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Overall, how did you find the debate?

Overall, how did you find the debate? Was it useful?

One cannot ignore the advantages of consumer marketing through some physical product over there. The factor is about the physical aspect means the visibility of the product that may attract the consumer. Nevertheless, in this age of post-modern one should not ignore the blessings of direct consumer marketing. The big positive argument about the direct consumer marketing is cost effective technique. The cost effective way is just one that I have found after the debate. The cost effective technique is useful because each company is searching for the cost-effective method in a best way. The next thing got by the project is about personalization of product.

2. What did you learn from the project?  

I have learned that history of marketing and consumer selling does not have such direct method as now a day Internet is providing. For example, the use of project at social media forums is about to control the mechanism to allow the consumer to be a king. The conventional marketing aspect is a little bit complex to understand because there is no direct link between consumer and project. The next way relevant to my learning is about the meeting the demands of society by collaborating with organizations. The next thing got from the project is the usage of technology in health care and its effective way in lowering health issues. 

3. Did you face any limitation or problem during preparation for the debate? Please explain.

No, I have never found in limitation while doing the project. The best thing and first one is a history of consumer marketing. The history is same in all relevant literature here in books as well the other research material one found at the virtual platform. When I was searching material and formatting it on slides, I have an idea to get Direct to consumer (DTC) sub-aspect in a major debate. The next level is approach about the use of DTC in Pharmaceutical. It is major debate and argument while presenting to the class. The best things then I come to know news over there about medicine’ risk and benefit analysis.

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What are environmental consequences of NAFTA?

  1. What are environmental consequences of NAFTA?

Due to North American Free Trade Agreement, people are facing some problems relate to their way of life. Moreover, NAFTA is also affecting the local sovereignty and environment as well.  According to the report was released on the 20the anniversary of NAFTA, the trade of agriculture products in increasing that making farmers cut down the forest so that they get more land for agriculture. Moreover, due to the free trade, industrial pollution is also increasing that affecting the environment.  NAFTA is also increasing pollution related to trucks, according to the report, the greenhouse gas emission is increasing day by day now it has reached to a level of 7 billion metric tons in the year 1990, in the year 2005 it has reached to 8.3 billion.  In short, agreements like NAFTA around the world are affecting the environment or ecosystem (McAuliff, 2014).

  • How free trade negative impacts for Mexico are major concerns for people?

NAFTA has some negative impact on the people of U.S. NAFTA affects the manufacturers of the U.S. in the sense that manufacturers are forced to move towards the Mexico where they can find labor at low cost in order to compete with other companies working in an industry. Due to NAFTA, most of the Mexican people lost their jobs because NAFTA removed the tariffs that cause exporting of corns and grains to Mexico a low cost. Due to NAFTA, Maquiladora workers were exploited, the environment of the Mexico is deteriorated just because of NAFTA.  Trucks in Mexico that are not working according to the standards are promoted due to the free trade agreement to export agriculture products using roads (Amadeo, 2016).

Reference:

Amadeo, K. (2016, March 23). Disadvantages of NAFTA. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from useconomy: http://useconomy.about.com/od/tradepolicy/p/NAFTA_Problems.htm

Mcauliff, M. (2014, November 3). NAFTA Report Warns Of Trade Deal Environmental Disasters. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from huffingtonpost: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/11/nafta-environment_n_4938556.html

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Thesis

QUESTION 2

Write one essay chosen from the following topics relating to the unit on men and women. Be sure that you have an opening paragraph with a thesis, supporting paragraphs, and a closing paragraph.

2. Discuss the ways in which several authors describe love and courtship. You may share some personal experiences to back up your essay.

In the literature, the love is usually reflects as a major theme of the literary attempt. Similarly in the following essay, love is one of the major themes that remain prominent in the story. However, different writers describe the theme of love in a different style. In some stories the lovers even having very feeling of love, do not meet with each other but they remember for their love but in some stories the writers have described love as nothing but a lustful thing. Subsequently, the thesis of the essay is that the love is connected with the luck.

In Porphyria’s lover the theme of love is used in term restraint and freedom that ultimately neither speaker nor porphyria has any real agency. The writer has also described the Porphyria’s love for the speaker as “worship” whereas the speakers love for her is defined as objectifying and violent. In the end even porphyria died but the writer has reflected as her wish to be with her lover is fulfilled when she died in the hands of her lover.  This reflects the good luck of Porphyria as she met with her lover but it was the bad luck for the speaker as when he came to know about Porphyria’s deep love for him, she is no more alive.

In another story “Love Is a Fallacy” the writer Max Schulman has described love in a different way as he described that love is associated with the luck as the intelligent boy tried his best to impress Polly as He cleverly made a deal with Petey when he asked him to choose in between Polly and Raccoon Coat. Petey choose recon coat than Polly and the intelligent boy though that now his way towards Polly is clear but at the end Polly said to him that she like Petey. In this story the love is defined as luck as Petey even though a dumb boy but he is lucky as at the end he got Polly and Raccoon coat whereas the intelligent get nothing because of his bad luck.

In different stories, the theme of love is described differently by different writers. However in most of the stories the writers has associated love with luck such as it was the luck of the Prophyria as she finally got her love and died in her hand and his lover founds to have bad luck as when he came to know about Porphyria’s love for him, she died. Similarly, the intelligent boy in “Love is a Fallacy” do everything what he can to get his lover Polly but he found bad luck and Petey’s luck shined as even he did nothing but his lover herself came to him.

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paragraph with a thesis

Question 3

Write one essay chosen from the following topics relating to the unit on family. Be sure that you have an opening paragraph with a thesis, supporting paragraphs, and a closing paragraph. 1. Explore the ways in which family problems compare and contrast in different cultures. Feel free to give personal insight about your own culture and be sure that you use support from one or more of the readings in this unit. Or 2. Compare and contrast any two mothers in the unit on family.

Without family, there is no prosperity. This study revolves around family and different cultural impacts on it. This is a fact that different families contain different cultures in different societies. For Instance, a family in a particular society depicts its particular traditions and various culture aspects. Different cultural aspects such as living styles, food, behavior, and norms are always different due to cultural differences. This study will consider some insights regarding my culture.

My family represents a culture of my region. For Instance, we are living in a society where people love to make a relationship with each other. In addition, there are different traditional events, which are pertinent to our history in our society. These events and traditions have the great impact on our family, as we participate in these events. Interestingly, children in our family adopt this culture is well, as they are taught to adopt culture apart with modern society trends. In addition, our culture depicts majestic hospitality for guests, which has been considered as prominent norm. I belong to a family in which people help each other and try to involve in both, happiness and grief. Moreover, our family depicts a regional culture, which is also pertinent to national culture. In other words, values and believes have been justified in our family.  As a member of my family, I always intend to demonstrate my values and norms in other societies.

In the end, the most important thing for a family is to sustain good relation with people to let other know about our culture. For me, I am representative of my family and culture. This is necessary to retain the culture in a family, as it also represents our region, nation, and country. Culture and family interacts with each other, which has to be depicted in a society. We as a family give value to our culture and represent it in the world with lot of pride.

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Negotiation Paper

A student has to negotiate at many places like a professional marketer or businessman and he is expected to yield good results. Like negotiations at business and professional level, every negotiation at all levels is worthwhile. By all levels mean that negotiation is not confined to any specific situation but it is useful for any situation. A student can also be involved in negotiations and those negotiations are important for him because of value out of negotiations. In this paper, my negotiation with laptop retailer was discussed which I was going to purchase for educational and recreational use. Therefore, a good and effective laptop means that I would not be worry if it can result into bad performance.  Under different heads below, negotiation has been analyzed.

Negotiation setting:

Negotiation was taken place in two intervals following a brief visit of the retail shop during laptop market visit. It means that if brief visit also included then it negotiation would consist of three steps. During the market visit, I visited many retail and some wholesale shops along with some specialty shops. During the visit, I analyzed retail shops in terms of variety of laptop unites with them and initiative driven nature of retailers. Under these parameters, I selected ABC retail shop. Then, second phase of negotiation came when I took information from him on cell phone and email. Third, phase of negotiation took place in the retail ship which resulted in final purchase of the product. All parts of negotiations were important and these parts make up the negotiation setting although the most important was third stage when purchase was made.

Participants involved:

In the negotiations, mainly two participants were present, i.e. me and the retailer. Secondly, a salesman was also there to assist the retailer and that salesman was also advising me in an attempt to convince me for the purchase. However, this paper discusses the negotiation between the two main participants.

Issues at hand:

The issue at hand for the negotiation is purchase of laptop and it seems to be totally my interest. I want to purchase laptop and the retailer wants to sell me laptop. So, negotiation has purpose at each of the two sides of negotiation. My concerns during purchasing laptop included best match between quality and cost so that I could enjoy maximum superior quality out of this purchase. On the other hand, I was also concerned about after sale services so that in case of any inconvenience or bad performance I could file my complaint. On retailer side, issues surrounded convincing me for the purchase while he was just trying to convince me for purchase of laptop of any brand. It was because he had variety of laptop brands with him.

Planning and preparation that took place:

Planning and preparation for negotiation consisted of getting information about suitable retailer and different brands of laptop. For this purpose, I took information from number of sources including internet, friends, laptop market, and print reviews of different brands in newspapers etc. on the other hand, retailer’s planning and preparation consisted of coming up with different options and alternatives to convince me for the purchase (Root, 2016).  

Negotiation strategy:

So far as negotiation strategy was concerned, I used silence and time tactic for this purchase (Steele, 2016). I remained silent most of the time and took time to respond to what retailer was saying me to convince. So in simple, my strategy was to be careful enough so that retailer could not get benefit of my first ever negotiation for this purchase. This is not an expert strategy but I have found it useful for this negotiation with laptop retailer.

Negotiation Description:

Objectively describing actual events that occurred

It is important to discuss actual events that occurred during the course of negotiations because it is important to look into the ways that come during the process. I have noted one thing which is very distinct which is about carefulness of both parties. When I visited the market to select suitable retailer I came to know that every retailer was quite professional. The ABC retailer which was selected for the purchase had distinctive qualities. He welcomed me and let me decide which I wanted to say and ask. During initial steps, I noted that he convinced me through information and he did not tell a single word which was not professional. I asked very childish questions and he responded with calmness. I asked fake questions by saying that I purchased a laptop which got heated very much. I further said that often laptops had graphic card problems and I was very doubtful about these problems. But he did not categorically deny these faults and problems and said that these problems might occur and there were incidents that such problems would occur. His intentions and strategy were not intensive or assertive but he was just clearing mind. At this point, I felt that I was heavily influenced by him.

During email and cell phone contact, he proved to be good listener. Then for final purchase, I came to his retail shop and I was full of investigative questions. I knew his personality and way of communication therefore; I came with planning and after well preparation. I asked specifications of different models of laptops. He replied with detailed information on specifications. I was concerned about the processor speed, Ram, and Hard Disk. Moreover, I was also concerned with graphic card of the laptop. He told me with different specifications but there was found tradeoff between hard disk and processor. My priority was graphic card because it assisted whole system and efficiency of processor was also dependent on it. He provided me with plenty of alternatives and each alternative was answer to my demand and required specifications. This irritated me and I said that he had alternatives and he should not have responded with alternatives but with clear decision. I found that he was enjoying facility of alternatives and plenty of choices. However, those choices and alternatives were aligned with my desired choices.

Functional Analysis:

Analysis of key events in the negotiation

Above description of key events occurred during the negotiation is useful to know the series of happening of events. In the following the analysis of these events would be given. Mainly, three main events have been important to be discussed in the following and those events are selection of retailer for purchase, contact through cell phone and email, and day of final purchase. I consider process of selection of retailer as important part of negotiation process. I would give him maximum marks for this phase as he utilized excellent skills to make me purchase laptop from him. At the time of contact through cell phone and email, I found him quite impressive. He did not leave a room for me to think to choose another retailer. During these phases of negotiation, my focus had been asking questions which meant I did not have arguments to favor my position. At the purchasing day, I asked questions and he kept presenting me different brands of laptop. This ultimately irritated me because this was not good negotiation skills from him because he should have answered my questions with solid arguments. There I felt that he was gaining benefit of his position as I had little options before his plenty of options.

Integration of readings, theory, and concepts appropriate

The analysis and description of the purchase negotiations for laptop have been provided above and in the following appropriate readings and theories and concepts have been noted. The relationship theory of retail is associated with it because I felt that I am in relationship with the retailer in the result of interactions with him (Hadjikhani & Bengtson, 2004). This occurs especially when e new customer like me has interaction with the retailer. There is another concept in retail purchasing and that is about regarding difference between committed and less committed customer. During this negotiation process I have found me committed customer because I show trust on retailer and I have selected the retailer after close observation and analysis. Like a committed customer, I valued plenty of access to information and it is concept that less committed customer observed less changes if he had been exposed of little information. On the contrary, more committed customers gave importance to access to plenty of information (Steenhaut & Kenhove, 2005). Another concept which is related with retail purchasing is opportunism in which both parties want to take maximum benefit of the purchase (Al-Khatib, Malshe, Sailors, & Clark III, 2011). In this negotiation, both were trying to get maximum benefit out of the deal but there seemed to be less role of opportunism because I was committed customer and we were negotiating in a bit loyal relationship.

Discuss what should/could have been done differently

Above analysis and description of negotiation deal provide room for betterment as well because it is found that there might be better deal on that day. During the purchase of laptop, retail also sold me accessories of laptop including couple of speakers, cooling pad, and smart keyboard. I now thought that I should have benefited from these accessories.  He asked me for my priority of graphic card then I told that I was concerned with heat effect of laptop. In the result, he sold me these accessories in which cooling pad was considered to be solution of my concern. He sold me these things to make me realize that I was in need of these things. In fact, I should have asked bundle discount from him. Although, I adopted silent and time strategy but it ended at over dependence on retailer. I just asked questions and he benefited of his position to show me different alternatives and options present with him. It might be due to his shop and environment. In this context, I should have been along with my friend who would have kept me assisted during the purchase (Hedges, 2013). I am not regretting of my purchase but just pointing out areas of improvement which could have or should have been done better.

Summary Evaluation:

Lessons learnt for the future

This paper is reflection on a negotiation deal to purchase a laptop by me from a retailer. It has come to know that relationship theory of retail has been beneficial for making purchase with retailer. Having relationship with the retailer is helpful to win the trust but sole responsibility of good purchase always lies on the customer. I am satisfied with the purchase but I have learnt that over dependence on retailer is not good strategy. I used time and silent strategy for this purchase and this made me passive and exposed to retailer’s actions. Moreover, I learnt that in future, I should go with a friend so that I can better respond to requirements of retailer. Further, I should collect information as much as possible regarding the product to be purchased so that I can better negotiate (Buell, 2007). Although, both parties in the negotiation have been friendly but I consider opportunism as an effective concept because it can guarantee value for purchase.

Summary of self-evaluation of negotiation style and strengths and weaknesses

I feel that my negotiation style needs improvements and I should be initiative oriented. In response to retailer’s many options, customer should rely on alternatives and options of competitors of retailer. This option can lead retailer to thin that the customer can choose another retailer as well. However, strength of my negotiation style is that I tend to build relationship after thorough interaction and it is helpful for strategic and future interactions with retailer. Weakness of my negotiation style is that I remain passive in negotiations which may be harmful if I interact with opportunist parties. Although, here only laptop was under purchase and this might be less important product but in the long run this strategy is less effective.

Conclusion:

The negotiation paper concludes that negotiation is important part of practical life and everyone should learn the art of negotiation. One of the learning ways is to evaluate one’s negotiation style. This is what has been done in this paper in which live negotiation with retailer has been described, analyzed, and then learning outcomes have been found. This is found that negotiation styles should be changed according to the situation and this dynamism is secret of success. There is no hard and fast rule to negotiate but relationship and opportunist style both have been found effective in negotiation. Relationship style guarantees long term relationship while opportunist style guarantees maximum benefit out of the negotiation.

Bibliography

Al-Khatib, Jamal A., et al. “The impact of deceitful tendencies, relativism and opportunism on negotiation tactics: a comparative study of US and Belgian managers.” European Journal of Marketing 45.1/2 (2011): 133-152.

Buell, Barbara. Negotiation Strategy: Seven Common Pitfalls to Avoid. 2007. 3 May 2016. <https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/insights/negotiation-strategy-seven-common-pitfalls-avoid>.

Hadjikhani, Amjad and Anna Bengtson. An Interaction Model for Consumer-Retailer Relationships. 2004. 3 May 2016. <http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:129238/FULLTEXT01>.

Hedges, Kristi. Six Surprising Negotiation Tactics That Get You The Best Deal. 2013. 3 May 2016. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/work-in-progress/2013/12/05/six-surprising-negotiation-tactics-that-get-you-the-best-deal/#58c4f0025db8>.

Root, George N. Planning Stage of the Negotiation Process. 2016. 3 May 2016. <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/planning-stage-negotiation-process-10235.html>.

Steele, Jason. 11 Effective Negotiation Strategies & Tactics to Score a Great Deal. 2016. 3 May 2016. <http://www.moneycrashers.com/negotiation-techniques-to-score-a-great-deal/>.

Steenhaut, Sarah and Patrick Van Kenhove. “Relationship Commitment and Ethical Consumer Behavior in a Retail Setting: The Case of Receiving Too Much Change at the Checkout.” Journal of Business Ethics 56.4 (2005): 335-353.

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Use of Social Media In Amazon Company



Use of Social Media In Amazon Company 3

Introduction 3

Overall Summary of Social Media Use 3

Use of Tools 4

✔ Facebook 4

✔ Twitter 5

✔ Instagram 6

✔ Pinterest 6

✔ YouTube 7

Assessments & Recommendations 7

⮚ Social Media SWOT Analysis 8

✔ Strengths 8

✔ Weakness 8

✔ Opportunities 8

✔ Threats 9

⮚ Recommendations 9

References 10

Use of Social Media In Amazon Company

Introduction

The global business world is facing a surge of social media to augment public magnetism and uphold the business for a long run. In this study, we will discuss Amazon Company along with its different social media considerations. The rationale of the study is to analyze the intentions of the management to amplify the brand image, new ideas, market leadership, advertisement, and promotions. This is necessary to study different social media tools such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest and YouTube along with the impact on both, the company and brand image. However, despite having the successful social media operations by the company, the study will provide different recommendations to the management to improve the performance sustain the competitive lead. The Amazon is in the limelight in the electronic and commerce industry due to effectual social media strategies. Amazon is the largest online retailer which has justified the exploitation of different social media channels remarkably. 

Overall Summary of Social Media Use

Amazon gave important different social media channels. The main focus of this company is engaging people, the representation of good content, changes with the passage of the time and different trends. This is a fact that the management of this company has focused on the awareness. This is all about promoting the products and services in different social media channels to aware people regarding the easy access and quality. In addition, the different social media channels have also helped this company to have valuable brand perception. This has been considered as a great weight on people due to the social media considerations. The marketing department of this company hired the social media director to take the company to the other level to make the different in the competitive retail industry. Besides, the marketing department has transformed the operations from traditional media channels to the special media channels to depict the rapidness. Due to these social media efforts, the company has sustained as number one online retailer around the globe. Interestingly, Amazon hires different developers and engineers with the passage of the time to depict its creative and unique efforts on different social media channels. For Instance, to create the impression, the company conducts the differentiation process on these channels through the depiction of content in a unique manner and attractive visualization. 

Use of Tools

Amazon uses different social media tools. This is necessary to elaborate these tools to derive the key success factors of the company on the intense competition. 

  • Facebook

Amazon has used the Facebook to increase the market share and build the brand for a long run. For example, Amazon has let the Berkshire far behind due to its market value, which has soared to $ 360 billion. Due to the successful use of social media, the management of the company has observed more than 1.7 billion monthly users, navigating the Amazon pages on this particular social media channel. Obviously, the company is using this channel to promote the new and old products along with great content and appealing visualization. 

The most important thing for the company is to contain the information for the customer, concerning the online process. Thus, we can say that the company is using the Facebook for building its brands. To increase the customer’s satisfaction and generation of new ideas, the valuable feedback of people around the globe gas been well justified. The company is very responsive on this media channels, which enhances the customer satisfaction. In addition, Amazon intends to keep using this social media channel to sustain the brand image in the presence of Google, Apple and Microsoft (Egan, 2016). 

Furthermore, this company also highlights the products and offers an immense range of coupons to develop the sales. For example, on a mother day, the team of social media offers coupons to let people spend on a mother day gift. Thus, the use of Facebook has also justified the positioning process, which has helped the company to generate the lead is well. 

  • Twitter

The Amazon and Twitter’s shopping cars are working together to boost the sales, attraction and customer satisfaction. For example, according to the needs and trends, the customers can add different products in the shopping car on twitter. The rationale is to make the products available for the customers at the time of need. The Amazon management enables the customers to connect the twitter account with the Amazon’s site to have better navigation. However, one of the prominent spokesmen of the Amazon Company has said that the purpose of collaboration with twitter is not forming the positioning machines (OLIVAREZ-GILES, 2014).

This is all about to facilitate them through tweets and setting up options regarding the shopping cart. Obviously, it satisfies the customer due to the easy process and the best way to buy the products in no time. In addition, the use of twitter has helped the company to keep the customers up-to-date and have different ideas to make the difference in the competitive market. More than 108 million people follow Amazon on twitter and providing the information with the passage of time is a big deal for the company. 

  • Instagram

This has been observed that the Amazon Company used Instagram to contain the invasive advertisements as compared to the Facebook and twitter. This is a fact that the social media team of the company retargets the customers through Instagram, as it also helps the company to generate the leads. Generating the leads actually depends on the customer response and sales, which have been observed remarkable on this particular media channels. Through attractive and high-quality advertisement, the company targets the customers again, which increases the sales, response, and rarefaction for a long run. The dynamic advertisement and solid grasp have been in the limelight in this regard, as it has helped the company to reach the customers and depict the positive using decisions at the end (FLYNN, 2016).

  • Pinterest

The Pinterest has become an integral part of the social media consideration. This is a fact that the company is looking to affiliate with the Pinterest to drive the word of mouth recommendations. However, this has been revealed that the Amazon has not yet affiliated with the Pinterest. Besides, the intentions are towards the personal relations with the customers through the intense advertisement options. The management of the company will focus on the photos of the products and discuss the customers to give or have the valuable recommendations to react accordingly. According to the research, this has also been revealed that 72% customers, using this social media channels, believe that they find the new brand of product. Thus, the intention will be the same, as this company will intend to take the customers recommendations and launch the new products on this media channels is well to make the difference and grab image range of customers (Armstrong, 2016). 

  • YouTube

When we talk about the YouTube, the crisis reputation management comes into the life. Recently, the Amazon Company has initiated the new video posting services to regain its reputation on this particular social media channel. This allows the customers to post their videos and earn money, which depicts the direct competition with the Google’s YouTube. There was a perception regarding this company that it does not depict its intentions towards the social media expansion. In result, the YouTube has been used effectively in different movies and TV programs. The high definition videos along with good sound quality also helped the company to contain the effective advertisements to boost the attraction and buying decisions of the customers around the globe. The company seems descriptive in the YouTube ad, which also improved the reputation and enables the intense customer’s assistance and engagements in a case of online troubleshooting. The ten million users are on YouTube regarding the shopping and free shipping process (Soper, 2016). 

Assessments & Recommendations

Amazon Company has gained a remarkable response from the customers through the social media considerations. This is a fact that the company is extremely good on Facebook and YouTube channels, which has justified the customer satisfaction, generation of new ideas, good reputation, brand image building, word of mouth recommendation, generating the leads and attractive advertisement. 

  • Social Media SWOT Analysis
  • Strengths

The technology enhancement to integrate with the top social media channels is a big strength of this company. In addition, a strong brand image and customers satisfaction on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are the big success factors of the company, which has helped the company to sustain the competitive advantage and face the big gains such as Microsoft, Apple, and Google. Through the effective social media considerations, the sale and subscription of the company have been increased recently, which also increased the revenues. Thus, the revenues are increased through the social media communication, which is considered as a big strength. 

  • Weakness

The differentiation is not up to the mark on the social media channels, which is its bug weakness. Despite having the strong presence, the competitors are converting the customers through differentiation. In this gratification era, the online system is still slow, which is a big thing to worry about this company in the presence of intense competition. The lack of social applications on mobile phones as compared to Google and Apple has created the negative impact on the customers, as the sales are low comparatively (Roose, 2016). 

  • Opportunities

Through intense social media integration, the expansion process is possible in the developing countries. This is possible due to the intentions of global customer range, which can justify the expansion process. Despite emerging as an e-commerce giant, the management can make the product launching process fast to attract the customers and augment sales in the competitive market. Different brands may contain different web pages on Facebook, Pinterest   along with the intense description on YouTube channels. Thus, this is a great opportunity to add to the social media integration to engage the customers and increase the revenues. 

  • Threats

Amazon is in under the threat due to the social media fraud. The fraudulent social media accounts along with the product and service imitation process by the local owners, which can impair the brand image and online sales process. In addition, the new companies on social media channels are coming up with intense differentiation through technology, which is also a real threat for the company (Bennett, 2016). 

  • Recommendations 
  • The management of the company should contain the equal intentions or considerations of all mentioned social media tools to improve the immense range of the customers in the presence of intense competition.
  • This is necessary for the company to be descriptive in social media channels and online web stores to have informative customers, which can help the company to generate the leads.
  • In end, this is to conclude that the company should change the technology and different social applications to come up with the prominent differentiation process to contain the online sustainability. 

References

Armstrong, P. (2016, September 21). Why Pinterest Is About To Become An Integral Part Of Most Strategies. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/paularmstrongtech/2016/09/21/why-pinterest-is-about-to-become-an-integral-part-of-most-strategies/#de84f155d693

Bennett, L. (2016, August 13). Amazon, Samsung, Sony under threat from social media fraud. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from Ad News: http://www.adnews.com.au/news/amazon-samsung-sony-under-threat-from-social-media-fraud

Egan, M. (2016, July 29). Amazon, Facebook race past Buffett’s Berkshire. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from Cnn Money: http://money.cnn.com/2016/07/29/investing/facebook-amazon-warren-buffett/

FLYNN, K. (2016, August 5). Instagram Ads Just Got More Invasive And Product-Focused As It Adopts Facebook’s Retargeting Model. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from Ib Times: http://www.ibtimes.com/instagram-ads-just-got-more-invasive-product-focused-it-adopts-facebooks-retargeting-2366869

OLIVAREZ-GILES, N. (2014, May 5). Tweet to Buy: How Amazon and Twitter’s Social Shopping Cart Works. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from WSJ: http://blogs.wsj.com/personal-technology/2014/05/05/tweet-to-buy-how-amazon-and-twitters-social-shopping-cart-works/

Roose, K. (2016, August 26). 6 Ways Competitors Are Trying to Kill Amazon. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from NY Mag: http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2014/08/6-ways-competitors-are-trying-to-kill-amazon.html

Soper, S. (2016, May 10). Amazon Targets YouTube With New Online Video Posting Service. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from Bloomberg: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-10/amazon-targets-youtube-with-new-online-video-posting-service

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The Public Health

  1. The Public Health Service originated in 1798 as the Marine Hospital Service. Identify two (2) motivating factors that prompted that development.

The 17th century is considered the age of journey, when not only states were perpetually attempting to expand their borders (colonial expansion) and influence thorough military and diplomatic means, but also it was the time when people, belonging to different cultures/civilizations, were leaving their ancestral homes for better opportunities. This was particularly true for the European nations and populations.

As more military contingents were leaving and returning from the country to new and sensitive (medically) locations, the chances of catching a disease, were higher. Therefore, the government of United States sanctioned various Marine Hospitals providing services to against the spread of disease. Also, these marine hospitals were also in-charge of maintaining the health of immigrants, which were entering the United States.

Therefore, the two motivating factors were to stop the spread of disease, in coastal areas and to maintain the health of immigrants that were entering the United States. As the time progressed, the role, of The Public Health Service, augmented and services diversified (USPHS, 2016).

2. Why, in the 1960s, were the health-related programs of Medicare, Medicaid, and Neighborhood Health Centers assigned to non-health federal agencies instead of the Public Health Service? Please provide two (2) examples.

The health-related programs, which were initiated in the 1960s, were the direct result of Civil Rights Movement. One of the core concerns, of Civil Rights Leadership, was the limited access, of Black Americans, to the quality health services. Therefore, during the Civil Rights Movement, the leaders were not only demanding equal social and economic opportunities, but also equal access to quality services, at a very low cost. Therefore, the government initiated these health programs to meet the popular demand of that time. However, we learn that health-related programs, such as Medicare, Medicaid and Neighborhood Health Centers, were established (in the 60s) were not assigned to Public Health Service, but instead, it was assigned to non-health federal agencies. They provide two reasons for such measure; one was that this measure was not entirely medical, but also political, as it aimed to provide quality services, to the certain segment of society at a very low cost (subsidy). Second, it also included medical+ (plus) services, which Public Health Service was not able to provide at that time, as it had not evolved enough (Takach, 2008).

 3. Public health efforts and those of private medicine complement each other and together serve the spectrum of health service needs of American society. Why, then, has their relationship been sometimes contentious and have they not consistently worked together proactively to improve the health status of Americans? Please provide two (2) examples.

Private Health Care or Private Medicine services are provided by independent entities, which earn a profit by providing these services. On the contrary, Public Health Service is provided by the state through its health institutions, by an allocation of resources, both financial and human. It is assumed that both services coordinate, spontaneously, to serve the country. For instance, Public Health Service provides affordable health services to that segment of society, which has strong income constraints, whereas private medicine provides the best quality services to that segment of society, which can afford high-class medical services. However, sometimes the relation between two is contentious, because of the economic reasons. As it is, the fact that Private Medicine provides services to earn the profit and its profit is directly linked to market share. Therefore, whenever, Public Health provides a certain medical service, at the affordable price, it shrinks the market share of Private Medicine. The second reason is that private medicine perpetually strives to increase its market share, which is why it cannot proactively work with Public Health (Economist, 2013).

3. Contrast the population-based orientation of public health with the individual-centered focus of private health practitioners. Provide two (2) examples.
Public Health is designed to serve the masses, which means it is created to address the medical issues and challenges, which are faced by the general public. The reason for this is that public health services are provided by the revenue, collected in the form of taxes, by general public. Therefore, the orientation is population based. Also, when resources are being provided at a macro scale, the orientation naturally becomes mass-oriented.

Private Health practitioners though provide quality health services. Therefore, they have limited resources and that is why they are the individual-centered focus (client-oriented).  Therefore, the two reasons are (1) availability of resources (Access and Scale) and (2) the organizational design or structure.
4. Deaths in the United States that result from preventable causes total approximately 40% of all deaths each year. Deaths result from tobacco use, poor dietary habits, and sedentary lifestyles. What additional two (2) actions should/could the U.S. health care system use to combat the factors that contribute to preventable deaths or incentivize more healthy living lifestyles among the most at-risk populations?

Because of the advances, in the realm of medical science, not only we can cure diseases and prevent their outbreaks, but also average lifetime, of a human, has also increased. The improvement in medicine has facilitated humans to live a long and health life, and because of better medical technology, complicated health matters can be addressed by using fewer resources.

However, statistics reveal that in a developed country, like the United States, 40% of the total population, die from preventable diseases. Preventable diseases are such diseases that can be prevented by prevention and use of medicine. However, large numbers of Americans die because of the factors, which cause preventable disease.

Two Actions

  • The government can increase the awareness, through its various means, regarding the preventable diseases and their causes.
  • Also, the government can be devised policies, which can regulate the health-related behavior of the mass population, such as heavily taxing tobacco products. 

References

Economist. (2013). Going public, and private. Retrieved October 31, 31, from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/news/business/21591858-fuss-over-obamacares-teething-troubles-obscuring-bigger-story-investors-american

Takach, M. (2008). Federal Community Health Centers and State Health Policy:A Primer for Policy Makers. National Academy for State Health Policy , 1-22.

USPHS. (2016, October 31). HISTORY. Retrieved from United States Public Health Service: http://www.usphs.gov/aboutus/history.aspx

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Risk management in banks

Table of contents

1.      Break even rate. 4

2.      Risk adjustment strategy for performance assessment 5

3. Factors for loaning. 9

3.1 Factors for evaluation. 9

4.Strategic economic allocation and value creation. 11

5. Recommendations for approving loan. 12

Bibliography. 12

Risk management

Risk management is used by banks and financial institutions for assessing the credit repayment capacity of the borrowers and the most important part of credit monitoring is the identification of right borrower. Costa Plc. is applying for loan at Marfin Bank and bank needs to manage financial risk without risk management. Bank will measure the risk using break even rate.  . Marfin Bank has adopted the risk controlling measures like controlling debt defaults. Bank can also check financial position of companies. According to the Basel accord that developed different risk controlling measures related to capital adequacy ensuring the operational functions can be performed within the available capital. Marfin Bank will avoid loan expansion to low performing companies (Meyer, 2000).

Assets Liability/ equity
Cash £20 Accounts payable £30
Accounts receivable 90 Notes payable 90
Inventory 90 Accruals 30
Plant and equipment 500 Long term debt 150
    Equity (retain earnings) 400
Total assets £700 Total liabilities & equity £700
Sales Cost of goods sold Operating expenses Taxes Interest payments Net income Dividend payout ratio Medium term loan in 3 years 500 360 80 24 30 34 50% 10m

1.      Break even rate

It is difference between yield on fixed rate bonds and yield on inflation linked bonds.

It is important for Marfin bank to calculate break-even point on bonds that is the total time taken for equalizing expected cash interest payments to amount invested in bonds. High interest rate and low bond price will allow bonds o reach break- even point in shorter duration.

2- Year bond yield 3- Year bond yield     Break-even interest rate (1 + 0.51)* 2 = 3.02 (1 + 0.47)*3 = 4.41 4.41/ 3.02 = 1.46 1.46 ^ (1 / (3-2) 1.46%  

2.      Risk adjustment strategy for performance assessment

The framework of capital measurement and capital standards has been developed by Basel committee involved in managing banking risks through adoption of effective Internal Rating Based (IRB) approach. The borrowers’ probability and the chances of defaulting are calculated by the IRB approach that allows Marfin Bank to determine risks that are converted to risk weight formulas determined by Basel accord (Bank for International Settlements , 2005).. The losses are presented in percentage as; EL = PD* EAD* LGD

EL= expected loss

PD=Probability of default

Considering the regulations of Basel committee Marfin Bank has developed certain models for determining changes in unexpected losses and helps in reducing the levels of such risks. The expected losses are taken as risk weighted assets and amounts of provision are created that are used for reduction of risk weighted assets. There is need for creating adequate provisions against EL and the risk weighted assets are used for assessing the distance between the VaR( Value at risk) and EL.

Risk weighted asset represents the assets weighted according to risk that is used for calculating capital adequacy ratio CAR.

The estimations of the Costa Plc are presented below;

CAR = tier one capital + tier 2 capital/ risk weighted assets

Risk weighted asset = EL = 50- 30= 20

Equity = 400 and retained earnings 0 million, so its tier 1 capital is 400 million. Marfin Bank has risk-weighted assets of 20 million. Consequently, its tier 1 capital ratio is 3% (400 million/20million), and it is considered to be well-capitalized compared to the minimum requirement.
Total risk-adjusted assets for credit risk, RAAC = 1,200 million

Return on risk adjusted capital RORAC = total revenue – total expenses/ risk weighted assets

= £500- £80/ 20

= £21

Market risk capital requirement, CRM = £40 million

Operational risk capital requirement, CRO = £60 million

Marfin Bank has the following capital:

Tier I capital: £150 million

Tier II capital: £110 million

Tier III capital: £0

Deductions (goodwill): 10 million

RAATOTAL= 21 ´(40+60) = £2100 million

Eligible capital:  RC=150+110-10 = £250 million

Regulatory capital ratio= 2100/ 250 = 8.4% >8%

Allocation of equity loan = 5%

Cost of equity = 8%

Tax paid by bank = 26%

Capital expansion for loan = 10 m

Factors for loaning

The main factors that Marfin Bank considers before approving loan extension are; credit history of Costa Plc, history of cash flow statements and business projections, collateral security that company provides, reputation of the company and loan documentation. The credit history of Costa Plc is considered that provides idea about its credibility. Break even rate is also used to analyze the companies credibility. Indicators of cash flow statement such as income, expenses, sales, interests and long term debts are also considered. The longer maturity can be used for paying long term debts. As the dividend payout ratio of Costa Plc. is 50% that is an indicator that it is having capacity of returning 50% shares to stakeholders.

3. Factors for loaning

3.1 Factors for evaluation

Working capital= current assets – current liabilities =200-150 = £50

Retained earnings/ total assets ratio = 0/ 700 = 0

Sales/ total asset ratio = 500/ 700 = 0.74

Market value of equity/ long term debt ratio = 400/ 150 = 2.66

Risk is evaluated from Z score as;

X1 = 8/ total assets

= 8/ 700 = 0.114

X2 = retained earnings/ total assets

= 34*(1-0.5)/ 700 = £0.00

X3 = earnings before interest / total assets

Earnings before interest = 34

= 34/ 700 = 0.04

X4= total book equity/ total long term debt ratio = 400/ 150 = 2.66

Total book equity= 400

X5= Sales/ total assets ratio = 500/ 700 = 0.714

As the Z score rating scores are represented as;

AAA = 8.15 AA = 7.30 A= 6.65 BBB= 5.85 BB = 4.95 B = 4.15 CCC = 3.20 D = 3.19

Z score = 1.2 (X41) + 1.4 (X2) + 3.3 (X3) + 0.6 (X4) +1.0 (X5)

= 1.2(0.114) + 1.4(0.00) + 3.3(0.04) + 0.6 (2.66) + 1.0 (0.714)

= 2.57%

The Z score value reflects the score ratings for Costa Plc’s default as it is a critical tool used by Marfin bank for measuring the financial health of the borrower. The score indicates the chances for loan defaults and determines credit worthiness. Z score of A represents the failure rate of 0.03% to 0.82% and the BBB rating represents the failure rate of 9.36% and failure rate for BB, B and CCC increases to 19.6%. The estimated score for Costa Plc is 2.57%

The bank must not approve redit expansion to the customer due to low earnings and the only case for which bank will approve the expansion request are the improvements in the earnings of the company.

4.Strategic economic allocation and value creation  

The main risks that financial institutions face while crediting the companies involve the market risks, credit risks, liquidity risks and operational risks. Financial statement, cash flow statement and income statement of companies are used for assessing their current financial standing and repayment capacity. Determination of sovereign risk is important for depicting the financial stability of the borrower fluctuations in investor’s base is helpful in finding the yield  (Anderson, Silva, & Velandia-Rubiano, 2010). The stability of investor is reflected from fluctuations in balance sheet and investors that are highly leveraged are capable of liquidating their positions more rapidly compared to low- leveraged investors (Das, Oliva, & Tsuda, 2012). The factors affecting the credit risks include systematic risks, interest rate risks, foreign exchange risks, commodity price risks, industry concentration risks and counter party risks. The credit risk is determined from inability and unwillingness of the borrower to perform according to the pre- committed contract. One of the critical risks faced by banks is the interest rate risk that bank needs to manage before giving capital expansion to its borrowers. As banks earnings are affected by fluctuations in interest rate changing the value of net interest income and other income. High interest rate is good for banks because it increase the income. Bank charges high interest rate from the debtors.  This affects the financial statement including the assets, liabilities and cash flow. Interest rate risks are managed on consolidated basis that involves the evaluation of risks through systematic techniques and reducing to minimum levels.

5. Recommendations for approving loan

Marfin bank will pay principal amount of bond to the investor at a future date and in present case there is no zero coupons that is an indicator that all coupons can be repaid. As dividend payout ratio of Costa Plc. is 50% that is an indicator that it is having capacity of returning 50% shares to stakeholders so Marfin Bank will approve loan expansion of £ 10 m. keeping in view the recouping capacity in case of Costa Plc’s default Marfin Bank will be able to recover 96% credit amount in first year, 93% in second year and 90% in third year. Marfin Bank will approve the loan expansion request of £ 10 m. The Z score estimation also reflects the credit scoring is BBB that reflects chances of loan default are 9.63%.

Bibliography

Anderson, P. R., Silva, A. C., & Velandia-Rubiano, A. (2010). Public Debt Management in Emerging Market Economies: Has this time been different? World Bank Working Paper 5339.

Bank for International Settlements . (2005). An Explanatory Note on the Basel II IRB Risk Weight Functions . Bank for International Settlements .

Carey, M., & Stulz, R. M. (2007). Introduction to “The Risks of Financial Institutions”. University of Chicago Press.

Das, U. S., Oliva, M. A., & Tsuda, T. (2012). Sovereign Risk: A Macro-Financial Perspective. ADBI.

Meyer, M. L. (2000). Laurence H Meyer: Why risk management is important for global financial institutions. Bankok.

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Major Assignment

Question 1:

(i) 

so which is the only points at equilibra

(ii)

(linear system)

(iii)

Eigen vectors

Eigen set to  composition system :

solve to x’(t) =Ax(t)

so the solution are unique by picard, so

(iv)

At () :

(v)

 Eigen values :            

Eigen vector:

Real and distinct eigen vector

picard => x(t) =

  •  =

     =>

()+

therefore we have

we can also written this term of as    cos (h)

(vi)

Trajectory line : if y is small and x large and negative, solution diverge beyond the of both equilibrium. This teaches us an important lesson, that is the behavior of non linear system can be unknown even with complete knowledge of equilibrium region around these equilibrium.

Question 2:

There  

  • From h=1
  • From h=1/2
  •  

               Improvement


Question 3:

Laplace of this equation 

Now if

      same as  C=-1/2 and B=-1/4

X(s)=

Question 4:

(i)

f  is a rational function of polynomial where the element does not write it.

 (ii)

The differential equation is by solving this I have to find that this equation so this linear

(iii)

for X(0)=1

 (iv)

The picard

  • [f(x)]=
  • [f(x)}=[x]/[7+42t]   f/7 for

Therefore by picard a unique solution exists :

x:[0,T]  , where T 1/L = 1/1/7 =7

As this is uniform , at T=7k allow is to till [0,0], generating a solution T>0

(v)

x(n+1) =xn+h(x(n))/(1+42h)

  • x(n+1) =

note this input [N(n+1) < (1+h/7)^n+1

(vi)

x(n+1) =xn+h(x(n))/(1+42h)

(vii)

In which taking the invert of the part (v)

  • one step error ;{E} <

(viii)

The error below un h-> like

(1+h/7)^(2h+2)

for n, h lrge , the error below up to no matter have suffer h is i.e FE is never move for this DE.

this because the solution to this DE is   which FE have a lot of table opportunity

Question 5 :

f(x)= (1-x)(x-2)(x-3)^3

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Obamacare

Obamacare

The President Barack Obama took the initiative to advance the healthcare issues and healthcare insurance in the United States of America and passed legislation called “Obamacare.” On March 23, 2010, the legislation was enacted by the 111th United States Congress. The original name of this “Obamacare” act is Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The act is favorable for increase the efficiency of the health insurance elements. Furthermore, the act is focusing on equal opportunities for applicants to be insured by the different companies in the United States of America (Mathis, Jackson, Meglich, & Valentine, 2016).  

The legislation could have multiple impacts on different sized businesses and companies. It is imperative to understand that small sized companies could get more advantage as compared to big size companies. By own health exchanges, the companies can attract workers for better insurance plan brought by the government in 2010. In 2014, the sources were claiming the less attraction to the Obamacare policies and plans. On the other hand, the big sized companies or large firms are not taking it as a profit to companies because of the costs adding to the employer’s section. It is a fact that most of the employers are not happy with the policies in Obamacare. According to them, it is more costly to companies as compared to relief factor (Williams, 2015). 

The small sized companies could have the multiple opinions about the health care act Obamacare. This act is going to provide the great benefit to all the states of United States of America soon, and small sized business could get more advantage. The act would facilitate the companies, which have less than 50 workers and could ensure their health. The act is focusing on implementing such rules, which can make companies take care employees until the treatment ends in hospitals. The government of Obama has been working seriously for providing actual benefits to the people of America. Furthermore, the companies are looking forward to gaining real advantage from the Obamacare act. According to sources, the government of United States is focusing on most of the regions and around 90% of the area has covered by this specific bill. Also, the government will cover all of the states and businesses as soon as possible (ARMOUR & RADNOFSKY, 2016).

On the other hand, there are different pros and cons of this specific bill. One can assume that this bill could have the multiple impacts on the public. The human capital in the United States of America is quite emerging, and people are expecting the great facilities from the government of America. The Obamacare can affect different groups of people; the seniors are not happy with the basics of the bill.  Ann Lorenz is a senior from the United States of America; she pointed that she has been suffering from serious health issues. According to her, the Obamacare bill is making hard for her to approach to doctors. The private health care options are making it easy for senior in the United States of America. In my opinion, the solution is to cut the costs and burden of taxes on medical device makers and drug companies as well. 

In the same way, the Larry Patterson is the person, explaining the difficult situations of families. According to him, the families are suffering because of the expanding control of the United States government on their future generations. According to my perspective, the best way to change the arguments is to allow families for making a choice in health care section (Procon.org, 2016). On the other hand, there is a serious concern amongst the people that would this law ensure people to get insurance. Somehow, this law is a great boost for individuals and hospitals. A lower uninsured rate is quite beneficial for hospitals. The facilities providing in this law could help hospitals to buy or purchase new machinery for hospitals. In this way, individuals could get benefits from this particular law. 

It is very imperative to understand that Obamacare is facilitating people from the United States of America. The government made if affordable for most of the people in the country.  According to reports, around 30 states of US have been positively affected by the specific Obamacare act. The lower income families and employees could get benefit from the specific sections of the act like substantial discounts.  One is talking about the positivity in the bill for the individuals.  Also, it is very clear that government of United States of America is focusing on the control on basic principles of insurers. This bill has made insurers choose the applicants on easy and flexible criteria as well. The insurers cannot reject any applicant on some special criteria; the government is enabling people to get medical care on easy and flexible terms. It means whoever is ready to pay for the specific insurance, would get high-level medical care ultimately.  

On the other hand, it is imperative to understand that this act would have impacts on health care costs. In my perspective, the health care costs would increase, and people may have to suffer from it.  It is concluded as costs to the people and government as well because the people would pay a high amount of premiums for this kind purpose. The amount of taxes would increase as well, and subsidies would increase. It increases the amount and costs for the bill and act of Obamacare. For the major coverage, the amount or costs would increase as well, and insurers or public will suffer these huge costs. According to sources, there is a 49 percent rate increased in 2014 as compared to 2013. It is a serious change in the section of costs.  Anyhow, the act has presented to facilitate the people and to provide long-term health care plans to the public and people of America (Thebalance.com, 2016).

It is imperative to understand that every act could have favorable points and unfavorable points as well. The favorable point is the major coverage and opportunities for people to become part of insurance policies. On the other hand, it is a fact that there are some cons of the act as well.  The choice amongst the applicants could become complicated as well. The costs would increase too as it is mentioned in the last paragraph. On the other hand, who should pay for the health insurance is another major topic of debate. In my perspective, the three stakeholders are employees, employers, and government. The government is all above the others and maintained policies as well. The employers are having the major role in all this debate.  Therefore, I think the employee should not have the role for pay into insurance sector. It is like the medical care of the people and it is the major responsibility of the government of the United States of America. On the other hand, the employers should come forward to put their part in these specific insurance plans. They must fix the rate for every employee because they are putting their part and major hours of life for the productivity of the business. It is obvious that it is the responsibility of the government and businesses to protect the right of employee or public in the medical health section (Roland, 2015). 

In the end, one must say that Obamacare is the nice act for the people of America. One could expect that it will facilitate the people and people could get medical insurance on flexible and easy terms. In the same way, the government should view the cons in this act and try to eliminate and eradicate the negative factors of the Obamacare. 

Reference

ARMOUR, S., & RADNOFSKY, L. (2016). U.S. Health Law Faces Critical Year. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from The Wall Street Journal: http://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-health-law-faces-critical-year-1473262868?mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTldNMU1HUmlObU0zTUdFMyIsInQiOiJXWFR1Tm1cL1hjaTdxanRkanRWT0Q0RVdWZG0yQTlDTng4Q2xnWTEwTDFMcUxmdjdDdjlrN2FlVmx0UHFKenppWmtoYmdkS0IyRFIzMWpac3c2MkRMMnc9PSJ9

Mathis, R. L., Jackson, J. H., Meglich, P., & Valentine, S. R. (2016). Human Resource Management. Cengage Learning.

Procon.org. (2016). Top 10 Pros & Cons Is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) Good for America? Retrieved October 29, 2016, from procon: http://healthcarereform.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=003725

Roland, J. (2015). The Pros and Cons of Obamacare. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from Healthline: http://www.healthline.com/health/consumer-healthcare-guide/pros-and-cons-obamacare#Cons3

Thebalance.com. (2016). 10 Obamacare Pros and Cons Is Obamacare Worth It? Retrieved October 29, 2016, from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/obamacare-pros-and-cons-3306059

Williams, S. (2015). Obamacare Pros and Cons: Where We Stand Following Its Implementation. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from The Motley Fool: http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2015/06/27/obamacare-pros-and-cons-where-we-stand-following-i.aspx

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Security Policies

Security Policies

  1. Suppose that SLS Corporation has expanded its operations into your country. Setting aside any legal requirements that SLS makes to its policies to conform to your local laws, does SLS have an ethical imperative to modify its policies to better meet the needs of its stakeholders and their geographical region/country?

Ethical dimensions are present in any business; there is the need to do the decision-making before starting the business in the other countries. However, SLS Corporation wants to explore the business systems in the countries and want to expand the business globally. In this way, the company needs to consider the obligations and the responsibilities that the host country has, so that the people and society cannot be affected. There is the need to consider the ethics, and the sources that are related to the ethical problems, however, the major group of people in the host company is known as a stakeholder, there is the need to consider all business decisions, ethically or unethically.

SLS Corporation, need to consider the legal requirements and the local laws so that the business can get benefits in the market and product and services can be given on the ethical basis. However, the legal environment of the business can be there if all the laws and regulations are considered, for any business, there is a need to practice the ethical practices so that the life of people, nation, and society of that country can be given benefits, in the better way. Ethical dilemmas and ethics are important to understand, if SLS Corporation is starting business. There is need to understand the people behaviors and the acceptance ratio about the products or services; ethical dilemmas can be referred to the people thinking that what is wrong and what is right from the people perspective of the host country (Cheeseman, 2016).

The legal barriers can create the problems, for the company, if there is no understanding about the laws, there is the need to do research tax laws. There is the need to research the laws because every country has its laws and regulation, which are needed to consider the effectiveness and to get the advantages. In the legal barriers, there are the laws related to the customs laws, the import restrictions laws, the agency or liability laws, the immigration laws, the labor laws, the producer, liability provision laws, local laws, etc. and other imposed laws on the company.

Consequently, another aspect could be there the marketing barriers for the SLS Corporation, there is the need to do deep analysis cultural level, the taste and preferences of the people should be considered. The cultures have the norms, and they consider the food, product or services based on their culture or religion. SLS Corporation may face the internal conflicts regarding the services, or the educational pattern, as countries have their culture and the advertisement and all other aspects needed to be carried out, in a way, which is allowed by the laws of the host country.

Before going global or international, the SLS Corporation need to consider all the aspects that are related to the host country. However, there is the need to understand the international marketing strategies, the research is needed to be conducted, and there is the need to consider the demand and the competition, in the market. Moreover, the company need to make the checklist, based on the evidence, that what things need to consider before starting the business or opening the franchise in the country, or region, consequently, the company need to consider the economic trends, political stability, lifestyle issues, currency exchange rate, agency law, etc. There is a need to access the resources, the laws on technology, health, transportation, communication channels while doing the businesses there is a need to consider all the aspects so that there should be no future problems (Sherman, Partner, Morin, & LLP, 2016). 

Reference

Cheeseman, H. R. (2016). Business Law: Legal Environment, Online Commerce, Business Ethics, and International Issues Plus MyBusinessLawLab with Pearson Etext. Pearson Education.

Sherman, A. J., Partner, Morin, k. S., & LLP, O. (2016). Understanding the Basics of Expanding Your Business Abroad. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from http://entrepreneurship.org/resource-center/understanding-the-basics-of-expanding-your-business-abroad.aspx

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Rescue puppy

Rescue puppy

  1. Drinking straw
    Joining different drinking straw to caught the puppy into the trashcan. The puppy brings the straw to bringing up from the trashcan. Joining drinking straw one by one is to build long strip that helps in catch out from the trash can. Combining drinking straw with one to another is just like long stick. This material really helps to rescue puppy.
  2. 5×8 index card
    Building small boxes from index card to execute like small stairs to catch the puppy rescue from trashcan. The index card combine with glue to build small steps, where puppy drawn from the trashcan perfectly. The index card folded into one to one ton make small boxes of index cards like small steps for puppy to come out from trashcan.
  3. Fuzzy stick
    Fuzzy sticks provide better rescue help to rescue from trashcan. Combing four to five fuzzy with brass fastener sticks is to catch out puppy from trashcan. The fuzzy sticks are considered as long elastic that helps to bring up on the trashcan puppy. The fuzzy sticks join with one another to build long stick to rescue puppy.
  4. Safety pin
    Safety pin is also helpful to carry out puppy from trashcan. It adjusted on the can and clip down to the can to pick up by puppy to out from the can. The safety pin molded into in to state form to recognize as strong long threads along with the safety pin.
  5. Coffee stirrer
    The coffee stirrer also helps to rescue puppy by joining three coffee stirrers to build long stick. After that long stirrer build like small net to catch the puppy from trashcan. The coffee stirrer is the best way to rescue puppy within just minutes made net of such coffee stirrer.
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Lego car with wireless remote control

Lego car with wireless remote control

Key design features

There are certain key features of the wireless remote control of Lego car that enhances its performance and attract the relative market. The power key functions recognized as IR receiver, the box of the battery as well as the motor in Lego creations. This is handy remote controls that start up Lego car to start, change and stop in directions and more features as well.  There are four different channels in the remote control that enable the four models of Lego car could be used at the same time without any complexities. The functions of the Lego power connect with different power functions at one time.

 The infra red RC system has at least 30’ 10m reaching distances to obtain required results. It requires IR receiver and 3 AAA batteries to perform its functions.  Lego system from integration, signal channel selection, rotation reverse switches and two rocker switches are the key demonstrated features in the Lego car wireless remote control. It has control power functions as a motor speed, featuring of 4 RC channels, 2 buttons to stop it and get the direction in accordance with the control switches.   These are the key design features that help in the development of Lego car with wireless remote control in efficient and adequate manner.

Engineering design process

Engineering design process is the most important aspects of the development of wireless remote control to obtain desired results.  The RC vehicles recognized as medium size chassis that build around the Lego car with four-wheel drive as well as four-wheel steering. The part of RC associated with the set of four standard hobby servos that have the power of drive train. An ARDUINO built inside in the Lego car to attach with the wireless remote to control adequately. XBEE radio is also used for the communication purpose with the specification of the remote control.  This reveals servo power of RC Lego car that attaches with the wireless remote control.

One of the most important concerns towards the wireless remote control for Lego car reveals to handle it. The second part of the project remote controlling device that has the approximate size of game boy advance with the 2.2 LCD color display build around the microcontroller of ARDUINO. It has two potentiometers and single joystick to move on the given track.  The device has four buttons of input to start or either stops the Lego car. The engineering design in the wireless remote car carefully designs. The engineering design of wireless remote control recognized as XBEE radio module that RC vehicles have. The development of laser-cut acrylic indicated inside the device to gives credibility in performing running of Lego Car in give track development.

Device design and construction

The remote control has certain specifications like supporting features of USB operations of cable in a port of serial inside the ARDUINO towards engineering design. The operation of a 9V battery that indicates mounted onboard allowing the remote to operate processes adequately. After testing of the prototype of the device design and construction remains, certain consolidations needs to improve adequately. There are certain changes required after testing prototype that increases in size of LED on top of the remote with increase features of speed and time as well. 

The sensor instructions also indicated on the screen of wireless remote to enhance its performance characteristics. Therefore these are the changes required after the testing prototype of Lego car with wireless remote control on the racetrack project. Therefore, device design and construction o the device need to enhance its performance in the required manner. 

Description of where acquired

 There are certain components needed for the accumulation of the wireless remote control device attach with the Lego car. The list of components associated with the circuit link with resistors, four hobby servos, ARDUINO Leonard, XBEE radio, Bread board, XBEE breakout board, knob switch, four buttons, two potentiometers, joystick and female header pins wire and many of the components of the LEGO.

Pricing of such components in the project plays important role in the cost budget to prepare the wireless remote control device. The acquiring of such components values specifically determines the Lego Company to obtain required values of such components and development of the wireless remote device. ARDUINO Leonard, XBEE radio, Bread board and XBEE breakout board are the most important components used in the final design that helps in building the wireless remote control for the Lego cars. The overall budget of the values associated with the $ 40 budget in essential and adequate manner. The overall project cost values in the given project reveal the under the $ 40 to obtain required performance attributes.

To obtain overall cost information the supplier would be selected that provides the indication of overall cost proposal within $ 40 to select the suppliers of Lego car with wireless remote control in the efficient and adequate way. Negotiations would also consider for the attaining competitive pricing for all products attributes.

Future plans

The future plans help in improvement in the product characteristics to retain the potential market characteristics in the wireless remote control for the Lego cars. The development of multitasking motor and sensors is to move the product according to the system network design. There are needed components for the development of wireless remote control functioning. Such components are based on the 1/8” acrylic or could be other plastic, small bread board for the testing prototype, breakout board, and 10V battery connector is to enhance its timing for the longer period of time. Such components would be added in the wireless remote control to specific the additional characteristics of the device components.

The future plans for the improvement in material components of the device remote control to indicate its competitive edge against in the marketplace existing wireless remote control car. Therefore re-engineering design concept would be formulated in future to obtain the characteristics of the best development of wireless remote control device.

Design schematics

The design schematics provides the indication of engineering design in the development of Lego car with wireless remote control that sure the credibility in performing higher attributes. The design schematics carefully design with its indication parts and functions that consolidated efficient results. Thus the over wireless remote control schematic design gives potential values of racetrack project with the remote device.

Wireless remote control schematic design (Inside car)

IR intensity control  

Design schematics

Wireless remote control schematic design

Character LCD display  
Host micro controller  
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Appendix

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How To Overcome The Accident And Injuries Of The Labor And Employees At The Workplace

Abstract

The rationale of this study is to discover a little of the different aspects that persuade public to injured in the workplace and to overview the ergonomic importance. The study search for to respond the research question, how can we overcome the accident and injuries of the labor and employees at the workplace. The objective is to investigate the statistical data of people who suffered and the responsibilities of the businesses and companies. 

It is imperative to understand that blood is an essential need of human beings. On the other hand, people was injured in accidents and needed to recover by blood donation from someone. For this kind purpose, people always ready for blood donation to injured and hospitalized staff. In this research, we are going to view the ergonomics importance because it is directly related to the employees and labors who are suffering in the duration of performing the duty. One can understand that ergonomics has become the major and important part of the studies. In addition, it is the fact that most of the organizations and businesses are not following the rules and principles of the ergonomics.

On the other hand, the rules and principles of ergonomics are discussed in the below-mentioned articles. All of the five articles are portraying the range and level of ergonomics importance at the workplace.  It is also observed that these mentioned articles are discussing and expressing the essential requirements at the workplaces. The oil and gas industries are the part of the below-mentioned discussion as well.  One can understand that the oil and gas industries have the serious and danger equipment and machinery. Therefore, it is very significant to make things right and safe for the employees and labor at the workplace.

In my perspective, these below-mentioned articles are quite relevant to the dilemma discuss in our project and subject. The articles are representing the objectives and motives of the project. Our motives and objectives are to reduce injuries of mobile staff, factors identification which is helpful in diminishing the problem of injuries and accidents. One of the main objectives is to set the standard method for lifting the weight and heavy equipment.  Also, it is discussed in the below-mentioned article as well.

Literature Review

Perceptions of Ergonomics Importance at Workplace and Safety Culture amongst Safety & Health (SH) Practitioners in Malaysia

In this particular article, authors are focusing on the rules and principles of ergonomics and its importance in the workplace. The authors are trying to convey a real message to the business world that it is very necessary to understand the significance of ergonomics.  It is comprehensive paper, and everything regarding the issue has conveyed. I accept the concept of safety culture element and these are motivation, safety management practice, commitment, and leadership.

The method of collecting data and figures is quite well managed. In my perspective, it is very imperative to understand the role of ergonomics awareness in today workplace. Most of the companies are following the principles of health commission and policies. This article has provided the great ideas and solutions in the light of Ergonomics awareness as well. It is a fact that every company needs to adopt such cultures to resolve the problems at the workplace. On the other hand, the paper is going to deliver all-important information that can use as a reference as well.

This paper has comprehensive information about the thoughts of the people and practitioners in Malaysia. In my perspective, it includes all the relevant material for the course and project information provided.  It has explained the safety health officers are examining the specific solutions to the problems in work environment. It would be helpful in learning the safety measures in an accident and workplaces. In the same way, it would be very helpful for me to learn the upcoming topics in the relevant course as well (Rozlina, Awaluddin, Hamid, & Norhayati, 2012).

Patient transfer skills and safety culture

This paper is about healthcare issues of patients around the world. The patients would be the people who are employees of the different companies. The authors have explained different relevant concern to accomplish the goals of safety cultures in work environment. The authors have made an analysis based on content analysis approach.

 This particular paper, one of the best things is the results, and these results are clearly pointing out the health impact and practice for better health impact. In my perspective, I would like to say that it is the comprehensive article based on safety in the workplace for better employee’s efficiency. It is very imperative to understand that safety at the workplace is quite significant. In this paper, it is analyzed that method to experiment is quite accurate. On the other hand, it is a fact too that most of the employees are getting sick due to the less importance of safety culture in business and practical environment.

In my opinion, it is quite relevant to our course objective and components. It is very important to understand the management to manage the employees. The health of employees is very necessary to point, and it should be for the management of any company. It is obvious that most of the health issues occurred due to the less managed environment for employees, labor, and same goes for our project.

I think this paper would be very effective in the studies of human safety in the workplace. The workplace should be quite comfortable for the employees and safety is very important too. Therefore, it is strongly linked to the course and component of our subject (Hellesø, Nordtug, & Brataas, 2016). 

Ergonomic Evaluation

This particular paper is about to provide understanding the ergonomics evaluation in the recent period. It is also observed that authors tried to explain that efficient performances could not deliver the safe work environment. The authors explained the work stress and injuries related to the work environment. Furthermore, the article simplified the ideas and concepts about a safe workplace.

 The goal and purpose of the paper are to organize the way to live better and perform better in the workplace. The workplace environment should be calm and satisfactory for the people to work. In this paper, it is observed that every organization, like airlines and employees from universities has been discussed. The main purpose is to clear the concept and methods for better work at workplaces.

The effective work and efficient employees require the risk-free environment. On the other hand, it is obvious that ergonomic evaluation is quite necessary for better workplaces. The methods of the research in this paper were interesting, and employees from three firms were selected. In the results, one can observe the different perspectives from the health care department and employees as well.

It is a fact that ergonomic evaluation has been the important aspect in employee’s management and I think this studies and paper will help us in to achieve the specific objects in the course and upcoming topics. On the other hand, it will be beneficial in the understanding of ergonomic evaluation in work environment for better future. Furthermore, the efficiency of employees can occur by better management (Grayson, Dale, Bohr, Wolf, & Evanoff, 2005).

Ergonomic Involvement for Occupational Safety and Health Improvements in the Oil and Gas Industry

This particular paper is about the ergonomic involvement for occupational safety and health improvements in the oil and gas industry. It is imperative to understand that this specific industry also needs to adopt health safety measures for better efficiency in the work of employees. The authors of this paper tried to express the real terms in favor of safe workplace in the oil and gas industry.  

On the other hand, they described the improvement factors too in this regard as well.  In this paper, it is also expressed that employees used to face the heat exposure and they should be communicated to the management how to adopt safety measures. One thing is very important that this industry has various risk factors for the employees and in my perspective; it is a complete and comprehensive paper on the issues of the employees. One can understand the real importance and significance of the ergonomic involvement in workplaces.

It is a fact that workplaces are quite Risky in such industries such as lifting heavy machines and weight could damage the body parts as well.  Also, I would say that this paper has provided the solutions to resolve the matters and problems associated with risk in oil and gas industry.

These points are strongly linked to our course and project. Because our project is about the injuries in the workplace to employees and one can realize the similarity in the context of both contents. In my perspective, this paper would provide us the clear understanding about the ergonomic involvement as well (Kim, 2016). 

Material Handling Equipment Selection: New Classifications of Equipment and Attributes

This paper is about material equipment handling, and attribution of equipment has explained in this regard. It is very imperative to understand that this particular paper has analyzed the 27 articles on the internet about material handling. The authors of this paper have tried to explain the attributes of material handling and equipment handling as well.

On the other hand, it is a fact that types of equipment should be quite friendly to labor and employees as well. The tools, which are not friendly to the labor, could provide harm to the employees on the field.  In my perspective, the companies and industries should realize the importance of the health of employees. It is a fact that significance of the equipment health is necessary too. Also, the management and companies should understand that employees are the backbone and labor should facilitate in every situation as well.

In this particular paper, the great point is the one by one analysis of the equipment and machinery at the workplace. Furthermore, the attributes analysis is done too in the paper and classification of the material handling equipment. Older and newer classification of material handling equipment is comprehensively performed in the paper. In my perspective, the paper is quite helpful for all of us in this particular course.   

One can get a lot of guidance from the paper about material handling equipment. In the same way, the material is quite beneficial in the understanding of our project and accident in the workplace. More importantly, the ergonomics awareness would help us to maintain high standards in future workplaces. The issue of high-risk equipment and accident or injuries in this process would be reviewed (Riopel & Bouh, 2015).   

Research Question: how can we overcome the accident and injuries of the labor and employees at the workplace?

Method

There could be various ways to conduct and organize the research study. In my perspective, the best way to research is using by two prominent methods of the research and those methods are a qualitative and quantitative method as well. The survey research would remain the important part along with focus groups. In additional, it will provide help to understand the major dimensions of the issues at the workplaces. It should be remembered that I am talking about the issues related to the subject of ergonomics. In my opinion, the broad aspects could be uncovered by doing deep studies the attitudes and behaviors of the employees and labor in the workplace.  On the other hand, the visit to different prominent industries could make things clearer in my observation about ergonomics culture. 

Sample Selection

It is very imperative to understand that sample selection is quite a prominent factor in the research studies. The proper age would be from 20 to 35 in my sample selection because, during this age, people used to work in large number. Another great idea would be to reach out the employees from different and diversified industries to observe and review their stances on the issues and ergonomics awareness. On the other hand, I would like to add around four thousand employees for survey responses and replies. Also, around two thousand people or employees would require for focus groups study.

Procedure

The study or survey could not be completed without the authentic 5 to 10 survey questions. These questions would ask from the respondents of the survey inappropriate and real manner. I would like to assure people that survey would not uncover typical response and answer from anyone in the people.  On the other hand, the focus groups would be divided based on ages. Therefore, they can easily represent the ideas and issues in the survey and focus group study.  In my perspective, it would the better way to conduct overall research on ergonomics awareness, along with solutions to the problems in the workplace.

References

Grayson, D., Dale, A. M., Bohr, P., Wolf, L., & Evanoff, B. (2005). Ergonomic Evaluation. Aaohn Journal , 53(10), 450-457.

Hellesø, N. S., Nordtug, B., & Brataas, H. V. (2016). Patient transfer skills and safety culture. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 6, 93-100.

Kim, I.-J. (2016). Ergonomic Involvement for Occupational Safety and Health Improvements in the Oil and Gas Industry. Journal of Ergonomics , 6(3), 1-3.

Riopel, D., & Bouh, M. A. (2015). material Handling Equipment Selection: New Classifications of Equipment and Attributes. Cirrelt .

Rozlina, M. S., Awaluddin, M. S., Hamid, S. H., & Norhayati, Z. (2012). Perceptions of Ergonomics Importance at Workplace and Safety Culture amongst Safety & Health (SH) Practitioners in Malaysia. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering , 1.

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Visualization for Des

Question 1:

Produce  plots of arrays containing the digits of your student ID and your library

borrowing barcode

Solution:

My student Id is 2440064 so we can assume the library borrowing barcode

plot of the this id is in fig file name is question 1.fig

Question 2:

plot the graph for the f , g this also have the specific condition…….?

Solution

The plot of this matlab question is given in file  question 2(a)(b).

Question3:

Question 4

solution

The solution in form of matlab plot is given in file name question 4

Question5:

Can you explain where the number 2^1/3comes from?

solution

when you have to find the plot in the question 4 you can see it the value of it is almost -0.753 so which is lying in between these graph which is draw so that is show very discreetly hen the curve of the integral solution is given in it

Question 6:

Given a particular value for\y at any point, determine the largest interval of existence or integral curve.

solution:

The interval of this integral curve is exist is showing the values of the y and it also depend on the value of the C so which  is depend on the value of dual properties so this is may from the negative infinity to positive infinity but In which depend on the negative two to positive two so this the existence limitation

Question 7:

(i)

so its shows that when we have all the values are not real number so its mean which is not equilbra condition

(ii)

yes its also show that the linerlised for this equilibram equation its also not liner because imaginary solution of this equation doesn,t give the linear solution so which is non linerlized

(iii)

there are manily two types which are linear or non linear so in this solution also some of values are the linear and the other values are the non linear such as in which the 1 is the real number and the imaginary part is showing which is the non linear so these are the classification of this solution.

(iv)

This system can be plot by using the or taking the critical point of this and draw it or plot itor the other method is to draw this by using the to get out the eigen values and draw it and an other method is plot this by using with saddle method.

(v)

if u taking this from the time interval to the infinity and in which we can take this as the interval so which has all the change solution in which so which gives all the values in between the t to infinity

(vi)

after taking the limit aor taking the upper or division is taking in form of X so which is the proof of its solution just like if we are taking limit of X over X so same as done with its gives the proof about it

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Risk Management

  1. True or false document paragraph numbers make good requirement object identification numbers (ROINs)? Explain your answer.

 False

  • Define threshold for performance and threshold for schedule and cost why is the threshold value important?

By Performance threshold are acknowledged variances, (maximum), which are used to evaluate a project or range of projects. For the evaluation, of project, particular metrics are used. Organizations devise these thresholds to evaluate performance, of resources (internal) and evaluation –provides understanding whether resources and systems are performing as per projections.  When these resources violate determined/acknowledged thresholds, the devised system, meant to alert on the violations of threshold, send warnings.

It is evident, from the designs of thresholds, that these thresholds are based on evidence or statistics. If the threshold is regarding performance of resource, evidence/data should be gathered to learn whether performance threshold is violated or not.

Threshold schedule is devised to set upper limits, so that a project can be completed as per schedule. The system sends alarms when these thresholds are violated.

The cost thresholds pertain to the upper-limits set to evaluate sot and to keep in check a cost of project.

  • There is a balance between analysis and using the BOGSAT methodology when quantifying risks. Define the balance between analysis and BOGSAT and why it must be balanced?

Scenario analysis, in which corporate experts with refined expertise scrutinized and analyzed scenarios, through brainstorming, to draw conclusions is identified as BOGSAT methodology (BUNCH OF GUYS SITTING AT THE TABLE). The technique was frequently used during the maturing phase, of corporate system. However, as the system evolved, methodical and structural systems were devised, which had potent instruments and tools.

The contemporary analysis is not just methodical, evidence-based and structural, but also effective. In some cases, BOGSAT methodology has become a constituent of modern analysis.

As BOGSAT is less time consuming and structural; therefore, some organizations prefer it. However, the system is never able to draw less-contradictory conclusions, as it is not evidence-based. Therefore, the balance must be maintained between BOGSAT and analysis. 

  • What does the “Risk Scales” approach provide for risk management?

All economic/corporate opportunities have risk attached to them. Contemporary organizations have developed instruments and tools, which not only asses the size of risk, but also assist in managing and mitigating that risk. Risk Scales approach allow an organization to asses and later develop a scale, which depicts the fluctuation of risk, when certain strategy is applied. This provides organization an opportunity to employ a better strategy to manage and mitigate risk, attached to an opportunity. The entire exercise is evidence-based, which makes it highly potent and effective.

  • Use the back ground information to assist you in evaluating the statement as a risk problem or neither (if not enough information is given to make a determination choose neither) explain why you think if is what you selected.

Background information: if you get three speeding tickets in one year. You lose your driver license. You have not received any speeding tickets as of 10/12/2016.

Statement: on 10/13/2016.  You receive a speeding ticket and you do not yet know what the fine will be?

In the first scenario, a threshold, nature of risk and size of rick are mentioned. For instance, the threshold is three speeding tickets in a year. Therefore, it can be said that there are two thresholds one is regarding the number of tickets and other pertains to time (One year). The nature of the risk is driving license and the size of the risk is losing driving license. Statistical data suggests that none of the thresholds is violated.

The second statement only provides data related to the violation of one of the thresholds; however, we do not have information regarding the size of risk.

  • What is a child requirement not linked to parent requirement called and explain why it is not a good practise?

This practice is not a good practice, as this practice is inherently flawed. The even playing field demands just and impartial practices.

  • Describe the concept of risk rollup and its inherent difficulties?

The roll up risk is a strategy, which is used as an instrument to breakdown risk into smaller entities; this is done with the purpose to better understand risk and to allow economies of scale to mitigate the risk. Inherent flaw is that risk roll up cannot ascertain the realization of objectives.

  • You never take a risk without a commensurate benefit. Explain the concept. Give an engineering example.

Studies suggest that the size of risk, attached to an opportunity influence investor’s/organization’s decision whether to exploit/utilize that opportunity or not. If the size of risk, attached to the opportunity, is greater than the benefit(s) pertaining to that opportunity, then an investor/organization will not utilize that opportunity. For an organization/investor to utilize a corporate opportunity, the size of benefit must be equal to the benefit (at least).

  • There is a gray area with regards to risk/problem identification. What is the gray area and how was the gray area to be handled in class?

The border line between risk and problem is very thin, which is why sometimes it is difficult to distinguish risk from problem. To identify risk and problem, their attributes must be known, as through their attributes, risk and problem can be identified.

.

  1. Describe the difference between a risk and a problem. In the explanation cover several of the major attributes of a risk and a problem. Give an engineering example and justify why you would call it a risk or problem.

As per standard understanding and definition, risk is a potential of gaining or losing, as result of investment. The investment could be of tangible resources, intangible resources or both. With every opportunity, risk is attached. Organizations use various methods to identify the nature and size of risk and the basis of that it takes decision. Risk can only be mitigated and it cannot be eradicated.

Problem is actually and challenge, which could be of any nature. By using effective strategy and instrument, it can be eradicated. However, in corporate realm, to some extent these terms are interchangeable

  1. Define objective value and it represents.

Objective value is defined by the theory of Intrinsic Value, which asserts that value, of any object/service is actually intrinsic; in other words, the value of good or service is contained in product or service itself. This also implies that a good or service is examined and evaluated objectively and the feelings attached to particular good or service do not affect the value, monetary and other, of that good and service. 

  1. When is it allowable to place implementation details in your requirements?

Implementation details are placed, when the risk and problems are identified and instruments, in the strategy, have been devised to mitigate and eradicate risks and problems. Before the identification of risks and problems, management would not be in position to decide whether the opportunity should be availed or not. In addition, before the identification of risk and problem, the nature and size of risk and problem is also not determined; therefore, only after the identification and evaluation process implementation details are allowed in requirements.

  1. Is it good or bad if a parent requirement does not have any children requirements? Explain your answer.

No this not good practice, as it has no validity and relevance. These requirements are impaired requirements, with fewer relevancies.

  1. Evaluate the following for being a quality requirement and provide feedback on how to improve the requirement:  the system will provide a user-friendly display that easily configures the subsystem. (Looking for criteria of quality requirements and other requirement problems)

Most of the systems are based on the trial and error method, which means that they perpetually evolve, as per the requirements. Quality requirement is managed through user-friendly systems, which provide relevant and valid information. If systems fail to function, as per requirements, through feed-back these systems are upgraded or evolved. This is true for both quality requirement systems and also for qualitative requirement systems.

  1. Several examples were provided regarding risk level viewpoints in class. Why might a manager’s view of a risk level (high, moderate, low) be different than an employee’s view of the same risk? Provide an example of risk that might be seen differently by employee and a manager?

It is a fact that at different levels, in an origination, risk is viewed differently. The perception of risk may vary from employee to manager. For manager, whose obligation is implement strategy at tactical level, risk is a cost that must be paid. The instruments can mitigate the cost, but still onus to implement strategy and produce results is immense. For an employee, which is exploited by organizations for specific objectives, results matter less, as the only obligation of an employee is to perform task, as per instructions. For instance, establishing a subsidiary in new market may be a greater risk for a manger than employee.

  1. Explain the “if/then/when” format of writing a risk. Provide an example of a risk your have written in the “if/then/” format (do not use a risk presented in class)

Risk identification, assessment and management use various formats. In these formats critical questions, such as if, then and when are addressed.

If describes a scenario when a threshold, whether performance-cost-schedule, is violated. A strategy is devised, in case any of the thresholds is violated. Therefore, this risk mitigating strategy only becomes valid on the violation of threshold.

Then strategy is employed to mitigate the consequences of violation and to reduce the cost. It also aids system to complete project at new cost and as per new threshold.

Example, if system violates the threshold schedule (the upper limit), then Robust Strategy should be employed, which require additional use of resources to deliver project, as per schedule or with minimum cost.

  1. Use the back ground information to assist you in evaluating the statement as a risk problem or neither (if not enough information is given to make a determination choose neither) explain why you think if is what you selected.

Background information: the date is 9/30/206 and you are taking a risk management course that had a quiz due on 9/21/2016 at 6:29 PM.

Statement: you find a statement form your classmate that says they hope the Internet does not crash on9/21/2016. Other wise they will not be able to turn in their risk management quiz.

The background information provides evidence regarding the project; the quiz was due on 21/9/2016. Statement provides information regarding nature and risk attached to the mean to be used for delivering project. For instance, instrument to be used to attempt quiz is internet. Risk is that it can crash on that particular date. By scrutinizing data regarding crashes, the size of risk can be determined.

18- What makes a risk a test risk? Provide an example of a test risk.

As per abstract understanding of risk, it is an undesirable outcome, which may occur. Therefore, it can be defined as probability/possibility of occurrence of an unwanted or undesirable consequence. Test Risk sorts and evaluates the functionality of the risk, which has the highest impact and probability. As it is not simple to test entire functionality of risk, because the time and other constraints; therefore, highest impact and probability is risk is discerned and tested.

19 – Provide the definition of a risk and your source?

Risk is the potential of gaining and losing, when resources are invested for specific objectives. In other words, Risk is the probability of occurrence of an undesirable outcome. With all opportunities, risk is attached; however, the size of risk varies from opportunity to opportunity (The Economic Times, 2016).

References

The Economic Times. (2016). Definition of ‘Risk’. Retrieved October 24, 2016, from The Economic Times: http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/risk

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Biomaterials

Biomaterials

1) Read the article on the new Ti-Au alloys and answer the following questions.

a) Sketch the unit cell for Ti3Au.

b)  Calculate the atomic packing factor for Ti3Au

Atomic package factor=APF=NparticleVparticle/V unit cell

Atomic package factor=APF=2.4/(Ö3a/4)3 /a3

Body centered cubic=0.68

1+12*1/12=2 atoms/unit cell

APF=2*4/3*3.14 (Ö3a/4)3 /a3

 Volume=0.012mm3 /3= 0.004

APF= 8.37(0.00173)3 /.0043= 0.0000004=0.108

c) Calculate the density for Ti3Au

High VED= Ti-Au bonds

Ti3Au compared to other TiAu alloys

Density, ρ=

n= No. of atoms/unit cell

NA= Avogadro’s number (6.023 x 1023/mole)

Vc=Volume of unit cell

A= Atomic weight

Mass density= 47 g/cm3

d) Draw an accurate sketch and Derive the equation for Braggs Law. Define all terms.Given that d = a/(h^2 + k^2 + l^2)^0.5, derive a new expression of Braggs Law that eliminates the sin theta term.

The imagination of Braggs law demonstrated the view of diffraction of as a reflection of X-ray, that is caused by mirrors of imaginary. The crystal lattice provides the atomic planes shows in the sketch.  The repetitive nature of crystal is that reveals such planes separated by constant distances.

FG + GH = n. λ   

FG = GH

Sin θ = FG / d

Therefore,    FG = d sin θ

Following equation demonstrated

2 d sin θ = n. λ

d = a/(h^2 + k^2 + l^2)^0.5

sin2θ = λ2(h2 + k2 + l2)/4a2

2 d = n. λ

e) Calculate the d spacing for all peaks shown in the XRD pattern for Ti3Au. How can you determine the peaks that gave rise to the XRD peaks?

nλ  = dhkl sinθ + dhklsinθ

nλ  = 2dhkl sinθ             

The calculation of d spacing is calculated by all peaks showing in the XRD pattern for the Ti3Au. The XRD demonstrated by main crystallographic in TEM data.  The phase determination executed towards b-Ti3Au + a-Ti3Au + a-Ti from XRD. The peaks could be determined by rise in XRD peaks to give adequate response. The power X-ray diffraction gives the majority phase beta-Ti3Au along with the minutes of alpha Ti3Au. The investigation of micro structure and its consistency with the x-ray analysis gives the credibility in performing SAD and HRTEM for different crystallographic orientations.

2) Group HW problem (2-3 per team)

Crystal structure models are important in visualizing the unseen. Develop a “sweet” model for the 14 space groups using toothpicks and candy. Is there a crystal structure for sugar? If yes, then build it. If no, why not?

The crystal structure model gives the understanding of the structure in different mechanisms. Yes, the structure of sugar formed in the crystal contains specific atoms of hydrogen, atoms of oxygen and certain atoms of carbon recognized. Such compounds made from the elements, where as sugar is carbohydrate. The development of sweet model dominated the fourteen spaces by using candy and toothpicks to obtain desired results. There is formation of crystal structure for sugar that has shape of crystal. The model of crystal structures is important for the visualization of sugar crystal shape.  


The above figure mentioned the molecules of sugar that are formed in the crystal model to sure the sugar has crystal form to obtain required results. Therefore it helps in formation of crystal model of sugar in essential and adequate way.

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South Africa

How does the rock art in South Africa depict its society, culture, and intentions?

Thesis:

The study of rock art and various other related details depict the level of development among the societies in relation with humanities. My research will help in understanding the cultural development in the Southern African regions and how it correlates with other regional rock arts. There are different sort of variation among the rock art and I want to research that how much the Southern African Rock art is different from other regional rock arts in terms of pictography.

  1. Introduction
  2. History of Rock Art
    1. What makes Southern African Rock Art different from others?
      1. The life of ancient people in the region can be different from the others as the rock arts found in this region are not same in comparison to the other regions.
      1. The South African Rock Art is different from others as it has more pictures and visual representations. This makes rock arts of this region, somewhat superior to others as it has more visuals and this indicate the emphasis on detailing in these people.
      1. Does this tell us that the elements of civilization were more prevalent in these regions in comparison to the others? Because the rock arts are clearly more detailed and give visible information about what the artist want to communicate.
    1. How these Rock Arts were used by those people?
      1. How to interpret these arts as many of the pectoral representations are difficult to understand? It is crucial because many of the shapes are not relevant with the surrounding group of pictures and this halts the flow of communication of information.
      1. What does the Southern African Rock Art depict about those people? This allows us to understand the level of thinking in these people and will help us to develop an understanding about the society they had at that time.
      1. In what different ways these rock Arts were used by those people? Many of the pictures have been repeatedly used which means that there might be different meaning of the same pictures and visuals as well.
    1. How can the Southern African Rock Art be related with the social change in that region during the ancient time?
      1. What were the intentions of the people behind making these Rock Arts? This will guide us to extract some information on the intentions of the people and their motives behind drawing these rock arts.
      1. Do these intentions relate with the modern society or not? As many of the rock arts found do indicate that there were some processes and systems that were used in the society during that time.
      1. What information can be extracted to understand the process and activities of the society at that time? Focusing on the processes and systems that were used during those times will enable us to understand how closely they were related with the modern behavior. 
      1. How were they able to interact with each other using these art forms? This will help us in understanding the level of penetration of the information among all the individuals of the society.
      1. Can this be an important factor in rewriting the history of Southern Africa? As this allow us to understand that the social culture did prevail during that time among the people. 
    1. Emergence of the modern human behavior
      1. What was the meaning of depiction of domestic animals in this art? The Southern African Rock Art has a rich collection of pictures of domestic animals as they used to eat them just like we do.
      1. Depiction of modern human behavior in those people tells us that they love their animals as well because they were used to fulfill their daily requirements of food and shelter which is again pretty similar to us.
      1. How can it be related with the ideology that these Rock Arts proved to be the foundation for the following generations? We have to understand whether this behavior proved to be the basis of the current society that we see in this region. 
      1. Hand printings on the rocks are also found and not much research has been conducted in this area. Do these hand printings mean anything specific?
  3. What is the level of accuracy of these Rock Arts?
    1. What different type of rock arts are used by the ancient Southern African people?
      1. How do they relate these arts? We know that the information was conveyed using these arts but we still need to know how they were able to relate these pictures to the information they intended to communicate.
      1. How accurately were they able to communicate the ideas behind the arts? It is important to understand that how accurately they were able to communicate the ideas using these arts as this will tell us about the level of understanding they had at that time.
    1. What do these pictures meant to them?
      1. What were the emotional and aesthetical feelings they had with these arts? It is crucial and perhaps the most important question to answer this will guide us regarding the social norms of those people.
      1. Do they use similar symbols to represent different emotions? Answering this looks into the complexity of these pictures and their representations. Again this will allow us to understand the level of understanding and interpretation among those people.
    1. How to depict the differences among the same visuals and pictures?
      1. Do any differences exist among similar pictures and visuals? Many of the arts have been repeated on the rocks and there might be different meanings associated with same pictures.
      1. What is the meaning of using the pigments and use of sandstone? Many of the rock arts have been found that have pigments on them and sandstone has been used specifically. Does this mean they have any special meaning associated with them?
      1. How can we use various methods to identify the differences among similar symbols and pictures? It is crucial to understand the prevailing differences among these pictures and visuals as this will provide us details on Southern African people and their level of understanding.
    1. Is there any resemblance in these Rock Arts and the modern society?
      1. What are the major differences between the two? This is building a link directly or indirectly between the modern social behavior and the rock arts of Southern Africa.
      1. How the two can be linked together? Again many of the rock arts found in the Southern African region have somewhat similarities with the modern social behavior and to identify these links will enable us to understand how closely they both are related with each other.
  4. How to interpret the Rock Arts?
    1. Using the modern technology
      1. Geo-electric investigations and the concerning issues
      1. Electric resistivity tomography (ERT)
        1. The benefits of ERT
        1. Other supportive methods and techniques
      1. How to protect and preserve these arts?
        1. What will be the advantage of preserving these arts?
        1. Different techniques that can be used to preserve them?
  5. Differentiating between Rock Arts and non-visuals
    1. The reason behind the issue
      1. Why the visuals have been completely or partially removed? Some of the rock arts that have been discovered are partially or completely rubbed out. Is this done on purpose?
      1. The Southern African Rock Art has taken some toll over time and there were not many measures taken to preserve these rock arts so, this can be a contributing factor to the above question.
      1. Sensory Articulation Techniques and it benefits in solving this issue
      1. Other useful techniques in this regard
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion
Categories
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Aviation Law

Table of contents

1-General introduction about the Aviation Law.. 4

A- The History. 4

B- The reason behind it 6

2- Aviation Accident Laws. 8

A- Personal injuries. 9

1- Treaties or law govern this. 11

2- Disputes. 13

B- Property damages. 14

1- Treaties or law govern this. 19

2- Disputes. 20

C- Death. 21

1- Treaties or law govern this. 24

2- Disputes. 25

3- International aviation Conventions for example. 25

A- Chicago Convention 1944. 26

B- Warsaw Convention. 29

4- The investigation of aviation accidents. 32

A- Article 26 of the Chicago Convention. 36

5- In case of personal injuries, which law could apply? Case from Westlaw.. 37

Aviation Law

1-General introduction about the Aviation Law

Aviation law is a branch of law concerning air travel, non-military personnel air travel and a few territories of a chief of naval operations’ office law. It likewise envelops different legal and business issues. The Federal Aviation Administration regulates all affable flying matters. The International Civil Aviation Organization directs wide-reaching Aviation. This branch of law is viewed as international because of the way of go via air. In the United States, the FAA handles all parts of flight.

The ICAO is an office that is a piece of the United Nations and it sets governs and in addition, intervenes overall matters with respect to Aviation. In the United States, a flying law can be represented and controlled at the government or state level. In many occurrences, it is represented at the government level, however, a few principles at the city level are upheld[1].

A- The History

The principal airplane laws were made in France in the late 1700s. The primary Hague discussion in 1899 set a ban on the utilization of inflatable is in battle. This was not invigorated until the Second Hague meeting. These laws took after the principal hot air expands flight. Universal laws started coming to fruition as hot air inflatables were utilized as a part of wars like the Franco-German war in 1870A condition for a uniform worldwide code with respect to flying emerged in the mid-1900s. This was when fast development noticeable all around travel field was prodding on taking after World War I.

These laws were expected to ensure pilots and additionally implement every single national outskirt as they were toward the end of the Great War. Just before World War I, a couple of countries consented to mutual arrangements to set the lawful status of worldwide air travel. Every nation that battles in the war perceived a requirement for global laws relating to flight. There were a couple of nations that, amid the war, had effectively precluded flights over their property and in their airspace. This made an issue of there being a few contending settlements with respect to air go more than a few distinct nations[2].

The Paris Convention in 1919 built up its own arrangement seeing Aviation and additionally the Ibero-American gathering in 1926 did. The Havana Convention of 1928 likewise built its own particular guidelines for air travel. It turned out to be clear that steadiness must be instituted over the globe when it came to flight law.

When air travel turned into a non-military personnel matter, as well, there emerged the issue of global carrier obligations. Amid the Warsaw Convention of 1929, consistency in global air law, especially as to the obligation of universal aircraft was considered fundamental. It was not until 1945 that the International Air transportation Association was established by 31 nations speaking to 57 carriers.

The International Civil Aviation Organization was likewise begun as a unit of the United Nations, which considered common Aviation. Transporter obligation arrangements were overhauled in 1999 at the Montreal Convention and by 2001, the Cape Town Treaty made a universal enlists for flying machine security interests and those of other substantial and versatile resources. The Tokyo Convention of 1963 established global benchmarks for the treatment of criminal offenses on flying machine[3].

B- The reason behind it

In the United States, the Air Mail Act was authorized in 1925 took after by the Civil Aviation Act of 1938 which was an early type of household air travel control. In 1978, the air transportation industry was deregulated. The FAA or Federal Aviation Agency did not begin until 1958 and it was renamed the Federal Aviation Administration in 1967 after the Department of Transportation was framed.

The British Commonwealth framed its own particular flying control association in 1920 and it likewise sanctioned its Air Navigation and Transport Act. Different nations proceeded all alone all through the historical backdrop of flight law to make their own particular national supervising associations. In Russia, the statement over airspace was made in 1921 and they then shaped the Civil Air Fleet or Aeroflot in 1932. Other socialist countries took after Russia in setting up state-run elements for common air travel. Early non-military personnel air travel was just somewhat controlled.

Japan instituted its own legitimate administration for representing its common flying in 1952. This took after a short ban that happened amid its occupation in World War II. It was additionally exceptionally aggressive. The administration began an administrative framework in 1970 for three aircraft, Japan Air System, All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines. These aircraft minimized rivalry by offering exceptionally managed air tools. Germany framed Interflow in East Germany and the People’s Republic of China shape the Civil Aviation Administration.

Japan, in the end, deregulated its market underweight from the United States. Japan additionally started offering bundled visit airfares that were less expensive and permitted more worldwide voyagers to visit. The US needed to acquaint its more up to date transporters with the Japanese market in the 1980s. It likewise made some new aircraft like Sky mark and Air Do making it less demanding for both countries to cooperate to advance their individual markets.

Aviation law in the United States is not under the same government ward as an office of the chief naval officer law may be. Nevertheless, the US Constitution provides for how the office of the chief naval officer law is managed. It does not clearly take into consideration air travel. For example, a district can uphold a few laws in regards to zoning. That region can manage the hours of air travel or zones where flights can be coordinated.  There are a few laws that can be overseen by the states and different regions, however; these are done in a circuitous way.

The laws of space law administer go outside the climate. The laws are creating in a comparative way to those of Aviation law. State risk laws are not above government laws. Any deformity in Aviation items must be taken care of by the producer inside government wards. A more up to date type of Aviation law is space law. This branch of law is yet being created, as are shuttles and space travel[4].

2- Aviation Accident Laws

Flying Accident Laws relate to the treatment of plane accidents. While going via air is still one of the most secure types of transportation, and plane accidents are greatly uncommon, they do at happening every so often. When they do, this zone of law oversees how the aftermath, both exacting and allegorical, is taken care of.

Federal Tort Claims Act

On a few events, a plane mischance can be brought on by government workers, for example, elected air activity controllers. It can be especially critical in midair crash cases or in mischance where misrouted air movement is to be faulted.  At the point when this happens, one may need to look to the Federal Tort Claims Act. The Federal Tort Claims Act puts forward extraordinary principles and methods for suing a representative of the government[5].

Federal Assistance for Victims of Airplane Accident

The Aviation Disaster Family Assistance Act requires the central government to give backing to groups of casualties in real plane accidents or mischance. It additionally puts certain obligations on the carrier, and points of confinement lawyer sales of plane crash casualties. According to the Act, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) must assign a free philanthropic association to arrange administrations for the calamity survivors. Every day briefings to groups of casualties speaking with remote governments as interpretation administrations Casualty’s families, for example, emotional well-being and directing administrations, giving a place to families to lament without disturbance by the press or lawyers, casualty distinguishing proof and measurable administrations.

The Act additionally requires the aircraft required in the mischance to, in addition to other things, set up a without toll phone line for groups of casualties, recognize all travelers. Loaded onto the flight, illuminate groups of those travelers before the rundown is made open, advise groups of the passing of relatives and help the families in venturing out to the area of the mishap.

A- Personal injuries

Groups of those executed in a plane mischance, and survivors, are for the most part ready to bring a wide exhibit of legitimate cases against the dependable carrier, airplane maker, pilot, or others. Obviously, these cases depend largely after deciding the reason for the mishap, for example, pilot blunder, mechanical disappointments, or deficient parts. Regularly, more than one element may have influence in the mischance, setting off different hypotheses of recuperation and numerous and covering laws and controls identified with different parts of the flying business. These laws are largely like the individual damage and item risk claims one would depend upon in a normal car collision[6].

Should you and your lawyer choose to seek after a lawful case after an avionics mishap, the possibly at risk (legitimately mindful) gatherings can fluctuate contingent upon the reason for the mischance. The proprietor and administrator of an airplane positively might be at risk; producers or upkeep providers might be at risk in specific conditions; even the central government may bear some duty regarding an air ship mishap.

Avionics prosecution is mind boggling, and includes numerous potential speculations of obligation under state, government, and global law. There are a few potential respondents to browse, and various distinctive courts in which a trial may occur. Keeping in mind the end goal to consider somebody legitimately in charge of a flight mishap, the harmed individual (the “offended party”) must demonstrate that the individual dependable (the “respondent”) neglected to meet an industry standard identified with operation of the air ship, building, or certain administrative issues[7].

While the conditions of every flying mischance are constantly extraordinary, by and large cases for individual harm or passing coming about because of an aeronautics mishap are controlled by the lawful hypotheses of carelessness, item risk, or some blend of the two. Also, in light of the fact that air travel is managed by two government organizations, elected guidelines and directions may affect an individual damage assert or the benchmarks of care owed to the casualty of an aeronautics mishap.

Carelessness is the lawful term for the inability to do (or not do) something that a sensible individual would have done considering the present situation, so as to shield others from predictable dangers of mischief. Pilots, carrier upkeep suppliers, and significant aircrafts are among those subject to carelessness claims when a flying mischance happens[8].

Another legitimate precept known as “item risk” alludes to the lawful duty put on makers and dealers of faulty items. In the event that it can be demonstrated that a damaged item some way or another added to an aeronautics mischance, then item risk may permit recuperation against the maker or dealer of the faulty item.

1- Treaties or law govern this

Air France Vs Saks (105 S.Ct. 1338)

Here in this case we see that the petitioner was Air France and the respondent was Saks. The case was decided by Burger Court (1981-1986) in the lower court of United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. However, the case was argues on 15th Jan 1985 and it was decided on 4th march 1985. Describing about the case, we come to know that Warren E. Burger We will hear contentions first early today in Air France against Saks. In the event, you will give us a minute or two here. Mr. Johnson, you may continue at whatever point you are prepared. Stephen C. Johnson Mr. Boss Justice, and may it satisfy the Court, this case turns on the best possible development of a bargain. It likewise includes imperative contemplations of legal restriction under our protected framework in the bargain making process. The arrangement is the Warsaw Convention, the understanding representing it a national flying[9].

This Court considered and authorize the risk roofs under that settlement last term in its Franklin Mint choice. We are requesting that the Court now consider and authorize requirements for that risk under the Convention. As the Court has noticed this arrangement has been essentially now for more than 50 years, and has given stable and universally uniform standards representing global air transportation. There is in any case, now pending an adjusted bundle of corrections to the Warsaw Convention, which have not yet been endorsed by the U.S. Senate. As the Court noted last term, those alterations stay on a… logbook. The dominant part underneath has by and by upon legal fiat authorized one and only of those changes by expelling an essential for bearer obligation for individual wounds under the arrangement as it now stands. In this manner, the dominant part has misjudged the settlement and has improperly meddled with the arrangement making forces of the political branches[10].

For this situation, we request that the Court uphold the arrangements of Article 17 of the bargain. That article builds up as an essential for transporter risk for traveler harm and passing cases the necessity that such wounds or demise be brought on by a mischance. That essential for risk has been all around perceived by the courts. The Third Circuit has legitimately in our view, connected that essential in its De Marines choice by expressing its two fundamental components, to begin with, that there be a mishap, and second, that mischance proximately brought on the harm. The greater part underneath has recognized the prerequisite. In any case, in the pretense of arrangement development, their choice would successfully abrogate that prerequisite by permitting recuperation where a flight has been typical in all regards and no mishap has jumped out at cause the harm.

We presume that obligation under Article 17 of the Warsaw Convention emerges just if a traveler’s damage is created by a startling or irregular occasion or incident that is outside to the traveler. This definition ought to be adaptable connected after appraisal of the considerable number of conditions encompassing a traveler’s wounds. Nor would we be able to get away from our obligation to authorize Article 17 by reference to the condition of “mishap” with “event” in the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The definition in Annex 13 and the relating Convention explicitly apply to airship mishap examinations, and not to standards of risk to travelers under the Warsaw Convention. The judgment of the Court of Appeals is turned around, and the case is remanded for further procedures steady with this supposition[11].

2- Disputes

As of late, the offended parties’ bar progressively has utilized U.S. courts to arbitrate flight assets, regardless of where on the planet the reason for activity may have emerged. courts, particularly for extraterritorial air crashes, and without respect to whether the mischance has any important contacts with the U.S. discussion. As we would like to think, offended parties look for shelter in American courts since they trust an air-crash case will have considerably more noteworthy esteem if disputed in the U.S. as opposed to in the discussion of the mischance in a decedent’s home abroad. Without a doubt, offended parties have turned out to be more forceful in looking for recuperation in U.S. The accessibility of reformatory arms, trial by jury, and the span of decisions, exposure, absence of steady harm tops for noneconomic harms, and the trouble of getting outline judgment in some U.S. state courts all add to the resale of recording in an American discussion.

B- Property damages

The run of the mill classifications of recoverable harms in an individual damage guarantee emerging from a flying mischance include:

•           Past and future therapeutic costs;

•           Lost wages and, lost winning limit

•           Past and future torment and enduring;

•           Emotional trouble;

•           Loss of consortium/affiliation (generally accessible to wedded couples just); and

•           Punitive harms

Every purview will contrast with respect to what harms might be recuperated, and what confirmation is required for every classification. Numerous states additionally force “tops” on specific classes of harms, consequently restricting a potential recuperation. An accomplished flight lawyer can help you pick the best locale and present your harms appropriately, to guarantee that you are genuinely made up for your wounds[12].

Contingent on whether harms are looked for individual damage or property harm, the arrangements utilize distinctive activating dialect. The Warsaw Convention (and the Montreal Convention of 1999) utilized the expression “mishap” as the trigger for recuperation of traveler demise or real damage. The Warsaw Convention utilized the more extensive term “event” as the trigger for recuperation of misfortune or harm to baggage or products, while The Hague Protocol utilized “occasion” for property harm. The fizzled Guatemala City Protocol would have substituted “occasion” for “mishap”. The plain meaning of these terms proposes that the drafters expected smaller dialect activating recuperation for individual harm than property harm[13].

The expression “mischance” has brought forth much suit. It appears to be odd that it would. Any kid on a play area can recognize a harm brought on by a “mishap”, versus one created deliberately, or “purposefully.” A kid who inadvertently trips another evokes one kind of cry from the harmed youngster. A youngster who purposefully trips another evokes a more honed, and to a greater degree an ear-splitting reaction, and occasionally a fight. In lay speech, a mishap is something done unintentionally, not deliberately. A mischance could be created by carelessness, yet it could likewise be either brought about by exercises without blame or agreed to, for example, harsh play. In football, a kick by one player of the shin of another could be either incidental or deliberate, and the conditions of the occasion would impartially uncover whether the kick was a “mischance” or “intentionally.” In legitimate speech, the expression “mishap” has developed into something unique.

In Abramson v. Japan Airlines, 10 the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit tended to a case brought against Japan Airlines for its refusal to seat him in the top-notch compartment on a flight from Anchorage to Tokyo. He experienced a par esophageal haital hernia. His significant other requested that a flight orderly move the offended party to a place where he could set down and knead his stomach to prompt spewing, and afterward she reacted that there were no vacant seats; truth be told, there were nine exhaust situates in the top of the line compartment. The offended party guaranteed that her refusal to help him disturbed his damage.

In Air France v. Saks, the U.S. Incomparable Court denied recuperation to a traveler who endured deafness as an aftereffect of a normal depressurization amid landing. The Court found that damage to her inward ear was brought on by sinus issues inside to her as opposed to by anything surprising about the flight. As indicated by Justice O’Connor, a “mischance” under Article 17 “emerges just if a passenger’s damage is brought about by a sudden or uncommon occasion or event that is outside to the traveler. This definition ought to be adaptable connected after evaluation of all conditions encompassing passenger’s injuries.”

Burke v. Pan American World Airways (484 F.Supp. 850)

This case of U.S. Area Court for the Southern District of New York on February 19 1980 Here the guards are PAN AMERICAN WORLD AIRWAYS, INC., KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, and the Boeing Company v. Martha BURKE, Plaintiff. The District Judge for this situation was ROBERT J. WARD. Respondents KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (“KLM”) and The Boeing Company (“Boeing”). The sole outstanding litigants, move for rundown judgment in accordance with Rule 56(b), Fed.R.Civ.P. Then again, litigants look for rejection of the grievance according to Rules 12(b) (6) and 12(h) (2), Fed.R. Civ.P. For the reasons hereinafter expressed, the movements are allowed and the dissension is expelled[14].

Offended party Martha (“Burke”) is the surviving twin sister of Margaret Fox, a 851 traveler executed in the March 27, 1977 crash between a Pan American World Airways, Inc. (“Container Am”) Boeing 747 air ship and a KLM 747 air ship on the air terminal runway at Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Burke sues not for the wrongful passing of her sister, She then indicates to have felt, at the exact time of the Tenerife crash, a difficult blazing sensation inside her mid-section and stomach area, and impressions of being “split” and of void “like a dark opening” inside her body. [2] but instead for her own particular physical and enthusiastic wounds supposedly supported while at home in California through “extrasensory compassion” at the season of her twin’s demise. In particular, Burke affirms that not long after she stirred on the morning of March 27, 1977 at her home in Fremont, California, she started to feel apprehensive and irritate. Later in the day, she heard that one of the planes was her sister’s and that her sister was missing and assumed dead. She claims that she knew then that her twin sister, who was voyaging abroad, had by one means or another kicked the bucket. After a hour, she heard that two planes had crashed at the Tenerife airplane terminal.

In Dillon, the Supreme Court of California held that a mother who had seen her youngster is being struck and slaughtered by a vehicle because of the driver’s charged carelessness could express a reason for activity for her subsequent physical and enthusiastic wounds. Nevertheless, to shield respondents from potential unending obligation, the Dillon court explicitly constrained the reason for activity to cases in which the damage to the offended party was “sensibly predictable,” as characterized by the accompanying particular elements to be connected by courts to the conditions of the individual case:

(1) Whether offended party was situated close to the scene of the mischance as appeared differently in relation to one who was a separation far from it. (2) Whether offended party and the casualty were firmly related, as appeared differently in relation to a nonattendance of any relationship or the nearness of just an inaccessible relationship. (3) Whether the stun came about because of a direct passionate effect upon offended party from the tangible and contemporaneous recognition of the mischance, as appeared differently in relation to taking in of the mishap from others after its event[15].

Applying these components to the conditions of the moment case, the Court observes that Burke’s claimed wounds were not sensibly predictable. She was not present at the scene of the 852 crash, either right now of the mishap or amid its consequence. Undoubtedly, at all-important times she was in California, a great many miles from the Canary Islands. Offended party meets Dillon’s cozy relationship necessity in that the casualty was her twin sister, yet she doesn’t fulfill both of the extra criteria. Burke has refereed to no case managing a reason for activity where the offended party never showed up at the mischance scene; to the extent this current Court’s autonomous research has uncovered, the California courts have consistently denied recuperation under such conditions. See Hoyem v. Manhattan Beach City School District, supra; Hair v. District of Monterey, supra; Powers v. Sissoev, supra; Deboe v. Horn, supra[16].

Burke seems to battle that her wounds were predictable in light of the fact that agony sharing between twins is a recorded wonder. Offended party here neglects to meet two of the three necessities of the characterized rules. This contention disregards the particular rules for deciding predictability set up by the California courts to shield respondents from obligation for the “remote and sudden.” Dillon v. Legg, supra, 68 Cal. 2d at 741, 69 Cal. Rptr. at 81, 441 P.2d at 921. She along these lines neglects to express a reason for activity under California law. As needs be, respondents’ movements are conceded and the objection is rejected[17].

1- Treaties or law govern this

A claim for harms because of flying machine commotion is normally attested alongside a “takings” assert (activity in converse judgment) as option hypotheses for a cure. The takings claim is important if the air terminal’s safeguard is that it has an aviation easement. Two milestone U.S. Incomparable Court choices built up obligation for flying machine clamor. In the 1946 instance of United States v. Causby (328 U.S. 256) the court held that the U.S. government was at risk to property proprietors for commotion because of military airplane. Now and again courts incline toward a takings hypothesis; indeed, in a few expresses the meaning of an administration taking of property (for the most part in the state’s constitution) incorporates harm much the same as annoyance.

At that point in 1962 because of Griggs v. Allegheny County (369 U.S. 84, 82 S.Ct. 531) the court extended the Causby run to neighborhood airplane terminal proprietors by means of the fourteenth Amendment. Different state courts have held that air terminals, pilots, or airship proprietors (counting carriers) are at risk for clamor harms. The California Supreme Court has been especially clear on the subject of obligation. 

2- Disputes

In the USA 58 common cases with respect to business flight debate can be recorded in United States government court where the dissension shows an elected question, or there is assorted qualities locale in light of the sum in contention and the living arrangements of gatherings. If there should be an occurrence of rupture of agreement, individual harm, and property harm cases might be documented in state court, the length of they are not appropriated by government enactment or global arrangements to which the United States is a gathering. Most business common flight debate can be heard in state court or in government court if the differing qualities test is met. In question because of the chapter 11 of a gathering, such a case would be tended to in government liquidation court[18].

Criminal accusations are be documented in circumstances including traveler impedance with the flight group or airship, fear monger acts, corporate impropriety bringing about damage or demise, or the fare of the airplane or their parts infringing upon the United Nations trade control or outside approvals law. In the USA, criminal accusations are occasionally documented about business flying debate, aside from infrequent where there has been unlawful share exchanging for reputation held carriers or flying machine/parts makers or adulteration of records[19].

C- Death

Rudisaile v. Hawk Aviation, Inc (462 Pa. 83)

A case displayed in the Supreme court of New Mexico, on 14 February 1979. However the hearing was denied on March fourteenth 1979 in the candidate list individuals were Palmer and Frost, Reed L. Ice, John E. Schindler, Farmington, Byrd, Davis and Eisenberg, Tom H. Davis, George M. Fleming, Austin, Tex and the respondents were Tansey, Rosebrough, Roberts and Gerding, Byron Caton, Farmington. The senior Justice there was McManus. Here Barbara J. Rudisaile really concocts a wrong passing activity against HAWK Aviation Inc with respect to the demise of her significant other.

The trial court sitting without a jury found for offended party and granted $235,000.00 in harms. 176 Defendant requested and the Court of Appeals switched. This activity emerged from a plane mischance which happened on September 30, 1974 close Farmington, New Mexico. Respondent possessed and worked a FAA confirmed field operation at the Farmington Municipal Airport. We allowed offended party’s request of for a writ of certiorari and now turn around the Court of Appeals.  Offended party’s decedent, Dr. Rudisaile, was a qualified pilot and the sole tenant of a Piper Cherokee 140 E, which he leased from litigant[20].

On September 30, 1974 Alan Hawkinson, litigant’s acting flight teacher, flew the Cherokee 140 E on three separate flights. After the third flight, Hawkinson conveyed the flying machine to Mr. Dr. Rudisaile was in contact at the workplace of respondent, talked with Hawkins on, and continued to the flying machine. Dr. Rudisaile took the log book from Maxwell, moved into the airplane, began the motor, and navigated to the runway. Maxwell, one of respondent’s workers, for a booked oil and oil channel change. Maxwell depleted the oil and supplanted the oil channel, yet he neglected to recharge the oil. Maxwell did, nonetheless, make a passage into the air ship motor log book that the oil channel and oil had been changed. The specialist did not make the standard pre-flight check of the flying machine before take-off.

He cleared out the Farmington Airport at around 3:36 p.m. what’s more, smashed a couple of minutes after the fact. Segment 402A was reached out to lessors in Stang v. Hertz Corporation, supra. In Stang, Hertz Corporation was held entirely subject for passing’s coming about because of a tire victory. The tire, mounted with past effect harm, was esteemed to be nonsensically hazardous. This Court expressed:

Inasmuch as the bailor is in the matter of renting then he will be held to an indistinguishable standard of care from a maker or retailer for the insurance of the buyer. We cannot help contradicting this basis. As we would see it, the Court of Appeals has considerably changed the importance of “deformity” as characterized by § 402A and existing case law. The Court of Appeals, in holding that the regulation of strict risk did not make a difference to this case, contemplated that the plane was not “blemished” on the grounds that “the plane leased to the decedent had no covered up or inert imperfections which couldn’t be found by *177 the practice of sensible care[21].

The article sold must be risky to a degree past that which would be mulled over by the customary shopper who buys it, with the conventional information regular to the group as to its attributes.  The sensibility of the demonstrations or exclusions of the offended party is never considered in figuring out if an item is “inadequate.” It is the supposition of this Court a plane rented without oil in the motor is perilous past the desires of the common customer. As these cases demonstrate, to demonstrate obligation under § 402A the offended party require just demonstrate that the item was perilous past the desires of the common purchaser. In this way, the item is “imperfect” inside the importance of § 402A, and litigant is entirely at risk for all subsequent harms.

Ordinary contributory carelessness is not a certifiable barrier to strict risk. Bendorf, supra. See likewise Jasper v. Skyhook Corporation, 89 N.M. 98, 547 P.2d 1140 (Ct.App. 1976), rev’d on different grounds, Skyhook Corp. v. Jasper, 90 N.M. 143, 560 P.2d 934 (1977). “[C]ontributory carelessness, as a safeguard to strict obligation in tort, ought to be restricted to those situations where the offended party deliberately and preposterously experiences a known hazard. (Commentary excluded.)” (Emphasis included.) Berkebile v. Brantly Helicopter Corporation, 462 Pa. 83, 337 A.2d 893 (1975). Bachner v. Pearson, 479 P.2d 319, 329-30 (Alaska 1970). The presence of due care with respect to the customer is superfluous.  178 For this situation, the record demonstrates that Dr. Rudisaile didn’t know that the plane had no oil in the motor before he took off. His inability to find the nonattendance of oil is not a safeguard to strict obligation[22].

1- Treaties or law govern this

The issue of whether enthusiastic harms are recoverable has since a long time ago beset precedent-based law courts. The statute on this issue mirrors a few noteworthy concerns: that enthusiastic mischief can be pretended, or envisioned; and some mischief is the value we pay for living in a mechanical society; passionate harms are hard to quantify, and unconstrained obligation could hinder modern and financial development. In spite of the fact that a liberal control was made for the recuperation of physical harm no such “think mind” lead developed for passionate mischief. At an early stage, no recuperation was taken into account passionate damage.

To get around their incredulity of pretended cases of passionate mischief, a few courts have demanded that, keeping in mind the end goal to recoup for enthusiastic damage random to physical damage, there must, in any case, be a physical appearance of enthusiastic damage (e.g., hair dropping out, hives, and shingles). For instance, for a situation including a mother’s enthusiastic damage happening when litigant carelessly slaughtered her kid on the expressway, the court denied recuperation on grounds that something else “obligation completely out of extent to the culpability of the careless tortfeasor. Would put absurd tons of the thruway, open the best approach to fake cases, and enter a field that has no sensible or quite recently ceasing point[23].

2- Disputes

Notwithstanding a common claim against people or elements for bringing about an aeronautics mischance, the administration may likewise seek after criminal assets. Despite the fact that the groupings and points of interest may change between them, most states force criminal endorses on pilots for rash direct that prompts harm, demise, or property harm. Both the national government and individual states can force criminal authorizes in cases including avionics. 

The airship, proprietors/administrators, and business carriers are directed by flight law. Most avionics law is government, despite the fact that states can authorize some of their own laws identified with air travel. Avionics laws are planned to look after security. Overstepping a flying law may prompt criminal assets. There are a few things identified with avionics that could constitute a criminal offense. For instance, if a business career deliberately and reliably neglects to conform to directions, the administration could seek after criminal allegations. Different cases incorporate a pilot who utilizes medications or liquor preceding flying. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Transportation Board (NTSB) are the two most applicable players in government avionics law.

3- International aviation Conventions for example

The international aviation conventions play an important role in the regulation of the aviation industry. The rules and the regulation are important to govern the industry in an appropriate manner. Therefore, the need for such conventions is recognized in the recent and old times. The participations of the people from different occupations, particularly, the engineers and other people contribute and provide important information and developments in that regard. Such contributions have the huge share in the progress of the overall aviation industry and its impact. Several aviation conventions are held every year, however, the convention of 1944 is the focus of the study[24].

             This convention is the Chicago convention on the international civil aviation. The convention was quite important in order to thrust the regulatory developments in the aviation industry. The convention established the international civil aviation organization that is quite specialized for the agency of the US. The agency is quite professional in making regulations and establishing the standards for the development of the civil aviation in the country. Thus, this organization and the convention were very important in the history of the civil aviation. The convention was signed on December 7th of 1944. The convention was held in the Chicago. The condition of the convention is consisting of 26 ratifications.

 The depository of the convention was the Government of the Unite States of the America. The language used in the conventions was multiple. The multiple languages used in the conventions were English, French, Spanish and Russians. The use of the English languages was a better idea that supports the participation of the multiple people in the connections. The convention played a key role in the establishment of the rules and regulations for the air aviation that include rockets, planes, and the exemptions of the commercial air fuels exemptions  from the taxes. Moreover, the regulations regarding the airspace and aircraft registration were also employed in that regard.

A- Chicago Convention 1944

Articles in the conventions:   

The convection contains different articles. The total numbers of the articles in the conventions are forty. These articles shed light on the principles and the rules and regulations that required governing the aviation industry in an appropriate manner. The article explains that every country has complete sovereignty. This sovereignty can be challenged by any other country. Each country has the right to explore the space and initiate its own aviation missions and practices. It was established in the convention that the lifting of the air arms in the commercial aircraft is strictly prohibited. If someone found guilty in that incident, he/she must be given the penalty for that purpose. All countries have to abide by the regulations in that regard[25].

  The flights have a right to make landings on the land of other territories without seeking any permissions. Therefore, it can be said that the complete freedom will be given in that regard. The landing and the departure of the airplanes will be subject to govern by the governments and the passengers will be given state of the art services. The passengers will be given the busy support in that regard. Similarly, other regulations provide large amounts of detail in that regard. These details are important to understanding the aviation patterns in the world that are established to support the aviation in the world. Thus, it must be remembered that the role of such aviation is quite important in that realm[26].

Annexes in convention:

            Same as the articles in the convention, the annexes were also provided in the convention. These annexes are important in order to understand the role of the convention in the betterment of the aviation industry. The annexes are provided in varying disciplines. For instance, the personnel licensing, rules for the air and aviation industry, international navigation and other charts were also provided. Awareness of the aircraft and mechanics were also important considerations in the annexes. It was made sure that such annexes must incorporate the best practices that ultimately lead to the betterment of the passengers that are obliged to the flight in the planes. The mutual agreement of the panel of the participants was an important factor in that realm. 

            Thus, it can be concluded that other aspects in the annexure were also important that focuses on the navigation panels and the flying experience. Safety management and the dangerous management is also an important function in that regard. Therefore, the security and the safety is an important faction that cannot be overlooked. Therefore, clause sins the annexure exclusively focuses on the role of the security and the safety for the ultimate benefit of the passengers. This important and integral element cannot be eliminated in that regard. The consideration of the safety was an important element in that regard. The management of the air traffic search and rescue was an important consideration in that regard. Therefore, it must be considered that such clauses were developed in the convention for the best interest of the users. 

Outcomes:

            The outcomes of the conventions were very favorable. However, the criticism was also posed by the stakeholders. The major criticism was considered regarding the exemption of the taxation on the fuels that were used in the jets regarding the passengers’ jets. There were two schools of thoughts. One school of thought said that it is quite necessary to have the exemption on the fuels that are being used in the jets. Other says that this is the burden on the economy. The exemption of the taxes is not the right solution in that regard. The taxes must be exempt in order to provide relief to the public in all of its aspects. Thus, it can be said that the role of the taxation was an important factor that cannot be neglected at all[27].

The issue of the taxation was also led to the parliament in the UK and debate was given that the exemption is not right. Moreover, 10 billion Euros are going to the subsidiary for the public. This is a huge amount and it should review that whether this subsidy is needed to be provided or not. Recently, in 2014, the European Union emission trading scheme called this inclusion of the tax as an evil step in that regard. This is called illegal and not need to be included in the process. Thus, it can be concluded that such kind of initiatives taken by the conferences was an important factor to be considered. Besides the criticism, the convention included positive attributes for the passengers and the aviation industry. Therefore, it can be concluded that the role of this convention is very important in shaping the current situation of the aviation industry. The modern aviation organization also reviews this convention in order to make necessary guidelines that are beneficial for the aviation traveling as a whole.

B- Warsaw Convention

The Warsaw convention was also related to the aviation matters. The war saw convention was signed to safeguard the international air carriage.  The rules and regulations were established in order to promote the persons, goods, luggage and other aviation material and substance by the aircraft. The convention was signed on October 29th, 1929. The convention was effective to form the February 13thg, 1933. The total number of parties involved was 152. The depository of the convention was Government of Poland and the language was French. The convention was established in order to set up the liability in the aviation industry. The liability was signed in the international carriage law[28].

 The cat is also an important inclusion in the aviation industry. This act is regarded as the classic convention that contributes positively to the safety of the carriage infusing the passengers. Therefore, the convention has great importance in the history of the aviation. The safe delivery of the passengers and the carriage is the necessity of the time. Thus, it can be concluded that the convention is quite important to reflect upon the safety and other needs. The convention and the conferences include several clauses and the context that sheds light on the definition of the security of the luggage and passengers in the realm of air traveling. Thus, it is important to keep a focus on the role of the luggage and the carriers that are needed in the realm of the air safety[29].

  It was also noted that at the initial stages of the convention, the government officials of the different nations were reluctant to participate in the convention due to its hasty announcement. However, later on, the participation was substantial. The first conference was composed of the diplomats from the French government that are united together to form a committee to talk on the liabilities of the air carriage act that is going to be signed in the convention. The convention was composed of five chapters that elaborate the definitions of the contents, documentation of the carriage, luggage and other belongings as well as the liability of the carrier. Moreover, provisions of the relating combined carriage as well as general and final provisions were also provided. Therefore, major liabilities were provided in that realm[30].

 It was also mentioned that the principle place for the business and domicile of the Carriage along with the place of the business and place of destination was also mentioned in that regard. These things are important and needed to be Carrie out in an appropriate manner. The conventional regulations explicitly sate that the planes are responsible for any damage that is pout on the belongings and the plugging of the passengers in that regard. Therefore, the airplane management is responsible for figuring out the damage and making arrangement sin order to compensate the passengers. However, it is to be noted that this damage is subject to the passenger’s own fault. If the damage is imposed on the passengers due to his/her own fault, then it will not be imposed on the management of the aircraft carrier[31]

 In that particular situation, the passenger will be responsible for this damage. This will not be the liability of the management of aircraft to bear the damage of the passengers, which are inflicted due to passenger’s own fault. The clauses were also included regarding the treatment of the passengers. If the airplane is carrying the patients, this is quite important and necessary that the doctor must call the captain of the ship to seek attention. This is an important rule that was mentioned in the Warsaw convention. This is importunate for the patient safety and subsequent health issues that are to be dealt in that realm[32].

            The responsibility lies on the shoulders of both the passengers and the management. Both entities show responsibilities towards the management of the luggage, items and other belongings that are necessary in order to carry. The passengers also make complete arrangements in order to make sure the luggage is an appropriate condition. Moreover, the management of the plane also put maximum efforts to make sure that the right efforts are delivered in that realm. The mutual obligations are responsibilities ate the most important aspect in that regard. Thus, it can be concluded that this act is regarded as the one of the most important act in the history of the air aviation. This is considered as classic and very important in that regard. Different aviation authorities today, review this conventional act and take guidelines in that regard.

4- The investigation of aviation accidents

The aviation history is filled with large number of the accidents. These accidents were occurred with the human and technical faults and the role of the weather conditions was important in that regard. Therefore, the history cannot be forgotten it is very important to make sure that the history is needed to learned, as important conclusions are needed to drawn. The accidents resulted in large number of deaths and human losses. Therefore, these accidents paved the way for further research and development in the aviation industry to make air craft’s that are safe and more prone to the safety of the passengers[33].

            Aviation accidents are defined by the convention on international civil aviation. The annex 13 is associated with the operation of an aircraft. This is defined as the place that a pilot takes off the plane and embarked to get out of the plane. If the man gets injured and or fatally ill, this is known as the accident. The aircraft sustained damage and the pilot faces injuries in those incidents. The structural failure plays an important role in that regard. Thus, it is very important for focus on such issues in a larger context. One must adhere to the conditions that take place in the occurrence of the accidents in that context[34].

            The airplane is destroyed and malfunctioned to a state that ultimately leads to accident that is not recoverable. Such incidents affect the safety of the operations. Therefore, extreme precautionary measure is needed in order to reduce the impacts of such incidents. In history, there are large numbers of fatal incidents that are recorded and need to be investigated in all of its aspects. The first aviation accident was witnessed in the Roziere balloon near the area Wimereux. The accidents were happened on June 15th 1785. The plane killed its pilot and the injury was fatal in that regard. Second accident in the history of the aviation took place in 1908. It was happened on September 1908. The following sections will cover the major incidents in the history of the aviation. It is not possible to cover the entire accidental history of the aviation. However, important incidents are discussed in that section. 

Tenerife disaster

            This incident was occurred on March 27th of 1977. This was the most terrible accident in the history of aviation industry. The passengers killed in the accidents are considering as the most number of people killed in the history of aviation. It that accident the accident the booing 747 and the Pan am 747 collided with each other and this was the most disastrous accidents in the history of the humankind. There was no survivor in those accidents. The total number of dead passengers was 396 passengers and this is the most number of people killed in any aviation accident. Pilot error was the reason behind that accident and such kind of fatality cannot be ignored at all. 

            The fog impact was also an important factor that resulted in those collisions. The fog affected as makes it possible for the planes to fly in a right direction that resulted in that collision.  This incident has tremendous impact on the aviation industry. The aviation industry standards changed forever. The scale of the destruction was so overwhelming that the aviation industry decided to make rules and regulations to make the travelling safe and secure for the passengers. The rescue operation was also delayed that also contributed to the increase in the death toll. Thus, the life loss in that accident was tremendous as cannot be ignored at all[35].

JAL Flight 123

            This was the crash of the Japanese accident that occurred on August 12th, 1985. The accidents were also fatal and lot of death was recorded in that incident.   This incident is regarded as the highest numbers of fatalities in the single incident of a single aircraft. The incident was occurred due to the explosive decomposition of the repaired aft pressure bulkhead. The vertical stabilizer was damaged and the passenger was not able to escape from the explosion. It was also witnessed that the pilots were able to make the airplane in flying conditions after the identification of the malfunctioning of the plane. However, they were not aware that the plan has been crashed and there were no survivor in that regard.

1996 mid-air collision

            This accident was occurred on November 12th, 1996. This accident is considered as the world’s deadliest collision in the mid of the air. The collision was occurred in India. The flight 763 and the flight 1907 were collided in the air and the disaster occurred. The accident was occurred due to the flying of the aircraft that was flying at the low altitude. Therefore, such accident occurred and killed most of the people in the air. There were 349 passengers on the boat that all were killed in the collision. Therefore, this incident is considered as the most dangerous and disaster accident in the history of the aviation. 

Other

            The above mentioned are the most horrific accidents that were witnessed in the course of the history. These incidents played a major role in the occurring of the fatalities that influenced the humanity. These accidents belong to different countries. These countries include China, Russia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and lot of other countries. The major reasons behind these accidents were the faults of the pilots, faults of the aviation crews and the faults of the pilots as well. Te mechanical faults also played an important role in that regard. These incidents affected the whole aviation industry and the standards changed in that regard[36].

            The more rigorous and better standards were followed in that aspects and the measured were taken in order to improve the overall situation of the aviation industry. The possibility of the accidents in the aviation industry cannot be ignored at all. However, strict and rigorous actions are needed in order to prevent these accidents in future. Therefore, it can be said that the role of such accidents are quite important and cannot be neglected at all. The possibility of these accidents exists and one cannot expect that such possibilities will be removed in future. Therefore, careful attention is required in order to remove such faults in the aviation.

A- Article 26 of the Chicago Convention

The article 26th of the convention explicitly states that the steps that are initiated in order to promote the safety and related issues. Therefore, it can be said that this article exclusively deal with the safety and related issues. The article explicitly states that the country with which the accident is occurred will be responsible for the management of the accident. The defect could be the technical and accidental that can be accrued in that regard. The technical issues are most important issues in that regard. The accidents that will be occurred in the area of a certain state will be responsible for the handling of such incident[37].

            The issue will be resolved with help of the civil aviation of that organization. Thus, it is an important consideration in that regard.  The registration of the aircraft carrier is an important issue. The aircraft carried that will be registered in a particular state will be responsible in that regard. The state holding that geographical area will be responsible in that regard. Thus, it is quite important for the sake of the aircraft and the country of respective plane in order to resolve that issue.

 The article 26 is very clear about the happening of any aviation accident and its subsequent handling of the issue. The state will thoroughly inquire about the accidents that were occurred in the state and will be responsible for the management of that issue. Thus, it can be concluded that this article was very important in the realm of the management of the accident in the aviation industry in an exclusive context. This is important and cannot be neglected in all of its. 

5- In case of personal injuries, which law could apply? Case from Westlaw

In the context of the west law aviation, the law is the only comprehensive aviation law and resource available to date. The law is available in the loose leaf and this is the source of the commentary in the civil aviation prosecution of the New Zeeland. The law is important in order to include the commentary as well as the review of the rights in the civil aviation that are introduced accordingly. The law is important to provide the rules and regulations that are important in the aviation and that focuses on the operations of the flights and the airplanes. The penalty imposed on the law is dependent on the case of aviation and the resulting injury. This depends on the pursuance of the legal claim that is entitled in that particular case.

            The role of the aviation injury is complex and legislation provides different meanings in that regard. Therefore, it can be said that the role of investigation is important and two fold. Several important defenders are available to defend in that realm. Thus, it can be concluded that the role of such defenders are the most important factor that decide the compensation that should be given or not. In some cases, the remuneration is given equally to the cost of the entire luggage that is expired in the process of the accident and not recovered by the passenger. Thus depends upon the situation[38].

Conflict in the Investigation between countries 

            The major conflict in the countries is based upon different factors that include the boundaries of the country and the conflicting parties involved. Therefore, the main contributing factor in that regard is the consideration of the liabilities. The liabilities that are imposed on both countries are based on several factors that are injustices, litigations, wrong policies and mistrusted investigations. Moreover, other conflicting factors include distrust, flawed data and flawed research. In addition, delayed data and missed opportunities are also included. Therefore, these are the most important and main conflicting attributes that contributes in the occurring of the injuries in that regard.

 Destruct is an important factor that prevails in the countries based on the decision of the accidents that took place in the particular territory. The countries are involved in the dispute that whether the aircraft was crashed in the particular area or the geographical region. The countries have to decide within which area the incident occurred. Moreover, distrust is also a factor. The distrust among the countries leads to the disturbance in the investigation process.   The process is led to the distortion and the real victims of the incidents may leave without proper investigation[39]

 They are not provided the right amount of the remuneration that is needed to pay in that regard. Injustice also plays a role in the process. The parties involved in the incidents may secure their personal motive sand the real victims of the incidents are left without any justice. Thus, it can be concluded that the injustice is an important factor that contributes in that regard.  The justice must be served and the people involved in the process should not let with the void in the justice precautions. Therefore, it is important in order to serve the justice. The provision of the flawed data is also provided in order to serve the wrong justice in that regards. The flawed data ultimately leads to the disruption of the accidental investigation in the aviation industry. Therefore, these major and important issues must be considered in order to make sure that the right elements are provided in those realms. In a case of any negligence in the above-mentioned factors may lead to the abruption of the entire investigation and resulting conflicting situation in the countries. Thus, these must consider in order reaching the desired level[40].

 The overall flawed research also contributes to the process of the conflicts among the countries to reach the specified conclusion that is beneficial in the research process. Thus, it can be said that the role of the effective research process is integral in that regard. The research process must follow all elements that are important in order to initiate the effective research investigation that is being carried out in such a manner that is important for the investigation of the aviation incidents briefly. Thus, it can be concluded that the role of cooperation in the research process is important and one must adhere to the core requirements of the elements that are essential in order to carry out that research.

Reference

Brian F. Havel, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press.

Das, K. P., & Dey, A. K. (2016). Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents. Physica A , 345–355.

Dowling, R. L. (1940). The Blue Book of American Aviation; Who’s who in the Industr. the University of California.

Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

Havel, B. F., & Sanchez, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press.

Huang, J. (2009). Aviation Safety Through the Rule of Law: ICAO’s Mechanisms and Practices. Kluwer Law International.

Itani, N., O’Connell, J. F., & Mason, K. (2015). Towards realizing best-in-class civil aviation strategy scenarios. Transport Policy , 42–54.

Larsen, P. B., Gillick, J., & Sweeney, J. (2012). Aviation Law: Cases, Laws and Related Sources: Second Edition. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

law.justia.com. (1980). Burke v. Pan American World Airways, Inc., 484 F. Supp. 850 (S.D.N.Y. 1980). Retrieved October 14, 2016, from http://law.justia.com: http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/484/850/1431627/

Law.justia.com. (1979). Rudisaile v. Hawk Aviation, Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2016, from http://law.justia.com: http://law.justia.com/cases/new-mexico/supreme-court/1979/12214-0.html

Leloudas, G. (2013). Risk and Liability in Air Law. Taylor & Francis.

McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

Molesworth, B. R., & Estival, D. (2015). Miscommunication in general aviation: The influence of external factors on communication errors. Safety Science , 73–79.

NDIKUM, P. F. (2013). ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF INTERNATIONAL AVIATION LAW. WestBow Press.

Oyez.org. (2016). Air France v. Saks. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from https://www.oyez.org: https://www.oyez.org/cases/1984/83-1785

Pearson, M. W., & Riley, D. S. (2015). Foundations of Aviation Law. Ashgate Publishing.

Speciale, R. (2010). Fundamentals of Aviation Law. McGraw Hill Professional.

Walker, T. J., & Walker, M. G. (2014). The role of aviation laws and legal liability in aviation disasters: A financial market perspective. International Review of Law and Economics , 51–65.


[1] Dowling, R. L. (1940). The Blue Book of American Aviation; Who’s who in the Industry. the University of California.

[2] Pearson, M. W., & Riley, D. S. (2015). Foundations of Aviation Law. Ashgate Publishing.

[3] Speciale, R. (2010). Fundamentals of Aviation Law. McGraw Hill Professional.

[4] Havel, B. F., & Sanchez, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press.

[5] Larsen, P. B., Gillick, J., & Sweeney, J. (2012). Aviation Law: Cases, Laws and Related Sources: Second Edition. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

[6] McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

[7] Brian F. Havel, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press

[8] Das, K. P., & Dey, A. K. (2016). Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents. Physica A, 345–355.

[9] Speciale, R. (2010). Fundamentals of Aviation Law. McGraw Hill Professional.

[10] Larsen, P. B., Gillick, J., & Sweeney, J. (2012). Aviation Law: Cases, Laws and Related Sources: Second Edition. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

[11] Oyez.org. (2016). Air France v. Saks. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from https://www.oyez.org: https://www.oyez.org/cases/1984/83-1785

[12] Leloudas, G. (2013). Risk and Liability in Air Law. Taylor & Francis.

[13] Das, K. P., & Dey, A. K. (2016). Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents. Physica A , 345–355.

[14] McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

[15] McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

[16] Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

[17] law.justia.com. (1980). Burke v. Pan American World Airways, Inc., 484 F. Supp. 850 (S.D.N.Y. 1980). Retrieved October 14, 2016, from http://law.justia.com: http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/484/850/1431627/

[18] Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

[19] McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

[20] Havel, B. F., & Sanchez, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press.

[21] Speciale, R. (2010). Fundamentals of Aviation Law. McGraw Hill Professional.

[22] Law.justia.com. (1979). Rudisaile v. Hawk Aviation, Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2016, from http://law.justia.com:http://law.justia.com/cases/new-mexico/supreme-court/1979/12214 0 html

[23] Larsen, P. B., Gillick, J., & Sweeney, J. (2012). Aviation Law: Cases, Laws and Related Sources: Second Edition. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

[24] Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

[25] Havel, B. F., & Sanchez, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press.,.

[26] Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

[27] Havel, B. F., & Sanchez, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press.

[28] McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

[29] Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

[30] Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

[31] Havel, B. F., & Sanchez, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press.

[32] Havel, B. F., & Sanchez, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press.

[33] Pearson, M. W., & Riley, D. S. (2015). Foundations of Aviation Law. Ashgate Publishing.

[34] McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

[35] Larsen, P. B., Gillick, J., & Sweeney, J. (2012). Aviation Law: Cases, Laws and Related Sources: Second Edition. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

[36] Oyez.org. (2016). Air France v. Saks. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from https://www.oyez.org: https://www.oyez.org/cases/1984/83-1785

[37] Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

[38] McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

[39] Havel, B. F., & Sanchez, G. S. (2014). The Principles and Practice of International Aviation Law. Cambridge University Press.

[40] Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

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buy thesis paper

Generating data, using a t-test, plots

Question No:1

Generate a dataset, D using rnorm()

  1.   rnorm() means generates random numbers from a normal distribution.

Largest possible two digits numbers from student number are 75.

Number of realizations

N <-75

#from here n <-75

Now draw independently form the set with equal realizations ( 0 , 1 3,  5, 7)

xFair <- sample (0:7,  size= 75, replace= TRUE)

##Print the values

xFair

## count the number of each outcome using the table function

Table (xfair)

## draw a sample from normal distribution with guaranteed fixed mean and sd

rnorm_= function(n, mu=0, sigma=1)

{

X = rnorm(n)

# scale to desired SD

X = sigma*x  / sd(x)

Return(x)

)

  • Set the mean as 50 from second and third number from the student number.

rnorm_= function(n, mu=0, sigma=1)

{

x = rnorm(n=75, mean=50)

mean(x)  #

sd(x)  #

x = rnorm_fixed(n=75, mean=50)

mean(x)  # is 50

Return(x)

}

Rnorm(75)

>mean(x) close to 50 given as

x <- rnorm(75)

mean

sd(#) close to 50

>sd (x)

Var(X) = σ 2 = 4

rnorm(n, mean = 50, sd = 4)

Question No:2

The empirical distribution associated with  a vector of number x = (X1, X2, X3, X4 X5===== Xn).

XSD <  s
 
Use the cdf to calculate the probability of obtaining this sample mean or a lower value
pt( (xmean - muX) / (xSD / sqrt(n))
it gives different values 
Ploting the t-distribution for different sample sizes gives different curves.
 
Question: 3 
 The variance of any distribution is mostly different and squared shaped deviates from the mean of some empirical distribution 
Var () = s2
Var n(s) = En{[S- En(S) ]2}
=
En{[S- En(s) ]2}
Varn(s)= ∑n (si – sx)2
And now with probability distribution we have
Varn(s)= ∑n (si )2– (sx)2

Empirical mean is like the center of x1, x2, x3, —– xn which is given as minimum square distance.

Question no :4

T test can be used to check if the mean of our realization D is significantly different from all the given values

There are two conditions to check the probability through t test

H0  = µ1 = µ2

Hs  = µ1 ≠ µ2

Now to check statics

T =

  1. Ym = zero

T =

Sd = 4

T =

= 18.75

  • Ym   = µ – 1

µ=50

Ym  = 50-1 = 49

T =

T =

=6.5

  • Ym   = µ – 0.1

Ym  = 50- 0.1

= 49.9

T =

= 12.5

  • Ym   = µ

µ = 50

As Ym   = µ

 Therefore, Ym =50

T =  

T =

= 6.5

Question No: 5

We used a t-test to compare both values and to check whether a difference between two groups and their averages are likely to occur at random chance for a given selection. Now to check and compare all values we changed the values of Y­m at every calculation and compared the answer.

Question no :6

## One Sample t-test

 ## ## data: mns

## t = -0.691, df = 999, p-value = 0.4897

## Alternative hypothesis: true mean is not equal to 5

## 95 percent confidence interval:

## 4.933 5.032

## sample estimates:

## mean of x

## 4.983

hist(mns, main = “Comparison between Distribution \nof Sample Means and Normal Curves”, xlab = “Sample Means”, ylab = “Density”, prob = T, ylim = c(0, 0.6)) curve(dnorm(x, mu, 5/sqrt(40)), col = “red”, add = T)

curve(dnorm(x, mean(mns), sqrt(var(mns))), add = T=)

abline(v = 5)

legend(“topright”, c(“Sample Means”, “Normal”, “Empirical”, “E[x]”),

col = c(), lty = 1)

Question No: 7

##First setting up coordinates system (with x=y , aspect ratio);

Plot(type = “n” , xlab= “s” ylab = “y” asp =1)

## the x- and y-axis
abline(Xn = 75, Ym = 50, col = "gray")
text("abline(Xn = 75)", col = "gray", adj = c(0, 0))
abline(Xn = 75, Ym = 49.1,  col = "gray", lty = 3)
abline(Xn = 75, Ym = 49.9, col = 2)
 
Question No:8
To draw hist graph we have df as n-1 which is 5-1 = 4 now using these values we can make graph of the following values 
## Plot
par(mfrow=c(0,0))
hist(T, freq = FALSE,xlim = qt(c(a,b), df = 5-1 =4))
curve(dt(14290.0, df = 4), add = TRUE, col = 2, lwd = 2)
plot(ecdf(T),xlim = qt(c(0.973,0.030), df = 4))
curve(pt(14290.0, df = 4), add = TRUE, col = 2, lwd = 2)
Question No:9
 Par() function makes it easy to show all the graphs on an sigle graph it is filled in by row mfcol = c(nrows , ncols)
Given as pa(mfow = c(2,3))
Rows = 2 and total coloums in graph = 3 
par(mfrow=c(2,3))
abline(p =0.976, t =0.0306, col = "gray" main="Scatterplot of wt vs abline)
hist(T, freq = FALSE,xlim = qt(c(a,b), df = 5-1 =4))
plot(wt,disp, main="Scatterplot of wt vs disp")
hist(wt, main="Histogram of wt")
boxplot(wt, main="Boxplot of wt")a
Question No: 10 
Bar graph shows horizontal variation while in hist graph vertical curve is formed using df and t and p values. In bar graph chart each column represents a group defined by category and variable while in histograms each column of graph represents a quantitative variable. 
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Role of mathematics and quadratic equation in problem solver using java web interface

Role of mathematics and quadratic equation in problem solver using java web interface

Problem description:

            Math plays an important role in our daily lives. Mathematics is frequently performed in our daily life, whether we are at work in office or we spend time at home. It is an essential and necessary part of our life. Mathematics    is a requirement of every field of life, whether it is management, engineering, medical or architecture. Some of the uses of the mathematics are provided below.

Use of mathematics in different fields of life:        

Animator

            Animators use mathematics with linear algebra to demonstrate the way an object is rotated and shifted, and the way it can be made larger or smaller.

Computer Scientist

            The creation of next generation of gadgets and applications involves mathematic calculations. For instance, academic studies of algorithms are important part of the algebraic process. Moreover, circuit working is also based on Boolean algebra.

Fashion Designer

            Fashion designers utilize mathematics for measuring length, width, area, perimeter and diameter of the suit that is going to stitch.

Constructers

            The constructers also uses mathematical procedures to compute the amount work and cost of material required for the construction of the buildings.

Astronaut

            Astronauts use mathematics for rocket propulsion, gravity measurement as well as its presence in space.

Architect

            Use of math for the calculation of the material required per square meter and the measurement of the area of the rooms and buildings as well as floor spacing dimensions are important.

Financial Management

            Every person makes use of money. Money is very important part of life. Mathematics helps manage financial matters in our daily lives.

Statistics

            Math is widely used in statistics. It is used in the collection of funds/service, analysis, prediction and forecasting.

Mathematics and quadratic equation:

            In fundamental algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadrates for “square”)is represented as follows:

            In the equation, {\displaystyle ax^{2}+bx+c=0}x denotes as unknown, and ab, and c are known numbers, such that a is not equal to 0.If a = 0, then the equation is called linear and not the quadratic. The, b, and c numbers is the coefficients of the equation, and they are called by many names. For instance, the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant or free term are often used for that purpose. It is also called univariate, because, the quadratic equation involves only one unknown which is called “univariate”. The quadratic equation only holds powers of x that are non-negative integers. Thus, it is a polynomial equation with 2nd degree with the highest power of 2.

Evaluation of quadratic equation:

            The evaluation of quadratic equation is always the same. The values of X are substituted in the equation and Y can be determined. The values of a, b and c, do affect the graphic representation in the equation. Similarly, other elements in the equation can also be evaluated if given. If the values of Y are given and substituted, the values of X can also be provided. Thus, the substitution method can be used to evaluate quadratic equation. The quadratic equation came from the ideas of Chinese, Japanese engineers. In addition, the development of quadratic equation attracted the new generation because of its effectiveness in the relevant field. On the other hand, it is the fact that it is imitative from the implementation the square method. Anyhow, it has proved that it is very effective for attaining the knowledge about quadratics. 

Quadratic equation as proposed solution to mathematical problems

            Quadratic equations are solved by the technique of  factorization. In that method, the completion of the square is done and quadratic formula is used along with graphing. It is to be noted that the solutions to the problems corresponding to the quadratic equation were recognized as early in 2000 BC.Therefore, Java web based solution is provided for a possible solution of mathematical questions like quadratic equation, binary conversion, Area and Perimeters.

Aims

            The aim of project is to provide solution of mathematics problems such as quadratic equation (Factorizing, completing the square, quadratic formula and graphing), conversion (decimal, binary, octal, hex) area, perimeter, discovering the “nature” of roots from quadratic equation and many more.

Objectives

            The main objective of this project is to provide a web base user interface using html and CSS for user input. User will enter a mathematical problem in text box and will find the solution with systematic procedure.  This text box is linked with a java algorithm that provides a solution of mathematic problem with systematic procedure. This solution will be taken from algorithm and that will show on the screen with the utilization of HTML and CSS. This web-based application will provide a feature to find any mathematical problems such as Quadratic Equation (Factorizing, Completing the Square, Quadratic formula and graphing), Conversion (Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hex) Area, Perimeter as well asdiscovering the”nature” of the roots from quadratic equation solution as well as web interface. These sources will providemany solutions like login, signup, contact us and share quadratic equation solution on social media.

Transaction requirements

            Students vary with respect to the level of intellectuality. There are some poor students in the studiesand need external help. They also required step by step guideline. Thus, this web base interface will provide a quadratic equation solution for everyone. User will go to the equation solver web interface to put quadratic equation in text boxto find solution. The text will be processed with java algorithm to provide apossible solution. The use of the web base screenswith html and CSS will provide the solution to share on social media.  

Current deficiencies

            Current deficiencies includelimited provision of the solution of mathemetic problems. It only provides a limited solution which is stored in database. It is to be noted that our algorithm work automatically to provide the solutionsformost ofmathematic problems like Quadratic Equation (Factorizing, Completing the Square, Quadratic formula and graphing), Conversion (Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hex) Area, Perimeter, discovering the”nature” of roots from quadratic equation.

Description of the intended product

                 High-level requirements:These requirements are important for the implementation of the quadratic equation solver: The elements of the requirements are given below.

Sr. No Item/Feature
1 Domain/Public IP
2 Web Hosting/Local Hosting
3 Java Tool( NetBeans)
4 Java Code(Algorithm)
5 HTML& CSS code (user interface)
6 Microsoft Word(Reporting)
7 Visio (diagram)
8 Database(for Login)
9 Primavera tool for WBS
10 CASE tools
11 Excel (Gant chart)

Implementation of functional requirements:

Primavera

            This tool is useful for the equality of resource, their ability, continuous work planning, as well as implementation of short and longterm schedules. Moreover, the breakdown of thecomplex projects into different phase and allocation of the best and available resources are also included. In addition, the tracking of the progress,its monitor, analyses and visualization of the project performance versus planning for implementation is important.  By using this tool, a project can be divided in to a different phases and plans.  These phases and activitiesmust back up theplan for getting better performance.

 .  

CASE tool

            This tool helps us to make the flow diagram for different phase of a project.It providesa visual interaction with working of projectsthat are easy to understand.

Java Tool(NetBeans)

It provides an interface to write a programme as well as itsevaluation.

Java Algorithm

            It writes a piece of code that providesanyquadratic equation solution that will describe the nature of roots.

HTML& CSS

            HTML and CSSare necessary for web interface. The web is the best way to connect remotely. The web interface has created which is easily available and easily accessible for everyone on internet. On the web interface, there are design in html and CSS. Html and CSS are used to show the contents on web browsers as well as on CSS.

Database

            It is used for storing the data for user and it provides help to login your web portal.

Domain name/Public IP:

            Domain name/public IP is a URL address where theuser accesses your web interface. This URL is obtained from different hosting company.

Web Hosting:

            For your host your algorithm on internet require a hosting plan

System User

In this particular case, the system user is a human being who uses the system and different interfaces in order to resolve the problems and issues in the quadratic equation. It is the fact that computer-based work or system based work has become our need and requirement. In addition, it is very necessary for a person to become affective system user for handling the issues of the quadratic equation using the java web interface.  

Project Planning

  • List of deliverables
  1. Java Algorithm
  2. Html and CSS code for user interface
  3. Report of project
  4. Grand chart of project
  5. WBS of project
  6. Flow Chart of project
  • Required resources

Hardware resources: Core I5 Computer.

Software resources: JD8k, Xampp, Case Tool, Primavera, NetBeans, Visio, URL, MS word,

HTML and CSS tool,

Gantt chart:

Task Name Start End Duration (days)
Proposal 10/5/2016 10/12/2016 7
Java Algorithm 10/13/2016 11/2/2016 20
HTML & CSS 11/3/2016 11/10/2016 7
Testing 11/11/2016 11/15/2016 4
WBS 11/16/2016 11/17/2016 1
Gantt Chart 11/18/2016 11/19/2016 1
Flow Chart 11/20/2016 11/21/2016 1
Report 11/27/2016 11/30/2016 8

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://myessaypoint.com/what-is-the-usage-of-math-in-everyday-life
http://snoqualmievalley.macaronikid.com/article/1278615/importance-of-math-in-everyday-life
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadratic_equation
https://plus.maths.org/content/101-uses-quadratic-equation
http://www.mathworksheetscenter.com/mathtips/quadraticequation.html
https://www.oracle.com/applications/primavera/products/project-management.html
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Buying Car from a Person or Dealer

Buying Car from a Person or Dealer

Discussion & Response

Discussion

Different people buy used things from other people or dealers.

Pros

  • We buy different used things from individuals to save our cost.
  • This is a fact that a person can have the more information regarding the car, used by another person.  
  • This is a great chance to have a car in a good condition in a less amount

Cons

  • Dealers often depict the high prices of the car and get their commission
  • However, this buying process is based on quality, depreciation, and price negotiation

Pros of buying from dealership

  • Dealers often depict the high prices of the car and get their commission, which enhances the overall cost of the car
  • The buyer may lack the warranty of a car, which is a huge risk regarding the investment
  • When a person buys a car from another person, it is based on trust and negotiation
  • When a person buys from a dealer, it contains authenticity, warranty, and information. 
  • Relative to the case, the price negotiation will be in the limelight. Thus, buying the car from dealer seems good.

Cons of Buying from dealership

  • Conversely, the dealers may provide warranty and information to the buyers, which see reliable.
  • Furthermore, this has been observed that dealers sometimes mislead the buyers regarding the cost and price.
  • It also depends on his negotiation skills and information in the buying process.
  • However, there is a need to develop a trust between the parties


Response To Ignis Serrano

            I agree with you that there are different pros and cons regarding the buying process of a car from a person or a dealer. A person who used a car for a while may provide necessary information when there is the need to repair a car in future. I also agree with you that dealer may provide a warranty of a car along with necessary information. This is a fact that dealers often mislead a person, which causes loss to a person when purchasing a car. Relative to the pros, this is true that deal may contain multiple colors and varieties of a car to justify the need and demand of the customers. Thus, trust, negotiation, and sustained quality are the key factors, which mat influence the buying process from both, a person or a dealer.

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Introduction to Socialism

  1. What are the three different terms often used when discussing socialist ideology?

            The three terms whenever we start analyzing the applications or concepts of the socialism are the communism, socialism, and the Marxism. The socialism is usually confused with the terms, as it is the modern shapes of the liberalism. The socialism is originally oriented from an ideology used in western areas of Europe through which base of liberal society set regarding the government model of ruling such as tax systems. The communism term is mostly started using the early stage of the 19th century especially in the case of Soviet Union, the social structural framework of China or Central American, which describes the application of philosophical or theoretical concepts of Marxism regarding practical implication. The Marxism is philosophical sought of structure for society as a foundation. The Marxism is usually used in the 21st century as socialism in countries like Norway is analyzed.

  • What type of equality are socialists hoping to achieve?

            The socialist mostly trying to accomplish the economics equality in which the sociologists would examine the flow of money in a way that economic analysis which section of the society is progressing, flourishing and which group in the society is not getting the advantage of the socio-economic system through an economic system implemented in a country. Therefore, sociologists want to examine the money transparency in a circular flow diagram such as government, the president, the prime minister, as the accountability system for examination where the money is going. There is a need to achieve the mutual or the communal benefit because of the structure of political or socio-economic which imposed on society. Therefore, the collective accomplishment to benefit the whole society rather than an individual benefit that has nothing to do with society. The consciousness-thinking framework, cooperation in the mutually devised dependent model having a hierarchical structure having core wants of society that would benefit as a whole. For example, the tax system would restructure to flourish the socio-political system having a win-win situation, no matter if taxes are increased, but they should be for communal benefits.

  • How does a socialist “identify” themselves?

            The socialist identify themselves through the system of the classes or groups exist in society as according to core principles of Marxism. The ‘economic class’ core objective through which the socialists define themselves, for example, the two dimension of the economic class are proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The proletarian are the working or the remote class of workers whereas the bourgeoisie is the group of an industrialist, which is the source of creating wealth in the society. The construct based on the economic status of a society in which the individuals or groups benefit or not, examining the flow of money. According to Marx, the exploitation is made from the group of the bourgeois on the proletariat. The classes such as the upper or lower class identify the framework or structure of the economic class system, which does not comprise of race, nationality of a country, the attributes of a personality or discrimination as for gender.

  • What does emancipation mean for a socialist?

            The term Emancipation according to tom socialists refers to the liberty or advantage of pursuing goals or objectives in a very positive direction as far as the equality of economic structure prevails in the society having the same level of the field for all the stakeholders in the society. The economic equality is integrated with the term of the emancipation, in which the economic equality is the predecessor or top order element to achieve the social or cultural equality. According to Marx is that the labor would be free of the external pressure such as going to workplace or job after completing one full-time job, which creates the base of the free society of a society or the liberal society.

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Sun, Atmosphere and Weather

What effect does the Sun’s energy have to do with the weather on the Earth?  If it does,  how  does  it  influence  the  atmosphere  and  our  day  today  weather?  What are the implications?

Abstract

Sun, which is actually a start with a planetary system, is one of the billions of starts (around/more than 100 billion stars) in our Galaxy (Milky Way). As per research on the origin of time and space, our plant originated or it was born around 4.6 billion years ago. The majority of the astrophysicists are of the view that celestial bodies, like the sun, born were formed when immense clouds, in a rotator motion, condensed. These condensed gases, solar nebula, formed sun and other celestial bodies.  This phenomenon we observe in slight different manner. Clouds, which are formed because of the evaporated water when condense shower rain, which is a different form of H2O. The studies also provide this information that slowly nebula collapsed because of the gravitational forces on sun, which pulled more celestial material towards the center of its core.

Introduction

Sun is the largest celestial body in our universe and as per estimations by the scientists; it makes the 99.8% mass of solar system. The information, regarding sun, also reveals that the diameter of sun is around 109 times the diameter of earth, which aids us to understand and picture the enormous size of this star composed of Hydrogen (72%) and helium (26%).  Thorough highly sophisticated instruments the traces of other elements, such as oxygen-carbon-neon-magnesium-iron-silicon, are also found. The study of this celestial body also reveals that because of perpetual Nuclear Fission reactions, at the core of this star, hydrogen is converted in to other elements, including helium. In addition, the gravitational forces on sun are responsible of creating enormous pressure and temperature that facilitates these nuclear fission reactions, which continue to occur almost perpetually on Sun.

According to the estimates, regarding the sun of life and the nuclear fission reactions that occur on the surface of the sun, sun still has enough nuclear fuel that would keep it burning for another five billion years. This means that life of sun, as a burning star, would be around 10 billion years. After exhausting all its nuclear fuel, its size will grow; however, its temperature will radically decline, turning it in to a Red Giant. As this process will continue, the Red Giant will shed the outermost layer and turns into a White Dwarf. This implosion of this celestial body may create black-hole, after 10 billion years.

At different atmospheric levels, the temperature of sun varies. For instance, at Photosphere, the bottom most atmospheric layer (responsible for the producing and emitting light) the temperature ranges from 11,000 F to 7, 460 F. In addition the solar winds, which are actually an outflow of various gases from the corona, blow all the time (Sharp, 2012 ).

Like earth, Sun also has a magnetic-field; however, statistics reveal that magnetic field is only twice as powerful as the earth’s magnetic-field. Though some studies also suggest that in some patches or areas, these magnetic-fields are immensely strong, as per some computations around three thousand times stronger than earth and usual.

Al these discussed characteristics, of sun, directly and indirectly impacts universe, including earth. The activity on earth directly impacts the atmosphere of earth, weather, climate and seasons. Many of the activities are cyclic and because of that they have duration. One of the reports, of NASA, suggests that quasi- changes in the cyclic activity also produce quasi changes in space weather.

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/goddard/sunearth/news/seasonal-year-long-cycles-seen-on-the-sun

The above picture, produced by NASA, is depicting cyclic activities. This helps us understand the impact of solar-cyclic activities not just on the start itself, but also on universe and earth. To simplify, during a cycle, the number of sunspots increases in a manner than decreased. This has a pattern and this pattern impacts whatever is around sun. Literature/evidence on this subject suggests that scientists from the 19th century know about cyclic appearance of sunspots; however, since then no substantial correlation is found between the weather on earth and these sunspots. However, some contemporary studies suggest that in a long-run, these quasi-changes affect the patterns of wind. The extensive research, though, on this subject asserts that no direct correlation exists between the change in the pattern of winds and solar activities (NASA, 2015).

Before we discuss the effect of solar activities, on earth’s weather; it is essential to discuss the atmosphere of earth, which is linked to weather and climatic changes. The earth atmosphere is divided in five layers and each layer has slightly different chemical composition. The outmost layer is exosphere, which is followed by Thermosphere. Mesosphere is third layer that overlaps with stratosphere. The bottom layer is Troposphere. All these layers have their own function. In addition the masses of these layers also vary greatly. For instance, Troposphere is comprised of the 75% of the total mass. Furthermore, the width of these atmospheric layers varies at different points on earth. The troposphere is wider at polls because of evident temperatures in the temperature on North and South Poles from other parts of the earth.

The scientific fact is that not only the atmosphere makes life possible on earth, but also studies suggest that its affects, to an extent earth’s weather. The green house effect is not only increasing earth’s temperature, but also it is yielding climatic changes. The change in climate, temperature and level of waters are evidence that atmosphere, which is effected by sun, is essential to study, which determines that relation between sun and weather. In addition to that, atmosphere also acts as a filter that stops harmful ultra-violet rays of sun from reaching earth’s surface (OZH, 2016).

It has been established that there is direct relation between the warming of atmosphere and change in weather. Previous researches, on the seasonal changing of weather, primarily focus on the orbit of earth. As per studies during the orbit, a certain phase comes when the sun is closer to earth. Because of the proximity the atmosphere warms and summer season starts. However, when during this orbiting around sun, earth moves away from sun the atmosphere does total sun’s energy reaching earth reduces, which makes causes winter.

Other than the elliptical orbit of earth, the reason for the changing of seasons, in a certain pattern, is also earth’s axial obliquity. When this tilt is highest, it causes the severity of season. Therefore, there is more than one factor that is not only responsible for the change of seasons, but also determines their severity.

The term, used for the energy that reaches earth surface, is Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). The study of the data tells us that TSI changes or varies slightly every day, causing subtle climatic changes (UCS, 2016).

From this discussion we can conclude that earth’s weather is directly and indirectly affected by sun and atmosphere plays an important part. The change in weather is because of the orbit of earth that fluctuates the total radiation earth receives from sun, during a year. However, the climatic changes are because several factors, which are not because of the changes in universe and reactions on sun, but because of the emission of green house gases.

Analysis & Implications

During this study, we have not just discussed the association between sun and weather, but also we have identified factors that produce/effect seasons and directly/indirectly impacts changes in weather and climate. The through studies of these factors help us understand the weather, the changes in climate and enabled us to project the possible climatic and weather changes in years to come. There is enormous data available that can be scrutinized through various instruments to draw various conclusions regarding the effect of climate change on earth and on these creatures that have inhabited this planet. These are serious questions and inquiries that may help us find a direction that is better for both planet and its inhabitants.

From looking at the evidence, it is not hard to deduce that some these factors can be regulated; whereas factors other than these cannot be curbed. For instance, the 11 years solar-cycle of sun, in which sunspots increase and decrease, cannot be affected to produce certain results. Similarly, the elliptical cycle of earth is cause of change in seasons and also it considerable contributes, naturally, to the cooling and warming of atmosphere, which now has greenhouse gases mixed in it.

The axial obliquity is another factor that increases or decreases the intensity of weather and we do not have means to control this axial tilt to produce desired results. Therefore, the focus should be only factors that are directly impacting weather and climatic changes, such as the emission of carbon dioxide and formation greenhouse gasses trap.

It is a fact that greenhouse gases such layer that absorbs sunlight. As the size of these traps increases, so does the amount of sunlight these traps (green house gases). The increase in the amount of sunlight being absorbed at earth has increased temperature. However, the increase in temperature cannot only be contributed to increase in the emission of green house gasses.

This graph, based on the comparison of atmospheric samples contained in ice cores and more recent direct  measurements, provides evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased  since the Industrial Revolution.  (Source: [[LINK||http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/icecore/||NOAA]])
http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

As per above statistics, the increase in the emission of carbon dioxide is all time high. In previous times to the emission of carbon dioxide has fluctuated, but this time around these fluctuations are because of human activity. The data also depicts that level of carbon dioxide is all time high, which must the concern of humans, who have higher intelligence. From the evidence it is not hard to deduce that because of the rise in the temperature, many climatic changes would occur. These climatic changes would not only affect earth, but the lives of inhabitants (NASA, 2016).

Governments around the world are taking measures to reduce the factors, which are contributing to the changes in climate. For instance, we know that industrial expansion and increase in automobiles have not only polluted atmosphere, but also affected life, as the increase in the emission of carbon dioxide is directly contributing to the rising temperature.

The statistics are very dismal and discouraging, as we learn that because of rapid development in developing countries, the emission of carbon dioxide has increased. The only encouraging development is that states have started to recognize that severe climatic changes directly impact life on earth. This recognition is the first towards addressing the sever changing of weather, that pose existential threat.

Sun is the source of life on earth, but because of the changes in atmospheric composition, sun could become the very factor of severely disturbing life on earth. Already we are witnessing the impact of changes (climatic/weather) on human life. Weather, which is directly influenced by atmospheric changes in short period, will become severe because of the changing atmosphere and sun radiation, whereas climate, which is a study of atmosphere’s behavior in long period, will become inhospitable in distant future.

Conclusion

Discussion makes things quite apparent; one of which is that there multiple factors that contribute to the changing of weather and it severity. There are natural factors, such as sun, elliptical and axial obliquity, which affect atmosphere and weather. However, there are manmade factors too, which are responsible for the severe nature of climate that prevails today. The review the evidence/literature, has pointed out that carbon dioxide emission is paying its part in creating greenhouse trap, which absorbs sunlight. In addition, these gases are also affecting ozone layer, which is high significant for life. Therefore, sun, atmosphere and greenhouse gases are those factors that are adversely impacting weather.

Humans must develop new systems that produce no waste, such as carbon dioxide. A strong regulation is required to curb emissions and to ensure that clean systems are being used. This cannot be realize in short term; therefore, a long term comprehensive strategy is require that gradually reduces or curbs factors, responsible for harsh weather and climate changes. The consensus exists between the developed states; however, for developing countries the tradeoff between greenhouse gases emission and economic development is very great. This is why incentives could be used to implement a policy on global scale.

References

NASA. (2016). Climate change: How do we know? Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Global Climate Change: http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

NASA. (2015). Seasonal, Year-Long Cycles Seen on the Sun. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from NASA: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/goddard/sunearth/news/seasonal-year-long-cycles-seen-on-the-sun

OZH. (2016). Atmosphere. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from The Ozone Hole: http://www.theozonehole.com/atmosphere.htm

Sharp, T. (2012 ). What is the Sun Made Of? Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Space.Com: http://www.space.com/17170-what-is-the-sun-made-of.html

UCS. (2016). How Does the Sun Affect Our climate? Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Union of Concern Scientists: http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/effect-of-sun-on-climate-faq.html#.WAXEsOh97ct

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Companies using a mentoring system for employees

Companies using a mentoring system for employees

Introduction

Contemporary corporate system has adopted and devised various strategies, methods and techniques that could assist organizations in augmenting their effectiveness and abling them to use their resources in better manner so that the cost of operation can be reduced and mechanisms, which pertain to operations, can be optimized.

Multiple studies, on the subject of organization-resources-effectiveness, suggest that of all resources, human resource is the most sensitive and considerable resource, as it is human resource, which has to exploit other resources for specific objectives. Therefore, companies use various methods and techniques to increase the potential of human resource by providing new skills and knowledge that directly pertain to organization’s corporate operations and tasks.

One, of the strategies or methods, is to mentor employee. It is presumed that most of new employees enter an organization with limited knowledge and organizational understanding. In addition, employees find it difficult to synchronize organization’s objectives with personal objectives.  Therefore, the concept of Mentoring has been introduced by companies, firms or organizations so that these challenges could be addressed.

Historic Background

The concept of Mentor is not new, but rather quite ancient. The term first appeared in Greek Tragedy, Homer’s Odyssey, in which the protagonist, who is unaware of his potential and character attributes is mentored by goddess Athena that appears in the form of an old person to guide the protagonist, Telemachus. This clearly depicts that this idea that an individual needs guidance of a person/mentor with greater experience and understanding, is very old.

The study on this subject also reveals that this idea was not limited to Greece, but in different cultures too it was present in various forms. For instance, in the Asiatic cultures, the relation between guru and disciple in many ways reflect the mentoring system. The guru (master) not just transfers his/her knowledge in various forms, by using various instruments and methods, to the disciple, but also aid disciple to identify his/her goals. The term used for the identification of goal, in ancient Sanskrit literature, is Marg-Darshak, which literary translates to goal-recognition (Dziczkowski, 2013).

From this discussion it is very apparent that this concept of mentoring is not new, but rather old. Further from the systematic study of literature we learn that organizations have been using this concept since the very emergence of corporate system; however, during this post-modern economic/corporate age, companies have formally introduced it by making it more methodical. It is also very imperative to understand that term mentoring is different from coaching, as the preceding term has greater depth (Garvey, Stokes, & Megginson, 2014).

Every system that is adopted by organization has a cost. Systems that are considered the most optimal or finest have minimum cost (The Economist, 2014).

The Development of Mentoring System

Now when it is established that mentoring is not contemporary idea, but rather an ancient idea; we have contemplate on the development of idea, an informal tool to a form method employed extensively, throughout the corporate, by organizations, to realize their objectives. From the study of organizational development and evolution, it is apparent that this concept has remained relevant and is being implemented for many decades. However, as the organizations have developed and evolved so as the concept. Before we discuss the development of mentoring system and it transition from an informal technique to formal and comprehensive method/strategy, it is imperative to discuss the progress of organizational structure and th improvement of strategies and instruments of implementation.

As the structure of corporate system developed or progressed, so does the strategies and methods. The increased competition, because of globalization of economies, compelled companies/organizations to improve their systems to increase their ability to perform task. During this process companies or organizations realized that they must increase their capacity to optimally use their resources, especially sensitive resources, such as human resource. Therefore, the process of development of human resource begun and companies started to increase allocate and invest resources on their most sensitive resource.

Different strategies and methods were employed to provide skills and knowledge to the employee. When we scrutinize these methods and instruments, we find out that each method has its own strength and weakness. When implemented appropriately, the strength of these strategies/methods reward them; whereas when not implement cautiously and effectively, the cost of these system is paid by the organization.

This is also true for Metering system, in which a mentor invests time and knowledge on an employee, which aims to increase the potential, ability or capacity of new employee. There through understanding of this system suggests that there were strength and weaknesses of this system, which makes it quite difficult for an organization to adopt and implement it (de Janasz, 2013)

Pros

  1. Introduction to the Experienced Realm: Through mentoring an employee smoothly enters experienced realm. Generally, the corporate life of an employee is based on trial and error method; however, as the cost of error is usually high; therefore, an employee is more conscious and strives to reduce the frequency of committing an error. When an individual/employee has a mentor, he is guided by an experience individual that guides him/her, which directly results in reducing errors. In addition, employee is able to perform task, because of the assistance/guidance, in better manner that requires not only less resources, but also less physical and mental investment from an employee. This also facilitates an employee to address to matter is the most appropriate fashion, which decreases the burden from employee and able him/her to produce desired results by investing his physical and mental energies. To appropriate methods and tools, required to perform a task, an employed needs time. The duration of this period varies upon the ability or learning curve of an employee. However, with the mentor,  experience can be gained in short period.
  2. Strength and Weaknesses: It is a known fact and studies endorse it that those individuals, who identify their strength and weakness perform better than those, who have not identified their strength and weaknesses. As this require higher awareness and greater understanding of oneself; therefore, only few are able to identify these on their own. These realities make mentoring system very relevant and valid for corporate system. Mentors aid mentees in not only recognizing their strength and weaknesses, but also facilitate them in overcoming their weaknesses. This process is very hard and sensitive; though it could be made easy, if the mentor is experienced, concerned and sincere. It is also imperative to mention that when an individual knows about his/her strength and weaknesses, it becomes easy for him/her to indentify/chose goals. In this manner, he/she is able to invest his efforts for that that objective, which is achievable and relevant.
  3. New Skills: New information not only increases knowledge, but also it provides new skills. The systematic study of organization make it apparent that most of the resources and time of an organization is invested in providing new skills and relevant knowledge that directly pertain to the operations of organization. Mentoring system can reduce the use resources, such as time, to increase the effectiveness of an employee. The mentoring system is considered an effective method of providing new skills and knowledge; however, it has its own limitations. However, as these limitations are few and the advantages many; therefore, mentoring is widely employed, formally or informally, to produce desired outcome.

  There is no system that has no cost; therefore, when a system is considered, not just its strength is computed, but also an organization considers its weakness.  In additional, the organizational structure also amplifies, to an extent, the strength and weaknesses of a strategy or method, such as mentoring system. Therefore, when an organization adopts a system such mentoring system, it does not only evaluates its overall strength and weaknesses, but also estimates how these much these strength and weaknesses will be affected by organization’s structure and work environment.

Cons

  1. Organization’s environment: As metering can be provided to few individuals; therefore, only few of the employees can be selected for this purpose. Generally, organizations aim to increase the potential certain employees so that it can create a multiplier effect. However, when few employees are being treated specially and others are ignored, this adversely affects the overall environment of organization and this may increase negative work deviance. As per some studies, negative work deviance affect an origination in more than one way; one of the most obvious and frequent outcome is financial loss.
  2. Disintegration of Relationship: It is apparent that relationship between mentor and mentee is based on trust and because of that it is a very sensitive relation. Studies suggest that when bond between mentor and mentee is strong, the results are positive; however, when the relationship is not idea; the results could be detrimental for both mentee/mentor and organization. Therefore, installing this system formally is very perilous and may be that is the reason why companies have not formally introduced this system to increase the potential of selective new employees so that it could produce multiplier effect. We can conclude that cost and reward, of mentoring system, are very high. The repercussions, of disintegrated association, deter many companies from employing this method formally.
  3. Disingenuous Mentor: This is common that individuals project to be what they are not, for specific objectives. This is also true for the employees that work in an organization. They may be able to project that they are effective employees, with great understanding and skill; however, in reality, they may not be so effective and brilliant. If a company chooses such mentor to guide an employee (mentee), this will create multiple challenges. This will not only destroy the potential of employee, but also this will reduce the overall efficiency of organization (Sravani, 2016).

Statistics

Empirical evidence endorses this perception that employees, who have mentor, do better than those, who do not have mentors. As per the research, conducted by Sun Micro-systems, in which career of 1000 employees were systematically scrutinized (n=1000), the results were in favor of mentoring system (Quast, 2011).

  Sample Size Career Duration Like to get Raise Received Raise Promotion
Mentor N=1000 5-years 20% approx 28% Six times
Mentee N=100 5-years 20% approx 25% Five times
http://www.forbes.com/sites/lisaquast/2011/10/31/how-becoming-a-mentor-can-boost-your-career/#795fce55662a

Conclusions

Mentoring system is an effective system that can produce results for an organization; however, the cost, of an ineffective mentoring system, is very high. Therefore, an organization must work on this subject and compute the cost and reward of an ineffective and effective mentoring system, respectively. We have already discussed that the system is being used and because of that it perpetually developing. For an organization, which intends to install this system, it is imperative develop it according to its needs and requirements. This will reduce the flaws in system and make it more potent. All systems, which are installed to increase resource utility and potential, are installed to meet specific ends. When a system fails to achieve indentified goals, it must be improved or substituted by more effective and potent system.

For mentoring system, organization should develop instruments and tools that would help organization to identify not only genuine mentors, but also employees that can swiftly increase their potential, as per required by company. However, the final decision or the true discretion is of company, which needs to take decision after considering all factors, including the structure of organization and work environment.

References

De Janasz, S. (2013). Dual sources of support for dual roles: how mentoring and work–family culture influence work–family conflict and job attitudes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management , 1435-1453.

Dziczkowski, J. (2013). Mentoring and Leadership Development. The Educational Forum , 351-360.

Eby, L. T. (2007). Definition and evolution of mentoring. The Blackwell handbook of mentoring: A multiple perspectives approach , 7-20.

Garvey, B., Stokes, P., & Megginson, D. (2014). Coaching and mentoring: Theory and practice. Sage.

Quast, L. (2011). How Becoming A Mentor Can Boost Your Career. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/lisaquast/2011/10/31/how-becoming-a-mentor-can-boost-your-career/#795fce55662a

Sravani. (2016). Mentoring at Work. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Wise Step : http://content.wisestep.com/mentoring-work-importance-benefits-pros-cons/

The Economist. (2014). Getting up to speed. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21593592-biggest-professional-training-system-you-have-never-heard-getting-up-speed