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5th Generation of Wireless Broadband Technology

5th Generation of Wireless Broadband Technology

5G is the 5th generation of wireless broadband technology in the next future. It is based on the EEE802.11ac standard. It is introduced to provide better speed and coverage rather than other 3G and 4G. It operates with a 5 GHz signal. Huawei Company plays a vital role in the Chinese mobile market and believes that the speed will be 100x faster than 4G LTE offers. It will increase and expand the connection of network top thousands of connection. It also has been improved and better for greater coverage.

The improvements and developments lead to further enable changes for example pervasive computing and the internet of things. It is not properly scheduled for launch until 2020. Some manufacturers are incorporating elements of the coming standards specifications into their productions of the company. 

After the 4G telecommunication system, it has been focused on the development in the field of technology and telecommunication. Thus, the 5th generation takes place in the market for the development of the wireless system. The new generation of the 5 G technology required reliable deployment. It will start from fruition around 2020 with deployment.   (www.radio-electronics.com, 2016)

Status

The present status of the 5G technology has importance in the early development stages of the wireless system. Various companies are trying to be though part of the system. It is noted that various universities have set up 5G research units. The purpose is to develop and focus the technologies for 5G.

Further, the standard bodies and 3GPP are familiar with the development but they are not successful in the planning of the 5G system still. Mostly technologies that are used for 5G will start to come and participate in the system that is used and applied for 4G and then it will be included in the 5G system in a solid and concrete manner. It will be incorporated into the new 5G cellular system.

The main issue with 5G technology is that there is the wide expansion in the requirements. It is commonly said that the 5G is not a mobile technology only it is ubiquitous access to high and low data rate services. (MCKINNON, 2015)

Overview

Cellular telecommunications have included different generations in his system. Each system tried to improvement and development. 5G also improved its system. There is described the purposes and development in the 4th generations that caused of 5G in the market of telecommunication.

First generation

In the first generation, the phones were analog and these were the first mobiles to be used. They offered very low levels of efficiency and security in the cellular mobile phones.

Second generation

The second generation based and depended on digital technology. It provides better security system and efficiency. It also provided text messages and data rate communication in a low level. (Hu, 2013)

Third generation

The basic purpose of this generation was to provide high-speed data to the customers in the market. The technology was developed and increased to allow data up to 14 MBPS.

Fourth generation

The fourth generation was based on all the IP technology that is capable of delivering data rates up to 1GPS.

Fifth generation

The fifth generation requires providing important gains over the previous system to deliver the proper business case for mobile operators to invest in any new system of the mobiles.

Specifications

5G has some parameters that include network capacity, peak data rate, cell edge data rate and latency. All of these have suggested performance like 10000 times capacity of the current network, 10 Gbps, 100 Mbps and < 1ms.

Concepts about 5G

  • It is a pervasive network.
  • It has group cooperative relay.
  • It is based on cognitive radio technology.
  • It is wireless mesh and dynamic ad-hoc networking.
  • It has smart antennas.

Current research

There are different key areas that are being observed in research organizations. These are under describe

Technology included Millimeter- Wave

It includes the Millimeter-Wave technology that is used to high the frequency spectrum. It is also applied to provide the possibility of having much-expanded channel bandwidth that is possibly 1-2 GHZ.

Future PHY/ MAC

Waveform provides flexibility for 5G mobile telecommunication system. It has various advantages and limitations. It is much possible that the adaptive schemes will be employed in the system.

Duplex methods

There are lot f candidate and employees that forms of the duplex. It would enable the 5G system sudden transformation and reception in the same way.

Dense network

It decreases the size of cells that is caused by providing the as a whole effectiveness in the available spectrum.

It is concluded that 5G includes various technologies and techniques in the cellular system of the telecommunication system. It is needed to bring change in the system. The system will provide advantages and benefits to the companies and institutions as well as customers in the market. The properties of the 5G are unique and different from other generations.

References

Hu, K. ( 2013, AUG 26). Huawei’s CEO: The Innovation Journey To 5G And Beyond. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesasia/2013/08/26/huaweis-ceo-the-innovation-journey-to-5g-and-beyond/#39b564b25ca2

MCKINNON, J. (2015, Oct 22). FCC Proposes Rules for 5G Network. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/fcc-proposes-rules-for-5g-network-1445533829

Radio-electronics.com. (2016). 5G Mobile Wireless Technology. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/5g-mobile-cellular/technology-basics.php

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BIAS IN JURY DELIBERATION


Content 

Introduction 3

Assessing The Jury Decision. 4

Bias in the jury deliberation 5

Sixth amendment 7

Case of injustice 8

Conclusion 9

Reference 11

Introduction

As we know that the jury trial is very much important in any country. They are the part of the law and have the important role in it as well they have a different way of interpreting, perceiving as well as remembering the evidence. The group process is also involved in the deliberation of the jury the hurries are involved in the real world laboratory so that they can resolve the issues related to the memory. Reasoning, decision making, stereotyping, judgment, group behavior as well as persuasion

The jury system was started in the 12th century in England. It was established by the to know about the matter of the law to tell the matter to the court to have the hearing. The earlier part of the 12th century, the right to a fair trial is the concept of bias in jury deliberation. The juror bias is so extreme. The application of legal rules to reach verdicts is the main outcome towards jury deliberation. The jury were seen as it is just for the king because they discover the answers to the questions or the facts and the final decision was made by the king.

At the end of the 15th century, it was regarded as the most important common law. The parties were allowed to bring the project, and the specific person was selected to be the jury. Talking about the USA, the jury system is very much important part of the country after the war it has become the important part o the American law. The jury system is the combination of the rule o law with common sense .these both the law, as well as the community, gets the benefit from it

The jury is regarded as the very different institution. The ordinary citizens lack in the legal training, but they are required that they must hear the evidence. They are required to make sense of the flicking facts. And the legal rules are applied so that they can reach the verdict for the purpose to which the jury will agree

Juries in most cases are used in the criminal case. The countries like Australia, US, Japan, etc. use the juries in the criminal case as well as in the civil case too. There are criteria’s set in each of the cases to which if the person is met then the person will be held liable to take the punishment.

The racial basis has become very much talk of concern among the colors as well as among many people. According to the scholarship, the biases are also the reason for this because of the racial factors and for the legal notices which are made through the complex individual level interactional as well as group level and also in some situations as well. There are many structural forces for this too. There is also the diverse body of truth which indicates the ethnic bias as well as racial bias which motivates the outcomes related to the criminal cases as well

Assessing The Jury Decision.

It is very much difficult to analyze the decision made by the jury .it is impossible in man poses that if the verdict was right. At some times, the subsequent truths also come into the light as the case of DNA evidence, but these are the rare incidents. These cases are difficult as well as different. Only the small percentage exist on it. These cases are mostly problematic. The thing is to be fair all along.

The question is that if the jury has made the correct verdict. If the verdict seems to be reasonable in the law and evidence light. The example can be the criminal trial of the O.J Simpason which was done for the purpose of the murder of the Ronald Goldman as well as Nicile brown simpson. the question arises here was of the acquittal of Simpson by the jury was seen as the optimal verdict. It would be said by many that probably not. But to answer the question that they reach the reasonable verity than the answer could be certainly yes. .it is because-because of the light of the evidentiary inconsistencies as well as high standard of proof and also in the allegations made by the police misconduct

Bias in the jury deliberation

It has been found in the recent researches that there are many researchers who have made use of the mock jury experimental paradigm or the purpose of demonstrating the list of characteristics for the trail participants like the race, physical attractiveness as well as genders (see MacVoun, 1989) in order to find out that they can be the reason for the judgment prejudice jurors (dane and wrightsman, 1982). The effects of the prejudicial are being labeled as the extralegal biases for the purpose that they are dependent on the factors which are seen as irrelevant logically for the determination of the guilt in the sense in which they are being manipulated5

But it has also been seen that in many experimentations made on the evidence for these biases has been come from the individual mocks juror studies who have not been deliberate in the groups. In this article, it has been seen that how the biases have been made in the decision of the jury. Looking at the social decision scheme approach, it has been analyzed the jury bias  by Davis, Kramer, Nago in 1988. 

They examine the relationship which exists between the initial juror distribution to the deliberation as well as the final group decision. The mock juries have been found in the reliable finding that they used to reach the verdict which as being voted by a majority of the people at the onset of the deliberation. The majority rule was applied at making the decision. The most result was that weak preferences were given in the group which would be done by the discussion .they tend to produce the group polarization. The analysis was made that the jury deliberation may amplify the extra logical biases which were made by the preferences of the individual juror.

In the model of the information integration for the purpose of the decision making made by the Kalpan and Miller in 1978.This model evaluates the hror likelihood of the guilt which was hypothesized by the juror initials opinion. The evidence was introduced at the trial. The relevance, as well as credibility, was also introduced in that model.

It was being argued by the Kalpna and Miller in 1978 that the extralegal biases in the initial opinion were reflected. Anything would increase the effect of the initial juror opinion. The biases need to be reduced, and the favor must be gone to the verdict .it will be seen as more plentiful, plausible and salient.

They suggested that if the body of evidence is in support of the given verdict, then there will be a great impact on the judgment of the juror. It will be recalled as well as will discuss in the deliberation of the group. The biases which are found in the predeliberation judgment will be seen in the post-deliberation judgments .it is important that the judgments should need to be polarized in that area which is being supported by the evidence.

There is also the situational or state biases by the Kaplan and Miller in 1978.it was supported by the experiment of the mock jury. The situational or state bias will have the relative strength of the evidence. It will be seen as manipulated. There is a great influence in the predeliberation guilt ratings as well as in the ratings of the post-deliberation. It will be shifted in the initial strength direction of evidence. It will be no longer influenced by the extralegal variables. There is important findings which suggested that the mock juror judgments may have the extracted impact in the absence of the deliberation group. It will have the effect of the extralegal biases. it will be seen in the actual jury verdict.kalpan and miller in 1978, the is a great degree of the obnoxiousness of different trial participants. This is what they call it the state or situational bias.

There were other many studies which show that the juror biases is also able to sustain as well as enhanced through the deliberation like Bray and noble in 1978. They also found that the , jurors personal predisposition is also important in order to get the conviction as well as acquittal which can be seen in the abstract predisposition in order to vote for the purpose verdict preferences in some particular cases .it can be done after and before the process of deliberation 7

Sixth amendment

There is also the sixth amendment in the case of the criminal prosecution. In this amend net it has been said that there are something which the accused should enjoy. It is right for the speedy as well as public trial. It is by the impartial jury of the district as well as the state in which case the crime has been committed. 

According to the sixth amend net there s the protection which is offered to the people who have been accused of committing the serious crimes. Through this amendment, the accused is  allowed that they shall hear their cases along with the impartial just which is made up of the people that are surrounded by the community. They have no connection to the case as well. There are some cases as well in which the news is being covered about the crime. It allows the jury members that they can pick from the outside places in which the crime was done.

In the absence of the sixth amendment. It provides the right for the speedy trial, the defendant of the criminal will be indefinitely held. It would be under the in proven cloud which is accusations. Moreover, the speedy trail is also seen as the important for the purpose of fair trial. It is because of the fact that the trail is held for a long period in order t o occur the witness. He may leave the area or may die. 

It could also happen that the memories may also fade as well as the physical evidence may also be lost .it is guarantee by the public trail that it protects the defendant from the secret proceedings which may also encourage the judicial system abuse. It could also happen that the criminal defendants may voluntarily give up the public rights as well. Like the renunciation, it can be referred to as the wavier. It may also limit the judges  from the public access for the trial to happen in some of the circumstances like the protect op for the witness private so that it can reach to the court,

it is guarantee provided by the sixth amendment that there is the right to the criminal defendant  that can have the attorney right. It does not depend on the ability of the defendant so that he can pay the attorney. If the defendant is not able to afford it, then it si important that the government should provide them. There is the right for the effective defense .he do not guarantee to provide the successful defended, he will be able to receive the effective legal assistance as well as he will be convicted 

the suspect may also be able to change the jury as well if he is not satisfied with them, or of he is found to be the guilty of bias so in that cases the suspect has the right to change the jury of he wants to change

Case of injustice

In the case of the United States v. Henley, 238 F.3d 1111 (9th Cir. 2001), it has been shown the biases made in the jury deliberation. In this case, there is the little doubt that there was racial prejudice made in some of the jury deliberation .so the result was that it would seem reasonable to say that the issue will surface in that case in Maine. The four arguments were presented in the case for supporting the juror testimony. So that will be unlikely that the court will be able to persuade because of them if it reached the conclusion first about the racial prejudice. It has no place in the deliberation. 

There are two arguments which seem to acknowledge about the case directly .the law court will also be benefited if they consider them. the court will want to hold that the racial prejudice is the mental as well as msicpundy. It allows the testimony as being the gloss. On the other hand, the court may also think about the rule 606(b).it can be unconstitutional. These arguers address the issues directly. The first is goof because the basis for decision is provided .it does no require the direct challenge to the constitutionality of the rule

The better approach for the rule would be that the advisory committer that they must amend the 606(b) rule. There will be a textual basis for the trail; courts for relying on when they will address the admission ability of the post-verdict juror testimony. It will also prove to be racial prejudice a well. The courts may also be ale to develop the standards as we;; to have the different comments. They will determine of they should be deemed prejudicial. It will be a rebuttable presumption.

There are many arguments which are for the absolute sever of the deliberation/so that is clear that the fear of justice is not founded on the massachusres, Washington state examples. Because in these states, they allow the juror evidence for showing the racial prejudice when suffering deliberation.  Moreover, the valuable purpose is served by the rule 606.

It must not be discarded as it helps in protecting the integrity of the jury process. The racial prejudice in the processor of deliberation also presents the example that when the rule needs to be yields or the purpose of fairness. It will leave the hollow for the rights that need to be fair and deny the defendants .it is the only viable way for collecting the evidence in ruder to prove to the jury deliberation about the racial prejudice

Conclusion

The jury system is regarded as the very y important as well as curious institution. I t is the hallmark of the Anglo-American legal procedure as well. It is being used sparingly .it also contains many domains for the psychologist as well. The deep stud about the jury system in the process of decision making will help in getting the better understanding of the social and cognitive psychological process. 

It helps in making the task of the jury behavior clearer because their task is not the easy one. They performs their duties well, but there is always the room for improvement. There are many studies done by the psychologist as well which suggest them about the ways for increasing the trials of the jury

In conclusion, it can be said that the jury bias needs to be overcome because they are extremely important for the purpose of creating the fair atmosphere. The beliefs, values of the jury bias is also important for the trial court system. In this ethological era, the political, media, as well as tort reframes, are able to attack n the justice system in the more specific or general ways. It also had an impact n the jury system. The jurors also enter in the court panel with having more types of bias. It affects them deeply and enhance their biases as well in the history of the republic. 

The judges then also limit their time at the same time for the purpose of the voter dier examination of the prospective jurors. In spite of knowing about the facts that there is the need for the information that is to the jurors.

It has also been founded out in some of the citric as well. It has been seen that it is not appropriate to analyze the individual judgments’ of the defendants because in real life the hydridic decision making needs to have the social interaction ( written and diamond in 1978), the critic are applicable primary as the inappropriate generalization is made in the results of the studies. the personal characteristics are also  effects the information about the extent to which the jurors are being effected because of the initial impression of the dependents

It is also hoped that the information which his provided in this paper will help for the purpose of opening the new avenues as well as coping with the multitudes of biases as well. It will also help in confronting the trial lawyers as well .it will also help their clients as well in today and future , it will also help in assisting them s that they will be able to get the higher level of the justice.

Reference

Annenbergclassroom.org. (2016). Sixth Amendment. Retrieved november 02, 2016, from annenbergclassroom.org: http://www.annenbergclassroom.org/Files/Documents/Books/Our%20Constitution/Sixth%20Amendment_Our%20Constitution.pdf

Bornstein, B. H., & Greene, E. (2011). Jury Decision Making: Implications. Retrieved november 02, 2016, from Law.nyu.edu: http://www.law.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/upload_documents/Jury-Decision-Making.pdf

Davies, G. (1996). Psychology, Law, and Criminal Justice: International Developments in Research and Practice. Walter de Gruyter.

Helman, A. C. (2010). RACISM, JURIES, AND JUSTICE. Retrieved november 02, 2016, from marcusclegg.com: http://marcusclegg.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/62MeLRev327.pdf

Howardnations.com. (2016). OVERCOMING JURY BIAS. Retrieved november 02, 2016, from howardnations.com: http://www.howardnations.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/OJB.pdf

Howe, A. (2016). Argument preview: Justices to consider racial bias in jury deliberations. Retrieved november 02, 2016, from scotusblog.com: http://www.scotusblog.com/2016/10/argument-preview-justices-to-consider-racial-bias-in-jury-deliberations/

Langbein, J. H. (2005). The Origins of Adversary Criminal Trial. Retrieved november 02, 2016, from oxfordscholarship.com: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287239.001.0001/acprof-9780199287239

LIPTAK, A. (2016). Supreme Court Weighs Bias and Secrecy in Jury Deliberations. Retrieved november 02, 2016, from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/12/us/politics/supreme-court-bias-jury-deliberations.html?_r=0

Riordan, D. P., & Horgan, D. M. (2013). U.S. v. HAYAT. Retrieved November 5, 2016, from http://www.leagle.com/decision/In%20FCO%2020130313163/U.S.%20v.%20HAYAT

vermontjudiciary.org. (2016). ORIGINS AND HISTORY OF THE JURY. Retrieved november 02, 2016, from vermontjudiciary.org: https://www.vermontjudiciary.org/MasterDocument/jury-originsandhistory.pdf

Vogue, A. d. (2016). Supreme Court grapples with racial bias in jury deliberations. Retrieved november 02, 2016, from edition.cnn.com: http://edition.cnn.com/2016/10/11/politics/supreme-court-jury-deliberations/

Wilcox, D. C., & Corporation, X. (2011). Bias: The Unconscious Deceiver. 

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Transport output

Transport output

            Visual context data would be captured by the modules of camera integrated into the glasses. This data would be saved into the mobile devices with the help of a strongest interface. For feeding information into the mobile devices, strongest interface is Bluetooth. Bluetooth would be appropriate in this case due to its prevalence and effectiveness. A handheld device containing the speech interface takes suitable commands from its user. Guidelines for context awareness can be achieved with the computation of mobile devices with the help of positioning module and integrated compass.

            Feedback related to context would be provided to the user with the help of auditory interface on their smart phone. Positioning in this system would be provided using leverage GPS, access points for Wifi and triangulation of cell towers. Mobile platform for building context awareness would be android phone. The camera module would be integrated into the glasses of the user. In this case, camera is most important for transporting output. Another important technology for transporting output in this case is Bluetooth technology in the mobile devices. This device would be able to provide solution to the problems of blinds navigation and other daily tasks.

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NFPA 13 Equivalent Pipe Length Chart

Table Figure: Equivalent schedule 40 steel pipe length chart

NFPA 13 Equivalent Pipe Length Chart for Friction Loss Calculations

If 3.6 m length for the 225.4 mm in the pipe that contained 4 elbows to avoid building columns. The loss of pressure for elbows is that would approximately add equivalent length of pipe to calculate loss of friction. The approximate equivalent for elbows is standard in 24.5 mm for the schedule of 40 steel pipes. For elbow 4 the fitting length of equivalent would be 8 ft. On the other hand, actual pipe length of 12 ft and total length of equivalent length would be 20 ft. Such results recognized as pf= 20 ft, while 0.20 psi/ft=4.0 psi. It reveals that second sprinkler of total pressure equal to the 20.2-psi plus 4.0 psi equal to the 24.2 psi. The total flow from the second sprinkler in this case would be 27.5 gpm. There are some types of standard valve is that based on the valves of swing check included in the length pipe equivalent chart. This dominated equivalent pressure lengths for the given losses through system of alarm, deluge, and dry valves, whereas it is determined by laborites approvals in for the given listing of products.  

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Macroeconomics

Prospects and Challenges for the U.S. Economy In 2016

We talk about the concept of macroeconomics and unemployment is the major part of it. The article is describing the economy position of United States of America in 2016. According to the author, it is good for US economy that unemployment rate is falling and Interest rates are on the low sides as well. Overall, the economic condition is satisfying and economists are expecting the growth rate would exceed in next year.On the other hand, the author is mentioning three factors, which could slow the process of growth in the economy. The next election and corruption issues would be the main issue to consider.

The finance activities could grow in percentage if the presidential elections keep the economy stable. The last year percentage of the unemployment rate was 5.8 percent and recent calculations are describing the rate of 5 percent.  In my perspective, it is an indirect increase in nation’s income. According to the author, around 470,000 of people are hired in the health care sector. The health care sector will facilitate the employees and cost of living would decrease as well. Anyhow, the better economy situation after the right economic policies will strengthen the Investment factor and financial system. Later, the article portrays the factor of storms as well for the national economy. Therefore, it is imperative to make strategic efforts to reduce debts and to increase economy growth in the United States of America (Chafuen, 2016).   

Reference

Chafuen, A. (2016). Prospects And Challenges For The U.S. Economy In 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/alejandrochafuen/2016/01/01/prospects-and-challenges-for-the-u-s-economy-in-2016/#380590814ba8

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Interpretation Reflection Paper Physical Geography

Physical Geography

Interpretation Reflection Paper

Reflection:

48°30’50.0″N 113°05’00.0″W

I have chosen 48°30’50.0″N 113°05’00.0″W to do analysis from Google Earth. The place is nearby or between the forests of U.S and Canada.

The temperature and the current could image time is 2016-10-29 05:00 vrc and the current radar image time is 2016-10-29 07:06 vrc.

The paper reflects on topics of global climates, global soils, biogeographically processes, and global biogeography which are discussed in the book. The information given about the picture, tells that the temperature is cold here and the area is cloudy. From the image given for the analysis also shows that the area is cloudy, wet and cool in the winters, greenery is there. However, cows and buffaloes are there eating grass, which indicates that the areas or place is quite suitable for the animals, as they are enjoying eating grass. The areas are cloudy. The place is near the forests and mammals are living, enjoying the lives.

There is the fine root system of the grasses, which can contribute to the organic matter, the place is nearby the Kootenai forest so may have the same soil, which is not beneficial for the vegetation processes because of the direct sunlight, water resources are there, but greater evaporation can also be there. Strom and rainfall can be expected in this area, through the picture it could be seen that there are the cool-season grasses that can affect the soil water and the nutrient availability.

As the book also guides that dryness and winter season go side by side. The place is dry in the winter season. However, the moisture can be preserve, form the summers. It is also related with book’s relevant chapters that moisture and humidity are aligned with summer season conditions. These aspects are relevant with global climate aspects described in book. There are the mountains and hills; the place is very suitable for animals like cows as they can grow up there in a healthy way, natural grass is there, there are the natural resources. Forest are near from this place, Canada and America can get the advantages, however, flat head and Kootenai national forest are nearby this places. Agriculture facilities can be obtained by growing crops. This is relevant concept with global soils described in the book.

Biographical processes have also been described and it is related with global biogeography, as described in the book. These aspects are related with interconnection between animals, soil, and people on the land. The countries nearby this place need to think about growing the animals over here because animals can grow up in a better way, animal farms can be created there, and benefits can be obtained. The healthier way of living or lifestyle can be obtained through admitting the importance of this place. The place is not beneficial for growing the crops as the soil productivity and soil microorganisms are limited and cannot be retained. Consequently, countries can think about the animal farms, by giving them the favorable environments, moreover, the forest can be utilized as from the trees, woods can be obtained, and through other resources, benefits can be obtained.

Appendices

Capture.PNG
earth.PNG
weather.PNG
Capture.PNG
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Biomaterials

Introduction

The biomaterial is the field of science, which deals with the biology of the tissues and different materials. Originally, this branch of science is further divided into the medical and engineering fields. In engineering, this field goes through the mechanics of different materials. As the materials like aluminum, it alloys and different others go through the manufacturing process and another technical process. The transformation of the materials, their internal structure, changing of structure over the period and on other factors is studied in biomaterials.

This does not end here because biomaterial also has its hands in the medical where it is known as the study of the tissues. The tissue is the essential part of our body as the muscles are formed of billions of tissues, which are connected. Study of those tissues at the microscopic level is known as the biomaterial technology.  In this study, the researchers and scientists deal with the complex structure of the tissue and apply the engineering knowledge to the tissues to get the output. Therefore, this is the mixture of medical and engineering fields.

Background and context for the work

Biomaterials can be built, but the process of manufacturing biomaterials is not easy as they are produced under the controlled conditions. They are built using the different chemical principles in the engineering. The application of biomaterials is fast as they can be used in the medical and engineering fields both (TATHE, GHODKE, & NIKALJE, 2010). They can replace the natural function of the human body and apply to the tissues to get the best advantage. The organs, which are made using the biomaterials, are the heart valve and the hip implants. The use of biomaterial does not end here, as they are now a day use in everyday life like the dental applications and surgery.

Due to the use of the engineering materials in the field of medical, the medical science has overcome much major health issues like the heart transplant and artificial organs. The biomaterial is the understanding of the complex structure and its properties. The relationship of the material structure along with other different things. This improves the efficiency of the product made by the biomaterials. To work on the biomaterial, one has to develop the deep understanding of this work.

The concentration of the bio materials provides the brief introduction of the material sciences and engineering. The fundamental laws of the material sciences are applied in this field to develop the organs and other products using the biomaterial. We all know that the self-assembly is the most common term which is used in the science of particles. Wherever there is a study of the molecules of the atoms and molecules the self-assembly is discussed because they do not work without this. The large group of particles should be assembled to perform the single task in the tissue engineering. The researchers are still trying to find the solution to the problems in the use of the biomaterials. One of the problems is that the structure of the biomaterial should match with the structure of the organ of the body. 

Key Questions

Why the crystallized structure of each molecule is different from the others? In addition, what is the method to handle that structure is the most critical part? What is the limit of the progress, which has made over the past several years? Still, the complexity is in the assembly of the molecules.

Brief Summary of the articles

In this article, the author is explaining biomedical and bioengineering applications require that these nanoparticles have high charge values and size littler than 100 nm with generally restricted molecule estimate appropriation. Therefore, that is the particles have uniform physical and substance properties (Gupta & Gupta, 2005). The Later article is reflecting the same issue and discussion as well.  

The second article is portraying that our approach for planning PSCs for implantation by injectable conveyance to treat MI is motivated by the multi-step system utilized by nature to get ready totipotent-pluripotent foundational microorganisms for implantation into the uterus (Zhao, et al., 2016). The Later article is reflecting the same topic as well.

The third article is reflecting the arrays of the structure should be well-defined, and the thermodynamic properties should be kept in mind to understand the process. There seven crystalline structure upon which the structure of any molecule depends on. The person who is dealing with the biomaterial should know how to use this seven crystalline structure (Ratner, Hoffman, Schoen, & Lemons, 2013). The Later article is portraying the similar debate of the topic and providing support as well.

The fourth article is portraying that Tissue building can possibly accomplish this by joining materials plan and designing with cell treatment. On the other hand, the biomaterials can give physical backings to built tissues and intense geographical and substance prompts to guide cells (Imperial.ac.uk, 2016). The Later article is explaining the broader aspects of the tissues and tissues building and the role of biomaterials.  

The last article is about biomaterials and their applications in medical and engineering field.  Furthermore, it is explaining about “A biomaterial  is  any  stuff,  ordinary  or  man‐made,  that  surrounded whole  or  part  of  a  source of revenue  configuration  or  biomedical  apparatus  which performs, augments, or substitutes a natural function (TATHE, GHODKE, & NIKALJE, 2010).  

Final Critique

The injection of the cell is the daunting task for the doctors and the physicians because it requires years of expertise and the person should know how to handle the work. The new doctor can never perform the therapy of the myocardial infarction. As for this purpose, the stem cells are used, and that can only be done with the use of the bioengineering. If we look back at this research, it roots takes us to the Biomaterials and tissue engineering. As the injections of cells, require the tissue engineering.

The high cell retention is required to perform the therapy. In this research paper, the scholar has shown the way to perform this, but he did not mention any consequences of it or the side effects, which can damage the person health. Because if the cell injection is not done properly, then there is a chance that the bacteria goes into the cell and start making its ground in the tissue. With the passage of time the bacteria will destroy the tissue, so instead of strengthening the tissue this process will give the negative results. While with the use of this method, it significantly increases the survival of the injected cells. The ratio with which it increases the survival of the injected cells is the six folds. There is the advantage of this system mentioned in the paper as one of the advantages is that it smoothes the cardiac function of the body, which means the blood flow becomes real, smooth and there is no resistance in it. The flow of the blood nearly becomes laminar although this condition cannot be achieved because usually, blood flow is the turbulent flow.

In the end, it is because of the turbulence of the blood that we can find out the pulse of the person. Without turbulence, we cannot find the pulse as the flow will be laminar and blood will not show any fluctuation. Biomaterials are the most advanced field of the medical and engineering as it requires the fundamental principle of both fields to be applied to get the maximum and desired output.

Reference

Gupta, A. K., & Gupta, M. (2005). Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Biomaterials , 26, 3995–4021.

Imperial.ac.uk. (2016). Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from Imperial College London: http://www.imperial.ac.uk/materials/research/biomaterials/

Ratner, B. D., Hoffman, A. S., Schoen, F. J., & Lemons, J. (2013). Introduction – Biomaterials Science: An Evolving, Multidisciplinary Endeavor. Biomaterials Science (Third Edition) , 25-29.

TATHE, A., GHODKE, M., & NIKALJE, A. P. (2010). A BRIEF REVIEW: BIOMATERIALS AND THEIR APPLICATION. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2 (4), 19-23.

Zhao, S., Xu, Z., Wang, H., Reese, B. E., V, L., Gushchina, et al. (2016). Bioengineering of injectable encapsulated aggregates of pluripotent stem cells for therapy of myocardial infarction. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from Nature communications: http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13306

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Vocabulary & Concept Map Annotated Figures

Masuyama, H., Mitsui, T., Eguchi, T., Tamada, S., & Hiramatsu, Y. (2016). The effects of paternal high-fat diet exposure on offspring metabolism with epigenetic changes in the mouse adiponectin and leptin gene promoters. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab , 311, E236–E245.

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their web page. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when the author, what stage now?

This article is written by Hisashi Masuyama, Takashi Mitsui, Takeshi Eguchi, Shoko Tamada, and Yuji Hiramatsu and they are currently working at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan. Their main focus is studying the effects of high-fat exposure of the parent on the metabolism of their offspring along with Epigenetics variations in leptin and adiponectin promoters in mice.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

This article focuses on the effects of high-fat diet exposures of the parents on the offspring metabolism in accordance with the epigenetic variations in the leptin and adiponectin gene promoters in mice. As per the study the effects of parental high fat diet exposure on the body weight displays result in the gain of mass in the offspring as well. As there are significant variations at conceptions within high fat diet fed male and female mice and CD fed male and female mice.

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       How can high protein diet influence the outcome here?

Q2       Can this study be applied for any cases of mutation?

Q3       Can specific forms of diet be used to get particular results in the offspring?

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

To study highly focuses on the aspects that what type of traits in offspring can adopt from their parents especially emphasizing on the fat gain. I am currently working on the study that how can the results in the offspring be influenced with help of particular diet as the study shoes that the offspring does show positive effects from the test and this can be very useful my for my study.

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

Te study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Adiponectin

It is also known as GBP-28, Acrp30, apM1 and AdipoQ and is kind of protein and is encoded in AdipoQ gene within the humans. It is used to control the levels of glucose along with the breakdown of fatty acids.

High Fat Diet

The diet in which the contents of fat are high and contents of protein are low.

Leptin

It is a kind of safety hormone which is made by the adipose cells and is used to control the energy balance and is opposed by the hunger hormone known as Ghrelin.

Metabolic Syndrome

It is related with a group of conditions which usually include high blood pressure along with high blood sugar and excessive body fat as well as abnormal cholesterol levels. This increases the risk of diseases related with circulatory or digestive systems.

Annotated Figure

Concept Mapping

McKay, J. A., & Mathers, J. C. (2011). Diet induced epigenetic changes and their implications for health. Acta Physiol , 202, 103-118.

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their web page. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when the author, what stage now?

This article has been written by J.A. McKay and J.C. Mathers. They both have been working in Human Nutrition Research Centre at Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University located in Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne in United Kingdom. They have been conducting research on epigenetic variations and the aftermath of diet inductions on the health of the offspring. They have also contributed in researches related to various epigenetic modifications.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

Exposures to different types of diets of the parents can have multiple effects on their offspring and these effects may take years to develop. Therefore, they have to be studied with profound emphasis so that the exposure patterns and their results can be memorized. The epigenetic modification can influence nutrition and may contribute to the development of chronic diseases.  Histone modification, non-coding micro-RNAs and DNA methylation have a huge role to play during the cellular differentiation and throughout the lifetime of the offspring.

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       Is the repressor function of micro-RNAs dependent upon their transcription act?

Q2       The biology of micro-RNAs is unusual, does it explain their function?

Q3       Can specific forms of diet be used to get particular results in the offspring?

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

I am currently working on studying the effects of different foods and nutrition on epigenetic marks as well as processes and this article provides some valuable information on how epigenetic variations in the nutrition can influence the health of the offspring.  

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

The study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Histone modifications

It is a covalent post-translational variation procedure to histone proteins that includes methylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation. The post-translational variation procedure made to histones can impact gene expression by changing chromatin structure or recruiting histone modifiers.

DNA methylation

It is an epigenetic phenomenon which is used by cells for the purpose of controlling gene expression. Various mechanisms are available to control gene expression in eukaryotes however; DNA methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool which can fix genes in the off-position

Concept Mapping

Annotated Figures

Standage, D., Berens, A., Glastad, K., Severin, A., Brendel, V., & Toth, A. (2016). Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect. Molecular Ecology , 25, 1769–1784.

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when author, what stage now?

This article has been written by Daniel Standage how works at Department of Biology at Indiana University in Bloomington alongside Volker Brendel and Amy Toth who are also contributors to this research study alongside Ali Berens who works at Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organizmal Biology at Iowa State University. Karl Glastad of School of Biology at Georgia Institute of Technology and Andrew Severin who works at School of Informatics and computing in Indiana University located in Bloomington.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

The article emphasizes on comparative genomics of the social insects, which is a topic that has been research a lot in the recent times. The goal of all these studies is to provide insight in the development of the social behavior and the associated with genomic and epigenomic levels. The study identifies different variations in the caste within gene expressions. The study provides an insight that both novel and conserved genes are directly related with the differences of the caste.

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       What will be the level of similarity if the tests have been conducted on organisms?

Q2       Can we dictate or predict the outcomes of imprinting evolution with help of epigenetic modifications?

Q3       Why a consistent pattern has not been developed yet, despite all the progress on testing the predictions?

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

I am currently working on studying the cause related with disruptions involved in genomic imprinting. The article provides concise information about molecular as well as experimental evolution and also provides valuable information regarding their comparison especially in association with current study of insects and this will be very helpful in further studies as well.

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

The study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Caste

It is specialized group based on the behavior within eusocial colony

Dnmt3

It is a part of DNA methyltansferase family of enzymes which is used for transfer of methyl group to DNA and serves a variety of other purposes as well.

Eusociality

It is the highest level of sociality within animals which involves brood care cooperation, division of labor among the non-reproductive and reproductive classes as well as cross-generation colony of adults.

Genome

It is a set of chromosomes within the microorganisms or at the cellular level of the multi-cellular organisms.

Methylation

It is an epigenetic phenomenon which is used by cells for the purpose of controlling gene expression. Various mechanisms are available to control gene expression in eukaryotes however; methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool which can fix genes in the off-position.

Transcriptome

It is a collection of all the messenger RNA molecules which are expressed from all the genes of a particular organism.

Concept Mapping

Annotated Figure

Yan, H., Simola, D. F., Bonasio, R., Liebig, J., Berger, S. L., & Reinberg, D. (2014). Eusocial insects as emerging models for behavioural epigenetics. Genetics , 15, 677-688.

  • Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when author, what stage now?

The authors of this article are Hua Yan1, Daniel F. Simola, Roberto Bonasio, Jürgen Liebig, Shelley L. Berger and Danny Reinberg. They all have been part of researches that are conducted in their respective institutions including Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology in New York University School of Medicine, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology in Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania,   Epigenetics Program, University of Pennsylvania,  School of Life Sciences in Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, Department of Biology at University of Pennsylvania, Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Howard Hughes Medical Institute in New York University at School of Medicine, New York.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

The article provides a deep understanding at molecular basis that how the states of behavior are developed and how they are maintained or altered as per the environmental requirements. The article provides an understanding that the epigenetic alterations have a major role to play in the regulatory purposes for shaping the behavioral responses based on cues related with environment.  

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       Is this study limited to eusocial insects?

Q2       What roles do epigenetic modifications have to play in imprinting evolution?

Q3       Why there are no consistent patterns predicted despite the availability of all the data/

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

I am currently working on studying the role of epigenetic modifications in disease cells and this study helps me in understanding that what roles do these epigenetic modification have to play in the behavioral cues as it can be very beneficial in understanding the cellular responses to certain modifications.

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

The study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Caste

It is specialized group based on the behavior within eusocial colony

DNA methyltansferase

It is a part of DNA methyltansferase family of enzymes which is used for transfer of methyl group to DNA and serves a variety of other purposes as well.

Eusociality

It is the highest level of sociality within animals which involves brood care cooperation, division of labor among the non-reproductive and reproductive classes as well as cross-generation colony of adults.

Methylation

It is an epigenetic phenomenon which is used by cells for the purpose of controlling gene expression. Various mechanisms are available to control gene expression in eukaryotes however; methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool which can fix genes in the off-position.

Concept Mapping

Annotated Figure

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BJT BIASING

PMOS

CMOS means complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Transistor. CMOS circuits contain PMOS transistors and NMOS transistors. PMOS is built with p-type source and drain and a n-type substrate. Charge carriers in PMOS circuits are holes therefore PMOS always conduct at low voltage on contrary at high voltages PMOS will not conduct. The basic reason behind this conduction process is because PMOS transistors represents P type MOS transistor. P-type metal oxide semiconductor transistor uses P-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor MOSFET when used in circuits for logic operations. The basic process to generate P-channel is by applying voltage to the third terminal that is gate terminal of transistor.

Circuit Diagram:

Circuit diagram for PMOS NOR gate is as below. Two inputs A and B are given at Q1  and Q2 while the out of NOR gate is drawn across common point of Q3

Output of the whole circuit:

Y =  

CIRCUIT.PNG

 Truth Table:

 Two inputs are given on Q2 while the output is drawn across Q3.

Input A Input B Q1 Q2 Q3 Output
0 0 off off Off On
0 1 off on Off Off
1 0 On off off Off
1 1 on on Off off

Specification for the circuit:

Input voltage = 3.3V

Capacitive Load = 200fF

Switching frequency =1 GHz

All lengths and widths are positive integer multiples of specific number = 0.5 µm

Final value of output voltage = 0.4V

Time taken by all transistors < 150 p s

The current through Q1 should be close to 0.5 mA.

The current through Q2 should be close to 0.5 mA.

The current through Q3 should be close to 1.0 mA.

Zero to one transition:

Rise time = time taken to cross 0.4 volts – 3

One to zero transitions:

Time to make one to zero transition = 4ns

Fall time = time taken to cross 0.4 v – 4ns

Calculations at Q1:

V1 = 3.3V

I1 = 0.5mA

By using Ohm’s law V= IR

Resistance should be

R2 = (3.3 – 0) / 0.5

R2 = 6.6 Ω

P = I2R2

P = 0.52 x 6.6

P=1.65

Calculations at Q2:

V1 = 3.3V

I1 = 0.5mA

By using Ohm’s law V= IR

Resistance should be

R1 = (3.3 – 0) / 0.5

R1 = 6.6 Ω

P = I2R1

P = 0.52 x 6.6

P=1.65

Calculations at Q2:

V1 = 3.3V

I1 = 1.0 m A

By using Ohm’s law V= IR

Resistance should be

R2 = (3.3 – 0) / 1.0

R3 = 3.3 Ω

P = I2R3

P = 0.52 x 3.3

P = 0.825W

Current of R 1 :

R1 CURRENT.PNG

Voltage of R 1

R1 VOLTAGE.PNG

Current of R 2 :

R2 CURRENT.PNG

Voltage of R 2 :

R2 VOLTAGE.PNG

Current of R 3 :

R3 CURRENT.PNG

Voltage of R3 ;

R3 VOLTAGE.PNG

Current of R 4 :

R4 CURRENT.PNG

Voltage of R4 :

R4 VOLTAGE.PNG

Current of R 5 :

R5 CURRENT.PNG

Voltage of R5 :

R5 VOLTAGE.PNG

Voltage of R6 :

R5 VOLTAGE.PNG

Current of R 6 :

R6 CURRENT.PNG

Estimate Rise and fall time:

t r =   

t r = capacitive load / input voltages

t r  = 200 x 10 -15 / 3.3

t r = 60.12 x 10-3

t r = 60ms

Rise time = 60ms – 3ns

Rise time = 57ps

B= 1/v2+

B = 0.0917

Fall time:

 tf =  

= 200 x 10-15 /0.0917

= 21.810 x 10-3

= 21.8 m s -4ns

=17 p s

CURRENT RESPONSE.PNG
POWER RESPONSE.PNG
VOLTAGE.PNG

 Conclusion

Rising time and fall time both are under 150ps. Length of each resistance is approximately equal to 0.5um. Using these values of resistances and voltages applied to each transistor power factor for each transistor is different for Q 1 , Q 2, Q 3 .Graph of each power and current in circuit is linear graph.NOR gate gives inverted outputs. Output is on only when all A and B are zero-Rising

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Stress and Strain

Stress

            The stress is referring to the force, which has the deforming effect on the object placed in the dimension of the area of per unit scale. The force for normal stress on any sought of the object could easily be resolved while exerting into an object in the parallel range of direction while resolving perpendicular to the direction of the surface. Therefore, the normal stress would be equal to the force that would exert in a perpendicular direction to per unit area of the direction towards the surface. Whereas the sheer stress referring to the force exert into the direction of per unit area of the surface along with parallel direction is analyzed.  

Stress Ϭ=F/A

            This means that F is the intensity of the force, which is acting on the surface per unit or the area, and the A is the area of the given level of a surface, we have calculated the stress from the given equation. The stress is, therefore, e is the force that would act as a factor of physical change in the position of the body, or the tension that deforms the physical position of the body producing the change. The stress can also be easily measured while depending on the force, which would be applied to the given unit of area, whereas it, service as the response over the object in an internal area for the external level of pressure.

            The stress is not dependent on the strain in a way that it can occur without the existence of the strain while the strain is heavily dependent on the stress is analyzed from the definition of the stress. The stress is the force acting on the object, which the root cause of the change in the object, while there is no need of the strain of the stress to occur, while stress can be measured through the specific unit or a direction.

Strain

            The strain is referring to the relative sought of deformation occur from the amount of the force which would highly put on a specific object. The normal strain would be analyzed in a way that it is the result of the normal stress. Since the length of any specific subject is indicates from the l0 and after that, the stress, which is due, and changes accordingly to the pressure of force would be the l1. The strain than would be calculated for that modification occurs in the length of an object would be the ∆=l1– l0, the strain that would be termed as the

Strain or E=∆l/ l0

            The strain is represented in the form of the fraction in the value of both numerators along with the denominator are indicated from a unit of the various lengths, whereas the strain itself has the not such quantity units or dimensions of representation. The strain is, therefore, the change in the shape or the position of the specific sought of the object while applying the stress on it. The opposition of the physical body, as a result, is deformed in the way when the stress is put on it.

            This means that deformation or the strain occur is dependent on the intensity of tension applied on an object through the stress. The pressure is therefore or the force plays an important role on the level of the deformation of the object when the stress is applied to the object. Te strain is the change in the specific object whereas it is necessary for the stress to existing and the strain has not a specific unit through which we can measure it.

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The Five Laws

The Five Laws of Stratospheric Success

There are five different laws of stratospheric success. First of it is the law of value, and it describes the true worth of anyone. Furthermore, it describes your input and then to receive output in personal or professional level. In my perspective, this law could be implemented in anyone life for getting reward and confirmation about your worth. On the other hand, I would like to say that it is a fact that everybody wants to know and confirm his or her worth. The worth and effort would reflect into payment at the end (P.123).

In my opinion, it is quite best to share my experience with you to support this law.  I was working in the telecom sector for a part-time job as a customer care officer. Initially, it was very hard for me to understand the way to be appreciated and rewarded. Later on, I realized that I could prove and confirm my worth by doing my level best in the job. It went in a right way; my performance got better, and I was rewarded too.

Moving ahead, I think that I could implement the second law to my personal life as well. That law is the law of authenticity, and it can be implemented in personal and professional life equally. It describes that the most valuable gift you can offer is yourself.  It is quite true, and it is a very precious gift.  In personal life, I can implement this law in my house to gift my love my care my affection to my family and my parents as well.

One can understand that the law of authenticity is quite necessary for daily life and community. One can get respect and honor by providing respect to other. Therefore, it is mandatory for anyone to implement the law of authenticity in real and personal life.  On the other hand, it is quite beneficial in professional life too because of the goodwill.  It is a fact that one wants to create goodwill amongst other employees and it is quite a good way to do so. In my perspective, I think it will be good for me to put all the efforts in my job after the studies to create good will and ultimate success. 

The Law of Receptivity is to stay open for receiving if you want to give anything.  In other words, one can ask anyone to listens to his or her arguments if he or she listens to others.  This law could be implemented in personal and professional life equally. In personal life, this law is quite necessary to get successful approach to communication. On the other hand, the good communication skill could develop by listening to others in personal and professional life. 

            In the end, one would like to say that above-mentioned three laws are related to personal and professional life. In the same way, the other laws are quite effective too. Also, I would like to prefer these three laws to apply in my life in personal and professional life.

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User Centered Design

User-Centered Design
Part 1
Discussing the User-centered design for the website where all the facilities would be available to the public so that they could use the website easily and could get the benefits as well. A couple of principles need to be implemented on the website so that the best user-centered design could be created. Discussing the factors of usability the UCD will be fit for use as it will be easy to find out the rooms for the public so there would be no problems. However, the integrated systems will be applied so that the management would also know which room is free at a spot. The UCD will be easy to use so that even nonprofessionals could use the website and get it done. Looking at the task efficiency the UCD will be so efficient that one-person check in the status will be changed to occupy from empty so that the management and the public both do not face any problems. Ease of remembering will also be there in UCD as there will; be logins and once a person enters the data will be saved, and on his next return, he will be assisted as well. The subjective satisfaction will be reflected from the UCD so that the satisfaction would be centered as all the options and availability to select rooms and to book it will be available as well. Looking at the understandability, it can be seen that the UCD will be so efficient that all type of coding will be done in a great way, so no problems occur for the management and the public (Lowdermilk, 2013).
It can be seen that there are some rules of the interface that our UCD will fully fulfill in every step. The consistency for the display of the website will be there, and the same appearance will be there always. The universal usability will be assured as well so that anyone around the globe could access the website efficiently. There will be a form for the feedback of the customers as well so that we could make the experiences better. The Design dialogs will always be there to inform the customers so that they come to know what they have done. The errors will be prevented, and the person will be able to continue the search where he left from as well. There will be easy reversal actions as any wrong room selected could be changed afterward. The locus of control will be felt to the customers as what they want; they can do so in this system. To reduce the short-term memory, the visual aid will also be there in the UCD so that there would be no problems.
However, we will take the considerations of the psychological factors as well; we will put the stuff on the website what the customers are expecting in the UCD. The multitasking will also be banned for the security purpose, and Gestalt Principles will be taken care while designing the UCD so that the layouts could be easily perceived by the customers of the website. However, the website will be easier to recognize among others, as we will make such an efficient UCD.
Here if we look at the main purpose of the business, then it is to increase the revenue that maximum public reach the website and apply for the rooms online. Another thing, which we can see any high costs is not added into the procedure. The UCD will be efficient, and the costs will be lower as well in this case. Moreover, the website will not be for the small market, and the UCD made will be freely accessible to everyone at the low cost as well so that the attraction could be maintained. Further, the rooms, reserved rooms, and the benefits will be shown to the website customer fully so that he feels control over the UCD (Righi & James, 2010).
However, the usability test will be run many times before finalizing the UCD so that every time the customer comes has the best experience ever. The consistency will be taken care at every step, the UCD will be so simple that everyone could use it, the errors web site contains will be easily understandable by the users and they would be helpful that what needs to be done. The errors will be Humble and Humorous as well for the client. However looking at the accessibility a couple of things in the UCD will be managed quite well like the adaptability, text, sizes, Image captions, Design, technicality, legal and other parts will be taken care of (Endsley, 2016).
Part 2
Looking at the website and the UCD after 18 months if we see that the logins on the website have been decreased so it must the there, the reason is that the world Is moving so quickly but the UCD is working on the same scenarios, and they are out of dated on the world. Many new inventions or the techniques could be there which we have not introduced at that time. Therefore the UCD will be restructured in this case, and the latest additions will be made on the website like the Design will be made more attractive, the payment options will be increased, the text needs to be modified, adding and deleting new rooms will be an essential part of every season there will be changes. However, keeping the website alive and usable, the proper maintenance of UCD is required; therefore, all the changes will be made so that the website could gain its popularity again.

References
Endsley, M. R. (2016). Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition. CRC Press.
Lowdermilk, T. (2013). User-Centered Design: A Developer’s Guide to Building User-Friendly Applications. “O’Reilly Media, Inc.”.
Righi, C., & James, J. (2010). User-Centered Design Stories: Real-World UCD Case Studies. Morgan Kaufmann.

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time value of money mathematics

What is the purpose of learning the time value of money mathematics?

Time value of money (TVM), is important in the for the managers; as the manager through using the theory can become able to take the future decisions, without the TVM, no manager could able to take the decisions effectively, TVM, consider the various aspects that indulge with the business, the mathematical risks are also identified. However, the decisions could be related to the cash flows or the allocation of the capital and the return on investment. Moreover, those projects could also calculate who have the different cash flows; the managers could not allocate the capital or take the decisions if the theory is nit followed. Example, the time value mathematical analysis is done that the value of money today will remain same after one month, the calculation of inflation, etc. are considered while calculating TVM.

What are the factors that affect the components of interest rates?

Interest rate could be defined as a term that a borrower must have to pay, on the usage of money, for a specific period, the interest rate could also be defined as a tool for the companies. However, when the companies at the present value, discount the future cash flow, or the companies calculate the one dollar of today for the future amount.

There are the five factors that can affect or influence the interest rate, as according to Investopedia they are,

  1. Real-risk interest-free rate

Real-risk interest-free rate is affected in the overall market, by the demand and supply of the money, it is calculated as the United State Treasury bond or amount that have the same period and the same amount.

  • Expected inflation

Expected inflation can be described as a macroeconomic factor; the expected future prices are also represented by it. It could be defined as a basket of consumer products, as it is calculated according to the increase in the percentage of the prices.

  • Default risk premium

Default risk premium could be defined as the ability of a borrower to pay back the loan; the borrower is at risk because interest rate could be higher. However, an interest rate is also affected by the liquidity premium.

  • Liquidity premium

The interest rate is also affected by the liquidity premium, the liquidity of the financial instruments, could indicate about the conversion of cash through the financial instruments. Moreover, higher interest rate is demanded by the investors who put the money, in low liquidity instrument. 

  • Maturity Premium

Maturity premium could be defined as the primary component, which is used to determine the interest rate; the future cash flow is associated with the length of the period of maturity. There is the higher interest rate on the long time maturity because it is risky, however, due to the unexpected inflation rate and economic conditions risks are there, there are the probabilities that if the borrower may not pay the loan.

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Bank of Charles Town

Part 1

Profile of Bank of Charles Town

 Now the Bank of Charles Town has increased its assets up to $350 million on its assets. It employs employees more than 100 in the region of tri-state. It is located at P. O. Box 906, 111 E, and Charles Town, WV 25414. Peer groups include TD BANK, PNC FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, and CITIGROUP. Mission statement of the bank is to provide profitable community, high quality, and financial services to the customers. It focuses on exceeding expectations of the customers. It provides competitive and fair opportunities of the employment. It aimed at maximizing the value and return of the shareholders by providing them dividend payments (Mybct.com, 2016).

Core values of the bank include integrity, customer’s orientation, community, growth and team work. In 1871, Charles issued and the bank opened on the 4th of April. It operated from 1907 to 1938 at 231 of West Washington Street. In 1938, it moved towards southeast and Streets of George. In 1966, it moved towards the 111 East at the Washington Street. In 1938, it merged with the Bank of Harpers Ferry. In 1985, it opened its third location in the Routes 9 and 480.

With the passage of time, the bank has changed but its main principle is the same that is to simply the financial life of the people. It is providing personal and business products and services to the customers. Personal products include checking, savings, personal loans, services, mortgage loans, etc. Business products include Business services include checking, commercial loans, cash management, credit cards, merchant services, etc. It also provides trust and investment services to the customers. Its trust department includes custody services and estate settlements.

Part 2 Overview of operations

Common size balances sheet

Bank of Charles Bank (Common-size balance sheet) ($ in thousands, except share and per share data
2015 2014 2015 2014
Cash and due from banks 1932 1986 1% 1%
Interest-bearing deposits in other financial institutions 17998 11588 5% 4%
Securities available for sale, at fair value 34369 33892 10% 11%
Loans held for sale 294 69 0% 0%
Loans, net of allowance for loan losses of $2,548 277563 253360 79% 79%
in 2015 and $2,665 in 2014
Premises and equipment, net 7125 7321 2% 2%
Other real estate owned, net of valuation allowance
of $673 in 2015 and $795 in 2014 1319 1198 0% 0%
Accrued interest receivable 795 765 0% 0%
Bank owned life insurance 7790 7585 2% 2%
Federal Home Loan Bank of Pittsburgh stock 620 642 0% 0%
Other assets 1952 2513 1% 1%
Total Assets 351757 320919 100% 100%
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
LIABILITIES
Deposits
Noninterest-bearing 52656 48959 15% 15%
Interest-bearing 250879 228197 71% 71%
Total Deposits 303535 277156 86% 86%
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase 5139 2040 1% 1%
Federal Home Loan Bank advances 8537 9516 2% 3%
Accrued interest payable 178 170 0% 0%
Other liabilities 2535 1987 1% 1%
Total Liabilities 319924 290869 91% 91%
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Common stock, $1 per share par value; 10,000,000 shares
authorized; 3,671,691 issued and outstanding 3672 3672 1% 1%
Surplus 3944 3944 1% 1%
Undivided profits 29661 27791 8% 9%
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net -2227 -2491 -1% -1%
Less cost of shares acquired for the treasury, 326,690 shares 0%
in 2015 and 281,513 in 2014 -3217 -2866 -1% -1%
Total Stockholders’ Equity 31833 30050 9% 9%
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity $351,757 320919 100% 100%

Peer Comparison

Peer Comparison U.S. Commercial Banks (State
Member)
2015 2015 common size
Total assets 2,356 100%
Total loans and receivables (net) 1,150 49%
Loans secured by real estate 604 26%
Consumer loans 82 3%
Commercial and industrial loans 296 13%
All other loans and lease receivables 181 8%
LESS: Allowance for loan and lease losses 13 1%
Federal funds sold and securities purchased
under agreements to resell 158 7%
Cash and due from depository institutions 378 16%
Securities and other obligations 545 23%
U.S. government obligations  121 5%
Obligations of state and local
governments 53 2%
Other securities 371 16%
Other assets 232 10%
Total liabilities 2100 100%
Total deposits and shares 1903 91%
Federal funds purchased and securities sold 0%
under agreements to repurchase 39 2%
Other borrowings 94 4%
Other liabilities 64 3%
Net worth 256 12%

Income statement predictions

Common size income statement and predictions
2015 2014 % of sale 2016
Total sales 17319 16575 100% 18900.44
Interest and Dividend Income
Interest and fees on loans 12264 $11,506 71% 13383.86
Interest on securities available for sale – taxable 326 283 2% 355.7678
Interest on securities available for sale – nontaxable 121 206 1% 132.0488
Other interest and dividends 101 77 1% 110.2226
Total Interest and Dividend Income 12812 12072 74% 13981.89
Interest expense
Interest on deposits 1365 1160 8% 1489.641
Interest on securities sold under agreement to repurchase
and federal funds purchased 17 10 0% 18.55231
Interest on Federal Home Loan Bank advances 129 105 1% 140.7793
Total Interest Expense 1511 1275 9% 1648.973
Net Interest Income 11301 10797 65% 12332.92
Provision for Loan Losses 60 814 0% 65.47874
Net Interest Income after Provision for Loan Losses 11241 9983 65% 12267.44
Noninterest Income
Trust and financial services 1166 1151 7% 1272.47
Service charges on deposit account 1203 1403 7% 1312.849
Secondary market fee income 379 185 2% 413.6074
Visa/MC Fees 991 1027 6% 1081.491
Cash surrender value of life insurance 205 212 1% 223.719
Gains on sales and calls of securities available for sale, net 51 128 0% 55.65693
Other operating income 512 397 3% 558.7519
Total Noninterest Income 4507 4503 26% 4918.545
Salaries and employee benefits 5904 5410 34% 6443.108
Net occupancy expense of premises 726 708 4% 792.2928
Furniture and equipment expenses 1119 1123 6% 1221.179
Loss on sales of other real estate owned 85 23 0% 92.76155
Accounting, audit and compliance 165 164 1% 180.0665
Computer services and online banking 507 464 3% 553.2954
FDIC assessment 264 259 2% 288.1065
Other professional fees 102 182 1% 111.3139
Trust investing outsource 171 167 1% 186.6144
Director & committee fees 178 167 1% 194.2536
Legal fees 137 188 1% 149.5098
Printing, stationery and supplies 138 176 1% 150.6011
Communications 193 192 1% 210.6233
Foreclosed property expense 167 163 1% 182.2492
Write down of other real estate owned 12
ATM and check card expenses 549 617 3% 599.1305
Other operating expenses 1416 1255 8% 1545.298
Total Noninterest Expenses 11821 11268 68% 12900.4
Income before Income Tax Expense 3927 3218 23% 4285.584
Income Tax Expense 1347 1059 8% 1469.998
Net Income 2580 2159 15% 2815.586
Earnings Per Common Share, Basic and Diluted $0.76 $0.64 0% 0.829397
Growth rate 0.091312 0% 0.09965

 The growth rate of sales from common size income statement has recorded as 9% (Mybct.com, 2015). Predictions about income statement for 2016 are revealing that income would increase by 9%. Net income as a percentage of sales is recorded as 15%, and in 2016, it is predicted as 2815.

Part 3

Analysis of bank management

            Gap analysis can be used to compare the actual performance of the bank from its expected performance. Gap analysis helps to identify the goals and paths of the bank. The first assumption in this gap analysis is that economic conditions would improve in future. Action plan for management is to improve net income up to 30% as compared to the previous year. Efficiency ratio has indicated that bank management is managing its assets in the better way. There is the need to improve liquidity position. Second recommended action for the bank is that it should improve its current assets by 40%.

Part 4

Bank Performance Analysis

Bank of charter Town Peer group( Uniform bank performance report)
Leverage ratios: 2015 2015
Debt ratio
Total debts 319924 2,100
Total assets 351757 2,356
0.909502867 0.891341256
Debt to equity ratio
Total liabilities 319,924 2,100
Shareholders’ equity 31833 256
Debt to equity ratio 10.05007382 8.203125
Interest coverage ratio
Operating income 4507 29
Interest expenses 1511 2
2.982792852 14.5
Liquidity ratio:
Current ratio
Current assets 53759 924
Current liabilities 303,535 1903
0.177109724 0.485549133
Cash ratio
Cash and cash equivalents 1,932 379
Current liabilities 303,535 1903
0.006364999 0.199159222
Profitability ratios:
Net margin
Net profit 2580 22
Net sales 17,319 94
15% 23%
Return on asset
Net income 2,580 22
total assets 351757 2,356
1% 9%
Return on equity
Net income 2,580 22
shareholders’ equity 31,833 256
8% 0.0859375
Efficiency ratios:
Assets turnover
sales 17,319 94
total assets 351,757 2,356
0.049235694 0.039898132
EPS $0.77

 Ratio analysis of bank of Charles Town has provided in comparison to its peers. The bank has higher debt ratio as compared to the state-owned commercial banks of United States. Debt to equity ratio for the bank is also higher a compared to its peer group. Liquidity ratios are providing an indication of the solvency position. The current ratio of the bank is lower than peer group, but it is good. Cash ratio is again higher in comparison to the peer group. Profitability ratios have also compared. These ratios are indicating profitability position of the bank in comparison to the peer group. Peer group has strong profitability ratios.

References

Mybct.com. (2015, December 31). BCT annual report. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from https://www.mybct.com/assets/files/gjXcNxFu/2016/06/16/PotomacBancsharesAR2015.pdf

Mybct.com. (2016). BCT’s Mission. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from https://www.mybct.com/about-us/about-bct

Appendix

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Picard iteration

Question 1

(a)

find the first three picard iterates

for X(0)=1

(b) coding for making the plot of matlab which is for 4 values

> d = 8; t = chebop(‘t’,[0 d]); u0 = 1;

L = chebop(0,d); L.op = @(t,u) diff(u) – sin(u); L.lbc = u0;

uexact = L\sin(t);

%This first plot shows iterates k=0,…,4k=0,…,4, with the exact solution in red.

u = u0 + 0*t;

f = @(u,t) sin(u) + sin(t);

LW = ‘linewidth’; FS = ‘fontsize’; IN = ‘interpret’; LT = ‘latex’;

hold off

ss = @(k) [‘$k = ‘ int2str(k) ‘$’];

for k = 0:4

  plot(u,’b’,LW,1.6), hold on, ylim([-3 10])

  text(1.015*d,u(end),ss(k),IN,LT)

  u = u0 + cumsum(f(u,t));

end

plot(uexact,’r’,LW,1.6), xlabel(‘t’,FS,10), ylabel(‘u’,FS,10)

title(‘Picard iterates $k = 0,\dots,4$’,FS,12,IN,LT)

Plot  in picture form

Picard_01.png

(c)  the coding of the sequence arbitrary picard iteration

picardItration[X0_;Y0_;max_]:=

Module[{},

    Y0[X_]=y0;

    K=0;

    Print[“Y”0, “(X)= “,Y0[x];

    While[K<max,

    Module[{},

    Y1[X_] = y0 + ?_x0^x??[f[t,y0[t]] dt;

    Y1[x_] = Normal[series[Y1[x], {x,x0,100}]];

    K=K+1

    Print[“Y”k, “(X) = “,Y1[X]];

    Y0[x_] = Y1[x];];];

    print[” “];

    Print[“The I.V.P. is”];

    Print[” y,= “,f[x,y], ” with y(“,x0,”)= “,y0];

    Print[“After “k,” iterations, we have the approximation”];

    Print[“y(x)= “,Y0[x]]; ];

    end

(d)

What would be involved in showing that Picard’s theorem applies to this IVP?

Answer:

One reason of the picards theorem is very important it can be generalized to establish existence results of higher order ordinary differential equation and for system of differential equation. another one is that it is good introduction to the board class of existence that are based on fixed points

 (e)

 What do you think solutions to this IVP are doing?

 Answer:

Actually IVP solution are provide in this question is about the initial limit for the simple differential equation actually which is totally helpful for find out the picard iteration which is we  find as we want. These iteration give us the solution .

Question 2:

(a)

for x(0)=3

Hence f(x)=sin(tx(t)) and its partial is

cleanly its show that the result of the x is not equal to the zero so which is cos(t x(t)) and the x^2(t)/2 so the picard theorem is applicable for the this IVP. so which is exist in it.

(b) (c)

Find the three Picard iteration

for X(0)=3

(d)

plot the first four iteration

Picard_04.png

(e)

for the 100th picard iteration

picardItration[t0_;X0_;max_]:=

Module[{},

    X0[t_]=X0;

    K=0;

    Print[“t”0, “(X)= “,X0[x];

    While[K<max,

    Module[{},

    Y1[X_] = x0 + ?_x0^x??[f[t,y0[t]] dt;

    Y1[x_] = Normal[series[Y1[x], {x,x0,100}]];

    K=K+1

    Print[“Y”k, “(X) = “,Y1[X]];

    Y0[x_] = Y1[x];];];

    print[” “];

    Print[“The I.V.P. is”];

    Print[” y,= “,f[x,y], ” with y(“,x0,”)= “,y0];

    Print[“After “k,” iterations, we have the approximation”];

    Print[“y(x)= “,Y0[x]]; ];

(f)

Does a global solution exist?



By the Picard-Lindelof theorem there is a unique local solution, and it is global if you can show that the solution does not blow up. The latter is easy to show by using the given bound on f. Namely, we have 12d x 2dt= xf(x,t)≤|x|(A+B|x|)≤A+(A+B)x2,12dx2dt=xf(x,t)≤|x|(A+B|x|)≤A+(A+B)x2,   giving an exponential bound on x2x2.

 so this  is the way we can find out the global solution exist and it can may be for some condition t.

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Memo for retirement planning

Memo

To: Mike and Maria

From: XxX

Subject: Retirement Planning.

Dear Mike & Maria,

            This letter is being written to you to denote your retirement plan. Major Steps involved in this and every other planning are

  • Time Frame Determination
  • Requirements of Spending
  • Determination of after-tax rate of return.
  • Tolerance level of risk
  • Goals of Estate Planning

There are certain clauses that provide the basis for your retirement planning; this does include the hiring of coaching classes that are implemented and organized by RBI but are tutored by your son, Michael. The rules in application here are applied when, in sole proprietorship, LLC (single member, spousal partnership) employ a child having age less than 18. In this case, he was to pay Medicare taxes and social security. An exemption of value of %15.30 for every wage of $100 would be received. Children having less than the age of 21 are exempted from the unemployment taxes of the federal and other state taxes for unemployment’s, employed by the parents. It is required by the owner of the business to submit W-2 form from that child to the internal revenue board. It provides ability to without taxes required by the laws of taxes.

Employers set up qualified plans for providing retirement benefits to their employees. These can be defined plans for benefits and contribution plans. It allows the deduction of taxes to the employers on their contribution for the plans. After starting any contribution plan, tax credits can also be taken. Contributions of SEP for Mike cannot exceed 20% of business earnings. A plan of self-employed 401 k provides a maximum contribution for them due to two hats. These two hats are as an employer and as an employee. As an employee, contributions regarding 401 k plan would be tax deductable as per internal revenue board.

      Every type of reward has its risks. Investment for gaining reward is not free from the risk. Investment value in this plan may change any time. Mike may lose and gain its investment at any time. This is the risk of the investment. For small businesses just like Mike, it is better to use a SEP plan. It is beneficial as per its feature of withdrawing amount at any time. Keeping in mind the saving purpose of Mike, plans for Safe Harbor allows more contribution limit. It would allow more savings and tax deductions for Mike. Miek should proceed with 401 k plan of the Safe harbor.

      SEP contribution would provide it tax credits. This tax credit would not exceed Mike’s contribution for himself and 3 other employees. He will be allowed a tax credit of $500 for starting three years. These years would also include the year of the plan. He can contribute 25% income in this regard. Discretionary cash flow is lower the amount of amount if the total contribution of Mike for himself and the employees. Tax credits and tax deductions are the benefits of this approach.

      This plan would also have disadvantages. All contributions to the plan would be paid by the employees and Mike himself leaving the minimal value of discretionary cash flow by the internal revenue board. 401 k plan of Safe Harbor allows credit of tax amounting to $500 for three years. The employer would not be able to get a tax credit for a contribution made by the employees. Mike contribution for the funds can be $53000. Another disadvantage of this plan is that employer would have to pay taxes contributed the employees. It will not allow withdrawal of amount from the funds at any time like a previous plan. Its advantage includes 3 months tax credit.

      Mike inherited assets amounting to 350000 after the death of his grandfather. After selling these assets, Mike gained income of $50,000. It will be known as taxable gain. Mike is IRA beneficiary from grandfather. It will not allow saving from the taxes because he has to pay taxes on distribution to the creditors.

The Primary part in this scenario is the retirement planning. I Propose that you borrow a loan for the amount of $ 53,549.29 for 15 years at the rate of 5% per annum. This is the potential background and the initial borrowing you need to do right now. This borrowing would be put into the bank a bank account. The first part of the plan is to pay tuition fees for the next 4 years in the following order

Tuition Fee Payment Plan
Years Balance Interest ending Balance Tuition fee
1 $53,549.29 $4,819.44 $58,368.73 15000
2 $43,368.73 $3,903.19 $47,271.92 16050
3 $31,221.92 $2,809.97 $34,031.89 17173.5
4 $16,858.39 $1,517.26 $18,375.65 18375.65

After this the plan for Loan amortization occurs in which you would have to pay a fixed annual amount of $5,159.06. This amortization schedule is given below

Loan Amortization Schedule 5%
Year Balance Installment Interest Principal
1 $53,549.29 $5,159.06 $2,677.46 $2,481.60
2 $51,067.70 $5,159.06 $2,553.38 $2,605.68
3 $48,462.02 $5,159.06 $2,423.10 $2,735.96
4 $45,726.06 $5,159.06 $2,286.30 $2,872.76
5 $42,853.30 $5,159.06 $2,142.67 $3,016.40
6 $39,836.91 $5,159.06 $1,991.85 $3,167.22
7 $36,669.69 $5,159.06 $1,833.48 $3,325.58
8 $33,344.11 $5,159.06 $1,667.21 $3,491.86
9 $29,852.26 $5,159.06 $1,492.61 $3,666.45
10 $26,185.81 $5,159.06 $1,309.29 $3,849.77
11 $22,336.04 $5,159.06 $1,116.80 $4,042.26
12 $18,293.78 $5,159.06 $914.69 $4,244.37
13 $14,049.40 $5,159.06 $702.47 $4,456.59
14 $9,592.81 $5,159.06 $479.64 $4,679.42
15 $4,913.39 $5,159.06 $245.67 $4,913.39

After it for 16 years the amount to be accumulated is $ 100,000. This amount can be accumulated at the rate of 9% taking out 3% on the account of inflation. This Ammount accumulation schedule goes as:

Year Balance Installment Interest
0 0 $3,895.21 0
1 $3,895.21 $3,895.21 233.71286
2 $8,024.14 $3,895.21 481.44849
3 $12,400.80 $3,895.21 744.04827
4 $17,040.07 $3,895.21 1022.404
5 $21,957.69 $3,895.21 1317.4611
6 $27,170.36 $3,895.21 1630.2217
7 $32,695.80 $3,895.21 1961.7478
8 $38,552.76 $3,895.21 2313.1655
9 $44,761.14 $3,895.21 2685.6683
10 $51,342.02 $3,895.21 3080.5213
11 $58,317.76 $3,895.21 3499.0654
12 $65,712.04 $3,895.21 3942.7222
13 $73,549.97 $3,895.21 4412.9984
14 $81,858.19 $3,895.21 4911.4912
15 $90,664.89 $3,895.21 5439.8935
16 $100,000.00

An overall monthly installment of $754.52 has to be put aside for all of this calculation. This is a small sum for all your big dreams.

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The Critical Section of the Business Plan (Weaknesses)

The Critical Section of the Business Plan (Weaknesses)

Marketing Segment

Indianapolis, the racing capital of the world, did the marketing based on the strategies, after identifying the target market; the company knows the target market and by hitting the customer’s choice and mind, the company understand the customer and gain advantages. However, there was also some weakness, which was in the marketing plans, the company did the interviews with the customers, and come to know about the people or age segment that were interesting. The company was efficient in making the plans and strategies, based on which they have effectively managed the price or cost for the customer, so that maximum customers, form the different age groups can be attracted. Moreover, in the weaknesses, some points do not notice or look forward.

The company Indianapolis was not getting the good market share, in the industry, as the company has decided the prices so that advantages can be there, and maximum customers come to buy the services. The pricing strategies were not effectively decided, the company struggled and the there were only two tracks, where the racers can enjoy, the company has the primary and the secondary track, the company has the strengths, which can also be viewed as the weaknesses,

The parking situation was the issue for the company, while the competitors can get the advantages; the company has the fewer parking spaces, the customers can be attracted to the place if there can be maximum space, but the CEO of the company do not think about that. To meet the requirements of the customers of city, maximum finance was needed; however, the management thinks that maximum money spends on the projects, may not give the benefits, as there is no need to spend on racing decor or the kart business, kart business may not give as what they expected or spend.

Third weakness can be related to the customers services, the weakness while considering the cart business of the Indianapolis was, there was no snake bar, the people or the customers can be tired of getting nothing, most of the families and children, want to enjoy cart or any other enjoyable activity with the food items. The company was having no place to relax or eat; there was no lobby so that people can spend a time to relax or to get the pleasure. However, either was only on a soft drink that was available in, other than the soft drink; nothing can be remarkable, due to which company faced the tensions.

Operation Segment

The company has failed in managing the activities in the operation segments, however, of the activities were efficiently performed but the management does not consider all the strategies, in my point of view, there were many mistakes that were done by the company. The functions need to be effectively performed, but the weaknesses of the management were, the company has the building on the installments, the money was given on the monthly and weekly basis, and the business can be suffered. If few of the building are in installments, because maybe sometimes or maybe in some months company does not get the profit, as the company was expecting, so the company may have to suffer losses, because in that case, the company, may not able to manage the finance. Construction and improvement are also included in the operations, the estimated cost of the maintenance and other operation were too much, and the companies have to give the installments.

The great faculty of the business can provide the facilities and the advantages to any business, but in the case of Indianapolis there was the Inadequate staffing was also the weakness of the company, as the company hired the staff of the college, the staff was not experienced, may be the company face issue due to that. However, the company needs the experienced staff that can deal with the clients effectively or successfully, the operations or the entire task that was undertaken by the staff, were inadequate, the planning or the strategies were not effective. The changing shifts and the tasks were given on the daily basis and the tasks shift every day.

The working was divided among the team or employees, in the company, example, turn off the alarm system, opening and closing the doors, clean window, remove the trash etc. The company needs to manage the entire task, the operations need to manage effectively, as the company needs to hire the experienced staff, for the entire tasks. To manage the employees, needed to be effectively managed by the companies, because, if the employees or worker not given the clear

There were the schedule adjustments, within the company was not effective, or the shifts and tasks changes of the individual, which can create the problems, in the event, the company may have to suffer the employee turnover in this case. This was the weakness of the company because the staff was not managed and improper or offensive schedule adjustments were there. Therefore, in a case of events, arrange by the company mismanagements by the staff can  occur, because the employees are not trained and company cannot retain them. The proper staff should be there for any company, so the event can be effectively managed, and the customers can be satisfied.

Critical Risk Segments

The company has to focus on the critical risks segments, related to finance while managing the businesses there could be many issues associated with the critical risks, the company Indianapolis can suffer the issues of the weak economy of the country. In my point of view, it could be the weakness of the company, because in this case company can face the financial losses. If the country is not supported, or the economy is weak, then there are chances of losses of customers, because the customer will not spend on the matters, which are related to such enjoyable factors.

Moreover, the company has to do something when the economy fails, or the people or customers spend less. However, if the company fails to meet the require goals, there can be the issues, there is need to more focus on the areas related to the sales, or economy, so that the customers can be attracted, the general interviews or advertising and the walk-in customers strategies may not be effective in this way.

The weakness related to the construction delayed can also be faced by the company, we gave did analysis that the staff of the company, is not giving the effective results because the company fails to manage the staff, the company has to manage the staff, if the company wants to get safe from the issues related to the construction delayed. Mr. Whisler also believes that the projects should not be delayed and there is need to focus on the projects and more on the employees so that the projects can be effectively done on the prices, the company faced the issue related to the projects.

The financial assessment of the company is not efficient and gave the negative results or the balance, which means that the company fails to manage the projects because the worker are not prepared and they are not the professional. To get safe from the issues related to the finance and projects, there is the need to focus on the staff, the staff should be trained and need to be well prepared to manage the project related activities, the finance need to effectively manage, so that future issues cannot be there.

            The company is also focused on the injury to the visitors; that the visitors should not be given harm; there are the weaknesses, in the projects, as the customers are not given the importance or value, as there were the issues with the staff and canteen. The financial issues can also be related to the staff, there is the need to manage the staff effectively. The staff needed to be given the training, they need to be given protection, so all the system could be effectively performed, tin the company, there should be the focus on the staff training, and need to give them the incentives. All the issues were related to the staff management, the company failed to manage the staff.

Conclusion

While doing the analysis of the company, the issues identified related to the finance, staff and the customers. in the Indianapolis business, there are the issues related to the marketing segment, operation segment, and the critical risk segments, all the issues can be related to the financial segments because the ultimate effects can be on the business financial management or the profit. The business plans are needed to be the focus while managing the business, as in the case of the Indianapolis, the business was strategies were effective but somehow the company fails to manage the staff and finance.

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Speed ad – Mistakes

CHS 347 Healthcare Marketing

Ad Evaluation Exercise

Speed ad – Mistakes from New Zealand

https://www.nzta.govt.nz/safety/driving-safely/speed/speed-ads/mistakes/

This advertisement goes with a title “Other people make mistakes, Slow down!” The advertisement begins with a person who is driving his car on the turn and he has a son sitting in the back seat. He sees another car coming from his right but ignores it. The person sitting in the other car seems to be going on his job and is in a bit of hurry. He is driving his car at over 100 miles per hour.

The father on the turn does not realize it and starts to make the turn. The executive realizes that other person is in his ways and tries to press the brake but he is going too fast and there is very short reaction time. This is where the time stops and both the individuals come out of their respective vehicles.

The father says that he knows he made a mistake and tells the other person to press the brakes but the executive responds that he can’t stop because he is going too fast. The father urges that he has his son in the back seat and asks the executive to stop the vehicle but gets the same response once again. Now he gets emotional knowing that the crash is going to take place.

Both men step into their vehicles and the father began to look at his son with desperation. After this, a very violent crash is shown. In the end of the advertisement, the title goes “Other people make mistakes, Slow down!”

There are a couple of intriguing aspects of the advertisement which include; there is no background music used in this advertisement indicating the realness of the situation and the other one is at the end a very violent car crash is shown which indicates hostility of the situation and its outcomes. To add to the intensity to the situations very high level of emotions are shown as well on all the faces in the advertisement. These are the aspects which provide the drama within add and cause the audience to think about the seriousness of the situation.

  1. The purpose of this advertisement is to change the bad habits of the drivers on the road. They know that over speeding is dangerous and they know about all the hazards associated with it. Still many of the drivers ignore the traffic rules and the road signs as well. The advertisement tries to convey a simple message that may be you have total control over your vehicle, but this does not mean that everyone is as good as you.
  2. The objective of this advertisement is to develop awareness among the people so that they should avoid over speeding on the roads. Many of the road fatalities are caused by over speeding. The objective of this advertisement is to let the people know that over speeding can be very dangerous. Maybe you are one of the very good drivers and you have total control over your vehicle, but this does not mean that everybody is a good driver as you and maybe they are going through too much stress to focus on the road.
  3. The message is very straight and simple “Other people make mistakes, Slow down.” The emphasis is that everyone is not a good driver and of course we all know that human is to err so very body makes mistakes. The common issue is that people are engaged in so many tasks at the same time. Many people use their mobile phones while they are driving as well. This is why you have to be cautious and don’t over speed the vehicle. When you are not over speeding, you will have plenty of time to rethink over a situation and therefore, avoid any major accidents.
  4. The intended audience for this advertisement includes all the drivers who drive their vehicles on the road, especially those who regularly drive at very high speeds. People tend to press the accelerator whenever there is not much traffic on the road. However, at times, on the turns or the road crossed there might be some vehicle which is trying to get through. This is when people get into accidents and most of the time the results are not positive at all.
  5. This is not the first kind of advertisement to convey this sort of a message to the road drivers. There are plenty of examples are from all over the worlds where the transportations companies have raised the issue and created awareness among the drivers. Nevertheless, this advertisement is unique in a way. The uniqueness is that the advertisement shows the conversation between the two drivers just before the crash takes place. As if they are exchanging thoughts with each other. This is exactly what happens just before an accident when an individual knows what will be consequences. However, due to over speeding, there is a very short time to react to the situation, and by the time it goes down, it’s too late.
  6. The advertisement was trying to convey a public health message that over speeding can be fatal. If the executive was not going at a speed of over 100 miles, an hour maybe he had a better chance to control and stop the vehicle in time. Low traffic on the highways does not mean that you have full authority to turn your vehicle into F1 speed car.
  7. In my opinion, the advertisement has conveyed the message in a very effective manner. The efficacy of the advertisement can be assessed with the help of the intensity of the car crash right at the end of the advertisement. Another way the message has been conveyed in an effective manner by showing the emotions of the person with his son in the car. He is desperate about the fact that the executive is going to crash into him and he cannot do much about it. Just before the crashes, the advertisement shows that he is looking at his son sitting in the back seat with a very sad face that he is not able to save his son from the crash and its effects.
  8. The advertisement is a perfect example, and there is not much room for improvements. It conveys a very serious message in a very strong manner by showing the emotions and desperations of the individuals. No music has been used to depict a real situation, and this allows the audience to think and relate to the situation. However, the idea “Mistakes happen. Your speed decides the outcome” can be worked on a bit more. The advertisement and its billboard do convey the idea that mistakes are part of everyone’s life. However, this does not mean that one should go on making mistakes. In the advertisement, it is depicted that the executive has done wrong on the other hand if we see carefully; the other person has sees that a car is coming right down the road still he ignores it and carries on turning. This creates the problem and the executive who is already driving at over 100 miles per hour has not the time to react and control his vehicle.
  9. The purpose of Safer Journey is to provide road safety to all the New Zealanders. Safer Journey is a project in which many organizations were are working including New Zealand’s Ministry of Transport, New Zealand Transport Agency, ACC, New Zealand Police as well as other government partners. The Safer Journey strategy was designed by National Road Safety Committee, and the purpose was to overcome the issues related to road safety. This advertisement fits with the NZ Transport Agency ideas to overcome the road safety issues.

Appendix

Link to the advertisement: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bvLaTupw-hk

Organization linked to the selected Advertisement : http://www.saferjourneys.govt.nz/

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Modeling

Question 1:

(1)

Transfer function of the inductor current

I can find this equation  from this transfer function and modeling this circuits and add all the values

Where d is duty cycle which is making of the inductor current

(2)

transfer function from the inductor current to the load voltage

 which is the transfer function of the these duty cycle of inductor current load voltage 

Question 2:

Inner loop control for the current by using the root locus which is daigram

(b) outer loop control by using root locus

theses all values are assumed

The stability of the function of the outer close loop current must be ensured by root locus plot and the peak over shoot ,setting time, steady state error from the step response plot. the most importantly design is steady state error peak over shoot and setting time

so this the transfer function of the out loop current

Question 3

(1)

for the frequency inner loop of the root locus

(2) outer loop frequency of the root locus

so the tradeoff between the bandwidth of the close loop system and the phase margin is show with PId is showing as .In which actually which is showing the actual changes and varies between in it.

Mobile_Robot_Simulation_061.png

Question 4:

closed loop in matlab is

ds.png

 Which is in the matlab

Question 5:

Overall   closed-loop   system

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My first trip to the United States

My first trip to the United States

            I live in the UK and I love to travel. I have been to many of the countries in Europe so I planned on traveling to some place outside Europe last summer. Some of my friends and family members recommended visiting Australia or North America. I was fond of both the regions but have never visited them. Some of my relatives have been living in the US for quite a while. And they have been asking to pay a visit there as well. Hence, I decided to go to the US and was very excited as it was my first tour. There was not much pressure on me as I knew that I am going to visit my family members there.

            I had a direct flight from Heathrow to Los Angles so there was not much of the wait as the flight was 11 hours long. We reached the airport on time and everything went as per the schedule and we reached there on time as well. I was very excited when we landed at Los Angeles Airport. My cousins were there to receive me and my mother at the airport and they took us to their home, no issues at all. My cousins told me about the country and for the whole month we went out and visited different places. The USA is a great country and there are many things that make this country great.

As the country has a large area with geographic varieties it has many climates as well. Extreme weathers are also common in this country. The US have one of the most diverse ecologies and the country has also been aware of the environmental issues as well. The country has a diverse culture as well as it is considered to be the melting pot of all the cultures. You will find people from different races, religions, and cultures and from different parts of the world as well. Travel is the US is very easy as there are a lot of options that are available to the masses.

The country is equipped with one of the world’s longest highway systems. It also has one of the best education systems in the world. The US have many universities and colleges that are ranked very highly in the world. I went to UCLA which is located in California and it was a very prestigious experience. The food was absolutely mesmerizing as well. I can’t forget the test of Buffalo wings that I had at a local fast food joint.

I also went to watch a basketball game between New York Knicks and Los Angeles Lakers at the all famous Madison Square Garden and I was so much thrilled to visit this place as I had heard a lot about it. Another very notable thing was the medical and security facilities that were 24/7 available for the masses and The US are truly a global leader in every field. All in all, it was a great experience. I will definitely plan my second visit there as I haven’t seen the West Coast because there are many things that I love about my stay in the US. One thing that stood out the most was the infrastructure. The USA has probably the best infrastructure overall. The communications systems, roads, buildings and everything is well planned and organized.

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‘Saturation Pressure’

SUMMARY

The objective of this experiment was to observe and analyze the behavior of water in saturated liquid and vapor states, specifically involving the existence of a vapor-liquid equilibrium. A TH3 ‘Saturation Pressure’ Apparatus was used to monitor temperature and pressure; these values are recorded as different experimental conditions are altered. Equations that are known to model liquid-vapor equilibrium transitions were compared to the experimental data for accuracy.

For the initial investigation (Exercise A) of the fluid behavior, the data obtained was plotted on a graph of pressure vs. temperature. The data collected during the initial exercise was used to conduct a more in depth analysis of the observed relationship between temperature and pressure (Exercise B). Calculating absolute pressures and absolute temperatures account for conditions specific to this experiment, such as local atmospheric pressure and corresponding vapor point temperatures. A logarithmic model and an exponential model could be fitted to experimental liquid-vapor equilibrium data, utilizing the absolute temperatures and absolute pressures (Exercise C and Exercise D, respectively). Each of these models suggested that for low temperatures and pressures (T<150C,P<7bar), the calculated values could be used to accurately predict real behavior of the system. Although the observed and calculated graphs have little differences, deviation began to appear as the system approached its upper limits. Utilizing one of these models to represent liquid-vapor transitions at high temperature and pressures would not produce reliable results. Once a reliable liquid-vapor equilibrium model was established, the temperature and pressure data could be represented in terms of energy (Exercise E), providing further insight into the heat transfer processes occurring in the experiment. Understanding how temperature, pressure, energy, and quality relate within a model provided valuable information for designing and implementing an efficient process based on an accurate model.

For the experimental data obtained in this experiment, graphical representations demonstrate the key patterns that were described by standard equations for liquid-vapor equilibrium transitions. Plotting observed experimental data alongside standard data obtained through calculations illustrated the accuracy of the calculated results. In situations where experimental data very closely matched calculated values for a process, the mathematical model could be considering an accurate representation of the liquid-vapor behavior. This was essential when considering design specifications because it allowed the confident selection of materials and conditions that provided the desired result. Despite the high degree of similarity between the observed and calculated absolute pressure values, deviation was present toward the upper limits of the temperature/pressure regime.

INTRODUCTION:

The objective of this experiment is to observe and analyze the behavior of water in saturated liquid and vapor states, specifically involving the existence of a vapor-liquid equilibrium. The concentration of vapor in relation to its liquid, at equilibrium, is expressed as vapor pressure. It will consider as partial pressure if another gas is included in the vapor. Vapor pressure at equilibrium is dependent on the temperature strongly. A TH3 ‘Saturation Pressure’ Apparatus is used to monitor temperature and pressure; these values are recorded as different experimental conditions are altered. Equations that are known to model liquid-vapor equilibrium transitions are compared to the experimental data for accuracy. Experimental lab was conducted to analyze the behavior of water. Exercise A was used to analyze the behavior of the two phases liquid. Behavior of water was analyzed at the boiling point. Further analysis of the data was performed after obtaining the results from the experiment A.  After observing behavior of water, in exercise 2, values of pressure and absolute temperature were calculated in exercise B. Exercise A was repeated again in exercise C. After allowing heater to on, temperature reached to the boiling point. It can be compared from the graph that pressure and temperature have direct relationship. With increase in pressure, temperature also increases.

PROCEDURE

Exercise A – Characteristic Behavior of a Two-Phase Fluid

The TH3 equipment was assembled and the vessel was filled with diluted H2O. The heater power was turned on and set to its maximum and the water was allowed to reach its boiling point; fluid behavior was observed through the sight glass and recorded. After boiling was reached, the heater was turned down slightly until all of the steam had escaped from the filler valve. Once the pressure sensor stabilized, the filler valve was closed and the heater was returned to maximum power. The temperature and pressure of the vessel were recorded at 5-minute intervals until the maximum working pressure (7 bar) was reached. The calorimeter valve was opened to release steam and the heater was turned off. Temperature and pressure readings were recorded at 30-second intervals as steam left the system. The calorimeter valve was left open after vessel returned to atmospheric pressure to avoid causing a partial vacuum.

Exercise B – Principles of Saturation Pressure Measurement

Using the data gathered in Exercise A, the absolute temperature and pressure values were calculated. After the absolute pressure values were obtained, they were compared with literature values for the vapor point of saturated water in order to determine the actual absolute temperature. The absolute pressure was plotted against absolute temperature and actual temperature to determine if significant thermal lag had occurred.

Exercise C – Concept of a Saturation Line

The same TH3 equipment set-up used in Exercise A was used for Exercise C; the heater was turned on to maximum power and the temperature was allowed to reach its boiling point. After boiling was reached, the heater was turned down slightly until all of the steam had escaped from the filler valve. Once the pressure sensor stabilized, the filler valve was closed and the heater was returned to maximum power. The water was heated for 2-minutes, then the heater was turned off; when the value for the platinum resistance thermometer sensor stabilized, the temperature and pressure of the vessel were recorded and the heater was returned to maximum power. After additional 2-minutes intervals of heating, the same data collection procedure was followed until the maximum working pressure (7 bar) was reached. The heater was turned off and the calorimeter valve was opened for 30 seconds then closed. Once sensors stabilized, the calorimeter valve was opened for an additional 30 seconds and another set of temperature and pressure data was recorded. This steam release procedure was followed until the pressure had returned to zero.

Exercise D – Steam Tables

            Using data gathered in Exercise C, the absolute pressure is plotted against the observed vessel temperatures. An exponential equation is generated from the experimental data, and used to calculate absolute pressure values that correspond to each observed temperature recorded. The graph of calculated absolute pressure values is plotted on the same axes as the experimental values to compare the accuracy of the fitted equation.

Exercise E – Use of the Steady Flow Energy Equation

The same TH3 equipment set-up used in Exercise A and C was used for Exercise E; the heater was turned on to maximum power and the temperature was allowed to reach its boiling point. After boiling was reached, the heater was turned down slightly until all of the steam had escaped from the filler valve. Once the pressure sensor stabilized, the filler valve was closed and the heater was returned to maximum power. The pressure was allowed to rise above 1bar before the heater was reduced to minimum power. After the sensors had stabilized, temperature and pressure readings were recorded, and the calorimeter valve was opened to release steam. After sensors had stabilized again, additional temperature and pressure readings were recorded, and the calorimeter valve was closed. The heater was returned to maximum power, and the vessel temperature and pressure were increased in increments of 1bar. At the end of each interval, the heater power is turned to minimum until the sensors stabilize, then the heater is returned to maximum power. Once the maximum working pressure of 7bar was reached, the heater was turned off and the calorimeter valve was opened. As steam escaped from the system, pressure and temperature readings were recorded at 1bar intervals until the pressure reached zero.

Results

Exercise A

Exercise A
Temp C Pressure(bar) Time(mins) Temp (K)
105 0.75 0 378.15
126 1.5 5 399.15
141.5 3 10 414.65
154.1 4.5 15 427.25
165 6.3 20 438.15
169.5 7 22 442.65

 

Figure 1-1 Pressure v. Temperature before opening calorimeter valve

Above figure is showing behavior of pressure and temperature before opening of calorimeter valve. It can be seen from the graph that with the increase of pressure, temperature is also showing increasing trend. At pressure of 0.75, temperature is recorded as provided in the graph as 378 K. At pressure value of 7, it has increased to 442 K as shown in above graph.

Temp C Pressure(bar) Time(mins) Temp (K)
155 4.5 0 428.15
142 3 0.5 415.15
127 1.5 1 400.15
119 1 1.5 392.15
113 0.6 2 386.15
111 0.5 2.5 384.15
110.5 0.3 3 383.65
110 0.2 3.5 383.15
107 0.2 4 380.15
105 0.2 4.5 378.15
104 0.1 5 377.15
102 0.1 5.5 375.15
100 0.1 6 373.15
97 0.1 6.5 370.15
97 0.1 7 370.15
96 0.1 7.5 369.15
93 0.1 8 366.15
91 0.1 8.5 364.15

            Figure 1-2 Pressure Vs Temperature after opening the calorimeter valve every 30 s

       This graph is also showing behavior of the temperature and pressure after opening the calorimeter valve after each 30 Second. Pressure continuously decreased and behavior of temperature is recorded after each 30 second. This graph is showing that reduction in pressure is also reducing temperature.

Temperature increasing v. time before turning heater off

Exercise B

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
295 0.3 0
297.5 0.5 2
380 0.75 4
390 1 6
397 1.4 8
402 1.8 10
409 2.3 12
414 3 14
420 3.5 16
425 4.1 18
429 4.8 20
433 5.5 22
437 6.1 24
441 6.8 26
442 7 27

Figure 2-1 Temperature increasing v. time before turning heater off

After turning the heater off

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
426 4.3 5
414.8 3 10
405 2 15
397 1.5 20
390 1 25
384 0.6 30
377.8 0.4 35
373 0.2 40
368 0 45

Figure 2-2 after turning the heater off

Exercise C

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
372 0.3 2
384 0.6 4
393 1.3 6
402 1.8 8
410 2.5 10
416 3 12
422 3.8 14
428 4.7 16
432 5.4 18
437 6.1 20
440 6.7 22
448 7 24

Figure3.1: Experiment graph of temperature Vs. Time

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
417 3 0.5
400 1.5 1
389 0.75 1.5
381 0.5 2

Figure 3.2: Experimentation of temperature Vs Time

Table of ln P abs v. 1/T

ln P abs 1/T
0.262364 0.002688
0.470004 0.002604
0.832909 0.002545
1.029619 0.002488
1.252763 0.002439
1.386294 0.002404
1.568616 0.00237
1.740466 0.002336
1.856298 0.002315
1.960095 0.002288
2.04122 0.002273
2.079442 0.002232

 

Figure 3.3: Before opening the calorimeter valve and closing it every 30 given time

Exercise D

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins) P abs
372 0.3 2 1.3
384 0.6 4 1.6
393 1.3 6 2.3
402 1.8 8 2.8
410 2.5 10 3.5
416 3 12 4
422 3.8 14 4.8
428 4.7 16 5.7
432 5.4 18 6.4
437 6.1 20 7.1
440 6.7 22 7.7
448 7 24 8

Figure 4.1: Same values as in Exercise C but without the natural log of absolute pressure     

This table is showing values before opening the calorimeter valve and closing it after each 30 second.

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
417 3 0.5
400 1.5 1
389 0.75 1.5
381 0.5 2

Figure 4.2: Experimentation of temperature Vs Time

This table is showing same values as in Exercise C but without the natural log of absolute pressure 

Exercise E
Table V
Pressure (bar) Temperature (K) Enthalpy of sat liquid Enthalpy of sat vapor Enthalpy of steam sample Quality of steam sample (x)
1 390 501 2701 2200 1
0.5 380 460 2682 2224 1.007643885
1 393 504 2706 2202 0.997729337
2 404 559 2720 2176 0.984375
3 415 603 2736 2134 0.983130272
4 424 639 2747 2112 0.976325758
5 430 668 2757 2100 0.968095238
6 437 696 2762 2068 0.969535783
7 442 719 2768 2050 0.966829268
6 437 696 2762 2068 0.969535783
5 430 668 2757 2100 0.968095238
4 424 639 2747 2112 0.976325758
3 415 603 2736 2134 0.983130272
2 405 559 2721 2175 0.984827586
1 492 918 2805 1880 0.948404255
0 470 843 2791 1950 0.952820513
h=hf+x(hg- hf)
x=(h2-hf)/hfg
h1=h2

Figure 5.1: Pressure Vs Temperature

Discussion

Part A of the experiment plots pressure versus temperature.The first half of the experiment involved collection pressure and temperature. The data points were collected every 5 minutes, nd a graph of pressure versus temperature could be created. The graph shows a near linear relationship between pressure and temperature. By increasing the pressure, temperature is also increasing. At pressure, 0.75, temperature is recorded as 378 on the other hand, at temperature169, it is 442. The second graph was of data taken every 30 seconds as the chamber steadily decompresses. The results show nearly the same graph as in the first part of the experiment from these two graphs a good estimate of the vapor-liquid equilibrium can be figured out.

 Part B of the experiment is similar to a now the graphs created from the data where a good estimation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium can be determined. In experiment 2, at time 0, temperature is recorded as 295. At time, 27, it is recorded as 441.  The data was used to measure the saturation pressure of water. The first graph of part B shows a linear and steady increase of temperature versus time measured every 2 minutes. The second graph shows the same in reverse a near steady decline of temperature versus time measured every 5 minutes by inserting the data into an exponential model the saturated pressure of water can be obtained.

 Part C the data for this experiment is plotted in a graph that shows the log natural of the absolute pressure versus the inverse of temperature. Part D is plotted absolute pressure versus exp(temperature) both graphs show steep incline and a steep decline of the data. Part E temperature was taken at intervals of 1 bar instead of a time interval. By doing this a direct comparison relating the pressure and temperature can be taken.

Analysis of Error

Mechanical pressures gauge were used to read the pressure connected with vessel rather than digital read out on computer.

By doing that the readings where potentially less precise. Determining the gauge instead of getting decimal precision. The magnitude of this error was probably small In many cases, to get a solid readout in the decimal place.

In experiment A the pressure value stayed the same towards the end of part two while the temperature continued to decrease. This error was probably due to the slow adjustment of the thermometer because it was placed far away from the steam apparatus.  The magnitude of this slow change could have had a larger impact on the results in this case because the last 8 or so points that where collected continuously after 30 seconds altered the data and the graph.

Values of temperature and pressure were taken by filling the data sheet manually. Because of that there is much confusion when it comes to tabulating a graph with the data collected. Depending on the level of problems, each student had at the time could transfer from a small to a large scale level of error.

The analysis of the data as it pertained to the evaluating for Q, W, X and the varies H values that the manual had left the students of this group confused but ultimately it became more clear once analyzing Data Sheet 4.

 The magnitude of their error is that the students had probably left a large error in the results compared to the expected results.

REFERENCES

  1. Armfield. Saturation Pressure: Instruction Manual TH3. Vol. 15. N.p.: Armfield Limited, 2012. Print. 


2.Helmenstine, Anne. “Can You Define Boiling Point? Review Your Chemistry Concepts.”       About.com Education. About.com, Dec. 2014. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.

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Legal & Social Issues BITCOIN

Legal & Social Issues

BITCOIN

Introduction

            This is necessary to navigate the social and legal aspects of products or services for the customers. In this study, we will discuss the social and legal issues along with different pros and cons of the BITCOIN. This is a digital asset or payments systems, developed by some unidentified programmers or engineers. This is a good tool to record the pate5ts in the different public ledger. However, the social and legal complexities are necessary to consider.

Economic and Social Pros & Cons of Bitcoin

Pros

            There are some advantages of the BITCOIN. The first advantage of this system is freedom of the payment. People can get and sent money in the different parts of the word. Also, people can control their money regarding the transaction or transfer. Moreover, despite having the proper control in this system, the information of people is hidden in this system, which contains the security. This is a fact that this system contains the backup regarding the record or transactions, which makes it more secure. Also, the information is transparent, as there is no fraud or other unfair means. The other advantages are low fees and less risk for the different merchants. For instance, this is applicable in the regions where crime rates are at peak.

Cons

            About the disadvantages, this has been observed that people contain lack of awareness and understanding of this system, as there many prominent substitutes. The major disadvantage of this system is the limited coins for the customers, as they have to increase them with the passage of time. This limitation may frustrate the customers. Also, this is to mention that this system still has to be developed for better navigation (Coinreport.net, 2016).

Legal & Regulatory Aspect

            There are different legal and regularity issues regarding the BITCOIN. When we navigate the legal nature of the BITCOIN, the legal currency and legal tendency come into the life. This has been revealed that economies with weak currencies use this system. On theater hand, strong economies use the other systems. Thus, this system often let the people confuse regarding the legal currency, which is a big thing to worry. This has also been observed that the federal and mint can produce the coins for different transactions. Therefore, about the BITCOIN, it seems illegal to have coins to carry the operations. Also, there are also immense complexities regarding the local and international currency. Some countries allow the coins, and some do not due to the different legal considerations. We can say the BITCOIN contradicts with many legal systems in the different countries. This is a fact that the management of the BITCOIN is still facing immense barriers to contain the coins as virtual currency. The most important thing is to enforce the currency in the different contracts. Furthermore, the most interesting fact is that the government is still waiting for an action, to be taken against the BITCOIN. It also depicts the confusions regarding its coins and way of operations. This has also confused the people regarding the transactions. However, this system has created the trust among the navigators. However, in China, this has been revealed that there are some fraud cases regarding the use of the BITCOIN. This fact depicts some question marks on its legal aspects. Now, following are pros and cons of BITCOIN, which are about the legality (Journalistsresource.org, 2015).

Legal pros and cons

As we know, it is a quite innovative payment system; it has some legal pros and cons. It means that this typical payment network that has unique and effective worldwide transaction system could give you many benefits and losses as well.  In this section, one would like to discuss prominent legal advantages and disadvantages of this payment system. 

Favorable Points

            It is a fact that various legal terms could make things favorable for the particular company.  The favorable thing is the laws against the money transaction or reproduces money.  One can see that rules about the money production are mention in the United States of America and the United Kingdom as well. The favorable point is the less regulation against the digital money.  There is no clear instruction in laws about counterfeiting in digital money from this particular company.  On the other hand, people who are using this specific system can easily keep your privacy.  Another advantage or favorable point is the protection from the inflation. It means that one would not worry about the inflation while using the system of this particular company.

Non-Favorable Points

            Due to changes in laws and regulation, the system cannot get perfection. It means that there will always be a probability of unfavorable points for their payments structure.  One of the biggest non-favorable points is the change in federal tax law in the country.  It is imperative to understand that everybody would have to pay on the digital and overseas transaction as well.  The anti-money laundering law and other laws are the major cons of the system of this particular company.   They do not have the legal tender, and it could cause them lose in the future as well (Guadamuz & Marsden, 2015).

Conclusion

            In the end, one would like to say that BITCOIN is a unique and very helpful system to share money with each other.  It provides the global transaction to for the customers. Also, they should value the legal and social aspects in the system for the prosperity of the company in future.  Most importantly, they need to overcome legal issues as soon as possible.

References

Coinreport.net. (2016, March 10). What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Bitcoin? Retrieved October 20, 2016, from Coin Report: https://coinreport.net/coin-101/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-bitcoin/

Guadamuz, A., & Marsden, C. (2015). Regulatory responses to cryptocurrencies. Block Chains and Bitcoin , 20 (12).

Journalistsresource.org. (2015, April 1). Bitcoin and virtual currencies: Background information and key technical and legal issues. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from Journalists Resource: http://journalistsresource.org/studies/society/internet/bitcoin-virtual-currencies-key-technical-legal-issues

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Forest Gump (1994)

Forest Gump

Virtues or vices 

There are several virtues that have been seen in the movies. These need to be implemented as the best of the person needs to be seen. Here the mission is that how a person could be made better.

Virtues in the movie

We can see that the movie is one of the greatest movies of all time. The movie has won many Oscars and many awards in previous years. The movie is a kind of comedy but it is very helpful for the youth nowadays as it gives many good lessons at the end. However if we look in to the movie we come to know that there are much virtues that we can see in the movie at the end.

Wearing leg braces but still carries on and does everything. For Instance, forest works hard and knows that he can do everything and run fast without the leg braces. Due to work hard, he got the football scholarship. Furthermore, he joined the army. He received the Medal of Honor. He mage Made US$25,000 from ping pong endorsements. Moreover, he Started business of scrimping boat. He shares in Apple. However, he does not left his love throughout. He is a courageous man.

Here we can see that forest was wearing leg braces from the childhood, we can see that still he depicted the perseverance. He intended to do everything and achieve his goals with determination. For Instance, in a bullet attack, he was not afraid and depicted his willingness to face the hurdles. Running too fast despite having the leg braces in the legs was actually a demonstration of perseverance. In addition, this perseverance had also been seen in the football stadium, as he intended to run faster to achieve the goals. 

There trails were going on and we can see that the coach selected him as he saw a boy running so fast. Later he was selected in the college team; he was awarded and gone to the next level of competition.

Forrest was good at everything, so he joined the Army, which is not an easy task to have. He showed the flexibility in different tasks, which is also a good example of the virtue. For Instance, when we look at his personality, we know that he used to manage different things with flexibility. Despite having the wounded body during war, he helped others. We can say that he is brave, lovable, and honest man, which justifies the flexibility of his personality.  The flexibility has also been shown through the business, loss in hurricane, as he never give up and try to face hurdles with good decisions and improvisations. He changed his plan and re invested his money to make the difference. The change of plan shows his flexibility.  

After that, we can see that forest invested in Apple Company so that there would be no problems in term of money for him. With all the examples above, we can see that forest was a courageous man and the best thing, which was depicted that he was loyal as well. He does not left his love till the end. He also proposed her but we can see that the loyalty of forest wins at the end as he has married with her as well. This shows that he cares the things in life he loves. Loyalty and love are the virtues that have been depicted in the movies and enhance the attractions of the viewers.

Vices in the movie

Here now looking at the movie in the negative direction we also find some of the negativity in her, w can see that at couple of point it gives the wrong direction or the negative aspects of life as well. Some of them are stated below. Forest was intellectually challenged and to have admission her mother had sex with the principle. Forest love Jenny was expelled from college for having topless photos. Forest asks to marry jenny but she declined him.

 Looking at the vices we come to know that the bad habits or the things that prevails in the movie. This is to mention that jenny was prominent in the movies due to her promiscuous. This was the prominent demonstration of vive. Her behavior was frustrating in the movie, which also create barriers for other. Thus, the vice promiscuous was destructive.  We come to know that it was difficult for forest to have the admission and due to that; the mother had sex with the principle.

In the movie, it can be seen that the girl Jenny was not as good as she was in to different drugs, the bad company she had. One of the issues w can see that she was a member of different parties as well. However, she was fired from the college as her topless photos could be seen. Hence, this is not the good point that was depicted in the movie.

However, another point that comes in the mind is that the forest was happy with jenny, however he loved her. In real, she was not a good girl and she rejected him. She know that he is loyal and do loves her. Here the negligence can be seen and it needs to be eliminated as well.

Lessons that are essential to become good Human Being

We can see that there are many thing that we have actually come to know, what are the Virtues and the vices that are shown in the movie. I have learned a lot and there are couples of things that are listed here which are important in making me good human being. 

Forrest dependably proclaims everything that is at the forefront of his thoughts, and it makes everybody laugh hysterically or helps them understand something colossal about themselves. He was honest and shy and was violently opposed by people in the move. Interestingly, his shyness was also very expressive, which compel the audience to laugh. For Instance, he used to depict his feelings with shyness and anxiety. He contained the equity with every one, which showed the honesty, however, he was not very expressive to depict his intentions. Interestingly, the intentions were rights but these had to be demonstrated with aggressive approach.   At times, it can be somewhat hostile yet nobody truly minds, since he generally implies well. Whether it is the woman at the transport stop or the president of the United States, Forrest treats everybody precisely the same with equivalent regard, additionally with equivalent genuineness. Chestnut nosing does not exist in Forrest’s reality, because regardless of the status, a man is a man.

Forrest never delays to exhibit and express his affections for those he thinks about. He bears everything to all onlookers, and everybody who matters to Forrest realizes that they matter to Forrest. Much the same as he is not hesitant to express his look after others, he is not reluctant to love profoundly, from the base of his spirit. He is not apprehensive of getting hurt, and he does not over think he simply cherishes. Many people could gain from this effortlessness.

He does not close anybody out, yet rather confronts it head-on: by going to their graves and addressing them like he generally did. He showed the empathy for those who were brave and contributed. He contained the empathy for unable people, who had no powers or rights to do something. Thus, the empathy for those people actually gave them motivation and direction. He confronts demise with his mom’s recommendation: Somebody requests that Forrest play ping-pong. He takes the oar and does it – and he gives his regular abilities a chance to kick in. Overall, who knows what you are great at on the off chance that you do not attempt?

Overall, in any event you attempted if we do not participated then its ok, no problem with that. Lieutenant Dan may have needed to die on the combat zone; however, Forrest was not going to give that a chance to happen. Your heart might pull you in one heading, while others are instructing you to go the inverse course. Continuously believe your gut sense. It might simply spare someone’s life. This is a fact that Forrest was very responsive regarding the different tasks and hurdles in the life. This was the demonstration of Instinct virtue, which helped him to face omens problems and achieve the goals. 

Always says that I am superior and I can do everything that is how we can change the life. As the amazing Mama notes, society directs what “ordinary” is. It does not generally have a genuine definition – it is all relative. Never feel like you must be “typical.” Let your oddity hail fly.  Forrest does not give a hoot about “ordinary,” and look what happened: he made The King renowned and helped somebody concoct the smiley confront and a smart guard sticker. What’s more, he had positively no clue. Act naturally, and recollect that your activities matter in more courses than you know…

As I would like to think, a stand out amongst the saddest minutes in the motion picture was when Jenny rejects Forrest’s proposition to be engaged, and he raises an especially brutal affront that she had tossed at him forever and a day back. Easygoing fellowships go back and forth, yet when Forrest discovers individuals, he really clicks with, he knows how unique it is and he does not release that.

Firstly, frozen yogurt is wonderful. Never forget how amazing frozen yogurt is. Besides, dependably impart to a companion or cherished one in need—regardless of the possibility that that specific individual dumps your offerings in a bedpan. Carry on with your life how you need to. Take an interest in exercises essentially in light of the fact that you need to. Not all that matters needs to have a more profound significance but rather when you begin doing what you adore.  It will build up a more profound importance all alone. This is a fact that he was human and depicted his intentions to help other people around him. This was the humanity that he showed at that time. According to him, helping other is the humanity.

We need to remember whatever has been happened in the past in any case so that we could move forward in the better way. The above lessons are mentioned which I have learned from the movie and I thing by focusing on the above points a better human being can be formed. The reason behind it is that everything is positive and it is worth full as well.

Here we can see that there are couples of things that are mentioned in the above paragraphs so that the main things are looked in the deep analysis and we can see that by fulfilling all these things we can see that I can be a good human being at the end.

Source: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0109830/

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Challenge of deteriorating urban infrastructure and its replacement

Does the challenge exist to restore and improve Urban Infrastructure?

            Yes, the challenge exists. Improvements in existing urban infrastructure are a matter of debate today. Social scientists, engineers and metropolitan planners say that the challenge of the restoration of urban infrastructure is a need of the time. It is believed that the urban infrastructure of the United States and its countries is aging and failing and there is need to replace the existing structure with modernized one to prevent the dangers of natural disasters, catastrophic events, floods and accidents.

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http://cdia.asia/who-we-are/what-is-cdia/

Grand challenge for rebuilding of urban infrastructure

The grand challenge associated with the deterioration of urban infrastructure. It is getting old and with the passage of time, it will no longer able to cope with the challenge of the 21st century. Such a problem is recognized from poor planning of infrastructure that is leading to severe consequences in the society. The development of the transportation systems, extraction of the natural resources and other measures are important in order to transform the existing urban structure in to modernize. Degradation of natural areas the major challenges in the urban areas and this challenge has been discussed in both articles to obtain desired outcomes of the solution [1].

Compare and contrasting the problem of urban infrastructure redevelopment 

Both papers contribute the solutions for the deterioration of existing urban infrastructure to indicate major implementation in the infrastructure planning. Urban planning has been constructed for conserving the urban infrastructure problems.  The green infrastructure is also an important factor in the realm of an aging urban infrastructure. Therefore, it is important aspect, which is reducing the minimal impact on the conserved areas in essential and adequate manner. Both the article provides the discussion of the deterioration of the urban infrastructure including the need for biodiversity and their respective solutions. [2].

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            Therefore, while replacing the existing urban structure, the deliberation must be taken in to place to preserve the green house impact and the environmental sustainability. The need for rebuilding of the urban infrastructure and conservation subdivision are discussed in both articles that demonstrate the impact of problems on the society and reveals adequate solutions.  [3].

http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/File.aspx?id=16275

Source: http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/infrastructure.aspx

There are certain differences between the two articles that need to be explored to identify different proposing solutions of deteriorating biodiversity due to poor infrastructure planning.  The environmental policy is discussed to educate the programs of environmental impact. The study focuses on education kiosks, web pages, and resource issues to control the infrastructure issues.  [4].

On the other hand, the article describes the importance of domestic gardens in the current environment. The management of domestic gardens identifies the key factors, which may let them to gain the success for a long run. The other article focuses on the specific planning of infrastructure while the article provides the development of domestic green gardens to initiates the major executions in the urban planning of green environment solutions. The improvement in the green environment by air cooling and mitigation of flooding is beneficial to contain the eco friendly environment.  The article specifically focuses on domestic garden and well-being of the human society. The significance of the domestic garden from several aspects explored to specific consolidations in the green environment.

References:

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[1] Cdia.asia. (2015, March) Promoting sustainable and equitable urban development. [Online]. http://cdia.asia/who-we-are/what-is-cdia/
[2] Paula Restrepo Cadavid. (2014, June) Declining cities (I): an increasing trend? [Online]. https://favelissues.com/2014/06/15/declining-cities-i-an-increasing-trend/
[3] Gineeringchallenges.org. (2016, October) What is infrastructure? [Online]. http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/infrastructure.aspx
[4] Ni.com. (2013, October) Restoring and Improving Urban Infrastructure. [Online]. http://www.ni.com/newsletter/51814/en/

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Critical Analysis

Critical Analysis

The prime focus of the article is on two subjects; consumption volume and consumption pattern. The research work has indentified various factors, which have directly and indirectly affected the size of consumption and consumption pattern. According to evidence, in form statistics and structural observations, the size of consumption, of average American family has increased evidently. It has been accepted that middle class families, upper-middle-lower, always had a higher Marginal Propensity to Consume; however, in recent years, since the emergence of electronic media the consumption rate and pattern has changed.

As per statistics, the consumption rate has increased radically and there are many factors, genuine and artificial, which have contributed in the increase of the volume. For instance, it has been asserted that advertisements were used as utensils by corporate to artificially increase the demand for products. Advertisements use special languages and images that aim to create demand for specific products. This method, employed by corporations, is effective and for that reason we observe the exponential increase in marketing budget.

Another focus, of the article, is on the consumption pattern. Article asserts that buying has become little irrational and also less methodical. This has changed the consumption pattern and people are now spending more on such products and services that tend to make little sense. It is also observed that buying may make sense at present, but after sometime it seems irrelevant. These developments have made United States a consumer-driven economy, where methodical and rational buying has lessened somewhat.

It is true that in recent decades consumption has grown and its pattern changed. This is also rue that some of the buying makes less sense; however, consumer rationality will again augment when system will jolt because of excessive spending, which would cause less optimal use of resources.