college papers

‘Brews Brothers Pty Ltd’

Brews Brothers Pty Ltd’


Brews Brothers Pty Ltd is a business that works as a bar, Microbrewery and jazz club. Brew Brothers are seeking to have a new design for the brewing process. Brews brothers have proposed an effective design to construct an effective brewing structure that can help them to increase customers as well as will help them in earning the profits. This report contains the set of derived equations regarding limiting parameters. Moreover, this report will discuss the findings related to design and process of brewing.

Technical Analysis:

The project is based on six different sections that include the important points and requirement to know that parameters for the project are clear and in a correct manner. The major equipment of the project includes; mash, copper with gas heater, fomenters, storage tanks and pumps.

The first is mash/ lauter tun which is a cylindrical closed tank and its parameters are ;

Mash tun volume = VM (m3)

Mash tun Diameter = DM (m)

Mash tun Height = HM (m)

Parameters of the Copper cylindrical closed tank are

Copper volume = VC (m3)

Copper Diameter = DC (m)

Copper Height = HC (m)

Parameters of the fermenter which is a cylindrical closed tank having conical based are;

VF – Copper volume (m3) – total volume (including conical base)

θ = 450 (conical angle)

Fermenter Diameter = DF (m3)

Fermenter Height = HF (m)

Fermenter Cone Height= hF (m3)

Parameters for the storage tank, which is the closed tank, are given below; (GUPTA, 2012)

Storage Tank Volume = VS (m3)

Storage Tank Diameter = DS (m)

Storage Tank Height = DS (m)

There would be four kinds of brew so the process required having four storage tanks with weekly consumption rate of ~ 400L/week including the spare tank so the total storage is

Total storage volume = VT

Parameters related to production are given below and there will be ~ 1600L /week of brewing.

Beer produced in a week (L) – minimum 1600 L = VB

Volume of Water/week = VW (L)

Malted barley = MB (Kg)

Al the equipment are spaced with the 0.5 m with each other and from the ground and chiller is in the shape of the cube. Parameters related to lautering are;

The time of transfer = TL (S)

Volume of disposing grains = VG (L)

Parameters regarding the pumps are;

Volumetric flow rate = VFRA (L/sec)

Requirement of Head = hA (m)

Power of pump = PA (kW)


Figure shows the density of ingredients that are used in the brewing process

Information regarding parameter is important especially while designing the structure of the plant (Kutz, 2015). With the help this information, the expected problem can be resolved. Moreover, this information is helpful to identify the total required cost of the project that Brews brother will incur (Lees, 2012).


             To construct a structure regarding specific purpose like to introduce a new Brewing process for the peoples it is very important to conduct the in-depth research and to perform analysis, feasible condition for the structure. According to the research, it is found that all the equipment must have a space of 0.5 m between each other and from the ground. The structure will need a spare storage tank along with the four other tanks and each of the equipment or parts has a specific size.


Gupta, m. K. (2012). Power plant engineering. Phi learning pvt. Ltd.

Kutz, m. (2015). Handbook of measurement in science and engineering, volume 2. John wiley & sons.

Lees, f. (2012). Lees’ loss prevention in the process industries: hazard identification, assessment and control. Butterworth-heinemann.

college papers

Corporate Bonds


            In this report, I have analyzed bond market of United States. For analyzing this market, I have selected corporate sector. Investment in Corporate sector is based on gaining high returns. In this sector, many bonds are operating in the market. These bonds have different prices and yields. Recommendations of buying and selling bonds are based according to the criteria of an investor. If the investor wants high yield on bond then he has to select bonds with high yields. If an investor wants to invest in high credit rating bonds then he has to select bonds with high credit ratings. I have selected three bonds for purchasing and two bonds for selling. The purpose of investment in bonds should be to maximize returns.

            Before deciding about bonds investment, it is important to analyze factors that affect the bonds market. It will help to make wise investment decisions in the bonds market. Before analyzing trends in corporate bonds and providing recommendations, it is essential to identify corporate bonds first. Corporate bonds are bonds offered by Corporations to fulfill their corporate needs and to increase their money. There can be many reasons for issuing corporate bonds by the Corporations. There are few features of these types of bonds. These bonds are issued at 1000 par value. Usually, all coupon bonds have structured coupon rate. Usually, Corporate bonds have the option to call back by the issuer any time. (, 2012)

            The risk of bond can be analyzed from its maturity as well as its callable option. Companies usually sell bonds on premium if it contains the option of call back anytime.

Findings of bond market

            ARAB REP EGYPT is the first bond that is providing the yield of 4% and its price is 103.64. This has the credit rating of AAA. Coupon payment on this bond is semi-annually. This bond is trading in the corporate sector as one of dominant bond in the market. One of the advantage of investing in this bond is high yield as compared to other bonds. Corporate bonds usually provide high yields to the investors. Below the table is showing the detail of this bond in the corporate sector. (, 2014). U.S market has a contribution of major players in the corporate bonds. Corporate bonds market is diversified into different industries. Below the graph is showing that financial sector has a maximum contribution in corporate bonds.



BANK NOVA SCOTIA is another corporate bond in the market. Its price is 102 and it has the coupon rate of 2% for investors. This bond is highly recognized in the market due to high credit rating. High credit rating increases confidence of investor in the bond. High credit rating provides him surety that his money or investment in the bond would not a loss. 

            BRITISH COLUMBIA PROV CDA is another bond trading in the corporate sector of the bond. Its yield is highest and recorded as 161.04. It is generating highest return among these three bonds in the sane sector. Its coupon rate is 7%. One advantage of investing in this bond is strong credit rating. The credit rating for this bond is again AAA.  It is also paying yield on a semiannual basis. It is available in the market in reasonable price.

 I have selected bond of ALION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CO for selling. Its credit rating is CCC. It does not have good credit worthiness. It is providing high coupon rate in lower price. The market price for this bond is 99. Bonds with this credit rating have a high risk of default. In the case of bonds default, investor lost their entire investment. The purpose of selling this bond is due to its lower credit rating. This bond is very risky. Investment in this type of bonds should be discouraged.

            ALPHA NATURAL RESOURCES INC is another bond that has the lower credit rating. It is recommended to sell this bond. Its market price is 97.50 and its yield is only 2%. The reason for selling this bond is due to its bad credit rating. Its credit rating is CCC. This credit rating is not good for investors.  


            In this section, I have provided recommendations for purchasing and selling bonds in the corporate sector. Many investors found it difficult to decide about their buying and purchasing habits of the bond. Investors should analyze the relationship between prices as well as interest rates of the bonds. Investors should understand that there exists an inverse relationship between bonds prices as well as their interest rates. If interest rate will higher, in the market value of the sane bond will drop. So, the purpose of investing in the bonds should not be based on higher interest rate. The Higher interest rate will drop its price in the market. Before making a purchasing decision of bonds, only price or interest rates are not enough.

            Another important indicator in the bonds purchasing and selling decision is its credit rating. Bonds include many risks with them. For reducing these risks, it is important to analyze their credit ratings.

            Credit rating is another important indicator for accessing the risk of the bond. In above findings, I have sold out bonds with bad credit ratings. One of important risk in bonds market is default risk. Corporations may default and it affects on investors decision and investment in their bonds (LAMBERT, 2014). Investors should also analyze credit worthiness of the bonds for purchasing them. They should try to purchase bonds with strong credit rating. They should sell bonds having a high risk of default. Many professional organizations and institutions can provide help in investing in these bonds. These professional organizations can help to reduce overall risk in the corporate sector. One advantage of investing is bonds are to gain a semiannual return. Bonds provide returns two times in a year.

            The purpose of raising corporate bonds for investors is to raise money by the Corporations. Usually, all corporate bonds carry the higher risk of default as compared to other bands like government or treasury. Default risk is affected by the issuing Corporation. That is why before investing in corporate bonds, it is advisable to analyze creditworthiness of issuing company. Investors can take the better idea of their returns and risk after analyzing credit worthiness or credit rating of their issuing company. Corporation with low credit rating usually offers bonds with high yield to attract more investors. On the other hand, Corporation with strong credit rating can attract investors towards its bonds by offering low yield or interest rate.

            Maturity date should also be analyzed for investment in these bonds. A bond with high maturity will contain more risk as compared to the bond with lower maturity. Investment decision can be made by corporate bonds holders with the help of maturity date. They should analyze that whether an issuer is paying more returns in case of high maturity or not. Investors should analyze all these recommendations for making an investment in corporate bonds.


            It is concluded that Corporate bonds should be selected based on their credit rating, yield, maturity as well as yields. It is essential to invest in strong credit rating bonds. Recommendation of purchasing bonds is also given to investors in Cornpone bonds sector. It si concluded that corporate bonds have high risk.


ARAB REP EGYPT As of 7-May-2016
Price: 103.64
Coupon (%): 4.45
Maturity Date: 42262
Yield to Maturity (%): -0.201
Current Yield (%): 4.294
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 38791
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
BANK NOVA SCOTIA As of 7-May-2016
Price: 102.51
Coupon (%): 2.125
Maturity Date: 43719
Yield to Maturity (%): 1.576
Current Yield (%): 2.073
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 42074
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
Quantity Available: 500
Minimum Trade Qty: 10
Dated Date: 41893
Settlement Date: 41977
Price: 161.04
Coupon (%): 7.25
Maturity Date: 49919
Yield to Maturity (%): 3.295
Current Yield (%): 4.502
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 35490
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
Quantity Available: 461
Minimum Trade Qty: 25
Dated Date: 35306
Settlement Date: 41977
Price: 99.88
Coupon (%): 10.25
Maturity Date: 42036
Yield to Maturity (%): 10.679
Current Yield (%): 10.263
Fitch Ratings: CCC
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 39295
Type: Corporate
Callable: Yes
Quantity Available: 250
Minimum Trade Qty: 5
Dated Date: 39121
Settlement Date: 41977
Price: 97.5
Coupon (%): 2.375
Maturity Date: 42109
Yield to Maturity (%): 9.451
Current Yield (%): 2.436
Fitch Ratings: CCC
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 39736
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
Quantity Available: 10
Minimum Trade Qty: 1
Dated Date: 39545
Settlement Date: 41977

References (2014). Bond Center. Retrieved May 7, 2016, from

LAMBERT, S. (2014, August 11). Investing in corporate bonds: how income-hungry investors can tap firms direct or invest through funds . Retrieved May 7, 2016, from (2012, March). What Are Corporate Bonds and What Benefits Do They Offer? Retrieved May 7, 2016, from

college papers

Freedom and Responsibility

Freedom and Responsibility


The Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson

After reading the document declaration of independence, I agree with the thoughts and views of the Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the British State. He wrote the declaration of independence for the freedom and equality of the people of the world. The declaration of independence is the most worth valuing document in the history of US. Congress asked Thomas Jefferson to write a document that is based on the freedom, and then Thomas Jefferson wrote the declaration of independence. The congress wants a document that consists on the declaration of the colonies that why the colonies had to become independent of Britain. In the document, he explains about the Americans that they believed on their rights. He stated he argues and opinions in the document that all human being are free. They have right to live freely. They are free to seek the happiness. He was in favor of the common men. He wants to introduce the sense of freedom among the human beings by his document. It explains why the colonies should break away from Britain. It focuses on the thought that the people have rights for everything and cannot be taken away from them theses rights. It describes the list of the complaints that were against the kings and there are argues that colonies have to be free for the protection of the colonists rights. At the end of the declaration, the delegates signed their names. I agree with the thoughts of the Thomas Jefferson that he wrote marvelous documents for the betterment of the colonists. It was approved on July 4, 1776. The worth and value of the documents have still importance because it says that the Americans believe in equal rights for all human beings belongs to any cast, creed, race, and country.


The World Is Too Much with Us is written by William Wordsworth

After reading the poem “The World Is Too Much with Us” it opens the reality that the modern people have become disconnected from the world of nature. The poem is written in 1807. He presented his ideas that happiness can be achieved by connecting the world. William Words Worth is the poet of nature. He loved the natural beauty and wrote the poems about nature. In the poem, the world is too much with us, he describes that the people have been disconnected with the natural beauty that god has granted us. People have been connected with the technology and social media that takes away from them to nature.

The poem is a sonnet that is written in a romantic thematic style. The elements of the poem make it distinctive and differentiate to words worth beliefs and system. In the opening lines, he depicts a realm where human beings are able to feel the beauty of nature without the tensions and problems of society. He said that we were wasting our happiness and engaged only in the social activities. Men are always busy in worries of earning and do not spend time for the natural beauty. He says that men are materialistic and only take care of earning money. The next four lines describe that we are unaware of feeling the cool breeze. We do not appreciate the beauty of nature and the elements of beauty. The poet says that natural beauty is the source of decrease the worries and tensions of the world. If the man enjoys the natural beauty, he can forget the worries of society.

In short, it can be said that William words worth is purely a poet of nature and wants to spread his views about nature that people should enjoy the natural beauty to forgive all the problems of a daily routine.


The Things They Carried written by Tim O’Brien

The things they carried is written by Tim O’Brien. A novel describes the platoon of American soldiers in the Vietnam War the book is based on his personal experiences as a soldier. The story is based on the army soldiers.

            After reading the story of the novel, it clears that the story defines the situation and condition of the soldiers. The characters of the story mainly bore two types of burden: Emotional burden and physical burden. Narrator tells the story of the novel. The story opens with the lists of the things the soldiers of the army carrying in the Vietnam War. The writer of the story describes his own experiences about the War. He describes about the personal luggage that he possesses. Author of the novel describes that the luggage that is used in the war is different from person to person that is based on the needs and necessities of the person. It helps the reader to get to aware and know the customs and souls in a deeper way. It describes the normal lives of the soldiers. He names the things that are mentioned in the list like photographs, drugs, condoms, books, bible, and all life stories telling property. By describing the physical burden, he tells the emotional pressure that had to wear all the soldiers. It contains the feelings and emotions of love tear, hate, grief etc. they have with them shameful memories, secrets of cowardice during the war. Readers can feel all these emotions while reading the story of the novel. All the things and emotions that a person has personally pull them apart. In the end of the novel, the author stated that the team is struggling to find their main causes to remain what they were before the hell when the earth was started.

college papers

Nasser Inc

Nasser Inc


Mission statement

My name is Nasser Altijri and I am doing marketing from Texas Wesleyan University in Fort Worth. My future aims are very vast as I want to become rich and it will be achieved through the capabilities I have. I am a hardworking person and I want to become successful businesspersons so that I would own my own company. The reason I am doing in the marketing is because I like this area and that is my interest. However, I will peruse toward the PHD as well, for my further grooming.

Vision statement

Right now, I am doing marketing from Texas Wesleyan University in Fort Worth. After this, I will pursue for my PHD from Harvard business school. That is my aim of life as far academics are concern. If we talk about the professional life then I want to do business in the future and want to open a company, which could be recognized through the country. If we talk about the next five years then I will complete my academic part and will be looking for some good opportunity. Within next two years, I want to find an opportunity and identify the gap. Further, in the three years, which will be 10 tears from now, I want to start my own company but obviously, I do not have enough funds so in that case, I will find the partners in that time and the documentation will be finalized so that we could inaugurate the business.


I believe in some values, which are very important for me in my life. The value, which is important for me, is the Honesty. This is what I believe is the core thing. Further hard work and the sincerity come. By these three main values I believe that I can conquer what I want but the main thing is that I need to be consistent in this case to achieve my life goals. Further my behavior is been derived my basic concept and values as they are very important for me. Further, these are important in my life.  



If I talk about my strengths then it is so easy to state that what are the points where I have grip in my life, and what are easy for me.  The best thing I can see in me is that I am a motivated persona and that is the best thing. Further, I am educated, honest, strong, determined and consistent which are great strengths I like. These are the things which will enough for me in strengthens me and to become a good businesspersons.


It is also very important factor in the life that if a person has strengths then defiantly he also does have weakness. Looking in me, I can find that I am a bit more emotional which could lead me to different aspects of life. I am trying to overcome this weakness and soon it will be turned in to my strength.

Customer base

If talking about the customers of the business then it is very clear. The first thing I will like to share is that the business I will be doing will be of FMCG products. The benchmark I have in the mind is Nestle. As they are dealing in the hundred of products, it is the case with me, as I also want the same thing so that I could capture more and more market. I will be expanding my products to the every sector.

The children’s, parents, male, female (everyone) is the target market in this case. The products, which we will make, are the FMCG, which means they are used in the daily routines. Further, due to that the target market is very vast. There are no special skills that we are required in our target market. Everyone who falls in the scale between 0-100 can and will buy the product the reason is that we will offer the good quality with the best price ever.

Product line

If we talk about the products we offer then the FMCG products are to be use in the daily routines. There will be lot of disposable items as well and that will be sold more. If we want to have a look at FMCG products then it contains sugar, cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery, macaroni, noodles, couscous, other food products, spirits, ethyl alcohol, wines, malt liquors and malt, soft drinks, mineral waters, tobacco products, pulp, paper and paperboard, corrugated paper, containers, other articles of paper and paperboard, soap and detergents, cleaning. There will be lot of categories, which will be manufactured by us.

The special thing and the unique point in the business is our product, will be the quality as compared t the cost. The differentiation point will be that the cost will be less and the quality will be high. Further, we will reduce our profits for the first three years so that people enjoy the products and become loyal and once we have captured the market then we will raise the cost so that more profits could be earned.

Capital investments and profits

If we look at the business that we need to start then in the starting there will be five partners that will participate in developing a company all four partners will inject $100,000 each and I will be injecting $250,000 for initiating the company. Then the remaining money will be divided on bank debt and the remaining will be collected through the IPO’s. By this all, we will be able to collect total of $1,000,000 in which our money will be $650,000, bank will give $200,000 and $150,000 will be collected by the public.

As the time passes, the investment will be also increased and the company will grow. After one year, the company net profit will be 10% as compared to the costs. Further, in the next 3 years it will be raised up to 40% and so on. By doing this we will earn and expand too. The company will be registered and the stocks will be traded. Further, the auditor will analyze the company data and the reports will be published on the quarterly basis. We will be measuring the success and the performance of the company by the ratio of cost to net profit. Further, the share price will be considered too. On top of that, the expansion will also be in the consideration so that everything goes smooth.   

Growth objectives

In this stage, the company is running and we are improving day by day if we look at the profits. The major thing, which we need to do, is to change the technology. At that time, further advancements will be made in the machinery and that will be most cost effective, eco friendly and more efficient. However, the startup cost will be in millions. However, we will still switch to the new technology, as it will benefit us in the long term. Further, the investment will be made by the bank debt.

The skill, which I possess, is the motivational skills. Further, it will be polished so that I could motivate the clients and the business executives better so that they would believe in us and the better business deals could be made. This is the one of the most important thing, which should be in the leader so that they could possess and make the business better as the leader.

college papers

Loan processing at Capital one

a) Please make a simple Process Flow Diagram for the Capital One.

  Interview   Start application process  
Enter into system  
Workflow management  
Review by QA  
Evaluation   Underwriters  

            20 minutes

                                    40 min                                                             70 min                          30 min

20 min

b) What is the capacity of each station?

            Seven associations are involved in first station. At second station, numbers of associates are one. Number of associates at third, fourth and fifth stations are 8, 2 and 6.

c) Which step is the bottleneck?

Underwriting is the bottleneck process because 70 minutes are required for completion of this process.

college papers

Financial Markets

I have experience of working for an insurance company as an Associate to the Financial Analyst. The nature of my position is not verycritical, but I have exposure to the very bottom-line operations of the insurance company.

Nature of Job:

As financial Analyst Associate, I am responsible to provide support to the financial analyst Team in carrying out the daily operations of the Finance analyst department.Specifically my duties as financial analyst Associate include:

  1. Providing support in the maintenance and enhancement of the division’s models for financing planning with looking for opportunities for the automation of main process components
  2. Providing support in the monthly and quarterly analysis of the financial and operational results
  3. Providing support to the team for the estimating and forecasting for annual plans.
  4. Providing support for the fulfillment of the management needs for the reporting of financial position.

Daily Responsibilities:

  1. Work on the designated task related to the capital market
  2. Provide detailed research report on the implications of a specific security, or stock investment by the insurance company.
  3. Make presentation, and present it to the team.
  4. Evaluate the presentations given by teammates, and raise appropriate concerns about it.
  5. Make changes to my presentation as per the concerns of the teammates.
  6. Submit a one-page synopsis of the completed approved report.

Experience Acquired:

The experience I have had at the insurance company while working as assistant in the team of financial analysts had changed me as a professional. Firstly, I was very afraid because of the high competencies of the professional team around me, but with the help of the insight I usually got from the course of Financial Markets Course, I changed not only my working style, but also increased my knowledge base.

In my first days at the insurance company, I faced many challenges regarding knowledge of financial markets, financial terms adopted for use in the company, and expertise regarding the analysis. In the financial analysis team, we associates were required primarily to provide support to the team in terms of the different researches, analysis, and then forecasting for the best financing models. For this, we were required to look for opportunities of the best financing options in terms of equity as well as debt financing for the company.

As I was a new recruit, I was way behind my colleagues, and teammates in terms of the professional knowledge and expertise. However, I did not make this my weakness. I used my over time to work on building my knowledge base regarding the best options of financing available in the capital markets. In addition, the course of “Financial Markets” also aided me to get gain knowledge in this regard.

At one day, I was asked to make a report on the Mutual Funds being offered in US markets. At that time, I remembered that the mutual funds were covered in my course as well. So, I immediately consult my course book, and looked for the material regarding Mutual Funds Market. from this book, I got detailed data regarding the mutual funds market. I also used search engine to get comprehensive data regarding mutual funds market. A brief detail of my insight on Mutual Fund market that I got from the course is described below as:

Mutual Funds Market:

The US Mutual funds Market has about $16 trillion in assets, and is one of the largest, even the Largest in the world at the 2014-year end. The increment in the total net assets value is amounted to $818 billion from 2013-year end. This was primarily due to the increment in the bond and stock prices. The value of the new cash flow, which entered this market in 2014, is amounted to $102 billion. The lower interest rates, improved conditions of the US economy, and the population demographics of the US contributed and derived the investor demand to increase. (, 2014)

The major portion of the Mutual Funds assets in the year-end 2014 was held by Equity Funds, which amounted to 52% of the total Mutual funds assets. Whereas the next most held mutual funds assets was accounted to the Bond Market.

This was a basic knowledge and facts abut the Mutual funds Market, which I gained during my course. However, I was required to recommend a best suitable choice of mutual fund for my company. For this, using my knowledge from the class lectures, I browsed for the Morningstar stewardship analysis report on mutual funds. (Morningstar, 2016) This also helped me a lot.

My insurance company wanted to invest in mutual fund because it required long-term capital gains, and as per my knowledge gained from the course, mutual funds can take a big portion from returns, which are spread over a shorter period in lieu of their sales charges. Therefore, it was not initially regarded by me as the wrong investment choice.

Common Stock Funds:

The next step important step is to look for the alignment for the company’s goals and risk tolerance with the mutual funds available. With the fair amount of risk tolerance available as per the direction of themanager, and a period of more than five years, the company was looking for long period high returns, which is provided by mutual funds in common stock or equity markets. (Northcott, 2009)

Balanced and income Funds:

If in case, I was required to look for any mutual fund, which would generate immediate income, I also incorporated a small detail about the income funds available. (, 2016)Moreover, for low risk funds, I incorporated brief detail about the Balanced Funds as well. (, 2016)

The charges of the mutual funds are their main income. Different types of investments have different types of charges. In case we have a investment with from or back end load fees, then the charge would be 3 to 6% of the total invested amount. The front-end load fee would have to be paid at the time of initialinvestment, whereas the back-end load fee would have the charges paid by us at the end or sale of our investment.(, 2016)

Other than this, I also incorporated the various fees, like management expense ratio (higher ratio, lower returns), management fees, administrative fees, and 12b-1 fees.

For the evaluation of the funds past performance, as per the outline of my course, I evaluated its performance with the general market returns, and its volatile, and its turnover.

The course Financial Markets, not only helped me get the primary knowledge about the mutual funds market. It also provided me with a new habit of checking onto my course outline for any detail of the information I needed. This has helped me a lot. Now, with the benefit I have gained from one time reverting to my course book, I have started paying more attention to my lectures of all courses, in case it would be required at my company.

Kansas Visit

After visiting Federal Reserve Bank, we gained lots of information regarding different financial markets. This is good to visit for investigating financial market with navigation of different movies. This is helpful to let us know different approaches and techniques to survive in financial market for a long run. This was good to know history of Federal Reserve Bank and derive important financial aspects. The most important thing is to observe crises and approaches to fix by the management of this bank.

This was a great opportunity for me to have information and see different financial aspects closely. This was a great chance for me due to my teachers to see different financial theories and implementations. I would like to thank all my teachers who let me to come here and navigate different financial operations. In addition, we visited world war museum and saw ancient things. I was wonderful trip for me as I enjoyed with colleagues and teachers.

Regarding this trip, it was combination of learning process and enjoyments. This was a good initiative, taken by teachers to conduct such activities and have a good time. This was a god opportunity and I will look forward to attend the same actives to enjoy and enhance my learning in future.

References: (2016, April 27). Who is the FDIC? Retrieved April 27, 2016, from (2014). 2014 Investment Company Fact Book. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from

Morningstar. (2016, April 27). Stewardship Grades. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from morningstar:

Northcott, A. (2009). The Mutual Funds Book: How to Invest in Mutual Funds & Earn High Rates of Returns Safely. Atlantic Publishing Company. (2016, April 27). Income Fund. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from (2016, April 27). Mutual Fund Fees and Expenses. Retrieved april 27, 2016, from (2016, April 27). Sustainable & Responsible Mutual Fund Chart. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from

college papers

Importance of prototyping in interactive system design

Table of Contents

Introduction 3

Prototype 4

Hi-fi prototypes 5

Lo-fi prototypes 5

Paper prototypes 6

Video prototypes 6

Different approaches to functionality in prototypes 7

Prototypes and participatory design 7

Trade-offs in prototyping 8

Prototyping strategies 9

Horizontal prototypes 9

Vertical prototypes 9

Task-oriented prototypes 10

Scenario-based prototypes 10

Conclusion 10

Bibliography 12

Importance of prototyping in interactive system design


“A decent Design is superior to anything you think.” (Rex, Raskin, 2000).

Designing a thing is all about making choices. Prototype has a great importance in some fields such as engineering, automobile design, creativity skills and so. Different tools and techniques will be discussed. Further, the types of the prototypes will be discussed and we can see that it is important for the system designs. The main purpose of the prototype is to give an idea to the maker of the product that how the design or the product will look like (Benyon, 2010). 

Prototyping deals with system development where a prototype is developed or produced as an early approximation to test the systems or products. This prototyping process continues until the required level is achieved in developing a system or producing a product. Therefore, keeping this aspect in view, one can see that prototyping is also very important in interactive system design. Interactive system design develops method through use of a technology so that a task is completed as per requirement. Therefore, prototyping is very crucial in interactive system design, as it helps to improve the design and processes related to it (Benyon, 2010).

We have begun with the detail explanation of the prototype that what it is. Going further it is been linked with the interactive system design in every part so that we could know the importance of the Prototypes. Going further different types of prototypes have been discussed and different approaches have been linked towards the interactive system designs. (Benyon, 2010) Different strategies of prototypes have been also discussed in this paper so that the importance of prototype could be identified and we could know that in the interactive system design prototype is the main element and have a great importance to. 


We characterize a prototype as a solid representation of part or the majority of an intelligent framework. A prototype is an unmistakable antiquity, not a dynamic depiction that requires understanding. Designers, and supervisors, designers, clients and end-users, can utilize these relics to imagine and reflect upon the last framework. Note that prototypes might be characterized contrastingly in different fields. For instance, an engineering prototype is a downsized prototype of the last building. This is unrealistic for intuitive framework models: the originator may restrain the measure of data the prototype can deal with, yet the genuine interface must be exhibited at full scale (Beaudouin-Lafon, 2015). 

Therefore, a prototype interface to a database may handle just a little pseudo database yet should in any case exhibit a full-measure presentation and association systems. Full-scale, unique models, for example, a hand-made dress specimen, are another kind of model. These as a rule require an extra outline stage with a specific end goal to mass-create the last plan (Störrle, 2014). Some intuitive framework prototypes start as standout prototypes, which are then appropriated generally (since the expense of copying programming is so low). Nevertheless, best programming prototypes advance into the last item and afterward keep on evolving as new forms of the product are discharged. 

A prototype is a solid however fractional representation or execution of a framework plan. Prototypes are utilized broadly as a part of most plan and development areas. Lim et al. (2008) present a perspective of prototypes as ‘devices for navigating a configuration space where all conceivable outline options and their bases can be investigated (Narahara, 2015). 

Hi-fi prototypes

Hi-fi prototypes are comparable in look and feel, if not inexorably in usefulness, to the expected last item. They are created in programming, whether in the advancement environment which will be utilized for execution or as a part of bundles that will permit intelligent impacts to be ridiculed up effortlessly. Hi-fi prototyping has the accompanying components: 

  • It is helpful for point-by-point assessment of the primary outline components (content, visuals, intelligence, usefulness and media) – for instance, Hi-fi prototypes can be utilized as a part of ease of use studies to set up whether individuals can figure out how to utilize the framework inside a predetermined measure of time. 
  • It frequently constitutes a vital stage in customer acknowledgment – as a sort of conclusive configuration record which the customer must consent to before the last execution. 
  • It is largely formed genuinely well into the venture when thoughts are starting to solidify, unless there is some essential issue that should be determined before some other work can continue. 

Lo-fi prototypes

A lo-fi prototype – regularly termed paper models, since that they are normally produced using then again, have the accompanying components: 

  • They are more centered on the expansive basic configuration thoughts for example, substance, frame and structure, the “tone” of the outline, key usefulness prerequisites and navigational structure. 
  • They are intended to create rapidly, and discarded as fast. 
  • They catch early plan thinking and ought to help, not prhorizontal t, the procedure of creating and assessing numerous conceivable outline arrangements. 

 Paper prototypes

Paper prototypes are broadly utilized as a part of practice. A review of 172 ease of use experts led in 2002 asked how vital they considered the strategy to be in their work (Snyder, 2003). The reactions are appeared in the graph underneath “pointless” alternative was incorporated however no one picked it. (The rates do not entirety to 100 for every penny in view of adjusting.) 

The principle down to earth issues with outlining paper prototypes are as per the following: 

■ Robustness – if a paper prototype is to be taken care of by loads of individuals it should be sufficiently intense to survive. 

■ Scope – concentrate on expansive issues and key components; on the off chance that you are attempting to recount excessively point by point a story it can be hard for clients to get it. 

■ Instructions – there is an exchange off between adding enough detail for somebody to have the capacity to utilize the prototype without the planner helping and including so much detail that it needs somebody to talk the individual through it.

■ Flexibility – have parts of the paper prototype customizable so individuals seeing it can ‘upgrade it’ on the fly, e.g. by utilizing sticky notes to speak to parts of the screen where the client can move components around or include new things. 

Video prototypes

For more than 20 years analysts have highlighted the capability of video as an apparatus inside the participatory outline process, from beginning perception, through thoughts era and configuration investigation, what Mackay et al. called ‘video conceptualizing’ and ‘video prototyping’ (2000). Vertelney’s strategy (1989) includes the making of a physical fake up prototype of the item; a video is then shot with a performing artist cooperating (or ‘acting’) with the prototype just as it were completely utilitarian (Wiemann & Brauner, 2016). The item’s showcase elements are recreated in a movement program, and are superimposed (or composited) on the video, guaranteeing synchronization to give the appearance that the item is really reacting to the individual’s activities. 

 Different approaches to functionality in prototypes

There are different sorts of prototype that it is valuable to recognize. A full prototype gives full usefulness, yet at a lower execution than the objective framework. A flat prototype plans to go over the entire framework, yet bargains just with top-level capacities; such an extensive amount the subtle element is excluded. Interestingly, a vertical prototype executes the full scope of elements, starts to finish, and yet is connected to just a little number of elements of the general framework. Blends of these are normal. Developmental and incremental prototypes in the end form into the full framework (Aromaa, 2016).

Prototypes and participatory design

Lo-fi prototypes are a crucial piece of participatory outline since individuals cannot generally comprehend formal models, yet they can investigate and assess thoughts through drawing in with prototyped frameworks. Individuals can likewise be straightforwardly required in prototype configuration. Amid the improvement of the HIC, we ran a workshop with schoolchildren from a school in Dumfries and Galloway in Scotland. It was chosen to utilize the current situations as boosts in a participatory configuration workshop with a gathering of 20 secondary school understudies (Sauer, 2008). Situation as a premise, we went through a morning working with the understudies. The situation was adjusted to make it more significant to the members – the understudies were requested that envision that they and a gathering of companions had won a trek to the city for the day and needed to arrange their exercises. 

 Trade-offs in prototyping

Likewise, with such a large number of parts of configuration, the creator needs to consider the exchange offs as far as time, assets, the point of the assessment, the phase of the venture et cetera. In reality, when pondering how and what to model, the creator ought to think as far as the PACT components – individuals, exercises, settings and advancements. Who is the prototype went for? What is the architect attempting to accomplish with the model? What phase of the task are things at and what is the setting for the utilization of the model? What advances (hi-fi or lo-fi) are suitable? 

Rosson and Carroll (2002) highlight some of these exchanges off: 

■ High-quality illustrations and activity can be utilized to make persuading and energizing prototypes however may likewise prompt untimely duty to some configuration choice. 

■ Detailed extraordinary reason prototypes answer particular inquiries concerning an outline, however fabricating a significant prototype for every issue is costly. 

■ Realistic prototypes expand the legitimacy of client test information, however may delay testing, or require development of disposable models. 

■ Iterative refinement of an execution empowers ceaseless testing and input, yet may debilitate thought of radical changes. 

Prototyping strategies

Horizontal prototypes 

The motivation behind a horizontal prototype is to create one whole layer of the configuration in the meantime. This sort of prototyping is most regular with expansive programming improvement groups, where fashioners with various aptitude sets address distinctive layers of the product engineering (Zhao, 2015). Flat prototypes of the client interface are valuable to get a general photo of the framework from the client’s viewpoint and location issues, for example, consistency (comparable capacities are available through comparative client orders), scope (all required capacities are upheld) and excess (the same capacity is/is not open through various client summons). 

Vertical prototypes 

The reason for a vertical prototype is to guarantee that the planner can actualize the full, working framework, from the client interface layer down to the hidden framework layer. Vertical prototypes are frequently worked to evaluate the achievability of an element portrayed in a level, undertaking focused or situation-based model. For instance, when we built up the thought of attractive rules in the CPN2000 framework to encourage the arrangement of graphical items (Beaudouin-Lafon and Mackay, 2000), we actualized a vertical prototype to test the communication system as well as the design calculation and the execution. We realized that we could just incorporate the specific communication procedure if we could actualize an adequately quick reaction. 

Task-oriented prototypes 

Numerous client interface originators start with an assignment examination to recognize the individual errands that the client must achieve with the framework. Every errand requires a comparing set of usefulness from the framework. Assignment based prototypes are sorted out as a progression of undertakings, which permits both originators and clients to test every errand freely, deliberately working through the whole framework. 

Scenario-based prototypes 

Scenario-based prototypes are as if errand arranged ones, aside from that they don’t stretch individual, autonomous undertakings, yet rather take after a more sensible situation of how the framework would be utilized as a part of a genuine setting. Situations are stories that depict an arrangement of occasions and how the client responds (Pereira, 2015). A decent situation incorporates both normal and irregular circumstances, and ought to investigate examples of movement after some time. Bodker (1995) has built up an agenda to guarantee that no critical issues have been forgotten. 


Prototyping is an important component of interactive system design. There are many forms of the prototypes and they can be helpful in the different ways. Prototypes actually increase the creativity of the designer. It gives the idea that how things will work and the evolution is been seen before launching the product or the design. 

The Prototypes are concrete and they need to be look like the original design because it plays very important role and that needs because if the prototype is successful then the design will be launched in the market, so it needs to be perfect. 

Envisionment and prototyping the best thing for the designers and the people both as it is very important aspect. It can take hours or days to build but it have a great importance and it needs to build before finalizing the design. The main idea behind the prototype is to build the parallel system and so that we could come to know that, what the design would be after launching the design.

The key feature in the design needs to be tested in the prototype so that the actual results could be shown and if any kind of changes is needed, they can be amended. The structure, concept, the interaction, and design everything needs to be tested so that it could be further launched in the reality. People should take healthy part in that so that the best thing is created so that design not has any problems and could be used in the future. Finally, every strategy should be used while testing the prototype so that no aspect is left behind and the best design could be created.


Aromaa, S. (2016). Suitability of virtual prototypes to support human factors/ergonomics. Applied Ergonomics , 11-16.

Beaudouin-Lafon, M. (2015). Prototyping Tools and Techniques. Retrieved may 3, 2016, from

Benyon, D. (2010). Designing Interactive Systems. Pearson.

Benyon, D., & Turner, P. (2005). Interactive Systems: People, Activities, Contexts, Technologies. Addison-Wesley.

Narahara, T. (2015). Design exploration through interactive prototypes using sensors. Computers & Graphics , 25-35.

Pereira, R. (2015). A value-oriented and culturally informed approach to the design. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies , 66–82.

Sauer, J. (2008). Designing interactive consumer products: Utility of paper prototypes. Applied Ergonomics , 71–85.

Störrle, H. (2014). Cost-effective evolution of research prototypes into end-user. Science of Computer Programming , 1-14.

Wiemann, S., & Brauner, J. (2016). Design and prototype of an interoperable online air quality. Environmental Modelling & Software , 354e366.

Zhao, J. (2015). Design and implementation of virtual refueling simulation prototype. Annals of Nuclear Energy , 87–92.

college papers

Running head: American Red Cross

American Red Cross

Purpose of Nonprofit or areas to serve

The American red cross, a charitable institution served all the needy or victims affected by the natural disasters, war situations supporting militants and serve for the humanitarian causes for deserving ones. For example, the organization had a lot of contribution in hurricane Katrina, management crisis of humanitarians; voluntarily people contributed in the society in which the most important ones are the sheltering services, providing food and counseling services to victims of natural disasters. The collection and then meeting demands of supply of blood in occasional campaigns such as terminal diseases like cancer, support physically and emotional to victims, local community services and international services of relief in emergencies.

Mission, Vision, and Values

The mission is protecting the human beings from the sufferings and while providing alleviation especially in the situations of the emergency, through mobilizing the volunteers in action and making generosity services out of the donors. 

The vision is the developing, implementing and maintain the network of the volunteers, donors of organization and the partners in a strong momentum, arrangement or network. The compassion is rose to its peak especially during the emergency period. 

The values include the serving humanity, remain impartial from the political, religious, racial classes, and remain neutral apart from the biases towards any region or culture. The accomplishment of independence to needy, voluntarily services, showing unity ad message of the universality. 

The Marketing Mix 

The marketing mix would include the products, which are services or the ideas along with goods of the company. These include the services for the relief in the natural disasters, the blood supply which is very necessary for the lifesaving of the needy people, the support is also provided to the families of militants, international or global relief services and the certification or training for crisis management. The promotional techniques include the online channels such as the social sites, advertisement using the mass media in a unique manner. The awareness campaigns of the ARC are done in the marketing effective manner or ways, the accountability of the financial performances are shown to the loyal donors of the organization. The placement is made through the providing the services to the victims, blood supply using the modern equipment, vehicles, accessibility channels to provide emergency services while including the services to the customers in an online source. The pricing strategy from the ARC is managed through the tracking the progress of the emergency assistances, the cost of the blood supply arrangements and the support to the families of the militants. The non-for-profit organization like ARC would need to raise funds from donors through the charity campaigns and raising the high scale of money. 

Target Audience and Market 

The target audience of the American Red Cross is the customers having the age range between the 17-25 years in which the proposition of the institution is to associate these people for the future orientations. For this, the segments for the target market American red cross have made are the business of retail, the online businesses and finally the most important one is the charity. The content strategy of marketing is used to raise funds for the target markets while providing awareness about the campaigns for volunteer’s services. Almost raising the $40 million funds every year through the youth of America both boys and girls, increasing the number of donors, customers, expanding the revenue growth from retail, e-commerce, online businesses and charity donors. The marketing strategy for campaigns of charity displaying the organizations so that they could donate the maximum to the American Red Cross funds is monitored. The loyal fund’s donors are maintained through the transparent operations as well as the managements activities of the ARC so that the awareness of the brand is increased; the market share would increase and the providing a platform for the donors to donate from online tools. 

Evidence of Crisis Communication 

The American Red Cross has the dynamic process of the crisis communication in which the services of emergency are available 24/7 and seven days in the whole week. The crisis managements are on both using the telephone services as well as the online along with the request the people send for the assistance. The online request for the management of the crisis can also occur, whereas the duty would perform from the ARC from using the online applications. The performance around the globe would track using online channels, the importance of the American Red Cross is demonstrated in all over the America. The managements and the operational efficiencies are updated for the crisis effective communication to assist the victims, military personnel’s or their families and providing the blood supplies. The core information about the scenario of emergency is tracked including the phone number as well as the contact of the people experiencing the crisis such as the parents or the spouse. The nature of the crises is also discussed The information in the home include the branch from where the volunteer services would originate, the date of birth of the victim, for the military personnel’s the address could be confirmed, the information if the deployed territory and the units of the military bases are included as well. 


There are some of the recommendations for the American Red Cross, in which the philosophical changes are necessary for the structural context of the organization, especially the information necessary for providing the transparency-processes execution are analyzed. This is from ARC in order tam make the satisfaction level higher among the loyal donors of the organization. The better decision in investing the funds of the donors raised from the charity causes are that would encourage the charitable granting process. The most important recommendation is the availability or accessibility of the crisis or the emergency management in 24/7 approach for the American red cross. The customer’s service with the quick response or reaction time from the ARC would be every vital in this context. The response in the slow or the sluggish manner would need to improve as soon as possible from the organization (, 2016). The next key recommendation regarding the non-fro profit organization generating money from the funds of the donors should not have the mismatch in terms if the budget analysis or the allocation of the resources in the balanced approach.

The issue or the core problems associated with the nature of the charity business would affect the business. Therefore, the demand of the value of the brand must need to maintain in one way, or the other is that the trust factor would remain intact. The most important thing in their recommendations aspect is that the ARC must not go with the concepts of team miscommunication with the people. Volunteers, victims, and the other key stakeholders are analyzed. The systems of the database are always considered as the necessary thing regarding the operational efficiencies that would manage the operations of the organization in the most effective manner (, 2016). The data must be changed with organizational structure especially while providing the global relief services to the victims of the natural disasters. The watchdog, which is commonly named, as the evaluation technique of the charitable or the non-for-profit institution, must do integrated with the core values or the mission of the company. The techniques of the evaluator of the business would need to continue in the neutral strategy applications. The membership program is the recommended strategy that would have the necessary information for the people associated with the ARC is managed in an adequate manner. The employees must be motivated while granting them rewards suitable or according to their needs. The industries like the manufacturing, retailing, services sector and the decision making for the fundraising capacity of the ARC is listed in this manner (, 2016). 

References (2016). Better Business Bureau. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from (2016). Charity Navigator. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from (2016). Guidestar. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from

college papers

Accounting Information System

Accounting Information System

Accounting information system is a process or structure of storing, collecting and processing the data related to accounting and finance. This article is all about the describing the framework of using this data in a right and quality manner.  Furthermore, it is providing an idea to process the accounting system and data under the four major sections. These four sections are people and decision-making, operations, governance, and technology. It is influencing the accounting information system positively because of the data and information technology.  

On the other hand, it has the larger impact on the structure of accounting information system.  In my opinion, it is adding quality to data and providing the path for organizing the accounting information system. In my perspective, it is focusing more on the people and decision-making.  Therefore, it has the larger impact on the people who are taking control of the system and providing a clear framework for them as well. Furthermore, the article could influence the people to follow the rules and act according to compliance in accounting information system. Overall, it has the positive impact on this specific system with comprehensive details of major concepts of quality.  

college papers



General Electric(GE)

Source: GE Stock and S& P 500 performance

Movement of stock prices against S&P index is provided in above graph. The trend is showing that in initial phase, both movements are opposite, but after some time, MNC and S&P index is showing same trends. Stock movement is going in the same manner as S&P 500. In the last, trend is also opposite.

AT and T(T)

Source: AT and T stock and S& P 500 performance

This graph is showing that in the starting, trend is opposite. Blue line is showing AT&T and green line is showing S&P 500 index. In the start, AT &T is moving upward and index is moving downward but after that both are showing same movement again. AT & T is showing higher fluctuation as compared to the index. In the last, index is stable but AT & T is still showing downward trend.

Soft Bank Group Corp. (SFTBY)

Source: SFTBY stock and S & P 500 performance

Above graph is showing stock performance of SYTBY against S& P 500 index. Green line in the graph is for S&P 500 and blue line is for Soft Bank Group Corp. In starting, both are decreasing. Both of them have increased with the passage of time. It can be concluded here that S& P 500 is driving prices for SFTBY. Small change in S & P 500 is also contributing towards large change in MNC.

Hitachi LTD(HTHIY)

Source: HTHIY stock and S& P 500 stock performance

            Chart is showing opposite trend in starting months. After January, trend is same for both of the lines. It can be concluded here that S & P 500 is driving prices for Hitachi LTD. closing % of HTHIY is 10.33% and for S & P 500 is 2.26%. It is indicating that small change in S& P 500 is driving large change in MNC (HTHIY).


General Electrics

GE Rate of return
2013 2014 2015 2014 2015
Profit 13,057 15,233 -6,126 17% -140%
Sales 146,045 148,589 117,386 2% -21%
US TO EURO 0.753045 0.753602 0.901699
US TO JPY 97.58981 105.8581 121.0558
US TO CAD 1.030084 1.104347 1.279163

            Rate of return for revenue and profit has decreased with the passage of time. Exchange rate prices are showing that exchange rate for USD against three most exposed currencies have increased. Due to increased in USD, company is facing high risk due to its major business in Europe, Japan and Canada. Stock performance has reduced.

AT and T

AT and T Rate of return
2013 2014 2015 2014 2015
Sales 128,752 132,447 146,801 3% 11%
Profit 18,249 6,224 13,345 -66% 114%
US TO PESO 12.76184 13.30564 15.79225

            Due to most of the exposed currency of this company as Mexican Peso, historical average exchange rate for both currencies have used in above table. USD has increased against Mexican Peso. It is indicating that company is using currency hedges and strategies to minimize its exposure against PESO. This is the reason why, decrease in PESO is not affecting its returns negatively.  Stock performance has reduced.

Soft Bank Group

Soft Bank Group Rate of return
2013 2014 2015 2014 2015
Sales 6,666,651 8,670,221 9,153,549 30% 6%
Profit 527,035 763,682 474,172 45% -38%
USD to JPY 97.589811 105.85815 121.05581

            Soft bank group is facing risk from, foreign exchange fluctuation of JPY. Exchange rate prices are showing that US Dollar is increasing as compared to Japanese Yen. Growth of sales has decreased in 2015 and net income growth is also negative. It is indicating that reduction in Japanese’s Yen is affecting on business of this multinational company. Stock performance has reduced with the passage of time.

Hitachi Ltd

Hitachi Ltd Rate of return
2013 2014 2015 2014 2015
Sales 9,616,202 9,774,930 10,034,305 2% 3%
Profit 264,975 217,482 172,155 -18% -21%
USD TO Yuan 6.152292 6.158134 6.283627

            In 2015, exchange rate of USD has increased as compared to Chinese Yuan. It indicates that USD has improved as compared to Chinese Yuan. Net income is negative; it is indicating that business is affected by the currency exchange risk. Stock performance has improved.


college papers

Lord of the Rings/J.R.R. Tolkien

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien’s created the world, in which absolute evil and absolute good are continuously struggling to defeat the other. As we know that Tolkien had religious upbringing (Catholic), which not only influenced the narrative (the saga between good and evil) but also it influenced the characters that were created by him. Therefore, we observe the cycle of life and death (beginning and end) in various forms. We also learn that this cycle is eternal and every time new characters are born that embark on a journey (both internal and external) and after play their part leave this world. For instance, from the study, it is apparent that in a previous age, courageous men and women had resisted dark forces (evil) and contained it. However, when individuals of different kinds allowed themselves to rot, evil remerged.

The ending of the book is also a beginning, very much similar to the beginning when Men and Elves defeated Evil (Melkor and Sauron). In the ending of the book evil (Sauron) got defeated; however, this end is also beginning of age, which would once again test, allure and tempt different races/kinds through greed and such other instruments of evil. Therefore, it can be said that the end of the book is a beginning of new era, in which good will corrupt and evil will, but the process would be gradual.

  • When we study Tolkien’s work, we learn that though his created world is vast and has enormous characters, very few of these characters are complex characters. For instance, Boromir is one such character that stands out from others. This is because he exhibits human-like characteristics; he is corruptible, he is weak, and he gets confused. Among all (the guardians of the ring), the One Ring is able to influence/corrupt Boromir most, which compels him to do an additional-effort to resist the influence or corruption.

We also find out that most of the Tolkien characters gradually became corrupt or evil. For instance, Sauron, who is considered a personified evil, gradually became wicked. His admiration for strength and power slowly totted him, and eventually he deserted his services to Valar and became the most trusted lieutenant of Melkor. Some characters embark on a journey (both inwards and outwards), during which they are overtaken by forces of evil; however, through strong will, they can rescue themselves. Frodo Baggins is such character which embarked on a journey, during which Ring gradually corrupts him and almost took him if he were not saved by his friend Samwise Gamgee. Saruman, the original White Wizard, is another character, who in fear and admiration of strength allowed himself to decay spiritually.

  • The terms or words, duty, sacrifice, mercy, honor, and friendship are understood almost similarly in various cultures. The literature, in the form of epic, story or sacred text, provides additional understanding to these words, which then evolve and alter as a society and intellect progress. In Tolkien’s created world, Lord of the Rings-The Hobbit- The Fellowship of the Ring, these concepts are discussed, and through examples, an additional meaning or understanding is provided to them. 

For instance, Aragon, Gandalf, Legolas, King of Rohan are duty bound and to deliver their duty they are not reluctant to take a risk, which could end their lives. The Struggle and journey of Aragon, to rescue the world from evil, is an example of delivering obligation, which might have killed him numerous times. Gandalf’s (another example) commitment to the cause and his sacrificing of his desires (about greater strength), provides us a clear understanding of term sacrifice.

Tolkien very beautifully explored and examined the term honor, throughout the book. For instance, Aragon promised The Army of the Dead that he would emancipate them from the oath and would become a source of salvation if they helped him in the impending Battle for Pelennor Fields. After winning the Battle of Pelennor Fields, there was a greater and more decisive battle to come; however, Aragon did not consider that and honored his promise.

Through such battles and scenarios, Tolkien reevaluated and reinterpreted terms such as sacrifice, honor, and duty. 

college papers

Mini Assignment

Part 1 (MCQs)

  1. c
  2. a or d
  3. b
  4. d
  5. b
  6. e
  7. f
  8. d
  9. c
  10. d

PART 2 Written

Q1: Fourier series

F(x) =

The function f is an odd function that is


That means an = 0

Now to find bn


Therefore the Fourier series are

Q2: X0(t) =t/(x(t)); x(0) = 1 ;

X_1 (t)=1

X_1 (t)=1

X_1 (t)=1+

Q 3:

X0(t) = f(t; x(t)) = x3(t)

  1. On Bp (0),

Now theLip on Bp(o)

  • On Bp(0),

That shows the above expression holds on Bp(0)

the above expression shows that the Picard iteration for Ω Ǝ! X:[0,T] R

IVP for some T>0

X(t) = 0

So A is the only solution space for the given IVP

S = {t        0}

Q 4:

Part A:

X(0) = 0 So the Picard iteration exist for the given expression.

Now as Ω is open , Ǝ ε>0, (0)

Let {xi} =  where n>[] then

∞ as i→∞

And for any choice of Ω so the Picard Iteration can not apply for the given expression.

Part B: Sol 1:  X(t) = 0


Sol 2: x(t) =



L[t→t2 –H (t-1)] dt =

= |

Q 6:

Part C:

n =




Q 7:

Consider  the IVP t→

Is a solution in  now


x(0) =

Picard Iteration




college papers

Internationalizing U.S. colleges and universities while decreasing the trade deficit: The positive double whammy

Internationalizing U.S. colleges and universities while decreasing the trade deficit: The positive double whammy

IV.       Alternative Courses of Action

            The recruitment of the foreign students to study in America must be done in a strategic approach of internationalizing the higher education. The trade deficit would definitely go to lower down using the strategic approach. The culture of America would promote in all over the world and the international students would pay the tuition to the American universities that would ultimately a positive strategy of gaining the cultural, socio-economic growth in the country. The comparative advantage is the most significant thing in this perspective, which would, accomplished from education industry of America through recruitment of international students while providing the services in the form of increased in exports for the America and a great contribution or participation in terms of the decreased in the trade deficit. The framework of higher education for international students must do in order to integrate the benefits accomplished through a socio-economic and cultural promotion that are necessary for the global massive competition (Vest, 2014).

V.        Recommended Course of Action

            The recommended course of the best alternative action would be the attaining the comparative advantage through developing a dynamic analytical framework of the higher education for the international students. It is a fact while increasing the maximum number of the opportunities for the other international students so that the amalgamation between the local along with foreign culture are integrated through the quality resources of attaining the education. As according to the author quote, ‘the increase in foreign students attending U.S. colleges and universities illustrates the continued belief that a U.S. degree is a sound investment’. The economic influence or impact to university would be positive or dynamic in the sense that windfall era for the universities along with government economic strengthen activities would achieve in this manner. Besides the positive economic impact through education, the chances of the tourism along with the globally recognized events would occur in a manner that that would bring a positive change in the in the education as a global phenomenon.

VI.       Justification of Recommended Course

            The regulatory analytical framework that would establish in a manner that would support the international students to get an education from the American universities and college would be very beneficial for the economic terms such exports a service from education, the promotion of the American culture and the tourism through literary global events. The foreign students always a great or a dynamic source of boosting the domestic economy in one way or the other is analyzed. The opportunities in a new strategic way that would provide to the international students as a core attraction for studying in the American universities are the great keys to success for American educational or economic dynamics. The trade deficit would ultimately reduce from this strategic approach from the education department of the US in terms of providing such opportunities to the admissions in American educational institutions.That is why this recommendation of developing a system or framework model that would boost the international students to attain education from American universities is essential (Vest, 2014).


Vest, D. (2014). Internationalizing U.S. colleges and universities while decreasing the trade deficit: The positive double whammy. International Journal of Education Research , 9 (1), 177-185.

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Occupational Health & Safety


The assignment briefly explains the organizational health environment as this is very important to understand the health and safety in the work environment. If the company does not obey the health and safety rules, then it is violating the human rights also. The assignment briefly explains the issues due to which the health and safety get in danger and the factors which effect the health and safety of the worker at the workplace. This is usually practiced in the industries who manufacture products on a large scale and in the harsh environment. The safety engineer or the manager is required to control the health and safety process of the organization.[G1] [G2] [G3] 

What are your observations and reflections?

The assignment was good as it increases the knowledge regarding the work environment. There are many positive impacts of the assignment like it insist the organization to follow the safety rules as proposed by the international safety organizations and it also an emphasis on the health of the employee working in the company. Mostly the companies overlook the condition of the worker as they are only concerned with their work and profit due to which employees get sick and ruin their health. This assignment also highlights the condition of the worker in various industries especially the industries like forging and steel mills where the workers work under the high temperature and pressure of the air. The bad thing about the assignment is that it revolves around the safety and health of the worker but does not mention any law which should companies follow to make sure the health of the worker is secure.[G4] [G5] [G6] 

How does the reading relate to your perspective or worldview?[G7] 

The reading is the written words of my thoughts as they have covered all the important aspects of occupational health and safety which were in my mind. The world health organization as surveyed that the reason why senior citizens get the disease at the retirement is that they work in the harsh environment all their life which is not good. This assignment perfectly matches my thoughts and also explains the pros and cons of working in the harsh environment. As this surely relates to the [G8] [G9] [G10] daily life experience some of the daily life examples in which the organizations are violating the health and safety rules of the world are explained below.[G11] [G12] 

The steel mills are the most common kind of organization that violate the health and safety rules because the work environment in the steel mill is very harsh reason behind that the treatment of the steel is not an easy task. The melting point of steel is several hundred degrees which keep the furnace and the work environment of the company very hot so it’s the responsibility of the company to make sure the worker works in the good environment and give him or her the proper safety kit which should be wear while working in the harsh environment.

In what ways does this article reinforce, extend, challenge, or oppose your views about occupational health and safety[G13] 

My views about the occupational health and safety have expanded after going through this article as it has clearly had a great impact on my thoughts and action. Now if I will look for the work, my first preference will be the health and safety. As I will choose the organization which provides the best health and safety environment. This article has explored my knowledge regarding the constraints which are present in the health and safety of the environment. There are pros and [G14] [G15] [G16] [G17] cons of these health and safety rules. Then health and safety rules also have a positive impact on the productivity of the organization and also on the economy of the country. A healthy environment can only make progress.[G18] [G19] [G20] 

What are your critical comments or questions?

After going through the reading of this article thoroughly, there are some questions that pop up in my mind. The big questions [G21] are why the countries are not forcing the companies to follow the health and safety of the people. As this is the core responsibility of the company that they should give the best health environment to their employee because the employees can only work efficiently if they are given the best work environment which is secure and comfortable for them to work.

What serious omissions do you feel should be in the reading?

The serious omission should be the law regarding the health and safety of the employees. The implication of that law by the companies. A check and balance should be kept by the government on each company to make sure they are working efficiently and not violating the human right law. The article should also point out the weakness of the employees due to which companies does not take this thing serious but in reality, it’s a big issue and affecting the lives of millions in this world.[G22] [G23] 

How do these omissions distort or undermine the author’s position?

These omissions clearly evaluate the author position as he is on the side of employees and have a soft corner for them and also he takes a stand against the companies as it can be seen from the [G24] article. But the author lacks in one aspect of this article, and that is he didn’t mention any thorough procedure through which the company can get the health and safety license. Although he mentioned the responsibilities of the safety engineer in the organization and what things are required in the company to make this occupational health and safety in the organization.[G25] 

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Research Type and Research Question

The type of the research will be qualitative and qualitative data analyses tools will be employed to investigate the problem under investigation. The research study is designed to explore the adverse impacts of increased use of drug consumption on the health of the students. Thus, the qualitative research is suitable and supporters the exploratory nature of the investigation. Research question will be established to address the purpose of the study.

Research questions:

RQ1: What are the adverse health effects of increased used of drug consumption in youth? 

RQ2: How youth contracts the habit of substance abuse?

RQ3: What is the role of the youth, parents and teachers to prevent drug abuse?

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Business Process Management

Business Process Management

What is a Business Process? Why do you think it is important to categorize processes in this way?

The activities that are logically connected with each other so the positive and the effective results could be obtained. The tasks or the activities could be any like the production, planning, sales, marketing or any other activity involves in the business (, 2016). There are different processes and the categories that are related to the business in every step. However, the category is important in the business so that the process could move smoothly. The business processes are important, as the Governance, management, and other departments need to be in the flow as it will be possible with the proper processes only (Dumas, Rosa, Mendling, & Reijers, 2013).

Source (2016). business process. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from

Dumas, M., Rosa, M. L., Mendling, J., & Reijers, H. (2013). Fundamentals of Business Process Management. Springer Science & Business Media.

What is Business Process Management? What is a Business Process Management System?

The business process management is the processes of the business that are categorized and managed so that the business could excel. However, three things are important in this context, which are the alignment of firm resources, clear strategic decisions and discipline in daily operations (, 2016). Discussing the Business process management system, I come to know that it is the system, which actually helps the organization to increase the efficiency through the proper software as everything is systemized here. Therefore, the key difference between them is that in BPM, the processes are made, however, in the BPMS everything is systematic and no manual work is done (, 2016). 

Source (2016). What is BPM Anyway? Business Process Management Explained. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from (2016). Business process management system. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from

Find a case where a company adopted BPM and explain what their motivations were for BPM implementation? How did the organization define BPM? What was the scope of their BPM initiative?

It can be seen Toyota is implementing business process management in their assembly of Cars (, 2016). It has been noticed that due to the business process that has been implemented the company is able to eliminate the wastages of the automobile and the inventory is limited, which ultimately helped them in the production (Duvall, 2006).  It is stated that the company BPM useful as they define it that makes the processes smooth for the company. However, the company has initiated the BPM as they want to increase the production and they want to make the customer satisfaction better. Further, the company is able to achieve their initiates in this BPM as well.

Source (2016). Promapp Fuels a Future of Continuous Improvement at Pacific Petroleum. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from

Duvall, M. (2006). What Is Driving Toyota. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from

What are the benefits of BPM?

There are many benefits of BPM for the companies, it can be seen that some of the benefits are as the coordination is improved due to BPM, quick responses to the opportunities and the challenges is identified (University Alliance, 2016). Further, due to BPM implementation the company becomes Agile, productive, Efficient, Good transparency, increased customer satisfaction, the measurability increased, company become sustainable and the technical integration between the departments has been seen due to the successful implementation of business process management (, 2014).

Source (2014). 10 Benefits of Business Process Management. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from

University Alliance. (2016). Benefits of BPM (Business Process Management). Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from

Who are the BPM stakeholders in the Market?

There are many stakeholders for the company as it has a vast category in which they fall. It is observed that Vendors, the research community, labor markets, capital markets, Customers, employees, Shareholders, competitors and Government are influenced by one or the other way (Harmon, 2003). For example for the pizza shop employees, Delivery customer, Local pizza restaurant, Supplier, Staff, Local community, restaurant owner and the governing body, all are the stakeholders for them. Therefore, before implementing the BPM the company needs to take care of all the stakeholders so that no complications encounter (Burlton, 2012). 


Burlton, R. T. (2012). Who cares? Stakeholder analysis in BPM. Retrieved Oct 28, 2016, from

Harmon, P. (2003). Business Process Change: A Manager’s Guide to Improving, Redesigning, and Automating Processes. Morgan Kaufmann.

What do Business Rules and Business Processes have in common?

Discussing the business rules, they are set rules and patterns, which always removes some kind of degree of freedom from the practices. They need to be practiced at any cost and they are helpful in the decision criteria as well (Flaig, 2012). However, the business process is the criteria and the process which business starts in order to increase the performance of the firm and the systematic ways in which the efficiency could be enhanced. However the basic difference in between the rule and the process is as the rule are the set patterns on the other side the Business process is are the process to make the company efficient (Consulting, 2015).  


Consulting, L. (2015). The Difference Between Business Rules and Business Processes. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from

Flaig, M. (2012). Business Rules and Business Processes. Retrieved oct 28, 2016, from

Read the following statement:

Linda Sharp has come to you for help. Her boss has asked her “what is this BPM hype that I keep hearing about? I don’t understand… it seems to be the same as other concepts that have been around for a long time such as Six Sigma, TQM, Lean Management and others. What is different with BPM? What will it do for me?”

I will Explain Linda that BPM is the business process management. This is actually a technique which the businesses uses in order to streamline their businesses and to categories the processes that are important for the company. Six sigma and TQM are the other techniques and they are different from the BPM (Andersen, 2007). Here the companies who uses BPM in an efficient manner, it is seen that they are successful in their operations and the reason is that they are ahead of others in the industry. It will help you in different ways that if you will apply any business process in the business it will be streamlined and will be specific. Most probably the outcome of the project will be enhanced which is a good symbol for the Business (Brocke & Rosemann, 2014).


Andersen, B. (2007). Business Process Improvement Toolbox. ASQ Quality Press.

Brocke, J. v., & Rosemann, M. (2014). Handbook on Business Process Management 2: Strategic Alignment, Governance, People, and Culture. Springer.

Research these topics and provide an answer for Linda – specifically, answer – What is different about BPM today and why should an organization pursue it?

Discussing the BPM today we can observe there are some of the companies who are ahead of the others in the industry. Looking n to deep analysis, we come to know that their systems are systematic and the categorization of the process is so smooth that no hindrance comes into existence. That is the reason they are doing quite well. All the business process is implemented in the correct manner and they are managed in a systematic way so that the efficiency of the firm’s increases (Weske, 2012). Moreover, I would say that the organizations should peruse with the business process management as if they want to grow and excel in their business. The reason behind it is the business with who had implemented BPM is quite more successful than others (Draheim, 2010).


Draheim, D. (2010). Business Process Technology: A Unified View on Business Processes, Workflows and Enterprise Applications. Springer Science & Business Media.

Weske, M. (2012). Business Process Management: Concepts, Languages, Architectures. Springer Science & Business Media.

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To what degree is Indian Mascots an issue an American society?

Chapter Six

A.    To what degree is Indian Mascots an issue an American society?

Indian Mascots are increasing in number in the American society. They have established their separate colonies and societies in which they follow their rules.  According to the Brooks, as she explained in her article that these Indian mascots are spreading the racism and cultural diversity. That’s why they have more impact on the American society than the other nation. As in the past one decade, the Indians have migrated to the US in large number, and now they have control over some areas in both economic and property ways. Some Indians are running the business chain or network which is going well although it contributes to the country economy building the Indian Mascots is not acceptable by the Native Americans. Although there is no clash of these two civilization still the Americans are scared of Indian Mascots.

B.     What is the viewpoint of the article in stating that Native American mascots are not done in respect?

Native Americans have been treated badly in the past, and they have not gained the respect from the other Americans and the Government as they should get. That’s why whenever there is shooting incident mostly the black guy is killed without any reason just like what happen in the case of Michael. The point Brooks raised in her article is that the native Americans are still insecure about their safety although the slavery has finished long ago but still this nation is living under the fear. Because there is social stress among the government and the native Americans.

C.    Explain why the author concludes?

The educational system of the US is developing and increasing the racism as from the start the students are taught about the history of slavery which makes the Indian Americans think of their worse past. While the Indian students learn about this, they become sensitive and emotional. Because they are bullied by the other students as well in their childhood especially, the white kids have made gangs which are not good for the students at this young age. The author concludes this article by saying that Indian students are frightened of the schools as they are afraid that other students will force them to do what they want. They are bullied and mentally tortured although there are some Indian students who take a stand but still there is a large number of students living in fear.

D.    Why is it okay according to the article to use the “Fighting Irish” as a mascot and not the Washington Redskins?

Fighting Irish is referred to as the term which is not fair to the person all the time. As fighting Irish means to defend yourself from the force who is constantly attacking and trying to bring you down. That’s why it is ok for the people to use this term when it comes to Mascot because in the mascot a group or the organization is fighting for their rights just like in the US African-American are fighting for their rights against the illegal killing. To understand the term Fighting Irish, the history can help us. As this term was used first in the cold war when people have to fight for their rights and it was not easy at all. Since then it is known to be the resistance against the force which is trying to destroy the ideology or the rights of the person or the mascots.

E.     “Cultural Competent”

Yes, the organizations who are using the Indian mascots are culturally competent. Because they have their attitude, behavior, rules and societies. This makes them competent to the other nations due to which the Americans can’t force them to follow their attitude or culture. As they have already developed a very well organized culture and societies in the US. This process is well developed but evolve over the years because people adopt this process or change very slowly. As the Indians have made the Mascots for their benefits to secure their generation. There is a very famous organization by the name of “Black Lives Matter.”  In this organization, they utilize the best resources to stop violence and spread awareness about the black people or Indian student’s importance in the society.

Chapter Seven

1.      State four points that the article made regarding violence against African Americans.

The four points according to which the violence against African American is happening are the racism, poverty, standards and the social life. As the African-American about 100 years ago getting freedom from the slavery which means they are still living the life of regret and are very sensitive. African-American people are treated by the policeman just like they were treated before as they are abused and shot many times in the past years.

2.      What connection did the article make to history?

Yes, there is a clear connection to the recent shooting on the African-American with the history. Because in the late 19 centuries the black people were killed brutally using the gun. They have shot anytime, and there was no law to protect them. Although the time has changed now but still people have this mindset that they can do whatever they want with the black people and until now the people who shot the African American easily run away from the grip of government and the African American don’t get the justice like in case of Michael Brown and so many others.

  • What does this purport about racism in America and the connection between race, oppression, and poverty?

This clearly shows that racism has not ended in the America. Because in the past five years there are several incidents of shooting one the black people. This clearly shows that there are still people in the societies which promote the racism in the people. Yes, it’s true that racism is based on poverty and race. The white American feel proud and think of themselves superior to the others which cause the hate in the minds of the new generation for each other just like that black people are not ready to forget their past which is now 100 years old and trying to be dominant in some areas of US.

  • Watch the following: now answer the following questions:
  • There are several stereotypes about the African-American people which are presented in the society like that they are harsh and strict people. It also stereotypes about them that they are violent, but this is true in some cases.
  • Not all but some stereotypes are real like black people are violent as they get angry easily and can’t control their anger but some are not real like they are not harsh and strict minded people.
  • People should respect the black people as all the human being want to be respected. They should be treated equally on all basis and give the same benefits like the government is giving to the other nations in the US.
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Interest rate

What is the highest interest rate you can find for a savings account?

The rate of 1.05% APY recognized as impressive high yield saving account offered by the synchrony bank. The bank has provided extra ordinary to their clients to retain customer values in essential and adequate manner. There is no minimum balance required to sustain open an account, but at least $ 30 required to avoid $ 5 monthly maintenance fee.  Thus is the highest interest rate that can be found on the synchrony bank website as well as the simple dollar website search engines as well.  Such higher rate of interest sustains to retain customer’s values and seek to retain more deposits from their potential clients.

2. What is the lowest interest rate you can find on a new car loan?

The lowest rate of new car loan recognized as 2.49 % for APR. This is the lowest interest rate offered by US bank with best of blended options of loan. The competitive interest rate offered by the US bank to retain potential values of customers.  This bank does not automatically penalized buyers of used cars for higher interest rate unless until car is less than six years old with less than 100,000 miles. If anyone wants fuel-efficient vehicles in the market, then they could take interest rate break for minimum interest rate of car loan.

3. Briefly explain why there is a difference between the answers of the first two questions.

There is difference between high interest rate on saving account and low interest rate for new car, because, bank hold security and recovery of overall money with profits attain from the clients. In case of saving account, bank pays interest to a client that is why higher interest rate for the bank would be low as compare to interest rate for new car loan.  Therefore, bank recognized higher interest rate for saving to pay, and lowest interest rate as high to attain more profits.

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Designing A Five Band Audio Equalizer

Executive Summary

            The report analytically examines the designing of the dynamic equalizer having the five band audio functionality, which is also comprised of the filter attached to the lower pass for the users convenience. The other hallmarks of this five band audio equalizer is comprised of the filters having three positions of the band pass along with the filter attached to equalizer in a high pass position. The range of the frequencies for these low along with the high pass are between the range of the 250Hz and the 6 KHz in an accurate unique dimension. The filters, which are attached with the three pass of the bands, the range of the frequency, would between the 250 Hz- the 500 Hz, then for the second filter of the band pass would be 500Hz to the 2 KHz, for the third filter pass would between 2 KHz and 6 KHz.

            The designing of the filters is one in manner that the topology of the Sallen-Key along with the proactive approach of the filters that would help in accomplishing the high chances of occurrences for the low frequency regions of the area of the band pass for the filters. The chronological placement of the filters are the next to the accomplishing a decade or the 40db crossover roll-off from the individual set of the bands.

            The final process of the design execution of this equalizer is incorporated in a manner that the Multi-Sim simulation approach is put according to modifications made into the values of the capacitors through different attempts. Similarly the different sought of values put into the experiments done with resistors using the approach of the Ultiboard while inbuilt the range of the software within the Multi-Sim.


Introduction. 5

Background. 6

Audio Spectrum.. 6

Sub-Bass. 6

Bass. 6

Midrange at Low level 6

Midrange. 6

Upper level of the Midrange. 6

Presence. 7

Brilliance. 7

The band Selection and Cut-Off Frequencies. 8

Types of the Filters. 9

Low level of Pass Filters. 9

High Level of Pass Filters. 9

Filters of the Band Mass. 10

Filter of the Band Reject/Stop. 11

Selection of filter for design. 11

Order of filters and explanation of common topologies. 12

Passive and active filters. 12

Order of filters. 13

Butterworth configuration. 13

Chebyshev configuration. 14

Bessel configuration. 15

Butterworth Vs. Chebyshev Vs. Bessel 16

Sallen key topology. 17

Cutting off the frequencies as well as component calculations filters values. 17

2.7      Transfer Functions. 18

2.8      The Qfactor 18

2.9      Operational amplifiers. 19

Types of Op-amps. 19

Practical and Theoretical Designing of Five Band Audio Equalizer 19

Multi-Sim of NI 19

Calculations of the resistor and the capacitor for the low pass phase (Appendix) 20

Stages of the high pass filter 20

Calculations of the resistors and the capacitors of values of stages of high pass (Appendix) 22

Band pass filter stage. 22

Calculations of Resistor(R) and Capacitor(C) values for the band pass stage. 23

Comparison of cut off frequencies using theoretical and capacitors and practical values for resistors. 24

all stages combined Final design in Multisim.. 24

Problems faced in final design. 25

Design of Ultiboard. 28

Materials and Equipment in construction of five band equalizer 30

Conclusion. 31

References. 32

Appendix. 33

1. 33


            The utility of the equalizers has a long history when it was used for the concerts ceremonies along with the theatres performances design according to the acoustically range of structure in a productive way which would carry the signals of the voices as well as the music for the large number of audiences. The figure 1 is therefore is shown as a exhibition of the in the early dates of roman theatre such as Amman.

            The sequential process of the equalization would manipulate through the loudness of the different level of frequencies while signaling the hardware as well as the products of the software. This is the highly significant procedure in the related products of the audio, which is widely used in the cinemas for recording purposes, theaters along with the software products for audio or video.

            Therefore, the core objective of this report is to devise a design of the five band audio equalizer having the frequencies range in the cut-off approach for accomplishing the frequency as low as the 0dB while manipulating the potentiometers in the mid range. The control of the potentiometers when they are in the extreme positions, for example between the 20Db as well as the -20dB as far as the banks of the frequencies are concerned (Beggs & Thede, 2001).


            In the section of the background, we have explained the spectrum or the mechanism of the audio equalizer, functionalities of the sub-bass, bassand the different terms of the audio ranges integrated with the frequencies level.

Audio Spectrum

            There are almost seven different ranges of the categories having the impact at their own level overall system of the sound. These categories include the sub-bass having frequencies of the 20Hz- 60 Hz, the category of the bass would be next having range 60 Hz-250Hz, the low level of the mid-ranges up to the 500 Hz from the 250 Hz, the mid range itself would between the 2 KHz from the 500 Hz. The upper level of the midrange would be the 4 KHz from the 2 KHz. The most important thing is that the ‘presence’ would be the 6 KHz from the 4 KHz and the ‘Brilliance’ would be the 20 KHz from the 6 KHz.


            The sub-bass is recognized as the lowest level of the frequency in terms of the dimensions of the spectrum, this is the sequence or step usually a person feels rather heard in most of the cases where the lowest range of the guitar pitch would be the 41 Hz.


            The frequent range of the bass would be from the 60Hz to the 250Hz. The frequency of the bass in the cotemporary business would be from the 90 Hz to the 200 Hz. The Cello along with the Trombone is the instruments related to the audio equalizer that could match this frequency range.

Midrange at Low level

            There is a frequency range at the low level of the midrange from the 250 Hz to the 500 Hz where the musical instruments such as the harmonics would be in this range. For example, the vocals of the female along with the snare drums are the right example in this regard.


            The frequency range of the midrange of the audio equalizer would be from the 500 Hz to the 2 KHz having the level of quantity like the horn (, 2008).

Upper level of the Midrange

            The upper range lies among the range of the frequency as 2 KHz to the 4 KHz in way that extreme nature of the sensitivity of the human’s ear would attenuate the in a lighter note for this type of the frequency especially in the case of the projections sued for the various types of vocals in this range.


            The range of the presence in terms of the frequency would be from the 4 KHz top the 6 KHz in a way that sounds would attenuate as per the transparent sought of the instruments especially that would be appear accurate through the Saxophone.


            The range of the frequency for the brilliance would from the 6 KHz to the 20 KHz having the instruments like the harmonics, that would made the sound of the Hi-Fi, especially in terms of the violins and mostly the drum’s cymbals are used in that region.

The band Selection and Cut-Off Frequencies

            For the five bands audio equalizer, we have selected the designing witch accordance to the controlling range of the frequency from the 20 Hz to the 20 KHz. The regions also integrated according to the requirements or the customized five bands regions. The table is describing this information in a way that (, 2012).

 Table1: Frequency range for the bands as well as of crossovers

Stage of the filter       Regional direction Range of the frequency for Crossovers (Hz)
Low level of pass Bass 20Hz to 200Hz
Band 1 Low level of midrange 200Hz to 500Hz
Band 2 Midrange 500Hz to 2000Hz
Band 3 Upper level of midrange 2000Hz to 8000Hz
High level of pass Presence 8000Hz to 10000Hz

Types of the Filters

            The filter in the technical terms is explained as the electrical circuit that would segregated in the amplify attenuating the ranges of the level of the frequency. The core objective of the filters in the audio equalizer would depend on the built in classifications of the low along with high pas and the band that would reject would also examined at individual level of analysis in this paper (Gaffney, 2008).

 Low level of Pass Filters

            The filters of the low level at the stage or the phase of the filtering in term of the low level of the frequencies in very specific frequency set as a cut-off that would incorporate the frequency at the low level and cut-off for frequencies. The demo is presented in the figure which describe the resistor and the capacitor at the concerned level of the plot at the point of the bode explaining the design of the low level of pass filter.  

High Level of Pass Filters

            This filter is the extreme bipolar to the low pass filter attenuating the frequencies at the low level would integrate with the high level of the frequencies. The figure explaining the swapping of the capacitor as well as the resistor while making the comparison with the plot of the bode in a relevant direction in terms of the direction of the filter at high pass level.

Filters of the Band Mass

The filters of the pass band are a sought of the circuit that would pass on the relvant range of the frequencies that would reject the frequencies range of the outside range. The fletring phase is developed through the cascading between the low and high pass of the filter. The figure is showing that the plot of the relevant bode would defined as the simplest process as far as designing module of the filter band pass is concerned (Michel, 2011).

Filter of the Band Reject/Stop

This is the bipolar extreme of the filter of the pass band or a circuit that would pass on the range of the frequencies that would cut-off the range of the frequencies at a certain point is analyzed. Rather than the interconnection of the low as well as the high pass in the sequence of the parallel connections, the above-described process is incorporated. The figure is explaining the designing of the band as the reject band filter and the bode plot of the certaing filter.

Selection of filter for design

            As elaborated in the figures that provides the specifications of the fives bands. Such five bands consist on the five stages of frequencies filtering of the specific ranges. It reveals that one low pass as well as one high passes on the stage of filter. The rest of the other frequencies separated with other three band pass stages. Following represented as filter design (Self, 2013).

Order of filters and explanation of common topologies

            It has been categorizing subsequently to filter into high, low as well as band pass that configure in design. Such design specifically respond to the further filters to be passive and active that need to be 1st, 2nd and nth filters that explored the configuration of BUTTERWORTH, CHEBYSHEV Bessel with the key SALLEN topology  will be elaborated in further coming elaborations.

Passive and active filters

            The passive filters consist on the capacitors, resistors and other inductors. On the other hand, active filter consist on the transistors and components. The active filters are size in smaller as well as more much of the weight economical as compare to passive filters.  The passive filters don not have external power supply as compare to active filter do. Some characteristics of active and passive filters have taken into consideration for design filter.

Order of filters

            For the consideration of first order circuit, consist on the one capacitor and one resistor in above-mentioned figure.  It has 20dB/decade curve on the plot on bode, by increase in filter order have much steeper roller off ensuring the pass band and flatness. The figures elaborates order of filters effects the steepness of the roll off.

Butterworth configuration

            The filter of butter worth configuration specifically designed for maximum flat frequency respond to the pass band. It means that butter worth filter has higher the order of longer life flatness that could be achieved in the following figure. Such filter explored by the engineer of British Stephen Butterworth

Chebyshev configuration

            The filter of Chebyshev specifically designed from the steeper roll between the stop band and pass band as well. These two types of filter named by the Russian mathematics named called as pafnuty Chebyshev. Such characteristics of filters have pass band region indicated as ripples that could be seen as below figure.

Bessel configuration

            The filter of bessel have phase of linear response that have been executed over the board frequency, it reveals square wave. By comparing Bessel to Butter worth towards the pass band sure the credibility to gain not as flat as well as crossover the stop band which is not steep as chebyshev could be seen as following figure to understand it (Tejeiro & Nistrian, 2011).

 Butterworth Vs. Chebyshev Vs. Bessel

Following is the figure of comparison among such filters in that presents the design features in essential and adequate manner. The butter worth is the most suitable design against other tow filters, because it have smooth roll off as well as pass band flatted adequately.

Sallen key topology

            The topology of Sallen key used for the second order filter that is easily to construct simply and easily. This is the main reason that Sallen key topology used for design structure. Such methodology verify voltage source of the voltage control for the same as like voltage amplifier. It helps in demonstration of voltage follower for the purpose in that elaborated in the next coming figures. The following mentioned figure provides the understanding of the circuit design by sallen key topology to obtain desired results. This type of methid was developed by the Sallen as well as EL key in the year of the 1950.

Cutting off the frequencies as well as component calculations filters values

Cutting off the frequencies as well as component calculations filters values provides the values and figures to generate the required results.  It helps in start to boost or attenuate filters that are in common terms. For the calculations of cutting off frequency, filters following are the equations used for the cut off frequency for filters

The   equation, number 1, is employed when there are multiple statistics, pertaining to filter, for the Capacitor and Resistor. If these available values are identical or equal, for instance, R1=R2 and C1=C2 then the second equation will be employed.

Likewise, the equations, which are mentioned above, can be employed to determine the numbers or values (competent) for the preferred cutoff frequencies merely through reorganizing those equations, which are in 2.6. If the prescribed could be followed precisely, relevant values could be computed to extreme precision.

            Select a cut-off frequency f0 (Hz).

            Select a suitable capacitor number or statistic, such as C2 and that ranges between the values of 100pF & 0.1 uF.(This is due to that fact that  the discretion is ours to select capacitor values instead of the values that prevail in market)

            Compute for R by employing the equations that are in 2.6

2.7     Transfer Functions

 The input and the output statistics or rations are represented by transfer function of linear time invariant mechanisms. The previously mentioned mechanisms are generally employed in unitary input unitary output circumstances.

This is function of the above diagram (transfer function) T(s)=(Y(s))/(R(s))

2.8     The Qfactor

The Q factor, which is also described as damping-ratio, is factually the elevation and expansion of response, a frequency response, of any filter. In this mechanisms, we use Q= 1/√2  that has been computed around 0.707. This value is actually a usual of Q, of a 2nd order. As per rule, If the value of Q is larger than the typical value, which is 0.707, then we will observe the augmenting or peaking in the filter.

2.9     Operational amplifiers

The op-amps (common terminology), are actually called Operational amplifiers,  have been considered chief factors or elements in a typical analog circuits. Operational Amplifiers have diverse and several utilities in connection with above mentioned resistors and capacitors. The crucial and primary mechanisms of Operational Amplifier are that this mechanisms augments and amplifies the voltage, voltage. This entire mechanism depends on the computation and design. We can define it as an integrated circuit, because it’s characteristic and function.

          Types of Op-amps

There are kinds of Operational-Amplifiers that serve various objectives for few have been cited below

  • Inverting amplifier
  • Non-inverting amplifier
  • Voltage follower
  • Summing amplifier

Practical and Theoretical Designing of Five Band Audio Equalizer

The theoretical as well as the practical designing according to the feasibility is listed below:

Multi-Sim of NI

            The software that is based on the designing as per the practical along with theoretical results could be attained the accurate results as per the equalizer in the construct or the design. The simulation program of the industry range would incorporate with the simulation feature having the deigning of the circuit as per the environmental emphasis. The designing of the multi-Sim in terms of the qualitative dimension is considered at the appropriate manner of the quality designing that would be the convenient for the users. The circuit board in the print designing would integrate upon the board of the Ultiboard.                                                          

Findings in terms of theoretical Multi-Sim calculations

            The low levels of the filter pass stage would have the second order in the designing position of the Butterworth that would use in the topology of the Sallen-key in the LM-741 circuit of the op-amp having the frequency range of the 250 Hz. This is also shown in the figure that the bode plot of the Multisim using the circuit.

Calculations of the resistor and the capacitor for the low pass phase (Appendix)

            The calculations for the resistors and the capacitors would be provided in the appendix as shown in the above-described tables, equations.

The function of the transfer stage of the filter equation is described below

Stages of the high pass filter

            The stage of the filter include the Butterworth filter that would use the second order topology of the Sallen-Key having the frequency range of the 6 Hz as per the LM-741 shown in the figure 19 in the Mutisim.  

Calculations of the resistors and the capacitors of values of stages of high pass (Appendix)

            The values for the resistors for the R1 and the R2 in the figure 18 would be incorporated through the appendix

The function of the transfer of the stages of the high pass

The function of the transfer is listed below

Band pass filter stage

The band pass filter stage consists of three band passes using second order low pass and high pass filters attached together. The low cutoff frequency of the band pass 1 is 250Hz and the high cutoff is 500Hz approximately, similarly the low cutoff frequency of the band pass 2 is 500Hz and the high cutoff is 2 KHz approximately and finally with band pass 3 the low cutoff 2KHz and the higher cut off would be 6KHz respectively, because we use real world values for resistors and capacitors there is a minor difference between the cutoffs in all stages. Illustrated in figure 20 are all three stages in Multisim.

Calculations of Resistor(R) and Capacitor(C) values for the band pass stage

values for the resistors R1 and R2 of figure 18 have been calculated according to equations which are elaborated below.

Transfer function of the band pass filter stage

Comparison of cut off frequencies using theoretical and capacitors and practical values for resistors

we had obtained practical values In order to build a circuit for components using the two equations presented down, the various errors our cutoff frequencies have been changed.

Filter stage Cut-off frequencies(low – high) [Hz] (Practical) Cut-off frequencies(low –high) [Hz] (Theoretical)
Low pass 160 250
Band pass 1 160-550 250-500
Band pass 2 630-1900 500-2000
Band pass 3 7200-11500 2000-6000
High Pass 11500 6000

all stages combined Final design in Multisim

 the equalizer as a whole all stages which is combined with a summing amplifier at the end described in Figure 22.

Problems faced in final design

One of the primary issues we experienced in the wake of consolidating the equalizer (as figure 24) was having exceptionally soak roll offs between the high pass and low pass channels as delineated in figure 25, in the wake of examining this issue with our manager he gave us some exhortation. Keeping in mind the end goal to conquer this issue we had increment and diminishing recurrence go for the groups influenced. This should be possible by figuring the geometric mean between the groups and including or subtracting precisely the same for both sides. The condition to get the geometric mean is displayed beneath

Figure 24 The circuit on Multisim  

Design of Ultiboard

 In the wake of finishing the plan and illuminating the vast majority of the mistakes experienced it was at last time to exchange the outline circuit to a PCB load up we did that with the assistance of Ultiboard an in fabricated application in Multisim. (, n.d.) This application quickened the PCB plan prepare and by sending the significant records to PCBway we got our PCB printed. Delineated underneath in figure 26 and 27 are the PCB board outlines in Ultiboard including a 3D

Figure 28 : design of PCB

Materials and Equipment in construction of five band equalizer

Components items
Resistors 23
Potentiometer(100k) 6
Capacitors(0.1uF) 16
Op-Amps(LM-741) 12
Multisim 1
Ultiboard 1
Solder Iron 1
Solder Sucker 1
Solder wire 1
3.5mm audio jack(pcb) 2
Portable speaker 1


This report exhibits a five-band sound equalizer outline which has been actualized with dynamic channels so as to have a conservative plan without inductors, second request channels to accomplish smooth hybrids and Butterworth channels together with Sallen-Key topology to accomplish most extreme level pass groups. The equalizer comprises of a low, high and three band goes with very palatable slice off frequencies contrasted with what we needed in any case when measured independently in Multisim. However when associated together with a summing enhancer the shorts escapes reach yet worthy.


Beggs, J., & Thede, D. (2001). Designing Web Audio. O’Reilly Media, Inc.”. (2008). 5 Band Graphic Equaliser. Retrieved oct 27, 2016, from (2012). Audio Amplifier and Graphic Equalizer Design using Opamps. Retrieved Oct 27, 2016, from (2011). AUDIO EQUALIZER. Retrieved oct 27, 2016, from

Gaffney, D. (2008). 5-Band Graphic Equalizer. Retrieved oct 27, 2016, from

Izhaki, R. (2013). Mixing Audio: Concepts, Practices and Tools. Taylor & Francis,.

Michel, S. W. (2011). 10-Band Graphic Equalizer. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

Pirkle, W. (2012). Designing Audio Effect Plug-Ins in C++: With Digital Audio Signal Processing Theory. Taylor & Francis.

Reese, D. E., Gross, L. S., & Gross, B. (2009). Audio Production Worktext: Concepts, Techniques, and Equipment. Taylor & Francis.

Self, D. (2013). Small- Signal Audio Design. Taylor & Francis,.

Sontheimer, R. (1998). Designing Audio Circuits. Elektor International Media.

Spanias, A. (2006). Audio Signal Processing and Coding. John Wiley & Sons.

Tejeiro, C., & Nistrian, M. (2011). 7 Band Graphic Equalizer Analog Design . Retrieved oct 27, 2016, from





college papers

Cloud Computing In Non- Profit Organization Strategic Business Model Implementation

: Does your workplace/organization use any services offered in the cloud? If so, what service model is offered by the provider? If not, what are the primary reasons for not using services offered in the cloud?

A: The non-for-profit organization in the cloud computing services at the state level would be the ‘Broward County Cloud Computing non-for-profit organization in Florida. The technology would be very cost efficient along with the efficient performance in the state for the public use lowering the government operations, largest accessibility for the customers incorporating more than 90000 different information systems worth more than $75 billion. The vision of this non-for-profit organization would be ‘best experience at the cloud computing for performance in security or safety for data centers of information for users.’ The mission of the company would be the environment that would be inclusive in terms of environment, which has competitive edge in terms of diverse backgrounds of the employees, key customers, business partners, and suppliers to meet a sustainable advantage. The common barriers must need to remove including the executions of the cloud computing projects, fragmenting the systems, technological legacy while not putting efforts by the government in IT sector for ease of use in private sectors (Valacich & Schneider, 2014).

            Cloud computing is the advanced technology. It is still in its early stages almost every organization is using cloud computing due to the advantages it provides to the users. It is on-demand self-service and no human interaction is required for it. It also provides the broad network access there are many services offered by the cloud computing services. With the help of cloud computing, the users are able to use and access the applications from any devices across the internet. The most common service provider is the Microsoft Server Outlook (Buyya, 2010).

            Clouds computing are much better than the old system of storing and sending files and using the old networks. It is cost efficient. It provides continuous availability as well as convenience. It has a backup and recovery methods. Moreover, cloud computing is very much environment-friendly. It also has the characteristics of resiliency and redundancy. Its scalability and performance are much better. It has a quick deployment as well as provides the ease of integration. It also provides the higher storage capacity. This service has the device diversity as well as it is independent of location

            Our organization is also using the cloud-computing model. Our organization is using the infrastructure as a service (Iaas) model. It provides the virtual interface for the users. The main reason for using this model is that it provides virtualization because it allows the providers to supply the resources on demand, which can also be extracted from their large pools that are installed in the data center. The reason for using this model in the organization is that it saves cost. It provides flexibility and scalability. It has the faster access to the market. It also provides support to the BC, DR and has high availability. It puts high focus on the business growth.

Q:Suggest which Cloud sourcing model would best fit your workplace/organization/agency, and discuss why the model that you selected would be the best fit.

A: After reviewing the state of the public sector cloud computing article, it was a very informative article describing the cloud computing and its models. It also discussed the cloud sourcing models. There were four types of models discussed there. These were private cloud, public cloud, community cloud and hybrid cloud. All carries their own characteristics, however to answer the question about which model will best fit into the organization then I think I will need all the models to be deployed into my organization, as all of them will be needed in different circumstances. Let us discuss characteristics of all and then choose the one (Kundra, 2012).

            Customer Segments: The target customers would the private, public small enterprises along with the citizens of the Broward county to who we would offer the cloud computing services, where as the most important customers would be the citizens of Broward county. Private cloud will help me to keep the private data private, as it will be only operated by the organization. The community cloud will help me to make new deals with the other organization or any new offer to the other organization. It will be profitable. The public cloud will help in making the better connection with the public or to the large industry group. The clearest answer would be to adopt the Hybrid cloud. This is the unique technology combining the private, public, or community models. It will help in enabling the data as well as application portability.

            Value Proposition: The core value would be provided to the customers from our  cloud computing services in which this non-for-profit organization would incorporate the efficient initiatives for the cloud computing such as the databases, low cost for the operations; maintain efficiency in the data centers, a model of deployments along with services. In order to choose which would be the best, I will choose the hybrid model to be deployed in my organization because it perfectly fits the needs of the organization. It is the perfect combination of all the models and I can adjust it according to the needs of the organization.

Q: Review the list of federal/state/local cloud computing case studies and reflect on one of the cases?

A: After reviewing the case of Personal service delivery transformation (PSDT) United states air force. They used the cloud computing service model and implemented the software as a service (SaaS) because they were facing the problem of reshaping the personal community and the air force needed to decrease the time, which was spent in searching for the documentation .they allowed the personnel in order to support the war-fighting mission (Ojala, 2011).

            Customer Relationships: The CRM model would be incorporate in way that the strong tiers or interaction with customers would be developed through the program was created by them in order to improve the operations of the human resource management. This would provide a  help of the cloud-based CRM solution in which the case tracking, knowledge management, as well as contact center tracking the customer survey tools were included.

            The main aim was to improve the better experience of the customers through the self-service solutions as well as tracking the basic needs of the customers the right one solution was made by the enforcing for focusing on the problems in order to solve the organization information. With the help of Right now, it was able to tool solve the workforce reduction and it was able to save the $4 million annually .the results were also improved and the demands have also been met.

Q: Visit the website of a cloud service provider.  Find the provider’s service level agreement. Based on service level agreement, explain the provider’s availability, security and privacy provisions.  Determine which of the providers that you identified you would select if you were searching for a cloud service provider for NSU.

A: The cloud service level agreement is the important agreement. It forms the contractual relationship between the cloud service provider and the cloud service customers of the cloud service. We know that the cloud is the global nature. It spans many jurisdictions. It has many legal requirements. It protects the personal data, which are hosted in the cloud service. There are different approaches to the cloud service and deployment models by the cloud SLAs. This is different room one cloud service provider to the otter and the cloud service customers find it difficult to compare it with the cloud service (, 2016).

            Revenue Streams: The process of earning the revenues while selling the adequate or dynamic cloud computing services, the customers would buy, as the expansion in terms of competitive strategy would be standards that would according to the cloud-computing environment. It includes providing security of information to the people, privacy measures of the information of the citizens, protecting the rights of the interest of security both at national and international level.

            It is important that in the contract of the clouds service level providers, there must be the right as well as the cost must be specified in order to continue as well as discounted the service to be used. The specific parameters must be codified and there must the minimum level of requirements for each of the elements of the service and there must be the remedies as well for the failures in case the requirements are not met.

            Key Resources: The most significant or essential assets for constantly developing the effective SLA, there is also the criteria established in which it requires the availability of the 99.99% for the 24/7. This would create the sustainable business model serving customers, partners, and suppliers. The performance must be efficient; it must be able to provide the high privacy as well as security to protect the confidentiality. There must be encryption of the all the data, which has been stored as well as transmitted, the access to the data, must also be in the readable format.

            Google cloud engine is the best cloud service provider for the NSU. The reason is that it has also been created for the purpose of the university and office work. The students will be able to store as well as retrieve data. They can also make their interaction easily available with all of the class fellows and teachers. It makes the work very easy and cost effective.


Buyya, R. (2010). Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms. John Wiley & Sons. (2016). IBM. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from

Kundra, V. (2012). State of Public Sector Cloud Computing. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from

Ojala, A. (2011). Value networks in cloud computing. Journal of Business Strategy , 32 (6), 40 – 49.

Valacich, J. S., & Schneider, C. (2014). Information Systems Today: Managing in a Digital World. Pearson College Division.

college papers

Engineers to the Rescue

  1. Rescue plastic bag

            This a simple yet affctive device to cath the puppy. Coffe stirre is an excellent tool for grip. The bag contains enough space to hod the puppy.

  • Paper cup rescue

            This is another useful device to catch the puppy. The puppy will essentially place in cup that is entangled with safety pin. The fuzzy stick is then used to pull the cup.

  • Index card puppy holder:

                This device is made up of Gore e PTFF fiver, index card and Popsicle sticks. The walls of the holders are made up of index card and the floor is made up of fiber which is soft to place the puppy. The Popsicle sticks strengthen the holder.

  • Plastic bag rescue:

            The plastic bag will be cut make a place for holding puppy. The metal clip and drinking straw will be used to pull up the puppy

  • Rescue ladder

            The rescue ladder is an excellent tool to assist puppy to pull up. The Popsicle sticks will work as the steps of the ladder and paper clip and straw will hold the labor adjoined.

college papers

Benefit Pension Plan Analysis

Table Of Content

Benefit Pension Plan Analysis. 3

Comparison of Benefit Pension Plan For Two Countries. 3

Contrasting of Benefit Pension Plan ForMerill Lynch and Discover Financial Services  5

Inadequacy of Both Pension Funds Plan. 6

References. 8

Benefit Pension Plan Analysis

There are two traded companies selected first is Merill Lynch and second is Discover Financial Services.

Comparison of Benefit Pension Plan For Two Countries

In the Merill Lynch traded company, benefit pension plan is from the both sides of employees and employer for contributing to the each employee account benefit pension plan. Merill Lynch always contributes 10% higher than its employees into the pension plan as said to be more contributor so that his employee can be retired with better financial benefits and live the happy life(Chief, 2015). In the comparison, Discover Financial Services is another stock traded company also engaged in maintaining a benefit pension plan for its employees, and they have a policy of equally contributing into the pension plan as much as employees do. Normally it happens in the same way as both employees and employers are contributing equally, and same is the case with Discover Financial Services.

Myrill Lynch is taking the contributions and also contributing itself into the employees benefit pension plans and paying the compound interest rate over the time till employee retires and demands a pension(Sun, 2014). Its compound interest rate makes the figure higher comparing to the employees of other traded company like Discover Financial Services which are paying only simple interest on the funds being invested by the employee and employer both on the benefit pension plan.

The employee of Merill Lynch can raise the loan against his pension benefit plan up to 70% of the present value which can be a significant amount in the late years of life. Merill Lynch allows its employee not to raise loan others but against the own pension plan without paying any interest on it(Wasik, 2014). It is very helpful for its employees to raise the loan against pension plan because often employees do not have any mortgage or security to be kept against it and they could not raise the loan against something valuable possessing.

In the comparison, the employees of Discover Financial Services do not have an opportunity to raise the loan against their compensation benefit plan contributed by both employees and employers. This is a major drawback in its pension plan because they have to wait until retirement to be benefited from it in the form of monthly pension and before that when they need money, they cannot even think of using it in any form. Merill Lynch is comforting its employees in the better way comparing to the Discover Financial Services, and it should be recognized(Sun, 2014).

Employees often need the funds in the middle of employment and when they do not have any such funds available they have to be asking for the pension plan which they other cannot afford(Wasik, 2014). This compensation plan is only eligible to drawback at the time of when you are switching to other job opportunity and in fact it is transferred to your new employer account and not paid you in the cash form ever. On the retirement day, you also receive it in the form of monthly pension plan.

Contrasting of Benefit Pension Plan ForMerill Lynch and Discover Financial Services

There are also several similarities in both of the plans of stock traded companies and how they design benefit plan for own employees. First of all, Merill lynch asks employees also to contribute into own pension benefit plan, and the company also contribute to the retirement of the employee(Sun, 2014). The retirement age is 60 years old for the both companies of employees and they have to be waiting till retirement for the monthly pension funds. This is the same scenario with the Discover Financial Services as they are also benefiting its employees with the own contribution and also asking the contribution from its employees.

There are few traded organizations which do not ask its employees to be contributing into the pension funds and rather contribute entirely on their own. They consider why employees should be contributing when it is the company’s responsibility on employees as for doing it so. These organizations facilitate its employees and not to ask them about any contribution in any form which would be returned as the monthly pension after the retirement age(Wasik, 2014). In this context, both Merill Lynch and Discover Financial Services are the same and asking its employees for their contribution.

Merill Lynch invests the employees /employers contributed funds into the investments on stocks, securities, and other financial instruments because they want to earn the dividend and income in any form on it. This is not the good option keeping the funds without any safe investment because money depreciates over the period and till the time comes of the employee’s retirement, there will be no use of it because employees funds will be depreciated(Sun, 2014).

Both trade companies are investing in the own company to fulfilling the need of capital to be invested or other safe securities which do not own any bigger risk. Both companies want to earn the extra income and not freezing the big amount of investment for the long period(Wasik, 2014).

Inadequacy of Both Pension Funds Plan

Both pension funds are containing some part of inadequacy which needs to be mentioned here. The contributed funds are not enough to be living the sustainable life after the decades of retirement age. The inflation rate is rising so high that these funds are not having the same value after thirty-forty years of the life. Moreover, they also need health benefits plan for free being a former employee of the company and none of both companies are offering such plans in any form(Sun, 2014).

It has been seen that employees often make complains of not being satisfied with the amount of pension they receive at the end of retirement. Both companies are not offering something additional apart from a pension which already contributed on its side(Wasik, 2014). It is inadequate to expect the employees taking care of own health and buying the expensive medicines with this limited amount of money they receive in the form of pension.

There can be initiatives taken which may bring the improvements in the plan. First of all, they also need to establish health benefit plan eligible for all present and former employees of the company. Its management must not be asking for the contribution for availing the health benefits after the retirement like they do for the pension plans(Sun, 2014). It would be the relieve for the old age people who were former employees of the company and spend his life for the progress of the country. Secondly, they should also transfer the benefit of any interest, dividend or value gain income to the pension funds because it was the employee’s funds which were invested there and they are also eligible for being transferred of any gains.

In the end, therefore, there must be three contributions coming into the employee’s account which is said to be employees contribution, employers contribution and any benefit received from investing / buying the financial securities and earned income on it(Wasik, 2014). All companies are not transferring the benefit of its third element which it must have been otherwise.


C. E. (2015). Discover Financial Services. New York City: Annual Report.

C. E. (2015). Merill Lynch . New York City: Annual Report.

Sun, W. (2014, January 17). Defined Benefit Plans: The Overlooked Retirement Vehicle For Successful Entrepreneurs. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Forbes:

Wasik, J. (2014, September 03). Is Your Pension Plan Underfunded? Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Forbes:

college papers

Energy Use and Conservation In Domestic Dwellings (Boilers)

Table Of Content

Energy Use and Conservation in Domestic Dwelling. 4

Introduction. 4

Energy consumption from domestic dwellings. 4

Industrial Boiler Energy Conservation. 5

Radiation and Convection Losses. 6

Performance of Heat Transfer Areas. 6

Optimum Hot Well temperature. 6

Heat Loss Due to Inadequate Insulation. 6

Steam Trap Losses. 7

Optimize Boiler Steam pressure. 7

Installation of variable speed drives. 7

Rapid heat transfer 7

Combustion efficiency. 8

Tracking consumption. 9

Household Boilers for energy conservation. 11

Analysis. 13

Conclusion. 14

References. 16

Energy Use and Conservation In Domestic Dwellings (Boilers)


This study is discussing the energy use and its conservation at the domestic dwelling level. It is critical knowing about the sources of energy conservation when energy resources are depleting, and one day it can be finished. It is easier for the government controlling the energy consumption at the household level since commercial sector needs energy for supporting the national economy. This study conducts the in-depth study about how can it be ensured about using the energy in the most efficient manner and conserving it for its best use somewhere else. Scientific developments have been made and its latest innovations of heating instruments which are highly energy efficient.

Energy consumption from domestic dwellings

Domestic dwelling consumes the energy to serve the household needs such as lighting, boilers, cooking, cooling, refrigerator, washing and overall heating in winters. However, Boilers are used In the industrial level. They are one of the largest consumers of energy, which needs government attention to enhancing the public awareness, as for getting them educated about how can be energy saved from taking the careful measures (Austin, 2014). Resources of producing the energy are depleting at a higher rate, and its most efficient usage must be ensured from both government and public sides.

Somehow, a government cannot afford to ask the commercial segment for making compromises on energy consumption since they are engaged in the production and generating the tax revenues for the government. Commercial segment is the one, which produces the job opportunities, generate the tax revenues and moves the economic cycle (Baehr, 2011). However, a government can ask for the compromises to the domestic dwelling/household sector because they are engaged in personal activities though very important too. There are tips available for the household user of energy to make the careful measures for saving the energy at masses level.

Energy is available in several forms and it is being produced from multiple sources including water, the wind, oil, solar and much more. All countries need an energy conserving policy at domestic level and industrial level because it is always limited and rising cost is contributing to inflation. Therefore, its industrial dwelling policy for conserving the energy is important and needs taking particle steps (Braverman, 2015). According to the reports, a domestic dwelling is the major source of energy consumption that can be controlled through educating the people and taking careful measures. Otherwise, commercial usage of energy is important because of a dependence of the economy on it. There has been information shared about how can we use and conserve the energy in industrial dwellings.

We will discuss the energy consumption by household in three categories including boilers, refrigerators, and passive insulation.

Industrial Boiler Energy Conservation

It can be seen that nowadays many industrial machines that are not working up to the mark. However, it can be seen that companies are not working on the cost and energy efficient products here. As an estimate, the study says that almost 20-30 percent bills could be reduced if the machines are used efficiently. One of the big things here is the boiler that needs to be checked. It can be seen that boilers in the industrial sector are wasting energy on a big scale and the reason is that it is not up to the mark and the cost efficiency should be seen in here.

Radiation and Convection Losses

It can be seen that the boiler is placed in the cold climate. However, inside the boiler, it can be seen that the heating process is going on. Here the good insulation is fitted; the efficiency can be increased ultimately.

Performance of Heat Transfer Areas

It can be seen that the boilers all around are not set to the right temperature as what it is needed. Most of the time it can be seen that the steam required or the fluid required in the boiler remains after the fulfillment. This shows that there was an access and the requirement was less. This needs to be controlled by the companies. It has also been seen that the heating tubes are also not cleaned well which is also a bad indicator for the energy efficiency. The heat transfer rate is not as good as this is one of the reasons of the Gap between the required amount and the actual amount seen (Sanguri, 2016).

Optimum Hot Well temperature

Here we can see that the improper heating system or the temperature if not set then it needs to be checked because due to that there are many problems due to that. It is seen that colder water enters into the boiler and it increases the fuel cost and this makes the difference, as the suction is not done properly in this aspect.

Heat Loss Due to Inadequate Insulation

We have seen that in the boilers the proper insulation is not done. Here we can see that this is one of the biggest problems that is faced repeatedly if we go on to a field and look at the realities of it. Maybe it is damaged, or worn out in this case. The infrared camera needs to be fitted in it so that any kind of leakage should be stopped in this case.

Steam Trap Losses

Steam traps are utilized to release condensate once it is framed, to keep live steam from getting away and to evacuate air and non-condensable gasses from the lineup Nevertheless, it is a largely ignored part of the steam funneling. The steam trap that is stuck closed results in decreased limit of the gear it is being provided. Steam traps that are stuck open permit live steam to escape in this manner bringing about a loss of warmth and expanding the heap of the condenser (Sanguri, 2016).

Optimize Boiler Steam pressure

The boiler needs to be run on a low pressure always as it consumes less energy and the optimization is done in a good manner as well.

Installation of variable speed drives

The air dampers utilize throttling to acquire limit control. In the event that the steam request of the evaporator is variable and changes every once in a while, then supplanting the damper sort air enlist with the new electronically controlled variable speed drive, constrained draft fan ought to be viewed as. These old techniques for limit control need exactness and have poor control qualities at the top and base of the working reach (Golden, 2010).

Rapid heat transfer

Warm exchange surfaces must be spotless to lead warm proficiently. Water quality is the key here since any strong contaminants can bring about a development of scale, which successfully goes about as undesirable protection. Yet fouling can likewise be an issue on the “wet” side of the heater.

The two principle wellsprings of a painting are the nourish make-up water and the returning condensate. Condensers are famously inclined to spill in any case, so cross bullying is normal. Sustain water then again is typically de-ionized, pre-warmed, desecrated and synthetically treated before it makes it to the evaporator. Condensate comes back to the kettle from the condenser, having been hot utilizing privately sourced, bring down quality water.  A disappointment in any of these procedures can prompt defilement issues (Wiegand, 2016).

Standard evaporator blow down is the undeniable approach to control bullying, despite the fact that dosing sustains with chemicals, for example, smelling salts or hydrazine additionally stops a few chemicals getting that far. Therefore, what would it be advisable for you to search for? Run of the mill parameters incorporate conductivity, pH broke down oxygen, sodium, silica, hydrazine, phosphate, smelling salts and chloride. Cautious, consistent checking additionally assumes a fundamental part in guaranteeing great long haul evaporator science (, 2016). 

Combustion efficiency

Endeavors must begin in the evaporator itself, where administrators need to go for the ideal burning effectiveness. This is because of diverting additional air through the procedure just diverts more warmth in the pipe gas. Most waste warmth is lost in the stack gasses leaving the heater. Making conditions that produce the littlest amount of vent gas at the most reduced conceivable temperature will help productivity. Clearly, more sizzling pipe gas likewise “takes” more vitality than cooler gas, so that a 22oC drop in stack temperature can help kettle proficiency by one percent.

Then again, providing inadequate air will bring about the deficient burning of the fuel. So getting the air supply right is a fine exercise in careful control. The ideal ignition prepare gives simply enough abundance air to totally blaze the fuel. This prompts fouling of warmth exchange surfaces and emanations of ash, smoke and carbon monoxide. The right level of overabundance air relies on upon the fuel; however, it ranges from somewhere around five and 10 percent for gas and 10-15 percent for fuel oil, the distance to 20-30 percent for stirred coal (, 2016).

Utilizing instruments, for example, an ABB zircon oxygen framework and a temperature test in the pipe stack can guarantee the plant is blazing fuel ideally. While a rising stack-gas, a temperature can show the requirement for tube cleaning, since fouling might hamper warm exchange. Besides, if the oxygen level ascents in the stack-gas after some time, it can likewise demonstrate the requirement for minor alterations or repairs.

Tracking consumption

Steam metering all through the whole conveyance framework is vital for good vitality administration. For instance, meters can track the utilization of individual client forms over a site. Appropriate metering permits administrators to see precisely what is going on. This empowers vitality directors to support effectiveness by presenting separate charging, or target vitality sparing measures where they will have the most impact. Slant data additionally empowers administrators to spot failing gear or different issues as they create.

Exact metering is the key. Customary differential weight meters, for example, opening plates require fringe gear including differential weight transmitters and a stream PC to deliver mass readings for steam, all of which means a high-upkeep cerebral pain. Administrators need to know the mass of steam moving around the plant since this compares to the vitality stream.

Conversely, whirl meters have brought down upkeep necessities and convey precision that is more prominent. This is best an opening plate can give, twirl meters offer superior to one percent exactness over the whole stream run. Moreover, the turndown is up to five times more prominent than that of a whole plate. Particularly in applications where the steam stream changes over a critical range Instead of a precision of two percent of the upper stream extend.

Twirl meters depend on static veins at the passageway to the meter to compel the liquid into a turn. The recurrence of the optional revolution is specifically corresponding to the volumetric flow rate of the liquid, with no compelling reason to make up for changes in weight, temperature or thickness. The meter then measures the recurrence of a helical auxiliary turn that consequently creates inside this example. The meters just need to know the temperature of the steam to compute the mass stream.

With rising fuel costs and changing natural enactment, the weight to improve the operation of burning plant can just increment. To put it plainly, UK organizations need to grasp vitality checking and focusing on plans in the event that they would like to stay aggressive. The right observing plans can enhance burning proficiency, diminish contamination, augment the life of gear and decrease the recurrence of spontaneous stoppages.

Where organizations are hoping to retrofit meters on existing steam frameworks, twirl meters offer the additional favorable position of having the capacity to fit anywhere. So they should be situated a decent separation downstream from pipe twists, valves or different segments that may meddle with the readings. Most stream meters need to get an undisturbed stream to convey exact results. Rather than requiring straight bay and outlet keeps running of 15 pipe distances across and five pipe widths individually, which is common of vortex meters, twirl meters require only three and two breadths in many applications (, 2016).

Household Boilers for energy conservation

In the countries where winters are most of the season, heating expenditures are more than for keeping the house cool. It is important for the household to keep the house heat up to avoid the cold outside; else, it challenges the living for all human being. This is a reason it consumes the more energy for heating in the winter season a problem, which needs to be taking care of. Domestic dwellings must be recommending the new boilers installation at home for energy conservation (Fuchs, 2012). It is not necessary keeping the heating cost higher for the high temperature inside and rather you can make the smart choices. Installation of energy efficient boilers is the best choice for reducing the expenditures in a great way.

It is worth reading the efficiencies of boilers for keeping the cost lower. Its choice must be considering the type and age of boiler you bought. The modern condensing boiler is high efficient these days, and no other type of it is better than currently (Austin, 2014). In the country with the population of 6 million people, everyone uses the high efficiency condensing boiler can save the almost 7 million tons of CO2. Its efficiency is also being recognized everywhere especially in the Europe and the United States. Boilers efficiency is measured analyzing the fact that its ratio converting the fuel into heat as it was never happened before.  

Sedbuk 2009 is being used by the new boilers, which might be the older models than tested one; its testing has been made by the standards of Sebek 2005. Boiler efficiency increases dependence upon its usage and home design. Heating the entire home in the winters is not an easy job for the old boiler especially when the house is larger than 2000 square feet (Gibbs, 2011). It is a good option replacing the G-rated boiler with the A-rated boiler, but heating controls should be under control. According to the energy saving trust, it can save the around $200 heating bill in the winters for average household consumption.

For the average household usage, it is very important for you considering the boiler types and making the best choice choosing one, which suits your needs. Combo boilers are highly efficient because it does not require the user for containing the tanks or cylinders a convenient way to keep the room heating. It allows you are getting the heat without any limit and anytime on the instant basis (Grono, 2013).

You do not have to carry the tank for storing the water for heating. It is also space friendly and does not require much space for it. This is worthy of being used as it can meet your needs in the winter season in the most convenient way. However, it also has few cons which should not be neglected and can affect your performance (Vinan, 2014). It can get the low pressure of water and it takes a long time for hot water in the tub. This is the most suitable boiler at any home from small to big, especially where people do not need the hot water at the same time.

System boilers are known as the sealed system and it is containing the water cylinders for keeping the water hot. It does not require the user installing the big tanks on the roof but cylinders are enough though it has small storage capacity (Vinan, 2014). It also has some demerits for the owner because he / she cannot have the hot water on the instant basis, which might not be ideal situation especially when you are already running out of time. This kind of boiler is more suitable for such homes where its residences more than one place at the same time. It has been seen that these boilers are installed in public places most of the time to meet the boiling water needs and also conserving the energy (Vinan, 2014).

There is also the third kind of boilers in the name of Conventional boilers. This is enough for saving the energy to meet the heating needs. This boiler allows the owner to keep the tap open for hot water from multiple sides at the same time (Vinan, 2014).


Energy use and conservation in domestic dwellings (boilers)
Z V E(x, t) dx.
heat flux vector                                  q(x, t)                    
Conservation of energy in form of V can be written as
dt Z V E(x, t) dx + Z ∂V q(x, t) · n dS 0
Assumption: No heat is converted into another energy form
∂E ∂t + · q 0
Both E and q relate to the T(x, t)
E                                      ρcT
P= density, c= heat capacity
q                                     k∇T
ρc ∂T ∂                                    k∇2T
Conservation laws
d dt Z V P(x, t) dx + Z ∂V q · n dS 0
Using Green’s theorem
Z V ∂P ∂t + · q dx 0
P(x, t)= change in density
q(x, t)=opposite change
As V is arbitrary:
∂P ∂t + · q 0
∂ρ ∂t + · (ρu) 0

            Above equation has provided energy use and its conservation in the boiler. It is assumed here that at each point x and t time, the energy density is equal to the E(x, t). The energy inside the volume V of the energy is equal to the Z V E(x, t) dx. Conservation of heat in the domestic dwelling boilers can be written as: d at Z V E(x, t) dx + Z ∂V q(x, t) · n dS = 0. It is assumed at that point that no heat is changed into another form of the energy. This is the mechanism of usage of energy indwelling boilers.

Now we have to find the efficiency of the boiler and describe the detail analysis of the boiler in which to find out the efficiency by using the direct method the boiler efficiency is

We can also write this equation as:

Where    Q = Quantity of steam generated per hour (kg/hr)

              q = Quantity of fuel used per hour(kg/hr)

              GCV = Gross calorific value of the fuel

              H = Enthalpy of steam (Kcal/Kg)

               h = Enthalpy of feed water (Kcal/Kg)

Types of boiler Efficiency method:

Direct Method:

We are assuming or taking the coal fired boiler and the Heat output data is given as

Heat output

Quantity of steam generated (output)                           :  8TPH

Steam pressure / temperature                                       :  10Kg/cm^3/180 C

Enthalpy of steam (dry and Saturated)  

at 10 Kg/cm^3 pressure                                                : 665 Kcal/Kg

Feed water temperature                                                 :  85 c

Enthalpy of feed water                                                  :  85 Kcal/Kg       

Heat Input data

Quantity of coal consumed ( input )                             1.6 TPH

GCV of coal                                                                  :  4000 Kcal/Kg


Indirect Method:

Thus if boiler efficiency is 90% an error of 1% in direct method will result change the efficiency so the measurement of losses will result in


It is concluded that government needs to be taking actions for meeting the exceeding energy needs through converting the energy in domestic dwellings which household segment is not educated for how to make the best usage of energy and installing the highly energy efficient instruments at the home. Governments can offer the boilers at subsidized rates to the public and ensure that maximum houses can avail it for heating purposes. It can save the millions of tons gas for the government, which can be provided to the commercial sector at subsidized rates for manufacturing the products at highly competitive rates and improving the exports position in an international market. Overall, educating the household consumers of energy is also important as they can conserve the little amount of energy, which collectively makes the big conservation at the state level. 

References (2016). Top tips for saving energy in steam boilers. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from

Austin, J. M. (2014, April 11). 5 Energy Saving Gadgets That Are Totally Worth It. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes:

Baehr, H. D. (2011). Heat and Mass Transfer . New Jersey: Springer.

Braverman, B. (2015, October 11). How To Slash Your Heating Bills this Winter. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes: /2015/10/11/how-to-slash-you-heating-bills-this-winter/#44024e067c9c

Fuchs, H. U. (2012). The Dynamics of Heat: A Unified Approach to Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer (Graduate Texts in Physics) . London: Springer.

Gibbs, P. M. (2011). Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. London: Pearson.

Golden, M. (2010, February 02). The Case For Home Efficiency Retrofits. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes:

Granger, R. A. (2011). Experiments in Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics. London: Wiley.

Grono, K. (2013, December 05). 5 Steps To Improve Your Heating System Now. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes:

Jake, T. (2014, April 22). The Secret to Lowering Your Energy Bills. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes:

Sayuri, M. (2016). Energy Conservation in Boilers and Making an Audit Report. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from tech/boiler/energy-conservation-in-boilers-and-making-an-audit-report/

Smith, F. W. (2013). Introduction to thermal sciences: thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat transfer. London: Wiley.

Vinan, J. K. (2014, October 20). Energy Experts Reveal Their Secrets For Slashing High Winter Bills. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from Forbes:

Wiegand, B. (2016). Trust offers incentives for farm improvements. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from 20161006/trust-offers-incentives-for-farm-improvements

college papers

Architecture and civilization

Architecture and civilization


Part one

Name of element: Cathedral of Chartres

Location: Chartres, France

Date:  1194 and 1250

Designer: France state party

Style: French Gothic



            It is gothic cathedral in the Latin Church located in the France. It is about 8o kilometer of the south west of the Paris. It was constructed between the periods of 1194 to 1250. Its significant is evident in the modern world. It is designated as the world heritage site by the UNESCO. They considered as the high point in the gothic art for the French (, 2013). This is a master piece of the past history. It is an exceptional example of the preservation. The original stained glass is still there and they are preserved accordingly.

             There are minor changes which have been witnessed in the art work of that cathedral. Large number of tourists come to that cathedral and visit that place. This is a good sign for a good source of economic activity in the France. The government also pays attention and maintains the site for the visitors. Artists also portray the building in their art which is exhibited exceptionally very well. Therefore, the architecture has both socially and economically significant for the government.  


Part two:

Name of element: Pont du Gard

Location: Southern France

Date:   First century AD

Designer: Roman Empire

Style: Roman aqueducts and Aqueduct of Segovia


Reason for choosing and connection with the time period

            This architecture was chosen because of its historical importance. The architecture is the fine example of the roman architecture that was built to keep the flow of water. The architecture designing is a mix of Roman aqueducts and Aqueduct of Segovia. Therefore, this is the fine example of bridge that is designed to pass the flow of the water (, 2013). The time period of the architecture is very important. It was built in the ancient times of the Romans. Therefore, the architecture correlates with its time and history.

            Roman Empire was famous for its architectural landscapes and their fine display of the buildings. This architectural building is the finest example of that architect. Thus, it is very important ton to select such kind of architectures in order to evaluate its importance of time and architectural style. Large number of visitors comes and evaluates its architectural and historical land space. Therefore, this is preserved by the government and steps are taken in order to preserve its building.

References: (2013). Pont du Gard, A masterpiece of anciirnt architecture. Retrieved October 24, 2016, from (2013). Chartres Cathedral. Retrieved 2016, from

college papers

Engineering Design

The past 10 years have seen a growing trend for a manufacturing operation to be moved off shore from the united state to Asian countries. Prepare a list of pros and cons concerning the off-shoring issue

It is a fact that manufacturing operation has been moving offshore from the United States to different Asian countries. The beginning of major changes occurred due to power in markets from China, and the country became the dynamic place for offshore manufacturing operations.  On the other hand, it is obvious that companies and businesses want to reduce costs and maximize the range of profits. The Offshoring the business is the way to accomplish this goal easily. Anyhow, there are few certain pros, cons of the offshore issue, and here is the list mentioned below:

Pros of offshore

  • Employment costs minimized
  • Increase in productivity
  • Increase in staff morale
  • Less costs in equipment

Cons of Offshore

  • Differences in time
  • Less customer focus
  • Language barriers
  • Cultural Barriers

It is imperative to understand that there are cons of offshore with the pros as well.  The business should be managed well for Offshoring the operations efficiently. The productivity could increase by the fewer costs and increase in staff morale.  On the other hand, the differences in time in countries and less customer focus could be the initial cons or unfavorable points of the offshore business. In the same way, the language and cultural barriers could impairment the business in the beginning as well.

Ch 10 Read and incorporate DFE into your invention in at least two ways and describe results. What are the 3 Rs for reducing environmental impact?

The incorporate DFE is strongly linked and associated to the concept of design for the environment. It is the concept designed for the betterment of the environment and society.  In other words, it is very beneficial and valuable for the process of engineering and manufacturing the products to keep the environment safe from the unhealthy effects. Also, one would like to describe the three Rs for reducing environmental impact one by one.

The first of the three Rs is Reduce and quite affiliated to and main components of waste management strategies.  One who want to reduce the amount the waste in the environment, he or she would have to look at the sources of the waste. It is essential for the people of authorities to reduce these sources. The second one of the three Rs is Reuse, and it is the strategy would be beneficial to unsoiled the material and reuse the specific items. It is quite cost efficient way to produce the products again. The third and last one of the three Rs is Recycle, and it is the strategy useful for the reprocessing.

The reprocessing of the waste material could make things cost efficient to produce new products. Also, there are few examples of the recycled items or products: these are metal, paper, glass, and plastic. Therefore, one can say that these three strategies are very significant to organized waste management strategy for the long-term plans.