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Evaluating The Job Position Of Credit Risk Management

Evaluating The Job Position Of Credit Risk Management

Risk management position

            Risk management is defined as the identification, assessment and prioritizing of the risks. This process if followed by the economic and coordinated application of the minimization, monitoring and controlling the probability and the impact of unfortunate events. The risk management maximizes the realization of the opportunities. Therefore, the risk management bears the responsibility to assure that the uncertainty does not negatively impact the organizational goals.  The risk comes from various forms. The technological change, change in the business conditions, failure of the projects and the catastrophic events are some of the type of the risk that impedes the performance of the business and negatively impacts the profitability ( Coleman, 2011).

            Therefore, this is the responsibility of the risk management to mitigate or eliminate the risks. The risk management is a crucial position in the organization. The risk manager and their team is responsible for early detecting of the risk and taking important and immediate steps to avoid that risks. Otherwise, the occurring of the risk could adversely impact the business and its financial condition. The internal and the external environment of the business is always subject to vary and changes frequently occurs that impact the business. Therefore, it is important to manage the risk. Therefore, the risk management position in the organization is very important in the realm of risk mitigation and elimination in order to prevent financial losses and agitation in the organization.

Job duties and responsibilities

            There are diverse job duties and responsibilities of the position of the risk manager. The risk manager id responsible for establishing as well as monitor the key risk indicators of the organization with which he/she operates. Moreover, he/she is also responsible for implementing corrective action plans for the organization to mitigate or eliminate the risks. This is very important and crucial for the better management of the business and the organization.   This is included in the duty to analyze transactions and to prepare internal reports for the organization. The management of the financial information of the organization regarding the potential fraud risks is also necessary( Crouhy, 2014).

He/she is obliged to maintain reports of the organization about the significant risks and to develop and present the recommendation to mitigate or to eliminate such risks. Creation of the policies, procedures is important to sort out the potential risks of the organizations.

            In addition, the control assessments are also done by the risk manager in order to identify the risks. Internal control framework is necessary for the internal management of the organization to sort out internal risks. Therefore, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the organizations’ internal control framework is necessary in order to address the risks of the company. The accomplishment of the company’s goals and objectives are important to be aligned with this. Lastly, he/she is also responsible for providing training and development along with technical support to the management of the organization and the employees regarding the risk management and strategies and the programs.

Critical success factors

            There are diverse critical success factors for the position of the risk management. If the candidate possesses such factors he/she would be definitely successful in performing his/her job.The first and the important factor is an ability to perform the internal audit. The internal auditing can be performed in a number of areas in the organizations. These areas include but not limited to strategic management and marketing, human resources, finance, marketing, internal and external business environment and the business planning. To down and bottom up risk assessment is also an important factor that scrutiny every kind of the risk that is going to happen in the organizations. Therefore, such kind of complete risk assessment is necessary to be effective risk manager or the related position ( Curtis, 2016).

            The Proper channel of risk identification in the organization is needed to address the risk. For that purpose, different kinds of the strategies could be adopted. These strategies include but not limited to the questionnaire, interviews or observations. This should be the ability of the risk assessor to identify which opportunity is more appropriate in order to identify the risk. The management of the risk inventories is extremely important. The risk inventories needed to be updated in order to make sure that the organization is in the position to delay with every kind of risk that is going to be occurring possibly in the organization.

            The risk manager must keep an eye on the different type of the risks that an organization went through. Therefore, he/she must update that list of the risk. Management of the risk velocity and the scope is necessary. The only identification of the risk is not enough. The risk manager must evaluate its scope and the velocity with which it occurs. Therefore, both kinds of the things are important to be noted that the keen observation and interaction with the management is also important in order to make sure that the risk is managed appropriately ( Pritchard, 2014).

Credit risk philosophy and loan loss target

            The major risk philosophy of the position of risk management is centered on the following theme:

            “In the realm of conducting risk management position, I am exposed to a variety of risks that is going to be encountered by my organization and these risks include but nut not limited to including market, external and internal business environment, credit, financial, liquidity, operational as well as other risks. These risks are material and require comprehensive controls to mitigate or eliminate and they need constant oversight as well. These risks are monitored by my core business responsibility and the management along with our independent risk groups that are operating in our organization”

            This philosophy is important to address all kinds of the risks that are going to be encountered by the organization. Therefore, philosophy paves the way for addressing such risk and their mitigation and elimination process. The organizations face multiple risks and they are not subject to the specific kind of risk that is going to hit the organizations.  Therefore, it is important that the philosophy supports a holistic approach to addressing the possibility of occurring multiple risks in the organization to better dealt with the potential occurring of the risks.

 Relationships with operating units

            The risk management position requires constant interactions with the multiple operating units. These operating units include sales group, internal auditors, and compliance people along with national bank regulators.  It is important that the risk management is done in accordance with the day to day activities and the responsibilities that are going to be perfumed with such groups. The interaction with sales group, internal auditors and compliance people along with national bank regulator needed to execute in accordance with the regional and national laws governing the risk management. Therefore, the relationships with the operating units are an important aspect of the risk management job ( Tuttle , 2014).

Sales group

            Sales groups are engaged in the selling of the products of the organization in large number. The mitigation of the risks is equally important in sales group to estimate the exact number of sales that are required to fulfill the demand of the customers. The demand anticipation and the seasonal changes and the business cycles impact the sales teams and the groups. They must aware of the demand fluctuation and the change in the needs and the wants of the consumers. The risk management position must provide them authentic information about the possible demand of the market. The utilization of big data is an important factor in that regard.

            The big data is used to assess the customer and transactional information to anticipate the needs and the wants of the consumers and the likely fluctuation in the future that could be the major risk for the business. The risk manager or the related personnel must identify such information and provide correct information to the sales groups. It is important for the business and the sales groups to be equipped with right information and the level of the inventories that are adequate in order to deliver the right amount of sales products. Therefore, the relationships with the sales groups are an important aspect of the risk management job.

Internal auditors

            The internal auditors are those people who are responsible for making an audit of the organization. These auditors are internally appointed and responsible for making audit of the different operations of the organizations e.g. marketing human resources, management, finance, and operations. Therefore, the risk management position requires making constant interaction with the internal auditor. It is necessary to make sure that the internal auditors are equipped with right information regarding the conducts of the operations of the company. The risk manager is responsible providing information about the internal business environment of the organization and the external as well. Although an internal auditor is well aware of the internal business conditions of the organization, the risk manager is also important in order to provide the internal auditor with the possible risk that could also impact the internal auditing process of the organizations. The sudden fluctuation in the internal business conditions is an important factor in that regard. Therefore, the relationships with the internal auditors are an important aspect of the risk management job.

Compliance people

            The compliance department of the organization makes sure that the organization, the employees adhere to the rules, and regulations of the securities exchange commission and the financial industry regulatory authority. Lack of compliance may result in the lawsuits and the litigation procedures. Therefore, the risk manager works with close monitoring of the compliance standards that govern in the organization in order to make sure that the risk of lack of compliance is eliminated. The lack of compliance leads to distortion of the company’s goodwill, its image and the financial losses due to court proceedings and the litigation procedure. The risk management job also requires that the compliance people must inform about the risks that are associated with the lack of implementation of compliance standards in the organizations. Therefore, the relationships with the compliance people are an important aspect of the risk management job.

National bank regulators

            National bank regulation is important for the governing procedures of the organizations. The different kind of regulations regarding interest rates, tariffs, excise duties and other regulations are important in order to run the financial matters. Therefore, the risks associated with debt equity and other funding from financial institutions are important to scrutinize but the risk manager to avoid any discrepancies. The risk manager informs about the current and updated regulations of the National bank and            prevent any uncertainties for the organization to acquire debt equity and to deal with other matters governing the organizations.Therefore, the relationships with the national bank regulations are an important aspect of the risk management job.        

References:

Coleman, T. (2011). A Practical Guide to Risk Management. Research Foundation of CFA Institute .

Crouhy, M. (2014). The Essentials of Risk Management, Second Edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

Curtis, G. (2016). Get A Job In Compliance. Retrieved 2016, from investopedia.com: http://www.investopedia.com/articles/financialcareers/07/compliance-job.asp

Pritchard PMP PMI-RMP EVP, C. (2014). Risk Management: Concepts and Guidance, Fifth Edition. Auerbach Publications.

Tuttle , B. (2014). How to get a job in compliance with little or no experience. Retrieved 2016, from news.efinancialcareers.com: http://news.efinancialcareers.com/us-en/140343/how-to-get-a-job-in-compliance/

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Bond Valuation

Question 1:

You purchased a bond with the following characteristics: $1,000 par value 5.5% coupon semiannual payments 18 years to maturity Bond was priced to yield 6%. For the first three years after you purchased, the bond interest rates remained constant at 6%. Then interest rates dropped to 5.4% and remained at that rate for five years. Then rates dropped further to 4.8% and remained at that rate for two more years. Rates dropped even lower to 4% and remained at that rate until the bond matured.

Assume that all coupon interest payments were reinvested at the prevailing markets rate(s). Calculate the realized yield of this investment.

Answer:

Par value $1000
Coupon rate 5.50%
Coupon Payment $55
Years to Maturity 18
interest rate 6%

For the calculation of yield to maturity:

Bond Price

For the first three years with 6%

PV of a Bond
53.39806 51.84278 50.33279

For the next five years with the yield 5.4%

49.44028 48.14049 46.87486 45.64252 44.44257

For the next two years with the 4.8%:

44.42865 43.38735

For the next eight years with 4% rate

44.23447 43.36712 42.51679 41.68313 40.86581 40.06452 39.27894 38.50877

The present value of the par value:

587.4

Total Bond Price = 1395.844

YTM:

YTM = 2.71%

Question 2:

You purchased another bond with the following characteristics: $1,000 par value 6.5% coupon, annual payments 25 years to maturity Callable in 7 years at $1,065. You paid $1063.92 for the bond. Macaulay duration is 13.34 years Assume market rates drop by 50 basis points.

  1. What will be the new bond price?

Answer:

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.34 * 0.005

= 0.0667%

New Bond Price = 1000.0667

  • Using modified duration; estimate the value of the bond following the decrease in interest rates.

Answer:

YTM:

Bond Price= $13.46397 $207.138
Bond Price = $220.602
YTM = 29.57%
Modified Duration= 13.18406

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.18 * 0.005

= 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 1000.066

  • The estimate (from part b), is fairly close to the actual (in part a). What explains the difference in the two values? Be specific.

Answer:

The difference is because of the difference in the computations of the durations which is done by different formulas, Macaulay’s and modified duration in the both computations.

  • Calculate the effective duration of this bond. Use shifts of 50 basis points.

Answer:

Decrease in basis points by 50 points by Modified duration

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= 13.18 * 0.005

= 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 1000.066

Increase in basis points

Percentage change in Bond price = Bond duration * basis points= -13.18 * 0.005

= – 0.0659%

New Bond Price = 999.93

  • Calculate the yield to call.

Answer:

YTC= 0.07%

f. Of the three duration measures (Macaulay, modified, effective) which is the most appropriate measure for this bond? Why?

Answer:

The effective duration is the most appropriate duration measure as it also considers the effect of the change in the coupon amount and cash flows as the result of the change in the interest rate.

Question 3:

 Discuss how bond convexity is different for non-callable and callable bonds.

Answer:

Bond convexity is the effect of duration of bonds on its interest rates. Callable bonds show negative convexity with lower rate of interest. This negative convexity results from their short options. They are negatively yield on their lower rate of interest. On the other hand, non-callable bond shows increase in prices due to decrease in interest rates. Callable bond does not show significant change in price by changing its interest rate. Non-callable bonds show positive convexity.

Question 4:

 Why is convexity your friend?

Answer:

Convexity is my friend because it helps me to identify risk. It is a tool for managing risk. It provides identification of market risk at which bond should be exposed.

Question 5:

 You manage a portfolio of bonds for the Kentucky Teacher Retirement System. The weighted-average maturity of all bonds in the portfolio is 18.5 years. According to the actuaries, you must maintain that average maturity (i.e. you cannot increase or decrease the overall weighted-average maturity of the bonds in the portfolio). McWeber, Zenger and Gnan is a Regensburg-based economic Think Tank. They have forecasted a sharp rise in the U.S. yield curve. The result would be a significant increase in both short-term and long-term interest rates in this country. Understanding the negative impact that increasing rates have on bond values, you are concerned. What are changes that you can make to the bond portfolio to minimize the effects of the interest rate risks?

Answer:

I would like to make few changes in the bonds portfolio. I would like to short-term bonds in portfolio. Short-term bonds do not show much effect due to change in interest rate risks. On the other hand, long-term bonds show significant effect due change in interest rates. Common phenomenon rise in interest rates highly affects bonds with more duration. I would like to diversify portfolio by adding few treasury securities.

Question 6:

 Early last year you purchased 500 shares of Mrs. Davis Cookie Company, Inc. (Stock symbol CC). You paid $62 per share. The current stock price is $85 per share. You do not want to sell your stock but you want to protect all of your unrealized gain ($23). You believe that the stock may continue to rise by another 4% – 5% and you want your portfolio to benefit from any such price gains. The following options (puts and call) with July expirations are available.

calls  
Strike Premium Strike premium
82.5 5.75 82.5 1.05
85 4 85 1.40
87.5 2.45 87.5 2.85
90 1.40 90 5.30
92.5 .70 92.5 8.15
95 0.32 95 12.65

Devise a strategy using options from the above table that is appropriate, given your parameters. Provide a drawing/graph that depicts that strategy.

Answer:

The strategy that should be used should have the gain on the call and put premium by exercising the call options that are below 85, the market price, and the put options that are above the market price.

7. From the table above, calculate the intrinsic value and the time value of the

following options:

Answer:

  1. 82.5 Call
  2. Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-82.5 = 2.5

  • Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 2.5

= 3.25

  • 85 Call

Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-85 = 0

Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 87.5 Call

Intrinsic value: Market price- Strike value

=85-87.5 = 0 (is zero for less than zero)

Time value of call option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 82.5 Put

Intrinsic value: Strike value-Market price

=82.5-85 = 0 (is zero for less than zero)

Time value of put option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 0

= 5.75

  • 92.5 Put

Intrinsic value: Strike value-Market price

=92.5-85 = 7.5

Time value of put option

= Premium – intrinsic value

= 5.75 – 7.5

= -1.75

Question 8:

 Consider the following annual bond:

Coupon rate: 6.5% YTM: 7.5% Time: 30 years

a. Calculate the duration of this bond.

b. A bond is initially immunized at the point of duration. Show that immunization

Occurs (interest rate risk and reinvestment rate risk offset) at the point of

Duration. Use these interest rates: 7%, 7.5%, 8%.

Answer:

  •  

Par value=1000

Coupon payment= 1000*6.5%=65

Bond price= C/(1+i)1+C/(1+i)2+……. M/(1+i)n

Bond Price= C*[1-[1/1+i) n]]/1 +M/ (1+I)N

Bond price= 942.0429444

Bond price *maturity=28261.28833

Duration=942.0429444/28261.28833

=0.033333333

(b)

Bond price= 946.9884804 If YTM=7% by using formula C*[1-[1/1+i) n]]/1 +M/ (1+I)N.

Bond price at YTM 7.5% = 942.0429444

Bond price= 938.791964 at YTM, 8%.

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‘To win employees’

Q1.

‘To win employees’ sustained, energetic commitment to the strategy execution process, management must be resourceful in designing and using motivational incentives.’ Crafting and Executing strategy. Thompson, Gamble, Peteraf, Janes & Sutton. Assess the importance of financial and non-financial rewards in the motivation of employees stating how the alignment of strategy and individual motivation can improve the execution of strategy.         

            Motivation is a process in which the employees set objectives goals or objectives, take necessary action and finally attain the set goals. The valued reward system being the part of the organizational culture would satisfy the needs of the employees in the execution of the strategy, the organization has chosen to achieve the competitive edge. The organizational; goal would set by using the financial and non-financial approaches like increase in the market share or profitability and the increase in the quality of the core products or services.

It is essential for the choosing the unique strategy that the organizational culture must drive the business strategy which is fitted into the activities and difficult for competitors to match this strategy. The total reward for the employees working in the organization is the sum of both the financial (incentives, compensation, benefits) as well as the non-financial rewards (praise from the employer and attention from their leaders or strategic leadership). The practice of reward as the integral part of the organizational culture will increase the motivation among employees, which ultimately leads to the flexibility in the behaviour of employees at different level in an organization.

            In this perspective the approach of the Balanced Scorecard can be sued which is the systematic pattern measuring the performance of an organization. The execution of the strategy of an organization will be efficiently defining the objectives, process, and goasl, which are the part of the organizational culture in order to achieve. . The Balanced Scorecard integrates the motivation necessary for the employees working in an organization by using the appropriate mixture of approaches in which the short-term and long-term non-financial and the financial performance measurement techniques used in the whole organization, as the integral part of the strategy of the organization.

            While analyzing the strategic leadership and balanced score card approach, the techniques in the financial performance measurement of an organization, such as net income and return on the earnings, indicate the evaluation of the organizational strategy in achieving the better results in the form of shareholders worth.  However, financial techniques are not enough for the evaluation of the strategy, which will executed in the organization. Therefore, the firms monitor nonfinancial measurement techniques to understand whether in the organizational culture core capabilities are developing or destroying the motivation of the employees.

            The performance is check based on customers, procedures, employees, and the other systems in the organization for effectively implement the strategy. For growth and development of the future, the core nonfinancial measures are the necessary part or the indicators of financial performance the organization in order to execute the strategy the company has chosen aligning in the business model.

            This tells the importance of the financial and non-financial rewards that will make the improvements by using effectively these indicators and the better financial results or the performance would definitely achieved in this way in the future. While execution of the strategy in the organizational level, the motivation of the employee through the financial and the non-financial rewards, the decreases in the nonfinancial pointers which includes the customer satisfaction as well as the loyalty of the customers for the organization and the quality of the organizational processes generally decrease the performance of the organization in the future.

The organization while executing the business strategy looks for the evaluation of the intangible assets to get the success from the competitors in the form of the competitive advantage. The intangible assets that are the part of the organizational culture include the customer loyalty, the motivation or skills of the employees working in the organization and the core strategic processes in the system. 

            Therefore while analyzing this perspective the balanced score card approach helps the organization in a great way measurement of the intangible or the knowledge assets. The framework is provide to motivate the employees by identifying the non-financial and the financial rewards such as the strategic leadership, benefits, property and inventory in way or the other. That is why the financial and the non-financial rewards by creating the maximum value for the organization used as the effective resources for the execution of the strategy in the organization in a better way.

Q 2 (a) Identify the key factors likely to affect the formation of the culture of an organization using an appropriate model to support your answer.     

These are some key factors, which affects the formation of the organization. These are some of the major points and needs to be remembered whenever you need to change the culture.

Here are the key factors likely to affect the formation of the culture:

The working group

            The working groups show up in associations in various structures. The working power is made by a formal power, the associations being systems of working gatherings. The variables that decide the development of the gathering can be delimitated into the individual qualities (identity, experience, preparing, and state of mind), situational variables (the assignments to satisfy, accessible space, the method for giving the grants separately the gathering in general or the person).

The style of leadership of the managers

            This has a significant impact upon the way of life of a gathering. On the off chance that the director is far off towards his/her subordinates, this state of mind can have a negative effect upon the way of life. The trust in the supervisor, the encapsulation of the boss in a positive case can affect positively the viability of the gathering.

The organizational characteristics

            They can influence, additionally, the kind of society that it is produce. The associations vary concurring characteristics as measure and multifaceted nature. Between the unpredictability of the association’s way of life and the span of the organization (that can be communicate through the business figure, capital, number of workers) there is an immediate relative report. In addition, the huge associations tend to higher degrees of specialization and towards a greater unoriginal character.    

Q 2 (b) Assess why employees may resist change when senior management, want to change organizational culture to aid effective strategy implementation.                                       

            Employees resist in many ways and there are many reasons they want to resist. No one wants to come out of his or her shell. Some of the reasons are stated below that why this happens.

Fear of failure

            Imperviousness to change might be establishing in fear. Amid times of progress, a few workers may feel the need to stick to the past in light of the fact that it was a more secure, unsurprising time. In the event that what they did in the past functioned admirably for them, they may oppose changing their conduct out of trepidation that they will not accomplish as much later on.

Creatures of habit

            Doing things in the same normal, unsurprising way is agreeable. Requesting that individual’s change the way they work or believe is requesting that they move outside their usual range of familiarity.

No obvious need

            A few representatives may see a change just from the point of view of the effect it has on them and their specific employments. Not seeing the 10,000-foot view, they may neglect to perceive the positive effect of the change on the association in general. In this way, they may discover the change troublesome and superfluous.

Loss of control

            Natural schedules help representatives build up a feeling of control over their workplace. Being request that change the way they work may make representatives feel feeble and annoying

Concern about support system

            Representatives working inside unsurprising schedules know their emotionally supportive network will back them up amid testing times. Changing the hierarchical structures may shake their trust in their emotionally supportive network. They may stress over working for another boss, with new representatives or on new tasks since they expect that in the event that they attempt and fall flat, there will be nobody there to bolster them.

Closed minded

            A few workers appear to have the state of mind, “Kindly don’t mistake me for any truths or supporting documentation about this change–I’ve officially decided!” Employees with this demeanour approach the alter process with their opinions immovably made up, mumbling, “No chance to get!” amid examinations and clarifications without bounds.

Unwillingness to learn

            A few workers, reluctant to attempt new schedules, express an unwillingness to learn anything new. They may say, “I definitely know all that I have to know.” Like safe workers who have effectively made up their brains that the change will not be profitable, representatives hesitant to gain some new useful knowledge block the association’s development and adjustment to change. They likewise obstruct their very own development and advancement.

Q 3 it has been suggested that the successful management of strategic change is a key requirement for successful strategy implementation and that the first step to successful change management is to overcome employee resistance.

Given this statement

(a) Identify why change is necessary for successful strategy execution and why employees are likely to resist change                         

            Strategy Change is very necessary in the organization if one wants to make it a successful and sustainable organization. An organization is running on old patterns, culture, technology then it can never compete in the market. They need to change themselves a lot in order to sustain a good position in the market. The most important thing in here is that yes, change is too much important but on the same hand it is very difficult to implement in to the organization. It takes a good hard time and resources to be implementing.

            For instance the resources are met, time is been allotted, hard work is there. Still there is one biggest problem, which the organizations face always. That is the resistance from the employees. The employees never want to see any changes, as they are comfortable that they are doing and how they are doing. They never like change and this is one of the negative things in the organization. There are couples of reasons behind that such as fear of failure, loss of control, close-minded, unwillingness to learn and so on. Most of the time what happen is that they do not need to learn anything, which is the negative aspect of their life. Sometimes they think that the control will be lost as the system will change which is also v bad part of anyone personality. Another major reason, which we have seen, is the fear of failure. As the things are, new people hesitate to look up and explore it. Changes have been made. People hesitate to accept the change to quickly. They do not want to accept as they have fear that who knows the work they are doing is right or wrong.

(b) Analyze the necessary steps that senior management should take in order to successfully, manage strategic change.                               

There are different steps management needs to take in order to implement successful change. Some of the steps have been written and shown below.

Management Support for Change

            The analysis of steps require consent from senior manager actually show that how it can respond in perfect way. It is important that administration indicates support for changes and exhibits that backing when imparting and connecting with staff. Workers build up a solace level when they see administration supporting the procedure.

Case for Change

            Nobody needs to change for change purpose, so it is critical to make a case for change. A case for change can originate from various sources. It can be an after-effect of information gathered on deformity rates, consumer loyalty study, worker fulfilment overview, and client remark cards, business objectives because of a key arranging session or spending plan weights.

Utilizing information is the ideal approach to recognize regions that need to enhance and change activities.

 Employee Involvement

            All change endeavours ought to include workers at some level. Authoritative change, whether extensive or little, should be clarify and conveyed, particularly changes that influence how representatives perform their employments.

            Whether it is changing a work process, enhancing consumer loyalty or discovering approaches to decrease costs, representatives have encounters that can advantage the change arranging and usage process. Since workers are normally nearest to the procedure, it is vital that they comprehend the why behind a change and take an interest in making the new process.

Communicating the Change

            Imparting change ought to be organized and precise. Workers are helpless before administration to illuminate them of changes. At the point when there is poor correspondence and the talk plant begins spreading bits of gossip about change, it can make imperviousness to the change. Being proactive in interchanges can minimize resistance and make representatives feel like they are a piece of the procedure.

 Implementation

            Once a change is arranged, it is essential to have great correspondence about the rollout and usage of the change. A course of events ought to make for the execution and ought to roll out improvements in the request that influence the procedure and the representatives who deal with the procedure.

A successful course of events will take into consideration all new gear, supplies or preparing to occur before completely executed. Executing without a sensible request can make disappointment for those in charge of the work process.

Follow-up

            At whatever point a change has made, it is constantly great to catch up after execution and survey how the change is functioning and if the change conveyed the outcomes that were proposed.

            In some cases, changes surpass target desires yet there are events that progressions simply do not fill in as arranged. When this is the situation, administration ought to recognize that it did not work and make alterations until the sought result is accomplished.

Removing Barriers

            Some of the time representatives experience obstructions when executing changes. Boundaries can be with different workers, different offices, insufficient preparing, lacking gear or supply needs. Some of the time administration likewise needs to manage safe or troublesome representatives.

Q4.

(a) Assess how good leadership and a healthy organisational culture contributes to the strategy implementation process.                  

            There is a great role of the leadership in the change management. the importance of the leadership defines that it is the most significant contributor the change management in  successful manner. The life cycle of the organization tells that the leaders are engaged in a great way in the changes that are occurring in the management. The reason behind this engagement in the change from the leaders is that the leaders against change that is affecting the organization achieve the maximum acceptance. the change is identified from the leader starting from the top most level in the form of bright vision and the aspiring the role models to develop the necessary changes.

            The achievement of the change using the simple approach or the complex methodologies is all-dependent on the culture and the environment of the organization. If the activities of the organization are integrated smoothly the changes in the management would not be a complicated task from the manager point of view. Similarly, the task for the mangers will be difficult if the activities are not integrating smoothly. The successful implementation of the change management requires the intense level of dedication or the commitment from the leader mangers.

            Despite the fact that the changes in the management would occur in the single section or the single unit, the role of the manger is to maintain the same level of the commitment that si used for the change in the whole organization. in this way, the change is made according the settings of the people or the things in the organization that sets the effective tone for the change management. Since all the eyes are on the leaders in the process of the change management in the organization, it is the core duty or the responsibility to make steps that are very effective and set the right examples for the followers. 

            The support and the direction from the leaders in the change management plays an effective role since the motivation that the rest of the employees will pick is from the leaders that bring the change in the management. the model behaviour in which the employees would desire to have the commitment as their leaders would come only after following this way.

(b) Explain how an unhealthy organisational culture starts in an organisation and why it may be difficult for employees to prevent the negative outcomes of such a culture before they damage the organisation.                               

            Unhealthy organisational culture starts in an organisation when there is no scope or trend for adopting the necessary changes in the organizational culture and get advantage from the opportunities comes ahead for the organization and prevents the threats, which are the uncertain and can provide the harm to the organization. The unhealthy culture takes place when the organizations lack in the ability to understand the importance of the change management and its advantages over the organizational culture.

            The other reasons for the unhealthy culture in the organization are no clear vision and the planning for addressing the changes, no real defined governance which manages the changes in the agents or the committees, when there is no committed and the dedicated leadership in the organization. The other reasons are when there is huge deficit of the stakeholder, which are informed, the lack in the communication through the flexible approach and the integrated workforce that helps the organization to have the strong impact of the people.

            All these key factors described in above-mentioned discussion play an important role in the organization and therefore, it becomes very difficult for the employees at times to cope with these wrong dealing in the organization due to the lack of guidelines or instructions to follow in the organizational culture.  The employees become the part of this wrong organizational culture. There is nothing for them to follow for the change management like the effective leadership from the managers, the committed workforce and support from the leaders.

Q5.

Since the only constant in the lives of leader-managers will be change, the ability to handle strategic change is a fundamental skill.

Discuss this statement identifying key drivers of change in modern organisations and identify how leaders-managers should prepare for the management of the key drivers identified.                                   

            The factors which are considered very significant for the successful management change are list and explained in detail in below discussion         

  1. Planning:  The first important factor in the change management in the contemporary organization is the planning in which the developing and list of documentation must be ready in order to set the objectives that must be achieve by the change management and the processes while achieving those objectives.

      The leader mangers must plan in a context that what are the current implications of the strategy and what future planning must be the integral part of the organization. The clear vision is the second most important factor that must considered from the leaders’ mangers. The changes that the organization would consider in the vision after some time must also handled in   way that the answer of the initiatives that the mangers took and the results on the organizational strategy must provided by the mangers.

  • Classified and Transparent Governance: The second important indicator of the contemporary change management is the classified and the transparent governance. The establishing appropriate structures of the organization, the relevant and updated roles, and responsibilities of the employees that is very necessary for the change that slot in the major stakeholders and provide the necessary support the changing external efforts.

      The things that must be considered from the leader manger are included the changes in the governance in the form of the committees and the agents. The practical outcomes or the results, the quality checks and the accurate decision-making with regard to policy and the procedures in the change management must consider.

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  • Commitment and dedication of the Leadership: The third important factor, which is classifying as a very important for the management change, is the commitment and the dedication of the leadership in the organization.  the first thing in this perspective we have analyzed is the ongoing, relevant and the dynamic commitment at the top level of the management present in any organization and across the board for the authoritative leadership in an organisation to guide organisational attitudes, motivation and the  behaviour, and lead by the unique or the differentiated example to follow.

      The things that the leader manger should incorporate are effective and the dynamic role, the high visibility for the sake of the support to the other management members in the organization and the setting the example for the employees to follow intelligently.

  • Awareness among Stakeholders: The fourth vital element, which is a necessary factor in the change management, is the awareness among the stakeholders. In the contemporary setting of the culture of the organization is the planning in the organizational change management encourages the participation of the major stakeholder and these parties to the effective change in management show commitment. By the evaluation or assessment of the employing an open, flexible and reviewing communication dimension to create the maximum awareness and the maximum amount of understanding of the change required or necessary right through the culture of the organisation.

      The things that the mangers must consider include the communication, which will be flexible in nature and the purpose of the change in the communication, must clarify by the leader manger in way that everyone in the organization have the influence.

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  • Integrated Workforce: The last most important factor in the change management in the contemporary organization is the integrated workforce. The integrated workforce has used widely by the different organizations for identifying the human impacts for developing the core changes and implementation of the plans to integrate the workforce or the employees of the organization to support the changing that are developing on the continuous basis in the organisation.

            The important factors that the leader manger must take into the account are organizational needs or the assessments in the required needs of the organization and the impact of the people in the change management.

            Q6.

Strategic planning is easy.  Implementing and executing strategy effectively is difficult.

Discuss this statement identifying the requirements for building an organisation capable of executing strategy effectively.                                 

            Strategic planning is easy.  Implementing and executing strategy effectively is difficult. While analyzing this statement we have come across few requirements in the issues the that organizations has to face for the effective implementation of the strategy that fits into the organization culture

  1. The integration of the organizational culture with the strategically operations in order to meet the upcoming challenges

            For the effective strategy to be implementing in the organization it is very necessary that the execution of the strategy is solid. The execution is the representation of the disciplined procedures that is rooted into the culture of the organization. Then the strategy is use for the specific purpose and it is implementing in the business model of the organization. Without having, the solid planning in the implementation phase of the strategy the execution of the specific strategy would not do in the professional manner.   Therefore, the goals set into the organizational culture can achieved while having the appropriate approach in the planning of the strategy that is the core part of the organizational culture.

            Therefore, the logical approach must be the part of the execution of the strategy so that the effective practical results come for the organization. Even with the design or the development of the solid executions planning phase, the guaranteed of the success is still not in the hands of the organization.  However, the significant part in the successful execution of the strategy that integrates to the organizational culture is the organization must select the different and unique approach in its strategy in order to have the successful execution.

  • The reward system and the incentives the employees receive in the organizational setting and relationship with the performance or attaining the competitive advantage

            Although there is no doubt that, the execution of the strategy is critical for the better performance of the organization or the competitive edge. There are still many challenges like the reward system effectiveness in the organizational culture. The biasness should remove on the seniority basis. The rewards system in the organization should be based on the performance of the employees regard less to the

Although execution is critical to strategic success, making strategy work presents a formidable challenge. A host of factors, including politics, inertia, and resistance to change, routinely can get in the way of execution success.

  • The ability to tackle problems in using the innovative methods in the problem solving techniques as the part of the organizational structure

      The organization would not able to cope with resources effectively until the resources are equipped with the right approach in performing the necessary operations of the business. if the organizational cultural support with the effective use of the resources while taking into account the dynamic approach is received to the organization, the execution of the current strategy would be perfect. This means that the logical execution of the planning phase along with the innovative organisational culture is the two necessary parts of the successful execution of the strategy.

      The next thing in the successful execution of the strategy is the ability of the organization from the mangerial structure point of view to address the changes that are prevailing in the outside environment of the organization. In this way, the best results for the organization would achieve. The poor culture of the organization can be eliminating through the logical planning, which ultimately made the execution of the strategy in a successful way.

  • The effective dealing of challenges the organization has to face with respect to the change management

            The part of the management is very important in this section because apart from making the logical plans for the execution of the sound strategy that works best for the organization. It is also very necessary that the people or the management is up to the challenges that the organization is facing through the lack of the resources as compared to the competitors for the effective implementation of the strategy. so it is the core responsibility ort the duty of the sound management that the tasks which are set for dealing those challenges must be aligned to the corporate culture so that the strategy that the organization want to execute effectively done in the smooth management processes.

            The execution of the strategy must be as sound and as effective as the steps management takes for the formulation of the strategy that fits into the roots of the business operations in order for the organization to perform in the better way. The changes in the management must be spontaneous in order to make the clear objectives for the execution of the strategy in an organized way.

Q7.

“The strategic direction chosen by the organisation can be assessed on three key criteria namely, suitability, acceptability and feasibility.”    

Johnson and Scholes

Discuss                                                                                                      

            Suitability

            It is very important to consider the suitability among other choices while making the analysis of the strategy of the organization. The consistency is check in this way from the number of issues the organization is facing while implementing the strategy. The feature that drives the organization through the core operations of the business has discussed through the suitability factor in the organizational strategy. The consistency in the core competencies is also evaluating through the suitability while executing the strategy of the organization. The issue, which the implantation of the strategy deals, is the cultural patterns and the core values of the organization in a way that the effective use of the core capabilities must be necessary for the specific organization.

            The suitability deal with all these concerns such as the cultural patterns and the structure of the organization is concerned. The assessment of the organizational suitability is the competencies and the core resources the company used in the most efficient way than its competitors. For this, the organizational strategy plays an important or the significant role in determining the strengths or the effective competencies through which the objective of identifying the suitability of the resources sued in the organizational both internal way and the external way. Apart from checking the core internal competencies, the major weakness are analyzed trough the suitability factor in the organization.

            The last thing we have checked in this perspective of the suitability with respect to the organizational strategy in achieving the competitive advantage is the potential of the strategy in for the purpose of the exploitation of these core resources of the organization. The potential of the strategy is check while making full use of the relevant opportunities and avoiding the dangerous or the uncertain threat in the organizational strategy.

Feasibility

            The feasibility analyzes the practical implications of the organizational strategy in a way that whether the strategy the company or organization has selected would be able to develop or achieved the core competencies, core resources in the organizational operations. To get the competitive advantage from the competitors it is very important for the organization to check the practicality of the strategy while analyzing the core competencies that are the part of the organizational culture. therefore it is evaluated by using the feasibility factor what core strategy the organization should select that uses the resources in easy way and the cost efficient way. the integration of the resources with the business strategy and the organizational culture plays an important role in this section in order to analyze the feasibility of the strategy the organization has selected.

            The feasibility also analyzes the organizational management and structure like  the skills or abilities of the employees, the technology the company is using and the brand name the organization has developed match to the strategic choices while looking at the relevant resources or competencies. The skills, abilities which are part of the human resources management evaluates the company operations through the technique of the system the company is using which match the organizational strategy.

Acceptability

            In the acceptability we checks the strategic results which have come around are whether integration or being accepted by the main stakeholders of the organization.  The strategy the organization has chosen is check with aspect to the business.  The business operations integration with the profit generation capacity is the focus of the evaluation of the acceptability of the strategy the company is perusing in order to satisfy the main stakeholders of the organization.

            For the acceptability, the forecasting techniques and the risk evaluation are tools for the satisfaction of the employees and the other stakeholders. The profitability if in the optimum level, then the strategy is accepted both the employees working in the organization as well as the stakeholders of the company. Similarly, if the profitability of the specific organization does not match to the optimum expectations of the employees and the other important parties that have the strong connection with the business.

            The other important factor that is concerned in the acceptability aspect is the environment or the conditions provide to the employees are aligned to the organization culture for the successful execution of the business. The acceptance of the working environment or the conditions must also need to be incorporate in the assessment of the acceptability factor, as it is the necessary part for achieving the higher performance in the organization.

Q8.

(a)Evaluate the usefulness of Ansoffs product market growth matrix as a tool of determination of strategic direction.                                                

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            The ANSOFF matrix is the matrix that is very useful in the intensive growth model approach while providing the direction of which strategy to select.

            Let us see the market penetration first, which is the strategy that will fit into the business models of those organizations who want take the low level of risks in order to expand their business. The growth by selecting this strategy would be quite low because the organizations are taking the safe side with the products that are the same and the markets are the same as well. For the internal resources the organizations uses the discounts, packages and other things in order to make the market penetration the effective part of the organization. the marketing strategy would be taken under this strategy by offering the loyalty schemes and the concessions in the price strategy of the organization.

            The next strategy is the product development that the organizations use to take some sought of risks in order to expand their business. The technique used in this strategy is that the company offers the same products but the market, which is target by the company, is entirely new. The different sought of variants as the resources for the product development are used and the new products are the new services in the relevant field are use by the organization as the growth strategy by the organizations.

            Then we have analyzed the market penetration, which shows that is a little more risky strategy for the organizations since the new markets are offer from the companies by having the same sough of products. It is not an easy strategy, which will match the organizational structure since a huge risk is involved while entering into the new markets. for this strategy the external analysis or the PEST analysis would be analyzed by the organizations in which the macro level changes to the organizations are evaluated. Another approach use in this perspective is the marketing mix approach in which product, price, place and promotions is evaluated which tells the directions of the strategy to choose for the organization.

            The next strategy is the diversification strategy, which would fit for those organizations who are the risk lovers. The extreme risk is involved in pursuing this strategy since the products and the new markets the organization is going to target.

(b) Discuss the relevance, if any, of the matrix to a public sector organisation not driven by a profit motive.                                                                       

            The public sector organization, which is not drive by the motive of the profitability, would be better to choose the market penetration strategy. Since the risk involved in this strategy is not very high it would be the better options for the public organization who is working with the organizational culture of not earning the profits. The next important indicator o the market penetration strategy for the public sector organization is the encouragement to the customers that the current product would be providing more utility within the same target market. teh Boston matrix could play the effective role in this part since the direction of the strategy will be received by the public organization through which unit or division the investment should increase or which unit needs less investment.

            The other reason is that the growth by selecting this strategy would be quite low because the organizations are taking the safe side with the products that are the same and the markets are the same as well. For the internal resources the organizations uses the discounts, packages and other things in order to make the market penetration the effective part of the organization.

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Business plan

Section 1

Cover memo

Bugshan hospital

Internal communication

To:CEO

From: XYZ

Date: 8 April 2016

Re: Business plan for establishing inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah.

This paper contains information about business plan for starting a psychology service in the private hospital in Saudi Arabia. Selected city for this proposal is Jeddah. In this paper, feasibility analysis, operating plan and risk are covered for this proposed business. The mission of this new business is to serve the community by providing them a good mental health. The purpose of starting this business in Saudi Arabia is there is less number of hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Selection of city was appropriate for this proposed business. Jeddah only contains one hospital that is providing this service to patients with inpatient unit. I hope that you will find information in this business plan effective for providing operating and financial help for this hospital. Bugshan hospital should participate in financial and operating help for this proposed business.

Title page

A proposal

To establish

Inpatient unit

For

Psychiatry department in privet hospital

Submitted by:

ABC

Bugshan hospital

Planning department

April 2016

Table of contents

Section 1. 2

Cover memo. 2

Executive Summary. 6

Description of Initiative. 7

Organizational Structure. 8

Section 2. 9

Market analysis. 9

Marketing plan. 10

Financial resource planning. 11

Section 3. 16

Project Inputs. 17

Project Outputs. 17

Cash Flow.. 17

What If Analysis. 18

Section 4. 18

Implementation and operation Plan. 18

Business Operations. 18

Memo to the Head of Hospital for permission. 18

Business Process. 19

Resource Management Department 19

Department Head. 19

Seniors and Juniors Doctor 20

Paramedical Staff. 20

Customer relationship officer 20

Accounts department 20

Key Performance Measure. 21

Patient Feedback. 21

Peers Feedback. 21

Strength of Business. 21

Weakness. 22

Risk. 22

Implementation: 22

Business plan read. 23

Section 5. 24

Successful business plan. 24

References. 27

Appendix. 28

Proforma Balance Sheet 28

Executive Summary

Bugshan Hospital in Jeddah is one of the most renowned hospitals in the region and of Saudi Arabia for their medical services and patient care. By considering the need of the mental health in the Jeddah region, the department of Psychiatry Bugshan hospital proposed to establish a new inpatient unit of Psychiatry for providing good mental health. It is expected that this business is a potentiated Capital Investment opportunity

Psychiatry department has planned to provide a specialized treatment for the people suffering with psychological, emotional and behavioral disorders. The core purpose of this project is to help and treat the mental patient through the possibly best medical treatments. The skilled professional doctors will be hired to treat the patient with a purpose to add value to live a normal life.

Bugshan Hospital has a to develop an In-patient Care department in hospital which is proposed to deal as a General Clinics for General Adult Psychiatry and Clinic for Paediatric Psychiatry.

Patients will be admitted within the hospital as average number of inpatients for offering a variety of therapeutic techniques to get well quickly and they will be provided secure therapeutic environment. In treatment, a special procedure involves for treatment is Electroconvulsive therapy, Psychometric testing, Cognitive behavior therapy, Psychotherapy.

Psychiatry department in Bugshan Hospital is the first inpatient unit by department of Psychiatry in Jeddah city by a private hospital and second overall psychiatry hospital as one is situated as Jeddah National Hospital. In business point of view this will investment plan will not only earn a good reputation but it will give great financially benefits to the investors. Market analysis in Jeddah city shows a high demand for this treatment unit as social life have many problems which are increasing the number of mental patient day by day.

Taking a total perspective, inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah will have professionally skilled and experienced doctors, paramedical staff and advanced medical equipment’s, patient friendly environment to meet all the required standards. As the medical science and technology is changing rapidly due to the modern research and inventions, therefore this idea is well suited to utilize these newly developed medical tactics and technology for the betterment of human.

Bugshan hospital department of Psychiatry is aimed to get itself developed into one of the best healthcare institutions in Jeddah with the specialists of the relevant field and the mission is to provide compassionate healthcare of the highest quality at an affordable cost to serve the nation and humanity. However to make this plan successful, there is need to focus on the weaknesses such as the unavailability of the staff in the local market. If theses weakness will be affectively addressed then this business plan could receive great success. (Mattiske, 2012)

Description of Initiative

The purpose of starting a Psychiatry department in Bugshan Hospital is to provide patients good mental health. Mental health of patients is important for their development. It provides better community participation. In this department, our business would provide different services to patients including behavior disorder, psychiatric disease, emotional problems, etc. This department would provide treatment to adolescents and children in their mental disturbance like suicide attempts, mood disorder, disruptive behavior, anxiety disorder etc. This proposed project is important because, in Saudi Arabia, problems related to mental health have been increasing. (Wysocki, 2011) Mental illness has become important issue in Saudi Arabia. For better participation of people in the development of the community is associated with their mental development. They can perform better if they are mentally strong. The importance of this project is to provide better prosperity of life to patients. It has researched that only one hospital in Jeddah is providing this inpatient service to its patients. This department only has limited space for treatment. It only consisted of 20 beds (AD & DO., 2002).

Organizational Structure

The Bugshan Hospital will come up with good organizational structure. The organizational involve all following stakeholders. These are director general, secretary of DG, Office Director, Committees, Assistant Director, financial department, radiology department, medical department, medical record department and hospital affair department.

In addition, different sections are workforce, surgery, training, information, specialized programs sections, media affair section, supplier section and establishment of the Hospital.

The management intends to have different departments in the company and enable effective communication process. The organizational structure seems good, as it is based on coordination of different departments. There will be inclusion of all departments in this structure, which will carry different business operations (Almoshawah, 2010).

 The inclusion of all medical departments cannot be compromised in this project, as it is the main purpose of this new development. For Instance, there will be all facilities for patients, which justified this organizational structure. The most important thing is coordination, which each department will have with others.

The finance department will look after all other departments regarding the financial resources and costing. Effective communication in this organizational structure will help this department to share the knowledge and feasibility reports with other departments in order have all necessary aspects.  This is a fact that this organizational structure will be a base for this develop, which enhances the chances of success after completion (Bahri, 2012).

Relative to organizational structure, the consideration of the management is to have a complete unit in form of complete organizational structure. The hospital already exist and the most important thing will be the retention of old departments, coordination and communication process. Obviously, the management intends to have flexible structure, which can be modified according to time and situation.  The organizational structure is pertinent to mission and vision of a company, as it reliable and can be made as a baseline for strategic decision-making (Cain, 2012).

Section 2

Market analysis

Market analysis has conducted for analyzing the demand for this service in the city. Current problems in mental health in Saudi Arabia indicate high demand for this service. The proposed business plan is to establish this service in Jeddah. In a research, the author concluded high rate of emotional disorders in young people in Saudi Arabia. Many studies have conducted for analyzing the rate of emotional disorders in children in school. He concluded that average age for this disease is 17 years and mostly students are female. From these studies, 16 to 59% studies concluded significant emotional and mental symptoms in students of secondary school. (Koenig, et al., 2014).

            Another study having a sample size of 609 concluded that 46.6% men have mental illness and 53.4% women. It was concluded from the study that 1/3rd of patients have the problem of mental illness. It was concluded that rate is high ion young people from age 15 to age 65 years. It was also concluded from the study that rate is high in widows and divorced women in Saudi Arabia. (AD & DO., 2002)  Another study concluded that current services have weaknesses in satisfying demand of patients (Almoshawah, 2010). This is the reason why more services are required in this area. Market research has provided high demand of Psychiatry service in Saudi Arabia. Demand for service is higher than its present or current supply in the country especially.

Market analysis has concluded that there is the presence of psychological disorder in Saudi Arabia patients. Due to the limitation of hospitals having this department, patients are facing challenges in fighting this disease. There is the need to open this department in the hospital so that patients can get better services in the city of Jeddah.

Marketing plan

             In this section, marketing activities of this proposed business have provided. Marketing plan provided detail of pricing strategies and advertising techniques. Prices of services would be based on income level of patients. This department is going to start in Bugshan hospital that is the private hospital in Saudi Arabia. Private hospital charges high prices as compared to government hospitals. There would be different services. Prices would range from the severity of the disease. Services include treatment of behavior disorder, mental illness, suicide attempts, mood disorders, psychotic disorders etc (Elbashier, 2006).

             Each service would have the different price. Prices would be based on a strategy of not too high and not too less for the hospital. It will match with existing pricing strategy of the hospital. Market share would be gained due to the good reputation of the hospital. Bugshan hospital is one of the main private hospital in Jeddah. Market share would be obtained by proving high-quality services to customers with better satisfaction. Innovation would be one of the effective strategy for improving the market share of this proposed business. Our qualified professionals would increase the satisfaction of patients. We will provide training to our professionals to increase market share and patients recovery rate (Jerman & Završnik, 2013).

                        Different marketing strategies would be effective for this business. One of effective marketing strategy would be the word of mouth. After getting satisfactory services, patients would recommend this to their friends and relatives. Social media marketing is another competitive marketing strategy. Patients would be able to take appointment from their doctors using the internet. Social media marketing would cover advertisement on Facebook, twitter, web page, etc. This business would motivate customers by satisfying their diversified demand.

            Other marketing strategies would include advertising on television and radio. Customers would provide the good image of services. Customer’s feedback and suggestions would be other important marketing strategies for this business. Their suggestions would be considered for better results in future. Patients would be treated with care in hospitals. They would be given treatment after accessing their information (Parker, 2010).

Financial resource planning

            Availability of finance is the important requirement for every new or existing business. Finance provides directions to management. It provides them information that how they can plan for their resources. For starting, a new department in existing hospital would require different expenses. This department would contain the requirement of 100 beds. These include expenses for buying machinery and equipment, beds, chairs and all other utilities including medicines. Other expenses would include the hiring of professionals and nurses. Marketing and advertising expenses would also be included in this category. Other expenses would include insurance expenses.

            Revenue sources in this business would include treatment of different diseases in patients. Revenue would be collected from selling services to customers at reasonable prices through doctors. The total cost of starting this new department is approximately 1 million. It also covered the cost of hiring skilled and trained professionals. Planning of resources is necessary for operations of business. Planning provides better ideas of decision making to businesses. No need of land is required in this project because this unit was established in Bugshan hospital. We have requested hospital to satisfy the demand of finance for starting this new department. This new department would also improve growth of the hospital. This business can be operated if finance requirement is met (Zimmerman & Ng, 2012).

Despite having a huge need of capital for this department, this is important for this hospital to come up with good budgeting techniques. The management of this hospital contains a plan to raise funds from different resources despite having a reasonable revenue. This is a fact that the current financial resouyrces and allocations are not pertinent to build this department. This justifies the need to identify different resources.

Financial resource planning

            Availability of finance is the important requirement for every new or existing business. Finance provides directions to management. It provides them information that how they can plan for their resources. For starting, a new department in existing hospital would require different expenses. This department would contain the requirement of 100 beds.

            These include expenses for buying machinery and equipment, beds, chairs and all other utilities including medicines. Other expenses would include the hiring of professionals and nurses. Marketing and advertising expenses would also be included in this category. Other expenses would include insurance expenses (Zimmerman & Blythe, 2013).

            Revenue sources in this business would include treatment of different diseases in patients. Revenue would be collected from selling services to customers at reasonable prices through doctors. The total cost of starting this new department is approximately 1 million. It also covered the cost of hiring skilled and trained professionals.

            Planning of resources is necessary for operations of business. Planning provides better ideas of decision making to businesses. No need of land is required in this project because this unit was established in Bugshan hospital. We have requested hospital to satisfy the demand of finance for starting this new department.

            This new department would also improve growth of the hospital. This business can be operated if finance requirement is met. Despite having a huge need of capital for this department, this is important for this hospital to come up with good budgeting techniques. The management of this hospital contains a plan to raise funds from different resources despite having reasonable revenue.

            This is a fact that the current financial resources and allocations are not pertinent to build this department. This justifies the need to identify different resources. The financial plan is pertinent to strategy, mission and vision of this hospital. The financial management has a plan to measure the budget with current financial performances in different departments.

            This is vital for the hospital management to make a budget according to different section in this particular department. The initial estimation is $2.5 million, which will well enough to build the department. To have best utilization of budget, the management will use variance analysis and mid course correlations. This will help the management to relate all unit cost in this department with the budget. Moreover, the revenues are going to be more than 4 million for first year after the completion (Umar Iqbal, 2013).

$1 million is estimated for development and construction process. One million has been estimated for hiring new employees, training and all other maintenance expenses and installation of machinery. The rest of five hundred thousand is estimated for marketing other operational costs such as medical services.

            The financial planning includes the conventional budget. This is better option for financial department to include to consider previous year figures, the managers, incremental charges and top management. The financial management will estimate charges in different situation in development. However, these charges are to include in budget.

The management of this hospital has a plan to make developments with sanctions. Different unites of the department will be divided according to their cost and technical equipments for the patients. The hospital management will contain the financial reserves for further expansion and developments according to need and time (Malshe, Al-Khatib, Al-Habib, & Ezzi, 2012).

            The estimation of working capital is necessary to consider for the financial department in this hospitals to have best utilization of budget and cash flows. The cost consideration will revolve around the labor costs, material costs, overhead costs and other possible financial costs. Thus, the financial plan is effective for this hospital to create a new department. However, the most important thing is to depict workable implementation, which is a base for this development.

Section 3

    PRIVATE HOSPITAL      
          Traditional Project Analysis      
           
           
           
INPUT DATA:                KEY OUTPUT:  
           
Land initial cost   $0 NPV $363,958
Land opportunity cost (and salvage value) $0 IRR 14.7%
Building/equipment cost   $2,500,000 MIRR 14.7%
Build/equipment salvage value $1,500,000 Payback 5.1
Procedures per day   20 Break Even Units 630
Average net revenue per procedure $600    
Procedures per year   7000    
Labor costs     $70,400    
Utilities costs     $30,000    
Incremental overhead   $33,000    
Supply cost ($/procedure)   $500    
Inflation rate on charges   3.0%    
Inflation rate on costs   3.0%    
Tax rate     0.0%    
Revenues lost from inpatient surgeries $500,000    
Reduction in inpatient surgery costs $500,000    
Cost of capital   10.0%    

Project Inputs

It can be seen that if there is no initial and no opportunity cost then the building and equipment costs $2,500,000 and the salvage value of the building is $1,500,000, the procedures that are in place are 20 and the net revenue per procedure is $600. It can be seen that the per year procedures become 7000 and the annual cost of labor becomes $70,400 and the Utilities cost is $30,000 and the overhead increment is $33,000 the supply cost of completing one procedure is $500 and the rate of inflation on revenues is the same as the rate of inflation on costs, that inflation rate is 3%. There is no tax rate as it is a nonprofit organizational project. The loss of revenue in patient surgeries per year is $500,000 and the reduction in the costs of patient’s surgery costs is also $500,000. The cost of capital for this project is 10%.

Project Outputs

When taking the above variables as inputs it can be seen that the NPV from this project is $363,958 and the IRR is 14.7% and the MIRR from this project is 14.7% too. The payback period is 5.1 years. All the financials prove that the project is acceptable

Break-even analysis shows that if the annual number of complete procedures is 630 then the hospital can reach it breakeven. It can be observed that the results are far above that number so the hospital is in profit. It is vital for any organization to attain profit or move past break even as it is an essential component of this study.

Cash Flow

The cash flow illustrates an outflow in form of investment of $2,500,000 and the other outflows in the remaining 5 years. It can be said that the project yields a positive NPV and an IRR that is more than the required rate of return. The Payback period of the project is late. It is almost 5.09 years for a project completing in 6 years.

What If Analysis

It can be observed in the scenario analysis that the worst case scenario has a negative NPV value and the best case has a huge positive cash flow.

Scenario Summary        
    Current Values: Worst Case Best Case Most Likely
Changing Cells:        
  Average net revenue per procedure $1,000 $800 $1,200 $1,000
  Procedures per day 20 10 25 20
  Build/equipment salvage value $5,000,000 $4,000,000 $6,000,000 $5,000,000
Result Cells:        
  NPV $1,236,361.41 ($5,140,091.56) $7,012,424.36 $1,236,361.41

 Value that changes in terms of Average revenue per procedure, Procedures per day and salvage value of machinery

Section 4

Implementation and operation Plan

To achieve the effective resulted from the business plan of establishing inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah is directly linked to the effective implementation of the business plan. Following process will take place in the implementation of the business:

Business Operations

Memo to the Head of Hospital for permission

At the initial state, the business is required to get permission from the authority of the Bughashan Hospital to establish a 100 bed inpatient hospital for the psychiatrist patient.  In this process of implementation, a memo will be written to the head of the hospital that will brief the business plan of establishing the psychiatrist inpatient department by addressing the need and advantages of the psychiatrist department.     

This project is planned to start in an ongoing hospital, therefore, there is no need to gain property. Therefore, after the getting permission, the second important step will be to arrange the resources for the hospital operations and then to hire the staff for the restaurant operations.

Business Process

The process will start as the patient will arrange meeting with the CRM officer and according to the meeting time, the patient will meet the senior doctor. Senior doctor will decide whether the patient has to admit or not. In case of admission, the required medical tests will be taken by the Paramedical staff, the technologist officer will develop a report and then on the advice of Senior and junior doctors, the process of treatment will take place. Following are some of the important departments.

Resource Management Department

The resource management will be manage by the procurement officer who will be responsible to make sure the availability of the resources such as Medical Technology, the availability of beds and to maintain the resources during the hospital operations.

Department Head

Department head will take care of the psychiatrist management and he will works as a bridge in between the employees and Hospital management to make sure the working of the hospital according to the standard. He will be answerable about the performance of the hospital in front of the hospital management. He will have three assistance officers. The HR department will make sure the availability of the staff. HR will timely measure the performance of the staff. They will also arrange any training required for the staff to integrate their knowledge as well as they will manage the issues of the staff.

 Seniors and Juniors Doctor

To run the hundred bed hospital there is need to make sure the availability of the senior and junior doctors all the time. Therefore, the 6 senior doctors will be hire and 6 junior doctors will be hired and their shift will be divided into 8 hours. Every time two senior and two junior doctors will be available to treat the patients.

Paramedical Staff

Total 36 nurses will be hired who will work in 3 shifts of eight hours. At a time 12 nurses will be available to look after the patients.

Medical Technicians will also be hired to operate the Medical technology. For this aspect 6 medical technician officer and 3 senior technicians will be hired so that every time 1 senior technologist to develop the report and two officers will be available to operate the medical technology. 

Customer relationship officer

3 customer relationship officers will be hired. They will communicate with the patients and will arrange patient doctor meeting. He will also manage the internet facility to arrange online meeting. 

Accounts department

Accounts department will manage all the in and out transactions. They will also be liable to pay salaries to the staff. In accounts department 6 officers will be hire. Every time 2 accounts officers will be available.

Key Performance Measure

Patient Feedback

Patient feedback will be considered as the most important performance measure. This will be helpful to make a firm idea about the performance of the of the Inpatient Psychiatrist department.

Peers Feedback

The seniors will be asked about their juniors whether they are learning properly and making improvement. Secondly, the juniors will also be asked about the seniors whether they are cooperating with their juniors and help them to learn.

Some of the following dimensions will also be analyzed to measure the performance of the inpatient Psychiatrist Department.

  • Health Service outcomes
  • Quality compare with the other Hospitals of same discipline
  • Safety
  • Financial outputs
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Business Responsiveness
  • Relationship among the staff members

Strength of Business

As it is mentioned above that the old researches has found that more than 60% of the people are suffering from the mental problems and there is only one hospital is working and it has low capacity as there is only 20 beds space. Considering this aspect, the planned hospital will be of 100 beds which is the strength. Moreover, people have fewer options therefore the greater demand will give success to the business. Another considerable strength is that to start a large project, there is no need to purchase or to get land on rent which saves huge investment. The proposed business is going to be started in an ongoing and famous hospital therefore, the positive image of the hospital will be a strength of the business as the new department would not have to strive hard to build its trust.

Weakness

This is a new business but expectations are very high but the staff will be new and at the starting stage, the staff will be less experienced as well as they will require time to build relationship. It would be dangerous for the hospital. Staff arrangement is challenging because in local market staff is not available. This factor will increase the cost of business.

Risk

Risk are always associated with any new business subsequently, this new project has some risks. The most important risk associated to the business is that it is a large project, and if the marketing will not be done appropriately then the patient will not come to the business. Secondly, the cultural factor would be a risk as most of the people in Saudi Arab do not allow their women to go to the male doctors. Moreover, it is expected that to find the professional staff would be a challenge, because in Saudi Arab, it would be hard to find the medical and paramedical staff.

Implementation:

BUGSHAN hospital In Jeddah Time and duration
Memo to the Head of Hospital for permission (1 month) From July 1, 2016 to July 30, 2016
Resource Management Department (1 Year) From October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017
Department Head (6 months) From July 1, 2016 to August 1, 2016
 Seniors and Juniors Doctor (1 Year) From July 1, 2016 to June 29, 2017
Order of beds ( 6 months) From August 1, 2016 to January 30, 2017
Paramedical Staff (3 months) From October 1, 2016 to December 2, 2016
Customer relationship officer (6 months) From October 1, 2016 to March 3, 2017
Accounts department (3 months) From November 1, 2016 to January 30, 2017

Business plan read

The business-planning read investigate the specific accumulation in business planning to enhance the readers credibility in funding source for the financial. Each aspect in the business planning clearly demonstrated to understands the core values of project planning execution.   Each section in the business planning provides in-depth analysis for the feasibility of report.

            The first section provides the information of Initiative- Organizational structure to intake major consolidations.  In the next section the detailed description of market analysis, marketing plan, as well as demonstrations of financial resource planning requirements are discussed to understand the core areas of project execution to understand the readers. In the third section Financial feasibility analysis incorporated to reveals the major consolidations in the capital investment proposal, such financial feasibility analysis provides evident how the project could be successfully implement in well manner. In the next section Implementation or operational planning towards the indication of key performance indicators in project execution has been taken place. In addition, measurements for the successfully implementation of business planning provides the credibility to highlight he major evidence in the project execution planning. The over summary of strength and weaknesses including the risks ensures the reader for the final decision regarding the capital investment. In last section reasons behind successful business plan presented to generate effective outcomes.

Section 5

Successful business plan

The paper specifically associated with the demonstrations of business planning by adding new department function in the hospital services. A successful business plan incorporates in managing the business functions and its related outcomes to generate positive outcomes in essential and adequate manner.  The current business plan provides to establish inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah.

Starting a psychology service in the private hospital in Saudi Arabia, need to required detail process with challenges and risk in the business planning.  The selected hospital is in Jeddah to generate effective outcomes.  The paper incorporated with the financial feasibility, operational planning and associated risk in establishment of new unit in the hospitals.  The probability of risk occurrence identify in advance for successfully implementation of business plan.

 The success of business plan reveals the major considerations of marketing analysis to seek its potential in the hospital industry. In addition marketing plan to communicate the core values are given under the business planning.  The clear demonstration of financial resource planning delivers the successive values of business planning. The cash flows and project outputs are in favorable of business planning that leads to initiate such project execution planning. There is strong potential of establishment of new unit in the hospital intake the major execution for the health care for the society in well manner.

The mission of this new business is to serve the community as well as people society by providing them mental health solutions. The successful of business plan are also in favor due to effective formulation of implementation planning with the hierarch management that which roles and responsibilities are important in this regard. The main reasons for selecting Jeddah city of bugshan hospital is due to service to patients with inpatient unit are provided. Effective business planning with favorable financial resource planning indicates best formulation of business planning. In this regard, the Bugshan hospital must participate in the financial as well as operational planning execution to help for this proposed business planning. Enhancing the mental health feasibility is the aim of and objective of project planning.  Thus to sum up all discussion about the establish inpatient unit for department of Psychiatry in Bugshan hospital In Jeddah reveals the major consideration to initiates such planning. The successful business planning indicates towards the financial feasibility as well as effective utilization of resource planning sure the credibility in managing the business planning in effective way.

References

AD, A.-K., & DO., O. (2002). Prevalence of mental illness among Saudi adult primary-care patients in Central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal , 23 (6), 721-724.

Almoshawah, S. A. (2010). An Evaluation of Psychiatrist View Towards the Mental Health Services in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences , 5 (1), 36 – 48.

Bahri, S. (2012, Feburary 12). Boost Your Brand and Marketing Activities Through Social Media Tools. Retrieved November 16, 2015, from marketing-segmentation-concept.blogspot.com: http://marketing-segmentation-concept.blogspot.com/

Cain, K. (2012, October 29). Measuring Marketing Effectiveness: 6 Metrics You Need to Track. Retrieved April 30, 2015, from http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/2012/10/measuring-marketing-effectiveness-metrics/

Denis Smith, M. F. (2009). The changing nature of risk and risk management: The challenge of borders, uncertainty and resilience. Risk Management , 11 (1), 1-12.

Elbashier, A. (2006). Export Marketing in the Middle East. The Importance of Cultural Differences. European Journal of Marketing , 17 (1), 68 – 81.

Erm.ncsu. (2010). Risk Management Practices that are Working for Public and Private Sectors. Retrieved May 7, 2016, from https://erm.ncsu.edu/library/article/risk-management-practices

Jerman, D., & Završnik, B. (2013). Can Marketing management affct consumer behaviour. Economics Management Information Technology , 1 (4).

Koenig, H. G., Zaben, F. A., Sehlo, M. G., Khalifa, D. A., Ahwal, M. S., Qureshi, N. A., et al. (2014). Mental Health Care in Saudi Arabia: Past, Present and Future. Open Journal of Psychiatry , 4 (1), 113-130.

Malshe, A., Al-Khatib, J., Al-Habib, M., & Ezzi, S. (2012). Exploration of sales-marketing interface nuances in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Business Research , 65 (8), 1119–1125.

Mattiske, C. (2012). Successful Project Management. AudioInk.

Parker, C. (2010). 301 Ways to Use Social Media To Boost Your Marketing. McGraw Hill Professional.

Umar Iqbal, A. Z. (2013, June 3). Role Of Brand Loyalty And Its Factors Marketing Essay. Retrieved Feburary 20, 2015, from uniassignment.com: http://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/marketing/role-of-brand-loyalty-and-its-factors-marketing-essay.php

Wysocki, R. K. (2011). Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme. John Wiley & Sons.

Zimmerman, A., & Blythe, J. (2013). Business to Business Marketing Management: A Global Perspective. Routledge.

Zimmerman, J., & Ng, D. (2012). Social Media Marketing All-in-One For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

Appendix

Proforma Balance Sheet

ASSETS   1 2 3 4
Current Assets        
Cash   $54 $57 $59 $64
Net accounts receivable $367 $396 $426 $435
Inventory   $177 $191 $203 $205
Temporary investment $12 $12 $12 $12
Prepaid expenses $2 $2 $2 $2
  Total Current Assets $612 $658 $702 $718
           
Fixed Assets        
Long-term investments $42 $43 $43 $46
Land   $656 $656 $684 $727
Buildings (net of depreciation) $903 $928 $983 $1,021
Plant & equipment (net) $608 $631 $642 $654
Furniture & fixtures (net) $61 $65 $68 $72
  Total Net Fixed Assets $2,270 $2,323 $2,420 $2,520
TOTAL ASSETS $2,882 $2,981 $3,122 $3,238
           
LIABILITIES          
Current Liabilities        
Accounts payable $246 $252 $258 $277
Short-term notes $24 $25 $26 $28
Current portion of long-term notes $14 $14 $14 $15
Accruals & other payables $14 $14 $14 $14
  Total Current Liabilities $298 $305 $312 $334
           
Long-term Liabilities        
Mortgage   $897 $931 $978 $1,021
Other long-term liabilities $443 $485 $527 $576
  Total Long-term Liabilities $1,340 $1,416 $1,505 $1,597
           
SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY      
Capital stock $300 $300 $300 $300
Retained earnings $944 $960 $1,005 $1,007
  Total Shareholders’ Equity $1,244 $1,260 $1,305 $1,307
TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY $2,882 $2,981 $3,122 $3,238

Proforma Income Statement

REVENUE   2010 2011 2012 2013
Gross sales   $500 $650 $720 $850
  Less sales returns and allowances 200 230 280 320
Net Sales   $300 $420 $440 $530
           
COST OF SALES        
Beginning inventory $350 $360 $420 $435
  Plus goods purchased / manufactured 120 165 185 190
Total Goods Available $470 $525 $605 $625
  Less ending inventory 360 420 435 440
Total Cost of Goods Sold $110 $105 $170 $185
           
Gross Profit (Loss) $190 $315 $270 $345
           
OPERATING EXPENSES        
Selling          
  Salaries and wages $35 $41 $46 $52
  Commissions 12 14 16 18
  Advertising 10 12 14 20
  Depreciation 14 15 16 16
  Other 5 6 6 7
Total Selling Expenses $76 $88 $98 $113
           
General/Administrative        
  Salaries and wages $12 $14 $16 $18
  Employee benefits 4 5 5 6
  Payroll taxes 2 3 3 4
  Insurance 6 6 7 7
  Rent 8 8 9 9
  Utilities 2 2 2 3
  Depreciation & amortization 3 4 4 5
  Office supplies 1 1 1 1
  Travel & entertainment 3 3 3 4
  Postage 1 1 1 2
  Equipment maintenance & rental 0 0 1 1
  Interest 0 1 1 2
  Furniture & equipment 3 4 4 5
Total General/Administrative Expenses $45 $52 $57 $67
           
Total Operating Expenses $121 $140 $155 $180
           
           
Net Income Before Taxes $69 $175 $115 $165
  Taxes on income 22 32 26 28
Net Income After Taxes $47 $143 $89 $137
           
Extraordinary gain or loss $0 $0 $43 $0
Income tax on extraordinary gain 0 0 12 0
           
NET INCOME (LOSS) $47 $143 $120 $137
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write my research paper

Reduction of Air Pollution Using Bio-Fuels As Form Renewable Energy

Contents

Executive Summary. 3

Introduction. 4

Problem Statement 4

Purpose of study. 5

Literature Review.. 8

Methodology. 12

Data Collection. 13

Data Analysis. 16

References. 17

Executive Summary

The research proposal explored contemporary issue of consumption of energy in detail. As the research, all know that despite the increasing intentions towards energy consumption, the energy demand of the planet is also increasing. There is a rapid increase in the industries and vehicles due to the population explosion. The goal of the paper is to see how air pollution can reduce through Bio-fuels because it is best renewable energy sources. There are many contributing agents towards air pollution for example petroleum, natural gas, and hydrocarbons. The petroleum diesel, which is heavily used in the industries and transportation, emits a number of greenhouse gases. Air Pollution depends upon usage of bio-fuel. Therefore, Air pollution is independent Variable and Bio-Fuel is dependent one. Structure interview and public survey is method to be used for data analyses.

Introduction

This paper seeks to present the research methodology for a research study investigating reduction of air pollution using bio fuels as form renewable energy. The environmental influences of bio-fuels such as corn ethanol have been cause for much debate in recent years (Lee, Speight & Loyalka, 2014). The debate has largely been informed by the disagreements concerning the research methods employed in assessing the impacts under investigation. Another issue, which has served to compromise previous research studies, is founded on the fact that there are many assumptions incorporated in previous research studies due to the prevalence of incomplete data.

Problem Statement

There are two main threats faced by the research planet today as they are directly influencing the future of humans and animals of the planet. These threats are known as air pollution and global warming. The rising prices and decreasing resources of conventional energy the sources are also the threat to economic development and political stability of the planet. The air pollution indoor and outdoor is the sixth largest cause of deaths in the world number over 2.4 million premature deaths in the world (Jacobson, 2009).  Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources contributing significantly to world energy supply. Their usage has created environmental and political concerns. It is estimated that almost 98% of carbon emission results from the fossil fuel combustion. Heat stress, disease, the severity of storms and acidity in oceans is increased as a direct result of the global warming. The global warming and increased emission of carbon shifts viable agriculture and harms the ecosystems. The water supply’s magnitude and timing are also changed as the result of the global warming (Jacobson, 2009).

The concept of bio-fuels is not a new concept. The first bio-fuel using vegetable oil as the replacement of the conventional diesel was introduced in the year 1911 (Jacobson,  2009). It is estimated that the use of bio-fuels in comparison to the conventional fossil fuels might reduce the carbon and hydrocarbon emissions. For a sustainable future growth, it is necessary to reduce almost 80% of present carbon and hydrocarbon emissions. In this paper, the different sources of bio-fuels are evaluated with their impacts on the hydrocarbon emissions. The review also addresses the issues of social implications of the bio-fuels and controversies associated with the development of the fossil fuels. Costs associated with the use of bio-fuels and their implications are also discussed in the literature of the current paper.

Purpose of study

The purpose of this particular research study is to contrast bio-ethanol systems with conventional fuels using the life cycle assessment (LCA) criterion. Previous research studies have emphasized on greenhouse gases and net energy and as such, system boundaries and the divergent assumptions applied point out that there are differences in scope of study approaches (Twidell & ourhir, 2015). This qualitative research study will involve field studies for the collection of data from different locations and the subsequent lab experiences for analysis. The lab experiments will be of great significance owing to the associated internal validity. As such, it is envisaged that the cause and effect affiliations can be best observed within a laboratory environment since it is a man made and controllable setting.  Different elements will be assessed as the units for analysis. The elements will include soil, ecosystem services, biodiversity, water quality, GHG emission, air quality, water quantity and consumption use.

As such, this particular research study will also present a general overview of LCA methodology normally employed in the assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the production and use of bio-fuels (Knothe, Krahl & Van Gerpen, 2015). By examining the contemporary breadth of knowledge about significant environmental effects, this outcome of the research endeavor will be further discussing specific environmental impacts. This will be applicable relative to combustion, conversion to bio-fuels, feedstock production, as overall as the entire lifecycle of bio-fuel applications as the overall as production (Janaun & Ellis, 2010). The methods utilized in the assessment of environmental impacts and the observed effects or forecasted results in peer-reviewed literature will be presented (Knothe, Krahl & Van Gerpen, 2015). It is expected that the availability of data and associated deficiencies will present gaps among the prevalent modeling platforms. This implies that a level of uncertainty will exist in the assessment of different environmental aspects.

This research study will employ regional environmental evaluations concerning bio-fuels production. This is in essence due to the fact that bio-fuel production impacts are basically location specific (Janaun & Ellis, 2010). The resultant findings as the overall as conclusions the researched from the regional environmental evaluations may tend to vary from an evaluation considering the cumulative impacts across an entire state or country.

The LCA tool is highly appropriate for the quantification of environmental impacts of bio-fuels as renewable energy (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008). In previous research studies, it will be noted that there is generally an extensive misinterpretations of results. This is mainly due to the various assessment methods employed and as such, it will bring about some considerable degrees of confusion regarding this issue. This is especially the case when particular assumptions and frameworks fail to be mentioned or accorded due credit regarding the form of analysis used.

There are two different but significant approaches towards using the LCA criterion. These two approaches are the consequential and attribution approaches (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008). The attribution approach employs a more conventional form and seeks to trace the energy and material flows existing within a typical bio-fuel supply chain. This approach will normally attribute environmental effects to a specific form of bio-fuel as dictated by these flows. On the other hand, the consequential LCA examines environmental effects with regard to the cascading events that arise based on the decision to consider producing or even not producing a particular bio-fuel. The variances witnessed between the two approaches are due to their distinctive applications (Huo, Wang, Bloyd & Putsche, 2008).

Consequential LCA employs marginal data while attribution LCA employs average or progress specific data (Demirbas, 2009). These differences are important to note since this particular research study seeks to use the consequential LCA for data collection. An example as to which this particular approach is best suited for this research as it considers the effects of market mediation for a specific form of bio-fuel (Demirbas, 2009). For instance, it considers the environmental impacts associated with changes in petroleum or crop prices arising from the production of bio-fuels. The consequential LCA also takes into account all of the associated human activities while assigning a distinct bio-fuel to the total effect change due to a decision and action to implement, contract or expand bio-fuel production or not. Conversely, consequential LCA is critical towards policy and regulation evaluation (Demirbas, 2009). Data will be located from various locations and the subsequent analysis conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. The analysis is expected to avail scientific evidence that will imply that as a form of renewable energy, bio-fuels have the potential to reduce air pollution.

Literature Review

Production of Bio-fuels

There are different sources and methods that can be applied to produce the biodiesel. These sources and methods include direct use, blending, microemulsion process, thermal cracking process and the most commonly used technique known transesterification. This method is adopted widely due to the easiness and the process can be carried out in the normal conditions. The quality of the converted fuel is also better as compared to the other methods used for the synthesis of biodiesel (Gashaw, Getachaw,  &Teshita, 2015).

The direct use of vegetable oils as an alternative to the conventional diesel is not favorable. The use of vegetable as a direct fuel is very problematic. The vegetable oils have intrinsic properties which make them similar to the diesel but they require certain chemical modification before they can be used as a direct sourcce of fuel. Some diesel engines can run directly on the fossil fuels but the engines which use turbo charge experience some problems. The vegetable oils in comparison to the conventional diesel have the high viscosity (Teshita et.al, 2015).

The problems of high-viscosity the researchre resolved by the introduction of micro-emulsions. The solvents such as ethanol, methanol and 1-butanol the researchre used as solvents in order to reduce the viscosity of the fossil fuels. The microemulsions can improve the spray properties of the biodiesel by rapid vaporization of the solvents. Thus, microemulsions result in the low-viscosity and an increase in the cetane number of the biodiesel. The repeated use of the microemulsion fuels in the diesel engines caused problems like injector needle sticking, depositing of the carbon and incomplete combustion (Teshita et.al, 2015).

The most common and easiest way to produce the biodiesel is the trans esterification method. In this method a catalyst is used in the chemical reaction of vegetable oil and alcohol to produce the biodiesel. The common catalyst used is a strong base such sodium or potassium hydroxide. The process results in the changes of viscosity of the vegetable oil. The product will viscosity like fossil fuels. There are several factors, which affect the production of the biodiesel as bio-fuel. Temperature is the most important factor among them. It is required to keep the temperature under normal conditions, which is room temperature 25°C (Teshita et.al, 2015).

In the world today, a large global campaign is going on to include the different raw materials such as sugar cane, soybeans and sugar beets as raw materials for fossil fuels. The presentation of the bio-fuels as the perfect alternate for petroleum derivatives will be focus of many studies conducted worldwide. The driving force behind this worldwide exploration is the reduction of environment concerns raised by the use fossil fuels. The use of wood as an alternative source of energy will study and its results for the reduction of fossil fuel carbon emissions are studied (Teshita et.al, 2015).

Emission Reduction from Bio-fuels

There is a significant variation in emission reduction of the fossil fuels using different feedstock and processing alternatives. The production of ethanol from the process of gasification reduced the emission to almost 74% (Lippke, Puettmann, Johnson, Gustafson, Venditti, Steele & Caputo, 2012). When ethanol is prepared by the fermentation of willow the emission was reduced to almost 120%. The reductions greater than 100 percent are achieved when part of woody feedstock is used for the generation of the electricity required for the process. The gasification process requires more quantity of wood to offset fossil fuels for collection and processing submissions. It shows that the amount of reduction is dependent on the amount of wood used rather than the way it is used (Caputo et.al, 2012).

Production of oil from the process pyrolysis of the whole tree thinning reduced the emission from fossil fuel to almost 70% in the US Southeast (Caputo et.al, 2012). The mechanisms used for the reduction of emissions and production of alternate bio-fuels exceeded the threshold placed by the EPA of 60% (Caputo et.al, 2012).The conversion process from woody feedstocks to ethanol using the process of gasification and fermentation results in less carbon reduction efficiency as compared to bio-fuel produced through pyrolysis. The reduction efficiency of converting the woody feedstocks to bio-oils and then to bio-fuel to be used as a substitute for gasoline may be lower than producing bio-oils (Caputo et.al, 2012).

Challenges for Bio-fuels

One of the most used justifications which are used for the adoption of bio-fuels as an alternate source of energy is the anticipated benefits to the environment from the replacement of fossil fuels. The combustion of fossil fuels results in the emission of carbon dioxide and gases known as Green House Gases (GHG) (German, Schoneveld,  & Pacheco, 2011). The promise made by the use of bio-fuels is a greener energy for the transportation. This promise will result in the inclusion of bio-fuels as alternative sources of energy targets in many industrial countries like the United States. Along with the US other interesting parties include EU and several developing countries including Brazil. Some of the researches in the area suggest that the land usage directly or indirectly for the use of bio-fuels can negate the emission of GHG and estimated climatic benefits (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

Considering the above-mentioned factors there is an increase in the recognizing the climatic effects of bio-fuels must include the full life cycle. The full life cycle includes the production, distribution and consumption of the bio-fuels. The lifecycle also includes the direct and indirect land usage for the production of the bio-fuels. The environmental debate mainly focuses on the issue of the climatic change. The other environmental factor associated with the use of bio-fuels must be taken into consideration. Some people claim that the cultivation of bio-fuel feedstocks on the land which could not be cultivated can make these lands productive and thus increase the forest conversion (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

In the 1990’s it was estimated that almost 500 million hectares of uncultivated land are available for cultivation. Out of these 100 million hectares of land was in Latin America, 100 million in Asia and 300 million hectares the researcher in Africa. In Indonesia, 27 million hectares of deforested land will be identifying for the cultivation of palm oils (Pacheco et.al, 2011). In Indonesia to the researcher, many papers and pulp companies have managed to deforest large areas of forest under the guise of palm oil cultivation. Some of this development used timber finances to make it happen, to the researcher, there was no plantation of palm oil in some of the cases or any rural development in the areas. Some of the researchers have focused on quantifying the impacts of bio-fuel feed stock expansion on the forest already present. According to a research, it was estimated that bet the research in 1995 and 2005 55% to 59% of palm oil cultivation in Malaysia and almost 59% of the palm oil cultivation in Indonesia was at the expense of the forests (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

Social and Economic Impacts

The debate on the social and economic impacts of bio-fuels focuses on the two key issues. These issues are the ability of bio-fuels acting as a stimulus to the rural and secondly its effect on access and control of land, and food security. A number of multiple purpose feed stocks have been identified as beneficial for the rural economic development. Under the correct conditions, the bio-fuels can generate financial profits, increase in the value of land, employment, improvement in the infrastructure and income from smallholder cultivation. Soybean cultivation has proved to be beneficial for the landowners and produced several critical economic multipliers in the downstream food industry. One of the primary benefits yielded from the cultivation of feed stocks is the employment of the people. The oil palm industry in Indonesia and Malaysia employs 0.08 to 0.5 persons per hector (Pacheco et.al, 2011).

The bio-fuels have a place in the strategy for renewable energy sthe researchces at a global level. Currently, they supply over 10% of the total energy use at a global level. The liquid bio-fuels only contribute 0.4% of global energy. Most of the time as in past the bio-fuels’ usage is dominated by direct combustion as it is in the case of wood. In recent times, much of the concentration is given to the production of the liquid bio-fuels (booksSekaran and Bougie, 2013). The government of United Kingdom concluded in a report that by the end of the year 2020 will meet only 2% of global energy needs. Using ethanol as an alternative fuel for transportation is not a smart idea as other bio-fuels show greater efficiency. From a realistic, prospective the using of bio-fuels for transportation is not the best choice. However, it can be seen that bio-fuels reduce emission of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases considerably as compared to fossil fuels. The bio-fuels can play their part in the energy future of the world but they can never be a replacement for the fossil fuels (Zhang et.al, 2012).

Methodology

The methodology discussed here ultimately considered by study. The relation between variables can be represented as below:

Independent Variable                                                                     Dependent Variable

Figure 1: theoretical framework

Air Pollution depends upon the usage of Bio-Fuels.

Data Collection

            The research will collect data with questionnaires and interviews. The research will ensure that the research use structured interview and questionnaires. The research questionnaires will be developed in a manner that they have both open and closed ended questions so that the respondents will have the opportunity to provide all the relevant information they have about the reduction of pollution using bio-fuel as a form of a renewable source of energy (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). The research will also use oral interviews so that the research will be able to get direct information from the respondents.

            It is also important to test null and alternative hypothesis where the research null hypothesis will be Bio-fuels reduces air pollution and alternative hypothesis: bio-fuel does not reduce air pollution. Since the research will use large sample where n≥30≤500 sample population, the research will compare the result of the research analysis with z test with the result of the research hypothesis testing (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). When the research use binomial distribution, the research will have abbreviations such as n, p and q where n will represent number of observations represent probability while q = 1-p. This kind of test is one tail test meaning that alpha will be 0.05 so that the research can measure the error margin. The research will collect the information about the use of bio-fuels to reduce pollution from different households and industries (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). In this research, it is very simple to collect data because it is collected from different households. The research can also collect data concerning the use of bio-fuels to reduce pollution from different books and journals since there are many publications which have such kind of information.

            Concerning this study, the research will be able to use both primary and secondary research methods to collect data. This is because the use of bio-fuel is clearly indicated in different books, online and journals how it is being applied to reduce air pollution. This method of data collection will ensure that the research get adequate and reliable source of information which the research will use to understand the truth about the use of bio-fuel to control pollution (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The research can also use the format of questions and answer. This is because it can easily be understood by the system since it will be easy to accept the key word used in the question and finally generate ansthe researchr based on the question given. It is also indicated in some recent articles written by students at Purdue that most student use IBM computer to understand firsthand on how the computer uses natural language (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The research done by Purdue students contained Indiana state code law that had been evaluated using the version of Watson. Those who have used the bio-fuel to reduce air pollution confirmed that it is able to reduce air pollution only when it is used appropriately. Through this, the research realizes that the research can use Watson’s knowledge in research to determine the application of bio-fuel in the reduction of air pollution. In this the research, the research have previous result is a question-answer format (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). This will make it easy to use them when using Watson version. This will help us get a more accurate and correct result for the research analysis.

The important areas, which need to be focused on during the analysis process, will include the accuracy and precision of results generated by machine (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). Based on the generation of results by the system one can make a comparison on what the treatments the researcher proposed by human in the book versus machine.

            The research will also use an extremely scalable proposal and hybrid cloud computing will be of great importance to retrieve data from the system and since that kind of systems are commonly available in shops, the research will easily get one for the research analysis (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). In the final stage, the research will use binomial distribution, level of significance and hypothesis testing to assess the accuracy and reliability of data.

Data Analysis

            In the research, the research will also collect some data using secondary data collection methods by searching some relevant information from the internet and going through different. It will be convenient enough also use secondary the research of data because there is some documentation on the effect of air pollution. To increase the efficiency and accuracy of data collection, the research need to collect the research ll structured data. For this research, the research will collect data from 300 respondents when 95% level confidence is used. This will require research to use large sample that is always ≥30. The research book highlights that in any case there is a need to increase the level of confidence, it is important to use large sample larger than 30. In addition, he also added that it is important to use large sample more than 30  and less than 500 population parameters is usually more appropriate and able to increase research accuracy. It further highlighted that only one hypothesis testing is usually important for the research when a binomial distribution is applied.

Immediately, the data have been collected and cleaned, they will be analyzed through feeding all the reliable and correct data in the version Watson. The feeding of these data is done in a question and the research format. The performance is then observed until the result is produced. In the process, the research must ensure that the research have the version of Watson so that the research can compare the result of the machine and human based results. The best example is when the outcome of the use of Bio-fuel to reduce air pollution can be inputted in this program where it will explore through numerous algorithms to produce three different possible outcomes with the corresponding level of significant. In this software, the research can enter such questions such as.

References

Demirbas, A. (2009). Bio-fuels securing the planet’s future energy needs. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(9), 2239-2249. 

Gashaw, A., Getachaw, T., &Teshita, A. (2015). A Review on Biodiesel Production as Alternative Fuel. Jthe researchnal of Forest Products and Industries, 4(2).

German, L., Schoneveld, G. C., & Pacheco, P. (2011). The Social and Environmental Impacts of Bio-fuel Feedstock Cultivation: Evidence from Multi-Site Research in the Forest Frontier. Ecology and Society, 16(3). doi:10.5751/es-04309-160324

Huo, H., Wang, M., Bloyd, C. & Putsche, V. (2008). Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels. Environmental science & technology, 43(3), 750-756.  

Jacobson, M. Z. (2009). Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Energy Environ. Sci, 2(2), 148-173. doi:10.1039/b809990c

Janaun, J. & Ellis, N. (2010). Perspectives on biodiesel as a sustainable fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4), 1312-1320.  

Knothe, G., Krahl, J.& Van Gerpen, J. (Eds.). (2015). The biodiesel handbook. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. 

Lee, S., Speight, J. G. & Loyalka, S. K. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of alternative fuel technologies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 

Lippke, B., Puettmann, M. E., Johnson, L., Gustafson, R., Venditti, R., Steele, P., … Caputo, J. (2012). Carbon Emission Reduction Impacts from Alternative Bio-fuels*. Forest Products Jthe researchnal, 62(4), 296-304. doi:10.13073/12-00021.1

Mugenda, O and Mugenda, A. (1999). Research Methods: quantitative and qualitative      approaches.Acts press, Nairobi.

Sekaran, U.& Bougie, R. (2013). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach. New York:John Wiley & Sons.

Twidell, J., & The researchir, T. (2015). Renewable energy resthe researchces. London, UK: Routledge.

Zhanag, J., & Zhang, W. (2012). Controversies, development and trends of bio-fuel industry in the world. Environment Skeptics and Critics, 1(3), 48-55.

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Argentina crisis in 1998

Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Reasons for the crisis. 3

Peg to the U.S. dollar 3

Debt ratios rise. 4

Economic History. 5

1989 – 1997 (Battle against inflation) 6

1998 – 2001 (Loss of competitiveness) 6

Fiscal mismanagement 7

Effects on the banking sector 7

Conclusion. 9

References. 10

Argentina crisis in 1998

Introduction

1998 – 2002 was the time of great economic depression in the Argentina. It was actually started in the third quarter of the 1998 and finished in the 2nd quarter of 2002. There was couple of reasons behind that economic depression. This was due to the Brazilian and the Russian financial crisis which started all this. Some of the main reasons were large unemployment rate, the fall of the government, the rise in the alternative currencies, country foreign debt has default and they have pegged the peso fixed exchange rate to the US Dollar.  

 Within the time of 1998 – 2002 the economy have shrank by 28% (Economics.rabobank.com, 2013). The cyclic fiscal policies and the lot of foreign borrowing have put the country in the economic shock and there was severe currency and the banking crisis in the country. With respect to income level, 50% of the people were poor. Out of 10, 7 argentine people were poor at almost the depth in 2002. After the crises ended the economy again grew up in 2003 and it is been said that it grew almost 9% for the five years.

In December 2001, the banking sector was also affected by the economic stress that was caused by the country. We can see that the bank accounts were freeze of the customers. There were protests also due to that. The IMF then has suspended the disbursements and the economy went on the positive side after many years. If we look at the income poverty then we come to know that it grew up to 35.4% in October 2001 and it was at the peak 54.3% on October 2002 (Frbsf.org, 2002).

 Reasons for the crisis

Peg to the U.S. dollar

Argentina’s peg to the U.S. dollar is said to be the one of the strongest reason for the crisis in the country. The affect of that was that there was inability to reduce the public and the external debts.  If we look at the graph we could see that public debt to the GDP in the country have fallen immensely.

This figure is clear and it shows that in the 1995, the Public debt to the GDP was 35% but in the 2001 we can see that it have rise up to 65% (Hornbeck, 2002). This is a huge differene3 almost double and that causes the problems in the country at large. Argentina’s experience remains as opposed to South Korea’s, the place a budgetary emergency in 1997-1998 constrained the administration to mediate to save coming up short banks and prompted a rescheduling of its outside obligation. In South Korea, the general population obligation/GDP proportion climbed strongly, from more than 10% in 1997 to more than 30% in 2000, however then declined (IMF 2002a, p. 18).

In any case, even at its crest, South Korea’s open obligation/GDP proportion was not as much as half Argentina’s, and the way of the obligation stayed underneath that anticipated by the IMF in three separate surveys.

There is no unambiguous limit at which open obligation gets to be unsustainable, and Argentina’s open obligation/GDP proportion of 65% in 2001 was still lower than that saw in some European nations. Nevertheless, given the historical backdrop of defaults and macroeconomic shakiness in developing markets like Argentina, their edge feasible open obligation might be much lower than in innovative economies (Geithner, 2003). Moreover, impediments on expense accumulation capacity infer that a higher open obligation/GDP proportion makes developing markets more helpless against antagonistic movements in business sector notion that raise the expense of assets. In accordance with this, extensive spikes in the yield on open obligation happen in developing markets that are occasionally seen in innovative economies.

Debt ratios rise

There are two big reasons that the debt ratio have increased in the country. Government revenues minus the expenditures exclusive of interest payments on the debt (fiscal surplus) these payments were not enough for the payments. That was the reason the debt ratio have increased in the country.  Somewhere around 1991 and 2000, Argentina’s essential surpluses arrived at the midpoint of 0.14% of GDP (Kaminsky, Mati, & Choueiri, 2009). These surpluses were astounding accomplishments, given Argentina’s history, yet they were still well underneath interest installments, which arrived at the midpoint of 2.4% of GDP over this period. There were huge hindrances to lessening uses and raising incomes.

On the consumption side, the administration was a substantial business (Krueger 2002) and, for political reasons, thought that it was difficult to cut its compensation bill. The focal government likewise thought that it was difficult to control spending by common governments, whose liabilities it was in the end compelled to accept. In the meantime, incomes were antagonistically influenced by troubles in assessment accumulation and, after 1999, by falling yield and rising unemployment.

The second reason we can see is the export growth. The export of the country was not good enough to meet the debt obligations and that is the reason there were problems. The growth rate of the country declined a lot. It has been observed that the rate at that time was around 7.7%. If we compare with the Asian countries like South Korea and Malaysia then we come to know that they are even better as they have the rate of (10% – 11).

Send out development has been hosed by Argentina’s exchange boundaries, which remain moderately high outside the Southern Cone regular business sector territory of Mercosur, of which Argentina is a part. These exchange boundaries have expanded following the emergency broke out. Additionally endured taking after the 1999 breakdown of the Brazilian genuine in light of the fact that Argentina’s unbending coin board game plan delivered exaggerated money  (El-Ghazaly, 2106).. In reality, the emphasis on keeping up an inflexible peg no matter what seems to have redirected consideration far from the dangers of not paying consideration on genuine area essentials.

Economic History

Figure 3: Inflation and Unemployment

In the beginning of the 20th century, Argentina was one of the wealthiest countries in the world. If we talk about its GDP then we come to know that it have exceeded from the countries like France and Germany as well. Slow economic growth started in there after the World War 1. There were bad policy making in the country and they have the oil crisis in the 1970’s. On top on that in the 1980, there was a crisis of Latin America debt crisis. There was a rise in the inflation that can be seen and that was due to the spending could not match the financial market borrowings and the taxation.  We can see the inflation graph and predict the situation better.

1989 – 1997 (Battle against inflation)

At this point, we can see that there was great inflation in the country. The president of the country was very curious about this and he have made some good economic reforms. Some of the good steps that have been taken were he privatized the state owned enterprises; secondly he deregulated the economy and the lower barriers of the state. By doing, this all the economy begin to rise in the markets and it was to be said that Argentina is growing as the emerging market in the world.

The second thing which have been done at that point was that the conversion of Peso to one to one Dollar. By doing this the exchange rate have been stabilized. By doing this people could freely exchange the Peso in to the dollars however, the economy actually stabilizes. Due to this, the economy was stabilized and the time when they grew again.

1998 – 2001 (Loss of competitiveness)

Russia and Brazil have increased the borrowing cost for the different countries and due to the exchange rate of the Brazil; there was great impact on the argentine economy. Brazil was the one of the main trading country for the Argentina.

In the 1998, the brazil has ended the peg with the Us dollar and that was the turning point that there was strong depreciation that could be seen. By doing this, the economy of Brazil actually recovered but there was a great loss for the Argentina. Moreover, the prices of the export products had fallen and the exports were reduced of the country.

However, the price of the dollar had increased at the maximum point at that time and that also hurt the economy of the country. By looking at the situation and the problems in the Argentina’s economy the foreign investors were not interested in investing in that economy as it was not stable. The borrowing cost was too high. However, the country has lost the international investors and the international financial market has fallen down. 

Fiscal mismanagement

The fiscal policies of the economy have also contributed in the crisis of the economy. The fixed exchange rate has been the problem for the economy. The president of the country has reduced the interest rates so that the economy could stand again on their feet. By doing this, the economy should get better but as the result the corruption was increased and there were more problems and the fiscal deficit remains the same. The government was not able to control the expenditures of themselves. Therefore, this type of small policies has also influenced a lot in the destruction of the economy.

Effects on the banking sector

In the 1998, the banking sector of the country was ranked in the second number in the world after the Singapore, which was in the first place. Due to the currency exchange rates, the increase in the defaulters, the rise in the non-performing loans, freezing of the utility companies the default rate of the country banking system raised up to 60%. Due to this the banking sector was destroys and the large private banks were not stable as there were couple of problems and they faces the losses due to that. The losses were caused due to the

  1. The bankruptcy of the bank debtors increased
  2. The loan rate was only 1 Peso per dollar.
  3. The default of the country has increased $93 billion on December 23, 2001.

The triple emergency softened up 2001 when, out of apprehension from the falling apart monetary atmosphere, individuals hurried to pull back their pesos from the banks keeping in mind the end goal to change over them into dollars and boat them abroad. The officially debilitated banks were further crushed when the legislature defaulted on its obligation in December 2001.

As an aftereffect of the budgetary misery, the nation was compelled to leave its coin load up administration, a convertibility program that attached the peso to the dollar at equality. In the meantime, the administration reacted to the bank keeps running by limiting withdrawals, basically solidifying all records. Also, private stores and credit to the private segment declined drastically, which advance debilitated the sickly economy. The determination of the managing an account emergency was a piece of a bigger arrangement of strategies that needed to manage the vast emergency. The administration finished the money board administration in mid 2002 (permitting an enormous cheapening of the peso) and in the long run rebuilt its obligation.

Conclusion

There were many economic events which have causes the distress in the economy of the Argentina.  The pegging of the currency, the overvaluation of the currency, the change in the fiscal policies, the large scale borrowing were there and no plans were made to predict the future changes that what could happen. The external shocks within the economy, the economic rigidities and the capital inflows were also the reasons of the economic downfall of the economy. The crisis of the Argentina is said to be one of the worse crisis that have been faced in the history.

            The change of the Paso to the dollar exchange rate was the one of the biggest problem, which the economies have faced. There was no need to do this as the country has been disturbed by doing this. The fixed rate is not the solution to the problem and the president who has make the changes should focus on the consequences more. Argentina and various other rising economies, and it is a critical essential for accomplishing solidness in a globalized economy.

            After 2000, the Argentina economy has recovered quickly and they have discontinued the policies that were implemented before. The debt level needs to be checked and the economy needs to be looking in to the plans and the debt ratio should be maintain so that there would be no distress caused in the country.  

References

Economics.rabobank.com. (2013). Economic Report. Retrieved May 2, 2106, from https://economics.rabobank.com/publications/2013/august/the-argentine-crisis-20012002-

El-Ghazaly, H. S. (2106). Banking Crises around the World: Different Governments, Different Responses. Retrieved May 02, 2016, from https://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/regional-economist/april-2011/banking-crises-around-the-world-different-governments-different-responses

Frbsf.org. (2002). Economic Letter. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/publications/economic-letter/2002/october/learning-from-argentina-crisis/

Geithner, T. (2003). Lessons from the Crisis in Argentina . Retrieved May 02, 2016, from https://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/lessons/100803.pdf

Hornbeck, J. F. (2002). The Argentine Financial Crisis. Retrieved May 02, 2016, from http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/8040.pdf

Kaminsky, G., Mati, A., & Choueiri, N. (2009). Thirty Years of Currency Crises in Argentina External Shocks or Domestic Fragility? . Economía 18th Panel Meeting , 1-30.

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“Advertising in social network sites”


Communication and Media Research

“Advertising in social network site”

It is researched that today’s social interaction is becoming the source of advertising for the people; people are getting familiar with the products and services online, the variety of interaction is enable the people to actively participate in buying the product and getting information about the product. It is investigated in the research that how people influenced by the social media and how they attract towards the products to buy. The social influence theory assumed that sharing the interpersonal influence and collective influence can motivates one to buy the product. It is tested from the different sources like Facebook that people strongly influenced towards the products in term of collective influence than the interpersonal influence.

The research is interesting as it tells about the effectiveness of online advertisement, the people on the social websites, comment on the product and services, share their experiences that can influence the online advertisement. The comment on advertising videos influence the public towards the product, user attitude towards the online advertisement is effecting on the people mind. Researchers have find out that advertising vehicles are affecting various advertising material, the online media is a source of effectiveness for the companies. Companies and organizations taking advantages of the online sources, the online sources are becoming the reason of profitability and source of effectives for them, the one who do not do online advertisement not get the advantages as others are getting. The media also influenced surrounding media to promote the media content, the question arises that what influence the people on social media, to buy the products, the answer is people get attracted by each other comments and this is the reason the online advertisements are successful.

The company’s focus on making the perfect advertisement by the professional of media content, nowadays the media content is providing effectiveness, the marketing the social media is given stress, the user generated content is also effective, the general public could also make the advertisement that can effect on one’s mind. The public know much about the mind of then people, sometimes better than the professional so public could be operative in this way. Online advertisement is a source or vehicle now giving advantages to the public as well as the companies. 

Various internet online service are becoming the electronic word of mouth, it is investigated that more people are attracted towards the product by seeing each other’s. The electronic word of mouth is influencing or the motivation for the people or the companies to enhance the profit. It is estimated or considered by the researchers that user generated content is much effective instead of the media professionals, the user generated content is effective as the people have the information about the peer, there are several types to influence the peer or customers, not only single source is effective, the users are fully aware about the sources and they interplay among various sources. 

Social influence as collective influence:

It is based on the social identity theory that depends on the market research. The people are more attracted by the social influence or collective influence. I believe that collective influence is better than any other source of promotion because people see themselves as a representative of a particular group, they do not see them self as an unique individual so the model is effective, the group can perform better rather than individual or the performance could be effective when one is in a group. Social networking services, are more effective or efficient through the collective influence rather than the individual influence, as one have the own preferences and taste, so it might be difficult for the companies or user generative content to target the one, the people or customers when see that people are appreciating the product through the electronic word of mouth, their mind is positivity attracts by increasing the social influence, the source when become well-known to the user or the customer the long-term membership is established.

Behavioral intention can also evoke or changed the recipient’s attitudes the products, the participant can engage themselves in the product and services when they are a part of group. The user generated content, might also engaged the advertise product, the behavior is not always same there are changes in the attitudes and the behavior with the change in the time, that should be or need to be noticed by the advertiser. To keep engage the people with the product and services is not possible for the long-term or time, there are need of innovations if the people or customers needed to be engaged. The study about the behavioral change may have been difficult, but not impossible, one has to stay up-to-date with the time and there is a need of proper researcher of the market and current behaviors of the individuals or groups. 

Some attitudes are difficult to study, not all researches give you the accurate results, and however, the attitudes of a group are matter than the attitude of the individual. It is difficult to study about the every product and the customer response and attitude for the product. The assessment can be helpful for the user-generated content, to know about the priorities of the customers. The lack of influence, like if the advertisement are not designed according to what people demand or desired off, then there could be chance of failure of the product, researches are not accurate all the time, assumptions and expectation could be helpful in future for the design of the advertisement. Fitting the collective connection, is better than the interpersonal connection, to influenced the people by the by the sources are not sufficient all the time, there are need of identification of the connections or attitudes of the people depending on the behavioral intentions. The behavioral interactions or the connections can affect or influence one directly; the positive factor could be take place.

It is concluded by the study or the research that degree of identification is necessary for the selection of the source for advertising. Social identification about the sources could be beneficial for the present and future intervening factors. Based on the research or results that have been conducted on the social groups it is known that group influence is the successful application rather than the others, the study suggest the approach of social identification with the collective influence. However, the online users can also be targeted by the individual or interpersonal influence. 

Both the approaches collective influence and interpersonal are beneficial for the online advertisements or providing the service so the people, there are needed to understand that how to target or approach the people. The user generated contact approach need to view the rational and collective self, if there is the adoption of the interpersonal approach then the traits and attributes with the previous activation processes needed to be researched, he interpersonal and collective approaches could be given the meaning by the social identity approach. 

Evaluation of the methodology:

The researchers use the small or moderate sample size, about 150 samples were collected, however, the results shows the significant affects; the variable collective connection the shows the most significant effects. Four hypotheses were designed by the researcher, the likert scale was used to measure the mean of the five items, the 6 point scale was used. The 6 point scale is ranging from the “I strongly agree” to “I entirely agree”. The purchase intention of the customers was also noticed by collecting the data. 

The results or reliability was satisfactory; however, they have selected the small sample size, the sample size must be increase for the accuracy of the data. The data was placed and then tested by Hayes (2013), by using the SPSS macro. The data, which was highly satisfied, was collective identification; the connection of the advertising by means of collective identification. There were limitation in the research, the collective influence provide examples the original assumptions. 

Discussion:

The data collected, provide the researchers with the positive results, the weakness of the research was very limited sample and the strength was they did research based on the collective identification, that how social media is effecting the minds of people. 

On the practical level the media advertising professionals can control their publishing content, the online content must be effective and must be interesting, before it is, publish, with the behaviors and interest of the people the content need to be focused and then published. The user-generated content is more effective as compared to the professional, by adding comment to the content the users can make it more attractive for the people or customers. The user generated content, is not limited to the Facebook, it is researched that user generated content is also extends to the other social media also along with the advertisements.

The industries have assessed the need of the hour, social media is now providing the opportunities to create the advertisements, and then place it on different websites, the research have shown that the user generated content, are focused on the interpersonal and collective approaches, by understanding the social information. It is assumed that social information could be affective for the social influences; the stronger the social information is the more effective services could be given to the people. Face-to-face communication or electronic word-of-mouth are the best ways to attract the people especially, it can create the social influence. 

The people are influenced more by the websites, like YouTube video can influence the YouTube users, there is just proper need of assessment by the users generated content, the advertisements need to be clearly and closely monitor, the conversation on the online adds should also be monitor to know about the people and their psychological behaviors. The brand online advertisements, in an appropriate way can draw the attention of the consumers to get in touch with the advertisements or the websites is important to get in touch with the customer, the content is needed to share in the favorable way; or that seems favorable to the consumers. Professionally created content can effect or influence the consumers’ minds, to generate best content for the mass audience is the need of the hour. (Knoll & Schramm, 2015)

Reference

Knoll, J., & Schramm, H. (2015). Advertising in social network sites –Investigating the social influence of usergenerated content on online advertising effects. DE GRUYTER MOUTON, 40(3), 341-360.

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Cast Iron material in civil engineering application


Cast Iron material in civil Engineering Application

Introduction:

Civil engineering involves the construction, maintenance and designing of the naturally build environment. Construction and maintenance include roads, buildings, canals, bridges, Dams etc. Engineering field is also classified, for example, biomedical engineering, construction engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering etc. All engineering fields have specific requirements or we can say require specific tools to perform the specific task.  In the case of civil engineering, engineers utilize many material and tools made of a combination of material to construct a building, dam bridge, road and maintenance of the already build structure (Columbia.edu, 2016).

Civil engineering is one of the most important engineering fields in this world. It is the civil engineering that the engineers become able to construct the huge buildings, dams long distance roads and bridges that the world decades ago cannot imagine will exist some day.  At present, civil engineering lead many countries to become developed by having proper road system, buildings, bridges etc. 

Metals are considered as the backbone of civil engineering projects. Metals are usually found as the compounds and sulfates and oxides, carbonates, phosphate etc. Different kinds of metals and combination or metal material are used in the civil engineering. There are many types of metals and combination of metals that have specific property for example Cast Iron, Fiber Glass, and wood, that can be used for specific purposes in civil engineering like a construction of buildings, bridges, dams etc.

Cast iron:

Cast Iron was introduced in 1830 as a farming material and the builders at that time used the Cast iron metal as an alternative to masonry bearing walls. Cast iron is considered as strong and heavy metal. After the invention of Cast iron material in 1830, people used it to construct the huge or taller buildings. At present, the use of Cast Iron, become more important to civil engineers. Cast iron has important and unique properties that led civil engineers to use it

Properties of Cast Iron:

Cast iron is made by adding carbon and limestone in the pig iron o that the purer form of the metal is obtained which is known as Cast Iron. However, there is a variation in the amount of carbon present in the Cast Iron for example; it varies from 2 to 4.5%. Cast Iron has a coarse Crystalline and fibrous structure. On breaking or fractured Cast Iron has a grayish color appearance. Cast iron is the form of material that cannot be welded and magnetized.  Cast iron has the property that does not rust. It is a hard metal and requires tools to work with it (Csengineermag.com, 2014). 

Gray Cast Iron in the field of civil engineering is specially used for the construction of building and bridges. Cast Iron is brittle, somehow sensitive to fatigue weights, become weak in high-tension etc. melting point of the cast iron is 12000oC and its gravity is 7.5. It becomes strong on compression (Metals used in Civil Engineering, 2015).

Application of Cast Iron in Civil engineering

  • Cast Iron In construction:

Cast iron is used for many different purposes in Civil engineering. The use of metallic materials in the structural application evolved over the past few decades.  In the field of civil engineering, it is important to know the strength and the properties of the metals be used for the specific purpose because engineers cannot take risk of people life by constructing bridges, buildings, and roads with a poor and impure material (Zoghi, 2013).  

  • Cast Iron in Structures:

In early times, the cast iron was used to build the beams and columns in the building. 9in 1790’s the textiles mills was constructed with the Cast Iron material because of its properties. As it as strong metal so beams made by cast iron can handle the weight of the heavy machinery (Bussell, 2016). 

Source: http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/structural-ironwork/structural-ironwork.htm

In civil engineering at present, cast iron can be used for the constructing the water system, pipe system or sanitary system of a specific region or area for example; cast iron pipes and fittings are used for the waste, rainwater, and soil pipe system. These pipes are made by gray Cast Iron. There are many other uses of the cast iron for example; cast iron can be used in the manufacturing of the stairs, structural connection used in the buildings, dams. It can also be used to make the fences, columns, and balusters. Moreover, it can also be used as the stoves, firebacks, tools, utensils etc.

Present use of Cast Iron in Civil engineering:

At present, because of the innovation and technology, the use of Cast iron is increasing in the field of civil engineering.  The innovative use of the cast iron is considered to be in the railroad systems and rail bridges. Now the engineers use the Cast Iron for the construction of large warehouses for the materials and machinery. 

Problems with the Cast Iron:

Cast iron in the past was considered to be reliable material for the construction of bridges and the large structures like the buildings etc. but somehow, there are some problems with the  cast iron as it is not reliable for the log purposes and for heavy materials. History includes many cases regarding the problems of the cast iron bridges and structure in 1876, Ashtabula the railroad disaster occurred because of the failure of the Cast iron bridge. 

Conclusion:

Cast Iron has specific properties and  can be used for the specific purposes, but for the civil engineers it is important to know the properties and strengths of the metal before constructing a heavy structure like bridges and building. 

Reference:

Bussell, M. (2016, April 7). 19th-century Structural Ironwork in Buildings. Retrieved Nov 5, 2016, from buildingconservation.com: http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/structural-ironwork/structural-ironwork.htm

Columbia.edu. ( 2016, October 9). What is Civil Engineering? Retrieved Nov 5, 2016, from columbia.edu: http://civil.columbia.edu/what-civil-engineering

Csengineermag.com. (2014, 19th, February ). CAST IRON: A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. Retrieved Nov 5, 2016, from Csengineermag.com: http://csengineermag.com/article/cast-iron-a-historical-background/

Metals used in Civil Engineering. (2015, Dec 2). Retrieved Nov 5, 2016, from aboutcivil.org: http://www.aboutcivil.org/Metals-used-in-Engineering.html

Zoghi, M. (2013). The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering. CRC Press.

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Elliptic Curve


Section A

Question No: 1

Elliptic curve defined as

y2=x3+3x+7

Standard elliptic curve equation E:

y2=x3+ Ax+B

Comparing both equation

a)

A= 3

B = 7

m = y1-yx1-x

σ = 3 x2+ A2Y

P = ( 5 , 2)

σ = 3 52+ 32 x 2

σ = 78/4 = 78 x 4-1   mod (7)

σ = 78 x 3.5

σ =273

y2=x3+3x+7

XY^2 = aap-1/2
00-1
13-1
24-1
301
461
50
63

b)

P+Q

P (5, 2)

Q (8,9)

m = 9-28-5 = 7/3

2.3 mod (7)

y2=x3+3x+7

x3 = y2 -3x – 7

X3= 1

Y= 0

And

(P+Q)+R

R ( 10 , 5) m = 5-110-0

m = 410

m= 0.4

x3 = y2 -3x – 7

X3= 9

Y= 9

c)

Q+ R

Q (8, 9)

R (10, 5)

m = 5-910-8 = -2/2

= -1

x3 = y2 -3x – 7

X3= 8

Y3= 2

(Q+ R)+ P

(Q + R) = (8, 2)

P (5, 2)

m = 2-25-8 = 0/3

x3 = 9

y3  = 9

d)

Find 2P

n= 2

P = (5, 2)

2 (5, 2)

2P =2(5, 2)

2P = (10, 5)

Find 3P

3P = 3(10, 5)

= (30, 15)

Question No: 2

This method includes successive division first of the smaller of given all two numbers into larger and given resulting remainder divided into the divisor until remainder is equal to zero. Here the remainder of previous division is greatest common divisor.

a)

gcd (354 , 93)

Dividing 354 by 93

= 35493

93 x 2 = 279

While 75 is remainder.

Divide 93 by 75

75 x 1 = 75

93/75 = 1

While 18 is remainder

Divide 75 by 18

= 75/18

= 4

While 3 is remainder.

As gcd (354 , 93) = 354 x + 93y

3 = 354 x + 93y ——1)

According to remainder equation 354x/ 93y = 3

354x = 279y ——2)

x = 279/354 y

Putting value of x in given equation

3= 279 y + 93 y

y = 0.0086

According to equation no 1 

3 = 354 x + 93 x 0.0086

X= 0.006355

( x, y) = (0.006355, 0.0086)

After successive division process 3 is remainder that is gcd of (354 ,93) by Euclidean algorithm.

b)

 x = 2 mod 11 

x = 9 mod 17

x = 14 mod 29

All the moduli are relatively prime

m = 11 x 17 x 29

= 5423

(mm1)-1 = (542311)-1

= (493)-1

= 493 mod 11

= 9

(mm1)-1 = (542317)-1

= (317)-1

= (317)-1   mod 17

= 11

(mm1)-1 = (542329)-1

= (187)-1

= (187)-1   mod 29

= 13

x = 9, 11, 13

c)

Multiplicative order of 8 modulo 37 

1 = 1  (mod 37)

10 = 10   (mod 37)

102 = 26 (mod 37)

103 = 1 (mod 37)

104 = 10 (mod 37)

105 = 26 (mod 37)

106 = 1 (mod 37)

107 = 10 (mod 37)

 Multiplicative order of 8 modules 37 is given as

d) 

Smallest positive integer n for which n63 = 2 mod 89

89 is prime number while 63 is also a prime number 

n63 = 2 mod 89

e)

Finding Jacobi symbol 

(191229)

= (191229)

= (38191)    since 38 = 19 mod (9)

= (19191)

= (19191)  (-1)
= (19191)  (-1)

= (119)  (-1)

= (-1)

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Biomedical Engineering

The biomedical engineering is the dynamic vast field of principles of the engineering applications and concepts applied to the medicine in the biological designing framework as a model of healthcare dealing purposefully which includes the diagnostic along with the applications of therapeutic. The biomedical engineering is field which is provides tool to eliminate the gap between the engineering dynamics and medicine concepts in which the engineering techniques of problem-solving are applied in a manner to integrate with the sciences of biological or medical treatments. Especially in the sciences of health care which includes the medical areas like diagnosis, biomedical therapy tools, and finally monitoring.

            Recently the biomedical engineering itself has become a vast field of research or study as compared to other networks engineering fields or areas. The specialization in engineering unique approach of interdisciplinary has made a revolutionary transition from the currently developed engineering fields. The major works in this biomedical engineering field are mainly comprised of the research or development, which includes the secondary or subset areas of engineering research. The applications of the biomedical engineering, which are considered the dynamic area of research, are comprised of prostheses in terms of biocompatible specialization in different methodologies of diagnosis along with the necessary medical devices used in therapeutic examinations.

            The medical different ranges of the therapeutic devices including the core equipment used in the clinical environment ranging from the implants at micro levels, the common sought of equipment such as MRIs used for the imaging along with the various arrangements of EEGs. The other core biomedical engineering equipment includes the tissues of the regeneration growths, drugs used in the pharmaceuticals along with the biological applications implemented in the therapeutic. For example, the ultrasound technology for the telescopic prostate of hyperplastic representing in a cumulative manner is a relevant example of this vast field of biomedical engineering.

            The area for future research related to the biomedical engineering includes the ‘Biomechanics’ which is an area of study of the functioning along with the examination of structures in the systems of biological dynamics. These including the study of human beings, animals, or plants, functions of the organs and tiny structure of cells while applying the methodologies of the biomedical engineering mechanics are analyzed. The study of biomechanics is very much linked with the conventional areas of the engineering sciences that are used for the in-depth analysis of the systems applied to biological sciences. For example, the mechanism of the Newtonian and the sciences of materials are relevant examples of the applied to the biological sciences.

            The features of the biomedical engineering include the bioinformatics, an interdisciplinary research area with the software analytical techniques or tools for examination of the biological information. The biomaterial is the dynamic feature of this major, which is the study of interaction with the relevant style of livings; the tissue engineering is also the vast feature of this major, which is the integration, or interaction of biotechnological with the BME. The genetic engineering is a great dynamic feature that plays a great role in this major, which studies the DNA in terms of recombinant technology and the modifications in the genetic terms like GM.

            I chose this major biomedical engineering because it enables me to learn the principles engineering science and the techniques applied to solve the medical complex problems or issues. The skills are developed in a person of various ranges that could be implemented in the establishing the software tools of imaging, the logical or mathematical concepts along with modeling, in terms of instrumentation, and the computational expertise of engineering accomplishing the high performance in this field.

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Vocabulary & Concept Map Annotated Figures

Masuyama, H., Mitsui, T., Eguchi, T., Tamada, S., & Hiramatsu, Y. (2016). The effects of paternal high-fat diet exposure on offspring metabolism with epigenetic changes in the mouse adiponectin and leptin gene promoters. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab , 311, E236–E245.

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their web page. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when the author, what stage now?

This article is written by Hisashi Masuyama, Takashi Mitsui, Takeshi Eguchi, Shoko Tamada, and Yuji Hiramatsu and they are currently working at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan. Their main focus is studying the effects of high-fat exposure of the parent on the metabolism of their offspring along with Epigenetics variations in leptin and adiponectin promoters in mice.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

This article focuses on the effects of high-fat diet exposures of the parents on the offspring metabolism in accordance with the epigenetic variations in the leptin and adiponectin gene promoters in mice. As per the study the effects of parental high fat diet exposure on the body weight displays result in the gain of mass in the offspring as well. As there are significant variations at conceptions within high fat diet fed male and female mice and CD fed male and female mice.

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       How can high protein diet influence the outcome here?

Q2       Can this study be applied for any cases of mutation?

Q3       Can specific forms of diet be used to get particular results in the offspring?

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

To study highly focuses on the aspects that what type of traits in offspring can adopt from their parents especially emphasizing on the fat gain. I am currently working on the study that how can the results in the offspring be influenced with help of particular diet as the study shoes that the offspring does show positive effects from the test and this can be very useful my for my study.

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

Te study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Adiponectin

It is also known as GBP-28, Acrp30, apM1 and AdipoQ and is kind of protein and is encoded in AdipoQ gene within the humans. It is used to control the levels of glucose along with the breakdown of fatty acids.

High Fat Diet

The diet in which the contents of fat are high and contents of protein are low.

Leptin

It is a kind of safety hormone which is made by the adipose cells and is used to control the energy balance and is opposed by the hunger hormone known as Ghrelin.

Metabolic Syndrome

It is related with a group of conditions which usually include high blood pressure along with high blood sugar and excessive body fat as well as abnormal cholesterol levels. This increases the risk of diseases related with circulatory or digestive systems.

Annotated Figure

Concept Mapping

McKay, J. A., & Mathers, J. C. (2011). Diet induced epigenetic changes and their implications for health. Acta Physiol , 202, 103-118.

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their web page. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when the author, what stage now?

This article has been written by J.A. McKay and J.C. Mathers. They both have been working in Human Nutrition Research Centre at Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University located in Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne in United Kingdom. They have been conducting research on epigenetic variations and the aftermath of diet inductions on the health of the offspring. They have also contributed in researches related to various epigenetic modifications.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

Exposures to different types of diets of the parents can have multiple effects on their offspring and these effects may take years to develop. Therefore, they have to be studied with profound emphasis so that the exposure patterns and their results can be memorized. The epigenetic modification can influence nutrition and may contribute to the development of chronic diseases.  Histone modification, non-coding micro-RNAs and DNA methylation have a huge role to play during the cellular differentiation and throughout the lifetime of the offspring.

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       Is the repressor function of micro-RNAs dependent upon their transcription act?

Q2       The biology of micro-RNAs is unusual, does it explain their function?

Q3       Can specific forms of diet be used to get particular results in the offspring?

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

I am currently working on studying the effects of different foods and nutrition on epigenetic marks as well as processes and this article provides some valuable information on how epigenetic variations in the nutrition can influence the health of the offspring.  

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

The study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Histone modifications

It is a covalent post-translational variation procedure to histone proteins that includes methylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation. The post-translational variation procedure made to histones can impact gene expression by changing chromatin structure or recruiting histone modifiers.

DNA methylation

It is an epigenetic phenomenon which is used by cells for the purpose of controlling gene expression. Various mechanisms are available to control gene expression in eukaryotes however; DNA methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool which can fix genes in the off-position

Annotated Figure

Concept Mapping

Standage, D., Berens, A., Glastad, K., Severin, A., Brendel, V., & Toth, A. (2016). Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect. Molecular Ecology , 25, 1769–1784.

  1. Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when author, what stage now?

This article has been written by Daniel Standage how works at Department of Biology at Indiana University in Bloomington alongside Volker Brendel and Amy Toth who are also contributors to this research study alongside Ali Berens who works at Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organizmal Biology at Iowa State University. Karl Glastad of School of Biology at Georgia Institute of Technology and Andrew Severin who works at School of Informatics and computing in Indiana University located in Bloomington.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

The article emphasizes on comparative genomics of the social insects, which is a topic that has been research a lot in the recent times. The goal of all these studies is to provide insight in the development of the social behavior and the associated with genomic and epigenomic levels. The study identifies different variations in the caste within gene expressions. The study provides an insight that both novel and conserved genes are directly related with the differences of the caste.

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       What will be the level of similarity if the tests have been conducted on organisms?

Q2       Can we dictate or predict the outcomes of imprinting evolution with help of epigenetic modifications?

Q3       Why a consistent pattern has not been developed yet, despite all the progress on testing the predictions?

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

I am currently working on studying the cause related with disruptions involved in genomic imprinting. The article provides concise information about molecular as well as experimental evolution and also provides valuable information regarding their comparison especially in association with current study of insects and this will be very helpful in further studies as well.

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

The study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Caste

It is specialized group based on the behavior within eusocial colony

Dnmt3

It is a part of DNA methyltansferase family of enzymes which is used for transfer of methyl group to DNA and serves a variety of other purposes as well.

Eusociality

It is the highest level of sociality within animals which involves brood care cooperation, division of labor among the non-reproductive and reproductive classes as well as cross-generation colony of adults.

Genome

It is a set of chromosomes within the microorganisms or at the cellular level of the multi-cellular organisms.

Methylation

It is an epigenetic phenomenon which is used by cells for the purpose of controlling gene expression. Various mechanisms are available to control gene expression in eukaryotes however; methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool which can fix genes in the off-position.

Transcriptome

It is a collection of all the messenger RNA molecules which are expressed from all the genes of a particular organism.

Concept Mapping

Annotated Figure

Yan, H., Simola, D. F., Bonasio, R., Liebig, J., Berger, S. L., & Reinberg, D. (2014). Eusocial insects as emerging models for behavioural epigenetics. Genetics , 15, 677-688.

  • Who are the authors? Check out their webpage. Where are they working? What is their main research focus? What stage of career when author, what stage now?

The authors of this article are Hua Yan1, Daniel F. Simola, Roberto Bonasio, Jürgen Liebig, Shelley L. Berger and Danny Reinberg. They all have been part of researches that are conducted in their respective institutions including Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology in New York University School of Medicine, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology in Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania,   Epigenetics Program, University of Pennsylvania,  School of Life Sciences in Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, Department of Biology at University of Pennsylvania, Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Howard Hughes Medical Institute in New York University at School of Medicine, New York.

  • Summarize in your own words what this paper is about.

The article provides a deep understanding at molecular basis that how the states of behavior are developed and how they are maintained or altered as per the environmental requirements. The article provides an understanding that the epigenetic alterations have a major role to play in the regulatory purposes for shaping the behavioral responses based on cues related with environment.  

  • What are 3 questions you have about this paper?

Q1       Is this study limited to eusocial insects?

Q2       What roles do epigenetic modifications have to play in imprinting evolution?

Q3       Why there are no consistent patterns predicted despite the availability of all the data/

  • How does this paper relate to your research or interests?

I am currently working on studying the role of epigenetic modifications in disease cells and this study helps me in understanding that what roles do these epigenetic modification have to play in the behavioral cues as it can be very beneficial in understanding the cellular responses to certain modifications.

Vocabulary List

Epigenetic

The study of variations in organisms due to the result of changes of gene expression rather than modification of the genetic code

Caste

It is specialized group based on the behavior within eusocial colony

DNA methyltansferase

It is a part of DNA methyltansferase family of enzymes which is used for transfer of methyl group to DNA and serves a variety of other purposes as well.

Eusociality

It is the highest level of sociality within animals which involves brood care cooperation, division of labor among the non-reproductive and reproductive classes as well as cross-generation colony of adults.

Methylation

It is an epigenetic phenomenon which is used by cells for the purpose of controlling gene expression. Various mechanisms are available to control gene expression in eukaryotes however; methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool which can fix genes in the off-position.

Concept Mapping

Annotated Figure

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Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations

Introduction

            I have many expectations from this subject of “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations” being a graduate international student of the business school. The negotiation in conflict management is a proper area of academic and practical considerations. Therefore, the conflict management tools using the negotiation techniques always a great tactic in human resource management in which the practices of mediation are applied in day-to-day activities along with the professional life such as in the organizational behaviors.

            For instance, while interaction with the family or friends about going to the restaurant while making choices from whether to go to a Chinese restaurant or try a pizza this time, discussing with friends about going to a vacation at the Florida state or the Las Vegas, we make choices for resolving disagreements. Similarly while making decisions in the organization such as purchasing the new equipment or making modifications to the existing one also include the choices to settle down or come to an agreement. These all are the examples of the negotiation that are going into our lives whether we are aware or not.

            As I am an international student studying here this class of “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations” would provide a great opportunity for me to learn from a different aspect or point of view about the core concepts of the conflict management using the negotiation techniques. The basics bout conflict-management in which the opposition or usually the term of disagreement is used as a conflict occurs between the two rival parties wants an entirely different result. There is a chance of learning about various levels of conflicts such as the intrapersonal conflict or conflict within oneself such if I want to eat an ice cream but a conflict exist in my mind that ice cream could make obesity in me.

            The interpersonal conflict and the intergroup conflict are most important as far as conflict management in the professional or practical life. I am also hoping to understand the positive or the functional side of the conflict in which the positive outcome would accomplish through the ‘integrative negotiation or win-win or expanding the pie” strategy of conflict management. The awareness about the interests and the core problems are an integral part of the negotiation process that would be an interesting a phenomenon to occur in the disagreement process.

            There is also an aspect of the dysfunctional conflict or the “distributive bargain” or “fixed pie” in which the negative outcome is achieved most of the times. The importance of the need or desires of both the parties as the cause of the conflict in which both the parties try to reach a better position than existing one. The role of the mutual adjustments from both parties is also in the list of learning outcomes from this course, the proactive part of the “give and take” approach in every sought of the negotiation process and the mutual adjustments are the most important tool for the conflict management along with the flexible types of concessions. The intangible values that the negotiators perceive from the phase of the agreements are also significant in this regard.

            The expectations of mine from this subject most important style of negotiation using the dual dimension approach in which the cooperativeness in which the concerns for the others are mostly illustrated and the assertiveness in which the personal concerns or interests are put into the primary focus. The other significant tactic used as a mediating or the negotiation style as an importance of the collaborating style that would provide the high level of the benefits of mutual interest of goals would achieve.

Journal Entries

  • COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING strategy

In this negotiation, the trust is one of the game, as every one wants to win but in the same time we could both lose, the best goal is not to beat the other company its when you both lose. The ethics is more important

Don’t burn bridges. As we were a group I learn that people were not as ethical as I thought when it comes to money, people can do what ever to get it even thought its gonna hurt the person reputation, we were truthful with the people we are negotiating with as there was 3 round so we did get there trust for the first 2 rounds and then we backed up one our words in the last round and won.

            From the dual concern model, I have learned that the position of my group was ‘Competing’ while looking the unethical behaviors, interests, intentions. We have managed to manipulate the trust factor as an important intangible value factor in the negotiation process. Since the rival party tried to outperform us, we eventually using the trust, concession factor makes the ‘win-lose’ or distributing bargain for us in which the zero-sum situation was created in the 3rd or final round from total three rounds of the negotiation.

In the first journal entry of the comparative advertising strategy, using ethical standards in advertisement the primary goal, negotiation is about keeping ethics prior than money. The key elements that happened in the activity are the role of the trust and the ethical considerations one put into the negotiation process. The significant thing I learned about negotiation from the simulation was knowledge about our strength and knowing the other actor’s weakness while using the power-oriented approach in which the maximum attention is toward the assertiveness while ignoring the cooperativeness. We have used our interest factor for getting our track to hard bargain while in the third round for winning the negotiation process at the expense of the rival party’s expense while creating the dominant position of our group eventually.

            The element that surprised me about my behavior was the process that leads me to avoid the competitive attitude in which I learned that there is another way of accomplishing my goal while avoiding the escalation of the specific means of commitment. The element that surprised about my opponents behavior for beating the rival party using inefficient negotiation skills exploiting the interest of others, such as that proved to be winner’s curse’ for our group.

            The thing that I learn about myself was that I could become a god negotiator with a little more effort in identifying the core concepts of the conflict management, in which both the parties to accomplish the various outcomes or results. The knowing of my ability that the aspirations according to my interest require a lot of patience, flexible position and balance power is analyzed. The thing, which I learned about others, was that people could go at each stage or even the rigid positions or commitment level to achieve the self-interest designed goals.

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, I would you do few things differently such as try to exploring the fact that the divergence of the mindset of both parties for achieving individual goals would not be a good strategy. Whereas it is also possible, that disagreement could lead towards the positive outcome for both the parties as well.

            This experience compares to others that I have had in similar in a way that my group had to manage the innovations or bringing the improvements in the negotiation style or approach or comparable in a way that I found the psychological growth in my personality. I was unaware of the real issues that both parties had in the conflict circumstances.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation in a way that I realized that the conflicts sometimes make us powerful enough in developing the self-control in our lives. I learned about the outcomes of the conflict as a concession as the dynamic process of haggling in which both parties must give and take to reach towards the position of compromise. There was great learning about the negotiation styles using the two horizon or dimensional model as assertiveness or cooperativeness in which we put five factors according to the situation ahead like competing in which just to focus on self-interests and accommodating in which care about others interest or concerns as well.

  • COFFEE CONTRACT NEGOTIATION

IN THIS NEGOTIATION was all about slicing the pie like what is said by reading chapter 3 in the book by (slicing the pie strategy) strategy 1: assess your BATNA and improve it. And Strategy 2: Determine your reservation point, but do not reveal it.

            The key elements happened in the activity were the how to engaged in the negotiation process from both the parties in getting the largest pie. For this, the firsts stage was the preparation was developed in which offers were made from parties, receiving counter offers, devising the best alternative opportunities in the negotiation and finally making concessions or shifting from the initial position. Then the most important element in that activity was the BATNA (Best Alternative to the Negotiated Agreement) in which the Best Alternative to the Negotiated Agreement was developed in which both the parties established the lowest level of the acceptable price in the negotiation agreement.

            In the second journal entry of the coffee contract negotiation, knowing BATNA is the focal point in which reservation or target points occur in order to achieve the contract of coffee between two rival parties. The keys that I had learned about negotiation from the simulation were the importance of developing the alternatives in the negotiation process in which the party can know at what point we need to place a full stop or finishing the negotiation deal. The other key that I had to learn was that the power is essential in the deal making for walking far away from the deal id the opponent party does not want to come even near to our terms.

            The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that I got the knowledge about my bargaining range including the minimum level that I would ready to pay and the maximum range or amount that I would bear in the process of deal making. In the case of minimum range, I would shift from the position for giving something extra in that specific deal and similarly in the maximum range that I can afford to pay in which I could shift while shaving off from a rigid stance.  The thing that surprised about the behavior of my opponent was the way he sued the concession techniques such as the target range or amount as well as the reservation range while making an initiative in offering a concession in a deal to create a positive impact.

            The most important thing that I learned about myself was that how to reach a point where we accept the terms of the negotiation agreement using the principles of the negotiation as the integrative negotiation strategy while using the magnitudes of the discounts or concession in useful ways. The thing I learned from the others was that people usually prefer the fixed pie or the distributive bargain strategy of the negotiation.

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, I would you adopt the negotiation strategy differently in a  manner to make a ‘compromise situation’ choosing the middle ground in which the splitting the key differences are essential in this specific case which is a better approach for deal making rather avoiding the negotiation process of deal making.

            This experience compare to others that I have had in similar was there was a negotiation case in which only one core issues was involved in the deal making like financing. Therefore the distributive bargaining occurred as a result of the fixed pie circumstances. This situation would be comparable as integrative negotiation in which the resources that were available could easily be divided, having a situation I had won along with the opponent party.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation in which the long-term  sustainable relationship would maintain through the win-win situation for both the parties, the primary focus of the parties are the interest of each other while ignoring the positions. In the negotiation, the process for achieving the satisfaction that would make the complete value for the parties is analyzed as an outcome of the integrative negotiation. The negotiation style would be collaborative in this regard, in which the goals of both parties would meet in a value identification process.

  • New Recruit NEGOTIATION

IN THIS NEGOTIATION my goal as the recruiter is to reach an agreement with the candidate on all eight issues, IN THIS NEGOTIATION I learned to make more than one offer with the same value and let the person choose, and (sharing the reservation point you do not tell them what is your target, what surprised me about my behavior is that we both want to get the same thing but in the same time we have to give up something, I learned about my self in this negation that I could be better if I have another chance to do it again, by reading chapter 4 in the book( win-win negation: expanding the pie) by taking extra time to negotiate and focusing on a long-term relationship.

            The key elements that happened in the activity are the list of the multiple eight issues in which the integrative bargaining occur between me as a recruiter and the candidates who have applied for the job at a specific position in accompany. The resolution was created in a way that both the parties would take the key advantage of the negotiation agreement, in which the research would make from my side to develop satisfactory situation for both the parties in a win-win situation. The objectiveness in the achievements of the standard was the primary goal in which the multiple ranges of the options were created that would provide a suitable gain for both the parties.

            In the third journal entry of the ‘new recruit negotiation’ expanding the pie or integrative or win-win negotiation is studied in which the negotiation between employer and the job candidates. The lessons I learn about negotiation from the simulation were while attaching the same value I chose the various range of offers while leaving the ball in the court of the opponent party from that various sought of offer I had given to them. Therefore, I did not let them guess my target point while sharing the reservation points with them. In this strategy, I made the value appropriately to all my primary interests in the process of valuation in the deal making.

            The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that there was an existence of the mutual goal in the recruitment process negotiation, while it was very necessary from both the parties point of views would be to involve in a give or take along with the concessions strategy to reach a mutual satisfaction long-term relationship. The surprising fact about the opponents behavior was that they had the issues like the salary or other benefits where they could make the healthy debate in the form of the integrative bargain style apart from the few differences in the agreement.

 The thing I learned about myself was that for maintaining the long-term sustainable relationship it is very necessary that do not always involved in the blame game whereas the most important strategy in this regard was that confronting the core issues or the problems were necessary rather than just confronting the people for that. The thing I learned about the about others was that people conceive both the disagreements along with the negotiation process as the same thing which is sometimes wrong. Therefore, it is important to have a reminder that communication in an appropriate manner would be helpful in the future interaction with the same party. 

            If I had the chance to do this negotiation over, the thing I would do differently is making a winning environment for both parties in a way that would establish the smooth relationship between both the parties. There should be rejection or the acceptance of the viewpoints not the individual persons in the negotiation process. In any position, one must follow the interest as a primary focus.

This experience compares to others that I have had in similar include the negotiation is all about the identifying the solution be agreeable for both the parties in a given framework of the problem. Therefore making the excuses is not the ultimate option or offer while undermining the interests of the others in the comparable circumstances.

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation that issues are the core objective that must be a target from the negotiator in the disagreements rather than focusing the people as a core problem in the disagreement process. This is an important outcome for developing the sustainable or strong relationship between the two parties. The negotiation style is, therefore, would be used as a collaborative or compromise in some cases would apply as an approach in which the primary focus would be on the interest which are underlying in the negotiation process. The understanding of the opponents fear or desires at such points in which they maintain a strong stance is important.

  • TKI

      In the fourth journal entry, Thomas Kilmann instrument for negotiation handling is studied in terms of its importance in negotiation and conflict management from dual approach model. The aspects I feel about this survey that there are no one specific answers or responses to the situation of the conflict handling in the different behaviors. For example, there is no concept of the objectivity of the responses since each behavior or approach to the conflict management style has its unique characteristics and more than one approach could apply in one specific scenario. The most common example in this regard would be as people usually thinks that opt for more as the outcome rather than less which is a collaborating approach, simultaneously the people also say that slow poison is always a recommended strategy in negotiation which is accommodating approach. That is why there is the great debate that we can apply all five of the approach of conflict management style in one scenario, all it requires is the nature of the situation and the level of skills that one possesses in solving the conflict situation with a negotiation expertise.

      The things I learned about negotiation from this survey were that the flexible approach is always a perfect strategy in using that dual dimensional model of conflict resolution. The recognition of the effective use of all the five approaches is essential while dealing with a certain conflict scenario in personal or professional lifestyle.

      The surprising thing about the results or findings of a survey that impact behavior while using the modes of conflict management such as accommodation, compromising are depended on how effectively negotiator use while developing the skills in advance or always anticipate so that they have the advantage in conflict situation from the opponents. The behavior of the opponents sometimes rely only on one rigid skills mind frame and use them repetitively on the various sought of conflict situations such as they believe that compromising would be the best solution in every case.

      I learned about myself from the survey that there is no favorite approach or tool. However, the focus would be on identifying the conflict scenario in terms or requirements of which strategy would implement best and the self executed abilities in the execution of these approaches. The others people is always judging us regarding which of the five approaches to the negotiation style would best fit into the dual dimensional negotiation style model.

      If I had the chance to involve or indulge the negotiation, the thing I would do differently is using the competing style when a significant decision is a need to made immediately. The yes man culture would be suited for this strategy if I am more tilted towards competing style, and if not I might have the lack of power in controlling situations effectively.

      The experience from the survey was similar to one situation I faced in a way that I used more than one styles or approaches like collaboration in finding the integrative outcomes of the situations of conflict and collaborating when I found that objectives of the deal are not as significant that it requires a lot of effort. The comparable case was also occurring to me when I used the avoiding style in the circumstances when I foresee not all issues are important.

      The concepts in the survey are integrated to our course understanding of the processes of negotiation in a way that five approaches of the conflict management are the intelligent modes or tools in which we have to learn that the extent to consider interests or concerns for others are as important as our concerns or extent to interests. The outcome of this dual model conflict management would be essential if all five modes would apply the maximum level of skills of negotiation like power dominating approach of competing, using collaborating in which larger outcome is required for us, compromising when the expedient outcome is objective. My negotiation style has changed from analyzing deeply this survey as I learn to implement collaborating or highest outcome for both parties, accommodating defeating enemies with slow poison, competing use power oriented approach and so on.

  • EAZY’S GARAGE NEGOTIATION

I will start by saying relationship did important to me in this exercise,I cant belive the person stole the car out of my parking lot even its her car but its illegal before she pays her bills, but I didn’t want to take her to court because the court fees goanna is more than the bill and the legal fees, I tried to settle in the middle because I value there business since we opened the shop even thought we don’t have a good relationship together, but at the same time we all live in a small town, so reputation is everything, we have miscommunication in this situation,  also from the book in chapter 6 (Establishing trust and building a relationship) about the steps repairing broken trust, step 2: put the focus on the relationship which what I did.   Step3: apologize which she did apologias to me.

            The key elements happened in the activity include the trust in the relationship include the deterrence based or nature of the relationship while protecting the reputations. In this case, the deliberate types of mechanism would apply in building the trust in a relationship in which the major focus was on the future relationship in a manner that capitalization on the different terms of network. The focus on the relationship which what I did was that the psychological approaches used to maintaining the trusts include the exposure strategy, the physical existence, reciprocity of the values, and flattery of the situations and self-approach of disclosure. The situations that lead to the level of the mistrust includes the defections of one or both parties apologize which she did apologies to me, the total miscommunication, and the attribution of the dispositional style. The last thing is the concentration on the Apple, which is bad. 

            In the fifth journal entry of the Eazy’s garage negotiation, the importance of the trust and relationship while maintaining reputation are analyzed in the negotiation process between two rival parties, in which car accident is occurred. I learn about negotiation from the simulation the whole process for dealing in an effective manner about the relationship, which had broken. The personal interactive session or meeting is essential in this regard. The focus on the relationship is also included while making the apology at the demanding situation, using the situations as venting is important while getting offensive is not an important tool.

 The thing that surprised me about my behavior was that relationships as part of the negotiation always require some special adjustments especially dealing with the embedded types of the relationship. The rational approach would be a preferable one since it is a very important phase in protecting the reputation while using the halo effect or sometimes the forked-tail effect as well. The thing that surprised about the opponents includes the relationships, which becomes the embedded from the material goods would usually rate as the concrete in one way or the other.

            I learned about myself that how repairing the lost reputation sometimes becomes significant in the negotiation process, the person oriented relationship building in which the factor of the trust also involve the negotiation factors as the counterpart strategy in which the person must show a high level of emotional intelligence in achieving the desired outcomes. The thing I leaned about others that people usually does not associate the relevant values along with the principles that are necessary for regaining the trust factor between the parties.

            If I had, the chance to do this negotiation over what would I do differently is compromised of identification along with the feelings of others that would apply a strategy of having the common goals or objectives to maintain the healthy relationships in future. The psychological strategy would include the similarity-attraction approach and the strategy of the self-disclosure to build the high level of trust.

            This experience compares to others that I have had in similar are comprised of avoiding the situations of the defections along with the breaches that would certainly lead to the situation of the mistrust between the parties. There must be focusing on the positive side of the picture rather relying or focusing only on the bad side of the apple as per the comparable circumstances?

            The concepts in the lectures or readings enrich my understanding of the processes of negotiation is comprised of the concentration completely onto the building the sustainable relationship, apologizing if we are at the wrong side, not indulge in the defensive frame of mind at once while letting the things venting smoothly. The outcome, for developing the reputation again regarding the relationship includes the ways that would suit both parties in the future. The supportive nature of the negotiation style at this point is essential which includes the accommodating in which the concerns for others would take into account along with the compromise style of negotiation.

Conclusion

            In the end, it is concluded that I am very fortunate to learn a lot from this class of the “Conflict Management: Mediation and Negotiations.” The most important aspect of conflict management that I have learned include the dual model of the conflict resolution in which the two approach or variables in the form of “assertiveness and cooperativeness” along with the five factors such as avoiding, competing, compromising, accommodating and collaborating are used.

            The assertiveness approach focuses on the self-interest or the concerns while ignoring the concerns of the others, while the dominant factor in this approach is the competing. The approach of the collaborating focusing on the concerns of the others while ignoring the interests of the others, the most dominant part of this approach is the accommodating. The best approach in my view would be the collaborating in which the win-win situation for both the parties would accomplish in which the maximum interest of multiple actors are accomplished. The integrative negotiation as the most useful style of the negotiation or conflict management technique is then analyzed in which the mutual goals are accomplished from the various or different core issues while long-term sustainable relationships are maintained from focusing on the interests not the positions of the problems. The people are not the focus in the process of the disagreements; the core objective would be on the issues of the disagreements not the people as the primary focus of the disagreements.

            The next important learning from the conflict management includes the BATNA that is the best alternative to the negotiated agreement, which is the lowest level of the range that the person is willing to pay in the deal making. The concepts related to that such as the target points, the point at which we want the agreement to be completed, the reservation point or the point at which we would not accept the agreement or the deal in any case and prefer to walk away from the situation. The other key concepts in this process include the surplus of the negotiator, which is calculated as a positive zone of the bargain in the negotiation process. The differences in the opposite point of views of the both the parties must be entertained in a manner that the most effective pattern would be the close the mutual point if still the deal would not make then there would be a certain deadlock.

            The conflict management teaches us that the change in the organizational actions must be according to the dynamic adaptability practices from the various challenges; the functional conflict would make the relationships between the parties more stable as well as strong in a way that problem-solving techniques become the easier. The conflict management theories help us to understand or identify the awareness of our self as well as about the others. The people usually become the realistic in their approach while having the egocentric approach is ignored from the negotiation skills.

            The other core concepts of the conflict management from the mediation and negotiation techniques, I have able to understand in this class are the reputation regarding the relationship with the others are analyzed. The rapport as a strong relationship with the embedded nature of relationship with the friends, business mates, and colleagues are analyzed through the focusing on the relationship for the future in the approach of the similarity-attraction as a tool of the psychological framework, making the communication level strong and focusing on the positive side of the picture. The arrangement of a personal meeting along with the apologizing to the others is included in the process of repairing the relationship as per the negotiation process for the trust, which is broken.

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Smarter logistics

MATH202_Week5Lab

Bonus lab: Smarter logistics

Lab 5: Bonus Lab

Question 1:

Question 2:

P

Let

 = 0

Nkp-KP2 – Na

Kp2– NkP +Na = 0

Now P can be find by

P =

As ax2 + bx +c = 0

Now a = k

b = -Nk

And c = Na

Now by putting the values in the formula we get

P =

P =

P =

The possible point of equilibrium will be

P1 =  and P2 =

As shown in the graph, by fixing the values of a2 the values of a1 is unstable as well as the values of K are also unstable. P1 is a sink and p2  is a source.

Question 3:

P

Let b = 1 and if a= a2 what will happen to fish population for various initial conditions

In the given equation and the case, “b” is a parameter that controls the frequency of the harvesting period on the other hand “a” in the given expression represents the amplitude of the harvesting period. For the required expression, the max harvesting can be reach to “2a” and the minimum can be “0”.

In the above expression, when t=0 and b=1 then the sin (0) will be 0. Therefore, it is not logical for the population when

Initial population= 0


Figure 1: fish population for initial conditions

It can be seen from the graph that at the initial value of K, N and a the fish population decreases

Question 4:

The expression mentioned in the part two, when a= a2 the fish population the rapid decrease in the fish population occurred as shown in the figure


figure: fish population for various conditions

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Visualisation for DEs

Lab 4: Visualizations for Des

Question 1:

Question 2:

The possible equation is

f(t) = -20x3+x2+10x-10

Question 3:

Now

Now by putting y(1) = 0 we get

C2 = 0

And on putting  y(1) = 3

On C1 =1

Question 4:

 y4(x) + 2x2 16x + 8y(x) = C

                                              For the values C = 1, 4 and16

For the values y4 +x2= C

Direction field

For the clear view;

Plot shows the direction field

For the join effect:

Question 5:

This value -21/3 comes when the continuity breaks. From the graph of the given equation, it is determined that the upper limit of the first interval is greater than -21/3 and the lower limit of the interval is less than -21/3

Question 6:

The larges value of the existence of the integral curve is determined by the lower limit for the y that is -21/3<y<

Question 7:

Part (a)

Part (b)

Part (c) it is a linear system

Part (d) it is a parabola

Part (e) on approaches to infinity, it shows continuity

Part (f) On approaches to infinity, the behavior of the function becomes continue and the equation also shows the continue behavior.

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Pre-Submission a future 510(k)

Pre-Submission

Product and the company

I am introducing a new device and I will be discussing it here. The name of the device will be Oxytissue Sensor and the company which will manufacture this device is Medic Well Corp. After an in-depth analysis of many options, I have chosen this company to manufacture the device because it has the capacity and it will prove to be cost efficient as well. The device will be attached to any body part specifically where the blood flow is properly detectable. The device will be attached to the body with help of a body sticker and it is attached on one side of the device. The device will be powered by a mini cell. The top side of the device will have a display screen that will show the reading of the blood flow. The product will be the first of its kind because some of the variations are already available in the market. Many of these devices are wearable on the wrists and some of them can be worn on arms as well. Oxytissue will be unique and better than any other product of similar category.

Description of Product

The main feature of Oxytissue Sensor is that it will be a wireless device and can be attached to any body part of people that belong to any age group. However, this device will be preferable for the elder people as well as the disabled. The device will be able to detect and display the glucose level, hemoglobin level, blood pressure, body temperature and various other readings and can be checked with the push of a button. The device is safe and effective to use and is substantially equivalent to any legally marketed device and is not subject to pre-market approval under 21 CFR §807.92(a)(3).

Oxytissue Sensor will be connectable to laptops as well as smartphones and the data can be traced by anyone using the mobile application specifically designed for this device. The mobile application will be available on iOS and android and the date will be available online 24/7. Another very useful feature of this device is that no blood sample will be to display the information. The technology used in this device to collect date from the blood is infrared rays and all the essentials of the blood will be automatically measured. A detailed report can also be accessed through the mobile application for further assessments and analysis from the medical experts. The device intended to be used in the following manner,

  1. The device is used by attaching it to any body part using the sticker.
  2. The body parts that are ideal are where the blood flow is easily detectable.
  3. The device will be able to detect and display the glucose level, hemoglobin level, blood pressure as well as body temperature.
  4. The device will be able to collect data from the body using infrared rays.
  5. The result will also be available on smartphones and laptops via specially designed software for each platform.

Predicate Device Comparison Table

In this table, Oxytissue Sensor is compared with Omron Project Zero Wrist Blood Pressure Monitor, which focusing on the fact that it has substantial equivalence (SE) with Omron Project Zero which is a legally marketed device.

Areas of Comparison             Omron Project Zero               Oxytissue Sensor

Intended Use                                           only measure the blood pressure                             blood pressure, glucose level and hemoglobin level

Target Population                                     anyone can use                                        anyone can use

Where it can be used                                                wearable on the wrist only                       can stick on any body part

Human Factors                                        none                                                        none

Performance                                            long lasting battery timing                        long lasting battery timing

Materials                                                  high quality materials                                               high quality materials

Other Device Compatibility                      can be used with iOS and Android           can be used with iOS, Android and Windows

Electrical Safety                                       safe to charge, directly and indirectly       safe to charge directly or indirectly

Water resistivity                                       no water resistivity                                  water resistant                                         

Design                                                     wearable on the wrist                                               attachable to any body part

Sterility                                                    N/A                                                          N/A                                         

Thermal Safety                                        can be used in 10ºC to 50ºC                     can be used in 5ºC to 50ºC

Biocompatibility                                      Biocompatible                                          Biocompatible

https://www.mathworks.com/cmsimages/96991_wl_DorsaVi_fig_1_wl.jpg
Image result for medical sensor wearable devices

CFR Regulation and product code for Oxytissue Sensor

            Title 21, Parts 862-892 of the CFR regulation that addresses the issues regarding the devices and FDA has classified over 1700 distinctive types of devices. The FDA 510(k) Product Code for Oxytissue sensor will be K146381.

Three Questions for FDA

  1. I plan to conduct the following biocompatibility test for Oxytissue, the tests are as follows,
  2. Sensitization
  3. Cytotoxicity

Do you agree?

  • I plan to test the device with a group of people in order to assess the safety and usability of the device. Is my projected approach for assessing human elements such as ease-to-use and control, effective alarm triggering, and safe device connections adequate for the purpose of the usage of Oxytissue Sensor?
  • Is the ‘low-level concern’ adequate level of concern for Oxytissue Sensor’s mobile and Windows application?

Source: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/GuidanceDocuments/UCM311176.pdf

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GrandBox

GrandBox is the online subscription website, which gives the grandbox to the loved ones on a monthly basis. It is observed that the company is working from 2014 and they are doing a great job. Here the most important thing to know is that they have targeted people over 65 like your parents, mother, father, grandparents, any uncle aunt or so. However, the package can be delivered to someone close to you, however; the only thing, which needs to take care, is that he or she should be the elder citizen (Grandbox.com, 2016).

Looking in detail, we come to know that every month there is a different theme box. It could be something from holiday gifts, birthdays, eating stuff, back to school or any perfect theme. The reason of sending these boxes is to make the loved one smile and so that the essentials are fulfilled. However, we can also send around 5 pictures and a customized note as well in the box every month.

Develop a list of personas within a broader target market

Looking at the Personas who comes in the target market are

  • Parents
  • Grandparents
  • Older loved ones

For each persona: Identify the various buyer roles

Discussing the Parents, grandparents or the loved ones there is only one way that can be selected. For instance, for the parents their children’s will pay for the package and rest of the responsibility is the grandbox team. They have professionals who are doing a good job in this instant and the select and send the package to your parents.

For the grandparents their grandson will pay for the package and same the grandbox team will do the rest as they will pick the box and deliver on time.

For the loved ones, it could be some of your older friends, aunt, and uncle or so you will pay for the package and the rest of the responsibility belongs to the company’s team.

Consider the needs and situational triggers for the product/service of your choice and describe them

As it has been stated earlier, the company only deals with the older age people. Here we need to know that they have already segregated a specific target market for them. However, this box is given every month around 15th of the month. The products or the box will be customized according to the season and the requirements. The team is highly professional, and they know what kind of goods they need to deliver to them. However, it can be seen that the ordering person an email the company maximum of five photos and a personal note every month which can be adjusted in the box.

Moreover, there are some of the events like the mother’s day or father’s day, birthdays or so. Here the box can be sent as well and here the box will be set up according to the occasion as well. However, it needs to be noted that the customization will be done by the management team. It is so true that everyone is so busy in his or her lives and that is the reason we are sending the boxes. Therefore the company takes this responsibility.

Create messaging objectives for your SMM campaign

Looking at the social media marketing campaign, I would like to say that the company is doing well in this regard as many people know about it. However creating the SMM campaign, I will say that the messaging objective here will be “Hello to the loved ones” this will be the Slogan, and it will be marketed over the web, on the Facebook, on the Google advertisements and so. The objective of this campaign is to give the awareness to the people who are looking for this service or who do not have time for their loved ones. Here they do have the opportunity to keep in touch and to communicate with them from their busy life.

Choose an “optimal target market” for your campaign and explain why you chose them

            Here discussing the optimal target market, I would say there are some people who come into the target market for the company. There might be three categories,  one who have love and care for the parents, the second who can afford and want to spend money, the third category lies here is who do not have time for the parents. Looking in detail, we come to know that yes all three categories do lay in the target market for the Campaign. However, the optimum target market will be the people who have love, care for the parents, who are willing to spend on them as well, and they do not have time to do so. A person possesses all three traits will lie in the optimum target market for this campaign.

Reference

Grandbox.com. (2016). GrandBox is curated for those 65 and older. Retrieved October 29, 2016, from http://www.mygrandbox.com: http://www.mygrandbox.com/whats_inside

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Why Emotional Intelligence Should Matter to Management

  1. c) Monitor one’s  own and others’
  2. b) Internal Causes
  3. False
  4. Emotional Quotient
  5. a) Psychological Adaption
  6. True
  7. Threshold Competence: A minimal capability that everyone in a given pool must have to get and keep their job.  
  8. The three key areas of emotional competence, identified in the article, by Daniel Goleman, are Self-awareness, self-management and achievement-drive.

The True Measure of CEO

  1. d)
  2. c) The Workers be charged more for their room and board
  3. True
  4. d) Requiring Workers to have or be Working toward a college degree
  5. a) Costco work culture promotes initiatives and trusts workers to solve problems without supervision.
  6. True
  7. The Essence is that it develops trust between management and workforce, increase their potential and prepare them for emergency. In addition, workforce becomes more sincere, devoted and diligent.
  8. A) Am I taking more in my share of rewards than my contribution warrants?

B) Does the distribution of Goods have negative effect on the morale?

Embracing Confusion: What Leaders do when they know what to do?

  1. C) Managers can remain in charge, while admitting their confusion and seeking appropriate guidance.
  2. B) The Lost Leader Syndrome
  3. True
  4. D) encourages automatic support for the speaker
  5. A) Process openly his/her responses
  6. A) Gained time for Analysis
  7. True
  8. The never develop a mechanism or instrument to address the problem appropriately; therefore, next-time problem occurs with more intense nature and causes more damage.
  9. Learning will increase, by embracing confusion, and better mechanisms, methods and instruments will be developed to address an issue.

Trend’s Shaping Tomorrow’s World

  1. D) Can only be predicted past the year 2050
  2. C) China
  3. False
  4. D) Services
  5. A) The elders
  6. C) Cultural Extremism
  7. True
  8. False
  9. Jobless societies will affect in two manner; one by reducing consumption, which would reduce incentive for private sector and other by migrating these unemployed to urban or developed countries, putting additional pressure economic system and infrastructure.
  10. Lifelong learning indicates that Millennials prefer an extended learning process that develops their intellect to manage affairs and address challenges. For corporate systems, this means a perpetual evolution of organizations and more optimal use of resources. This is also true for their personal lives, as more refined knowledge will be implied for better results.

 Form 1

Title of Article

Embracing Confusion: What Leaders Do When They Don’t Know What to Do

Number of Article

3rd in the line

State the Main Idea

Confusion, at corporate level, has become a norm and because of that it has become a defining feature. The article asserts that confusion should not suppressed or avoided, but rather embraced to develop method and instruments to address challenges and issue that are faced by managers.

Three Important Facts

  • Confusion has become a norm and a defining feature
  • Suppressing confusion complicates challenges
  • Most of the managers try to suppress confusion to avoid embarrassment

What Information or Idea

The changing nature of corporate/organizations that yields panic and confusion, at a certain level, and demands better managing of affairs through prudence and development of methods/instruments.

Bias and faulty reasons

The arguments, which are used in the article, are based on evidence and therefore, they are not faulty or bias; however, there could be more methods to address challenges than prescribed or suggested by the author/researcher.

New Terms and Concepts

There were not any.

Form 2

Title of Article

The True Measure of CEO

Number of Article

2nd in the line

State the Main Idea

CEOs have adopted the policy to put additional pressure on workforce to increase their share of profit. A CEO must create such environment that increases the potential and productivity of labor. For that purpose, it can use incentives and other such methods. The principle is that CEO must practice, which he/she preaches.

Three Important Facts

  • Companies have abandoned COSTCA approach
  • Top managers are more self-centered
  • Workforce is neglected and that is why negative work deviance increases

What Information or Idea

In the textbook, this has been discussed that a positive work environment increases the potential and productivity of workforce. In addition, it augments diligence, sincerity and commitment. This results in long-term relationship between employees and employers.

Bias and faulty reasons

The evidence, which has been used in the research work, is primarily based on structural observations, which could be faulty. However, case studies have also been discussed to draw conclusions and support arguments.

New Terms and Concepts

I did not find any term and concept, in this article, which I had not learned about in my text.

Form 3

Title of Article

Why Emotional Intelligence Should Matter to Management

Number of Article

First (1) in line

State the Main Idea

It has been asserted in the article, on the basis of evidence, that Emotional Intelligence matters more than IQ, which is traditionally used by organizations as an instrument to evaluate and predict a potential employee.

Three Important Facts

  • IQ test is not the best predictor.
  • Emotionally stable people are more effective employees
  • Timing, regarding Emotional Expression, in corporate environment, matters

     What Information or Idea

In the textbooks, we have studied that IQ is not the best evaluator and predictor, as it only tests intelligence and not the other aspects of personality, which are equally important. For instance, highly intelligent people could be emotionally unstable and for that reasons less productive.

Bias and faulty reasons

The arguments and assertions are evidence-based and for that reasons, they not fault. However, the research has strongly questions the worth of IQ test, which is not true to the extent it has been claimed in the article.

New Terms and Concepts

The new term I have learned is emotional competency.

Form 4

Title of Article

Trend Shaping Tomorrow’s World

Number of Article

4th in the line

State the Main Idea

By using precise projecting tools, which sort data to forecast long-term changes, we can prepare for tomorrow. The accuracy, of forecaster, is high for long-term and low for short-term.

Three Important Facts

  • Forecasters, especially long-term, are improving.
  • Various variables, of interest, can be forecasted.
  • Accuracy of the forecaster used, is high

      What Information or Idea

In the textbook, we studied that because of the increasing changes in demographics, realities and values, of particular geographic are changing. This has also been asserted in the article.

Bias and faulty reasons

As entire exercise of research is based on scrutiny and sorting of evidence/data; therefore, it is not apparently bias. These are projections based on the gathered evidence.

New Terms and Concepts

There was no new term I learned, but learned about how and why projections, long term, are more precise than the short-term projections.

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Comparison

There are four companies under analysis. Two of which are a component of Dow Jones Industrial Average and the rest two are a part of NASDAQ exchange. The two companies from Dow Jones are Exxon Mobile and General Electric, on the other hand, the companies from NASDAQ are Microsoft and Apple.

Exxon Mobile is a company that focuses on the industry of Integrated Oil and Gas. This company explores and produces two of the above-discussed products in the United States, Canada, Africa, Europe, Australia, Asia and South America. This company is also responsible for the manufacturing of other petrochemical products. On December 31, 2015, the company had 35,909 operated wells, and this number is jumping at an exponential rate. The company was incorporated in 1870 and has its headquarters in Irving, Texas. This company is a major player in the above industry and has managed to remain at the top for more than a decade (Yahoo Finance, 2016).

The Future Direction of Exxon mobile is to make innovative breakthroughs in technology to make itself environment-friendly. It is also upgrading its environment performance and preserve the environment by liquefying Natural Gas and reducing spills to protect water of this planet. It is also working on organizational transparency and effective corporate governance principles, along with aligning itself with the latest trends, by diversifying into opening service stations and providing efficient credit card system along with quality fuel and motor oil manufacturing. The introduction of petrochemical products into the plastics and bodies of vehicles, for strength, durability, and flexibility.

General Electric, on the other hand, is a useful and operating benchmark for a company that provides financial services and develops infrastructure on a scale that is formidable and impacts the overall growth of this factor. It can also be observed that the possible basis for the composition of machines that operate by steam or gas powered engines. The tend to manufacture everything starting from a nuclear reactor to water treatment plants that could use their engines. It also specializes in building oceanic platforms, Sea drilling, and Turbines manufacturing equipment. The digital and potentially analytic overview of their business revolve around the development of machinery of diversified nature  (Yahoo Finance, 2016).

General Electric is moving towards expansion rather than innovation, which is more important in their line of work. General Electric tends to partner with several of the global developers like UPS and powerful economies like China and Switzerland. To bolster its growth and ensure its survival. It is, however, moving towards innovation on a smaller scale and tends to lead its economic growth, the preliminary requirement in this growth is digital transformation, and potential aviation. It has its innovation developed at a smaller level. This level makes a start from magnetic bearing to generators used in a hydropower plant.

Microsoft is next on the list; this represents the potential and competitor that has dominated the industry since the advent of computers. The primary business of this company remotely moves around software and its application in various fields of work. The direction of the company under analysis removes the boundaries of imagination and provides a software solution to all the potential problems faced by businesses and individuals alike. The company has numerous segments including entertainment, consoles, communications, office operations, cloud services and software support for all of the above products. In 1975, this organization was incorporated and owned its headquarters in Redmond, Washington (Yahoo Finance, 2016).

The future trend does seem promising for this company. There are currently four-star segments in the minds of officials of Microsoft. This depicts that the trend seems that the promising new Windows ten would get to a whole new next level. It has already started its integration cross-platform. Further office 365 is a whole new add-on to the portfolio that is accessible on every platform, starting from Cell phone to the desktop PC. Microsoft is also highlighting development portfolio of visual studio 2015, this integrates and shares several features of a new up to the marking system and eases the job of the developer to make the website top-notch. The CRM software for Microsoft Dynamics is another featuring product that is coming up next in 2017.

The last but not the least in this list is Apple. This company has a rich history, since 1977, Cupertino, California. This makes the company fine steel as it has gone through many transformations, each more successful than the previous one. Apple specializes and leads the market in Mobile Communication, Personal Computers, Media Devices and Portable devices worldwide. Moreover, the customers of the company belong to every cycle and every size; they can vary from a young Japanese to an old Brazilian; they can also vary from an individual, or a small business to a whole Government or a giant conglomerate of organizations (Yahoo Finance, 2016).

Apple is top of the line, so its aim is also top notch. It tends to lead the market, the trends, and the gaps in this potential industry are considered top-notch. It is moving towards launching a new iPhone and iPad. Both of these products have always been the key signature products of the organization. The direction also indicates that Apple might be launching a new series of watches named Apple Watch 2. This is the potential products that are to be launched in this scenario. This overall depiction also denotes that the products of Apple are of their unique nature and in their new iPhone they tend to increase the battery, camera, and audio along with including water resistant to the given portfolio.

The Overall depiction of all four companies can be summarized in the form of the following table

Components Dow Jones Nasdaq
Company Exxon Mobile General Electric Microsoft Apple
Market Industry Major Integrated Oil & Gas Diversified Machinery Business Software & Services Electronic Equipment
Stock Symbol XOM GE MSFT AAPL
Prices
Q1-2015 87.37 27.08 48.64 125.15
Q2-2015 79.21 26.1 46.7 121.3
Q3-2015 82.74 28.92 52.64 119.5
Q4-2015 77.85 29.1 55.09 97.34
Q1-2016 88.4 30.75 49.87 93.74
Q2-2016 88.95 31.14 56.68 104.21
Q3-2016 86.91 28.92 61 117.65
Outstanding Shares Million 8961 4146 7775 5338
Enterprise Value Billion 360.39 259.16 474.83 633.95

References

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). Apple Inc. (AAPL). Retrieved from finance.yahoo.com: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/AAPL/profile?p=AAPL

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). Exxon Mobil Corporation (XOM). Retrieved from finance.yahoo.com: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/XOM/profile?p=XOM

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). General Electric Company (GE). Retrieved from finance.yahoo.com: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/GE/profile?p=GE

Yahoo Finance. (2016, October 28). Microsoft Corporation (MSFT). Retrieved from finance.yahoo.com: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/MSFT/profile?p=MSFT

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opioid epidemic

How bad is the opioid epidemic? Explain.

Many people today are dying because of the opioid epidemic. This is causing causalities, and this factor is becoming crucial day by day. People are moving towards the drugs and drugs are causing deaths. The overdoses of the drugs are very crucial for health. Although a little amount of drug can kill people. The most number of deaths due to the overdose of the drugs was in the year 2014. The majority of the deaths were due to the overdose of the opioid. Opioid is in the form of heroin, or it is also being used in the medicines. Especially the pain relievers have a high quantity of these drugs, and thus these can affect the opioid epidemic. In 2014, there was a high-intensity increase in the ratio of opioid epidemic deaths (Pbs.org, 2016).

Describe some of the contributing factors (causes) to the opioid epidemic.

The main causing factors in the opioid epidemic are the negligence regarding the usage of drugs. It was the responsibility of the government or other organizations to make people aware regarding the consequence of the drugs usage and the overdoses of the drugs can lead towards death. This all had a very crucial impact on the increase in the opioid epidemic. This epidemic has caused enough issues and its control is necessary but the main thing is that before stopping the epidemic, we have to analyze the factors. The drugs usage should be restricted and prohibited. Also, the medicines having heroin and opioid should be given on official prescription from the doctor (Pbs.org, 2016).    

What are some of the consequences of the opioid epidemic? Explain.

The major consequence of the opioid epidemic is the death ratio increase. Daily hundreds of people are dying due to this, and it is leading towards an increased ratio of the deaths. 2014 was the most crucial year regarding this all as the most number of deaths were in that year. People are buying drugs daily; the drugs are totally affecting their cognitive and immune system, and this leads towards death for them (Pbs.org, 2016). 

What can you do personally to help improve this epidemic? Explain.

The whole scenario is very tragic and causal. This is very crucial for a nation that people are dying daily for the usage of the drugs. This all should be prevented and stopped. This is all with the aid of some steps. There should be some campaigns regarding the usage of the drugs. Drugs should there should be banners and flexes representing the drug usage. As people mostly today are using the social networks and people are spending most of the time there, so there can be online campaigns, social groups, forum and other counseling services so that people do not have to go to the rehabilitation centers and they can quit drugs (Pbs.org, 2016). 

What policies should be created, implemented, and enforced to help with this issue? Explain.

There should be rehabilitation centers, and there should be campaigns properly so that people can get aware of the drug usage and they should be prevented. The usage of media, banners and advertisement, can help people preventing the usage of the drugs. There should be medical assisted treatment, and the prescription should be given carefully considering the medicines having drugs like heroin and opioid (Pbs.org, 2016).

Discuss two things that you found interesting/alarming in the documentary. Explain your thoughts thoroughly.

One thing which was affecting me is the number of deaths due to the opioid epidemic. It was a shocking fact to get to know. The other thing was that people are not much aware of preventing drugs usage. There are no proper arrangements for the authoritative persons as if they had considered it properly; it would not have gone this much bad (Pbs.org, 2016).

References

Pbs.org. (2016). Chasing Heroin. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/chasing-heroin/

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Globalization, student and career

Area of interest

There are certain areas of interest that I would like to prefer in productive time. Such area of interest includes globalization, careers, and students as well.

Research question

  1. How the impact of globalization effect on the choice of the TEI’? How choice of careers as well as the choice of degrees in this regard?
  2. How students get awareness about the globalization impact on the careers?
  3. What demographics need to consider for the students towards globalization?
  4. What are the unconventional paths of learning as well as the exploration of career demonstrations?
  5. What is the current thinking of students about the impact of globalization?
  6. What are potential barriers faced by students towards globalization?
  7. Are careers built through globalization?

Type of research

There are certain types of research need to be explored for the research demonstrations.  Such types of research provide credibility in enhances the authenticate research methodology. Therefore, qualitative research must be focused. The qualitative type of research must be focus on the following major aspects

  1. Descriptive analysis of unconventional approaches
  2. Influencing factor for selection
  3. Reason for selecting choice options
  4. Effects and impact of psychological factors
  5. Manner of comprehension as well as understanding the core aspects of the areas of interest

The qualitative research process is used for the identification of respondents of perceptions in essential and adequate manner. The current research studies specifically associated with the qualitative research process.  The qualitative research study does not involve any statistical analysis for data interpretations; in this regard, the qualitative data analysis helps in finding the effective results. Interviews through questionnaire are the major technique used in the qualitative research process. The qualitative research facilitates interpretation of data. From the exploration of qualitative data analysis, it provides the in-depth perception of the respondents to obtain required results. In this regard, globalization recognized as independent variable and student future career is the dependent variable.

Figure 1: Relationship of dependent and independent variable

On the other hand, quantitative data analysis involves statistical exploration as well as rigorous methodological procedures for the data interpretation. It reveals that qualitative data is the best to study to indicate the descriptive data analysis that gained from questionnaire or surveys as well. It is one of the simple tools that examines the behaviors and attitudes of the students towards the impact of globalization on future careers. The current research approach analyzes the student’s responses about their future career regarding globalization with the tools of qualitative data analysis.

Main goals

            The main goals stated the impact of globalization on the student careers. It reveals that how the students have credibility achieve their desired goals for their future careers.  Such goals would be presented to obtain required aim and objectives of research consolidations.  Following are the main goals of research exploration.

  1. To measure the awareness of students that affected by globalization on students future careers
  2. To determine the profile of student adjusted with future careers and globalization
  3. To project the effectiveness of the preferences of the student on the curriculums of teacher education institute TEI’s
  4. To investigate the impact of globalization in student future career
  5. To determine the different options of selecting TEI’s
  6. To find out the different reason behind selection of certain degree to help in future careers
  7. To determine potential barriers faced by students towards globalization
  8. To find out, careers built through globalization

Plan for reliability and validity

Reliability would be gained through following establishments

  • Reliability would be established to ensure questions unmistakable across differences in local languages. On the other hand, if it would be unavoidable to change the words certainly. Therefore, reliability would be recognized as diligent for the best equivalents efforts in a good manner.
  • For the consideration of all subjects, there will be common briefing that gives description review of globalization that ensures the exploration of globalization study.  The reliability of the research study has the great understanding of critical concepts towards globalization as well as the career of students in their future accomplishments.

Validity would be gained through following establishments

  • The evidence of research explored in the research study that focuses on the validity of measurement technique. The current research study definite the internal validity that finds out the impact of globalization on future student career.  In this regard, globalization recognized as independent variable and student future career is the dependent variable.
  • External validity could not be established because the globalization reveals different results for different areas of research that give difference in external validity that need to be generalized. Therefore, the external validity of this research study could not generalize (Tilleczek K. , 2004).
  • It strictly limited the collection of data that executed specifically to a specified period for the elimination factor varying the degree of exposure, that need to be explored under the topic of media.
  • The validity of current research study excluding the students towards preferences of careers that could lead to effect by the globalization, such as working in the government environment.

Plan for sampling

  1. There is the certain plan for the sampling for the current research study to enhances the adequate results for the given qualitative research study. Following are the explorations of the sampling in the current research study.
  2. Only degree has been taken that would be planned or executed with eh global competition excluded in the current research study
  3. The master levels students considered in research for the exploration of the impact of globalization on the students future careers.
  4. Recognition of degrees that enter in government services like diplomacy of foreign excluded in the plan for sampling
  5. Proportional for male, female and LGBT would be 8:8:2
  6. The sample of 30 TEI’s would be selected, whereas 10 TEI is in each percentile of third   ranked in the TEI based on the university performance ranking
  7. Foreign students are excluded in current research study

Data collection method

Data collection is the major integral part of the research study to indicate the best result formulation. The part of data collection specifically based on the primary as well as secondary research data.    Both types of data have immense importance in the research procedure. Data will be collected directly from the respondents to generate the research goals of globalization impact on the student future career.  The current research data will be cross-sectional. Primary data will be collected directly from the respondents that would be university students of a master level (Tilleczeka & Hineb, 2006). 

For specific data collection, questionnaire technique would be used to get appropriate results.  The questionnaire technique is qualitative data analysis to obtain the first-hand quality of students as a specimen. Such themes of data collection will be presented that prepare eventual interviewed for the clarification of thoughts in the subject matter (Tilleczek, Ferguson, Rummens, & Boydell, 2006).

The semi-structured qualitative interview will be used to obtain the attitude and behavior of respondents about the impact of globalization on the student future careers. The semi-structured qualitative interview expands the thoughts of globalization, the role of government, methods of learning unconventional, suitable school careers are the major themes towards the data collection methods in the essential and adequate manner (Ward, 2005).

 Also, the data collection method associated with the description of the communication conversation between interviewee and interviewer as well. The questionnaire helps in providing interviews in the form of face-to-face as well as one on one that appreciates and enhances the intensity of sentiments towards various themes.  Also, AV recorder will be used for the same purpose to record the data in a good way. 

The questions will be developed in advance Interview is the best technique towards qualitative data analysis for the exploration of research methodology. There are two sections of research questions, whereas first section information contains on the respondent’s demographics like education, gender, tenure, semester and occupation. The second portion of the research question is globalization impact on the future of students careers employed accordingly. Ethical consideration would also consider in the data analysis for the gathering data. Approval letter, as well as the letter of consent, will be obtained in advance to indicate the impact of globalization on the future career of students in the university. No personal information will be disclosed like student number, the registration number of students and other personal information as well. 

Data analysis approach

The technique of qualitative data analysis helps in the interpretation of data analysis. Various types of techniques would be used for data analysis. Frequency distribution will be evaluated to obtain the perception of respondents towards impact of globalization on the future careers. The interview questions will be depicted actual review of respondents about effectiveness of globalization on student future career. 

The imagination has descriptions and explanations towards data analysis approach reveal the following objectives

  1. Appreciations of the degree have the significant impact of globalization on the future careers.
  2. Actions, as well as decisions, need to take for encountering the effects of future of globalization.
  3. There would be count to see for the distribution of students aware based on the gender and rank of TEI’s

References

Tilleczek, K. C. (2004). The Illogic of Youth Driving Culture. Journal of Youth Studies , 7 (4), 473-498.

Tilleczek, k., Ferguson, B., Rummens, J., & Boydell, K. (2006). Why leave school? Ask those who do. Education canadian .

Tilleczeka, K. C., & Hineb, D. W. (2006). The meaning of smoking as health and social risk in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence , 29, 273-287.

Ward, M. S. (2005). Child and Adolescent Health in Northern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Public Health .

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Excavation Work Project Estimation

Memorandum

To: Mr. Chuck

From: XYZ

Subject:

Date: October 26, 2016

Purpose         

The purpose of creating the memo is to present the better overview of the cost project to the Chuck, However, in the memo the safe procedure recommendation and of the project is given; the detail of the excavation work, package estimation is given in the detail by trench excavation.[G1] [G2] [G3] [G4] 

Summary

The memo presents the foundation of excavation work project, which estimates the cost, along with the details of the calculated estimation. The important recommendations and information about the safety, which is needed during the trench excavation procedure, is also addressed.

Discussion

In the document, the information of the excavation project is given, the recommendations and the cost analysis is also given, the improvement of working environment for the labors is focused, however, in the memo the rules and regulation, which are regulated by the OSHA are also given. However, the total cost of the factors, which are contributing towards the of excavation work project is also given, the final figures, related to the labor and financial recourses are also being focused, there is the complete perspective of the resources, the resources estimation or the calculates prices of eth resources is about 37,883 $. In every organization, the responsibilities of the employees or the workers are needed to be considering, so that all the function should be carried out safely, and labor force can complete the project with the safety measures. OSHA should-should include in the processes or the function of the organization while doing the estimation of the cost.[G5] [G6] [G7] [G8] [G9] 

The factors that were used for the calculation of the work package of foundation evaluation are equipment cost and the productivity of the materials. These were provided in a scheme of per hour. A different number of labor for different activities was activities were used for calculating the cost under different categories. For each destination, cost summary was also calculated. It included the labor rate per hour. Other materials included in this calculation were excavation cost and quantity as well as the price of per unit. The materials were bedding material. Pipe material, compact bedding, joint pipe, backfill trench, etc. These were included in the overhead cost. The profit was also included in the calculations. Profit % was kept as 10% on the [G10] [G11] [G12] [G13] [G14] cost. Lose Cubic Yards LCY was used for all measurements of the materials. Computation of total cost included total quantity and unit price product. Estimation for total cost has provided in the tabular form.[G15] [G16] 

Estimation Table showing Estimates (Foundation Excavation Work Package)

Item # Description Quantity Unit Price Total Price
1 Trench Excavation       1,628.00  $       0.74  $   1,505.90
2 Pipe Material       2,000.00  $       4.00  $   8,000.00
3 Bedding Material          363.54  $     17.00  $   6,180.18
4 Place Bedding Material          363.54  $     65.00  $      944.23
5 Compact Bedding Material          338.82  $       1.06  $      357.79
6 Lay & Joint Pipe       2,000.00  $       2.66  $   5,320.00
7 Backfill Trench          753.88  $       0.76  $      575.88
8 Compact Backfill          753.88  $       1.09  $      819.44
9 Project Overhead          172.00  $     50.50  $   8,686.00
      Total Cost  $ 32,389.42
10 Profit 10% of Costs    $   3,238.94
      Total Price  $ 35,628.36

Recommendations:

Following are the suggestion in context of the dimensions of the excavation project:

  1. (1926.651(b)(2), 1994).[G17] 
  2. The boundary of the excavation can deform due to heavy load; it should be made sure that there is no heavy load kept at the [G18] boundaries.[G19] 
  3. It should be made sure that the workers do not have to work under any heavy load, which may get accidently down, or fall from a height (OSHA, 1994).
  4. An emergency exit must be provided to all the workers to use it for emergency cases (OSHA, 1994).[G20] 
  5. The workplace of the workers should be kept and arranged far from any traffic. Other than this, the workers should be provided with any special jacket or uniform, which could be seen by the people showing that work, is in progress (OSHA, 1994).

Appendices:

Calculations:

  1. Trench Excavation

Total Price =

Unit Price $0.74 /LCY
Quantity
A 5
Slope C 5
2.24
Quantity (Volume) 44000 Cubic feet
44000*0.037 1628 Cubic yards
25% swell Factor (Expand) 407 LCY
Quantity with Swell Factor 2035 LCY
Total Price $1,505.90
  • Pipe Material

Total Price =

Unit Price= $4
Quantity= 2,000.00
Total Price= $         8,000.00
  • Bedding Material

Total Price =

Unit Price= $17
Quantity=
Volume           10,000.00
Circle               174.600
            9,825.40  cubic feet
Quantity=                 363.54 LCY
Total Price  $         6,180.18
  • Place Bedding Material

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $65
Unit Price=  $                 2.60 /LCY
Quantity=                 363.54 LCY
Total Price  $             944.23 /LCY
  • Lay & Joint Pipe

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $125
Unit Price= $2.66 /LF
Quantity=             2,000.00
Total Price  $         5,320.00
  • Compact Bedding Material

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $20
Unit Price= 1.056 /LCY
Quantity=                 363.54 LCY
Shrinkage Factor of 6.8%                   24.72
Quantity after the deduction of shrinkage factor                 338.82 LCY
Total Price  $             357.79
  • Compact Backfill

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $35
Unit Price=  $                 1.09
Quantity=
Back fill (Left side)           9,370.000
Back fill (Right side)
A                      2.24
B                      0.50
C 4
Volume           13,472.14
          22,842.14 cubic feet
Quantity=                 845.16 LCY
shrinkage Reduction by 10.8%                   91.28
shrinkage Reduction by 10.8%                 753.88 LCY
Total Price  $             819.44
  • Backfill Trench

Total Price =

Labor unit Price $35
Unit Price=  $                 0.76
Quantity=                 753.88 LCY
Total Price  $             575.88
  • Project Overhead

Total Price =

Labor unit Price 35
Unit Price= $50.50
Quantity= 172
Total Price $8,686.00

Work Cited:

1926.651(b)(2). (1994, August). Retrieved October 26, 2016, from www.osha.gov: https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10775

OSHA. (1994). 1926.651(c)(1)(i). Retrieved October 26, 2016, from www.osha.gov: https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10775

OSHA. (1994). 1926.651.(e). Retrieved October 26, 2016, from www.osha.gov: https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10775


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Engineering Design

The past 10 years have seen a growing trend for a manufacturing operation to be moved off shore from the united state to Asian countries. Prepare a list of pros and cons concerning the off-shoring issue

It is observed in last few years that the operations of manufacturing have been moved to the Asian countries from the United States. These big changes are because of China’s increasing power in the market of manufacturing and China is to be considered as the moral force for offshore manufacturing. As we know that all the companies work to minimize their cost and to increase their profits, so they prefer China because it has the minimum labor cost, so it is easy for companies to achieve their goal of minimizing cost and maximizing their profits here. This off shoring has many advantages and disadvantages some of these are discussed below.

Advantages of Offshore

  • Staff morale increased
  • Minimum employment cost
  • Minimum equipment cost
  • High productivity

Disadvantages of Offshore

  • Depression in Customer focus
  • Time Difference
  • Language Problem
  • Barrier of Culture

There are many disadvantages of offshore with its advantages, so we have to consider both of these. This business of off shoring should be handled more perfectly to prevent the disadvantages. The productivity of the products could be high by minimizing the cost and maximizing the morale of the staff.  Some other disadvantages are of depression in the customer focus and the time difference between the countries that are the big problem of off shoring business. Language barrier and the barrier of the culture are also disadvantages of the off shoring business.

Ch 10 Read and incorporate DFE into your invention in at least two ways and describe results. What are the 3 Rs for reducing environmental impact?

For environment concept of the design is linked strongly and related to the integrated DFE. This is to make the society and the environment much better than before. Product manufacturing and engineering have a big responsibility to make the environment safer and to take steps to stop unhealthy effects of it. We are going to discuss three steps here to prevent this problem that is to minimize the bad effects on the environment.

The first point we are going to discuss here is to work on the waste management policies and schemes. To minimize the amount of waste one always look for the opportunities he or she has to origins of the waste. It is the responsibility of the higher and responsible authorities to minimize the sources of the waste.  The second point which is also very important that is Reuse of the products and items. Authorities should work on this to make these items reusable for the people so that they can reduce the number of wastages. It is also cost effective that they should make these items reusable. Recycling is the third important point here. Recycle is referring to reprocessing of the product or items.

Reprocessing can also make these items cost-effective, and it can reduce the cost of the product. This material can be used to make new products, and these new products should have the less cost because of the recycling of these items. We can see some examples are already here i.e. paper, glass, plastic, and metal. Three examples discussed here are very important and are very effective to reduce the waste and make the environment safer.

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Death

Contents

Introduction. 3

Medical and Legal Definition of Death. 3

Medical Definition. 3

Legal Definition. 4

Parameters of Death and who have determined it 4

Law in the United States of America. 4

Presumption of death. 4

Death Penalty in the United States of America. 5

Estate. 5

Assisted Suicide. 5

Arguments in Favor of Assisted Suicide. 6

Arguments against the Assisted Suicide. 7

Conclusion. 8

References. 9

Introduction

It is imperative to understand that death is a bitter reality of the world. Every human being will die at the time due to different reasons. Today, one is going to conduct a study and paper on the topic of death. In this paper, one would include the details about the definition of death. Also, the information about determination of death would be included too in this Investigative Research Paper. It will be the complete study, which would cover the legal and medical aspects of Death. It will clear the concept of the death in the context of government and medical institutions as well. On the other hand, it will help one to understand the different parameters of death about the health law, policies, and regulations. The concept of assisted suicide will discuss in this paper. 

Medical and Legal Definition of Death

In simple words, the death is the end of life. It is very important to understand that death is reality and if a person dies due to an accident or killing or any act or factor, he or she will be declared death.

Medical Definition

In medical perspective, the definition is little change, and the wordings of definition are “the irreversible cessation of all vital functions especially as indicated by the permanent stoppage of the heart, respiration, and brain activity” (Merriam-webster.com, 2016). In other words, The brain activity will stop and system of breath stop working, the person would be declared death medically. 

Legal Definition

The legal definition of death is not changed from the medical definition in words and understandings.  Anyhow, the government officials and institutions declare someone dead, and he or she will be declared death by the community who is following the rule and regulations of the government. It is a fact that legal authorities declare someone dead after the supporting material from the medical authorities.

Parameters of Death and who have determined it

Law in the United States of America

There are two major concepts of the death; one is the cardiopulmonary death, and the other is brain death. The United States of America has maintained a law under the uniform determination of the death act (Foley, 2011). This act defined the above-mentioned two concepts of death, and cardiopulmonary death is a stoppage of heart and breathing, whereas the concept of brain death is somehow the stoppage of brain activity in the human body. In both cases, the authorities are bound to issue the death certificate to the relative or concerned of the finished human being. 

Presumption of death

The death could be announced in assumption and perception in some cases. For instance, the people are on the plane, and it crashes due to bad weather (Cagle, 2013). The authorities and relevant people are failed to found people. The people would be called and declared death after certain efforts to find them. On the other hand, the law, which determines the time of it, varies, according to the different laws and regulations in different states. The US state of Georgia has the time of four years to declare a person death and government of Italy has twenty years for it. 

Death Penalty in the United States of America

In Western countries, the concept of the death penalty has not been in practice for many years. The United States of America is the only place, which is practicing the death penalty to culprits and around 28 people have penalized death in the year 2015. According to the reports, around 31 states of the United States of America and the federal government have been practicing the law of death penalty (Jiang, 2013). On the other hand, the lethal injection is a concept that is used by the America for the death penalty to offenders. The lethal injection is the mean of capital punishment in America and other five countries as well. The country of Vietnam, Thailand and China are also in the list of practicing lethal injection for putting to death.

Estate

The estate laws are also clear and concise in the law of United States of America. Almost no countries, the declared death people have the right to use property. Anyhow, through the testament and will, the people can state the wish about the property before the death, and it is according to the law. On the other hand, it is a fact that laws and state laws are mentioned are clearly in favor of people, and it makes the state a welfare state. 

Assisted Suicide

The concept of assisted suicide is legal in a small number of countries and prohibited in most of the countries. Sometimes, the assisted suicide is described with euthanasia. The definition of assisted suicide is to kill a person by his or her will.  In other words, people goes into the sewer medical and pain condition; they prefer the assisted suicide at that time to stop the continuous pain. It is the very notorious subject, and most of the countries are up to the discussion. It is a fact that most of the United States area is not approving it as a legal concept. On the other hand, the countries like Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, and Canada are practicing this in their countries. It means that these countries have provided permission to physicians and doctors to assist and help patients to get rid of sewer pain.

It is imperative to understand that this concept is mostly got confused with the concept of euthanasia. It is obvious that it is quite different from assisted suicide. In simple words, the definition of euthanasia is like a mercy killing.  In this state, a patient does not have the courage to fight against the disease. Therefore, the doctors allowed themselves to react according to this concept using certain parameters. The assisted suicide comes from the will of patients and physicians. In my opinion, it is cleared now the difference between assisted suicide and euthanasia.  Furthermore, one would like to say that there are many arguments in support of the concept of assisted suicide and against the assisted suicide. 

Arguments for Assisted Suicide

There are various arguments in favor of the assisted suicide, and it is a fact that every personal have the right to live and decide about the assisted suicide in sewer conditions.  The first argument in favor of assisted suicide is that a person will get relief ultimately from continues suffering from particular disease and condition (Cohen-Almagor, 2015).

Death of Dignity Act

The death of dignity act was used by people in 2015. They used medications to finish the process of life. Around 61 percent of people died after taking these medications (Deathwithdignity.org, 2016). It is a fact that this death was a peaceful process after following the typical method of killing yourself. 

Studies

On the other hand, the next argument was Different studies and researches for the assisted suicide in the hospitals. The seriously ill people are examined through the eyes of doctors and nurses, and it is concluded that the assisted suicide could be the better way to get relief from all of these certain issues of pain, anxiety, and stress. It must be remembered that it continues the process of pain and hurting. 

Arguments against the Assisted Suicide

On the other side, there are different arguments against the concept of the assisted suicide. Most of the organizations are working for the betterment of human beings and development of the human beings. They cannot support the concept of assisted Suicide (Jeffrey, 2009). 

Vulnerable population

The people who are against the regulations of the assisted Suicide argue that most of the people like to disable communities are in the zone of pain and harm from others. This law will increase the chance of harm to those societies too. There is a chance that people would ask people to die who is suffering from disabilities. 

Medical Ethics and Religion

The people who are against this typical law defending their arguments with different statements and Hippocratic Oath are one of the top sources. They said that people cannot afford medications for death because doctors have the duty to protect the life of patients. On the other hand, the people are arguing against the law of assisted suicide with the religious sources too.  According to them, no religion has permission for assisted suicide for the patient suffering from any disease. 

Conclusion

In the end, one must say that it is a very broader concept to research and study. Anyhow, it is obvious that it is the reality and one has to suffer from it. In the same way, the discussion was about the definition of death and parameters of death. Also, it is mentioned that what is the definition of death in legal and medical terms. In the same way, the stoppage of brain activity and the law and rules mentioned about this particular topic.

In the second phase, the discussion was around the assisted suicide, acts, and laws regarding this controversial subject. The arguments of supporters are discussed, and in the same way, the opposite arguments were mentioned too. Overall, it was comprehensive details on the topic of death and assisted suicide furthermore. Also, it is the fact that this subject needs more space and tables for argument. 

References

Cagle, J. R. (2013). Presumption of Death. Strategic Book Publishing.

Cohen-Almagor, R. (2015). An argument for physician-assisted suicide and against euthanasia. Ethics, Medicine and Public Health , 1, 431-441.

Deathwithdignity.org. (2016). Oregon Health Authority Releases 2015 Data Summary on Death with Dignity Act. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Death with Dignity: https://www.deathwithdignity.org/news/2016/02/2015-report/

Foley, E. P. (2011). The Law of Life and Death. Harvard University Press.

Jeffrey, D. (2009). Against Physician Assisted Suicide: A Palliative Care Perspective. Radcliffe Publishing.

Jiang, N. (2013). A comparison of wrongful convictions in death penalty. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice , 41, 144-166.

Merriam-webster.com. (2016). Death. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from Merriam-Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/death

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Hindrance in Contemporary IT tools to ensure customer centricity by Standard Chartered and Citibank

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction. 4

1.1 Background of the study. 4

1.2 Problem.. 5

1.3 Significance of the study. 5

1.4 Objectives of the study. 6

1.5 Research Questions. 6

Chapter 2 Literature review.. 7

2.1 Internet banking. 7

2.2 Awareness. 8

2.3 Ease of use. 9

2.4Security. 11

2.5Low usage on internet banking. 12

Chapter3 Methodology. 14

3.0 Research Design. 14

3.1 Introduction. 14

3.2 Research Framework. 14

3.3 Hypothesis Generation. 15

3.4 Methods. 16

3.5 Sampling and Data. 16

3.5.1 Sample Selection. 16

3.5.2 Description of Data. 17

3.5.3 Data Sources and Collection. 17

3.5.4 The variable and Measurements. 18

3.5.5 Equations and Statistical procedures. 18

Chapter4Result and Findings. 20

4.1 Introduction. 20

4.2 Descriptive Analysis. 20

4.2.1 Frequency and bar charts. 20

4.3 Central Tendencies of Measurements. 30

4.4 Reliability test 33

4.5 Factor analysis. 33

Bartlett’s test and KMO.. 33

4.6 Pearson Correlation. 35

4.7 Multiple Linear Regressions. 36

4.7 Test of significance. 38

Chapter 5 Conclusion. 39

5.1 Limitations of the study. 39

5.2 Recommendations for future study. 39

5.3 Conclusion of study. 39

Hindrance in Contemporary IT tools to ensure customer centricity by Standard Chartered and Citibank

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Internet banking is the word by which got access to a new digitalized world that is based on technology. It can be seen that many of the people are not much familiar with the word internet banking as it is a new term which is recently introduced. The reason is that they do not keep themselves up to as they always look towards the comfort of their life which they do not want to change at all. However, it can be seen that the internet banking is one of the important tools and it is the thing which ends to be checked (Yaghoubi, 2010).

It can be seen that the advanced countries look towards the internet banking facility as a great way to improve and ease their life. The main thing, which needs to focus here, is that the internet banking does not require a big PC and the internet. The fact is that all we needed to access internet banking is the internet access and then we can do the stuff like online banking. It has been seen that not only the Pc is the requirement as the internet banking can be done over the tablets, the phone, or any gadgets that needs to be passed. Internet banking has improved our life, and for common person it has become so easy to manage its banking-related activities.

1.2 Problem

As internet banking is at its initial stage in most of the developing countries, therefore, there are many problems and resistance in using the internet banking. It has been noticed that there are many countries in the world that are not focusing on the internet banking technology such as Malaysia. Moreover, it is found that initially lot of users was attracted towards the internet banking, However, with the passage of time the users of the internet banking have been decreased due to ineffective working of emerging technology.

MCMC (2009) has reported that during 2007 to 2009, Malaysians increased using the Internet from 47.8% to 65.7% respectively. However, according to another study by (Raman and Annamalai, 2010), it was found that in the year of 2010 the Internet banking used by Malaysians decreased from 11% to 8%, respectively. Only 23% of the people in Malaysia utilize Internet banking facility although they are aware of advantages of using these systems (Ramayah, 2003).

1.3 Significance of the Study

During the last decade of 20th century, Internet banking facility came into existence to facilitate the banking needs of banking consumers as quoted by Delft (2013) from (Jaleshgari, 1999).With the advent of Internet banking, the key to all the banking need was handed over to the consumer. Now banking clients can access their transactions summary, transactions statement, check balances and pay their utility bills, etc. with the ease of just one click (Delft, 2013).

1.4 Objectives of the study

There are a couple of objective that are attached to the study; we can see that the main objective of the study is to examine the main reasons of the hindrance in the Contemporary IT tools needs to be known. People of the country are using internet banking less . Therefore, it is aimed to find that why the trend of internet banking is not attracting people though it offers the great facility to them. Furthermore, the other objective of the study is to find the ways to overcome the problems that are resisting the people to get advantage from the internet banking.

1.5 Research Questions

  • What is the impact of Security on Banks consumer’s usage of Internet banking?
  • What is the impact of Ease of Use on Banks consumer’s usage of Internet banking?
  • What is the impact of Awareness on Banks consumer’s usage of Internet banking?


 

Chapter 2 Literature review

2.1 Internet banking

There are many countless ways to use the internet for the useful purposes. It is one of the major things, which needs to be focused, and one of the most beneficial technologies that people can use for multiple purposes. People are using the internet to communicate with their friends, for the business communication, for getting knowledge as well as the internet has become a major source of information and communication which enables the people to get connected from thousand miles and see each other in real time. Subsequently, using the bank account, making the funds transfer, paying the bills and many others have become possible through the use of internet banking. We have seen that there are many differences in the usage of internet banking. It has been seen that the level of usage of internet banking is not same in every part of the world. It has seen that some of the modern countries or the non-Asian states are far better and advanced in the internet banking (Laukkanen, 2016).

One of the other problems that is resisting people to use internet banking is the users are not satisfied with the services of the bank that they have been provided in the name of internet banking. It needs to be checked that many of the customers are not willing to move from the traditional banking to the online internet banking. There are many reasons that people do not want that at all. However, it can be seen that the internet banking needs to be enhanced in the reason behind it that the best thing what we can see is the ease that has been provided by the internet banking. It has a negative impact on the economy that the people of the country are not using the internet banking at all (Asad, 2016). 

It can be seen that there is also an effect of the globalization index because from here we can see that many people in the country are connected to the internet, and it can be seen that if people are not using the internet banking in the country then they cannot compete well all over the world. It has also been seen that if they move to the other country, there would be issues that are the reason the issues that are in between they need to be checked in this case (Khater, 2013).

2.2 Awareness

It has been seen that unawareness is the big problem that creates the issues for consumers that they are not using the internet banking as they have no idea about the internet, so they do not have trust in internet banking.The main thing which has been seen in between the people is that many of them do not know that what is the internet banking and what are its features. For this purpose, if the internet banking Customers would say that they are looking for a bank that provides the good services at all. The problem seen is that the internet banking is very good at different countries, but the point to notice is that the awareness is not up to the mark (Sakshi, 2012

It can be seen that the awareness needed to be created among the potential customers. They need to give the awareness to the Customers so that they do not feel the hesitation in using the internet banking technology. We have also noticed that many of the researchers have also said that the awareness is the major issue in the developing countries. It is also noticed that many customers are not much educated and they do not know how to learn and write. This is the point and the issue due to which there are many people who are afraid of using interne banking (Wadie, 2011)

Looking at the reasons for the less use of internet banking, it is found that many of them do not know about the internet and its usefulness. However, it can be seen that in the USA, UK, and the European countries internet banking is used as a great source because people have full awareness about the uses and benefits of it. It has been seen that some of the Asian countries including China, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, and other countries, the awareness level of the internet banking are not too good as compare to some of the European or the American countries (Padachi, 2010).

Main reason is that the awareness needs to be created so that the common citizen of the country would know what the real situation is and how it can be formed in the better way. Therefore, it can be seen that the awareness is the fact, which is needed to be increased, and due to this the usage of internet banking will be increased (Chaoualia & Yahia, 2016). Here we can see that the author emphasizes that awareness needs to be increased to achieve the desired goal related to the internet technology.

2.3 Ease of use

It can be seen in various studies that one of the main problems is that the internet banking is not easy to use. It can be seen that there are many issues in the usage of the internet banking. It has been coming in many researchers that the internet banking is not so easy in the area and the reason behind it is that the best of the best thing wanted to go through. Further, it has been mentioned in the file that what are the issues that are prevailing in the account. Many people have told that they are not working with the internet banking and the reason behind it is that they are not comfortable with that in the similar way as they are with the traditional banking (Yaghoubi, 2010)

We can see that in the many studies it have been mentioned that the easy is not there for the people so that they could use the internet banking. Here it can be seen that the main reasons behind that are we need to look at the points, which will be at the constant point. Further, it is looking at the easy availability needs to make sure so that the main aim of the internet banking could be made sustainable and the main idea of the theory remain constant (Takieddine, 2015).

It has been seen that looking at the internet banking adoption is an easy access is one of the major reason that is shown. Obviously, everyone in this world needs the better position, and they are looking for the best and the convenience. However, the reason they are not using or utilizing that is the ease of access. There are many reasons that have been noticed in as there are many communities and groups that are needed to use the internet banking but they cannot. The reason behind that is that the internet is not available. Maybe they are living in the country or the area where the ease of the resources are not available, or there could be other problems (Muzividzi, 2013).

Therefore, we need to check that what the real problem is and why it is being ignored regarding the internet banking. There is communities in the world that can be seen are not educated well or are in their old age. If we specifically talk about them, we come to know that they are less educated or they are not willing to change their patterns. Here we can see that the education plays an important role in this aspect. The point, which needs to be noted, is that they do not feel that it will relief their life (Montazemi, 2013).

They feel that this is the complex thing, this will bring the changes to their account, and that is the reason they are afraid of this internet banking. The awareness needs to be there for that this problem could be eliminated and the best purposes that are in practice could be should be in the implementation phase so that the best of all the internet banking in the world could be enhanced (Hanafizadeh, 2014). Looking at the above statements, we come to know that authors have also stated that the ease is one of the variables that need to be taken care of.

2.4Security

Security conflicts associated with the internet are the major concerns, therefore, most of the people do not want to add their personal information over the internet. It can be seen that there are many frauds all over have happened through the internet and it can be said that this is the reason people are not comfortable with internet banking. There are many things which have been seen that the transfer of funds electronically does not mean anything to the community. What the main problem is that they are not satisfied that they need to transfer funds and they do not have any physical receipt. This is the major issue, and this kind of problems does prevail in here as people do not trust the internet as the hackers are always around and the trust factor comes in between it (Sakshi Agrawal, 2012)

Security issues over the privacy are the main reasons that people are not living their lives to the full. It has been noticed that in the internet banking the threat is quite greater than the physical existence of the person. It has been seen in the past many hackers that are over the internet and doing frauds. This is the main reason which can be seen in the internet banking that people do not trust that and they are on the back step for using the internet services and giving the passwords for them. This scenario has been checked, as many persons do not like that at all. Obviously, there are many persons who are not using the internet banking due to the security threats and do not give card numbers over the phone or the web (Yee & Faziharudean, 2010).

They are the people who want to lay very safe and instead of learning more about the technology they are dependent on other as their education level is very low. It is a fact that in today’s world website is not so secure and anything can happen over it. However, there are chances that some mishap could happen and the customer’s money could be stolen of transferred and so on. It has been seen that many researchers have been some according to the main security reasons. It can be seen that many frauds have been going on in the world. We can see that no one wants to lose their money in real and this is what the real matter is people do not trust the online thing as they do not know the processes that involved into it (Daneshgadeh, 2014).

Many researchers have published in this regards that there was not much trust among the people for internet banking at all. The reason behind it is, they do not want anyone to involve in their transactions over the internet, and they prefer to go to banks, to the physical transactions, and by doing this they are much more comfortable, and they are happy for that too (Devi, 2010). As said by different authors we come to know that security is one of the main issues that need to be resolved to achieve the desired level.

2.5Low usage on internet banking

It can be seen that web keeping money is used by the developed nations. Nonetheless, it has been seen that there are numerous Asian or the African nations that can be seen the web saving money is not up to the imprint. It can be seen that web managing an account is not all that acquainted with the general population who don’t have enough training or they don’t have a great part of the assets. This thing should be watched that what to do and what not to do. Nonetheless, it is said that the portion of the assets doesn’t have enough attention to the web managing an account in the nation. Clench hand toward the end it should be watched that what the primary issues that there are confronting are. Large portions of the measurements have been seen that what are the fundamental issues that the principle web can be said that in would be so finished also (Al-Smadi, 2012).

There are different nations such as developed and developing nations and in developed nations people feel secure to use the internet such USA, UK, Europeans. We have to see that what are the elements have an impact the high use of web saving money and it can see in a portion of the low monetary nations the low utilization of web saving money have been watched. Taking a gander at this, we can see that what is the fundamental issue and what viewpoints do they have or what sorts of issues they have what truly should be done in here (Martinsa, Oliveiraa, & Popoviča, 2014).

Chapter3 Methodology

3.0 Research Design

The research methodology is the most important part in research that can make the base of the research. As we have examined through study that independent variables and awareness ease the use of internet and improve its security. We will study here about the relation between the independent and dependent variables that are the main cause of the hindrance of internet banking in the Malaysian and some developing countries. We have arranged questionnaires to see the response of the public through the quantities analyses. Based on the result of this questionnaire, we can make some decisions to prevent the problem of using internet banking. 

3.1 Introduction

In this section, we will examine the effective use of internet banking in detail as well as the main issue in the banking sector will also be analyzed as the Internet banking is the main purpose of our study. We are going to use a questionnaire to find the reasons and to get results regarding the research. The main issue in this study is “The main purposes or reasons that are preventing the customer from buying his her desired products and services online which is called the internet banking.”

3.2 Research Framework

We are going to show main problems of the issue under this section. The main framework is shown in the picture below

Figure 2: Research Framework of the Study

3.3 Hypothesis Generation

Many of the hypotheses, which is derived from the study are mentioned on the following page

H0 = It indicates that there is no relation between ease of use and reduction of internet banking.

H1 = It indicates that there is the relation between ease of use and reduction of internet banking.

H0 = It indicates that there is no impact of security on a reduction of internet banking.

H2 = It indicates that there is some impact of security on a reduction of internet banking.

H0 = It indicates that there is no impact of awareness on a reduction of internet banking.

H3 = It indicates that there is some impact of awareness on a reduction of internet banking.

3.4 Methods

It is clear in this study that the questionnaire is being used for the study of a low trend of the internet banking and the work on this topic is quantitative in fact. We will find the result by entering this data in the SPSS, about the causes of a reduction in the internet banking. We will find the result through tests for example correlation, regression, PCA and through some other techniques. This will show the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable. 

This questionnaire is based on the 3 steps through which we will find out the relation between independent and dependent variables. Under this section, each variable has three different questions, which are analyzed by the way. In the questionnaire, we also have some demographics. This is because we want to know the information regarding the topic from the respondents.

3.5 Sampling and Data

3.5.1 Sample Selection

Here we have used Customers and employees as the sample. These Customers and employees are working and dealing with the banking sector in Malaysia. We have chosen 300 Bank Customers associated with different banks in the Malaysia. The sample size of 300 has been taken because (Raosoft, 2004) has estimated the sample size of 280 as a minimum level. Therefore to make it secure we have made it to 300. The banks that are involved in this research are many some of those are Standard Chartered Bank and Citibank.

3.5.2 Description of Data

Let us have a look at the data we have gathered through filling questionnaires by the Customers associated with the different banks of Malaysia. We have tried to use the easiest way to collect the samples and to find the respondents easily to continue our work.

3.5.3 Data Sources and Collection

The main source we have used to continue our work process is Data collection. We have collected all data from different distinctions that all are banks. These banks include Standard Chartered Bank and Citibank. Some other banks are also included in the list of these banks that are being used for the research. All the respondents that are used in the research of why internet banking is not attracting the customer are those who are working in the banks. Some others are used who have experience of working in the banks for at least one year. During this research, we have to know that the respondents are well educated and well experienced and they can help us to get the result of our research. Some of the questionnaires are collected online by talking to the respondents or by sending them a questionnaire file. Some others are being asked questions live and data has been collected finally.

3.5.4 The variable and Measurements

            It is very clear in the study of the topic that Ease of Use, Security and Awareness all are independent variables. We will see here the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables to find out the reasons of reduction or low usage of the internet banking. In our research, we have used 3 different variables that are independent and in the questionnaire. There are 6 different questions in each of the variables. This will explain the reasons more effectively and in more detail. Under this study of the low usage of internet banking It is realized that they are the Likert Scale, which starts with agree, strongly agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. To find the relationship we have analyzed through SPSS and through different tests and questions to find the result which the relationship between independent and dependent variables.

3.5.5 Equations and Statistical procedures

Under this study, we have conducted a pre-test, which includes 25 respondents. The reason behind this pre-test was to identify if the variables and questionnaire are valid to understand the reason behind the low usage of internet banking or not. After assessing the reliability of the variables and questionnaire, we had a reliability analysis, which indicated us that the variable is highly strong and that the Cronbach’s Alpha is closer to the value 1. This analysis gives us more confidence that now we can apply this to our study. However, it is certain, and we are sure for now that our questionnaire and variables are more valid and reliable. This study gives us a result that our pre-test conducted successfully and the value comes out which is 0.712. After this success, we can go forward for more tests.

We are going to do some more tests, and after these tests, we will apply results of these tests on the study. After the application of these tests, we found that PCA is most important in the study so the variables can be absorbed. The reason behind this phenomenon is that we have to put these questions in one variable so that it may be used in different tests. We have to apply the battles test in the study and the factors which are loading under this study program this is only the basic reason to compress the variable to have the true result of our study.

            By moving forward, we need to run the correlation in this study during descriptive analysis. This descriptive analysis will give us some figures of how many individual variable effects on a dependent variable. Whereas the direction and the strength of the value are indicating that, how much an independent variable affects a dependent variable. After assessment of this all, we will go for the regression to apply it to the study matters so that we can analyze the pressure of the independent variable all over on dependent variables and the result will appear in percentage. After this process, the results will be insignificance of a percentage that how much an independent variable can affect the dependent variable. 

            Questionnaires and the quantitative data have been used for the paper. The results are showing that there are some descriptive and frequency tables that are different and are involved in this process to reach the result. In this study process, we come to know that reliability is applied. After that, the coefficient analysis, regression, and the correlation will be applied on the results.

Chapter4Result and Findings

4.1 Introduction

In this study we have used 300 respondents mainly from the banks of Malaysia. Different tests have applied. Correlation, reliability, regression and frequencies are shown the details are below.

4.2 Descriptive Analysis

4.2.1 Frequency and bar charts

The analysis of demographics can be seen with frequency tables and the bar charts

Gender
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid FEMALE, 145 48.3 48.3 48.3
MALE. 155 51.7 51.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

There were 145 females and 155 males have participated in the study.

age
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid LESS THAN 18 48 16.0 16.0 16.0
18-25 104 34.7 34.7 50.7
26-39 106 35.3 35.3 86.0
GREATER THAN 39 42 14.0 14.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here looking at the age slabs we can see that 48 people are in less than 18, 104 in between 18-25, 106 in between 26-39 and 42 are greater than 39.

Monthly income
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid <RM1,001 64 21.3 21.3 21.3
RM1,001 – RM2,002 83 27.7 27.7 49.0
RM2,002 – RM3,003 102 34.0 34.0 83.0
RM3,003 – RM5,999 51 17.0 17.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Looking at monthly income 64 people lies in less than 1000, 83 lies in between 1000-2000, 102 people lie in between 2000-3000 and 51 lies in between 3000-6000.

education
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid GRADUATE 42 14.0 14.0 14.0
UNDERGRADUATE 109 36.3 36.3 50.3
A LEVEL 103 34.3 34.3 84.7
NONE 46 15.3 15.3 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Looking at the education, we come to know that 42 are a graduate, 109 are undergraduate, 103 are A-level and 46 do not have an education.

nationality
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid International 135 45.0 45.0 45.0
Malaysian national 165 55.0 55.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here 165 people are Malaysian, and 135 are international in the research

Currentdailyresponsibilities
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Doing Job 144 48.0 48.0 48.0
As a Student 156 52.0 52.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

The current daily responsibilities of the people are they do the job (144), and as a student, there are 156 respondents.

The contemporary information technology tools that are used by the bank to facilitate are up to the mark.
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Somehow 65 21.7 21.7 21.7
Always 82 27.3 27.3 49.0
Never 82 27.3 27.3 76.3
Don’t know 71 23.7 23.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

By asking about the facilitation 65 says somehow, 82 says always, 82 says never, and 71 says do not know.

Which IT tool is the best as far performance is concerned.
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Internet Website 65 21.7 21.7 21.7
Mobile banking 88 29.3 29.3 51.0
Sms banking 106 35.3 35.3 86.3
Other 41 13.7 13.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

65 says best IT tool is internet website, 88 says mobile banking, 106 says Sms banking and 41 says other reasons.

In your opinion, what tool needs to be improved so that customer could be satisfied?
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Sms banking 44 14.7 14.7 14.7
Email and internet services 123 41.0 41.0 55.7
Mobile application 84 28.0 28.0 83.7
All of above 49 16.3 16.3 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

Here 44 says that Sms banking needs to be improved, 123 says email and internet services, 84 says mobile application and 49 says all of above.

Customer engagement can be improved by
  Frequency value Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Valid Improving services 52 17.3 17.3 17.3
Giving incentives 89 29.7 29.7 47.0
Giving monetary incentives 106 35.3 35.3 82.3
All of above 53 17.7 17.7 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0  

52 says that CE can be improved by improving services, 89 says that by giving incentives, 106 says by monetary incentives and 53 says all of above.

4.3 Central Tendencies of Measurements

Now further S.D and mean values have been given to all variables

Awareness

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation
There is not much awareness to the customers 300 3.1156 1.17829
Awareness needs to be enhanced among people 300 3.0444 1.20926
Customers needs to have the awareness of the Internet tools 300 3.0711 1.22995
There is not much awareness to the customers 300 3.1156 1.17829
Awareness needs to be enhanced among people 300 3.0444 1.20926
Customers needs to have the awareness of the Internet tools 300 3.0711 1.22995
Valid N (listwise) 300    

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Awareness, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can see that they are in between these values as 1.17829, 1.20926, 1.22995, 1.17829, 1.20926 and 1.22995.

Ease of Use

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation
Internet banking is not easy to use 300 3.0133 1.18954
Ease of access is not common in the country 300 2.9022 1.16468
Looking at IT tools they are difficult to use 300 2.9111 1.22150
Internet banking is not easy to use 300 3.0133 1.18954
Ease of access is not common in the country 300 2.9022 1.16468
Looking at IT tools they are difficult to use 300 2.9111 1.22150
Valid N (listwise) 300    

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Ease of Use, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as 1.18954, 1.16468, 1.22150, 1.18954, 1.16468 and 1.22150.

Security

Descriptive Statistics
  N Mean Std. Deviation
There is a threat of security as private information is there 300 2.8889 1.18061
Security issues is the big threat to us 300 3.0356 1.24949
Security over the internet is not a safe thing 300 2.9333 1.23201
There is a threat of security as private information is there 300 2.8889 1.18061
Security issues is the big threat to us 300 3.0356 1.24949
Security over the internet is not a safe thing 300 2.9333 1.23201
Valid N (listwise) 300    

Here in the descriptive analysis, we can see that the independent variable that has been used in the study is Security, we can see that all 300 respondents have given their answers in here. The minimum value recorded is 1 and the maximum value that has been recorded is the 5. Further, the mean and standard deviation can be seen that they are in between these values as 1.18061, 1.24949, 1.23201, 1.18061, 1.24949 and 1.23201.

4.4 Reliability test

Now we will check the reliability of the study so that the questions and the variables that are taken could be validated. It is said that the values must be above that 0.70 as it is accepted after

Variable name Cronbach’s Alpha Value Number of Items included
Awareness 0.790 6
Ease of Use 0.746 6
Security 0.759 6

4.5 Factor analysis

We can see that in the study further the Factor analysis is done so that the variables in the study could be summarized in the manner so that further analysis could be done on the study. The KMO and Bartlett’s have been found out in the following tables

Bartlett’s test and KMO

Variables Items K-M-O Bartlett’s value Significance
Awareness 6 .696 123.21 .000
Ease of Use 6 .854 251.321 .000
Security 6 .754 854.356 .000

We can see that there are three variables that are summarized in here and all three has 6 items in it. Further, the values of KMO are greater than 0.6, which means the tests can be applied further. That is the reasoned analysis has been done. Further, the Bartlett’s value is also positive, and the significance is observed in this case.

Eigen values and variance

    Variables     Parts Eigen values explained
Total.. Percentage Cumulative Percentage
Awareness 1 6.32 54.32 54.32
Ease of Use 1 8.25 45.95 45.95
Security 1 4.24 78.30 78.30

In the above table, it can be seen that Eigen values have been mentioned. Further, we can see that all three variables in the study have only one component and they are not break up into further variables. Further, the total percentages have been shown which is positive as well. We can see that the percentage the variable hold has also been given here as well.

 

 

4.6 Pearson Correlation

Now correlation has been applied to see what is the effect of independent variables on the low internet banking

Awareness

Correlations
  Awareness Low_Internet
Awareness Pearson Correlation 1 .547
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Low_Internet Pearson Correlation .547 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

For Awareness, the data is significant as it is 0.00 and the relation is positive in between both variables as well, which is .547. Here the strength between the variables is strong.

Ease of Use

Correlations
  Low_Internet Ease_of_access
Low_Internet Pearson Correlation 1 .445
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Ease_of_access Pearson Correlation .445 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

For Ease of Use, the data is significant as it is 0.00 and the relation is positive in between both variables as well, which is .445.Here the strength between the variables is Modetrate.

Security

Correlations
  Low_Internet Security
Low_Internet Pearson Correlation 1 .388
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 300 300
Security Pearson Correlation .388 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 300 300

For Security, the data is significant as it is 0.00 and the relation is positive in between both variables as well, which is .388.Here the strength between the variables is Modetrate.

4.7 Multiple Linear Regressions

Now in the study we have applied the regression so that the total effect of independent variables on the dependent variables could be seen

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .268a .372 .616 .55252
a. Predictors: (Constant), Security, Awareness, Ease_of_access

Here in the model summary we can see that there is 61% effect of independent variable on the dependent variable in the study.

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 6.896 3 .326 354.765 .001b
Residual 89.448 221 .251    
Total 96.344 224      
a. Dependent Variable: Low_Internet
b. Predictors: (Constant), Security, Awareness, Ease_of_access

Looking at ANOVAstable, we can see that F is positive and states the model is good fit. Further, the data is significant as the value is 0.01

Coefficients

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.506 .246   10.180 .000
Awareness .048 .049 .067 2.995 .000
Ease_of_access .087 .051 .115 1.708 .000
Security .034 .049 .046 5.684 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Low_Internet

Here the coefficients can be seen that the standard error of every variable is less than 1. Further, the significance value of all can be seen that it is less than 0.05, which says the values are significant. Here by looking at the values of the beta, we come to know that there is a positive relationship between all the variables. The reason is that all the values are positive in here. Further, the standard error is also minimum, and the significance value is less than 0.05 as well.

4.7 Test of significance

Hypothesis 1

H1 is accepted as p is greater than 0.05

The P value is less than 0.05 that is why H1 is accepted.

Hypothesis 2

H1 is accepted as p is greater than 0.05

The P value is less than 0.05 that is why H1 is accepted.

Hypothesis 3

H1 is accepted as p is greater than 0.05

The P value is less than 0.05 that is why H1 is accepted.

If we look at the above hypothesis, we come to know that the H1 are accepted in here, and that is the reason we can say that there is the strong effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable.

Chapter 5 Conclusion

5.1 Limitations of the study

Only computer literate banking clients of Scope International were eligible to participate in our survey since the purpose of this study is to understand the factors, which contribute to limited Internet banking usage. Further, we can say that the sample size is limited up to 300 only. The study is conducted in Malaysia only that is the reason we cannot say that the study can be generalized worldwide. However, this is only quantitative study, and some more variables could be explored so that it could have a better impact.

5.2 Recommendations for future study

Couples of recommendations are given to improve the internet banking usage in Malaysia. It can be seen that the study could be useful for the bank owners to grow the business through internet banking as they have realized that it is very important to create awareness among the people regarding the benefits of internet banking. People should be more concerned about the internet banking as it is increasing throughout the globe. Further, there is needed to be more focused to communicate the people about the features and advantages of internet banking.

5.3 Conclusion of study

Now focusing on the conclusion of the study, it is concluded that the main thing, which needs to be focused is that there is a positive effect of the independent variables on the dependent variables in the study. Looking at the regression, we can see that there is 61.6% effect in here. Moreover, it is found that the interment banking has great potential to grow in Malaysia, but there is a need to manage and resolve the issues such as developing trust among the consumers by communicating them about the features and benefits of the Internet banking. Most importantly, it is needed to take the people in trust by making sure about the security and privacy of internet banking.Further, it can also be seen that the variables that have been discussed in the paper need to be focused if the internet banking needs to be increased in the country.

References

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Chaoualia, W., & Yahia, I. B. (2016). The interplay of counter-conformity motivation, social influence, and trust in customers’ intention to adopt Internet banking services: The case of an emerging country. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 28, 209–218.

Daneshgadeh, S. (2014). Empirical Investigation of Internet Banking Usage: The Case of Turkey. Procedia Technology, 16, 322-331.

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Khater, A. H. (2013). Factors Influencing Customers’ Acceptance of Internet Banking Services in Sudan . International Journal of Science and Research , 1-22.

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Service Marketing Amazon’s Newest Ambition: Competing Directly with UPS and FedEx

Service Marketing

Amazon’s Newest Ambition: Competing Directly with UPS and FedEx

            The service marketing is in the limelight in the global markets due to intense competition. The FedEx and UPS are providing quality and differentiated carrier services to the customers around the globe. However, Amazon also intends to enter into the service market to compete directly with these two big service giants. The Amazon needs to utilize both modern and traditional media channels to enhance the local delivery network in the United States of America (BENSINGER & STEVENS, 2016).

            Furthermore, this is necessary for Amazon to position the full-service logistics through different media channels. Interestingly, the executives along with the whole management intend to relate the marketing process with the past stories for the customers to make the difference and create the loyalty and trust. Now, this is a big question for the customers that how will Amazon retain the quality and differentiation of the services.

            The Amazon is looking to initiate the content marketing initiatives to increase the brand image and perception. The speaking engagements, blogs, and e-books can help the company to face the intense competition in the logistic market. Despite having the intense differentiation and brand image of FedEx and UPS, the inclusion of rainmakers in Amazon will enhance the attraction.

            This is all about adopting the new service marketing trends, which can lead towards the success. For Instance, the Amazon management will consider the celebrity endorsement in different TV programs and big screen movies, which is also good to create the perception about the services. (BENSINGER & STEVENS, 2016).

References

BENSINGER, G., & STEVENS, L. (2016, September 27). Amazon’s Newest Ambition: Competing Directly With UPS and FedEx. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from WSJ: http://www.wsj.com/articles/amazons-newest-ambitioncompeting-directly-with-ups-and-fedex-1474994758