Pty Ltd is a business that works as a bar, Microbrewery and jazz club. Brew
Brothers are seeking to have a new design for the brewing process. Brews
brothers have proposed an effective design to construct an effective brewing
structure that can help them to increase customers as well as will help them in
earning the profits. This report contains the set of derived equations
regarding limiting parameters. Moreover, this report will discuss the findings
related to design and process of brewing.
The project is
based on six different sections that include the important points and
requirement to know that parameters for the project are clear and in a correct
manner. The major equipment of the project includes; mash, copper with gas
heater, fomenters, storage tanks and pumps.
The first is
mash/ lauter tun which is a cylindrical closed tank and its parameters are ;
tun volume = VM (m3)
tun Diameter = DM (m)
tun Height = HM (m)
Parameters of the Copper
cylindrical closed tank are
volume = VC (m3)
Diameter = DC (m)
Height = HC (m)
the fermenter which is a cylindrical closed tank having conical based are;
the storage tank, which is the closed tank, are given below; (GUPTA, 2012)
Tank Volume = VS (m3)
Tank Diameter = DS (m)
Tank Height = DS (m)
There would be
four kinds of brew so the process required having four storage tanks with
weekly consumption rate of ~ 400L/week including the spare tank so the total
storage volume = VT
Parameters related to production
are given below and there will be ~ 1600L /week of brewing.
produced in a week (L) – minimum 1600 L = VB
of Water/week = VW (L)
barley = MB (Kg)
Al the equipment are spaced with
the 0.5 m with each other and from the ground and chiller is in the shape of the
cube. Parameters related to lautering are;
time of transfer = TL (S)
of disposing grains = VG (L)
regarding the pumps are;
flow rate = VFRA (L/sec)
of Head = hA (m)
of pump = PA (kW)
Figure shows the density of ingredients that are used
in the brewing process
regarding parameter is important especially while designing the structure of
the plant (Kutz, 2015). With the help
this information, the expected problem can be resolved. Moreover, this
information is helpful to identify the total required cost of the project that
Brews brother will incur (Lees, 2012).
To construct a structure regarding specific
purpose like to introduce a new Brewing process for the peoples it is very
important to conduct the in-depth research and to perform analysis, feasible
condition for the structure. According to the research, it is found that all
the equipment must have a space of 0.5 m between each other and from the
ground. The structure will need a spare storage tank along with the four other
tanks and each of the equipment or parts has a specific size.
Gupta, m. K. (2012). Power plant engineering.
Phi learning pvt. Ltd.
Kutz, m. (2015). Handbook of measurement in science
and engineering, volume 2. John wiley & sons.
Lees, f. (2012). Lees’ loss prevention in the
process industries: hazard identification, assessment and control.
In this report, I have analyzed bond
market of United States. For analyzing this market, I have selected corporate
sector. Investment in Corporate sector is based on gaining high returns. In
this sector, many bonds are operating in the market. These bonds have different
prices and yields. Recommendations of buying and selling bonds are based
according to the criteria of an investor. If the investor wants high yield on
bond then he has to select bonds with high yields. If an investor wants to
invest in high credit rating bonds then he has to select bonds with high credit
ratings. I have selected three bonds for purchasing and two bonds for selling.
The purpose of investment in bonds should be to maximize returns.
Before deciding about bonds
investment, it is important to analyze factors that affect the bonds market. It
will help to make wise investment decisions in the bonds market. Before
analyzing trends in corporate bonds and providing recommendations, it is
essential to identify corporate bonds first. Corporate bonds are bonds offered
by Corporations to fulfill their corporate needs and to increase their money.
There can be many reasons for issuing corporate bonds by the Corporations.
There are few features of these types of bonds. These bonds are issued at 1000
par value. Usually, all coupon bonds have structured coupon rate. Usually,
Corporate bonds have the option to call back by the issuer any time. (Pimco.co.uk, 2012)
The risk of bond can be analyzed
from its maturity as well as its callable option. Companies usually sell bonds
on premium if it contains the option of call back anytime.
Findings of bond market
ARAB REP EGYPT is the first bond that is providing the yield of 4% and
its price is 103.64. This has the credit rating of AAA. Coupon payment on this
bond is semi-annually. This bond is trading in the corporate sector as one of
dominant bond in the market. One of the advantage of investing in this bond is
high yield as compared to other bonds. Corporate bonds usually provide high
yields to the investors. Below the table is showing the detail of this bond in
the corporate sector. (Finance.yahoo.com,
2014). U.S market has a
contribution of major players in the corporate bonds. Corporate bonds market is
diversified into different industries. Below the graph is showing that
financial sector has a maximum contribution in corporate bonds.
BANK NOVA SCOTIA is another corporate bond in
the market. Its price is 102 and it has the coupon rate of 2% for investors.
This bond is highly recognized in the market due to high credit rating. High
credit rating increases confidence of investor in the bond. High credit rating
provides him surety that his money or investment in the bond would not a
COLUMBIA PROV CDA is another bond trading in the corporate sector of the bond.
Its yield is highest and recorded as 161.04. It is generating highest return
among these three bonds in the sane sector. Its coupon rate is 7%. One
advantage of investing in this bond is strong credit rating. The credit rating
for this bond is again AAA. It is also
paying yield on a semiannual basis. It is available in the market in reasonable
selected bond of ALION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CO for selling. Its credit rating
is CCC. It does not have good credit worthiness. It is providing high coupon
rate in lower price. The market price for this bond is 99. Bonds with this
credit rating have a high risk of default. In the case of bonds default,
investor lost their entire investment. The purpose of selling this bond is due
to its lower credit rating. This bond is very risky. Investment in this type of
bonds should be discouraged.
NATURAL RESOURCES INC is another bond that has the lower credit rating. It is
recommended to sell this bond. Its market price is 97.50 and its yield is only
2%. The reason for selling this bond is due to its bad credit rating. Its
credit rating is CCC. This credit rating is not good for investors.
In this section, I have provided
recommendations for purchasing and selling bonds in the corporate sector. Many
investors found it difficult to decide about their buying and purchasing habits
of the bond. Investors should analyze the relationship between prices as well
as interest rates of the bonds. Investors should understand that there exists
an inverse relationship between bonds prices as well as their interest rates.
If interest rate will higher, in the market value of the sane bond will drop.
So, the purpose of investing in the bonds should not be based on higher
interest rate. The Higher interest rate will drop its price in the market.
Before making a purchasing decision of bonds, only price or interest rates are
Another important indicator in the
bonds purchasing and selling decision is its credit rating. Bonds include many
risks with them. For reducing these risks, it is important to analyze their
Credit rating is another important
indicator for accessing the risk of the bond. In above findings, I have sold
out bonds with bad credit ratings. One of important risk in bonds market is
default risk. Corporations may default and it affects on investors decision and
investment in their bonds (LAMBERT, 2014). Investors
should also analyze credit worthiness of the bonds for purchasing them. They
should try to purchase bonds with strong credit rating. They should sell bonds
having a high risk of default. Many professional organizations and institutions
can provide help in investing in these bonds. These professional organizations
can help to reduce overall risk in the corporate sector. One advantage of
investing is bonds are to gain a semiannual return. Bonds provide returns two
times in a year.
The purpose of raising corporate bonds
for investors is to raise money by the Corporations. Usually, all corporate
bonds carry the higher risk of default as compared to other bands like
government or treasury. Default risk is affected by the issuing Corporation.
That is why before investing in corporate bonds, it is advisable to analyze
creditworthiness of issuing company. Investors can take the better idea of
their returns and risk after analyzing credit worthiness or credit rating of
their issuing company. Corporation with low credit rating usually offers bonds
with high yield to attract more investors. On the other hand, Corporation with
strong credit rating can attract investors towards its bonds by offering low
yield or interest rate.
Maturity date should also be
analyzed for investment in these bonds. A bond with high maturity will contain
more risk as compared to the bond with lower maturity. Investment decision can
be made by corporate bonds holders with the help of maturity date. They should
analyze that whether an issuer is paying more returns in case of high maturity
or not. Investors should analyze all these recommendations for making an
investment in corporate bonds.
It is concluded that Corporate bonds
should be selected based on their credit rating, yield, maturity as well as
yields. It is essential to invest in strong credit rating bonds. Recommendation
of purchasing bonds is also given to investors in Cornpone bonds sector. It si
concluded that corporate bonds have high risk.
ARAB REP EGYPT
As of 7-May-2016
Yield to Maturity (%):
Current Yield (%):
Coupon Payment Frequency:
First Coupon Date:
BANK NOVA SCOTIA
As of 7-May-2016
Yield to Maturity (%):
Current Yield (%):
Coupon Payment Frequency:
First Coupon Date:
Minimum Trade Qty:
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROV CDA
As of 7-May-2016
Yield to Maturity (%):
Current Yield (%):
Coupon Payment Frequency:
First Coupon Date:
Minimum Trade Qty:
ALION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CO
As of 7-May-2016
Yield to Maturity (%):
Current Yield (%):
Coupon Payment Frequency:
First Coupon Date:
Minimum Trade Qty:
ALPHA NATURAL RESOURCES INC
As of 7-May-2016
Yield to Maturity (%):
Current Yield (%):
Coupon Payment Frequency:
First Coupon Date:
Minimum Trade Qty:
Finance.yahoo.com. (2014). Bond Center.
Retrieved May 7, 2016, from
LAMBERT, S. (2014, August 11). Investing in
corporate bonds: how income-hungry investors can tap firms direct or invest
through funds . Retrieved May 7, 2016, from
Pimco.co.uk. (2012, March). What Are Corporate
Bonds and What Benefits Do They Offer? Retrieved May 7, 2016, from
Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson
After reading the document declaration of independence, I agree with the
thoughts and views of the Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was the third
president of the British State. He wrote the declaration of independence for
the freedom and equality of the people of the world. The declaration of
independence is the most worth valuing document in the history of US. Congress
asked Thomas Jefferson to write a document that is based on the freedom, and
then Thomas Jefferson wrote the declaration of independence. The congress wants
a document that consists on the declaration of the colonies that why the
colonies had to become independent of Britain. In the document, he explains
about the Americans that they believed on their rights. He stated he argues and
opinions in the document that all human being are free. They have right to live
freely. They are free to seek the happiness. He was in favor of the common men.
He wants to introduce the sense of freedom among the human beings by his
document. It explains why the colonies should break away from Britain. It
focuses on the thought that the people have rights for everything and cannot be
taken away from them theses rights. It describes the list of the complaints
that were against the kings and there are argues that colonies have to be free
for the protection of the colonists rights. At the end of the declaration, the
delegates signed their names. I agree with the thoughts of the Thomas Jefferson
that he wrote marvelous documents for the betterment of the colonists. It was
approved on July 4, 1776. The worth and value of the documents have still
importance because it says that the Americans believe in equal rights for all
human beings belongs to any cast, creed, race, and country.
World Is Too Much with Us is written by William Wordsworth
After reading the poem “The World Is Too Much with Us” it opens the
reality that the modern people have become disconnected from the world of
nature. The poem is written in 1807. He presented his ideas that happiness can
be achieved by connecting the world. William Words Worth is the poet of nature.
He loved the natural beauty and wrote the poems about nature. In the poem, the
world is too much with us, he describes that the people have been disconnected
with the natural beauty that god has granted us. People have been connected
with the technology and social media that takes away from them to nature.
The poem is a sonnet that is written in a romantic thematic style. The
elements of the poem make it distinctive and differentiate to words worth
beliefs and system. In the opening lines, he depicts a realm where human beings
are able to feel the beauty of nature without the tensions and problems of
society. He said that we were wasting our happiness and engaged only in the
social activities. Men are always busy in worries of earning and do not spend
time for the natural beauty. He says that men are materialistic and only take
care of earning money. The next four lines describe that we are unaware of
feeling the cool breeze. We do not appreciate the beauty of nature and the
elements of beauty. The poet says that natural beauty is the source of decrease
the worries and tensions of the world. If the man enjoys the natural beauty, he
can forget the worries of society.
In short, it can be said that William words worth is purely a poet of
nature and wants to spread his views about nature that people should enjoy the
natural beauty to forgive all the problems of a daily routine.
Things They Carried written by Tim O’Brien
The things they carried is written by Tim O’Brien. A novel describes the
platoon of American soldiers in the Vietnam War the book is based on his
personal experiences as a soldier. The story is based on the army soldiers.
reading the story of the novel, it clears that the story defines the situation
and condition of the soldiers. The characters of the story mainly bore two
types of burden: Emotional burden and physical burden. Narrator tells the story
of the novel. The story opens with the lists of the things the soldiers of the
army carrying in the Vietnam War. The writer of the story describes his own
experiences about the War. He describes about the personal luggage that he
possesses. Author of the novel describes that the luggage that is used in the war
is different from person to person that is based on the needs and necessities
of the person. It helps the reader to get to aware and know the customs and
souls in a deeper way. It describes the normal lives of the soldiers. He names
the things that are mentioned in the list like photographs, drugs, condoms,
books, bible, and all life stories telling property. By describing the physical
burden, he tells the emotional pressure that had to wear all the soldiers. It
contains the feelings and emotions of love tear, hate, grief etc. they have
with them shameful memories, secrets of cowardice during the war. Readers can
feel all these emotions while reading the story of the novel. All the things
and emotions that a person has personally pull them apart. In the end of the
novel, the author stated that the team is struggling to find their main causes
to remain what they were before the hell when the earth was started.
My name is Nasser Altijri and I am doing marketing from
Texas Wesleyan University in Fort Worth. My future aims are very vast as I want
to become rich and it will be achieved through the capabilities I have. I am a
hardworking person and I want to become successful businesspersons so that I would
own my own company. The reason I am doing in the marketing is because I like
this area and that is my interest. However, I will peruse toward the PHD as well,
for my further grooming.
Right now, I am doing marketing from Texas Wesleyan
University in Fort Worth. After this, I will pursue for my PHD from Harvard
business school. That is my aim of life as far academics are concern. If we
talk about the professional life then I want to do business in the future and
want to open a company, which could be recognized through the country. If we
talk about the next five years then I will complete my academic part and will
be looking for some good opportunity. Within next two years, I want to find an
opportunity and identify the gap. Further, in the three years, which will be 10
tears from now, I want to start my own company but obviously, I do not have
enough funds so in that case, I will find the partners in that time and the
documentation will be finalized so that we could inaugurate the business.
I believe in some values, which are very important for me in
my life. The value, which is important for me, is the Honesty. This is what I
believe is the core thing. Further hard work and the sincerity come. By these
three main values I believe that I can conquer what I want but the main thing
is that I need to be consistent in this case to achieve my life goals. Further
my behavior is been derived my basic concept and values as they are very
important for me. Further, these are important in my life.
If I talk about my strengths then it is so easy to state
that what are the points where I have grip in my life, and what are easy for
me. The best thing I can see in me is
that I am a motivated persona and that is the best thing. Further, I am
educated, honest, strong, determined and consistent which are great strengths I
like. These are the things which will enough for me in strengthens me and to
become a good businesspersons.
It is also very important factor in the life that if a
person has strengths then defiantly he also does have weakness. Looking in me,
I can find that I am a bit more emotional which could lead me to different
aspects of life. I am trying to overcome this weakness and soon it will be
turned in to my strength.
If talking about the customers of the business then it is
very clear. The first thing I will like to share is that the business I will be
doing will be of FMCG products. The benchmark I have in the mind is Nestle. As
they are dealing in the hundred of products, it is the case with me, as I also
want the same thing so that I could capture more and more market. I will be
expanding my products to the every sector.
The children’s, parents, male, female (everyone) is the
target market in this case. The products, which we will make, are the FMCG,
which means they are used in the daily routines. Further, due to that the
target market is very vast. There are no special skills that we are required in
our target market. Everyone who falls in the scale between 0-100 can and will
buy the product the reason is that we will offer the good quality with the best
If we talk about the products we offer then the FMCG products
are to be use in the daily routines. There will be lot of disposable items as
well and that will be sold more. If we want to have a look at FMCG products
then it contains sugar, cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery, macaroni,
noodles, couscous, other food products, spirits, ethyl alcohol, wines, malt
liquors and malt, soft drinks, mineral waters, tobacco products, pulp, paper
and paperboard, corrugated paper, containers, other articles of paper and
paperboard, soap and detergents, cleaning. There will be lot of categories,
which will be manufactured by us.
The special thing and the unique point in the business is our
product, will be the quality as compared t the cost. The differentiation point
will be that the cost will be less and the quality will be high. Further, we
will reduce our profits for the first three years so that people enjoy the
products and become loyal and once we have captured the market then we will
raise the cost so that more profits could be earned.
Capital investments and profits
If we look at the business that we need to start then in the
starting there will be five partners that will participate in developing a
company all four partners will inject $100,000 each and I will be injecting $250,000
for initiating the company. Then the remaining money will be divided on bank
debt and the remaining will be collected through the IPO’s. By this all, we
will be able to collect total of $1,000,000 in which our money will be $650,000,
bank will give $200,000 and $150,000 will be collected by the public.
As the time passes, the investment will be also increased and
the company will grow. After one year, the company net profit will be 10% as
compared to the costs. Further, in the next 3 years it will be raised up to 40%
and so on. By doing this we will earn and expand too. The company will be
registered and the stocks will be traded. Further, the auditor will analyze the
company data and the reports will be published on the quarterly basis. We will
be measuring the success and the performance of the company by the ratio of
cost to net profit. Further, the share price will be considered too. On top of that,
the expansion will also be in the consideration so that everything goes smooth.
In this stage, the company is running and we are improving
day by day if we look at the profits. The major thing, which we need to do, is
to change the technology. At that time, further advancements will be made in
the machinery and that will be most cost effective, eco friendly and more
efficient. However, the startup cost will be in millions. However, we will
still switch to the new technology, as it will benefit us in the long term.
Further, the investment will be made by the bank debt.
The skill, which I possess, is the motivational skills.
Further, it will be polished so that I could motivate the clients and the
business executives better so that they would believe in us and the better
business deals could be made. This is the one of the most important thing,
which should be in the leader so that they could possess and make the business
better as the leader.
experience of working for an insurance company as an Associate to the Financial
Analyst. The nature of my position is not verycritical, but I have exposure to the
very bottom-line operations of the insurance company.
Analyst Associate, I am responsible to provide support to the financial analyst
Team in carrying out the daily operations of the Finance analyst department.Specifically
my duties as financial analyst Associate include:
support in the maintenance and enhancement of the division’s models for
financing planning with looking for opportunities for the automation of main
support in the monthly and quarterly analysis of the financial and operational
support to the team for the estimating and forecasting for annual plans.
support for the fulfillment of the management needs for the reporting of
on the designated task related to the capital market
detailed research report on the implications of a specific security, or stock
investment by the insurance company.
presentation, and present it to the team.
the presentations given by teammates, and raise appropriate concerns about it.
changes to my presentation as per the concerns of the teammates.
a one-page synopsis of the completed approved report.
The experience I
have had at the insurance company while working as assistant in the team of financial
analysts had changed me as a professional. Firstly, I was very afraid because
of the high competencies of the professional team around me, but with the help
of the insight I usually got from the course of Financial Markets Course, I
changed not only my working style, but also increased my knowledge base.
In my first days
at the insurance company, I faced many challenges regarding knowledge of
financial markets, financial terms adopted for use in the company, and
expertise regarding the analysis. In the financial analysis team, we associates
were required primarily to provide support to the team in terms of the
different researches, analysis, and then forecasting for the best financing
models. For this, we were required to look for opportunities of the best
financing options in terms of equity as well as debt financing for the company.
As I was a new
recruit, I was way behind my colleagues, and teammates in terms of the
professional knowledge and expertise. However, I did not make this my weakness.
I used my over time to work on building my knowledge base regarding the best
options of financing available in the capital markets. In addition, the course
of “Financial Markets” also aided me to get gain knowledge in this regard.
At one day, I
was asked to make a report on the Mutual Funds being offered in US markets. At
that time, I remembered that the mutual funds were covered in my course as
well. So, I immediately consult my course book, and looked for the material
regarding Mutual Funds Market. from this book, I got detailed data regarding
the mutual funds market. I also used search engine to get comprehensive data
regarding mutual funds market. A brief detail of my insight on Mutual Fund
market that I got from the course is described below as:
The US Mutual
funds Market has about $16 trillion in assets, and is one of the largest, even
the Largest in the world at the 2014-year end. The increment in the total net
assets value is amounted to $818 billion from 2013-year end. This was primarily
due to the increment in the bond and stock prices. The value of the new cash
flow, which entered this market in 2014, is amounted to $102 billion. The lower
interest rates, improved conditions of the US economy, and the population
demographics of the US contributed and derived the investor demand to increase.
portion of the Mutual Funds assets in the year-end 2014 was held by Equity Funds,
which amounted to 52% of the total Mutual funds assets. Whereas the next most
held mutual funds assets was accounted to the Bond Market.
This was a basic
knowledge and facts abut the Mutual funds Market, which I gained during my course.
However, I was required to recommend a best suitable choice of mutual fund for
my company. For this, using my knowledge from the class lectures, I browsed for
the Morningstar stewardship analysis report on mutual funds. (Morningstar, 2016) This also helped me a lot.
company wanted to invest in mutual fund because it required long-term capital
gains, and as per my knowledge gained from the course, mutual funds can take a
big portion from returns, which are spread over a shorter period in lieu of
their sales charges. Therefore, it was not initially regarded by me as the
wrong investment choice.
The next step
important step is to look for the alignment for the company’s goals and risk
tolerance with the mutual funds available. With the fair amount of risk
tolerance available as per the direction of themanager, and a period of more
than five years, the company was looking for long period high returns, which is
provided by mutual funds in common stock or equity markets. (Northcott, 2009)
and income Funds:
If in case, I
was required to look for any mutual fund, which would generate immediate
income, I also incorporated a small detail about the income funds available. (pimco.com, 2016)Moreover, for low risk funds,
I incorporated brief detail about the Balanced Funds as well. (ussif.org, 2016)
The charges of
the mutual funds are their main income. Different types of investments have
different types of charges. In case we have a investment with from or back end
load fees, then the charge would be 3 to 6% of the total invested amount. The front-end
load fee would have to be paid at the time of initialinvestment, whereas the
back-end load fee would have the charges paid by us at the end or sale of our
Other than this,
I also incorporated the various fees, like management expense ratio (higher
ratio, lower returns), management fees, administrative fees, and 12b-1 fees.
evaluation of the funds past performance, as per the outline of my course, I
evaluated its performance with the general market returns, and its volatile,
and its turnover.
The course Financial
Markets, not only helped me get the primary knowledge about the mutual funds
market. It also provided me with a new habit of checking onto my course outline
for any detail of the information I needed. This has helped me a lot. Now, with
the benefit I have gained from one time reverting to my course book, I have
started paying more attention to my lectures of all courses, in case it would
be required at my company.
After visiting Federal Reserve Bank, we gained lots of
information regarding different financial markets. This is good to visit for
investigating financial market with navigation of different movies. This is
helpful to let us know different approaches and techniques to survive in
financial market for a long run. This was good to know history of Federal Reserve
Bank and derive important financial aspects. The most important thing is to
observe crises and approaches to fix by the management of this bank.
This was a great opportunity for me to have information
and see different financial aspects closely. This was a great chance for me due
to my teachers to see different financial theories and implementations. I would
like to thank all my teachers who let me to come here and navigate different
financial operations. In addition, we visited world war museum and saw ancient
things. I was wonderful trip for me as I enjoyed with colleagues and teachers.
Regarding this trip, it was combination of learning
process and enjoyments. This was a good initiative, taken by teachers to conduct
such activities and have a good time. This was a god opportunity and I will
look forward to attend the same actives to enjoy and enhance my learning in
Fdic.gov. (2016, April 27). Who is the FDIC?
Retrieved April 27, 2016, from fdic.gov:
Ici.org. (2014). 2014 Investment Company Fact Book.
Retrieved April 27, 2016, from ici.org:
Morningstar. (2016, April 27). Stewardship Grades.
Retrieved April 27, 2016, from morningstar:
Northcott, A. (2009). The Mutual Funds Book: How to
Invest in Mutual Funds & Earn High Rates of Returns Safely. Atlantic
Pimco.com. (2016, April 27). Income Fund.
Retrieved April 27, 2016, from pimco.com:
Sec.gov. (2016, April 27). Mutual Fund Fees and
Expenses. Retrieved april 27, 2016, from sec.gov:
Ussif.org. (2016, April 27). Sustainable &
Responsible Mutual Fund Chart. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from ussif.org:
Importance of prototyping in interactive system design
“A decent Design is superior to anything you think.” (Rex, Raskin, 2000).
Designing a thing is all about making choices. Prototype has a great importance in some fields such as engineering, automobile design, creativity skills and so. Different tools and techniques will be discussed. Further, the types of the prototypes will be discussed and we can see that it is important for the system designs. The main purpose of the prototype is to give an idea to the maker of the product that how the design or the product will look like (Benyon, 2010).
Prototyping deals with system development where a prototype is developed or produced as an early approximation to test the systems or products. This prototyping process continues until the required level is achieved in developing a system or producing a product. Therefore, keeping this aspect in view, one can see that prototyping is also very important in interactive system design. Interactive system design develops method through use of a technology so that a task is completed as per requirement. Therefore, prototyping is very crucial in interactive system design, as it helps to improve the design and processes related to it (Benyon, 2010).
We have begun with the detail explanation of the prototype that what it is. Going further it is been linked with the interactive system design in every part so that we could know the importance of the Prototypes. Going further different types of prototypes have been discussed and different approaches have been linked towards the interactive system designs. (Benyon, 2010) Different strategies of prototypes have been also discussed in this paper so that the importance of prototype could be identified and we could know that in the interactive system design prototype is the main element and have a great importance to.
We characterize a prototype as a solid representation of part or the majority of an intelligent framework. A prototype is an unmistakable antiquity, not a dynamic depiction that requires understanding. Designers, and supervisors, designers, clients and end-users, can utilize these relics to imagine and reflect upon the last framework. Note that prototypes might be characterized contrastingly in different fields. For instance, an engineering prototype is a downsized prototype of the last building. This is unrealistic for intuitive framework models: the originator may restrain the measure of data the prototype can deal with, yet the genuine interface must be exhibited at full scale (Beaudouin-Lafon, 2015).
Therefore, a prototype interface to a database may handle just a little pseudo database yet should in any case exhibit a full-measure presentation and association systems. Full-scale, unique models, for example, a hand-made dress specimen, are another kind of model. These as a rule require an extra outline stage with a specific end goal to mass-create the last plan (Störrle, 2014). Some intuitive framework prototypes start as standout prototypes, which are then appropriated generally (since the expense of copying programming is so low). Nevertheless, best programming prototypes advance into the last item and afterward keep on evolving as new forms of the product are discharged.
A prototype is a solid however fractional representation or execution of a framework plan. Prototypes are utilized broadly as a part of most plan and development areas. Lim et al. (2008) present a perspective of prototypes as ‘devices for navigating a configuration space where all conceivable outline options and their bases can be investigated (Narahara, 2015).
Hi-fi prototypes are comparable in look and feel, if not inexorably in usefulness, to the expected last item. They are created in programming, whether in the advancement environment which will be utilized for execution or as a part of bundles that will permit intelligent impacts to be ridiculed up effortlessly. Hi-fi prototyping has the accompanying components:
It is helpful for point-by-point assessment of the primary outline components (content, visuals, intelligence, usefulness and media) – for instance, Hi-fi prototypes can be utilized as a part of ease of use studies to set up whether individuals can figure out how to utilize the framework inside a predetermined measure of time.
It frequently constitutes a vital stage in customer acknowledgment – as a sort of conclusive configuration record which the customer must consent to before the last execution.
It is largely formed genuinely well into the venture when thoughts are starting to solidify, unless there is some essential issue that should be determined before some other work can continue.
A lo-fi prototype – regularly termed paper models, since that they are normally produced using then again, have the accompanying components:
They are more centered on the expansive basic configuration thoughts for example, substance, frame and structure, the “tone” of the outline, key usefulness prerequisites and navigational structure.
They are intended to create rapidly, and discarded as fast.
They catch early plan thinking and ought to help, not prhorizontal t, the procedure of creating and assessing numerous conceivable outline arrangements.
Paper prototypes are broadly utilized as a part of practice. A review of 172 ease of use experts led in 2002 asked how vital they considered the strategy to be in their work (Snyder, 2003). The reactions are appeared in the graph underneath “pointless” alternative was incorporated however no one picked it. (The rates do not entirety to 100 for every penny in view of adjusting.)
The principle down to earth issues with outlining paper prototypes are as per the following:
■ Robustness – if a paper prototype is to be taken care of by loads of individuals it should be sufficiently intense to survive.
■ Scope – concentrate on expansive issues and key components; on the off chance that you are attempting to recount excessively point by point a story it can be hard for clients to get it.
■ Instructions – there is an exchange off between adding enough detail for somebody to have the capacity to utilize the prototype without the planner helping and including so much detail that it needs somebody to talk the individual through it.
■ Flexibility – have parts of the paper prototype customizable so individuals seeing it can ‘upgrade it’ on the fly, e.g. by utilizing sticky notes to speak to parts of the screen where the client can move components around or include new things.
For more than 20 years analysts have highlighted the capability of video as an apparatus inside the participatory outline process, from beginning perception, through thoughts era and configuration investigation, what Mackay et al. called ‘video conceptualizing’ and ‘video prototyping’ (2000). Vertelney’s strategy (1989) includes the making of a physical fake up prototype of the item; a video is then shot with a performing artist cooperating (or ‘acting’) with the prototype just as it were completely utilitarian (Wiemann & Brauner, 2016). The item’s showcase elements are recreated in a movement program, and are superimposed (or composited) on the video, guaranteeing synchronization to give the appearance that the item is really reacting to the individual’s activities.
Different approaches to functionality in prototypes
There are different sorts of prototype that it is valuable to recognize. A full prototype gives full usefulness, yet at a lower execution than the objective framework. A flat prototype plans to go over the entire framework, yet bargains just with top-level capacities; such an extensive amount the subtle element is excluded. Interestingly, a vertical prototype executes the full scope of elements, starts to finish, and yet is connected to just a little number of elements of the general framework. Blends of these are normal. Developmental and incremental prototypes in the end form into the full framework (Aromaa, 2016).
Prototypes and participatory design
Lo-fi prototypes are a crucial piece of participatory outline since individuals cannot generally comprehend formal models, yet they can investigate and assess thoughts through drawing in with prototyped frameworks. Individuals can likewise be straightforwardly required in prototype configuration. Amid the improvement of the HIC, we ran a workshop with schoolchildren from a school in Dumfries and Galloway in Scotland. It was chosen to utilize the current situations as boosts in a participatory configuration workshop with a gathering of 20 secondary school understudies (Sauer, 2008). Situation as a premise, we went through a morning working with the understudies. The situation was adjusted to make it more significant to the members – the understudies were requested that envision that they and a gathering of companions had won a trek to the city for the day and needed to arrange their exercises.
Trade-offs in prototyping
Likewise, with such a large number of parts of configuration, the creator needs to consider the exchange offs as far as time, assets, the point of the assessment, the phase of the venture et cetera. In reality, when pondering how and what to model, the creator ought to think as far as the PACT components – individuals, exercises, settings and advancements. Who is the prototype went for? What is the architect attempting to accomplish with the model? What phase of the task are things at and what is the setting for the utilization of the model? What advances (hi-fi or lo-fi) are suitable?
Rosson and Carroll (2002) highlight some of these exchanges off:
■ High-quality illustrations and activity can be utilized to make persuading and energizing prototypes however may likewise prompt untimely duty to some configuration choice.
■ Detailed extraordinary reason prototypes answer particular inquiries concerning an outline, however fabricating a significant prototype for every issue is costly.
■ Realistic prototypes expand the legitimacy of client test information, however may delay testing, or require development of disposable models.
■ Iterative refinement of an execution empowers ceaseless testing and input, yet may debilitate thought of radical changes.
The motivation behind a horizontal prototype is to create one whole layer of the configuration in the meantime. This sort of prototyping is most regular with expansive programming improvement groups, where fashioners with various aptitude sets address distinctive layers of the product engineering (Zhao, 2015). Flat prototypes of the client interface are valuable to get a general photo of the framework from the client’s viewpoint and location issues, for example, consistency (comparable capacities are available through comparative client orders), scope (all required capacities are upheld) and excess (the same capacity is/is not open through various client summons).
The reason for a vertical prototype is to guarantee that the planner can actualize the full, working framework, from the client interface layer down to the hidden framework layer. Vertical prototypes are frequently worked to evaluate the achievability of an element portrayed in a level, undertaking focused or situation-based model. For instance, when we built up the thought of attractive rules in the CPN2000 framework to encourage the arrangement of graphical items (Beaudouin-Lafon and Mackay, 2000), we actualized a vertical prototype to test the communication system as well as the design calculation and the execution. We realized that we could just incorporate the specific communication procedure if we could actualize an adequately quick reaction.
Numerous client interface originators start with an assignment examination to recognize the individual errands that the client must achieve with the framework. Every errand requires a comparing set of usefulness from the framework. Assignment based prototypes are sorted out as a progression of undertakings, which permits both originators and clients to test every errand freely, deliberately working through the whole framework.
Scenario-based prototypes are as if errand arranged ones, aside from that they don’t stretch individual, autonomous undertakings, yet rather take after a more sensible situation of how the framework would be utilized as a part of a genuine setting. Situations are stories that depict an arrangement of occasions and how the client responds (Pereira, 2015). A decent situation incorporates both normal and irregular circumstances, and ought to investigate examples of movement after some time. Bodker (1995) has built up an agenda to guarantee that no critical issues have been forgotten.
Prototyping is an important component of interactive system design. There are many forms of the prototypes and they can be helpful in the different ways. Prototypes actually increase the creativity of the designer. It gives the idea that how things will work and the evolution is been seen before launching the product or the design.
The Prototypes are concrete and they need to be look like the original design because it plays very important role and that needs because if the prototype is successful then the design will be launched in the market, so it needs to be perfect.
Envisionment and prototyping the best thing for the designers and the people both as it is very important aspect. It can take hours or days to build but it have a great importance and it needs to build before finalizing the design. The main idea behind the prototype is to build the parallel system and so that we could come to know that, what the design would be after launching the design.
The key feature in the design needs to be tested in the prototype so that the actual results could be shown and if any kind of changes is needed, they can be amended. The structure, concept, the interaction, and design everything needs to be tested so that it could be further launched in the reality. People should take healthy part in that so that the best thing is created so that design not has any problems and could be used in the future. Finally, every strategy should be used while testing the prototype so that no aspect is left behind and the best design could be created.
Aromaa, S. (2016). Suitability of virtual prototypes to support human factors/ergonomics. Applied Ergonomics , 11-16.
Beaudouin-Lafon, M. (2015). Prototyping Tools and Techniques. Retrieved may 3, 2016, from https://www.lri.fr/~mackay/pdffiles/Prototype.chapter.pdf
Benyon, D. (2010). Designing Interactive Systems. Pearson.
Benyon, D., & Turner, P. (2005). Interactive Systems: People, Activities, Contexts, Technologies. Addison-Wesley.
Narahara, T. (2015). Design exploration through interactive prototypes using sensors. Computers & Graphics , 25-35.
Pereira, R. (2015). A value-oriented and culturally informed approach to the design. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies , 66–82.
Sauer, J. (2008). Designing interactive consumer products: Utility of paper prototypes. Applied Ergonomics , 71–85.
Störrle, H. (2014). Cost-effective evolution of research prototypes into end-user. Science of Computer Programming , 1-14.
Wiemann, S., & Brauner, J. (2016). Design and prototype of an interoperable online air quality. Environmental Modelling & Software , 354e366.
Zhao, J. (2015). Design and implementation of virtual refueling simulation prototype. Annals of Nuclear Energy , 87–92.
The American red cross, a charitable institution served all the needy or victims affected by the natural disasters, war situations supporting militants and serve for the humanitarian causes for deserving ones. For example, the organization had a lot of contribution in hurricane Katrina, management crisis of humanitarians; voluntarily people contributed in the society in which the most important ones are the sheltering services, providing food and counseling services to victims of natural disasters. The collection and then meeting demands of supply of blood in occasional campaigns such as terminal diseases like cancer, support physically and emotional to victims, local community services and international services of relief in emergencies.
Mission, Vision, and Values
The mission is protecting the human beings from the sufferings and while providing alleviation especially in the situations of the emergency, through mobilizing the volunteers in action and making generosity services out of the donors.
The vision is the developing, implementing and maintain the network of the volunteers, donors of organization and the partners in a strong momentum, arrangement or network. The compassion is rose to its peak especially during the emergency period.
The values include the serving humanity, remain impartial from the political, religious, racial classes, and remain neutral apart from the biases towards any region or culture. The accomplishment of independence to needy, voluntarily services, showing unity ad message of the universality.
The Marketing Mix
The marketing mix would include the products, which are services or the ideas along with goods of the company. These include the services for the relief in the natural disasters, the blood supply which is very necessary for the lifesaving of the needy people, the support is also provided to the families of militants, international or global relief services and the certification or training for crisis management. The promotional techniques include the online channels such as the social sites, advertisement using the mass media in a unique manner. The awareness campaigns of the ARC are done in the marketing effective manner or ways, the accountability of the financial performances are shown to the loyal donors of the organization. The placement is made through the providing the services to the victims, blood supply using the modern equipment, vehicles, accessibility channels to provide emergency services while including the services to the customers in an online source. The pricing strategy from the ARC is managed through the tracking the progress of the emergency assistances, the cost of the blood supply arrangements and the support to the families of the militants. The non-for-profit organization like ARC would need to raise funds from donors through the charity campaigns and raising the high scale of money.
Target Audience and Market
The target audience of the American Red Cross is the customers having the age range between the 17-25 years in which the proposition of the institution is to associate these people for the future orientations. For this, the segments for the target market American red cross have made are the business of retail, the online businesses and finally the most important one is the charity. The content strategy of marketing is used to raise funds for the target markets while providing awareness about the campaigns for volunteer’s services. Almost raising the $40 million funds every year through the youth of America both boys and girls, increasing the number of donors, customers, expanding the revenue growth from retail, e-commerce, online businesses and charity donors. The marketing strategy for campaigns of charity displaying the organizations so that they could donate the maximum to the American Red Cross funds is monitored. The loyal fund’s donors are maintained through the transparent operations as well as the managements activities of the ARC so that the awareness of the brand is increased; the market share would increase and the providing a platform for the donors to donate from online tools.
Evidence of Crisis Communication
The American Red Cross has the dynamic process of the crisis communication in which the services of emergency are available 24/7 and seven days in the whole week. The crisis managements are on both using the telephone services as well as the online along with the request the people send for the assistance. The online request for the management of the crisis can also occur, whereas the duty would perform from the ARC from using the online applications. The performance around the globe would track using online channels, the importance of the American Red Cross is demonstrated in all over the America. The managements and the operational efficiencies are updated for the crisis effective communication to assist the victims, military personnel’s or their families and providing the blood supplies. The core information about the scenario of emergency is tracked including the phone number as well as the contact of the people experiencing the crisis such as the parents or the spouse. The nature of the crises is also discussed The information in the home include the branch from where the volunteer services would originate, the date of birth of the victim, for the military personnel’s the address could be confirmed, the information if the deployed territory and the units of the military bases are included as well.
There are some of the recommendations for the American Red Cross, in which the philosophical changes are necessary for the structural context of the organization, especially the information necessary for providing the transparency-processes execution are analyzed. This is from ARC in order tam make the satisfaction level higher among the loyal donors of the organization. The better decision in investing the funds of the donors raised from the charity causes are that would encourage the charitable granting process. The most important recommendation is the availability or accessibility of the crisis or the emergency management in 24/7 approach for the American red cross. The customer’s service with the quick response or reaction time from the ARC would be every vital in this context. The response in the slow or the sluggish manner would need to improve as soon as possible from the organization (guidestar.org, 2016). The next key recommendation regarding the non-fro profit organization generating money from the funds of the donors should not have the mismatch in terms if the budget analysis or the allocation of the resources in the balanced approach.
The issue or the core problems associated with the nature of the charity business would affect the business. Therefore, the demand of the value of the brand must need to maintain in one way, or the other is that the trust factor would remain intact. The most important thing in their recommendations aspect is that the ARC must not go with the concepts of team miscommunication with the people. Volunteers, victims, and the other key stakeholders are analyzed. The systems of the database are always considered as the necessary thing regarding the operational efficiencies that would manage the operations of the organization in the most effective manner (charitynavigator.org, 2016). The data must be changed with organizational structure especially while providing the global relief services to the victims of the natural disasters. The watchdog, which is commonly named, as the evaluation technique of the charitable or the non-for-profit institution, must do integrated with the core values or the mission of the company. The techniques of the evaluator of the business would need to continue in the neutral strategy applications. The membership program is the recommended strategy that would have the necessary information for the people associated with the ARC is managed in an adequate manner. The employees must be motivated while granting them rewards suitable or according to their needs. The industries like the manufacturing, retailing, services sector and the decision making for the fundraising capacity of the ARC is listed in this manner (bbb.org, 2016).
Bbb.org. (2016). Better Business Bureau. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from bbb.org: https://www.bbb.org/
Charitynavigator.org. (2016). Charity Navigator. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from charitynavigator.org: http://www.charitynavigator.org/?gclid=CNnFgMufjdACFQ6CaQodw4YJAg
Guidestar.org. (2016). Guidestar. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from guidestar.org: https://www.guidestar.org/Home.aspx
Accounting information system is a
process or structure of storing, collecting and processing the data related to
accounting and finance. This article is all about the describing the framework
of using this data in a right and quality manner. Furthermore, it is providing an idea to
process the accounting system and data under the four major sections. These
four sections are people and decision-making, operations, governance, and technology. It is influencing
the accounting information system positively because of the data and
On the other hand, it has the
larger impact on the structure of accounting information system. In my opinion, it is adding quality to data
and providing the path for organizing the
accounting information system. In my perspective, it is focusing more on
the people and decision-making. Therefore, it has the larger impact on the
people who are taking control of the system and providing a clear framework for them as well. Furthermore, the article
could influence the people to follow the rules and act according to compliance
in accounting information system. Overall, it has the positive impact on this
specific system with comprehensive details of major concepts of quality.
Movement of stock prices against S&P index is
provided in above graph. The trend is showing that in initial phase, both
movements are opposite, but after some time, MNC and S&P index is showing same
trends. Stock movement is going in the same manner as S&P 500. In the last,
trend is also opposite.
This graph is showing that in the starting, trend is
opposite. Blue line is showing AT&T and green line is showing S&P 500
index. In the start, AT &T is moving upward and index is moving downward
but after that both are showing same movement again. AT & T is showing
higher fluctuation as compared to the index. In the last, index is stable but
AT & T is still showing downward trend.
Above graph is showing stock performance of SYTBY
against S& P 500 index. Green line in the graph is for S&P 500 and blue
line is for Soft Bank Group Corp. In starting, both are decreasing. Both of them have increased with the
passage of time. It can be concluded here that S& P 500 is driving prices
for SFTBY. Small change in S & P 500 is also contributing towards large
change in MNC.
Chart is showing opposite trend in
starting months. After January, trend is same for both of the lines. It can be
concluded here that S & P 500 is driving prices for Hitachi LTD. closing %
of HTHIY is 10.33% and for S & P 500 is 2.26%. It is indicating that small
change in S& P 500 is driving large change in MNC (HTHIY).
US TO EURO
US TO JPY
US TO CAD
of return for revenue and profit has decreased with the passage of time.
Exchange rate prices are showing that exchange rate for USD against three most
exposed currencies have increased. Due to increased in USD, company is facing high
risk due to its major business in Europe, Japan and Canada. Stock performance
AT and T
US TO PESO
to most of the exposed currency of this company as Mexican Peso, historical
average exchange rate for both currencies have used in above table. USD has
increased against Mexican Peso. It is indicating that company is using currency
hedges and strategies to minimize its exposure against PESO. This is the reason
why, decrease in PESO is not affecting its returns negatively. Stock performance has reduced.
Soft Bank Group
Soft Bank Group
USD to JPY
bank group is facing risk from, foreign exchange fluctuation of JPY. Exchange
rate prices are showing that US Dollar is increasing as compared to Japanese
Yen. Growth of sales has decreased in 2015 and net income growth is also
negative. It is indicating that reduction in Japanese’s Yen is affecting on
business of this multinational company. Stock performance has reduced with the passage
USD TO Yuan
2015, exchange rate of USD has increased as compared to Chinese Yuan. It
indicates that USD has improved as compared to Chinese Yuan. Net income is negative;
it is indicating that business is affected by the currency exchange risk. Stock
performance has improved.
Tolkien’s created the world, in which absolute evil and absolute good are
continuously struggling to defeat the other. As we know that Tolkien had
religious upbringing (Catholic), which not only influenced the narrative (the
saga between good and evil) but also it influenced the characters that were
created by him. Therefore, we observe the cycle of life and death (beginning
and end) in various forms. We also learn that this cycle is eternal and every
time new characters are born that embark on a journey (both internal and
external) and after play their part leave this world. For instance, from the
study, it is apparent that in a previous age, courageous men and women had
resisted dark forces (evil) and contained it. However, when individuals of different
kinds allowed themselves to rot, evil remerged.
ending of the book is also a beginning, very much similar to the beginning when
Men and Elves defeated Evil (Melkor and Sauron). In the ending of the book evil
(Sauron) got defeated; however, this end is also beginning of age, which would
once again test, allure and tempt different races/kinds through greed and such
other instruments of evil. Therefore, it can be said that the end of the book
is a beginning of new era, in which good will corrupt and evil will, but the
process would be gradual.
we study Tolkien’s work, we learn that though his created world is vast and has
enormous characters, very few of these characters are complex characters. For
instance, Boromir is one such character that stands out from others. This is
because he exhibits human-like characteristics; he is corruptible, he is weak,
and he gets confused. Among all (the guardians of the ring), the One Ring is
able to influence/corrupt Boromir most, which compels him to do an
additional-effort to resist the influence or corruption.
also find out that most of the Tolkien characters gradually became corrupt or
evil. For instance, Sauron, who is considered a personified evil, gradually
became wicked. His admiration for strength and power slowly totted him, and
eventually he deserted his services to Valar and became the most trusted
lieutenant of Melkor. Some characters embark on a journey (both inwards and
outwards), during which they are overtaken by forces of evil; however, through
strong will, they can rescue themselves. Frodo Baggins is such character which
embarked on a journey, during which Ring gradually corrupts him and almost took
him if he were not saved by his friend Samwise Gamgee. Saruman, the original
White Wizard, is another character, who in fear and admiration of strength
allowed himself to decay spiritually.
terms or words, duty, sacrifice, mercy, honor, and friendship are understood almost
similarly in various cultures. The literature, in the form of epic, story or
sacred text, provides additional understanding to these words, which then
evolve and alter as a society and intellect progress. In Tolkien’s created
world, Lord of the Rings-The Hobbit- The
Fellowship of the Ring, these concepts are discussed, and through examples,
an additional meaning or understanding is provided to them.
instance, Aragon, Gandalf, Legolas, King of Rohan are duty bound and to deliver
their duty they are not reluctant to take a risk, which could end their lives.
The Struggle and journey of Aragon, to rescue the world from evil, is an
example of delivering obligation, which might have killed him numerous times.
Gandalf’s (another example) commitment
to the cause and his sacrificing of
his desires (about greater strength), provides us a clear understanding of term
very beautifully explored and examined the term honor, throughout the book. For
instance, Aragon promised The Army of
the Dead that he would emancipate them from the oath and would become a
source of salvation if they helped him in the impending Battle for Pelennor
Fields. After winning the Battle of Pelennor Fields, there was a greater and
more decisive battle to come; however, Aragon did not consider that and honored
such battles and scenarios, Tolkien reevaluated and reinterpreted terms such as
sacrifice, honor, and duty.
Internationalizing U.S. colleges and universities while decreasing the
trade deficit: The positive double whammy
IV. Alternative Courses of
recruitment of the foreign students to study in America must be done in a
strategic approach of internationalizing the higher education. The trade
deficit would definitely go to lower down using the strategic approach. The
culture of America would promote in all over the world and the international
students would pay the tuition to the American universities that would
ultimately a positive strategy of gaining the cultural, socio-economic growth
in the country. The comparative advantage is the most significant thing in this
perspective, which would, accomplished from education industry of America
through recruitment of international students while providing the services in
the form of increased in exports for the America and a great contribution or
participation in terms of the decreased in the trade
deficit. The framework of higher education for international students must do in order to integrate the benefits
accomplished through a socio-economic and
cultural promotion that are necessary for the global massive competition (Vest, 2014).
V. Recommended Course of
The recommended course
of the best alternative action would be the attaining the comparative advantage
through developing a dynamic analytical framework of the higher education for
the international students. It is a fact
while increasing the maximum number of the opportunities for the other
international students so that the amalgamation between the local along with
foreign culture are integrated through the quality resources of attaining the
education. As according to the author quote,
‘the increase in foreign students attending
U.S. colleges and universities illustrates the continued belief that a U.S.
degree is a sound investment’. The economic influence or impact to
university would be positive or dynamic in the sense
that windfall era for the universities along with government economic
strengthen activities would achieve in this manner. Besides the positive
economic impact through education, the chances of the tourism along with the
globally recognized events would occur in a manner that that would bring a
positive change in the in the education as a global phenomenon.
VI. Justification of
analytical framework that would establish
in a manner that would support the
international students to get an education
from the American universities and
college would be very beneficial for the economic terms such exports a service from education, the promotion
of the American culture and the tourism through literary global events. The foreign
students always a great or a dynamic source of boosting the domestic economy in
one way or the other is analyzed. The opportunities in a new strategic way that
would provide to the international students as a core attraction for studying
in the American universities are the great keys to success for American
educational or economic dynamics. The
trade deficit would ultimately reduce from this strategic approach from the education department of the US in terms
of providing such opportunities to the
admissions in American educational institutions.That is why this recommendation of developing a system or
framework model that would boost the international students to attain education
from American universities is essential (Vest,
Vest, D. (2014). Internationalizing U.S.
colleges and universities while decreasing the trade deficit: The positive
double whammy. International Journal of Education Research, 9
The assignment briefly explains the organizational health
environment as this is very important to understand the health and safety in
the work environment. If the company does not obey the health and safety rules,
then it is violating the human rights also. The assignment briefly explains the
issues due to which the health and safety get in danger and the factors which
effect the health and safety of the worker at the workplace. This is usually
practiced in the industries who manufacture products on a large scale and in
the harsh environment. The safety engineer or the manager is required to
control the health and safety process of the organization.[G1][G2][G3]
The steel mills are the most common kind of organization that
violate the health and safety rules because the work environment in the steel
mill is very harsh reason behind that the treatment of the steel is not an easy
task. The melting point of steel is several hundred degrees which keep the
furnace and the work environment of the company very hot so it’s the
responsibility of the company to make sure the worker works in the good
environment and give him or her the proper safety kit which should be wear
while working in the harsh environment.
After going through the reading of this article thoroughly,
there are some questions that pop up in my mind. The big questions [G21] are why the countries are not forcing the
companies to follow the health and safety of the people. As this is the core
responsibility of the company that they should give the best health environment
to their employee because the employees can only work efficiently if they are
given the best work environment which is secure and comfortable for them to
What serious omissions do you
feel should be in the reading?
How do these omissions
distort or undermine the author’s position?
These omissions clearly evaluate the author position as he is
on the side of employees and have a soft corner for them and also he takes a
stand against the companies as it can be seen from the [G24] article. But the author lacks in one aspect
of this article, and that is he didn’t mention any thorough procedure through
which the company can get the health and safety license. Although he mentioned
the responsibilities of the safety engineer in the organization and what things
are required in the company to make this occupational health and safety in the
The type of the research will be qualitative and qualitative
data analyses tools will be employed to investigate the problem under
investigation. The research study is designed to explore the adverse impacts of
increased use of drug consumption on the health of the students. Thus, the
qualitative research is suitable and supporters the exploratory nature of the
investigation. Research question will be established to address the purpose of
RQ1: What are the
adverse health effects of increased used of drug consumption in youth?
RQ2: How youth
contracts the habit of substance abuse?
RQ3: What is the
role of the youth, parents and teachers to prevent drug abuse?
What is a Business
Process? Why do you think it is important to categorize processes in this way?
The activities that are logically
connected with each other so the positive and the effective results could be
obtained. The tasks or the activities could be any like the production, planning,
sales, marketing or any other activity involves in the business (Businessdictionary.com, 2016). There are
different processes and the categories that are related to the business in
every step. However, the category is important in the business so that the
process could move smoothly. The business processes are important, as the
Governance, management, and other departments need to be in the flow as it will
be possible with the proper processes only
(Dumas, Rosa, Mendling, & Reijers, 2013).
Businessdictionary.com. (2016). business process.
Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from http://www.businessdictionary.com/:
Dumas, M., Rosa, M. L., Mendling, J., & Reijers,
H. (2013). Fundamentals of Business Process Management. Springer Science
& Business Media.
What is Business
Process Management? What is a Business Process Management System?
The business process management is
the processes of the business that are categorized and managed so that the
business could excel. However, three things are important in this context,
which are the alignment of firm resources, clear strategic decisions and
discipline in daily operations
(Bpminstitute.org, 2016). Discussing the Business process management system,
I come to know that it is the system, which actually helps the organization to
increase the efficiency through the proper software as everything is systemized
here. Therefore, the key difference between them is that in BPM, the processes
are made, however, in the BPMS everything is systematic and no manual work is
done (Softwareag.com, 2016).
Bpminstitute.org. (2016). What is BPM Anyway?
Business Process Management Explained. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from
Softwareag.com. (2016). Business process management
system. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from http://www.softwareag.com:
Find a case where a
company adopted BPM and explain what their motivations were for BPM
implementation? How did the organization define BPM? What was the scope of
their BPM initiative?
It can be seen Toyota is
implementing business process management in their assembly of Cars (Cso.com.au, 2016). It has been noticed that
due to the business process that has been implemented the company is able to
eliminate the wastages of the automobile and the inventory is limited, which
ultimately helped them in the production
(Duvall, 2006). It is stated that
the company BPM useful as they define it that makes the processes smooth for
the company. However, the company has initiated the BPM as they want to
increase the production and they want to make the customer satisfaction better.
Further, the company is able to achieve their initiates in this BPM as well.
Cso.com.au. (2016). Promapp Fuels a Future of
Continuous Improvement at Pacific Petroleum. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from
Duvall, M. (2006). What Is Driving Toyota.
Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from http://www.baselinemag.com:
What are the benefits
There are many benefits of BPM for
the companies, it can be seen that some of the benefits are as the coordination
is improved due to BPM, quick responses to the opportunities and the challenges
is identified (University Alliance, 2016).
Further, due to BPM implementation the company becomes Agile, productive,
Efficient, Good transparency, increased customer satisfaction, the
measurability increased, company become sustainable and the technical
integration between the departments has been seen due to the successful
implementation of business process management
Businessanalystlearnings.com. (2014). 10 Benefits
of Business Process Management. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from
University Alliance. (2016). Benefits of BPM
(Business Process Management). Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from https://www.villanovau.com/:
Who are the BPM
stakeholders in the Market?
There are many stakeholders for the
company as it has a vast category in which they fall. It is observed that
Vendors, the research community, labor markets, capital markets, Customers,
employees, Shareholders, competitors and Government are influenced by one or
the other way (Harmon, 2003). For example
for the pizza shop employees, Delivery customer, Local pizza restaurant,
Supplier, Staff, Local community, restaurant owner and the governing body, all
are the stakeholders for them. Therefore, before implementing the BPM the
company needs to take care of all the stakeholders so that no complications
encounter (Burlton, 2012).
Burlton, R. T. (2012). Who cares? Stakeholder
analysis in BPM. Retrieved Oct 28, 2016, from
Harmon, P. (2003). Business Process Change: A
Manager’s Guide to Improving, Redesigning, and Automating Processes. Morgan
What do Business
Rules and Business Processes have in common?
Discussing the business rules, they
are set rules and patterns, which always removes some kind of degree of freedom
from the practices. They need to be practiced at any cost and they are helpful
in the decision criteria as well (Flaig, 2012).
However, the business process is the criteria and the process which business
starts in order to increase the performance of the firm and the systematic ways
in which the efficiency could be enhanced. However the basic difference in
between the rule and the process is as the rule are the set patterns on the
other side the Business process is are the process to make the company
efficient (Consulting, 2015).
Consulting, L. (2015). The Difference Between
Business Rules and Business Processes. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from
Flaig, M. (2012). Business Rules and Business
Processes. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from http://www.dama.org.au:
Read the following
Linda Sharp has come
to you for help. Her boss has asked her “what is this BPM hype that I keep
hearing about? I don’t understand… it seems to be the same as other concepts
that have been around for a long time such as Six Sigma, TQM, Lean Management
and others. What is different with BPM? What will it do for me?”
I will Explain Linda that BPM is
the business process management. This is actually a technique which the
businesses uses in order to streamline their businesses and to categories the
processes that are important for the company. Six sigma and TQM are the other
techniques and they are different from the BPM
(Andersen, 2007). Here the companies who uses BPM in an efficient
manner, it is seen that they are successful in their operations and the reason
is that they are ahead of others in the industry. It will help you in different
ways that if you will apply any business process in the business it will be
streamlined and will be specific. Most probably the outcome of the project will
be enhanced which is a good symbol for the Business (Brocke & Rosemann, 2014).
Andersen, B. (2007). Business Process Improvement
Toolbox. ASQ Quality Press.
Brocke, J. v., & Rosemann, M. (2014). Handbook
on Business Process Management 2: Strategic Alignment, Governance, People, and
Research these topics
and provide an answer for Linda – specifically, answer – What is different
about BPM today and why should an organization pursue it?
Discussing the BPM today we can
observe there are some of the companies who are ahead of the others in the
industry. Looking n to deep analysis, we come to know that their systems are
systematic and the categorization of the process is so smooth that no hindrance
comes into existence. That is the reason they are doing quite well. All the
business process is implemented in the correct manner and they are managed in a
systematic way so that the efficiency of the firm’s increases (Weske, 2012). Moreover, I would say that the
organizations should peruse with the business process management as if they
want to grow and excel in their business. The reason behind it is the business
with who had implemented BPM is quite more successful than others (Draheim, 2010).
Draheim, D. (2010). Business Process Technology: A
Unified View on Business Processes, Workflows and Enterprise Applications.
Springer Science & Business Media.
Weske, M. (2012). Business Process Management:
Concepts, Languages, Architectures. Springer Science & Business Media.
To what degree is Indian Mascots an
issue an American society?
Mascots are increasing in number in the American society. They have established
their separate colonies and societies in which they follow their rules. According to the Brooks, as she explained in
her article that these Indian mascots are spreading the racism and cultural
diversity. That’s why they have more impact on the American society than the
other nation. As in the past one decade, the Indians have migrated to the US in
large number, and now they have control over some areas in both economic and
property ways. Some Indians are running the business chain or network which is
going well although it contributes to the country economy building the Indian
Mascots is not acceptable by the Native Americans. Although there is no clash
of these two civilization still the Americans are scared of Indian Mascots.
What is the viewpoint of the article in
stating that Native American mascots are not done in respect?
Americans have been treated badly in the past, and they have not gained the
respect from the other Americans and the Government as they should get. That’s
why whenever there is shooting incident mostly the black guy is killed without
any reason just like what happen in the case of Michael. The point Brooks
raised in her article is that the native Americans are still insecure about
their safety although the slavery has finished long ago but still this nation
is living under the fear. Because there is social stress among the government
and the native Americans.
Explain why the author concludes?
educational system of the US is developing and increasing the racism as from
the start the students are taught about the history of slavery which makes the
Indian Americans think of their worse past. While the Indian students learn
about this, they become sensitive and emotional. Because they are bullied by
the other students as well in their childhood especially, the white kids have
made gangs which are not good for the students at this young age. The author
concludes this article by saying that Indian students are frightened of the
schools as they are afraid that other students will force them to do what they
want. They are bullied and mentally tortured although there are some Indian
students who take a stand but still there is a large number of students living
Why is it okay according to the article
to use the “Fighting Irish” as a mascot and not the Washington Redskins?
Irish is referred to as the term which is not fair to the person all the time.
As fighting Irish means to defend yourself from the force who is constantly
attacking and trying to bring you down. That’s why it is ok for the people to
use this term when it comes to Mascot because in the mascot a group or the
organization is fighting for their rights just like in the US African-American
are fighting for their rights against the illegal killing. To understand the
term Fighting Irish, the history can help us. As this term was used first in
the cold war when people have to fight for their rights and it was not easy at
all. Since then it is known to be the resistance against the force which is
trying to destroy the ideology or the rights of the person or the mascots.
the organizations who are using the Indian mascots are culturally competent.
Because they have their attitude, behavior, rules and societies. This makes
them competent to the other nations due to which the Americans can’t force them
to follow their attitude or culture. As they have already developed a very well
organized culture and societies in the US. This process is well developed but
evolve over the years because people adopt this process or change very slowly.
As the Indians have made the Mascots for their benefits to secure their
generation. There is a very famous organization by the name of “Black
Lives Matter.” In this
organization, they utilize the best resources to stop violence and spread
awareness about the black people or Indian student’s importance in the society.
State four points that the article made
regarding violence against African Americans.
four points according to which the violence against African American is
happening are the racism, poverty, standards and the social life. As the
African-American about 100 years ago getting freedom from the slavery which
means they are still living the life of regret and are very sensitive.
African-American people are treated by the policeman just like they were
treated before as they are abused and shot many times in the past years.
What connection did the article make to history?
there is a clear connection to the recent shooting on the African-American with
the history. Because in the late 19 centuries the black people were killed
brutally using the gun. They have shot anytime, and there was no law to protect
them. Although the time has changed now but still people have this mindset that
they can do whatever they want with the black people and until now the people
who shot the African American easily run away from the grip of government and
the African American don’t get the justice like in case of Michael Brown and so
What does this purport about racism in America and the
connection between race, oppression, and poverty?
clearly shows that racism has not ended in the America. Because in the past
five years there are several incidents of shooting one the black people. This
clearly shows that there are still people in the societies which promote the
racism in the people. Yes, it’s true that racism is based on poverty and race.
The white American feel proud and think of themselves superior to the others
which cause the hate in the minds of the new generation for each other just
like that black people are not ready to forget their past which is now 100
years old and trying to be dominant in some areas of US.
Watch the following:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMTv0rmBEKY now answer the following questions:
are several stereotypes about the African-American people which are presented
in the society like that they are harsh and strict people. It also stereotypes
about them that they are violent, but this is true in some cases.
all but some stereotypes are real like black people are violent as they get
angry easily and can’t control their anger but some are not real like they are
not harsh and strict minded people.
should respect the black people as all the human being want to be respected.
They should be treated equally on all basis and give the same benefits like the
government is giving to the other nations in the US.
is the highest interest rate you can find for a savings account?
The rate of 1.05% APY recognized as
impressive high yield saving account offered by the synchrony bank. The bank
has provided extra ordinary to their clients to retain customer values in
essential and adequate manner. There is no minimum balance required to sustain
open an account, but at least $ 30 required to avoid $ 5 monthly maintenance
fee. Thus is the highest interest rate
that can be found on the synchrony bank website as well as the simple dollar
website search engines as well. Such
higher rate of interest sustains to retain customer’s values and seek to retain
more deposits from their potential clients.
What is the lowest interest rate you can find on a new car loan?
The lowest rate of new car loan
recognized as 2.49 % for APR. This is the lowest interest rate offered by US
bank with best of blended options of loan. The competitive interest rate
offered by the US bank to retain potential values of customers. This bank does not automatically penalized
buyers of used cars for higher interest rate unless until car is less than six
years old with less than 100,000 miles. If anyone wants fuel-efficient vehicles
in the market, then they could take interest rate break for minimum interest
rate of car loan.
Briefly explain why there is a difference between the answers of the first two
There is difference between high
interest rate on saving account and low interest rate for new car, because,
bank hold security and recovery of overall money with profits attain from the
clients. In case of saving account, bank pays interest to a client that is why higher
interest rate for the bank would be low as compare to interest rate for new car
loan. Therefore, bank recognized higher
interest rate for saving to pay, and lowest interest rate as high to attain
report analytically examines the designing of the dynamic equalizer having the
five band audio functionality, which is also comprised of the filter attached
to the lower pass for the users convenience. The other hallmarks of this five
band audio equalizer is comprised of the filters having three positions of the
band pass along with the filter attached to equalizer in a high pass position.
The range of the frequencies for these low along with the high pass are between
the range of the 250Hz and the 6 KHz in an accurate unique dimension. The filters,
which are attached with the three pass of the bands, the range of the
frequency, would between the 250 Hz- the 500 Hz, then for the second filter of
the band pass would be 500Hz to the 2 KHz, for the third filter pass would
between 2 KHz and 6 KHz.
designing of the filters is one in manner that the topology of the Sallen-Key
along with the proactive approach of the filters that would help in
accomplishing the high chances of occurrences for the low frequency regions of
the area of the band pass for the filters. The chronological placement of the
filters are the next to the accomplishing a decade or the 40db crossover
roll-off from the individual set of the bands.
final process of the design execution of this equalizer is incorporated in a
manner that the Multi-Sim simulation approach is put according to modifications
made into the values of the capacitors through different attempts. Similarly
the different sought of values put into the experiments done with resistors
using the approach of the Ultiboard while inbuilt the range of the software
within the Multi-Sim.
of the equalizers has a long history when it was used for the concerts
ceremonies along with the theatres performances design according to the
acoustically range of structure in a productive way which would carry the
signals of the voices as well as the music for the large number of audiences.
The figure 1 is therefore is shown as a exhibition of the in the early dates of
roman theatre such as Amman.
sequential process of the equalization would manipulate through the loudness of
the different level of frequencies while signaling the hardware as well as the
products of the software. This is the highly significant procedure in the
related products of the audio, which is widely used in the cinemas for
recording purposes, theaters along with the software products for audio or
the core objective of this report is to devise a design of the five band audio
equalizer having the frequencies range in the cut-off approach for accomplishing
the frequency as low as the 0dB while manipulating the potentiometers in the mid
range. The control of the potentiometers when they are in the extreme
positions, for example between the 20Db as well as the -20dB as far as the
banks of the frequencies are concerned (Beggs
& Thede, 2001).
section of the background, we have explained the spectrum or the mechanism of
the audio equalizer, functionalities of the sub-bass, bassand the different
terms of the audio ranges integrated with the frequencies level.
There are almost seven different
ranges of the categories having the impact at their own level overall system of
the sound. These categories include the sub-bass having frequencies of the
20Hz- 60 Hz, the category of the bass would be next having range 60 Hz-250Hz, the
low level of the mid-ranges up to the 500 Hz from the 250 Hz, the mid range
itself would between the 2 KHz from the 500 Hz. The upper level of the midrange
would be the 4 KHz from the 2 KHz. The most important thing is that the
‘presence’ would be the 6 KHz from the 4 KHz and the ‘Brilliance’ would be the
20 KHz from the 6 KHz.
is recognized as the lowest level of the frequency in terms of the dimensions of
the spectrum, this is the sequence or step usually a person feels rather heard
in most of the cases where the lowest range of the guitar pitch would be the 41
frequent range of the bass would be from the 60Hz to the 250Hz. The frequency of
the bass in the cotemporary business would be from the 90 Hz to the 200 Hz. The
Cello along with the Trombone is the instruments related to the audio equalizer
that could match this frequency range.
There is a
frequency range at the low level of the midrange from the 250 Hz to the 500 Hz
where the musical instruments such as the harmonics would be in this range. For
example, the vocals of the female along with the snare drums are the right
example in this regard.
range lies among the range of the frequency as 2 KHz to the 4 KHz in way that extreme
nature of the sensitivity of the human’s ear would attenuate the in a lighter
note for this type of the frequency especially in the case of the projections
sued for the various types of vocals in this range.
of the presence in terms of the frequency would be from the 4 KHz top the 6 KHz
in a way that sounds would attenuate as per the transparent sought of the
instruments especially that would be appear accurate through the Saxophone.
The range of the frequency for the
brilliance would from the 6 KHz to the 20 KHz having the instruments like the
harmonics, that would made the sound of the Hi-Fi, especially in terms of the
violins and mostly the drum’s cymbals are used in that region.
five bands audio equalizer, we have selected the designing witch accordance to
the controlling range of the frequency from the 20 Hz to the 20 KHz. The
regions also integrated according to the requirements or the customized five
bands regions. The table is describing this information in a way that (Ece.cmu.edu, 2012).
Table1: Frequency range for the bands as well
as of crossovers
in the technical terms is explained as the electrical circuit that would segregated
in the amplify attenuating the ranges of the level of the frequency. The core
objective of the filters in the audio equalizer would depend on the built in
classifications of the low along with high pas and the band that would reject
would also examined at individual level of analysis in this paper (Gaffney, 2008).
of the low level at the stage or the phase of the filtering in term of the low
level of the frequencies in very specific frequency set as a cut-off that would
incorporate the frequency at the low level and cut-off for frequencies. The
demo is presented in the figure which describe the resistor and the capacitor at
the concerned level of the plot at the point of the bode explaining the design
of the low level of pass filter.
is the extreme bipolar to the low pass filter attenuating the frequencies at
the low level would integrate with the high level of the frequencies. The
figure explaining the swapping of the capacitor as well as the resistor while
making the comparison with the plot of the bode in a relevant direction in
terms of the direction of the filter at high pass level.
The filters of the pass band are a
sought of the circuit that would pass on the relvant range of the frequencies
that would reject the frequencies range of the outside range. The fletring
phase is developed through the cascading between the low and high pass of the
filter. The figure is showing that the plot of the relevant bode would defined
as the simplest process as far as designing module of the filter band pass is
concerned (Michel, 2011).
This is the bipolar extreme of the
filter of the pass band or a circuit that would pass on the range of the
frequencies that would cut-off the range of the frequencies at a certain point
is analyzed. Rather than the interconnection of the low as well as the high
pass in the sequence of the parallel connections, the above-described process
is incorporated. The figure is explaining the designing of the band as the
reject band filter and the bode plot of the certaing filter.
As elaborated in the figures that
provides the specifications of the fives bands. Such five bands consist on the
five stages of frequencies filtering of the specific ranges. It reveals that
one low pass as well as one high passes on the stage of filter. The rest of the
other frequencies separated with other three band pass stages. Following
represented as filter design (Self, 2013).
It has been categorizing
subsequently to filter into high, low as well as band pass that configure in
design. Such design specifically respond to the further filters to be passive
and active that need to be 1st, 2nd and nth filters that
explored the configuration of BUTTERWORTH, CHEBYSHEV Bessel with the key SALLEN
topology will be elaborated in further
The passive filters consist on the
capacitors, resistors and other inductors. On the other hand, active filter
consist on the transistors and components. The active filters are size in
smaller as well as more much of the weight economical as compare to passive
filters. The passive filters don not
have external power supply as compare to active filter do. Some characteristics
of active and passive filters have taken into consideration for design filter.
For the consideration of first order
circuit, consist on the one capacitor and one resistor in above-mentioned
figure. It has 20dB/decade curve on the
plot on bode, by increase in filter order have much steeper roller off ensuring
the pass band and flatness. The figures elaborates order of filters effects the
steepness of the roll off.
filter of butter worth configuration specifically designed for maximum flat
frequency respond to the pass band. It means that butter worth filter has
higher the order of longer life flatness that could be achieved in the
following figure. Such filter explored by the engineer of British Stephen
The filter of Chebyshev specifically
designed from the steeper roll between the stop band and pass band as well.
These two types of filter named by the Russian mathematics named called as
pafnuty Chebyshev. Such characteristics of filters have pass band region
indicated as ripples that could be seen as below figure.
The filter of bessel have phase of
linear response that have been executed over the board frequency, it reveals
square wave. By comparing Bessel to Butter worth towards the pass band sure the
credibility to gain not as flat as well as crossover the stop band which is not
steep as chebyshev could be seen as following figure to understand it (Tejeiro & Nistrian, 2011).
Following is the
figure of comparison among such filters in that presents the design features in
essential and adequate manner. The butter worth is the most suitable design
against other tow filters, because it have smooth roll off as well as pass band
The topology of Sallen key used for
the second order filter that is easily to construct simply and easily. This is
the main reason that Sallen key topology used for design structure. Such
methodology verify voltage source of the voltage control for the same as like
voltage amplifier. It helps in demonstration of voltage follower for the
purpose in that elaborated in the next coming figures. The following mentioned
figure provides the understanding of the circuit design by sallen key topology
to obtain desired results. This type of methid was developed by the Sallen as
well as EL key in the year of the 1950.
Cutting off the
frequencies as well as component calculations filters values provides the
values and figures to generate the required results. It helps in start to boost or attenuate
filters that are in common terms. For the calculations of cutting off
frequency, filters following are the equations used for the cut off frequency
The equation, number
1, is employed when there are multiple statistics, pertaining to filter, for
the Capacitor and Resistor. If these available values are identical or equal,
for instance, R1=R2 and C1=C2 then the second equation will be employed.
Likewise, the equations, which are mentioned above, can be
employed to determine the numbers or values (competent) for the preferred
cutoff frequencies merely through reorganizing those equations, which are in
2.6. If the prescribed could be followed precisely, relevant values could be
computed to extreme precision.
cut-off frequency f0 (Hz).
suitable capacitor number or statistic, such as C2 and that ranges between the
values of 100pF & 0.1 uF.(This is due to that fact that the discretion is ours to select capacitor
values instead of the values that prevail in market)
R by employing the equations that are in 2.6
The input and the
output statistics or rations are represented by transfer function of linear
time invariant mechanisms. The previously mentioned mechanisms are generally
employed in unitary input unitary output circumstances.
This is function of the above diagram (transfer function)
The Q factor, which is also described as damping-ratio, is
factually the elevation and expansion of response, a frequency response, of any
filter. In this mechanisms, we use Q= 1/√2
that has been computed around 0.707. This value is actually a usual of
Q, of a 2nd order. As per rule, If the value of Q is larger than the typical
value, which is 0.707, then we will observe the augmenting or peaking in the
The op-amps (common terminology), are actually called
Operational amplifiers, have been
considered chief factors or elements in a typical analog circuits. Operational
Amplifiers have diverse and several utilities in connection with above
mentioned resistors and capacitors. The crucial and primary mechanisms of
Operational Amplifier are that this mechanisms augments and amplifies the
voltage, voltage. This entire mechanism depends on the computation and design.
We can define it as an integrated circuit, because it’s characteristic and
software that is based on the designing as per the practical along with
theoretical results could be attained the accurate results as per the equalizer
in the construct or the design. The simulation program of the industry range
would incorporate with the simulation feature having the deigning of the
circuit as per the environmental emphasis. The designing of the multi-Sim in
terms of the qualitative dimension is considered at the appropriate manner of
the quality designing that would be the convenient for the users. The circuit
board in the print designing would integrate upon the board of the Ultiboard.
Findings in terms of
theoretical Multi-Sim calculations
The low levels of the filter
pass stage would have the second order in the designing position of the
Butterworth that would use in the topology of the Sallen-key in the LM-741 circuit
of the op-amp having the frequency range of the 250 Hz. This is also shown in
the figure that the bode plot of the Multisim using the circuit.
of the filter include the Butterworth filter that would use the second order
topology of the Sallen-Key having the frequency range of the 6 Hz as per the
LM-741 shown in the figure 19 in the Mutisim.
The band pass filter stage consists of three band passes
using second order low pass and high pass filters attached together. The low
cutoff frequency of the band pass 1 is 250Hz and the high cutoff is 500Hz
approximately, similarly the low cutoff frequency of the band pass 2 is 500Hz
and the high cutoff is 2 KHz approximately and finally with band pass 3 the low
cutoff 2KHz and the higher cut off would be 6KHz respectively, because we use
real world values for resistors and capacitors there is a minor difference
between the cutoffs in all stages. Illustrated in figure 20 are all three
stages in Multisim.
One of the primary issues we experienced in the wake of
consolidating the equalizer (as figure 24) was having exceptionally soak roll
offs between the high pass and low pass channels as delineated in figure 25, in
the wake of examining this issue with our manager he gave us some exhortation.
Keeping in mind the end goal to conquer this issue we had increment and
diminishing recurrence go for the groups influenced. This should be possible by
figuring the geometric mean between the groups and including or subtracting
precisely the same for both sides. The condition to get the geometric mean is
In the wake of finishing the plan and
illuminating the vast majority of the mistakes experienced it was at last time
to exchange the outline circuit to a PCB load up we did that with the
assistance of Ultiboard an in fabricated application in Multisim. (http://www.ni.com/ultiboard/,
n.d.) This application quickened the PCB plan prepare and by sending the
significant records to PCBway we got our PCB printed. Delineated underneath in
figure 26 and 27 are the PCB board outlines in Ultiboard including a 3D
This report exhibits a five-band sound equalizer outline
which has been actualized with dynamic channels so as to have a conservative
plan without inductors, second request channels to accomplish smooth hybrids
and Butterworth channels together with Sallen-Key topology to accomplish most
extreme level pass groups. The equalizer comprises of a low, high and three
band goes with very palatable slice off frequencies contrasted with what we
needed in any case when measured independently in Multisim. However when
associated together with a summing enhancer the shorts escapes reach yet
Beggs, J., & Thede, D. (2001). Designing Web Audio. O’Reilly Media, Inc.”.
Circuitdiagram.net. (2008). 5 Band Graphic Equaliser. Retrieved oct 27, 2016, from
Ece.cmu.edu. (2012). Audio
Amplifier and Graphic Equalizer Design using Opamps. Retrieved Oct 27,
2016, from https://www.ece.cmu.edu:
Ece.ohio-state.edu. (2011). AUDIO EQUALIZER. Retrieved oct 27, 2016, from
Gaffney, D. (2008). 5-Band
Graphic Equalizer. Retrieved oct 27, 2016, from http://dmg5015.weebly.com:
Izhaki, R. (2013). Mixing
Audio: Concepts, Practices and Tools. Taylor & Francis,.
Michel, S. W. (2011). 10-Band
Graphic Equalizer. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu:
Pirkle, W. (2012). Designing
Audio Effect Plug-Ins in C++: With Digital Audio Signal Processing Theory.
Taylor & Francis.
Reese, D. E., Gross, L. S., & Gross, B. (2009). Audio Production Worktext: Concepts,
Techniques, and Equipment. Taylor & Francis.
Self, D. (2013). Small-
Signal Audio Design. Taylor & Francis,.
Sontheimer, R. (1998). Designing
Audio Circuits. Elektor International Media.
Spanias, A. (2006). Audio
Signal Processing and Coding. John Wiley & Sons.
Tejeiro, C., & Nistrian, M. (2011). 7 Band Graphic Equalizer Analog Design . Retrieved oct 27, 2016,
: Does your
workplace/organization use any services offered in the cloud? If so, what
service model is offered by the provider? If not, what are the primary reasons
for not using services offered in the cloud?
A: The non-for-profit organization in the cloud computing
services at the state level would be the ‘Broward County Cloud Computing non-for-profit
organization in Florida. The technology would be very cost efficient along with
the efficient performance in the state for the public use lowering the
government operations, largest accessibility for the customers incorporating
more than 90000 different information systems worth more than $75 billion. The
vision of this non-for-profit organization would be ‘best experience at the
cloud computing for performance in security or safety for data centers of
information for users.’ The mission of the company would be the environment that
would be inclusive in terms of environment, which has competitive edge in terms
of diverse backgrounds of the employees, key customers, business partners, and
suppliers to meet a sustainable advantage. The common barriers must need to
remove including the executions of the cloud computing projects, fragmenting
the systems, technological legacy while not putting efforts by the government
in IT sector for ease of use in private sectors (Valacich
& Schneider, 2014).
Cloud computing is the advanced technology.
It is still in its early stages almost every organization is using cloud
computing due to the advantages it provides to the users. It is on-demand self-service and no human interaction
is required for it. It also provides the broad network access there are many services
offered by the cloud computing services. With the help of cloud computing, the
users are able to use and access the applications from any devices across the internet.
The most common service provider is the Microsoft
Server Outlook (Buyya, 2010).
Clouds computing are much better
than the old system of storing and
sending files and using the old networks. It is cost efficient. It provides continuous
availability as well as convenience. It has a backup and recovery methods.
Moreover, cloud computing is very much environment-friendly.
It also has the characteristics of resiliency and redundancy. Its scalability
and performance are much better. It has a
quick deployment as well as provides the ease of integration. It also provides
the higher storage capacity. This service
has the device diversity as well as it is independent of location
Our organization is also using the cloud-computing
model. Our organization is using the infrastructure as a service (Iaas) model. It provides the virtual interface
for the users. The main reason for using this model is that it provides
virtualization because it allows the providers to supply the resources on demand,
which can also be extracted from their large pools that are installed in the
data center. The reason for using this model
in the organization is that it saves cost. It provides flexibility and scalability.
It has the faster access to the market. It also provides support to the BC, DR
and has high availability. It puts high focus on the business growth.
Q:Suggest which Cloud
sourcing model would best fit your workplace/organization/agency, and discuss
why the model that you selected would be the
A: After reviewing the state of the public sector cloud computing article, it was a very informative article describing the cloud
computing and its models. It also discussed the cloud sourcing models. There
were four types of models discussed there. These were private cloud, public
cloud, community cloud and hybrid cloud. All carries their own characteristics,
however to answer the question about which model will best fit into the
organization then I think I will need all the models to be deployed into my organization,
as all of them will be needed in different circumstances. Let us discuss
characteristics of all and then choose the one (Kundra,
Customer Segments: The target customers would the private, public small
enterprises along with the citizens of the Broward county to who we would offer
the cloud computing services, where as the most important customers would be
the citizens of Broward county. Private cloud will help me to keep the
private data private, as it will be only operated by the organization. The
community cloud will help me to make new deals with the other organization or
any new offer to the other organization. It will be profitable. The public
cloud will help in making the better connection with the public or to the large
industry group. The clearest answer would
be to adopt the Hybrid cloud. This is the unique technology combining the
private, public, or community models. It will help in enabling the data as well
as application portability.
Value Proposition: The core value would be provided to the customers from
our cloud computing services in which this non-for-profit organization would incorporate
the efficient initiatives for the cloud computing such as the databases, low
cost for the operations; maintain efficiency in the data centers, a model of
deployments along with services. In order to choose which would be the best, I will choose
the hybrid model to be deployed in my
organization because it perfectly fits the needs of the organization. It is the
perfect combination of all the models and
I can adjust it according to the needs of the organization.
Q: Review the list of
federal/state/local cloud computing case studies and reflect on one of the
A: After reviewing the case
of Personal service delivery transformation (PSDT) United states air force. They
used the cloud computing service model and implemented the software as a
service (SaaS) because they were facing the problem of reshaping the personal
community and the air force needed to decrease the time, which was spent in
searching for the documentation .they allowed the personnel in order to support
the war-fighting mission (Ojala, 2011).
Customer Relationships: The
CRM model would be incorporate in way that the strong tiers or interaction with
customers would be developed through the program was created by them in order
to improve the operations of the human resource management. This would
provide a help of the cloud-based CRM solution in which the case
tracking, knowledge management, as well as contact center tracking the customer survey tools were included.
The main aim was to improve the better experience of the
customers through the self-service
solutions as well as tracking the basic needs of the customers the right one
solution was made by the enforcing for
focusing on the problems in order to solve the organization information. With
the help of Right now, it was able to
tool solve the workforce reduction and it
was able to save the $4 million annually .the results were also improved and
the demands have also been met.
Q: Visit the website of a
cloud service provider. Find the
provider’s service level agreement. Based on service level agreement, explain
the provider’s availability, security and privacy provisions. Determine which of the providers that you
identified you would select if you were searching for a cloud service provider
A: The cloud service level agreement is the important
agreement. It forms the contractual relationship between the cloud service provider and the cloud service customers of the
cloud service. We know that the cloud is the
global nature. It spans many jurisdictions. It has many legal requirements. It protects
the personal data, which are hosted in the cloud service. There are different
approaches to the cloud service and deployment models by the cloud SLAs. This
is different room one cloud service provider to the otter and the cloud service
customers find it difficult to compare it with the cloud service (ibm.com, 2016).
Streams: The process of earning the revenues while selling the adequate or
dynamic cloud computing services, the customers would buy, as the expansion in terms of competitive strategy would be standards
that would according to the cloud-computing environment. It includes providing
security of information to the people, privacy measures of the information of
the citizens, protecting the rights of the interest of security both at
national and international level.
is important that in the contract of the clouds service level providers, there
must be the right as well as the cost must be specified in order to continue as
well as discounted the service to be used. The specific parameters must be
codified and there must the minimum level of requirements for each of the
elements of the service and there must be the remedies as well for the failures
in case the requirements are not met.
Key Resources: The most
significant or essential assets for constantly developing the effective SLA,
there is also the criteria established in which it requires the availability of the 99.99% for the 24/7. This would create
the sustainable business model serving customers, partners, and suppliers.
The performance must be efficient; it must be able to provide the high privacy
as well as security to protect the confidentiality. There must be encryption of
the all the data, which has been stored as well as transmitted, the access to
the data, must also be in the readable format.
Google cloud engine is the best cloud service provider
for the NSU. The reason is that it has also been created for the purpose of the
university and office work. The students
will be able to store as well as retrieve data. They can also make their interaction
easily available with all of the class fellows and teachers. It makes the work
very easy and cost effective.
Buyya, R. (2010). Cloud Computing:
Principles and Paradigms. John Wiley & Sons.
ibm.com. (2016). IBM. Retrieved
October 26, 2016, from ibm.com: https://www.ibm.com/us-en/
Kundra, V. (2012). State of Public
Sector Cloud Computing. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from cio.gov:
Ojala, A. (2011). Value networks in cloud
computing. Journal of Business Strategy, 32 (6), 40 – 49.
Valacich, J. S., &
Schneider, C. (2014). Information Systems Today: Managing in a Digital
World. Pearson College Division.
a simple yet affctive device to cath the puppy. Coffe stirre is an excellent
tool for grip. The bag contains enough space to hod the puppy.
Paper cup rescue
is another useful device to catch the puppy. The puppy will essentially place
in cup that is entangled with safety pin. The fuzzy stick is then used to pull
card puppy holder:
This device is made up of Gore e
PTFF fiver, index card and Popsicle sticks. The walls of the holders are made
up of index card and the floor is made up of fiber which is soft to place the
puppy. The Popsicle sticks strengthen the holder.
plastic bag will be cut make a place for holding puppy. The metal clip and
drinking straw will be used to pull up the puppy
The rescue ladder is an excellent
tool to assist puppy to pull up. The Popsicle sticks will work as the steps of
the ladder and paper clip and straw will hold the labor adjoined.
In the Merill Lynch traded company,
benefit pension plan is from the both sides of employees and employer for
contributing to the each employee account benefit pension plan. Merill Lynch
always contributes 10% higher than its employees into the pension plan as said
to be more contributor so that his employee can be retired with better
financial benefits and live the happy life(Chief,
2015). In the comparison, Discover Financial Services is another stock
traded company also engaged in maintaining a benefit pension plan for its
employees, and they have a policy of equally contributing into the pension plan
as much as employees do. Normally it happens in the same way as both employees
and employers are contributing equally, and same is the case with Discover
Myrill Lynch is taking the contributions
and also contributing itself into the employees benefit pension plans and
paying the compound interest rate over the time till employee retires and
demands a pension(Sun, 2014). Its
compound interest rate makes the figure higher comparing to the employees of
other traded company like Discover Financial Services which are paying only
simple interest on the funds being invested by the employee and employer both
on the benefit pension plan.
The employee of Merill Lynch can
raise the loan against his pension benefit plan up to 70% of the present value
which can be a significant amount in the late years of life. Merill Lynch
allows its employee not to raise loan others but against the own pension plan
without paying any interest on it(Wasik, 2014).
It is very helpful for its employees to raise the loan against pension plan
because often employees do not have any mortgage or security to be kept against
it and they could not raise the loan against something valuable possessing.
In the comparison, the employees of
Discover Financial Services do not have an opportunity to raise the loan
against their compensation benefit plan contributed by both employees and
employers. This is a major drawback in its pension plan because they have to
wait until retirement to be benefited from it in the form of monthly pension
and before that when they need money, they cannot even think of using it in any
form. Merill Lynch is comforting its employees in the better way comparing to
the Discover Financial Services, and it should be recognized(Sun, 2014).
Employees often need the funds in
the middle of employment and when they do not have any such funds available
they have to be asking for the pension plan which they other cannot afford(Wasik, 2014). This compensation plan is only
eligible to drawback at the time of when you are switching to other job
opportunity and in fact it is transferred to your new employer account and not
paid you in the cash form ever. On the retirement day, you also receive it in
the form of monthly pension plan.
There are also several similarities
in both of the plans of stock traded companies and how they design benefit plan
for own employees. First of all, Merill lynch asks employees also to contribute
into own pension benefit plan, and the company also contribute to the
retirement of the employee(Sun, 2014).
The retirement age is 60 years old for the both companies of employees and they
have to be waiting till retirement for the monthly pension funds. This is the
same scenario with the Discover Financial Services as they are also benefiting
its employees with the own contribution and also asking the contribution from
There are few traded organizations
which do not ask its employees to be contributing into the pension funds and
rather contribute entirely on their own. They consider why employees should be
contributing when it is the company’s responsibility on employees as for doing
it so. These organizations facilitate its employees and not to ask them about
any contribution in any form which would be returned as the monthly pension
after the retirement age(Wasik, 2014). In
this context, both Merill Lynch and Discover Financial Services are the same
and asking its employees for their contribution.
Merill Lynch invests the employees
/employers contributed funds into the investments on stocks, securities, and
other financial instruments because they want to earn the dividend and income
in any form on it. This is not the good option keeping the funds without any
safe investment because money depreciates over the period and till the time
comes of the employee’s retirement, there will be no use of it because
employees funds will be depreciated(Sun, 2014).
Both trade companies are investing
in the own company to fulfilling the need of capital to be invested or other
safe securities which do not own any bigger risk. Both companies want to earn
the extra income and not freezing the big amount of investment for the long
Both pension funds are containing
some part of inadequacy which needs to be mentioned here. The contributed funds
are not enough to be living the sustainable life after the decades of
retirement age. The inflation rate is rising so high that these funds are not
having the same value after thirty-forty years of the life. Moreover, they also
need health benefits plan for free being a former employee of the company and
none of both companies are offering such plans in any form(Sun, 2014).
It has been seen that employees
often make complains of not being satisfied with the amount of pension they
receive at the end of retirement. Both companies are not offering something
additional apart from a pension which already contributed on its side(Wasik, 2014). It is inadequate to expect the
employees taking care of own health and buying the expensive medicines with
this limited amount of money they receive in the form of pension.
There can be initiatives taken which
may bring the improvements in the plan. First of all, they also need to
establish health benefit plan eligible for all present and former employees of
the company. Its management must not be asking for the contribution for
availing the health benefits after the retirement like they do for the pension
plans(Sun, 2014). It would be the relieve
for the old age people who were former employees of the company and spend his
life for the progress of the country. Secondly, they should also transfer the
benefit of any interest, dividend or value gain income to the pension funds
because it was the employee’s funds which were invested there and they are also
eligible for being transferred of any gains.
In the end, therefore, there must be
three contributions coming into the employee’s account which is said to be
employees contribution, employers contribution and any benefit received from
investing / buying the financial securities and earned income on it(Wasik, 2014). All companies are not
transferring the benefit of its third element which it must have been
C. E. (2015). Discover Financial Services. New
York City: Annual Report.
C. E. (2015). Merill Lynch . New York City:
Sun, W. (2014, January 17). Defined Benefit Plans:
The Overlooked Retirement Vehicle For Successful Entrepreneurs. Retrieved
October 26, 2016, from Forbes:
Wasik, J. (2014, September 03). Is Your Pension
Plan Underfunded? Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Forbes:
This study is discussing the energy use and its conservation
at the domestic dwelling level. It is critical knowing about the sources of
energy conservation when energy resources are depleting, and one day it can be
finished. It is easier for the government controlling the energy consumption at
the household level since commercial sector needs energy for supporting the
national economy. This study conducts the in-depth study about how can it be
ensured about using the energy in the most efficient manner and conserving it
for its best use somewhere else. Scientific developments have been made and its
latest innovations of heating instruments which are highly energy efficient.
Domestic dwelling consumes the energy to serve the household
needs such as lighting, boilers, cooking,
cooling, refrigerator, washing and overall heating in winters. However, Boilers are used In the industrial level.
They are one of the largest consumers of energy, which needs government attention
to enhancing the public awareness, as for getting them educated about how can
be energy saved from taking the careful measures (Austin, 2014). Resources of producing the energy are depleting at
a higher rate, and its most efficient usage must be ensured from both
government and public sides.
Somehow, a government cannot afford to ask the commercial
segment for making compromises on energy consumption since they are engaged in
the production and generating the tax revenues for the government. Commercial segment
is the one, which produces the job opportunities, generate the tax revenues and
moves the economic cycle (Baehr, 2011).
However, a government can ask for the compromises to the domestic dwelling/household
sector because they are engaged in personal activities though very important
too. There are tips available for the household user of energy to make the
careful measures for saving the energy at masses level.
Energy is available in several forms and it is being
produced from multiple sources including water, the wind, oil, solar and much
more. All countries need an energy conserving policy at domestic level and industrial level because it is always limited and
rising cost is contributing to inflation. Therefore, its industrial dwelling policy for conserving the energy
is important and needs taking particle steps (Braverman,
2015). According to the reports, a domestic dwelling is the major source
of energy consumption that can be controlled through educating the people and
taking careful measures. Otherwise, commercial usage of energy is important
because of a dependence of the economy on it. There has been information shared
about how can we use and conserve the energy in industrial
We will discuss the energy consumption by household in three
categories including boilers, refrigerators, and passive insulation.
It can be seen that nowadays many
industrial machines that are not working up to the mark. However, it can be
seen that companies are not working on the cost and energy efficient products
here. As an estimate, the study says that almost 20-30 percent bills could be
reduced if the machines are used efficiently. One of the big things here is the
boiler that needs to be checked. It can be seen that boilers in the industrial
sector are wasting energy on a big scale and the reason is that it is not up to
the mark and the cost efficiency should be seen in here.
It can be seen that the boiler is
placed in the cold climate. However, inside the boiler, it can be seen that the
heating process is going on. Here the good insulation is fitted; the efficiency
can be increased ultimately.
It can be seen that the boilers all
around are not set to the right temperature as what it is needed. Most of the
time it can be seen that the steam required or the fluid required in the boiler
remains after the fulfillment. This shows that there was an access and the
requirement was less. This needs to be controlled by the companies. It has also
been seen that the heating tubes are also not cleaned well which is also a bad
indicator for the energy efficiency. The heat transfer rate is not as good as
this is one of the reasons of the Gap between the required amount and the
actual amount seen (Sanguri, 2016).
Here we can see that the improper
heating system or the temperature if not set then it needs to be checked
because due to that there are many problems due to that. It is seen that colder
water enters into the boiler and it increases the fuel cost and this makes the
difference, as the suction is not done properly in this aspect.
We have seen that in the boilers the
proper insulation is not done. Here we can see that this is one of the biggest
problems that is faced repeatedly if we go on to a field and look at the
realities of it. Maybe it is damaged, or worn out in this case. The infrared
camera needs to be fitted in it so that any kind of leakage should be stopped
in this case.
Steam traps are utilized to release
condensate once it is framed, to keep live steam from getting away and to
evacuate air and non-condensable gasses from the lineup Nevertheless, it is a
largely ignored part of the steam funneling. The steam trap that is stuck
closed results in decreased limit of the gear it is being provided. Steam traps
that are stuck open permit live steam to escape in this manner bringing about a
loss of warmth and expanding the heap of the condenser (Sanguri, 2016).
The air dampers utilize throttling
to acquire limit control. In the event that the steam request of the evaporator
is variable and changes every once in a while, then supplanting the damper sort
air enlist with the new electronically controlled variable speed drive, constrained
draft fan ought to be viewed as. These old techniques for limit control need
exactness and have poor control qualities at the top and base of the working
reach (Golden, 2010).
Warm exchange surfaces must be
spotless to lead warm proficiently. Water quality is the key here since any
strong contaminants can bring about a development of scale, which successfully
goes about as undesirable protection. Yet fouling can likewise be an issue on
the “wet” side of the heater.
The two principle wellsprings of a
painting are the nourish make-up water and the returning condensate. Condensers
are famously inclined to spill in any case, so cross bullying is normal.
Sustain water then again is typically de-ionized, pre-warmed, desecrated and
synthetically treated before it makes it to the evaporator. Condensate comes
back to the kettle from the condenser, having been hot utilizing privately
sourced, bring down quality water. A
disappointment in any of these procedures can prompt defilement issues (Wiegand, 2016).
Standard evaporator blow down is the
undeniable approach to control bullying, despite the fact that dosing sustains
with chemicals, for example, smelling salts or hydrazine additionally stops a
few chemicals getting that far. Therefore, what would it be advisable for you
to search for? Run of the mill parameters incorporate conductivity, pH broke
down oxygen, sodium, silica, hydrazine, phosphate, smelling salts and chloride.
Cautious, consistent checking additionally assumes a fundamental part in
guaranteeing great long haul evaporator science
Endeavors must begin in the evaporator
itself, where administrators need to go for the ideal burning effectiveness.
This is because of diverting additional air through the procedure just diverts
more warmth in the pipe gas. Most waste warmth is lost in the stack gasses
leaving the heater. Making conditions that produce the littlest amount of vent
gas at the most reduced conceivable temperature will help productivity.
Clearly, more sizzling pipe gas likewise “takes” more vitality than
cooler gas, so that a 22oC drop in stack temperature can help kettle
proficiency by one percent.
Then again, providing inadequate air
will bring about the deficient burning of the fuel. So getting the air supply
right is a fine exercise in careful control. The ideal ignition prepare gives
simply enough abundance air to totally blaze the fuel. This prompts fouling of
warmth exchange surfaces and emanations of ash, smoke and carbon monoxide. The
right level of overabundance air relies on upon the fuel; however, it ranges
from somewhere around five and 10 percent for gas and 10-15 percent for fuel
oil, the distance to 20-30 percent for stirred coal (Abb.com, 2016).
Utilizing instruments, for example,
an ABB zircon oxygen framework and a temperature test in the pipe stack can
guarantee the plant is blazing fuel ideally. While a rising stack-gas, a
temperature can show the requirement for tube cleaning, since fouling might
hamper warm exchange. Besides, if the oxygen level ascents in the stack-gas
after some time, it can likewise demonstrate the requirement for minor alterations
Exact metering is
the key. Customary differential weight meters, for example, opening plates
require fringe gear including differential weight transmitters and a stream PC
to deliver mass readings for steam, all of which means a high-upkeep cerebral
pain. Administrators need to know the mass of steam moving around the plant
since this compares to the vitality stream.
meters have brought down upkeep necessities and convey precision that is more
prominent. This is best an opening plate can give, twirl meters offer superior
to one percent exactness over the whole stream run. Moreover, the turndown is
up to five times more prominent than that of a whole plate. Particularly in applications
where the steam stream changes over a critical range Instead of a precision of
two percent of the upper stream extend.
Twirl meters depend
on static veins at the passageway to the meter to compel the liquid into a
turn. The recurrence of the optional revolution is specifically corresponding
to the volumetric flow rate of the liquid, with no compelling reason to make up
for changes in weight, temperature or thickness. The meter then measures the
recurrence of a helical auxiliary turn that consequently creates inside this
example. The meters just need to know the temperature of the steam to compute
the mass stream.
With rising fuel
costs and changing natural enactment, the weight to improve the operation of
burning plant can just increment. To put it plainly, UK organizations need to
grasp vitality checking and focusing on plans in the event that they would like
to stay aggressive. The right observing plans can enhance burning proficiency,
diminish contamination, augment the life of gear and decrease the recurrence of
are hoping to retrofit meters on existing steam frameworks, twirl meters offer
the additional favorable position of having the capacity to fit anywhere. So
they should be situated a decent separation downstream from pipe twists, valves
or different segments that may meddle with the readings. Most stream meters
need to get an undisturbed stream to convey exact results. Rather than
requiring straight bay and outlet keeps running of 15 pipe distances across and
five pipe widths individually, which is common of vortex meters, twirl meters
require only three and two breadths in many applications (Abb.com, 2016).
In the countries where winters are most of the season,
heating expenditures are more than for keeping the house cool. It is important
for the household to keep the house heat up to avoid the cold outside; else, it
challenges the living for all human being. This is a reason it consumes the
more energy for heating in the winter season a problem, which needs to be
taking care of. Domestic dwellings must be recommending the new boilers
installation at home for energy conservation (Fuchs,
2012). It is not necessary keeping the heating cost higher for the high
temperature inside and rather you can make the smart choices. Installation of
energy efficient boilers is the best choice for reducing the expenditures in a
It is worth reading the efficiencies of boilers for keeping
the cost lower. Its choice must be considering the type and age of boiler you
bought. The modern condensing boiler is high efficient these days, and no other
type of it is better than currently (Austin,
2014). In the country with the population of 6 million people, everyone
uses the high efficiency condensing boiler can save the almost 7 million tons
of CO2. Its efficiency is also being recognized everywhere
especially in the Europe and the United States. Boilers efficiency is measured
analyzing the fact that its ratio converting the fuel into heat as it was never
Sedbuk 2009 is being used by the new boilers, which might be
the older models than tested one; its testing has been made by the standards of
Sebek 2005. Boiler efficiency increases dependence upon its usage and home
design. Heating the entire home in the winters is not an easy job for the old
boiler especially when the house is larger than 2000 square feet (Gibbs, 2011). It is a good option replacing
the G-rated boiler with the A-rated boiler, but heating controls should be
under control. According to the energy saving trust, it can save the around
$200 heating bill in the winters for average household consumption.
For the average household usage, it is very important for
you considering the boiler types and making the best choice choosing one, which
suits your needs. Combo boilers are highly efficient because it does not
require the user for containing the tanks or cylinders a convenient way to keep
the room heating. It allows you are getting the heat without any limit and
anytime on the instant basis (Grono, 2013).
You do not have to carry the tank for storing the water for
heating. It is also space friendly and does not require much space for it. This
is worthy of being used as it can meet your needs in the winter season in the
most convenient way. However, it also has few cons which should not be
neglected and can affect your performance (Vinan,
2014). It can get the low pressure of water and it takes a long time for
hot water in the tub. This is the most suitable boiler at any home from small
to big, especially where people do not need the hot water at the same time.
System boilers are known as the sealed system and it is
containing the water cylinders for keeping the water hot. It does not require
the user installing the big tanks on the roof but cylinders are enough though
it has small storage capacity (Vinan, 2014).
It also has some demerits for the owner because he / she cannot have the hot
water on the instant basis, which might not be ideal situation especially when
you are already running out of time. This kind of boiler is more suitable for
such homes where its residences more than one place at the same time. It has
been seen that these boilers are installed in public places most of the time to
meet the boiling water needs and also conserving the energy (Vinan, 2014).
There is also the third kind of boilers in the name of
Conventional boilers. This is enough for saving the energy to meet the heating
needs. This boiler allows the owner to keep the tap open for hot water from
multiple sides at the same time (Vinan, 2014).
Energy use and conservation in domestic
Z V E(x, t) dx.
heat flux vector
Conservation of energy in form of V can be written as
dt Z V E(x, t) dx + Z ∂V q(x, t) · n dS
Assumption: No heat is converted into another energy form
∂E ∂t + ∇ · q
Both E and q relate to the T(x, t)
P= density, c= heat capacity
ρc ∂T ∂
d dt Z V P(x, t) dx + Z ∂V q · n dS
Using Green’s theorem
Z V ∂P ∂t + ∇ · q dx
P(x, t)= change in density
q(x, t)=opposite change
As V is arbitrary:
∂P ∂t + ∇ · q
∂ρ ∂t + ∇ · (ρu)
Above equation has provided energy
use and its conservation in the boiler. It is assumed here that at each point x
and t time, the energy density is equal to the E(x, t). The energy inside the
volume V of the energy is equal to the Z V E(x, t) dx. Conservation of heat in
the domestic dwelling boilers can be written as: d at Z V E(x, t) dx + Z ∂V
q(x, t) · n dS = 0. It is assumed at that point that no heat is changed into
another form of the energy. This is the mechanism of usage of energy indwelling
Now we have to find
the efficiency of the boiler and describe the detail analysis of the boiler in
which to find out the efficiency by using the direct method the boiler
We can also write this equation as:
Where Q = Quantity of steam generated per
q = Quantity of fuel used per hour(kg/hr)
GCV = Gross calorific value of the fuel
= Enthalpy of steam (Kcal/Kg)
h = Enthalpy of feed water (Kcal/Kg)
Types of boiler Efficiency method:
assuming or taking the coal fired boiler and the Heat output data is given as
steam generated (output) : 8TPH
pressure / temperature : 10Kg/cm^3/180 C
steam (dry and Saturated)
at 10 Kg/cm^3
pressure : 665 Kcal/Kg
temperature : 85 c
Enthalpy of feed water : 85 Kcal/Kg
Heat Input data
coal consumed ( input ) : 1.6
coal : 4000 Kcal/Kg
if boiler efficiency is 90% an error of 1% in direct method will result change
the efficiency so the measurement of losses will result in
It is concluded that government needs to be taking actions
for meeting the exceeding energy needs through converting the energy in
domestic dwellings which household segment is not educated for how to make the
best usage of energy and installing the highly energy efficient instruments at
the home. Governments can offer the boilers at subsidized rates to the public
and ensure that maximum houses can avail it for heating purposes. It can save
the millions of tons gas for the government, which can be provided to the
commercial sector at subsidized rates for manufacturing the products at highly
competitive rates and improving the exports position in an international
market. Overall, educating the household consumers of energy is also important
as they can conserve the little amount of energy, which collectively makes the big
conservation at the state level.
Abb.com. (2016). Top tips for saving energy in
steam boilers. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
Austin, J. M. (2014, April 11). 5 Energy Saving
Gadgets That Are Totally Worth It. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes:
Baehr, H. D. (2011). Heat and Mass Transfer .
New Jersey: Springer.
Braverman, B. (2015, October 11). How To Slash Your
Heating Bills this Winter. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/bethbraverman
Fuchs, H. U. (2012). The Dynamics of Heat: A
Unified Approach to Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer (Graduate Texts in
Physics) . London: Springer.
Gibbs, P. M. (2011). Fundamentals of Heat and Mass
Transfer. London: Pearson.
Golden, M. (2010, February 02). The Case For Home
Efficiency Retrofits. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes:
Granger, R. A. (2011). Experiments in Heat Transfer
and Thermodynamics. London: Wiley.
Grono, K. (2013, December 05). 5 Steps To Improve
Your Heating System Now. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes:
Jake, T. (2014, April 22). The Secret to Lowering
Your Energy Bills. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes:
Sayuri, M. (2016). Energy Conservation in Boilers
and Making an Audit Report. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
Smith, F. W. (2013). Introduction to thermal
sciences: thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat transfer. London: Wiley.
Vinan, J. K. (2014, October 20). Energy Experts
Reveal Their Secrets For Slashing High Winter Bills. Retrieved October 17,
2016, from Forbes:
Wiegand, B. (2016). Trust offers incentives for
farm improvements. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
It is gothic
cathedral in the Latin Church located in the France. It is about 8o kilometer
of the south west of the Paris. It was constructed between the periods of 1194
to 1250. Its significant is evident in the modern world. It is designated as
the world heritage site by the UNESCO. They considered as the high point in the
gothic art for the French (Sacred-destinations.com,
2013). This is a master piece of the past history. It is an exceptional
example of the preservation. The original stained glass is still there and they
are preserved accordingly.
There are minor changes which have been
witnessed in the art work of that cathedral. Large number of tourists come to
that cathedral and visit that place. This is a good sign for a good source of
economic activity in the France. The government also pays attention and
maintains the site for the visitors. Artists also portray the building in their
art which is exhibited exceptionally very well. Therefore, the architecture has
both socially and economically significant for the government.
Reason for choosing and
connection with the time period
architecture was chosen because of its historical importance. The architecture
is the fine example of the roman architecture that was built to keep the flow
of water. The architecture designing is a mix of Roman aqueducts and Aqueduct of Segovia. Therefore, this is the
fine example of bridge that is designed to pass the flow of the water (Pontdugard.fr, 2013). The time period of the
architecture is very important. It was built in the ancient times of the
Romans. Therefore, the architecture correlates with its time and history.
was famous for its architectural landscapes and their fine display of the
buildings. This architectural building is the finest example of that architect.
Thus, it is very important ton to select such kind of architectures in order to
evaluate its importance of time and architectural style. Large number of
visitors comes and evaluates its architectural and historical land space.
Therefore, this is preserved by the government and steps are taken in order to
preserve its building.
Pontdugard.fr. (2013). Pont du Gard, A
masterpiece of anciirnt architecture. Retrieved October 24, 2016, from
Sacred-destinations.com. (2013). Chartres
Cathedral. Retrieved 2016, from sacred-destinations.com:
The past 10 years
have seen a growing trend for a manufacturing
operation to be moved off shore from the united state to Asian countries.
Prepare a list of pros and cons concerning the off-shoring issue
It is a fact that manufacturing
operation has been moving offshore from the United
States to different Asian countries. The beginning of major changes
occurred due to power in markets from China, and the country became the dynamic
place for offshore manufacturing
operations. On the other hand, it is
obvious that companies and businesses want to reduce costs and maximize the
range of profits. The Offshoring the business is the way to accomplish this
goal easily. Anyhow, there are few certain pros, cons of the offshore issue, and here is the list mentioned
Pros of offshore
Employment costs minimized
Increase in productivity
Increase in staff morale
Less costs in equipment
Cons of Offshore
Differences in time
Less customer focus
It is imperative to understand
that there are cons of offshore with the
pros as well. The business should be
managed well for Offshoring the operations efficiently. The productivity could
increase by the fewer costs and increase
in staff morale. On the other hand, the
differences in time in countries and less customer focus could be the initial
cons or unfavorable points of the offshore business. In the same way, the
language and cultural barriers could impairment the business in the beginning
Ch 10 Read and
incorporate DFE into your invention in at least two ways and describe results. What
are the 3 Rs for reducing environmental impact?
The incorporate DFE is strongly
linked and associated to the concept of design for the environment. It is the
concept designed for the betterment of the environment and society. In other words, it is very beneficial and
valuable for the process of engineering and manufacturing the products to keep
the environment safe from the unhealthy effects.
Also, one would like to describe the three Rs for reducing environmental impact
one by one.
The first of the three Rs is Reduce
and quite affiliated to and main components of waste management
strategies. One who want to reduce the
amount the waste in the environment, he or she would have to look at the
sources of the waste. It is essential for the people of authorities to reduce
these sources. The second one of the three Rs is Reuse, and it is the strategy
would be beneficial to unsoiled the material and reuse the specific items. It
is quite cost efficient way to produce the products again. The third and last
one of the three Rs is Recycle, and it is the strategy useful for the
The reprocessing of the waste
material could make things cost efficient to produce new products. Also, there
are few examples of the recycled items or products: these are metal, paper, glass, and plastic. Therefore, one can say that
these three strategies are very significant to organized waste management
strategy for the long-term plans.