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Corporate Bonds

Introduction

            In this report, I have analyzed bond market of United States. For analyzing this market, I have selected corporate sector. Investment in Corporate sector is based on gaining high returns. In this sector, many bonds are operating in the market. These bonds have different prices and yields. Recommendations of buying and selling bonds are based according to the criteria of an investor. If the investor wants high yield on bond then he has to select bonds with high yields. If an investor wants to invest in high credit rating bonds then he has to select bonds with high credit ratings. I have selected three bonds for purchasing and two bonds for selling. The purpose of investment in bonds should be to maximize returns.

            Before deciding about bonds investment, it is important to analyze factors that affect the bonds market. It will help to make wise investment decisions in the bonds market. Before analyzing trends in corporate bonds and providing recommendations, it is essential to identify corporate bonds first. Corporate bonds are bonds offered by Corporations to fulfill their corporate needs and to increase their money. There can be many reasons for issuing corporate bonds by the Corporations. There are few features of these types of bonds. These bonds are issued at 1000 par value. Usually, all coupon bonds have structured coupon rate. Usually, Corporate bonds have the option to call back by the issuer any time. (Pimco.co.uk, 2012)

            The risk of bond can be analyzed from its maturity as well as its callable option. Companies usually sell bonds on premium if it contains the option of call back anytime.

Findings of bond market

            ARAB REP EGYPT is the first bond that is providing the yield of 4% and its price is 103.64. This has the credit rating of AAA. Coupon payment on this bond is semi-annually. This bond is trading in the corporate sector as one of dominant bond in the market. One of the advantage of investing in this bond is high yield as compared to other bonds. Corporate bonds usually provide high yields to the investors. Below the table is showing the detail of this bond in the corporate sector. (Finance.yahoo.com, 2014). U.S market has a contribution of major players in the corporate bonds. Corporate bonds market is diversified into different industries. Below the graph is showing that financial sector has a maximum contribution in corporate bonds.  

Source: http://www.sifma.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8589959712

Source: http://www.sifma.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8589959712

BANK NOVA SCOTIA is another corporate bond in the market. Its price is 102 and it has the coupon rate of 2% for investors. This bond is highly recognized in the market due to high credit rating. High credit rating increases confidence of investor in the bond. High credit rating provides him surety that his money or investment in the bond would not a loss. 

            BRITISH COLUMBIA PROV CDA is another bond trading in the corporate sector of the bond. Its yield is highest and recorded as 161.04. It is generating highest return among these three bonds in the sane sector. Its coupon rate is 7%. One advantage of investing in this bond is strong credit rating. The credit rating for this bond is again AAA.  It is also paying yield on a semiannual basis. It is available in the market in reasonable price.

 I have selected bond of ALION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CO for selling. Its credit rating is CCC. It does not have good credit worthiness. It is providing high coupon rate in lower price. The market price for this bond is 99. Bonds with this credit rating have a high risk of default. In the case of bonds default, investor lost their entire investment. The purpose of selling this bond is due to its lower credit rating. This bond is very risky. Investment in this type of bonds should be discouraged.

            ALPHA NATURAL RESOURCES INC is another bond that has the lower credit rating. It is recommended to sell this bond. Its market price is 97.50 and its yield is only 2%. The reason for selling this bond is due to its bad credit rating. Its credit rating is CCC. This credit rating is not good for investors.  

Recommendations

            In this section, I have provided recommendations for purchasing and selling bonds in the corporate sector. Many investors found it difficult to decide about their buying and purchasing habits of the bond. Investors should analyze the relationship between prices as well as interest rates of the bonds. Investors should understand that there exists an inverse relationship between bonds prices as well as their interest rates. If interest rate will higher, in the market value of the sane bond will drop. So, the purpose of investing in the bonds should not be based on higher interest rate. The Higher interest rate will drop its price in the market. Before making a purchasing decision of bonds, only price or interest rates are not enough.

            Another important indicator in the bonds purchasing and selling decision is its credit rating. Bonds include many risks with them. For reducing these risks, it is important to analyze their credit ratings.

            Credit rating is another important indicator for accessing the risk of the bond. In above findings, I have sold out bonds with bad credit ratings. One of important risk in bonds market is default risk. Corporations may default and it affects on investors decision and investment in their bonds (LAMBERT, 2014). Investors should also analyze credit worthiness of the bonds for purchasing them. They should try to purchase bonds with strong credit rating. They should sell bonds having a high risk of default. Many professional organizations and institutions can provide help in investing in these bonds. These professional organizations can help to reduce overall risk in the corporate sector. One advantage of investing is bonds are to gain a semiannual return. Bonds provide returns two times in a year.

            The purpose of raising corporate bonds for investors is to raise money by the Corporations. Usually, all corporate bonds carry the higher risk of default as compared to other bands like government or treasury. Default risk is affected by the issuing Corporation. That is why before investing in corporate bonds, it is advisable to analyze creditworthiness of issuing company. Investors can take the better idea of their returns and risk after analyzing credit worthiness or credit rating of their issuing company. Corporation with low credit rating usually offers bonds with high yield to attract more investors. On the other hand, Corporation with strong credit rating can attract investors towards its bonds by offering low yield or interest rate.

            Maturity date should also be analyzed for investment in these bonds. A bond with high maturity will contain more risk as compared to the bond with lower maturity. Investment decision can be made by corporate bonds holders with the help of maturity date. They should analyze that whether an issuer is paying more returns in case of high maturity or not. Investors should analyze all these recommendations for making an investment in corporate bonds. The purchasing and selling of the bonds are involving the stock exchange. The corporate bonds are having the greater amount of the risk involved and will be having the risk to lose your amount. The major concern is the corporate bonds market selling, purchasing, and working on the scenario. The issue remains the strength of the corporate bonds. The corporate bond is riskier in nature and will be having the stance of the evaluating the stance.

Conclusion

            It is concluded that Corporate bonds should be selected based on their credit rating, yield, maturity as well as yields. It is essential to invest in strong credit rating bonds. Recommendation of purchasing bonds is also given to investors in Cornpone bonds sector. It is concluded that corporate bonds have high risk. The credit rating of the corporate bonds is the scenario to be concluded.  The yield is the maturity of the working the corporate bonds. The recommendations are provided to the purchasing the bonds. These bonds are high-risk bonds. These risks are high of the bonds. The bonds are higher risk bonds. The high-risk bonds will have the high-risk high profit logic to be implemented and will be scenario for the high-risk profit which is dealt. The scenario is the high-risk profit would be taken to the high-risk timing. The high risk of the corporate bond is the factor involved. The high-risk profit is involved in the corporate bonds. The higher the risk the higher will be the profit. The risk is involved in the scenario. The corporate bonds are the risk involves in them and risk is higher. The risk is involved in the corporate bonds.    

Appendix

ARAB REP EGYPT As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 103.64
Coupon (%): 4.45
Maturity Date: 42262
Yield to Maturity (%): -0.201
Current Yield (%): 4.294
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 38791
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
BANK NOVA SCOTIA As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 102.51
Coupon (%): 2.125
Maturity Date: 43719
Yield to Maturity (%): 1.576
Current Yield (%): 2.073
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 42074
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 500
Minimum Trade Qty: 10
Dated Date: 41893
Settlement Date: 41977
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROV CDA As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 161.04
Coupon (%): 7.25
Maturity Date: 49919
Yield to Maturity (%): 3.295
Current Yield (%): 4.502
Fitch Ratings: AAA
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 35490
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 461
Minimum Trade Qty: 25
Dated Date: 35306
Settlement Date: 41977
ALION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CO As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 99.88
Coupon (%): 10.25
Maturity Date: 42036
Yield to Maturity (%): 10.679
Current Yield (%): 10.263
Fitch Ratings: CCC
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 39295
Type: Corporate
Callable: Yes
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 250
Minimum Trade Qty: 5
Dated Date: 39121
Settlement Date: 41977
ALPHA NATURAL RESOURCES INC As of 7-May-2016
OVERVIEW
Price: 97.5
Coupon (%): 2.375
Maturity Date: 42109
Yield to Maturity (%): 9.451
Current Yield (%): 2.436
Fitch Ratings: CCC
Coupon Payment Frequency: Semi-Annual
First Coupon Date: 39736
Type: Corporate
Callable: No
OFFERING INFORMATION
Quantity Available: 10
Minimum Trade Qty: 1
Dated Date: 39545
Settlement Date: 41977


References

Finance.yahoo.com. (2014). Bond Center. Retrieved May 7, 2016, from https://screener.finance.yahoo.com/z1?b=1&so=a&sf=m&tc=1&stt=-&pr=0&cpl=-1&cpu=-1&yl=-1&yu=-1&ytl=-1&ytu=-1&mtl=-1&mtu=-1&rl=-1&ru=-1&cll=-1

LAMBERT, S. (2014, August 11). Investing in corporate bonds: how income-hungry investors can tap firms direct or invest through funds . Retrieved May 7, 2016, from http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/guides/article-1714423/Corporate-bonds-A-guide-investing.html

Pimco.co.uk. (2012, March). What Are Corporate Bonds and What Benefits Do They Offer? Retrieved May 7, 2016, from http://www.pimco.co.uk/EN/Education/Pages/CorporateBonds.aspx

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anti-virus software

  1. at should we be concerned while browsing and editing on social sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram? 

In the modern world, there is the rapid growth of the online content; thousands of the customers prefer the media through their Smartphone’s. Marketing and advertising have become a part of industries; there is e-commerce, etc. people are using the internet using Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Tumblr, as it is a new face of e-commerce, in the 21st century. However, the there is the fastest growing retail sales, the main thing which needs to focus is privacy, there is a need to more concerned and focused on the privacy matters, however, companies confidential information can be leak out and others can know about the trade secrets. The profile information of the client and the employees can be viewed by the company, personal information can be known, companies have the legal right to monitor the employee profile, and there could be disadvantages of such rights (Laudon & Laudon, 2014).  

  1. Should we simply trust big name anti-virus software? Why? 

There is the need to install the antivirus on the computers or application, as without protection against the malware and intruders and connecting to the internet, can be very dangerous. Securing the wireless connection and the antivirus software and the intrusion detection system or firewalls are the essential tools for the computer. The hackers can misuse the data and can get the information, which can be used in a negative way, so the companies’ are concerned about the privacy matters. In a way they are installing the Firewalls, which prevent the unauthorized abusers or users, from assessing the private networks, it can control the flow of the outgoing and the incoming network traffic, so computer and company information, a network can be protected in this way (Laudon & Laudon, 2014).

5. Why is cloud computing not safe? 

Cloud computing has many benefits. However, there are disadvantages also, the company data is not secure, someone can look up to the company data, if the program is run by the IT department, there can be the outsource users, which can get the data, there are less maintenance and managing security. There are the chances or risks of the cyber attacks, there are the vulnerabilities regarding the insider threats, as the people or employees inside can breech the infrastructure control of the company. There are always risks and lack of supports as the cyber attack can take out the information about the big meetings or customers supports, there can be the legal liabilities, and there is the lack of standardization as no proper information (Laudon & Laudon, 2014).  

Reference

Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2014). Management Information System. Pearson Education Limited.

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Paper On Calculation

Question No: 1

1.PNG

V in = 0.50 m V p k

Frequency of input AC = 5 kHz

Phase angle of input AC = 00

T1 = 2N3904

T2 = 2N6038G

T3 = 2N3904

Transistor T1 is common emitter transistor.

Solving Transistor  T1 :
Resistances =

R1 = 82.6 k ohms

R2 = 17.8 k ohms

R1 and R2 are in parallel combination

R1|| R2

=

=  

=14.589 ohms

<< h f e RE

h f e = β

β = 170

Vc  = Vcc   – Ic Rc

βAC1 = βDC1 = 170

βAC2 = βDC2 = 2294

βAC = βDC1 = 169

α =

α =

= 0.99

β =

α =

β Ib = α Ie

R + R1||R2

=100 + 14.58

= 114.58

I e = V/ R eq 1

= 25/114.58

= 0.2177

Ib =

Ib =

= 0.0012

Calculating total resistance of the circuit using Thevenin theorem:

All transistors are short circuited

R 3 and R4 are parallel

R= 14.58 k Ω

R is in series to R1

= 14.58+ 100

Req1=114.58 k Ω

R 4 and R 5 are in series

Req2= R4 + R5

900 + 3.3

Req2= 903.3 k Ω

R8 and R9 are in series

Req3= R8 + R9 = 16.5 + 78.1

= 94.6 k Ω

R5 and R6 are parallel

R5 X R6 /R5 + R6= 3.3 x 900/ 903.3

Req4= 3.2874 k Ω

Req4 + R7 are parallel

Req4 x R7/ Req4 + R7 = 94.6 x 10 /94.60 + 10

= 946/104.60

Req5=9.04 k Ω

R 10 and R11 are in series combination

Req5=  R10 + R11 = 125+700

Req5= 825 k Ω

Req4 ­ and R13 are parallel

Req4 ­  x R13  =  825 x 4.7 / 829.7

Req6= 4.67 k Ω

Equivalent R is in series to R12

R + R12=4.67 + 3.3

Req7=7.97 k Ω

Total resistance

R1= 7.97 k Ω

R2 = 9.04 k Ω

R3= 114.58 k Ω

Are all in parallel combination

R total   = R1   X R2 / R1 + R2

= 7.97 x 9.04 / 7.97 +9.04

RTOTAL 1 = 4.24 k Ω

RTOTAL 1  x   R3 / RTOTAL 1  + R3

= 4.24 * 114.4 / 4.24 +114.4

R= 4.08 k Ω

It is the total impedance of whole circuit. Ignoring all input voltages and current sources.
1)

Av = V in / V out

Voltage gain in circuit is given as ratio of V in and V out of the circuit.

I e = (β + 1) I b

Output is given along 3.3 k ohms

V out = IR

Current in resistance R is given as

I = 0.0012

R = 3.3 k ohms

V out = 0.0039 V

Total voltage gain is ration of input voltage and output voltage of circuit.

VIN  = 25 V

V out = 0.0039 V

A =

Av = 25/0.0039

= 6410.25

Av   =

=

= -0.05

2)

Ai = I in / I out

Ai  is  the total current gain in the circuit of transistor.

   β of the transistor is given as 169.

Iv = β

Iv = 169 x 

= 169 x 4.08/4.08 + 4.7

= 78.533

3)
A (OA) = Ai x Av
Total power gain of a transistor circuit is product of voltage gain and current gain in a circuit.

A (OA)=

   = A (OA)

A (OA) =

= 3.9266

4)

Rin = (h fe + 1) R

Where R is the resistance connected to the emitter common point.

Re ­ = 900 ohms

h fe = 170

R in = (170 + 1) x 900

R in = 150 k ohms

For common emitter

R in = V b e   / I b

= 25/0.0012

= 2083.0 ohms

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Modeling

Question 1:

(1)

Transfer function of the inductor current

I can find this equation  from this transfer function and modeling this circuits and add all the values. This change reflect in the effect of the duty cycle change on the inductor current when psrturbation of input is equal to zero.

The transfer function from the output voltage which reflect the effect of the duty cycle change on the output voltage when the perturbation of input voltage equal to zero is

so putting all the given values


Where d is duty cycle which is making of the inductor current

(2)

transfer function from the inductor current to the load voltage

so upper one is when the inductor is at OFF condition we have the transfer function now below one is for the when inductor is at ON condition

which is the transfer function of the these duty cycle of inductor current load voltage 

Question 2:

Inner loop control for the current by using the root locus which is diagram

This is the transfer function with the 0.7 larger damping ratio so the tradeoff plot show as below and the pi controller for the proportional integral controller elimination the step response steady state error and allows for more control  over transient response. The tradeoff for the root locus of pi controller

CruiseControl_ControlRootLocus_03.png

which is showing the relation of

(b) Outer loop control by using root locus

theses all values are assumed

The stability of the function of the outer close loop current must be ensured by root locus plot and the peak over shoot ,setting time, steady state error from the step response plot. the most importantly design is steady state error peak over shoot and setting time. this is also called the tradeoff for PI controllerdiscussion in this plot

If you need the pi controller is combine of proportional and integral is  so this is the which is showing the PI controller equation relation with the transfer function

so this the transfer function of the out loop current

Question 3

(1)

For the frequency inner loop of the root locus

(2) outer loop frequency of the root locus

so the tradeoff between the bandwidth of the close loop system and the phase margin is show with PId is showing as .In which actually which is showing the actual changes and varies between in it.

Mobile_Robot_Simulation_061.png

Question 4:

closed loop in matlab is

ds.png

 Which is in the matlab

Question 5:

Overall   closed-loop   system

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Picard iteration

MATH202_L3

Picard Iteration

Question 1:

Part 1:

x´(t)=x3(t)+x2(t)+x(t) , x(0)=1

Where x€ c1([0,100];R),T>0

The n-Picard iteration function is given by

Xn (t) = x0 + ++ds

Now by solving the equation

The three iteration are;

X(0) = 1

X1 = 1+

X1 = 1+ 1 (t-0) +1(t-0)+1(t-0)

X1 = 3t+1

X2 = 1+

X2 = 1+  + +

X2 = 1+

X2 = +1

Part 2:

first three iteration plot

Part 3: for 0 to 100 iteration

Part 4:

The given expression is continuous and derivative to the given function also exists that means the Picard iteration also exists for the given expression

Part 5:

With the help of Picard iteration, the solution of the ordinary differential equation can be find out and  the behavior of the iteration can also be find using the code. It helps to construct continuous behavior. In the given expression, the behavior is shown only for the 100 iteration.

Question 2:

Part a:

Xn(t) = x0 +

According to the Euler, who discovered that the

sin x = x) ))—— = x

That gives

sin x = x – …….

This shows that the series are convergent

Part b:

Xn(t) = x0 + formula

Part (c):

The first three iteration are

Xn(t) = x0 +

X(0) = 3

X1 = 3+

X1 = 3 –

X1 = 3 –

X1 =

X2 = 3+

X2 = 3+  –

X2 = 3+

Part (d):

Code for first three iteration plot

Part (e): Code for the iteration 0 to 100

Part (f): Yes the global solution exist for the required expression. On “t” approaches to infinity, the wave becomes continuous.

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To what degree is Indian Mascots an issue an American society?

A.    To what degree is Indian Mascots an issue an American society?

The mascots are treated with immense stereotype depictions imagery of race, religion for the Indian mascots while cultural sensitive aspects like half-naked savages, treated as the defeated or the worst people in  with reservations from the land of tepees  way back in 12000 years from past in American society. Indian Mascots are increasing in number in the American society. They have established their separate colonies and societies in which they follow their rules.  According to the Brooks, as she explained in her article that these Indian mascots are spreading the racism and cultural diversity. They are treated as the stubborn group or Indian mascots who are always treated with disrespect in American society. That’s why they have more impact on the American society than the other nation. As in the past one decade, the Indians have migrated to the US in large number, and now they have control over some areas in both economic and property ways. Some Indians are running the business chain or network which is going well although it contributes to the country economy building the Indian Mascots is not acceptable by the Native Americans. Although there is no clash of this two civilization still the Americans are scared of Indian Mascots. Therefore the in American society the Indian mascots are dishonored in all the occasions in terms of the morality concerns and the cultural extents.

B.     What is the viewpoint of the article in stating that Native American mascots are not done in respect?

This means that if Native Americans feeling some sought of shame do not mean that this group of native American would feel empowered. The children of Native American must be taught from the childhood about the history, disrespect they had gained from the modern American society. Native Americans have been treated badly in the past, and they have not gained the respect from the other Americans and the Government as they should get. That’s why whenever there is shooting incident mostly the black guy is killed without any reason just like what happen in the case of Michael. The point Brooks raised in her article is that the native Americans are still insecure about their safety although the slavery has finished long ago but still this nation is living under the fear. Because there is social stress among the government and the Native Americans is analyzed. The dishonor for the Native American would provide the shame, embarrassments, or reach to feel the approach of culpability for Native American about their historical background.

C.    Explain why the author concludes?

The author concludes because he was reached at the maximum level of feeling the guilt what the native American had to face regarding the brutal socio-economic and cultural inequalities in core beliefs, the agricultural skills were exploited, the author stopped because according to his point of view, respect must be given to natives to all those losses they faced. The educational system of the US is developing and increasing the racism as from the start the students are taught about the history of slavery, which makes the Indian Americans, think of their worse past. While the Indian students learn about this, they become sensitive and emotional. Because they are bullied by the other students as well in their childhood especially, the white kids have made gangs, which are not good for the students at this young age. The author concludes this article by saying that Indian students are frightened of the schools as they are afraid that other students will force them to do what they want. They are bullied and mentally tortured although there are some of Indian people or students who would took a stand but still there are a large number of students living in fear. The guilty attitude could be recovered only if the restoring the Native American culture would occur from American society.

D.    Why is it okay according to the article to use the “Fighting Irish” as a mascot and not the Washington Redskins?

According to the article to use the “Fighting Irish” as a mascot and not the Washington Redskins because the Washington Redskins was in a mainstream while fighting Irish were pejorative along with the derogatory along with cultural offensive nature and designations pure racist in terms of Native American context. Fighting Irish is referred to as the term, which is not fair to the person all the time. As fighting Irish means to defend yourself from the force who is constantly attacking and trying to bring you down. That is why it is ok for the people to use this term when it comes to Mascot because in the mascot a group or the organization is fighting for their rights; just like in the US African-American are fighting for their rights against the illegal killing was analyzed. To understand the term Fighting Irish, the history can help us. As this term was used first in the cold war when people have to fight for their rights and it was not easy at all. Since then it is known to be the resistance against the force, which is trying to destroy the ideology or the rights of the person or the mascots. The fighting Irish were considered very low grade, pathetic and illiterate, born to for slavery social class as compared to the Washington redskin who were always placed as the ideal or perfect social class in the society.

E.     “Cultural Competent”

The cultural competent was a term used for the native Americans, Irish tribes, Indian mascots and others because of diversity in the symbols, biased’s in the culture and  languages they used. Yes, the organizations that are using the Indian mascots are culturally competent because they have their attitude, behavior, rules and societies. The enriched in cultural views such as beliefs, lifestyle core values, languages, clothes, living style means cultural competent. This makes them competent to the other nations due to which the Americans can’t force them to follow their attitude or culture. As they have already developed a very well organized culture and societies in the US. This process is well developed but evolved over the years because people adopt this process or change very slowly in this case. As the Indians have made the Mascots for their benefits to secure their generation were made into consideration. There is a very famous organization by the name of “Black Lives Matter.”  In this organization, they utilize the best resources to stop violence and spread awareness about the black people or Indian student’s importance in the society.

Chapter Seven

1.      State four points that the article made regarding violence against African Americans.

The four points according to which the violence against African American are the using African-Americans or blacks for the slavery, poor justice system, racism, and the economic inequality are included. In is happening are the racism, poverty, standards and the social life. As the African-American about 100 years ago getting freedom from the slavery which means they are still living the life of regret and are very sensitive. African-American people are treated by the policeman just like they were treated before as they are abused and shot many times in the past years.

What connection did the article make to history?

There was movement associated with the historical context such as abolitionist movement, violence over African American the sisters of Grimke connected with the untouched section of the community in which the core issue was anti-slavery. Yes, there is a clear connection to the recent shooting on the African-American with the history. Because in the late 19 centuries the black people were killed brutally using the gun. They have shot anytime, and there was no law to protect them. Although the time has changed now but still people have this mindset that they can do whatever they want with the black people and until now the people who shot the African American easily run away from the grip of government and the African American don’t get the justice like in case of Michael Brown and so many others. The loyal version of feminists as the example given of the Grimate sisters, about factors violating the women empowerment in the historical context of the article was issued. 

  • What does this purport about racism in America and the connection between race, oppression, and poverty?

This purport about racism in America and the connection between race, oppression, and poverty in a manner that as according to Jim Crow laws that slavery would need to abolish from the community for survival. This clearly shows that racism has not ended in the America. Because in the past five years there are several incidents of shooting one the black people is included. This clearly shows that there are still people in the societies, which promote the racism in the people. Yes, it’s true that racism is based on poverty and race. The white American feel proud and think of themselves superior to the others which cause the hate in the minds of the new generation for each other just like that black people are not ready to forget their past which is now 100 years old and trying to be dominant in some areas of US. The five rules mentioned in historical contexts are, for survival the discipline would maintain to abolish slavery, the inferiority self-designed concepts, overlapping balance of power, standards necessary for moral conducts and the dependence or habit of relying on others.  

  • Watch the following: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMTv0rmBEKY now answer the following questions:
  • The African-Americans from the people of modern American or Washington Redskins are considered as a group of limited freedom for cultural activities and strictness in social beliefs. There are several stereotypes about the African-American people which are presented in the society like that they are harsh and strict people. It also stereotypes about them that they are violent, but this is true in some cases.
  • The feeling of guilt or shamed must be recovered for African-Americans or blacks if the respect is provided to their culture and not losing empowerment. Not all but some stereotypes are real like black people are violent as they get angry easily and can’t control their anger but some are not real like they are not harsh and strict minded people.
  • The untouched segment of the community must be treated with the equal rights such as free from slavery, discrimination in social justice systems and racism. People should respect the black people as all the human being want to be respected. They should be treated equally on all basis and give the same benefits like the government is giving to the other nations in the US.
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Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations

Introduction

            I have many expectations from this subject of “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations” being a graduate international student of the business school. The negotiation in conflict management is a proper area of academic and practical considerations. Therefore, the conflict management tools using the negotiation techniques always a great tactic in human resource management in which the practices of mediation are applied in day-to-day activities along with the professional life such as in the organizational behaviors.

            For instance, while interaction with the family or friends about going to the restaurant while making choices from whether to go to a Chinese restaurant or try a pizza this time, discussing with friends about going to a vacation at the Florida state or the Las Vegas, we make choices for resolving disagreements. Similarly while making decisions in the organization such as purchasing the new equipment or making modifications to the existing one also include the choices to settle down or come to an agreement. These all are the examples of the negotiation that are going into our lives whether we are aware or not.

            As I am an international student studying here this class of “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations” would provide a great opportunity for me to learn from a different aspect or point of view about the core concepts of the conflict management using the negotiation techniques. The basics bout conflict-management in which the opposition or usually the term of disagreement is used as a conflict occurs between the two rival parties wants an entirely different result. There is a chance of learning about various levels of conflicts such as the intrapersonal conflict or conflict within oneself such if I want to eat an ice cream but a conflict exist in my mind that ice cream could make obesity in me.

            The interpersonal conflict and the intergroup conflict are most important as far as conflict management in the professional or practical life. I am also hoping to understand the positive or the functional side of the conflict in which the positive outcome would accomplish through the ‘integrative negotiation or win-win or expanding the pie” strategy of conflict management. The awareness about the interests and the core problems are an integral part of the negotiation process that would be an interesting a phenomenon to occur in the disagreement process.

            There is also an aspect of the dysfunctional conflict or the “distributive bargain” or “fixed pie” in which the negative outcome is achieved most of the times. The importance of the need or desires of both the parties as the cause of the conflict in which both the parties try to reach a better position than existing one. The role of the mutual adjustments from both parties is also in the list of learning outcomes from this course, the proactive part of the “give and take” approach in every sought of the negotiation process and the mutual adjustments are the most important tool for the conflict management along with the flexible types of concessions. The intangible values that the negotiators perceive from the phase of the agreements are also significant in this regard.

            The expectations of mine from this subject most important style of negotiation using the dual dimension approach in which the cooperativeness in which the concerns for the others are mostly illustrated and the assertiveness in which the personal concerns or interests are put into the primary focus. The other significant tactic used as a mediating or the negotiation style as an importance of the collaborating style that would provide the high level of the benefits of mutual interest of goals would achieve.

Journal Entries

  • COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING strategy

In this negotiation, the trust is one of the game, as every one wants to win but in the same time we could both lose, the best goal is not to beat the other company its when you both lose. The ethics is more important

Don’t burn bridges. As we were a group I learn that people were not as ethical as I thought when it comes to money, people can do what ever to get it even thought its gonna hurt the person reputation, we were truthful with the people we are negotiating with as there was 3 round so we did get there trust for the first 2 rounds and then we backed up one our words in the last round and won.

            The key elements that happened in the activity are the role of the trust and the ethical considerations one put into the negotiation process. From the dual concern model, I have learned that the position of my group was ‘Competing’ while looking the unethical behaviors, interests, intentions. We have managed to manipulate the trust factor as an important intangible value factor in the negotiation process. Since the rival party tried to outperform us, we eventually using the trust, concession factor makes the ‘win-lose’ or distributing bargain for us in which the zero-sum situation was created in the 3rd or final round from total three rounds of the negotiation.

            The significant thing I learned about negotiation from the simulation was knowledge about our strength and knowing the other actor’s weakness while using the power-oriented approach in which the maximum attention is toward the assertiveness while ignoring the cooperativeness. We have used our interest factor for getting our track to hard bargain while in the third round for winning the negotiation process at the expense of the rival party’s expense while creating the dominant position of our group eventually.

            The element that surprised me about my behavior was the process that leads me to avoid the competitive attitude in which I learned that there is another way of accomplishing my goal while avoiding the escalation of the specific means of commitment. The element that surprised about my opponents behavior for beating the rival party using inefficient negotiation skills exploiting the interest of others, such as that proved to be winner’s curse’ for our group.

            The thing that I learn about myself was that I could become a god negotiator with a little more effort in identifying the core concepts of the conflict management, in which both the parties to accomplish the various outcomes or results. The knowing of my ability that the aspirations according to my interest require a lot of patience, flexible position and balance power is analyzed. The thing, which I learned about others, was that people could go at each stage or even the rigid positions or commitment level to achieve the self-interest designed goals.

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, I would you do few things differently such as try to exploring the fact that the divergence of the mindset of both parties for achieving individual goals would not be a good strategy. Whereas it is also possible, that disagreement could lead towards the positive outcome for both the parties as well.

            This experience compares to others that I have had in similar in a way that my group had to manage the innovations or bringing the improvements in the negotiation style or approach or comparable in a way that I found the psychological growth in my personality. I was unaware of the real issues that both parties had in the conflict circumstances.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation in a way that I realized that the conflicts sometimes make us powerful enough in developing the self-control in our lives. I learned about the outcomes of the conflict as a concession as the dynamic process of haggling in which both parties must give and take to reach towards the position of compromise. There was great learning about the negotiation styles using the two horizon or dimensional model as assertiveness or cooperativeness in which we put five factors according to the situation ahead like competing in which just to focus on self-interests and accommodating in which care about others interest or concerns as well.

  • COFFEE CONTRACT NEGOTIATION

IN THIS NEGOTIATION was all about slicing the pie like what is said by reading chapter 3 in the book by (slicing the pie strategy) strategy 1: assess your BATNA and improve it. And Strategy 2: Determine your reservation point, but do not reveal it.

            The key elements happened in the activity were the how to engaged in the negotiation process from both the parties in getting the largest pie. For this, the firsts stage was the preparation was developed in which offers were made from parties, receiving counter offers, devising the best alternative opportunities in the negotiation and finally making concessions or shifting from the initial position. Then the most important element in that activity was the BATNA (Best Alternative to the Negotiated Agreement) in which the Best Alternative to the Negotiated Agreement was developed in which both the parties established the lowest level of the acceptable price in the negotiation agreement.

            The keys that I had learned about negotiation from the simulation were the importance of developing the alternatives in the negotiation process in which the party can know at what point we need to place a full stop or finishing the negotiation deal. The other key that I had to learn was that the power is essential in the deal making for walking far away from the deal id the opponent party does not want to come even near to our terms.

            The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that I got the knowledge about my bargaining range including the minimum level that I would ready to pay and the maximum range or amount that I would bear in the process of deal making. In the case of minimum range, I would shift from the position for giving something extra in that specific deal and similarly in the maximum range that I can afford to pay in which I could shift while shaving off from a rigid stance.  The thing that surprised about the behavior of my opponent was the way he sued the concession techniques such as the target range or amount as well as the reservation range while making an initiative in offering a concession in a deal to create a positive impact.

            The most important thing that I learned about myself was that how to reach a point where we accept the terms of the negotiation agreement using the principles of the negotiation as the integrative negotiation strategy while using the magnitudes of the discounts or concession in useful ways. The thing I learned from the others was that people usually prefer the fixed pie or the distributive bargain strategy of the negotiation.

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, I would you adopt the negotiation strategy differently in a  manner to make a ‘compromise situation’ choosing the middle ground in which the splitting the key differences are essential in this specific case which is a better approach for deal making rather avoiding the negotiation process of deal making.

            This experience compare to others that I have had in similar was there was a negotiation case in which only one core issues was involved in the deal making like financing. Therefore the distributive bargaining occurred as a result of the fixed pie circumstances. This situation would be comparable as integrative negotiation in which the resources that were available could easily be divided, having a situation I had won along with the opponent party.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation in which the long-term  sustainable relationship would maintain through the win-win situation for both the parties, the primary focus of the parties are the interest of each other while ignoring the positions. In the negotiation, the process for achieving the satisfaction that would make the complete value for the parties is analyzed as an outcome of the integrative negotiation. The negotiation style would be collaborative in this regard, in which the goals of both parties would meet in a value identification process.

  • New Recruit NEGOTIATION

IN THIS NEGOTIATION my goal as the recruiter is to reach an agreement with the candidate on all eight issues, IN THIS NEGOTIATION I learned to make more than one offer with the same value and let the person choose, and (sharing the reservation point you do not tell them what is your target, what surprised me about my behavior is that we both want to get the same thing but in the same time we have to give up something, I learned about my self in this negation that I could be better if I have another chance to do it again, by reading chapter 4 in the book( win-win negation: expanding the pie) by taking extra time to negotiate and focusing on a long-term relationship.

            The key elements that happened in the activity are the list of the multiple eight issues in which the integrative bargaining occur between me as a recruiter and the candidates who have applied for the job at a specific position in accompany. The resolution was created in a way that both the parties would take the key advantage of the negotiation agreement, in which the research would make from my side to develop  satisfactory situation for both the parties in a win-win situation. The objectiveness in the achievements of the standard was the primary goal in which the multiple ranges of the options were created that would provide a suitable gain for both the parties.

            The lessons I learn about negotiation from the simulation were while attaching the same value I chose the various range of offers while leaving the ball in the court of the opponent party from that various sought of offer I had given to them. Therefore, I did not let them guess my target point while sharing the reservation points with them. In this strategy, I made the value appropriately to all my primary interests in the process of valuation in the deal making.

            The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that there was an existence of the mutual goal in the recruitment process negotiation, while it was very necessary from both the parties point of views would be to involve in a give or take along with the concessions strategy to reach a mutual satisfaction long-term relationship. The surprising fact about the opponents behavior was that they had the issues like the salary or other benefits where they could make the healthy debate in the form of the integrative bargain style apart from the few differences in the agreement.

 The thing I learned about myself was that for maintaining the long-term sustainable relationship it is very necessary that do not always involved in the blame game whereas the most important strategy in this regard was that confronting the core issues or the problems were necessary rather than just confronting the people for that. The thing I learned about the about others was that people conceive both the disagreements along with the negotiation process as the same thing which is sometimes wrong. Therefore it is important to have a reminder that communication in an appropriate manner would be helpful in the future interaction with the same party. 

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, the thing I would do differently is making a winning environment for both parties in a way that would establish the smooth relationship between both the parties. There should be rejection or the acceptance of the viewpoints not the individual persons in the negotiation process. In any position, one must follow the interest as a primary focus.

This experience compares to others that I have had in similar include the negotiation is all about the identifying the solution be agreeable for both the parties in a given framework of the problem. Therefore making the excuses is not the ultimate option or offer while undermining the interests of the others in the comparable circumstances.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation that issues are the core objective that must be a target from the negotiator in the disagreements rather than focusing the people as a core problem in the disagreement process. This is an important outcome for developing the sustainable or strong relationship between the two parties. The negotiation style is, therefore, would be used as a collaborative or compromise in some cases would apply as an approach in which the primary focus would be on the interest which are underlying in the negotiation process. The understanding of the opponents fear or desires at such points in which they maintain a strong stance is important.

  • TKI

      The aspects I feel about this survey that there are no one specific answers or responses to the situation of the conflict handling in the different behaviors. For example, there is no concept of the objectivity of the responses since each behavior or approach to the conflict management style has its unique characteristics and more than one approach could apply in one specific scenario. The most common example in this regard would be as people usually thinks that opt for more as the outcome rather than less which is a collaborating approach, simultaneously the people also say that slow poison is always a recommended strategy in negotiation which is accommodating approach. That is why there is the great debate that we can apply all five of the approach of conflict management style in one scenario, all it requires is the nature of the situation and the level of skills that one possesses in solving the conflict situation with a negotiation expertise.

      The things I learned about negotiation from this survey were that the flexible approach is always a perfect strategy in using that dual dimensional model of conflict resolution. The recognition of the effective use of all the five approaches is essential while dealing with a certain conflict scenario in personal or professional lifestyle.

      The surprising thing about the results or findings of a survey that impact behavior while using the modes of conflict management such as accommodation, compromising are depended on how effectively negotiator use while developing the skills in advance or always anticipate so that they have the advantage in conflict situation from the opponents. The behavior of the opponents sometimes rely only on one rigid skills mind frame and use them repetitively on the various sought of conflict situations such as they believe that compromising would be the best solution in every case.

      I learned about myself from this survey that there is no favorite approach or tool. However, the focus would be on identifying the conflict scenario in terms or requirements of which strategy would implement best and the self-abilities in the execution of these approaches. The others people is always judging us regarding which of the five approaches to the negotiation style would best fit into the dual dimensional negotiation style model.

      If I had the chance to involve or indulge the negotiation, the thing I would do differently is using the competing style when a significant decision is a need to made immediately. The yes man culture would be suited for this strategy if I am more tilted towards competing style, and if not I might have the lack of power in controlling situations effectively.

      The experience from the survey was similar to one situation I faced in a way that I used more than one styles or approaches like collaboration in finding the integrative outcomes of the situations of conflict and collaborating when I found that objectives of the deal are not as significant that it requires a lot of effort. The comparable case was also occurring to me when I used the avoiding style in the circumstances when I foresee not all issues are important.

      The concepts in the survey are integrated to our course understanding of the processes of negotiation in a way that five approaches of the conflict management are the intelligent modes or tools in which we have to learn that the extent to consider interests or concerns for others are as important as our concerns or extent to interests. The outcome of this dual model conflict management would be essential if all five modes would apply the maximum level of skills of negotiation like power dominating approach of competing, using collaborating in which larger outcome is required for us, compromising when the expedient outcome is objective. My negotiation style has changed from analyzing deeply this survey as I learn to implement collaborating or highest outcome for both parties, accommodating defeating enemies with slow poison, competing use power oriented approach and so on.

  • EAZY’S GARAGE NEGOTIATION

I will start by saying relationship did important to me in this exercise,I cant belive the person stole the car out of my parking lot even its her car but its illegal before she pays her bills, but I didn’t want to take her to court because the court fees goanna is more than the bill and the legal fees, I tried to settle in the middle because I value there business since we opened the shop even thought we don’t have a good relationship together, but at the same time we all live in a small town, so reputation is everything, we have miscommunication in this situation,  also from the book in chapter 6 (Establishing trust and building a relationship) about the steps repairing broken trust, step 2: put the focus on the relationship which what I did.   Step3: apologize which she did apologias to me.

            The key elements happened in the activity include the trust in the relationship include the deterrence based or nature of the relationship while protecting the reputations. In this case, the deliberate types of mechanism would apply in building the trust in a relationship in which the major focus was on the future relationship in a manner that capitalization on the different terms of network. The focus on the relationship which what I did was that the psychological approaches used to maintaining the trusts include the exposure strategy, the physical existence, reciprocity of the values, and flattery of the situations and self-approach of disclosure. The situations that lead to the level of the mistrust includes the defections of one or both parties apologize which she did apologies to me, the total miscommunication, and the attribution of the dispositional style. The last thing is the concentration on the Apple, which is bad. 

            I learn about negotiation from the simulation the whole process for dealing in an effective manner about the relationship, which had broken. The personal interactive session or meeting is essential in this regard. The focus on the relationship is also included while making the apology at the demanding situation, using the situations as venting is important while getting offensive is not an important tool.

 The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that relationships as part of the negotiation always require some special adjustments especially dealing with the embedded types of the relationship. The rational approach would be a preferable one since it is a very important phase in protecting the reputation while using the halo effect or sometimes the forked-tail effect as well. The thing that surprised about the opponents includes the relationships, which becomes the embedded from the material goods would usually rate as the concrete in one way or the other.

            I learned about myself that how repairing the lost reputation sometimes becomes significant in the negotiation process, the person oriented relationship building in which the factor of the trust also involve the negotiation factors as the counterpart strategy in which the person must show a high level of emotional intelligence in achieving the desired outcomes. The thing I leaned about others that people usually does not associate the relevant values along with the principles that are necessary for regaining the trust factor between the parties.

            If I had, the chance to do this negotiation over what would I do differently is compromised of identification along with the feelings of others that would apply a strategy of having the common goals or objectives to maintain the healthy relationships in future. The psychological strategy would include the similarity-attraction approach and the strategy of the self-disclosure to build the high level of trust.

            This experience compares to others that I have had in similar are comprised of avoiding the situations of the defections along with the breaches that would certainly lead to the situation of the mistrust between the parties. There must be focusing on the positive side of the picture rather relying or focusing only on the bad side of the apple as per the comparable circumstances?

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation is comprised of the concentration completely onto the building the sustainable relationship, apologizing if we are at the wrong side, not indulge in the defensive frame of mind at once while letting the things venting smoothly. The outcome, for developing the reputation again regarding the relationship includes the ways that would suit both parties in the future. The supportive nature of the negotiation style at this point is essential which includes the accommodating in which the concerns for others would take into account along with the compromise style of negotiation.

Conclusion

            In the end, it is concluded that I am very fortunate to learn a lot from this class of the “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations.” The most important aspect of conflict management that I have learned include the dual model of the conflict resolution in which the two approach or variables in the form of “assertiveness and cooperativeness” along with the five factors such as avoiding, competing, compromising, accommodating and collaborating are used.

            The assertiveness approach focuses on the self-interest or the concerns while ignoring the concerns of the others, while the dominant factor in this approach is the competing. The approach of the collaborating focusing on the concerns of the others while ignoring the interests of the others, the most dominant part of this approach is the accommodating. The best approach in my view would be the collaborating in which the win-win situation for both the parties would accomplish in which the maximum interest of multiple actors are accomplished. The integrative negotiation as the most useful style of the negotiation or conflict management technique is then analyzed in which the mutual goals are accomplished from the various or different core issues while long-term sustainable relationships are maintained from focusing on the interests not the positions of the problems. The people are not the focus in the process of the disagreements; the core objective would be on the issues of the disagreements not the people as the primary focus of the disagreements.

            The next important learning from the conflict management includes the BATNA that is the best alternative to the negotiated agreement, which is the lowest level of the range that the person is willing to pay in the deal making. The concepts related to that such as the target points, the point at which we want the agreement to be completed, the reservation point or the point at which we would not accept the agreement or the deal in any case and prefer to walk away from the situation. The other key concepts in this process include the surplus of the negotiator, which is calculated as a positive zone of the bargain in the negotiation process. The differences in the opposite point of views of the both the parties must be entertained in a manner that the most effective pattern would be the close the mutual point if still the deal would not make then there would be a certain deadlock.

            The conflict management teaches us that the change in the organizational actions must be according to the dynamic adaptability practices from the various challenges; the functional conflict would make the relationships between the parties more stable as well as strong in a way that problem-solving techniques become the easier. The conflict management theories help us to understand or identify the awareness of our self as well as about the others. The people usually become the realistic in their approach while having the egocentric approach is ignored from the negotiation skills.

            The other core concepts of the conflict management from the mediation and negotiation techniques, I have able to understand in this class are the reputation regarding the relationship with the others are analyzed. The rapport as a strong relationship with the embedded nature of relationship with the friends, business mates, and colleagues are analyzed through the focusing on the relationship for the future in the approach of the similarity-attraction as a tool of the psychological framework, making the communication level strong and focusing on the positive side of the picture. The arrangement of a personal meeting along with the apologizing to the others is included in the process of repairing the relationship as per the negotiation process for the trust, which is broken.

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Social Media Marketing Plan ABT Electronics

Introduction. 5

Company Overview:  ABT Electronics. 5

Situation Analysis. 6

Audience & Customer Analysis. 6

Competitors Benchmarking. 6

Online Partner Analysis. 6

Digital Marketing Review.. 6

Objective Setting. 7

Vision. 7

Mission. 7

Goals. 7

Key Performance Indicator 7

Web Analytics. 7

Social media Strategy. 7

Segmentation & Targeting. 7

Positioning & Value Proposition. 8

Engagement & Content Strategy. 8

Integrated Communication Strategy. 8

Digital Marketing Activities. 8

Reach. 8

Search Engine Optimization. 8

Pay per Click. 9

Affiliate & Partner Marketing. 9

Display Advertising. 9

Acquisition Email marketing. 9

Social Media Marketing. 9

Act & Convert 9

Site-Wide Content & Design Effectiveness. 9

Home Page Design Effectiveness. 10

Search & Browse Page Efficiencies. 10

Category & Product Page Efficiencies. 10

Basket & Checkout Efficiency. 10

Social Media Marketing. 10

Engage. 10

Content Marketing. 10

Newsletters and Promotional Emails. 10

Event Triggered Email Marketing. 10

Customer Services & Support 11

Website Personalization. 11

Social Media Marketing. 11

Social Media Recommendations. 11

Financial Concerns. 11

Evaluation and control metrics. 11

Conclusion. 12

Social Media Marketing Plan

ABT Electronics

Introduction

            This study revolves around the social media marketing plan for a particular organization. Different organizations produce different products and serve to serve the customers in the market. This is important for the management of the companies to market or position the product or services through different media channels. The social media channels are the best tools for the smart organizations to make the difference in the competitive market. In this study, we will discuss a small organization in the United States of America and illustrate the different social media aspects.

             For Instance, this is necessary to identify the flaws regarding the social media marketing and elaborate some effective actions Plans for the company to make the difference for a long run. The emphasis of the study will be on situation analysis, objectives for social media marketing, and social media strategies along with some lucrative implementation plans. The most important thing is to come up with an effective social media marketing plan or strategy to integrate with the customers.

Company Overview:  ABT Electronics

            The ABT electronics has been in the limelight due to the high quality of consumer electronics, furniture, and different appliances. This is a fact that the management of the company has made the difference through pricing and quality in the different cities of the United States of America. In addition, this has also been observed that the management of the company focused on both, traditional and modern media channels to contain an effective integrative marketing communication for the customers. Regarding the advertising and promotions, the company has been good. However, relative to the social media marketing, the intentions and approaches are not up to the market by this company, which may let it way behind from the competitors.

            The company was founded in 1036, and now working with more than 1200 employees in the different cities of the country. However, regarding the retail industry, the market is very competitive due to the effective and aggressive approaches of the different competitors. Therefore, the intentions regarding the social media strategies or plan are necessary to consider making the difference and position better in the minds of the customers. Now, this is necessary to elaborate the social media plans along with some effective strategic considerations. Situation Analysis

Audience & Customer Analysis (How to Focus)

            This has been observed that the management of this company has focused on the customer’s care services. This has helped the company to have the loyal customer along with the low bargaining power in the competitive market. In addition, this is to mention that this organization has focused on the big stores in the different cities. On the other hand, customers want to view the products on their mobile phones and have information through the web descriptions. However, the company still has a large customer base along with the loyalty, which is its biggest strategy. The quality, brand image and customers loyalty in the competitive market are the other strengths.

Competitors Benchmarking

            As mentioned, the retail market is competitive, as big giants like Wal-Mart, Amazon exists in the market. The biggest threat to the company is that its products or services are imitable by the competitors. In addition, the competitors are containing the differentiation process along with some serious intentions regarding the social media marketing. Thus, there is a need to fix these issues to exist strongly in the competitive market. Obviously, the competitors have an immense range of substitutes. In the competitive market, there is a need to conduct an intense marketing intelligence to identify the strengths and weakness of the competitors. It will help the management of the company to consider effective decision making process.  

Online Partner Analysis

            The company does not have an online partner to market the products for the customers. This has been considered its biggest weakness. There is a need for investments to optimize the special media channels for the customers to have good navigations. Still, the company did not make alliances with the third parties in this regarding have the technical assistance. There is a need to find pertinent partners to integrate with customers through different social media channels, as it will be cost effective and lucrative for the company.

Digital Marketing Review

            Now, this is a great opportunity for the company to contain some digital marketing considerations. As mentioned, the management of the company has lacked the social media strategies, which has reduced the sales and attraction process among the customers. This opportunity can be enhanced with some strategic considerations and modern approaches in different media channels. The company is not up to the mark regarding the digital marketing, as the trend of marketing has been changed with the passage of time.

Objective Setting

Vision

“The vision of the company is to let the customers contain necessary information regarding electronic goods, appliances, and furniture through different social media channels in order to enhance the buying decisions”

Mission

“The mission of the company is to come up with attractive visuals and information regarding products along with better navigation options, as company intends to differentiate through social media positioning”

Goals

            The goal of the company is to differentiate its electronic products and appliances on social media to grab an immense range of customers and convert the in the presence of immense competition in the retail industry. Furthermore, the goal of the company is also to enhance the attraction of the customers in order to enhance the sales of products in the different stores. In addition, this will be better reducing the cost of advertisement through the consideration of social media channels. This is better to contain the smarty goals, as it will help to gain the objectivity of the company and sustain the competitive advantage and differentiation process.

Key Performance Indicator

            The intense response by the customers on different media channels will be the key performance indicator for the company. Obviously, after shifting from the traditional media channels to the modern media channels, the difference will be justified in the competitive market. For Instance, the selection of social media channels, adaptation, use of technology, the response to the customers and sales at the end are the different key performance indicators for the management of the company.

Web Analytics

            The company will use the different social media channels or pages with the name of the product or the brand name. For Instance, ABT Electronics will contain an immense range of data on social media channels to have the informative customers. The purpose is to attract the customers through attractiveness and best possible navigation tools. These online navigation tools are effective and workable, which can enhance the user traffic.

  • The company will enhance the brand awareness due to new followers on Facebook & twitter
  • Giving response to the customer’s likes and comments to have intense feedback
  • The management aims to reach 90% to all comments and likes for the first 3 months
  • 70% increase in web traffic along with newsletters
  • Improvements of customer knowledge and perception for buying decisions

Social media Strategy

ü  Categorization of the customers to make segments

                The target customers on social media for this company are the households and young adults. For Instance, the segments of the customers will be based on different social media channels such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Different people use or prefer these social media channels according to their intentions, preferences, and perceptions. Thus, the advertisements on these media channels will be different to justify these segments. Behaviorally, to justify the aggression of the customers, the visuals and information will be pertinent for the customers to create the value and difference.

ü  Positioning & creating Perception

            The company has the plan to contain the celebrity endorsements in the different visuals to position better in the minds of the customers. For Instance, for different electronic goods, the celebrity endorsements is a good choice, as people would love to see their favorite personalities and company products in their hands. In addition, relative to the value proposition, the differentiation process will be visualized on these channels along with necessary information regarding the quality, sales, promotions and difference regarding the competitors.

ü  Engagement, Content Value & Preciseness

            The ABT Electronics will engage the customers through questionnaires, promotions, and visualization on regular basis. The most important thing is to relate the customer regularly to let them know about the products and its features. Obviously, the customers will provide their suggestions to the company. Relative to the content strategy, the management of the company to contain the precise content, this is easy to understand for the customers. In addition, this is also necessary for the management of the company to depict information reading the features, benefits and quality of the products along with some technical aspects and visuals. The purpose is to provide whole information to the customers, as it can help the management to observe the immediate buying decisions.

ü  Integrated Communication Strategy

            The integrated communication strategy will be enhanced through the visuals, contents and video ads. The Facebook, twitter, and YouTube are the main channels for effective integrated communication strategy. The company aims to build the strong communication foundation for the customers. The enhancements of data orientation will drive the company towards its directions. The right information at the right time is the first priority through special media, which can justify the integrated marketing communication strategy.

Digital Marketing Activities

Reach

ü  SEO Considerations

In the recent times, search engine optimization has been on the rise. However, ABT Electronics has not been very active in this portion. In order to stay active with the global audience, the company can use search engine optimization to have a positive impact on its marketing operations. All major search engines that are currently operating in the global markets including Google, Yahoo, and Bing use page rankings and other tools to display results in the search. ABT electronics can use this page ranking to it benefits and this will allow them to gain better exposure on the internet.

ü  Marketing Partners

This is the marketing tool in which the business rewards the clients or their affiliates based on their performances based on each visitor drawn towards the website. The more audience brought towards the website will allow the affiliates to gain more rewards. This will enable ABT Electronics to get better access to the market and gain rewards against it as well.

ü  Advertisement & Visualization

ABT Electronics can also opt to choose for display advertising which works pretty much like the conventional advertising. Here the banner ads and rich media are used on other website and these ads display the content related to the various products and services of the firms. This can be very beneficial for the firm as it gets introduced to more and more people.

ü  Acquisition Email marketing

The company can also go for email marketing; however, this will be more effective when the company has a very proficient email address list. This goes well when all of the other tools are producing goods for the firm. ABT Electronics will be able to develop a list of clients who are engaged in the business and the company will look to stay connected with the use of acquisition email marketing.

ü  Social Media Marketing

It is very important for the firm to develop better ratings using the social media tools. These tools are dependent upon the concept that which of the search engine is most relevant to the users. In the case of ABT Electronics, Google can be the most effective search engine as it will allow the company t move on top in the search rankings and gain better exposure in the market. This will enable the firm to gain more audience and will create a better identification for the firm in the market.

Act & Convert

ü  Design Effectiveness

            As we have discussed above that the main website page is important if we want to start the business online. It can be seen that the appearance plays an important role in this regard. One of the best things that need to be done is to that the site needs to be having a design, which would be responsiveness. As, it will open on any browser, any phone, tablet or Smartphone according to the screen size Further, the site should be having the wide content at the starting that maximum people get attracted by that.

ü  Home Page Design efficiency

            The home page of the website needs to be at the top most level as the main thing is that how the website looks. The design needs to be at the maximum attracted level so that the most of the customers get to engage and they buy the product for the company in this regard.

ü  Browse Page Efficiencies

            The search bar on the website needs to be so effective and easy to use so that every person could search the material quickly through it.

ü  Category & Product Page Efficiencies

            In the web site all, the electronic and the other products will be placed in the categories that will be suitable for the company. The product range will be clear in every aspect.

ü  Basket & Checkout Efficiency

            The basket on the website will be very effective and it will save the items till the next login of the customer and until it is deleted manually so to relax the customers that the product is available and the checkout will be possible at any time.

ü  Social Media Marketing

            However looking at the overall scenario we come to know that the social media is important in the aspect that marketing is one of the key roles in this aspect so that the best practices could be achieved in this regard.

Engage

ü  Content Marketing

Content marketing help in recognition of engaging with the customer through social media development. Content marketing associated with the creation as well as the distribution of relevant, valuable and consistent content to retain corporate values of ABT electronics. Publishing content regarding certificates, awards, and honors of ABT electronics on the social media are good to attract customer values in a good manner.

ü  Newsletters and Promotional Emails

            The development of newsletter, as well as promotional emails, is forward to the potential clients to retain customer values.   The promotional emails like bundle offerings and discount offering communicate through promotional emails to position the ABT electronics in the marketplace. The newsletter of the company entailed with the specifications of the social media development to engage customer values.

ü  Event Triggered Email Marketing

            The development of event triggered email marketing enhances the improvements in the social media marketing plan for the ABT electronics. Welcome message, conversation, initial cross-sell message and engagement message associated with the event triggered email marketing. It encourages the customers to free trail of the site of the services and increase the awareness of the range of informational and commercial offerings.  On the other hand, initial cross-sell message encourage customer for membership and ask feedback for the services over the ABT electronics.

ü  Customer Services & Support

            One of the most important aspects of the social media development plan for the ABT electronics is customer support services. The complaints and suggestions would be reviewed for the ABT electronics to enhance the improvements in customer services and support. The feedback and response to the customer will be reviewed and provided feedback on the use of email as well as direct contact with the customers. Thus it entails with the best customer engagement.

ü  Website Personalization

            Web site personalization gives the unique way of customer needs and wants satisfaction by visiting the website of the ABT electronics. Adaptive call to action retained under the demonstration of the website personalization in accordance with customer trends. It enhances the perception of the customer by website unique to visit more times to build positioning of ABT electronics.

ü  Social Media Marketing

            The social marketing tools specifically elaborated in terms of content marketing, promotional emails, and customer support services, event triggered email marketing and Website personalization ensured best social media marketing.

Social Media Recommendations

            Looking at all elements of the projects, which includes the website designs, the customers how they reach and the engagement, needs to be at the top class. The reason behind is the customer once reaches the website should have so welcoming nature that they browse the products and buy at the end. I would like to recommend the company that they need to be so efficient in this regard that where and how the website is seen.

            The design of the website needs to be so attractive that customers love that. However, the engagement will be there and the customers will love this place at the end. Hence, to accomplish these tasks the company needs to be very effective and they need to be very cost effective also in this regard. The company needs to be very good and efficient in the social marketing so that people could know about them.    

Financial Concerns

 Despite the importance of all the social media tools, it will be an expensive deal for the firm. ABT Electronics have to be very careful in developing an overall plan for this strategy. The finances can exceed the budget hence the company has to be very careful in selecting the best tools for its operations.  

Evaluation and control metrics

            The evaluation and control metric towards social media development enhance the performance of ABT electronics to sustain in the business environment. The evaluation metrics provides the credibility of the gap in existing marketing plan of ABT electronics. It reveals that evaluation of social media development of ABT electronic obtains high-level marketing tactics to communicate the core benefits of podcast and services with innovative way.

Conclusion

            In this study, we have discussed the ABT Electronics regarding its social media strategies; the emphasis of the study was on objectives, goals, strategies and an effective implementation plan along with different strategic considerations. To survive in the competitive retail market and in the presence of immense substitutes, this is necessary for the company to implement these plans and strategies with prominent focus and determination. The company has to improvise with the passage of time, and the social media integration is pertinent in this regard.

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Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations

Introduction

Effective communication is very vital in order to establish relationships in successful manner and then it leads to more beneficial and useful social interactions. The relationship cannot be confined to one domain but they range from personal to business domains. Thus, effectiveness communication helps businesses to happen successfully. Conflicts are created among personal relations and business communications mostly due to the misconception and ineffective communication. Therefore it is necessary to make the communications effective whether they are in the form of the written communications or they are oral (Bercovitch and Jackson, 2001). Communication can be defined by the act or process through which people share information and knowledge with each other. The process of communication is dynamic in nature where sender and receiver of communication play an important and critical role. Moreover, this process is made more dynamic and interactive by using different means. Slides and presentations showing graphical information are used to present data and information effectively. So far as business form of communication is concerned, it is done through written reports and documentation. Different forms of communication are there in which interpersonal communication which takes place between manager and business is very critical. Organizational communication and hierarchy are used to help communication done in organizations.

As part of communication, there is some forms including interview and negotiations. Conflict can lead towards risks causing factors. Conflicts are never fruitful. Conflicts can be handled by negotiations and effective communications. So far as business communication is concerned, it is important and necessary to use business friendly decisions and skill sets. The skills are very important because skills are required to manage communication process. There are different kinds of communication and these kinds can be made excellent by using specific skills. These skills are in fact, management attributes which make communication more effective and useful. Practice and time involve in making these skills useful for business. Ethical and moral values are among conditions which help to make conversation and communication beneficial and effective. It is point to be noted that effective communication is always based on attributed like ethics, personality, morality, and attitudinal characteristics. Oral form of presentation also requires practice like other form of communication and early preparation of communication helps business growing. There should be proper research process to better equip presenter before starting a presentation. Interest of the audience in the presentation topic is very important condition because it motivates the presenter. Social relationships are also very important as team working in organizations is also based on communication and it is based totally on better communication. There is also need of code of ethics, moral values, and communication attributes in a communication process. In case, there are no ethical and moral values then the process of communication can get worse and disadvantageous. Interviews and negotiations are also important forms of communication in an organization level communication.

The negotiations can affect the conflicts but sometimes if not handled properly can lead towards the most crucial situation in conflicts. The interpersonal communications are supposed to be pleasant so that there lies no conflict. Managing the risks caused by negotiations is also necessary. A risk is may be a crucial and critical thing which may affect negatively on an organization. It may seem harmful but, sometimes, a factor which may seem like a risk but would not be a risk. A proper research about that factor is necessary because if we consider it as a risk from the start and start monitoring and reviewing, it may lead towards resource and time wastage if we at the end found that it is not a risk. Also, monitoring of risk without research may itself become a risk. Risk research can be evaluated in many ways. From quantitative to qualitative analysis, the analysis can be on the premise of many techniques. Quantitative analysis involves such approaches where data is supposed to be fact data and contains numeric values so it can be processed quantitatively using statistical analysis. Whereas for the qualitative method, the analysis may be on the basis of textual data or narrative data and its outcome may be narrative. The method may involve discussions or nominal group analysis (Behfar et al., 2008). Interpersonal communication is important type of communication which involves communication between two or more persons. The speaker is also involved with the process of interpersonal communication. If there is no good interpersonal communication then it can put negative impact in social interaction which may be affected because good interpersonal communication is important for good business relations.

Journal Entries

The mediating and moderating effects of conflict and communication openness on workplace trust

The organization has some specific attributes and hierarchy is one of the important attributes of an organization. In hierarchy, organizational communication takes place. In other words, hierarchy is made to make communication possible. Hierarchy is the part of organizational structure and it plays an important role in organizational communication. Organizational structure is directly involved and related with people and employees of an organization. Related with hierarchical communication, there is also need of understanding of internal and external communication. Internal communication is involved with communication within the organization while external communication is about communication of employees of an organization with outside members. In any case, there should be broader and clearer course of action to further clearing up what two sorts of personalities people have. That is why it helps in understanding organizational structure along with people. The other thing which should be considered is to differentiate how to communicate internally and externally as both should involve an appropriate channel of communication. The internal formal medium for the communication within the organization and outside of the organization are emails. This is also the record for the communication and uses as evidence in the case of any misunderstanding. At the point when people blend with individuals of various identities and practices, they interface in an unexpected way. In the communication that happens inside an association, numerous elements become possibly the most important factor. These components show the path to be final selection. This is the topic which needs to be address that whether execution of settings will serve where organizational behavioral studies would appreciate or demonstrate variables in effective manner. It is winding up being constantly fundamental to remember different leveled conduct to guarantee a solid stage for individuals with different foundations and social qualities to organize adequately and helpfully. This tends to supplement the making and understanding what aptitudes operators of an alliance have and in expecting how individuals are committed to act. This learning may then help in controlling those practices that are not befitting the goals of the affiliations and help in knowing the structure. The organizational conflicts should be handled by the team leader. The leader is supposed to have performed the negotiations. Morals are an imperative variable of our social life. We wake up to these qualities and feelings consistently as they are the “rules” that speak to us. Morals lead towards an effective discussion and leave a decent impact on the individual being conversed with. Compelling interchanges are completely started on morals, identity and state of mind of a person. Now and again the definition is limited to vocally conveyed sounds. I could research the standard values that I have picked up from religions, work, family, great illustrations, experiences, school and master affiliations, pick the most fitting ones, refine and clean them as showed by my still, little voice. Regardless, I can regardless indicate a couple of specific events of poor morals where I clearly made the wrong call. Morals also relate to qualities and feelings in that they help us make sense of what is right or wrong and how we as individuals should continue. I could see various parts of my own life that I could reexamine in light of my own one of kind moral qualities. This paper helped me recalibrate my moral compass. It has helped me fabricate and confront those envision a situation in which conditions are characterized on moral grounds. It is to develop a framework for moving nearer veritable moral troubles. It helped me evaluate my own one of a kind quality systems, both religious and standard, and furthermore the estimation of good illustrations. Identity is another calculates which can help compelling correspondences. I surmise that identity influences all parts of a being’s standard, even how one responds to a particular situation or a particular errand at work including each correspondence required on business.

Personality and Conflict: The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice

Capabilities in correspondence are imperative for the long haul extends in life. It incorporates social objectives and self-presentation objectives. It helps me to comprehend the how to keep up, end and build up the connections. Promote instrumental objectives are additionally settled with appropriate relational abilities. It additionally brings issues to light among individuals and experts with respect to considerable issues in the correspondence procedure. It additionally establishes that at what degree objectives are accomplished. Premonition, control, and duty are three variables which perceive the significance of the correspondence acknowledgment. Be that as it may, a capacity to comprehend the correspondence conduct is essential. Communications are totally dependent on the personality of a person. Verbal aggressiveness can never lead towards conflict management or the negotiations.

Presentations are another type of the communication with the other audiences. The presentations to a horde of individuals are not for the most part straightforward, yet it requires more practice and capacities. It should be seen as that the idea passed on is not being dubious and tended to unmistakably. Again there moreover lie a couple of gauges, ethics, and conduct in acquainting with a horde of individuals. Correspondence misgiving is a noteworthy issue while displaying before other individuals that ought to be lessened as it would lead towards the absence of certainty and in strength while showing. The oral presentation requires rehearse additionally as it ought to be arranged promptly. Trepidation while correspondence is an extremely essential thing and can be exceptionally disadvantageous. It might lead towards the absence of certainty and wind up with a terrible affair. While controlling worry, something else in my perspective is that there ought to be legitimate readiness and research in regards to the presentation theme. Presentations before a group of people can be more productive when you have the learning, and you can answer individuals. Likewise, it would make the presentation more viable and intriguing for the gathering of people. The structure of presentation and its representation is likewise an urgent element. Keeping slides to visual cues and speaking to graphically is a superior way. Look into with respect to presentation is additionally important to increase advance learning and expelling gathering of people ambiguities. The group of onlookers ought to be locked in by the viability of presentation as it would lead towards their enthusiasm for that subject. It is evident for me that while showing before a crowd of people, it requires, ability set and practice. Keeping slides less printed and including content projectiles just alongside graphical pictures can improve presentation structure and favorable. I think it requires some essential practice, certainty, grasp on theme and a successful method for drawing in a crowd of people. Everything joins a legitimate identity and personality. It is like this basic to perceive and be familiar with identity characters and after that pair workers with their kind of obligations that enthusiastic their characters at the most flawlessly awesome. I believe that identity influences all parts of a being’s standard, even how one responds to a particular condition or a particular errand at work including each correspondence required on business. In my viewpoint, not every identity is ideal for every vocation put, and not each occupation is fit for a man to perform. It is the speaker whom ought to emerge the enthusiasm of group of onlookers and make presentation more compelling so individuals may think that its charming and productive for them. I have learnt too that presentations require more graphical substance than literary as content can be just perused by clients and moderator have no esteem.

Regardless, a more extensive strategy facilitates clears up what two sorts of identities individuals have. That is the reason it help in comprehension hierarchical structure alongside individuals. The other thing which ought to be considered is to separate how to convey inside and remotely as both ought to include a proper channel of correspondence. The internal formal medium for the communication within the organization and outside of the organization are emails. This is also the record for the communication and uses as evidence in the case of any misunderstanding. At the point when people blend with individuals of various identities and practices, they interface in an unexpected way. In the communication that happens inside an association, numerous elements become possibly the most important factor.

Conflict and Cooperation in Job Interviews: A study of talks, tasks, and ideas

The association dependably have a need of meeting workers and it is a system very to make inquiries and how to request data. In the book via Carlopio et al., 2005, writers portrayed the administrative aptitudes on taking the meeting and directing meeting morally. It additionally expressed with respect to the administration abilities required to look after meeting. The meeting is a procedure of genuine purposed address answer session. The meeting has primary considers, for example, morals meeting and arranging and leading of the meeting. Understanding the individual being talked with, arranging the question answer session and adhering to morals of meeting individuals is vital. These parts make sense of which way, up or down. The execution of the setting will go. Arranging is a vital variable of talking. Building up the reason and motivation of meeting aides firstly in arranging. The following stride comes when we need to distinguish whom to meet. Identity and brain research judgment ought to likewise be made in the meeting. The following thing ought to be to distinguish the regions about which the inquiries ought to be inquired. Assurance of the suitable meeting structure ought to be considered and in addition it ought to be composed. From the general structure, the most suitable inquiries must be picked.

Additionally, all things considered, these things, the right planning and setting ought to be picked. Morals moreover relate to qualities and feelings in that they help us make sense of what is right or wrong and how we as individuals should bear on in this manner it can lead towards an effective meeting session. Identification in interviewing is a major factor and ethic. One should always identify the personality of the person being interviewed. Another important ethics in interviewing someone is being honest. This applies on both who is interviewing and who is being interviewed. Another important factor is about being informed about an interview. One should be dignified and supported for an interview. There should be no aggression in interviewing or no passiveness which can cause ambiguity. Also, there should be a clear purpose and no ambiguities. Promises which are made in interviews should always be kept as it also brings honesty factor.

Personality is another factor which can help in effective communications. I think that personality affects all aspects of a being’s standard, even how one reacts to a specific circumstance or a specific errand at work including every communication required on business that is why interviewing involves analysis of the person being interviewed. Planning interview and its conduction involving the ethics of interview is very important but mostly.

Role of secretary vs. author: Resolving the conflict in writing instruction

Knowing the reason for writing and targeting audience is an important factor for business writing. Putting up so many things to make it look more professional and then ending up in an exhausting way is never a business or professional approach. It should be more effective, linguistic, and content should be more helpful and informative. Usually, business writing involves emails and reports. Emails need to be formal in a case of business while reports need to be more explaining and covering aspects of the whole business. The effect of these interchanges on business and its total effect are additionally being examined, and the method for business correspondences are likewise clarified with respect to business composing.

In my perspective, one can adhere to a legitimate procedure so it ought to begin business composing. Business composing is the kind of writing in which one is constantly mindful of the intended interest group and recognizes what might be the specific circumstance. So that is the reason the business composing ought to just be restricted to significant information and data. In the case of emails and reports, you have to stick to the basic theme. The emails also involve the formal conversation manners and ethics along with the clarity in text for what you want to say. Moreover, reports are supposed to be more descriptive regarding business figures, facts and dimensions. In my experiences, business writing ends up well as I was asked to generate a business report for assessment in a course and it contained proper information regarding whole business. From facts, numeric data and figures, it contained complete information. The business report involved the text and numeric data, text for the business report was also properly spell checked and grammar checked as it was a professional level business document and any mistake may lead towards disastrous effects. Business is not about stories or clarifications so the business composing ought to go for an indistinguishable path from it ought exclude clarifications, simply significant information, and figures until it is not a business report which may require some printed business data and clarification.

As scholarly written work includes an immense measure of pursuers and is unconscious of setting, business composing includes mindfulness in both terms. A business report is constantly constrained to the association it’s being exhibited, various gatherings of people are restricted furthermore would be adhered to a constrained individual as it were. Messages are likewise mindful of setting and are tended to some particular gathering which is additionally enough to get the thought. So on the start of these components; business composing can be more viable, less demanding, compact and accommodating as opposed to the scholarly written work.

The other thing which ought to be considered is to separate how to impart inside and remotely as both ought to include a suitable channel of correspondence. The internal formal medium for the communication within the organization and outside of the organization are emails. This is also the record for the communication and uses as evidence in case of any misunderstanding. Exactly when individuals mix with people of different characters and practices, they interface in a startling way. In the correspondence that happens inside an affiliation, various components turn out to be perhaps the most imperative element. These segments make sense of which way, up or down. The execution of the setting will go while the subject of Organizational Behavior Studies tries to acknowledge and exhibit these factors. It is winding up being ceaselessly fundamental to remember different leveled conduct to guarantee a solid stage for individuals with different foundations and social qualities to facilitate viably and helpfully. This tends to supplement the making and understanding what aptitudes specialists of an alliance have and in expecting how individuals are committed to act. This learning may then help in controlling those practices that are not befitting the destinations of the affiliations and help in knowing the structure.

Predicting interpersonal conflict resolution styles from personality characteristics

Interpersonal includes correspondence including at least two individuals while intrapersonal are the interchanges which are adhered to a man itself. Verbally forceful terms may lead towards an awful involvement in a business interpersonal correspondence and may lead towards antagonism in social relations. It is being announced that such forceful discussions can bring about mental and physical torment and can be unsuccessful with respect to relations. Morals lead towards a productive discourse and leaves a better than average effect on the individual being talked with. Convincing trades are totally introduced on ethics, personality, aura and morals of a man.

A discourse never progresses in extraordinary terms if morals and incredible ethics are barred. In this way, moral correspondence in little social occasions considers caring for one self and the other get-together people. Aggressive talks may lead towards psychopathy, an inability for argumentation, and disdain. Thus it is never appreciated whereas passive talks may lead towards ambiguity and unable to express feelings. Interpersonal relations in business are based on commence of solid interchanges which might be viable furthermore leads towards great social relations in business. In my perspective, everything ought to be on the preface of moral exchange, and no verbally forceful thing might be included. Additionally, it might include socio-informative components. Specific encounters of attributes and sentiments originate from the individual perspective, a social point of view the detachment to a connection affirmation which is never conceivable if there should arise an occurrence of inactive talks and latent method for correspondence may lead towards uncertainty. Making an individual code of morals is vital to clarify moral thought, make us more mindful of vital great inconveniences and beneficial abilities, to show capacities with regards to directing them, and to apply the aptitudes and enhance moral conduct.

Conclusion

At last, hostility may never make a discussion more moral and can bring about despise calculate alongside a discernment that this individual can never contend and contend will lead towards animosity. By planning the code of ethics throughout our life and considering, we have the same pervaded in our strategy for working. Inclinations make through reiterated exercises, and exercises get from insights. Affinities are the squares from which we produce character, and our character chooses our destiny. Interpersonal correspondence includes decisiveness. That you make yourself absolutely clear and leave no equivocalness. There ought to be no verbal animosity and code of morals ought to likewise be kept in my psyche. Assertiveness do not involve fussing up all secrets; it’s about making. The purpose of your speaking clear and having a clear view of yourself with other team members in the organization. It may never involve passiveness and aggression in my communications as the passiveness in my communication would lead towards my expressions ambiguity. It can cause misunderstanding in people’s mind whereas aggression can make me never successful. The interpersonal communications are the necessity of a successful social career. Therefore I can see it involves an amount of factors, such as assertiveness, ethics, morals and manners. A good in little social events suggests the moral parts of get-together coordinated effort. Morals and ethics lead towards a fruitful discussion and leaves a decent impact on the individual being conversed with. Viable interchanges are completely started on morals, identity, demeanor and ethics of a man. A discussion never advances in great terms if ethics and great morals are excluded. Ethics lead towards a successful conversation and leave a nice impression on the person being talked with.

Effective communications are totally premised on ethics, personality, and attitude of an individual. At times the definition is confined to vocally delivered sounds. I could explore the standard morals that I have picked up from religions, work, family, great illustrations, experiences, school and master affiliations, pick the most proper ones, refine and clean them as showed by my still, little voice. Regardless, I can find regardless indicate a couple of specific events of poor morals where I clearly made the wrong call. Morals also relate to qualities and feelings in that they help us make sense of what is right or wrong and how we as individuals should go ahead. I could see various parts of my life that I could reevaluate in light of my own one of kind moral qualities. This paper helped me recalibrate my moral compass. It has helped me assemble and confront those envision a situation in which conditions are characterized on moral grounds. It is to develop a framework for moving nearer honest to goodness moral troubles. It helped me evaluate my own special quality systems, both religious and standard, and moreover the estimation of good cases.

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Security Analysis of Ecosynthetix Inc & Electronic Arts Inc

Introduction

For the weekly security analysis, the companies I have selected are Ecosynthetix Inc and Electronic Arts Inc. EcoSynthetix is a renewable chemicals company. The company works towards the development of bio-based products as a replacement solution for petroleum based products. These bio materials are used as inputs for other end products.  On the other hand we are analyzing Electronic Arts Inc. It is also known as EA Games. EA is a video gaming company in California. It was declared as the world’s fourth largest gaming company in the year 2014.

Ratio Interpretation (durable competitive advantage)

Evaluating both companies, we can see that EA Games has better value indicators as compared to Ecosynthetix. The ROIC is negative in each of the 5 years in EcoSynthetix while in EA games the return on Invested capital is quite high in the last two years. It was positive is year 2011 and 2012, fell below zero only in 2013 after that it grew to more than 20% till 2015. The equity growth rate trend is seen to be falling in EcoSynthetix in every year while the trend is continuously increasing in EA games. Moreover, the EPS is also negative in EcoSynthetix in each of the 5 years while it grew in EA year on year.  Moreover, in terms of gross margin, we can conclude that EA games has obtained a durable competitive advantage as the margin is greater than 40% in each of the five years and is shows an increasing trend as well. On the other hand EcoSynthetix’s gross margin is below 20% each year and is seen to be falling year on year. This means it is operating in a highly competitive industry and unable to sell its goods and services at a high profit. Net margin is also negative in EcoSynthetix while positive in EA games with an increasing trend. The current and quick ratios of EA games I near to the benchmark while in EcoSynthetix the ratios are far above than the benchmark which represents that the company has a lot of assets that are idle and not being used in the business to make profits. The leverage ratios are also near to the benchmark in EA games while in EcoSynthetix no liability is to be seen surprisingly.

Valuation & Susceptibility to Bankruptcy (Why to Invest)

Evaluating both companies in terms of margin of safety, both margins are below 20% which is not a good indicator at all. In EA games it is negative. In terms of FCF valuation Ecosynthetix margin of safety is more than 50|% which appears to be feasible buy situation however EA games FCF margin of safety is quite less. The Piotroski F and Altman Z score are the two measures used to analyze bankruptcy state of both companies. The F score of EcoSynthetix shows that it a very weak company and would probably fail in near future while its Zs score is very high which saves it from becoming bankrupt. The F score of EA shows that it is a strong company and low chances of failing. However, its Z score represents that the management should continue with caution as there is high probability of bankruptcy.

In conclusion, despite of negative safety of margin, the ratios and other indicators of EA games is far better than that of EcoSynthetix so it is better to drop the idea of investing in EcoSynthetix and continue to analyze EA games for investment.

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Language and Vocabulary

Thesis statement: This paper will examine the evolution of vocabulary and how in a language words provide a particular and additional understanding of reality or phenomenon.

Languages are one of the manifestations of culture, and they are the instrument, which is employed to communicate and express. The study of languages, their origin, and evolution, reveals that with the stretch of time, as the culture and society evolved, so does language. From the methodical study of cultures it is apparent that those cultures, which remained isolated and only internal factors contributed to their evolution, their language remained rigid and vocabulary limited. In comparison, expansionary cultures or cultures which were permitted by realities (Geographic and others) to interact and amalgamate with other cultures, their languages evolved swiftly, and vocabulary expanded. These developments positively affected the evolution of a language and made literature richer.

As discussed earlier that languages are one of the manifestations of a culture and they are used to communicate and express. From the research, we also learn that languages, which have a common origin, have similar, but unique, structure and they use similar linguistic instruments to make understand a phenomenon or reality. For instance, Western Germanic languages have much in common, regarding structure and vocabulary, as these languages are an expression of similar cultures that are affected by similar realties (Harris, 2013 ).

 The study of the evolution and expansion of vocabulary suggests that not just the interaction cultures have contributed to the expansion of vocabulary, but also the use words, in particular, manner, in literature has also given new understanding to words. In almost all languages, literature, which is in the form of narratives-poems-epics etc., has contributed immensely to give additional understanding to a word. Writers, academics, and intellectuals have used words in certain contexts, which gave additional understanding to a word.

When we discuss the English Language, for example, it becomes apparent that the language has gone through various evolutionary stages. During the medieval period, Middle English developed or evolved under the influence of French and Latin. This period not only affected structure (grammar) of English language and its vocabulary, but also pronunciation and orthography. The second phase is identified as a Shakespearian era, during which Italian and English literature influenced the development of language and provided additional meaning to words, by employing them in various contexts. Sometimes, research suggests, that contexts were tempered deliberately to add new meaning to a word. However, the meaning never fluctuated radically from its original or common understanding. Similarly, the Victorian era, which is marked by Industrial Revolution, added new words and again give additional understanding to words; through their use in literature.

In other cultures, such as Italian, literature played a significant and relevant part in giving words new realities. Also, words have been used to identify a phenomenon or reality. For instance, the term industrious emerged in Victorian with new understanding, which was highly diligent and hardworking. Another example is the word toffee, which emerged during the Victorian age; the word represents the mixture of sugar and molasses.

The emergence of the internet and social media has also given to various words and terminologies, which reflect/represent a particular situation, scenario, reality of the phenomenon. These internet terms have gradually moved into formal language and now frequently used to describe/explain a phenomenon/reality.

The multiplicity of definitions and meanings is a result of various factors. The most common factor is the use of words, in literature, in different contexts. The systematic study of English, French and Italian literature and work produced by Intellectuals like Dante Alighieri and Shakespeare (mentioned because they influenced language and vocabulary most), suggests that not just words gained additional understanding, also to describe new phenomenon and realities new terminologies and words originated (NSF, 2016).

Also, words, which survived various linguistic watersheds not only gained additional comprehension but also they became more versatile in use. In addition to that many words amalgamated to describe a phenomenon. The most recent and common example is term hate-love relationship. This term is an amalgamation of two words, hate, and love, which are antonyms of one another and considered two extreme emotions. This implies that relationship is swinging between two extremes.

There are numerous such examples, which suggest that words and phrases are in the perpetual state of evolution and as new realities and phenomenon are emerging, so does the words that represent their understanding. Therefore, it can be said that as the societies, literature, realities, and phenomena emerge and evolve, so do the language and words. 

Conclusion

Language and words are evolving, as the time is progressing and this evolution will continue for an indefinite period. From the discussion, this is also apparent that expansion and evolution of language are affected by various factors, which include the cultural development, as a result of interaction and amalgamation of cultures.

References

Harris, R. (2013 ). The Language Myth in Western Culture. Routledge.

NSF. (2016). Language Change. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from National Science Foundation: https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/linguistics/change.jsp

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Nucor: Case Study

“Nucor Case Study”

What type of strategy has Nucor followed?

The porters five generic strategies are mostly used by the industries. Purpose of these generic strategies is to increase or decrease the production or the price of the product. There are several kind of strategies which Nucor can followed but the one which they are following it the low-cost provider strategy. Reason behind this is that they want to keep the price competitive to the other company’s product.

This gives them advantage over the other industry as they have now more customer because of low price but the quality of the product remains same. Usually companies use this strategy in order to make their ground very strong in the market because the high price is considered to be negative side of the industry especially if the company is in the competitive market. This strategy has saved Nucor over the past 30+ years and still working best for them.

In this case it is clear that the Nucor is considered to be one of the best industry when it comes to the low-price strategy. As in the result of this strategy they have the low-cost competitive advantage in the market over the high-cost producers. That’s why they can easily use the recycle scrap steel which is created by the high-cost industries. From that scrap of the steel they can generate the finish and fine product.

Which elements of the Macro-environment are likely to impact this industry?

Macro-Element are the economic and social condition of the country. As they can have great impact on the company sales, production and market value. The company like Nucor is also effected with the macro element. As one of the macro element in this case is Employment. As if the employment rate of the country is good then company will also be stable and can work efficiently. If the employment rate is not good, then company will not work efficiently as it will have extra burden on it.

Just like that GDP of the country should be high otherwise the production and sales of the company will be effected in the case Nucor which is serving the country for more than 30 years. This factors matter a lot as this is the only thing which defines the market value of the company at international level. So it’s important that GDP of the country should progress at constant rate.

Monetary and Fiscal policy of the company also have impacts on the marketing of the company and its product. The company should follow the rules set by the international steel mills or the government. US based steel companies are now at the top so if Nucor want to establish the strong relation with others then it should have discipline and ethical rules within the company.

Environmental changes are also the factor which cause the change in the sales or purchase of the company. If the country is not facing any kind of natural disaster like earthquake, flood or thunderstorm then it is possible that company will progress. Big companies like Nucor has to keep a keen eye over the environmental changes so that they can prepare themselves before anything happen and they pay for the huge loss.

Demographic factors like population and life expectancy rate are also have impact on the Nucor. In order to understand this let’s take an example a company who is in small town with less number of people. That company can’t progress with the same pace like other companies who are in big cities. Reason behind this is that company is able to fulfil the requirement of that town. This means the country which will be more populated their company will expand more.

The other macro-elements also have the impact on the business of the Nucor but these are some of the major factors which were described in the above paragraph. In order to avoid such kind of mistakes Nucor has to keep the keen eye over the market trend and the way their company is working.

What are the primary competitive forces impacting the U.S. Steel producers in general and the producers like Nucor that make new steel products via recycling in particular?

The technology innovation in steel making is the primary competitive force which is between US and Nucor companies. There are several new technologies which are in operation such as the furnace technology and thin-slab casting. Due to this the Nucor company has a competitive advantage over the other companies. We all know innovation plays an important role in the manufacturing of the steel especially the recycling process has become so advance that we can recycle materials like aluminum as much time we want and still its properties will not change.

The old technologies and the orthodox way of manufacturing steel is now vanishing from the world because they are not economical neither they give the better quality. So companies like Nucor do more advanced steel-making technology in order to get advantage over other companies. This driving force has great impact on the business of the Nucor.

As we know that the demand of the steel is increasing each day especially in the middle east due to huge and massive construction and development going on there. So it’s very important for us to understand that the driving forces are play their role in the progress of the company.

Now companies are more concerned about their plant efficiency like Nucor company is looking to improve their plant efficiency in order to increase the productivity of the plant. The steel production they want is to be maximum as they have to meet the sale-demand criteria of the market. Now for this purpose the company looks for the cost saving technology so that they can manufacture the cost-saving steel.

There is head-head competition going in the US Steel market now because some of the foreign companies are now shipping their steel in the US market. This has increased the competition twice it was before because the steel come from abroad is cheaper and better quality than the US market steel which is giving the US steel industry a very tough time. Suppliers are now in the domestic challenge as they are trying to overcome the market of the steel in the US.

In order to reduce the competitive pressure companies now have started working together. This means the companies like Nucor is in hand with other small steel industries to make the steel in the US. As this has the great positive impact on the market environment of the steel. Reason behind this is that the companies are producing steel together to fight with the big industries.

Aggressive companies in the steel market are usually in the good financial condition so they are not that much worried about the small industries. But now when the small steel industries are working together they are worried because the competition is increased because now steel companies are working in the group. But still the aggressive companies has advantage over the small industries because they have state of the art technology steel plants which can cover the whole production and demand of the steel in the market that’s why they still have very strong market position as compared to other companies.

The most important point in the driving forces is that in order to earn good profit the demand of the steel should be more as if the demand for the steel is weak then it double the price of the steel in the market which ultimately give shock to the small industries. While the profit is always more with the low-cost provider strategy although this does not work for the short period. But this surely works for the steel industries because in this industry the companies have to work for decades which means they can take the burden and pressure of long-term low-cost profit. This is what makes the companies stronger in the international market and they have strong grip over the market segments.

Looking at the current situaiton of the steel market we can say that the steel market is unattractive in the US now a day. The reason behind this is that the development in the US is not that much as it was before. The major development in the US occurs right after the world war 2. The infrastructure of the company improved rapiudly which give rise to the demand of the steel all across the country.

As competition for the next upcoming years look like to remain the same because this is not the suddne change in market. Steel market trend changing is very slow that’s why it is easy for the companies to make the long term policy for their companies. But this does not mean that the companies forget about market trend. As market trend is considered to be the back bone of company because the market value decides the company actual worth in the international market.

Nucor has to make necessary changes in their manufacturing system in order to compete in today’s steel market. Currently they are not making the Steel with the new and advanced technology because of the limitation of the resources but the driving force innovation is necessary in the manufacturing system. If Nucor manufacturing system of the steel becomes equal to the other companies than there are more chances that the steel manufacturing companies will not stand in front of the Nucor especially in the US market.

Customer bargaining power is antoher kind of driving factor which has the impact on the company overall performance. Reason behind this is that the company should have the strong communication skill to tackle the customer demands and bargaining. As customer always want to buy the best quality product at cheapest rate which is impossible.

In order to stop this companies should follow their own strict rules so that they can give importance to the other things more. Just like that the human resource relations also matters a lot which have the direct impact on the production of the steel. Because if the relation between the company and its employees will be good only then the company will make progress in a good way this is very important.

What are the three most important driving forces being at work in this industry? Are they favorable or unfavorable for the future growth and profitability for this industry?

There are many driving forces like the competitors, customer and the employees of the company. These three are the most important driving factor in the steel industry. All these three are strongly connected to each other so it’s important that the company should focus on all these three driving forces which lead company to the success if they work in the right direction.

Competitors:

Without competitor’s company can’t progress because it is the competitor who keeps the company motivated and to achieve their goal. This is the most important driving factor in the industry as the competition keeps the managers of the company on their toes. The company should have enough technology and resources to compete with other companies at international level. In case Nucor this company has a bit orthodox manufacturing system but if they want to occupy the US market, it is important that they equip their company with the steel manufacturing technology which is more advanced and comprehensive. That’s why competitors play an important role. Without competition the innovation will stop and eventually the companies will not fight to progress.

Customer:

As there is very famous phrase that “Customer is always right.” This shows the importance of the customer because the end consumer is the customer which means the company should focus on the customer relations. For this purpose, the steel industries can have the human resources department in the industry. Customer satisfaction is the most important thing in  the business because if the company doesn’t have high customer satisfaction rate then, it means there is something wrong either with the company

Employee:

Nucor has to maintain their company on the top in the international market, and for that, they always required highly skilled workforce. That’s why the focus of the company management is not just only on the qualification of the people but also they want to experience and high-level skills. The reason behind is that company is serving in all regions of worlds, so they have to make sure that each and every employee they hire can handle the challenging task they give to them. To get work from an employee, it’s important that employee is loyal and dedicated to the company as this can only happen if the human resource management of the company performs their duties properly. 

For Nucor, every employee is important because they hire them as a trainer they work on them and make them the highly qualified expert of their respective field. So they make sure that once a person enters in their firm, he or she must stay for a long time. That’s why human resource management of the company is working day and night to meet the requirements of the company and employee both. The main purpose of the Human resource department in any company is to ensure the relationship between the company and its employee run smoothly as any disturbance in the relationship can cause damage the company reputation and also give company severe economic shock.

Nucor’s resources and capabilities

  • Human Resource Department of Nucor

HRM of Nucor follows the principal of the “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.” As according to this model, there are five basic needs of an employee which he or she demands from its company. Human resource management of Nucor company make sure that employee must get these five needs which are Basic needs, Safety needs Social needs, Self-Esteem and Self-Actualization. To run the company smoothly then HRM must follow the Maslow’s Hierarchy system.  

Human resource management of the company work thoroughly and get guidance from the top management also, and after that, a strategy is made through which they recruit people and then provide them the training session. The purpose of the training session provided by the company is to make sure that employee gets used to the work environment of the company and also develop the necessary skills in it. For them, their employees are the big assets because they work hard on them to get best out of them.

The social life of employee plays a great role in the success of the organization, so HRM of the company make it sure that the employees are socially active and are not exhausted because of too much workload. Human resource management has to make sure that the relationship between the employee and the company are good for this purpose they create the comfortable work environment for their employee. Because they have to buy the employee loyalty to the company and this can only be done if the working environment and other social needs of the employee are fulfilled.

·         Logistics and Operations:

The current supply chain management is not up to the mark because of the delay in product manufacturing. As in last three years’ company didn’t change its supply chain and never bring any kind of new technology in the company. Due to which the company is struggling in providing the products right on time to the company customer and inventory. To achieve the target which is related to the supply chain company has to make progress and introduce some new techniques in the supply chain management. Currently, the company has too many inventories which are the burden on the company stock value and the overall economy. This should be reduced because according to Japanese economist the inventory slow down the manufacturing process. Keeping the inventory is important, but there is a much better technique which will be applied in the company for next five years. This technique is known as the Just-in-Time technique.

The Just-in-Time technique will reduce the company inventory and make the manufacturing process fast. This will result in the increased supply of the products. For this purpose, the sales marketing sector of the company is given the specific target to achieve on a monthly basis. In the logistics, the most important role is the transportation currently the way of transportation of the company from factory to the store is Truck. But in next five-years company is going to transfer its product to the customer in other cities through Train which is a faster way of transporting than the trucks. The capacity is more in trains, and they can be very time saving. Time is money in the business and especially for the business which is overcoming the financial and economic issues. These are some of the proposed strategies regarding the logistics and operations which should be applied in the company for the next five years.

·         Identifying industry and global trends

To make the company compete with other companies in the market both at local and global level. It is important that company should follow the modern trends. As nowadays’ industries manufacturing process is totally automatic so, in next five years in the board meeting, it is decided that company will install new and advanced manufacturing system. For this purpose, the use of robotics is suggested because robots can do twice and thrice more work than the human. They will also result in the low labor cost. Although for this purpose the huge investment is required this has the long lasting benefit for the company.

The accounting and finance department of the company is currently finding difficulty in handling the documents and records of the sales. New software’s are available in the market which can provide the clear solution the accounting and finance problems. The company has decided to hire the best accountants who know the use of most modern technical and financial software.

Global trends have a great impact on the market value of the company. Therefore, from the now own company is going to have the keen eye on the market trend at international level. For this purpose, the company is planning to open the new department which will only work for developing the new financial strategies and tactics to overcome the new challenges regarding international trends. This department will give the company progress and market trend report at the end of the months. Because stock market fluctuates now and then that’s why this is very important.

What areas of the business might be considered weaknesses, that should be addressed in the future strategic plan?

There are several weaknesses in the business which should be addressed. The major weaknesses of the businesses are mentioned below:

  • Less Investment.
  • Ethical Dilemma
  • Marketing Crisis.
  • Customer Service.

To solve the above-mentioned problems and to overcome the marketing and financial crisis. A strategic plan is proposed for the next five years for Nucor company. This strategic plan covers all the major fields of the business is very comprehensive for the steel company. So. To increase the productivity in the marketing segment, we will apply the 4-P’s strategy which works best for the marketing. The 4-P’s clearly explains and give the overview how the marketing segment of the company will look after 5-years.

Strategic Plan for Future:

  • Product:

The mass production is suggested to be done in next five-year plan instead of doing batch production. Because batch production is twice expensive than the mass production in the case of our company. According to the calculations and thorough study, it is observed that because of mass production the company will be able to produce 5 times much production then it was doing in last three years. If the company achieved this target in next 5 years, then this is the biggest milestone achievement of the company.

  • Price:

Price plays a crucial role in the publicity and sales of the product. As the company is currently facing tough competition regarding the price of the product. Because the quality of the product is decreased but the company didn’t lower its prices which give the negative impact on the sales of the product.

Now the competitors of the company are providing the best quality with the reasonable price. In next five-years company has decided to lower its price gradually to make it able to compete with the other products in the market. But this is not just limit to lowering the price of the product. The company planned to increase the quality of the product, but in next five years, the company has the plan to make the categories of the products of quality and product.

  • Place:

The company is currently not operating in the other major cities of the country. US Steel Industries are giving tough competition since the day it established inventories within the area of our company. Now it’s our time to expand the business and spread it all across the country. To do so, massive investment and crew are required which can handle the operations of the company inventories in the other cities.

In next five years as mentioned above company is going to explore the country and new market by opening new inventories in the well-developed areas. The place matters a lot as for this purpose a proper analysis is done to choose the best place for the company new inventories. The place should not be overcrowded and have competitors all around it.

  • Promotion:

This is the sector in which company currently lacks a lot because the promotions were finished long ago in the company. The reason behind this is that promotions can cause huge budget and time which company in the current situation can’t afford. To make the promotion effective, the timing and place of the promotion should be perfect.

In the next phase of the company which consists of 5-years. Promotions are on the top of the list to increase its performance. For the promotion purpose, the sum of every kind of medium will be done like social media, electronic media, seminar, exhibition, and print media. These all will be sued to get the maximum output from the promotion of the product.

Key-Success Factor

The key success factor in this are mentioned below:

Nucor management has to set the new goals and vision. It’s important to keep the vision, and every member of the management should agree on that.

An ERP is required for the company as this is very important all the previous records either it is related to production or the marketing cost. It is gathered and then analyzed using the ERP software which gives the valuable information. This software has vast use in the business management as it is not restricted for few departments of the organization.  This can be the key factor in success of the company

The employees of the Nucor also an important factor which contributes to the progress of the company. So it’s important to hire the new people who are expert in doing their job. For this purpose, the company has to recruit the people who are self-motivated. The people who are best in their work can only make the organization working environment good, and they are an inspiration to the other people.

All the shareholders play a crucial role in the development and the progress of the company.

This is the backbone in bringing change in the company as customer satisfaction is the overall reputation of the company. As in the past, the customer satisfaction rate of Nucor decreased rapidly due to their unprofessional behavior. Marketing and customer care departments are responsible for this to increase the customer satisfaction rate.

Market strength is everything for Nucor now so they should keep a keen eye on the market trend. The strategy can be changed the time to time keeping in view the market trend. To take control of the market, the company has to expand their market. The innovation and new stylish product help a lot in attracting the customer and this surely increases the market of the company.

Strategic Issues & Recommendation

This gives them the favorable position over the other business as they have now more client in light of the low cost yet the nature of the item stays same. Normally, organizations utilize this system with a specific end goal to make their ground extremely solid in the market because the high cost is thought to be the negative side of the business particularly if the organization is in the aggressive market. This technique has spared Nucor in the course of recent years and as yet working best for them. Much the same as that GDP of the nation ought to be high the generation and offers of the organization will be affected by the situation Nucor which is serving the nation for over 30 years. These elements matter a considerable measure as this is the main thing which characterizes the market estimation of the organization at a worldwide level.

So it’s vital that GDP of the nation ought to advance at the steady rate. The other full-scale components additionally have the effect on the matter of the Nucor. However, these are a portion of the central point which was depicted in the above passage. So as to stay away from such sort of errors, Nucor needs to keep the sharp eye over the market drift and the way their organization is working. The old innovations and the universal method for assembling steel are currently vanishing from the world since they are not prudent neither one of they give the better quality. So organizations like Nucor accomplish more propelled steel-production innovation keeping in mind the end goal to get the favorable position over different organizations. This main impetus has an incredible effect on the matter of the Nucor.

Presently, for this reason, the organization searches for the cost sparing innovation so they can produce the cost-sparing steel. To decrease the focused weight organizations now have begun cooperating. This implies the organizations like Nucor is close by with other little steel businesses to make the steel in the US. As this has the immensely positive effect available environment of the steel. The purpose for this is the organizations are creating steel together to battle with the enormous businesses. The most vital point in the main impetuses is that keeping in mind the end goal to procure the great benefit the request of the steel ought to be more as though the interest for the steel is frail then it twofold the cost of the steel in the market which at last offers stun to the little enterprises.

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Engineers to the Rescue

  1. Dog rescue crate
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            This is a dog rescue crate. It is used with the rope with open door. Once the dog enters the cagee, the dor is closed with the remote and the cage isn pulled up with.

  • Rescue basket
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            This is a rescue basket. The basket is used with a rope. It is simnple yet affctive device to pull the dog out of the we

  • Rescue harness:
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            This is wide leather made cofortable device. This can be used with rope or manually. It firmly holds the dog with the waist and does not put burden on the dog perticulerly.

  • Rescue lader  
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            This rescue ladder is particularly designed and used for pulling the dog out of the well. This is light weight and can be easily used.

  • Dog rescue life jacket
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            The dog rescue life jacket is light weight cotton made jacket. It can be used for rescue purpose. 

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Competitive Position of Coffee Shop at University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon

Competitive Position of Coffee Shop at University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon

The coffee shop at the University of Oregon is the only coffee shop within the university campuses, therefore, within the University; the competitive position of the business is very successful as there is no internal competitor for the University.  Likewise, the of the Coffee Shop with the comfortable environment with the facility of the book store and Wi-Fi within the university campuses is a unique idea which is not found anywhere near the university or even within the city. However, there are some coffee shops in the surrounding that could be considered as external competitors of the company but at the current stage, the coffee shop business has no threat from such coffee shops because company is under contract with the university and no one else will start its coffee business within the campus of the University of Oregon at the location of Eugene, Oregon.

There are various coffee shops are running their business in Eugene Oregon which sets a product competition for the Coffee Shop at the campus of University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon. Following are some of the potential competitors:

Competitive Coffee Shops at Eugene Oregon

Theo’s Coffee House is the most famous Coffee Shop business running in Eugene, Oregon as it is running 18 café within the city

Wandering Got Coffee Co.

Vero Espresso

Coffee Plant Roaster

Crum Together

Town Shend’s Eugene Teahouse

Tailored Coffee Raosters

Full City Café

Interestingly none of these competitors are running their business with the same idea of offering a comfortable, silent environment to study and to enjoy coffee together.

Competitive Edge

Coffee Shop at the campus of the University of Oregon has a competitive edge over the other university which is the idea of the business to offer coffee in a comfortable environment which is up to the need of the target market. However, there are many famous coffee shops are running in the surroundings of the university but none of them are offering such a comfortable environment along with coffee that allows students to study and enjoy coffee together.

Another competitive advantage for the university is that it does not have to invest huge on marketing to target its customers because all the students and the staff of the University are the customers of the coffee. Moreover, there is another describable competitive advantage for the Coffee Shop at the the University of Oregon as there is no other place within the university where a competitor could force the coffee shop to share its customers. Moreover, to overpower the competitive threat in future as well as to expand the business, the companies is looking forward to signing a contract with the company which will make the university not to let another brand start coffee shop within the university, but this contact will be on conditions (St. Clair, 2016). 

consumers.gif

Source: https://newint.org/easier-english/Foodhunger/Coffee/unfair.html

The coffee consumption has been elaborated in the chart. The coffee competition in the world is containing a surge, which creates the impact on this country. The company intends to have a prominent percentage accordingly.

Market Share Distribution

Interestingly, at the current stage, the company does not have to share its target customers with any of its competitors because the university does not have enough space to let any other company to start its business within the university. Moreover, the entire target market of the coffee shop are the students, teachers, and staff members and they do not have any other option or alternative to such facility. Therefore, they are bound with the coffee shop at their campus.

Moreover, the students have to spend a particular time within the university, therefore, at that particular time they found Coffee shop within the campus as the best option to enjoy coffee and do their readings together. Subsequently, for the Teachers and the staff, there is no better option than coffee shop within the Campus to get relax and to get prepared for the lecture.

Future Competition

The threat of the new entrant always exists in the market, but at the current stage, there is no future competition threat for the Coffee shop. The there major reason behind this is the unique business strategy. At the current stage, there is hardly any other company that is working with this unique idea.

Secondly, there are huge barriers for the new entrants. Most of all are that there is not enough space inside the university to start another coffee shop. On the other hand, in case if the company starts the business in near around the university, then the next challenge will be the environment because the coffee shop does not only have its worth for its product but at the same time it is a great tie of right product at the place for the right people (Eugenesaturdaymarket, 2015).

In case if a company attempted to do so, then it required a large area of property which means huge investment. Moreover, even after the huge investment, there will be no surety whether the student or teacher will go to the coffee shop. It is not because while sitting at the coffee shop within the campus allows students to go to their lecture rooms in no time, therefore, they will feel more comfortable to enjoy coffee at the shop within the campus instead of going to outside.

Strategic Position and Risk Assessment

The purpose of the Coffee shop at the initial stage is to target all the students and staff of the university in which it seems very successful as the business is up to the need and demand of the target market, as well as there is no other option available for the target market.  Secondly, the agreement with the university gives great protection to the business. Moreover, the tie of the right product at the right place for the right people is the strongest strategic factor for the business.

Risk-Matrix-Excel_Risk-Burndown.jpg

Source: http://www.maxmetrics.com/goingagile/color-coded-risk-matrix-in-excel/

The team functioning is not very effective, which contain more risk or the company. In addition, the graph there is a need of project management, experienced team members to beat the intense competition.

However, to expand further, the companies needs to sign a contract with the University not to allow any other brand to stat its business but for this aspect, there is a need to maintain the standard and the quality of the product and services.

Overall, the strategic position of the coffee shop business is very strong, and it also has very low future competition threat as the entry barriers are huge for the new entrants and they have to manage various things which required a huge investment.

Industry Trends and Opportunity

There are great opportunities for this unique business because the university is also aimed to expand its campuses; therefore according to the contract new shop could be open at new campuses. Subsequently, there are other options available such as the company can also make a contract with other universities and start its shop at other university campuse (Eugenecascadescoast.org, 2014).

References

Eugenecascadescoast.org. (2014, December 11). Food Trends for 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Eugenecascadescoast: https://www.eugenecascadescoast.org/meetings-blog/post/food-trends-2015/

Eugenesaturdaymarket. (2015, July 1). Open every Saturday through November 12. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Saturday market: http://www.eugenesaturdaymarket.org/

St. Clair, A. (2016, January 25). CAN EUGENE SELL ITSELF — WITHOUT SELLING OUT? Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Oregon Business: http://www.oregonbusiness.com/article/the-magazine/february-2016/item/16163-tuning-in

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Culture and Advertisements Do Advertisements Dictate Over Culture or Culture Dicate Over Advertisements?

  1. Executive Summary

However, some evidence has emerged that in certain regions, commercials are being used as an instrument to change culture. It is a known fact that commercials constructed by social-political understanding and their limits are determined by these factors. However, in consumer-driven economy and a culture where words/images have greater significance, advertisements are also being used as political-corporate tool. For instance, in India, where because of the media explosion the rural-urban divide has diluted and consumption patterns, of rural and urban region, have become similar advertisements are offering and selling much more than products and services.

Many socio-economists are of the view that advertisements or commercials, which are repetitive, have played a crucial role in creating a consumer-driven economy. This is the very reason, why partial-random and partial-irrational spending is occurring in both developed and developing economies. Statistics data and other forms of evidence, related to demand, conclude that impulsive buying or consumption is directly related to increased commercials that use certain techniques (words and images) to affect demand.

b) Introduction

Companies, around the world, use various instruments and tools to increase their sales. The most commonly employed instrument is advertisements or commercials. Prior to the emergence of the internet, conventional media, which included both print and electronic media, were exploited to increase the sales. However, as these means of advertisements were expensive; therefore, only large corporations or companies were able to exploit these resources. In addition to that, these means or instruments had limited reach, which is why they were not as effective as contemporary and unconventional means, such as websites and social-media.

The study on advertisements or commercials suggests that effective commercials can artificially augment the demand for product or service. There is strong evidence that potential clients or consumers are affected by commercials and advertisement teams devise effective commercials by keeping in consideration the response to particular images and words that would be in an advertisement. However, evidence reveals that commercials are responsible for partial-irrational consumption and also used as an instrument to affect society/tradition/culture.

c) Responses to Challenges Posed By Advertisements

The challenge, according to some, is that the advertisements are not projecting products, but also deliberately trying to change the culture and values. It is an acknowledged fact that cultures evolves because of both indigenous and alien factors and it requires a considerable time, especially when a society is traditional society. Since globalization has become a reality; therefore, ideas have also globalized, which implies that they try to assert in various form. In case of India, which is the focus of the study, foreign values are trying to enforce through advertisements.

As this process of cultural evolution is unnatural and hast; therefore, it is, as per study, yielding social challenges. The social institutions are reacting to new realities, which are being affected by commercials and the fear is that advertisements may able to adversely and artificially affect culture as they have artificially and adversely affected demand.

Therefore, the challenge is to not only discourage impulsive and partial-rational spending, but also curb advertisements from artificially affecting society, its traditions and its values. The strategy, which is to be devised to realize the abovementioned objectives, must be effective and potent. It should also be effective, in addition to that, in short-term and in long-term.

  • Responses
  • Commercials are effective instrument, when potential clients or consumers have lower awareness level. The tempered information provided, through numbers-words-images, can be effective to an extent, when there is higher awareness level prevailing in society. For that purpose, state must use its formal and informal institutions, instruments and tools to increase the existing level of awareness. The short term strategy, for this purpose, would be different from the long run strategy. In the long-run formal institutions, such as schools-colleges-universities, would be used to increase the awareness level.
  • Regulations may be an effective method; however, studies suggest that strong regulations usually backfire and compound the challenge. However, state institutions can curb bound companies from such advertisements that are vague, misleading and provide tempered statistics.

d) Implementation of recommended solutions

For the implementation of recommendations, state or government can use both formal and informal institutions and means. However, the effectiveness and potency of these measures or implementations depend on both the strategy and instruments, which to be used to implement these strategies.

e) Conclusion

Advertisements are the most frequently used instrument to increase sales. Companies allocate resources (financial and other) for advertisement campaigns. However, advertisements are adversely affecting consumption pattern and also culture, which needs attention by state institutions.

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The Disk Index: Executive Summary

Question No.1.Decisiveness: How is your ‘D’ score relevant to your life?

            Answer. I see my nature is to take the risk and not to say no to anything even if it’s a new problem for me.

Question No.2. Interacting: How is your ‘I’ score relevant to your life?

            Answer. I think Higher I score is relevant to me because I am more talkative and like to meet new people share my ideas with them openly. 

Question No.3. Stabilizing: How is your ‘S’ score relevant to your life?

 Answer. I don’t think that S-Score is relevant to me as my mood and my thoughts changed the time to time. 

Question No.4. Cautiousness: How is your ‘C’ score relevant to your life?

 Answer. Lower D score is more relevant to me because I like changes, rules are only guidelines for me, and I always look for the easier way to do anything. 

Question No.5. Overall Natural Style: What is one way in which your natural style relates to your life?

Answer. My nature style or basic style is to be the best and do as much better as I can. I like to be the expert in the area relevant to my field.

Question No.6. Overall Adaptive Style: What is one way in which your adaptive style relates to your life?

                           Answer. My Overall Adaptive Style is not to go with solitary conditions and I like to meet new people and like to have relations with external and internal stakeholders.

Question No.7. Strength-based Insights: What specific strengths do you think to connect to your success more than any other does?

            Answer. Specific strengths that are connected with my success is to motivate and direct others according to the need of the work.

Question No.8. Communication Dos and Don’ts: What did you learn from understanding your preferred communication style?

            Answer. My behavioral style for communication is to support others and contribute to them by organizing and appeal.

Question No.9. Ideal Job Climate: How well does your current climate fit your behavioral style?

 Answer. My Ideal Job Climate is a work culture which is related to my personal interest area, and that is to help other individuals and professional growth. 

Question No.10. Effectiveness: What is one way in which you could become more effective?

            Answer. One way in which I experienced that I am more effective is to prefer explicate instructions and work on the schedule through which I can start work with participants.

Question No.11. Motivation: How can you stay more motivated?

 Answer. I am a self-motivated person, and I always appreciate work of people and motivate them to work more effectively.

Question No.12. Improvement: What is something you learned that you could use to improve your performance?

            Answer. My behavioral style regarding improvement is that I always go for deep detail for every task that I’ve given or goal I am going for.

Question No.13. Training/Learning: What did you learn that could help you instruct others better, or learn more effectively?

 Answer. My approach regarding Training and Learning is to spread the knowledge that I have and make others knowledgeable. Whereas my approach for Learning is that I like to learn with other people or in groups, but I can work much better even if I am working alone. 

Question No.14. Supporting Success: Overall, how can your unique behavioral style support your success?

(Include specific examples)

 Answer. My behavioral style with my juniors and with my seniors is to make good relations with them. I always follow the instructions given by my seniors and always try to work hard on them to do the work perfectly and make my seniors happy with me. I am more work specific and go for the instructions given by my senior managers who are well experienced. However sometimes if I think or I found the more effective or easier way to do the work efficiently then I always go for the new approach. I like to meet new people who help me to make new relations with different people, and this approach is very effective for the success of mine. Meeting with new people and interacting with them freely turns me to learn from them and to have good relations with them this approach is very beneficial for me always. I prefer to make a specific schedule or criteria for which I am working and go for participants to apply this specific schedule. I always maintain my schedule with some principle that I have to follow and reach the goal. I am very time punctual to do the work. Another point that should be discussed here that most of the time I like to take high risk and go for the new opportunities even if I am looking that there are some new problems in it that I have never experienced. I always try to find new ways and solutions for the problems I am facing. The best example is when I’ve started investing in the stock market I saw some problems that I have not enough experience and much knowledge but I’ve started meeting new people learning from them, and finally, I got knowledge how to invest and how to make the profit.

Question No.15. Limiting Success: Overall, how could your unique behavioral style get in the way of your success? (Include specific examples)

 Answer. I have discussed many of my unique qualities that are very helpful for my success, but there are some problems with everyone that can limit one’s success or may be a barrier to that one’s success. I am facing some problem from the start of my life due to some problems in my nature I am trying to overcome these problems and make myself more successful. The main problem in my nature is that I go deep for everything. Every task that I have been given or the goal I am looking for I always go deep in it and think more about it that normally people don’t do or perhaps they cannot do that because this is not an ability (sometimes a problem) which given to everyone by God. This deep thinking wastes a lot of my time and makes me unsuccessful sometimes for the work I am doing. It happened many time in my life that I have started work and started thinking and understanding it which took too much time and I got failed in that work One of the examples is when I have started doing a paper which was about a research I went deep into that research and tried to find the base of the problem, and this makes my way changed, I was thinking on the topic and finding the base reason behind that while other were just doing it and not thinking what is the main reason. While I was thinking and trying to understand it fully which needs too much time this approach is perhaps right for those who are doing research on something instead of just studying answering the question or you can say that this approach is maybe good in practical life but not good in student life. This deep thinking took too much time and I got late to submit my assignment. That was the bad experience of my life.

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The Critical Section of the Business Plan (Weaknesses)

The Critical Section of the Business Plan (Weaknesses)

  1. What Indianapolis is doing in Marketing Segment?

Summary

Indianapolis, the racing capital of the world, did the marketing based on the strategies, after identifying the target market; the company knows the target market and by hitting the customer’s choice and mind, the company understand the customer and gain advantages. However, there was also some weakness, which was in the marketing plans, the company did the interviews with the customers, and come to know about the people or age segment that were interesting. The company was efficient in making the plans and strategies, based on which they have effectively managed the price or cost for the customer, so that maximum customers, form the different age groups can be attracted. Moreover, in the weaknesses, some points do not notice or look forward.

Weaknesses

The company Indianapolis was not getting the good market share, in the industry, as the company has decided the prices so that advantages can be there, and maximum customers come to buy the services. The pricing strategies were not effectively decided, the company struggled and the there were only two tracks, where the racers can enjoy, the company has the primary and the secondary track, the company has the strengths, which can also be viewed as the weaknesses,

The parking situation was the issue for the company, while the competitors can get the advantages; the company has the fewer parking spaces, the customers can be attracted to the place if there can be maximum space, but the CEO of the company do not think about that. To meet the requirements of the customers of city, maximum finance was needed; however, the management thinks that maximum money spends on the projects, may not give the benefits, as there is no need to spend on racing decor or the kart business, kart business may not give as what they expected or spend.

Third weakness can be related to the customers services, the weakness while considering the cart business of the Indianapolis was, there was no snake bar, the people or the customers can be tired of getting nothing, most of the families and children, want to enjoy cart or any other enjoyable activity with the food items. The company was having no place to relax or eat; there was no lobby so that people can spend a time to relax or to get the pleasure. However, either was only on a soft drink that was available in, other than the soft drink; nothing can be remarkable, due to which company faced the tensions.

What weaknesses are in are there in the company in Operation Segment?

Summary

The company has failed in managing the activities in the operation segments, however, of the activities were efficiently performed but the management does not consider all the strategies, in my point of view, there were many mistakes that were done by the company. The functions need to be effectively performed, but the weaknesses of the management were, the company has the building on the installments, the money was given on the monthly and weekly basis, and the business can be suffered. If few of the building are in installments, because maybe sometimes or maybe in some months company does not get the profit, as the company was expecting, so the company may have to suffer losses, because in that case, the company, may not able to manage the finance. Construction and improvement are also included in the operations, the estimated cost of the maintenance and other operation were too much, and the companies have to give the installments.

The great faculty of the business can provide the facilities and the advantages to any business, but in the case of Indianapolis there was the Inadequate staffing was also the weakness of the company, as the company hired the staff of the college, the staff was not experienced, may be the company face issue due to that. However, the company needs the experienced staff that can deal with the clients effectively or successfully, the operations or the entire task that was undertaken by the staff, were inadequate, the planning or the strategies were not effective. The changing shifts and the tasks were given on the daily basis and the tasks shift every day.

The working was divided among the team or employees, in the company, example, turn off the alarm system, opening and closing the doors, clean window, remove the trash etc. The company needs to manage the entire task, the operations need to manage effectively, as the company needs to hire the experienced staff, for the entire tasks. To manage the employees, needed to be effectively managed by the companies, because, if the employees or worker not given the clear

There were the schedule adjustments, within the company was not effective, or the shifts and tasks changes of the individual, which can create the problems, in the event, the company may have to suffer the employee turnover in this case. This was the weakness of the company because the staff was not managed and improper or offensive schedule adjustments were there. Therefore, in a case of events, arrange by the company mismanagements by the staff can  occur, because the employees are not trained and company cannot retain them. The proper staff should be there for any company, so the event can be effectively managed, and the customers can be satisfied.

What are the weaknesses in Critical Risk Segments?

Summary

The company has to focus on the critical risks segments, related to finance while managing the businesses there could be many issues associated with the critical risks, the company Indianapolis can suffer the issues of the weak economy of the country. In my point of view, it could be the weakness of the company, because in this case company can face the financial losses. If the country is not supported, or the economy is weak, then there are chances of losses of customers, because the customer will not spend on the matters, which are related to such enjoyable factors.

Moreover, the company has to do something when the economy fails, or the people or customers spend less. However, if the company fails to meet the require goals, there can be the issues, there is need to more focus on the areas related to the sales, or economy, so that the customers can be attracted, the general interviews or advertising and the walk-in customers strategies may not be effective in this way.

The weakness related to the construction delayed can also be faced by the company, we gave did analysis that the staff of the company, is not giving the effective results because the company fails to manage the staff, the company has to manage the staff, if the company wants to get safe from the issues related to the construction delayed. Mr. Whisler also believes that the projects should not be delayed and there is need to focus on the projects and more on the employees so that the projects can be effectively done on the prices, the company faced the issue related to the projects.

The financial assessment of the company is not efficient and gave the negative results or the balance, which means that the company fails to manage the projects because the worker are not prepared and they are not the professional. To get safe from the issues related to the finance and projects, there is the need to focus on the staff, the staff should be trained and need to be well prepared to manage the project related activities, the finance need to effectively manage, so that future issues cannot be there.

            The company is also focused on the injury to the visitors; that the visitors should not be given harm; there are the weaknesses, in the projects, as the customers are not given the importance or value, as there were the issues with the staff and canteen. The financial issues can also be related to the staff, there is the need to manage the staff effectively. The staff needed to be given the training, they need to be given protection, so all the system could be effectively performed, tin the company, there should be the focus on the staff training, and need to give them the incentives. All the issues were related to the staff management, the company failed to manage the staff.

Conclusion

While doing the analysis of the company, the issues identified related to the finance, staff and the customers. in the Indianapolis business, there are the issues related to the marketing segment, operation segment, and the critical risk segments, all the issues can be related to the financial segments because the ultimate effects can be on the business financial management or the profit. The business plans are needed to be the focus while managing the business, as in the case of the Indianapolis, the business was strategies were effective but somehow the company fails to manage the staff and finance.

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Pre-Submission a future 510(k)

Pre-Submission

Product and the company

I am introducing a new device and I will be discussing it here. The name of the device will be Oxytissue Sensor and the company which will manufacture this device is Medic Well Corp. After an in-depth analysis of many options, I have chosen this company to manufacture the device because it has the capacity and it will prove to be cost efficient as well. The device will be attached to any body part specifically where the blood flow is properly detectable. The device will be attached to the body with help of a body sticker and it is attached on one side of the device. The device will be powered by a mini cell. The top side of the device will have a display screen that will show the reading of the blood flow. The product will be the first of its kind because some of the variations are already available in the market. Many of these devices are wearable on the wrists and some of them can be worn on arms as well. Oxytissue will be unique and better than any other product of similar category.

Description of Product

The main feature of Oxytissue Sensor is that it will be a wireless device and can be attached to any body part of people that belong to any age group. However, this device will be preferable for the elder people as well as the disabled. The device will be able to detect and display the glucose level, hemoglobin level, blood pressure, body temperature and various other readings and can be checked with the push of a button. The device is safe and effective to use and is substantially equivalent to any legally marketed device and is not subject to pre-market approval under 21 CFR §807.92(a)(3).

Oxytissue Sensor will be connectable to laptops as well as smartphones and the data can be traced by anyone using the mobile application specifically designed for this device. The mobile application will be available on iOS and android and the date will be available online 24/7. Another very useful feature of this device is that no blood sample will be to display the information. The technology used in this device to collect date from the blood is infrared rays and all the essentials of the blood will be automatically measured. A detailed report can also be accessed through the mobile application for further assessments and analysis from the medical experts.

CFR Regulation and product code for Oxytissue Sensor

            Title 21, Parts 862-892 of the CFR regulation that addresses the issues regarding the devices and FDA has classified over 1700 distinctive types of devices. The FDA 510(k) Product Code for Oxytissue sensor will be K146381.

Three Questions for FDA

  1. I plan to conduct the following biocompatibility test for Oxytissue, the tests are as follows,
  2. Sensitization
  3. Cytotoxicity

Do you agree?

  • Is my projected approach for assessing human elements adequate for the purpose of the usage of Oxytissue Sensor?
  • Is the ‘low-level concern’ adequate level of concern for Oxytissue Sensor?

Source: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/GuidanceDocuments/UCM311176.pdf

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Digital Logic Gates & Flip-Flops

Introduction

            The Objective of this experiment was to develop an understanding of the fundamentals of digital logic gates, study the representations of these gates by truth tables, logic diagrams and Boolean algebra and investigate the implementation to form logic circuits that are more complicated.

            Digital electronics are based mainly on binary logic, in which signals are only in two states. Either in high state (“1”) or in a low state (“0”), where the high state is usually a voltage level of some sort while low is taken to be ground, as shown in the figure below.

            Since many digital devices are bases on transistors that switch between these two states a based 2 number system, known as binary number system, is used. The digits in a binary number, as with the base 10 (decimal) system, correspond to different powers of the base. A binary number can be expandedas[11012 = 1.2 3 +1.2 2 +0.2 1 +1.2 0 = 810 +410 +110 = 1310]

            Logic Gates are digital devices that convert binary inputs into binary outputs based on mathematical logic. These devices are also called gates because they control the flow of signals. The truth table is a mathematical means of displaying all combinations of inputs and outputs of a logic device.

Boolean algebra is the logical evaluation of mathematical expressions for logic circuits. It allows us to express and simplify binary statements.

Flip-Flops are sequential logic devices where the timing of the input signal plays a role on determining the output. These devices usually respond to inputs when a separate trigger signal transitions from a high to a low level or low to high level.

Procedure

            First, a verification of the logic functionality was implementedusing the pin-out diagram as seen in Figure 2and a +5 V power source applied to pin 14 of a 7400 IC and ground at pin 7. In order to prevent floating inputs a 1 kilo-ohm resistor was placed on each input as seen in Figure 1. A “switch wire” was then placed in order to turn the signal on or off. The suggested method was used to test the functionality of the NAND gate for all four possible input configurations of 00, 01, 10 and 11 through use of an LED as shown in Figure 1. All observations were recorded.

            Next Vccwas connected to pin 14 at 5V and ground at pin 7. The Pre and CLR were set to pin 4 and pin 1respectively with inputs to high at +5V. With low or “0” applied to the CLK in pin 3 the input on D at pin 2 was varied. The observed results were recorded. A logic “1” was applied to the CLK and the input on D was varied. The observed results were recorded.

            Finally, a D Flip-Flop was utilized to create a shift register, consisting of a series of flip-flops, all sharing the same clock and the output of all but the final. This setup is shown in Figure 3. The Observed result were recorded.

Results and Discussion:

There was two exercise to investigate and to analyze the results. In the first question from the first exercise, the truth table for the mentioned table that is 4.1 of logic gates was constructed. As shown in figure 1.0. Moreover, the required algebraic expressions were also analyzed as shown I the table 1.0. In the second question of the first exercise, the expression for prove was performed with the help of Boolean algebraic laws and identities as shown in table 1.0. In the third part of the first question, the prove was performed and analyzed by using the truth table as shown in table 1.1.

In the fourth question from the first exercise, the NAND gate test was performed using LED and resistor with a specific value in the lab. When there was +5V given to the required circuit, the LED turned on that means 1 and when there was low voltage, the LED turned off that mean 0. The truth table for the NAND gate test is mentioned in table 1.2. In the fifth question, the same procedure that is Test of gates was formed and NOR,OR and AND gate was constructed using only NAND gates. The truth table of discussed gates is mentioned in table 1.3, table 1.4 and table 1.5 respectively. The sixth question was bonus question and was about the constructing symbols for making, AND, OR, NOT, NOR using NAND gate only. The expression was mentioned in figure 1.1, figure 1.2, figure 1.3 and figure 1.4.

            Exercise two was on the flip flops and understanding of flip flops using CLK. The flip-flop circuit was constructed according to the given instructions mentioned in the lab. it was determined that on applying 0, the output of the flip-flops did not change but applying 1 that is high voltage of +5v on the CLK, the flip-flop output changed. The required table is mentioned in table 1.6. In the second part of the second question, the 4-bit shift register was constructed as shown in figure 1.5  and the desired output that is 1011 was obtained as shown in table 1.7. The 1 denotes in the table that the LED is on and the 0 denotes in the table that the LED is off.

Figure 1.0 : Exercise 1 Logic Gates, Boolean Algebra, Truth Tables

logic gates.png

Table 1.0: Algebraic Expression

For NOT gate C = A

For AND gate: C = A . B

For OR gate: C = A+B

For NAND gate: C = A . B

For NOR gate: C =  A+B

For XOR gate:  C = A B

Table 1.1: Prove using Boolean algebra and identities

(A + B) . (A+ C) = A + (B . C)

Let L.H.S =  (A + B) . (A+ C)

(A.A) + (A.C) + (A.B) + (B.C)                            Distributive law

(A) + (A.C) + (A .B) +(B.C)                                Idempotent AND law (A.A = A)

A(1+C) + (A.B) + (B.C)                                       Distributive OR law (1+C= 1)

A(1+B) + (B.C)                                                    Distributive Law

A.1 + B.C                                                             Identity OR law (1+B=1)

A+(B.C)                                                                Identity AND law (A.1 = 1)

Which is equal to R.H.S of the mentioned expression

Table 1.1: Prove the following expression using a truth table

(A . B) + (B . C) + ( B . C) = (A . B) + C

A B C A.B B.C B.C (A.B)+(B.C)+(B.C) (A.B)+C
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Table 1.2: NAND Logic Test

A input B input C (output)
0 0 1  high output
0 1 1 high output
1 0 1 high output
1 1 Low output

Table 1.3: NOR gate using NAND gates ONLY

Input A Input B Output A Output B Output C NOR GATE
0 0 1 high 1 high 0 low 1 high
0 1 1high 0 low 1 high 0 low
1 0 0 low 1 high 1 high 0 low
1 1 0 low 0 low 1 high 0 loow

Table 1.4: AND gate using NAND gate

Input A Input B Output C AND GATE
0 0 1 high 0 low
0 1 1 high 0  low
1 0 1 high 0 low
1 1 0 low 1 high

Table 1.5: OR gate Using NAND gate

Input A Input B Output A Output B OR GATE
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 0

Bonus question:

Figure 1.2: NOT gate:

Figure 1.3: OR gate:

Figure 1.4: AND gate

Figure 1.5: NOR gate

Exercise 2: Flip-Flops

  1. At the pin 14  Vcc connected to +5V and the pin 7 the ground of the chip was attached
  2. Pin 4 that is PRE and the CLK that is at pint 1 was attached to the +5 v.
  3. With “0” applied to the CLK (pin 3), vary the input on D (pin 2).

Table 1.6: Function of flip flop

Inputs Outputs
PRE CLR CLK D Q Q
L H X X H L
H L X X L H
L L X X H H
H H H H L
H H L L H
H H L X Q0 Q0

On applying 0 to the clock, the output Q and Q does not change as it the rule of the flip flop that it does not change at the value 0 given to them. at the 0, the flip flop switches to clear state

  • As it is shown oat the above table, on apllying th + 5 voltage that is setting the CLK to 1, the output that is Q and Q  changes. The output turns opposite. At 1, the flip flop switches to set state.
1  

Figure 5: Shift Registers

1  
1  
0  

Required table

FF0 FF1 FF2 FF3
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
1 0 1 1

With the help of the given instructions, the  4-bilt shift register was constructed. The Table was constructed after the observation. 1 denotes that the LED is on and the 0 denotes that the LED is off.

Conclusion:

The lab was performed and the possible expression was made according to the desired output. The functionality of the NAND gate OR gat , NOR gate, and NOT gate was understood with the help of the current lab.  Moreover, the possible truth table was constructed with the help of the output obtained by performing the lab. Different gates were also made with the help of NAND gate. In the second part of the lab, the functionality of the flip-flop determined. It was concluded that the on applying 0 to the clock the output of the flip-flop does not change but on applying the 1 in the clock, the value of the output changes. With the help of lab, functionality of the 4-bit shift was also understood.

Appendix

Figure 1

Input Configuration for NAND Gate

Figure 2

  1. NAND Gate b) AND Gate c) OR Gate d) NOT Gate e) Dual D Flip- flop

Figure 3

4-bit Shift Register

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Poem by Emily Dickinson

The soul selects her own society By Emily Dickinson

“The soul selects her own society, 
Then shuts the door;
On her divine majority
Obtrude no more.

Unmoved, she notes the chariot’s pausing
At her low gate;
Unmoved, an emperor is kneeling
Upon her mat.

I’ve known her from an ample nation
Choose one;
Then close the valves of her attention
Like stone.” By Emily Dickinson

This poem written by Dickinson is about the love or friendship. This poem perfectly illustrates that why this poet has been called the poet of exclusion. In this poem, it has been said that choose the find and then eliminate all the other. The poet is presenting the individuals that he is absolute as well as assuring that the individual rights are unchallengeable. The identity of the soul in this poem is assured. The individual unqualified belief has been showed so as the self-reliance. This poem also shows that ability of the poet in which he can write the lines in two units. By looking at the lines in this poem it can be seen that all lines of the poem are set up in the unites of two.

Now coming at the fist stanza. The soul of the poet is doing the choosing what would be the soul of the human being. Like the stomach represents the hunger as well as appetite. It also represents our physical needs. The brain as is said to be the intellectual side of is. Now using the soul gives the low as well as high value in the way through which the friend is selected by the individual. The “divine” majority seems to be interesting. Divine seems to be more important than the soul image itself. It tells the status which is important in the poetry .the word “majority” also have several meaning. It can be more as well as less, or it can be superior. Now one should think that what gesture does shutting the door represent. It can the action that gives the idea of the change as well as the final action. Accessing to the word “obtrude”. It could be the charming interpretation as well as offensive action. It can be the type of behavior which the people represent when they feel excluded.

In the stanza two, it has been shown that the should doesn’t win through the power or the rank. There are some words which represents the status: kneeling, chariot, mat, emperor to a low gate. Now consider which kind of person would have the superior worldly status. It could be possible that there could be any suggestion of the superiority or status in the scale of values the possible word here could be considering that the emperor has come for her and at her gate there is his chariot. There could also be the hint that if he is courting her..Looking at line three, there is the elimination of the words by the poet. If there is any careless reader, he might think that it is the emperor who has been shown as unmoved. It can be confusing reading because he has come to her and he is also stooping before her. The poet has also misplaced the verb and subject which she started in the first line. She says that it is the soul who has been insensitive by the emperor who is kneeling before her.

In the third stanza, the poet explains about the finality as well as the rigor of the choices which has been made by the soul. The frequent field which is the ample action which she has to choose between is in distinction with the choices which has been narrowed by her. Now one must think that the effect of the nation and ample .now after choosing that, the soul end or close the valves which were in her attention. Now the question must be if the soul gas the control to she can choose over the valves? And if the valves are closed then if they allow entering anything in then? Or more specifically that her closed vales will allow entering anyone or anything in? There is also the phrase “like the stone” used here. Now the question would be that if that phrase seems to be relevant here? In these phrases, one must ask the question that what is her attention, like stone, soul choice and the valves? There are certain qualities which are asked that what we associate with the cold, stone–warmth, flexibility, softness, harness? It could also be asked that if it can be the coincidence that the poem is ending with the stone and if so then is it appropriate? The question is raised because the opening, as well as closing,  often gets the more attention ten and it also stand out from the remaining text due to their position.

There is the last point of in which the one make the concern meter as well as line length. Now we must see that in each line and stanza, the first line is very much longer. It contains more syllabus as well as feet than comparing it to the other three. The second and the fourth line seems to be shorter. They have fewer feet and less syllabus. Moreover, by looking at the last stanza, the fourth and the second lines seems to be shorter than the other stanzas. Each line contains only two syllabi .however. It could be noted that if the lines are shorter, they call more attention because these lines are forceful, hard and they are final as well as contains the appropriate effect for the idea which is described in these lines.

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Source analysis Globalization and Rice Production in the Philippines

Source analysis

  1. In one or two sentences, summarize the key point in this source that you will use in your group project

This source give brief overview of global production network specifically in Philippines, that how productive system expand globally focus on the process of change.

  • What is the ideological perspective of this source

This source represents, globalized network of production Geo-forum pertain to confront the basic needs of society with effective production and development (Kelly, 2013).

Reference:

Kelly, P. F. (2013). Production networks, place and development: Thinking through Global Production Networks in Cavite, Philippines. Geoforum , 44, 82–92.

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‘Saturation Pressure’

SUMMARY

The objective of this experiment was to observe and analyze the behavior of water in saturated liquid and vapor states, specifically involving the existence of a vapor-liquid equilibrium. A TH3 ‘Saturation Pressure’ Apparatus was used to monitor temperature and pressure; these values are recorded as different experimental conditions are altered. Equations that are known to model liquid-vapor equilibrium transitions were compared to the experimental data for accuracy.

For the initial investigation (Exercise A) of the fluid behavior, the data obtained was plotted on a graph of pressure vs. temperature. The data collected during the initial exercise was used to conduct a more in depth analysis of the observed relationship between temperature and pressure (Exercise B). Calculating absolute pressures and absolute temperatures account for conditions specific to this experiment, such as local atmospheric pressure and corresponding vapor point temperatures. A logarithmic model and an exponential model could be fitted to experimental liquid-vapor equilibrium data, utilizing the absolute temperatures and absolute pressures (Exercise C and Exercise D, respectively). Each of these models suggested that for low temperatures and pressures (T<150C,P<7bar), the calculated values could be used to accurately predict real behavior of the system. Although the observed and calculated graphs have little differences, deviation began to appear as the system approached its upper limits. Utilizing one of these models to represent liquid-vapor transitions at high temperature and pressures would not produce reliable results. Once a reliable liquid-vapor equilibrium model was established, the temperature and pressure data could be represented in terms of energy (Exercise E), providing further insight into the heat transfer processes occurring in the experiment. Understanding how temperature, pressure, energy, and quality relate within a model provided valuable information for designing and implementing an efficient process based on an accurate model.

For the experimental data obtained in this experiment, graphical representations demonstrate the key patterns that were described by standard equations for liquid-vapor equilibrium transitions. Plotting observed experimental data alongside standard data obtained through calculations illustrated the accuracy of the calculated results. In situations where experimental data very closely matched calculated values for a process, the mathematical model could be considering an accurate representation of the liquid-vapor behavior. This was essential when considering design specifications because it allowed the confident selection of materials and conditions that provided the desired result. Despite the high degree of similarity between the observed and calculated absolute pressure values, deviation was present toward the upper limits of the temperature/pressure regime.

INTRODUCTION:

The objective of this experiment is to observe and analyze the behavior of water in saturated liquid and vapor states, specifically involving the existence of a vapor-liquid equilibrium. The concentration of vapor in relation to its liquid, at equilibrium, is expressed as vapor pressure. It will consider as partial pressure if another gas is included in the vapor. Vapor pressure at equilibrium is dependent on the temperature strongly. A TH3 ‘Saturation Pressure’ Apparatus is used to monitor temperature and pressure; these values are recorded as different experimental conditions are altered. Equations that are known to model liquid-vapor equilibrium transitions are compared to the experimental data for accuracy. Experimental lab was conducted to analyze the behavior of water. Exercise A was used to analyze the behavior of the two phases liquid. Behavior of water was analyzed at the boiling point. Further analysis of the data was performed after obtaining the results from the experiment A.  After observing behavior of water, in exercise 2, values of pressure and absolute temperature were calculated in exercise B. Exercise A was repeated again in exercise C. After allowing heater to on, temperature reached to the boiling point. It can be compared from the graph that pressure and temperature have direct relationship. With increase in pressure, temperature also increases.

PROCEDURE

Exercise A – Characteristic Behavior of a Two-Phase Fluid

The TH3 equipment was assembled and the vessel was filled with diluted H2O. The heater power was turned on and set to its maximum and the water was allowed to reach its boiling point; fluid behavior was observed through the sight glass and recorded. After boiling was reached, the heater was turned down slightly until all of the steam had escaped from the filler valve. Once the pressure sensor stabilized, the filler valve was closed and the heater was returned to maximum power. The temperature and pressure of the vessel were recorded at 5-minute intervals until the maximum working pressure (7 bar) was reached. The calorimeter valve was opened to release steam and the heater was turned off. Temperature and pressure readings were recorded at 30-second intervals as steam left the system. The calorimeter valve was left open after vessel returned to atmospheric pressure to avoid causing a partial vacuum.

Exercise B – Principles of Saturation Pressure Measurement

Using the data gathered in Exercise A, the absolute temperature and pressure values were calculated. After the absolute pressure values were obtained, they were compared with literature values for the vapor point of saturated water in order to determine the actual absolute temperature. The absolute pressure was plotted against absolute temperature and actual temperature to determine if significant thermal lag had occurred.

Exercise C – Concept of a Saturation Line

The same TH3 equipment set-up used in Exercise A was used for Exercise C; the heater was turned on to maximum power and the temperature was allowed to reach its boiling point. After boiling was reached, the heater was turned down slightly until all of the steam had escaped from the filler valve. Once the pressure sensor stabilized, the filler valve was closed and the heater was returned to maximum power. The water was heated for 2-minutes, then the heater was turned off; when the value for the platinum resistance thermometer sensor stabilized, the temperature and pressure of the vessel were recorded and the heater was returned to maximum power. After additional 2-minutes intervals of heating, the same data collection procedure was followed until the maximum working pressure (7 bar) was reached. The heater was turned off and the calorimeter valve was opened for 30 seconds then closed. Once sensors stabilized, the calorimeter valve was opened for an additional 30 seconds and another set of temperature and pressure data was recorded. This steam release procedure was followed until the pressure had returned to zero.

Exercise D – Steam Tables

            Using data gathered in Exercise C, the absolute pressure is plotted against the observed vessel temperatures. An exponential equation is generated from the experimental data, and used to calculate absolute pressure values that correspond to each observed temperature recorded. The graph of calculated absolute pressure values is plotted on the same axes as the experimental values to compare the accuracy of the fitted equation.

Exercise E – Use of the Steady Flow Energy Equation

The same TH3 equipment set-up used in Exercise A and C was used for Exercise E; the heater was turned on to maximum power and the temperature was allowed to reach its boiling point. After boiling was reached, the heater was turned down slightly until all of the steam had escaped from the filler valve. Once the pressure sensor stabilized, the filler valve was closed and the heater was returned to maximum power. The pressure was allowed to rise above 1bar before the heater was reduced to minimum power. After the sensors had stabilized, temperature and pressure readings were recorded, and the calorimeter valve was opened to release steam. After sensors had stabilized again, additional temperature and pressure readings were recorded, and the calorimeter valve was closed. The heater was returned to maximum power, and the vessel temperature and pressure were increased in increments of 1bar. At the end of each interval, the heater power is turned to minimum until the sensors stabilize, then the heater is returned to maximum power. Once the maximum working pressure of 7bar was reached, the heater was turned off and the calorimeter valve was opened. As steam escaped from the system, pressure and temperature readings were recorded at 1bar intervals until the pressure reached zero.

Results

Exercise A

Exercise A
Temp C Pressure(bar) Time(mins) Temp (K)
105 0.75 0 378.15
126 1.5 5 399.15
141.5 3 10 414.65
154.1 4.5 15 427.25
165 6.3 20 438.15
169.5 7 22 442.65

 

Figure 1-1 Pressure v. Temperature before opening calorimeter valve

Above figure is showing behavior of pressure and temperature before opening of calorimeter valve. It can be seen from the graph that with the increase of pressure, temperature is also showing increasing trend. At pressure of 0.75, temperature is recorded as provided in the graph as 378 K. At pressure value of 7, it has increased to 442 K as shown in above graph.

Temp C Pressure(bar) Time(mins) Temp (K)
155 4.5 0 428.15
142 3 0.5 415.15
127 1.5 1 400.15
119 1 1.5 392.15
113 0.6 2 386.15
111 0.5 2.5 384.15
110.5 0.3 3 383.65
110 0.2 3.5 383.15
107 0.2 4 380.15
105 0.2 4.5 378.15
104 0.1 5 377.15
102 0.1 5.5 375.15
100 0.1 6 373.15
97 0.1 6.5 370.15
97 0.1 7 370.15
96 0.1 7.5 369.15
93 0.1 8 366.15
91 0.1 8.5 364.15

            Figure 1-2 Pressure Vs Temperature after opening the calorimeter valve every 30 s

       This graph is also showing behavior of the temperature and pressure after opening the calorimeter valve after each 30 Second. Pressure continuously decreased and behavior of temperature is recorded after each 30 second. This graph is showing that reduction in pressure is also reducing temperature.

Temperature increasing v. time before turning heater off

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
295 0.3 0
297.5 0.5 2
380 0.75 4
390 1 6
397 1.4 8
402 1.8 10
409 2.3 12
414 3 14
420 3.5 16
425 4.1 18
429 4.8 20
433 5.5 22
437 6.1 24
441 6.8 26
442 7 27

Exercise B

Figure 2-1 Temperature increasing v. time before turning heater off

After turning the heater off

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
426 4.3 5
414.8 3 10
405 2 15
397 1.5 20
390 1 25
384 0.6 30
377.8 0.4 35
373 0.2 40
368 0 45

Figure 2-2 after turning the heater off

Exercise C

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
372 0.3 2
384 0.6 4
393 1.3 6
402 1.8 8
410 2.5 10
416 3 12
422 3.8 14
428 4.7 16
432 5.4 18
437 6.1 20
440 6.7 22
448 7 24

Figure3.1: Experiment graph of temperature Vs. Time

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
417 3 0.5
400 1.5 1
389 0.75 1.5
381 0.5 2

Figure 3.2: Experimentation of temperature Vs Time

Table of ln P abs v. 1/T

ln P abs 1/T
0.262364 0.002688
0.470004 0.002604
0.832909 0.002545
1.029619 0.002488
1.252763 0.002439
1.386294 0.002404
1.568616 0.00237
1.740466 0.002336
1.856298 0.002315
1.960095 0.002288
2.04122 0.002273
2.079442 0.002232

 

Figure 3.3: Before opening the calorimeter valve and closing it every 30 given time

Exercise D

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins) P abs
372 0.3 2 1.3
384 0.6 4 1.6
393 1.3 6 2.3
402 1.8 8 2.8
410 2.5 10 3.5
416 3 12 4
422 3.8 14 4.8
428 4.7 16 5.7
432 5.4 18 6.4
437 6.1 20 7.1
440 6.7 22 7.7
448 7 24 8

Figure 4.1: Same values as in Exercise C but without the natural log of absolute pressure     

This table is showing values before opening the calorimeter valve and closing it after each 30 second.

Temp(K) Pressure(bar) Time(mins)
417 3 0.5
400 1.5 1
389 0.75 1.5
381 0.5 2

Figure 4.2: Experimentation of temperature Vs Time

This table is showing same values as in Exercise C but without the natural log of absolute pressure 

Exercise E
Table V
Pressure (bar) Temperature (K) Enthalpy of sat liquid Enthalpy of sat vapor Enthalpy of steam sample Quality of steam sample (x)
1 390 501 2701 2200 1
0.5 380 460 2682 2224 1.007643885
1 393 504 2706 2202 0.997729337
2 404 559 2720 2176 0.984375
3 415 603 2736 2134 0.983130272
4 424 639 2747 2112 0.976325758
5 430 668 2757 2100 0.968095238
6 437 696 2762 2068 0.969535783
7 442 719 2768 2050 0.966829268
6 437 696 2762 2068 0.969535783
5 430 668 2757 2100 0.968095238
4 424 639 2747 2112 0.976325758
3 415 603 2736 2134 0.983130272
2 405 559 2721 2175 0.984827586
1 492 918 2805 1880 0.948404255
0 470 843 2791 1950 0.952820513
h=hf+x(hg- hf)
x=(h2-hf)/hfg
h1=h2

Discussion

Part A of the experiment plots pressure versus temperature.The first half of the experiment involved collection pressure and temperature. The data points were collected every 5 minutes, nd a graph of pressure versus temperature could be created. The graph shows a near linear relationship between pressure and temperature. By increasing the pressure, temperature is also increasing. At pressure, 0.75, temperature is recorded as 378 on the other hand, at temperature169, it is 442. The second graph was of data taken every 30 seconds as the chamber steadily decompresses. The results show nearly the same graph as in the first part of the experiment from these two graphs a good estimate of the vapor-liquid equilibrium can be figured out.

 Part B of the experiment is similar to a now the graphs created from the data where a good estimation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium can be determined. In experiment 2, at time 0, temperature is recorded as 295. At time, 27, it is recorded as 441.  The data was used to measure the saturation pressure of water. The first graph of part B shows a linear and steady increase of temperature versus time measured every 2 minutes. The second graph shows the same in reverse a near steady decline of temperature versus time measured every 5 minutes by inserting the data into an exponential model the saturated pressure of water can be obtained.

 Part C the data for this experiment is plotted in a graph that shows the log natural of the absolute pressure versus the inverse of temperature. Part D is plotted absolute pressure versus exp(temperature) both graphs show steep incline and a steep decline of the data. Part E temperature was taken at intervals of 1 bar instead of a time interval. By doing this a direct comparison relating the pressure and temperature can be taken.

Analysis of Error

Mechanical pressures gauge were used to read the pressure connected with vessel rather than digital read out on computer.

By doing that the readings where potentially less precise. Determining the gauge instead of getting decimal precision. The magnitude of this error was probably small In many cases, to get a solid readout in the decimal place.

In experiment A the pressure value stayed the same towards the end of part two while the temperature continued to decrease. This error was probably due to the slow adjustment of the thermometer because it was placed far away from the steam apparatus.  The magnitude of this slow change could have had a larger impact on the results in this case because the last 8 or so points that where collected continuously after 30 seconds altered the data and the graph.

Values of temperature and pressure were taken by filling the data sheet manually. Because of that there is much confusion when it comes to tabulating a graph with the data collected. Depending on the level of problems, each student had at the time could transfer from a small to a large scale level of error.

The analysis of the data as it pertained to the evaluating for Q, W, X and the varies H values that the manual had left the students of this group confused but ultimately it became more clear once analyzing Data Sheet 4.

 The magnitude of their error is that the students had probably left a large error in the results compared to the expected results.

REFERENCES

  1. Armfield. Saturation Pressure: Instruction Manual TH3. Vol. 15. N.p.: Armfield Limited, 2012. Print. 


2.Helmenstine, Anne. “Can You Define Boiling Point? Review Your Chemistry Concepts.”       About.com Education. About.com, Dec. 2014. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.

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‘Secure cyberspace’ as grand engineering challenge

Compare and contrast paper of ‘Secure Cyberspace’ as grand engineering challenge

            Comparison

http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/File.aspx?id=16273

            Issa Atoum, has revaled core purpose of the security in terms of cyber analytical framework explores as holistic HCS-IF that provides a tool in the ground reality for systematic manner, conceptual understanding. The coherent implementation approach for the consolidation has been used. Using the dimension of unique strategies is also good for security. For cyber crimes, using the techniques along with the consideration of is also in the limelight [1].

Source: http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/cyberspace.aspx

            Randy Borum discusses strategic importance of the security of cyber crime, which highlights the model of the risk frame decision-making, It would also identify the set objectives as the core elements of the strategic cyber intelligence as domain, set into the cybersecurity to solve the complex problem. For making huge investments to improve the architectural designs, focusing on problem identification that would support information in the systems integrated into cyber security and the relevant experimentation (Borum, 2015). The similar conceptual framework is also used in the development of the electric mutual sharing of information through the web as securing the cyberspace in dynamic manner of organizational or national security issues addresses in a way that the main problem is identified through the applications mentioned in the study. These include the deterring of the critical information for computing the accurate information communicating while addressing the challenges in the engineering pros of information that would transmit easily for identification of the situations that prevent the threats of confidentiality especially from hackers [1].

Cyber.jpg
http://www.tripwire.com/state-of-security/government/a-comparative-cyber-study-of-national-security-strategies-uk-and-the-u-s/

Contrast

            There are some differences in the core identification of the complex problems in the study of the grand challenge of security in cyberspace.  The integration from the author Issa Atoum has revealed the integration of analytical frameworks of the CSSs in the software engineering for the proposal of criteria in the out performs from the point of view of government. Along with private practicing is overarching in the controls of the cyber security for implementation holistic model. The results indicated challenges that require the accurate control of the systematic strategies in the solutions of the CSSs are highly integrated with the framework for implementation of the study of holistic cyber crime tools in engineering (Atoum, 2014). the Prevention techniques for hackers are leading towards the specific goals, which can protect the systems. Detections can be enhanced through using the software such as firewalls.  The approach of proactive or risk supported, preventions in focusing the efforts for the cyber security integrated with the strategy of information system in the cyber intelligence organizational domains. [1].This point of view is different regarding engineering challenges of the cyber security in the website in terms of the issue of the integrity as per the transmission of the key information. The data, used in the computers for the organizations, is controlling the cyber risk of traffics. It flow the information, which depend on the communication using the strategy of computer or cyber-security systems. The consequences in the literature while identifying the core solution of the problem as the viruses in the computer at both small and large scale are put into the commerce as well as plague into the computers [1].

cybercrime-top-20-countries-pie-chart.jpg

Source: http://www.enigmasoftware.com/top-20-countries-the-most-cybercrime/

References

x

[1] engineeringchallenges.org. (2016) engineeringchallenges.org. [Online]. http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/challenges/cyberspace.aspx
[2] Issa Atoum, “A holistic cyber security implementation framework,” Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 251 – 264, 2014.
[3] Randy Borum, “Strategic cyber intelligence,” Information & Computer Security, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 317 – 332, 2015.
[4] DAVID BISSON. (2015, February) A Comparative “Cyber” Study of National Security Strategies – UK and the U.S. [Online]. http://www.tripwire.com/state-of-security/government/a-comparative-cyber-study-of-national-security-strategies-uk-and-the-u-s/
[5] Enigmasoftware.com. (2015, March) Top 20 Countries Found to Have the Most Cybercrime. [Online]. http://www.enigmasoftware.com/top-20-countries-the-most-cybercrime/

x

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CHME Problems

Problem 1:
Estimate of total module cost in 2016 of stainless steel axial flow compressor for Linde plant. The production rate of LNG is 8000 tons per year.

Liquefied Natural Gas produced (LNG) = 8000 tons per year

Initial pressure = P 1 = 0 bar

Final pressure after compression = P2 = 25 bar

Initial temperature = T1 = 295 K

Final temperature = T2 =?

P1 / T1 = P2 / T2 ——– (1)

T2 =

T2 = 273 K

Total module cost = CTM = Flang x ∑Cp ——- (2)

For solid material like stainless steel Flang has constant value which is given as

Flang = 3.10

Log Cp = K1 + K2 log (A) ——– (3)

K1 = 0

K2 = 25

Putting all these values of constants in eq 3

Log Cp = 25 log 8000

Log Cp = 97.577

C = 4.5

Total module cost = CTM = Flang x ∑Cp

Total module cost = 3.1 x 4.5 = 14. 15

Total Module cost according to given formula is 14.15.

Problem 2:

             In Basic Linde gas liquefaction process gas is first compressed in a compressor and then cooled isobarically in pre-cooler. The process goes on by cooling gas from heat exchanger rapidly at high pressure through the whole process compressor and drive are connected to each and same pressure difference is produced in both, therefore, module cost for compressor and drive is approximately same for both of them.

Problem 3:

Area of flat Aluminum plate is given as 2πr2, where r is radius of plate

A = 93 m2

Pressure = 60 bar

Temperature = 203 K

Product flow rate = 8000 tons per year
Material factor for Aluminum = 4.9

The factor of safety is a ratio of pressure and area so we can calculate the 2nd value of pressure produced in the compressor, which is given as.

Factor of safety = Pressure / Area

Factor of safety x Area = Pressure

P2 = 4.9 x 93

= 455.7 bar

Total module cost is combination of Flang  and Cp , where Cp  is sum of direct and indirect cost

Total module cost = CTM = Flang x ∑Cp

For solid material like Aluminum Flang has constant value which is given as

Log Cp = K1 + K2  log (A) + K3 log (A)2

Flang = 3.10

Production rate of Aluminum heat exchanger is given as 

A = 8000 per year

K1 = 60

K = 455.7

Log Cp = K1 + K2 log (A) + K3 log (A)2

Log Cp = 60 + 455.7log (8000)

Log C = 1838.638

Cp = 7.516

Total module cost = CTM = Flang x ∑Cp

Total module cost = 3.10 x 7.516

= 23.299

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Inductive charger

Inductive charger

Capacitor charger design selected to understand the core aspect of the engineering designs that plays dominant role in the design demonstrations. In this regard, constant voltage, constant current and inductive charger calculations, in these way inductive charger calculations would be recognized. The inductive charger design is to obtain in the electrical vehicle to promote the conveniences in the era of technology. The calculations of the inductive charger associated with the ƒr = 1/(2*pi*√(LC)) to determine the inductances that distributed the capacitances to accumulate between the windings.  For the determination of intertwining capacitances’ and self capacitances recognized to obtain the calculations of the inductive charger. Such design would be used for the adaptation of varying vehicles as well as different physical parameters. High frequency alternating used for primary transmission coil with the high frequency to induce transmission.

C = .29L + 0.41R + 1.94[ √ (R^3/L) ]

L= length of coil in inches, R= Radius of coil and C= self capacitance in Pico farads

The design of circuit helpful for the configuration of primary and secondary coil for the arrangement of inductor as well as many other considerations in the design executed.  Such considerations are maximizing for the power transmission delivery through charger inductor of charger circuit to control maximum loads. The series of primary connection of circuit adjusted in the inductor charger. B = µ I / 2 R to get input of current and Io is given to obtain require circuit energy. Therefore the induction charger would be calculated by having values of AC/DC converter. Real field testing consolidated for the selected response time of charger rate to obtain the calculations inductive charger.