum limited is an Australian petroleum organization. It is a production and exploration company. It is the largest operator in Australia that provides oil and gas to overall the world. It is an independent company that provides the source of earning to thousands people of Australia. The present study shed light on the concept of materiality states of the country. The concept differentiates in the individual and aggregate sense. The present research analysis that the company needs to adopt and apply the new and digital strategies that leads to the company on the nationwide level. The examples have been given to show the items, and situations that have material effect, have significant impact on the financial position of the company. The problems are identified of the materiality in the research that includes many factors. The materiality of an item based on the judgment of the influence of the situation. Moreover, it depends upon the users of the financial knowledge and their decisions. The current study focuses on all the issues and problems of the company.


Woodside is an oil and gas company, which is situated in Australia and has a global presence. The company is the Australian most experienced LNG operator. It is the largest of the Australia in terms of an independent oil and gas company. Company is the developer, an explorer, supplier and producer as well.  Their mission is to become the global leader in the field of gas and oil business. The company has been operating in the Landmark Australian project, and in the North West Shelf, and it is considered one of the premier LNG facilities. The company, in 2012 has initiated the Pluto LNG Plant their o shore operating facilities. Headquarter of the Woodside is in Perth Western Australia.  The company has interest in the region of Canada, and Timor-Leste and has a dedicated office in the region of Singapore to provide support its head quarter. It is also listed in the Australian Securities Exchange. The name of the company is derived from the small town of Woodside, Victoria and it was incorporated on the date 26, July in the year 1954.  CEO of the company is the peter Coleman and the company-generated revenue $4.496 billion in the year 2015. (, 2015, p. 3)

Essay Body:

As per my understanding, the concept of materiality states that the accounting standard of the disclosure of a specified item as per the matching principle can be ignored if the information if disclosed or not disclosed, does not have any significant impact on the financial position of the reported company, and therefore, does not mislead the investors in any way. This is however, not relevant for an organization with lower margins, as the small amounts of any insignificant item may have a significant impact on the overall financial position of the company, and can mislead the investors if not disclosed, and hence is “material” for that specific company.

The concept of materiality distinguishes that some of the matters in aggregate or individual sense are significant & important for the fair representation and reporting of the financial statements, whereas there are also some matters that are insignificant. A company needs to plan effectively the level of materiality of all items in aggregate and in individual terms and provide reasonable assurance regarding the non-material items as well. (Puncel, 2008)

As per the AASB 1031, the concept of Materiality requires organizations to disclose all material information in the financial statements. The materiality considerations affect the situations in which the question of the recording of a particular item in its individual account or its separate disclosure in the financial reports is important. The AASB 1031 defines the materiality as the consideration of the information to be included in the financial statements, and the way it is presented. This is important, because the inclusion of the information that is not material and the exclusion of the information that is material will significantly impair the usefulness of the information provided in the financial statements for the investors and other users. (Dagwell, Wines, & Lambert, 2011)

The company Woodside Petroleum has used the term material in many heads with the concept of the significant effect that specific head has or has not. Like in the 1st Quarter of 2014, Woodside mentioned the success in the bidding on the four blocks in the Myanmar Government Offshore Bid Round 2013 has a “material” position in the underexplored Rakhine Basin that is situated off North West Myanmar. (, 2015, p. 24)

Similarly, Woodside has stated in its Annual report that the Apache acquisition with the effective date 1 July 2014 is subject to approvals, and taking consent from participants of the joint ventures, and hence the transaction has no “material” impact on the 2014 financial accounts. (, 2015, p. 25) Another example is of the mention of the Wheatstone LNG project, which the company has referred to as an excellent asset with material near-term cash flow and production. (, 2015, p. 25) Moreover, the company mentioned in the Director independence head about the test of the “materiality” of the relationships and businesses based on the nature of the business and relationship and on the situation and the activities of the director. It further explains that the concept of the “Materiality” is considered from the perspective of the company and its Group members, and from the perspective of the individual and organization with which the director is affiliated and from the perspective of the director himself. Similarly, the materiality threshold for the testing of the customer or supplier is also stated. The materiality of the customer and the supplier is stated as the being the contributor of more than 2% of the Woodside consolidated gross revenue in the case of the customer, and when the Woodside is accounted for more than 2% for the supplier Gross revenue in the case of the supplier. (, 2015, p. 28)

Another example of the concept of materiality is evident in the statement of the Annual statement of Woodside where it states to have provided all the necessary information that is available to the company and is material in nature regarding the director who is standing for the election or reelection in the explanatory notes of the notice of the meeting. (, 2015, p. 28) The Company has reported in its annual report about the releasing of the financial information that was not previously released and has material impact, is made available on the website of the company. (, 2015, p. 29) Furthermore, the corporate materiality thresholds for the assessed risks are escalated to the senior levels of the management. (, 2015, p. 30) In the Notes to and forming part of the financial statements mentions in the summary of the significant accounting policies used, the changes accommodated as per the AASB 1031 2013 Materiality regulation and the AASB 2013-9 part b, Amendments to the Australia accounting standards-Materiality (, 2015, p. 42). The Notes to the financial statement shows that the company revenue has material exposure to the risk arising from the fluctuations in the commodity prices. (, 2015, p. 70)

These examples show the items, and situations that have material effect, means have significant impact on the financial position of the company.

The problems in the identification of the materiality include various factors. As per the IASB, the materiality of an item or situation is determined based on the judgment of the influence of the situation and item disclosure on the user of the financial statement. Moreover, it also depends upon the users of the financial information and their decisions nature. The companies should assume that the users of the information have adequate knowledge of the business and financial reporting system, but cannot assume them experts in this field. The management is of course is not expected to fulfill all the information requirement of the wide range of its primary users of financial information, however, the management is expected to cater with and provide all the information that can have material effect on the decisions of a wide range of the primary users of its financial information.

An example can be of the disclosure of a small business division or of small venture which is not significant at the current time abut have vast implications in the future as the management is considering to expand in this area. (, 2016) This is evident from the bidding on the four blocks in the Myanmar Government Offshore Bid Round 2013 that Woodside reported as having a “material” position in the underexplored Rakhine Basin that is situated off North West Myanmar. (, 2015, p. 24) Moreover, the detailed information and disclosure about the immaterial transactions makes the material information very difficult to find. (, 2016, p. 16) This is the case in the annual report of the Woodside, where the company mentioned about the effect of the transactions of the acquisition of the Apache LNG project which is listed to be effective on 1st July 2014 does not have any material effect on the 2014 financial statement of the company   (, 2015, p. 25). The IFRs does not prohibit the companies not to state the immaterial information in the financial statements, but asks to keep guard against the obscurity of the financial information because of the immaterial information. (, 2016, p. 16) The information about the immaterial effect of the acquisition provided by the Woodside is not obscuring the material information, and is even clarifying the reason for not recording of the transaction effects on the 2014 financial statements. (, 2015, p. 25) This also provides as an example for the immateriality clause as per the IFRS that states that the management would often want to provide the investors and users with the information about the immateriality of a transaction, which may have been considered by tem as being material. (, 2016, p. 17)

This is also evident from the Chairmen’s report in which the chairmen has stated that the fall in the oil prices, if remained like this, will reduce the company’s cash flows, and the company is subject to material changes in the environment. However, the company is committed to provide the 80% payout ratio, if no other major “material” changes are occurred in the environment. (, 2015, p. 6) Another major factor for the assessment of materiality of a situation or transaction is the qualitative and quantitative assessment. The quantitative threshold presented as a portion of the profit or net assets can be used as a measure for materiality. (, 2016, p. 14) Like presented by the Woodside of the materiality of the supplier, it stated the threshold of materiality as 2% of revenue of the supplier is If accounted by the Woodside. Similarly, the threshold for the customer materiality accounts for more than 2% of the customer is if it is accounted for the consolidated gross revenue of the company.

The materiality concept that is used in general concept for the obligated disclosure of the requirements as per a specified process. It is similar in concept with the materiality requirement of the financial reporting. Above-mentioned factors usually referred to the materiality of the bidding process, or the materiality of an acquisition, or the materiality of the independence, or activities of a director. Now, the materiality concept in terms of the financial reporting and the issues related to it as per the AASB and IAS will be discussed. The AASB and IAS require the similar general concept of the materiality to be applied in the materiality of the financial reporting. (, 2016, p. 9) For the financial reporting of the company, the company needs to assess the materiality of the heads on individual and aggregate basis. The materiality is assessed of the information if reported individually and if reported on aggregate basis, and depending on the results the financial information is reported based on the materiality of the item. The materiality is also concerned with the assessment in terms of the way the information is to be presented in the financial statements. The information if presented in a way that it obscures the information will be considered as a prohibition of the information disclosure and will have effect on the decisions of the users of the information. The similar requirement is needed in the presentation of the financial information in the notes to the financial statement of the company. this if also not presented in a way that it is difficult for the investor to understand it and thus have material effect on the decisions of the investors is considered as a hurdle in the disclosure of the information of the company. (, 2016, p. 16)

The materiality thresholds, and concepts applied in the annual report of the company that is Woodside Petroleum Limited and its relation to the usefulness of this information for the decision-making by the investors and users of this financial information will be discussed in detail now. Like in the 1st Quarter of 2014, Woodside mentioned the success in the bidding on the four blocks in the Myanmar Government Offshore Bid Round 2013 has a “material” position in the underexplored Rakhine Basin that is situated off North West Myanmar. (, 2015, p. 24) This materiality assessment of the biding success of the four blocks by the company provides the investors with the useful information about the good cash flows that can be expected I the near future from this investment in the exploration sites of the Rakhine which were previously unexplored. This also provides the information to the investors that this is now an asset for the company and provides the company with the competitive edge. The investors of the company may use this information to retain the stock of the company and the potential investors of the company may use this information to buy the company stock in light of the expected cash flows. Similarly, the chairmen has stated that the fall in the oil prices, if remained like this, will reduce the company’s cash flows, and the company is subject to material changes in the environment. However, the company is committed to provide the 80% payout ratio, if no other major “material” changes are occurred in the environment. (, 2015, p. 6) This information can also aid as being the attraction for the potential investors of the company to invest in the company for gaining the dividend of the company. On the other hand, this may also act as being a concern for the investors as it shows that the oil prices have a material effect on the company financial position and the further fluctuations may affect the dividend payout ratio, even with the company’s commitment. Another example of the concept of materiality is evident in the statement of the Annual statement of Woodside where it states to have provided all the necessary information that is available to the company and is material in nature regarding the director who is standing for the election or reelection in the explanatory notes of the notice of the meeting. (, 2015, p. 28) This example provides insightful information about the election process of the board of directors adopted by the company and explains about the healthy system followed by the company. This will aid in the decision of the potential investors of the company to buy the company stock and become one of the shareholder of the company, as the company is very concerned about the choosing of the right person of the representative of the shareholders that is the directors. The Company has reported in its annual report about the releasing of the financial information that was not previously released and has material impact, is made available on the website of the company. (, 2015, p. 29) This example of the materiality release will affect the decisions of the investors depending on the nature of the information that has been released on the website, which have material effect on the company’s financial position but it were not released in the past. This information also raises concerns about the company that the past decisions of the investors were based on the in complete information as all the material information was not published by the company. Another example is of the mention of the Wheatstone LNG project, which the company has referred to as an excellent asset with material near-term cash flow and production. (, 2015, p. 25) this information will provide the investors about the expected future cash flows of the company and will cause the investors to decide to retain the company shares, and for potential investors of the company to buy the company stock attracted by the future cash flows of the company.


The materiality concept as per the AASB and IAS explains the concept as an item or situation, which has an influence on the decision of the user of the financial information of the company, and thus is considered material information and hence is needed to be disclosed. The company Woodside has stated in various points in its annual report about the materiality of the processes, of the situations, transactions and various factors like suppliers, customers, directors’ activities, and oil prices, economic factors, changes in the commodities prices, and the non-interest entities, acquisitions, and successful bids. The company has explained and stated the thresholds of the materiality of the various items and situations. The company, in its annual report has also mentioned the accounting policies for the materiality of the financial information and the changes in the standards, which have been adopted in terms of the materiality of the financial information.

Bibliography: (2016). IFRS Practice Statement: Application of Materiality to Financial. Retrieved May 5, 2016, from

Dagwell, R., Wines, G., & Lambert, C. (2011). Corporate Accounting in Australia. Pearson Higher Education AU.

Puncel, L. (2008). Audit Procedures. CCH. (2015). FINANCIAL AND PRODUCTION RESULTS. Retrieved May 5, 2016, from

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Marketing Mix Strategy Santander Bank

Marketing Mix Strategy

Santander Bank


            In this study, we will discuss about marketing mix strategy of Santander bank of the United Kingdom.  This bank has been successful due to its differentiated strategy. However, the most prominent aspects are product, price, placement and promotions, which are quite different from other banks in banking industry. The strategy is effective, which is a big cause of success for this bank.

Marketing Mix

  • Product/Service

            The Santander bank contains different financial services for customers around the globe. The management has a plan to conduct segmentation regarding these services. This segmentation includes individual customers, universities, companies, private banking, corporations and different institutions. The prominent services for this segmentation are current account, loans, credit cards, loans, mortgages, investments and many other associations. The strategy revolves around the customer, as quality is not to be compromised. (Grut, 2015)

  • Price

            The Santander bank uses penetration-pricing strategy for its customers around the globe. This is a fact that this bank has gain success due to its low pricing strategy to grab new customers is well. For Instance, in University sector, the penetration pricing of different services has been justified to grab new and existing students for a long run. The strategy of this bank revolves around low process to make customers loyalty, build trust and gain immense satisfaction. (, 2016)

  • Place

            Target places of different products and services for customers are Bottle, London, Glasgow, Newcastle, Leicester, Manchester, Bradford and MLITON KEYNES. The strategy of this bank is to have its products and services at top business sites of the United Kingdom through best possible distribution channels.  This effective placement has let people to involve in different real world projects and develop their skills and experience. The purpose is to contain customers from every important business site to increase business and provide excellent customers assistant to achieve their goals for long run. (Groenfeldt, 2016)

  • Promotion

            The management of this bank often provides different benefits in form of different offers. For Instance, recently, this bank has provided exclusive coupon offer for customer to get their 150 pounds.  In addition, the promotion of extra checking account is in limelight in the United Kingdome. Moreover, the management uses modern media channels to grab and convince the customers. The strategy is to use modern social media channels and emailing services to let the customers know about new deals and offers. The Santander bank has gained immense response from customers. (Groenfeldt, 2016)


            The Santander bank in the United Kingdom is successful due to its effective marketing strategy. The study has emphasized on different marketing mix aspects such as product, price, place and promotion.  The management of Santander bank emphasized on its marketing mix strategy and it can be modified according to new financial trends in the United Kingdom market.


Groenfeldt, T. (2016) To Prosper, Banks Need To Move From Products To Customer Financial Wellness, 23 February, [Online], Available: [2 May 2016].

Grut, O.W. (2015) The boss of a $100 million VC fund that’s seen 820 pitches in the last year explains what’s hot in tech right now, 7 November, [Online], Available: [2 May 2016]. (2016) Santander’s Money Market Savings Account Named One Of 2016’s Best By NerdWallet, 12 April, [Online], Available: [2 May 2016].

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Cumberland Gap(Middlesboro) 3D

Reflection Paper

Selected picture (3D)

In this image the latitude and the longitude is given at the 36°36’20.83″ N 83°39’56.82″ W. By using the Google Earth and the this given latitude and longitude we can found or see that longitude and the latitude place Cumberland Gap(Middlesboro) which has the full address and  this Cumberland Gap is in Cumberland Gap National Historical Park Pinnacle View Road Middlesboro USA. This area is sounded with the mountain as shown in the picture and this area is mostly composed of sedimentary rock which is formed with the different particles of sand, gravel, mud, and carbonate. As the picture is showing that the sky was clear and the leaves on the trees are dark green these are the signs that there was summer season when picture has been taken or may be in spring so at their summer are typically sunny, warm and humid with an average temperature. When I saw the picture very deeply, I saw the water which may be a small lake or small stream, so the important point in this photograph is to think about water. Our reports are showing that hydrosphere is about 97.2% Consist of ocean salt water and the remaining 2.8 % is fresh water. So this fresh water has very importance, and this is the only water which is drinkable. If it is stream then our book state that “stream can define as big in length, where water is narrow and is flowing from a specific path which (p.480) and the lake which we can define as the area of water at that specific area the fresh water are coming and staying at there”. This is called the steam and the water is identified as the surface water. According to this study this surface water held in the marshes, streams and in lakes (p.117). As we know that there are some trees and mountains around the lakes and streams from where the water comes down. It is written in our text book that small amount of earth water is for the use of human, animals and for the plants and the roots of these plants can reach the earth water (P.119).

As you know, that all the plants on earth needs water and they can suck the water with their roots for life and there is also rock formation everywhere on the earth and the surface water always lurks in these rocks and soil. It is held most of the time in the ground water where at that point the plant root cannot be reach able so that is happening at that point and more important thing in this picture is plants and the lot of trees on the mountain which plays the very important for the climate atmosphere because the tress needs the very important role in the flood and the environment and also these plants are in the form of the forest so at their lot of animals and the lot of species are living so which also important for them.

Lastly I have to say about in this image I have seen the tracks and some houses mean at there may be some villages or some peoples are living at there, so the atmosphere plays important for them because they needed or like the summer days because at that time they will go and do something for eating so the atmosphere effect on every part of life and every species of the world. It is written in our book that all the supplies of ice and fresh water comes from the precipitation, and the transfer of this water and ice from one place to another is due to atmosphere which is very important for life on earth. Most of the earth process are depending on the atmosphere water and the tress and the location of the place, so This image is a place where the lot of tress lake and the mountain so this is haven on the earth.

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Review Quiz solution

Review Quiz solution

1 Median

6 Population ; Sample

14 It is very important or essential to collection the large sample of the data for producing the accurate or the rigorous results of findings among the variables, which are quite different from each other. The next important reason for this rationale is the qualitative study would do in terms of reducing the chances of occurrence of the failures.

15 By looking at the table 1 we can see that we will reject the hypothesis and the null hypothesis will be accepted. The reason behind is that the values are negative. Further the statistic value is more than 0.05. This shows the data is not significant as well.   

16 Looking at the table 2 we can see that the P and the T values both are not significant and they are more than 0.05 as well this shows the data is not significant and that is the reason null hypothesis is accepted in this case.

17 For the ANOVA single factor it can be seen that the data in here is also not significant as we can see that p value is also not significant as it more than 0.05. That is the reason we can say that the null hypothesis is accepted in this case as well.

18 Adjusted R square

The adjusted R square value is the 0.911 or the 91%, which means that the independent variable or the % of the republicans has the strong influence over the dependent variable or the gross state product

Standard Error

The standard error came out to be 0.498, which means that the research was very accurate, or show high level of accuracy in terms of the statistical data represented into the model.

Significance of the F ratio

The significance of the F ratio for the regression is determined that 0.00048 or F= 93.55 which means that the according to the standards 0.0058, the value is less, which means that the independent variable has high influence on dependent variable.

Direction of both coefficients

The direction of the % of the republicans is -0.005 or in negative direction which means that increase in the independent variable would decrease in dependent variable. The direction of the coefficient gross state is 0.018, which means increase the dependent variable would make increase in independent variable.

Significance of all variables

The significance of all variables came out to be the 0.00048, which means that the values I highly significant and the relationship between variables is very strong.

19 Multiple Regression Analysis

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Risk management in banks

Table of contents

1.      Break even rate. 4

2.      Risk adjustment strategy for performance assessment 5

3. Factors for loaning. 9

3.1 Factors for evaluation. 9

4.Strategic economic allocation and value creation. 11

5. Recommendations for approving loan. 12

Bibliography. 12

Risk management

Risk management is used by banks and financial institutions for assessing the credit repayment capacity of the borrowers and the most important part of credit monitoring is the identification of right borrower. Costa Plc. is applying for loan at Marfin Bank and bank needs to manage financial risk without risk management. Bank will measure the risk using break even rate.  . Marfin Bank has adopted the risk controlling measures like controlling debt defaults. Bank can also check financial position of companies. According to the Basel accord that developed different risk controlling measures related to capital adequacy ensuring the operational functions can be performed within the available capital. Marfin Bank will avoid loan expansion to low performing companies (Meyer, 2000).

Assets Liability/ equity
Cash £20 Accounts payable £30
Accounts receivable 90 Notes payable 90
Inventory 90 Accruals 30
Plant and equipment 500 Long term debt 150
    Equity (retain earnings) 400
Total assets £700 Total liabilities & equity £700
Sales Cost of goods sold Operating expenses Taxes Interest payments Net income Dividend payout ratio Medium term loan in 3 years 500 360 80 24 30 34 50% 10m

1.      Break even rate

It is difference between yield on fixed rate bonds and yield on inflation linked bonds.

It is important for Marfin bank to calculate break-even point on bonds that is the total time taken for equalizing expected cash interest payments to amount invested in bonds. High interest rate and low bond price will allow bonds o reach break- even point in shorter duration.

2- Year bond yield 3- Year bond yield     Break-even interest rate (1 + 0.51)* 2 = 3.02 (1 + 0.47)*3 = 4.41 4.41/ 3.02 = 1.46 1.46 ^ (1 / (3-2) 1.46%  

2.      Risk adjustment strategy for performance assessment

The framework of capital measurement and capital standards has been developed by Basel committee involved in managing banking risks through adoption of effective Internal Rating Based (IRB) approach. The borrowers’ probability and the chances of defaulting are calculated by the IRB approach that allows Marfin Bank to determine risks that are converted to risk weight formulas determined by Basel accord (Bank for International Settlements , 2005).. The losses are presented in percentage as; EL = PD* EAD* LGD

EL= expected loss

PD=Probability of default

Considering the regulations of Basel committee Marfin Bank has developed certain models for determining changes in unexpected losses and helps in reducing the levels of such risks. The expected losses are taken as risk weighted assets and amounts of provision are created that are used for reduction of risk weighted assets. There is need for creating adequate provisions against EL and the risk weighted assets are used for assessing the distance between the VaR( Value at risk) and EL.

Risk weighted asset represents the assets weighted according to risk that is used for calculating capital adequacy ratio CAR.

The estimations of the Costa Plc are presented below;

CAR = tier one capital + tier 2 capital/ risk weighted assets

Risk weighted asset = EL = 50- 30= 20

Equity = 400 and retained earnings 0 million, so its tier 1 capital is 400 million. Marfin Bank has risk-weighted assets of 20 million. Consequently, its tier 1 capital ratio is 3% (400 million/20million), and it is considered to be well-capitalized compared to the minimum requirement.
Total risk-adjusted assets for credit risk, RAAC = 1,200 million

Return on risk adjusted capital RORAC = total revenue – total expenses/ risk weighted assets

= £500- £80/ 20

= £21

Market risk capital requirement, CRM = £40 million

Operational risk capital requirement, CRO = £60 million

Marfin Bank has the following capital:

Tier I capital: £150 million

Tier II capital: £110 million

Tier III capital: £0

Deductions (goodwill): 10 million

RAATOTAL= 21 ´(40+60) = £2100 million

Eligible capital:  RC=150+110-10 = £250 million

Regulatory capital ratio= 2100/ 250 = 8.4% >8%

Allocation of equity loan = 5%

Cost of equity = 8%

Tax paid by bank = 26%

Capital expansion for loan = 10 m

Factors for loaning

The main factors that Marfin Bank considers before approving loan extension are; credit history of Costa Plc, history of cash flow statements and business projections, collateral security that company provides, reputation of the company and loan documentation. The credit history of Costa Plc is considered that provides idea about its credibility. Break even rate is also used to analyze the companies credibility. Indicators of cash flow statement such as income, expenses, sales, interests and long term debts are also considered. The longer maturity can be used for paying long term debts. As the dividend payout ratio of Costa Plc. is 50% that is an indicator that it is having capacity of returning 50% shares to stakeholders.

3. Factors for loaning

3.1 Factors for evaluation

Working capital= current assets – current liabilities =200-150 = £50

Retained earnings/ total assets ratio = 0/ 700 = 0

Sales/ total asset ratio = 500/ 700 = 0.74

arket value of equity/ long term debt ratio = 400/ 150 = 2.66

Risk is evaluated from Z score as;

X1 = working capital/ total assets

= 50/ 700 = 0.07

X2 = retained earnings/ total assets

= 34*(1-0.5)/ 700 = £0.02

X3 = earnings before interest / total assets

Earnings before interest = sales – cost of goods sold – operating expenses – tax

= 500- 360- 80- 24

= 36/ 700 = 0.05

X4= total book equity/ total liabilities = 400/ 700 = 0.51

Total book equity= total assets- total liabilities = 400

As the Z score rating scores are represented as;

AAA = 8.15 AA = 7.30 A= 6.65 BBB= 5.85 BB = 4.95 B = 4.15 CCC = 3.20 D = 3.19

Z score = 3.25 + 6.56(X1) + 3.26(X2) + 6.72(X3) + 1.05(X4)

= 3.25 + 6.56(0.07) + 3.26(0.02) + 6.72(0.05) + 1.05(0.51)

= 4.65%

The Z score value reflects the score ratings for Costa Plc’s default as it is a critical tool used by Marfin bank for measuring the financial health of the borrower. The score indicates the chances for loan defaults and determines credit worthiness. Z score of A represents the failure rate of 0.03% to 0.82% and the BBB rating represents the failure rate of 9.36% and failure rate for BB, B and CCC increases to 19.6%. Keeping in view the Z score the estimated score for Costa Plc is 4.65% that indicates BB score.

The bank must not approve redit expansion to the customer due to low earnings and the only case for which bank will approve the expansion request are the improvements in the earnings of the company.

4.Strategic economic allocation and value creation  

The main risks that financial institutions face while crediting the companies involve the market risks, credit risks, liquidity risks and operational risks. Financial statement, cash flow statement and income statement of companies are used for assessing their current financial standing and repayment capacity. Determination of sovereign risk is important for depicting the financial stability of the borrower fluctuations in investor’s base is helpful in finding the yield  (Anderson, Silva, & Velandia-Rubiano, 2010). The stability of investor is reflected from fluctuations in balance sheet and investors that are highly leveraged are capable of liquidating their positions more rapidly compared to low- leveraged investors (Das, Oliva, & Tsuda, 2012). The factors affecting the credit risks include systematic risks, interest rate risks, foreign exchange risks, commodity price risks, industry concentration risks and counter party risks. The credit risk is determined from inability and unwillingness of the borrower to perform according to the pre- committed contract. One of the critical risks faced by banks is the interest rate risk that bank needs to manage before giving capital expansion to its borrowers. As banks earnings are affected by fluctuations in interest rate changing the value of net interest income and other income. High interest rate is good for banks because it increase the income. Bank charges high interest rate from the debtors.  This affects the financial statement including the assets, liabilities and cash flow. Interest rate risks are managed on consolidated basis that involves the evaluation of risks through systematic techniques and reducing to minimum levels.

5. Recommendations for approving loan

Marfin bank will pay principal amount of bond to the investor at a future date and in present case there is no zero coupons that is an indicator that all coupons can be repaid. As dividend payout ratio of Costa Plc. is 50% that is an indicator that it is having capacity of returning 50% shares to stakeholders so Marfin Bank will approve loan expansion of £ 10 m. keeping in view the recouping capacity in case of Costa Plc’s default Marfin Bank will be able to recover 96% credit amount in first year, 93% in second year and 90% in third year. Marfin Bank will approve the loan expansion request of £ 10 m. The Z score estimation also reflects the credit scoring is BBB that reflects chances of loan default are 9.63%.


Anderson, P. R., Silva, A. C., & Velandia-Rubiano, A. (2010). Public Debt Management in Emerging Market Economies: Has this time been different? World Bank Working Paper 5339.

Bank for International Settlements . (2005). An Explanatory Note on the Basel II IRB Risk Weight Functions . Bank for International Settlements .

Carey, M., & Stulz, R. M. (2007). Introduction to “The Risks of Financial Institutions”. University of Chicago Press.

Das, U. S., Oliva, M. A., & Tsuda, T. (2012). Sovereign Risk: A Macro-Financial Perspective. ADBI.

Meyer, M. L. (2000). Laurence H Meyer: Why risk management is important for global financial institutions. Bankok.

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Smarter Logistics

Smarter Logistics

Question 1:

The coding of this is by using is




\begin{tabular}{c c}

  $f^{(n)}(x)$ & $f^{(n)}(0)$ \\\hline

  $-2xe^{-x^{x^{x^2}}}$ & 0



this is all the coding

Question 2:

From these figures we can conclude that as we increase the harvesting parameter the trajectories change giving rise to decay for particular initial populations. This is due to the fact that as a increases the equilibrium solutions of the system get closer together. As these equilibria get closer together the source, p2, moves up the p-axis and consequently decaying trajectories with initial populations between zero and p2 are created. From this we can also conclude that as the two equilibria get closer and closer to each other the ‘amount’ of trajectories, which grow in time decreases. Thus it is possible to increase the harvesting parameter to a point where there are no initial populations, which grow in time. Moreover, it is possible harvest to a point where there are no initial populations whose trajectory is viable in the long-term. Using this model for a biological system gives insight into how much one could harvest without destroying the population in finite-time .The mathematically show in below



Question 3:

. When kN = 4a the roots join and become a double root and f1 is negative on both sides of this root. This implies that the root (aka equilibrium solution) is a node. You may want to draw a picture of this to convince yourself. It is interesting to note that this sort of change in the equilibria of an autonomous ODE with respect to a parameter is called a bifurcation, specifically a saddle-node bifurcation, and is highly important in the study of ODE’s and their connections to mathematical chaos. We do not have time for this section. It is accessible with the background we have and those interested should check it out.

Question 4:

From these figures we can conclude that as we increase the harvesting parameter the trajectories change giving rise to decay for particular initial populations. This is due to the fact that as a increases the equilibrium solutions of the system get closer together. As these equilibria get closer together the source, p2, moves up the p-axis and consequently decaying trajectories with initial populations between zero and p2 are created. From this we can also conclude that as the two equilibria get closer and closer to each other the ‘amount’ of trajectories, which grow in time decreases. Thus it is possible to increase the harvesting parameter to a point where there are no initial populations, which grow in time. Moreover, it is possible harvest to a point where there are no initial populations whose trajectory is viable in the long-term



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Tesla Case

However, with these advances, are Tesla’s products keeping up with the effusive promises and hype? What are the benefits and risks that go along with generating such hype? Strategically, what should they do?
The Tesla motor is not going so well, as there are continuously rising technical glitches and issues. This thing is causing continuously negative impacts on the working, performance, and quality of the Tesla Motors. Keeping up with hype would be a difficult and crucial thing if the company keeps on lacking in the performance. Tesla has been continuously trying to improve, but they fail. The company keeps lacking in full filing the promises made, and the goals they set are not accomplished that is why the company is getting a negative perception in the mind of people right now.
It is being said about the CEO of a company that he tries to set up ambitious goals but in the last five years, company failed to accomplish 10 of the goals, and almost 20 of the projections of the company were failed to accomplish. Now it is time for the company to bring in change so they can move along with the new trends and can meet up quality requirements of the people. There are many negative points which should be covered up in the new strategy. A new strategy is required to be built up on the premise of some factors. These factors are:
• Innovation in Motors
• Innovation in Business Model
• Creativity in design
• Quality assurance of Motors
• Management and Monitoring
• Sustainability Monitoring
Q2: And, let’s say that they can truly deliver and please their current customer demographic. Will they then be able to “cross the chasm” (see p. 213 of the textbook) and appeal to the next wave of customers – the much larger, lucrative, and apprehensive “early majority”? How can they achieve this? When?
As mentioned above, the company is lacking in many terms and is not clearly performing regarding quality. If a company tries to come up with some more quality and innovation, may be it would be possible to meet the standards of today’s people preferences and quality needs but it is not always possible that in future the company would meet up the necessary requirements. For crossing the chasm, company needs to improve further and change itself according to the needs and trends in the world.
The company is trying to bring up innovation in cars and its other module which are Solar Inc. and provides solar solutions for the homes and buildings. The company is also bringing the creativity in designs. Autonomous Car is the new thing which can bring up the quality and trust back to the standards. There would be some people in the market that would be early adopters; some would be innovators. Technology adoption is not easy among all people, always. Company can keep moving towards a better future by:
Company should focus on following factors to chase up the chasm:
• Product Reviews
• Design Wins
• Visionary Endorsement
• Top tier customers
• Revenues and Profits

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Shareholder’s debriefing

Stockholder’s Debrief

Team NameAnas7
Mission Statement (Summary of Strategy) My strategy is to have budget product and performance product in North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific. After providing the products in all markets, I will try to improve the Performance products to be in the optimal spot in every round. In the other hand, I improve the budget products every while in the purpose of meeting the age that customers like for this products. My ultimate strategy is to improve performance of budget and performance products in all rounds. My strategy is to increase performance of each product in next coming round.
  How did we live up to our mission statement?   Poor                 Excellent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10                    
Reason for the above rating? I believe that I did a good job being in the right spot, age, and price in every round. Yet having smart competitors have made gaining more customers little challenging. My proposed strategy helped me to achieve overall objectives. This strategy helped me to improve performance of budget and performance products.

Which market segment did you emphasize and how did you manage them?

Budget primary   My focus was on the prices. I checked the market prices and the competitors’ prices and features that competitors have on their products. After that, I analyzed the features I have on my products and then set my prices accordingly. Prices of different competitors products have compared against their features and final decision have provided for prices.
Performance primary   My goal was to be in the optimal spot in every round. Therefore, I updated the product twice in every round to make sure that the product is in the optimal spot or very close to it. Doing this every round helped the products to be in the right age. After having everything in place, I set my prices based on the market prices and the competitors’ prices. Performance of product improved by improving this product two times in the year. I managed the market segment by focusing on competitive products.  

Which region did you emphasize and how did you manage them?

Americas primary Americas is my primary market because I believe that my highest sales volume and profit will be in it. In addition, there are no currency affect in this market and fears do not affect our sales. We provided a Region Kit and spent some money on customers’ awareness and sales to gain customers’ interest. We tried to keep the variable cost low; therefore, we do not outscore products in this region. Net income in this region for round 1 and 2 is 0 and for round 3, it is -154. Sales in this region, in round 3 were recorded as $18993.
Europe secondary     I entered this market in the second year with two products, budget and performance. I suffered little bit from currency changes and customer fear, yet by having the Region Kit and setting the right price, I was able to generate a good revenue from this market. We supply this market from our production line or outsource if our production capacity is not enough. Revenue for this region in round 3 is recorded as $9223 and loss is $3644.  
Asia Pacific secondary   In this market, we entered in the second year with two products, budget and performance. In the first two years, we lost money and thought about stopping investing in the market. Yet we did not stop. In the third year, we generated revenue in this market. We provided this market with outsourced products. We suffered from currency changes and fears. Sales in this region have recorded as $11700 and net income is positive with $709.

Who were our strongest competitors? Indicate by placing an “X” in the appropriate box.

  Budget Performance
Americas A     B X D   E F A     X C   X X F  
Europe A     X X D E   F A     X C   D   E F  
Asia Pacific A     B C   D   E X A     X C   D   E F  
Team Name

Forecast for Last Round

Sales Forecast $6,300

Ratio Forecasts:

ROS 3.3%
ROA 6%
ROE 0%
Asset Turnover 1.86
Market Share (Revenue) $140,333
Final Stock Price 22.2
Profits $4,563

If given four more years to manage, what changes would you make?

Products: First action is focus on improving the automation and capacity to drive the variable cost down and be able to compete with low prices and generate a good revenue at the same time. I would like to generate revenue and positive profits in every region and every round by keeping cost low.    
Market Segment: I believe that the strategy I am following here is good. Therefore, there will be no changes.
Capacity: For the capacity, we will make sure to develop the capacity slightly every round, which will help to reduce the number of outsourced products.  It would be better to forecast capacity by analyzing current market demand.  
Finance: Our first goal is not getting an emergency loan for any reason. We will make sure that we have enough cash before developing capacity and automation. We also will make sure that we do not have many cash by the end of the year. Our goal is to manage in limited finance. It is better to prepare a budget for expenditures and income.

Group Processes

Describe methods by which you arrived at consensus.   You can ignore this section  
Critical Incidents? First incident is getting the emergency loan. We got it because of two reasons: developing capacity and automation based on the cash that expected to be available from the forecasted sales. Second incident is the high inventory level and stock out because of over and under forecasting. To improve forecast accuracy, we used two methods: one is that we think our sales will increase by the same percentage of the market growth. Two is that we compare our prices and sales with the competitors and forecast our sales accordingly. We take the average sales that we get from these two methods and set them as our forecasted sales for the next year.  
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Job Post Analysis

Job Post

Package Handler – Warehouse at FedEx Ground

Hutchins, TX 75141

About the Job

Think Fast. Think FedEx Ground.

Hiring Event: Friday 10/21/2016 10:00am to 2:00pm

Interested in a fast-paced job with career advancement opportunities? Join the FedEx Ground team as a package handler.

We offer competitive hourly rates, multiple raises in the first year, and tuition reimbursement.   Package handlers are eligible for medical, dental and vision benefits as well as vacation and holiday pay, after completion of an eligibility period.

Part time positions.  Full time and flexible scheduling are available in some locations.

Essential Functions of the Package Handler position

·         General warehouse operation methods for all package handling

·         Load and unload packages onto or from delivery trucks, trailers, conveyor system carts and load gratings

·         Lift, carry, push and pull packages on a continuous and repetitive basis for shifts of approximately two to four hours

·         Determine the appropriate conveyor system by scanning packages, reading labels and charts, verifying numbers and memorizing information and sorts packages accordingly

·         Maintain or exceed production goals

Daily Activities:

·         Shipping and receiving, movement of material, package tracking, dock labor, and transportation / distribution. 


·         Entry level

·         Must be at least 18 years of age

·         Must be able to load, unload and sort packages, as well as perform other related duties

(Monster, 2016)

Job Post Analysis

            The job I have posted above is from the and of the FedEx Ground Company. The title of the job is “Package Handler-Warehouse at FedEx Ground”. However, the job post located in Hutchins, TX 75141, gender is not mentioned in the job description, but there are few sentences are words in the job post, which identify that the company required male. The job is masculine language.

Masculine Language in the Job Post (Catalyst, 2015)

  1. “Load and unload packages” from this statement it is clearly known that the company needs men because this task is difficult for women.
  2. “Competitive hourly rates” as defined in the catalyst article that “competitive” is a masculine donation.
  3. “Lift, carry, push and pull” women are not able to do such tasks.
  4. “Repetitive basis for shifts” women cannot manage to come on different timings.
  5. “Movement of the material” the movement of material is difficult for women.
  6. Transportation/ Distribution, transportation of the heavy packages is not simple for women.


Catalyst. (2015, May 7). Catalyzing. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from

Monster. (2016). Package Handler – Warehouse at FedEx Ground. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from

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DFE into invention

Read and incorporate DFE into your invention in at least two ways and describe results.  

Incorporation of DFE with invention

The design for the environment has been executed for the given invention to obtain the adequate results towards the sustainable environment. The design for sustainability has immense importance to gain invention by environmental sustainability. Expanded heat exchanger is an invention that provides the concept of transferring heat dominated over the micro channel to extract bounds of dosage. Small passive thermal insulator sure the controlling impact of air vents to protect the environment in essential and adequate manner.  Two ways help in describing results of inventions towards design from the environment. Following are the ways to incorporate the design for the environment for heat exchange exchanger.


Recovery of energy through combustion is another way to measure the design for environment impact through stated invention. The expanded heat exchanger disposal has the severe impact on the environment that need to be catered in the best way. The combustion convert into retained energy for conversions of solid waste into energy would be a process of recycling that design for the environment. The effectiveness of sorting process needed to be evaluated for effective combustion of solid waste. The results provide the protective environment.

Procurement of material

The role of material selection plays an important role for the eco-friendly environment.  The production of material, manufacturing of parts, transportation and disposal reveal the impact on the environment that need to important measurement to the sustainability of the environment.  In expanded heat exchanger that involves thermal insulator, indicate the procurement of material for its manufacturing. The life cycle assessment of the product needs to be explored to identify the major impact on the environment. To minimize such impact on the environment, the heat exchange exchanger reduces the waste in the manufacturing process. Sustainable procurement of recycle material helps improve the design for environment process. The scope of sustainability in further inventions has immense credibility in achieving protective environment. The eco system and balancing molded into engineering aspects for the initiation of design for environment. Therefore, ecosystem ecology survives inhabitants to adhere balancing of natural cycles. Thus, interaction of energy used to the environment to promote greenhouse emission of gasses. Accordingly, the results provide the sustainable environment. 

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Little’s Law

Problem 1: Little’s Law (7 points)

Gearbox Express in Mukwonago, WI repairs gearboxes for wind turbines.  The company works seven days per week and last week had the following new orders and end of day inventory levels.  This company should be assumed to be operating at steady state so Little’s Law can be applied.

Orders Ending On Hand (EOH) Orders
Sunday 5 50
Monday 9 44
Tuesday 8 47
Wednesday 5 49
Thursday 7 53
Friday 6 55
Saturday 9 52
  1. What is the average arrival of orders per day? (2 points)
  2. What is the average ending on hand (inventory level) per day? (2 points)
  3. Using Little’s Law, how many hours on average did an order spend at GearboxExpress last week? (3 points)
(a) average arrival of orders per day(R) 7
(b) average ending on hand  (I) 50
(c ) Little law Formula I=RT
  Average hours 7.142857143

Problem 2: Forecasting  (10 points)

Given these sales figures over the first 7 months of the year, your boss needs you to test two different forecasting methods (parts a and b below) to determine which method is best.  For your measure of “best”, recommend to your boss that the company should use the method with the lowest mean absolute deviation (MAD).  Then use that method to provide your forecast for August in part c.

                        Jan       Feb      Mar      Apr      May     Jun       Jul

Units Sold       96        110      103      115      108      101      104

  1. Calculate the MAD for the 4 period moving average forecasting technique (4 points).
  2. Calculate the MAD for the 2 period weighted moving average forecasting technique.  Use weights of 0.6 and 0.4, with the most recent observation weighted higher (4 points).
  3. How many units would you forecast will be sold in August? (2 points)
Actual  4 period moving average  (Forecasted) 2 period weighted moving average
Jan 96
Feb 110
Mar 103 104.4
Apr 115 105.8
May 108 106 110.2
Jun 101 109 110.8
Jul 104 106.75 103.8
August 107 102.8
Months Actual sale F1 F2
Jan 96
Feb 110
Mar 103 104.4
Apr 115 105.8
May 108 106 110.2
Jun 101 109 110.8
Jul 104 106.75 103.8
August   107 102.8
Months Actual sale F1 F2
Jan 96
Feb 110
Mar 103 104.4
Apr 115 105.8
May 108 106 110.2
Jun 101 109 110.8
Jul 104 106.75 103.8
Number of observations =7
Mean 105.2857143 107.25 107
Months F1 F1-mean [F1-mean] F2 F2-mean [F2-mean]
Mar 104.4 -2.6 2.6
Apr 105.8 -1.2 1.2
May 106 -1.25 1.25 110.2 3.2 3.2
Jun 109 1.75 1.75 110.8 3.8 3.8
Jul 106.75 -0.5 0.5 103.8 -3.2 3.2
MAD   (a)                        1.17   (b) 2.8
(c ) I would like to recommend 107 units for august because it has lower MAD

Problem 3:

 Transportation Costing (8 points)

You have a shipment with the following characteristics. 

Size: 12 pallets

Weight: 9,000 pounds

Distance: 1500 miles

Mode: LTL Rail Solo Truckload Airfreight
Rate: $23/hundred-weight $1.05/mile $1.20/mile $2.75/pound
  1. What is the cost to send this shipment direct via LTL? (2 points)
  2. What is the cost to send this shipment direct via Solo Truckload? (2 points)
  3. What is the cost to send this shipment direct via Rail? (2 points)
  4. What is the cost to send this shipment direct via Airfreight? (2 points)
(a ) cost to send this shipment direct via LTL  $                       2,070.00
(b) cost to send this shipment direct via Solo Truckload  $                       1,800.00
(c ) cost to send this shipment direct via Rail  $                       1,575.00
(d) cost to send this shipment direct via Airfreight  $                    24,750.00
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promotion of marketing


            To develop visually appealing as well as short and simple report that is quiet useful for the promotion of marketing and that is able to mail by 15th November.

Project assumption:

  • Supposed that manual copies of five million of annual reports are printed and mailed to existing and past donors as well a stake holders till November 2015.
  • Supposed that there are no restrictions for travelling
  • Supposed that there is no delay in for the proposal submission plan that is going to board on May 2015.
  • The approval form board of directors is need for printing
  • Suppose that are no problems regarding patients about their approval for testimonial and their photographs
  • Suppose that all resources are available
  • Suppose that are no problems from the hospitals that have given the approval for publishing
  • Suppose that the contractors will provide print, design and distribution in time
  • Suppose that Lakysha will not face any problem while travelling for photographs and testimonials
  • Suppose that the budget is enough for traveling and publishing annual report.


Work Break down Structure

Task Name Duration Start Finish Predecessors
Determination of technical Specs 32 days Wed 10/26/16 Thu 12/8/16
Development of Design Plan 32 days Fri 12/9/16 Mon 1/23/17
Approval of Project 0 days Mon 1/23/17 Mon 1/23/17 1,2
Revise Specs and Plan 5 days Tue 1/24/17 Mon 1/30/17 3
Compilation of contacts 120 days Wed 10/26/16 Tue 4/11/17
Contacting Patients 7 days Tue 1/31/17 Wed 2/8/17 4
Create a Prototype report 90 days Tue 1/24/17 Mon 5/29/17 3
Traveling for testimonials and Photographs 14 days Thu 2/9/17 Wed 6/7/17 6
Compilation of Contacts and Photographs 2 days Thu 6/8/17 Mon 9/18/17 8
Presentation to the board 2 days Fri 6/9/17 Fri 9/15/17 8
Revision as per board 0 days Mon 9/18/17 Mon 9/18/17 9,10
Selection of contractor 6 days Mon 11/20/17 Mon 11/27/17 11
Report sending to contractor 30 days Mon 5/7/18 Fri 6/15/18 12
Present amended report 0 days Fri 6/15/18 Fri 6/15/18 13
Revisions sent to contractor 14 days Mon 7/2/18 Thu 7/19/18 14
Finalizing final list of contacts 14 days Fri 10/26/18 Wed 11/14/18 15
Production purpose transport 14 days Fri 2/1/19 Wed 2/20/19 16
Presentation of final report 0 days Wed 2/20/19 Wed 2/20/19 17
Send the contractor any revisions 7 days Thu 2/21/19 Fri 3/1/19 18
Incorporation of financial information 1 day Mon 4/22/19 Mon 4/22/19 19
Sending finalized report to printers 1 day Mon 3/4/19 Mon 3/4/19 19
Time taken by printing company for shipment 0 days Mon 4/22/19 Mon 4/22/19 20
Shipping to distributor 7 days Tue 4/23/19 Wed 5/1/19 22
make the final shipment 1 day Thu 5/2/19 Thu 5/2/19 23


List of Tasks

  • Determination of technical Specs
  • Development of Design Plan
  • Approval of Project
  • Revise Specs and Plan
  • Compilation of contacts
  • Contacting Patients
  • Create a Prototype report
  • Traveling for testimonials and Photographs
  • Compilation of Contacts and Photographs
  • Presentation to the board
  • Revision as per board
  • Selection of contractor
  • Report sending to contractor
  • Present amended report
  • Revisions sent to contractor
  • Finalizing final list of contacts
  • Production purpose transport
  • Presentation of final report
  • Send the contractor any revisions
  • Incorporation of financial information
  • Sending finalized report to printers
  • Time taken by printing company for shipment
  • Shipping to distributor
  • make the final shipment



Task Name Duration Resource Names
Determination of technical Specs 32 days Alexis
Development of Design Plan 32 days Alexis
Approval of Project 0 days Alexis
Revise Specs and Plan 5 days Alexis
Compilation of contacts 120 days Grace
Contacting Patients 7 days Alexis
Create a Prototype report 90 days Lakysha
Traveling for testimonials and Photographs 14 days Lakysha,Levi
Compilation of Contacts and Photographs 2 days Lakysha,Levi
Presentation to the board 2 days Lakysha,Levi
Revision as per board 0 days Alexis
Selection of contrator 6 days Alexis
Report sending to contractor 30 days Grace
Present amended report 0 days Grace
Revisions sent to contractor 14 days Alexis
Finalizing final list of contacts 14 days Grace
Production purpose transport 14 days Grace
Presentation of final report 0 days Grace
Send the contractor any revisions 7 days Alexis
Incorporation of financial information 1 day Grace
Sending finalized report to printers 1 day Levi
Time taken by printing company for shipment 0 days Levi
Shipping to distributor 7 days Alexis
make the final shipment 1 day Alexis


Network Diagram

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Cybersecurity (Risks facing by small and medium businesses

What are the biggest risks to small and medium businesses when it comes to cyber security and their day to day business?

Small businesses are preceding many online transactions on a daily basis. Due to the online presence of data, businesses are exposing to the threat of cyber security, electronic breach of data and online attack. Stolen or lost information can expose secrets of the company. It may disclose data of the customers. Cyber threats can also reveal information of employees. Attack from inside and outside may lead towards the destruction of important data of the business. Small businesses are affecting more than large enterprises due to their limited securities. Different new forms of cyber attacks like ransomware are especially targeting small businesses.

            Ransomware is freezing compute files and bonus emails of small businesses by using malware. Small businesses have a low level of computer defense. As per Intel Security, about 805 of small as well as the mid-size business do not use protection of data. Only half of them have e-mail security. Another important risk for the small businesses is downtime and crashes. Due to these risk small and medium enterprises are facing the high cost of developing their businesses. Due to limited funds and resources, small businesses cannot protect their computers and online data like large enterprises. Wall Street Journal has provided justification that 34,529 security issues are taking place daily in the United States. Out of them, 62% belong to small and medium enterprises.

            Personal information of a company can leak due to the cyber attack. Private information of every company is important for it. Attackers can steal personal information and provide them serious damages. Small businesses contain important information of customers like their smart cards number, ID, etc. Hackers can also provide damage to the customers of small businesses because they have limited protection for online transactions, there is the need to protect the risk for the safety of customers and growth of business.

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Mark Twain Evaluation (Biography)

Mark Twain Evaluation

Mark Taiwan was a famous personality of the 19th century. He was well known for his services in American business, literature, and publishing agencies. He belonged to the United States of America, and his full name was Samuel Langhorne Clemens. The war prayer and the dog’s tale were his famous books. He born in Florida and the year was 1835 and died in Connecticut in the year 1910. In my perspective, he was well-known personalities in both of areas. In his life, he has performed various services in Missouri and Connecticut as well.  He did great services in both of the places and facilitated writers and publishers. He wrote some of the great novels and those novels are still in the minds of the people.

On the other hand, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer were the famous novels of Mark Taiwan. In my opinion, one must consider him Connecticut and Missouri writer. He has both qualities because he has performed great services for English literature. It is imperative to know that he was the sixth kid of Jane Clemens and John. After his birth, he faced the different periods and ultimately became the famous writer in the United States of America.

In his birthplace and state, he performed the great duties as a journalist. The state got the huge reputation because of his services as journalists. He moved to Hartford after becoming a family member. In this particular place, he got interested in the social criticism in the year of 1873.  Anyhow, it needs to understand that in the year of 1863, he became journalist officially and became Mark Twain.

It means that his real name was Samuel Clemens and Mark Twain was his industry name. One can now understand that the transformation of real name to the official name of this famous writer and journalist. In my perspective, it is quite difficult to distinguish between his famous professions of journalism and writing as well.

  Furthermore, it can be decided by reading more about this famous person in books whether he was famous writer or journalist. As a writer, He wrote many great novels, books, and those are clear evidence of his writing skills. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer are the most important classical books of American literature. The Prince and the Pauper’ was his first effort of success in the fiction section of history. The Yale University rewarded him honor doctor degree in the year of 1901. On the other hand, the Oxford university rewarded him with doctorate as well.

One can say that his efforts were great in both fields of writing and journalism. He proved himself as a great writer of the 19th century in American literature. In his early age, his services as a journalist were amazing too (Twain & Smith, 2012). 


Twain, M., & Smith, H. E. (2012). Autobiography of Mark Twain, Volume 1. University of California Press.

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MATH202_Week5Lab Bonus lab: Smarter logistics


The differential equation is the type of mathematical equation. The equation that is differential equation are used to represent the physical quantities. With the help of equation, the relationship between the two quantities can be determine. The derivative of the differential equation express the rate of change of the equation.  Some of the differentia equations are solved with the help of explicit formulas but some of them are solved with the help of other numerical methods for example; partial, linear, non-linear etc.

On the other hand, logistic equations are the ordinary differential equations because of having ordinary differential derivatives the expression for the logistic equation is given below;

In the above expression, the P0 represents the density of the population, “r” represents the intrinsic growth of rate of the population. “k” represents the maximum potential of the population density. The given problem contains the different initial conditions to solve the logistic growth with constant harvesting and logistic growth with periodic harvesting.

Lab 5: Bonus Lab

Q1: remainder in matlab using student id

2. Logistic growth with constant harvesting. The equation



 = 0

Nkp-KP2 – Na

Kp2– NkP +Na = 0

Now P can be find by

P =

As ax2 + bx +c = 0

Now a = k

b = -Nk

And c = Na

Now by putting the values in the formula we get

P =

P =

P =

The possible point of equilibrium will be

P1 =  and P2 =

As shown in the graph, by fixing the values of a2 the values of a1 is unstable as well as the values of K are also unstable. P1 is a sink and p2  is a source.

3. Logistic growth with periodic harvesting. The equation


Let b = 1 and if a= a2 what will happen to fish population for various initial conditions

In the given equation and the case, “b” is a parameter that controls the frequency of the harvesting period on the other hand “a” in the given expression represents the amplitude of the harvesting period. For the required expression, the max harvesting can be reach to “2a” and the minimum can be “0”.

In the above expression, when t=0 and b=1 then the sin (0) will be 0. Therefore, it is not logical for the population when

Initial population= 0

Figure 1: fish population for initial conditions

It can be seen from the graph that at the initial value of K, N and a the fish population decreases

4.Consider the same equation as in Part 2 above, but let a = a2. What will happen to the fish population for various initial conditions with this value of a?

The expression mentioned in the part two, when a= a2 the fish population the rapid decrease in the fish population occurred as shown in the figure

figure: fish population for various conditions

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Epigenetic Mechanisms of Genomic Imprinting: Common Themes in the Regulation of Imprinted Regions in Mammals, Plants, and Insects

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when an author, what stage now?

The article “Epigenetic Mechanisms of Genomic Imprinting: Common Themes in the Regulation of Imprinted Regions in Mammals, Plants, and Insects” is written by William A. MacDonald, he is working in the department of biology, the department of biochemistry and obstetrics and gynecology; he is also working in the children health research.

Molecular changes
  Small RNA
Transcription and CIS & turn regulation
Proteome & metabolite
Epigenetic expressions

Vocabulary List

  • Molecular changes
  • Transcription and CIS & turn regulation
  • Proteome & metabolite
  • Epigenetic expressions
  • Small RNA
  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

The author has discussed the genomic imprinting that, it is the form of the epigenetic inheritance, where there are the regulations of the gene or the chromosomes, that the sex depends on the sex of the transmitting parent, it can be known or expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. However, if the allele from the mother is expressed than it means, that the allele from the father is imprinted or silence and vice versa. DNA in a sex depends on a manner; the mice have the same pattern of genomic imprinting like the human, however, the species-specific arrangement of chromosomes, acquired imprint regulations (MacDonald, 2012).

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?
  • Why did the author research more on the plants and insects?
  • How could we relate human, plant and insect?
  • Are the number of X and Y-chromosomes can identify about the genomic imprinting?
  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

The paper is related to my research as its explain about the mammals, plants and insects, sex or genomic imprinting pattern, the study of the author will be useful in the future and useful for the people want to explore the field of biology. The research is interesting because, in the limited text or content, it explains much.

Manipulation of flowering time: Phenological integration and maternal effects

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when an author, what stage now?

The topic “Manipulation of flowering time: Phenological integration and maternal effects” is written by the authors Laura F. Galloway and Kevin S. Burgess, the authors are from the department of biology and the university of Virginia, the authors are working on the maternal effects that warmer climate effects on the reproduction.

Alternative splicing

Vocabulary List

  • Stimulus
  • Receptors
  • Scaffolds
  • Nuclease
  • Alternative splicing
  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

In the article, the timing of the flowering is discussed that the reproductive success depends on the warmer climate, the advancing in the natural population influence on the reproductive phenology. We can say that the seed produce fruits or flower depend on the temperature or the environment, there is the strong phonological integration of the reproductive trait. However, the rate of reproduction has the dramatic effects on the offspring generations and warmer temperature can increase in number annual offspring’s (GALLOWAY & BURGESS, 2009).

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?
  • The offspring has created by the heat or warmer temperature can be weak or healthier?
  • Are the phonological offspring’s (flowers and fruits) given the same taste and reproduction like others?
  • Is phonological reproduction is possible with the human being, relates to the maturity risks?
  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

The research of the authors is related to my interest because everybody is interested in knowing about the warmer temperature affects the maternity or not, the question really matters, and the scientists did researchers on the topic, can give the reader advantages. As the reader can know about that how maximum offerings can be produced annually, and if there is any disadvantages or effects of considering the integration of reproductive phenology, the field can give the knowledge about the reproductive facts.

Vocabulary List

Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their web page. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when an author, what stage now?

The topic “Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect” is written by the Daniel S. Standage, Ali J. Berens, Karl M. Glastad, Andrew J. Severin, Volker P. Brendel and Amy L. Toth. The authors are doing researches on the discipline of the genetics, related to the field of biology.

One year of breeding cycle
Seed germination
Genomic selection
Recombination of parents
Advance to yield trial
Extract DNA

Vocabulary List

  • Seed germination
  • One year of breeding cycle
  • Advance to yield trial
  • Extract DNA
  • Recombination of parents
  • Genomic selection
  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

In the article there is the discussion about the comparative genomics of the social insects, the insight is providing to the evolution of the social behavior, the underlying studies be related with the epigenomic and genomic basis. There are the studies on the different species, the caste differences and in the social insects, the DNA of the social insects tested and relates to the epigenomic and genomic, the methylome studies identify and the study provides the characteristics differences based on the epigenomic and genomic (Standage, Berens, Glastad, Severin, Brendel, & Toth, 2016).

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?
  • DNA methylome system is beneficial for the human beings or not?
  • Why is the study limited to few species?
  • The caste related gene expressions are similar in the castes or not?
  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

The article is interesting because it gave the information about the gene in the castes, the DNA methylome studies has identified about the eusocial insects, the article provides the new insight in the gene field in the social evolution . The article provides the clear understanding of the epigenomic and genomic because the test is done on a human being, so in the field of biology, the things can be further explored.

Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plant

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when an author, what stage now?

The article “Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plants” is written by Viswanathan Chinnusamy and Jian-Kang Zhu, the article focuses on the stress response in the plant, the authors did the research on the DNA and in the field of biology, and they are from the department of botany and plant sciences.


Vocabulary List

  • Prophase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase
  • Stages
  • Mitosis
  • Cloning
  • Planting
  • Tissue
  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

The article is based on the epigenetic regulation, which is the result of the DNA, the stress response in the plant is also associated with the DNA, and there are the heretical modifications, associated with the stress response in the plant. The stress memory is related to the epigenetic memory so that the plants can effectively deal with the subsequent stresses; the stress or the study explore or enhanced the understanding of the stress adoption of the plant and that it is inherited (Chinnusamy & Zhu, 2009).

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?
  • How could in the plants, the level of stress, can be known?
  • What are the effective techniques, to deal with the plant stress?
  • How could the inheritance stress, can affect the plant generations in the future?
  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

The research is very interesting as it could give the information about the plant stress that the plant stress is the reason of the inheritance and the level can be controlled if the DNA is known, the inheritance has the impacts on the stress-induced. The researchers in future, through the article, can explore the ways that the RNA could be the powerful tool epigenetic modification. The researchers or the people in the biological field need to control the stress in plants because there could be the negative impacts and thus the reproduction can also suffer the stress-responsive gene expressions need to be fully known.

Epigenetic Regulation in Plants



Vocabulary List

  • Genetic
  • Planting
  • Molecules
  • Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when an author, what stage now?

The article “Epigenetic Regulation in Plants” is written by the authors, Craig S. Pikaard and Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid, they are working in the field of biology and from the department of biology, the authors did research on the epigenetic regulation, that how survival of plants is possible.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

The article is based on the epigenetic in the plants, the clear history of the plants are also given, there are the discoveries on modifying the proteins and RNAs that the mediate gene is getting silence in the eukaryotes and in the human beings. The phenotypic plasticity of the plants are known, the ability of the plants to survive is also assessed. However, the unpredictable also affects the plants epigenetic, so the plants epigenetic regulations are masters, through the researches of the authors. The balance between the enzymes is known that there are multiple ways to combat the viruses; however, the article provides the information about the epigenetic regulation (Pikaard & Scheid, 2015).

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?
  • What is the main epigenetic regulation for plants need to follow?
  • What is the best way to predict the unpredictable environment?
  • What could be the natural selection of epigenetic regulation in plants?
  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

The article is interesting for me, as the article provide the complete information about the epigenetic regulation of plants; the history and background of the plants are known. However, there is need to predict the environment, so the plants could be grown in the best ways, in order to understand the environmental interaction and agricultural challenges related to the plants, can also be known after reading the article, the research may be informative in the future as there is information about the epigenetic regulation or plants genetics.


Chinnusamy, V., & Zhu, J.-K. (2009). Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol , 12 (2), 133–139.

GALLOWAY, L. F., & BURGESS, K. S. (2009). Manipulation of flowering time: Phenological integration and maternal effects. Ecological Society of America , 2139–2148.

MacDonald, W. A. (2012). Epigenetic Mechanisms of Genomic Imprinting: Common Themes in the Regulation of Imprinted Regions in Mammals, Plants, and Insects. Genetics Research International , 17.

Pikaard, C. S., & Scheid, O. M. (2015). Epigenetic Regulation in Plants. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press , 1-31.

Standage, D. S., Berens, A. J., Glastad, K. M., Severin, A. J., Brendel, V. P., & Toth, A. L. (2016). Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect. Molecular Ecology , 1769–1784.

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five key competitive priorities/advantages and briefly explain each

-List the five key competitive priorities/advantages and briefly explain each. What might the competitive advantage be for each of the following companies and provide an example?


  • Technology
  • Market reach internationally
  • Flexibility
  • Lower fees
  • Small sellers

EBay has the competitive advantage that this company is assisting people who sell or buy. This online business has made things very easy for the people. The main competitive advantage is easy interface for the visitors. Another competitive advantage is market reach and one can understand that this company has worldwide reputation.  The company has flexible approach for the consumers and customers as well.  The fee system is quite lower as compare to other market businesses. The small sellers are their strengths as mentioned by one of the official from the company. 

Southwest Airlines

  • Customer service
  • Loyalty program
  • Pricing
  • Mobile presence
  • Innovation

It is the fact that this company has prominent customer services program for the people. This company has clear competitive advantage in customer services. They have maintained loyalty programs for customers that make them fly again using the service. Pricing is very fair and low as compare to other others.  The mobile presence has provided extra technological advantage to the company and mobile app is functional.  Innovation is the key to success in modern world and the company is following the principle as well. 


  • New products
  • New ideas
  • New experiences
  • Reward card
  • coffee Beans

The company is quite successful in United States of America due to its new ideas, new experiences to the customers, and new products for the customers etc. The company is also providing reward cards for the customers approaching to them. The fifth competitive advantage is coffee beans; the company always looks forward for quality coffee beans for the customers.    


  • Brand Reputation
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Retail Strategy
  • Innovation

The popular brand reputation makes apple a giant Mobile company in the world.  The hardware using in the mobile has been so feasible and efficient for the users along with software of apple.   The company is maintaining great retail strategy, which provides clear competitive advantage to them.  Innovation is one of the great qualities in apple products.  


  • Advertisement
  • Mobile trends
  • Engagement
  • Brand
  • Technology & Innovation

Facebook has been the great social media tool for the people from few years. The advertisement facility via facebook provides the clear competitive advantage to the company. The mobile trend with the mobile application is providing great force to the revenue as well.  Engagement rate of customers has been great for years with website. It is very popular brand in the world and new technology and innovative acts make it more dynamic for users (Chaykowski, 2016).  

2-How might today’s technology, such as the Internet, be used to understand the voice of the customer?

It is very imperative to understand that this is world of technology and everybody needs to adopt this technology. People from all over the world are providing their ideas and thoughts to the businesses, and companies in the form of blogs and comments on social media pages and links.  In my perspective, companies can use these tools for the better planning in the future. The companies can understand the position of competitors and market position through the social media or internet. Today, the people are quiet energetic to provide their comments and thoughts on internet. Therefore, the customers could be the real source of information for the businesses and companies.  

3-Explain service-encounter design. List the four principal elements of service-encounter design

The service encounter design is the name of unique planning and management of people and ideas in order to get efficient results.  Every company needs to maintain a great structure that can enable the management and staff to accomplish certain goals and requirements as well. These are the four basic and main elements of the service encounter design (Collier & Evans, 2016). 

  • Reward and Recognition
  • Empowerment, development and selection of service provider
  • Customer contact skills and behaviors
  • Recovery and guarantees to the service

4-Explain the importance of service recovery

It is obvious that every company keep the target in eyes to achieve the highest level of service delivery and customer services as well. The service recovery has the great importance in the context of customer satisfaction and long-term relationship with the customers as well. The service recovery is very necessary due to higher costs in finding a new customer; therefore, retaining the customers is cost efficient idea.  In addition, the service recovery does provide the great value to customer satisfaction (Oliver, 2014).

5-A 30,000-seat college football stadium is used 18 times for games, concerts, and graduation ceremonies.  Each event averages four hours and assumes the stadium is full for each event.  The stadium is available 365 days a year from 6 am to midnight.  What is stadium (seat) utilization? Can you think of one or two other assets that have such low resource utilization?

Utilization (U) = Resources Used/Resources Available (Eq. 7.1) [Notice: the focus is stadium “seat” utilization)           

= (30,000 seats/visit)(4 hours/visit)(20 visits/year)

  (30,000 seats/visit)(365 days/year)(18 hours/day)

            = 2,400,000 seat hours/year

 197,100,000 seat hours/year

= 0.0122 or 1.22% Stadium seat utilization (very few assets have such a low utilization; global manufacturers such as GE or Honda could never justify such a low utilization.  


Chaykowski, K. (2016). Facebook Debuts New Computer Vision Tools In Push To Interpret Images Pixel By Pixel. Retrieved October 23, 2016, from Forbes:

Collier, D. A., & Evans, J. R. (2016). OM. Cengage Learning.

Oliver, R. L. (2014). Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. Routledge.

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Injuries among the staff of the mobile blood drives

Injuries among the staff of the mobile blood drives


            In this project, we have identified the major problem for the staff working in the mobile blood drive in which the cases of injuries among them have started increasing from the previous two years. Therefore we have devised some of the proposed solutions for this problem I which have the aim to decrease the rate of injuries in such staff more than 20% while providing the training programs to staff, implementing the recommended equipment in the setup process for blood donation from donor to receiver dynamically. For example, we have suggested the unique Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) in order to prevent the injuries in the staff of the blood drive (Blake, 2013).

Problem Statement

            The problem statement of this broad-based analytical research project which focuses on the rising issue of The Blood Center of one of the most well-reputed blood drives such as Wisconsin is analyzed. It has been observed that an increase in the tremendous amount especially in recent times about the reporting of the injuries at many cases among the staff members or personnel who are working blood drives that use the mobile locations. There were no less than 83 incidents according to the statistical analysis in a recent couple of years, which are included of 2015, and the year 2016. In these two years, we have witness injuries cases of the staff member.

            These injuries among the staff members occur at most of the time when the setup process was in progress and when the process of teardown was in place for the dynamic cause of the Blood Drive respectively. However, some of the staff members are found to be involved in the injuries that occur during the process of the blood donation from the donors (Stanger, 2012).

Project Objectives

            The initial goals, as well as objectives of this dynamic, analytically proposed solution project includes the series of various steps such as effort for reducing the injuries for the staff members working for the mobile drive in no less than figures such as 25% in any case. The second most important objective is the identification of the various elements that would provide the definite support for reducing the number of injuries among the staff of the mobile blood drive.

            The cost-benefit logical analysis would do in a way that the calculations come ahead for purchasing the new equipment along with the effective uses of such new resources including the technological medical equipment for implementing in blood drives. The next key objective would include the standardize the process for ordering such equipment along with the process of their lifting in the process of the  setup of the blood donation while reducing the equipment linked to the heavy lifts (Grant, 2010).

            Anticipated Methodology/Tools

            The methodology or the tools that we have critically analyzed as the proposed solution for reducing the injuries between the staff of the mobile blood drive in a comprehensive way. These include the ergonomic analytical framework of both staffs and the equipment, the equation of the NIOSH lifting for the devices or equipment sued in the transfusion or setup process of the blood supply chain for the patients and the rapid the rapid assessment of the upper limb, rapid assessment of the entire body.

A) Ergonomic analysis of employees and equipment

            In this analysis, the most important process that we need to implements is the training of the staff in terms of the total quality assurance and utilizing the standard procedures in the blood drive. For this a professional level of the program which would provide the staff ultimate certificates in the relevant field or the training is required for ensuring the supply of the blood would do according to safety measures. The evaluation of the staff skills would include the methods or way of a collection of blood units along with the thaw methods of infusing the blood supply chain.

            The equipment must be inspected or check in order to prevent the injuries among the staff involved in social good fare cause of mobile blood drive especially for the infusion of the citrate. The mechanism of the quality equipment from installation to the implementation of the various tubes along with the reuse process of such equipment is analyzed. The weights, usage, technical check up on the quality of the equipment are included in this list (Patrick, 2012).

B) NIOSH Lifting Equation

            In this equation the pre-testing of the equipment under the test of the weight limit which is recommended for the staff in the blood drive of mobile versions in which the evaluation of the weight of such equipment would do in a way that employees or staff  if able to lift the load in the working period of 8 hours. Then that equipment would be recommended to lift from the staff working in the blood drive in order to avoid the muscular injuries for the staff. The most common equipment include under this equation for testing are the private beds for the convenience of the patients, the screens that are attached to the bedside along with some of the other medical equipment. All other equipment in the mobile blood drives that exceed that specific limit would not consider as pass or fit the staff to lift in the blood-donation setup process (Taee, 2013).

C) Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA)

            This is an in-depth examination of the workplace conditions for the staff in which the causes that create the right upper limbs disorder into the employees are examined. The survey is conducting by applying the various methodologies such as the biomechanical testing of the workplace conditions in this great tool. The other dynamic tool for testing of supply chain process such as the postural loading in which the effect of the non-suitable conditions in the workplace for the employees is examined in detail is analyzed. The ergonomic analytical framework is applied to this tool of RULA as the loading of the physical stress through the equipment are highly taken into the examination process.

            The upper limbs since are the most effective part as a result of injuries because of the non-technical safety precautions taken by the management or staff themselves during the blood donation setup process. in this tool of RULA usually, it is found out that the right side of the upper limbs is completely examined and in some cases, both right along with left upper limbs are examined in the serious injury cases for the staff in the mobile blood drive.

     D) Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

            In this assessment, the examination of the complete human body is taken into account fro the purpose of the examination for the staff safety measures in which the proposed model or framework is based on the postural reference of the risks of MSD. The tasks of the job are the main consideration source of testing whether the staff is affected while tracing the physical stress in a way that specific position of a body along with a certain posture examination of the whole body occurs (Blake, 2013).

            The exertions are used as a great dynamic testing tool for the whole body examination in which the force is applied onto the posture of the body of the staff. The movement of that specific staff is noted in terms of the actions done by that particular staff so that the effect on the body is measured accurately. That is why this tool of the REBA is considered as the most authentic or the unique source as a tool for the examining the repetitions of the physical stress in any part of the body. If the reposition finds then the mechanism of the coupling does not exist.


            In the end, it is concluded that the ergonomic analysis as the vital tool or methodologies such as the NIOSH equation for lifting and the REBA in which the maximum level of the load that the staff could easily lift in the working time along with the examination of the whole body through proposed risk model such as MSD. These tools use factors, which are, consider as very important or significant like the dynamic pressure or the required force as a testing tool and body posture, which is considered as the important phase of testing in the REBA. This is because to determine that the working conditions are safe for the staff who is involved in this process of the blood drive.


Blake, J. (2013). Using simulation to evaluate a blood supply network in the Canadian maritime provinces. Journal of Enterprise Information Management , 26 (1), 119 – 134.

Grant, D. B. (2010). Integration of supply and marketing for a blood service. Management Research Review , 33 (2), 123 – 133.

Patrick, Y. Z. (2012). Segmenting blood donors in developing countries. Marketing Intelligence & Planning , 30 (5), 535 – 552.

Stanger, S. H. (2012). What drives perishable inventory management performance? Lessons learnt from the UK blood supply chain. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal , 17 (2), 107 – 123.

Taee, M. A. (2013). Mobile-based interpreter of arterial blood gases using knowledge-based expert system. International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications , 9 (3), 270 – 288.

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Method of Interview

Table Of Content

Introduction. 3

Live Interviews. 4

Approach of Interview: 4

Rules of interview.. 5

Rehearse: 5

Research: 5

Body Language: 5

Questions: 6

Stick to the main Topic: 6

Time limits: 7

Proper ending: 7

Merits and De-Merits of Live Interview.. 8

Merits of the Live Interview: 8

De-Merits of Live Interview: 8

Limitations in our research. 9

Incomplete Information: 9

Mental Disturbing: 9

Mood of the other Person: 10

Poor Record: 10

Snap Judgment: 10

Recommendations for Future Studies. 11

Road Map: 11

Teamwork: 12

Get Authentic Information: 12

References. 13


The interview is a way of communication in the modern world. Through interview, we try to find out information about the specific person or anything related to him or her. In past interview were mainly done face-to-face but with the advancement in technology now we can interview any person across the globe either through the phone call or the internet. This has a great impact on the social industry of this world. The way of communication has become fast due to which interviews become easier to conduct.

There are four basic types of interview, and each of the types has its specifications. These are listed below:

  • Face-to-Face interviews
  • Telephone interviews
  • Video interviews
  • Taped interviews

Each interview has its unique ability and benefits, but the most famous one which is still the most effective is the live interview commonly referred to as the Face-to-Face interview. The interview is the basic tool in the media industry (Donors, 2016). Politics and celebrities give interviews it can be either based on some incident or their personal life. Mostly interview is done to extract the information from the person about the current affairs. After that the information is used in the news or magazine to share with the world (John, 2016). There are some techniques while doing the interview but before that, a person should do proper research about the person he or she is going to interview. There are a few methods while doing the meeting yet before that a man ought to do legitimate research about the individual he or she is going to meet.

Live Interviews

This is the most effective way of doing an interview as it is done on the one person only which keeps the focus very clear. This interview gives the opportunity to the person who is interviewing to become friendly. On the other hand, this facility is not available in the other interviews. As it can be seen in the video of the YouTube that the both persons feel comfortable and confident while having the conversation. The major thing that effects the interview is the approach through which interview is conducted.

Approach of Interview:

The approach should be professional so that the person who is going to give interview should know that the other person is professional. This creates the boundary limit across both people a border line of respect. This is very important because none of the people is allowed to disrespect another person (Diane, 2016). The conversation should start with the formal introduction as the interviewee mostly knows about the person who is giving an interview, so that’s out of the question to ask his or her personal introduction.

While the other person needs to introduce him or herself to give the impression of their personality to someone. Keep the good eye contact and polite voice these are the key factor in the approach to take the interview. Another thing is the questions which interviewee is going to ask the interviewer and for this purpose, a person who is going to take interview must be able to understand the nature of the other person. This requires preparation before going for the original interview. All the questions should be listed in a good manner like there should not be any question that diverts the attention of both people from the actual task. The discussion ought, to begin with the formal presentation as the interviewee, for the most part, thinks about the individual who is giving meeting, so that is out of thing to ask his or her presentation.

Rules of interview

Before the live interviews start, the person must define all the rules of the interview to the other person. This helps to create the friendly environment and avoid any misunderstanding. Certain rules are made for the interview which is listed below:


Rehearsal is the key in live interviews, as one should always know what kind of questions and approach he or she is going to adopt to carry out the successful interview. Some people don’t get this point because they are over confident but this is very crucial part in the live interviews. Prepare yourself before going for an original interview. Get yourself the best outfit and rehearse either at home or office because the first impression is the last impression.


Do your research just don’t rely on the instructions given by the company. Do research about the recent current affairs in the politics and get enough knowledge to talk about the specific topic for the whole time. If the interview is about the personality, then the person should know about the personality, style, and history of another person. This helps to keep moving the conversation and avoid asking too many questions at the same time because this makes other person feel uncomfortable (Susa, 2016).

Body Language:

Keep your body language professional it doesn’t matter either you are going for the interview or you are taking an interview. All that matters are your body language that should be positive and up to the mark. To understand this the person who don’t know how to sit properly and talk with polite voice it shows he or she has bad body language. But one who knows how to sit and gesture properly during the conversation have positive body language. The body language of the person tells everything that either the person has ethical and moral values or not because this is what creates the first impression on the person.


This is the integral part of the interview the rule about this part is that if you are taking professional interview of someone. Then stay classy and show professionalism. Because this is what they are going to need it to extract the valuable information. Don’t ask too many questions and also never ask irrelevant questions in professional interviews because this effects a lot. As in the video, it is clear that the reporter doesn’t ask abrupt questions as she first tries to listen to the other person and then politely ask the other question. If you don’t agree on some point of the other person, then try to avoid argument although you can argue a little, this does not mean you have to clear your idea on his or her mind (Opener, 2016).

Stick to the main Topic:

This is very important as the mostly interview goes wrong because the person who is taking interview does not stick to the topic. Either he or she becomes friendly which deviates the conversation, and the main theme of the interview doesn’t gets any attention. To avoid the strict rules should be made which is that the person is not allowed to be friendly with another person in the professional field. Ask only the questions which are relevant to the topic of the interview. As in the YouTube the reporter asks the same questions which can help her in the project. Which shows that they have the clear mind and focus. The interviewer had the proper list of questions in her mind which shows that she rehearsed about the interview very well. So prepare questions which are relevant and able to give the valuable information. If you don’t concur on some purpose of the other individual then attempt to keep away from contention despite the fact that you can contend a little, yet this does not mean you need to clear your thought on his or her psyche.

Time limits:

In any live interview time, limit is the constraints which everyone has to experience. This should be handle with care as the personalities and celebrities they don’t have much time to give an interview again and again. So if you are going to take interview of the very busy person, then you must know that the time is limited. Prepare your questions according to the time limits. Questions should be asked in a good way which means that they must have the strong idea and reasons to get the valuable information. Time management plays an important role in this case because time is always short and information to gather is always long. To balance both things always ask the most important questions at first and then with the help of those questions and background of the person ability one can easily find out the answers to the other minor category questions.

Proper ending:

Just like the proper start of the interview is necessary the proper ending matters a lot because there must be professional ending of any interview. For this, you must prepare some lines which shows that how much you are grateful for the other person to give their precious time for the interview also acknowledge any other person who done the remarkable job during the interview and helped to make this interview possible. While ending the interview make it sure the person who given interview is happy and feel comfortable. If the person does not feel good at the end of the interview, this means the interview didn’t go well, and they can be the reason of decrease in your reputation in front of people and company (Susa, 2016). All the things should manage in a systematic way. It also helps to increase the efficiency of the organization and business.

These are some of the rules which should be followed during the live interviews as now a day live interviews usually watched by millions of people so any mishap on the live interview can result in the insult and embarrassing moment.

Merits and De-Merits of Live Interview

Everything has advantages and disadvantages just like that live interview is also consist of merits and de-merits. But one thing is for sure that the live interviews always have a little edge over the other data collection techniques. The reason behind this is that they are not just only to fill the documents as they give lots of information about the personality of the person and their background. It also reflects who they are and what they think of any current affair condition. The live interview is far better than any other source of getting information in the media industry. Some of the merits and de-merits of this interview are mentioned below (Palistha, 2016).

Merits of the Live Interview:

  • Precise results or the answers.
  • Able to understand the point of view of another person.
  • Allows the person to ask friendly questions
  • Provides the flexibility in the approach
  • Capture verbal and non-verbal hints.
  • Allow the person to have the focus on the topic

De-Merits of Live Interview:

  • Live interviews are much costly than others
  • Quality of data can be effected with the behavior of interviewer
  • Sample size gets limit
  • Manual Data Entry
  • Time limit
  • Question limit.

Limitations in our research

While finding the data, there are several things due to which the research becomes limited. As in our case of the live interview, there are also limitations and problems which have an impact on the information of the interviewer. Limitations and problems make the interview difficult and to handle the time. The limitations are discussed below in detail.

Incomplete Information:

This is the first problem that we encountered in our research as the interview does not always give the comprehensive answer of the questions instead interview only gives the bullet points. Now connecting the dot is the crucial task because upon this the interview information depends on. That’s why incomplete information is always a problem during the live interview, and there are a lot of assumption has to be done from the interviewee side. This is the reason because of the incomplete process which is also the problem that almost every journalist has to face. The incomplete path or the process can lead to the danger and tragedy (Diane, 2016).

Mental Disturbing:

As we know, everyone has right to give a free opinion on the other things. That’s why the two people who is going to face each other in an interview should have the proper mental understanding otherwise the interview can become a bad experience for both of them. During our research, although we have done a thorough study on the personality and behavior of the person of which we are going to take interview but still there was a road block in the interview. If the interview reaches the dead end, it means either the reporter or interviewee are unable to handle this or the interviewer don’t want to share any information. This stage is mostly seen on the political talk shows or the criminal shows.

Mood of the other Person:

The spirit of the person of whom we take interview was good, so we were lucky to extract the maximum amount of information from him. But this does not happen all the time as mostly the celebrities are annoyed when they come to the interview for which they are forced by the other person or companies. In our research, we had to make to clear first that the person who is coming for the interview has the best attitude and ethical values because this can help to keep the interview going. If the person is not in a good mood this means he or she isn’t going to share much information and can answer rudely to some of the questions. That’s why for some people it is very difficult to handle this kind of problems. The best way to do that is to observe the behavior of the person right from the start of the interview. If a person moves a lot in a chair and his or her facial expression is not pleasant means they show stress and anxiety, then you must be careful while asking questions.

Poor Record:

In the live interview, the record can’t be kept as it becomes difficult for the person to remind each and everything of the interview due to which a little bit data is lost during the interview phase. Although people try to write down what they hear from the other person that still don’t work, but now this problem is solved because of the technology. As now, people don’t need the paper to write about interview all they do either tape it or just save on their video camera. In this way, they can listen to the interview several time and can do analysis on it (John, 2016). An ideal approach to do that is to watch the conduct of the individual right from the meeting.

Snap Judgment:

This problem is also related to the time limitation. Because we were done the research in a specific time of the interview. We don’t have all the time to stick around with the person after the interview to understand their personality. So in a just a couple of hours, we have to gather all the necessary information and then join that information with other research which we did without an interview. This is the part where problems occurred as sometimes the answer of the questions does not match and cause huge misunderstanding.

The above-mentioned are the real problems which we faced during the research because people are not willing to help now a day free. Especially when you want to know about some personality personal life information or other valuable information that comes with the heavy prices. That’s why live interviews are the only option to get information within the short period. Hence, time is a major constraint in each activity for implementing techniques.

Recommendations for Future Studies

The research we did was successful as it covers our basic objectives and we were able to extract some valuable information through the live interview, but this was not a difficult task. The limitation is enough to give the insight of problems that we faced during this research. There are few recommendations which is important for the person to make while doing the interview.

Road Map:

This is important although in our research we had a proper plan the road map was not available. The advantage of this road map is that once the person enters into the dead end then the road map can help him or her to get out of that situation. In the interview or any kind of research reaching the dead end is normal but there should be a proper way to get out of this, and this is usually defined in the road map.

That’s why this is important because interviewee can’t afford to reach the dead end as it can cause the problem in getting information and this is also the waste of time. To make a road map, the meeting with the top management or the leader of the team is required to make sure that it will go well.


During our research, there was a lack of teamwork due to which we were unable to handle the load of work. This is a major drawback and should be minimized in the further studies. Every member of the team must contribute to the research. Any person who is going to take the interview must have some team behind him or her which can handle the critical situations during the interview. During the live interview, the things get tense when the interviewer and the other person both reach the dead end at that time the team can help to get out of the situation. In the preparation of the interview, the team plays a crucial role also (Interview, 2016).

Get Authentic Information:

Usually, during the research, people keep on moving in a circle where they focus on the useless information and don’t pay focus to the real issue and problem. This happens a lot in the live interview as at one point the both people in an interview get distract from the real idea of the interview and start debating in the useless issue. 

This is very wrong a person should avoid this as in our research we experienced this but were able to tackle it at the right time. The authentic information is the key factor to the success of the interview but mostly there is only one or two groundbreaking information in the interview. Even this information is enough to keep the record and connects the dot of the other research. That’s why to focus on the authentic information, not the fake or useless debates (Donors, 2016).

Above-mentioned are some of the recommendation which should be used in the future to get the precise results of the information and never rely on the incomplete information. As we know, there is nothing danger than the half knowledge about something.


Diane. (2016, October 22). Retrieved from themuse:

Donors. (2016, October 22). Retrieved from Methods of Interview:

Interview. (2016, October 22). Retrieved from LiveCareer:

John. (2016, October 22). Retrieved from Rule of interview:

Opdenaker. (2016, October 22). Retrieved from FQS:

Palistha. (2016, October 22). Retrieved from Businesstopia:

Randall. (2016, October 22). Retrieved from Quitssential:

Susa. (2016, October 22). Retrieved from SnapSurveys:

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6.1 Greg Mortenson and the Central Asia Institute

6.1 Greg Mortenson and the Central Asia Institute

The case study tells about the central Asia Institute (CAI) by Greg Mortenson, who with the best inspiration, take the step to help the nation and to provide the education to the public, however, the generosity of the American public, involves the efforts of noble pursuits. Consequently, while managing all the functions related to the finance and management the charitable organization failed to abide by the fundamental principles of the management, including officers and directors do not have the oversight.  The step was taken to promote the education in the remote area, the non-profit organization CAI, faces the issues, as the people were very challenging and complex to understand. The laws regarding non-profit organization were violated, Greg Mortenson was an executive director, the organization was supported by the charity, there were the issues related to the finance, however, Mortenson mission was significant, if it is properly managed. The General Montana Attorney also agreed to carry out the corrective measures effectively (Outsideonline, 2012).

Key Issues to Address

The board of director of the CAI failed to fulfill the responsibilities associated with them, as they were the member of the non-profit organization, they needed to understand the responsibilities, which they never accomplish, in regards to that, the objectives or mission was fulfilled. The CAI, board of directors, have to face the issues because the issues were relating to the allegations of the governance problems, there was the mismanagement of the assets, there was the violation of the laws, the voluntarily disputed claims, all results in the failure of the project. Many of the countries and individuals participated in the charity processes so that the students can be benefited, but management does not know that how the situation should be control or manage (Krakauer, 2011).

The school was doing efforts to give the education to the girls, so that there could be betterment, however, the there were also the deep-rooted cultural issues associated with the failure. The efforts were done by the Mortenson for the people of Afghanistan, but the issues were related to the organization arrangements, domain-taxing authorities were creating the problems. The main issues of the CAI were that management was not supportive; they failed to manage all the tasks, related to the management.

Analysis and evaluation

As the management failed to carry out the processes, the donation was given by the America, but the management failed to carry out all the financial tasks or management ineffectively. The analysis of the project was done by the Attorney General, the resolution techniques were given that the two objectives needed to be fulfilled, as the operation changed need to carry out, in order to assure the charity, accordance to the laws, the charity program need to be done effectively, so that the mission can be fulfilled. However, the other objective was the measurement of the past financial transgressions.

Organizational financial controls and operation were not effectively so the problems created. For the good governance principles, the settlements need to be done for the betterment; however, good governance can result in good results. In my point of view, the due to the mismanagement, regarding to the financial and social perspective, the issues take place, non-profit organization needed to undertake the tasks effectively; the documentation and the receipts were not managed by the managerial department, the administration blamed each other, the inefficient financial transactions (Bryson, 2011).


CAI have faced the issues related to the management, there is the need to take the imitative so that the management could be serious with work, there is the need to record the financial records. The governance of CAI should hire the financial expertise. For the best outcomes, there is the need to give equality to all the workers or employees, there is need to set the incentives and there is the need to do the agreements so that there could the meaningful change. There is a need to take the imitative for the change, as mentioned in the chapter that there is the need to measure the performance through the dashboard system , so that the risks, performance, current results and assets can be known (Drucker, 2012).

Social return on the assets can also be the useful technique, as there could be the cost-benefit analysis. Concerns about the performance management can also bring the change in the processes, and management can be effectively done, as the efforts and amount of time is required, the risks need to be noticed and the universally standards need to be followed. However, regarding the CAI, the processes were not effectively done. Code of ethics and there is need for the performance measurement of the employees and the organization so that the strategies can be effectively followed (Tschirhart & Bielefeld, 2012).


While concerning the CAI, the management processes were not effective, as the management do not manage the financial, revenue, assets and receipts. The management was not trained. However, in the non-profit organization, there is the need to do the strategic planning, there is need to follow all the strategy change cycle, an effective planning approach can be useful, there is the need to assess the environment and need to prepare the management for the vision or future.


Bryson, J. M. (2011). Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement. John Wiley & Sons.

Drucker, P. (2012). Managing the Non-Profit Organization. Routledge.

Krakauer, J. (2011). Three Cups of Deceit: How Greg Mortenson, Humanitarian Hero, Lost His Way (EXPANDED AND UPDATED). Byliner Inc.

Outsideonline. (2012, April 5). MONTANA ATTORNEY GENERAL’S INVESTIGATIVE REPORT of Greg Mortenson and Central Asia Institute. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from

Tschirhart, M., & Bielefeld, W. (2012). Managing Nonprofit Organizations. John Wiley & Sons.

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Brand Growth Strategies

Relationship between Brand Growth Strategies and Ansoff’s Growth Strategy Mix

The brand growth strategy is the planning to build a brand and reputation of the brand in the market in order to get revenue ultimately. There is a different type of strategies for new and existing brands. The strategies also vary according to the product class and type. For a new brand, there would be new brand strategy and flanker/fighting brand strategy. On the other hand, the existing brand would get facilitation through brand extension strategy and line extension strategy.  Alternatively, the Ansoff’s growth strategy (Kumar, 2016) is another marketing and business tool for examining the market position of the brand and product. It is also known strategies for diversification. The brand growth strategies closely associated with the Ansoff’s Growth Strategy Mix. It is because the both strategies are the planning tools for product and brand development.  

In my perspective, brand growth strategies and Ansoff’s Growth Strategy Mix (Kumar, 2016) would associate closely if the management or businessperson would produce or launch a new product. In brand growth strategies, we have a new brand strategy for enhancing the level of new product. On the other hand, the Ansoff’s Growth Strategy Mix (Kumar, 2016) would help us to decide how to put that product in market development and diversification as well. In the same way, brand growth strategies provide the solution and plan to enhance the product level in the existing market or competition.  It is with the help of brand extension and line extension strategy. On the other hand, Ansoff’s growth strategy mix (Kumar, 2016) would help the strategy of market penetration. It is obvious that it would be very helpful in order to enhance market and product development for new brand and existing brand as well. 


Kumar, D. (2016). Enterprise Growth Strategy: Vision, Planning and Execution. CRC Press.