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John Stoltenberg says, “Various researchers have found that 25 to 60% of college-age males are already so predisposed [to rape] by their own admission

The experience is true because it is based upon the ways as initiated by the feminist. The social-science perspective ideally relates to pornography because it is suggested as a big platform to introduce the high-hostile aspect in detail. The experiments have introduced the rape-prone mindset mostly in men rather women. The increased levels of aggression are necessary to produce according to my experience when a man faces certain types of pornography perspective.

The increased levels self-reported mode in the male platform is trickier indeed in such way that is recommended with normal groups. The intention of such way described by the writer was proved with the nationwide boycott of Deep Throat film in 1980. It proved that college-aged males are more open towards rape cases rather the female part of the society. The adult books and videos stores are also there and have large customer basis because the same percentage as explored by the author proved the visitors ratio as well.

The openness of the intention of males according to given percentage as suggested by the author cannot address issues in social class, community class and most important at racial class. The desire towards these acts was high from the time when the Pornography included in the pleasure perspective at law level. The law was not present at that time when there was aggression about activities listed in college-age males as it shown in differentiation strategy. The Civil-rights Ant pornography Ordinance is the only solution according to my perspective so that there should be rift between different activities most importantly activities of adult nature. The less expose towards adult content whether a college student or not, can enhance the nature of experiences with adult content and automatically it can negate the voice of rape mindsets in society.

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history of the Europe

2. What advantages the European posses that enable them to dominate the rest of the world after 1492?

            The era after the 1492 was considered as the golden era or the era of the discovery in the entire history of the Europe. The significant factors that the Europeans have after the 1492 from the system of the colonization is that they were able to know the socio-economic benefits, which are the necessary factors for the civilized nations of that time such as the British, Spanish, France, Greek and other colonies.

            The Europe was the centre or hub of the global trade network in all over the world. The trade in the entire world was gateway from the Europe after the 1492. The sea route in this perspective played the great role in achieving the great advantage than the rest of the world. The sea route provides the channel of trade that was considered the most suitable at that time. The markets of Asia, North America and the South America were tapped by the Europe through the sea route (Kennedy, 2012).

            The Europe was truly the riches of the world as compared to the other countries. Not only the economic benefits by the Europe but also many social or health benefits were achieved in possessing the water resources. For an instance, the water was sued by the inhabitants for their physiological needs and the daily routine tasks. The water resources in the contemporary settings have many advantages for the Europe. The resources of the water are maintained by the many areas of the Europe through which the trade, agriculture and the transportation system is used from the resources of the water.

            The precious metals especially by the Portuguese were the main source of the profit generation of the Europeans nation after the 1492. The land was also the source of the revenue in a great way, which was sold at the highest prices to the rest of the world. The trade took place at that time was in the form of the solve labor. The huge amounts of the slaves were captured by the Europeans from the American and other colonial societies at that time.

The next important advantage the Europeans gains were in the form of the agriculture, the agriculture was the dominating source of the economic resource. The fields, crops of the textiles, corn, edible oil, tea and the other useful crops that were the necessary part of the livelihood were captured. The Manchester is considered as the hub of the agricultural crop, which is the cotton, nylon and other substances especially in the textile sector (Crosby, 2003).

            While discussing the industrial advantage, the Europeans were among the top list after the 1492. The industrial era was in control of the Europeans and they started to produce the textiles and the food products at the highest pace. The production skills in the food, textile, furniture, material and cottage industry were the specialty of the people of the Europe.  the food industry is the rapidly growing industry in today’s world in the regions of the Europe. the foods and beverages have the enormous advantage for the people of the Europe.

            The concept of the corporate sector is derived from those golden eras of the European divisions. The industry in the Europe in the contemporary world is the biggest growing industry in the world. The automobile industry, the retail industry and the telecommunication industry are the main components of the industrial advantages that the Europe gained after the 1492.

            The technological advancement ultimately was another advantage possessed by the Europe at those times, which until now are the source of the competitive advantage for the Europeans groups. Especially in the medical sciences, the great innovation was took place for the benefit for the social cause of the people and the benefit of the source that is possessed by many country. There were diseases among the people of the Europe, therefore many cure or medicines were invented by the Europe in order to make their people health and live the active or healthy lifestyle (Blaut, 1992).

            The next important advantage the Europeans possessed at that time after the 1492 was the political leadership style. The Europeans were able to know how to effective managing of the things and the people in the most remarkable way. The administration skills were the core advantage gained by the Europeans in the 15th, 16th and the 17th centuries. Therefore, the Europe is the world’s best government running states as compared to the rest of the world. The political issues are managed in the Europe in the most professional and the transparent way.

5. What did the Stanford prison experiment reveal about the human nature? In your opinion did the conditions of the experiment effectively replicate the real world situation, or was its artificial nature responsible for the deviant behavior.

            The Stanford prison experiment was conducted by the Philip ZIMBARDO a psychology professor in the Stanford University to testify the behavior of the prisoners in the jail while imposing the authoritarian positions to the prisons of the guard. The experiment has the relation with the human nature, as this experiment is associated to the authority styles implanted by the navy, military officials and the government officials in the state. The nature of the human or the cognitive dissonance theory is directly linked with this experiment.

            The human nature depicts that the stress mentally bear by the human beings through the continuous abuse or harassment is due to the contradictory in the core beliefs of the human from the beliefs, which are imposed on the human nature. If the authority style is harsh for treating the human beings it leads towards the various demerits in the psychological conditions of the human nature, which are at sometimes very difficult to recover.

            The extreme conditions due to the authoritative style, which abuse to the human beings, mental pressure and the harassment, can cause the ultimate hazardous outcomes to the life of the normal human being. The human beings if face the inconsistency which is the part of this experiment is also not according to the main if ideology of the human nature that we study in the psychology (Hergenhahn, 2013).

            In my opinion, the Stanford prison experiment cannot implemented in the practical conditions. The first reason is that the unethical behavior or the action that were the core part of this experiment cannot imply to the real or the practical life. The second major reason or the criticism in the experiment is the extreme behaviors such as the mental torture , abusing actions from their authority, cases of harassment, physical violence and the physiologically damaging actions were more than the certain boundaries.

            The restrictions, which have crossed all the boundaries, were also accepted by the professor Philip ZIMBARDO who was the main originator of this experiment (Hergenhahn, 2013). The professor admitted himself that the actions or the behaviors were out of his control too at many stages of the experiment. The guards were judged in the experiment that they have the natural tendency to show the hard behavior or one can say that the strict authoritative powers.

            The prisoners were judged in the experiment based on the traumatized them emotionally or affection ally. The experiment has one stage in which the five prisoners were moved out of the jail in order to prevent their death, which is the extreme case in this experiment. The professor committed that he allowed all the unethical behaviors in the experiment.

            He also admitted the fact the guard in the experiment were so absorbed in the experiment according to their desired roles. Similarly the prisoners and the professor himself was engaged to the role assigned to them in the experiment abut it was becomes very difficult to conclude the right findings of the experiment (KONNIKOVA, 2012).

            By looking all these facts mentioned in the above discussion and the important aspects of the cognitive dissonance theory or the authoritative measures are against the practical implications of the Stanford prison experiment. In the real world or the practical life, the human beings are not being treated in this harsh way according to the choice of the authority.

            The nature of the experiment as well as the unethical concerns of the experiment makes one able to think with the clear frame of mind that the scientific control is not the elementary condition of the situations. Like in the government controlling the public matters, the management controlling the staff or the employees in the corporate world and the military officials controlling the enemies are not valid in this case. The observations in the real life are objective in nature and the subjective in nature.

            However, this factor is clearly defining that the subjective nature of the framework in the experiment is the critical point in the entire experiment. When we analyze the practical implications or the real life examples, the objective thinking abilities and the conceptual framework in the behaviors and actions are the main things that must be considered (Workman, 2014).

            Therefore looking at the above mentioned factors the Stanford prison experiment it is proved that the conditions of the experiment are not effectively replicate the real world situation, or was its artificial nature responsible for the deviant behavior  in the entire experiment.

Question 11

There is lot of apprehension right now about China rising to become America’s main strategic rival. How realistic do you think this challenge is?

            The United States of America has been in the limelight for many years due to its technology advancements, strong economic condition, and huge financial resources. The super power is having different business operations in all over the word, and dominating with its products and services due to quality and differentiation.  However, there are many countries, which are doing international trade with each other and even with the United States of America. Interestingly, the United States of America is prominent regarding its business and technology success, which makes it different from other countries. (Johnson, 2016)

    On the other hand, China is prominent due to its low cost of production, which is the main reason to become a prominent rival of the United States of America. This is a fact that different countries are conducting diversification in the China to have cheaper labor, distribution and supply chain cost to come up with the lower process. In result, this is observed that the investment in China has been increased I recent years, which is good for this country to come up as a strong strategic rival due to stronger economic condition and higher financial resources.

    Apart with business, there are many consequences regarding this rivalry. For instance, The China is containing developments in different aspects such as technology, military, economic, society, and diplomacy. This is a big thing to worry for the United States of America, as Asian giant is looking to beat the power in next few decades. (Reynolds, 2015)

    This is a fact that relation between these two countries is ambiguous due to culture differences and intentions regarding making relations with other countries.  This is observed that China is considering much investment on its military. This is the result of big financial resources due to economic stability in this country, which has let this country spend more money on its military operations. This is all about to make the county safe like the United States, which is the base of the success of both, the business and protection. (Smith, 2016)

    The big advantage that this country has as compared to the United States of America is the production of different products and services in low marginal cost. This is a fact that cost of production in the United States of America much higher than China, which compels the country to come up with the high process in the international market. Regarding China, the world is looking forwards to start the business with the United States of America to have low-cost products. (Tweed, 2015)

    This is the key aspect, which is realistic and needs to be considered by the United States of America and other countries are well. Furthermore, an interesting aspect is that China has covered all Asia with different trade agreements with different countries. Few years back, the United States of America was in the limelight in this region due to diversification. This is a fact that China is becoming a big rival of the United States of America due to different economic corridors with neighbor countries. (Johnson, 2016)

    These economic corridors and collaborative military operations are hindering the success of the United States of America in Asia. This has to be considered the China is becoming a big and main rival of the United States of America due to its potential and key resources that the United States of America do not have. This is also to consider making this challenge realistic that China is less dependent on other countries regarding different industries such as oil, Gas, and textile.

    The challenge seems realistic due to strong economic position in this country. For instance, due to strong economic position, it has expanded its investments in different countries and came up with low-cost products to beat the big giant, which is the United States of America. China is looking to expand inst international trade and investments to meet with its strategic interests due to its potential, which is making it the big rival of the United States of America. (Reynolds, 2015)

    Interestingly, the global role of China has been changed due to its intentions regarding the military, business, and strategic relations. For Instance, China is a nuclear power in this world, which makes this challenge more realistic. The role of China in the world will be directive in next few decades due to sustained economic and strategic developments.

    In addition, this will be tough for China to beat the United States of America early, as it contains monopoly in many business aspects and markets. This is a fact that the United States of America is losing its faith in different Islamic countries due to its wrong strategic decisions. The diplomacy of this country has not been up to the market in previous years as compared to China. Comparatively, the China has a good potential to come up as a great diplomatic country to retain and sustain long-term relationships with other countries. (Smith, 2016)

    These were all aspects and possible reason, which make this challenge more realistic. The word has been changed, as technology advancements have let different countries reduce the cost of production and invest money on defense. China is increasing its power due to huge financial and economic resources. This is a big thing to worry for the United States of America, as it is also losing its strategic relations with different countries. China is the only country, which can come up with greater credibility as compared to other companies. (Tweed, 2015)

14. What are potential dangers socially, economically military, that mankind faces from overdependence on technology

Answer 14.

The paper specifically associated with the description of overdependence on the technology that reveals the potential dangers of military, economically and socially as well. 

The over dependence on the technology, the man kind faced certain challenges in the socially economically and military as well.  The overdependence on the technology reveals challenges in the socially. The technology and society provides the indication how the values and cultural sustenance changes with the passage of time.   The synergic relationship has been identified when the society attach with the technological developments. The technology and human life cannot be separated and recognized as co dependence on the technology. The advance in the technology changes life of the community.   The genetic engineering in the society also prevails the challenges in the society. (Thefulcrum.ca, 2011)

The human uses technology in the form of business accumulations, learning and development and communication to live comfort in the society.  There are certain impacts created towards the impact of technology that increases the environmental pollution with the advancement in machinery at production houses. Due to increase in number of production, the companies face challenges in the increase in number of demand of goods and services; in this regard the company utilizes the formation of technology by entailing high machinery of production. Such machinery of production reveals wastages and emission of CO2 gases in the environment. This shows that increase in the environmental challenges also indicates the issues for the society as well. (Thefulcrum.ca, 2011)

 Lack of sustainability solutions is due to increase in technology poses challenges for the environment as well as society, when the mankind face sever disease due to environmental impacts.   Therefore overdependence on the technology people focus on utilizing the social media wither by physical activities where the society involves in the major disease by lack of physical games. 

The advancement in computer technology revolutionized workplace and reveals innumerable advances in education system. The invention of new technology reduced the mental capability of the individual to generate their outcome in essential and adequate manner.  The knowledge destruction also posed the major issues towards the over dependence on the technology. (Jackson, 2007)

One of the most important and significant impact of overdependence on the technology are issue of jobs and unemployment as well.  Due to increase in utilization of machinery for the reduction of labor force derives potential danger over the unemployment for the association of economically stability.  Heavy machinery in the production houses eliminates the work force. Modern technology like computers and micro chips reduce the use of mental abilities of human.

Towards the utilization of high machinery in the production reduce number of production jobs in the agriculture sector.  In addition to such machinery also increase the values of the economic but increasing exports for positive GDP.  But reduction in employment rate due to advancement in technology has severe impact on the economic stability.

 The overdependence on the technology also poses certain potential dangers on the military for the execution of warfare and other purpose as well.  The application of militant arguable and overdependence on the technology creates negative impact like manufacturing of atomic bombs as well as destruction of mass weapons.

The production of such weapons for the military purpose enhances the credibility of the country bust reveals bad impact on the society towards the warfare’s.  The overdependence on the technology is more powerful social forces towards the consolidations of aspiration of freedom as well.   The impact of technology indicates the complete destruction of possibility of humanity. There is growing continuity in capacity of militants indicates for the development of nuclear technology as well as nuclear warheads proliferation among the society.

This reveals the major challenges in the potential danger of overdependence on the technology of execution of nuclear technology. In addition to this, science postulates the major developments of accurate destruction of targets of enemy and lessened the damages of unintended towards the population of civilization. Cruise missiles as well as smart bombs reduced the components of human war for some degree.   The overdependence on the technology reveals the major danger over the military by increase in number of weapons where the criminal cases in the society.

 Thus to sum up all discussion about the potential danger of overdependence on the technology has severe impact over the militants for the execution of warfare’s and other development of nuclear developments as well.   The potential danger towards the dependence on the technology of militant reveals the characters of hands of terrorist organizations or a military as well. The overall study reveals the major consolidations of overdependence on the technology and its disadvantages that are prevailing in the society, economically and militant as well. (Jackson, 2007)

References:

Bensi, L., Giusberti, F., Raffaella Nori, R., & Gambetti, E. (2010). Individual differences and reasoning: A study on personality traits. British Journal of Psychology , 101 (3), 545-562.

Blaut, J. M. (1992). 1492: The Debate on Colonialism, Eurocentrism, and History. Africa World Press.

Crosby, l. W. (2003). The Columbian Exchange. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Hergenhahn, B. R. (2013). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Cengage Learning.

Kennedy, D. (2012). Cengage Advantage Books. Cengage Learning.

KONNIKOVA, M. (2012). The Real Lesson of the Stanford Prison Experiment. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from newyorker.com: http://www.newyorker.com/science/maria-konnikova/the-real-lesson-of-the-stanford-prison-experiment

Workman, L. (2014). Evolutionary Psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Conerly, B. (2014). The Danger Of A Big Customer: G T Advanced Technology’s Bankruptcy. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/billconerly/2014/11/25/the-danger-of-a-big-customer-g-t-advanced-technologys-bankruptcy/#91b16f551caa

Jackson, B. A. (2007). Breaching the Fortress Wall: Understanding Terrorist Efforts to Overcome Defensive Technologies. Rand Corporation.

Thefulcrum.ca. (2011). The dangers of technology. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://thefulcrum.ca/features/the-dangers-of-technology/

Johnson, S. (2016, April 19). China’s ‘Bants’ set to rival America’s ‘Fang’ tech stocks. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from FT.Com: http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/3/d1ba5940-057e-11e6-9b51-0fb5e65703ce.html#axzz47gaJW9MI

Reynolds, B. (2015, September 1). The Economics of U.S.-China Rivalry. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from China US Focus: http://www.chinausfocus.com/foreign-policy/the-economics-of-u-s-china-rivalry/

Smith, D. (2016, April 19). Next US president faces fraying ties with China amid anxieties over country’s rise. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from The Guardian: http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/apr/19/china-military-economy-chinapower-website

Tweed, D. (2015, October 27). U.S. Rivalry With China Heats Up Over Key Asia Shipping Lane. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from Bloomberg: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-10-27/u-s-steps-up-china-rivalry-in-asia-shipping-lane-with-patrol

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Economics


Homework 4 ECON3810 name Fall, 2016 Dr. Isbell 

  1. Suppose you are consulting with a labor union that is bargaining for higher wages. Explain to the Union leaders how a large increase in wages may actually have the effect of lowering the incomes of union members. What specific economic measure would this depend on? 

Labor Unions are legal bodies, which are constituted through various processes, represent group of employees or workers. The core objective, of any labor union, is to negotiate/bargain (collective bargaining) on behalf of the workers, regarding their wages and rights. Labor unions mostly use strikes as an instrument to mount pressure on management to accept the demands of a Union. 

By keeping in consideration prevailing economic conditions (global and domestic), I would advice labor union to not to assert or mount pressure for higher wages. This is because the increase in the wages would be reflected in cost of production and the price of a good produced and the increase in wage would also be used as pretext by other labor unions to increase pressure for higher wages. 

As mentioned earlier, the increase in wages would be reflected in cost and if all labor unions started to demand higher wages and were able to increase wages (on macro/national scale), cost-pull inflation would occur. This would not only increase prices of goods and services, but this would also decrease output. In addition, because of the cost-pull inflation, real income would decrease. However, this also depends upon the difference in the size of increase in over-all wages (on macro level) and increase in cost-pull inflation. For instance, If the increase in cost-pull inflation is greater than increase in nominal wages, the real income would decrease. 

  1. Suppose a U.S. firm is considering moving production facilities to another country with wages considerably less than what the firm pays in the U.S. (that is, the firm is “outsourcing” its labor – the product will be sold in the U.S.). There has been no change in the demand for its product, so the firm will produce the same level of output in either country. Explain, using isocosts and isoquants, why the number of jobs “lost” in the U.S. will likely be smaller than the number of jobs “gained” in the low-wage country. Will labor productivity be higher or lower if the firm moves its plant?  

According to the studies, developed countries are capital-intensive countries, which means that the size of capital is larger than labor in labor/capital ratio (K/L). The data also reveals that developing countries are labor intensive countries, which implies that the size of labor is greater than capital, in labor/capital ratio (K/L). This can explained through Iso-quant, which depicts labor capital for both an economy and an organization. 

1945a.PNG

(a)

1945b.PNG

(b)

The Figure (a) shows K/L ratio of a developing country, which is identified as labor intensive economy. The next figure (b) is depicts the capital/labor (K/L) ratio of a developed country, in which use of capital is greater than the employment of labor for the production of good or service. 

As the mobilization of resources, both financial and technological, have become simple; therefore, organizations are increasingly shifting their operations or outsourcing their production. Statistics reveal that because of the shifting of production operations or manufacturing to labor-intensive economies result little unemployment in developed countries, like US, as these economies are capital intensive economies, which imply that more capital is being used than labor. However, because of outsourcing of production to developing economies, employment generates on large scale, because of the labor-intensive nature of economies. 

From the evidence it is evident that labor productivity of US is higher, which means not only fewer labor units would be required to produce an output, but also quality of the output would be higher. 

This immediate impact, because of the shifting of manufacturing operations to labor intensive country, would be that organization would be able to buy more labor of units without expanding its budget. The iso-cost below depicts the increased access to more units of labor. 

18945c.PNG
  1. In many beach resorts on the East Coast of the United States, business is brisk in the summers but slow in the winters. In summers, resort rentals are sold out at high weekly rates, but in winters they are only partially rented at much lower rates. If you were to calculate expenses and revenues on a monthly basis, you would almost certainly find these resorts with revenues greater than expenses in the summers, and expenses greater than revenues in the winters. How come these resorts don’t just shut down in winters? 

If we carefully study the statement and the information, regarding business, which has been provided, we immediately identifies that Summer and Winter represents short-run. In addition, from the study of economics we know that an organization would remain operation, in short-run, as long it is covering its variable cost. If these resorts are covering their variable costs in winter, they will remain operation. However, if they are not able to cover their variable cost in winter, they organizations will shut down their operations. In addition, these resorts must be making zero economic profit, which is why these resorts have not left the industry.  

  1. Suppose a firm is operating at a point where MRTSLK > w/r. Explain how this firm could increase its output without changing its total costs.

The Marginal Rate Of Technical Substitution describes the change in inputs, Labor or and Capital, (increase or decrease), while maintaining same level of output. However, in this case the Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution is greater than the slope of units of labors and capital (Change in Capital/Change in Labor). 

The scenario suggests that by changing an input (L/K), which has higher productivity, the output could be increased. This increase in the output would not require additional financial resources to by that resource or input. 

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Determine proper dimensions

Determine the proper dimensions (given A, determin B) for the following scenarios in consideration of the diagram:

1.  Standard Sprinkler Upright – A = 20 inches B  = 35 inches

2.  Standard Sprinkler Pendant – A = 4 feet 4 inches B  = 5 feet 5 inches

3. Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinkler – A = 5 feet 10 inches B  = 5.5 feet 10.5 inches

4.  Extended Coverage Upright – A = 16 inches B  = 30 inches

5. CMSA Sprinklers A = 42 inches B =  46 inches

6.  ESFR Sprinklers A = 10 inches B = 12 inches

7.  ESFR Sprinklers A = 30 inches B = 36 inches

Determine the proper dimensions (given A, determine B) for the following scenarios in consideration of the diagram:

1.  Standard Sprinkler Upright (Light Hazard) – A = 20 inches  B  = 25 inches

2.  Standard Sprinkler Pendant (Light Hazard) – A = 10 inches  B  = 12 inches

3. Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinkler – A = 30 inches  B  = 35 inches

4.  Extended Coverage Upright (Light Hazard) – A = 16 inches  B  = 25 inches

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The Wackness (2008)

The Wackness (2008)

In this movie, one can see that there are various lessons to become a better human being. A better human being is someone who never loses hope and always is trying to improve.  Mainly Luke Shapiro provides good lessons for the viewers. 

Hardworking

The hardworking character is Luke Shapiro because he was selling marijuana to help himself in studies and college. It was an incident in the movie when he returns home to meet family and parents; he saw they are quarreling over the issue of money. Afterward, he started to transaction more marijuana for earning high amount of money. He worked harder to earn money to keep family safe in future from poverty and possible eviction. Therefore, one can observe the true hardworking character of Luke Shapiro. One can learn many things from this particular character, and the biggest lesson is hard work.

Lust

In the movie, one can observe that Luke Shapiro was in love with Stephanie Squires. On the other hand, it is imperative to understand that she was not in love with clean-hearted Luke Shapiro; she only has lust. In the scene where they are making love, only Luke actually feels love, so she is just “making lust”.  It is observed that she did not respond with affection to him and just fulfilled her lust and negative desires.

Caring

Another feature of Luke was his caring behavior.  It was an important attribute of Luke Shapiro in the movie. He was very focused and caring to his family. In most of the scenes, one can observe that he tries to make them proud of him. He was worried about their situation, so he sold marijuana at that time to rescue his family. He also rescued the doctor from suicide.

Anger

One can observe the disappointment factor in the ending half of the movie where Doctor Squires was feeling disheartened and demotivated due to some family issues. He was angry because of the extreme pain and tensions. Anyhow, he did not fight with Luke. In my perspective, it was not a great behavior, and he should not behave like that in those particular scenes. Luke was familiar with the real cause and meaning of the life, and he motivated him to for life. In addition, the anger factor cannot make you excel in life. 

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Freedom for the Thought that We Hate

Directions:  Type your answers.  Submit your answers on D2L, and print and bring to class. Answer the questions in complete sentences using your own words.

Chapter 5: Freedom and Privacy

1. Why did Judge Clark’s opinion in Sidis v. F-R Publishing Company not mention the First Amendment?  (1 point)

There was the matter of the privacy, as the people have the concern about their privacy, or they had the private life, said by the Clark. There was the weakness in the American privacy law, the law or the standards have the private information about the about the strong tradition of the First Amendments freedom, however, the press  cannot explain about the right to publish and interpret about the thrust people. There was the matter of the privacy and over explore the internet, based on this reason the law has struck between the matter of the privacy and the media exposure (Lewis, 2010, pg.61).

2. Which interests did the judge balance when reaching his decision in the SIDS case? (2 points)

Page#62

The judge was deeply interested in the case; there was the freedom of speech. However, while reaching to the decision, to balance the case the privacy by the publication concerned; however, it was the public matter, about the privacy concern so the sidis in court remains the dominant, the judge balance by saying leaves it to press, because it is public life and the matter of a public interest. In the court, there two matters were focused, right of the speech, public, and freedom of the press. So that there could balance before taking the right decision (Lewis, 2010, pg.62).

3. What did the ruling in the Sidiscase mean for public figures and the press? (1 point)

Page#73

A ruling for Sidis case means that first time in the country, there was the right given, to prevent the publication about someone’s life, or what one is doing, however, the matter was of the general or public interest. While considering the case, the first amendment was also considered, however, there is right to know about the interest of the public, there are the constitutional rights to access the news. It is the choice of the public and press that what they wanted to see and as there should be free dimensions of the news and information (Lewis, 2010, pg 73).

4. Do you think that applying this standard to all public figures (such as famous people like William James Sidis) instead of just government officials serves the original purpose of freedom of the press? Why or why not? (2 points)

In my point of view, there is the need to give the equal rights to all the people, the famous people like Sidis and the other governmental officials should be treated in the same way. As it is, the right of all the people to be given equality, however, whenever public figure and press concerned, there is a need to give the freedom of speech and freedom of media explore so the things could balance. As we have studied that media should be given right because it is the public matter, therefore there is need to set standards for all (Lewis, 2010, pg 62).

5. In the case of Bartnicki v. Vopper, how does Justice Breyer argue that the right to privacy actually encourages and protects free speech? (2 points)

The case of the Bartinicki v. Vopper, who have recorded about the labors while they talking about the teachers. The laws were implemented on them because it is wrong to record something without someone’s permission. However, freedom of speech and freedom of the press was augmented by the Breyer, argued that right to privacy are there and in this way free speech can be protected. However, the judge of the case or the Supreme Court were against, as they think that it is a criminal act to leave someone, who recorded the voices because it is the matter of the privacy (Lewis, 2010, pg 75).

Chapter 6: A Press Privilege?

6.In the case Branzburg v. Hayes how did the U.S. Supreme Court hold on the issue of whether a reporter has the right to refuse to testify? (1 point)

Page#83

A testify before a grand jury allowed the reporter to be compelled, as in the case of Branzburg v. Hayes the government does not show the substantial relationship because the case was complicated and the court believe that it was a criminal conduct, as the confidential information was not protected. The Supreme Court take the charge, the court refuse the reporter privilege, the article was written on the Kentucky drug Hashish, the shield law was not implemented, and the protection against was not given by the state court (Lewis, 2010, pg.83).

7. Why do journalists continue to claim that there is a press privilege even after the Supreme Court’s decision in Branzburg? (2 points)

The journalist was on right because they know that no decision is taken in their favor, it is the right of the press to have the freedom, they did the contract with the citizens, who had created, the use of the drugs. Branzburg, think that their activity is legal and take the promise that not to reveal the identities. However, the Supreme Court takes the decision or charge against, that things should not be hidden from the Court, however, the journalist in this way claim the press that the decision of Supreme Court was against them (Lewis, 2010, pg.83).

8. What are shield laws and in which courts do they apply? (1 point)

There are the laws created for the benefits of the reporters and the media, however, the shield laws are the legislations that are designed to protect the reporters; it is the right of the reporter that he should have the freedom of choice. He can argue to government and Supreme Court if the legislations are not given to him. However, the privilege is given to the reporter in this way, as he can refuse to testify the information. Most of the States have the shield laws, under which the reporters are protected. U.S Supreme Court implement on the shield laws (Lewis, 2010, pg 91).

Reader Questions (2 points)

What questions do you have after reading these chapters? Were there concepts that you did not understand or ideas that you would like to discuss in more detail? Write down at least two questions to share with your classmates:

After reading the chapters, I have understood the rights that the reporter and media have, as no one can challenge media, a reporter has the power, until and unless government laws support them. However, the questions could be:

If there are the Shield laws, then why not all courts use them?

Why there are no set regulations on the encouragement of the privacy or free speech?

Reference

Lewis, A. (2010). Freedom for the Thought That We Hate. Basic Books.

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Applications of Biomaterials in Biomedical

Application of Biomaterials in Biomedical

Introduction & Background

The applications of biomaterials that are being used in the biomedical are classified into following:

  1. Cardiovascular  Medical Devices
  2. Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
  3. Ophthalmologic applications
  4. Biosensor and Bioelectrodes
  5. Burning dressing and  skin substitute
  6. Sutures
  7. Drug Delivery System (DDS)
  8. Dental Material
  9. Cardiovascular Medical Devices:

Heart valves, endovascular stents, vascular unions, stent joints and other cardiovascular unions are typical therapeutic devices in cardiovascular applications Unmistakable polymers and metals with or without covering can be associated with this grouping (titanium, polytetrafluoroethylene et cetera (Rouse & Mark, 2010).

  • Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

Tissue outlining is championed among the most basic ways to deal with fulfill tissues for repair or substitution applications (Ramakrishna, 2011).

  • Ophthalmologic applications

Vision impedance/low vision, visual lack, refractive screw up (Myopia and Hyperopia), astigmatism, presbyopia, waterfalls,AMD (known as age-related macular degeneration) , vital open-edge glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy are ordinary ophthalmologic infections. To upgrade the life of these patients, various additions have been associated (Teng, Zhanga, Yaoa, Shenb, & Ratner, 2014).

  • Biosensor and Bioelectrodes

Bioelectrodes are the form of the biosensor, which helps to transmit the signals or information outside and inside the body. There are electrodes, which are being monitored for the electric event that occurs in the human body. For example, an electrocardiography, electromyography, and electroencephalography are the classifications (Ulery, Nair, & Laurencin, 2011). 

  • Burning dressing and skin substitutes

It is a very useful application for patients because the skin is the most sensitive and large part of the body. Therefore, the need of skin substitutes relying upon wound profundity is felt (Rouse & Mark, 2010).

  • Sutures

The suture is any strand of material that is utilized to ligate veins or surmised tissue. Ligatures are utilized to accomplish hemostasis or to close a structure to counteract leakage Silk, nylon, polyester, cotton, polypropylene, ultra-high sub-atomic weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), stainless steel and manufactured absorbable polymers, for example, polyglycolic corrosive (PGA), p-dioxanone (PDO) and so forth are the principle materials that are utilized as sutures yet (Teng, Zhanga, Yaoa, Shenb, & Ratner, 2014).

  • Drug Delivery System (DDS)

Medicate conveyance frameworks presented as details or instruments, which empower to control the discharge rate of an organic operator (particularly a medication) in the objective site (Ramakrishna, 2011).

  • Dental Materials

Helpful materials have been utilized as tooth crowns and root substitutions. One or both surfaces may have been subjected to some pre-treatment or molding with an etchant or groundwork that, bury alive, may have adjusted surface porosity. Dental bonds can be characterized to:

  1. Conventional acid-base cement (zinc oxide powder and 50% phosphoric acid)
  2. Poly-electrolyte cement(zinc oxide and poly aqueous acrylic solution)
  3. Resin modified glass ionomer cement(ionic carboxylate and polymerizable methacrylate groups
  4. Dual-setting  resin based cement( composed of aromatic elements)

Summaries of the Articles

The article is portraying the several of the large quantity shows potential vicinity in medical research, plus regenerative/restorative medication and preparation freedom, are enabled by the progress of entering biomaterials. Classified medicinal information is worn in roughly every category of experimental and community fitness research. The diverse investigate the state of affairs elevate diverse realistic, principled, and permissible issues.  In addition, with these challenges come of complementary the probable risks allied with the exercise of private statistics against the budding recompense that strength be expanded from the research. Model biomedical equipment bodies of people in cooperation the natal belongings looked-for to work together with cellular (Patel, 2010). The Later article would reflect the idea Environments, as well as the physical and chemical properties required for the desired applications.  

The second article is about the biomedical applications of polymer-composite materials: a review. It is for reviewing the situation of organs and change in organs. Detailed compensations of by means of polymer-composite biomaterials in preferred submissions are also decorated. The term paper also scrutinizes the serious questions and systematic confronts that necessitate additional investigate and expansion of polymer composite supplies for their amplified reception in the biomedical engineering. On the other hand, it is talking about the application of the specific concept.  It is the major point of this journal.  The coming article would describe the association of this article with this one.

The third article is providing the main concept of manufacturing and it is very valuable in the process of engineering and biomedical. We assess the equipment that has been urbanized for stereolithography, in addition to their utility in the biomedical pasture. The philosophy of procedure of the process is argued. The subject and topics like chemistry, mechanical properties and dreadful conditions activities of constructions put together by stereolithography are measured; in particular with observe to their submission as an implantable mechanism. The biomedical purposes are ongoing and one can understand that it requires such a great advancement. The upcoming article would reflect such arguments in comprehensive behavior.  

This article is portraying the amazing facts of the biomedical sciences. Opposite involuntary belongings and extremely consistent porosity are imperative material goods for handkerchief manufacturing gibbets. Biomedical sciences have the very strong link with the biomaterials as well. Furthermore, it helps to understand that application of almost every science in the medical sciences. The biomedical sciences have the huge impact on the plants and nature as well. On the other hand, a good number to be had hydrogen gibbets go through beginning underprivileged emotionless material goods restraining their relevance. The Later article is describing the strong link with this specific article about tissue engineering.  

The last article is about consumption of specific substances as biomaterials have to enormous amount influence the development of up to date pills. The conformist merged substances, which slow down malfunction, may be well thought-out. The first age band self-healing equipment portrays come within reach of that “stop the progress of” and “fill” damage. On the other hand, the second-generation self-healing equipment endeavors to “fully reinstate” the pre-failed textile configuration. Exclusively, specific substances biomaterials with the intention of are environmental make available the momentous improvement of a living being able to be not working downstairs and unconcerned behind they comprise serve their occupation. The Later article is describing the strong link with this specific article about tissue engineering. 

Key Questions

The key questions are about the applications of the Biomedical as well. What is Biomedical and what extent would be the end for the implementations of the Biomedical? What is the usage of biomedical applications in biomaterials? The Biomedical applications are going to implement in new ways and what would be the latest ways of handling latest applications.   

Final Critique

For this situation, the cement liquid might be drawn into the strong surface layers by slender activity. The nearness of an appropriate liquid between two solids extraordinarily improves the potential for intermolecular constrain communications at each solid–fluid limit. Medicate conveyance frameworks are an interface amongst patient and medication. These reasons were among essential main thrusts that prompted to the introduction of the field of CDD known as “controlled medication conveyance”.  Profound skin wounds because of profound cuts, blazes or deploring wounds can bring about critical physiological unhinging, open the body to a danger of systemic contamination, and turn into an existence undermining issue.  In the case of vascular pathologies, stents, and vascular join is used.

In the end, it is only basic to note that it just in laying out the stage, kind of produce and biomaterial assurance depending upon the target organ and its cells that can be affected by the convincing application. Therefore, these are the best ways to operate in the field of Biomedical and these above-mentioned biomedical applications are very useful.     

Reference

Patel, K. (2010). Materials for Biomedical Applications. Material Matters , 5 (3), 55-87.

Ramakrishna. (2011). Biomedical applications of polymer-composite materials: a review. Composites science and technology , 1189-1224.

Rouse, J. G., & Mark. (2010). A review of keratin-based biomaterials for biomedical applications. Materials , 999-1014.

Teng, W. J., Zhanga, Q., Yaoa, K., Shenb, T. T., & Ratner, B. D. (2014). A tough, precision-porous hydrogel scaffold: Ophthalmologic applications. Biomaterials , 8916-8926.

Ulery, B. D., Nair, L. S., & Laurencin, C. T. (2011). Biomedical Applications of Biodegradable Polymers. JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART B: POLYMER PHYSICS , 49, 832-864.

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Inn-Campus Tech VIC Tour 1.1: Introducing Virtual Learning Environments And Gamification

Summary of the Article

VIC Tour 1.1: Introducing Virtual Learning Environments And Gamification

The advancements in the realm of technology have given birth to new realities and utilities, which are facilitating individuals and corporations. The corporate sector has employed new technological instruments, tools and utilities to benefit from. One of such applications, of technology, is virtual tours of location and places. These tours are close to reality, giving real-time experience to those, who are interested in location. Real Estate industry, which is a very lucrative and strong industry, has also employed this technology to facilitate clients, as they can provide virtual tour of locations and buildings, through virtual modes.

Game Engines have created sophisticated technological instrument, which provide a virtual tour to its clients, of campus. This allows clients to inspect campus/location and they have direct access to evidence; does not have to rely on marketers’ provided evidence, which may be tempered. The article also asserts that video galleries serve the corporate cause better than image galleries. The article also discusses in detail the components, which are used for the development of VICTour, which include, Renderer, Game Physics, Lightning, Graphical User Interfaces and Head Up Displays (HUD) etc. The objective, of creating this system, remains to be convincing/persuading clients.

Relating Facts

The findings of this research could be applied favorably to InnCampus Tech’s service ex, in the manner by executing technological application like ‘360º touring virtually’ in an interactive revolutionary approach, the university campus from every angle or aspect of every site including apartments of campus as well they might benefit from applying virtual tour for dormitories. The technological tool like ‘VICTour 1.0’ as a solution that would solve all the issue or problems through virtual tour through interactive approach like information of the location, content of the liner, locations which are fixed, the spots which are blind and most importantly the interactivity would be managed through effective ways including apartments into their website.

In both situations, technology has been employed to give additional or provide close-to-reality experience to clients that are interested in certain real-estate, campus or building. In both situations, the objective is to benefit (through corporate activity), by providing additional information or virtual tour. However, the difference is that in Inn-Campus Tech scenario, the corporate plan has been developed or matured full and this may be the reasons that Inn-Campus Tech is facing challenges after implement their corporate design. The issue would be regarding the corporate design, which may have flaws, as it seems that it has only focused on summer, when dormitories are vacant and provide opportunity for companies like Inn-Campus Tech.

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Cyber Security

Cyber Security

Question: What are the biggest risks to small and medium businesses when it comes to cyber security and their day-to-day business?

Answer: It is very imperative to understand that the advancement of technology is facilitating the businesses and people at home as well. In the same way, the advancement of technology is bringing some risks to businesses in the modern world. Although there are variable and various solutions of it, in addition, one would like to talk about some of the biggest risks to small and medium businesses about cyber security in dealing with day-to-day business. The first threat to the small and medium business would be unhappy employees; these employees could be from Information technology department. They can easily interrupt the cyber system of the business or can interfere with wrong practice in day-to-day business. On the other hand, the second risk would be the careless employees. One can understand that careless employees could make things worst at a time for you and businesses. It is very important to keep the system secure and updated on the regular basis. In the same way, the data theft has become the major issue for the small and medium size businesses and people are quite worried about this aspect. The data could be theft by the mobile devices and it is one of the major concerns. Therefore, it is very necessary to control these types of issues as well. On the other hand, it is quite important to view that third party services could be the source of the cyber threat. In other words, the third-party service providers could damage the cyber data for their own interests. The cloud applications could be the major threat for small and medium size businesses. These are some of the biggest cyber threats for the businesses. It is important to take steps to avoid these great cyber risks.  

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Netflix Persona

Netflix

            The Netflix is the worlds’ renowned premium service for a subscription that captures no less than 13 million premium subscribers in its target market around the globe. The cores services of the Netflix includes the DVD provide at the online or the flat rate, discs of the blue ray categories, rental of movies through the mail and the opportunity of live streaming of the videos for the US as well as Canadian customers only. According to the core positioning of the premium subscription services of Netflix and integrated with the target market, there is three personas of the brand.

Persona 1The youngsters, which are professional

The Various Buyer Roles

            The roles of the buyers in this persona include the adaptability of this new strategy from the professionals, which are young for the unique concept of the VOD. The users of the mobile are targeted according to the needs in terms of the cellular markets that would integrate the model of the delivery of VOD. The specific services like the VOD, the young professional would definitely put their money or the investment in an adequate manner. 

The needs and situational triggers for the service

 The Netflix new strategy of mobile networks could make a potential problem solution for the young audiences who have the passion for the entertainment through videos, movies, DVDs at low rental rates and the enriched lives streaming videos would consider the needs and situational triggers for the service of the choices.

Creating Messaging Objectives for Smm Campaign

            The objectives based on the purpose for this persona includes the contents, which are protected from being copied in the enriched videos DVD, which is, create messaging objectives for our SMM campaign.     

Optimal Target Market

            The breakdown of the optimal target market from broader to the specific personal includes the individual customers or the couples having the age range between 21-35; The population, which constitutes the 27% of total population of the Los Angeles and finally the people who have the earnings of $55,000 and more are included. The reason for choosing this strategy of optimal target campaign is the core message to the specific segmentation would deliver appropriately, while ignoring the risk of the rational approach of interaction.

Persona 2 The income households fall in the upper-medium social class

The Various Buyer Roles

the role of the various buyers in this persona would target the people who are critical to take decision for consuming the services of the Netflix which are the medium class of income of households for the online rental concepts of the DVDs according to their capacities while placing orders of DVDs.

The needs and situational triggers for the service

            The core needs of this medium class are the largest selection of the various titles of  DVDs, videos, videos at the fixed cost allowing the company to do the personal merchandising strategy to satisfy the customers would consider the needs and situational triggers for the service of their choice.

Creating Messaging Objectives for Smm Campaign

            The goal of the campaign would be the convenience, fastest mode of the delivery of the DVDs, online videos while allowing the accuracy to the orders fulfillment that would definitely increase the numbers of subscribers.

Optimal Target Market

            The breakdown of the optimal target market from broader to the specific personal includes the age range of the individuals between the 34-54, the population which constitutes the 28% of the total population of the Los Angeles and finally the customers having income more than $85000 in a single year. The reason for choosing this strategy would be capturing the overall target customers in a single message.

Persona 3 Baby Boomers

The Various Buyer Roles

            The buyer’s role in this persona of the baby boomers is included the decision-making skills would include an increase in the accessibility of DVDs that could be watched instantly and the flat rates while catering the more range for the live streaming videos.

The needs and situational triggers for the service

            the core needs of the baby boomers persona would be not depending on the new versions of DVDs that released regularly while use the online subscription DVDs services at the very reasonable prices consider the needs and situational triggers for the service of their choice.

Creating Messaging Objectives for Smm Campaign

            The ultimate goal or the core objective of this campaign would be the availability of the rental DVDs, videos online while maintaining the pricing tactics that would target the retired customers. 

Optimal Target Market

            The breakdown of the optimal target market from broader to the specific personal includes the population with the age range between 54-64, customers, which would constitute the 7% of the total population of the Los Angeles, and finally the customers who are retired from the professional life. The reason for choosing this strategy would be targeting the untouched segments of the marketplace through the message.

                                                                                                            Young Professional

                                                                                                                 Upper-Medium

Baby Boomers

Fig: The relationships among various personas

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Faro Logistics Solutions Inc and Rickenbacker Inland Port

Rickenbacker Inland Port

A brief history of the company

            The Rickenbacker inland port is a well-reputed mufti-mode a gigantic hub or network of logistics, transportation, and distribution network. The unparallel destinations strategy including Ohio valley, for Canadian customers and the US while serving a grand air base as a forwarder of freight, consolidation networks, and providers of logistics. The concept was begun after WWII in 1942, the place served as the facility of an air base for the air force, which eventually transformed for the civilian consumers. In 1985 Rickenbacker, inland become a hub for the cargo after that in 1993 the forward air acquired the first location of the Rickenbacker inland port, which afterward transformed into the international network of logistics (rickenbackerinlandport.com, 2016).

Primary Services

            The services provided from the Rickenbacker inland port are the ground logistics-network handling or ground services, the international airport services are also included as core services under this company, the services of the flight from one destination of the globe to the other. The aviation services for the customers using the consolidated premium services approach, the transport of the horses and the livestock are included. The services of trucking as a feeder to transport or road as a daily routine, the provider of services of rail along with international logistics park is included. For trucking services, the 10-hour drive is the distance between many transportation terminals of US and Canada while providing the efficient time management in supply chain.

The Primary Customers and Partners

            The primary customers of the Rickenbacker inland include the major logistics network companies in the industry for the US as well as Canadian commercial or domestic customers, transportation commercial users, major airlines such as the Cargolux, FedEx, Mountain air cargo, Etihad cargo, Ohio network, UPS, and the Atlas air. They carry 4 million tons of the cargo in one single year in freight or logistics network (Rickenbackerinlandport.com, 2016).

Specialized Certifications

            The Rickenbacker inland has the expertise or certifications international bodies of standardization such as ISO and international council of logistics network. The transient aircraft certifications for the services providers The company makes sure that the unparallel services in the logistics network, flights between countries, logistics services through trucking and rail are provided the multi-dimensional channels especially for the US as well as Canadian customers.

Organization’s Activities and LOGISTICS

            The Rickenbacker inland claims that safety, security and the maximum level of discipline in logistics network, the great first impression in flights services are provided, the quick and efficient response to the customer’s complaints are included to take more than 50 million customers satisfy per year. The activities of the organization are integrated perfectly as we have studied in the field of logistics management that services of Rickenbacker inland are supported from the premier inclusions of freight, transport, and third party outsourcing networks. The strategies of the customer-focused are implemented in the business model of the Rickenbacker inland.

A summary of observations

            We have found during our tour that the latest revolutionary technological machines such as cargo machines, modern crafts used in the aviation, freight machines, fully equipped trucks, airplanes, and road feeders. The workers or the service providers are the highly skilled workers or workforce that professionally operates the distribution management along with the third party and the materials such as the resources of rail, trucking, handling of flights through carriers and buildings of the Rickenbacker inland are well furnished as well.

Overall Impressions

            The overall of an impression of mine while touring two or more places from the Rickenbacker inland was unbelievable and outstanding is analyzed. They are the premium services in the logistics, flight, and transportation network since the company is dedicated to delivering the best-in-class services especially for the international airport’s flights networking for passengers, the customized or differentiated services of aviation, and the global park of logistics. 

Faro Logistics Solutions Inc

A brief History of the Company

            The Faro Logistics Solutions Inc was founded back in 1988 as rangers model of freight where the warehousing of inventory along with the services of transportation was the initial focus since there was no concept of the cargo, freights, the airline services or transportation technological machines as now. The company is now a well-reputed firm in logistics industry having the variety of functionalities in the supply chain management. The vice president of the company has almost the 100 years of experience in the solutions for the logistics from FARO Inc (Farousa.com, 2016).

Primary Services

            The core services of the Faro Logistics Solutions Inc are the transportation network of logistics in the multiple varieties includes the container services of pick-up at the yard of the rail, the management of the CY. The drops services of the trailer, the consolidation services of the freight, the services of the deconsolidation such as the domestic purpose, air or the ocean. The other primary services of the Faro Logistics Solutions Inc are comprised of the dangerous shipments of the cargo networks management, storage, as well as handling of the food products.

The Primary Customers

The primary customers of the Faro Logistics Solutions Inc include the commercial firms in the various fields such as the Rickebacker air base, retailer companies, services, or industrial sector such as corporate section banking industries for the customized supply chain. The warehouse management, fulfilling the solutions of the SCM, the best in class quality in freight or transportation services of 3PL for the individual customers is analyzed. The day and night shipping covering freights for goods in more than space of half a million for goods (Farousa.com, 2016).

Specialized Certifications

            The specialized certifications, publications and the expertise from the service providers of the Faro Logistics Solutions Inc are incorporated in a manner that would include from the global logistics council awarded the top logistics network working as third party organization. The projects are taken or completed in the versatile operations management processes along with the creative designing of the supply-chain management solutions. The fulfilling of the warehouse’s services for the premium clients including the bonded networks of the warehouses are included.

Organization’s Activities and LOGISTICS

            Te activities of the organization are well matched with the perfect analytical model for the logistics we studied in the academic background which include the transactions such as the EDI or electronic data interchange, the effective system of the supply chain management delivering the customized or high-quality solutions for the clients of the Faro Logistics Solutions Inc.

 A Summary of Observations

            The overall observations during the tour related the work environment or operations management efficiencies are analyzed such as the machines, which are highly integrated towards the inventory style of reporting, the flexibility approach in the updated pick-up machines of the goods in shipping process that would effectively deliver the required set of merchandise to the final destinations. The workers are purely professional as far as the Faro Logistics Solutions Inc is concerned since they are committed to providing the best services to the customers, maintain the repute of the company using the technological resources, as the relationship with clients to strengthen the value of the company in the eyes of the external parties. The materials used in the company guaranteed the high-class values, the best in class experience through the quality services. The buildings are developed on the state of the art framework of architectural design especially the shipping modes for the goods occupied the space.

Overall Impressions

            The overall impression about the tour from the Faro Logistics Solutions Inc was truly very amazing in a sense that warehousing, supply-chain management services are delivered from the best third party logistics network that is paramount in experience and skills. The management of the freight, while the solutions in the delivery of a shipment of goods are according to the 3PL quality strategy, is analyzed.

References

Farousa.com. (2016). FARO. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from farousa.com: http://www.farousa.com/

Rickenbackerinlandport.com. (2016). Rickenbacker Inland Port. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from rickenbackerinlandport.com: http://rickenbackerinlandport.com/en/

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Development of Cancer Drug Resistance

Table of Contents

Development of cancer drug resistance………………………………………………………………………………. 4

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4

Cancer Drug Resistance & Role of Epigenetic……………………………………………………………………. 5

The Treatment and Relapse of Cancer……………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Mechanism of Drug Resistance…………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

Cross-Resistance Development…………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

How do the Resistance Cells Develop?……………………………………………………………………………… 9

Treating Drug Resistance in Cancer…………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Inactivation of Drugs………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Variation in Drug Targets……………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Drug Efflux………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

Damage repair of DNA………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

Inhibition of Cell Death………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

EMT & Metastasis……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15

Heterogeneity of Cancer Cell………………………………………………………………………………………. 15

Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17

Abstract

            Cancers are equipped with a unique ability to develop resistance against the traditional therapies hence, more and more research and development in treatment methods are required on regular basis due to their ever increasing ability to prevail. The paper describes various mechanisms that are adopted by the cancer cells to resist the treatment and therapy methods. These mechanisms include drug metabolism and transport, amplification and mutation of the drug targets. 

This also includes genetic rewiring of that can lead to apoptosis of impaired nature. This research paper also provides the current knowledge of various mechanisms that enable the resistance to drugs such as repair of DNA damage, alteration of drug target, drug inactivation, EMT and metastasis and drug efflux. The paper also outlines how these cancer cells inherit heterogeneity and what role it has to play in their resistance development.

In addition to this some of the resistance, I develop into multidrug resistance which further worsens the situation for the clinical methods to tackle the issue. In this paper, we have also discussed multiple insights in order to understand various processes that can impact the next generation of cancer therapies and treatments. In the end, the paper concludes the discussion on the best treatment options that can be used to reduce the drug resistance nature of the cancers and their cells and this can give positive direction to the research and devilment in this area.

Development of cancer drug resistance

Introduction

            Resistance to drugs is a very common phenomenon which is enabled within the diseases when pharmaceutical treatments and therapies have no effect on the infected cells. The ideology was first brought to the world when bacteria became drug resistance to certain antibiotics but after that, a similar issue was detected within the other disease cells and one of them was cancer as well. There are a number of methods to tackle the drug resistant issue which will be elaborated in the following text. In the year 1961, Frei and Freireich introduced a method in which a combination of four drugs each with high dosage was applied for the purpose of treating pediatric leukemia. There were known threats that were associated with the high dosage of all four drug combination however, the treatment were very much successful and the leukemia cells did not return (Ahmad, 2014).

However, the success did not last for long and there were plenty of cases where the patients relapsed. In fact, the redeveloped cells were more vigorous in nature and the developed cancer cells displayed no response and the cells invaded the brain blood as well and since then there is not much development that has been made as the disease continues to colonize other body organs and are developed into a more vigorous form as well. However, in the recent times, there have been a number of cases where the cancer cells have been treated successful especially in the cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. There are a number of success stories of pediatric leukemia as well as testicular cancer and Hodgkin’s lymphomas (Akhdar, Legendre, Aninat, & Morel, 2012). 

Cancer Drug Resistance & Role of Epigenetic

            Epigenetic modifications, which have the tendency to affect carcinogenesis, are one of the most important sets of mechanisms that have a crucial role to play in causing the cancer resistance. The major kinds of epigenetic variation include histone modification through methylation or acetylation or with DNA methylation. The process of DNA methylation involves binding of methyl groups   for the purpose of cytosines in the regions which are known as CpG islands at CG dinucleotides.  These are found in the promoter regions of the upstream gene. On the other hand, the histone modification includes the opening of chromatin while DNA methylation or deacetylation closes the chromatin. However, the epigenetic modification can be reversed and this can be used to counter the ability of the cancer cells to develop resistance (Chen, 2014).

Many of the treatments and mechanisms are influenced by epigenetic variations. Many still believe that these methods are developed from the four drug combinations that were used in the early 1960s. These epigenetic modifications can also have a positive influence on damage repair of DNA. The enzyme that is used for DNA repair shows the disintegration of the cancerous cells using the alkylating agents of chemotherapy.  The cells of human breast cancer can also display resistance to drugs and therapies using the epigenetic changes and these mediated forms are also observable in other forms of cancer as well. For example, the cells of melanoma are nonresponsive to chemotherapy and they have the tendency to develop resistance to fotemustine (Dinsa & Melesie, 2014).

The Treatment and Relapse of Cancer

Epigenetics have a major role to play in cancer stem cells and their growth. Hence focusing on addressing this issue can reduce the relapse of cancer. It is very much reasonable to speculate that a normal trigger can initiate the growth of the cancerous cells. Hence, reversing the epigenetic modification can reduce the formation of the progenitor cells hence, reducing the relapse chance. Nevertheless, the design and development of the drug to treat cancer have to be fully effective and for this, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the cancer cells can be cured and their further growth can be stopped. There are a number of treatments that can be used for this purpose. These treatments include the mutation of extracellular receptors, modification of drug transport as well as mutation and amplification of drug targets (Eid, El-Readi, Fatani, Eldin, & Wink, 2015).

There are number o0of other methods that care used by the medical experts and will be provided in the following text. Therefore, the reversal of the epigenetic modifications has a major role to play in stopping the growth and development of the progenitor cells and the primary focus of all the medical treatments should be in this area. This will prevent other body parts as well to develop any formation of invaded cells and will permanently halt their production within the body. This is the reason why the medical experts now tend to focus on the epigenetic modifications that contribute a lot towards the relapse of the progenitor cells. This is a better way to adopt the treating methods for relapsing cancer (Foo & Michor, 2014).

Mechanism of Drug Resistance

            Acquired resistance, as well as primary resistance, may result from the variations that have been developed due to drug metabolism such as improved detoxification and sequestrations or even due to drug target alterations. Drug metabolism is probably the most researched part of drug resistance and this includes detoxification, uptake, and efflux. The selection of the medium that is used to enter the drug into the cells completely depends on upon the chemical nature. It majorly facilitates the usage of receptors which are bound and transferred without entering into the cells or they may use the transporter to promote cellular entry (Housman, et al., 2014).

At this stage, extracellular receptors are smoothened by the reduced expression the transporters that can be used here include nucleoside transporter or folate transporters. However, this can negatively influence the uptake of the cyclopamine and various other drugs including toxic folate analogs like methotrexate and nucleoside drugs like cytarabine. However, the enhanced drug efflux can increasingly cause frequent expression of membrane transport using ATP binding cassette. For the purpose of exerting the cytotoxic effects, anti-cancer drugs have to go for metabolism activations. To understand this concept considers cytarabine which is also known as AraC. Cytarabine is a nucleoside drug that is very commonly used in the therapies and treatments of acute myelogenous leukemia (Hu, Li, Gao, & Cho, 2016).

Cytarabine facilitates the initial phosphorylation through deoxycytidine kinase to cytarabine-monophosphate that frequently phosphorylated the cytarabine triphosphate. For reducing the effects of the drugs, these cancer cells develop a form of resistance by decreasing the activation and triggering of drugs and their effects. This takes place either by down-regulation or the mutation the enzymes that are present in the metabolic pathways. The metabolic pathways in the case of cytarabine are deoxycytidine kinase. The inactivation of the drug may also have a major role to play in the development of drug resistance. For instance, these mechanisms also include the conjugation of drug to GSH. GSH is a powerful anti-oxidant which protects the cells in case of any devastating effects of the highly reactive oxygen species (Koushik, Rao, Kumar, & Karthikeyan, 2016).

The conjugation of drug to GSH and to platinum drugs including cisplatin and oxaliplatin can be used in curing the cancer cells and can also be used to substrate for the ATP binding cassette transporters and this improves the performance of the drug efflux treatment and its outcomes as well. The binding of the platinum drugs particularly cisplatin to metallothionein which is a tiny protein rich in cysteine can also be used as another type of method that can be used as inactivation of the drug. Many of the cancer cells tend to develop an over dependency on an oncogene which can also be named as an addiction of oncogene. Focusing on these types of oncogenes may allow development of new techniques in targeted treatments as well as therapies. The most common examples of these targeted therapies include trastuzumab which focuses on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2), imatinib which targets the ABL/BCR tyrosine kinase in CML and gefitinib as well as erlotinib that focuses on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (Koushik, Rao, Kumar, & Karthikeyan, 2016).

Cross-Resistance Development

            The resistance to one drug may develop into the resistance to other drugs as well and this is another important feature of drug resistance to looking at. This can be understood with help of an example of loss of a drug transporter might direct the structurally complex compounds that use this transportation or in other words, the ATP-binding cassette transporters may get elevated by the resulting therapy and this can directly influence the efficacy of all other compounds as well. As the poor chemotherapy response can directly be influenced by multidrug resistance phenotypes the development of techniques can be used to overcome the underlying issues. Hence the drugs that are not recognized by the transporters completely avoid efflux as well as inhibitors (Liu, 2009).

However, resistance doesn’t go useless here the alternative technique to treat the drug progeny uses and emphasizes through Darwinian selection procedure which is to identify the base where the resistance to first provided drug initiated a hypersensitivity to the cytotoxic agent alternatively. Collateral sensitivity is referred to as synthetic lethality because same genetic alteration that cell resistant to a particular drug and sensitizes it to another drug as well. Hence it is very important for the medical experts and scientists because development of resistance to one drug can develop resistance to other drugs as well and this can halt the process of curing the cancer cells and for this purpose the chemical nature of all the different compounds used in this process have to be critically analyzed so that the methods of treatment and therapies can be improved (Okon, 2016).

How do the Resistance Cells Develop?

            Human cancers and their development is a complex process that involves numerous stages. These stages include epigenetic modifications that have been developed over time as well as genetic alterations. This results in the development of single tumor that is comprised of the non-homogametic cell population which has diverse genetic fingerprints. As the development of tumor progresses some of the cells undergo various genetic modifications. These modifications have a superior level of growth advantage. The best example of this case is the cells of breast cancer which have various tumor heterogeneities. According to a study, approximately 98% of epithelial breast carcinomas have intra-tumor diversities and due to this innate level of heterogeneity, the cancer cells demonstrate a high level of resistance (Rueff & Rodrigues, 2016).

Hence, it can be easily understood that the cancer cells demonstrate the same characteristics as provided by the Darwinian law of evolution. The focus should be on those cell populations that are most adaptive and display very heterogeneous tendencies. They form clones and these clones then begin to populate the tumor and make it extremely resilient to any treatment or therapy. This selection process can be done using two different mechanisms. One is the cellular population emergence after the selection of the drug binding while the second method includes stochastic modification acquisitions within the drug transporters. Two models including CSC model or the cancer stem cell model and EMDR model or environment mediated drug resistance model can be used to explain this process and they both are mutually exclusive as well. The rare populations of the cancer cells in CSC model are equipped with tumor-initiating characteristics. The EMDR model develops resistance as the cancer cells interact with the close by microenvironment and enter into a dormant state and they diminish the effects of the treatment or the therapy (Sameen, 2015).

These cells remain in their shelters during the imposed pressure and continue with their genetic variations till the time they acquire permanent resistance phenotype. The surviving populations of the cancer cells can play their role in Minimal Residual Disease or MRD thus, contributing towards relapse. In the EMDR model, metastatic epithelial malignancies, as well as hematopoietic epithelial malignancies, can be mediated with help of soluble and adhesive microenvironment elements. One of the mediators for this resistance is interleukin-6 which is also known as IL-6. This mediator has increased the level of secretion and it will be correlated with various resistances from cytotoxins in all in vivo and in-vitro models. At the molecular level, this procedure can take place in numerous scenarios which include improves stability and modified the subcellular distribution of all the protein and cell cellular moderators as well as degradation of apoptotic proteins as well. In this case, the cancer cells have a tendency to use fibronectin adhesion from the surrounding environment for the purpose of limiting endogenous levels. Hence, these two models can be used to understand and explain various issues related to the development of the cancer cells within the bodies. This can lead to the development of sound techniques and methodologies to cure the disease and prevent their relapse (Sebens & Schäfer, 2012).      

Treating Drug Resistance in Cancer

Inactivation of Drugs

Medications are changed in the body by an assortment of pathways to acquiesce pharmacologically dynamic or concealed metabolic items. A few rejoinders result in dynamic metabolites and some of the unoccupied items. Contingent upon the configuration of the medication, a similar response may frame self-motivated or inert metabolites. Despite the fact that mixes are at last changed by catalysts, there are numerous components that adjust the chemical action, for example, inhibitors, hormones, tissue limitation, and vitamins (Sebens & Schäfer, 2012). 

In spite of an assortment of cases of the contact of the human being gastrointestinal microbiome on prescription satisfactoriness and lethality, there is repeatedly a disjointed intellectual capacity of the elementary classifications. Here, we investigate the inactivation of the heart meditates digoxin by the reduced to ashes Actinobacterium Eggerthella lenta. The Transcriptional silhouette, comparative genomics, and culture-based measures discovered and uncovered a cytochrome-encoding operon up intended for by digoxin, unemotional by arginine, malinger in nonmetabolizing E. lenta sprains, and clairvoyant of digoxin inactivation by the individual reduced to ashes microbiome. It is the fact that inactivation of drugs is quite necessary for the solution of this project.  On the other hand, it is also viewable that everyone wants to become safe, healthy, and fearless from cancer. Therefore, the best way is to inactivate the drugs for resistance from cancer (Ullah, 2008). 

Variation in Drug Targets

 It is the fact that Individual fickleness in medication practicability and prescription health is a worth mentioning test in contemporary irrefutable put into practice. In addition, the sedated advancement, and medication control is the part of this particular drug targets. It is imperative to understand that investigations of pharmacokinetics have given satisfactory cases of contributory relationships in the midst of genotypes and prescription rejoinder to characterize phenotypic varieties of clinical significance in prescription treatment. On the other hand, the merger of pharmacokinetics and human genomics as of belatedly has extensively accelerated the surprise of new transmissible varieties (Wang, 2015).

It will possibly bring about fickleness in prescription rejoinder. Even though the express aggregation of in a row on genome-malady and genome-tranquilize family and association, there comes into view the trust of the individualized drug. On the other hand, we assessment late press forward in the conception of hereditary dedication to real personage fickleness in prescription handling with contemplating on a transmissible multiplicity of tablets target, dignified incorporation system, put under sedation transfer, complaint vulnerability, and prescription wellbeing. It is the fact that Difficulties to potential pharmacokinetics and its elucidation into individualized pills, put under sedation expansion, and bearing is scrutinized. For instance, wisdom on genetic determinants of woe pathogenesis and prescription hullabaloo, for the most part, those of multipart infectivity and prescription reaction, is not commonly easily reached. Concerning the abundant eminence multiplicity from genomic sequencing to detached phenotypes may not be comprehensible (Zahreddine & Borden, 2013).

Drug Efflux

The drug efflux is known to be a quite famous way to resist the chances of cancer. It is very imperative to understand that it is quite important in the medical sector. Most of the researchers are working hard to improve the system of drug efflux. It is very important for the well-being of the people and one should plan for the betterment of the community.  It is the fact that the planning needs to be long term.  We are moving speedily to the modern world and we must prepare ourselves for the better future in order to fight with diseases (Ahmad, 2014). 

The drug efflux is the broader concept for the people in order to modernize and correct the setup on medical terms. One can understand that cancer is major disease and we cannot get away after closing the eyes. Therefore, it has become very important to plan the setup medically and according to the principles of cancer treatment. There are many companies and research centers working on the latest researches for prevention of cancer and one can understand the various diseases under the umbrella of cancer.  Therefore, it is obvious that drug efflux has the main role and key importance in the cancer treatment (Eid, El-Readi, Fatani, Eldin, & Wink, 2015).

Damage repair of DNA

It is very imperative to understand that cancer is the major disease in the modern world.  Although, the treatment is there but still there are many things to do in the future. We cannot take the credit away from the researchers and physicians as well. They are doing everything for the better health of the human beings.  They are providing services to the patients and humanity and making things better.  The research in the field of cancer has portrayed the fact that there could be a damage occur in the process of treatment of cancer (Okon, 2016).

On the other hand, one would have to realize and understand that there must be something, which can make changes in this perception. Anyhow, there are certain ways are available for the prevention of the damage in the process of treatment. The Treatment process would have the attributes that can make changes in the medication. The new medication would not damage the DNA in the process of treatment hopefully. It is mandatory to realize the importance in the changing of medication and produce such medication that can repair damage in this particular matter and factor. One can understand now the importance of the damage repair of DNA (Rueff & Rodrigues, 2016). 

Inhibition of Cell Death

It is quite imperative to understand that Inhibition of Cell Death is the major issue and way to treat the disease of cancer. One can understand that cell death has become a major issue for the patients who are suffering from cancer. The major cause is the non-effectiveness of the medications, which has been used in the process of cancer treatment. Therefore, it is very imperative to acknowledge the process of Inhibition of Cell Death for the better results ultimately.  One thing is very necessary to remember that Inhibition of Cell Death is the way to investigate the right medical process for the treatment (Foo & Michor, 2014).

On the other hand, one can understand that cells perform the great role in the recovery of the patients from major diseases like cancer and HIV as well.  Therefore, the physicians and doctors need to focus on the process of Inhibition of Cell Death.  In addition, it is necessary for the researcher to understand and acknowledge the factor that cell death could cause major infection and disease in the body of human beings ultimately.  It is obvious and proved that Inhibition of Cell Death is the major issue to focus and decrease the rate of deaths due to cancer (Liu, 2009). 

EMT & Metastasis

It is another issue to focus in the discussion about prevention from cancer. In addition, it is quite important to resolve the associated issues like development of cancers drugs.  It is the main issue of discussion in the paper and one can understand the significance of this issue in the medical history. According to medical reports, there are biggest institutions working to resolve the issue of drugs in cancer treatment. In the same way, the EMT and Metastasis are the major attributes and significant matters. The medical researchers and physicians need to overview this issue like the other significant issues of the death of cells and others (Okon, 2016). 

On the other hand, it is the fact that cancer is the major disease and people need to get more awareness for the better and healthy future. For this kind purpose, the researchers should come forward in order to reduce the rate of cancer in the future. The EMT and Metastasis are the main issues to handle in the prevention of negative effects of drugs of cancer. Therefore, it became very important to resolve the matters that are making things difficult in handling the cancer issues. It will cure the issues of drug development ultimately (Sameen, 2015). 

Heterogeneity of Cancer Cell

The cancer cell is located under the cancer stem cell and the Heterogeneity of Cancer Cell is quite an important issue in the development of cancer prevention drugs. The Heterogeneity of Cancer Cell can describe into two section or models and one is cancer stem cell.  It is very imperative to understand that Heterogeneity is mandatory for the noble cause of the researchers and physicians.  One can understand that medical research about the development of cancer drugs is in the process and everybody is putting a part in the efforts against the disease of cancer.  In the same way, the above-mentioned issue needs to be resolved on urgent basis (Chen, 2014).    

It will ultimately make things better for the human beings. These types of the issue have been the major part of the study in the process. This is why it became necessary for medical institutions to resolve the matter on the latest medical approaches and consequences. Otherwise, the level of growth would be negative and people could suffer more in the drugs of cancer.  Therefore, the development is essential and sustainable countries are making progress in this particular section. One can observe that the diseases rate is gradually declining and major diseases as if cancer has less impact on the healthy societies.  Now, it is obvious to resolve the matter of Heterogeneity of Cancer Cell (Okon, 2016). 

Conclusions

From the above discussion we can conclude that epigenetic modifications have a major role to play when it comes to development of resistance within the cancer cells. Resistance to drugs is a phenomenon that is present within the disease cells when therapies and treatments and these have no influence disease cells. Hence there are numerous techniques and methods that have been developed to cure the cancerous cells. These treatments are used to cure the cancer cells and halt their further growth and development which is very helpful in the disease relapse as well. Further research and development should be conducted in order to prevent the growth of the cells which will help the experts to cure the disease.

References   

Ahmad, A. (2014). Breast Cancer Metastasis and Drug Resistance: Progress and Prospects. Springer New York.

Akhdar, H., Legendre, C., Aninat, C., & Morel, F. (2012). Anticancer Drug Metabolism: Chemotherapy Resistance and New Therapeutic Approaches. In H. Akhdar, C. Legendre, C. Aninat, & F. Morel, Topics on Drug Metabolism (pp. 137-170). Intech.

Chen, J. (2014). Reactive Oxygen Species and Drug Resistance in Cancer Chemotherapy. Austin Journal of Clinical Pathology, 1(4), 1-7.

Dinsa, H., & Melesie, G. (2014). A Literature Review on Cancer Multi Drug Resistance and Its Therapy. International Journal of Pharma Sciences, 4(1), 417-423.

Eid, S. Y., El-Readi, M. Z., Fatani, S. H., Eldin, E. E., & Wink, M. (2015). Natural Products Modulate the Multifactorial Multidrug Resistance of Cancer. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 6, 146-176.

Foo, J., & Michor, F. (2014). Evolution of acquired resistance to anti-cancer therapy. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 355, 10-20.

Housman, G., Byle, S., Heerboth, S., Lapinska, K., Longacre, M., Snyder, N., & Sarkar, S. (2014). Drug Resistance in Cancer: An Overview. Cancers, 6, 1769-1792.

Hu, T., Li, Z., Gao, C.-Y., & Cho, C. H. (2016). Mechanisms of drug resistance in colon cancer and its therapeutic strategies. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 22(30), 6876-6889.

Koushik, Rao, Kumar, & Karthikeyan. (2016). Nano Drug Delivery Systems to Overcome Cancer Drug Resistance – A Review. Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, 7(3), 1-9.

Liu, F.-S. (2009). Mechanisms of Chemothrapeutic Drug Resistance in Cancer Therapy – A Quick Review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol, 48(3), 239-244.

Okon, I. (2016). The Paradox of Ant-cancer Agents and Recurring Emergence of Drug Resistance. Journal of Biomedical Sciences, 4(1:4), 1-4.

Rueff, J., & Rodrigues, A. S. (2016). Cancer Drug Resistance: Overviews and Methods. Springer New York.

Sameen, S. (2015). Hybrid Modeling of Cancer Drug Resistance Mechanisms. Universita di Pisa.

Sebens, S., & Schäfer, H. (2012). The Tumor Stroma as Mediator of Drug Resistance – A Potential Target to Improve Cancer Therapy? Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 13, 1-14.

Ullah, M. F. (2008). Cancer Multidrug Resistance (MDR): A Major Impediment to Effective Chemotherapy. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 9, 1-6.

Wang, H. (2015). Molecualr Mechanisms of Therapeutic Resistance in Cancer. University of Michigan.

Zahreddine, H., & Borden, K. L. (2013). Mechanisms and insights into drug resistance in cancer. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 4, 1-8.

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Cloud Computing In Non- Profit Organization Strategic Business Model Implementation

Q: Does your workplace/organization use any services offered in the cloud? If so, what service model is offered by the provider? If not, what are the primary reasons for not using services offered in the cloud?

A: The non-for-profit organization in the cloud computing services at the state level would be the ‘Public Sector Cloud Computing’ in Broward County in Florida. The technology would be very cost efficient along with the efficient performance in the state for the public use lowering the government operations, largest accessibility for the customers incorporating more than 90000 different information systems worth more than $75 billion. The vision of this non-for-profit organization would be ‘ best experience at the cloud computing for performance in security or safety for data centers of information for users.’ The mission of the company would be the environment that would be inclusive in terms of environment, which has competitive edge in terms of diverse backgrounds of the employees, key customers, business partners, and suppliers to meet a sustainable advantage. The common barriers must need to remove including the executions of the cloud computing projects, fragmenting the systems, technological legacy while not putting efforts by the government in IT sector for ease of use in private sectors (Valacich & Schneider, 2014).

            Cloud computing is the advanced technology. It is still in its early stages almost every organization is using cloud computing due to the advantages it provides to the users. It is on-demand self-service and no human interaction is required for it. It also provides the broad network access there are many services offered by the cloud computing services. With the help of cloud computing, the users are able to use and access the applications from any devices across the internet. The most common service provider is the Google Gmail (Buyya, 2010).

            Clouds computing are much better than the old system of storing and sending files and using the old networks. It is cost efficient. It provides continuous availability as well as convenience. It has a backup and recovery methods. Moreover, cloud computing is very much environment-friendly. It also has the characteristics of resiliency and redundancy. Its scalability and performance are much better. It has a quick deployment as well as provides the ease of integration. It also provides the higher storage capacity. This service has the device diversity as well as it is independent of location

            Our organization is also using the cloud-computing model. Our organization is using the infrastructure as a service (Iaas) model. It provides the virtual interface for the users. The main reason for using this model is that it provides virtualization because it allows the providers to supply the resources on demand, which can also be extracted from their large pools that are installed in the data center. The reason for using this model in the organization is that it saves cost. It provides flexibility and scalability. It has the faster access to the market. It also provides support to the BC, DR and has high availability. It puts high focus on the business growth.

Q:Suggest which Cloud sourcing model would best fit your workplace/organization/agency, and discuss why the model that you selected would be the best fit.

A: After reviewing the state of the public sector cloud computing article, it was a very informative article describing the cloud computing and its models. It also discussed the cloud sourcing models. There were four types of models discussed there. These were private cloud, public cloud, community cloud and hybrid cloud. All carries their own characteristics, however to answer the question about which model will best fit into the organization then I think I will need all the models to be deployed into my organization, as all of them will be needed in different circumstances. Let us discuss characteristics of all and then choose the one (Kundra, 2012).

            Customer Segments: The target customers would the private, public small enterprises along with the citizens of the Broward county to who we would offer the cloud computing services, where as the most important customers would be the citizens of Broward county. Private cloud will help me to keep the private data private, as it will be only operated by the organization. The community cloud will help me to make new deals with the other organization or any new offer to the other organization. It will be profitable. The public cloud will help in making the better connection with the public or to the large industry group. The clearest answer would be to adopt the Hybrid cloud. This is the unique technology combining the private, public, or community models. It will help in enabling the data as well as application portability.

            Value Proposition: The core value would be provided to the customers from our  cloud computing services in which this non-for-profit organization would incorporate the efficient initiatives for the cloud computing such as the databases, low cost for the operations; maintain efficiency in the data centers, a model of deployments along with services. In order to choose which would be the best, I will choose the hybrid model to be deployed in my organization because it perfectly fits the needs of the organization. It is the perfect combination of all the models and I can adjust it according to the needs of the organization.

Q: Review the list of federal/state/local cloud computing case studies and reflect on one of the cases?

A: After reviewing the case of Personal service delivery transformation (PSDT) United states air force. They used the cloud computing service model and implemented the software as a service (SaaS) because they were facing the problem of reshaping the personal community and the air force needed to decrease the time, which was spent in searching for the documentation .they allowed the personnel in order to support the war-fighting mission (Ojala, 2011).

            Customer Relationships: The CRM model would be incorporate in way that the strong tiers or interaction with customers would be developed through the program was created by them in order to improve the operations of the human resource management. This would provide a  help of the cloud-based CRM solution in which the case tracking, knowledge management, as well as contact center tracking the customer survey tools were included.

            The main aim was to improve the better experience of the customers through the self-service solutions as well as tracking the basic needs of the customers the right one solution was made by the enforcing for focusing on the problems in order to solve the organization information. With the help of Right now, it was able to tool solve the workforce reduction and it was able to save the $4 million annually .the results were also improved and the demands have also been met.

Q: Visit the website of a cloud service provider.  Find the provider’s service level agreement. Based on service level agreement, explain the provider’s availability, security and privacy provisions.  Determine which of the providers that you identified you would select if you were searching for a cloud service provider for NSU.

A: The cloud service level agreement is the important agreement. It forms the contractual relationship between the cloud service provider and the cloud service customers of the cloud service. We know that the cloud is the global nature. It spans many jurisdictions. It has many legal requirements. It protects the personal data, which are hosted in the cloud service. There are different approaches to the cloud service and deployment models by the cloud SLAs. This is different room one cloud service provider to the otter and the cloud service customers find it difficult to compare it with the cloud service (ibm.com, 2016).

            Revenue Streams: The process of earning the revenues while selling the adequate or dynamic cloud computing services, the customers would buy, as the expansion in terms of competitive strategy would be standards that would according to the cloud-computing environment. It includes providing security of information to the people, privacy measures of the information of the citizens, protecting the rights of the interest of security both at national and international level.

            It is important that in the contract of the clouds service level providers, there must be the right as well as the cost must be specified in order to continue as well as discounted the service to be used. The specific parameters must be codified and there must the minimum level of requirements for each of the elements of the service and there must be the remedies as well for the failures in case the requirements are not met.

            Key Resources: The most significant or essential assets for constantly developing the effective SLA, there is also the criteria established in which it requires the availability of the 99.99% for the 24/7. This would create the sustainable business model serving customers, partners, and suppliers. The performance must be efficient; it must be able to provide the high privacy as well as security to protect the confidentiality. There must be encryption of the all the data, which has been stored as well as transmitted, the access to the data, must also be in the readable format.

            Google cloud engine is the best cloud service provider for the NSU. The reason is that it has also been created for the purpose of the university and office work. The students will be able to store as well as retrieve data. They can also make their interaction easily available with all of the class fellows and teachers. It makes the work very easy and cost effective.

References

Buyya, R. (2010). Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms. John Wiley & Sons.

ibm.com. (2016). IBM. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from ibm.com: https://www.ibm.com/us-en/

Kundra, V. (2012). State of Public Sector Cloud Computing. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from cio.gov: https://cio.gov/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2012/09/StateOfCloudComputingReport-FINAL.pdf

Ojala, A. (2011). Value networks in cloud computing. Journal of Business Strategy , 32 (6), 40 – 49.

Valacich, J. S., & Schneider, C. (2014). Information Systems Today: Managing in a Digital World. Pearson College Division.

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Supply Chain Management

OPMT 350-01 Supply Chain Management (Fall 2016)

Home Work 2 (Chapters 4 – 8) (Due Tuesday, October 25 9:00 pm)

Name: Ibrahim Aljahdali

  1. How can strategic procurement contribute to the quality of products produced by a manufacturing organization?

Strategic Procurement means to acquire goods and services from the suppliers. These goods and services may include finished products, raw materials, parts and components, crop produce and all types of services. High-quality goods and services contribute a lot to the quality of the finished goods which ultimately have a positive impact on the production of the company and its profitability. Similarly, if the materials are of low quality, then the production will be of low quality as well. Hence, it is very important for the companies to focus on high-quality products and services so that they can improve their production. Focusing on the quality of the product may require the company to invest more to improve the production and output of the product. 

  • How does lowest TCO differ from lowest purchase price?

The focus of the lowest purchase price is on the price of each of the items, especially to obtain it from the suppliers at lowest possible price. However, the TCO not only focuses on the buying the goods and services at a lowest possible price from the suppliers but it also allows firms to get special offers from them as well so that the payment of the inventory can be prompt. Also, TCO also enables the supplier to provide more services such as allowance, delivery, and pick-up service for the client firms too. Here another aspect is of life-cycle costs which are related to the finished goods that are faulty or are of poor quality and might have some issues with warranty, or repair.

  • Many people think of lean systems as being incompatible with mass customization and flexible manufacturing. Why is this conclusion incorrect?

There are three different kinds of lean systems, and each one of them runs on its principle and mechanics. There are different goals and objectives for each system as well. Nevertheless, if we have a closer look at each of these systems, we will come to know that each one of them is quite different from each other. Each of them looks to accomplish a mutual goal, and that goal is to manufacture the goods and services as quickly as possible and when they require it. The main purpose of the lean systems is to produce the goods and service as per the demand as per the time requirement of the customer as well. Here some challenges may come up as these systems require the firms to eliminate all the slack which according to many is required when it comes to customization of the products and services. Lean systems focus on reducing the costs and time of the setup and smoothen the production process to accomplish mass production and customization. The main objective of the lean system is to produce the goods when the customer wants it, and it should be exactly as per the demand. This is also the main emphases of the mass customization as well. However, the issue with the lean system is the company has to get rid of all the slack which is necessary to customize the orders. Hence, to achieve the main objective of lean customization systems and mass customization is integrated with one another.

  • Discuss the S&OP process. What are the major trade-offs that must be considered?

There are various elements that are to be considered when we consider the concepts and processes of S&OP process. First, comes the financial factor as well as the revenue plans while the next one is sales development and in the end is the operations related to the supply chain. When we talk about the financial factor, the company has to use S&OP process for the purpose of trading off that will have to be done between increased revenue and costs associated with the supply chain processes. This has to be done because there are a high number of products. Then the sales development plan is made to sustain higher profits, and with it, the plan for resources will be made so that the partnerships can be developed and managed for future operations as well. If marketing has identified a new niche within the industry and the production wants to focus on the niche, does not mean that the manufacturing and supply chain has the same sort of resources to accomplish the targeted demand. The rapid response to the demand and other variations in the products and services while keeping the processes according to the schedules is crucial to remain efficient. Hence, these two groups have to coordinate so that the most suitable operations can be worked out and expectations can be met in a realistic manner.

5 (a) Discuss the relationship between service level, uncertainty, safety stock, and order quantity. How can trade-offs between these elements be made?

                    There are a couple of important principles for service level which include the availability of the items and the delivery speed and one aspect that can influence both of these principles is the uncertainty of demand.  This uncertainty of demand makes it difficult to forecast what the customer require and when do they require it. To deal with this issue the firms have to obtain a high number of the raw materials in the stock, and this might cause surplus inventory and will increase the total cost. Hence, to reduce the uncertainty of regular demand information should be exchanged between the suppliers and the customer so that the amount of, etc. can be reduced within the inventory. 

b) Customer-based inventory management strategies allow the use of different availability levels for specific customers. Discuss the rationale for such a strategy. Are such strategies discriminatory? Justify your position.

Firms should do whatever they have to keep their core customers. Core customers are the people who buy a bigger percentage of the products of the company and they are loyal to the customers as well. If these core customers are being lost by the company, then it has to rethink its operational strategies because these are the people who are most loyal in the market and if they start to turn away from the company then there is a serious issue in the strategic structure of the firm. It is crucial for the firm to use the management strategies which are customer-focused in different perspectives. Not all the customer segments contribute to the sales in the same manner. There are plenty of cases where a single client contributes to the majority of the sales of a company and that one client alone has a major influence on the manufacturing processes of that firm as well.  This can be understood by the Pareto principle which explains the same ideology that 80% of the sales are accounted for the 20% of the products. ABC rule also explains the idea and this rule is based on how fast the goods can move. Different companies have differed rate of selling in the market as well hence; the company has to develop different strategies for each product, and this can influence the sale and production of other products as well. Hence, clients who choose their suppliers have to make them work so that they can meet the demand in time otherwise it will only contribute towards the cost.

(c ) Discuss the importance of collaboration in the developing of supply chain inventory strategies.

It will be helpful for the supplier so that in time demand could be seen. The thing, which needs to be done, is to develop the strong information system so that the distribution channel could be made efficient. Looking at the example we come to know that the Quick response can be discussed as the supplier and the firm comes together and the ultimate goal is to satisfy the customer. By this order cycle, time is reduced.

(d)  How does the cost of carrying inventory impact the traditional earnings? Statement of the enterprise?

It is clear that if the caring inventory is more than the earning of the company is reduced. However, if the inventory cost is reduced then profits can be maximized. There are a couple of reasons behind that; we can see that company have many costs which they need to minimize, however, the inventory cost is one of them which should be reduced so that profits could be maximized. The capital cost of the company is hurt due to the increased inventory cost. There needs to be a complete plan in which the land, building, machinery and other needs to be known, and it should be analyzed so that the inventory would be able to fulfill those requirements and there would be no additional cost for the company. 

The tax is also imposed on the holding the inventory. However, there is also insurance cost on the inventory that is stored by the company, and here the profits are utilized as well. Another problem, which is observed in the carrying inventory, can be said that carrying the inventory too long will also hurt the company as the style will run out of fashion and the cost of the product needs to be minimized so that the stock would be cleared by the company. This is the financial loss for the company. However, it also needs to be checked that with the passage of time the inventory cost is increased day by day. We can say that all these costs do have the negative impact on the company. Further, the company can use these earnings somewhere else in the company as well. In the end, I will say that if the company does not decrease the cost, then the loss of profits will be seen. 

6.  (a) Compare and contrast the transport principles of economy of scale and economy of distance. Illustrate how they combine to create efficient transportation.

If we discuss the economies of scale on transportation, then I would say that as the size increases or the number of units increases the cost is decreased. The economies of distance are same as the economies of scale and work in the same manner. As long, the distance is as compared to the distance the shipment price will be less. Therefore, if the manager is prudent then he will make some wise decisions as the consignment would be large and the distance will be more as well. As in this case, the price will be decreased, and the profits can be retained in the company as compared to small and multiple shipments.

(b) Explain the value proposition offered by freight forwarding. Provide an example that illustrates why shippers would be attracted to using the services of a freight forwarder as contrasted to arranging their transportation.

The reason behind that is they do offer the large shipments on the lower prices most of the time. However, it is noticed that they ship the goods faster than the small shipments. Therefore, it can be seen that the starting point of the shipment is large in number, however, after that they are divided into smaller numbers, and then the responsibility is shifted to others. The freight-forwarding concept is helpful for both, shipping company and the freight-forwarding firm. 

The reason behind that is the freight forwarding company is responsible for all type of goods starting from the manufacturing part till the delivery. However, it is observed that there are so many rules and regulations for the company who are transporting the goods from one end till the other end and it manages all type of queries as well. The extra time should not be focused to find out any other mean of communication; the best thing can be that the business finds some other good factors that would make revenue for the company. Looking at the example, we can say that if any business needs to send the shipment from America to the South America.

It is quite possible that the shipment company first need to go to Brazil they come back to that side. In the route, the shipment will be less costly this is good for the company. However, there will be different regulations as well which will be imposed on the sender and the shipment company but they will deal with that all. Therefore, at this time the businesses should focus more on the production rather than to change the shipment company who could send the goods faster.   

7   Railroads have the largest percentage of intercity freight ton-miles, but motor carriers have the largest revenue.  How do you explain this relationship?

Yes, it is correct as the railroad does carry more goods; the reason is that all the heavy material is carried through the railways; however, it cannot reach the ultimate destination point. On the other hand, the motor carriers are fast efficient and reach the end destination as well. Therefore, it is costly as well and that is the reason it generates more revenues.

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Biomechanics

Question No: 1

Fx = m x g

W1 = 35lbs

W2 = 45lbs

W3 = 55lbs

At angle = θ

g = 32.17405 lb (pound force)

Reactive force at knee = F2

F2 = w2 x g

= 45 lbs x 32.17

F2 = 1447 at knee point

  1. All Assumptions.
  2. Seated leg is in the position described as above.
  3. W1 is the weight of leg at joint point while force acting at this point is considered to be F1. Rx and Ry are the resolved components.
  4. W2 is the weight of leg at knee point while force acting at this point is considered to be downward due to gravitational force acting at this point, F2.  Rx2 and R y2 are the resolved components.  Force acting at knee point is product of weight of leg and g.
  5. W3   weight at ground level point. Rx3 and Ry3 are the resolved components along x-axis and y-axis.

 b)

Reactive force

∑Fx = 0

Rx1 = 0

∑Fy = 0

Ry1 = Fapplied + w1

∑M0   = 0

Ry2 = m2 g + Ry1

Ry2 = m2 g + Ry1

Muscle Moment in terms of θ = M x a sin θ = (b W1 – cW2) Cos (θ)

So

M =

Muscle moment in terms of θ.

Rx = W Cos (θ)

R y = W Sin (θ) – W2 – W3

c)

Using θ = 90, 30, 60, 0

At θ = 90 At knee point

Ry2 = m2 g + Ry1

Ry2 = m2 g + Ry1

M =

Fx = F Cos (θ)

Fy = F Sin (θ)

F = 1447

Fx = F Cos (θ) = 1447 x 0 = 1447

Fy = F Sin (θ) = 1447 x1 = 1447

M =  = 0

At θ = 60

Fx = F Cos (θ)

Fy = F Sin (θ)

F = 1447

Fx = F Cos (60) = 1447 x 0.5 = 723.5

Fy = F Sin (θ) = 1447 x0.866 = 1253.0

M =

=

At θ = 30

Fx = F Cos (30)

Fy = F Sin (30)

F = 1447

Fx = F Cos (30) = 1447 x 0.866 = 1253.5

Fy = F Sin (30) = 1447 x0.5 = 723.0

M =

=

At θ = 0

Fx = F Cos (0)

Fy = F Sin (0)

F = 1447

Fx = F Cos (30) = 1447 x 1 = 1447.5

Fy = F Sin (30) = 1447 x0 = 0

M =

=

Question No: 2

Reaction forces

∑Fx = 0

Rx1 = 0

∑Fy = 0

∑Fx = ma

a)

∑F x  = R ax  + R ka

∑Fx    = ma
 ∑Fy = may

∑Fy = Ry – Wf  + Ray  = may

Muscle Moment in terms of θ = M x a sin θ = (b W1 – cW2) Cos (θ)

So

M =

  •  Length of total leg is missing to calculate moment of muscle total length of leg should be given.  Only length of lower leg part is given so we can calculate moment around knee.
  • If the muscle of leg under consideration is of female the mass and weight of female muscle will be different from mass of male muscle therefore the moment and forces around knee and ankle will be different due to different mass values.
Variable Description Variable Name Known/ unknown Value of symbol
Length of lower leg L­ ll Moment of muscle and force can be calculated = 37.16
Acceleration of lower leg all F= ma   To calculate acceleration total force acting on knee point should be given
Reaction force at ankle Fax Mass of leg is not given ∑ Fy = R y – W f  + Ray  = may  
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Business Plan Analysis: F1 Experience

Section One: Operations:

  1. Quality Management

Quality management was not effective in the business, There were the schedule adjustments, within the company was not effective, or the shifts and tasks changes of the individual, which can create the problems, in the event, the company may have to suffer the employee turnover in this case. There is a need to manage the staff properly and need to check the quality of work. This was the weakness of the company because the staff was not managed and improper or offensive schedule adjustments were there. Therefore, in a case of events, arrange by the company mismanagements by the staff can occur, for the efficiency every the company should retain and train the employees, through quality management and in this case, customers can retain. The proper staff should be there for any company, so the event can be effectively managed, and the customers can be satisfied.

  • Location Choice or site Planning

There was the problem with the location; the company does not choose the good location. The company has failed in managing the activities in the operation segments, however, of the activities were efficiently performed but the management does not consider all the strategies, in my point of view, there were many mistakes that were done by the company. The company for the betterment needs to consider the location that is effective and that can attract the customer, from overall the city, site selection or planning is very necessary for every business. In any organization, site is considered important and with the time, construction and improvement are also included in the operations, the estimated cost of the maintenance and other operation were too much, and the companies have to give the installments.

  • Employee Retention

The great faculty of the business can provide the facilities and the advantages to any business, but in the case of Indianapolis there was the inadequate staffing was also the weakness of the company, as the company hired the staff of the college, the staff was not experienced, may be the company face issue due to that. However, for the betterment there is need of the experienced staff that can deal with the clients effectively or successfully, the operations or the entire task that was undertaken by the staff, were inadequate, the planning or the strategies were not effective. In the business, the tasks need to be given on the daily basis. The working should be divided among the team or employees, in the company, example, turn off the alarm system, opening and closing the doors, clean window, remove the trash etc, all the tasks need to be planned effectively. The company needs to manage the entire task; the operations need to manage effectively, as the company needs to hire the experienced staff, for the entire tasks. There is the need to manage the employees effectively so that the employees and clients can be satisfied.

Section Two: Critical Risk:

  1. Risks Management

For the risk management, the company has to focus on the critical risks segments, related to finance while managing the businesses there could be many issues associated with the critical risks, the company Indianapolis can suffer the issues of the weak economy of the country. In my point of view, it could be the weakness of the company, because in this case company can face the financial losses. If the country is not supported, or the economy is weak, then there are chances of losses of customers, because the customer will not spend on the matters, which are related to such enjoyable factors.

Moreover, the company has to do something when the economy fails, or the people or customers spend less. The company needs to evaluate the risks on the large-scale. If the company fails to meet the require goals, there can be the issues, there is the need to more focus on the areas related to the sales, or economy so that the customers can be attracted, the general interviews or advertising and the walk-in customer’s strategies may not be effective in this way.

  • Give value to Customers

The company need to value the customers, the visitors should not be given harm; there are the weaknesses, in the projects, as the customers are not given the importance or value, as there were the issues with the staff and canteen. For the company, there is a need to focus on the canteen facilities to the customers.  The financial issues can also be related to the staff, there is the need to manage the staff effectively. The staff needed to be given the training, they need to be given protection, so all the system could be effectively performed, in the company, there should be the focus on the staff training, and need to give them the incentives so that the proper values can be given to the customers. All the issues were related to the staff management, the company failed to manage the staff.

  • Construction Risks

Construction needs to be done on time, as it is effective for every business, the weakness related to the construction delayed can also be faced by the company, we gave did analysis that the staff of the company, is not giving the effective results because the company fails to manage the staff. The company has to manage the staff if the company wants to get safe from the issues related to the construction delayed. Mr. Whisler also believes that the projects should not be delayed and there is need to focus on the projects and more on the employees so that the projects can be effectively done on the prices, the company faced the issue related to the projects. This is the good decision of the company and company can effectively deal with the issues in this way.

There is need to do the financial assessments, to get safe from the issues related to the finance and projects, there is the need to focus on the staff, the staff should be trained and need to be well prepared to manage the project related activities, the finance need to effectively manage, so that future issues cannot be there.

Section Three: Marketing:

  1. Pricing Strategies

Pricing strategies are very important in any business, to get advantages from the other companies, there is a need to set prices effectively, for the good market share in the industry, the company needs to decide the prices efficiently so that advantages can be there, and maximum regulars or customers can buy the services. The pricing strategies were not effectively decided, the company struggled and the there were only two tracks, where the racers can enjoy, the company has the primary and the secondary track, the company has the strengths, which can also be viewed as the weaknesses. From the competitive advantages from the competitors, pricing strategies can play important role in the growth of the businesses.

  • Advertising and Promotion

Advertising strategies need to be focused on the businesses, the customers can be attracted through advertising plans, the advertisement of the maximum space that is meeting the requirements of the customers of a city, and in this customers can be attracted. Maximum finance is needed; however, the management thinks that maximum money spends on the projects, may not give the benefits, as there is no need to spend on racing decor or the kart business, kart business may not give as what they expected or spend. The advertising should be promoted through involving the model or the superstars; there is the need to give the free trials to the customers so that they can be attracted. The strategies of advertising and promotion need to be followed for the effectiveness.

  • Focus On the Customer Services Strategies

There is need to focus on the customers services, the weakness while considering the cart business of the Indianapolis was, there was no snake bar, the people or the customers can be tired of getting nothing, most of the families and children, want to enjoy cart or any other enjoyable activity with the food items. The company was having no place to relax or eat; there was no lobby so that people can spend a time to relax or to get the pleasure. However, either was only on a soft drink that was available in, other than the soft drink; nothing can be remarkable, due to which company faced the tensions.

The company needs to focus on the customer’s value and focus strategies so that improvements and betterments can take place. The business needs to create the timeframe, for the effectiveness, there is the need to fulfill the requirements of the clients, there is the need to consider the management goals, for the effectiveness of eth business processes. The managers need to the reevaluation of the business and client strategies for the efficiency and effectiveness.

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Middle East Religion Sunni schools of Islam

  1. General geographic distribution

In Islamic religion Muslims are identified with the two large groups that are Sunni and Shia, the majority of Sunnis are living in the Middle East countries, Sunni school of Islam has their belief, they belief on oneness of God, most of the Sunnis are living in the Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan. They are making up for more than 90% of the population; however, in Iraq they are about 41-60%, in Iran they are about 21-40%, in Yemen and Syria they are more than 60% (BBC, 2013).

  • Chief Differences community characteristics

Sunni beliefs on the Oneness of God and Islamic Prophet Mohammad, the majority of people are Sunnis across the world, their teachings and actions are according to their prophet, they do the things what their Profit had said to them, they want to maintain the Sunnah of Muhammad. They follow the five pillar of Islam, including faith, prayer, charity, fasting and pilgrimage to Mecca. Sunnis follow the Sunnah of Mohammad throughout the life, and they want to get success in their religion before death (Betts, 2013).

  • Current national or regional politics:
  • National political objectives

There are the number of scholars and preachers in Islam, who have the concepts of the Liberalism and Democratic participation in Islam. In Islam, there is Majlis ash-Shura, where there are the deliberations of the Caliphates, in the past; there Rashidun Caliphate participated in the development of the democracy of the Islamic world. However, in the modern world, the decision-making power is to the trusted representatives of the different tribes, they are elected within the tribes. The Shura (Consultation of the people), is there in traditional Islamic laws.

  • Recent political success

The Sunnis in Palestine are known as Hamas, they have the authority to do Jihad, they are following the ISIL; ISIL wants to conquer the world and whoever does the interpretation of Quran in a wrong sense will be killed. The group wants the foundation of the Sunni Islamic State; the religious authorities are under the Caliph, the one who believes and the successor to the Prophet Muhammad. They want the justice and truth to their religion Islam, and they are killing the people in the name of Jihad (Culbertson, 2015).

  • Narratives:

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are the religions exist in the Middle East countries. However, Islam is the prevalent religion, in all, and other religions are in minorities, but all the religions have the rights in the countries.

Nevertheless, Sunnis follow the preaching or the concepts of Muhammad strictly; however, Shia believes that last Imam is hidden. Sunnis are following the six pillars of Islam; they believe in the reality of the oneness of God, an existence of the angels. They are following the book Quran, given by their Prophet Mohammad. They are getting prepared for the Day of Judgment, and they believe that everyone is going to get what he/she did in the world, God will ask them of their good and bad.

Middle East religions are fighting like all of them think that they have the right perspective. However, in most of the countries, in Islam, Shia, and Sunni diversion is creating the problems, among a group. The news give the reports that Shia thought that they are on the right and Sunni think that they are on the right, however, both the groups have own thinkings. The conflicts are there within the group, due to which bomb blasting is taking place in the country like Iraq, Syria, Pakistan, etc.

Sunni is the largest group in Islam; the people follow their Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), everything they do is according to what their religion and what their preachers said them, however, they believe on the ones of the God. Muslims are there across the world, there are the Sunnis and Shia, both are the major group and have the conflicts, based on few thoughts and differences, there are many things which are similar between the Shia and Sunni, as both follow the pillars of Islam, they offer prayers, goes to Hajj, etc. People across the world, representing Islam, have made the groups like ISIL, as they are protecting the Muslims and Islam.

 All the Muslims believe in the peace, but when people of the other country want to hurt them, or the peace they worship, they become united and do efforts to protect their religion. On the name of Jihad, violence are created by the group of people, negative image of people of representing Islam is emerging in the societies, however, they want to kill the people, who are against Islam; many of them have become terrorists in the name of Jihad, although they are taking the revenge. Moreover, Islam is not about killing the people or humanity, but many of the people in Islam have taken it personally.

References:

BBC. (2013, December 19). Sunnis and Shia in the Middle East. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-25434060

Betts, R. B. (2013). The Sunni-Shi’a Divide: Islam’s Internal Divisions and Their Global Consequences. Potomac Books, Inc.

Culbertson, D. D. (2015). Isis/Isil: The Islamic State Exposed, the Dangerous Truth You Need to Know!: Origins & Ideals, Islamic Extremist Terrorism in Iraq & Syria. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Map

Source:

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-25434060
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Injuries among the staff of the mobile blood drives

Abstract:

            The following paper invstigave the injuries in the staff working for mobil blod drives. The study is exploratrory and invstigates the reason behind such injuries. The exploratoey research deign will be employes and quantittaive dat analysis tools will be employed in that regrad.  The respondnets will be the employees of mobile centers for blood drives. The number of the respndnets are 500. The interview technique will be employed in order to collect the data.

Injuries among the staff of the mobile blood drives

            In this project, we have identified the major problem for the staff working in the mobile blood drive in which the cases of injuries among them have started increasing from the previous two years. Therefore we have devised some of the proposed solutions for this problem I which have the aim to decrease the rate of injuries in such staff more than 20% while providing the training programs to staff, implementing the recommended equipment in the setup process for blood donation from donor to receiver dynamically. For example, we have suggested the unique Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) in order to prevent the injuries in the staff of the blood drive.

            The problem statement of this broad-based analytical research project which focuses on the rising issue of The Blood Center of one of the most well-reputed blood drives such as Wisconsin is analyzed. It has been observed that an increase in the tremendous amount especially in recent times about the reporting of the injuries at many cases among the staff members or personnel who are working blood drives that use the mobile locations. There were no less than 83 incidents according to the statistical analysis in a recent couple of years, which are included of 2015, and the year 2016. In these two years, we have witness injuries cases of the staff member.

            These injuries among the staff members occur at most of the time when the setup process was in progress and when the process of teardown was in place for the dynamic cause of the Blood Drive respectively. However, some of the staff members are found to be involved in the injuries that occur during the process of the blood donation from the donors.

            The initial goals, as well as objectives of this dynamic, analytically proposed solution project includes the series of various steps such as effort for reducing the injuries for the staff members working for the mobile drive in no less than figures such as 25% in any case. The second most important objective is the identification of the various elements that would provide the definite support for reducing the number of injuries among the staff of the mobile blood drive.

            The cost-benefit logical analysis would do in a way that the calculations come ahead for purchasing the new equipment along with the effective uses of such new resources including the technological medical equipment for implementing in blood drives. The next key objective would include the standardize the process for ordering such equipment along with the process of their lifting in the process of the  setup of the blood donation while reducing the equipment linked to the heavy lifts.

Review of literature

Ergonomic analysis of employees and equipment

            In this analysis, the most important process that we need to implements is the training of the staff in terms of the total quality assurance and utilizing the standard procedures in the blood drive. For this a professional level of the program which would provide the staff ultimate certificates in the relevant field or the training is required for ensuring the supply of the blood would do according to safety measures. The evaluation of the staff skills would include the methods or way of a collection of blood units along with the thaw methods of infusing the blood supply chain (Taee, 2013).

            The equipment must be inspected or check in order to prevent the injuries among the staff involved in social good fare cause of mobile blood drive especially for the infusion of the citrate. The mechanism of the quality equipment from installation to the implementation of the various tubes along with the reuse process of such equipment is analyzed. The weights, usage, technical check up on the quality of the equipment are included in this list (Stanger, 2012).

NIOSH Lifting Equation

            In this equation the pre-testing of the equipment under the test of the weight limit which is recommended for the staff in the blood drive of mobile versions in which the evaluation of the weight of such equipment would do in a way that employees or staff  if able to lift the load in the working period of 8 hours. Then that equipment would be recommended to lift from the staff working in the blood drive in order to avoid the muscular injuries for the staff. The most common equipment include under this equation for testing are the private beds for the convenience of the patients, the screens that are attached to the bedside along with some of the other medical equipment. All other equipment in the mobile blood drives that exceed that specific limit would not consider as pass or fit the staff to lift in the blood-donation setup process (Patrick, 2012).

Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA)

            This is an in-depth examination of the workplace conditions for the staff in which the causes that create the right upper limbs disorder into the employees are examined. The survey is conducting by applying the various methodologies such as the biomechanical testing of the workplace conditions in this great tool. The other dynamic tool for testing of supply chain process such as the postural loading in which the effect of the non-suitable conditions in the workplace for the employees is examined in detail is analyzed. The ergonomic analytical framework is applied to this tool of RULA as the loading of the physical stress through the equipment are highly taken into the examination process.

            The upper limbs since are the most effective part as a result of injuries because of the non-technical safety precautions taken by the management or staff themselves during the blood donation setup process. in this tool of RULA usually, it is found out that the right side of the upper limbs is completely examined and in some cases, both right along with left upper limbs are examined in the serious injury cases for the staff in the mobile blood drive (Grant, 2010).

Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

            In this assessment, the examination of the complete human body is taken into account fro the purpose of the examination for the staff safety measures in which the proposed model or framework is based on the postural reference of the risks of MSD. The tasks of the job are the main consideration source of testing whether the staff is affected while tracing the physical stress in a way that specific position of a body along with a certain posture examination of the whole body occurs.

            The exertions are used as a great dynamic testing tool for the whole body examination in which the force is applied onto the posture of the body of the staff. The movement of that specific staff is noted in terms of the actions done by that particular staff so that the effect on the body is measured accurately. That is why this tool of the REBA is considered as the most authentic or the unique source as a tool for the examining the repetitions of the physical stress in any part of the body. If the reposition finds then the mechanism of the coupling does not exist (Taee, 2013).

Anticipated Methodology/Tools

            The methodology or the tools that we have critically analyzed as the proposed solution for reducing the injuries between the staff of the mobile blood drive in a comprehensive way. These include the ergonomic analytical framework of both staffs and the equipment, the equation of the NIOSH lifting for the devices or equipment sued in the transfusion or setup process of the blood supply chain for the patients and the rapid the rapid assessment of the upper limb, rapid assessment of the entire body.

Sample selection

            The sample will be consisting of employees working in a mobile blood drive. For that purpose, the mobile blood drive centers will be accessed for recruitment of the respondents. The participation of the employees will be subject to voluntary.  The sample will consist of 500 employees. These employees will be contacted in order to evaluate the prevalence of the injuries.

Procedure

            The researchers will personally contact the respondents in order to evaluate them for injuries. For that purpose, appointment will be taken in advanced for interviews. The purpose of the study will be discussed with the respondents and the message will be conveyed that the research is conducted only for academic and not for commercial purpose. Letter of consent will be given to the employees to reveal them about the potential befits of research. the In the end, it is concluded that the ergonomic analysis as the vital tool or methodologies such as the NIOSH equation for lifting and the REBA in which the maximum level of the load that the staff could easily lift in the working time along with the examination of the whole body through proposed risk model such as MSD. These tools use factors, which are, consider as very important or significant like the dynamic pressure or the required force as a testing tool and body posture, which is considered as the important phase of testing in the REBA. This is because to determine that the working conditions are safe for the staff who is involved in this process of the blood drive.

Rerferences

Blake, J. (2013). Using simulation to evaluate a blood supply network in the Canadian maritime provinces. Journal of Enterprise Information Management , 26 (1), 119 – 134.

Grant, D. B. (2010). Integration of supply and marketing for a blood service. Management Research Review , 33 (2), 123 – 133.

Patrick, Y. Z. (2012). Segmenting blood donors in developing countries. Marketing Intelligence & Planning , 30 (5), 535 – 552.

Stanger, S. H. (2012). What drives perishable inventory management performance? Lessons learnt from the UK blood supply chain. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal , 17 (2), 107 – 123.

Taee, M. A. (2013). Mobile-based interpreter of arterial blood gases using knowledge-based expert system. International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications , 9 (3), 270 – 288.

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IP Lab

The paper specifically associated with the demonstration of the IP lab with different steps in the in performing required results. First of all selection of the ICMP Echo request message that sent by computer for the internet protocol part of the given packet. Such packets details have shown in the window in essential and adequate manner. The IP packet header, reveals under the upper layer protocol field which is one dominated as ICMP (1). The IP header contains bytes that indicated in the length of header IP field of a protocol of the given trace.  The given payload in the IP datagram provides the 36 bytes.

The main purpose of the lab report towards IP gives the understanding of the payload IP datagram as well as payload bytes in an effective manner. The IP packet structure provides the indication of the header length vs. total length to highlight the data payload. The fragmentation of IP datagram does not obtain in the given procedure of IP lab report, which is determined by the flag field on the IP header.

 This is shown in the IP header. There are certain fields in the IP datagram that comes to change from one datagram to the next under the messages of the ICMAP in the computer. In this regard, header checksum, identification field and time to live the field recognized as a field that always changes form one datagram of IP into another.

The fields of stay constant also demonstrated in the lab of IP to investigate the length and header of IP datagram. Upper layer protocol, Destination of IP, Header length, version, a source of IP and differentiated services recognized as a major field that always constant in given manner. There is strong need to consolidated the pattern of values for the given identification field towards IP datagram. Such incremented packet associated with the Identification: 0x3a4a (14922) as well as Identification: 0x3a48 (14920) and Identification: 0x3a49 (14921).          

The value of identification field, as well as TTL field, also recognized to which is 0*3b8e (15246) and time to live is 247. Also, the there are certain unchanged values need to be identified under the IP lab report for the execution of the given results in essential and adequate manner. The ICMP TTL exceeded due to unique values of identification field. In this way, two or more IP datagram dominated as same values of identification. The results reveal that IP datagram fragmented towards the single large datagram of IP. 

The first hop router of TTL is unchanged; that’s why the field of TTL is unchanged and always same.  The overall results outcomes generated under the demonstration of the first ICMP echo request message and need to change by packet size in the PINGPLOTTERTO be 2000. The results provide fragmentation of the IP datagram which is one only IP datagram. The fragmented bit in the field of flag provides the set which is fragmented in the IP datagram. 1480 bytes consolidated. The fragmented offset value is 1480 which is not first fragmented not the flag of fragments set.  More fragments reserved a bit and don’t fragments are not set in the given results. The fields of IP header consolidated fragments changes between checksum, flags, total length and fragment offset.

Thus to sum up all discussion about the IP Lab provides the understanding to the IP datagram and IP header to obtain required results. The changing fields of the IP header among the fragments are checksum and fragment offset. The last packet and first two packets are changed accordingly. The overall summary of the results associated with the 1500 of total length with fragment bit 1 and last packet of total length is 54 with fragment bit 0.

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Global Environment and Strategic Implications

Global Environment and Strategic Implications

Many problems are going on in this world if we talk about the environmental issues. It can be seen that Global environment is changing very quickly as there are many things which need to be taken care in this case. Looking at the major global trends by taking considerations of the environment we come to know that the pollution is threatening our world, the water crisis is at the one of the top most level and the third global environmental threat, which we will discuss. Here is the how wastages could be reduced taking specifically about the car manufacturers all over the world (Gore, 2016).

Looking at the first problem, we can see that pollution is one of the major things, which needs to take control. If we compare the pollution from the last couple of years, it is increasing day by day, which is not a good effect on the environment. The industries have been increased as related to the past, all over it can be seen that pollution is increasing all over the world (Ji, 2014).

The second Global environmental trend is looked that the water crisis is at the top. There are many countries in the world, which are actually in need of the water. There are many cities the villages that do not have basic clean water to drink. In Asia, it can be seen that many of the countries are facing this kind of problems especially India (Damon, 2014).

The third Global trend for the environmental is the reduction of wastages by the car manufacturers. It can be seen that the car manufacturers produce tons of waste and it is not good for the environment at all. It has been seen that not every car manufacturer is up to the mark and it can be seen that they are polluting the environment maximum (Soufani, Tse, & Esposito, 2014).  

Car manufacturer wastages

It can be seen that here now all over the globe companies are going towards to save the energy and the environments so that the consumption could be made less and the wastages could be reduced for this purpose. It is seen that the carbon composite cars are made nowadays so that the wastages could be decreased in this case. We have seen that Aliancys claims that they are making recyclable cars at the most level and they are converting the materials into the recyclable materials. They also said that they are doing very good in this case and focusing on the reduction of wastages as well (Netcomposites.com, 2016).

Discussing more the car manufacturing companies we come to know that the latest and one of the best car manufacturers Ford, they have claimed that they have reduced the water consumptions in their cars. They are saying that by 2020 they will the company who will not use even 1% of drinking water for the manufacturing of their vehicles. It is also seen that there are many processes in the manufacturing of the cars . However, they challenged and told that they had reduced almost 72% consumption of water in their manufacturing process. Further, they said that from 2000 till 2015 they had saved the total of 377 billion liters of water which is the good thing for the environment (Overdrive.in, 2016).

Another example, which we can see here, is that Kazakhstan has started a Car Recycling Program recently and that is the good thing, which takes the old cars, and they are replaced by the materials, which are recyclable. It can be seen that the program has been started in the 17 cities and this is the good thing as the wastages has been reduced by this case. Further, we can see that the car companies are working on it (BALTABAYEVA, 2016).

Water crisis

It can be seen that water crisis is one of the global trends the companies are looking on, there are different companies that are working on the water crisis issue so that it could be made better. It can be seen that the companies in the Canada are doing so good in this case that they re-purifying water and sending millions of liters of water per day to the rest of the world. Many of the companies also do not know what the actual amount they are giving water to the other companies (Montgomery, 2016).

Looking forward to eradicating the water crisis the world’s superpower America is also not left behind. It can be seen, as there are a couple of companies who are doing quite a good thing so that the environment could be made better. The water tech company has been fitted, and 11 billion dollar plants have been fitted. The need of these plants was so that the eater could be purifying again and recycled water could be used so that the wastages could be reduced and the recycled water could be utilized in this case. The people of California will be happy for this initiative to get clean water (Hardcastle, 2016).

It can be seen that in Asia the leader Alibaba is one of the best company and they are doing really good in order to remove the water crisis around the Globe. We can see that the company has set water centers around the country and the reason behind it is that the population of the country is the most and they are working on it so that people could get the benefits due to the clean water. It has also be seen that the Microsoft is also working on the clean water initiative since 2004 and they are quite successful in that as well. It can be seen that they are producing 100% renewable energy and this is the best thing to see (Liu, 2016).

Industrial pollution

It can be seen that as the economies are increasing, the population tend to grow as well. We can see that the developing and the developed countries, both are lacking in this it can be seen that the water pollution, air pollution is increasing day by day. However, it can be seen that Xylem, is a leading global water technology company that helped different industries.  This time they have given India $1 million so that they could initiate a plant that could purify the water and the crisis that can be seen in India as for the water shortages that can be fulfilled in here (Wateronline.com, 2016).

It can be seen there are many companies in the world that are doing the great work to have the population reduced. We take an example of the company named Scotts who have introduced the nitrogen lawn fertilizers, which in real reduces the pollution up to 50%. It can be seen that many companies have ordered that already, as they also want to become a sustainable company in the world and to grow in a positive way. We can see that the initiates are going in progress also that the pollution could be reduced at the maximum level. It can be seen that it will also help the waterways of the country (Pollutiononline.com, 2016).

Looking at the Ford International, we come to know that they are also working quite well for the sustainability and to reduce the pollution in the country. It can be seen that per vehicle 25% energy has been reduced in making cars; further the clean water consumption is also working in the company. Further, it can be seen that 55.6 million dollars have been spent on the community work so that the pollution could be reduced and the better world can be seen at the end. (Corporate.ford.com, 2016)

References

BALTABAYEVA, B. (2016). Kazakhstan Approves Car Recycling Programme. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://astanatimes.com: http://astanatimes.com/2016/10/kazakhstan-approves-car-recycling-programme/

Corporate.ford.com. (2016). http://corporate.ford.com. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from OUR PERFORMANCE: http://corporate.ford.com/microsites/sustainability-report-2015-16/index.html

Damon, M. (2014). We must act now before the water crisis hits. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from https://www.weforum.org: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/11/must-act-now-water-crisis-hits/

Gore, A. (2016). Top 10 trends for the world in 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from https://www.weforum.org: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/11/top-10-trends-world-2015/

Hardcastle, J. L. (2016). Water Treatment, Reuse: an $11 Billion Opportunity for Water Tech Companies. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.environmentalleader.com: http://www.environmentalleader.com/2016/10/06/water-treatment-reuse-an-11-billion-opportunity-for-water-tech-companies/

Ji, Z. (2014). How pollution is threatening our world. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from https://www.weforum.org: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/11/pollution-top-concern-2015/

Liu, C. (2016). Alibaba leading China’s push for cleaner data centers. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from https://www.greenbiz.com: https://www.greenbiz.com/article/alibaba-leading-chinas-push-cleaner-data-centers

Montgomery, M. (2016). Canada, and the world’s, water crisis Pt-3. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.rcinet.ca: http://www.rcinet.ca/en/2016/09/28/canada-and-the-worlds-water-crisis-pt-3/

Netcomposites.com. (2016). Making Carbon Composites Robust and Fast. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://netcomposites.com: http://netcomposites.com/news/2016/october/18/making-carbon-composites-robust-and-fast/

Overdrive.in. (2016). Ford plans to use zero drinking water for vehicle manufacturing by 2020. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://overdrive.in: http://overdrive.in/news/ford-plans-to-use-zero-drinking-water-for-vehicle-manufacturing-by-2020/

Pollutiononline.com. (2016). Scotts® Introduces 50% Slow Release Nitrogen Lawn Fertilizer For All Floridians To Help Protect Local Waterways. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.pollutiononline.com: http://www.pollutiononline.com/doc/scotts-introduces-slow-for-all-floridians-to-help-protect-local-waterways-0001

Soufani, K., Tse, T., & Esposito, M. (2014). How car manufacturers can reduce waste. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from https://www.weforum.org: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/10/how-car-manufacturers-can-reduce-waste

Wateronline.com. (2016). Xylem Wins $1m USD Contract For First Wastewater Treatment Plant In Sehore, India. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.wateronline.com: http://www.wateronline.com/doc/xylem-wins-contract-wastewater-treatment-plant-india-0001

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Hindrance in Contemporary IT tools to ensure customer centricity by Standard Chartered and Citibank

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction. 4

1.1 Background of the study. 4

1.2 Problem.. 5

1.3 Significance of the study. 5

1.4 Objectives of the study. 6

1.5 Research Questions. 6

Chapter 2 Literature review.. 7

2.1 Internet banking. 7

2.2 Awareness. 8

2.3 Ease of use. 9

2.4 Security. 11

2.5 Low usage on internet banking. 12

Chapter 3 Methodology. 14

3.0 Research Design. 14

3.1 Introduction. 14

3.2 Research Framework. 14

3.3 Hypothesis Generation. 15

3.4 Methods. 16

3.5 Sampling and Data. 16

3.5.1 Sample Selection. 16

3.5.2 Description of Data. 17

3.5.3 Data Sources and Collection. 17

3.5.4 The variable and Measurements. 17

3.5.5 Equations and Statistical procedures. 18

Chapter 4 Result and Findings. 20

4.1 Introduction. 20

4.2 Descriptive Analysis. 20

4.2.1 Frequency and bar charts. 20

4.3 Central Tendencies of Measurements. 31

4.4 Reliability test 34

4.5 Pearson Correlation. 34

4.6 Multiple Linear Regressions. 36

Coefficients. 37

4.7 Test of significance. 37

Chapter 5 Conclusion. 39

5.1 Limitations of the study. 39

5.2 Recommendations for future study. 39

5.3 Conclusion of study. 39

Hindrance in Contemporary IT tools to ensure customer centricity by Standard Chartered and Citibank

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Internet banking is the word by which got acces to a new digitalized world that is based on technology. It can be seen that many of the people are not much familiar of the word internet banking as it is a new term which is recently introduced. The reason is that they do not keep themselves up to as they always look towards the comfort of their life which they do not want to change at all. However, it can be seen that the internet banking is one of the important tool and it is the thing which ends to be checked (Yaghoubi, 2010).

It can be seen that the advanced countries look towards the internet banking facility as a great way to improve and ease their life. The main thing, which needs to focus here, is that the internet banking does not require a big PC and the internet. The fact is that all we needed to access internet banking is the internet access and then we can do the stuff like online banking. It have been seen that not only the Pc is the requirement as the internet banking can be done over the tablets, the phone, or any type of gadgets that needs to be passed. Internet banking has improved our life and for common person it has become so easy to manage its banking related activities.

1.2 Problem

As internet banking is at its initial stage in most of the developing countries therefore, there are many problems and resistance in using the internet banking. It have been noticed that there are many countries in the world that are not focusing on the internet banking technology such as Malaysia. Moreover it is found that initially lot of users was attracted towards the internet banking however, with the passage of time the users of the internet banking have been decreased due ineffective working of emerging technology.

MCMC (2009) has reported that during 2007 to 2009, Malaysians increased using Internet from 47.8% to 65.7% respectively. However, according to another study by (Raman and Annamalai, 2010) it was found that in the year of 2010 the Internet banking used by Malaysians decreased from 11% to 8%, respectively. Only 23% of the people in Malaysia utilize Internet banking facility although they are aware of advantages of using these systems (Ramayah, 2003).

1.3 Significance of the study

During the last decade of 20th century, Internet banking facility came into existence to facilitate the banking needs of banking consumers as quoted by Delft (2013) from (Jaleshgari, 1999). With the advent of Internet banking, the key to all the banking need was handed over to the consumer. Now banking clients can access their transactions summary, transactions statement, check balances and pay their utility bills etc with the ease of just one click (Delft, 2013).

1.4 Objectives of the study

There are couple of objective that are attached with the study, we can see that the main objective of the study is to examines the main reasons of the hindrance in the Contemporary IT tools needs to be known. People of the country are using internet banking less therefore, it is aimed to find that why the trend of internet banking is not attracting people though it offers great facility to them. Furthermore, the other objective of the study is to find the ways to overcome the problems that are resisting the people to get advantage from the internet banking.  

1.5 Research Questions

  • What is the impact of Security on Banks consumer’s usage of Internet banking?
  • What is the impact of Ease of Use on Banks consumer’s usage of Internet banking?
  • What is the impact of Awareness on Banks consumer’s usage of Internet banking?


 

Chapter 2 Literature review

2.1 Internet banking

There are many countless ways to use internet for the useful purposes. It is one of the major thing, which needs to be focused, and one of the most beneficial technologies that people can use for multiple purposes. People are using internet to communicate with their friends, for the business communication, for getting knowledge as well as internet has become a major source of information and communication which enables the people to get connected from thousand miles and see each other in real time. Subsequently, using the bank account, making funds transfer, paying the bills and many others have become possible through use of internet banking. We have seen that there are many differences in the usage of internet banking. It have been seen that the level of usage of internet banking is not same in every part of the world. It has seen that some of the modern countries or the non-Asian states are far better and advanced in the internet banking (Laukkanen, 2016).

One of the other problem that is resisting people to use internet banking is the users are not satisfied with the services of the bank that they have been provided in the name of internet banking. It needs to be checked that many of the customers are not willing to move from the traditional banking to the online internet banking. There are many reasons that people do not want that at all, However, it can be seen that the internet banking needs to be enhanced in the reason behind it that the best thing what we can see is the ease that have been provided by the internet banking. It has a negative impact on the economy that the people of the country are not using the internet banking at all (Asad, 2016). 

It can be seen that there is also an effect of the globalization index because from here we can see that many people in the country are connected to the internet and it can be seen that if people are not using the internet banking in the country then they cannot compete well all over the world. It have been also seen that if they move to the other country there would be issues that is the reason the issues that are in between they need to be checked in this case (Khater, 2013).

2.2 Awareness

It have been seen that unawareness is the big problem that creates the issues for consumers that they are not using the internet banking as they are have no idea about the interrner so they do not have trsut on internet banking. The main thing which has been seen in between the people is that many of them actually do not know that what is the internet banking and what are its features. For this purpose if the internet banking Customers would say that they are looking for an bank that provide the good services at all. The problem seen is that the internet banking is very good at different countries but the point to notice is that the awareness is not up to the mark (Sakshi, 2012

It can be seen that the awareness needed to be created among the potential customers. They need to give the awareness to the Customers so that they do not feel the hesitation in using the internet bankig technlogy. We have also noticed that many of the researchers have also said that the awareness is the major issue in the developing countries. It is also noticed that many customers are not much educated and they do not know how to learn and write. This is the point and the issue due to which there are many peole who are are afraid of using interne banking (Wadie, 2011)

Looking at the reasons for the less use of internet banking, it is found that many of them do not know about internet and its usefulness. However, it can be seen that in the USA, UK, and the European countries internet banking is used as a great source because people have full awareness about the uses and benefits of it. It has been seen that some of the Asian countries including China, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, and other countries, the awareness level of the internet banking is not too good as compare to some of the European or the American countries (Padachi, 2010).

Main reason is that the awareness needs to be created so that the common citizen of the country would know what the real situation is and how it can be formed in the better way. Therefore, it can be seen that the awareness is the fact, which is needed to be increased, and due to this the usage of internet banking will be increased (Chaoualia & Yahia, 2016). Here we can see that the author emphasizes that awareness needs to be increased in order to achieve the desire goal related to the internet technology..

2.3 Ease of use

It can be seen in various studies that one of the main problem is that the internet banking is not easy to use. It can be seen that there are many issues in the usage of the internet banking. It has been coming in many researchers that the internet banking is not so easy in the area and the reason behind it is that the best of the best thing wanted to go through. Further it have been mentioned on the file that what are the issues that are prevailing in the account. Many people have told that they are not working with the internet banking and the reason behind it is that they are not comfortable with that in the similar way as they are with the traditional banking (Yaghoubi, 2010)

We can see that in the many studies it have been mentioned that the easy is not there for the people so that they could use the internet banking. Here it can be seen that the main reasons behind that is we need to look at the points, which will be at the constant point. Further it is looking at the easily availability needs to be make sure so that the main aim of the internet banking could be made sustainable and the main idea of the theory remain constant (Takieddine, 2015).

It has been seen that looking at the internet banking adoption is an easy access is one of the major reason that is shown. Obviously, everyone in this world needs the better position and they are looking for the best and the convenience. However, the reason they are not using or utilizing that is the ease of access. There are many reasons that have been noticed in as there are many communities and groups that are needed to use the internet banking but they cannot. The reason behind that is that the internet is not available. Maybe they are living in the country or the area where the ease of the resources are not available or there could be other problems (Muzividzi, 2013).

Therefore, we need to check that what the real problem is and why it is being ignored regarding the internet banking. There is communities in the world that can be seen are not educated well or are in their old age. If we specifically talk about them, we come to know that they are less educated or they are not willing to change their patterns. Here we can see that the education plays an important role in this aspect. The point, which needs to be noted, is that they do not feel that it will relief their life (Montazemi, 2013).

They actually feel that this is the complex thing, this will bring the changes to their account, and that is the reason they are afraid of this internet banking. The awareness needs to be there for that this problem could be eliminated and the best purposes that are in the practice could be should be in the implementation phase so that the best of all the internet banking in the world could be enhanced (Hanafizadeh, 2014). Looking at the above statements, we come to know that authors have also stated that the ease is one of the variables that need to be taken care of.   

2.4 Security

Security conflicts assocaited with the intenet are the majore concerns therefore most of the people do not want to add their personal information over the internet. It can be seen that there are many frauds all over have happned through the internet and it can be said that this is the reason people are not comfortable with internet banking. There are many things which have been seen that the transfer of funds electronically does not mean anything to the community. What the main problem is that they are not satisfied that they need to transfer funds and they do not have any physical receipt. This is the major issue and these kind of problems does prevails in here as people do not trust the internet as the hackers are always around and the trust factor comes in between it (Sakshi Agrawal, 2012)

Security issues over the privacy are the main reasons that people are not living their lives to the full. It has been noticed that in the internet banking the threat is quite greater than the physical existence of the person. It has been seen in the past many hackers that are over the internet and doing frauds. This is the main reason which can be seen in the internet banking that people do not trust that and they are on the back step for using the internet services and giving the passwords for them. This scenario has been checked, as many persons do not like that at all. Obviously there are many persons who are not using the internet banking due to the security threats and do not give card numbers over the phone or the web (Yee & Faziharudean, 2010).

They are actually the people who want to lay very safe and instead of learning more about the technology they are dependent on other as their education level is very low. It is a fact that in today’s world website is not so secure and anything can happen over it. However, there are chances that some kind of mishap could happen and the customer’s money could be stolen of transferred and so on. It has been seen that many researchers have been some according to the main security reasons. It can be seen that there are many frauds that have been going on in the world. We can see that no one wants to lose their money in real and this is what the real matter is people do not trust the online thing as they do not know the processes that are involved into it (Daneshgadeh, 2014).

Many researchers have been published in this regards that there is not much trust among the people for internet banking at all. The reason behind it is, they do not want anyone to involve in their transactions over the internet and they prefer to go to banks, to the physical transactions and by doing this they are much more comfortable and they are happy for that too (Devi, 2010). As said by different authors we come to know that security is one of the main issues that need to be resolved to achieve the desire level.

2.5 Low usage on internet banking

It can be seen that web keeping money is generally used by the developed nations. Nonetheless, it has been seen that there are numerous Asian or the African nations that can be seen the web saving money is not up to the imprint. It can be seen that web managing an account is not all that acquainted with the general population who don’t have enough training or they don’t have a great part of the assets. This thing should be watched that what to do and what not to do. Nonetheless, it is said that the a portion of the assets don’t have enough attention to the web managing an account in the nation. Clench hand toward the end it should be watched that what the primary issues that there are confronting are. Large portions of the measurements have been seen that what are the fundamental issues that the principle web can be said that in would be so finished also (Al-Smadi, 2012).

There are different nations such as developed and developing nations and in devloped nations people feel secure to use interne such USA, UK, Europeans. We have to see that what are the elements have really impact the high use of web saving money and it can be seen that in a portion of the low monetary nations the low utilization of web saving money have been watched. Taking a gander at this we can see that what is the fundamental issue and what viewpoints do they have or what sorts of issues they have what truly should be done in here (Martinsa, Oliveiraa, & Popoviča, 2014).

Chapter 3 Methodology

3.0 Research Design

The research methodology is the most important part in research that can make the base of the research. As we have examined through study that independent variables and awareness ease the use of internet and improves its security. We will study here about the relation between the independent and dependent variables that are the main cause of the hindrance of internet banking in the Malaysian and in some developing countries. We have arranged questionnaires to see the response of the public through the quantities analyses. Based on the result of this questionnaire, we can make some decisions to prevent problem of using internet banking. 

3.1 Introduction

In this section, we will examine the effective use of internet banking in detail as well as the main issue in the banking sector will also be analyzed as the Internet banking is the main purpose of our study. We are going to use a questionnaire to find the reasons and to get results regarding the research. The main issue in this study is “The main purposes or reasons that are preventing the customer from buying his her desired products and services online which is called the internet banking”.

3.2 Research Framework

We are going to show main problems of the issue under this section. The main framework is shown in the picture below

Figure 2: Research Framework of the Study

3.3 Hypothesis Generation

Many of the hypotheses, which is derived from the study is mentioned on the following page

H0 = It indicates that there is no relation between ease of use and reduction of internet banking.

H1 = It indicates that there is the relation between ease of use and reduction of internet banking.

H0 = It indicates that there is no impact of security on a reduction of internet banking.

H2 = It indicates that there is some impact of security on a reduction of internet banking.

H0 = It indicates that there is no impact of awareness on a reduction of internet banking.

H3 = It indicates that there is some impact of awareness on a reduction of internet banking.

3.4 Methods

It is clear in this study that the questionnaire is being used for the study of a low trend of the internet banking and the work on this topic is quantitative in fact. We will find the result by entering this data in the SPSS, about the causes of a reduction in the internet banking. We will find the result through tests for example correlation, regression, PCA and through some other techniques. This will show the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable. 

This questionnaire is actually based on the 3 steps through which we will find out the relation between independent and dependent variables. Under this section, each and every variable has three different questions which are analyzed by the way. In the questionnaire, we also have some demographics. This is because we want to know the information regarding the topic from the respondents.

3.5 Sampling and Data

3.5.1 Sample Selection

Here we have used Customers and employees as the sample. These Customers and employees are working and dealing with the banking sector in Malaysia. We have chosen 300 bank Customers associated with different banks in the Malaysia. The banks that are involved in this research are many some of those are, Standard Chartered Bank and Citibank.

3.5.2 Description of Data

Let us have a look at the data we have gathered through filling questionnaires by the Customers associated within the different banks of Malaysia. We have tried to use the easiest way to collect the samples and to find the respondents easily to continue our work.

3.5.3 Data Sources and Collection

The main source we have used to continue our work process is Data collection. We have collected all data from different distinctions that all are banks. These banks include Standard Chartered Bank and Citibank. Some other banks are also included in the list of these banks that are being used for the research. All the respondents that are used in the research of why internet banking is not attracting the customer are those who are working in the banks. Some others are used who have experience of working in the banks for at least one year. During this research, we have to know that the respondents are well educated and well experienced and they can help us to get the result of our research. Some of the questionnaires are collected online by talking to the respondents or by sending them a questionnaire file. Some others are being asked questions live and data has been collected finally.

3.5.4 The variable and Measurements

            It is very clear in the study of the topic that Ease of Use, Security and Awareness all are independent variables. We will see here the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables to find out the reasons of reduction or low usage of the internet banking. In our research, we have used 3 different variables that are independent and in the questionnaire. There are 6 different questions in each of the variables. This will explain the reasons more effectively and in more detail. Under this study of the low usage of internet banking It is realized that they are the Likert Scale, which starts with agree, strongly agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. To find the relationship we have analyzed through SPSS and through different tests and questions to find the result which the relationship between independent and dependent variables.

3.5.5 Equations and Statistical procedures

Under this study, we have conducted a pre-test, which includes 25 respondents. The reason behind this pre-test was to identify if the variables and questionnaire are valid to understand the reason behind the low usage of internet banking or not. After assessing the reliability of the variables and questionnaire, we had a reliability analysis, which indicated us that the variable is highly strong and that the Cronbach’s Alpha is closer to the value 1. This analysis gives us more confidence that now we can apply this to our study. However, it is certain and we are sure for now that our questionnaire and variables are more valid and reliable. This study gives us a result that our pre-test conducted successfully and the value comes out which is 0.712. After this success, we can go forward for more tests.

We are going to do some more tests and after these tests, we will apply results of these tests on the study. After the application of these tests, we found that PCA is most important in the study so the variables can be absorbed. The reason behind this phenomenon is that we have to put these questions in one variable so that it may be used in different tests. We have to apply the battles test in the study and the factors which are loading under this study program this is only the basic reason to compress the variable to have the true result of our study.

            By moving forward, we need to run the correlation in this study during descriptive analysis. This descriptive analysis will give us some figures of how many individual variable effects on a dependent variable. Whereas the direction and the strength of the value are indicating that, how much an independent variable affects a dependent variable. After assessment of this all, we will go for the regression to apply it to the study matters so that we can analyze the pressure of the independent variable all over on dependent variables and the result will appear in percentage. After this process, the results will insignificance of a percentage that how much an independent variable can affect the dependent variable.

            Questionnaires and the quantitative data have been used for the paper. The results are showing that there are some descriptive and frequency tables that are different and are involved in this process to reach the result. In this study process, we come to know that reliability is applied. After that, the coefficient analysis, regression, and the correlation will be applied on the results.

Chapter 4 Result and Findings

4.1 Introduction

In this study we have used 300 respondents mainly from the banks of Malaysia. Different tests have applied. Correlation, reliability, regression and frequencies are shown the details are below.

4.2 Descriptive Analysis

4.2.1 Frequency and bar charts

The analysis of demographics can be seen with frequency tables and the bar charts

Gender
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid FEMALE, 145 48.3 48.3 48.3
MALE. 155 51.7 51.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

It can be seen there were 145 females and 155 males have participated in study.

age
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid LESS THAN 18 48 16.0 16.0 16.0
18-25 104 34.7 34.7 50.7
26-39 106 35.3 35.3 86.0
GREATER THAN 39 42 14.0 14.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here looking at the age slabs we can see that 48 people are in less than 18, 104 in between 18-25, 106 in between 26-39 and 42 are greater than 39.

Monthly income
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid <RM1,001 64 21.3 21.3 21.3
RM1,001 – RM2,002 83 27.7 27.7 49.0
RM2,002 – RM3,003 102 34.0 34.0 83.0
RM3,003 – RM5,999 51 17.0 17.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Looking at monthly income 64 people lies in less than 1000, 83 lies in between 1000-2000, 102 people lie in between 2000-3000 and 51 lies in between 3000-6000.

education
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid GRADUATE 42 14.0 14.0 14.0
UNDERGRADUATE 109 36.3 36.3 50.3
A LEVEL 103 34.3 34.3 84.7
NONE 46 15.3 15.3 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Looking at the education, we come to know that 42 are graduate, 109 are undergraduate, 103 are A-level and 46 do not have education.

nationality
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid International 135 45.0 45.0 45.0
Malaysian national 165 55.0 55.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here 165 people are Malaysian and 135 are international in the research

Current daily responsibilities
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Doing Job 144 48.0 48.0 48.0
As a Student 156 52.0 52.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

The current daily responsibilities of the people are they do job (144) and as a student there are 156 respondents.

The contemporary information technology tools that are used by the bank to facilitate are up to the mark.
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Somehow 65 21.7 21.7 21.7
Always 82 27.3 27.3 49.0
Never 82 27.3 27.3 76.3
Don’t know 71 23.7 23.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

By asking about the facilitation 65 says somehow, 82 says always, 82 says never and 71 says do not know.

Which IT tool is the best as far performance is concerned.
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Internet Website 65 21.7 21.7 21.7
Mobile banking 88 29.3 29.3 51.0
Sms banking 106 35.3 35.3 86.3
Other 41 13.7 13.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

65 says best IT tool is internet website, 88 says mobile banking, 106 says Sms banking and 41 says other reasons.

In your opinion, what tool needs to be improved so that customer could be satisfied?
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Sms banking 44 14.7 14.7 14.7
Email and internet services 123 41.0 41.0 55.7
Mobile application 84 28.0 28.0 83.7
All of above 49 16.3 16.3 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here 44 says that Sms banking needs to be improved, 123 says email and internet services, 84 says mobile application and 49 says all of above.

Customer engagement can be improved by
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Improving services 52 17.3 17.3 17.3
Giving incentives 89 29.7 29.7 47.0
Giving monetary incentives 106 35.3 35.3 82.3
All of above 53 17.7 17.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

52 says that CE can be improved by improving services, 89 says that by giving incentives, 106 says by monetary incentives and 53 says all of above.

4.3 Central Tendencies of Measurements

       Now further S.D and mean values have been given of all variables

Awareness

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation
There is not much awareness to the customers 300 3.1156 1.17829
Awareness needs to be enhanced among people 300 3.0444 1.20926
Customers needs to have the awareness of the Internet tools 300 3.0711 1.22995
There is not much awareness to the customers 300 3.1156 1.17829
Awareness needs to be enhanced among people 300 3.0444 1.20926
Customers needs to have the awareness of the Internet tools 300 3.0711 1.22995
Valid N (listwise) 300    

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Awareness, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as 1.17829, 1.20926, 1.22995, 1.17829, 1.20926 and 1.22995.

Ease of Use

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation
Internet banking is not easy to use 300 3.0133 1.18954
Ease of access is not common in the country 300 2.9022 1.16468
Looking at IT tools they are difficult to use 300 2.9111 1.22150
Internet banking is not easy to use 300 3.0133 1.18954
Ease of access is not common in the country 300 2.9022 1.16468
Looking at IT tools they are difficult to use 300 2.9111 1.22150
Valid N (listwise) 300    

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Ease of Use, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as 1.18954, 1.16468, 1.22150, 1.18954, 1.16468 and 1.22150.

Security

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation
There is a threat of security as private information is there 300 2.8889 1.18061
Security issues is the big threat to us 300 3.0356 1.24949
Security over the internet is not a safe thing 300 2.9333 1.23201
There is a threat of security as private information is there 300 2.8889 1.18061
Security issues is the big threat to us 300 3.0356 1.24949
Security over the internet is not a safe thing 300 2.9333 1.23201
Valid N (listwise) 300    

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Security, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as 1.18061, 1.24949, 1.23201, 1.18061, 1.24949 and 1.23201.

4.4 Reliability test

Now we will check the reliability of the study so that the questions and the variables that are taken could be validated. It is said that the values must be above that 0.70 as it is accepted after that.

Variable name Cronbach’s Alpha Value Number of Items included
Awareness 0.790 6
Ease of Use 0.746 6
Security 0.759 6

4.5 Pearson Correlation

Now correlation have been applied to see what is the effect of independent variables on the low internet banking

Awareness

Correlations
  Awareness Low_Internet
Awareness Pearson Correlation 1 .547
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Low_Internet Pearson Correlation .547 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

For Awareness, the data is significant as it is 0.00 and the relation is positive in between both variables as well, which is .547. Here the strength between the variables is strong.

Ease of Use

Correlations
  Low_Internet Ease_of_access
Low_Internet Pearson Correlation 1 .445
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Ease_of_access Pearson Correlation .445 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

For Ease of Use, the data is significant as it is 0.00 and the relation is positive in between both variables as well, which is .445. Here the strength between the variables is Modetrate.

Security

Correlations
  Low_Internet Security
Low_Internet Pearson Correlation 1 .388
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Security Pearson Correlation .388 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

For Security, the data is significant as it is 0.00 and the relation is positive in between both variables as well, which is .388. Here the strength between the variables is Modetrate.

4.6 Multiple Linear Regressions

Now in the study we have applied the regression so that the total effect of independent variables on the dependent variables could be seen

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .268a .372 .616 .55252
a. Predictors: (Constant), Security, Awareness, Ease_of_access

Here in the model summary we can see that there is 61% effect of independent variable on the dependent variable in the study.

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 6.896 3 .326 354.765 .001b
Residual 89.448 221 .251    
Total 96.344 224      
a. Dependent Variable: Low_Internet
b. Predictors: (Constant), Security, Awareness, Ease_of_access

Looking at ANOVAs table, we can see that F is positive and states the model is good fit. Further, the data is significant as the value is 0.01

Coefficients

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.506 .246   10.180 .000
Awareness .048 .049 .067 .995 .000
Ease_of_access .087 .051 .115 1.708 .000
Security .034 .049 .046 .684 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Low_Internet

Here the coefficients can be seen that the standard error of every variable is less than 1. Further, the significance value of all can be seen that it is less than 0.05, which says the values are significant. Here by looking at the values of the beta we come to know that there is a positive relationship between all the variables. The reason is that all the values are positive in here. Further, the standard error is also minimum and the significance value is less than 0.05 as well.

4.7 Test of significance

Hypothesis 1

H1 is accepted as p is greater than 0.05

The P value is less than 0.05 that is why H1 is accepted.

Hypothesis 2

H1 is accepted as p is greater than 0.05

The P value is less than 0.05 that is why H1 is accepted.

Hypothesis 3

H1 is accepted as p is greater than 0.05

The P value is less than 0.05 that is why H1 is accepted.

If we look at the above hypothesis, we come to know that the H1 are accepted in here and that is the reason we can say that there is strong effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable.

Chapter 5 Conclusion

5.1 Limitations of the study

Only computer literate banking clients of Scope International were eligible to participate in our survey since the purpose of this study is to understand the factors, which contribute to limited Internet banking usage. Further, we can say that the sample size is limited up to 300 only. The study is conducted in Malaysia only that is the reason we cannot say that the study can be generalized worldwide. However, this is only quantitative study and some more variables could be explored so that it could have better impact.

5.2 Recommendations for future study

Couples of recommendations are given to improve the internet banking usage in Malaysia. It can be seen that the study could be useful for the bank owners to grow the business through internet banking as they have realized that it is very important to create awareness among the people regarding the benefits of internet banking. People should be more concerned about the internet banking as it is increasing throughout the globe. Further, there is needed to be more focused to communicate the people about the features and advantages of internet banking.

5.3 Conclusion of study

Now focusing on the conclusion of the study, it is concluded that the main thing, which needs to be focused is that there is a positive effect of the independent variables on the dependent variables on the study. Looking at the regression, we can see that there is 61.6% effect in here. Moreover, it is found that the interment banking has great potential to grow in Malaysia but there is need to manage and resolve the issues such as developing trust among the consumers by communicating them about the features and benefits of the Internet banking. Most importantly, it is needed to take the people in trust by making sure about the security and praivcy of internet banking. Further it can also be seen that the variables that have been discussed in the paper needs to be focused if the internet banking needs to be increased in the country.

References

Asad, M. M. (2016). Prioritizing Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in the Internet Banking System Based on Cause and Effect Relationships. Procedia Economics and Finance , 210-219.

Al-Smadi, D. M. (2012). Factors Affecting Adoption of Electronic Banking: An Analysis of the Perspectives of Banks’ Customers. International Journal of Business and Social Science , 294-309.

Chaoualia, W., & Yahia, I. B. (2016). The interplay of counter-conformity motivation, social influence, and trust in customers’ intention to adopt Internet banking services: The case of an emerging country. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services , 28, 209–218.

Daneshgadeh, S. (2014). Empirical Investigation of Internet Banking Usage: The Case of Turkey. Procedia Technology , 16, 322-331.

Devi, T. (2010). World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development . World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development , 12-24.

Hanafizadeh, P. (2014). A systematic review of Internet banking adoption. Telematics and Informatics , 31 (3), 492–510.

Khater, A. H. (2013). Factors Influencing Customers’ Acceptance of Internet Banking Services in Sudan . International Journal of Science and Research , 1-22.

Laukkanen, T. (2016). Consumer adoption versus rejection decisions in seemingly similar service innovations: The case of the Internet and mobile banking. Journal of Business Research , 69 (7), 2432–2439.

Muzividzi, D. K. (2013). AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE INTERNET BANKING ADOPTION AMONG INTELLECTUALS. INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS , 15-30.

Montazemi, A. R. (2013). Factors Affecting Internet Banking Pre-Usage Expectation Formation. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences , 1-18.

Martinsa, C., Oliveiraa, T., & Popoviča, A. (2014). Understanding the Internet banking adoption: A unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and perceived risk application. International Journal of Information Management , 34 (1), 1-13.

Padachi, K. (2010). Analyzing the factors that influence the adoption of internet banking in Mauritius. Computer Science and IT Education , 112-133.

Sakshi Agrawal. (2012). Factors Affecting Usage of Internet Banking Services. Social science research network , 1-15.

Takieddine, S. (2015). Internet banking diffusion: A country-level analysis. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications , 14 (5), 361–371.

Wadie Nasri. (2011). Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Tunisia. International Journal of Business and Management , 143-160.

Yee, B. Y., & Faziharudean, T. (2010). Factors Affecting Customer Loyalty of Using Internet Banking in Malaysia. Journal of Electronic Banking Systems , 1-21.

Yaghoubi, N.-M. (2010). Factors Affecting the Adoption of Online Banking An Integration of Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of. International Journal of Business and Management , 159-165.

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Errors of Euler and Implicit Euler

Lab 2

Question 1:

X0(t) = x2(t) 4t *x(t) + 4t2 4x(t) + 8t − 3 ,       x(0) = 1 ,

Solution:

for t=0, and  

By using the forward Euler method

putting all these values in the forward Euler method

[(-1)2 – 4(0)(-1)+ (0)2 – 4(-1) + (0) – 3]

Now by taking t=1 and

now we can change in the so the value of t=0 and the  put in main equation

now we taking with these values and find the answer

so its showing by increasing the step size of the by one by one its change the values all the answer showed above.

Question 2:

using forward and backward Euler the solution of the initial value problem

Solution:

Firstly same as we find the for forward Euler method

for t=0, and  

By using the forward Euler method

for t=1, and

for t=0, and

for t=1, and

Error of the function

X1 = 1.2+0.1[2]

X2 = 1.419+0.1[2 ]

X1 = 1.4+0.2[2 ]

X2 = 1.873+0.2[2 ]

For the backward Euler method formula

At the  t=0 and

Xn+1 =

x1 =1.18

At t=1 and

X2 =1.36

At t=0 and

X1 =1.51

now for the t=1 and

X2 =1.83

Error of Euler method

Question 3:

Investigate numerically what happened as you take above part.

Solution;

suppose  x(t­0) = 0.1

X1 =0.332

At t=0 and

                                                   X1 =0.186

the upper numerical values shows all the smaller values for tht x(to). So all the result showing each of things happening

Question 4:

solution:

when we taking the values become the smaller then the values giving the point of exact answers mean that which is giving the batter result as the picard iteration is showing it. So its gives the exaltation values.

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Cardiovascular Function

Human Physiology External Brain 3B

Section 001/002 – Due October 24

Section 003 – Due October 25

Cardiovascular function

Assignment:

Chapter 13

Note – We will be covering a lot of information in detail with this chapter. Please take your time on this EB, and make an honest effort.

  1. Draw a schematic of the heart. Include the major vessels leading into and out of the heat. Label the chambers and valves
Image result for schematic of heart

Source: http://images.slideplayer.com/15/4746252/slides/slide_10.jpg

  • What is the difference between cardiac Autorhythmic cells and cardiac myocytes? Draw out and label action potentials for each.

Autorhythmic cells are responsible for action potential and contraction within the cardiac muscle cells. A majority of the muscle cells are contractile in nature and the Autorhythmic cells are present in these areas including Atrioventricualr node and Sinoatrial node. On the other hand, Cardiac Myocytes are also known as muscle cell and is found within the muscle tissue. These are long and tubular cells that are developed from myoblasts to develop muscles in the process which is named as myogenesis (Kerckhoffs 2010).

Image result for autorhythmic cells

Source: https://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/EKG/cardiacskeletal.html

Image result for cardiac myocytes

Source: http://www.cvphysiology.com/Cardiac%20Function/CF020.htm

  • Summarize what the Wigger’s diagram is showing. Do your best to fill it out, but you do not need to turn it in. Bring a copy to class, as we will review
Image result for wiggers diagram

Source: http://www.justfordocs.com/Wiggers.asp

Wigger’s Diagram is a standard diagram which is used in cardiac physiology. The X-axis has time and the Y-axis shows the blood pressure including; Atrial pressure, Aortic pressure and Ventricular pressure. This axis also shows ventricular volume and electrocardiogram. The options of depicting heart sounds and arterial flow can also be used. If the coordinated values of these items ate illustrated a relationship can be easily developed within the cardiac cycle (Aaronson, Ward and Connolly 2012).

  • Draw out one cardiac cycle of an electrocardiogram. Label the waves-segments. Identify what is occurring during each wave or segment
Image result for cardiac cycle of an electrocardiogram

Source: http://www.washingtonhra.com/ekg-monitoring/12-lead-electrocardiogram-ekg.php

  • In your own words provide a definition of preload and afterload

Preload is also called LVEDP or Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Pressure and is the level of stretch at the diastole end in the left ventricle. On the other hand, Afterload is called SVR or Systematic Vascular Resistance. It is the level of resistance that the heart must face when opening the aortic valve and push the blood in to circulatory system (Kerckhoffs 2010). 

  • Identify two effects of sympathetic stimulation on the heart

The two effects of sympathetic stimulation on the heart include; an increase in the heart rate which is also known as positive chronotrpic effect and another effect is an acceleration of atrioventricular conduction which is also known as positive dromotropic effect (Aaronson, Ward and Connolly 2012).  

References

Aaronson, Philip I., Jeremy P. T. Ward, and Michelle J. Connolly. The Cardiovascular System at a Glance. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

Kerckhoffs, Roy C.P. Patient-Specific Modeling of the Cardiovascular System: Technology-Driven Personalized Medicine. Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.

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Reflection Simulation

Simulation Reflection

In this simulation reflection, after completing the simulation, we have came to know that there are various decision parameters and attributes that contribute towards the results. The decision parameters include scope, target, size of the team, the skill level and skill set of the team, the amount of the task that has been outsourced, the target completion deadline, time that has been spent in the team meetings and given overtime to the team members. The characteristics of the team include the ability to handle the pressure, the level of morale and the rates at which the mistakes are made as well as the ability to identify and eliminate those mistakes.

All these decision parameters and team attributes are inter-related with each other. Team size and the skill level of each team member has a huge role to play in reducing the rate of mistakes and if there is any mistake made it will also be rectified quickly. This directly influences the project outcome and reduces the costs that are incurred during the project as well. If the team members are highly skilled, they will be able to detect any issues in the process and operations as well. These issues are contributing towards the costs. Hence highly skillful team also detects the issues within the process before they even occur and this improves the operations and also helps in reducing the project completion time enabling the team to complete the project well before the timeline.

 Another aspect we found from the simulations was, if the morale of the team members is high, they will be able to complete the project well before time as they will be working hard towards completion of the target. The stress level of the team members is also a major contributor to this aspect. If the team members feel stressed and they don’t get enough rest, or they have too much work burden on them, then they will not be able to perform as per the requirements of the project. The team size directly influences the whole process because will fewer team members there will be a lot more work burden on them and they will feel stressed. When the team members are stressed, the rate of the mistakes will automatically rise. However, too many team members can prove to be costly as well, and this is where outsourcing comes into play its part, but too much outsourcing will deprive the team members of their skills utilization hence, there has to be a perfect balance between the two. Therefore, we can easily understand that all of these decision parameters are directly linked with the team attributes to achieve positive project outcomes. 

The best strategy that works each time is focusing on the team attributes. The team members are the most valuable asset in any project, and if they are not satisfied, then it will not be possible to complete the project in time and with lesser mistakes as well. The most effective strategy is to compensate the team members and encourage them at every stage. Providing the team members with incentives will motivate them, and this will enhance their performance. The strategy that didn’t work out at all was directing the team members without any regular team meetings. Training has a huge role to play, and this enables the team member to sharpen their skills. If the project managers can provide regular on spot training and guidance, this will have a very positive impact on the project outcome.         

In my opinion, effective compensation regular guidance and motivation are the three most important factors that contribute to the success of any project. These factors keep all the aspects and elements well aligned and directed. However, with that being said, training and motivation, as well as proper compensation all, depends on upon the skill level of the team member. If after proper compensation as well as training the team members are not able to develop the required set of skills for the project then the team members that have been selected are not right for the job. The team members should have the experience and expertise for the project, and if there are any deficiencies, then they will be covered with the help of training while compensation enables them to develop some motivation.

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Safe Sleep Policy

Safe Sleep Policy

Sleep is an integral part of our life. To keep our body moving and stress-free, we should complete our regular sleep. As for the adults, the suggested hours of sleep are 8. While there is variation in the sleeping hours for the teenagers and children. But this we know that only the person who sleeps well can focus on his or her work in real life. Sleep help the person to relax mind and body muscle it is the natural phenomenon without we can’t live a healthy life. Mostly this policy is made for the children because they are most sensitive one and they are mostly become a victim of the SIDS which is known as the Sudden Infant Syndrome. That’s why there is a policy established to prevent the sudden death of infant child. The policy contains the following important points:

  • To reduce the risk of SIDS back to back, sleep is very important for the infant children. But don’t let the kids sleep in the side position as it is not safe for them.
  • A pacifier should be used at the nap or bedtime. One thing to make sure while using the pacifier is that it should not have the cord or any mechanism attached with it.
  • The safety standards should be followed while purchasing the bed or sheet for the babies. As they should sleep on the firm place.
  • The sudden suffocation is also the reason of SIDS so keep the soft things like the pillow or loose bedding away from the kid. Just like that keep any object that could increase the risk of strangulation.
  • Blankets can cause suffocation so while babies are sleeping don’t use blankets, sheets and big clothing to cover them. Just use the sleep sacks and sleepers as they are the best alternative for that.
  • Don’t make two kids to sleep in one crib as this can increase the risk of SIDS. So it’s best to use the crib for one baby at the time.
  • Room temperature matters a lot while sleeping as it should be normal neither too cold or hot. But make sure that the humidity level of the room is at the constant level as this can increase the risk of SIDS.
  • Wedges are mostly used to keep the infant in the position while sleeping, but it is not valid that either they reduce the risks of SIDS or not. It’s better not to use such kind of things.
  • Smoking is the biggest danger for the infants so never allow anyone to smoke in the baby room. Because the smoke causes suffocation in the room if there is no proper ventilation system.

Teach everyone either at home or hospital how to deal with the sleeping policy. Make sure the policy is implemented for each kid. The safe sleep policy helps to increase the health of the infants. Above are the major points of the safe sleep policy which should be followed because 5% of infant deaths occur due to SIDS. So it should be avoided as much it can be.