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To Determine the Impact of Enterprise Risk Management in Supply Chain of Automobile Industry A case of Toyota motors corporation

To determine the impact of enterprise risk management in supply chain of automobile industry

A case of Toyota motors corporation

There are certain risks in supply chain need to be identified in managing the overall supply chain operations. The potential risk to an organization associated with the externals and end to end risk. Such risks include natural disasters, labor unavailability, lawsuits, war, crime, terrorism, and sabotage.  In addition, supplier risk linked with the losses of financials, physical and regulatory risk and upstream, supplier risk as well.  Supply chain risk management is a method to manage a risk in the business by evaluating and predicting any financial risks as well as supplier risk to reduce and minimize the risks. Towards supply chain risk, internal enterprise face challenges in demand variability, testing unavailability, operational risk, financial uncertainty,   cargo damage or theft and design uncertainty need to be identified in the managing supply chain execution in risk management.  (Burt, 2011).

It has been common now that in a business environment, risks are very common now and the supply chain management is the riskiest part of the business to make or break the product. For the identification of risk in the supply chain, the firm identifies routes for shipments with an optimizing network of transportation, recognition of location and number of suppliers, origins and number of shipments and logistical executions.

More than 3338,875 people are working in this industry and have the best production department in the world. Toyota has just in time manufacturing and has very good relationship with its suppliers as it is always focusing on improving its quality because Toyota never compromised on quality; therefore, it has best quality supply management (Cecere, 2014).

The lean manufacturing system is the way of making things at the Toyota corporations. The supply chain management of Toyota Company based on the Toyota production system TPS, which expresses the functions of lean manufacturing.  The supply chain model of Toyota Company specifically associated with the execution of order fulfillment, customer services, sourcing and procurements, production operations, inventory management and optimization of transportation modes in managing supply chain risk management. (Rao Tummala, 2011)

It is generally considered the manufacturing or the production process of an automobile industry is very complex and it may contain more than 20,000 parts. To sustain in the competitive environment of business, the Toyota formulates total supplier partnering hierarchy.  Such partnering hierarchy of Toyota motors initiates the execution of interlocking structures, compatible capabilities, joint improvement activities, trust and mutual understanding, sharing of information and kaizen reveals the major consolidations to manage risk within supply chain management. (Zhao, Huo, Sun, & Zhao, 2013)

There is certain risk associated with the Toyota company supply chain such risk link with the probability of natural disasters that disrupts the supply chain operations. In addition, changes in technological trends, political uncertainty in a global environment, warehouse inadequacies and enterprise underperformance are the risk happening within supply chain operations.  The procurement of automobile manufacturing parts are taken from globally that reveals the risk of global supplier relationship uncertainty, In addition, this thing had helped a lot for Toyota by earning the trust and partnership with a supplier (Fabbe-Costes & Jahre, 2008).

Toyota supply chain

 Improvement in supply chain management is the main focus of Toyota to confront he challenges in the supply chain management. Toyota Motor Corporation conducting successful business practices towards supply chain management. The main principles of the supply chain of Toyota based on the kaizen implementation, lean manufacturing, KANBAN and just in time executions to retain the competitive edge in supply chain management. Efficiency in business functions obtained through optimization of supply chain and retains customer values as well. Toyota has several suppliers of tiers so that Just in time culture created and quality would not be compromised (Ferguson & Souza, 2010).

Toyota production system and lean manufacturing system is the main components of Toyota in their supply chain management. In the Inbound logistics the Third party, logistics are helping Toyota to get their material. A cluster of suppliers is made by the company according to their own convenience based on the geographical location. In addition, the process is made according to which the supplier transfers the materials to the company. When this process is done, returnable containers are reloaded and the truck in reverse route and the process continues (Paulsson & Nilsson, 2011). The implication of just in time inventory system helps in incorporating with the total quality management, continuous improvements, elimination of wastages and reduction in inventory through the involvement of suppliers in the process of production planning.

Production Phase

In the production concept of Toyota, that reveals the major consolidations of Toyota production system and relationship with the suppliers. Elimination of waste is the main focus of the company to confirm the risk in the supply chain. Making the vehicles ordered by customers in the quickest as well as the most efficient way to retain the values of customers. With the effective implementation of the just in time that improves productivity by elimination of inconsistencies as well as unreasonable requirements as well on the production line.

Supply chain risk management

To manage the risk in supply chain reveals the difficulties that how to become resilient in effective lead time.  Managing risk in the supply chain, the forms need to implement, business continuous planning by the development of probability of risk occurrences. The main contingency options based on the collaboration with the suppliers, postponement, redundancy optimization, alternate considerations of sourcing requirements and historic risk analysis reduce the chances of risk occurrences.  Business partner security, procedural security, training, and education to employees and physical security to enhance the credibility of supply chain risk management.   A three-step process helps in generating protection of business from risk, first prioritize, identify and then mitigate the risk in the supply chain management. (Paulsson & Nilsson, 2011).

Risk managed by the Toyota motors in the supply chain

The main problem is how to manage them effectively if the risk causes actual loss how to recover from that loss. Well, we took the real case example of the Toyota motors corporation. As we already know about Toyota and its lean business process that how it thrives to achieve continuous innovation and collaboration with well-known reputed suppliers. To manage the in Toyota motors of their supply chain the company mad major initiatives in their supply chain processes.  Business continuity management through employees and supplier is to make practice effectiveness of plan if any risk happens in future. Building a disaster-resilient supply chain together with suppliers is to prioritize the probability of risk for early recovery.  This shows that how the Toyota company implements supply chain risk management initiates in their existing supply chain for the continuity of the supply chain operations. 

When the earthquake and tsunami in Japan hinted, there was a loss of too much production in the world’s best automobile company but Toyota promised that it would manage to lower that risk next time (Ferguson & Souza, 2010).

The problem was caused that due to the natural disasters caused in the country. The company’s part supplier was unable to deliver their supplies on time or at the expected quantity, which caused a huge loss for its company and took six months to recover from this loss. This reveals that need of contingency measurements to avoid the happening of the risk of natural disasters. The happening of natural disasters disrupts the networks of supply chain management. Training and plan maintenance, effective communication to external and internal stakeholders, business recovery resumptions helps in integrating to generate effective outcome within the supply chain risk management.

Toyota’s plan involved asking that supplier to spread their production into the multiple locations and made warehouses, which can store extra inventory buffers for them. In addition, they kept looking for best alternative options (Fabbe-Costes & Jahre, 2008).

Even with the best-laid plans, organizations seek the challenges in the supply chain. Effective responding to events required urgent attention to managing operations and reputation. The crises associated with the natural disasters, labor disputes, failures of information technology and major fires.    Crisis management compromises the overall tactical and strategic response of organization to respond efficiently to actualize threats in essential and adequate manner. Critical incident planning as well risks preparedness should be intake to confront the challenges in good manner. 

Toyota will not only make its effort in its home country but in the other countries like in the Europe and the USA as well and the suppliers who did not share information of their suppliers. Because of the competitive reasons that have ensured that in the case of any mishap, they will not face any problem or will recover within the two weeks if any problem caused (Choi & Cheng, 2011).

Because companies like automobiles have huge supply-chain if one part goes, missing the whole, finished product becomes unable to supply. In addition, the Toyota’s vice president Shinchi sasaki is taking the main leadership role so that future problems like this should be avoided. Therefore, for managing risks all other companies should take lessons from Toyota (Fabbe-Costes & Jahre, 2008).


Thus to sum up all discussion about the risk management in the supply chain has immense importance for the optimization of supply chain networks.  Natural disasters, as well as demand variability, is the major risk associated with the organization, need to be confronted by effective respond to risk events.  Business continuity planning BCP is to become supply chain resilient to confront the risk in a good manner. The collaboration with the suppliers, postponement, redundancy optimization and physical security helps in generating effective outcome with happening of risk. Towards Toyota motor corporations, kaizen implementation, lean manufacturing, KANBAN system and Toyota production systems and just in time executions are the main supply chain principles implemented in the company to respond the risk in the supply chain operations?


Burt, D. (2011). Proactive Purchasing in the Supply Chain: The Key to World-Class Procurement. McGraw-Hill Education.

Cecere, L. M. (2014). Supply Chain Metrics that Matter (Wiley Corporate F&A). Wiley.

Cetinkaya, B. (2011). Sustainable Supply Chain Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Choi, T.-M., & Cheng, T. E. (2011). Supply Chain Coordination under Uncertainty. Springer.

Fabbe-Costes, N., & Jahre, M. (2008). Supply chain integration and performance: a review of the evidence. The International Journal of Logistics Management , 0957-4093.

Ferguson, M. E., & Souza, G. C. (2010). Closed-Loop Supply Chains: New Developments to Improve the Sustainability of Business Practices (Supply Chain Integration Modeling, Optimization and Application). CRC Press.

Manuj, I., & Mentzer, J. T. (2008). Global supply chain risk management strategies. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management .

Paulsson, U., & Nilsson, C.-H. (2011). Estimation of disruption risk exposure in supply chains. Int. J. Business Continuity and Risk Management , 2 (1), 1-19.

Rao Tummala, T. S. (2011). Assessing and managing risks using the Supply Chain Risk. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal .

Zhao, L., Huo, B., Sun, L., & Zhao, X. (2013). The impact of supply chain risk on supply chain integration and company performance: a global investigation. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal .

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Risk management

VII-Risk management

a. Risk factors foundation

There are certain risk factors need to identify in the project construction. The identification of risk helps in managing the uncertainty by probability of risk occurrence.  Shortage of building material, changes of scope of project, staying on tack and scheduling as well as delayed in the project approvals and permitting as well are the main factors of potential risk. Therefore identification of such risk helps in incorporating best execution of project planning. Ranking of each risk in severity and potential are as below:

b. Potential risks to the project.

Project approval and permitting delays (1st)

The delay in the project execution reveals the huge risk to manage the operational activities in the construction. The lead-time efficacy is the core aim of the project management. Time is money in every field, whether it is the construction industry, transportation, or manufacturing. As such, our schedule will be laid out to finish according to the time frame laid out in the contract. In order to anticipate any whether concerns, the statistics provided by the National Weather Service will be used to properly calculate average rainfall days by the month and will be used to calculate the rain days to void them from the schedule if needed.

Changes of scope (2nd)

The changes of reveals the major risk in the project execution. The availability of valuable equipment (many of which carry other costs such as transportation) may draw the attention of to be thieves. For that reason, security officers will be available to guard the premises. A night shift can also be incurred in order to ensure the preservation of equipment and machinery. The security concerns recognized as huge challenge for the project execution.

Staying on tracking and scheduling (3rd)

If the project diversity onto tracking and scheduling then it reveals the certain activities face consequences in project management. To resolve such issue hold bi-weekly meetings to confront the complications in project execution.  In addition occupational health and safety concern would also be recognized. All policies and implementations of project scheduling should be following to reduce the impact of severe consequences in managing project execution planning. The construction industry is home to some of the highest incident records despite advancements in prevention technology and job awareness training. All personnel will be required to have completed safety training and abide by all of OSHA’s guidelines, and the management team will ensure the following on these rules. In addition, all unauthorized personnel will not be allowed onto the job site.

c. Rank each risk in potential and severity

In addition, if project scope changes then it reveals major risk for the project construction with high severity. The delays in approval of projects and permitting are leads to high severity of project execution planning.  High severity of risk associated with the Staying on tracking and scheduling. Each of three risks has high severity in project execution planning.

d. Mitigation plan for each risk

The best approach for the accumulation of risk management is proactive in identification of potential documentation that prolongs the approval and permitting process. Effective and constant communication among team of A/E, subcontractors and owner must be taken for the project execution planning. The changes of scope could be could be mitigate by building string relationship between design team of construction project and owner to reduce the possibilities additional things in the scope of project work. Progress reports as well as proper documentation depict the best formulations of project planning that are sent to the owner to review it accordingly. The owner reviews the project executions to reduce the changes in scope. Send weekly priority list of emails for effective progress and documentations.

e. Risk Mitigation requirement found in the Project contract

The subcontractors as well as contractors purchase insurances of project construction for the reduction in possibilities of claims in the spec. Insurance of purchasing all items need to be identified for safe operations of project execution.   

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Reflection Paper

Reflection Paper

Ethical behavior is important; as it is in the benefit for the person who follows the ethical behavior as well as to follow, the ethics is equally important for the entire society. Subsequently, when I look at what I done, I feel guilty because I came to realize that to main the high ethical standard is in benefit for me as well as for the university.

I came to know that if I pass the class with cheating, at the end I would earn nothing because the purpose of the study is not just to pass the exams but learning is more important because our core purpose of taking class is to learn to get prepared for the future.

I believe that if I succeed to pass the exam through cheating, then at the end I would have nothing. If with this situation I go for a job, I will not be able to perform effectively whereas the others who have passed the exam on the base of their learning and knowledge, they will definitely do well at their jobs as they have the knowledge and so they can understand the work better than I can.

Moreover, I came to realize that there is no benefit of cheating because at the end we have to suffer from this situation. For example, if now I will go for a job with a degree which I gain through cheating and dishonesty, then I will not be able to work effectively and so I will require more time to become efficient in my job.

On the other hand, a person who does job on the base of his knowledge would have more opportunity to grow rapidly. In these circumstances, I found that a person who passes exams with his hardworking would not have to face that much serious circumstances in future as a cheater have to.

Secondly, it is importantly for the Boise State University to maintain a high standard of academic integrity because the core purpose of the university is to give knowledge to the students and make them prepare for the challenges that they would have to face in their future.

In this regards, if they do not maintain a standard of academic integrity then the students of the university would not be able to become a good citizen and so the purpose and the objectives of the institute will not be achieved.

There is another major reason to maintain the high standard of academic integrity because if university does not do so then the cheaters might get good grades as compare to those who work very hard and so the hardworking student will not be able to get what they deserve.

 This would be injustice with the hardworking students and in the consequences of it, the hard working student may get dishearten and so their future will be in great threat. Therefore, I believe that it is important to maintain the high standard of academic integrity for the university.

I learnt a lot as I was suspended due to the cheating. First, it was really embarrassing for me because I had done something that was unethical and no acceptable in our society. I made this action of cheating because I was not well prepared for the exam as I wasted most of my time and on the other hand, I was feared to get fail as it would be inductive for me.

Secondly, I found that by doing cheating I wanted to save my time but now I realized that I was just wasting my time. I thought that cheating is the easiest way to get good grades but on the other hand, I have realized that we do not just have to be good from out but the inner beauty has more importance and inner beauty means to be ethical in all the circumstances.

 Now if I will ever get a change of cheating, I would not go for it because it is not only unethical but also at the same time, we have to pay for it at sometimes in our life.

After that embarrassing incident now I am determined to always be ethical and to avoid cheating I will do, work hard because it was the only reason that evoked me to commit cheating act. I decided to work hard and work with honesty and I am determined to always act ethically. Moreover, I have realized that the purpose of going to academic institute will only be achieved when I will gain something from it; therefore, I have decided that instead of wasting my time, I will concentrate on my studies.

I have realized that what had happened was one of the biggest mistakes and it also made be embarrassed but I have taken as a learning experience and may be if it was not happened, I would not learn the consequences of cheating.

 Accordingly, in the future I will keep this lesson in my mind and always focus on to work with integrity and honesty and at the same time, I will also encourage others to focus on study instead of getting involved in cheating type bad things.

I will also utilize my skills and knowledge to promote the idea of working ethically by putting myself in front of the people as an example. Because I do believe that if we learn from our mistake and do not repeat it in the future then it is no more a thing to be embarrassed. Accordingly, I put myself as an example for others because I believe that through this way I could utilize my experience in a best way and I could save precious time of others as well as they would not have to get embarrassed like me as I was suspended from university and then got instructive by friends and relatives.

At the end, I accepted that I did something really unethical and wrong but I am happy because this is great experience to make me a responsible person and bring a positive change in my personality. I am also happy as I got a chance of recovery and I promise that I will work with honesty and will not commit such stupid act ever again.

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Low Pass Filter

Low Pass Filter

A low-pass filter is a complement, of a high-pass filter; it could be known as a filter that passes the signals with the lower frequency than a cuff off frequency and attenuates signals are signals, which have the higher frequencies than the cutoff frequency. To know the exact frequency of response of the filter, there is a need to know about the filter design. Consequently, the low pass filter only allows the low-frequency signals to pass from the Fc point, from the 0Hz. The higher frequency is blocked in the process (Shamieh & McComb, 2011).






  Low-pass filters exist in different forms, which also includes the electronic circuits example a hiss filter, which is used in the audio and the anti-aliasing filters, which have the conditioning signals. Conditioning signals are prior to the analog to a digital conversation, the digital filter for the blurring of the image, acoustic barriers, smoothing set of data and so on. The particular kind of low-pass filter is the average moving operation that is used in the field of finance. The average moving operation can be analyzed in the same way as the low-pass filter.  

 There is the signal processing technique, which is used for the low-pass filter, however, a low-pass filter can provide the smoother form of the signals and the short-term fluctuations can be removed, the low-pass filter can leave the long-term trends. The low-pass filter can be often used as a prototype filter; the filter unit, in this case, can be impedance and bandwidth.  

Electric Low-pass

Moreover, there are the electric low-pass filters that have the modify designs, the low-pass filter can be rejected reshape according to the unwanted frequencies, the electrical signals can be accepted or pass by the circuit designer. There are the consumer electronics low-pass filters, which are used to control the system of the industries, as referred to the facts, there can be multiple of mathematical operations, an example of such operation are differentiation, addition, subtraction etc (Suresh, 2010).


In an electronic low-pass filter, the RC filter have the voltage signals, there is the high frequency of the input signal that is attenuated, the filter has the little amount of the attenuation, which is below the cutoff frequency as determined by the RC constant time. In the similar circuit or the current signals, the capacitor and the resistor, work in the parallel or the similar manner. 

Usage of low-pass filter

Electronic low-pass filters are used in the inputs to loudspeakers and subwoofers, the inputs are there so that the high pitches can be blocked, or cannot efficiently reproduce. The radio transmitter also uses the low-pass filter in order to block the harmonic emission that can interfere with the process or the other communication. Many electric guitars have tone knob on the electronic low-pass filter. The constant low-pass filter has another name, an integrator.  Telephone lines, which are fitted with the DSL splitters also uses the low-pass filters, as high-pass filter separate the DSL and POTS signals, by sharing the same pair of the wire, however, a low-pass filter is used in sculpting. Sculpting of the sound is created by the virtual analog and analogs synthesizers.

Ideal and the Real Filters

The low-pass filter, which can be considered as an ideal eliminates the frequencies above all the cutoff frequency while passing, the response of the frequency is the brick-wall filter and the rectangular function. In the ideal filter, there is no transition region, which is present in the practical filter. An ideal filter can be mathematically recognized or memorized as the rectangle functions can multiply the signals, while considering the frequency domain or convolution or equivalently (Saari, Ryynänen, & Lindfors, 2012). 

However, the ideal filter cannot be realized if do not have the infinite, extent in the time. There are may be real ongoing signals because the function supports the region, which may extend in the past or the future. However, the filter, in this case, needs to have the infinite delay, so that there could be knowledge about the past and the future, it is important to pre-record the digital signals so that the extension could be known.

Real-time application for the real-time, related to the ideal filter cans windowing and truncating the infinite impulse. There could be a delay in the signals and this shift of delaying the signals is known as the phase shift. If one wants a greater accuracy then there may be longer delay required.


  There are different types of the filters, which get advantages or related to the different responses changing frequency, there are cutoff and roll off frequencies that are determined by the additional attenuation, such frequencies may be higher than the cutoff frequency. The first order filter and the second order filter, have the different ranges or levels of the frequencies, third order filter rolls off at the different rates.  

Low Pass Filter Design

There are two simple ways to construct the low pass filter that is,  allows a low-frequency signal to pass and make it difficult for the high- frequency signal to pass. The main objective can be achieved by having an inductive low-pass filter and the capacitive low-pass filter.

RC Low-pass filter (First Order):

The simple low pass filter can be made with the help of a resistor, which can be attached in series combination with the load, and a capacitor can be attached in parallel combination with the load. The capacitor in the simple circuit exhibits reactance and make the low-frequency signal to pass from, the load. On the other hand, on the higher frequencies, the capacitor acts as a short circuit because of a drop of reactance. The impedance of the capacitor decreases with the increase in frequencies. Low impedance connected in parallel with the load resistance block the higher frequencies  this lead the voltage drop across the resistor attached in series with the load. 

Figure 1: Capacitive Low pass filter


The response of the Low pass filter with the Capacitor is mentioned in the figure below. 

Figure 2: Capacitive low pass filter response


RL Low pass filter:

In the Inductive low pass filter, the inductor is attached in the series with the load as shown in figure 3.On high frequencies, the impedance increase that leads circuit to block the high-frequency signals and make them pass from the load. 

Figure 3: Inductive low pass filter 


The response of the inductive low-pass filter is shown in the figure below

Figure 4: response of inductive low-pass filter


RLC low pass filter (Second Order filter):

Low pass filter can be constructed with the RLC combination that is known as the second order filters.  These filters consist of the resistor, capacitor, and inductor and are connect with each other in series and parallel combination.

Figure 4: RLC low pass filter


All the low pass filter have a certain cut off frequency.  The certain frequency is the frequency above, the output voltage falls below the 70% of the input voltage. In a simple low pass filter constructed by the Inductor or the capacitor usually, the cutoff frequency is the frequency at which reactance of the capacitor becomes equal to the resistance of the resistor is ohm.  For the low pass filter, the cutoff frequency can be determined by the formula that is


Phase shift can be determined by the formula that is 

Phase shift =-arctan⁡(2πfRC)

The frequency that is below the cutoff frequency of the low-pass filter is usually known as Passband and the frequency above the cutoff frequency is known as the stop band frequency (, 2016). 

Reference: (2016, 22 September). Passive Low Pass Filter. Retrieved Nov 4, 2016, from

Saari, V., Ryynänen, J., & Lindfors, S. (2012). Continuous-Time Low-Pass Filters for Integrated Wideband Radio Receivers. Springer Science & Business Media.

Shamieh, C., & McComb, G. (2011). Electronics For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

Suresh, K. K. (2010). Electric Circuits And Networks. Pearson Education India.

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Drawings on orthopedic projections

Drawings on orthopedic projections

Problem 1: THIRD ANGLE orthographic projection




Problem 2: THIRD ANGLE orthographic projection




Problem 3: THIRD ANGLE orthographic projection




Problem 4 (a): Replication of given views

Problem 5 (a): Replication of given views

Problem 6 (a): Replication of given views

Problem 4 (b): The isometric view

Problem 5 (b): The isometric view

Problem 6 (b): The isometric view

Problem 4 (c)  

Problem 5 (c)

Problem 6 (c)

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Social Security in the USA

Social Security in the USA

Social Security Fund of USA is facing many challenges. It is expected that this program could be depleted by the year 2037, as it is no longer self-sustaining.

Social Security is the US government’s income program for retired citizens. It covers almost all workers except those of the Federal local and state government employees who have their pension plans. It is one of the sole and primary sources of income for about 2/3rd retirees of the country. The other third part is the one which either has a defined benefit plan or a defined contribution plan. The key problem area is that this fund is expected to be exhausted by the year 2037 because of its lack of self-sustainability. However, there are many challenges which this fund is currently facing.

As per the social security administration in the year 2010, the Program officially started paying out more than it was collecting. Even when the economists had predicted that this situation would arise, they did not expect it to arise until 2017. The economic downturn of 2009 has caused the unemployment to get to 10% causing many people who have previously not applied to the benefit plan to do so (Kubarych).

Another challenge which the social security fund is facing is the massive baby boomers population of 80 million entering the age of retirement. This population is blamed primarily for putting the pressure on the system. However, this generation has been the backbone of the country and has served for their whole life. Not only this, this generation has funded for the benefit plan for the generation before them. As this generation will retire the new generation X of about 15 million short people would have to take on their burden (Kubarych).

Another problem which this fund is facing is the fact that whenever the security fund has assets in surplus, it lends it t the federal government. This depicts the fact that the government is in debt to the Social Security fund, but the challenge is that the federal government with so deep in other debt would be able to payback these debts as well or not. If the federal government defaulted, then the Fund would become insolvent much sooner than 2037. Moreover, another problem is that each year when prices of consumer products increase the benefits also goes up these increments are pegged to an inflation index (, 2015).

            And this is not it. The government while running against its debt calling would have t cut programs which may also include the security fund program.

This situation of high critical challenges being faced by the program is not alien to the citizens of USA as depicted in the poll conducted by GALLUP. They even recommend solutions which they think might help cope with these challenges.

  No Opinion No Problems Minor Problems Major Problems Crisis
2015 Jul-Aug 1% 5% 28% 45% 215

(Gallup, 2016)

  Cut Benefits, Not raise taxes Raise taxes, not cut benefits Combination of tax increment and cuts in benefit No opinion
2015 Jul-Aug 19% 30% 46% 6%

(Gallup, 2016)

However, there are many challenges which are being faced by the social security fund of USA; there are also some steps which if taken can mitigate the risk of insolvency of this fund. One of these solutions is to raise tax rates. Workers who are currently paying the social security tax are contributing 6.2% of their wages to the fund which is on about $113,700 in the year 2013. If this rate is increased to 7.2 percent than by the year 2036, it would be able to erase half of the social security fund deficit. And if this tax rate is also paid by the employers as well then the financing gap will be covered (Brandon, 2013).

Another solution can be lifting up of the payroll tax cap. Workers are currently paying payroll tax on their earnings of up to $113,700. People who earn more than these earnings do not pay the social security tax on that part of the income. If this cap is eliminated to the years 2022, it will cause the deficit to reduce to 71%, and if the tax cap is increased more for five years for about 90 percent of the total earnings then it will reduce the social security financing gap by 30 percent. Currently, only 84 percent of the income is being covered in the tax cap (Brandon, 2013).

Another solution can be of rising the retirement age of the workers. The full age of the retirement of the workers is scheduled to increase to 67 for every person who is born in the year 1960 or later. If this age is further increased to 68 then it will cause the benefits t reduce by 7 percent and the deficit of the fund will reduce by 15% If this age threshold is increased to 70, then it will cause the benefits to reduce by 21 percent and the deficit will be reduced by 25%. However, this is a very unpopular idea which is very popular among the citizen of US (Kubarych).

For mitigating the effect of the inflation on the social security benefit, the government should adopt a new inflation index which can be called Chained CPI. This index assumes that people change their buying behavior when the change in prices is higher causing them to reduce the impact of the inflation on their savings. This index would decrease the annual COLA by 0.3 percentage point on average which would b helpful in reducing the shortfall to 19% (, 2015).

By concluding we can say that the government needs to establish a strategy for mitigating the challenges faced by the social security fund only if they are ready to take some crucial and unpopular steps. It is indeed impertinent for the state now to take the required steps on the emergency basis as the people would need time to adjust to these actions. The most effective of the steps should be considered first for the implementation and other unpopular steps like that of benefit cuts and increment of retirement age should also be taken into consideration even if it is difficult, because there is no way back if the social security fund gets insolvent or the federal government defaulted to the program.

Work Cited:

Brandon, E. (2013, February 13). 5 Ways to Fix Social Security. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from

Gallup. (2016). Social Security. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from Gallup:

Kubarych, R. M. (n.d.). Social Security Reform: The Problem and Proposed Solutions. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from (2015, August 9). Social Security Facing Major Problems as It Turns 80. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from

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Warren Buffett

Leader: Warren Buffet

There are a lot of leadership styles that coexist in this world. The leadership style that is going to be discussed here is the one that normally stands out. Warren Buffett uses the leadership style, Buffett is known for using Laissez-Faire style of leadership, along with a touch of democratic style of leadership. Warren Buffett is an exemplary model of trust and rewards honesty with generosity. He intervenes in his business as a last resort. This management style, on the one hand, tends to automate business venture, on the other hand, leaves the organization vulnerable from employees. This is the reason, why Buffett carefully handpicks his employees. This also makes the organization stand out as Buffett can focus on matters other than managing his various businesses.

The other side of his professional character is that he is the appetite for acquisition. Buffett acquires a company and then manages it. It can be seen that the potential listings of major targets do seem risky and since most of these acquisitions have negative cash flows, so it is notorious that the retirement fund is going down. This hefty appetite for more investment and numerous major acquisitions, it can be told and taunted that his liabilities are ever increasing, way more than his assets. Furthermore, he has not yet chosen a successor, who can manage vast affairs of Berkshire Hathaway.

Overall, Buffett is a humble and gentle investor and leader of finance. He not only pools all the resources himself but is also kind and gentle towards his employees. His major style is a direction of autonomy along with decentralization of the company, allocating a lot of decision-making power to key employees, who have his trust and benevolence. He is old and has not yet named any of the employees as his successor for the company.

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Errors of Euler and Implicit Euler

Bonus lab 2: Errors of Euler and Implicit Euler

Question 1:

X0(t) = x2(t) 4tx(t) + 4t2 4x(t) + 8t − 3 , x(0) = 1 ,

To approximate the above expression;

X2= – 0.8 + 0.596

X2= -0.204


Time t Step size  X1 X2
0 0.1 -0.8 -0.204
1 0.2 -0.6 2.23

Question 2:

Time t Step size  X1 X2
0 0.1 1.2 1.419
1 0.2 1.4 1.873


Time t Step size Approximate X1 Exact X1 Approximate X2 Exact X2 Error X1 Error X2
0 0.1 1.2 1.419 1.419 1.657 0.219 0.238
1 0.2 1.4 1.873 1.873 2.42 0.473 0.574

Backward Euler method:

At t=0 and

Xn+1 =

X1 =

X1 =1.18

At t=1 and

X2 =

X2 =1.36

At t=0 and

Xn+1 =

X1 =

X1 =1.51

At t=1 and

X2 =

X2 =1.83


X1 = = 1.36

X2 = = 1.68

X1 =  =1.83

X2 =  = 2.14

Time t Step size Approximate X1 Exact X1 Approximate X2 Exact X2 Error X1 Error X2
0 0.1 1.18 1.36 1.36 1.68 0.18 0.32
1 0.2 1.51 1.83 1.83 2.14 0.32 0.31

For the given expression, the backward Euler method is good because the error in the approximated and exact values is less than the Forward Euler method.

Question 3:

Let x(t­0) = 0.3 then

X1 =

X1 =0.54

Let x(t­0) = 0.2 then

X1 =

X1 =0.33

Let x(t­0) = 0.1 then

At t=0 and

X1 =

X1 =0.173

The above behavior shows that the small value of x(t­0) when approaches to zero, the values of x(t­0) is decreasing.

Question 4:

In the Forward Euler method when error becomes small it means, the values are accurate and approximately approaches to exact values.  According to the Picard iteration, less error is obtained by setting small set size.

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Why Drinking Age should be Above 21

Why Drinking Age should be Above 21

In Western societies, drinking alcohol is a norm, and both genders drink alcohol, as it is considered a permissible vice. There are many factors, such as climate and culture, which has contributed to the acceptability for alcohol, in Western societies. However, as the medical science has progressed, we have more information regarding the affects of drinking alcohol on the human body. These adverse affects are greater in number than the positive effects, of taking alcohol and for that reason, the debate has started regarding the sale of alcohol and the age limit. Most argue that drinking of alcohol must only be discussed on medical merits; however, others argue that drinking of alcohol has a societal affect too; therefore, it should be discussed in social context too.

One of the school of through argues that a person, who is 18 years old, must have the right to take a decision regarding alcohol. This group provides the rationale that a person, who is 18 years old, has a fair understanding of right and wrong. He/she takes a decision, at the age of 18, by employing rationality. Also, the law permits 18 years old to take decisions, regarding wealth/property and other matters. Therefore, an 18-year-old person must have the right to take a decision regarding the use of alcohol. The other group disagrees with the rationale because of medical and social realities. For instance, the frequency of taking impulsive decisions is high when an individual is his/her teens (ESAP, 2016).

In addition to that, some medical studies suggest that when a person is in his/her teens, his practices, eating-drinking and others, become more permanent. Therefore, the chances, of alcohol addiction are higher, when a person is in her/his teens. Another reason is that alcohol affects the pathways of communication when incepted. Also, when a person is taking alcohol for an extended period, the chances of internal or metabolic damage increase radically. Therefore, the age of drinking should be higher than 21. It is true that it breaches right of an individual to an extent and in liberal societies, it will question; however, the state also has to ensure healthy societies, where individuals are medically healthy to perform and engage (NIH, 2016).


ESAP. (2016). Teens’ Alcohol Problems. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Porblem:

NIH. (2016). Alcohol’s Effects on the Body. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from national Institute on Alcohal Abuse and Alcohalism:

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Young Murasaki

What qualities does the author Murasaki Shikibu prefer in a woman? What qualities does she deplore? Is she unambivalent?

The author Murasaki Shikibu has proved that she is quite a good writer by writing the great Tale of Genji. As a woman, she discussed the various qualities of a woman. One of the best qualities she described was the scanty knowledge. In other words, she told that woman does not open the secret of less knowledge and less information. The second quality she described was the trust and humbleness in their behavior and character. On the other hand, the Murasaki Shikibu described and stated about the some of the qualities that must not be in an ideal woman. It is mentioned that humbleness is the quality of a woman. In addition, there was a loss of humbleness described too in the chapter. One of the friends of Murasaki Shikibu lost his man because of the humbleness. In my perspective, she was very open to describe the topic and qualities in this regard. Therefore, one can say that she is unambivalent in her opinions and viewpoints.  

Look on the internet for examples of what masculinity meant in Heian culture (we also talked about appropriate male behavior in class already). How is Genji an ideal man according to Heian ideals? How is he behaving less than ideal in this chapter?

The Heian culture is the typical culture in the history. According to this culture, the masculinity is not all about the attributes related to the physical characteristics of men or boy. In addition, it is the literary characteristics and level which determines the masculinity in the Heian culture.  In the same way, the tale of Genji has described the same virtues of the man or boy. The Genji was the ideal man in that particular culture. It is because he was not only dependent on physical attributes of him. On the other hand, he has educated the person and not a playboy for simple and innocent girls like Murasaki. Later on, he behaved like a husband who is feeling guilty on his mistakes and could not perform a role of great husband.

Why do you think Genji suddenly recovers from his illness after meeting Young Murasaki? Given the marriage politics of Heian Japan, why is Genji’s abduction of Young Murasaki so unusual and “romantic?

In this particular chapter, one can observe that he was suffering from sickness and illness as well.  Suddenly, he met a young girl and recovered speedily from sickness and illness. It is because of old memory and he revisited the period of his father in his imagination. On the other hand, it is the fact that Tale of Genji is a great story of romance and love. It consists of three parts and we are talking about young Murasaki. In this particular history and marriage politics of Heian Japan, The kidnap of young Murasaki by Genji considered being so unusual and romantic. It is because of the marriages of kings and princess for lands and status was the key to marriage.  This was the big reason and later on, the Genji moved to his area and state and provided her education, which was quite important for her.

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Trade Regulations and Policies

Trade Regulations and Policy (Discussion)

Neo-classical economic models are based on Ricardian Trade model, which asserts that when countries specialize in the production of a good, in which it has a comparative advantage (not absolute), trading countries benefit from it. Therefore, we have seen that on regional and international stage, countries have attempted to increase economic cooperation. The objective of low trade barriers and higher economic/trade cooperation is to benefit from trade in the form of higher consumer surplus, greater exports of specialized goods/services and increased competitiveness of an industry that compels more optimal allocation of resources (ANDERSON, BENJAMIN, CAMPBELL, & TIVEAU, 2006). 

Though many economists are for low trade barriers and increased economic cooperation in the form of trade; however they are skeptical of the promised results. For instance, neo-liberal economic model, which accepts the trade as an economic instrument to realize political-economic objectives, reallocates resources of production (factors of production), as a result of new economic and trade realities (Fabiosa, et al., 2005). 

Studies suggest that because of the reallocation of resources, the prices of products, in the economic system and on the global scale, are affected. This is because trade increases market penetration by regional and international organizations, which intensifies competition (Keeney, Roman, & Hertel, 2009). As a result, resources are allocated for those economic industries and activities, which ensure higher returns. The liberalization of non-agricultural sectors have directly impacted agriculture sector, and studies reveal that price of labor and products have fluctuated because of the new developments, in both developed and developing countries (OECD, 2007 ).

The multi-sectoral liberalization has affected agriculture sector and prices; for instance, the impact of dairy products has been higher. US government is very protective of its agricultural sector and for that reasons it has devised policies to protect the investment of investors and employers of employees. Developing countries do have means and economic instruments to directly mitigate the effects of liberalization and solely depend on market forces to reach equilibrium (Ocran & Adjasi, 2009)


ANDERSON, J., BENJAMIN, C., CAMPBELL, B., & TIVEAU, D. (2006). Forests, poverty and equity in Africa: new perspectives on policy and practice. International Forestry Review , 8 (1).

Fabiosa, J., Beghin, J., Elobeid, A., Matthey, H., Saak, A., de Cara, S., et al. (2005). The Doha Round of the World Trade Organization and Agricultural Markets Liberalization: Impacts on Developing Economies. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy , 317-335.

Keeney, Roman, & Hertel, T. W. (2009). The indirect land use impacts of United States biofuel policies: the importance of acreage, yield, and bilateral trade responses. American Journal of Agricultural Economics , 895-909.

Ocran, M. K., & Adjasi, C. K. (2009). Trade liberalisation and poverty: empirical evidence from household surveys in Ghana. Journal of International Trade Law and Policy , 40 – 59.

OECD. (2007 ). Agricultural Policy and Trade Reform The Impact on World Commodity Markets: The Impact on World Commodity Markets. OECD Publishing.

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Health Education Promotion Conference in Iowa State

Health Education Seminar in 3 Different counties

Group: 6

1. County : Jones County

Name of building and address: Anamosa Public Library, Jones county, Iowa  

Type of space (conference room/church basement, etc.): The Anamosa is the public library allocated for the public literature conferences, discussions, activities such as information from materials like books, e-sources

Maximum capacity of the room: 65

# of tables and chairs available: 7 number of tables and 42 number of chairs

Associated fees?: The associated fees would be no greater than the $100

Parking availability (parking lot, on the street, other): The vast area of the parking is available having capacity of more than 55 cars along with 5 or 10 cars can be parked on the street

Contact person/information: The librarian of the Anamosa Public Library controlling human management tasks. The online channel available as an information source on and the zip code is the 55205 along with the telephone number is 319-462-2183

Other pertinent information: The handicap access are not allowed in the library and there is as specific direction for entrance for all the individual participants in the Anamosa public library

2. County: Johnson

Name of building and address: University of Iowa, Johnson county, Iowa

Type of space: The conference room in the surrounding of the Macbride auditorium for seminars and annual meetings

Maximum capacity of the room: 80

# of tables and chairs available: 5 tables are available along with the65 chairs

Associated fees? There are very less associated fees like $500 for the seminars or programs like the health education initiatives or awareness among the public

Parking availability: There is a wide range of the parking lot having a capacity of more than 1500 cars and the parking capacity is available on the streets of more than 180 cars.

Contact person/information:  The contact person in the University of Iowa is the administration of the literary society, which is also available on the university’s official website homepage: The zip code of the university is the 52242 and the phone number is the 319-335-3500.

Other pertinent information: The other important information for that meeting include the accessible of the handicap would be allowed, the identity cards must be displayed and initial information about the conference of health promotion.

3. County: Keokuk County

Name of building and address: Mother Cabrini Catholic Church, Keokuk County, Iowa

Type of space (conference room/church basement, etc.): the basement of the church would allocate for the conference of the health promotion programs

Maximum capacity of the room: The maximum capacity of the room would be the 60

# of tables and chairs available: The number of tables available would be 4 and the number of chairs would be the 45

Associated fees?: The associated fees are taken in the form of church donation which would be $250

Parking availability: The spacious area of the parking lot is present to theMother Cabrini Catholic Church near to 75 cars and the area adjacent to the church would be 10-15

Contact person/information: Thesister is the contact person or administration person that deals with external or internal matters that are going to hold atMother Cabrini Catholic Church

Other pertinent information:  The additional pertinent information for the participants of this health promotion conference for entering into theMother Cabrini Catholic Church includes the maintaining the discipline, entering from the sideways, not from the main gate as well

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Chemistry Work

Question No: 1


Fractional conversion of A = 95 %

Fractional conversion of B = 100%

Final product from above reaction = C

C= 75 mol / hr

 Mole percent of A = a% = x  x 100

95% = x  x 100

95/ 100 = x a

0.95 = xa

Mole percent of B = b% = x  x 100

= 100 /100

X b = 1

Total weight of   C

 3 x 0.95 + 1 = 3.85

C / total mass of solution = mole fraction of C

72 mol / hr x 3.85 = 272.25

Product C is given as = 272.25

Total mass of reactants in given equation

6 x 0.95 + 2 = 7.7

C / total mass of solution = mole fraction of C

72 mol / hr x 7.7 = 272.25 mol per hour

Question No: 2

CS2 + O   CO2 + SO2


Stoichiometrically balance chemical reaction

CS2 + 6O   CO2 + 2SO2


100 kg/ hr each of reactants are fed into reactor

Rate of carbon dioxide,

Mass of CO2 = 12 + 2 x 16 = 32 + 12 = 45

Mass of SO2 = 32 + 2 x 16 = 32 + 32 = 64

C = 12.01

S = 32.064

O = 16.00

Number of moles=

Number of moles of CO2 =  = 2.22

Number of moles of CS2 =  = 1.37

Number of moles of 6O =  = 1.04

Number of moles of SO2 =  = 1.56

Rate of reaction = CS2 + 6O   CO2 + 2SO2

-A/ t  = -1/6 B/t = C/ t = ½ D/t

1.37/60 = – 1.04/60 = 2.22/60 = 1.56/2 /6

0.023 + 0.107 – 0.037 – 0.004 = 0.089


The reaction is endothermic reaction because heat is produced in the reaction. Heat produced reaction is given out to surrounding.  


CO2 is the reactant that is in excess ratio than other reactants and products in reaction.

Question No 3:

Stream 1 2 3 4 5 6
Flow rate 0.02 0.01 100. .028 0.026 100
Xa 0.7 0.600 1.60 1.00 .028 0.3
Xb 028 0.01 0.3 0.600 1.60 0.7

x2 = x3 + x4

x1 = x2 + x4

x2 = x3 + x4

x2 = x5  + x3

x6 = x1 + x4

0.7 = 1.60 + Q

Flow rate = 100 kg / hr

Flow rate = flow / time

Q1 = 1.7/60 = 0.02

Q2 = 0.600/60 = 0.01

Q3 = 1.7/60 = 0.028

Q3 = 1.600/60 = 0.026

Q4 = 1.7/60 = 0.028

Q5 = 0.600/60 = 0.01

Q6= 0.3/60 = 0.05

x2 =  0.600

x4=  1.00

x6=  0.300

x6  – x4  = x1

0.300- 1.00 = -0.7

x2 + x4= x3

0.600 + 1.00 = 1.60

x2 = x5  + x3

0.600 – 1.60 = -1

Negative sign shows fluid is flowing outside the bypass.

Question No: 4

Burning rate of gas = 0.450 lb/ hr

Percentage of combustion of gas = 90%

C = 12.01

H= 1.008

O = 16.00

Rate of production of CO or CO2 or H2O in lb m/ hr

 Complete combustion of one volume of methane will require ( 2 + 7.52) volume of air so the Stoichiometric air to fuel ratio for methane is 9.52. After combustion CO is formed in ratio to other gases.

Excess air ratio =

Constituent and volume of methane

CO= 1

O2 = 0.4

N2 = 9.02

H2 O = 2

95% = total mass/ combustion air = combustion ratio = 0.45

12 + 16 x 2 = 32+12 = 44

95 = total mass / 44

95 x 44 = 4180

Percentage ratio of total mass = 4180/100 = 41.8

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IBM Marketing


Baby boomers are defined as the person who is born after the World War 2. As of now their age is more than 60 years old. IBM was established in 1911 which means the world war 2 this company goes through some loss but it was able to recover it. The demographic figure of baby boomers shows that now they are over the age of 100 and very few left in number. Currently, IBM is in the business of making machines like Printer, Computers, and other products. But they have also stepped into the information technology business.

The effect on Bally’s Health Club

People of Bally’s Health Club and MacDonald’s does not belong to the age over 50. Which means that the Baby boomers don’t have the effect on these two targeted marketing. Beside IBM has also changed its production over the years and now they are in the business of information technology and computer which is more advanced technology. Before IBM was in the business of making printing machines and other stuff. That’s why baby boomers don’t have the effect on IBM marketing or business.

Whirlpool Corporation

Whirlpool Corporation is also the old company not new as they are serving the sick people around the county. Their target market may get effected by the Baby Boomers because they treat and sell products to the deaf and arthritis patients. Mostly baby boomers end up with arthritis so it may affect the business of the Whirlpool corporation. The whirlpool corporation is selling many products to blind, deaf and arthritis patients. Many of baby boomers are got with arthritis. Hence their business might be got affected.

The State of Florida

Florida is the state of United States of America. It is well-known state the reason behind this is that it is one of the five states in which the baby boomers are in high numbers. This means the baby boomers belong to this place in huge number at first, but now most of them are either dead or at retiring age. Aging process effects lots of things both socially and economically.

The State of Florida is one of the five cities were a number of baby boomers are high. Many of the baby boomers are of the retiring age. That’s why the state has to pay premium cash as their pensions. While IBM business is not affected because of the baby boomers in the Florida. But the state has to pay long term pensions not just to the baby boomers but also to their families which mean it can surely affect the stock market and the money deposits in other investment. While in the case of companies like IBM they are not affected by the increasing number of baby boomers in the Florida.

Target Stores

Baby boomer’s contribution to the target store sale or purchase is not clarified because the stats are not present. As Target store carries the IBM products also so it means the baby boomers might have an effect on the sale and purchase of the IBM products in the target store. The reason behind this is that Target store is the second largest store in the United States of America. Which means they are almost in every corner of US which gives them an advantage over the other stores.

While we can make a guess about the sale and purchase of Target stores because of the old people or baby boomers. As Target stores usually give the product at low price and they come up with special offers over the time which means that the old people who have a low income are now looking for the stores like Target to meet their requirement. In this sense, the baby boomers are in advantage of the Target stores.

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Compare and Contrast EMT-Paramedics and Safety Engineering

Compare and Contrast between two majors; EMT-Paramedics and Safety Engineering.


            Emergency medical technicians are considered as the most common types of the technicians that provides emergency medical services to the patients. They are entry level patient care technicians which are considered crucial for the management of the patients. They work predominantly in a pre hospital and the outside of the hospital. The delivery of the patient with safety and care are their utmost responsibilities. The scope of the paramedics differs country by country. However, the autonomous decision making and the emergency care of the patients are the foremost responsibilities of the EMT paramedics.

            The paramedics facilitate the pre hospital and outside the hospital treatment, the safety engineer is also very important to create the environment that is not conducive to the hazardous conditions, which ultimately leads to the accidents. The safety engineering is also related to the work place safe environment. Lack of safe working environment ultimately leads to the injuries and fatalities. Therefore, the safety engineering is also an important field of study. The EMT paramedics deal with the accidents and the safety engineering prevents occurring of such accidents.

Thesis statement:

            Although the emergency medical technicians play an essential role in the treatment of the patient’s emergency, the safety engineering is also important to make them able to work in safe environment. Thus, despite the importance of both of the fields, lack of integration between two fields of studies hinders the safety of the paramedics and the patient themselves. Therefore, the incorporation of safety engineering with EMT paramedics is essential.

EMT and Safety Engineering

Before we discuss the similarities and differences between EMT and Safety Engineering, it is imperative to discuss these fields and their related industries. This would aid in discussing these similarities and contrasts in greater detail, and it would allow us to draw valid and relevant conclusions.

Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is the term, which used in many parts of the world to represent a healthcare provider, in the case of medical emergency. These health care technicians are provided with the set of skills and knowledge, which enable them to respond to the medical emergencies. These medical emergencies could directly pertain to general medical issues, injuries of traumatic nature, and road accidents. When we study the role of an ambulance technician or Emergency Medical Technician, we learn that their function or their role is limited to the ambulance. Therefore, their prime duty is to provide medical aid to victims, which are being transported to the hospital.

This must not undermine the role of Emergency medical technician, as this time of transportation, of a victim, to a hospital, is very sensitive and because of its criticality, the role of EMT becomes highly significant. The further study on this subject also reveals that EMTs not only work for a hospital (private and government-owned), but also by governments, police and fire departments. However, the nature of the job and their role may vary from one industry/department to another.

Paramedics, on the other hand, have a slightly different role, in comparison to Emergency Medical Technicians. Studies suggest that paramedics have knowledge and skills to provide advance medical care. They have a higher understanding, because of higher & superior education, of subjects such as anatomy, cardiology, medications and physiology. Therefore, it can be concluded that true difference between a paramedic and emergency medical technician regards education (Tunik & Lerner, 2014).

Safety Engineering is that field, which ensures that systems work efficiently and do not pose a threat to life and capital. The core objective of safety engineering is to reduce the number of accidents or prevent accidents. Therefore, developed systems are scrutinized and improved to reduce the possibility of an accident. Safety Engineers are provided with skills and knowledge, which they employ to prevent accidents in particular industry or organizations. In manufacturing industries, the role, of safety engineers, is highly sensitive and essential. Their role is evolving, as the time is stretching, studies suggest (Grimaldi, 2011).

The set of skills and knowledge, which are provided to a safety engineer, many bet altered to suit a particular industry. For instance, the set of skills and knowledge, provided to a safety engineer, for a particular industry, would differ from the set of skills and knowledge, provided to a safety engineer, for a different industry (Mroszczyk, 2009).

EMT and Paramedic Major


  • It is a specialized degree, in which sets of skills and knowledge are provided to manage medical cases and to provide essential care to a victim in an ambulance.
  • A national exam, about the Degrees in the applied science of emergency medical services, is conducted.
  • There is also an eligibility criterion for the aspirants
  • The information and skills, which will be provided to enrolled aspirant, directly pertains to medical science. However, this knowledge is not of the advance stage.
  • The course including relevant training, which are to be used in the field.


  • The estimated time, required to complete the course of a paramedic, is approximately two years.
  • Technical schools, community colleges, and universities offer this degree program.
  • In Paramedic course, enrolled aspirants study advance anatomy, cardiology, medications, and physiology.
  • These studies provide essential information how the human body works, and it provides relevant and essential information to deal with various medical scenarios, at the location-in ambulance, and in the hospital.
  • The paramedics can administer medicine and instruct medical services to a victim.

Safety Engineering

  • It is a specialized degree.
  • The information and skills are provided to devise and improve industrial systems to reduce accidents
  • The core objective is to improve systems to prevent accidents.
  • Safety Engineering has both degree and certification programs.
  • Information is provided to scrutinize accidents.
  • Safety Engineer studies Ergonomics.
  • Industrial Hygiene is also safety engineer’s field of study.
  • Safety engineer is trained to devise regulatory compliance, and he/she can conduct safety audits.


  • All degrees and certifications are specialized degrees and certifications.
  • Technical and relevant information are provided in all these programs.
  • Skills are developed for specific objectives.
  • All these programs are meant are primarily concerned with human life.
  • A criterion is defined for the enrollment in these programs.
  • Both EMT and Safety Engineers can work in various sub-industries.


  • Safety Engineers mostly work in Industries (manufacturing and other), whereas EMTs and Paramedics work in the medical industry (hospitals). EMTs are an exception.
  • Paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians starts after an accident, and their core objective is to reduce the damage.
  • Safety Engineers, on the other hand, invest their energies to prevent any accident.
  • Safety Engineers also investigate accidents, so that they can avoid such accidents in future.
  • Paramedics do not investigate the causes, and prime obligation is to provide medical services.


The role of the EMT-Paramedics and the Safety Engineering both are important for the patients and their safety level. The present study focused on highlighting the importance and integration of both fields to make the emergency treatment procedure affective and safe. Moreover, the qualification requirements for both areas are also provided. Also, the similarities and contrast are also provided in that realm. This is the most essential and adequate information that provided in the power.


Grimaldi, J. V. (2011). Safety engineering in a changing the world. Professional Safety. 20-23.

Mroszczyk, J. (2009). Safety Engineering. Professional Safety. 33-41.

Tunik, G. M., & Lerner, B. E. (2014). Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Pediatric emergency medical services research , 96-103.

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Investment and Valuation


Investment 14000
Stock Price 20
Initial Margin 50%
Margin Loan 7%
Maintenance Margin 35%
Selling Price                 24
Total Investment 28000
Maintenance Margin 9800
Interest 980
Tradable amount 17220
Shares 861
Selling Price       20,664
Total Amount       31,444
Amount Due 14980
Equity Amount       16,464
Profit          2,464
Rate of Return 17.60%


DDM Valuation

DDM Model
Year Value DPS(t) or TV(t) Present value at 16.26%
0 DPS(0) 4.1
1 DPS(1) 4.85 4.17
2 DPS(2) 5.69 4.21
3 DPS(3) 6.59 4.2
4 DPS(4) 7.57 4.14
5 DPS(5) 8.59 4.05
5 TV(5) 358.92 169
Rate of return on LT Treasury Composite 0.0229
Expected rate of return on market portfolio 0.1426
Systematic risk (β) of 3M’s common stock 1.17
Required rate of return on 3M’s common stock 0.1626
Average 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Dividends declared 1913 2297 2297 1635 1555
Net income attributable to 3M 4833 4956 4659 4444 4283
Net sales 30274 31821 30871 29904 29611
Total assets 32718 31269 33550 33876 31616
Total 3M Company shareholders’ equity 11708 13109 17502 17575 15420
Retention rate 0.6 0.54 0.51 0.63 0.64
Profit margin 0.1596 0.1557 0.1509 0.1486 0.1446
Asset turnover 0.93 1.02 0.92 0.88 0.94
Financial leverage 2.79 2.39 1.92 1.93 2.05
Retention rate 0.58
Profit margin 0.1519
Asset turnover 0.94
Financial leverage 2.21
Dividend growth rate 0.1838
Year Value g(t)
1 g(1) 0.1838
2 g(2) 0.1717
3 g(3) 0.1596
4 g(4) 0.1475
5 and thereafter g(5) 0.1354

FCFF Valuation

Year Value FCFF(t) or TV(t) Present value at 14.80%
0 FCFF(0) 5,063
1 FCFF(1) 5,686 4,953
2 FCFF(2) 6,352 4,820
3 FCFF(3) 7,059 4,665
4 FCFF(4) 7,802 4,492
5 FCFF(5) 8,578 4,302
5 TV(5) 194,267 97,429


Value Weight Required rate of return
Equity (fair value) 103516 0.9 0.1626
Debt (fair value) 11149 0.1 0.0126
Average 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Interest expense 149 142 145 171 186
Net income attributable to 3M 4833 4956 4659 4444 4283
Effective income tax rate (EITR) 0.291 0.289 0.281 0.29 0.278
Interest expense, after tax 106 101 104 121 134
Dividends declared 1913 2297 2297 1635 1555
Interest expense (after tax) and dividends 2019 2398 2401 1756 1689
EBIT(1 – EITR) 4939 5057 4763 4565 4417
Short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt 2044 106 1683 1085 682
Long-term debt, excluding current portion 8753 6731 4326 4916 4484
Capital lease obligations 46 59 58 71 79
Total 3M Company shareholders’ equity 11708 13109 17502 17575 15420
Total capital 22551 20005 23569 23647 20665
Retention rate (RR) 0.59 0.53 0.5 0.62 0.62
Return on invested capital (ROIC) 0.219 0.2528 0.2021 0.1931 0.2138
RR 0.57
ROIC 0.2161
Growth rate of FCFF 0.123
Year Value g(t)
1 g(1) 0.123
2 g(2) 0.1171
3 g(3) 0.1112
4 g(4) 0.1053
5 and thereafter g(5) 0.0995


Both of these companies are the market leader in their own areas and since they accumulate high growth and high profits, so these companies are a natural choice for any investor. Among the two companies discussed above the more preferable is Dow Chemical, this is due to the factor that it has a relatively higher growth and lower cost of capital.


Year Value DPS(t) or TV(t) Present value at 21.59%
0 DPS(0) 1.72
1 DPS(1) 1.82 1.5
2 DPS(2) 1.99 1.34
3 DPS(3) 2.22 1.24
4 DPS(4) 2.55 1.17
5 DPS(5) 3.01 1.13
5 TV(5) 94.84 35.69
Rate of return on LT Treasury Composite 2.29%
Expected rate of return on market portfolio 14.26%
Systematic risk (β) of Dow’s common stock 1.61
Required rate of return on Dow’s common stock 21.59%
Average 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Dividends declared on common stock 1942 1777 1520 1419 1037
Preferred stock dividends 340 340 340 340 340
Net income attributable to The Dow Chemical Company 7685 3772 4787 1182 2742
Net sales 48778 58167 57080 56786 59985
Total assets 68026 68796 69501 69605 69224
Total The Dow Chemical Company’s stockholders’ equity 25374 22423 26898 20877 22281
Retention rate 0.74 0.48 0.66 -0.69 0.57
Profit margin 0.1506 0.059 0.0779 0.0148 0.04
Asset turnover 0.72 0.85 0.82 0.82 0.87
Financial leverage 2.68 3.07 2.58 3.33 3.11
Retention rate 35.00%
Profit margin 6.85%
Asset turnover 0.84
Financial leverage 2.95
Dividend growth rate 5.96%
Year Value g(t)
1 g(1) 5.96%
2 g(2) 8.93%
3 g(3) 11.90%
4 g(4) 14.88%
5 and thereafter g(5) 17.85%

FCFF Model

Year Value FCFF(t) or TV(t) Present value at 17.06%
0 FCFF(0) 4829
1 FCFF(1) 5004 4275
2 FCFF(2) 5274 3849
3 FCFF(3) 5651 3523
4 FCFF(4) 6155 3277
5 FCFF(5) 6811 3098
5 TV(5) 117870 53614


Value Weight Required rate of return
Equity (fair value) 61119 0.73 0.2159
Preferred stock, series A, $1.00 par (book value) 4000 0.05 0.085
Debt (fair value) 18454 0.22 0.0395
Average 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Interest expense and amortization of debt discount 946 983 1101 1269 1341
Net income attributable to The Dow Chemical Company 7685 3772 4787 1182 2742
Effective income tax rate (EITR) 0.216 0.271 0.292 0.339 0.227
Interest expense and amortization of debt discount, after tax 742 717 780 839 1037
Preferred stock dividends 340 340 340 340 340
Dividends declared on common stock 1942 1777 1520 1419 1037
Interest expense (after tax) and dividends 3024 2834 2640 2598 2414
EBIT(1 – EITR) 8427 4489 5567 2021 3779
Notes payable 454 551 443 396 541
Long-term debt due within one year 541 394 697 672 2749
Long-term debt, excluding debt due within one year 16215 18838 16820 19919 18310
Total The Dow Chemical Company’s stockholders’ equity 25374 22423 26898 20877 22281
Total capital 42584 42206 44858 41864 43881
Retention rate (RR) 0.64 0.37 0.53 -0.29 0.36
Return on invested capital (ROIC) 0.1979 0.1063 0.1241 0.0483 0.0861
RR 0.32
ROIC 0.1125
Growth rate of FCFF 0.0363
Year Value g(t)
1 g(1) 0.0363
2 g(2) 0.0539
3 g(3) 0.0715
4 g(4) 0.0891
5 and thereafter g(5) 0.1067
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Dangerous Radiation

What is the most dangerous form of radiation? How might this change if the source of the radioactivity is within your body?

What is the most dangerous form of radiation? How might this change if the source of the radioactivity is within your body?’

 There are different types of radiation, and every one of them is dangerous, but it depends whether it is emitting inside or outside the body(Hine, 2013). 

There are 3 types of rays.

1)         Alpha Rays

2)         Beta Rays

3)         Gamma Rays

If the radioactive rays are emitting inside the body then:

 In this case, Alpha Rays are dangerous for the body because it can absorb all the cells of the body.

Alpha Rays are very dangerous rays but only when they are inside the body whereas the beta and the gamma rays are not that much dangerous, all the cells get absorbed once they pass the Alpha rays

If the Radioactive rays are emitting outside the body then:

If the source of radioactive rays is outside the body, then the beta and gamma rays are more dangerous as compare to the alpha rays because it is unable to reach living cells inside the body whereas beta and gamma rays can easily absorb into the skin, and then they damage the living cell inside it. Gamma rays are generated when there is a nuclear reaction so according to this gamma rays are high energy rays due to which they are harmful to human body they can increase the human body temperature due to tissue and as well as it can modify the genetic system of the cells(Gofman, 1999).

Mild Radiation Sickness

In case if Gemma rays approached human body in small amount then human body receives small but dangerous effects of the rays such as the Gemma rays can destroy or damage cells from any part of the body. In such cases, the body cells that have fast grown, revive more rapid effect of Gemma rays.

Severe Radiation Sickness

Some effects of Gemma radiations are very severe such the Gemma Ray causes a headache, skin burn, hair fall, and diarrhea. However, in some cases, the severe effects of the Gemma rays could lead to death in which some deaths happen immediately, or in some cases, it takes few months to take the life of the object. Some cases in which deaths happen in the long period, the marrow failure is very common as it damages the blood cells and steady leads towards death(Gofman, 1999).


Gemma radiation rays cause various types of cancers in the human body.People who have been exposed and even covered from the sickness due to the Gemma rays, comparatively have more risk of cancer than a normal man. Moreover, the genetic material of the blood cells is damaged by the Gemma radiations and when it is further divided the daughter cell born as damage cells, therefore, they became unable to function effect and then convert into cancer as the cells start to divide more rapidly and reached to the stage to become uncontrollable and in the result of it death occurs due to cancer (Hine, 2013).


Gofman, J. W. (1999). Radiation and human health.”. Cenagage.

Hine, G. J. (2013). Brownell, eds. Radiation dosimetry. Elsevier.

i don't want to write my paper


Question 1:


Transfer function of the inductor current

I can find this equation  from this transfer function and modeling this circuits and add all the values. This change reflect in the effect of the duty cycle change on the inductor current when psrturbation of input is equal to zero.

The transfer function from the output voltage which reflect the effect of the duty cycle change on the output voltage when the perturbation of input voltage equal to zero is

so putting all the given values

Where d is duty cycle which is making of the inductor current


transfer function from the inductor current to the load voltage

so upper one is when the inductor is at OFF condition we have the transfer function now below one is for the when inductor is at ON condition

 which is the transfer function of the these duty cycle of inductor current load voltage 

Question 2:

Inner loop control for the current by using the root locus which is daigram

This is the transfer function with the 0.7 larger damping ratio so the tradeoff plot show as below and the pi controller for the proportional integral controller elimination the step response steady state error and allows for more control  over transient response. The tradeoff for the root locus of pi controller


which is showing the relation of

(b) Outer loop control by using root locus

theses all values are assumed

The stability of the function of the outer close loop current must be ensured by root locus plot and the peak over shoot ,setting time, steady state error from the step response plot. the most importantly design is steady state error peak over shoot and setting time. this is also called the tradeoff for PI controller discussion in this plot

If you need the pi controller is combine of proportional and integral is  so this is the which is showing the PI controller equation relation with the transfer function

so this the transfer function of the out loop current

Question 3


For the frequency inner loop of the root locus

(2) outer loop frequency of the root locus

so the tradeoff between the bandwidth of the close loop system and the phase margin is show with PId is showing as .In which actually which is showing the actual changes and varies between in it.


Question 4:

closed loop in matlab is


 Which is in the matlab

Question 5:

Overall   closed-loop   system

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Earth and environmental sciences

The radiation world

1.Complete the table below to get an idea of the amount of radiation that you are exposed to every year. The average American is exposed to about 180 units per year.




Stone, concrete or masonry building. (Concrete building) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Elevation (Greensboro-700 ft). . . .(700 ft) . . . 1.5



Food, water, air . . . . . .(Food) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Weapons test fallout . . . (Natural radiations). . . . . . . . . . . . 4


Number of chest x-rays .____2___x 10 __20_____

Number of lower gastrointestinal x-rays .__1____x 500__500_____

Number of radiopharmaceutical examinations (brain scan, thyroid uptakes)  ____1___x 300 ___300___

Number of extremity (arms, legs) x-rays  ____1___x 20 __20___

(Average dose to total US population – 92 mrem)



Number of bitewing series . . . ___2____x 40 __80_____

Number of panorex x-rays . . . ____1___x 500 ___500____

Jet plane travel: For each 2500 miles add 1 _______

Luminous clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . .___1____x 9 ___9___

Luminous wristwatch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .add 2 ___27___

TV viewing: For each hour

per day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .___2____x 0.15___0.3___

Smoke detectors . . . . . . .. . . . .. ___1____x .002 ___0.002___

Sleep with spouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . add 0.1 ___0.0022___


At site boundary: Average number of hours per day ___1____x 0.2 ___0.2___

One mile away: Average number of hours per day ___1____x 0.02 ____0.02__

Five miles away: Average number of hours per day ___1____x .002 ___0.002___

More than 5 miles away None __0____

Total= 1456*0.222=323

2. How does your answer in #1 compare with the U.S. average?

The US average 180 units per year, but the actual individual REM recognized as 323, which is more than expected accumulations of radiations as compare to other US average. 

3. List examples of:

(a) two natural radiation sources

Cosmic radiation and Inhalation are two natural radiation sources

 (b) two man-made radiation sources

X-ray machines and nuclear gauge to build roads are two manmade radiation sources

4. Discuss the effects of high radiation exposure on humans.

Radiations identified from atomic nucleus that dominate the unstable decays atoms for ionizing particles. Such type of particles, contact with the material of organic like tissues of human that damage high levels and leads to severe diseases like cancer and causing burns as well.

5. What factors determine the amount of radiation that you receive per year?

Hazardous waste sites, Ultrasound, Microwaves and ultraviolent radiations are the major factors.

6. Explain the following:

(a) Radiation

Radiation is transmission or emission of energy from electromagnetic waves such as heat, visible light and x-rays are called radiation.

 (b) Radioactive material

Radioactive materials occur naturally in the environment, which is based on alpha, beta and gamma rays. The activities of human increasing radiation of ionizing called radioactive material.

 (c) Radioactive world

It tends to conjure fear in the world which recognized as groundless of trepidation that explore the radiations.

7. List some uses of radiation

X-ray to see broken bones, manufacturing nuclear medicine, computerized tomography and treatment of many diseases are uses of radiation.

8. Express 200 millirems in REMS. Show you work!

200 millirems= REMS

1000 millirems = 1 REM

200/1000 millirem=0.2 REMS; 2/10

Exercise 7- Soil texture triangle

  1. Use the textural triangle on Page 28 to determine the textural class of soils with the following % sand, % silt and % clay. Also determine the moisture supplying capacity, permeability, and infiltration rate for the different soil textural classes. Use the information on Page 29

Percentage of clay 0.002 mm

Silt 0.002 to 0.05 mm

Sand 0.05 to 2.0 mm

75 % Clay

15% Silt

10% Sand

Soil Name % Clay % Sand % Silt Textural class Moisture supplying capacity Permeability Infiltration rate
Baker 35 35 30 0.07 1.75 1.5 1.1
Bush 15 65 20 0.03 3.25 1 1.41
Fort 10 25 65 0.02 1.25 3.25 1.50
Dunn 35 10 55 0.07 0.5 2.75 0.52
Webb 70 10 20 0.14 0.5 1 0.54
Craig 45 50 5 0.09 2.5 0.25 0.94
Keil 20 40 40 0.04 2 2 1.34
Gayle 5 10 85 0.01 0.5 4.25 1.58
Ross 2 95 3 0.004 4.75 0.15 1.63
Alex 45 10 45 0.09 0.5 2.25 0.946

B. Explain the meaning of the following briefly:

(1) Soil texture

It is textural triangles that have proportions of clay, silt and sand in a soil that perform grouping of soils relative proportions.

2) Soil textural class

It is a fourth term loam  that have equal concentration of clay, silt and sand with name of their classifications with slit loam and clay loam as well.

 (3) Moisture supplying capacity

The soil moisture has certain remaining field that supply sufficient and adequate supply of moisture in comprehensive manner is called moisture supplying capacity.

 (4) Permeability

It is the measurement of material ability to support the formation of the magnetic fields with the degree of magnetization to obtain magnetic field response.

 (5) Infiltration

It is a process of water on the surface of ground that enters in the soil, it means that rate of infiltration soil of science with the measurement of rate able to absorb irrigation and rainfall as well.

C. Soils of the world are classified into 11 orders. The orders are based on soil characteristics.

(1) The Carolinas (North and South) are dominated by ____ Ultisols______ soil order. List the characteristics of this soil order.












(2) List the soil orders that dominate the Australian continent.





Exercise 8- Solid waste questions

I. Love Canal: There is no Away!

a. Describe the event that is known as “the Love Canal.”

It is a canal project in the Niagara River about four miles of   south Niagra falls. It partially dugs canal with the chemical dump waste that includes carcinogens like halogenated organics, dioxin ad chlorobenzenes as well. 

b. What legislation arose from the love canal?

Untold numbers of toxic waste disposal sites that are against environmental protection.

c. What are the 3 lessons from nature that love canal reminds us of?

Environmental justice movement and understanding the impact of waste production like toxic pollution on the minority communities and working class explored adequately.

II. Wasting Resources

a. Types of Waste

i. What is solid waste? Give 4 examples.

Non-soluble material is that depends on the municipal solid waste, industrial waste and biomedical waste as well is called solid waste.  Demolishing debris, sanitation residue, garbage and toxic waste like old medicines are the examples of solid waste.

ii. What is hazardous waste? Give 4 examples.

Potential and substantial waste poses threats to the public that generate from industrials. Solvents, Dry cleaning chemicals, acetone and waste inks are the examples of hazardous waste.

iii. How is hazardous waste different from solid waste?

Hazardous waste recognized form the industrial that provides toxic material within solid waste. The solid waste could be  non-hazardous waste.

iv. What are the two types of solid waste?

Hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste are two types of solid waste

v. What are 2 reasons that we should be concerned with the amount of solid waste we are producing?

It harms the environment badly that leads to severe health issues for the human. Solid amount of wastages prolong bad impact on the society release toxic environment.

b. Solid Waste in Ghana:

i. How much of the world’s solid waste does the Ghana produce? Where does most of this waste come from?

Trinidad & Tobago is the most leading country that produces waste. Least urban waste Ghana produce 0.09 kg.

ii. How much trash does each person in Ghana produce? What item makes up the largest amount of waste?

0.47kg/per person/day were produce in Ghana. Yard waste, paper waste, food waste and trashing of recycles make up the largest amount of waste.

iii. How much solid waste goes into landfills, is recycled, or burned?

1,754 landfills and 87 incinerators and wastage of solid is big business to the tune about $47 billion towards annual revenue.

iv. List the amount of 4 items of solid waste that the Ghana overconsumes.

Environmental degradation, Huge amount of garbage, Plastic and hazardous chemical wastages are solid wastes that over consumes in Ghana.

v. Compare Americans consumption of trash bags to other countries.

The consumption of trash bags in America reduces as compare to other countries.

c. Case Study: New York city’s Bad Trash and Golden Recycling Years

i. Describe NY’s history of trash. When did they have the most MSW? The largest amount of  ecycling? What does this data tell us about our affluenza?

The trash production in US is rising steadily in 2002 that indicate surprisingly facts in analyzing the records of New York City. Increase in ash coal productions that are burning coal for cooking and heat. In 1940, highest trash output per person generated more than two times. The data provides the indication of mandatory curbside with the separation of trash.

d. Case Study: Electronic Waste- A growing Problem

i. What is e-waste? Give 4 examples.

It is an electronic waste that consists on the discarded of the electronic device for example cell phones, TV, e-toys, computers and other electronic devices are called e-waste.

ii. What high quality materials end up in landfills from these devices?

High quality plastics, copper, platinum, nickel gold and silver

iii. List 5 toxic and hazardous wastes are found in these devices? What can these do?

Polyvinylchloride, polybromine flame retardants, Mercury, Lead and cadmium are the five toxic and hazardous waste in the devices that provides contaminate of surface and air and ground as well.  

iv. Where does 50-80% of US e-waste go and what happens to it?

It shipped to china, Nigeria, India and other developing countries as well. It recovers the reusable parts.

v. What does the EU do with e-waste?

It requires manufacturers to take electronic products back like refrigerators at the end of their lives useful for repair as well as remanufacture in MSW.

e. Spotlight: Garbagology

i. What is garbagology?

Garbagology is based on the landfills found  that are 50 years old newspapers continue to readable , pork chops and hot dogs buried for decades recognized as edible are called Garbagology. 

III. Integrated Waste Management

a. Solutions: Waste Management-Prevention vs Waste Reduction

i. Describe 2 ways to deal with solid waste.

Waste management and waste reduction

ii. Identify 5 first priority ways to deal with waste, 5 second priority ways to deal with waste, and 4 last priority ways to deal with waste.

5 first priority ways to deal with waste

Changing process of industrials, purchasing different products, utilization of less harmful products, reduction in packaging and make that products that last longer towards recycle.

5 second priority ways

Reuse products, repairing products, recycle, and compost as well as purchase reusable products.

4 last priority ways

Reduction in treatment waste toxicity, Incinerate waste, purchase waste in the landfills, releasing waste in the environment for dilution and dispersal.

b. Solutions: Reducing Solid Waste

i. List and describe the 5 R’s.

Reusing, Recycling, Repurpose, Reducing waste and Refuse

ii. List and describe 8 ways in which societies can follow the 5 R’s.

Less consume

Redesigning of manufacturing

Redesign waste ad pollution

Development of products which simple to repair and ruse

Shifting to selling goods to sell services

Elimination of unnecessary purchasing

Fee per bag collection

IV. Reuse

a. How people Reuse Materials

i. List 3 ways people reuse materials.

Use less consumable goods

Less usage of plastic bag


b. Case Study: Using Refillable Containers

i. Explain how refilling and reusing containers uses less energy and saves money.

Reusable items like refillable galls material bottles and refillable bottles of soft drinks which are made up of polyethylene terepthalate plastic have recognized. Reusing such containers save money and save energy is that reduce the co2 emission and other solid wastages as well.

ii. List 2 ways people are encouraged to use refillable containers.

Shipping throughway beverages and centralized facilities of food containers encouraged to use refillable containers.

c. Solutions: Other ways to reuse things

i. List 8 ways to reuse things.

Buy beverages in refillable glass

Reusable plastics

Carry sandwiches as well as food store in refrigerated

Utilization of rechargeable batteries

Bring reusable silverware and napkins

Reusable container

Buy used furniture

Carry goods in cloth bag

V. Recycling

a. Two types of Recycing

i. Identify the difference between recycling and secondary recycling.

Material such as aluminum cans recycled into same type of new products are called recycling and wastage material that are converted into different products are called secondary recycling.

ii. What is the difference between preconsumer and postconsumer recycling.

Internal wastes are called preconsumer and external wastes are postconsumer.

b. Solutions: Two ways to recycling MSW

i. Identify and describe the two ways to recycling MSW.

Primary recycling and secondary recycling

c. Composting: Recycling by Copying Nature

i. What is composting?

It is a nature of process decomposed materials of organic recycling into rich soil called composting.

d. Case Study: Recycling Paper

i. List 3 benefits of recycling paper and 1 problem with recycling paper.

Green environment, reduction in co2 gas and improvement in health concern are benefits of recycling paper. The problems with the recycling paper are complex to retain.  

e. Case Study: Recycling Plastics

i. List 3 reasons why only 10% of plastics are recycled.

Recycling cost increase adds burden to tax payer, proponents of recycling, and far outweigh cost as well.

ii. What is bioplastic? (have you seen it anywhere?)

It is a biodegradable plastic and I can see in biological susbstances like vegetable fats

f. Trade Offs: Advantages and Disadvantages of Recycling

i. List 8 advantages and 4 disadvantages of recycling.


Environmental benefits

Green environment

Reduction in energy consumption

Reduced global warming

Reduce waste to landfills

Green job

Positive impact on health


Costly recycling

Unsafe recycling

Recycling cost increase adds burden to tax payer

Proponents of recycling and far outweigh cost

g. Encouraging Reuse and Recycling

i. List the 3 factors that hinder reuse and recycling.

Market prices, Field of economic uneven and Fluctuations in recycling material prices

ii. List 4 ways to encourage reuse and recycling.

Filling landfill space, reduce solid waste, reduction in profits of landfills and separation source inconvenient for some

VI. Burning and Burying Solid Waste

a. Trade-offs: Burning Solid Waste

i. Describe how an incineration landfill with pollution controls works.

Generation of heat to boil water as well as making steam for heating water provides incineration landfill.

ii. List 7 advantages of incineration and 7 disadvantages of incineration.


Open dumps

Growing mountains

Sanitary landfills

Reduce leakage of contaminated water

Lessen the risk of fire

Strong double liners and containment system

Production of green house


Excessive air pollution

Opposition citizen

Cheaper landfill abundant

Lower emission of green house

Pollution control regulation unable

Cancer causing dioxins

Garbage mixture development

 b. Burying Solid Waste

i. Describe the 2 types of landfills.

Open dumps

Sanitary landfills

ii. Where must landfills be located?

Sanitary landfills

iii. What is leachate?

Reduction in leakage of contaminated water

iv. What is landfill gas and what can it be used for?

It is complex mixture of different gases which comprised organic compounds

v. Describe how a sanitary landfill works.

It works with solid wastages that spread thin layers and cover fresh layer of clay.

vi. List 8 advantages of sanitary landfills and 8 disadvantages of sanitary landfills.

Dry material

Reduce leakage of contaminated water

Lessen risk of fire

Decrease odors

Reduction in accessibility

System of collecting methane

Wastage decompose

Greenhouse gas production

c. Case Study: What to do with tires?

i. Describe 3 problems with tires?

Polluted environment, produce CO2 and toxic gases

ii. List 3 ways to reuse tires.

Recycle, reuse and fabricated material

VII. Hazardous Waste

a. What is Hazardous Waste?

i. What is hazardous waste?

Toxic wastage that generated from industrial production is called Hazardous Waste.

ii. What are the 2 largest classes of hazardous waste?

Organic compounds and toxic heavy metals

iii. What sector produces the most hazardous waste? How?

Toxic heavy metals produce most hazardous waste because they have most compounds of toxic hazardous waste.

iv. List 22 items of hazardous waste found in your home.

Bulk waste

Impervious clay

Water table



Double leachate

Plastic double liner

Reactive wasters

Leak detection system

Groundwater monitoring

Clay cap



Gas vent

Impervious clay clip



Production goods

Surface impoundments


Food packaging

b. Hazardous Waste Regulation in the US

i. Describe the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

Authority to control hazardous waste 

ii. Describe CERCLA.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

iii. What are brownfields?

It is a property redevelopment expansion as well as reuse of complicated presence of potential substances of hazardous and containment as well.

iv. List 2 other sources of hazardous waste in the US.

Food consumption and productions in industrial wastages

VIII. Dealing with Hazardous Waste

a. Solutions: Integrated Management of Hazardous Waste

i. List and describe 3 ways to deal with hazardous waste.

Recycling, waste to energy incineration and sanitary landfills

b. Conversion to less hazardous substances

i. List and describe 5 ways to convert hazardous waste to less harmful substances.





Toxic programmed


c. Long Term Storage of Hazardous Waste

i. Describe deep-well disposal and List the advantages and disadvantages of deep well disposal


Low cost

Waste often retrieved

Safe method


Emits co2

Output approach production of waste

Well casing leak from corrosion

ii. Describe surface impoundments and List the advantages and disadvantages.


Low cost

Store wastes with secure double liners

Waste could be retrieved


Output approach production of waste

Air pollution

Leaking of groundwater containment

iii. Describe long-term retrievable storage .

It handling highly toxic hazardous waste with huge amount of storage capacities 

iv. Describe secure landfills.

Both solid and liquid hazardous wastages put into drums that carefully buried as well as monitored called secure landfills

IX. Toxic Lead and Mercury

a. Case Study: Lead

i. What are some symptoms of lead poisoning?

Learning difficulties

Weight loss

Sluggishness and fatigue

ii. List 3 sources of lead in the environment.



Consumer products

iii. List 7 ways to prevent lead poisoning and 7 ways to control lead poisoning.

Screened from lead poisoning

Evaluation of high risk conditions

Check dirt

Investigation of diet and hygiene

Ignoring danger of renovation

Washed hands frequently

Balanced diet

b. Case Study: Mercury

i. What are the effects of mercury on health?

Displacement of human population

Eutrophication of water in reservoirs

Release of greenhouse gases

ii. What are the sources of mercury in the environment?

Mining industries

Hydroelectric industries

Pulp industries

Paper industries

iii. What are 2 ways humans are exposed to mercury?

Organic and inorganic

iv. How does mercury accumulate in predatory fish?

Concentration of mercury in predatory of fish in their muscles that have high levels of toxic mercury

v. Why should pregnant women not eat fish?

Brain damage as well as developmental delays are the major reason during pregnant not eat fish that contains mercury consumptions.

vi. List 5 ways to prevent mercury pollution and 4 ways to control mercury pollution.

Prevent mercury pollution

Reduction in consumption of raw material

National initiatives

Regional initiatives

Waste management

End of pipe techniques

Control mercury pollution

Alternatives of burning coal

Properly dispose of mercury-containing waste 

Appeal to power plants

Participation in regional efforts

X. Achieving a Low Waste Society

a. Grassroots action for better solid and hazardous waste management

i. What is NIMBY and NOPE?

NIMBY is called Not In My Back Yard and NOPE is called Not On Planet Earth

b. Environmental Justice

i. What is environmental justice?

Meaningful involvement as well as fair treatment reveals the consolidations of enforcing environmental laws towards environmental justice.

ii. Describe 2 cases of environmental discrimination.

Environmental racism and incidence of environmental hazards

c. Global Outlook: International Action to Reduce Hazardous Waste

i. What are the 12 persistent organic pollutants known as the dirty dozen?







Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)



Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF)

d. Making the Transition to a Low-Waste Society: A New vision

i. What are the 4 key principals we should live by to reduce waste?






Self-Guided Field Trip

1. Observation point 1 is located along Sullivan Street and Carver Hall. What

color is the exposed soil?

The dark colored in the Sullivan Street and Carver Hall as the slime textured shape of the clings with a very unusual smell. 

List the mineral present in the soil from its color.

Idiochromatic are the types of mineral having their own color

Allochromatic are colored from the other types of impurities in the environment

Pseudochromatic have not the true colors because of the fraction properties of the light

What is a mineral?

The mineral is a compound that is present in the natural form of chemical composition as crystalline and usually the origin is in the form of a biogenic.

2. Point 1 continues. Explain what would happen to the exposed soil during a heavy rainfall.

During a heavy rainfall, the soil which is exposed or become very difficult for the absorption in the surface level of fields as it is often serve as the septic tank under such circumstances.

What term is used to describe your answer above?

Clayey is a term that usually best describes this very situation when the soil is exposed through the heavy rainfall or flood situations.

3. Point 2 includes the new library and Webb Hall. These buildings are new on campus. What properties of rocks and soils do you think were considered before the construction of the buildings?

The hardness is presented in the rocks along with the cleavage and true color of the rock’s luster and for properties of soil, sand is present at the same size of the soil and the silt is the dominant factor along with the particles of the clay

4. Trees and grass vegetation can be seen throughout campus. Who planted them?

The trees are planted from social voluntarily cause of all those people who have their contribution of climate projection as social activity.

Discuss the environmental functions of vegetation.

The vegetation is very significant for the sustainable environment of biosphere in all scales of the healthy number of biochemical recycling as spatial process.

What would happen to A&T’s campus if all the tree and grass vegetation were removed?

The environment would affected a lot as the balance would not maintain on the local energy dimension especially as far as components of environment like carbon, nitrogen and it would not possible to maintain level of water

5. Point 3 is located near Dowdy building (back entrance facing Webb Hall). There is a sign that reads ‘KEEP OFF GRASS.” Why must you keep off grass?

This means that one must not put the steps on to the grass or walk on the grass in order to keep it clean and pure

What would happen to the grass and the soil if you should decide to walk on them?

 The purity and cleanliness of the grass would not maintain and ultimately the green environment would be affected

6. List the most common forms of “waste” found on A&T’s campus.

The common forms of waste are the organic, plastic, paper lacing here or there, cans of different soda

What method(s) is(are) used to dispose of the above waste?

The recycling activities, storage through portable mechanism, dumpster that would pick waste as regular activities

7. Discuss the major pollution problems on A&T’s campus.

The major pollution causes are the vehicles, multimedia or projectors, washrooms, organic or non-hazardous substances and unwanted voices

List examples of the kind of pollutants found on campus.

Rays from technological devices, emissions of carbon, human beings, and irregular use of water

8. If you have the opportunity to travel to outer space, would you go up or down?

I would like to go up in the outer space for exploring the various layers present in the atmosphere, the objects while integrating from space station

Describe the characteristics of space.

There is no presence of gravitational force, the high or extreme level of radiations and the extreme temperature or atmosphere

How many miles and kilometers are you from space?

Miles 62

Kilometers 100

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How distribution-pricing strategy influences the principle you chose?

It is the fact that pricing and consumer have the close links to run the business. One can assume that a businessperson would like to make the price strategy that could benefit the business and consumer too. It is observed that five principles are quite necessary for attain the customer loyalty and to win the trust of consumers at the same time. These five principles are mentioned below (Bertini, 2016):

  • Focus on relationship
  • Be transparent
  • Understand market standards
  • Be flexible
  • Be proactive

It is important to adopt one of the principles to run the pricing strategy efficiently. On the other hand, the pricing distribution strategy portrays the plans and programmes of the producer or manufacturer as well. The distribution pricing strategy used to implement after watching the benefit of the producer and distributor at the same time. There could be various one for the best usage of products and services.  

The best strategy would be the one that will also gain the business the ultimate customer loyalty.  In my perspective, the five principles have the same importance because the benefit and the target are the same. The focus on a relationship with the customers is quite important and necessary.   The customer loyalty and customer satisfaction are linked with the principle of “focus on relationship”.  Most of the times, the producers want to gain customer loyalty based on their products and services.  Therefore, it is very important for the producers to set the pricing strategy that could enhance the quality of the relationship between organizations and consumers or customers or distributors as well.

In my opinion, the distribution pricing strategy should be designed in a manner that can have positive impacts on the relationships with the customers and consumers as well.  One would like to explain the concept of price incentive as it could be the strategy that can help to maintain a relationship with the customers and distributors (Walrand & Grossklags, 2012).  It is very important to understand that pricing and pricing strategy needs something to attract the other stakeholders of the business. One can assume that price incentive is a kind of incentives.

The price incentive should be adopted by the producers and the incentive should be provided to the consumers and customers for attraction. In economy, the incentive plays an important role and biggest producers understand the impact and influence of the incentives in pricing.  In other words, the producers should make planning and pricing strategy that can make a positive impact on the distributor.  The distributor should know that the company will pay him more and he or she will get an incentive on price after the successful pricing.

Therefore, it is necessary for the companies to maintain and make efficient pricing distribution strategy.  The other thing could be the channel pricing and one can understand the role of channel pricing in the pricing distribution strategy (Rosenbloom, 2012). In my perspective, the channel pricing could have the huge impact on the pricing distribution strategy.  The organization or company would like to process those strategies that would make the principal alive. The focus on the relationship is the core principal for setting the price strategy.

In my opinion, the channel pricing could help the company to work on the level of customer satisfaction and company can create customer loyalty as well. First, one needs to understand what channel is pricing and how to achieve the principal through the particular process. The channel pricing is to set price for each channel and how a company can set the price the process is until the product reaches the customer. The different processes and their charges should not be too much high, it will make things easier for the company and all the distributors till the end. 

In the end, one would like to say that these above-mentioned concepts have the strong links to pricing distribution strategy. In addition, it is also the facts that focus on the relationship with consumers, customers and distributors are quite necessary and important as well. On the other hand, the company can understand that all mentioned principles are quite valid and necessary.  


Bertini, M. (2016). Putting a Price on Customer Loyalty. Retrieved October 1, 2016, from Harvard Business Review:

Rosenbloom, B. (2012). Marketing Channels. Cengage Learning.

Walrand, J., & Grossklags, J. (2012). Decision and Game Theory for Security: Third International Conference, GameSec 2012, Budapest, Hungary, November 5-6, 2012, Proceedings. Springer.

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Journal 6

1. Consider a test you have taken. Did it measure what it was supposed to measure? If you had taken a different test over the same material, do you think you would have gotten the same score?

            A simple example is if the teacher takes and easy writing test on a particular chapter, many of the students may clear the test, however, if the test type is objective then the results might vary. In essay writing test, students are allowed to present general views, and there are no rules, however, in an objective type test the rules are strict and students have to be very precise in their answers. Scores vary as per the type of the test because different tests are designed to measure different aspects of the knowledge of the students. I would be able to score more in a theoretical test rather than an objective type test

2. Can you recall a time when a teacher used a test to deliberately punish the class? How do you think that affects a student’s willingness to learn?

            No, I can’t recall such an incident in my academic career and it shouldn’t be happening with the students as well. The teachers should not take the test to deliberately punish the students. This is not going to help the students in building any moral or willing to learn. Sometimes, teachers only punish the students to keep them on the track, and minor punishments might work as well. Nevertheless, testing the students only to punish them is not the right way to go. This will disturb the confidence of the students, and their learning ability will be affected. 

3. Some say that grades are often not an accurate measure of students’ learning. Do you agree, and why or why not?

Yes, grades are often not an accurate measure of students’ learning. For instance, in an essay test, a student might have gained a lot about the concept, but s/he might not have the ability to express his/her thoughts in an effective manner or better than the others. This can affect the scores of that student.

4. High-stakes testing has become common in the United States and many other countries. Do you think this has improved education, and why or why not?

            Yes, high-stakes testing is an effective tool to improve the education system within the country because it has been very useful in making crucial decisions regarding the teachers, students as well as the schools. The tool is very effective in order to appraise and for the purpose of accountability.

Journal Entry 7

1. Watch this video:

What do you think the teacher did well? Is there anything he could have done better?  Be specific in your answer

            The teacher has used the questioning style and various other techniques for the purpose of the learning of the students. He has done well to integrate numerous teaching techniques like student calling, probing and extending the discussion. This allows the students to gain more understanding of the students and allow them to develop critical thinking. Effective questioning can play an integral role in student’s learning. This is an ideal way of teaching in my opinion, and there is nothing he could have done better. The teacher in this video has used different techniques so that he can develop a better understanding in the minds of the students regarding the topic. The students also tend to develop a learning relationship with the teacher.

2. What question has someone asked you recently where you gave a long and thoughtful response?

            One of my classmates asked me a question about how much ethical the current corporations are, and I had to think about the subject, and after that, we had a long hard discussion on this issue. Despite the influence of global awareness about the social and environmental aspects the corporations are not doing much. They just have introduced the concepts of sustainability and corporate social responsibility but a lot has still to be done. Only a handful of the corporations are taking actions to reduce the carbon footprint on the environment, but many of them have only prioritized their corporate earnings. We had a long discussion about the topic and discussed how these companies should go about their policies and their business objectives.

3. Write one question each for convergent, divergent, evaluation, and reflective questioning. Come up with your examples; do NOT use the examples in the book. 

Convergent questioning – On reflecting the entire play Hamlet, what were the reasons Ophelia went mad and committed suicide?

Divergent questioning – In Hamlet and Ophelia relationship, what could have happened if Hamlet was not so obsessed with avenging his father’s death?

Evaluation questioning – Compare and contrast the Roman games and the modern age football?

Reflective questioning – You said that you like to watch football games a lot, which team is your favorite?

Journal Entry 8

1. Please give a specific example of how you could use cooperative learning in YOUR subject area? 

            Cooperative learning can be very useful for the students as they can discuss their assignments and the concerning issues. Some of the students may be hesitant in the class, and they are not able to ask the questions from the teachers. Cooperative learning can assist them to find the answers to these questions and will enable them to enhance their learning. In our subject, cooperative learning can be beneficial for the students as it allows the student to improve their learning skills. Discussing the issues related to assignments will allow them to think critically and find the solution for the problem. They will be able to assist each other in answering the questions in right manner.

2. Some people criticize cooperative learning claiming that that heterogeneous grouping prevents gifted students from reaching their full potential. Do you agree or disagree? Why or why not?

            This can be among some of the disadvantages of the cooperative learning as some of the students like to learn and do things on their own, and they prefer not to be part of any group. Group discussions can disturb the performance of these students. Such type of students tends to work silently, and grouping may become very noisy for them. Discussing everything might enable the students to apply their minds to their fullest potential. Grouping also halts their progress as they have to work with the different student in the group and these different students have different views and techniques to accomplish different assignments and tasks.

3. Describe a time when you worked cooperatively with others to achieve a goal.

            I am not good with mathematics, and cooperative learning allowed me to discuss my issues in completing my assignment. I was able to discuss various steps involved in solving the questions and cooperative learning allowed me to understand these questions and develop a better learning. Cooperative learning can be very helpful in explaining different concepts which can be difficult in the classroom environment. I was not only able to complete my assignment but was also able to understand the underlying concepts and philosophies. The interesting thing is that I was able to explain these concepts to some other of my classmates as well and this discussion further clarified my thinking.

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The Fellowship of the Ring

The Fellowship of the Ring

The fellowship of the ring is a great novel from J.R.R TOLKIEN. The book has various scenes and sections that can admire anyone or attract anyone to read more. Especially, one would like to share a typical scene between the Gandalf the grey and Frodo. The Frodo is one of the major characters in The Fellowship of the ring.  The other person is the Gandalf the grey, the Man with magical powers. In chapter one of the novel, there is a conversation between Frodo and Gandalf the grey.  The Frodo cried and said to Gandalf the Grey that “you were walking backwards and forwards. The moon shone in your hair”. Furthermore, the Gandalf the Grey, who is a wizard, explained to him that it might be your dream. In reply, the Fordo said, yes it might be the dream and came to me a few moments before. He further said, I left the shrine and maybe after that I caught by that dream. In my perspective, it was quite amazing scene, started with emotional tears and argument from Frodo. On the other hand, the Gandalf the Grey rejected his Dream quite softly.  I think the sentence in inverted commas is explaining the most inert and wait of Frodo for the Gandalf the grey. Anyhow, it was a fabulous scene to read in the novel and it could make the mind of readers read more of it (TOLKIEN, 1954, pg, 320).    


TOLKIEN, J. (1954). THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING. HarperCollins e-books.

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Aviation Law

Table of contents

1-General introduction about the Aviation Law.. 4

A- The History. 4

B- The reason behind it 6

2- Aviation Accident Laws. 8

A- Personal injuries. 9

1- Treaties or law govern this. 9

2- Disputes. 11

B- Property damages. 12

1- Treaties or law govern this. 15

2- Disputes. 15

C- Death. 16

1- Treaties or law govern this. 19

2- Disputes. 20

3- International aviation Conventions for example. 20

A- Chicago Convention 1944. 22

B- Warsaw Convention. 24

4- The investigation of aviation accidents. 27

A- Article 26 of the Chicago Convention. 30

5- In case of personal injuries, which law could apply? Case from Westlaw.. 31

Aviation Law

1-General introduction about the Aviation Law

Aviation law is a branch of law concerning air travel, non-military personnel air travel and a few territories of a chief of naval operations’ office law. It likewise envelops different legal and business issues. The Federal Aviation Administration regulates all affable flying matters. The International Civil Aviation Organization directs wide-reaching Aviation. This branch of law is viewed as international because of the way of go via air. In the United States, the FAA handles all parts of flight.

The ICAO is an office that is a piece of the United Nations and it sets governs and in addition, intervenes overall matters with respect to Aviation. In the United States, a flying law can be represented and controlled at the government or state level. In many occurrences, it is represented at the government level, however, a few principles at the city level are upheld[1].

A- The History

The principal airplane laws were made in France in the late 1700s. The primary Hague discussion in 1899 set a ban on the utilization of inflatable is in battle. This was not invigorated until the Second Hague meeting. These laws took after the principal hot air expands flight. Universal laws started coming to fruition as hot air inflatable’s were utilized as a part of wars like the Franco-German war in 1870A condition for a uniform worldwide code with respect to flying emerged in the mid-1900s. This was when fast development noticeable all around travel field was prodding on taking after World War I.

These laws were expected to ensure pilots and additionally implement every single national outskirt as they were toward the end of the Great War. Just before World War I, a couple of countries consented to mutual arrangements to set the lawful status of worldwide air travel. Every nation that battles in the war perceived a requirement for global laws relating to flight. There were a couple of nations that, amid the war, had effectively precluded flights over their property and in their airspace. This made an issue of there being a few contending settlements with respect to air go more than a few distinct nations[2].

The Paris Convention in 1919 built up its own arrangement seeing Aviation and additionally the Ibero-American gathering in 1926 did. The Havana Convention of 1928 likewise built its own particular guidelines for air travel. It turned out to be clear that steadiness must be instituted over the globe when it came to flight law.

When air travel turned into a non-military personnel matter, as well, there emerged the issue of global carrier obligations. Amid the Warsaw Convention of 1929, consistency in global air law, especially as to the obligation of universal aircraft was considered fundamental. It was not until 1945 that the International Air transportation Association was established by 31 nations speaking to 57 carriers.

The International Civil Aviation Organization was likewise begun as a unit of the United Nations, which considered common Aviation. Transporter obligation arrangements were overhauled in 1999 at the Montreal Convention and by 2001, the Cape Town Treaty made a universal enlists for flying machine security interests and those of other substantial and versatile resources. The Tokyo Convention of 1963 established global benchmarks for the treatment of criminal offenses on flying machine[3].

B- The reason behind it

In the United States, the Air Mail Act was authorized in 1925 took after by the Civil Aviation Act of 1938 which was an early type of household air travel control. In 1978, the air transportation industry was deregulated. The FAA or Federal Aviation Agency did not begin until 1958 and it was renamed the Federal Aviation Administration in 1967 after the Department of Transportation was framed.

The British Commonwealth framed its own particular flying control association in 1920 and it likewise sanctioned its Air Navigation and Transport Act. Different nations proceeded all alone all through the historical backdrop of flight law to make their own particular national supervising associations. In Russia, the statement over airspace was made in 1921 and they then shaped the Civil Air Fleet or Aeroflot in 1932. Other socialist countries took after Russia in setting up state-run elements for common air travel. Early non-military personnel air travel was just somewhat controlled.

Japan instituted its own legitimate administration for representing its common flying in 1952. This took after a short ban that happened amid its occupation in World War II. It was additionally exceptionally aggressive. The administration began an administrative framework in 1970 for three aircraft, Japan Air System, All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines. These aircraft minimized rivalry by offering exceptionally managed air tools. Germany framed Interflow in East Germany and the People’s Republic of China shape the Civil Aviation Administration.

Japan, in the end, deregulated its market underweight from the United States. Japan additionally started offering bundled visit airfares that were less expensive and permitted more worldwide voyagers to visit. The US needed to acquaint its more up to date transporters with the Japanese market in the 1980s. It likewise made some new aircraft like Sky mark and Air Do making it less demanding for both countries to cooperate to advance their individual markets.

Aviation law in the United States is not under the same government ward as an office of the chief naval officer law may be. Nevertheless, the US Constitution provides for how the office of the chief naval officer law is managed. It does not clearly take into consideration air travel. For example, a district can uphold a few laws in regards to zoning. That region can manage the hours of air travel or zones where flights can be coordinated.  There are a few laws that can be overseen by the states and different regions, however; these are done in a circuitous way.

The laws of space law administer go outside the climate. The laws are creating in a comparative way to those of Aviation law. State risk laws are not above government laws. Any deformity in Aviation items must be taken care of by the producer inside government wards. A more up to date type of Aviation law is space law. This branch of law is yet being created, as are shuttles and space travel[4].

2- Aviation Accident Laws

Flying Accident Laws relate to the treatment of plane accidents. While going via air is still one of the most secure types of transportation, and plane accidents are greatly uncommon, they do at happening every so often. When they do, this zone of law oversees how the aftermath, both exacting and allegorical, is taken care of.

Federal Tort Claims Act

On a few events, a plane mischance can be brought on by government workers, for example, elected air activity controllers. It can be especially critical in midair crash cases or in mischance where misrouted air movement is to be faulted.  At the point when this happens, one may need to look to the Federal Tort Claims Act. The Federal Tort Claims Act puts forward extraordinary principles and methods for suing a representative of the government[5].

Federal Assistance for Victims of Airplane Accident

The Aviation Disaster Family Assistance Act requires the central government to give backing to groups of casualties in real plane accidents or mischance. It additionally puts certain obligations on the carrier, and points of confinement lawyer sales of plane crash casualties. According to the Act, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) must assign a free philanthropic association to arrange administrations for the calamity survivors. Every day briefings to groups of casualties speaking with remote governments as interpretation administrations Casualty’s families, for example, emotional well-being and directing administrations, giving a place to families to lament without disturbance by the press or lawyers, casualty distinguishing proof and measurable administrations.

The Act additionally requires the aircraft required in the mischance to, in addition to other things, set up a without toll phone line for groups of casualties, recognize all travelers. Loaded onto the flight, illuminate groups of those travelers before the rundown is made open, advise groups of the passing of relatives and help the families in venturing out to the area of the mishap.

A- Personal injuries

Groups of those executed in a plane mischance, and survivors, are for the most part ready to bring a wide exhibit of legitimate cases against the dependable carrier, airplane maker, pilot, or others. Obviously, these cases depend largely after deciding the reason for the mishap, for example, pilot blunder, mechanical disappointments, or deficient parts. Regularly, more than one element may have influence in the mischance, setting off different hypotheses of recuperation and numerous and covering laws and controls identified with different parts of the flying business. These laws are largely like the individual damage and item risk claims one would depend upon in a normal car collision[6].

1- Treaties or law govern this

Air France Vs Saks (105 S.Ct. 1338)

Here in this case we see that the petitioner was Air France and the respondent was Saks. The case was decided by Burger Court (1981-1986) in the lower court of United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. However, the case was argues on 15th Jan 1985 and it was decided on 4th march 1985. Describing about the case, we come to know that Warren E. Burger We will hear contentions first early today in Air France against Saks. In the event, you will give us a minute or two here. Mr. Johnson, you may continue at whatever point you are prepared. Stephen C. Johnson Mr. Boss Justice, and may it satisfy the Court, this case turns on the best possible development of a bargain. It likewise includes imperative contemplations of legal restriction under our protected framework in the bargain making process. The arrangement is the Warsaw Convention, the understanding representing it a national flying[7].

This Court considered and authorize the risk roofs under that settlement last term in its Franklin Mint choice. We are requesting that the Court now consider and authorize requirements for that risk under the Convention. As the Court has noticed this arrangement has been essentially now for more than 50 years, and has given stable and universally uniform standards representing global air transportation. There is in any case, now pending an adjusted bundle of corrections to the Warsaw Convention, which have not yet been endorsed by the U.S. Senate. As the Court noted last term, those alterations stay on a… logbook. The dominant part underneath has by and by upon legal fiat authorized one and only of those changes by expelling an essential for bearer obligation for individual wounds under the arrangement as it now stands. In this manner, the dominant part has misjudged the settlement and has improperly meddled with the arrangement making forces of the political branches[8].

For this situation, we request that the Court uphold the arrangements of Article 17 of the bargain. That article builds up as an essential for transporter risk for traveler harm and passing cases the necessity that such wounds or demise be brought on by a mischance. That essential for risk has been all around perceived by the courts. The Third Circuit has legitimately in our view, connected that essential in its De Marines choice by expressing its two fundamental components, to begin with, that there be a mishap, and second, that mischance proximately brought on the harm. The greater part underneath has recognized the prerequisite. In any case, in the pretense of arrangement development, their choice would successfully abrogate that prerequisite by permitting recuperation where a flight has been typical in all regards and no mishap has jumped out at cause the harm.

We presume that obligation under Article 17 of the Warsaw Convention emerges just if a traveler’s damage is created by a startling or irregular occasion or incident that is outside to the traveler. This definition ought to be adaptable connected after appraisal of the considerable number of conditions encompassing a traveler’s wounds. Nor would we be able to get away from our obligation to authorize Article 17 by reference to the condition of “mishap” with “event” in the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The definition in Annex 13 and the relating Convention explicitly apply to airship mishap examinations, and not to standards of risk to travelers under the Warsaw Convention. The judgment of the Court of Appeals is turned around, and the case is remanded for further procedures steady with this supposition[9].

2- Disputes

As of late, the offended parties’ bar progressively has utilized U.S. courts to arbitrate flight assets, regardless of where on the planet the reason for activity may have emerged. courts, particularly for extraterritorial air crashes, and without respect to whether the mischance has any important contacts with the U.S. discussion. As we would like to think, offended parties look for shelter in American courts since they trust an air-crash case will have considerably more noteworthy esteem if disputed in the U.S. as opposed to in the discussion of the mischance in a decedent’s home abroad. Without a doubt, offended parties have turned out to be more forceful in looking for recuperation in U.S. The accessibility of reformatory arms, trial by jury, and the span of decisions, exposure, absence of steady harm tops for noneconomic harms, and the trouble of getting outline judgment in some U.S. state courts all add to the resale of recording in an American discussion[10].

B- Property damages

Burke v. Pan American World Airways (484 F.Supp. 850)

This case of U.S. Area Court for the Southern District of New York on February 19 1980 Here the guards are PAN AMERICAN WORLD AIRWAYS, INC., KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, and the Boeing Company v. Martha BURKE, Plaintiff. The District Judge for this situation was ROBERT J. WARD. Respondents KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (“KLM”) and The Boeing Company (“Boeing”). The sole outstanding litigants, move for rundown judgment in accordance with Rule 56(b), Fed.R.Civ.P. Then again, litigants look for rejection of the grievance according to Rules 12(b) (6) and 12(h) (2), Fed.R. Civ.P. For the reasons hereinafter expressed, the movements are allowed and the dissension is expelled[11].

Offended party Martha (“Burke”) is the surviving twin sister of Margaret Fox, a 851 traveler executed in the March 27, 1977 crash between a Pan American World Airways, Inc. (“Container Am”) Boeing 747 air ship and a KLM 747 air ship on the air terminal runway at Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Burke sues not for the wrongful passing of her sister, She then indicates to have felt, at the exact time of the Tenerife crash, a difficult blazing sensation inside her mid-section and stomach area, and impressions of being “split” and of void “like a dark opening” inside her body. [2] but instead for her own particular physical and enthusiastic wounds supposedly supported while at home in California through “extrasensory compassion” at the season of her twin’s demise. In particular, Burke affirms that not long after she stirred on the morning of March 27, 1977 at her home in Fremont, California, she started to feel apprehensive and irritate. Later in the day, she heard that one of the planes was her sister’s and that her sister was missing and assumed dead. She claims that she knew then that her twin sister, who was voyaging abroad, had by one means or another kicked the bucket. After a hour, she heard that two planes had crashed at the Tenerife airplane terminal.

In Dillon, the Supreme Court of California held that a mother who had seen her youngster is being struck and slaughtered by a vehicle because of the driver’s charged carelessness could express a reason for activity for her subsequent physical and enthusiastic wounds. Nevertheless, to shield respondents from potential unending obligation, the Dillon court explicitly constrained the reason for activity to cases in which the damage to the offended party was “sensibly predictable,” as characterized by the accompanying particular elements to be connected by courts to the conditions of the individual case:

(1) Whether offended party was situated close to the scene of the mischance as appeared differently in relation to one who was a separation far from it. (2) Whether offended party and the casualty were firmly related, as appeared differently in relation to a nonattendance of any relationship or the nearness of just an inaccessible relationship. (3) Whether the stun came about because of a direct passionate effect upon offended party from the tangible and contemporaneous recognition of the mischance, as appeared differently in relation to taking in of the mishap from others after its event[12].

Applying these components to the conditions of the moment case, the Court observes that Burke’s claimed wounds were not sensibly predictable. She was not present at the scene of the 852 crash, either right now of the mishap or amid its consequence. Undoubtedly, at all-important times she was in California, a great many miles from the Canary Islands. Offended party meets Dillon’s cozy relationship necessity in that the casualty was her twin sister, yet she doesn’t fulfill both of the extra criteria. Burke has refereed to no case managing a reason for activity where the offended party never showed up at the mischance scene; to the extent this current Court’s autonomous research has uncovered, the California courts have consistently denied recuperation under such conditions. See Hoyem v. Manhattan Beach City School District, supra; Hair v. District of Monterey, supra; Powers v. Sissoev, supra; Deboe v. Horn, supra[13].

Burke seems to battle that her wounds were predictable in light of the fact that agony sharing between twins is a recorded wonder. Offended party here neglects to meet two of the three necessities of the characterized rules. This contention disregards the particular rules for deciding predictability set up by the California courts to shield respondents from obligation for the “remote and sudden.” Dillon v. Legg, supra, 68 Cal. 2d at 741, 69 Cal. Rptr. at 81, 441 P.2d at 921. She along these lines neglects to express a reason for activity under California law. As needs be, respondents’ movements are conceded and the objection is rejected[14].

1- Treaties or law govern this

A claim for harms because of flying machine commotion is normally attested alongside a “takings” assert (activity in converse judgment) as option hypotheses for a cure. The takings claim is important if the air terminal’s safeguard is that it has an aviation easement. Two milestone U.S. Incomparable Court choices built up obligation for flying machine clamor. In the 1946 instance of United States v. Causby (328 U.S. 256) the court held that the U.S. government was at risk to property proprietors for commotion because of military airplane. Now and again courts incline toward a takings hypothesis; indeed, in a few expresses the meaning of an administration taking of property (for the most part in the state’s constitution) incorporates harm much the same as annoyance.

At that point in 1962 because of Griggs v. Allegheny County (369 U.S. 84, 82 S.Ct. 531) the court extended the Causby run to neighborhood airplane terminal proprietors by means of the fourteenth Amendment. Different state courts have held that air terminals, pilots, or airship proprietors (counting carriers) are at risk for clamor harms. The California Supreme Court has been especially clear on the subject of obligation. 

2- Disputes

In the USA 58 common cases with respect to business flight debate can be recorded in United States government court where the dissension shows an elected question, or there is assorted qualities locale in light of the sum in contention and the living arrangements of gatherings. If there should be an occurrence of rupture of agreement, individual harm, and property harm cases might be documented in state court, the length of they are not appropriated by government enactment or global arrangements to which the United States is a gathering. Most business common flight debate can be heard in state court or in government court if the differing qualities test is met. In question because of the chapter 11 of a gathering, such a case would be tended to in government liquidation court[15].

Criminal accusations are be documented in circumstances including traveler impedance with the flight group or airship, fear monger acts, corporate impropriety bringing about damage or demise, or the fare of the airplane or their parts infringing upon the United Nations trade control or outside approvals law. In the USA, criminal accusations are occasionally documented about business flying debate, aside from infrequent where there has been unlawful share exchanging for reputation held carriers or flying machine/parts makers or adulteration of records[16].

C- Death

Rudisaile v. Hawk Aviation, Inc (462 Pa. 83)

A case displayed in the Supreme court of New Mexico, on 14 February 1979. However the hearing was denied on March fourteenth 1979 in the candidate list individuals were Palmer and Frost, Reed L. Ice, John E. Schindler, Farmington, Byrd, Davis and Eisenberg, Tom H. Davis, George M. Fleming, Austin, Tex and the respondents were Tansey, Rosebrough, Roberts and Gerding, Byron Caton, Farmington. The senior Justice there was McManus. Here Barbara J. Rudisaile really concocts a wrong passing activity against HAWK Aviation Inc with respect to the demise of her significant other.

The trial court sitting without a jury found for offended party and granted $235,000.00 in harms. 176 Defendant requested and the Court of Appeals switched. This activity emerged from a plane mischance which happened on September 30, 1974 close Farmington, New Mexico. Respondent possessed and worked a FAA confirmed field operation at the Farmington Municipal Airport. We allowed offended party’s request of for a writ of certiorari and now turn around the Court of Appeals.  Offended party’s decedent, Dr. Rudisaile, was a qualified pilot and the sole tenant of a Piper Cherokee 140 E, which he leased from litigant[17].

On September 30, 1974 Alan Hawkinson, litigant’s acting flight teacher, flew the Cherokee 140 E on three separate flights. After the third flight, Hawkinson conveyed the flying machine to Mr. Dr. Rudisaile was in contact at the workplace of respondent, talked with Hawkins on, and continued to the flying machine. Dr. Rudisaile took the log book from Maxwell, moved into the airplane, began the motor, and navigated to the runway. Maxwell, one of respondent’s workers, for a booked oil and oil channel change. Maxwell depleted the oil and supplanted the oil channel, yet he neglected to recharge the oil. Maxwell did, nonetheless, make a passage into the air ship motor log book that the oil channel and oil had been changed. The specialist did not make the standard pre-flight check of the flying machine before take-off.

He cleared out the Farmington Airport at around 3:36 p.m. what’s more, smashed a couple of minutes after the fact. Segment 402A was reached out to lessors in Stang v. Hertz Corporation, supra. In Stang, Hertz Corporation was held entirely subject for passing’s coming about because of a tire victory. The tire, mounted with past effect harm, was esteemed to be nonsensically hazardous. This Court expressed:

Inasmuch as the bailor is in the matter of renting then he will be held to an indistinguishable standard of care from a maker or retailer for the insurance of the buyer. We cannot help contradicting this basis. As we would see it, the Court of Appeals has considerably changed the importance of “deformity” as characterized by § 402A and existing case law. The Court of Appeals, in holding that the regulation of strict risk did not make a difference to this case, contemplated that the plane was not “blemished” on the grounds that “the plane leased to the decedent had no covered up or inert imperfections which couldn’t be found by *177 the practice of sensible care[18].

The article sold must be risky to a degree past that which would be mulled over by the customary shopper who buys it, with the conventional information regular to the group as to its attributes.  The sensibility of the demonstrations or exclusions of the offended party is never considered in figuring out if an item is “inadequate.” It is the supposition of this Court a plane rented without oil in the motor is perilous past the desires of the common customer. As these cases demonstrate, to demonstrate obligation under § 402A the offended party require just demonstrate that the item was perilous past the desires of the common purchaser. In this way, the item is “imperfect” inside the importance of § 402A, and litigant is entirely at risk for all subsequent harms.

Ordinary contributory carelessness is not a certifiable barrier to strict risk. Bendorf, supra. See likewise Jasper v. Skyhook Corporation, 89 N.M. 98, 547 P.2d 1140 (Ct.App. 1976), rev’d on different grounds, Skyhook Corp. v. Jasper, 90 N.M. 143, 560 P.2d 934 (1977). “[C]ontributory carelessness, as a safeguard to strict obligation in tort, ought to be restricted to those situations where the offended party deliberately and preposterously experiences a known hazard. (Commentary excluded.)” (Emphasis included.) Berkebile v. Brantly Helicopter Corporation, 462 Pa. 83, 337 A.2d 893 (1975). Bachner v. Pearson, 479 P.2d 319, 329-30 (Alaska 1970). The presence of due care with respect to the customer is superfluous.  178 For this situation, the record demonstrates that Dr. Rudisaile didn’t know that the plane had no oil in the motor before he took off. His inability to find the nonattendance of oil is not a safeguard to strict obligation[19].

1- Treaties or law govern this

The issue of whether enthusiastic harms are recoverable has since a long time ago beset precedent-based law courts. The statute on this issue mirrors a few noteworthy concerns: that enthusiastic mischief can be pretended, or envisioned; and some mischief is the value we pay for living in a mechanical society; passionate harms are hard to quantify, and unconstrained obligation could hinder modern and financial development. In spite of the fact that a liberal control was made for the recuperation of physical harm no such “think mind” lead developed for passionate mischief. At an early stage, no recuperation was taken into account passionate damage.

To get around their incredulity of pretended cases of passionate mischief, a few courts have demanded that, keeping in mind the end goal to recoup for enthusiastic damage random to physical damage, there must, in any case, be a physical appearance of enthusiastic damage (e.g., hair dropping out, hives, and shingles). For instance, for a situation including a mother’s enthusiastic damage happening when litigant carelessly slaughtered her kid on the expressway, the court denied recuperation on grounds that something else “obligation completely out of extent to the culpability of the careless tortfeasor. Would put absurd tons of the thruway, open the best approach to fake cases, and enter a field that has no sensible or quite recently ceasing point[20].

2- Disputes

Notwithstanding a common claim against people or elements for bringing about an aeronautics mischance, the administration may likewise seek after criminal assets. Despite the fact that the groupings and points of interest may change between them, most states force criminal endorses on pilots for rash direct that prompts harm, demise, or property harm. Both the national government and individual states can force criminal authorizes in cases including avionics. 

The airship, proprietors/administrators, and business carriers are directed by flight law. Most avionics law is government, despite the fact that states can authorize some of their own laws identified with air travel. Avionics laws are planned to look after security. Overstepping a flying law may prompt criminal assets. There are a few things identified with avionics that could constitute a criminal offense. For instance, if a business career deliberately and reliably neglects to conform to directions, the administration could seek after criminal allegations. Different cases incorporate a pilot who utilizes medications or liquor preceding flying. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Transportation Board (NTSB) are the two most applicable players in government avionics law.

3- International aviation Conventions for example

The international aviation conventions play an important role in the regulation of the aviation industry. The rules and the regulation are important to govern the industry in an appropriate manner. Therefore, the need for such conventions is recognized in the recent and old times. The participations of the people from different occupations, particularly, the engineers and other people contribute and provide important information and developments in that regard. Such contributions have the huge share in the progress of the overall aviation industry and its impact. Several aviation conventions are held every year, however, the convention of 1944 is the focus of the study[21].

             This convention is the Chicago convention on the international civil aviation. The convention was quite important in order to thrust the regulatory developments in the aviation industry. The convention established the international civil aviation organization that is quite specialized for the agency of the US. The agency is quite professional in making regulations and establishing the standards for the development of the civil aviation in the country. Thus, this organization and the convention were very important in the history of the civil aviation. The convention was signed on December 7th of 1944. The convention was held in the Chicago. The condition of the convention is consisting of 26 ratifications.

 The depository of the convention was the Government of the Unite States of the America. The language used in the conventions was multiple. The multiple languages used in the conventions were English, French, Spanish and Russians. The use of the English languages was a better idea that supports the participation of the multiple people in the connections. The convention played a key role in the establishment of the rules and regulations for the air aviation that include rockets, planes, and the exemptions of the commercial air fuels exemptions  from the taxes. Moreover, the regulations regarding the airspace and aircraft registration were also employed in that regard.

A- Chicago Convention 1944

Articles in the conventions:   

The convection contains different articles. The total numbers of the articles in the conventions are forty. These articles shed light on the principles and the rules and regulations that required governing the aviation industry in an appropriate manner. The article explains that every country has complete sovereignty. This sovereignty can be challenged by any other country. Each country has the right to explore the space and initiate its own aviation missions and practices. It was established in the convention that the lifting of the air arms in the commercial aircraft is strictly prohibited. If someone found guilty in that incident, he/she must be given the penalty for that purpose. All countries have to abide by the regulations in that regard[22].

  The flights have a right to make landings on the land of other territories without seeking any permissions. Therefore, it can be said that the complete freedom will be given in that regard. The landing and the departure of the airplanes will be subject to govern by the governments and the passengers will be given state of the art services. The passengers will be given the busy support in that regard. Similarly, other regulations provide large amounts of detail in that regard. These details are important to understanding the aviation patterns in the world that are established to support the aviation in the world. Thus, it must be remembered that the role of such aviation is quite important in that realm[23].

Annexes in convention:

            Same as the articles in the convention, the annexes were also provided in the convention. These annexes are important in order to understand the role of the convention in the betterment of the aviation industry. The annexes are provided in varying disciplines. For instance, the personnel licensing, rules for the air and aviation industry, international navigation and other charts were also provided. Awareness of the aircraft and mechanics were also important considerations in the annexes. It was made sure that such annexes must incorporate the best practices that ultimately lead to the betterment of the passengers that are obliged to the flight in the planes. The mutual agreement of the panel of the participants was an important factor in that realm. 

            Thus, it can be concluded that other aspects in the annexure were also important that focuses on the navigation panels and the flying experience. Safety management and the dangerous management is also an important function in that regard. Therefore, the security and the safety is an important faction that cannot be overlooked. Therefore, clause sins the annexure exclusively focuses on the role of the security and the safety for the ultimate benefit of the passengers. This important and integral element cannot be eliminated in that regard. The consideration of the safety was an important element in that regard. The management of the air traffic search and rescue was an important consideration in that regard. Therefore, it must be considered that such clauses were developed in the convention for the best interest of the users. 


            The outcomes of the conventions were very favorable. However, the criticism was also posed by the stakeholders. The major criticism was considered regarding the exemption of the taxation on the fuels that were used in the jets regarding the passengers’ jets. There were two schools of thoughts. One school of thought said that it is quite necessary to have the exemption on the fuels that are being used in the jets. Other says that this is the burden on the economy. The exemption of the taxes is not the right solution in that regard. The taxes must be exempt in order to provide relief to the public in all of its aspects. Thus, it can be said that the role of the taxation was an important factor that cannot be neglected at all[24].

The issue of the taxation was also led to the parliament in the UK and debate was given that the exemption is not right. Moreover, 10 billion Euros are going to the subsidiary for the public. This is a huge amount and it should review that whether this subsidy is needed to be provided or not. Recently, in 2014, the European Union emission trading scheme called this inclusion of the tax as an evil step in that regard. This is called illegal and not need to be included in the process. Thus, it can be concluded that such kind of initiatives taken by the conferences was an important factor to be considered. Besides the criticism, the convention included positive attributes for the passengers and the aviation industry. Therefore, it can be concluded that the role of this convention is very important in shaping the current situation of the aviation industry. The modern aviation organization also reviews this convention in order to make necessary guidelines that are beneficial for the aviation traveling as a whole.

B- Warsaw Convention

The Warsaw convention was also related to the aviation matters. The war saw convention was signed to safeguard the international air carriage.  The rules and regulations were established in order to promote the persons, goods, luggage and other aviation material and substance by the aircraft. The convention was signed on October 29th, 1929. The convention was effective to form the February 13thg, 1933. The total number of parties involved was 152. The depository of the convention was Government of Poland and the language was French. The convention was established in order to set up the liability in the aviation industry. The liability was signed in the international carriage law[25].

 The cat is also an important inclusion in the aviation industry. This act is regarded as the classic convention that contributes positively to the safety of the carriage infusing the passengers. Therefore, the convention has great importance in the history of the aviation. The safe delivery of the passengers and the carriage is the necessity of the time. Thus, it can be concluded that the convention is quite important to reflect upon the safety and other needs. The convention and the conferences include several clauses and the context that sheds light on the definition of the security of the luggage and passengers in the realm of air traveling. Thus, it is important to keep a focus on the role of the luggage and the carriers that are needed in the realm of the air safety[26].

  It was also noted that at the initial stages of the convention, the government officials of the different nations were reluctant to participate in the convention due to its hasty announcement. However, later on, the participation was substantial. The first conference was composed of the diplomats from the French government that are united together to form a committee to talk on the liabilities of the air carriage act that is going to be signed in the convention. The convention was composed of five chapters that elaborate the definitions of the contents, documentation of the carriage, luggage and other belongings as well as the liability of the carrier. Moreover, provisions of the relating combined carriage as well as general and final provisions were also provided. Therefore, major liabilities were provided in that realm[27].

 It was also mentioned that the principle place for the business and domicile of the Carriage along with the place of the business and place of destination was also mentioned in that regard. These things are important and needed to be Carrie out in an appropriate manner. The conventional regulations explicitly sate that the planes are responsible for any damage that is pout on the belongings and the plugging of the passengers in that regard. Therefore, the airplane management is responsible for figuring out the damage and making arrangement sin order to compensate the passengers. However, it is to be noted that this damage is subject to the passenger’s own fault. If the damage is imposed on the passengers due to his/her own fault, then it will not be imposed on the management of the aircraft carrier[28]

 In that particular situation, the passenger will be responsible for this damage. This will not be the liability of the management of aircraft to bear the damage of the passengers, which are inflicted due to passenger’s own fault. The clauses were also included regarding the treatment of the passengers. If the airplane is carrying the patients, this is quite important and necessary that the doctor must call the captain of the ship to seek attention. This is an important rule that was mentioned in the Warsaw convention. This is importunate for the patient safety and subsequent health issues that are to be dealt in that realm[29].

            The responsibility lies on the shoulders of both the passengers and the management. Both entities show responsibilities towards the management of the luggage, items and other belongings that are necessary in order to carry. The passengers also make complete arrangements in order to make sure the luggage is an appropriate condition. Moreover, the management of the plane also put maximum efforts to make sure that the right efforts are delivered in that realm. The mutual obligations are responsibilities ate the most important aspect in that regard. Thus, it can be concluded that this act is regarded as the one of the most important act in the history of the air aviation. This is considered as classic and very important in that regard. Different aviation authorities today, review this conventional act and take guidelines in that regard.

4- The investigation of aviation accidents

The aviation history is filled with large number of the accidents. These accidents were occurred with the human and technical faults and the role of the weather conditions was important in that regard. Therefore, the history cannot be forgotten it is very important to make sure that the history is needed to learned, as important conclusions are needed to drawn. The accidents resulted in large number of deaths and human losses. Therefore, these accidents paved the way for further research and development in the aviation industry to make air craft’s that are safe and more prone to the safety of the passengers[30].

            Aviation accidents are defined by the convention on international civil aviation. The annex 13 is associated with the operation of an aircraft. This is defined as the place that a pilot takes off the plane and embarked to get out of the plane. If the man gets injured and or fatally ill, this is known as the accident. The aircraft sustained damage and the pilot faces injuries in those incidents. The structural failure plays an important role in that regard. Thus, it is very important for focus on such issues in a larger context. One must adhere to the conditions that take place in the occurrence of the accidents in that context[31].

            The airplane is destroyed and malfunctioned to a state that ultimately leads to accident that is not recoverable. Such incidents affect the safety of the operations. Therefore, extreme precautionary measure is needed in order to reduce the impacts of such incidents. In history, there are large numbers of fatal incidents that are recorded and need to be investigated in all of its aspects. The first aviation accident was witnessed in the Roziere balloon near the area Wimereux. The accidents were happened on June 15th 1785. The plane killed its pilot and the injury was fatal in that regard. Second accident in the history of the aviation took place in 1908. It was happened on September 1908. The following sections will cover the major incidents in the history of the aviation. It is not possible to cover the entire accidental history of the aviation. However, important incidents are discussed in that section. 

Tenerife disaster

            This incident was occurred on March 27th of 1977. This was the most terrible accident in the history of aviation industry. The passengers killed in the accidents are considering as the most number of people killed in the history of aviation. It that accident the accident the booing 747 and the Pan am 747 collided with each other and this was the most disastrous accidents in the history of the humankind. There was no survivor in those accidents. The total number of dead passengers was 396 passengers and this is the most number of people killed in any aviation accident. Pilot error was the reason behind that accident and such kind of fatality cannot be ignored at all. 

            The fog impact was also an important factor that resulted in those collisions. The fog affected as makes it possible for the planes to fly in a right direction that resulted in that collision.  This incident has tremendous impact on the aviation industry. The aviation industry standards changed forever. The scale of the destruction was so overwhelming that the aviation industry decided to make rules and regulations to make the travelling safe and secure for the passengers. The rescue operation was also delayed that also contributed to the increase in the death toll. Thus, the life loss in that accident was tremendous as cannot be ignored at all[32].

JAL Flight 123

            This was the crash of the Japanese accident that occurred on August 12th, 1985. The accidents were also fatal and lot of death was recorded in that incident.   This incident is regarded as the highest numbers of fatalities in the single incident of a single aircraft. The incident was occurred due to the explosive decomposition of the repaired aft pressure bulkhead. The vertical stabilizer was damaged and the passenger was not able to escape from the explosion. It was also witnessed that the pilots were able to make the airplane in flying conditions after the identification of the malfunctioning of the plane. However, they were not aware that the plan has been crashed and there were no survivor in that regard.

1996 mid-air collision

            This accident was occurred on November 12th, 1996. This accident is considered as the world’s deadliest collision in the mid of the air. The collision was occurred in India. The flight 763 and the flight 1907 were collided in the air and the disaster occurred. The accident was occurred due to the flying of the aircraft that was flying at the low altitude. Therefore, such accident occurred and killed most of the people in the air. There were 349 passengers on the boat that all were killed in the collision. Therefore, this incident is considered as the most dangerous and disaster accident in the history of the aviation. 


            The above mentioned are the most horrific accidents that were witnessed in the course of the history. These incidents played a major role in the occurring of the fatalities that influenced the humanity. These accidents belong to different countries. These countries include China, Russia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and lot of other countries. The major reasons behind these accidents were the faults of the pilots, faults of the aviation crews and the faults of the pilots as well. Te mechanical faults also played an important role in that regard. These incidents affected the whole aviation industry and the standards changed in that regard[33].

            The more rigorous and better standards were followed in that aspects and the measured were taken in order to improve the overall situation of the aviation industry. The possibility of the accidents in the aviation industry cannot be ignored at all. However, strict and rigorous actions are needed in order to prevent these accidents in future. Therefore, it can be said that the role of such accidents are quite important and cannot be neglected at all. The possibility of these accidents exists and one cannot expect that such possibilities will be removed in future. Therefore, careful attention is required in order to remove such faults in the aviation.

A- Article 26 of the Chicago Convention

The article 26th of the convention explicitly states that the steps that are initiated in order to promote the safety and related issues. Therefore, it can be said that this article exclusively deal with the safety and related issues. The article explicitly states that the country with which the accident is occurred will be responsible for the management of the accident. The defect could be the technical and accidental that can be accrued in that regard. The technical issues are most important issues in that regard. The accidents that will be occurred in the area of a certain state will be responsible for the handling of such incident[34].

            The issue will be resolved with help of the civil aviation of that organization. Thus, it is an important consideration in that regard.  The registration of the aircraft carrier is an important issue. The aircraft carried that will be registered in a particular state will be responsible in that regard. The state holding that geographical area will be responsible in that regard. Thus, it is quite important for the sake of the aircraft and the country of respective plane in order to resolve that issue.

 The article 26 is very clear about the happening of any aviation accident and its subsequent handling of the issue. The state will thoroughly inquire about the accidents that were occurred in the state and will be responsible for the management of that issue. Thus, it can be concluded that this article was very important in the realm of the management of the accident in the aviation industry in an exclusive context. This is important and cannot be neglected in all of its. 

5- In case of personal injuries, which law could apply? Case from Westlaw

In the context of the west law aviation, the law is the only comprehensive aviation law and resource available to date. The law is available in the loose leaf and this is the source of the commentary in the civil aviation prosecution of the New Zeeland. The law is important in order to include the commentary as well as the review of the rights in the civil aviation that are introduced accordingly. The law is important to provide the rules and regulations that are important in the aviation and that focuses on the operations of the flights and the airplanes. The penalty imposed on the law is dependent on the case of aviation and the resulting injury. This depends on the pursuance of the legal claim that is entitled in that particular case.

            The role of the aviation injury is complex and legislation provides different meanings in that regard. Therefore, it can be said that the role of investigation is important and two fold. Several important defenders are available to defend in that realm. Thus, it can be concluded that the role of such defenders are the most important factor that decide the compensation that should be given or not. In some cases, the remuneration is given equally to the cost of the entire luggage that is expired in the process of the accident and not recovered by the passenger. Thus depends upon the situation[35].

Conflict in the Investigation between countries 

            The major conflict in the countries is based upon different factors that include the boundaries of the country and the conflicting parties involved. Therefore, the main contributing factor in that regard is the consideration of the liabilities. The liabilities that are imposed on both countries are based on several factors that are injustices, litigations, wrong policies and mistrusted investigations. Moreover, other conflicting factors include distrust, flawed data and flawed research. In addition, delayed data and missed opportunities are also included. Therefore, these are the most important and main conflicting attributes that contributes in the occurring of the injuries in that regard.

 Destruct is an important factor that prevails in the countries based on the decision of the accidents that took place in the particular territory. The countries are involved in the dispute that whether the aircraft was crashed in the particular area or the geographical region. The countries have to decide within which area the incident occurred. Moreover, distrust is also a factor. The distrust among the countries leads to the disturbance in the investigation process.   The process is led to the distortion and the real victims of the incidents may leave without proper investigation[36]

 They are not provided the right amount of the remuneration that is needed to pay in that regard. Injustice also plays a role in the process. The parties involved in the incidents may secure their personal motive sand the real victims of the incidents are left without any justice. Thus, it can be concluded that the injustice is an important factor that contributes in that regard.  The justice must be served and the people involved in the process should not let with the void in the justice precautions. Therefore, it is important in order to serve the justice. The provision of the flawed data is also provided in order to serve the wrong justice in that regards. The flawed data ultimately leads to the disruption of the accidental investigation in the aviation industry. Therefore, these major and important issues must be considered in order to make sure that the right elements are provided in those realms. In a case of any negligence in the above-mentioned factors may lead to the abruption of the entire investigation and resulting conflicting situation in the countries. Thus, these must consider in order reaching the desired level[37].

 The overall flawed research also contributes to the process of the conflicts among the countries to reach the specified conclusion that is beneficial in the research process. Thus, it can be said that the role of the effective research process is integral in that regard. The research process must follow all elements that are important in order to initiate the effective research investigation that is being carried out in such a manner that is important for the investigation of the aviation incidents briefly. Thus, it can be concluded that the role of cooperation in the research process is important and one must adhere to the core requirements of the elements that are essential in order to carry out that research.


Dowling, R. L. (1940). The Blue Book of American Aviation; Who’s who in the Industr. the University of California.

Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

Jost, L., & Donahue, J. A. (1991). Wyoming Blue Book: pt. 1. Guide to the county archives of Wyoming. Wyoming State Archives, Department of Commerce,. (1979). Rudisaile v. Hawk Aviation, Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2016, from (1980). Burke v. Pan American World Airways, Inc., 484 F. Supp. 850 (S.D.N.Y. 1980). Retrieved October 14, 2016, from

McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing. (2016). Air France v. Saks. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from

Pearson, M. W., & Riley, D. S. (2015). Foundations of Aviation Law. Ashgate Publishing.

Rodriguez, B. I. (1971). Aviation Accident Law. LexisNexis, M. Bender.

State, O. o. (1963). Illinois Blue Book. the University of California: The Secretary.

[1] Dowling, R. L. (1940). The Blue Book of American Aviation; Who’s who in the Industry. the University of California.

[2] Pearson, M. W., & Riley, D. S. (2015). Foundations of Aviation Law. Ashgate Publishing.

[3] State, O. o. (1963). Illinois Blue Book. the University of California: The Secretary.

[4] Jost, L., & Donahue, J. A. (1991). Wyoming Blue Book: pt. 1. Guide to the county archives of Wyoming. Wyoming State Archives, Department of Commerce.

[5] Rodriguez, B. I. (1971). Aviation Accident Law. LexisNexis, M. Bender.

[6] Dowling, R. L. (1940). The Blue Book of American Aviation; Who’s who in the Industr. the University of California.

[7] State, O. o. (1963). Illinois Blue Book. the University of California: The Secretary.

[8] Rodriguez, B. I. (1971). Aviation Accident Law. LexisNexis, M. Bender.

[9] (2016). Air France v. Saks. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from

[10] Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

[11] Dowling, R. L. (1940). The Blue Book of American Aviation; Who’s who in the Industr. the University of California.

[12] Dowling, R. L. (1940). The Blue Book of American Aviation; Who’s who in the Industr. the University of California.

[13] Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

[14] (1980). Burke v. Pan American World Airways, Inc., 484 F. Supp. 850 (S.D.N.Y. 1980). Retrieved October 14, 2016, from

[15] Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

[16] Dowling, R. L. (1940). The Blue Book of American Aviation; Who’s who in the Industr. the University of California.

[17] Jost, L., & Donahue, J. A. (1991). Wyoming Blue Book: pt. 1. Guide to the county archives of Wyoming. Wyoming State Archives, Department of Commerce,.

[18] State, O. o. (1963). Illinois Blue Book. the University of California: The Secretary.

[19] (1979). Rudisaile v. Hawk Aviation, Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2016, from 0 html

[20] Rodriguez, B. I. (1971). Aviation Accident Law. LexisNexis, M. Bender.

[21] Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

[22] Jost, L., & Donahue, J. A. (1991). Wyoming Blue Book: pt. 1. Guide to the county archives of Wyoming. Wyoming State Archives, Department of Commerce,.

[23] Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

[24] Jost, L., & Donahue, J. A. (1991). Wyoming Blue Book: pt. 1. Guide to the county archives of Wyoming. Wyoming State Archives, Department of Commerce,.

[25] Dowling, R. L. (1940). The Blue Book of American Aviation; Who’s who in the Industr. the University of California.

[26] Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

[27] Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

[28] Jost, L., & Donahue, J. A. (1991). Wyoming Blue Book: pt. 1. Guide to the county archives of Wyoming. Wyoming State Archives, Department of Commerce,.

[29] Jost, L., & Donahue, J. A. (1991). Wyoming Blue Book: pt. 1. Guide to the county archives of Wyoming. Wyoming State Archives, Department of Commerce,.

[30] Pearson, M. W., & Riley, D. S. (2015). Foundations of Aviation Law. Ashgate Publishing.

[31] McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

[32] Rodriguez, B. I. (1971). Aviation Accident Law. LexisNexis, M. Bender.

[33] (2016). Air France v. Saks. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from

[34] Milde, M. (2008). International Air Law and ICAO. Eleven International Publishing.

[35] McCain, J. (1997). Aviation Accident Investigations: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. DIANE Publishing.

[36] Jost, L., & Donahue, J. A. (1991). Wyoming Blue Book: pt. 1. Guide to the county archives of Wyoming. Wyoming State Archives, Department of Commerce,.

[37] Goldhirsch, L. (2000). The Warsaw Convention Annotated:A Legal Handbook. Kluwer Law International.

i don't want to write my paper

Design Novelty

Design Novelty

The electric vehicle is now getting common in the world because the technology is improving each day also. Currently, the electrical vehicle is in use only in the developed country such as US and Germany. But to recharge the electric vehicle, it is not an easy task although there are several ways through which the car can be charged either from the battery or the electric terminal. This takes a lot of time and also can’t help anyone in the case of emergency. There is one solution to this problem which is the wireless electric charger for the vehicle. As this is the great innovation in the field of electric cars because companies were struggling to satisfy their valuable customer about the performance of car when it comes any emergency. 

The design novelty contains many important steps as the design is not yet working, so it means it needs some special amendments in it. The working of the charger should be effective which is why the design novelty is built to make this thing into reality. The team did good work by providing the brief program and plan to make the electric charger possible to run for a long time. The design specified by the team includes the improvement of the anode design by using the graphite as it was not used before in the design. Graphite is a good electric conductor and can provide maximum current flow or store the charge as per requirement of the car. Wireless charging always requires some control system in it so that in the case of emergency the charging can be shut down through the vehicle. There for the battery were swapped to determine the reason behind the poor performance of the current system as it stops working. To tackle this problem, the team tried to change the battery with the new one and have more capacity to charge the current. Although increasing the capacity can alter the design of the whole wireless charging system it can increase the performance (Larminie & Lowry, 2012).

Deign Amendments:

There are several amendments done by the team over the period to make it more efficient and reliable to work. The first amendment which was made by the team is the changing the material of anode with the copper nanowires as we all know that copper is one of the best conductors in the field of electricity. Beside nanowires can enable the use of copper more efficiently because they require less space and performance is high.

Inductor arrangement means a lot in the design system of the wireless charger, so the arrangement is usually done in two ways either a single inductor is used or the four inductors in the series which obviously increase the performance of the work. Benefits from each scenario are different, but it depends on the requirement which design is feasible for the specific car. As the car specifications matter a lot as the sometimes car is unable to handle the battery the reason behind is that it beyond its capacity that’s why it’s better to match the specification to get the better outcome.

AC to DC converter is an integral part of this system as without this the car can’t work so it’s important that correct AC/DC converter. As this is the core element because the frequency of the car engine should match the frequency of the converter to get the better results. That’s why the converter should be tested before using it. The current pattern can be damaged, and the communication of different parts of the electric charger can be interrupted with the use of the wrong converter. The main aim of conversion is to keep the voltage constant throughout the system which is important as the fluctuation in the voltage can result in the damage of the internal car system which includes the opening and timing of the valves. Piston timing for each stage of the working can also be interrupted this results in the overall decrease in the performance of the car which is certainly not required (Larminie & Lowry, 2012).

Vehicle SpecificationImportance in Design:

We all know that the vehicle specifications matter a lot especially the engine capacity and the overall body of the vehicle so keeping in view that the electric charger is made. Like the height of the vehicle matters a lot in the performance because the increase in height means an increase in the overall weight of the vehicle which in result demand more power to run on the roads. The design proposed by our time is best for any weather which is why it is feasible than other electric charging system used in the cars.

There was an issue in the battering charging temperature as even the new batteries were getting heat up. It is strange because the system was fully controlled then it was not possible for the consumption of more current by the car, but this happens due to which the control system of charging checked as there was minor damage to the control system. The programming done on the control system should be very effective because if the charging does not trip after the full charging of the battery, then it can result in the explosion of the battery which is very dangerous .

A short circuit is a major problem that almost every electric circuit face that’s why to tackle with the short circuit of the system the thermistor was added which protects the circuit to get over heat. This is very important because in hot weather where the outside temperature is already above 40 degrees the inside temperature get more rise due to which the short circuit occurs in the charging of the system.

For the prototype of the system, the above-mentioned amendments will be made to make sure the design is working perfectly. The prototype has to be tested with every condition and methods to make sure the design does not contain any loop holes. The new system needs to be introduced here. Before final launch, it is necessary to test the design (Garcia-Valle & Lopes, 2012).


Garcia-Valle, R., & Lopes, J. A. (2012). Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks. Springer Science & Business Media.

Larminie, J., & Lowry, J. (2012). Electric Vehicle Technology Explained. John Wiley & Sons.

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Compare/contrast the theories of utilitarianism and categorical imperative.

Both of the theories are completely opposite in their theme and logic but there are also limited similarities between these two theories. First, utilitarianism is defined by the Bentham; Bentham calls attention to that two of the representing driving forces in human instinct are those of torment and joy. On the other hand, in the same way, we have a characteristic slant towards joy and an evasion of torment. This means this theory talks about the consequences of the action and related to the outcome of the action. The outcome of the action can be negative or positive that depends on the environment. Then again, the Kant’s speculations generally in light of the ethical qualities, which are judge, however in view of nature of the activity. This is the significant contrast between the two hypotheses as this demonstrates the center subject or principle thought of both of the speculations is very extraordinary. In this hypothesis, the results are not important as this one discusses the way of activity.

If we judge the abortion reasons based on the theory of utilitarianism, then the outcome will be mostly negative because the base of the theory is results and conclusion. In this theory, it is very clear that outcome is extracted from the results. So in the case of abortion, all the negative ideas can be summed up in this theory in order to explain the main idea or reason of the abortion. In the scenario of Rape, the result abortion seems to be the right choice but due to the ethical issues and human rights, it becomes illegal as it cost the loss of human life, which is a crime also. While young girl pregnancy is different because in that the girl life is in danger so abortion can be done. The outcome in the case of incest is also not good because that is the reason why the families are being separated as the nudity and vulgarity are increasing in the society each day.

1.      Compare/contrast the theories of natural law theory and social contract theory.

The two major nature law and social contract theory were presented by the Locke and Hobbesian respectively. John Locke’s detailing of Natural law hypothesis depends on our perceptions of nature itself. Both the theories have very distinct state of nature. The major difference between these two is that Locke’s state of nature is very good one and tends to be congenial while on the other hand, the Hobbes state of nature is very violent. On the other hand, the claim the general population brings the state or government into being to secure and advance their fundamental rights and prosperity. It is right that enabling common power to illuminate lawful rights in view of regular or good rights, apparently to guarantee the essential shared trust for the social collaboration expected to secure those rights

This theory explains the state of peace which is one of the best states in which the human life can be safe and secure to live in order to understand this factor let’s take the example of the patient autonomy which is very well related to the Locke State of Nature theory. Because in this case the command and control are given to the patient to decided what is best for his or her life. Because some cover the violence and anger affect while few covers the other major aspects of human nature. In this theory, nature takes control over the ethical issues and resolves it with the help of ethics and laws of nature. The significant distinction between these two is that Locke’s condition of nature is a great one and has a tendency to be friendly while then again, the Hobbes condition of nature is exceptionally fierce. In this hypothesis, nature takes control over the moral issues and resolves it with the assistance of morals and laws of nature. Both the theories have especially the specific state of nature. The critical refinement between these two is that Locke’s state of nature is awesome one and tends to be agreeable while of course, the Hobbes state of nature is outstandingly wild.

  • What theory that we have discussed would be best applied to the issue of advanced directives?  Why?  What makes it best?

The living will theory is the best fit for the issue of the advanced directives the reason behind this is that the theory explains the ethical issues, which are related to the advanced directives. The power of attorney problem, which usually occurs in the advanced directives, is handled by this theory. It means that Different reports, by and large, named propel mandates (or propelled orders), have been created as a method for drawing out the self-rule of patients by permitting them to proclaim formally the amount of what sort of treatment they wish to get should they no longer have basic leadership limit. As the theory tells us that the will of the living is dependent on the person if he or she consider that the survival is difficult and even after surviving they will not be able to live the healthy life.

Then it means they have the right legally to give their life by signing a legal document, which shows that they are doing this with their own will, as they do not have any kind of pressure or burden on them. The objection usually made by the ethical authorities is that this is the state of nature because we are not created in a way that we are allowed to take our own life. The eventual outcome of the activity can be negative or positive that relies on upon the earth. Therefore, by ideals of less than ideal birth, all the negative insights can be summed up in this hypothesis with a specific extreme goal to clear up the key thought or reason of the incipient organism departure. Utilitarianism is the theory of therapeutic ethic, which judges the moral estimations of the individual and that moral regard is, for the most part, the exercises of the person with respect to some kind of result, which can be theoretical or bona fide. These additionally work the things in the better and compelling ways. It is the ethical obligation of everybody to work for the welfare of the public.

What theory that we have discussed would be best applied to the issue of patient autonomy? Why?  What makes it best?

In order to understand which theory is best for the autonomy of patient let us first get familiar with the patient autonomy. These mean the freedom of controlling your own life without the interference of the others into life and keep the others in their limits”. Now and again regarding tolerant patient autonomy makes a circumstance in which proficient judgment gets pushed to the wayside by individual self-sufficiency. Periodically specialists with endorse a strategy that while having no genuine medical advantage, makes a misleading impact extraordinarily helping the patient. However, in the event that they are to counsel and educate the patient of this, keeping in mind the end goal to regard independence, all advantage is lost. The best theory for this is the Locke theory, which clearly differentiates the state of nature with state of war. That is why it is the best fit for the patient autonomy because the theory main idea is that everyone has the right and freedom to choose what is best for him or her.  

There is one major conflict occur during the patient autonomy procedure. This is when the autonomy collides with the beneficence. As sometimes where the specialist value obligation is influenced in view of the independence of patient then the specialist evades giving tolerant any sort of decision. This is the major moral, which is presently a day exceptionally basic since specialists are more worried about their notoriety and obligations. The best case of this circumstance is a patient who has had sidesteps surgery and still needs to keep on smoking. This is the time where the independent decision of the patient clashes with the doctor’s obligation of advantage. One of them needs to twist down generally the case will hang amidst sky so the frequent doctor needs to regard the patient self-sufficiency even while attempting to persuade the patient generally.